E FC-200V FC-100V User's Guide CASIO Worldwide Education Website http://edu.casio.com CASIO EDUCATIONAL FORUM http://edu.casio.com/forum/ Important! CASIO COMPUTER CO., LTD. makes no guarantees concerning accuracy of the contents of this manual or their suitability for any commercial purpose or other particular purpose, or concerning the accuracy of calculation results (such as financial calculation simulation results) produced by this calculator. • Financial calculation rules and practices can differ according to country, geographic area, or financial institution. It is up to you to determine whether the calculation results produced by this calculator are compatible with the financial calculation rules that apply to you. Manufacturer: CASIO COMPUTER CO., LTD. 6-2, Hon-machi 1-chome Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 151-8543, Japan Responsible within the European Union: CASIO EUROPE GmbH Casio-Platz 1 22848 Norderstedt, Germany About this Manual • This User’s Guide covers use and operation of the CASIO FC-200V and FC-100V. Operations apply to both models, except in cases indicated by the text “FC-200V only”. • Keycap markings indicate what a key inputs or what function it performs. Example: 1, 2, +, -, A, etc. • Pressing the SHIFT or ALPHA key followed by a second key performs the alternate function of the second key. The alternate function is indicated by the text printed above the key. Alternate function VARS Keycap function Y} t • The following shows what the different colors of the alternate function key text mean. If key marking text is this color: It means this: SHIFT Yellow Press and then the key to access the applicable function. Red Press and then the key to input the applicable variable or constant. ALPHA • In this manual, a while an ALPHA SHIFT key operation is shown as 1, key operation is shown as S. • The following shows an example of how an alternate function operation is represented in this User’s Guide. Example: 17(S-MENU) Indicates the function that is accessed by the key operation (17) before it. Note that this is not part of the actual key operation you perform. E-1 • The following shows an example of how a key operation to select an on-screen menu item is represented in this User’s Guide. Example: 1(1-VAR) Indicates the menu item that is selected by the number key operation (1) before it. Note that this is not part of the actual key operation you perform. • The cursor key is marked with four arrows, indicating direction, as shown in the illustration nearby. In this User’s Guide, cursor key operation is indicated as f, c, d, and e. REPLAY Some examples in this manual start out assuming that the calculator is set to a particular angle unit. This is indicated by the following marks. z : Degrees Z : Radians • The displays and illustrations (such as key markings) shown in this User’s Guide are for illustrative purposes only, and may differ somewhat from the actual items they represent. • The contents of this manual are subject to change without notice. • In no event shall CASIO Computer Co., Ltd. be liable to anyone for special, collateral, incidental, or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the purchase or use of this product and items that come with it. Moreover, CASIO Computer Co., Ltd. shall not be liable for any claim of any kind whatsoever by any other party arising out of the use of this product and the items that come with it. E-2 Initializing the Calculator Perform the following procedure when you want to initialize the calculator and return the calculation mode and setup to their initial default settings. Note that this operation also clears all data currently in calculator memory. 1. O19(CLR) 2. “All:EXE” (cf), then E. 3. E(Yes) 4. A • To cancel initialization without doing anything, press E(Cancel) instead of E(Yes). This setting: Calculation Mode Is initialized to this: COMP This setting: Payment Date Mode dn Periods/Y Bond Date Date Input PRF/Ratio B-Even Digit Sep. Angle Display Digits STAT Is initialized to this: End 365 CI Annual (FC-200V only) Date (FC-200V only) MDY PRF (FC-200V only) Quantity (FC-200V only) Off Deg Norm1 Off • For information about memory, see “Using Calculator Memory” on page E-35. • For information about shortcut keys settings, see “Shortcuts” on page E-94. E-3 Safety Precautions Be sure to read the following safety precautions before using this calculator. Keep this manual handy for later reference. Caution This symbol is used to indicate information that can result in personal injury or material damage if ignored. Battery • After removing the battery from the calculator, put it in a safe place where it will not get into the hands of small children and accidentally swallowed. • Keep batteries out of the reach of small children. If accidentally swallowed, consult with a physician immediately. • Never charge the battery, try to take the battery apart, or allow the battery to become shorted. Never expose the battery to direct heat or dispose of it by incineration. • Improperly using a battery can cause it to leak and damage nearby items, and can create the risk of fire and personal injury. • Always make sure that the battery’s positive k and negative l ends are facing correctly when you load it into the calculator. • Remove the battery if you do not plan to use the calculator for a long time. • Use only the type of battery specified for this calculator in this manual. Disposing of the Calculator • Never dispose of the calculator by burning it. Doing so can cause certain components to suddenly burst, creating the risk of fire and personal injury. E-4 Handling Precautions • Be sure to press the O key before using the calculator for the first time. • Even if the calculator is operating normally, replace the battery at least once every three years (FC-200V) or two years (FC-100V). A dead battery can leak, causing damage to and malfunction of the calculator. Never leave a dead battery in the calculator. • The battery that comes with this unit discharges slightly during shipment and storage. Because of this, it may require replacement sooner than the normal expected battery life. • Low battery power can cause memory contents to become corrupted or lost completely. Always keep written records of all important data. • Avoid use and storage of the calculator in areas subjected to temperature extremes. Very low temperatures can cause slow display response, total failure of the display, and shortening of battery life. Also avoid leaving the calculator in direct sunlight, near a window, near a heater or anywhere else it might be exposed to very high temperatures. Heat can cause discoloration or deformation of the calculator’s case, and damage to internal circuitry. • Avoid use and storage of the calculator in areas subjected to large amounts of humidity and dust. Take care never to leave the calculator where it might be splashed by water or exposed to large amounts of humidity or dust. Such conditions can damage internal circuitry. • Never drop the calculator or otherwise subject it to strong impact. • Never twist or bend the calculator. Avoid carrying the calculator in the pocket of your trousers or other tight-fitting clothing where it might be subjected to twisting or bending. • Never try to take the calculator apart. E-5 • Never press the keys of the calculator with a ballpoint pen or other pointed object. • Use a soft, dry cloth to clean the exterior of the calculator. If the calculator becomes very dirty, wipe it off with a cloth moistened in a weak solution of water and a mild neutral household detergent. Wring out all excess liquid before wiping the calculator. Never use thinner, benzene or other volatile agents to clean the calculator. Doing so can remove printed markings and can damage the case. E-6 Contents About this Manual ............................................ 1 Initializing the Calculator ................................ 3 Safety Precautions ........................................... 4 Handling Precautions ...................................... 5 Before Using the Calculator .......................... 10 kRemoving the Hard Case .................................... 10 kTurning Power On and Off ................................... 10 kAdjusting Display Contrast ................................... 10 kAbout the Display .................................................. 11 kDisplay Indicators ................................................. 11 Calculation Modes and Calculator Setup .... 13 kCalculation Modes ............................................... 13 kUsing the Setup Screen ....................................... 13 Inputting Expressions and Values ............... 23 kInputting a Calculation Expression Using Standard Format .................................................. 23 kCorrecting an Expression .................................... 25 kDisplaying the Location of an Error ...................... 27 Basic Calculations ......................................... 28 kArithmetic Calculations ........................................ 28 kPercent Calculations ............................................ 29 Using Multi-statements in Calculations ....... 32 Using Calculation History Memory and Replay ............................................................. 33 Using Calculator Memory .............................. 35 kAnswer Memory (Ans) ......................................... kIndependent Memory (M) .................................... kVariables (A, B, C, D, X, Y) .................................. kFinancial Calculation Variables (VARS) ............... kClearing Memory Contents .................................. E-7 35 37 38 40 41 Financial Calculation ..................................... 42 kSimple Interest Mode ........................................... kCompound Interest Mode .................................... kCash Flow Mode .................................................. kAmortization Mode ............................................... kConversion Mode ................................................. kCost/Sell/Margin Mode ........................................ kDay Calculation Mode .......................................... kDepreciation Mode (FC-200V only) ..................... kBond Mode (FC-200V only) ................................. kBreak-Even Mode (FC-200V only) ....................... kBEV Sub-mode (Break-Even Mode 1) ................. kMargin of Safety Sub-mode (Break-Even Mode 2) ........................................... kDegree of Operating Leverage Sub-mode (Break-Even Mode 3) ........................................... kDegree of Financial Leverage Sub-mode (Break-Even Mode 4) ........................................... kDegree of Combined Leverage Sub-mode (Break-Even Mode 5) ........................................... kQuantity Conversion Sub-mode (Break-Even Mode 6) ........................................... 42 44 50 55 59 61 64 66 71 78 78 82 84 86 88 90 Shortcuts ........................................................ 94 kCustom Shortcut Keys ......................................... 94 kFunction Shortcut Keys ........................................ 96 Function Calculations ................................... 98 kPi (π) and Natural Logarithm Base e ................... 98 kTrigonometric and Inverse Trigonometric Functions ............................................................. 98 kHyperbolic and Inverse Hyperbolic Functions ..... 99 kConverting an Input Value to the Calculator’s Default Angle Unit ................................................ 99 kExponential Functions and Logarithmic Functions ........................................................... 100 kPower Functions and Power Root Functions .... 101 kRectangular-Polar Coordinate Conversion ........ 103 kOther Functions ................................................. 104 E-8 Statistical Calculation .................................. 108 kStatistical Calculation Types .............................. 108 kInputting Sample Data ....................................... 108 kSTAT Calculation Screen .................................... 111 kUsing the STAT Menu ......................................... 112 Technical Information .................................. 134 kCalculation Priority Sequence ............................ kStack Limitations ................................................ kCalculation Ranges, Number of Digits, and Precision ............................................................ kSpecial Financial Calculation Error Messages .. kError Messages ................................................. kBefore assuming malfunction of the calculator... 134 136 137 139 140 142 Reference ...................................................... 143 kPower Requirements and Battery Replacement ..................................................... 143 Specifications ............................................... 146 E-9 Before Using the Calculator k Removing the Hard Case Before using the calculator, slide its hard case downwards to remove it, and then affix the hard case to the back of the calculator as shown in the illustration below. k Turning Power On and Off • Press O to turn on the calculator. • Press 1A(OFF) to turn off the calculator. k Adjusting Display Contrast 1. Press s. 2. Use c to select “CONTRAST:EXE”, and then press E. This displays the contrast adjustment screen. Use d and e to adjust display contrast. After the setting is the way you want, press E. Important! • If adjusting display contrast does not improve display readability, it probably means that battery power is low. Replace the battery. E-10 k About the Display Your calculator has a 31-dot × 96-dot LCD screen. Example: Input expression { Calculation result Financial Calculation Mode k Display Indicators Sample Display: STAT This Means this: Page: indicator: The keypad has been shifted by pressing the 1 key. The keypad 7 will unshift and this indicator will disappear when you press a key. E-1 The alpha input mode has been entered by pressing the S key. 3 The alpha input mode will be exited and this indicator will disappear when you press a key. M STO RCL There is a value stored in independ- E-37 ent memory. The calculator is standing by for input of a variable name to assign a value to the variable. This indicator apE-37 pears after you press 1t(STO). E-38 The calculator is standing by for input E-94 of a variable name to recall the variable’s value. This indicator appears after you press t. E-11 This Means this: indicator: STAT 360 Page: The calculator is in the STAT Mode. E-108 360 days in a year. SI Simple interest for interest calculations of odd (partial) months. DMY Day, month, year (DMY) as the date format. 7 The default angle unit is degrees. 8 The default angle unit is radians. 9 The default angle unit is grads. E-15 FIX A fixed number of decimal places is in effect. SCI A fixed number of significant digits is in effect. $` Calculation history memory data is available and can be replayed, or E-33 there is more data above/below the current screen. Disp The display currently shows an intermediate result of a multi-state- E-32 ment calculation. Important! • For a very complex calculation or some other type of calculation that takes a long time to execute, the display may show only the above indicators (without any value) while it performs the calculation internally. E-12 Calculation Modes and Calculator Setup k Calculation Modes When you want to perform this type of operation: Press this Page: key: Simple interest calculations S E-42 Compound interest calculations c E-44 Cash flow calculations C E-50 Amortization calculations A E-55 General and function calculations m E-28 E-98 Statistical and regression calculations a E-108 Interest rate conversion calculations n E-59 Cost, selling price, or margin calculations o E-61 Day or date calculations D E-64 Depreciation calculations (FC-200V only) d E-66 Purchase price and annual yield calculations (FC-200V only) b E-71 Break-even point calculations (FC-200V only) B E-78 k Using the Setup Screen The setup screen lets you configure various conditions and screen settings used for calculations. You can also use the setup screen to adjust display contrast. E-13 A Displaying the Setup Screen There are two different ways to display the setup screen. • Pressing the s key • Selecting the “Set:” item on the menu screen that appears when you enter some modes. The following are the procedures you need to perform to access and use the setup screen using the above operations. FC-200V Important! All of the example procedures presented in this manual use the s key procedure to display the setup screen. To display the setup screen with the s key 1. Press the s key. This displays a menu of setup items. • See “Setup Screen Settings” on page E-15 for a complete list of menu items. 2. Use fc to select the setup item whose setting you want to change, and then press E. This displays a screen for configuring the setting of the setup item you selected. 3. Configure the setting you want. • You can select a setting by with the cursor and then press E , or you can input the number that corresponds to the setting you want to select. • See “Configuring Settings” on page E-16 for information about configuring each setting. To display the setup screen by selecting “Set:” on a mode menu Important! The following procedure is possible only when there is a “Set:” item on the menu that initially appears when you enter a mode. It is not available in all modes. E-14 1. On the menu that appears when you initially enter a mode, use fc to select “Set:”, and then press E. • This displays a setup screen of settings that apply to the current mode only. The content of the setup screen depends on what mode you are currently in. 2. Use fc to select the setup item whose setting you want to change. You can also select a setup item by inputting the applicable number. • See “Setup Screen Settings” below for information about configuring each setting. A Setup Screen Settings No. Setup Screen Item 1 Payment Description Payment date (beginning of term/end of term) 2 Date Mode Number of days in a year Page E-16 E-16 3 dn Odd period interest calculation E-16 4 Periods/Y Number of payment periods per year E-17 5 Bond Date Date or number of coupon payments specification E-17 6 Date Input Date format E-18 7 PRF/Ratio Profit or profit ratio specification E-18 8 B-Even Sales quantity or sales amount E-18 specification 9 Digit Sep. 3-digit separator symbol E-19 0 Angle Angle unit E-19 ! Fix Number of decimal places E-20 @ Sci Number of significant digits E-20 # Norm Value range for exponential format E-21 $ STAT Statistical display E-21 % CONTRAST Contrast adjustment E-15 E-22 A Configuring Settings 1 Payment: Compound Interest (CMPD) Mode, Amortization (AMRT) Mode This setting specifies the payment date. 1:Begin Beginning of period 2:End End of period 1. Use fc to select “Payment”, and then press E. 2. Press 1(1:Begin) or 2(2:End) to select the setting you want. • You can also use fc to select a setting and then press E. 2 Date Mode: Simple Interest (SMPL) Mode, Day Calculation (DAYS) Mode, Bond (BOND) Mode (FC-200V only) This setting specifies the number of days in a year. 1:360 360 days 2:365 365 days 1. Use fc to select “Date Mode”, and then press E. 2. Press 1(1:360) or 2(2:365) to select the setting you want. • You can also use fc to select a setting and then press E. 3 dn: Compound Interest (CMPD) Mode This setting specifies whether simple interest or compound interest for interest calculations of odd (partial) months. 1:CI Compound interest 2:SI Simple interest 1. Use fc to select “dn”, and then press E. E-16 2. Press 1(1:CI) or 2(2:SI) to select the setting you want. • You can also use fc to select a setting and then press E. 4 Periods/Y: Bond (BOND) Mode (FC-200V only) This setting specifies once a year (Annual) or twice a year (Semi-Annual) coupon payments. 1:Annual One coupon payment per year 2:Semi One coupon payment every six months 1. Use fc to select “Periods/Y”, and then press E. 2. Press 1(1:Annual) or 2(2:Semi) to select the setting you want. • You can also use fc to select a setting and then press E. 5 Bond Date: Bond (BOND) Mode (FC-200V only) This setting specifies use of either a date (Date) or a number of payments (Term) as the term for bond calculations. 1:Date Date 2:Term Number of payments 1. Use fc to select “Bond Date”, and then press E. 2. Press 1(1:Date) or 2(2:Term) to select the setting you want. • You can also use fc to select a setting and then press E. E-17 6 Date Input: Day Calculation (DAYS) Mode, Bond (BOND) Mode (FC-200V only) This setting specifies either month, day, year (MDY) or day, month, year (DMY) as the date format. 1:MDY Month, day, year 06012006 (June 1, 2006) 2:DMY Day, month, year 01062006 (June 1, 2006) 1. Use fc to select “Date Input”, and then press E. 2. Press 1(1:MDY) or 2(2:DMY) to select the setting you want. • You can also use fc to select a setting and then press E. 7 PRF/Ratio: Break-Even Point Calculation (BEV) Submode of Break-Even (BEVN) Mode (FC200V only) This setting specifies use of either profit (PRF) or profit ratio (r%) for break-even point calculations. 1:PRF Profit 2:r% Profit ratio 1. Use fc to select “PRF/ Ratio”, and then press E. 2. Press 1(1:PRF) or 2(2:r%) to select the setting you want. • You can also use fc to select a setting and then press E. 8 B-Even: Break-Even Point Calculation (BEV) Submode of Break-Even (BEVN) Mode (FC-200V only) This setting specifies use of either sales quantity (Quantity) or sales amount (Sales) for break-even point calculations. 1: Quantity Sales quantity 2: Sales Sales amount E-18 1. Use fc to select “B-Even”, and then press E. 2. Press 1(1:Quantity) or 2(2:Sales) to select the setting you want. • You can also use fc to select a setting and then press E. 9 Digit Sep.: All modes except for the STAT Mode and COMP Mode This setting specifies what type of 3-digit separator should be used. Note that the 3-digit separator is not displayed after you specify a number of significant digits with @ Sci. 1:Superscript Superscript comma 123´456 2:Subscript Subscript comma 123,456 3:Off Separator off 123456 1. Use fc to select “Digit Sep.”, and then press E. 2. Press 1(1:Superscript), 2(2:Subscript), or 3(3:Off) to select the setting you want. • You can also use fc to select a setting and then press E. 0 Angle: All modes This setting specifies the angle unit used for trigonometric functions. π 90° = — radians = 100 grads 2 1:Deg Degrees 2:Rad Radians 3:Gra Grads 1. Use fc to select “Angle”, and then press E. E-19 2. Press 1(1:Deg), 2(2:Rad), or 3(3:Gra) to select the setting you want. • You can also use fc to select a setting and then press E. ! Fix: All modes This setting specifies a fixed number of digits to the right of the decimal place. Calculation results are rounded off to the specified number of digits before being displayed. • Changing this setting automatically cancels any previous settings made for @ Sci and # Norm. • Specify the number of decimal places by inputting a value in the range of 0 (round off and then cut fraction part) to 9 (nine decimal places). 1. Use fc to select “Fix”, and then press E. 2. Input a value from 0 to 9 to specify the number of decimal places. Example: 100 ÷ 7 = 14.286 (Fix 3) = 14.29 (Fix 2) @ Sci: All modes This setting specifies the number of significant digits. Calculation results are rounded off to the specified number of digits before being displayed. • Changing this setting automatically cancels any previous settings made for ! Fix and # Norm. • You can specify anywhere from 1 significant digit (by inputting 1) to 10 significant digits (by inputting 0). 1. Use fc to select “Sci”, and then press E. 2. Input a value from 0 to 9 to specify the number of significant digits. Example: 10 ÷ 7 = 1.4286 × 100 (Sci 5) = 1.429 × 100 (Sci 4) E-20 # Norm: All modes This setting specifies the range that determines when display of values switches to exponential format. • Changing this setting automatically cancels any previous settings made for ! Fix and @ Sci. Norm1: 10–2 > x, x > 1010 Norm2: 10–9 > x, x > 1010 Example: 1 ÷ 200 = 5 × 10–3 (Norm1) = 0.005 (Norm2) 1. Use fc to select “Norm”, and then press E. 2. Press 1(Norm1) or 2(Norm2). $ STAT: Statistics (STAT) Mode, Cash Flow (CASH) Mode This setting controls whether a frequency (FREQ) column is included in the STAT Mode DataEditor. • The Cash Flow (CASH) Mode uses the same DataEditor as the STAT Mode. Turning on display of the frequency column reduces the maximum number of data items that can be input for investment appraisal. 1:On Frequency (FREQ) column display on 2:Off Frequency (FREQ) column display off 1. Use fc to select “STAT”, and then press E. 2. Press 1(1:On) or 2(2:Off) to select the setting you want. • You can also use fc to select a setting and then press E. Important! • This operation clears DataEditor data. Note that data is cleared even if you select the setting that corresponds to the current FREQ column display status. Selecting “On” while FREQ column display is currently turned on, for example, will clear DataEditor data. E-21 % CONTRAST: All modes Select this setting when you want to adjust screen contrast and make display figures lighter or darker. 1. Use fc to select “CONTRAST”, and then press E. 2. Use d and e to adjust display contrast. 3. Press E. Note • On a setting screen, the cursor mark displayed on the upper right of a screen cannot be used. A Initializing the Setup Screen Settings 1. O19(CLR) 2. “Setup:EXE” (fc), then E. 3. E(Yes) 4. A • To cancel initialization without doing anything, press E(Cancel) instead of E(Yes). • The calculator will automatically enter the COMP Mode after you initialize the setup screen settings. E-22 Inputting Expressions and Values k Inputting a Calculation Expression Using Standard Format Your calculator lets you input calculation expressions just as they are written. Then simply press the E key to execute it. The calculator automatically judges the calculation priority sequence for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, functions, and parentheses. Example: 2 (5 + 4) – 2 × (–3) = 2(5+4)2*y3E A Inputting a Function with Parenthesis When you input any of the functions shown below, it is automatically input with the open parenthesis ( ( ) character. Next, you need to input the argument and the closing parenthesis ( ) ). sin(, cos(, tan(, sin–1(, cos–1( , tan–1(, sinh(, cosh(, tanh(, sinh–1(, cosh–1(, tanh–1(, log(, ln(, e^(, 10^(, ^(, '(, 3'(, x'(, Abs(, Pol(, Rec(, Rnd( Example: sin 30 = z 1. t 2. “sin(” (fc), then E. 3. 30)E • Some commonly used functions can also be input using a direct key operation. Example: sin 30 = 1. 11(sin) 2. 30)E E-23 A Omitting the Multiplication Sign You can omit the multiplication sign (×) in any of the following cases. • Before an open parentheses ( ( ): 2 × (5 + 4), etc. • Before a function with parenthesis: 2 × sin(30), 2 × '(3), etc. • Before a variable name, constant, or random number: 20 × A, 2 × π, etc. A Final Closed Parenthesis You can omit one or more closed parentheses that come at the end of a calculation, immediately before the E key is pressed. For details, see “Omitting a Final Closed Parenthesis” on page E-29. A Displaying a Long Expression The display can show up to 14 characters at a time. Inputting the 15th character causes the expression to shift to the left. At this time, the ] indicator appears to the left of the expression, indicating that it runs off the left side of the screen. Input expression: 1111 + 2222 + 3333 + 444 Displayed portion: Cursor • When the ] indicator is displayed, you can scroll left and view the hidden part by pressing the d key. This will cause the ' indicator to appear to the right of the expression. At this time, you can use the e key to scroll back. A Number of Input Characters (Bytes) • You can input up to 99 bytes of data for a single expression. Basically, each key operation uses up one byte. A function that requires two key operations to input (like 11(sin)) also uses only one byte. E-24 • Normally the input cursor appears as a straight vertical (I) or horizontal ( ) flashing line on the display screen. When there are 10 or fewer bytes of input remaining in the current expression, the cursor changes shape to I to let you know. If the I cursor appears, terminate the expression at a convenient point and calculate the result. • Each expression in calculation history memory (page E-33) can contain up to 76 bytes of data. Up to 89 bytes of data can be assigned to each custom shortcut key (page E-94). k Correcting an Expression This section explains how to correct an expression as you are inputting it. The procedure you should use depends on whether you have insert or overwrite selected as the input mode. A About the Insert and Overwrite Input Modes With the insert mode, the displayed characters shift to the left to make room when you input a new character. With the overwrite mode, any new character you input replaces the character at the current cursor position. • The cursor is a vertical flashing line (I) when the insert mode is selected. The cursor is a horizontal flashing line ( ) when the overwrite mode is selected. • The initial default is the insert mode. You can switch between the insert mode and the overwrite mode by pressing 1Y(INS). A Changing the Character or Function You Just Input Example: To correct the expression 369 × 13 so it becomes 369 × 12 369*13 Y 2 E-25 E A Deleting a Character or Function Example: To correct the expression 369 × × 12 so it becomes 369 × 12 Insert Mode: 369**12 dd Y Overwrite Mode: 369**12 ddd Y A Correcting a Calculation Example: To correct cos(60) so it becomes sin(60) Insert Mode: 12(cos)60) dddY 11(sin) Overwrite Mode: 12(cos)60) dddd 11(sin) E-26 A Inserting input into a Calculation Always use the insert mode for this operation. Use d or e to move the cursor to the location where you want to insert new input, and then input what you want. k Displaying the Location of an Error If an error message (like “Math ERROR” or “Syntax ERROR”) appears when you press E, press d or e. This will display the part of the calculation where the error occurred, with the cursor positioned at the error location. You can then make necessary corrections. Example: When you input 14 ÷ 0 × 2 = by mistake instead of 14 ÷ 10 × 2 = Insert Mode: 14/0*2E Press e or d. This is causing the error. d1 E You can also exit the error screen by pressing A, which clears the calculation. E-27 Basic Calculations This section explains how to perform arithmetic and percent calculations. All calculations in this section are performed in the COMP Mode (g). k Arithmetic Calculations Use the +, -, *, and / keys to perform arithmetic calculations. Example: 7 × 8 – 4 × 5 = 36 7*8-4*5E • The calculator automatically judges the calculation priority sequence. For more information, see “Calculation Priority Sequence” on page E-134. A Number of Decimal Places and Number of Significant Digits You can specify a fixed number of decimal places and significant digits for the calculation result. Example: 1 ÷ 6 = Initial default setting (Norm1) FIX 3 decimal places (Fix3) SCI 3 significant digits (Sci3) • For more information, see “Configuring Settings” on page E-16. E-28 A Omitting a Final Closed Parenthesis You can omit any closed parenthesis ( ) ) immediately preceding operation of the E key at the end of a calculation. Example: (2 + 3) × (4 – 1) = 15 (2+3)* (4-1E k Percent Calculations Example 1: 2% = 0.02 21((%)E Example 2: 150 × 20% = 30 150*20 1((%)E Example 3: To calculate what percentage of 880 is 660. 660/880 1((%)E Example 4: To increase 2500 by 15%. 2500+ 2500* 151((%)E E-29 Example 5: To discount 3500 by 25%. 35003500* 251((%)E Example 6: To discount the sum of 168, 98, and 734 by 20%. 168+98+ 734E -G*201((%)E Example 7: If 300 grams are added to a test sample originally weighing 500 grams, what is the percentage increase in weight? 300+500 1.(A%) Example 8: What is the percentage change when a value is increased from 40 to 46? How about to 48? Insert Mode: 46-40 1.(A%) eeeY8E E-30 Example 9: To calculate the selling price and profit when the purchase price is $480 and the profit rate to the selling price is 25%. 480*25 1.(A%) 480/25 1.(A%) Example 10: To calculate the bargain price and loss when the purchase price is $130 and the loss rate is 4%. 130*y4 1.(A%) 130/y4 1.(A%) E-31 Using Multi-statements in Calculations You can use the colon character (:) to connect two or more expressions and execute them in sequence from left to right when you press E. Example: To create a multi-statement that performs the following two calculations: 3 + 3 and 3 × 3 Insert Mode: 1. 3+3 2. t 3. “ : ” (fc), then E. 4. 3*3 Disp E “Disp” indicates this is an intermediate result of a multi-statement. E E-32 Using Calculation History Memory and Replay Calculation history memory maintains a record of each calculation expression you input and execute, and its result. You can use calculation history memory in the COMP Mode (g) only. A Recalling Calculation History Memory Contents Press f to back-step through calculation history memory contents. Calculation history memory shows both calculation expressions and results. Example: 1+1E 2+2E 3+3E f f • Note that calculation history memory contents are cleared whenever you turn off the calculator, press the O key, change to another mode, or perform the operation under “Initializing the Calculator” (page E-3) or “Initializing the Setup Screen Settings” (page E-22). • Calculation history memory is limited. When the calculation you are performing causes calculation history memory to become full, the oldest calculation is deleted automatically to make room for the new calculation. E-33 A Replay Function While a calculation result is on the display, you can press d or e to edit the expression you used for the previous calculation. Example: 4 × 3 + 2.5 = 14.5 4 × 3 – 7.1 = 4.9 4*3+2.5E A d YYYY -7.1E E-34 Using Calculator Memory Memory Name Answer Memory Description Stores the last calculation result obtained. Independent Memory Calculation results can be added to or subtracted from independent memory. The “M” display indicator indicates data in independent memory. Variables Six variables named A, B, C, D, X, and Y can be used for storage of individual values. VARS The following are the names of the financial calculation variables: n, I, PV, PMT, FV, P/Y, C/Y, PM1, PM2, Dys. This section uses the COMP Mode (g) to demonstrate how you can use memory. k Answer Memory (Ans) A Answer Memory Overview • Answer Memory contents are updated whenever you execute a calculation using any one of the following keys: E, 9, m, 1m(M–), t, or 1t(STO). Answer Memory can hold up to 15 digits. • Answer Memory contents do not change if an error occurs during the current calculation. • Answer Memory contents are maintained even if you press the A key, change the calculation mode, or turn off the calculator. • When multiple results are obtained (in polar coordinate calculations, when “ALL:Solve” is selected in the Simple Interest Mode, etc.), the result that is displayed at the top of the screen is the one stored in Answer Memory. E-35 A Using Answer Memory to Perform a Series of Calculations Example: To divide the result of 3 × 4 by 30 3*4E (Continuing)/30E Pressing / automatically inputs “Ans” command. • With the above procedure, you need to perform the second calculation immediately after the first one. If you need to recall Answer Memory contents after pressing A, press the G key. A Inputting Answer Memory Contents into an Expression Example: To perform the calculations shown below: 123 + 456 = 579 123+456E 789-GE E-36 789 – 579 = 210 k Independent Memory (M) You can add calculation results to or subtract results from independent memory. The “M” appears on the display when independent memory contains a value. A Independent Memory Overview • The following is a summary of the different operations you can perform using independent memory. Perform this key operation: To do this: Add the displayed value or result of the expression to independent memory Subtract the displayed value or result of the expression from independent memory Recall current independent memory contents Assign a specific value or result of the expression to independent memory m 1m(M–) Sm(M) 1. 3+5(for example) 2. 1t(STO) 3. “M:”(fc), then E. 4. E(Yes) • You can also store financial calculation value in independent memory. Example: In the SMPL Mode, store the value of SI in independent memory (M) 1. Enter the SMPL Mode for calculation of simple interest (SI). See pages E-42 and E-43 for more information. 2. 1t(STO) 3. “SI”(fc), then E. 4. “M:”(fc), then E. 5. E(Yes) • A number sign (#) next to the independent memory variable name indicates that it already contains data. Performing the following steps will replace any existing data with the new data. E-37 • The “M” indicator appears in the upper left of the display when there is any value other than zero stored in independent memory. • Independent memory contents are maintained even if you press the A key, change the calculation mode, or turn off the calculator. A Calculation Examples Using Independent Memory • If the “M” indicator is on the display, perform the procedure under “Clearing Independent Memory” before performing this example. Example: 23 + 9 = 53 – 6 = –) 45 × 2 = 99 ÷ 3 = (Total) 23+9m 53-6m 45*21m(M–) 99/3m Sm(M)E 32 47 90 33 22 A Clearing Independent Memory 1. 0 2. 1t(STO) 3. “M:”(fc), then E. 4. E(Yes) • This clears independent memory and causes the “M” indicator to disappear from the display. k Variables (A, B, C, D, X, Y) A Variable Overview • You can assign a specific value or a calculation result to a variable. Example: To assign the result of 3 + 5 to variable A. 1. 3+5 2. 1t(STO) 3. “A:”(fc), then E. 4. E(Yes) E-38 • Use the following procedure when you want to check the contents of a variable. Example: To recall the contents of variable A Sn(A) • The following shows how you can include variables inside of an expression. Example: To multiply the contents of variable A by the contents of variable B Sn(A)*So(B)E • You can also assign a financial calculation value to a variable. Example: In the CMPD Mode, assign the value of PMT to variable “A”. 1. CMPD mode: “PMT” (fc). 2. 1t(STO) 3. “A:”(fc), then E. 4. E(Yes) • A number sign (#) next to a variable name indicates that there is already data assigned to the variable. Performing the following steps will replace any existing data with the new data. • Variable contents are maintained even if you press the A key, change the calculation mode, or turn off the calculator. 9×6+3 Example: = 1.425 5×8 1. 9*6+3 2. 1t(STO) 3. “B:” (fc), then E. 4. E(Yes) 5. 5*8 6. 1t(STO) 7. “C:” (fc), then E. 8. E(Yes) E-39 9. So(B)/SD(C) E k Financial Calculation Variables (VARS) • The following are the names of the financial calculation variables (VARS): n, I, PV, PMT, FV, P/Y, C/Y, PM1, PM2, Dys. • Financial calculation variables are used in financial calculations to store values. See the sections that describe the various modes for information about which variables are used in each mode. • In the COMP Mode, the above variables are used as arithmetic variables, and are referred to as such in the section explaining the COMP Mode. A To select an financial calculation variable in the COMP mode 1. Press 1t(VARS). 2. On the menu screen that appears, use fc to move the highlighting to the variable you want to select, and then press E. A Clearing the Contents of VARS Memories Only 1. O19(CLR) 2. “VARS:EXE” (fc), then E. 3. E(Yes) 4. A • To cancel the clear operation without doing anything, press E(Cancel) instead of E(Yes). • VARS Memory Initial Default Values P/Y, C/Y ....................................................................... 1 n, I, PV, PMT, FV, PM1, PM2, Dys .......................... 0 E-40 k Clearing Memory Contents Use the following procedure to clear the contents of Answer Memory, independent memory, and all of the variables. This procedure does not clear VARS memory contents. See “Clearing the Contents of VARS Memories Only” for more information. 1. O19(CLR) 2. “Memory:EXE” (fc), then E. 3. E(Yes) 4. A • To cancel the clear operation without doing anything, press E(Cancel) instead of E(Yes). E-41 Financial Calculation k Simple Interest Mode • The Simple Interest (SMPL) Mode lets you calculate the interest amount and/or simple future value (principal and interest amount). A Entering the SMPL Mode • Press S to enter the SMPL Mode. Value Input Screen A Setting Values No. Display Name Values Used in Examples 1 Set* Days in Year (Date Mode) 365 2 Dys Number of Interest Periods (Number of Days) 120 3 I Interest Rate (Annual) 5% 4 PV Principal (Present Value) $10,000 * For information about specifying the Date Mode, see the “Date Mode” item under “Configuring Settings” on page E-16. A Basic SMPL Mode Procedure Example 1: To calculate the interest amount (SI), and the simple future value (SFV) 1. Input the values for 1, 2, 3, and 4 from the Setting Values table above. • For this example, use fc to select 1 “Set:”, and then press E. E-42 • Press 2 to select “365”. • Use fc to select 2 “Dys”, input 120, and then press E. • Use fc to select 3 “I”, input 5, and then press E. • Use fc to select 4 “PV”, input 10000, and then press E. 2. Select the value you want to calculate. • For this example, use fc to select “ALL: Solve”. 3. Press 9 to perform the calculation. • Pressing the E key returns to the value input screen. • To solve for the items that have “Solve” specified (such as “ALL:Solve”), you can press E instead of 9. A Other SMPL Mode Calculations Example 2: To calculate the simple interest (SI) amount only • In step 2 of the basic procedure (Example 1), select “SI:Solve”. Example 3: To calculate the simple future value (SFV) only • In step 2 of the basic procedure (Example 1), select “SFV:Solve”. E-43 A SMPL Mode Financial Calculation Variables (VARS) • Variables Dys, I, and PV are used in the SMPL Mode. • The values of SMPL Mode variables are retained even if you change to another mode. Note, however, that SMPL Mode variables are also used by other modes, so performing an input or calculation operation may change the values assigned to them. • Though SMPL Mode variables are financial calculation variables, they are also used by arithmetic and function operations in the COMP Mode. A Calculation Formulas 365-day Mode SI' = 360-day Mode SI' = SI : Dys : PV : I% : SFV : Dys 365 Dys × PV × i i= I% 100 × PV × i i= I% 100 360 SI = –SI' SFV = –(PV + SI') simple interest number of interest periods principal interest rate (annual) principal plus interest k Compound Interest Mode • The Compound Interest (CMPD) Mode lets you calculate any one of the following values, by inputting values for the other four: number of payments, interest rate, principal, payment amount, and future value (principal and interest, or final payment amount). A Entering the CMPD Mode • Press c to enter the CMPD Mode. Value Input Screen E-44 E A Setting Values No. Display Name Values Used in Examples 1 Set*1 Payment Period (Payment) End 2 n Number of Payments 48 3 I Interest Rate 4% 4 PV Present Value (Principal) 5 PMT Payment Amount 6 FV Future Value (Principal and Interest, or Final Payment Amount) 7 P/Y Number of Annual Payments (PMT) 12 8 C/Y*2 Number of Annual Compoundings 12 –$1,000 –$300 $16,760 *1 • For information about specifying the payment period, see the “Payment” item under “Configuring Settings” on page E-16. • In the case of compound interest calculations, you can also use the compound interest mode (dn) setting on the setup screen for interest calculations of odd (partial) months. See the explanation of the compound interest mode (dn) setting (page E-16) for more information. 2 * Specify 2 for semiannual compound interest, or 12 for monthly compound interest. Note • After specifying the 1 Payment Period (Payment) and inputting values for 7 Number of Annual Payments (P/Y) and 8 Number of Annual Compoundings, you can calculate any one of the following by inputting values for the other four: Number of Payments, Interest Rate, Principal, Payment Amount, Future Value (principal and interest, or final payment amount). • Input money paid out as a negative value, using the y key to input the minus sign. E-45 E A Basic CMPD Mode Procedure Example 1: To calculate the future value (FV) of an investment vehicle that pays an annual interest rate of 4%, when the initial deposit is $1,000 and additional deposits of $300 are made each month 1. Input the required values from the Setting Values table (page E-45). • For this example, use fc to select 1 “Set:”, and then press E. • Press 2 to select “End”. • Use fc to select 2 “n”, input 48, and then press E. • Use fc to select 3 “I”, input 4, and then press E. • Use fc to select 4 “PV”, input –1000, and then press E. • Use fc to select 5 “PMT”, input –300, and then press E. • Use fc to select 7 “P/Y”, input 12, and then press E. • Use fc to select 8 “C/Y”, input 12, and then press E. Input Precautions • Before specifying the number of months when there is a partial month, see “Calculating the Number of Months when a Partial Month is Included” (page E-47). • Input money paid out as a negative value, using the y key to input the minus sign. 2. Select the value you want to calculate. • For this example, use fc to select “FV”. E-46 3. Press l to perform the calculation. A Calculating the Number of Payments (n), Interest Rate (I%), Present Value (Principal: PV), and Payment Amount (PMT) • Use the same procedure as shown under “Example 1” (page E-46), substituting the required values. A Calculating the Number of Months when a Partial Month is Included The following example shows how to calculate the number of months (number of days/total days in the month) for the number of payments (n) when a partial month is include. Example 1: When the payment period is 16 months and 20 days • When P/Y=12, n can be thought of as being the payment period (number of months). 1. Use fc to select “n”. 2. Input the division operation that divides the number of days in the partial month (20 in this example) by the total number of days in the month. • This example assumes that there are 30 days in the month. 3. Add the number of full months (16 in this example). 4. Press E. Note • When n includes a fractional part (odd period), the calculator always assumes the odd period occurs before the first full payment period. E E-47 A Selecting Interest Calculation for a Period with a Partial Month • You can select compound interest or simple interest to calculate interest for a period with a partial month. Before performing each type of calculation, first use Configuring Settings (page E-16) to select either compound interest or simple interest for the dn setting. A CMPD Mode Financial Calculation Variables (VARS) • Variables n, I, PV, PMT, FV, P/Y, and C/Y are used in the CMPD Mode. • The values of CMPD Mode variables are retained even if you change to another mode. Note, however, that CMPD Mode variables are also used by other modes, so performing an input or calculation operation may change the values assigned to them. • Though CMPD Mode variables are financial calculation variables, they are also used by arithmetic and function operations in the COMP Mode. A Calculation Formulas u PV, PMT, FV, n I% G 0 –α × PMT – β × FV γ – γ × PV – β × FV PMT = α – γ × PV – α × PMT FV = β PV = log n= { (1+ iS) × PMT – FV × i } (1+ iS) × PMT + PV × i log (1+ i) E-48 D I% = 0 PV = – (PMT × n + FV ) PMT = – PV + FV n FV = – (PMT × n + PV) n=– PV + FV PMT α = (1+ i × S) × γ = { 1–β (–Intg(n)) , β = (1 + i) i (1+ i ) Frac (n) ........... dn : CI (Setup Screen) 1+ i × Frac (n) ....... dn : SI (Setup Screen) { 0 ............................ Payment : End (Setup Screen) S= 1 ............................ Payment : Begin (Setup Screen) i = { I% ............................... (P/Y = C/Y = 1) 100 (1+ I% ) 100 × [C/Y ] C/Y P/Y –1 ..... (Other than those above) u I% i (effective interest rate) i (effective interest rate) is calculated using Newton's Method. γ × PV + α × PMT + β × FV = 0 To I % from i (effective interest rate) i × 100 ................................. (P/Y = C/Y = 1) I% = {{ (1 + i ) P/Y C/Y } –1 × C/Y × 100 ... (Other than those above) E-49 n I% PV PMT FV : : : : : Number of Payments Interest Rate Present Value (Principal) Payment Amount Future Value (Principal and Interest, or Final Payment Amount) P/Y : Number of Annual Payments (PMT) C/Y : Number of Annual Compoundings Note • This calculator performs interest (I) calculations using Newton’s Method, which produces approximate values whose precision can be affected by various calculation conditions. Because of this, interest calculation results produced by this calculator should be used keeping the above limitation in mind, or the results should be verified. • When you use f and c to select an item that can be calculated, the “=” changes to “7”. You can perform a calculation by inputting the required values for the other items, and then pressing the l key. Performing the calculation causes the “7” to change back to “=”. k Cash Flow Mode • The Cash Flow (CASH) mode calculates the total of income and expenses over a fixed period, and then uses the discounted cash flow (DCF) method to perform investment appraisal. The following four items are appraised. NPV IRR PBP NFV : : : : Net Present Value Internal Rate of Return Payback Period* Net Future Value * The payback period (PBP) can also be called the “discounted payback period” (DPP). When the annual interest rate (I) is zero, the PBP is called the “simple payback period” (SPP). E-50 E A Entering the CASH Mode • Press C to enter the CASH Mode. Value Input Screen A cash flow diagram like the one shown below helps to visualize the movement of funds. CF2 CF3 CF4 CF5 CF7 CF6 CF1 CF0 With this graph, the initial investment amount is represented by CF0. The cash flow one year later is shown by CF1, two years later by CF2, and so on. A Setting Values No. Display 1 I Name Annual Interest Values Used in Examples 3% A Receipt and Payment Summary Period Receipt/Payment CF0 Payment Values Used in Examples –$10,000 CF1 Payment –$1,000 CF2 Receipt $4,500 CF3 Receipt $5,000 CF4 Receipt $4,000 • Input money paid out as a negative value, using the y key to input the minus sign. E-51 A Basic CASH Mode Procedure Example 1: To calculate net present value (NPV) 1. Input the annual interest (I), and then receipt and payment values provided on page E-51. • Use fc to select 1 “I”, input 3, and then press E. • Use fc to select “Csh =D.Editor x”, and then press E. This displays the DataEditor. Only the x-column is used for calculation. Any values in the y-column and FREQcolumn are not used. Note • The STAT editor and the D.Editor x of the CASH Mode use the same memory area to store data. • –10000 E(CF0) Input money paid out as a negative value, using the y key to input the minus sign. • –1000 E(CF1) • 4500 E(CF2) • 5000 E(CF3) • 4000 E(CF4) 2. Press E to return to the value input screen. 3. Select the value you want to calculate. • For this example, use fc to select “NPV: Solve”. 4. Press l to perform the calculation. • Pressing the E key returns to the value input screen. E-52 A Other CASH Mode Calculations Example 2: To calculate the internal rate of return (IRR) • In step 3 of the basic procedure (Example 1), select “IRR:Solve”. • The IRR calculation result is assigned to financial variable (VARS) I. Example 3: To calculate the payback period (PBP) • In step 3 of the basic procedure (Example 1), select “PBP:Solve”. Example 4: To calculate net future value (NFV) • In step 3 of the basic procedure (Example 1), select “NFV: Solve”. A Maximum Number of DataEditor Items Maximum Number of Data Items 80 40 26 DataEditor Screen X X, Y or X, FREQ X, Y, FREQ • Only the x-column is used for calculation. Any values in the y-column and FREQ-column are not used. • Normally, you will be able to input up to 80 data items in the DataEditor. • To maximize the number of data items you can input, enter the STAT Mode, select “1-VAR”, and then use the setup screen to select “Off” for the “STAT” setting (page E-21). • Values you input while “1-VAR” is selected are cleared when “2-VAR” is selected in the STAT Mode. Conversely, values you input while “2-VAR” is selected are cleared when “1-VAR” is selected in the STAT Mode. A CASH Mode Financial Calculation Variables (VARS) • Variable I is used in the CASH Mode. • The value of the CASH Mode variable is retained even if you change to another mode. Note, however, that I is also used by other modes, so performing an input or calculation operation may change the value assigned to it. E-53 • Though I is a financial calculation variable, it is also used by arithmetic and function operations in the COMP Mode. A Calculation Formulas u NPV CF2 CF1 CF3 + + + (1+ i) (1+ i)2 (1+ i)3 I% CFn …+ i = (1+ i)n 100 NPV = CF0 + n: natural number up to 79 u NFV NFV = NPV × (1 + i )n u IRR IRR is calculated using Newton’s Method. 0 = CF0 + CF2 CF3 CFn CF1 + + + … + (1+ i) (1+ i)2 (1+ i)3 (1+ i)n In this formula, NPV = 0, and the value of IRR is equivalent to i × 100. It should be noted, however, that minute fractional values tend to accumulate during the subsequent calculations performed automatically by the calculator, so NPV never actually reaches exactly zero. IRR becomes more accurate the closer that NPV approaches to zero. u PBP PBP = { 0 .................................. (CF0 > 0) n– n NPVn = Σ k =0 NPVn (Other than ... NPVn+1 – NPVn those above) CFk (1 + i)k n: Smallest positive integer that satisfies the conditions NPVn < 0, NPVn+1 > 0, or 0. E-54 k Amortization Mode • The Amortization (AMRT) Mode lets you calculate the principal balance, and the interest portion and principal portion of monthly payments, as well as interest and principal amounts paid to date. BAL : Principal balance upon completion of payment PM2 INT : Interest portion of payment PM1 PRN : Principal portion of payment PM1 ΣINT : Total interest paid from payment PM1 to payment PM2 ΣPRN : Total principal paid from payment PM1 to payment PM2 A Entering the AMRT Mode • Press A to enter the AMRT Mode. Value Input Screen a 1 payment c b 1 .............. PM1 ..................... PM2 ............ Last Number of Payments a : Interest portion of payment PM1 (INT) b : Principal portion of payment PM1 (PRN) c : Principal balance upon completion of payment PM2 (BAL) E-55 e 1 payment d 1 ............... PM1 .................. PM2 ............... Last Number of Payments d : Total principal paid from payment PM1 to payment PM2 (ΣPRN) e : Total interest paid from payment PM1 to payment PM2 (ΣINT) A Setting Values Values Used in Examples End No. Display Name 1 Set*1 Payment Period (Payment) 2 PM1 Payment PM1 (Number of Payments) 15 Payment PM2 3 PM2*2 (Number of Payments) 28 4 n*3 Number of Payments (Number of Months) — 5 I Interest Rate (Annual) 2% 6 PV Principal 7 PMT Payment Amount $100,000 –$920 8 FV* Ending Balance after Last Payment (Future Value) — 9 P/Y Number of Annual Payments (PMT) 12 0 C/Y*4 Number of Annual Compoundings 12 3 E-56 E *1 For information about specifying the payment period, see the “Payment” item under “Configuring Settings” on page E-16. 2 * Make sure the payment you specify for PM2 comes after the payment you specify for PM1. 3 * This variable is used by other modes. The value that initially appears may be a value that was input or calculated in another mode. 4 * Specify 2 for semiannual compound interest, or 12 for monthly compound interest. • Input money paid out as a negative value, using the y key to input the minus sign. A Basic AMRT Mode Procedure Example 1: To calculate the principal balance (BAL) after payment 28 1. Input the values for 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 0 from the Setting Values table (page E-56). • For this example, use fc to select 1 “Set:”, and then press E. • Press 2 to select “End”. • Use fc to select 2 “PM1”, input 15, and then press E. • Use fc to select 3 “PM2”, input 28, and then press E. • Use fc to select 5 “I”, input 2, and then press E. • Use fc to select 6 “PV”, input 100000, and then press E. • Use fc to select 7 “PMT”, input –920, and then press E. • Use fc to select 9 “P/Y”, input 12, and then press E. • Use fc to select 0 “C/Y”, input 12, and then press E. E-57 2. Select the value you want to calculate. • For this example, use fc to select “BAL: Solve”. 3. Press l to perform the calculation. • Pressing the E key returns to the value input screen. A Other AMRT Mode Calculations Example 2: To calculate the interest amount (INT) included in payment 15 (PM1) • In step 2 of the basic procedure (Example 1), select “INT:Solve”. Example 3: To calculate the principal amount (PRN) included in payment 15 (PM1) • In step 2 of the basic procedure (Example 1), select “PRN:Solve”. Example 4: To calculate total interest paid (ΣINT) from payment 15 (PM1) to payment 28 (PM2) • In step 2 of the basic procedure (Example 1), select “ΣINT:Solve”. Example 5: To calculate total principal paid (ΣPRN) from payment 15 (PM1) to payment 28 (PM2) • In step 2 of the basic procedure (Example 1), select “ΣPRN:Solve”. A AMRT Mode Financial Calculation Variables (VARS) • Variables PM1, PM2, n, I, PV, PMT, FV, P/Y, and C/Y are used in the AMRT Mode. • The values of AMRT Mode variables are retained even if you change to another mode. Note, however, that AMRT Mode variables are also used by other modes, so performing an input or calculation operation may change the values assigned to them. • Though AMRT Mode variables are financial calculation variables, they are also used by arithmetic and function operations in the COMP Mode. E-58 A Calculation Formulas a: Interest portion of payment PM1 (INT) INTPM1 = I BALPM1–1 × i I × (PMT sign) b: Principal portion of payment PM1 (PRN) PRNPM1 = PMT + BALPM1–1 × i c: Principal balance upon completion of payment PM2 (BAL) BALPM2 = BALPM2–1 + PRNPM2 d: Total principal paid from payment PM1 to payment PM2 (ΣPRN) Σ PRN = PRN PM2 PM1 + PRNPM1+1 + … + PRNPM2 PM1 e: Total interest paid from payment PM1 to payment PM2 (ΣINT) • a + b = one repayment (PMT) Σ INT = INT PM2 PM1 + INTPM1+1 + … + INTPM2 PM1 BAL0 = PV ....................... Payment: End (Setup Screen) INT1 = 0, PRN1 = PMT ... Payment: Begin (Setup Screen) Converting between the Nominal Interest Rate and Effective Interest Rate The nominal interest rate (I % value input by user) is converted to an effective interest rate (I %´) for installment loans where the number of annual payments is different from the number of annual compoundings calculation periods. { I%' = (1+ [C / Y ] [P / Y ] I% ) 100 × [C / Y ] } –1 ×100 The following calculation is performed after conversion from the nominal interest rate to the effective interest rate, and the result is used for all subsequent calculations. i = I%'÷100 k Conversion Mode • The Conversion (CNVR) Mode lets you convert between the nominal interest rate (APR) and effective interest rate (EFF). E-59 A Entering the CNVR Mode • Press n to enter the CNVR Mode. Value Input Screen A Setting Values No. Display Name 1 n Number of Annual Compoundings 2 I Interest Rate (Annual) Values Used in Examples 6 3% A Basic CNVR Mode Procedure Example 1: To convert a nominal interest rate (APR) to an effective interest rate (EFF) 1. Input the number of annual compoundings (n) and interest rate (I) values from the Setting Values table above. • For this example, use fc to select 1 “n”, input 6, and then press E. • Use fc to select 2 “I”, input 3, and then press E. 2. Select the value you want to calculate. • For this example, use fc to select “EFF: Solve”. 3. Press l to perform the calculation. • Pressing the E key returns to the value input screen. E-60 A Other CNVR Mode Calculations Example 2: To convert an effective interest rate (EFF) to a nominal interest rate (APR) • In step 2 of the basic procedure (Example 1), select “APR: Solve”. A CNVR Mode Financial Calculation Variables (VARS) • Variables n and I are used in the CNVR Mode. • A value is assigned to I whenever you perform an EFF or APR calculation in the CNVR Mode. • The values of CNVR Mode variables are retained even if you change to another mode. Note, however, that CNVR Mode variables are also used by other modes, so performing an input or calculation operation may change the values assigned to them. • Though CNVR Mode variables are financial calculation variables, they are also used by arithmetic and function operations in the COMP Mode. A Calculation Formulas n APR/100 EFF = 1+ –1 × 100 n 1 APR = 1+ EFF 100 n –1 × n ×100 APR : nominal interest rate (%) EFF : effective interest rate (%) n : number of annual compoundings k Cost/Sell/Margin Mode • The Cost/Sell/Margin (COST) Mode lets you calculate cost, selling price, or margin after inputting the other two values. You can input the cost and selling price, for example, and calculate the margin. E-61 A Entering the COST Mode • Press o to enter the COST Mode. Value Input Screen A Setting Values No. Display Name Values Used in Examples 1 CST Cost $40 2 SEL Selling Price $100 3 MRG Margin 60% A Basic COST Mode Procedure Example 1: To calculate the margin (MRG) 1. Input the cost (CST) and selling price (SEL) values from the Setting Values table above. • For this example, use fc to select 1 “CST”, input 40, and then press E. • Use fc to select 2 “SEL”, input 100, and then press E. 2. Select the value you want to calculate. • For this example, use fc to select 3 “MRG”. 3. Press l to perform the calculation. E-62 A Other COST Mode Calculations Example 2: To calculate the cost based on margin and selling price 1. Input the margin (MRG) and selling price (SEL) values in step 1 of the basic procedure (Example 1). 2. Select 1 “CST” in step 2. Example 3: To calculate the selling price (SEL) based on margin and cost 1. Input the margin (MRG) and cost (CST) values in step 1 of the basic procedure (Example 1). 2. Select 2 “SEL” in step 2. A COST Mode Financial Calculation Variables (VARS) • Variables CST, SEL, and MRG are used in the COST Mode. • These variables are used in the COST Mode only, and their values are retained even when you change to another mode. A Calculation Formulas CST = SEL 1– MRG 100 CST MRG 1– 100 CST ×100 MRG(%) = 1– SEL SEL = CST : cost SEL : selling price MRG : margin E-63 k Day Calculation Mode • The Day Calculation (DAYS) Mode lets you calculate the number of dates from one date to another, the date that falls on a specific number of days after a starting date, and the date that falls on a specific number of data prior to an ending date. • Starting date (d1) and ending date (d2) calculations are possible within the range of January 1, 1901 through December 31, 2099. A Entering the DAYS Mode • Press D to enter the DAYS Mode. Value Input Screen A Setting Values No. Display Name Values Used in Examples 1 Set*1 Days in Year (Date Mode) 2 d1*2 Starting Date (Month, Day, Year) 11052004 (November 5, 2004) 3 d2*2 Ending Date (Month, Day, Year) 04272005 (April 27, 2005) 4 Dys Number of Days (Duration) 365 173 *1 • For information about specifying the Date Mode, see the “Date Mode” item under “Configuring Settings” on page E-16. • The following rules apply when a 360-day year is specified. When the starting date (d1) is the 31st of a month, the calculation is performed using the 30th of the same month. When the ending date (d2) is the 31st of a month, the calculation is performed using the 1st of the following month. E-64 *2 • You must input two digits for the month and day. This means you should include a leading zero for values from 1 through 9 (01, 02, 03... etc.). • You can specify either month, day, year (MDY) or day, month, year (DMY) as the date input format. See the “Date Input” setting under “Configuring Settings” (page E-16). Note • After specifying the 1 Days in Year (Date Mode) in the Day Calculation Mode, you can calculate any one of the following three values by inputting values for the other two: 2 Starting Date (d1), 3 Ending Date (d2), and 4 Number of Days (Dys). A Basic DAYS Mode Procedure Example 1: To calculate the number of days between two dates 1. Input the required values from the Setting Values table (page E-64). • For this example, use fc to select 1 “Set:”, and then press E. • Press 2 to select “365”. • Use fc to select 2 “d1”, input 11052004, and then press E. • Use fc to select 3 “d2”, input 04272005, and then press E. 2. Select the value you want to calculate. • For this example, use fc to select “Dys”. 3. Press l to perform the calculation. E-65 A Other DAYS Mode Calculations Note • For Example 2 and Example 3, use the setup screen to change the “Date Mode” setting to “365”. • Calculation results “d1” and “d2” are not stored in Answer Memory. Example 2: To calculate date that falls a specific number of days (Dys) from a starting date (d1) 1. In step 1 of the basic procedure (Example 1), input 173 for Dys and do not input anything for d2. 2. In step 2, select “d2”. Example 3: To calculate the date that falls a specific number of days (Dys) before an ending date (d2) 1. In step 1 of the basic procedure (Example 1), input 173 for Dys and do not input anything for d1. 2. In step 2, select “d1”. A DAYS Mode Financial Calculation Variables (VARS) • Variables d1, d2, and Dys are used in the DAYS Mode. • The values of DAYS Mode variables are retained even if you change to another mode. Note, however, that DAYS Mode variables are also used by other modes, so performing an input or calculation operation may change the values assigned to them. • Though DAYS Mode variables are financial calculation variables, variable “Dys” can be recalled in the COMP Mode. k Depreciation Mode (FC-200V only) • The Depreciation (DEPR) Mode lets you use any of the four methods for depreciation. SL : FP : SYD : DB : Straight-Line Method Fixed Percentage Method Sum-of-the-Year’s Digits Method Declining Balance Method E-66 A Entering the DEPR Mode • Press d to enter the DEPR Mode. Value Input Screen A Setting Values No. Display 1 n 2 I*1 Name Useful Life Values Used in Examples 6 Depreciation Ratio 25% Factor 200 3 PV Original Cost (Basis) $150,000 4 FV Residual Book Value $0 5 j 6 YR1 Year for Calculation of Depreciation Cost Number of Months in the First Year of Depreciation Year 3 2 *1 Depreciation ratio in the case of the fixed percent (FP) method, depreciation factor in the case of the declining balance (DB) method. Specifying 200 for the depreciation factor while declining balance (DB) depreciation is being calculated causes depreciation to be calculated using the double declining balance (DDB) method. A Basic DEPR Mode Procedure Example 1: To calculate depreciation using Straight-Line depreciation 1. Input the values for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 from the Setting Values table above. • For this example, use fc to select 1 “n”, input 6, and then press E. E-67 • Use fc to select 2 “I”, input 25, and then press E. Note that you need to input 2 “I” only when you are using the fixed percent (FP) or declining balance (DB) method. • Use fc to select 3 “PV”, input 150000, and then press E. • Use fc to select 4 “FV”, input 0, and then press E. • Use fc to select 5 “ j ”, input 3, and then press E. • Use fc to select 6 “YR1”, input 2, and then press E. 2. Select the value you want to calculate. • For this example, use fc to select “SL:Solve”. 3. Press l to perform the calculation. • Pressing the E key returns to the value input screen. A Other DEPR Mode Calculations Example 2: To use the fixed percent method with a depreciation ratio is 25% • In step 2 of the basic procedure (Example 1), select “FP: Solve”. Example 3: To use the sum-of-the-year’s digits method • In step 2 of basic procedure (Example 1), select “SYD:Solve”. Example 4: To use the double declining balance method 1. In step 1 of the basic procedure (Example 1), input 200 for “I”. 2. In step 2, select “DB:Solve”. E-68 A DEPR Mode Financial Calculation Variables (VARS) • Variables n, I, PV, and FV are used in the DEPR Mode. • The values of DEPR Mode variables are retained even if you change to another mode. Note, however, that DEPR Mode variables are also used by other modes, so performing an input or calculation operation may change the values assigned to them. • Though DEPR Mode variables are financial calculation variables, they are also used by arithmetic and function operations in the COMP Mode. A Calculation Formulas Depreciation for an item acquired part way through a year can be calculated by month. u Straight-Line Method The straight-line method calculates depreciation for a given period. (PV–FV ) YR1 u n 12 (PV–FV ) SLj = n (PV–FV ) 12– YR1 u SLn+1 = n 12 SL1 = (YR1G12) SL j : depreciation charge for the j th year n : useful life PV : original cost (basis) FV : residual book value j : year for calculation of depreciation cost YR1 : number of months in the first year of depreciation E-69 u Fixed Percentage Method Fixed percentage method can be used to calculate depreciation for a given period, or to calculate the depreciation rate. FP1 = PV × I% YR1 × 100 12 I% 100 (YR1G12) FPj = (RDVj–1 + FV ) × FPn+1 = RDVn RDV1 = PV – FV – FP1 RDVj = RDVj–1 – FPj RDVn+1 = 0 (YR1G12) FP j : depreciation charge for the j th year RDVj : remaining depreciable value at the end of j th I% year : depreciation ratio u Sum-of-the-Year’s Digits Method The sum-of-the-year’s-digits method calculates depreciation for a given period. n (n +1) 2 YR1 n' = n – 12 (Intg (n' ) +1) (Intg (n' )+2 × Frac(n' )) Z' = 2 n YR1 SYD1 = × (PV – FV ) Z 12 n'– j+2 SYDj = ( ( jG1) )(PV – FV – SYD1) Z' n'– (n +1)+2 SYDn+1 = ( )(PV – FV – SYD1) × Z' 12–YR1 (YR1G12) 12 RDV1 = PV – FV – SYD1 RDVj = RDVj –1 – SYDj Z= SYD j : depreciation charge for the j th year RDVj : remaining depreciable value at the end of j th year E-70 u Declining Balance Method The declining balance method calculates depreciation for a given period. I% YR1 × 12 100n RDV1 = PV – FV – DB1 DB1 = PV × DBj = (RDVj–1 + FV ) × I% 100n RDVj = RDVj–1 – DBj DBn +1 = RDVn (YR1G12) (YR1G12) RDVn+1 = 0 DB j : depreciation charge for the j th year RDVj : remaining depreciable value at the end of j th I% year : factor k Bond Mode (FC-200V only) • The Bond (BOND) Mode lets you calculate purchase price and annual yield. A Entering the BOND Mode • Press b to enter the BOND Mode. Value Input Screen A Setting Values No. Display 1 Set*1 2 d1*2 3 d2*2*3 Name Periods/Y Bond Date Purchase Date (Month, Day, Year) Redemption Date (Month, Day, Year) E-71 Values Used in Examples Annual Date 06012004 (June 1, 2004) 12152006 (December 15, 2006) No. Display 4 n 5 RDV*4 Name Number of Coupon Payments Until Maturity Redemption Price per $100 of face value 6 CPN*5 Coupon Rate Values Used in Examples 3 $100 3% 7 PRC*6 Price per $100 of face value –97.61645734 8 YLD Annual Yield 4% *1 • You can specify a date (Date) or a number of coupon payments (Term) as the term for bond calculations. See the “Bond Date” setting under “Configuring Settings” (page E-16). • You can specify once a year (Annual) or once every six months (Semi-Annual) as the number of coupon payments per year. See the “Periods/Y” setting under “Configuring Settings” (page E-16). 2 * • You must input two digits for the month and day. This means you should include a leading zero for values from 1 through 9 (01, 02, 03... etc.) • You can specify either month, day, year (MDY) or day, month, year (DMY) as the date input format. See the “Date Input” setting under “Configuring Settings” (page E-16). 3 * When calculating the yield on call, input the call date for d2. 4 * When calculating the yield of maturity, input 100 for RDV. *5 In the case of a zero coupon, input 0 for CPN. *6 • When calculating the redemption price per $100 of face value (PRC), you can also calculate accrued interest (INT) and purchase price including accrued interest (CST). • Input money paid out as a negative value, using the y key to input the minus sign. E-72 Note • You can specify a starting date (d1) in the range of January 1,1902 through December 30, 2097. • You can specify an ending date (d2) in the range of January 2,1902 through December 31, 2097. • Input money paid out as a negative value, using the y key to input the minus sign. A Other Setup Items • The initial setting of Date Mode is 365 (365-day year). See the “Date Mode” setting under “Configuring Settings” (page E-16). • To display the Setup screen, press s. A Basic BOND Mode Procedure Example 1: To calculate the bond purchase price (PRC) based on a specific date (Date) 1. Input the values required for the calculation from the Setting Values table (pages E-71, E-72). Input 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 8 if “Date” is selected for “Bond Date”, or 1, 4, 5, 6, and 8 if “Term” is selected for “Bond Date”. On the setup screen, specify “365” for the “Date Mode” setting. • For this example, use fc to select 1 “Set:”, and then press E. • Use fc to select “Periods/Y”, and then press E. • Press 1 to select “Annual”. • Use fc to select 1 “Set:”, and then press E. • Use fc to select “Bond Date”, and then press E. E-73 • Press 1 to select “Date”. • Use fc to select 2 “d1”, input 06012004, and then press E. • Use fc to select 3 “d2”, input 12152006, and then press E. • Use fc to select 5 “RDV”, input 100, and then press E. • Use fc to select 6 “CPN”, input 3, and then press E. • Use fc to select 8 “YLD”, input 4, and then press E. 2. Select the value you want to calculate. • For this example, use fc to select “PRC”. 3. Press l to perform the calculation. • Pressing the E key returns to the value input screen. A Other BOND Mode Calculations • Before performing a calculation based on a specific number of payments (Term), be sure to specify “360” for “Date Mode”, and “Annual” for “Periods/Y” (number of coupon payments per year). Example 2: To calculate the annual yield (YLD) based on a specific date (Date) 1. In step 1 of the basic procedure (Example 1), input –97.61645734 for PRC and do not input anything for YLD. 2. In step 2, select “YLD”. • Input money paid out as a negative value, using the y key to input the minus sign. E-74 Example 3: To calculate a bond purchase price (PRC) based on a specific number of payments (Term) 1. In step 1 of the basic procedure (Example 1), select 2(Term) for “Bond Date”. • This replaces input items d1 and d2 with input item n. 2. Input 3 for item n. Example 4: To calculate the annual yield (YLD) based on a specific number of payments (Term) 1. In step 1 of the basic procedure (Example 1), select 2(Term) for “Bond Date”. • This replaces input items d1 and d2 with input item n. 2. Use fc to select 4 “n”, input 3, and then press E. 3. Input –97.61645734 for PRC, without inputting anything for YLD. 4. In step 2, select “YLD”. A BOND Mode Financial Calculation Variables (VARS) • The values of the following BOND Mode variables are retained even if you change to another mode: n, d1, d2. • Note, however, that n, d1, and d2 are also used by other modes, so performing an input or calculation operation may change the values assigned to them. • Though n is a financial calculation variable, its contents can also be recalled in the COMP Mode. • The following variables are used in the BOND Mode. Their values are not retained if you change to another mode: RDV, CPN, PRC, YLD. E-75 A Calculation Formulas D A B Redemption date (d2) Issue date Purchase date (d1) PRC : CPN : YLD : A : M : N : RDV : D : B : INT : CST : Coupon Payment dates price per $100 of face value coupon rate (%) annual yield (%) accrued days number of coupon payments per year (1 = Annual, 2 = Semi-Annual) number of coupon payments until maturity (n is used when “Term” is specified for “Bond Date” on the setup screen.) redemption price per $100 of face value number of days in coupon period where settlement occurs number of days from purchase date until next coupon payment date = D – A accrued interest price including interest u Price per $100 of face value (PRC) Date (Using the Setup Screen: Bond Date) • For one or fewer coupon period to redemption RDV + PRC = – 1+ ( B D × CPN M YLD/100 M E-76 +( ) A D × CPN M ) • For more than one coupon period to redemption RDV PRC = – (1+ YLD/100 A D (N–1+B/D ) M Σ INT = – ) M CPN N k=1 – (1+ × YLD/100 M A + ) D (k–1+B/D ) × CPN M CPN M CST = PRC + INT Term (Using the Setup Screen: Bond Date) CPN RDV M n PRC = – (1+ YLD/100 M ) n –Σ k=1 (1+ YLD/100 M ) k INT = 0 CST = PRC u Annual Yield (YLD) YLD is calculated using Newton’s Method. Note • This calculator performs annual yield (YLD) calculations using Newton’s Method, which produces approximate values whose precision can be affected by various calculation conditions. Because of this, annual yield calculation results produced by this calculator should be used keeping the above limitation in mind, or the results should be verified. E-77 k Break-Even Mode (FC-200V only) • The Break-Even (BEVN) Mode has six sub-modes that you can use to perform various break-even point calculations. A Entering the BEVN Mode • Press B to enter the BEVN Mode. A BEVN Mode Sub-modes BEV: Break-even point sales quantity and sales amount, sales quantity and sales amount that attains a profit target, sales quantity and sales amount that attains a profit ratio MOS: Margin of Safety DOL: Degree of Operating Leverage DFL: Degree of Financial Leverage DCL: Degree of Combined Leverage QTY CONV. (Quantity Conversion): Sales quantity and related values • Use fc to select the sub-mode you want, and then press E to enter it. k BEV Sub-mode (Break-Even Mode 1) • Use the BEV sub-mode to calculate the break-even point sales quantity and sales amount, sales quantity and sales amount that attains a profit target, and sales quantity and sales amount that attains a profit ratio. • The “break-even point” is the point where profit is 0 or the profit ratio is 0%. E-78 A Entering the BEV Sub-mode 1. Press B to enter the Break-Even Mode. 2. Use fc to select “BEV:EXE”. 3. Press E. Value Input Screen A Setting Values No. Display 1 Set*1 Name Profit or Profit Ratio (PRF/Ratio) Sales Quantity or Sales Amount (B-Even) Values Used in Examples PRF (Profit) Quantity (Sales Quantity) 2 PRC Sales Price $100/unit 3 VCU Unit Variable Cost $50/unit 4 FC Fixed Cost $100,000 PRF*2 Profit $400,000 r%*2 Profit Ratio QBE*3 Sales Quantity 10,000 units SBE*3 Sales Amount $1,000,000 5 6 40% *1 • You can configure break-even point calculations to use profit (PRF) or profit ratio (r%). See the “PRF/Ratio” setting under “Configuring Settings” (page E-16). • You can configure break-even point calculations to use sales quantity (Quantity) or sales amount (Sales). See the “B-Even” setting under “Configuring Settings” (page E-16). 2 * This item becomes profit ratio (r%) when “Ratio” is selected for “PRF/Ratio”. 3 * This item becomes break-even sales amount (SBE) when “Sales” is selected for “B-Even”. E-79 A Basic BEV Sub-mode Procedure Example 1: To calculate the break-even point sales quantity (QBE) 1. Input the values for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 from the Setting Values table (page E-79). • For this example, use fc to select 1 “Set:”, and then press E. • Use fc to select “PRF/Ratio”, and then press E. • Press 1 to select “PRF”. • Use fc to select 1 “Set:”, and then press E. • Use fc to select “B-Even”, and then press E. • Press 1 to select “Quantity”. • Use fc to select 2 “PRC”, input 100, and then press E. • Use fc to select 3 “VCU”, input 50, and then press E. • Use fc to select 4 “FC”, input 100000, and then press E. • Use fc to select 5 “PRF” or “r%”, input 0, and then press E. 2. Select the value you want to calculate. • For this example, use fc to select 6 “QBE”. E-80 3. Press l to perform the calculation. A Other BEV Sub-mode Calculations Example 2: To calculate the break-even point sales amount (SBE) 1. Select 2(Sales) for “B-Even” in step 1 of the basic procedure (Example 1). 2. In step 2, select “SBE”. Example 3: To calculate the sales quantity (QBE) required to attain a profit target ($400,000) • Input 400000 for PRF in step 1 of the basic procedure (Example 1). Example 4: To calculate the sales amount (SBE) required to attain a profit target ($400,000) 1. Select 2(Sales) for “B-Even” and input 400000 for PRF in step 1 of the basic procedure (Example 1). 2. In step 2, select “SBE”. Example 5: To calculate the sales quantity (QBE) required to attain a profit ratio target (40%) • Select 2(r%) for “PRF/Ratio” and input 40 for r% in step 1 of the basic procedure (Example 1). Example 6: To calculate the sales amount (SBE) required to attain a profit ratio target (40%) 1. Select 2(r %) for “PRF/Ratio” and 2(Sales) for “B-Even”, and input 40 for r% in step 1 of the basic procedure (Example 1). 2. In step 2, select “SBE”. Example 7: To calculate other values besides sales quantity and sales amount • You can calculate any one of the following five values by inputting values the other four: 2 Sales Price, 3 Unit Variable Cost, 4 Fixed Cost, 5 Profit or Profit Ratio, 6 Sales Quantity or Sales Amount. E-81 A BEV Sub-mode Financial Calculation Variables (VARS) • Variables PRC, VCU, FC, PRF, r%, QBE, and SBE are used in the BEV sub-mode. • BEV sub-mode variable contents are cleared whenever you change to another mode other than the BEVN Mode sub-modes (BEV, MOS, DOL, DFL, DCL, QTY CONV.). A Calculation Formulas u Profit (Setup Screen PRF/Ratio Setting: PRF) FC + PRF PRC – VCU FC + PRF SBE = × PRC PRC – VCU QBE = u Profit Ratio (Setup Screen PRF/Ratio Setting: r%) FC QBE = PRC × 1– 100 – VCU FC SBE = PRC × 1– QBE : FC : PRF : PRC : VCU : SBE : r% : r% r% 100 × PRC – VCU Sales Quantity Fixed Cost Profit Sales Price Unit Variable Cost Sales Amount Profit Ratio k Margin of Safety Sub-mode (Break-Even Mode 2) • The Margin of Safety (MOS) sub-mode lets you calculate how much sales can be reduced before losses start to be sustained, in the case that the expected sales amount is not attained. E-82 A Entering the MOS Sub-mode 1. Press B to enter the Break-Even Mode. 2. Use fc to select “MOS:EXE”. 3. Press E. Value Input Screen A Setting Values No. Display Name Values Used in Examples 1 SAL Sales Amount $1,200,000 2 SBE Break-even Sales Amount $1,000,000 3 MOS Margin of Safety 0.1667(16.67%) A Basic MOS Sub-mode Procedure Example 1: To calculate the margin of safety (MOS) 1. Input the required values from the Setting Values table above. • For this example, use fc to select 1 “SAL”, input 1200000, and then press E. • Use fc to select 2 “SBE”, input 1000000, and then press E. 2. Select the value you want to calculate. • For this example, use fc to select 3 “MOS”. 3. Press l to perform the calculation. E-83 A Other MOS Sub-mode Calculations Example 2: To calculate a sales amount (SAL) or breakeven sales amount (SBE) • Use the basic procedure (Example 1), substituting the required values. A MOS Sub-mode Financial Calculation Variables (VARS) • Variables SAL, SBE, and MOS are used in the MOS submode. • MOS sub-mode variable contents are cleared whenever you change to another mode other than the BEVN Mode sub-modes (BEV, MOS, DOL, DFL, DCL, QTY CONV.). A Calculation Formula MOS = SAL – SBE SAL SAL : Sales Amount SBE : Break-even Sales Amount MOS : Margin of Safety k Degree of Operating Leverage Submode (Break-Even Mode 3) • The Degree of Operating Leverage (DOL) sub-mode lets you calculate how profit changes relative to a change in the sales amount. A Entering the DOL Sub-mode 1. Press B to enter the Break-Even Mode. 2. Use fc to select “DOL:EXE”. 3. Press E. Value Input Screen E-84 A Setting Values No. Display Name Values Used in Examples 1 SAL Sales Amount $1,200,000 2 VC Variable Cost $600,000 3 FC 4 DOL Fixed Cost Degree of Operating Leverage $200,000 1.5 A Basic DOL Sub-mode Procedure Example 1: To calculate the degree of operating leverage (DOL) 1. Input the required values from the Setting Values table above. • For this example, use fc to select 1 “SAL”, input 1200000, and then press E. • Use fc to select 2 “VC”, input 600000, and then press E. • Use fc to select 3 “FC”, input 200000, and then press E. 2. Select the value you want to calculate. • For this example, use fc to select 4 “DOL”. 3. Press l to perform the calculation. A Other DOL Sub-mode Calculations Example 2: To calculate the sales amount (SAL), variable cost (VC), and fixed cost (FC) • Use the basic procedure (Example 1), substituting the required values. E-85 A DOL Sub-mode Financial Calculation Variables (VARS) • Variables SAL, VC, FC, and DOL are used in the DOL sub-mode. • DOL sub-mode variable contents are cleared whenever you change to another mode other than the BEVN Mode sub-modes (BEV, MOS, DOL, DFL, DCL, QTY CONV.). A Calculation Formula DOL = SAL – VC SAL – VC – FC SAL : VC : FC : DOL : Sales Amount Variable Cost Fixed Cost Degree of Operating Leverage k Degree of Financial Leverage Submode (Break-Even Mode 4) • The Degree of Financial Leverage (DFL) sub-mode lets you calculate the influence of interest on earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT). A Entering the DFL Sub-mode 1. Press B to enter the Break-Even Mode. 2. Use fc to select “DFL:EXE”. 3. Press E. Value Input Screen A Setting Values Name Values Used in Examples 1 EIT Earnings Before Interest and Taxes (EBIT) $400,000 2 ITR Interest $80,000 3 DFL Degree of Financial Leverage No. Display E-86 1.25 A Basic DFL Sub-mode Procedure Example 1: To calculate the degree of financial leverage (DFL) 1. Input the required values from the Setting Values table (page E-86). • For this example, use fc to select 1 “EIT”, input 400000, and then press E. • Use fc to select 2 “ITR”, input 80000, and then press E. 2. Select the value you want to calculate. • For this example, use fc to select 3 “DFL”. 3. Press l to perform the calculation. A Other DFL Sub-mode Calculations Example 2: To calculate earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT), and interest (ITR) • Use the basic procedure (Example 1), substituting the required values. A DFL Sub-mode Financial Calculation Variables (VARS) • Variables EIT, ITR, and DFL are used in the DFL submode. • DFL sub-mode variable contents are cleared whenever you change to another mode other than the BEVN Mode sub-modes (BEV, MOS, DOL, DFL, DCL, QTY CONV.). E-87 A Calculation Formula EIT DFL = EIT – ITR EIT : Earnings Before Interest and Taxes (EBIT) ITR : Interest DFL : Degree of Financial Leverage k Degree of Combined Leverage Submode (Break-Even Mode 5) • The Degree of Combined Leverage (DCL) sub-mode lets you calculate the degree of operating leverage (percent change in profit due to a change in sales amount), with interest taken into consideration. A Entering the DCL Sub-mode 1. Press B to enter the Break-Even Mode. 2. Use fc to select “DCL:EXE”. 3. Press E. Value Input Screen A Setting Values 1 SAL Sales Amount Values Used in Examples $1,200,000 2 VC Variable Cost $600,000 3 FC 4 ITR 5 DCL Fixed Cost Interest Degree of Combined Leverage $200,000 $100,000 2 No. Display Name E-88 A Basic DCL Sub-mode Procedure Example 1: To calculate the degree of combined leverage (DCL) 1. Input the required values from the Setting Values table (page E-88). • For this example, use fc to select 1 “SAL”, input 1200000, and then press E. • Use fc to select 2 “VC”, input 600000, and then press E. • Use fc to select 3 “FC”, input 200000, and then press E. • Use fc to select 4 “ITR”, input 100000, and then press E. 2. Select the value you want to calculate. • For this example, use fc to select 5 “DCL”. 3. Press l to perform the calculation. A Other DCL Sub-mode Calculations Example 2: To calculate the sales amount (SAL), variable cost (VC), fixed cost (FC), and interest (ITR) • Use the basic procedure (Example 1), substituting the required values. A DCL Sub-mode Financial Calculation Variables (VARS) • Variables SAL, VC, FC, ITR, and DCL are used in the DCL sub-mode. • DCL sub-mode variable contents are cleared whenever you change to another mode other than the BEVN Mode sub-modes (BEV, MOS, DOL, DFL, DCL, QTY CONV.). E-89 A Calculation Formula DCL = SAL – VC SAL – VC – FC – ITR SAL VC FC ITR DCL Sales Amount Variable Cost Fixed Cost Interest Degree of Combined Leverage : : : : : k Quantity Conversion Sub-mode (Break-Even Mode 6) • The Quantity Conversion (QTY CONV.) sub-mode lets you calculate the sales amount, sales price, or sales quantity after inputting the other two values. • You can also calculate the variable cost, unit variable cost, or sales quantity after inputting the other two values. A Entering the QTY CONV. Sub-mode 1. Press B to enter the Break-Even Mode. 2. Use fc to select “QTY CONV.:EXE”. 3. Press E. Value Input Screen E-90 A Setting Values No. Display Name Values Used in Examples 1 SAL Sales Amount $100,000 2 PRC Sales Price $200/unit 3 4 5 6 Sales Quantity Variable Cost Unit Variable Cost Sales Quantity 500 units $15,000 $30/unit 500 units QTY VC VCU QTY A Basic QTY CONV. Sub-mode Procedure Example 1: To calculate the sales quantity (QTY) from the sales amount and sales price 1. Input the required values from among 1, 2, and 3 in the Setting Values table above. • In this example, use fc to select 1 “SAL”, input 100000, and then press E. • Use fc to select 2 “PRC”, input 200, and then press E. 2. Select the value you want to calculate. • In this example, use fc to select 3 “QTY”. 3. Press l to perform the calculation. • The result of a 3 “QTY” (sales quantity) calculation is also assigned to variable 6 “QTY”. Example 2: To calculate the sales amount (SAL) and sales price (PRC) • Use the same procedure as Example 1, substituting the required values. E-91 Example 3: To calculate the sales quantity (QTY) from variable cost and unit variable cost 1. Input the required values from among 4, 5, and 6 in the Setting Values table (page E-91). • In this example, use fc to select 4 “VC”, input 15000, and then press E. • Use fc to select 5 “VCU”, input 30, and then press E. 2. Select the value you want to calculate. • In this example, use fc to select 6 “QTY”. 3. Press l to perform the calculation. • The result of a 6 “QTY” (sales quantity) calculation is also assigned to variable 3 “QTY”. Example 4: To calculate the variable cost (VC) and unit variable cost (VCU) • Use the same procedure as Example 3, substituting the required values. A QTY CONV. Sub-mode Financial Calculation Variables (VARS) • Variables SAL, PRC, QTY, VC, and VCU are used in the QTY CONV. sub-mode. • QTY CONV. sub-mode variable contents are cleared whenever you change to another mode other than the BEVN Mode sub-modes (BEV, MOS, DOL, DFL, DCL, QTY CONV.). E-92 A Calculation Formulas SAL = PRC × QTY VC = VCU × QTY SAL PRC QTY VC VCU : : : : : Sales Amount Sales Price Sales Quantity Variable Cost Unit Variable Cost E-93 Shortcuts k Custom Shortcut Keys You can assign a mode, setup information, a value, or a calculation expression to a shortcut key for instant access whenever you need it. This feature comes in handy when you need to often perform the same calculation or input the same data. A Using Shortcut Keys Example: To configure the shortcut keys to simplify calculation of the value of the following installment savings plan Compound annual interest rate (I): 3% Payment period (Payment): End Initial deposit (PV): –$1,000 Monthly deposit (PMT): –$50 Number of annual payments (P/Y): 12 Number of annual compoundings (C/Y): 12 Tax on interest (10%) u To configure the SHORTCUT1 key 1. Press c to enter the Compound Interest Mode. 2. Input the applicable values for Payment, I, PV, PMT, P/Y, and C/Y. • See “Compound Interest Mode” (page E-44) for more information. 3. Use fc to select “n”. 4. Press 1t(STO). • A number sign (#) next to “Shortcut1” or “Shortcut2” indicates that there is already data assigned to the key. Performing the following steps will replace any existing data with the new data. STO E-94 5. Use fc to select “Shortcut1”, and then press E. STO 6. In response to the confirmation screen that appears, press E(Yes). • If you want to cancel this operation without assigning anything to 1(Shortcut1) key, press E instead of E in step 6. u To configure the SHORTCUT2 key 1. Press m to enter the COMP Mode. 2. Input the formula shown below. (FV – ((–PV) + (–PMT) × n)) × 0.9 + ((–PV) + (–PMT) × n) • “FV”, “PV” and “n” are financial calculation variables (VARS). 3. Perform the same operation as steps 4, 5, and 6 under “To configure the SHORTCUT1 key” to assign the above formula to “Shortcut2”. u To use the configured shortcut keys in a calculation Example: To calculate the value of the savings plan after five years (n = 60 months) 1. Press 1(Shortcut1). • This enters the mode (CMPD) and configures the settings assigned to the 1(Shortcut1) key, and selects “n” for input. 2. Input 60, and then press E. • Since all other input is performed by the data assigned to the 1 (Shortcut1) key, this is the only input required. To calculate the value for a different length of time, simply input the applicable number of months. E-95 3. Use fc to select “FV”, and then press l to perform the calculation. • This calculates the future value of the investment after five years. The result appears on the display and is stored in Answer Memory (Ans). 4. Press 2(Shortcut2). • This recalls the formula (for calculating tax) assigned to the 2(Shortcut2) key. 5. Press E. • Pressing the E key calculates the net amount received after application of a 10% tax to the interest amount. A Initializing the Custom Shortcut Settings 1. O19(CLR) 2. “Shortcut:EXE” (fc), then E. 3. 1(Shortcut1) or 2(Shortcut2) 4. A Note • STAT Mode data and operations cannot be assigned to the custom shortcut keys in the STAT Mode. • In the CASH Mode, you cannot assign receipt and payment amounts (for input on the value input screen) to custom shortcut keys. • Calculation history memory contents (page E-33) cannot be assigned to a shortcut key. • Contrast data and operations cannot be assigned to the custom shortcut keys. k Function Shortcut Keys In the COMP Mode, the 1 (Shortcut1) and 2(Shortcut2) keys become “function shortcut” keys named “FMEM1” and “FMEM2”. E-96 u To configure an FMEM key Example: To assign the function “sin–1” to the FMEM1 key 1. Press m to enter the COMP Mode. 2. (1) t (2) “sin–1” (fc), then E. 3. Press 1t(STO). STO • A number sign (#) next to “FMEM1” or “FMEM2” indicates that there is already data assigned to the key. Performing the following steps will replace any existing data with the new data. 4. Use fc to select “FMEM1”, and then press E. 5. In response to the confirmation screen that appears, press E(Yes). • If you want to cancel this operation without assigning anything to the FMEM1 key, press E instead of E in step 5. u To use the configured function memory key in a calculation Example: To recall the inverse sin function assigned to the FMEM1 key • Press 11(FMEM1). A Initializing the Function Shortcut Settings 1. O19(CLR) 2. “FMEM:EXE” (fc), then E. 3. 1(FMEM1) or 2(FMEM2) 4. A E-97 Function Calculations This section explains how to use the calculator’s built-in functions. • Certain function calculations may take some time to display calculation results. Before performing an operation, be sure to wait until execution of the current operation is complete. You can interrupt an ongoing operation by pressing A. • Pressing t will display a menu of functions that you can use to select the one you want to input. You can also use a direct key operation to input the following functions. FC-200V Rnd(, sin(, cos(, tan(, x2, '(, ^(, e^(, ln( FC-100V Rnd(, sin(, cos(, tan(, e^(, 10^(, ^(, ln(, log(, x'( All calculations in this section are performed in the COMP Mode (g). k Pi (π) and Natural Logarithm Base e You can input pi (π) or natural logarithm base e into a calculation. The following shows the required key operations and the values this calculator uses for pi (π) and e. π = 3.14159265358980 (15(π)) e = 2.71828182845904 (S5(e)) k Trigonometric and Inverse Trigonometric Functions The angle unit required by trigonometric and inverse trigonometric functions is one specified as the calculator’s default angle unit. Before performing a calculation, be sure to specify the default angle unit you want to use. See “Configuring Settings” (page E-16) for more information. E-98 Example: sin 30 = 0.5, sin–10.5 = 30 z 11(sin)30)E 1. t 2. “sin–1” (fc), then E. 3. 0.5)E k Hyperbolic and Inverse Hyperbolic Functions Example: sinh 1 = 1.175201194, cosh–1 1 = 0 1. t 2. “sinh” (fc), then E. 3. 1)E 1. t 2. “cosh–1” (fc), then E. 3. 1)E k Converting an Input Value to the Calculator’s Default Angle Unit After inputting a value, press 1G(DRG') to display the angle unit specification menu shown below. Press the number key that corresponds to the angle unit of the input value. The calculator will automatically convert it to the calculator’s default angle unit. Example 1: To convert the following values to degrees: π radians = 90°, 50 grads = 45° 2 The following procedure assumes that the calculator’s default angle unit is degrees. E-99 z (15(π)/2) 1G(DRG')2(r)E 501G(DRG') 3(g)E Example 2: cos (π radians) = –1, cos (100 grads) = 0 z 12(cos)15(π) 1G(DRG')2(r))E 12(cos)100 1G(DRG')3(g))E Example 3: cos–1 (–1) = 180 cos–1 (–1) = π z 1. t 2. “cos–1” (fc), then E. 3. y1)E Z 1. t 2. “cos–1” (fc), then E. 3. y1)E k Exponential Functions and Logarithmic Functions • For the logarithmic function “log(”, you can specify base m using the syntax “log (m, n)”. If you input only a single value, a base of 10 is used for the calculation. • “ln(” is a natural logarithm function with base e. E-100 Example 1: log216 = 4 1. t 2. “log(” (fc), then E. 3. 21)(,)16)E Example 2: log16 = 1.204119983 1. t 2. “log(” (fc), then E. 3. 16)E A base of 10 (common logarithm) is used if no base is specified. Example 3: ln 90 (= loge90) = 4.49980967 1. t 2. “ln(” (fc), then E. 3. 90)E Example 4: ln e = 1 1. t 2. “ln(” (fc), then E. 3. S5(e))E Example 5: e10 = 22026.46579 1. t 2. “e^(” (fc), then E. 3. 10)E k Power Functions and Power Root Functions Example 1: 1.2 × 103 = 1200 1. 1.2*t 2. “10^(” (fc), then E. 3. 3)E E-101 Example 2: (1 + 1)2+2 = 16 1. (1+1)t 2. “^(” (fc), then E. 3. 2+2)E Example 3: 23 = 8 1. 2t 2. “3” (fc), then E. 3. E Example 4: (' 2 + 1) (' 2 – 1) = 1 1. (t 2. “ '(” (fc), then E. 3. 2)+1)(t 4. “ '(” (fc), then E. 5. 2)-1)E Example 5: 5 32 = 2 1. 5t 2. “ x'(” (fc), then E. 3. 32)E Example 6: 3' 5 + 3 –27 = –1.290024053 1. t 2. “ 3'(” (fc), then E. 3. 5)+t 4. “ 3'(” (fc), then E. 5. y27)E E-102 k Rectangular-Polar Coordinate Conversion Rectangular Coordinates (Rec) Polar Coordinates (Pol) Converting to Polar Coordinates (Pol) Pol(X, Y) X: Specifies the rectangular coordinate X value Y: Specifies the rectangular coordinate Y value • Calculation result θ is displayed in the range of –180° < θ < 180°. • Calculation result θ is displayed using the calculator’s default angle unit. • Calculation result r is assigned to variable X, while θ is assigned to Y. Converting to Rectangular Coordinates (Rec) Rec(r,θ) r : Specifies r value of polar coordinate θ : Specifies θ value of polar coordinate • Input value θ is treated as an angle value, in accordance with the calculator’s default angle unit setting. • Calculation result x is assigned to variable X, while y is assigned to Y. • If you perform coordinate conversion inside of an expression instead of a stand-alone operation, the calculation is performed using only the first value (either the r-value or the X-value) produced by the conversion. Example: Pol (' 2, ' 2) + 5 = 2 + 5 = 7 E-103 Example 1: (X, Y) = (' 2, ' 2) → (r, θ) z 1. t 2. “ Pol(” (fc), then E. 3. 15(')2) 1)(,)15(') 2))E Example 2: (r, θ) = (2, 30) → (X, Y) z 1. t 2. “ Rec(” (fc), then E. 3. 21)(,)30)E k Other Functions This section explains how to use the functions shown below. !, Abs(, Ran#, nPr, nCr, Rnd( A Factorial (!) This function obtains the factorials of a value that is zero or a positive integer. Example: (5 + 3)! = 40320 1. (5+3)t 2. “ ! ” (fc), then E. 3. E E-104 A Absolute Value Calculation (Abs) When you are performing a real number calculation, this function simply obtains the absolute value. Example: Abs (2 – 7) = 5 1. t 2. “Abs(” (fc), then E. 3. 2-7)E A Random Number (Ran#) This function generates a 3-digit pseudo random number that is less than 1. Example: To generate three 3-digit random numbers. The random 3 digit decimal values are converted to 3digit integer values by multiplying by 1000. Note that the values shown here are examples only. Values actually generated by your calculator will be different. 1. 1000t 2. “Ran#” (fc), then E. 3. E E E E-105 A Permutation (nPr) and Combination (nCr) These functions make it possible to perform permutation and combination calculations. n and r must be integers in the range of 0 < r < n < 1 × 1010. Example: How many four-person permutations and combinations are possible for a group of 10 people? 1. 10t 2. “P” (fc), then E. 3. 4E 1. 10t 2. “C” (fc), then E. 3. 4E A Rounding Function (Rnd) This function rounds the value or the result of the expression in the function’s argument to the number of significant digits specified by the number of display digits setting. Display Digits Setting: Norm1 or Norm2 The mantissa is rounded to 10 digits. Display Digits Setting: Fix or Sci The value is rounded to the specified number of digits. Example: 200 ÷ 7 × 14 = 400 200/7*14E (Specifies three decimal places.) 1. s FIX 2. “Fix” (fc), then E. 3. 3 4. E 5. E E-106 (Calculation is performed internally using 15 digits.) FIX 200/7E FIX *14E The following performs the same calculation with rounding. FIX 200/7E (Round the value to the specified number of digits.) FIX 10(Rnd)E (Check rounded result.) FIX *14E E-107 Statistical Calculation All calculations in this section are performed in the STAT Mode (7). A Selecting a Statistical Calculation Type In the STAT Mode, display the statistical calculation type selection screen. k Statistical Calculation Types Use fc to select Item, and then press E. Menu Item 1-VAR A+BX _+CX2 In X e^X A•B^X A•X^B 1/X Statistical Calculation Single-variable Linear regression Quadratic regression Logarithmic regression e exponential regression ab exponential regression Power regression Inverse regression k Inputting Sample Data A Displaying the STAT Editor Screen The STAT editor screen appears after you enter the STAT Mode from another mode. Use the STAT menu to select a statistical calculation type. To display the STAT editor screen from another STAT Mode screen, press 17(S-MENU)2(Data). Note • The STAT editor and the D.Editor x of the CASH Mode use the same memory area to store data. E-108 A STAT Editor Screen There are two STAT editor screen formats, depending on the type of statistical calculation you selected. STAT STAT Single-variable Statistics Paired-variable Statistics • The first line of the STAT editor screen shows the value for the first sample or for the values for their first pair of samples. A FREQ (Frequency) Column If you turn on the Statistical Display item on the calculator’s setup screen, a column labeled “FREQ” will also be included on the STAT editor screen. You can use the FREQ column to specify the frequency (the number of times the same sample appears in the group of data) of each sample value. A Rules for Inputting Sample Data on the STAT Editor Screen • Data you input is inserted into the cell where the cursor is located. Use fcde to move the cursor between cells. STAT Cursor • The values and expressions you can input on the STAT editor screen are the same as those you can input in the COMP Mode. Note, however, that the following functions are not available on the STAT editor screen: multiple operations in calculation history memory, multi-statement input, and assignment to financial calculation variables. • Pressing A while inputting data clears your current input. • After inputting a value, press E. This registers the value and displays up to six of its digits in the currently selected cell. E-109 Example: To input the value 123.45 in cell X1 (Move the cursor to cell X1.) STAT 123.45 The value you input appears in the formula area. STAT E Registering a value causes the cursor to move down one cell. A STAT Editor Screen Input Precautions • The number of lines in STAT editor screen (the number of sample data values you can input) depends on the type of statistical data you selected, and on the Statistical Display setting of the calculator’s setup screen (page E-21). Statistical Display Statistic Type Single-variable Paired-variable OFF (No FREQ column) ON (FREQ column) 80 lines 40 lines 40 lines 26 lines • The following types of input are not allowed on the STAT editor screen. • m, 1m(M–) operations • Assignment to variables (STO) • Financial Calculation Variables (VARS) A Precautions Concerning Sample Data Storage • The STAT Editor and the CASH Mode DataEditor store data in the same area. • Sample data you input is deleted automatically whenever you change the Statistical Display setting (which causes the FREQ column to be shown or hidden) on the calculator’s setup screen. E-110 A Editing Sample Data Replacing the Data in a Cell 1. On the STAT editor screen, move the cursor to the cell you want to edit. 2. Input the new data value or expression, and then press E. Important! • Note that you must totally replace the existing data of the cell with new input. You cannot edit parts of the existing data. Deleting a Line 1. On the STAT editor screen, move the cursor to the line you want to delete. 2. Y Inserting a Line 1. On the STAT editor screen, move the cursor to the line that will be under the line you will insert. 2. 17(S-MENU)3(Edit) 3. 1(Ins) Important! • Note that the insert operation will not work if the maximum number of lines allowed for the STAT editor screen are already used. Deleting All STAT Editor Contents 1. 1a(S-MENU)3(Edit) 2. 2(Del-A) • This clears all of the sample data on the STAT editor screen. Note • Note that you can perform the procedures under “Inserting a Line” and “Deleting All STAT Editor Contents” only when the STAT editor screen is on the display. k STAT Calculation Screen The STAT calculation screen is for performing statistical calculations with the data you input with the STAT editor screen. Pressing the A key while the STAT editor screen is displayed switches to the STAT calculation screen. E-111 k Using the STAT Menu While the STAT editor screen or STAT calculation screen is on the display, press 17(S-MENU) to display the STAT menu. The content to the STAT menu depends on whether the currently selected statistical operation type uses a single variable or paired variables. STAT STAT Single-variable Statistics Paired-variable Statistics A STAT Menu Items Common Items Select this menu item: When you want to do this: 1Type Display the statistical calculation type selection screen 2Data Display the STAT editor screen 3Edit Display the Edit sub-menu for editing STAT editor screen contents 4Sum Display the Sum sub-menu of commands for calculating sums 5Var Display the Var sub-menu of commands for calculating the mean, standard deviation, etc. 6MinMax Display the MinMax sub-menu of commands for obtaining maximum and minimum values E-112 Paired-variable Menu Item Select this menu item: When you want to do this: Display the Reg sub-menu of commands for regression calculations • For details see “Commands when Linear Regression Calculation (A+BX) Is 7Reg Selected” on page E-117 and “Commands when Quadratic Regression Calculation (_+CX2) Is Selected” on page E-121. A Single-variable (1-VAR) Statistical Calculation Commands The following are the commands that appear on the submenus that appear when you select 4(Sum), 5(Var) or 6(MinMax) on the STAT menu while a single-variable statistical calculation type is selected. Calculation formula used for each command o = Σnx 2 Σ (x – o) xσ n = n 2 Σ (x – o) x σ n –1 = n–1 Sum Sub-menu (17(S-MENU)4(Sum)) Select this menu item: When you want to obtain this: 1Σx2 Sum of squares of the sample data 2Σx Sum of the sample data Var Sub-menu (17(S-MENU)5(Var)) Select this menu item: When you want to obtain this: 1n Number of samples 2o Mean of the sample data 3xσn Population standard deviation 4xσn–1 Sample standard deviation E-113 MinMax Sub-menu (17(S-MENU)6(MinMax)) Select this menu item: When you want to obtain this: 1minX Minimum value 2maxX Maximum value Single-variable Statistical Calculation Example 1: To select single-variable (1-VAR) and input the following data: {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10} (FREQ: ON) Preparation 1. s 2. “STAT” (fc), then E. 3. 1(On) 7 STAT E(1-VAR) 1E 2E 3E 4E 5E 6E 7E 8E 9E 10E STAT STAT A Example 2: To edit the data to the following, using insert and delete: {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10} (FREQ: ON) STAT 17(S-MENU)2(Data) E-114 STAT 17(S-MENU) 3(Edit)1(Ins) STAT ccccccccY STAT A Example 3: To edit the FREQ data to the following: {1, 2, 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 4, 2, 1} (FREQ: ON) STAT 17(S-MENU)2(Data)e STAT c2E c2E 2E 2E 3E 4E 2E STAT A • Examples 4 through 7 all use the same data as Example 3. Example 4: To calculate sum of squares of the sample data and sum of the sample data. 17(S-MENU)4(Sum) STAT 1(Σx2)E E-115 STAT 17(S-MENU)4(Sum) 2(Σx)E Example 5: To calculate number of samples, mean, and population standard deviation. 17(S-MENU)5(Var) STAT 1(n)E STAT 17(S-MENU)5(Var) 2(o)E STAT 17(S-MENU)5(Var) 3(xσn)E Example 6: To calculate minimum value and maximum value. 17(S-MENU)6(MinMax) STAT 1(minX)E STAT 17(S-MENU)6(MinMax) 2(maxX)E E-116 A Commands when Linear Regression Calculation (A+BX) Is Selected With linear regression, regression is performed in accordance with the following model equation. y = A + BX The following are the commands that appear on the submenus that appear when you select 4(Sum), 5(Var), 6(MinMax), or 7(Reg) on the STAT menu while linear regression is selected as the statistical calculation type. Calculation formula used for each command o = Σnx 2 Σ (x – o) xσ n = n 2 x σ n –1 = Σ (x – o) n–1 Σy p= n 2 Σ (y – p) yσ n = n 2 y σ n –1 = Σ (y – p) n–1 Σy – B.Σx A= n . n Σxy – Σx .Σy B= . 2 n Σx – (Σx)2 n .Σxy – Σx .Σy r= {n .Σx 2 – (Σx)2}{n .Σy 2 – (Σy)2} y–A m= B n = A + Bx E-117 Sum Sub-menu (17(S-MENU)4(Sum)) Select this menu item: When you want to obtain this: 1Σx2 Sum of squares of the X-data 2Σx Sum of the X-data 3Σy2 Sum of squares of the Y-data 4Σy Sum of the Y-data 5Σxy Sum of products of the X-data and Y-data 6Σx3 Sum of cubes of the X-data 7Σx2y Sum of (X-data squares × Y-data) 8Σx4 Sum of biquadrate of the X-data Var Sub-menu (17(S-MENU)5(Var)) Select this menu item: When you want to obtain this: 1n Number of samples 2o Mean of the X-data Population standard deviation of the 3xσn X-data 4xσn–1 Sample standard deviation of the X-data 5p Mean of the Y-data Population standard deviation of the 6yσn Y-data 7yσn–1 Sample standard deviation of the Y-data MinMax Sub-menu (17(S-MENU)6(MinMax)) Select this menu item: When you want to obtain this: 1minX Minimum value of the X-data 2maxX Maximum value of the X-data 3minY Minimum value of the Y-data 4maxY Maximum value of the Y-data E-118 Reg Sub-menu (17(S-MENU)7(Reg)) Select this menu item: When you want to obtain this: 1A Regression coefficient constant term A 2B Regression coefficient B 3r Correlation coefficient r 4m Estimated value of x 5n Estimated value of y Linear Regression Calculation • Examples 8 through 10 all use the data input in Example 7. Example 7: x y x y 1.0 1.2 1.5 1.6 1.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2.1 2.4 2.5 2.7 3.0 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 2.0 1. s 2. “STAT” (fc), then E. 3. 2(Off) 7 STAT cE(A+BX) 1E 1.2E 1.5E 1.6E 1.9E 2.1E 2.4E 2.5E 2.7E 3E E-119 STAT STAT ce1E 1.1E 1.2E 1.3E 1.4E 1.5E 1.6E 1.7E 1.8E 2E STAT STAT A Example 8: 17(S-MENU)4(Sum) STAT 5(Σxy)E 17(S-MENU)5(Var) STAT 3(xσn)E 17(S-MENU) 6(MinMax) STAT 4(maxY)E E-120 Example 9: 17(S-MENU)7(Reg) STAT 1(A)E STAT 17(S-MENU) 7(Reg)2(B)E STAT 17(S-MENU) 7(Reg)3(r)E Example 10: Estimated Value (y = –3 → m = ?) STAT y317(S-MENU) 7(Reg)4(m)E Estimated Value (x = 2 → n = ?) STAT 217(S-MENU) 7(Reg)5(n)E A Commands when Quadratic Regression Calculation (_+CX2) Is Selected With quadratic regression, regression is performed in accordance with the following model equation. y = A + BX + CX 2 E-121 Calculation formula used for each command Σy Σx Σx 2 A= –B –C n n n Sxy.Sx 2x 2 – Sx 2y.Sxx 2 B= Sxx.Sx 2x 2 – (Sxx 2)2 Sx 2y.Sxx – Sxy.Sxx 2 C= Sxx.Sx 2x 2 – (Sxx 2) 2 ( ) ( ) Sxx = Σx – 2 (Σx) 2 n (Σx . Σy) Sxy = Σxy – n .Σx 2) ( Σx 2 3 Sxx = Σx – n 2 2 Sx 2x 2 = Σx 4 – (Σx ) n 2. Sx 2y = Σx 2y – (Σx Σy) n – B + B 2 – 4C(A – y) m1 = 2C – B – B 2 – 4C(A – y) m2 = 2C n = A + Bx + Cx 2 Reg Sub-menu (17(S-MENU)7(Reg)) Select this menu item: 1A When you want to obtain this: Regression coefficient constant term A 2B Linear coefficient B of the regression coefficients 3C Quadratic coefficient C of the regression coefficients 4m 1 Estimated value of x1 5m 2 Estimated value of x2 6n Estimated value of y E-122 • Sum sub-menu (sums), Var sub-menu (number of samples, mean, standard deviation), and MinMax submenu (maximum value, minimum value) operations are the same those for linear regression calculations. Quadratic Regression Calculation • Examples 11 through 13 all use the data input in Example 7 (page E-119). Example 11: 17(S-MENU)1(Type) STAT ccE(_+CX2) STAT A Example 12: 17(S-MENU)7(Reg) STAT 1(A)E STAT 17(S-MENU)7(Reg) 2(B)E STAT 17(S-MENU)7(Reg) 3(C)E E-123 Example 13: y = 3 → m1 = ? STAT 317(S-MENU)7(Reg) 4(m1)E y = 3 → m2 = ? STAT 317(S-MENU)7(Reg) 5(m2)E x=2→n=? STAT 217(S-MENU)7(Reg) 6(n)E A Comments for Other Types of Regression For details about the calculation formula of the command included in each regression type, refer to the indicated calculation formulas. Statistical Calculation Type Logarithmic Regression (ln X) Model Equation y = A + BlnX e Exponential Regression (e^X) y = AeBX ab Exponential Regression (A•B^X) y = ABX Power Regression (A•X^B) y = AXB Inverse Regression (1/X) y=A+ B X E-124 Logarithmic Regression (ln X) Σy – B.Σ lnx A= n n .Σ(lnx)y – Σ lnx .Σy B= n .Σ(lnx)2 – (Σ lnx)2 n .Σ(lnx)y – Σ lnx .Σy r= {n .Σ(lnx)2 – (Σ lnx)2}{n .Σy2 – (Σy)2} y–A B m=e n = A + Blnx e Exponential Regression (e^X) . A = exp Σlny – B Σx n n .Σxlny – Σx .Σlny B= n .Σx 2 – (Σx)2 n .Σxlny – Σx .Σlny r= {n .Σx 2 – (Σx)2}{n .Σ(ln y)2 – (Σln y)2} ( ) lny – lnA B n = Ae Bx m= ab Exponential Regression (A•B^X) . A = exp Σlny – B Σx n n .Σxlny – Σx .Σ lny B = exp n .Σx 2 – (Σx)2 n .Σxlny – Σx .Σ lny r= {n .Σx 2 – (Σx)2}{n .Σ(lny)2 – (Σln y)2} ( ( ) ) lny – lnA lnB n = ABx m= E-125 Power Regression (A•X^B) . A = exp Σlny – B Σlnx ( ) n . n Σlnxlny – Σlnx .Σ lny B= n .Σ(lnx)2 – (Σlnx)2 n .Σlnxlny – Σlnx .Σ lny r= {n .Σ(ln x)2 – (Σln x)2}{n .Σ(ln y)2 – (Σln y)2} m=e ln y – ln A B n = AxB Inverse Regression (1/X) Σy – B.Σx–1 A= n Sxy B= Sxx Sxy r= Sxx .Syy Sxx = Σ(x ) – –1 2 (Σx–1)2 n (Σy)2 Syy = Σy – n 2 –1. Σx Σy Sxy = Σ(x )y – n B m= y–A B n=A+ x –1 E-126 Comparison of Regression Curves • The following example uses the data input in Example 7 (page E-119). Example 14: To compare the correlation coefficient for logarithmic, e exponential, ab exponential, power, and inverse regression. (FREQ: OFF) 17(S-MENU)1(Type) cccE(In X)A 17(S-MENU)7(Reg) 3(r)E STAT 17(S-MENU)1(Type) ccccE(e^X)A 17(S-MENU)7(Reg) 3(r)E STAT 17(S-MENU)1(Type) cccccE(A•B^X) A17(S-MENU)7(Reg) 3(r)E 17(S-MENU)1(Type) ccccccE(A•X^B) A17(S-MENU)7(Reg) 3(r)E 17(S-MENU)1(Type) cccccccE(1/X) A17(S-MENU)7(Reg) 3(r)E E-127 STAT STAT STAT Other Types of Regression Calculation Example 15: y = A + Blnx 1. s x y 29 50 74 103 118 1.6 23.5 38.0 46.4 48.9 2. “STAT” (fc), then E. 3. 2(Off) 7cccE(ln X) STAT 29E 50E 74E 103E 118E ce1.6E 23.5E 38E 46.4E 48.9E STAT STAT A17(S-MENU) 7(Reg)1(A)E STAT 17(S-MENU) 7(Reg)2(B)E STAT 17(S-MENU) 7(Reg)3(r)E x = 80 → n = ? STAT 8017(S-MENU) 7(Reg)5(n)E y = 73 → m = ? STAT 7317(S-MENU) 7(Reg)4(m)E E-128 Example 16: y = AeBx 1. s x y 6.9 12.9 19.8 26.7 35.1 21.4 15.7 12.1 8.5 5.2 2. “STAT” (fc), then E. 3. 2(Off) 7ccccE(e^X) 6.9E 12.9E 19.8E 26.7E 35.1E ce21.4E 15.7E 12.1E 8.5E 5.2E STAT STAT STAT A17(S-MENU) 7(Reg)1(A)E STAT 17(S-MENU) 7(Reg)2(B)E STAT 17(S-MENU) 7(Reg)3(r)E x = 16 → n = ? STAT 1617(S-MENU) 7(Reg)5(n)E y = 20 → m = ? STAT 2017(S-MENU) 7(Reg)4(m)E E-129 Example 17: y = ABx x –1 3 5 10 1. s y 0.24 4 16.2 513 2. “STAT” (fc), then E. 3. 2(Off) 7cccccE(A•B^X) STAT y1E 3E 5E 10E STAT ce0.24E 4E 16.2E 513E STAT A17(S-MENU) 7(Reg)1(A)E STAT 17(S-MENU) 7(Reg)2(B)E STAT 17(S-MENU) 7(Reg)3(r)E x = 15 → n = ? STAT 1517(S-MENU) 7(Reg)5(n)E y = 1.02 → m = ? 1.02 17(S-MENU) 7(Reg)4(m)E E-130 STAT Example 18: y = AxB 1. s x y 28 30 33 35 38 2410 3033 3895 4491 5717 2. “STAT” (fc), then E. 3. 2(Off) 7ccccccE(A•X^B) STAT 28E 30E 33E 35E 38E ce2410E 3033E 3895E 4491E 5717E STAT STAT A17(S-MENU) 7(Reg)1(A)E STAT 17(S-MENU) 7(Reg)2(B)E STAT 17(S-MENU) 7(Reg)3(r)E x = 40 → n = ? STAT 4017(S-MENU) 7(Reg)5(n)E y = 1000 → m = ? 1000 17(S-MENU) 7(Reg)4(m)E E-131 STAT B x Example 19: y = A + –– x y 1.1 2.1 2.9 4.0 4.9 18.3 9.7 6.8 4.9 4.1 1. s 2. “STAT” (fc), then E. 3. 2(Off) 7cccccccE(1/X) 1.1E 2.1E 2.9E 4E 4.9E STAT ce18.3E 9.7E 6.8E 4.9E 4.1E STAT STAT A17(S-MENU) 7(Reg)1(A)E STAT 17(S-MENU) 7(Reg)2(B)E STAT 17(S-MENU) 7(Reg)3(r)E x = 3.5 → n = ? STAT 3.517(S-MENU) 7(Reg)5(n)E y = 15 → m = ? STAT 1517(S-MENU) 7(Reg)4(m)E E-132 A Command Usage Tips • The commands included in the Reg sub-menu can take a long time to execute in logarithmic, e exponential, ab exponential, or power regression calculation when there are a large number of data samples. E-133 Technical Information k Calculation Priority Sequence The calculator performs calculations according to a calculation priority sequence. • Basically, calculations are performed from left to right. • Expressions within parentheses have the highest priority. • The following shows the priority sequence for each individual command. 1. Function with parentheses: Pol(, Rec( sin(, cos(, tan(, sin–1(, cos–1(, tan–1(, sinh(, cosh(, tanh(, sinh–1(, cosh–1(, tanh–1( log(, ln(, e^(, 10^(, '(, 3'( Abs( Rnd( 2. Functions preceded by values, powers, power roots: x2, x3, x–1, x!, °, r, g, ^(, x'( Percent: % 3. Prefix symbol: (–) (negative sign) 4. Statistical estimated value calculation: m, n, m1, m2 5. Permutations, combinations: nPr, nCr 6. Multiplication and division: ×, ÷ Multiplication where sign is omitted: Multiplication sign omitted immediately before π, e, variables (2π, 5A, πA, etc.), functions with parentheses (2'(3), Asin(30), etc.) 7. Addition and subtraction: +, – If a calculation contains a negative value, you may need to enclose the negative value in parentheses. If you want to square the value –2, for example, you need to input: (–2)2. This is because x2 is a function preceded by a value (Priority 2, above), whose priority is greater than the negative sign, which is a prefix symbol (Priority 3). E-134 Example: –22 = –4 1. y2 2. t 3. “2” (fc), then E. 4. E (–2)2 = 4 1. (y2) 2. t 3. “2” (fc), then E. 4. E Multiplication and division, and multiplication where the sign is omitted are the same priority (Priority 6), so these operations are performed from left to right when both types are mixed in the same calculation. Enclosing an operation within parentheses causes it to be performed first, so the use of parentheses can result in different calculation results. Example: 1 ÷ 2π = 1.570796327 1 ÷ (2π) = 0.1591549431 1/215(π)E 1/(215(π)) E E-135 k Stack Limitations This calculator uses memory areas called stacks to temporarily store lower calculation priority sequence values, commands, and functions. The numeric stack has 10 levels and the command stack has 24 levels, as shown in the illustration below. 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 Numeric Stack 1 2 4 5 6 5 7 Command Stack 1 2 3 2 3 4 3 4 5 4 5 4 5 6 7 A Stack ERROR occurs when the calculation you are performing causes the capacity of either stack to be exceeded. E-136 k Calculation Ranges, Number of Digits, and Precision The calculation range, number of digits used for internal calculation, and calculation precision depends on the type of calculation you are performing. Calculation Range and Precision Calculation Range ±1 × 10–99 to ±9.999999999 × 1099 or 0 Number of Digits for 15 digits Internal Calculation In general, ±1 at the 10th digit for a single calculation. Precision for exponential display is ±1 at the least significant digit. Errors are cumulative in the case of consecutive calculations. Precision Function Calculation Input Ranges and Precision Functions Input Range sinx cosx tanx sin–1x cos–1x tan–1x sinhx coshx sinh–1x cosh–1x tanhx DEG RAD GRA DEG RAD GRA DEG RAD GRA 0 x 9109 0 x 157079632.7 0 x 11010 0 x 9109 0 x 157079632.7 0 x 11010 Same as sinx, except whenx= (2n–1)90. Same as sinx, except whenx= (2n–1)π/2. Same as sinx, except whenx= (2n–1)100. 0 x 1 0 x 9.9999999991099 0 x 230.2585092 0 x 4.9999999991099 1 x 4.9999999991099 0 x 9.9999999991099 E-137 Functions Input Range –1 tanh x 0 x 9.99999999910–1 logx/lnx 0 x 9.9999999991099 10x –9.9999999991099 x 99.99999999 ex –9.9999999991099 x 230.2585092 ' x 0 x 1 10100 x2 x 1 1050 1/x x 1 10100 ; x G 0 3 ' x x 1 10100 x! 0 x 69 (x is an integer) 10 n (n, r are integers) nPr 0 n 110 , 0 r 100 1 {n!/(n–r)!} 110 10 0 r n (n, r are integers) nCr 0 n 110 , 100 1 n!/r! 110 or 1 n!/(n–r)! 110100 99 Pol(x, y) x, y 9.99999999910 x2+y2 9.9999999991099 99 Rec(r, ) 0 r 9.99999999910 θ : Same as sinx x0: –110100 ylogx100 x0: y0 ^(xy) m x0: yn, (m, n are integers) 2n+1 However: –110100 ylogx100 x' y y0: x G 0, –1101001/x logy100 y0: x0 y0: x2n1, 2n+1 (m G 0; m, n are integers) m However: –110100 1/x logy100 • Precision is basically the same as that described under “Calculation Range and Precision” on page E-137. • ^(xy), x' y, 3', x!, nPr, nCr type functions require consecutive internal calculation, which can cause accumulation of errors that occur with each calculation. • Error is cumulative and tends to be large in the vicinity of a function’s singular point and inflection point. E-138 Financial Calculation Ranges P/Y C/Y PM1 PM2 d1 d2 j YR1 Natural number from 1 to 9999 Integer from 1 to 9999 PM1 < PM2 January 1, 1901 through December 31, 2099 January 1, 1902 through December 30, 2097 (BOND Mode only) January 1, 1901 through December 31, 2099 January 2, 1902 through December 31, 2097 (BOND Mode only) Positive natural number Natural number from 1 to 12 k Special Financial Calculation Error Messages Compound Interest Mode When calculating “n” I < –100 ........................................ Math ERROR When calculating “I” “PV”, “PMT”, “FV” are the same sign ................................................... Math ERROR n < 0 ................................................. Math ERROR When calculating “PV”, “PMT”, “FV” I < –100 ........................................ Math ERROR Cash Flow Mode When calculating “NPV” I < –100 ........................................ Math ERROR When calculating “IRR” Calculated “IRR” is IRR < –50 .......... Math ERROR All Receipt/Payment values are the same sign ................................................... Math ERROR E-139 D Depreciation Mode When calculating “Depreciation” One or more of “PV”, “FV”, “ i%” is negative value ................................................... Math ERROR n > 255 ............................................. Math ERROR j > n + 1 (YR1 G 12) ........................ Math ERROR YR1 > 12 ................................... Argument ERROR Bond Mode When calculating “PRC” RDV > 0, CPN > 0 not satisfied ........ Math ERROR When calculating “YLD” CPN is greater than 0: RDV > 0, PRC < 0 not satisfied ................................................... Math ERROR CPN is 0: RDV > 0, PRC < 0 not satisfied ................................................... Math ERROR k Error Messages The calculator will display an error message when a result exceeds the calculation range, when you attempt an illegal input, or whenever any other similar problem occurs. A When an error message appears... The following are general operations you can use when any error message appears. • Pressing d or e displays to the calculation expression editing screen you were using before the error message appeared, with the cursor located at the position of the error. For more information, see “Displaying the Location of an Error” on page E-27. • Pressing A clears the calculation expression you input before the error message appeared. You can then reinput and re-execute the calculation, if you want. Note that in this case, the original calculation will not be retained in calculation history memory. • See “Special Financial Calculation Error Messages” (E-139) for information about error messages that may occur during financial calculations. E-140 Math ERROR Cause • The intermediate or final result of the calculation you are performing exceeds the allowable calculation range. • Your input exceeds the allowable input range. • The calculation you are performing contains an illegal mathematical operation (such as division by zero). Action • Check the input values to ensure they are within the applicable calculation range. See “Calculation Ranges, Numbers of Digits, and Precision” on page E-137. • When using independent memory or a variable as the argument of a function, make sure that the memory or variable value is within the allowable range for the function. Stack ERROR Cause • The calculation you are performing has caused the capacity of the numeric stack or the command stack to be exceeded. Action • Simplify the calculation expression so it does not exceed the capacity of the stack. • Try splitting the calculation into two or more parts. Syntax ERROR Cause • There is a problem with the format of the calculation you are performing. Action • Make necessary corrections. Insufficient MEM Error Cause • The number of bytes required to store the calculation you are inputting exceeds the maximum capacity (89 bytes) for Shortcut key assignment. Action • Divide the calculation into smaller parts. • Normally the input cursor appears as a straight vertical (I) or horizontal ( ) flashing line on the display screen. When there are 10 or fewer bytes of input remaining in E-141 the current expression, the cursor changes shape to I to let you know. If the I cursor appears, terminate the expression at a convenient point and calculate the result. Argument ERROR Cause • Financial conditions insufficient for financial calculations (such as YR1 > 12). Action • Check the input values to ensure they are within the applicable calculation range. See “Calculation Ranges, Numbers of Digits, and Precision” on page E-137. k Before assuming malfunction of the calculator... Perform the following steps whenever an error occurs during a calculation or when calculation results are not what you expected. If one step does not correct the problem, move on to the next step. Note that you should make separate copies of important data before performing these steps. 1. Check the calculation expression to make sure that it does not contain any errors. 2. Make sure that you are using the correct mode for the type of calculation you are trying to perform. 3. If the above steps do not correct your problem, press the O key. This will cause the calculator to perform a routine that checks whether calculation functions are operating correctly. If the calculator discovers any abnormality, it automatically initializes the calculation mode and clears memory contents. For details about initialized settings, see “Initializing the Calculator” on page E-3. 4. Initialize all modes and settings by performing the following operation: (1) O19(CLR) (2) “All:EXE” (fc), then E. (3) E(Yes) (4) A E-142 Reference k Power Requirements and Battery Replacement FC-200V Your calculator uses a TWO WAY POWER system that combines a solar cell with G13 type button battery (LR44). Normally, calculators equipped with a solar cell alone can operate only when relatively bright light is present. The TWO WAY POWER system, however, lets you continue to use the calculator as long as there is enough light to read the display. A Replacing the Battery Dim display figures when available lighting is dim or failure of anything to appear on the display immediately when you turn on the calculator indicates that button battery power is low. Note that you will not be able to use the calculator if its button battery is dead. When any of these symptoms occur, replace the button battery. Even if the calculator is operating normally, replace the battery at least once every three years. Important! • Removing the button battery from the calculator causes independent memory contents and values assigned to variables to be cleared. 1. Press 1A(OFF) to turn off the calculator. • To ensure that you do not accidentally turn on power while replacing the battery, slide the hard case onto the front of the calculator. 2. On the back of the calculator, remove the screw and the battery cover. 3. Remove the old battery. E-143 Screw 4. Wipe a new battery with a dry cloth, and then load it into the calculator with its positive k side facing upwards (so you can see it). 5. Replace the battery cover and secure it in place with its screw. 6. Perform the following key operation: (1) O19(CLR) (2) “All:EXE” (fc), then E (3) E(Yes) (4) A • Make sure you perform the above key operation. Do not skip it. • Replacing the battery initializes the calculator, including the custom shortcut keys and function shortcut keys. See “Initializing the Calculator” (page E-3) for more information. FC-100V This calculator is powered by a single AAA-size battery (R03 (UM-4)). A Replacing the Battery Dim figures on the display of the calculator indicate that battery power is low. Continued use of the calculator when the battery is low can result in improper operation. Replace the battery as soon as possible when display figures becomes dim. Even if the calculator is operating normally, replace the battery at least once every two years. Important! • Removing the battery from the calculator causes independent memory contents and values assigned to variables to be cleared. E-144 1. Press 1A(OFF) to turn off the calculator. Screw Screw 2. On the back of the calculator, remove the screws and the back cover. 3. Remove the old battery. 4. Load a new battery into the calculator with its positive k and negative l ends facing correctly. 5. Replace the back cover and secure it in place with its screws. 6. Perform the following key operation: (1) O19(CLR) (2) “All:EXE” (fc), then E (3) E(Yes) (4) A • Make sure you perform the above key operation. Do not skip it. Auto Power Off Your calculator will turn off automatically if you do not perform any operation for about six minutes. If this happens, press the O key to turn the calculator back on. E-145 Specifications FC-200V Power Requirements: Solar Cell: Built into the front of the calculator Button Battery: G13 Type (LR44) × 1 Battery Life: Approximately 3 years (Based on one hour of operation per day.) Operating Temperature: 0°C to 40°C Dimensions: 12.2 (H) × 80 (W) × 161 (D) mm 1/2 (H) 31/8 (W) 65/16 (D) Approximate Weight: 105g (3.7 oz) including the battery Bundled Items: Hard Case FC-100V Power Requirements: AAA-size battery: R03 (UM-4) × 1 Battery Life: Approximately 17,000 hours (continuous display of flashing cursor) Power Consumption: 0.0002 W Operating Temperature: 0°C to 40°C Dimensions: 13.7 (H) × 80 (W) × 161 (D) mm 9/16 (H) 31/8 (W) 65/16 (D) Approximate Weight: 110 g (3.9 oz) including the battery Bundled Items: Hard Case E-146 CASIO COMPUTER CO., LTD. 6-2, Hon-machi 1-chome Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 151-8543, Japan SA0904-E

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