(2.5 MB)
Modeling and Simulation of Hybrid Electric
Vehicles
By
Yuliang Leon Zhou
B. Eng., University of Science & Tech. Beijing, 2005
A Thesis Submitted in Partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of
MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE
in the Department of Mechanical Engineering
© Yuliang Leon Zhou, 2007
University of Victoria
All rights reserved. This thesis may not be reproduced in Whole or in part, by
photocopy or other means, without the permission of the author.
ii
SUPERVISORY INFORMATION
Modeling and Simulation of Hybrid Electric Vehicles
By
Yuliang Leon Zhou
B.Eng., University of Science and Technology Beijing, 2005
Supervisory Committee
Supervisor
Dr. Zuomin Dong
(Department of Mechanical Engineering)
Department Member
Dr. Afzal Suleman
(Department of Mechanical Engineering)
Department Member
Dr. Andrew Rowe
(Department of Mechanical Engineering)
External Examiner
Dr. Subhasis Nandi
(Department of Electrical Engineering)
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Supervisory Committee
Supervisor:
Dr. Zuomin Dong,
Mechanical Engineering
Department Member:
Dr. Afzal Suleman,
Mechanical Engineering
Department Member:
Dr. Andrew Rowe,
Mechanical Engineering
External Examiner:
Dr. Subhasis Nandi, Electrical Engineering
Abstract
With increasing oil price and mounting environment concerns, cleaner and sustainable
energy solutions have been demanded. At present transportation constitutes a large
portion of the energy consumed and pollution created.
In this work, two hybrid
vehicle powertrain technologies were studied, a fuel cell - battery hybrid and two
internal combustion engine - battery/ultracapacitor hybrids. Powertrain performance
models were built to simulate the performance of these new designs, and to assess the
feasibility of a fuel cell hybrid power backup system for a special type of vehicles,
elevators in high-rise buildings, using the ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR)
first.
The model was then applied to evaluate the two-mode hybrid powertrain for
more common vehicles - commercial trucks, showing potential fuel consumption
reduction. To improve modeling accuracy, a new and more flexible tool for modeling
multi-physics systems, Modelica/Dymola, was used to carry out the modeling and
analysis of next generation hybrid electric vehicles, exploring the potentials of new
hybrid powertrain architectures and energy storage system designs.
the foundation for further research and developments.
The study forms
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Table of Contents
Modeling and Simulation of Hybrid Electric Vehicles .............................................. i Supervisory Committee ...............................................................................................ii .......................................................................................................... iii Abstract
Table of Contents ........................................................................................................ iv List of Figures ........................................................................................................ viii List of Tables
........................................................................................................ xiii List of Abbreviations.................................................................................................. xv Acknowledgements ................................................................................................... xvi CHAPTER 1 1.1. Introduction ...................................................................................... 1 The Need of Hybrid Electric Vehicles ........................................................ 1 1.1.1. Environmental Concerns ........................................................................ 1 1.1.2. Energy Consumption .............................................................................. 2 1.1.3. Current Global HEV Market .................................................................. 3 1.2. HEV Classifications by Power Source........................................................ 3 1.2.1. Internal Combustion Engine Based HEV............................................... 4 1.2.2. Fuel cell Based HEV .............................................................................. 4 1.3. HEV Classifications by Drivetrain Architectures ....................................... 5 1.3.1. Series Hybrid .......................................................................................... 5 1.3.2. Parallel Hybrid ....................................................................................... 6 1.3.3. Series-Parallel Configurations................................................................ 9 1.4. Thesis Outline ........................................................................................... 10 CHAPTER 2 Review on Hybrid Electric Vehicles Energy Storage System ..... 12 2.1. Research Issues in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Design ................................ 12 2.2. Energy Storage System ............................................................................. 12 2.2.1. Sizing Considerations of Energy Storage System ................................ 12 2.2.2. ESS Power and Capacity Rating .......................................................... 13 2.2.3. ESS for a Electric Vehicle .................................................................... 15 v
2.2.4. ESS for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle ........................................................ 17 2.2.5. ESS for a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle ........................................... 18 2.3. Advance of Energy Storage Technologies and Hydrogen Fuel Cells ....... 19 2.3.1. Sealed Lead Acid Battery (SLA) .......................................................... 20 2.3.2. Nickel Metal Hydride Battery (Ni-MH)............................................... 20 2.3.3. Lithium Ion Battery (Li-ion) ................................................................ 21 2.3.4. Ultracapacitors ..................................................................................... 22 2.3.5. Hydrogen Fuel Cells............................................................................. 22 CHAPTER 3 Review on Vehicle Simulation Tools ............................................. 24 3.1. Vehicle Simulation Tools .......................................................................... 24 3.2. ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR) ............................................ 24 3.2.1. ADVISOR Background........................................................................ 24 3.2.2. ADVISOR Modeling Approaches ........................................................ 25 3.2.3. ADVISOR Interface ............................................................................. 26 3.2.4. Models in ADVISOR ........................................................................... 30 3.3. Modelica and Dymola ............................................................................... 31 3.3.1. Modelica ............................................................................................... 31 3.3.2. Dymola ................................................................................................. 31 3.3.3. Vehicle Modeling and Simulation Libraries......................................... 32 CHAPTER 4 Modeling of a Fuel Cells Hybrid Power System for Elevator
Power Backup Using ADVISOR............................................................................... 34 4.1. Modeling High Speed Elevators as Electric Vehicles ............................... 34 4.2. Power Failures of Elevators in High-rise Buildings ................................. 35 4.3. Backup Power Solutions ........................................................................... 36 4.3.1. Batteries for Power Backup.................................................................. 37 4.3.2. Ultracapacitors for Power Backup ....................................................... 37 4.3.3. ICE Generator for Power Backup ........................................................ 38 4.4. A Fuel Cells Hybrid Power Backup Solution ........................................... 38 4.4.1. A Hybrid Energy Storage System ........................................................ 38 4.4.2. Operation of Battery Ultracapacitor Hybrid......................................... 40 4.5. Modeling of High-rise Building Elevator ................................................. 40 vi
4.5.1. Elevator Model ..................................................................................... 41 4.5.2. Powertrain Model ................................................................................. 41 4.5.3. Modeling of PEM Fuel Cell system ..................................................... 43 4.5.4. Modeling of Motors ............................................................................. 46 4.5.5. Modeling of Energy Storage System.................................................... 47 4.6. Elevator Power Management .................................................................... 49 4.7. Computer Simulation ................................................................................ 51 4.7.1. Elevator Traffic Patterns (Drive Cycles) .............................................. 51 4.7.2. Low Power Mode Simulation .............................................................. 52 4.7.3. High Power Mode Simulation .............................................................. 55 4.8. Optimal Battery and Ultracapacitor Units ................................................ 57 4.9. Cost Analysis............................................................................................. 59 4.9.1. Cost of PEM Fuel Cell System ............................................................ 59 4.9.2. Costs of Batteries and Ultracapacitors ................................................. 60 4.9.3. Power Converter and Controller .......................................................... 60 4.10. Discussion and Conclusions ..................................................................... 61 CHAPTER 5 Modeling of a ICE Hybrid Powertrain for Two-mode Hybrid
Trucks Using ADVISOR............................................................................................ 63 5.1. Planetary Gear Based Power Transmission .............................................. 63 5.1.1. Speed, Torque and Power of the Planetary Gears ................................ 63 5.1.2. Toyota Hybrid System .......................................................................... 67 5.1.3. The First Mode of a Two-mode Transmission ..................................... 73 5.1.4. The Second Mode of a Two-mode Transmission ................................. 78 5.2. Vehicle Modeling in ADVISOR ............................................................... 84 5.2.1. Modeling of Drivetrain......................................................................... 85 5.2.2. Modeling of Engine .............................................................................. 86 5.2.3. Modeling of a Two-mode Transmission ............................................... 88 5.3. Control Strategy of a Two-mode Hybrid Vehicle...................................... 92 5.3.1. Review on HEV Control Development ................................................ 92 5.3.2. Mode Selection ..................................................................................... 93 5.3.3. Power Management of First Mode ....................................................... 94 vii
5.3.4. 5.4. Power Management of Second Mode .................................................. 96 Computer Simulation ................................................................................ 97 5.4.1. Drive Cycles ......................................................................................... 97 5.4.2. Road Performance ................................................................................ 99 5.4.3. System Operation ............................................................................... 102 5.4.4. System Efficiency............................................................................... 104 5.4.5. All Electric Range .............................................................................. 108 5.5. Conclusions ............................................................................................. 109 CHAPTER 6 Modeling of ICE Hybrid Powertrain for a Parallel Hybrid Truck
Using Modelica/Dymola and Validation................................................................. 111 6.1. Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle .............................................................. 111 6.2. Vehicle Modeling in Dymola .................................................................. 112 6.2.1. Engine Modeling ................................................................................ 113 6.2.2. Transmission Modeling ...................................................................... 115 6.2.3. Chassis and Resistance Modeling ...................................................... 116 6.2.4. Driver Modeling ................................................................................. 118 6.3. Models Simulation and Validations ........................................................ 118 6.3.1. Engine Model Validation .................................................................... 118 6.3.2. Torque Converter Model Validation ................................................... 119 6.3.3. Transmission Model Validation .......................................................... 121 6.3.4. Chassis and Resistance Model Validation .......................................... 122 6.4. Overview and Conclusions ..................................................................... 123 CHAPTER 7 Summary ....................................................................................... 124 7.1. Research Problem ................................................................................... 124 7.2. Technology Review................................................................................. 124 7.3. Vehicle Modeling .................................................................................... 124 7.4. Future Work ............................................................................................ 125 REFERENCES ........................................................................................................ 126 viii
List of Figures
Figure 1-1 Globe Oil Consumption Perspective [4] .............................................. 2 Figure 1-2 Toyota Prius-Most Sold HEV .............................................................. 3 Figure 1-3 a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Configuration ................................... 5 Figure 1-4 a Fuel cell HEV Configuration ............................................................ 6 Figure 1-5 a Pre-Transmission Parallel HEV Configuration ................................. 7 Figure 1-6 a Post-Transmission Parallel HEV Configuration ............................... 7 Figure 1-7 A All Wheel Drive Parallel HEV Configuration .................................. 8 Figure 1-8 Toyota THS Configuration ................................................................. 10 Figure 2-1 Power/Energy Ratio of Vehicle Demand and ESS Capability ........... 15 Figure 3-1 Flow Chart of an Backward Modeling Approach .............................. 26 Figure 3-2 ADVISOR/Simulink Block Diagram of a Two-mode Truck ............. 26 Figure 3-3 ADVISOR Vehicle Input Interface..................................................... 28 Figure 3-4 Simulation Setup Interface ................................................................. 28 Figure 3-5 Simulation Result Window ................................................................ 29 Figure 4-2 a Fuel cells Super Hybrid Power System ........................................... 39 Figure 4-3 Physical Model of an Elevator ........................................................... 41 Figure 4-4 Modeling a Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle/Elevator in ADVISOR ........... 42 Figure 4-5 A PEM Fuel Cells Stack ..................................................................... 44 Figure 4-6 a Fuel cell system Model in ADVISOR ............................................. 45 ix
Figure 4-8 Motor Model Power Flow .................................................................. 46 Figure 4-9 Motor Model in ADVISOR................................................................ 46 Figure 4-10 AC30 Motor Power Efficiency......................................................... 47 Figure 4-11 Energy Storage System Model ......................................................... 47 Figure 4-12 Energy Storage System Model in ADVISOR .................................. 48 Figure 4-13 Power Management System of a Fuel Cells Hybrid Powertrain...... 49 Figure 4-14 Fuel cell system Power Management Flow Chart............................ 50 Figure 4-15
Simulation of Low Power Cycle ................................................... 52 Figure 4-16 System Power Demand-Low Power Cycle ...................................... 53 Figure 4-17 Fuel cells Power Demand-Low Power Cycle .................................. 53 Figure 4-18 Battery SOC-Low Power Cycle ....................................................... 54 Figure 4-19 Ultracapacitor SOC-Low Power Cycle ............................................ 54 Figure 4-20 Performance Simulation of High Power Cycle ................................ 55 Figure 4-21 System Power Demand-High Power Cycle ..................................... 55 Figure 4-22 Fuel cells Power Demand-High Power Cycle .................................. 56 Figure 4-23 Battery SOC-High Power Cycle ...................................................... 56 Figure 4-24 Ultracapacitor SOC-High Power Cycle ........................................... 57 Figure 4-25 Optimal Battery Units ...................................................................... 58 Figure 4-26 Optimal Ultracapacitor Units ........................................................... 58 Figure 5-1 A General Planetary Gear ................................................................... 64 Figure 5-2 Power Flow Chart of Planetary Gear ................................................. 67 Figure 5-3 Toyota THS Configuration ................................................................. 68 x
Figure 5-4 Engine, M/G1 and M/G2 Speed of THS ............................................ 69 Figure 5-5 THS Power Flow Chart Engine Off ................................................... 69 Figure 5-6 THS Power Flow Chart Engine Start ................................................. 70 Figure 5-7 THS Power Flow Chart V1<V<V2 .................................................... 71 Figure 5-9 First Mode Drivetrain Configuration ................................................. 73 Figure 5-10 Speed of Engine, M/G 1, M/G2 and Output Shaft ........................... 74 Figure 5-11 First-mode Power Flow Chart-Engine Off ....................................... 75 Figure 5-12 Power Flow Chart of Forward Movement in the First Mode........... 76 Figure 5-13 Power Flow Chart of Backward Movement in the First Mode ........ 77 Figure 5-14 Second Mode Drivetrain Configuration ........................................... 78 Figure 5-15 Power Flow of Second Mode at Vehicle Speed of Vs3 or Lower .... 80 Figure 5-16 Power Flow of Second Mode during Brake at a Vehicle Speed of Vs3
or Lower ....................................................................................................... 81 Figure 5-17 Power Flow of Second Mode at a Vehicle Speed Greater than Vs3 82 Figure 5-18 Power Flow of Second Mode Brake at Speed over Vs3 .................. 83 Figure 5-19 Free Body Diagram of a Truck......................................................... 85 Figure 5-20 Engine Model Schematic Diagram .................................................. 87 Figure 5-21 Simulink Block Diagram of Engine Thermal and Fuel Model ........ 88 Figure 5-22 A Schematic Diagram of Two-mode HEV ....................................... 88 Figure 5-23 Two-mode Transmission Model and its Controller .......................... 91 Figure 5-24 First Mode Block in Transmission Model ........................................ 92 Figure 5-25 Mode Switch Control ....................................................................... 93 xi
Figure 5-26 Speed Profile of All Shafts (Engine Speed predefined) ................... 94 Figure 5-27 Power Management Chart Mode 1 .................................................. 95 Figure 5-28 Power Management Chart Mode 2 .................................................. 96 Figure 5-29 Vehicle Speed on the UDDSHEV Cycle .......................................... 99 Figure 5-30 Vehicle Speed on NYCTRUCK Cycle ........................................... 100 Figure 5-31 Vehicle Speed on CSHVR Cycle ................................................... 101 Figure 5-32 Vehicle Speed on HWFET Cycle ................................................... 101 Figure 5-33 Engine Power on NYCCTRUCK Cycle ........................................ 102 Figure 5-34 Electric Motors Power Demand over NYCCTRUCK Cycle ......... 103 Figure 5-35 Speed of Engine and Electric Motors on NYCTRUCK Cycle ...... 103 Figure 5-36 Battery SOC History on NYCTRUCK .......................................... 104 Figure 5-37 Efficiency of Two Mode HEV and Conventional ICE Vehicle on
UDDSHEV Cycle ...................................................................................... 105 Figure 5-38 Efficiency of Two Mode HEV and Conventional ICE Vehicle on
NYCCTRUCK Cycle................................................................................. 106 Figure 5-39 Efficiency of Two Mode HEV and Conventional ICE Vehicle on
CSHVR Cycle ............................................................................................ 106 Figure 5-40 Efficiency of Two Mode HEV and Conventional ICE Vehicle on
HWFET Cycle ........................................................................................... 107 Figure 5-41 Summery of Fuel Consumptions.................................................... 107 Figure 5-42 All Electric Mode Operation on NYCCTRUCK ........................... 108 Figure 5-43 Battery SOC on NYCTRUCK at AEM .......................................... 109 Figure 6-1 a Post-Transmission Parallel HEV Configuration ........................... 112 xii
Figure 6-2 Forward Vehicle Modeling Algorithm in Dymola ........................... 113 Figure 6-3 Engine Model in Dymola ................................................................. 114 Figure 6-4 Base Engine Modeling ..................................................................... 115 Figure 6-5 Engine Speed Governor Modeling ................................................... 115 Figure 6-6 Transmission Model in Dymola ....................................................... 116 Figure 6-7 Chassis Model in Dymola ................................................................ 117 Figure 6-8 Vehicle Resistance Model ................................................................ 117 Figure 6-9 Driver Model .................................................................................... 118 Figure 6-10 Engine Model Validation................................................................ 119 Figure 6-11 Torque Converter Validation - Output Torque ................................ 120 Figure 6-12 Torque Converter Validation - Output Speed ................................. 121 Figure 6-13 Transmission Model Validation - Output Speed ............................ 122 Figure 6-14 Vehicle Chassis Model Validation - Vehicle Speed ........................ 123 xiii
List of Tables
Table 1-1 An Incomplete List of HEV been developed at present......................... 4 Table 2-1 Characteristic of a Benchmark EV ...................................................... 16 Table 2-2 ESS Sizing for a Benchmark EV ......................................................... 17 Table 2-3 Specs of Ni-MH on a 2004 Toyota Prius [16] ..................................... 17 Table 2-4 ESS Sizing for a HEV.......................................................................... 18 Table 2-5 UC-battery Hybrid ESS for Prius ........................................................ 18 Table 2-6 UC-battery Hybrid ESS for Prius ........................................................ 19 Table 2-7 Battery Performance Characterizes for HEV and EV ......................... 21 Table 3-1 Vehicle Modeling Packages in Modelica ............................................. 33 Table 4-1 Parameters of a Prototype Elevator ..................................................... 43 Table 4-4 Power Source Unit Sizes on Initial Simulation Test ............................ 52 Table 4-5 Specification of Optimized Powertrain ............................................... 59 Table 4-6 Specification of Battery Based Elevator Backup Power System......... 59 Table 4-7 Overall System Cost Prediction ........................................................... 61 Table 5-1 Engine and Motor Operating Condition of THS ................................. 72 Table 5-3 Summery of Engine, M/G1 and M/G2 in First Mode ......................... 78 Table 5-4 Power Flow Summery of First Mode .................................................. 78 Table 5-5 Summery of Engine, M/G1 and M/G2 in Second Mode ..................... 83 Table 5-6 Power Flow Summery of Second Mode .............................................. 84 xiv
Table 5-7 Modeling Parameters ........................................................................... 86 Table 5-8 Signal Interface Explanation of a Two-mode Transmission Model..... 91 Table 5-9 ESS SOC Management ........................................................................ 95 Table 5-10 Simulation Vehicles Specification ..................................................... 97 Table 6-1 Engine Model Input ........................................................................... 119 Table 6-2 Torque Converter Model Input .......................................................... 120 Table 6-3 Transmission Input............................................................................. 121 Table 6-4 Transmission Input............................................................................. 122 xv
List of Abbreviations
AEM
All Electric Mode
AER
All Electric Range
BOP
Balance of Plant
CVT
Continuous Variable Transmission
DOE
Department of Energy
DOH
Degree of Hybridization
EM
Electrical Machine
ESS
Energy Storage Systems
EV
Electric Vehicle
FCHEV
Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle
GHG
Green house Gasses
GUI
Graphic User Interface
HEV
Hybrid Electric Vehicle(s)
ICE
Internal Combustion Engine(s)
IESVic
Institute for Integrated Energy Systems
L-A
Lead Acid Battery
Li-ion
Lithium-ion
M/G
Motor/Generator
Ni-MH
Nickel Metal Hydride Battery
NYCC
New York City Cycle
SLA
Sealed Lead Acid Battery
SOC
State of Charge
THS
Toyota Hybrid System
PEM
Proton Exchange Membrane
PF
Power Flow Factor
PHEV
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle
PSD
Power Split Devices
UVic
University of Victoria
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Acknowledgements
I would like to first acknowledge and express my sincere thanks to my supervisor,
Professor Zuomin Dong for the opportunity that he gave me to work on this highly
promising and exciting research area.
I would like to express my gratitude to Jeff
Wishart and Adel Younis, both Ph.D. candidates in the research laboratory, and Dr.
Jianxiong Liu for their encouragement and warm assistance on their respective
expertise. I would also like to thank Matthew Guenther, a recent graduate from the
laboratory, whose Master thesis on related topics has provided solid foundation for the
initiation of my research.
Financial supports from the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of
Canada, University of Victoria, Azure Dynamic and MITACS program are gratefully
acknowledged.
Finally, a special thank you goes to my parents Zhou Yong and Yu Dongmei for their
moral and financial supports during my study in Canada.
CHAPTER 1 Introduction
1.1.
The Need of Hybrid Electric Vehicles
In recent years, a significant interest in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) has arisen globally due to
the pressing environmental concerns and skyrocketing price of oil.
Representing a revolutionary
change in vehicle design philosophy, hybrid vehicles surfaced in many different ways. However,
they share the hybrid powertrain that combines multiple power sources of different nature,
including conventional internal combustion engines (ICE), batteries, ultracapacitors, or hydrogen
fuel cells (FC). These vehicles with onboard energy storage devices and electric drives allows
braking power to be recovered and ensures the ICE to operate only in the most efficient mode,
thus improving fuel economy and reducing pollutants.
As a product of advanced design
philosophy and component technology, the maturing and commercialization of HEV technologies
demand extensive research and developments. This research intends to address many key issues
in the development of HEV.
1.1.1. Environmental Concerns
The United Nations estimated that over 600 million people in urban area worldwide were exposed
to traffic-generated air pollution [1].
concerns worldwide.
Therefore, traffic related air pollution is drawing increasing
Hybrid electric vehicles hold the potential to considerably reduce
greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and other gas pollution. A fuel cell HEV, which only produce
water and heat as emissions during operation, makes pollution more controllable by centralizing
GHG emission and air pollution to the hydrogen production process at large scale manufacturing
facilities. ICE based hybrids, on the other hand, can improve the fuel economy and reduce
tailpipe emission by more efficient engine operation.
The improvements come from
regenerative braking, shutting down the ICE while stationary and allowing a smaller, more
efficient engine which is not required to follow the power at the wheel as closely as the engine in
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a conventional vehicle must [2]. In an emission effect comparison of the Toyota Prius (HEV)
and Toyota Corolla, it was reported that the Prius only produced 71% of CO2, 4% of CO and
0.5% of NOx compared with the Toyota Corolla.
The Corolla is one of most efficient
conventional vehicles on the market.
1.1.2. Energy Consumption
Around the world, we are experiencing a strong upward trend in oil demand and tight supply.
Maintaining a secure energy supply becomes an on-going concern and a high priority.
The US
Department of Energy (DOE) states that over 15 million barrels of crude oil are being consumed
in the nation of which 69% are for the transportation sector [3].
The transport energy
consumption worldwide are also continue to rise rapidly. In 2000 it was 25% higher than in
1990 and it is projected to grow by 90% between 2000 and 2030 as shown in Figure 1-1.
Figure 1-1 Globe Oil Consumption Perspective [4]
Many HEV projects reported fuel economy improvement from 20% to 40% [5].
HEV provides a promising solution to relieve the energy shortage.
Therefore,
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1.1.3. Current Global HEV Market
In 1970s, many auto makers such as GM, Ford and Toyota started to develop electric vehicles
powered by batteries due to the oil shortage.
battery power did not go far enough.
However, these electric vehicles powered solely by
The interest in hydrogen fuel cell cars has arisen as a result
to address the range problem associated with battery power cars. However, with more than 15
years of intensive development, there are still not any fuel cell hybrid cars on market mainly due
to the high manufacturing cost.
In the meantime, other automotive manufacturers have moved
in another direction of ICE based HEV. In 1997, Toyota introduced the Prius (Figure 1-2), the
first ICE based HEV to the Japanese market.
Ever since, an increasing number of HEV have
become available.
Figure 1-2 Toyota Prius-Most Sold HEV
The sales of HEV are growing rapidly. An estimated 187,000 hybrids were sold in the first six
months of 2007 in US, accounting for 2.3 percent of all new vehicle sales according to J.D. Power.
J.D. Power also forecasted a total sale of 345,000 hybrids for 2007, a 35% increase from 2006.
1.2.
HEV Classifications by Power Source
There are many ways to classify hybrid electric vehicles. One way is based on principal power
sources.
Two major principal power sources for HEV are ICE and fuel cell system.
4
Table 1-1 An Incomplete List of HEV been developed at present
Manufacturers and Vehicles
Toyota
Prius, Camry, Highlander
Lexus
RX400h, LS600H
Honda
Insight, Civic, Accord
GM
Silverado, Saturn, Equinox, Tahoe, Yukon
GM
New Flyer
Chrysler Durango, Ram
Mercedes Benz S
Ford
Escape, Mariner
Hyundai, Renault, IVECO
Year
1997
2005
2005
2007
2004
2005
2006
2005
2004
Type
Sedan, SUV
Sedan, SUV
Sedan, SUV
Truck, SUV
Heavy Bus
Truck
Sedan
SUV
Various
1.2.1. Internal Combustion Engine Based HEV
In an ICE based HEV, the engine is coupled with electric machine(s). This modification creates
integrated mechanical and electrical drive trains that merge power from both the ICE and the
electric motors to drive the vehicle. By using the energy storage system as a power buffer, the
ICE can be operated at its most efficient condition and reduced in size while maintaining the
overall performance of the vehicle.
In this type of vehicles, fossil fuel, however, is still the sole
energy source to the vehicle system, (except for plug-in HEV where electricity obtained from
electrical grid provides another power source). The charge of the battery is maintained by the
ICE and the electric machines.
As a consequence of the reduced engine size, more efficient
engine operation, and recovered braking power, fuel usage and emissions of the vehicle are
considerably lower than comparable conventional vehicles.
At present, all commercialized HEV are ICE based.
can be implemented for an ICE based HEV.
Many possible mechanical configurations
More detailed vehicle configurations will be
explained in Section 1.3.
1.2.2. Fuel cell Based HEV
A fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle operates solely on electric power. The fuel cells continuously
5
produce electrical power while energy storage devices buffer the power flow in the electric power
train.
A fuel cell system is an electric power-generating plant based on controlled
electrochemical reactions of fuel and oxidant [6]. In principle, fuel cells are more efficient in
energy conversion and produce zero emission. Due to many attractive features, such as low
operation temperature, compact structure, fewer corrosion concerns, and quick start-up, the
Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells serves as an ideal power plant for automotive
applications.
1.3.
HEV Classifications by Drivetrain Architectures
One of the most common ways to classify HEV is based on configuration of the vehicle drivetrain.
In this section, three major hybrid vehicle architectures introduced are series, parallel and
series-parallel. Until recently, many HEV in production are either series or parallel. In terms
of mechanical structure, these two are primitive and relatively simple.
A series-parallel
powertrain brings in more degrees of freedom to vehicle engine operation with added system
complexity.
1.3.1. Series Hybrid
One of the basic types of HEV is series hybrid.
In this configuration, as shown in Figure 1-3,
the ICE is used to generate electricity in a generator. Electric power produced by the generator
goes to either the motor or energy storage systems (ESS). The hybrid power is summed at an
electrical node, the motor.
Figure 1-3 a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Configuration
6
Early on in the latest renaissance of the hybrid vehicle, several automotive OEMs explored the
possibility of series hybrid vehicle development. Some of the most notables are the Mitsubishi
ESR, Volvo ECC, and BMW 3 Series [7].
Despite the early research and prototypes, the
possibility for series hybrids to be commonly used in vehicular applications seems to be remote.
The series hybrid configuration tends to have a high efficiency at its engine operation. The
capacity for the regenerative braking benefits from the full size motor. However, the summed
electrical mode has tied up the size of every component. The weight and cost of the vehicle is
increased due to the large size of the engine and the two electric machines needed. The size of
the power electronic unit is also excessive.
The configuration of fuel cell HEV is also technically in series as shown in Figure 1-4. Since
fuel cell generate electric, rather than mechanical power, it functions as a power generator
replacing both of the engine and the electric generator. This is the uniqueness of fuel cell
powered HEV.
Figure 1-4 a Fuel cell HEV Configuration
1.3.2. Parallel Hybrid
The parallel hybrid is another HEV type that has been closely studied. In parallel configurations,
both the engine and the motor provide traction power to the wheels, which means that the hybrid
power is summed at a mechanical node to power the vehicle.
As a result, both of the engine and
the motors can be downsized, making the parallel architecture more viable with lower costs and
higher efficiency.
Some early developments of parallel hybrid vehicles include the BMW 518,
Citroën Xzara Dynactive and Saxo Dynavolt, Daimler-Chrysler ESX 3, Fiat Multipla, and the
Ford Multiplia and P2000 Prodigy [7].
7
The parallel hybrid vehicles usually use the same gearboxes of the counterpart conventional
vehicles, either in automatic or manual transmissions. Based on where the gearbox is introduced
in the powertrain, there are two typical parallel HEV architectures, named pre-transmission
parallel and post-transmission parallel, as shown in Figure 1-5 and Figure 1-6, respectively.
In a pre-transmission parallel HEV, the gearbox is located on the main drive shaft after the torque
coupler.
Hence, gear speed ratios apply on both the engine and the electric motor.
The power
flow is summed at the gearbox. On the other hand, in a post-transmission parallel hybrid, the
gearbox is located on the engine shaft prior to the torque coupler. The gearbox speed ratios only
apply on the engine.
A continuous variable transmission (CVT) can be used to replace
conventional gearbox to further improve the engine efficiency.
Figure 1-5 a Pre-Transmission Parallel HEV Configuration
Figure 1-6 a Post-Transmission Parallel HEV Configuration
In a pre-transmission configuration, torque from the motor is added to the torque from the engine
at the input shaft of the gearbox. Contemporary mild parallel hybrid vehicles employ this
strategy exclusively. In a post-transmission, the torque from the motor is added to the torque
from the engine delivered on the output shaft of the gearbox. A disconnect device such as a
clutch is used to disengage the gearbox while running the motor independently [8].
8
Post-transmission electric hybrids can also be used in hybrid vehicles with a higher degree of
hybridization. Hydraulic power can be used on launch-assist devices in heavy-duty trucks and
commercial vehicles.
There are attempts from different perspectives to improve the operation of a parallel HEV. One
possibility is to run the vehicle on electric machine alone in city driving while running engine
power alone on highways. Most contemporary parallel vehicles use a complex control system
and special algorithms to optimize both vehicle performance and range.
The flexibility in
powertrain design, in addition to the elimination of the need for a large motor, of parallel hybrids
has attracted more interest in HEV development than the series hybrids.
Figure 1-7 A All Wheel Drive Parallel HEV Configuration
One unique implementation of the parallel hybrid technology is on an all wheel drive vehicle as
shown in Figure 1-7. The design is most beneficial if the ICE powers the rear wheels while the
electric motor powers the front wheels. The more weight borne by the front wheels during
braking will result in more power captured during regenerative braking.
The design is also
effective on slippery surfaces by providing vehicle longitudinal stability control that is not as easy
with other types of hybrid designs.
The power to each axle is manipulated by a single
controller, although this requires a fast data communication.
It is unclear whether any
automotive OEM has planned to incorporate this design into real vehicles.
The Honda Insight was the first commercialized hybrid vehicle, although the vehicle line was
discontinued in September 2006.
The Insight was considered as a test vehicle to gauge public
opinion on hybrid technology, and the 18,000 USD price tag is estimated to be 10,000 USD less
than the actual production cost [7]. Despite the cost distortion, the Insight never became a
9
commercial success largely because of its two-seater format.
Honda has promised a replacement
to arrive in 2009 [9] .
The Insight is a mild-hybrid, with the electric motor being the key to the Integrated Motor Assist
(IMA) technology that boosts the engine power.
The engine is an inline 3 cylinders 0.995 litre
gasoline engine that delivers 50 kW peak power at 5700 rpm, and 89 N⋅m peak torque at 4800 N⋅m
with a manual transmission. When the IMA system is activated, these numbers rise to 54.4 kW
and 107 N⋅m for the manual transmission and 53 kW and 121 N⋅m for the CVT.
The electric
motor is a permanent magnet machine that supplies 10.4 kW of power at 3,000 rpm with a manual
transmission, and 9.7 kW of power at 2,000 rpm in a CVT model. The ESS consists of 120 cells
of Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries of 1.2 V each, for a total voltage of 144 V with a rated
capacity of 6.0 Ah.
The schematic of the Insight is similar to Figure 1-5 on a pre-transmission
parallel HEV.
1.3.3. Series-Parallel Configurations
In the series-parallel configurations, the vehicle can operate as a series hybrid, a parallel hybrid,
or a combination of both.
This design depends on the presence of two motors/generators and the
connections between them, which can be both electrical and mechanical.
The mechanical
connections between the engine and electric machines are usually accomplished by planetary
gears known as power-splitting devices (PSDs), which are discussed in more detail in Section 5.1.
One advantage of a series-parallel configuration is that the engine speed can be decoupled from
the vehicle speed. This advantage is partially offset by the additional losses in the conversion
between mechanical power from engine and electrical energy [10].
10
Figure 1-8 Toyota THS Configuration
There are a number of variations of series-parallel configurations. A most well known one is the
Toyota THS design that was first used on a Toyota Prius. The THS configuration is shown on
Figure 1-8. Today, most hybrid vehicles at the production stage have been either of parallel or
series configuration, as the series-parallel design is less mature in its development.
However, a
review of the literatures from both academic and commercial sources reveals that the current
state-of-the-art of hybrid technology employs the series-parallel configuration [11].
In this study,
a new series-parallel configuration known as two-mode configuration will be introduced and
analyzed.
1.4.
Thesis Outline
In this thesis, Chapter 1 has defined the research problem and presented the importance of the
HEV technology.
Classifications of various HEV configurations were introduced based on
different criteria. Chapter 2 explains the power and energy demands from vehicle on board
energy storage system.
Based on these demands, a review on recent advances of HEV related
energy storage system technologies was presented. Chapter 3 discusses the state-of-the-art of
HEV design and simulation tools. Two widely used modeling platforms are discussed in details.
Chapter 4 explains the modeling of a fuel cell hybrid power system for the application of high rise
building elevator power backup. Both system performance and cost analysis are carried out in
examining the feasibility of the technology.
Chapter 5 presents the new models of a hybrid
commercial truck using the two-mode hybrid powertrain, with vehicle performance simulation
11
results presented at the end. Chapter 6 discusses the modeling of a parallel hybrid vehicle in the
new Dymola modeling and simulation environment.
Validations of the powertrain model using
empirical data from tests are carried out. Finally, Chapter 7 summarizes the work of this thesis,
and Chapter 8 points out the future work needed.
12
CHAPTER 2 Review on Hybrid Electric Vehicles Energy
Storage System
2.1.
Research Issues in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Design
The focus of HEV design is mostly on powertrain efficiency.
This efficiency depends on
contributions from the engine, motor, battery, and mechanical transmissions.
The peak
efficiency of an ICE can be as high as 36% (based on 1998 Prius 1.5L Gasoline Engine), while
the overall efficiency of its operation, on the other hand, is usually no more than 20%. Therefore,
the objective of HEV design is to improve the overall vehicle efficiency by optimizing the sizes
operations of its powertrain components. Although there is a great potential to improve the
vehicle fuel economy and driveability in principle, present control strategies based on engineering
intuition frequently fail to capture these potentials. Due to the existence of multiple power
sources on these vehicles, an overall fuel consumption and emission control strategy needed be
developed.
2.2.
Energy Storage System
2.2.1. Sizing Considerations of Energy Storage System
For different types of vehicle technology, the electrical energy storage system (ESS) is utilized
differently.
HEV are classified into three categories following the types of power source:
electric vehicles (EV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and plug in hybrid electric vehicles
(PHEV).
An EV uses ESS as the sole energy source.
Technically an EV would not be
considered as a HEV; it is discussed here in order to compare with the other two types.
The ESS
on an EV, usually a battery pack, is only charged from grid electricity except for during
13
regenerative braking.
capacity of the ESS.
The vehicle range with one charge is directly related to the energy
A HEV on the other hand, has more than one energy sources. The ICE or
FC is usually hybridized with an ESS on a HEV.
The ESS would be charged by the ICE or FC
during the vehicle operation according to power demand, and no external power source is
necessary to charge the ESS.
A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle is also a HEV with its ESS being
charged either by the on board power source, such as ICE and FC, or the stationary grid power.
In HEVs, the size of the ESS is determined to provide sufficient energy storage (kWh) capacity
and adequate peak power (kW) ability. In addition, appropriate cycle life and hardware cost have
to be considered.
The size requirement of ESS varies significantly depending on the
characteristics of different vehicle’s powertrains (EV, HEV and PHEV) [12]. This requirement
can be obtained once the vehicle is specified and the performance target is established.
However,
what is less straightforward and more challenging is to find an optimal ESS design that would
satisfy the special characteristics of vehicle power requirements.
Normally, energy storage units
are primarily sized by either the energy or power capability. Charging-discharging efficiency is
also considered. In this study, a comparison of the performance characteristics (Wh/kg, Wh/L,
W/kg etc.) of various energy storage technologies for different vehicle power requirements is
made to guide the ESS design.
2.2.2. ESS Power and Capacity Rating
ESS can consist of various types of batteries, ultracapacitors, and their combinations.
An expression Ppeak = V 02 / 4 R is commonly used to rate the peak power of the battery, where V0
is the nominal voltage of the battery and R is the battery’s internal resistance. The efficiency at
the peak power of the battery is relatively low (close to 50%).
A generic expression of battery
power and efficiency is given by the following equation
Ppeak = η × (1 − EF ) × V02 / R
(2.1)
14
where η is the efficiency at peak power pulse. It is assumed that the peak power occurs when
V peak = V0 ×η .
For an efficiency of 85%, the peak power will be reduced by 1/2 from the peak
power at lower efficiency.
Ultracapacitors are also sized by power and energy. Energy storage capacity (Wh) is usually
used to size ultracapacitors due to their low specific energy (5-10 Wh/kg). The useable peak
power from an ultracapacitor is given by Eq. (2.2):
Ppeak = 9 /16 × (1 − η ) × V02 / R
(2.2)
The peak power occurs at a voltage of 3/4 V0 , where I = Ppeak / 3 / 4V0 . As internal resistance of
an ultracapacitor is considerably lower than that of a battery, the peak power is much higher.
Figure 2-1 shows specific power and energy of the most popularly used energy storage devices,
including lead acid batteries, Ni-MH batteries, Li-ion batteries and ultracapacitors.
With the
differences of battery chemistry, there are tradeoffs between energy density and power density.
The specific energy and power of the batteries thus vary over a range, as illustrated by the shaded
area shown in Figure 2-1, and data summarized in Table 2-7. The size of ESS on different types
of vehicles is determined by the specific energy and power demands.
In sections 2.2.3 - 2.2.5,
three typical hybrid vehicles were analyzed. The ratio of their specific power and energy needs
were calculated.
Reference lines were drawn in Figure 2-1 to represent the ESS demand
characteristics of these vehicles. For a HEV, the reference line for the ESS power/energy ratio
appears between the specific power and specific energy regions of ultracapacitor and batteries.
Therefore, for a HEV, the size constraint of a battery based ESS is the specific power while the
size constraint of an ultracapacitor based ESS is the specific energy. An ideal match of both
energy and power would be a combination of battery and ultracapacitor. For PHEV and EV, the
ESS specific power/energy ratio lines appear in the battery regions, and the size constraint of ESS
is the specific power of the batteries. Ultracapacitors with much lower specific energy are
15
normally not considered; however, it may still be beneficial to added ultracapacitors to the
batteries to extend the operation life of the battery [13].
10000
9000
Ultracapacitor
Specific Power (W/kg)
8000
7000
6000
HEV
5000
4000
PHEV
3000
EV
2000
Lead
acid
1000
600
200
0
10
20
30
Li-ion
Ni-MH
40
50
60
70
80
90
100 110 120 130
Specific Energy (Wh/kg)
Figure 2-1 Power/Energy Ratio of Vehicle Demand and ESS Capability
2.2.3. ESS for a Electric Vehicle
The focus of an EV design tends to be the acceptable range with a single charge. Therefore, the
ESS is sized to meet the designed range of the vehicle. For battery powered vehicles, the size of
batteries is determined by its energy requirements (kWh/kg) as power requirements (kW/kg) can
be easily satisfied for a reasonable vehicle acceleration performance need.
batteries on an EV are usually deep discharging and charging.
The load cycles of
The shortened life of deeply
discharged battery is a major consideration since the minimum battery life has to be satisfied.
Battery charging time is another major consideration as this time is significantly longer than
16
refilling a gasoline tank. An alternative is to replace the discharged battery pack with a fully
charged one at a battery station with a reasonable cost of service charge. However, certain
challenges arise for battery replacement such as weight and volume, especially for the heavier and
bulkier lead-acid batteries.
Meanwhile, ultracapacitors are not likely to be employed in EV at
present due to their characteristically low energy density.
In order to quantify the power and energy consumption on an EV, a performance characteristics
benchmark is used, as given in Table 2-1. The fuel consumption of 100 MPG is accepted as a
benchmark for passenger vehicles.
The gasoline consumption is translated into battery energy
using net calorific value (NCV).
Table 2-1 Characteristic of a Benchmark EV
Peak Power
Range
Fuel Economy (Equivalent)
Discharge Depth
100 kW
300 km
0.024 L/km (100 MPG)
70%
The energy consumption (kWh) is calculated from fuel economy equivalent using the following
equation.
E=
300km × 0.024 L / km × 0.73kg / L × 42,900kJ / kg
≈ 89kWh
1W × 3600s / hr × 0.70
(2.3)
As a result, an ideal energy/power ratio of 0.89 (89 kWh/100 kW) or lower (for longer ranged) is
necessary for an EV.
A reference line for the EV was drawn in Figure 2-1. It is shown that all
types of batteries are able to satisfy this power demand with the requested energy capacity. The
main criterion for sizing an EV is energy rather than power capability. For EV applications the
objective should be to develop batteries with high energy density and acceptable power density.
The weight and capability of batteries for EV are shown in Table 2-2.
As battery power is
mostly sufficient for vehicle power demand, ultracapacitors are unlikely needed to boost power.
17
Table 2-2 ESS Sizing for a Benchmark EV
Lead acid
Ni-MH
Li-ion
Energy
89 kWh
89 kWh
89 kWh
Power
122 kW @ Ef. 95%
114 kW @ Ef. 90%
108 kW @ Ef. 90%
Weight
2602 kg
1308 kg
635 kg
Volume
High
Medium
Low
2.2.4. ESS for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle
For a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) using either an engine or fuel cells as the primary energy
source, the ESS is sized differently depending on the degree of hybridization (DOH) and power
management strategy of the vehicle. As the operation cycles of ESS on a HEV are significantly
longer than on an EV, the life of ESS therefore will be a main concern. One approach to extend
battery life is “shallow charging” which confines the battery operation at relatively narrow
state-of-charge range (5%-10%).
Reference [14] showed shallow cycle life can be greatly
enhanced to satisfy consumer expectation on a HEV. Even though not used in commercialized
vehicles yet, ultracapacitors have the potential to be used in a HEV due to its much longer life
cycle that passes 500,000. Reference [15] reviewed ultracapacitor applications and provided
guidelines for sizing ultracapacitors on HEV. Due to the vehicle dependent nature of ESS on
HEV, it is difficult to standardize the generic power demand for a HEV. The ESS on a 2004
Toyota Prius[16] was set as reference while other ESS technologies were explored.
Table 2-3 Specs of Ni-MH on a 2004 Toyota Prius [16]
Type
Ni-MH
Module Volt.
7.2 V
Capacity
6 Ah
Cells
168
Power Specified
21 [email protected]%
The energy capacity of Prius is 1209.6 Wh. According to the shallow charge operation condition
on battery, the useable energy is 60 Wh-120Wh. The battery efficiency at 21 kW is 60%.
There is a distinct difference on cycle life between a battery and an ultracapacitor. Battery size
is greatly influenced by the amount of power needed and its normal state of charging, related to
battery cycle life. Ultracapacitor sizing, on the other hand, is only related to the usable energy.
18
Table 2-4 ESS Sizing for a HEV
Lead acid
Ni-MH
Li-ion
Ultra-capacitor power-match
Ultra-capacitor capacity-match
Rated
Energy (Wh)
1419 Wh
1209 Wh
1200 Wh
13.35 Wh
90 Wh
Usable Energy
(Wh)
71 Wh-141 Wh
60 Wh-120 Wh
60 Wh-120 Wh
13.35 Wh
90 Wh
Power
Weight
21 kW
21 kW
24 kW
24 kW
160 kW
54 kg
27 kg
15 kg
3 kg
20 kg
In this case, power demand can be easily satisfied. The result of the Prius example shown in
Figure 2-1 used the same energy power ratio as that of the EV.
Ideally, a combination of battery
and ultracapacitor will reach a point at which both power and energy can be satisfied
simultaneously. Table 2-5 shows a combination of batteries and ultracapacitors which reaches
the same performance characteristics with much lower weight.
Table 2-5 UC-battery Hybrid ESS for Prius
Ni-MH
Ultracapacitor
Total
Rated Energy (Wh)
78.2 Wh
11 Wh
90 Wh
Power
1.9 kW
19 kW
21 kW
Weight
1.7 kg
2.4 kg
4.1 kg
2.2.5. ESS for a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle
The only difference of a PHEV from the HEV is its larger battery that allows energy to be charged
from grid electricity.
In addition to the power and energy demand of a HEV, additional ESS
capacity requirement depends on its “all electric range” (AER).
However, sizing the ESS for a
PHEV is more complex for several reasons. First, in the AER, not only the energy but also the
power is a concern, since the battery is the only source of power for most operations. Secondly,
battery life is affected by the depths of charge and discharge. The depth of discharge on a PHEV
is far more than that of a HEV with limited, shallow discharges.
It is therefore more difficult to
satisfy energy and power requirements with a reasonable life expectancy of the ESS.
detailed power and energy requirement on a parallel PHEV is discussed in [17].
More
19
To further explore the ESS characteristics of a PHEV, a hypothetical PHEV based on Prius is used.
The AER power is confined at 30 kW which allows limited speed and acceleration.
Table 2-6 UC-battery Hybrid ESS for Prius
AER Power
Range
Charging Depth
AER Efficiency
30 kW
20 km
70%
100 MPG
The energy demand can be expressed in the following equation where the energy/power ratio is
0.2 (6 kWh/30 kW).
E=
20km × 0.024 L / km × 0.73kg / L × 42,900kJ / kg
+ 0.09kWh ≈ 6kWh
1W × 3600s / hr × 0.70
The energy/power ratio was shown in Figure 2-1.
(2.4)
As a result, batteries are more appropriate to
be used as the energy storage unit. However, there exists a possibility of using ultracapacitors
when vehicle speed and acceleration demand is higher. The AER peak power will be higher
than 30 kW and this demands a lower energy/power ratio.
2.3.
Advance of Energy Storage Technologies and Hydrogen Fuel Cells
In this section, the technical backgrounds and state of art on the developments of battery and
ultracapacitor are briefly reviewed. At present three types of batteries are widely used, including
lead acid (L-A), Ni-MH, and lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries.
Following the same order are their
improved performance, energy density, and increased cost. For economic reasons, L-A batteries
were used in earlier production electric vehicles. Ni-MH is gaining popularities on present HEV.
Meanwhile, Li-ion battery applications are mostly limited at present to smaller electronics devices
due to its superior power density where cost is not as much of a factor. Li-ion batteries, as a
promising technology for vehicle applications in the future, start to see applications in high-end
low speed vehicles. A study to optimize the cost and performance of batteries, considering three
20
different vehicles, three types of batteries, and three powertrains was carried by [12]. As an
energy storage device, batteries have a number of drawbacks, including large size, limited power
density, thermal impact, low efficiency, long charging time and relatively short life. A summary
of battery characteristics for EV applications is shown in Table 2-7. The data was gathered from
a number of sources [18-20].
2.3.1. Sealed Lead Acid Battery (SLA)
The sealed lead acid battery is the most common battery currently been used to power electric
bicycles, mainly due to its low cost per watt-hour. The SLA battery is also very robust and
durable when used properly. The self-discharge rate of the SLA battery is also low, only losing
~5% of its charge per month if not used.
The SLA battery does not have a memory effect like
the NiCad battery. Problems with the SLA battery include low power and energy densities, and
potential environmental impact, where the lead electrodes and electrolyte can cause
environmental harm if not disposed properly at a recycling facility.
2.3.2. Nickel Metal Hydride Battery (Ni-MH)
The Ni-MH battery is the most widely used battery to power electric automobiles at present.
The Ni-MH battery has a higher energy density than a SLA battery. Its specific energy (Wh/kg)
can be up to four times that of a SLA battery; and 40% higher than Ni-Cad battery. The battery
is also relatively environmentally friendly, as it contains very mild toxic materials that can be
easily recycled. The main problem with the Ni-MH battery pack is its higher cost than a SLA
battery pack. It also takes longer time to charge a Ni-MH than a SLA or NiCad battery and
generates a large amount of heat during charging. It is also more difficult to determine when the
Ni-MH battery is fully charged than with a SLA or NiCad battery, resulting in the need for more
complicated and expensive chargers.
The recent effort of improving Ni-MH for HEV applications has been focused on reducing the
21
resistance and increasing the power capability. The trade-off will likely be a lower energy
density than those used on an EV [14].
2.3.3. Lithium Ion Battery (Li-ion)
Many automotive companies are in the process of developing advanced Li-ion battery
technologies for vehicle related applications. Much interest is focused on high power batteries
for HEV and high energy batteries for EV. For example, a lithium-ion battery for EV will have a
specific energy up to 150 Wh/kg and that of a Ni-MH battery will be 70 Wh/kg. The major
concern of using Li-ion battery on a hybrid vehicle is the over-heating problem during recharging
[21].
Table 2-7 Battery Performance Characterizes for HEV and EV
Battery
Technology
Panasonic
Panasonic
Panasonic
Ovonic
Saft
Saft
Shun-Kobe
Maxwell
App.
Type
Capacity Voltage Spec. Energy
(V)
Ah
Wh/kg
Lead-acid
HEV
25
12
26.3
EV
60
12
34.2
Nickel Metal Hydride
HEV
6.5
7.2
46
EV
65
12
68
HEV
12
12
45
EV
85
13
68
HEV
14
1.2
47
Lithium-ion
HEV
12
4
77
EV
41
4
140
HEV
4
4
56
EV
90
4
105
Ultracapacitor
V rated
C (F)
Resis.
(Ohm)
2.7
2800
0.48
Resis. Spec. Pwr Useable
Ohm
W/kg
SOC
7.8
6.9
389
250
28%
11.4
8.7
10
10
1.1
1093
240
1000
200
900
40%
7.0
8.0
3.4
0.93
1550
476
3920
1344
30%
30%
20%
18%
22
2.3.4. Ultracapacitors
Ultracapacitors are electrochemical capacitors. Energy is storied in the double layer formed at a
solid/electrolyte interface [22]. Advances in new materials and new ultracapacitor designs have
considerably improved the energy storage capability and cost of this emerging electrical energy
storage device.
Compared with the conventional capacitors, ultracapacitors allow for more
energy storage for a factor of 20 times [23].
Other unique characteristics of ultracapacitors
include maintenance-free operation, longer operation cycle life, and insensitivity to environment
temperature variation.
The energy density of ultracapacitors is still limited compared with
batteries. The goal for ultracapacitor development is an specific energy of 5 Wh/kg for high power
discharge[24]. Carbon-carbon ultracapacitor devices are commercially available from several
companies, including Maxwell, Ness, and EPCOS.
The capacitance of their products ranges
from 1000-5000 F.
An experimental test was carried on a series hybrid Ford Escort with and without ultracapacitors
as load-levelling devices for the batteries[25].
Simulations of a series hybrid bus on the same
test were also carried out on PSAT using data validated from the tests.
Both experimental and
simulation results suggest significant reduction to the RMS and peak battery currents.
A method for determine the size of batteries and ultracapacitors on a fuel cell powered SUV was
presented in [26].
The peak-to-average ratio was introduced as the sizing criteria.
optimization tool in ADVISOR is used to obtain the results.
An
Cost analysis was also carried out.
Life cycle was not considered in the study.
2.3.5. Hydrogen Fuel Cells
A fuel cell system is an electric power-generating device based on controlled electrochemical
reaction of hydrogen fuel and oxidant air [6]. In principle, fuel cells are more efficient in energy
conversion and much cleaner than ICE. Due to many attractive features, such as low operation
temperature, compact structure, less corrosion concern and quick start time, the Proton Exchange
23
Membrane (PEM) fuel cells serve as an ideal power plant for automotive applications. Dozens
of fuel cells are bundled together to form a modular power unit, the fuel cells stack. To satisfy
the need of power on a vehicle, multiple fuel cells stacks are connected in series. Together with
various ancillary devices, fuel cells stacks form a fuel cell power system.
Over the last decades,
extensive efforts have been devoted to improve the performance of fuel cell system and to lower
its costs. There is also an interest in using fuel cells to build uninterrupted power systems (UPS).
Since a fuel cell system is a capable energy conversion device, rather than an energy storage
device as battery and ultracapacitor, it can continuously provide electric power as long as the
hydrogen fuel is provided, either in the form of pure hydrogen, or reformed natural gas. This
unique capability, plus its quiet operation, zero emission and high efficiency, makes it a promising
alternative to the ICE.
One weakness of a fuel cell system is its slow dynamic response to power demand.
According
to an experiment[27], at the initial start-up, it takes 90 seconds for the fuel cells to reach a steady
state; thereafter whenever there is a change of electric power demand, it take 60 seconds for the
fuel cells to readjust and reach a new steady state. A fuel cells power system alone is not
capable of dealing with the rapid power demand change to serve as the sore power plant in the
UPS system. At present, most research applying PEM fuel cells to electric backup power
systems are limited to smaller, mobile UPS systems for computers and communication
equipments with built-in battery units to fill the need of dynamic power demands.
Several other
barriers exist to the widespread use of fuel cells as the electric power plant for an electric vehicle
or backup power system.
The most obvious one among them is cost.
technology, fuel cells are expensive to develop and manufacture.
As with any new
The magnitude of the cost
problem for vehicles and backup power systems is exacerbated by the low cost of the incumbent
ICE and battery technologies.
In order to improve the viability of fuel cells as an alternative
power plant, some method of either reducing their cost or the cost of the total backup power
system over life time is required.
24
CHAPTER 3 Review on Vehicle Simulation Tools
3.1.
Vehicle Simulation Tools
Simulation based analysis on vehicle performance is crucial to the development of hybrid
powertrain since design validation using costly prototype is impractical.
Due to the
inconvenience of the many separated modeling methods, integrated modeling tools are required to
speed up the modeling process and to improve the accuracy. Vehicle simulation is a method for
fast and systematic investigations of different design options (fuel choice, battery, transmission,
fuel cell, fuel reformer, etc.) in vehicle design and development. At present, several simulation
tools based on different modeling platforms are available, although none of them is sufficient to
model all design options. These tools always focus on a specific application with focused
concerns. After years of continuing improvements, a fast, accurate and flexible simulation tool
is still under development.
Among the most widely used vehicle modeling and analysis
platforms are MatLab/Simulink and Modelica/Dymola. In this section, two vehicle simulation
packages, ADVISOR and Dymola, were discussed. ADVISOR was used extensively in this
thesis to model two typical vehicles. Dymola, a newer and more flexible modeling tool, was
used at the later stage of the study to overcome the limitation of ADVISOR.
3.2.
ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR)
3.2.1. ADVISOR Background
ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR) was developed by the National Renewable Energy
Laboratory of US in late 1990s.
It was first developed to support US Department of Energy in
the hybrid propulsion research.
The model was set up in a backward modeling approach,
although it was labelled as both forward and backward in the official documents. ADVISOR is
25
widely used by auto manufacturers and university and institute researchers worldwide. Many
users contributed new components and data to the ADVISOR library.
With a friendly user
interface, ADVISOR was created in MatLab/Simulink® which is a software module in MatLab
for modeling, simulating and analyzing dynamic systems. It supports both linear and nonlinear
systems, modeled in continuous time, sampled time, or a hybrid of the two.
Systems can also be
MultiMate, e.g. having different parts that are sampled or updated at different rates.
3.2.2. ADVISOR Modeling Approaches
ADVISOR employs both backward and forward modeling approaches [28].
A backward
approach starts from a given driving cycle at the wheels, and traces back the needed power flow
through the powertrain model to find how much each involved component has to perform.
A
control flow chart of a backward model is shown in Figure 3-1. No driver behaviour model is
required in such a model. Instead, the power required at the wheels of the vehicle through the
time step is calculated directly from the required speed trace (drive cycles). The required power
is then translated into torque and speed that go up stream to find the power required at the power
source, an ICE, for instance.
Component by component, this power flow is calculated backward
through the drivetrain, considering losses.
At the end, the use of fuel or electric energy is
computed for the given speed trace or drive cycle.
Vehicle simulations that use a forward-facing approach include a driver model and a similar
powertrain model. A driver model compares the required speed and the present speed to decide
appropriate throttle and braking commands (using a PI controller). The throttle command is then
translated into a torque demand at the power source (engine or motors).
commands will be translated to friction torque at the wheels.
While the brake
The torque provided by the power
source goes through the whole drivetrain to the wheels. Vehicle speed will be calculated and
sends back to driver model as the present speed.
26
Figure 3-1 Flow Chart of an Backward Modeling Approach
Figure 3-2 shows the Simulink diagram of a two-mode hybrid vehicle model. The simplified
function of this diagram is explained using the flow chart shown in Figure 3-1, as a so-called
backward computer model.
Figure 3-2 ADVISOR/Simulink Block Diagram of a Two-mode Truck
3.2.3. ADVISOR Interface
ADVISOR provides easy access and quick results to a trained user in vehicles modeling through a
GUI interface.
results.
Three windows would guide users from the initial setting up toward the final
The first window is used to enter data related to the vehicle initial setup. The second
window provides several simulation options one can select from.
The last window shows
27
selected simulation results.
In the ADVISOR vehicle input window Figure 3-3, the vehicle drivetrain configurations (e.g.
series, parallel, conventional, etc.) is specified as well as the other key drivetrain components[29].
Characteristic performance maps for various drivetrain components are accessible using the
associated menus.
The size of a component (i.e. peak power capability and number of modules)
can be modified by editing the characteristic values displayed in the boxes.
Due to its
straightforward backward approach, ADVISOR is 2.5 to 8 time faster than forward looking
approach[30].
Any scalar parameter can be modified using the edit variable menu in the lower
right portion of the window.
All vehicle configuration parameters can be saved for future use.
After these vehicle input characteristics are specified, the next GUI interface is the simulation
setup window.
In the ADVISOR simulation setup window as shown in Figure 3-4, a user defines the event over
which the vehicle is to be simulated. Some of the events are driving cycle, acceleration test and
other special test procedures.
For example, when a single driving cycle is selected, the speed
trace can be viewed in the upper left portion of the window and a statistical analysis of the cycle
on the lower left portion.
With simulation parameters configured, simulation can be run and
results will be presented upon completion.
28
Figure 3-3 ADVISOR Vehicle Input Interface
Figure 3-4 Simulation Setup Interface
The ADVISOR results window, shows in Figure 3-5, displays the review of vehicle performance,
29
both integrated over a cycle and instantaneously at any point in the cycle.
The results include
vehicle performance, both integrated over a cycle and instantaneously at any point in the cycle,
fuel economy, and emissions. Detailed time-dependent results can be plotted with options on
different level of details (e.g. engine speed, engine torque, battery voltage, etc.)[31]. On the
right portion of the window, summary results such as fuel economy and emissions are given. On
the left, the detailed time-dependent results are plotted.
These results can be dynamically
changed to show other details (e.g. engine speed, engine torque, battery voltage, etc.) using the
menus on the upper right portion of the window [28].
Figure 3-5 Simulation Result Window
30
3.2.4. Models in ADVISOR
Internal Combustion Engines and PEM Fuel Cells Models
A fuel converter is used in ADVISOR to convert indirect energy from fuel into direct energy such
as electricity or kinetic energy to power the vehicle. The fuel converter for a motorized vehicle
will be an ICE or fuel cells.
There are two categories of empirical, steady-state fuel cells models in ADVISOR.
One
simulates the performance of fuel cell system by mapping the system efficiency as a function of
net power output. The other represents fuel cells performance based on a given polarization
curve. Both models exclude thermal considerations and water management.
compressor are not included.
Reformer and gas
The ICE model in ADVISOR is explained in CHAPTER 5.
Energy Storage Model
There are several energy storage devices as build-in component models in ADVISOR library,
including lead acid batteries, nickel metal hydride batteries, Li-ion batteries and ultracapacitors.
Electric Motor and Motor Controller Models
Several commonly used electric motors are preloaded in ADVISOR including induction motors,
permanent magnet brushless DC motors, and switched reluctance motors.
In terms of motor
modeling for a vehicular drivetrain, two different approaches are used. One is the theoretical
model based on physical principles. For a given motor geometry, material parameters and power
electronics, the torque and speed of the motor are calculated. For example, the motor model for
a brushless DC motor will be fundamentally different from the model of an induction motor.
The other modeling approach is more empirical data-driven, simply based on the static map of the
drivetrain efficiency as a function of motor torque, speed and voltage, as used at NREL. The
empirical input data are obtained using a motor test stand. The latter cannot explain how the
31
motor functions, but present more accurate motor performance behaviours and require much less
computation, serving the system design task better.
3.3.
In this work, the latter approach was used.
Modelica and Dymola
3.3.1. Modelica
Modelica is a relatively new programming language, introduced in Europe to model a broad scope
of physical systems.
The language is object-oriented, non-causal and the models are
mathematically described by differential algebraic equations (DAE).
The language suits
modeling of large and complex systems and supports a development of libraries and exchange of
models. With Modelica it is possible to model both at high levels by composition (use icons that
represent models of the components, connect them with connectors and set parameter values in
dialogue boxes) and at a much more detailed level by introducing new library component that
describe the physical behaviours of the modeled element using DAE.
The development of
Modelica started in 1996 by a small group of people who had experience of modeling languages
and DAE models. A year later the first version of Modelica was released, but the first language
definition came in December 1998.
Modelica version 2.0 was released in December 2000 and
was developed by the non-profit organization Modelica Association in Linköpings, Sweden.
3.3.2. Dymola
Dymola is developed by Dynasim in Lund, Sweden, and the name is an abbreviation for Dynamic
Modeling Laboratory. The tool is designed to generate efficient code and it can handle variable
structure Modelica models. It finds the different operating modes automatically and a user does
not have to model each mode of operation separately.
Dymola is based upon the use of
Modelica models, which are saved as files. The tool contains a symbolic translator for the
Modelica equations and a compiler that generates C-codes for simulation.
codes can also be exported to MatLab Simulink.
When needed, the
The main features of Dymola are
32
experimentation, plotting and animation.
Dymola has two different modes, modeling and simulation. In the modeling mode the models
and model components are created by “drag and drop” from the Modelica libraries and equations
and declarations are edited with the built-in text editor. The simulation mode makes it possible
to do experiments on the model, plot results and animate the model behaviours. In order to
simulate the model, Dymola uses Dymosim, Dynamic Model Simulator. It is an executable,
which is generated by Dymola and used to perform simulations and compute initial values.
Dymosim also contains the codes that are required for continuous simulation and handling of
events. Model descriptions are transformed into state space descriptions by Dymola and solved
by the integrators in Dymosim. The result of the simulation can in turn be plotted or animated
by Dymoview. Dymosim can be used in other environments too, though it is especially suited in
combination with Dymola.
3.3.3. Vehicle Modeling and Simulation Libraries
To facilitate vehicle related simulations, several vehicle modeling and simulation packages were
developed with different focuses in Dymola.
Powertrain library developed at Germany has a
complete mechanical powertrain to carry out speed and torque simulation.
by Arsenal in Austria is a library with electric components.
Smart electric drive
Modelon developed a dynamic
package dealing with kinetic movement such as vehicle stability. Descriptions on some of the
other libraries are listed in Table 3-1.
33
Table 3-1 Vehicle Modeling Packages in Modelica
Library name
Developer
Description
Availability
Powertrain
German Aerospace A commercial library to model vehicle Through
Center (DLR)[32] power trains as well as various
Dymola,
planetary gearboxes with speed and Others
torque dependent losses
unknown
Smart Electric
Drive
Arsenal
Research/Austria
[33]
Alternative
Vehicles
German Aerospace Simulations on hybrid or fuel cells
Under
Center [32]
vehicles [34], Little details is available Development
Transmission
Ricardo/UK[35][35]
[35]
Vehicle
Dynamics
Modelon AB
A Commercial library to model hybrid From Dymola
electric vehicles and new alternative or
concepts with electrical auxiliaries
SimualtionX
Fuel cells
Open
A Free library to model fuel cells
Vehicle
Interface
Collaborated work Promoted compatibility among
different automotive libraries
A commercial library to model hybrid
electric vehicles and new alternative
concepts with electrical auxiliaries
(from Arsenal research)
Dymola
Free
Free
34
CHAPTER 4 Modeling of a Fuel Cells Hybrid Power System
for Elevator Power Backup Using ADVISOR
4.1.
Modeling High Speed Elevators as Electric Vehicles
An elevator is a vertically travelling vehicle designed and used to transport people and goods
from given to targeted locations, following unique driving patterns. High speed elevators are
commonly used in various high-rise buildings today.
An elevator resembles to an electric
vehicle in many ways, both in terms of their power source and functionality. The relatively
maturing technology for modeling and simulating the operations of pure electric and/or fuel cell battery hybrid electric vehicles can be used to better understand the operation of the less well
studied high-speed elevators.
“vehicles”.
However, there are also differences between these two types of
Different from a regular vehicle, an elevator overcomes gravity of both the
passenger compartment and the passengers. The power sources of an elevator, including the
source of electric power and motor are attached to the building, rather than carried in the vehicle,
and the torque from electric motor is transported to the elevator car by cables and gear boxes.
In this work, these unique characteristics of elevators are modeled using a special “vehicle”
drivetrain model by modifying the conventional vehicle drivetrain model according to the stated
differences.
The drivetrain model of an elevator powered by a hydrogen fuel cell backup power
system is introduced by modifying existing fuel cells vehicle powertrain model in ADVISOR
2002, as shown in Figure 4-4. Four different powertrain architectures of the elevator backup
power system were studied, including a fuel cells only system (FC), fuel cells-battery hybrid
(FC-BA), fuel cells-ultracapacitor hybrid (FC-UC) and fuel cells-battery-ultracapacitor hybrid
35
(FC-BA-UC). Due to the similarity of these models, only the FC-BA-UC hybrid is explained in
this section. The objective of this work is to utilize the existing fuel cell vehicle modeling and
simulation tool to help the design and optimization the fuel cell backup power system, targeted to
specific elevator type and specific needed operation patterns.
Figure 4-1 Elevator Powertrain Model
4.2.
Power Failures of Elevators in High-rise Buildings
Serving as a vertically moving platform for transporting people or freight, elevators have been
proved to be a great convenience and necessity for both industrial and residential applications.
Since its invention by Erhard Weigel in 1670 as a flying chair for people [36], elevators were used
widely in multi-storey, high-rise residential buildings and multi-level industrial structure to meet
the thirty of industry in productivity.
With limited available space in the city and increasing land cost, multi-storey and high-rise
buildings now dominate most urban areas of the world. The irresistible trend to build taller and
taller buildings to leverage the increasing land cost turns elevator from a tool of convenience to a
necessity of life. The dependence of elevator in multi-storey and high-rise buildings further
requires its continuous function in spite of power failure caused by many reasons.
A no
operational elevator during power failure may lead to catastrophic consequences, such as the 911
tragedy. Reliable and effective elevator power backup system is an urgent need today.
36
The possibilities of power failures are many, including temporary power shutdown, unexpected
failures of the power grid, fire accident in the building or neighbourhood, or even a terrorist attack.
Traditionally, an elevator completely depends on commercial power grid.
Any power failure
will result in the besiegement of passengers in the elevator. This problem is extremely serious
for high-rise buildings, and buildings with heath-related or other crucial functions, such as
hospitals and senior homes. To manually descend the elevator to the nearest floor and release
the trapped passengers are normally done by maintenance personals with substantial delay. In
the case of natural disaster or terrorist attack, the help will be too little and too late. It is also
infeasible for people to retreat by walking down the stairs in a high-rise building that is hundreds
of meters above the ground, and for fire and rescue crews to reach the troubled floor using the
shared stairs at the same time.
The 911 tragedy at the World Trade Center taught us an important
lesson.
4.3.
Backup Power Solutions
Elevator load cycles are characterized by a poor power balance between ascending and
descending. A high power demand arises during acceleration in the upward movement, while
high power restitution appears during stopping in downward movement [37], resulting a low
average and high pulse power requirements. The power density of present batteries is so low
that they cannot provide the peak power.
While ultracapacitors with a higher power density can
meet the power demand, they cannot last long enough due to the limited energy density. A fuel
cell system is able to provide high power demand continuously as long as the fuel gas is provided.
However, the slow dynamic response of fuel cell system prohibits it to work alone. In addition,
the investment cost of fuel cells remains high and the size of the fuel cell system must be reduced.
Electric power backup systems for multi-storey and high-rise buildings are emerging, although
the technologies that serve this crucial function seem to be still crude at present.
These
technologies include energy conversion devices, such as ICE, and energy storage devices, such as
37
battery, ultracapacitor and flywheels.
4.3.1. Batteries for Power Backup
Traditionally, batteries have been most widely used in electric backup power systems on
computers, protecting the potential loss of important data during abrupt power failure. An
Uninterrupted Power System (UPS) has a fast response and provide high quality power backup
over a short period to allow the proper shut down of the computer. Due to the limited capacity
demand, high quality and maintenance free batteries such as nickel metal hydride can be used.
Battery backup power is also in place for some multi-storey and high-rise buildings. To reduce
the investment costs and to achieve the large energy capacity required, low cost lead-acid battery
banks are used. However, the limited current density of batteries means that their maximum
power discharging rate is fairly limited. Study on battery-based and battery-assisted elevator
power supply indicates that the operation of an elevator can be continued by reducing the speed of
travel when the power demand exceeds the battery current limit [38].
Compared with the
conventional emergency landing device that just lands the elevator onto the nearest floor, battery
backup power system provides much better service during power failure. Even though the
battery-based elevator power supply is a great improvement, the much reduced speed is
unacceptable for high-rise buildings.
Meeting the current density of super high speed elevators
will require high energy density as well a high current density. In addition, these lead-acid
battery banks require constant maintenance and care, and have a limited life.
4.3.2. Ultracapacitors for Power Backup
Capacitors have only been used as short time power keeper in electronic devices during battery
replacement. Applying ultracapacitors as the only ESS or together with battery on vehicles has
attracted considerable attentions in literatures.
A power-based computer model of an
ultracapacitor hybrid pickup truck has developed in [39].
It employs a backward modeling
38
approach[28] to predict fuel economy on a series hybrid truck based on Ford Explorer. The
result shows 18% fuel economy improvement over non-hybrid counterpart on an UDDS drive
cycle.
The nature of ultracapacitor with high density discharge and charge has potential to
manage power with large peak to average ratio. The limited energy density according to Table
2-7 prevents the use of ultracapacitor to provide continuous power.
4.3.3. ICE Generator for Power Backup
ICE, either diesel or gasoline engines, have been widely used to provide backup power to large
businesses and hospitals.
As a low-cost electric backup power supporting tool, the technology
and products have reached their maturity.
However, the system has a number of inherent
drawbacks, including slow response, extensive maintenance needed and the unavoidable noise
and pollution.
4.4.
These factors make it a less desirable for multi-storey and high-rise buildings.
A Fuel Cells Hybrid Power Backup Solution
4.4.1. A Hybrid Energy Storage System
Meeting the load variations is a significant challenge for current technology.
To minimize cost
and maximize performance, an integrated elevator backup power system, consisting of PEM fuel
cells, ultracapacitors and batteries, is proposed.
A fuel cells – ultracapacitor – battery hybrid
forms an ideal architecture for the elevator backup power system.
As an efficient and clean
power conversion device and the only one among the three, a PEM fuel cell system is chosen to
continuously supply electric power. The ultracapacitor module is the second most important
component of the system, due to its high power density, extremely long life, excellent charge and
discharge efficiency, and its unique capability for providing large transient power instantly to deal
with the load surge of the elevator during upward acceleration.
A battery bank is also used to
supply auxiliary power due to its better energy density and much lower cost. DC-DC converters
and power electronics integrate these three key components.
39
The intention of combining ultracapacitor and batteries to form a hybrid energy storage device on
vehicles dates back to a decade ago [40].
Energy density and cost of ultracapacitors has been a
obstacle preventing further developments leading to its commercial application [41].
improved
energy
density
and
overwhelming
development
of
HEV
shows
The
hybrid
ultracapacitor/battery energy storage device very promising in recent future [14].
Figure 4-2 a Fuel cells Super Hybrid Power System
Figure 4-2 shows the power contribution of an idealized fuel cells, battery and ultracapacitor
hybrid (also called fuel cells super hybrid).
Fuel cells operate in a continuous manner to provide
the average power flow. Battery, which has a higher energy density, manages the power at
medium range. Ultracapacitors would be responsible for providing high but transient power
demand.
40
4.4.2. Operation of Battery Ultracapacitor Hybrid
Most early study tries to connect ultracapacitors to batteries through direct parallel connection [42,
43].
Some other study shows that improved performance would be achieved by using power
converters to actively control the power sources [44, 45].
The type of batteries used to achieve
the hybrid is also case dependent, depending power and physical requirements. [46] uses a
lead-acid batteries and ultracapacitors as hybrid, while [43] studied a hybrid system using Ni-MH
and ultracapacitors.
When power supply is normal, the batteries and ultracapacitors are charged by the power grid and
fuel cells are ready to work.
When power failure is detected, the ultracapacitor module with fast
dynamic response immediately supplies electric power to the elevator motor. The fuel cell
system will start to work while it takes a couple minutes to adjust fuel flow before reaching the
steady state[38]. The batteries charge ultracapacitors as well as supplying power to the elevator
motor. The power flow is controlled by a DC-DC converter and power electronics that also
consume a small amount of energy.
Recently some research efforts have been devoted to more
effective and efficient power electronics and converters for ultracapacitor applications [38, 47-49].
At steady state, fuel cells generators supplies the average power whereas the ultracapacitors and
batteries serve as power buffers to satisfy the surge power need and to recover brake power of the
elevator.
4.5.
Modeling of High-rise Building Elevator
In this study, an elevator model is created to simulate power demand for the fuel cells hybrid
backup power system.
The modeling and simulation will provide guidelines for selecting energy
storage and conversion devices and for determining the key parameters of the backup power
system.
Based on its resemblance to an electric vehicle traveling vertically, the elevator model is
built on ADVISOR platform which was introduced previously.
41
4.5.1. Elevator Model
The prototype elevator considered in this study is a gearless traction elevator.
essentials are referenced from [50].
The design
The detailed design parameters are listed in Table 4-1.
Figure 4-3 shows the schematic structure of the elevator, featuring single wrap ratio of 1:1. The
elevator car is pulled by a motor located at the top of the building. A counterweight is placed
beside the elevator to offset the average weight of the elevator car and its passengers. The
Elevator ascends and descends vertically.
It overcomes the gravity difference between the
elevator and its cargo, and the balance weight. The rolling resistance on the pulleys is relatively
small. Both the elevator and counterweight have to overcome air drag.
Figure 4-3 Physical Model of an Elevator
The kinematics of an elevator includes velocity, acceleration and jerk. Modeling and reduction
of jerk is largely related to passengers’ comfort [51].
The study, like many others, was geared
toward the understanding on the kinematics and dynamics of the elevator’s mechanical system,
not on the elevator’s electric drive which is the major concern for the modeling and design of the
elevator electrical backup power system.
4.5.2. Powertrain Model
Most commonly known as an electric vehicle simulator [28], ADVISOR provides great flexibility
42
in introducing new architectures for the vehicle drivetrain.
Figure 4-4 Modeling a Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle/Elevator in ADVISOR
Figure 4-1 is an explanation of how an elevator powertrain was modeled in ADVISOR. The
simulation starts from a predefined driving cycle (see section 4.7.1). The vehicle model receives
the speed demand from the driving cycle and interprets it as a power demand (torque and speed)
using kinetic relations from the elevator dynamic model in 4.5.1. The torque and speed demand
then go to the final drive block in which direct torque and speed for electric motor is calculated.
Motor block receives the power demand from final drive and decides how much power to deliver.
Four independent forces were considered, forces for ascending, acceleration, overcoming
aerodynamic drag, and overcoming rolling resistance between the rope and pulleys. In addition,
change of travelling speed would introduce an additional toque to overcome the momentum of the
pulleys. The power demand for the motion of an elevator car is thus expressed in Eq. (2.5):
Pwheel = ∑ Force × v = ( Facceleration + Fascend + Frr + Fdrag ) × v
= (ma + mg sin A + mgCrr cos A + 1 ρ air CD AF vaero 2 ) × v
2
(2.5)
where m is the total mass of vehicle, a is the vehicle acceleration, v is the vehicle velocity, A is the
43
angle of slope (90o for a elevator), Crr is the coefficient of tire rolling resistance, CD is the drag
coefficient, ρ is the density of air, AF is the frontal cross-section area, and vaero is the velocity of
the vehicle plus the headwind (m/s).
Table 4-1 Parameters of a Prototype Elevator
Parameters
me
mc
mp
A
B
H
g
Nf
Cl
Cr
Rfinal
A
ρ
CD
AF
Description
Mass of the elevator car
Mass of the counterweight
Maximum passengers load
Width of the elevator car
Length of the elevator car
Height of the elevator car
Gravitational acceleration
Numbers of floors
Clearance between floors
Rolling Resistance
Final Drive ratio
Surface slope
Air density
Air Drag Co-efficiency
Elevator section area
Value
1260 kg
1600 kg
1200 kg
2m
3m
2m
9.81 m/s2
50
3m
0.009
3.55
90o
1.21kg/m3
0.8
6 m2
4.5.3. Modeling of PEM Fuel Cell system
Much effort has been put forth to understand the parameters and issues affecting the performance
of fuel cell systems. There are many approaches of modeling a PEM fuel cells performance,
which may be classified as: a) theoretical, or mechanistic, b) Computational Fuel Cells Dynamics
(CFCD) simulation, c) semi-empirical, and d) empirical, depending on the level of modeling
sophistication.
Each approach has advantages and disadvantages, as discussed in details in[52].
44
Figure 4-5 A PEM Fuel Cells Stack
Since the main interest of this work is not to design the fuel cell system itself, a simple and
computationally inexpensive semi-empirical model was used to model the fuel cells hybrid
elevator backup power system.
The robust and flexible semi-empirical model considered
primarily steady-state behaviours with simplified transient effects [53, 54]. The model has been
used by members of industry, where Ballard Power Systems is the most notable example [55], and
by other research groups that have incorporated early versions of the model and used
experimentation to validate its veracity[56].
Recently, this model was used in the authors’
research group to model the performance of a PEM fuel cell system and to optimize the system
design [55, 57].
In this work, a build-in semi-empirical fuel cells model in ADVISOR was used
to test the backup power system model. More accurate PEM fuel cell system sub-model, based
on the group’s recent work [57] is to be incorporated at later stage of the research.
45
Figure 4-6 a Fuel cell system Model in ADVISOR
The empirical fuel cells power model was built on test data.
rate indexed by voltage and current.
The test data was hydrogen flow
According to power actually delivered at fuel cells,
hydrogen flow rate at each time step was calculated. Therefore, the total hydrogen consumption
was calculated.
The power efficiency map of the fuel cells model is shown in Figure 4-7.
Figure 4-7 a Fuel cells Power Efficiency Map
46
4.5.4. Modeling of Motors
The motor model was created on the similar basis of fuel cells.
speed to be delivered at the output shaft.
is calculated.
It mainly decides the torque and
At the same time, the energy consumption (electricity)
Figure 4-9 is a motor model in ADVISOR. The simplified explanation is shown
in Figure 4-8. A motor model receives torque and speed request from final drive and decides
torque and speed available to be delivered. Using a DC/DC converter, the motor voltage in this
study remains constant. The experimental data was based on current demand indexed by motor
torque and speed.
Figure 4-8 Motor Model Power Flow
Figure 4-9 Motor Model in ADVISOR
Figure 4-10 shows experimental data of the motor efficiency. The tested motor is a 30 kW
47
Siemens motor operates at 216 V.
The motor had a steady high efficiency of 80% during most
of test conditions. The efficiency would drop in low speed or low torque operation.
Power Efficiency of a AC Motor
1
Motor Efficiency
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
9000
8000
7000
120
6000
100
5000
80
4000
60
3000
2000
40
1000
20
0
0
Motor Speed (RPM)
Motor Torque (Nm)
Figure 4-10 AC30 Motor Power Efficiency
4.5.5. Modeling of Energy Storage System
As a power leveraging device to assist fuel cells, an energy storage system (ESS) was designed
based on power demand.
In a computer model of an energy storage system, power capability
and operating status of the representing physical devices were decided. The selection of energy
storage devices was largely based on the energy density, power density and costs of the device.
Battery and ultracapacitor were considered in this study.
Figure 4-11 Energy Storage System Model
48
In Figure 4-11, the ESS model receives power request from power bus model. The power
demand then goes to ultracapacitor and battery.
Current and voltage available to the power bus
are decided. There are four types of batteries widely used. The sealed lead-acid (SLA) battery
features lower cost and longer charge/recharge cycle. It is rarely used in electric or hybrid
vehicles due to its weight and low energy density. However, as the elevator power module does
not travel along with the moving car, the size and weight of the ESS is of a less concern.
A
sealed value-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery unit made by Hawker Genesis was used in the
simulation. Each of the 12 V batteries has a capacity 26Ah.
Figure 4-12 Energy Storage System Model in ADVISOR
Ultracapacitor unit was considered as an alternative energy storage device, replacing the batteries.
The model of the ultracapacitor module was based on the Maxwell PC2500 ultracapacitors with
capacity around 2500 F and 2.5V voltage.
Each of the ultracapacitor modules was designed to
provide a power of 700 W, and 100 ultracapacitors were selected.
49
4.6.
Elevator Power Management
With various electric and hybrid drivetrains, the primary function of power management was to
prioritize the real time power request from load and allocate the power source in an optimized
manner for system life and efficiency. A good power management can reduce the weight, size,
and cost of the system, and improve system performance.
Figure 4-13 Power Management System of a Fuel Cells Hybrid Powertrain
Figure 4-13 is a sketch of the entire powertrain. Several power converter/inverters were used to
coordinate the voltage. In this work, a fuel cells optimization oriented scheme was used in
energy management.
The objective is to reduce fuel cells power variation with a reasonable size
of energy storage system.
50
Figure 4-14 Fuel cell system Power Management Flow Chart
Figure 4-14 shows flow chart of fuel cell power management.
According to predefined traffic
pattern and motor model, a real time power request is calculated. The system first evaluates
status of energy storage system. Then the fuel cells model decides the fuel cells operating power
based on power request and SOC from the energy storage system. Fuel cells are switched off
when power demand is lower than a pre-set value.
When the fuel cells are on, it coordinates the
power flow so that the SOC maintain at an economic range.
It is therefore easy to understand
the importance of fuel cells being affected by energy storage systems.
A larger and more
efficient energy storage system would reduce the fluctuation of fuel cells power demand. The
efficiency and life of fuel cells could be further improved.
listed in Table 4-2.
Some of the control parameters are
51
Table 4-2 Power Control Parameters
Parameters
Cs_hi_soc
Cs_lo_soc
Cs_ini_SOC
Cs_min-pwr
Cs_charge_pwr
Cs_max_pwr_rise_rate
Cs_max_pwer_fall_rate
4.7.
Description
Highest desired battery SOC
Lowest desired battery SOC
Initial SOC
Fuel cells min operating power
Minimum time for FC remain off
Maximum ratio of increase of power
Maximum ratio of decrease of power
Value
0.8
0.4
0.7
3 kW
100 s
2 kW
-3 kW
Computer Simulation
4.7.1. Elevator Traffic Patterns (Drive Cycles)
After the system model was built, the traffic pattern over which elevator performs must be
specified. The traffic patterns of an elevator are always case dependent.
In a preliminary
review, very few standard elevator operation cycles were developed.
To evaluate the
performance of elevator’s power drive, two elevator driving patterns were randomly picked using
guidelines based on engineering intuition. One scenario was to maintain elevators at normal
operation during power failure. The other scenario was a low power mode which was only used
for emergency purposes.
In a normal mode, an elevator operated at a moderate speed and
performed up and down movement until power grid resumed. On the other hand, a half hour
cycle was developed for the low power mode, which is aimed at evacuating people at higher
levels of the building as well as people with disability at lower levels. In the low power mode,
an elevator would only stop at 10th floor or higher during most of the cycles, with few stops at
lower level. Features of these two driving cycles are shown in Table 4-3. More realistic
driving cycles can be obtained from real world elevator operation.
52
Table 4-3 Description of Two Driving Cycles
Max
Max Average
Acceleration Speed Speed
High Power cycle 0-10-5-25-0-40
1 m/s2
5 m/s 0.93 m/s
2
Low Power cycle 0-50-45-0-40-35-0-30-5-0-25-20-0 0.5 m/s
2.5 m/s 0.46 m/s
Travel Schedule (floor)
4.7.2. Low Power Mode Simulation
To perform an initial simulation, the sizes of power source units were as specified in Table 4-4.
Table 4-4 Power Source Unit Sizes on Initial Simulation Test
Power Source
Fuel cells
Battery
Maxwell Ultra-cap.
Motor
Size
20 kW
15 units of 12V26Ah
100 units PC2500
AC 40 kW
Figure 4-15 shows the performance the elevator regarding to the low power cycle. The elevator
was able to meet the cycle with little nominal speed variations.
Figure 4-15 Simulation of Low Power Cycle
Figure 4-16 shows the real time power demand from electric motor while Figure 4-17 is the
53
power supply from fuel cells.
With power aid from energy storage system, the power draw from
fuel cell will be much smoother.
Figure 4-16 System Power Demand-Low Power Cycle
Figure 4-17 Fuel cells Power Demand-Low Power Cycle
Figure 4-18 shows the battery SOC change during the low power cycle simulation. The battery
SOC fluctuated between 0.66-0.73. The batteries were through 6 discharging and charging cycles
during the 160 seconds of simulation.
54
Figure 4-18 Battery SOC-Low Power Cycle
In the ultracapacitor based ESS, the SOC fluctuated at a range broader than that of the battery
based ESS, from 0.62 to 0.74, as shown in Figure 4-19.
Figure 4-19 Ultracapacitor SOC-Low Power Cycle
55
4.7.3. High Power Mode Simulation
Figure 4-20 shows the performance the evaluator regarding to the high power cycle.
The
elevator is able to satisfy most cycle with slight miss at peak speed as circled.
Figure 4-20 Performance Simulation of High Power Cycle
Figure 4-21 shows the real time power demand at electric motor while Figure 4-22 shows power
demand at fuel cells.
Figure 4-21 System Power Demand-High Power Cycle
56
Figure 4-22 Fuel cells Power Demand-High Power Cycle
The 12.5kW peak power demand at fuel cells was used to size the fuel cells stack. A 20 kW fuel
cells stack were chosen based on the high efficiency of this stack when operating at 10 kW to 15
kW range.
During the 160 seconds of high power operation, the battery SOC was reduced from 0.76 to 0.62.
Figure 4-23 Battery SOC-High Power Cycle
On a fuel cells ultracapacitor hybrid, ultracapacitor operated at a much broader SOC range.
57
Figure 4-24 shows the ultracapacitor SOC varied from approximately from 0.2 to 0.8.
Figure 4-24 Ultracapacitor SOC-High Power Cycle
4.8.
Optimal Battery and Ultracapacitor Units
The size of energy storage system affects the overall efficiency.
The minimum size of the
battery depends on the peak power demand. In order to find the optimal number of battery unit
for best power efficiency, the number of battery unit was treated as a variable. This work
determined the optimal battery size that was needed to meet the high power drive cycle as
introduced previously. By setting the start units at 10, an increment of one was used to identify
the optimal battery units. According to the system efficiency map shown in Figure 4-25, the
system reached optimized power efficiency with 17 battery units.
58
Figure 4-25 Optimal Battery Units
A slightly different method was used to search for the optimal ultracapacitor units. With search
point start from 100 units and a step size of 5, hydrogen consumption decreases until 125 units
was selected.
Therefore, the improved ultracapacitor module was selected as 125.
Figure 4-26 Optimal Ultracapacitor Units
59
The optimized power train is summarized at Table 4-5.
Table 4-5 Specification of Optimized Powertrain
Power Source
Fuel cells
Battery (12V26Ah)
Ultracapa. Maxwell PC2500
Initial
20 kW
15 Units
100 Units
Optimized
20 kW
17 Units
125 Units
The hydrogen consumption test was based on 15 repeating cycles of each traffic pattern. The
increased battery size improved the hydrogen consumption by 35% as listed in Table 4-6.
Table 4-6 Specification of Battery Based Elevator Backup Power System
Initial
FC-BA
194.5g
314.5g
Low Power Cycle
High Power Cycle
4.9.
FC-UC
205g
331g
Optimized
FC-BA FC-UC
144g
151g
223g
231g
Cost Analysis
The operational performance of the elevator only presents half of the considerations.
The
investment, operation and maintenance cost of the backup power system over life time is another
important aspect in determining the design of the elevator backup power system.
4.9.1. Cost of PEM Fuel Cell System
The primary cost of the hybrid backup power system is the initial investment cost of the PEM fuel
cell system.
The cost of fuel cells stack, in reasonably sized mass production, is to be reduced to
$67/kW, and cost of balance of plant (BOP) apparatus and assembly is $41/kW on average [6].
The investment cost of a 30 kW fuel cell system then becomes $2,160. Based on data over the
past a few years [58], the price of PEM fuel cells is likely to come down even more, further
reducing the cost of the system.
However, before PEM fuel cells enter mass production, a
prototype fuel cell system tends to cost as high as $500/kW to $1000 /kW. With active braking
60
and effective of recovery of brake power, the ultracapacitor can be frequently charged, reducing
the size of the need fuel cell system and the cost of the power backup system.
4.9.2. Costs of Batteries and Ultracapacitors
As a mature product, the cost of lead acid battery is quite low. The unit price of Leopard 12
V-12 Ah SLA battery is $30. One of the leading ultracapacitor manufacturers is Maxwell. A
most recent ultracapacitor model developed by Maxwell, MC2600, costs $92 in low volume and
$54 in mid-range volumes.
The BMOD2600-48 ultracapacitor module is encased in a rugged,
splash-proof, aluminium chassis, weighting 13.5 kg and having 13.4 litres in volume (420 mm x
200 mm x 160 mm). These durable “smart boxes” include temperature and voltage monitoring
and internal cell balancing that give designers a “plug and play” solution.
Available
module-to-module balancing makes these ultracapacitor modules versatile building blocks for
systems with higher voltage requirements.
The ultracapacitor module is priced at $613 each for
low volumes and $366 at midrange[59].
4.9.3. Power Converter and Controller
Power converter and power electronics play a key role in the backup power system.
They
control the effective and optimal power flow from the battery pack, ultracapacitor module, and
fuel cell system to the drive motor and the flow of recovery power under power enhancement.
These control system and power electronics is not a simple DC-DC converter, much more
research and development efforts have devoted to this area [60, 61] and a variety of less
sophisticated and less capable commercially products are available.
For instance, the
experiment system with a 60 kW power capability in well fits the power demand of this elevator
application[47].
61
Table 4-7 Overall System Cost Prediction
4.10.
Prototype
Mass Produced
Fuel Cells Single Stack
$20000 ($1000/kW)
$1340 ($67/kW)
Fuel Cells BOP
---
$820 ($41/kW)
Ultracapacitors
$6750 ($54/Unit)
$6750 ($54/Unit)
Lead Acid batteries
$3000 ($30/Unit)
$3000 ($30/Unit)
Power Converters
$3000-5000
Over All
$30,000-$35,000
Discussion and Conclusions
The results of simulation shown in Table 4-6 indicate that FC-BA and FC-UC architectures had
comparable power efficiency.
The lead acid battery hybrid yielded good power efficiency,
satisfied the driving cycle with lower investment costs. However, the battery had a much shorter
cycle life, required regular inspection and maintenance.
These shortcomings and higher
operation costs of the batteries were not reflected in our preliminary model as presented.
According to the SOC histories of battery and ultracapacitor shown in the previous section, the
battery SOC maintained at a relatively stable level, while the ultracapacitor SOC changed
dramatically.
Since the efficiency of ultracapacitors drops with their operation voltage, an
increase in the size of the ultracapacitor module leads to an improvement of the power system
efficiency, as shown in Figure 4-26. The system efficiency drops with a decrease of battery units
according to Figure 4-25. This reveals the difference of batteries and ultracapacitors in nature.
Ultracapacitor is good to provide high peak power, but its energy density is low. Battery has a
higher energy density, but its power density is lower. A further study to find the optimal balance
of batteries and ultracapacitors in the ESS of the FC-BA-UC hybrid backup power system is the
focus of on-going research.
A FC-BA-UC hybrid backup power system will lead better
62
operation conditions for both fuel cells and batteries, of which the life and efficiency are sensitive
to the operation conditions.
The cost of the system is also in a reasonable range.
Even with immature fuel cells
commercialization, the overall system cost would be within $35,000 US.
potential of dramatic cost cut with the promising mass production of fuel cells.
There is also a
63
CHAPTER 5 Modeling of a ICE Hybrid Powertrain for
Two-mode Hybrid Trucks Using ADVISOR
Medium and heavy duty trucks serve an important role in modern society. More than 80% of the
freights transported in the US were carried by medium and heavy duty trucks.
In this work, fuel
efficiency improvement of a heavy duty truck using different hybrid technologies was studied.
The architecture of an advanced hybrid electric truck, called two-mode, as mentioned in the
previous section, showed more flexibility on power delivery than Toyota THS. In order to
compare the detailed performance of this powertrain architecture, a two-mode model was
introduced in this study. In the following sections, modeling of each powertrain component is
introduced, as well as the control for the power management.
5.1.
Planetary Gear Based Power Transmission
5.1.1. Speed, Torque and Power of the Planetary Gears
Planetary gears are used widely in many HEV transmissions. It features a compact structure,
high load ability and a high efficiency.
planetary gear.
Figure 5-1 shows the section drawing of a single
It includes three parts, a sun gear, a ring gear and several planet gears connected
by a gear carrier. The sun gear, the ring gear and the carrier gear are the three shafts a planetary
gear set connects to the outside. The complexity of the system brings difficulty to the speed,
torque and power calculation.
In this section, a method was summarized to compute and
evaluate the drive ratios, torque and power.
The speed equation of the planetary gear is defined as in Eq. (5.1), where ωc ωs ωr is the angular
velocity of gear carrier, sun gear and ring gear respectively. k is defined as the basic ratio which
64
equals to the radius of ring fear divided by the radius of sun gear.
isrc is the relative drive ratio
between sun gear and ring gear.
ω s − ωc
= − k = isrc
ω r − ωc
(5.1)
Figure 5-1 A General Planetary Gear
Similarly, drive ratio relations are found among other gears in Eq. (5.2). The relative drive ratios
isrc icsr icrs are terms only associated with k.
ωc − ωr
1
⎫
=
= ir
ωs − ωr 1 + k cs ⎪⎪
⎬
ωc − ω s
k
s ⎪
=
=i
ωr − ωs 1 + k cr ⎭⎪
Define absolute drive ratios as Rsr =
(5.2)
ωs
ω
ω
, Rrc = r , Rcs = c . From Eq. (5.1) and Eq. (5.2),
ωr
ωc
ωs
absolute drive ratio is found in Eq. (5.3). The absolute drive ratios are determined by k and the
other absolute drive ratio R.
65
⎫
ωs
= (1 + k ) Rcr − k ⎪
ωr
⎪
⎪
ωr
Rrc =
= (1 + k − Rsc ) / k ⎬
ωc
⎪
⎪
ωc
Rcs =
= (1 + kRrs ) /(1 + k ) ⎪
ωs
⎭
Rsr =
(5.3)
For the three axles connected to the outside of a planetary gear, either one or two axles act as
input.
The other one acts as output.
Tr , Ts , Tc represent torques at ring, sun and gear carrier
respectively. To simplify the problem, gear friction is not included.
For a stabilized status, the
external torques was balanced as shown in Eq. (5.4) [62].
Ts + Tr + Tc = 0
The input power is defined as positive while the output power is defined as negative.
(5.4)
When
angular acceleration α is zero on all gears, there is no gain or lose of potential energy considered
on the planetary gears. The power is also balanced where Ps , Pr , Pc are inputs or output power
on sun, ring and the gear carrier as shown in Eq. (5.5).
Ps + Pr + Pc = Tsωs + Trωr + Tcωc = 0
(5.5)
From Eqs. (5.1), (5.4) and (5.5), torque relations are found Eq. (5.6)
1
⎫
Tc
k +1 ⎪
⎪
k
⎪
Tr = −
Tc ⎬
k +1 ⎪
1
⎪
Ts = Tr
⎪
k
⎭
Ts = −
(5.6)
The ratio of power flow is found in Eq. (5.7), in which R is absolute drive ratio as defined in Eq.
(5.3).
66
⎫
⎪
⎪
⎪
k
=−
Rrc ⎬
k +1
⎪
⎪
= −(k + 1) Rcs ⎪
⎭
Pr Trωr
=
= kRrs
Ps Tsωs
Pr Trωr
=
Pc Tcωc
Pc Tcωc
=
Ps Tsωs
(5.7)
To study the power flow direction in and out, θ was defined as a power flow factor (PF)
represented in Eq. (5.8). If θ=1, both gears provide or withdraw power to the planetary gears.
There is no power flows from one gear to another. If θ=-1, power flows on those two gears are
in opposite directions. If θ=0, there is no flow of power on the node.
θ rs =
Rrs
Rrs
θ rc = −
Rrc
Rrc
θ cs = −
Rcs
Rcs
⎫
⎪
⎪
⎪⎪
⎬
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪⎭
(5.8)
The power flow can be expressed using power flow chart once gear directions are decided.
According to Eq. (5.8), θrc=-1, θrs=-1, θcs=1. A ‘+1’ results in the same direction of power flow
while a ‘-1’ results in the opposite direction of power flow.
For θcs=1, arrows at carrier gear and
sun gear either both point to the center or both point to node. For θrc and θrs are both ‘-1’, the
power flows are different. The power flow chart is shown in Figure 5-2, the arrow points out
power flow direction.
The power transfer efficiency on a planetary gear is defined as the ratio of power out by power in.
Power input is considered as positive and power output is negative. The efficiency is shown in
Eq. (5.9),
η=
output _ power −ωoutTout
=
input _ power
ωinTin
(5.9)
67
Figure 5-2 Power Flow Chart of Planetary Gear
For planetary gear systems with multiple input or output, efficiency is defined as in Eq. (5.10),
m
η=
∑ −ω
T
∑ω
T
i =1
n
j =1
out _ i out _ i
in _ j in _ j
where i, j are the number of input and output axle.
(5.10)
ωout ,ωin are speed of the output axle and the
input axle, and Tout ,Tin are the torque output and input.
5.1.2. Toyota Hybrid System
Figure 5-3 shows the drivetrain configuration used in a Toyota hybrid system (THS).
There are
three shafts connected to the planetary gear, engine, two motors and output shaft to the wheel.
Eq. (5.11) and Eq. (5.12) are the absolute drive ratios between output shaft and engine shaft,
where ω is the angular velocity defined previously. This gear train has two degrees of freedom,
the motor speed ωM / G1 , ωM / G 2 are determined by the engine speed and output speed as shown in
Eq. (5.16).
68
Rrc =
ωout ωr 1 + k − Rsc
=
=
ωengine ωc
k
(5.11)
ωM / G1 = (k + 1)ωEngine − kωOut ⎫⎪
ωM / G 2 = ωout
⎬
⎪⎭
(5.12)
Figure 5-3 Toyota THS Configuration
The torque relations are found in Eq. (5.6).
No transient condition is considered. No potential
energy gained or lost was considered at planetary gears.
1
⎫
TEngine
⎪⎪
k +1
⎬
k
=
TEngine − Tout ⎪
k +1
⎭⎪
TM / G1 = −
TM / G 2
(5.13)
To understand the power flow of the THS architecture, a plot was drawn with assumed constant
engine speed as shown in Figure 5-4.
From Figure 5-4, the direction of M/G2 and engine didn’t
change when vehicle was moving forward. The direction of M/G1 changed at speed V1 and V2.
As a result, there were three groups of power flow factors (PF) of both planetary gears are shown
in Eq. (5.14) according to Eq. (5.8) and relations shown in Figure 5-4.
θ rs = −1⎫ θ rs = −1⎫ θ rs = 1 ⎫
⎪
⎪
⎪
θ rc = 0 ⎬ → θ rc = −1⎬ → θ rc = −1⎬
θ cs = 0 ⎪⎭ θ cs = 1 ⎪⎭ θ cs = −1⎪⎭
(5.14)
69
Figure 5-4 Engine, M/G1 and M/G2 Speed of THS
Figure 5-5 THS Power Flow Chart Engine Off
The preset engine launching speed is around 30 km/h. It also depends on battery SOC. Engine
70
is not turned on until certain conditions are satisfied due to the low engine efficiency at low power
demand.
According to Figure 5-5, at the engine off mode, M/G2 withdraws power from ESS
and provides most of the torque to the wheel. If additional torque is needed, there is a possibility
to switch M/G1 on. However, it may be impractical to switch M/G1 on the low speed mode due
to the low power demand nature at low speed.
During braking, the regenerative energy would be
captured by M/G2 and charged back to the battery. Because of the small battery size on a THS,
the engine off range is limited. Engine would kick in when the battery SOC reached a low point.
Figure 5-6 THS Power Flow Chart Engine Start
In a THS, there is no starter motor equipped to start the engine.
provide the starting torque.
Instead, M/G2 is used to
Figure 5-6 shows the power flow direction during the engine start.
Both engine and M/G1 receives power from M/G2.
After this transient condition, the vehicle
switched to a power split mode.
Power split mode is the most often operation mode in a THS vehicle. The power flow chart of
this mode is shown in Figure 5-7. The speed range V1-V2 covers speed range at most urban city
and part highway conditions.
To notice engine braking is not considered as motor braking
would be much more economically efficient.
71
Figure 5-7 THS Power Flow Chart V1<V<V2
During the power split mode, engine torque is split into two ways. One way goes through M/G1
and the other way goes through M/G2.
M/G2 produces additional torque plus torque split from
the engine to satisfy the wheel torque demand.
The power generated at M/G1 is used to
maintain the battery SOC while the motor is drawing power. M/G2 is also used to capture
braking energy to regenerate electricity.
As vehicle speed increased, the spinning direction of M/G1 switches again (around 100 km/h
according to Figure 5-4). As the direction changed, M/G1 switched from a generator to a motor.
In this speed range, M/G2 could operate as either a motor or a generator. At this point, if both
motors are withdrawing power from battery, the battery SOC is no longer sustainable. As a
result, M/G2 would be used as a generator to keep the SOC balance.
To notice a power
circulation happened when M/G2 operates as a generator. Power circulation is an energy flow of
the same form circulating among the system.
heat.
It usually brings in energy loss and generates more
From Figure 5-8 at node of ring gear, part of torque received from engine and M/G1 was
used to generate electricity at M/G2. The electric energy was then used to supply power demand
72
at M/G1.
And the torque generated at M/G1 went back to M/G2.
As a result, there was an
energy flow circulating among M/G2, M/G1 and Battery. It would significantly reduce the
system efficiency which partly explained the poor fuel economy of Prius on a highway condition.
Figure 5-8 THS Power Flow Chart V>V2
Table 5-1 summarized operating mode of engine and motors at all speed range. M/G1 could be
switched on as a motor during the engine off mode but it’s not necessarily the case.
The power
circulation only takes place when vehicle speed is over V2 continuously.
Table 5-1 Engine and Motor Operating Condition of THS
Backward
Forward low speed (V<V1)
Engine Start
Forward Normal (V1<V<V2)
Forward Over speed (V>V2)
*, ** : If M/G1 is switched on
Engine
M/G 1
M/G 2
Off
Off
On
On
On
Off/Motor*
Off/Motor**
Generator
Generator
Motor
Motor
Motor
Motor
Motor
Generator
Table 5-2 further explained the power flow path in details.
form to electrical form and then back to mechanical form.
Power
Circulation
No
No
No
No
Yes
Energy converts from mechanical
73
Table 5-2 Power Flow Summery of THS
Power
Flow 1
Backward/Low
Engine Start
speed
Battery-M/G2-Out Battery-M/G2Out
Mid-speed
Power
Flow 2
Power
Flow 3
Battery-M/G1-S-R Battery-M/G2-R-S Engine-C-R-Out (optional)
-M/G1-Battery
Out
Battery-M/G2-R- Engine-C-SC-Engine
M/G1-Battery
Over Speed
Battery-M/G2- Engine-C-ROut
M/G2
Engine-C-R-O
ut
Battery-M/G1S-R-Out
5.1.3. The First Mode of a Two-mode Transmission
Due to the different mechanical configurations of the two modes, each mode was discussed
separately. On first mode, there are four shafts connected to the planetary gear transmission, a
engine shaft, two motor shafts and an output shaft to the wheel. Eq. (5.15) described the
absolute drive ratio between the output shaft and the engine shaft. This gear train has two
degrees of freedom, the speed of both electric motors ωM / G1 , ωM / G 2 are determined by engine
speed and output speed in Eq. (5.16). Figure 5-10 shows the speed profile of motors and engine
during speed was constantly accelerating.
Figure 5-9 First Mode Drivetrain Configuration
74
Rc1r1 =
ωout ωc1
k
=
=
ωengine ωr1 1 + k − Rsc
(5.15)
ωM / G1 = (k1 + 1)ωout − k1ωEngine ⎫⎪
ωM / G 2 = (k2 + 1)ωout
⎬
⎪⎭
(5.16)
According to Eq. (5.6), torque relations in first mode were found in Eq. (5.17)
⎫
⎪
⎪
⎬
k +1
1
=−
Tout − 1
Tengine ⎪
k2 + 1
k1 (k2 + 1)
⎭⎪
TM / G1 =
TM / G 2
1
Tengine
k1
(5.17)
Figure 5-10 Speed of Engine, M/G 1, M/G2 and Output Shaft
Both forward and backward movement of the vehicle was considered.
The simulation section to
be presented in the following section will not consider the backward movement. For the forward
movement of the vehicle, the power flow factors (PF) of both planetary gears were shown in Eq.
(5.18) using Eq. (5.8) and relations shown in Figure 5-10.
75
θ r1s1 = −1,θ r 2 s 2 = 0 ⎫
⎪
θ r1c1 = −1,θ r 2c 2 = 0 ⎬
θ c1s1 = 1,θ c 2 s 2 = −1 ⎭⎪
(5.18)
Figure 5-11 First-mode Power Flow Chart-Engine Off
Figure 5-11 shows the power flow of the two-mode transmission when engine is off.
would withdraw the power and catch braking power through the regenerative braking.
M/G2
76
Figure 5-12 Power Flow Chart of Forward Movement in the First Mode
A1in Figure 5-12 shows power flow when vehicle is idling or at very low power demand. If the
vehicle is idling, the power flow follows the solid line transforming from the engine to the M/G1.
When vehicle is moving but at low power demand, engine provides adequate power to the wheel
through carrier gear and to the M/G1 at the same time. The excess power from the engine could
be captured by the motor/generator 2(M/G2) through the carrier and the sun gear on planetary
gear 2 as shown.
77
A2 shows power flow of the most common operating condition in the first mode. There are two
ways power transferring from the engine to the wheel. One way is directly through the ring 1 to
the carrier 1. No energy transformation takes place.
The other way is through M/G1 as a
generator to M/G2 as a motor. Here the mechanical energy would be transformed into electrical
form and back to mechanical form by electric motors.
ESS is charged if more power provided
by M/G1 than requested by M/G2. ESS would be discharged otherwise. A3 shows power flow
when the vehicle is decelerating or braking. Most of the power would be captured by M/G2 and
charged back to ESS shown as dot line. Mechanical brake disks or drums play an important part
during an emergent brake. There is also a possibility of using engine brake. First mode is also
used when vehicle moves backward. The PF is then calculated in(5.19).
θ r1s1 = −1, θ r 2 s 2 = 0 ⎫
⎪
θ r1c1 = 1,θ r 2 c 2 = 0 ⎬
θ c1s1 = −1, θ c 2 s 2 = −1⎪⎭
(5.19)
Figure 5-13 Power Flow Chart of Backward Movement in the First Mode
During the backward movement, only M/G2 is activated. The power flow is shown in Figure
5-13. Table 5-3 and Table 5-4 summarized the engine and the motor operation for the first mode.
78
There is no power circulation takes place except for backward movement.
Table 5-3 Summery of Engine, M/G1 and M/G2 in First Mode
Engine
Idle
On
Forward Power Low* On
Forward Normal
On
Forward Brake
On
Backward
On/Off**
M/G1 1
As Generator
As Generator
As Generator
As Motor
As Generator
M/G2
Off
As Generator
As Motor
As Generator
As Motor
Power Circulation
No
No
No
No
Yes*
* Can be eliminated by accurate engine control
**Can turn off if battery SOC is high enough
Table 5-4 Power Flow Summery of First Mode
Idle
Engine-R1-S
1-M/G1
Forward Power
Low
Engine-R1-S1M/G1
Engine-C1-Out
Engine-C1-C2S2-M/G2
Forward Normal Forward
Brake
Engine-R1-S1-M/ Out-C2-S
G1
2-M/G2
Engine-C1-Out
M/G2-S2-C2-Out
Backward
Engine-R1-S1-M/G1
M/G2-S2-C2-Out
M/G2-S2-C2-C1-S1-M/
G1(power circulation)
5.1.4. The Second Mode of a Two-mode Transmission
Figure 5-14 is the drivetrain configuration of the second mode.
In the second mode, the ring
gear on PG2 is connected to the sun gear 1 instead of being grounded.
Figure 5-14 Second Mode Drivetrain Configuration
79
There are also four shafts connected to the planetary gears transmission.
Eq. (5.20) is the
absolute drive ratio between the output shaft and engine shaft, where ω the angular velocity as is
defined previously.
This gear train has two degrees of freedom, speed of both motors
ωM / G1 , ωM / G 2 are determined by the engine speed and output speed in Eq. (5.21).
Rc1r1 =
ωout ωc1
k
=
=
ωengine ωr1 1 + k − Rsc
(5.20)
ωM / G1 = (k1 + 1)ωout − k1ωEngine
ωM / G 2
⎪⎫
⎬
= (1 − k1k2 )ωout + k1k2ωEngine ⎪⎭
(5.21)
Using Eq. (5.6), torque relations are found in Eq. (5.22)
k2
1 − k1k2
⎫
Tout +
TEngine ⎪
(1 + k2 )k1
k2 + 1
⎪
⎬
k1 + 1
1
=−
Tout −
TEngine ⎪
(k2 + 1)k1
k2 + 1
⎭⎪
TM / G1 = −
TM / G 2
(5.22)
At a vehicle speed lower than Vs3, the power flows factors (PF) of both planetary gears are
shown in(5.18) using(5.8) and relations in Figure 5-10.
θ r1s1 = 1,θ r 2 s 2 = 1 ⎫
⎪
θ r1c1 = −1, θ r 2 c 2 = −1⎬
θ c1s1 = −1, θ c 2 s 2 = −1⎪⎭
(5.23)
There are two possible power flows transformations at the vehicle speed of V3 or lower. The
first one is shown in Figure 5-15 A1. Both M/G1 and M/G2 withdraw power from the ESS.
The mechanical power provided by M/G1 is split into two paths to the wheel. One way goes
through S1 to C1; the other way goes through R2 to C2.
This power flow mode is favourable
when vehicle speed is between V_shift and Vs2, as shown in Figure 5-10.
The reason for it is
the low speed of M/G1 between V_shift and Vs2, which provides relative low power to the wheel.
M/G2 acts as a motor to provide additional torque.
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The second power flow direction is shown in Figure 5-15 A2. As the speed of M/G1 increases,
power output at M/G1 increases. At certain speed Vs2 when M/G1 and engine provides more
power than the wheel required, M/G2 switches from motor to generator.
Figure 5-15 Power Flow of Second Mode at Vehicle Speed of Vs3 or Lower
Node S1 receives power from both M/G1 and ring 2 through internal power circulation. As
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vehicle speed increases, M/G1 switches to generator if power from ring 2 is adequate for node S1.
This speed is defined as Vs4. In this study, the speed Vs4 greater than Vs3 was assumed.
result, M/G1 is always a motor when the vehicle speed is below Vs3.
As a
While the vehicle is
decelerating or braking at this speed range, the power is split between M/G1 and M/G2 to
generate power. The second mode also enables the system to recapture more power than in the
first mode, as both electrical machines could be activated. This feature is also beneficial to
capture the higher braking power at higher speed. The shaft to engine is also disconnected by a
clutch while braking as a result of opposite direction torque provided to the engine.
The power
flow of braking is shown in Figure 5-16.
Figure 5-16 Power Flow of Second Mode during Brake at a Vehicle Speed of Vs3 or Lower
After the vehicle speed reaches higher than Vs3, the direction of M/G2 changes as in Figure 5-10.
The FP is changed accordingly in Eq. (5.24).
θ r1s1 = 1,θ r 2 s 2 = −1 ⎫
⎪
θ r1c1 = −1, θ r 2 c 2 = −1⎬
θ c1s1 = −1, θ c 2 s 2 = 1 ⎪⎭
(5.24)
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The power flow transformation at a vehicle speed higher than Vs3 is shown in Figure 5-17.
Figure 5-17 Power Flow of Second Mode at a Vehicle Speed Greater than Vs3
Node S1 receives power from both M/G1 and ring 2.
At a vehicle speed between V3 and V4,
M/G1 acts as a motor since power received from ring 2 is lower than power demanded at S1.
Power from engine is added to power from node S1 and sended to carrier 1. Output power from
M/G2 is split into two paths. One way goes directly to the wheel and the other way goes
through S1.
While the vehicle speed is greater than Vs4, M/G1 switches from a motor to a
generator. In this case, part of the power would circulate from M/G2 back to M/G1. The
power flow at node S1 changes to charge battery.
83
Figure 5-18 Power Flow of Second Mode Brake at Speed over Vs3
Figure 5-18 is the power flow of second mode while braking. The braking energy is regenerated
by M/G1. There are two paths of power flow.
One way goes through PG1 to S1. The other
way goes through PG2. In the second path, torque from M/G2 is added and sent to M/G1.
Compared with braking at lower speed in Figure 5-16, less power could be captured as only M/G1
could be active.
More braking power aid from friction brake would be needed.
The operation of engine and motors were summarized in Table 5-5. Power circulation took
place at several operation conditions. The circulated paths were summarized at
Table 5-6.
Table 5-5 Summery of Engine, M/G1 and M/G2 in Second Mode
Speed Range
Engine
M/G1
M/G 2
V_shift to Vs2
Vs2-Vs3
Brake<Vs3
Vs3-Vs4
On
On
Disengaged
On
Motor
Motor
Generator
Motor
Motor
Generator
Generator
Motor
Power
Circulation
No
Yes
No
Yes
84
Vs4Brake>Vs3
On
Disengaged
Generator
Generator
Motor
Motor
Yes
Table 5-6 Power Flow Summery of Second Mode
V_shift to
Vs2
Engine-R
1-C1-Out
M/G1-S1C1-Out
M/G1-R2
-C2-Out
Vs2-Vs3
Brake<V
s3
Engine-R1-C1 Out-C2-Out
R2-M/G1
M/G1-S1-C1- Out-C2-S
Out
1-M/G2
M/G1-S1-C1C2-R2-M/G1
M/G2-S2- M/G1-S1-C1C2-Out
C2-S2-M/G2
5.2.
Vs3-Vs4
Vs4-
Brake>Vs3
Engine-R1-C1
-Out
M/G1-S1-C1Out
M/G2-S2-R2S1-C1-out
Engine-R1-C
1-Out
M/G2-S2-R2
-S1-C1-Out
M/G2-S2-R2
-S1-M/G1
Out-C2-R2M/G1
M/G2-S2-R
2-M/G1
M/G1-S1-C1- Engine-R1-C
C2-R2-M/G1 1-C2-R2-S1M/G1
Vehicle Modeling in ADVISOR
The power source of a two-mode hybrid electric vehicle consists of an ICE and two electric
motors.
The principal theory is to improve the ICE operation efficiency a during the vehicle
operation with the assists from both electric motors as well as ESS.
Two electric motors served
as either motor or generator depending on mode and speed to coordinate power flow between the
vehicle demand and ICE output. The excess power generated or consumed was charged or
discharged by the ESS.
The ICE operation was determined by the vehicle power demand and
SOC of ESS. Therefore, SOC of ESS was maintained at a predetermined range for optimal
charge/discharge capability, efficiency and longer cycle life.
The advantage with two-mode was that the ICE ran at its optimal combination of speed and
torque at all the time. The engine fuel consumption is therefore much lower. However, part of
the power goes through two conventions during the transportation of the energy between the ICE
and the wheels (ICE-Generator-Motor-Wheel) which creates power loss on electrics. Energy
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lost because of the ESS inner resistance, friction and planetary gears are also worth consideration.
5.2.1. Modeling of Drivetrain
The modeling of a drivetrain in a two-mode hybrid vehicle shares lots of similarity with the
powertrain modeling in the elevator model.
The “power at the wheels” Pwheel, which is a sum of
the total mechanical power demanded, is calculated according to vehicle speed and acceleration.
The power at the wheels model, calculated as the dot product of the vehicle velocity and the
various forces acting upon the vehicle, considers the following determining factors as shown in
Figure 5-19. The four resistances a vehicle facing were force for acceleration, force to overcome
gravity, rolling resistance of the wheels, aerodynamic resistance or drag.
2
v ero
C D AF a
1 ρ air
2
cos A
mgC rr
mg
A
s
mg co
n
mg si
A
A
Figure 5-19 Free Body Diagram of a Truck
The power at the wheels model is given by:
Pwheel = ∑ Force × v = ( Facceleration + Fincline + Frr + Fdrag ) × v
= (ma + mg sin A + mgCrr cos A + 1 ρ air CD AF vaero 2 ) × v
2
(5.25)
where m is the total mass of vehicle, a is the vehicle acceleration, v is the vehicle velocity, A is the
angle of slope, Crr is the coefficient of tire rolling resistance, CD is the drag coefficient, ρ is the
density of air, AF is the frontal cross-section area, and vaero is the velocity of the vehicle plus the
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headwind (m/s). The coefficient of rolling resistance (Crr) was experimentally obtained.
It was
a function of many factors including the deformation of the tire, weight of the vehicle, tire
pressure, roughness of the surface and radius of the wheel. It was the ratio of the rolling
resistance force to the load on the tires.
It was fairly constant for a given tire and road surface.
In the aerodynamic drag term, the drag coefficient CD was a dimensionless constant that
attempted to capture the resistance caused by the relative motion of the vehicle and the air. The
CD can vary from as high as 1.2 for a bicycle with an erect rider to 0.7 for a truck, and to 0.20 for
a very aerodynamically styled sport car. Although the equation used to determine the drag
power was a simplification, it avoided complex airflow simulation while preserved the general
behaviours of the drag force with respect to velocity.
The frontal cross-section area was
measured on the truck by projecting a bright light directly onto the front of the truck and then
measuring the area of the shadow on a wall behind to obtain the cross-sectional area. The
density of air ρ is approximately 1.23 kg/m3. Vehicle modeling parameters for a trust of interest
are listed in Table 5-7.
Table 5-7 Modeling Parameters
CD
Crr
AF (m2)
Curb Weight (kg)
Auxiliary Power (W)
Class 7 Truck
0.7
0.009
8.55
5818
7450
Mid-size Sedan
0.3
0.009
1.7
1500
700
Electric Scooter
0.9
0.014
0.6
105
60
Vehicle
The truck coefficient of tire rolling resistance was estimated to be 0.009 by NREL research group.
The drag coefficient and frontal area were obtained Based on a Kenworth T400 truck. The
velocity dependence of the rolling resistance coefficient was likewise neglected.
5.2.2. Modeling of Engine
An ICE is a complex assembly a variety of components that are designed on the basis of
aerodynamic laws.
A mathematical engine model with individual components is complicated.
87
Also, the engines designed by different manufacturers can be significant different in material and
structure.
Therefore, it is difficult to quantified modeling parameters which are also
confidential.
In the vehicle simulation, engine model was used to represent the accuracy of fuel consumption
and emission calculation. An empirical model based on test data of existing engine served as a
choice for this particular need. In this study, the engine test data was based on a 7.3L diesel
engine and implemented in ADVISOR model.
Figure 5-20 is a schematic diagram of engine
model in ADVISOR. The required torque and speed was calculated from externally as an input
signal to this block. The engine model decided the torque and speed available to delivery and
calculated fuel and emission accordingly.
The existing engine data was obtained from a Detroit diesel 7.3L engine. Two look-up maps
were in this model, engine torque and fuel consumption. Engine torque map decided engine
torque limit at each speed, while fuel consumption table decide fuel rate (g/s) of engine speed and
torque.
Figure 5-20 Engine Model Schematic Diagram
88
Figure 5-21 Simulink Block Diagram of Engine Thermal and Fuel Model
Figure 5-21 shows the Simulink diagram of engine thermal model in ADVISOR.
Engine
temperate was calculated based on engine friction, material conductivity and coolant temperature.
Due to availability of test data, thermal effect was not considered. A more accurate result of fuel
and emission data could be obtained if thermal test data becomes available.
5.2.3. Modeling of a Two-mode Transmission
The need for the higher highway fuel economy and higher power output leads to further
mechanical development of the two-mode transmission.
input split mode and a compound split mode.
switch.
A two-mode transmission includes an
Several mechanical clutches were used for mode
The powertrain of a two-mode HEV is shown in Figure 5-22.
Figure 5-22 A Schematic Diagram of Two-mode HEV
89
The first mode of the two-mode transmission was activated when clutches CL1=1, CL2=0,
CL3=1, as shown earlier in Figure 5-9. Engine was engaged with ring gear 1. The ring gear of
PG2 was fixed through clutch 3. In first mode, the system operated as input split. M/G1
operated as generator and M/G2 operated as a motor. The drivetrain configuration of fist mode
is shown in Figure 5-9. The input torque of engine from ring gear 1 was split between carrier 1
and sun gear 1. The torque received at M/G1 and carrier 1 use Eq. (5.26) and Eq. (5.27),
TM / G1 =
Tout1 = TC1 =
1
(TEngine − J ring1ω ring1 − J sun1ω sun1 )
k1
(5.26)
k1 + 1
(TEngine − J ring1ω ring1 − J carrierω carrier )
k1
(5.27)
PG2 at this mode was in fact a torque multiplier. As ring gear on PG2 was grounded, the motor
torque is then transfer to the final shaft as in Eq. (5.28),
Tout 2 = −(k2 + 1)(TM / G 2 − J sun 2ω sun 2 − J carrierω carrier )
(5.28)
That final torque available to the final shaft is Eq. (5.29)
k1 + 1
k +1
TEngine − 1 ( J ring1ω ring1 + J carrierω carrier )
k1
k1
−(k2 + 1)TM / G 2 − (k2 + 1)( J sun 2 (k2 + 1)ω carrier + J carrierω carrier )
Tout = Tout1 + Tout 2 =
(5.29)
As k1 equals to k2 in this study, the final torque is further simplified as Eq. (5.30)
1
1
1
Tout = (1 + )TEngine − (1 + k )TM / G 2 − ω carrier ((2 + + k ) J carrier + (k + 1) 2 J sun 2 ) − ω ring1 (1 + ) J ring1
k
k
k
(5.30)
The second mode of the two-mode transmission was activated when clutches CL=1, CL2=1,
CL3=0.
The engine was engaged with ring gear 1 to provide the power instead of being fixed.
The ring gear of PG2 was connected to M/G1. The system then operated as both input and
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output split. In this mode, the input torque of engine from ring gear 1 was split between carrier 1
and sun gear 1. The received Torque at M/G1 and carrier 1 are using Eq. (5.31) and(5.32),
TM / G1 =
Tout1 = TC1 =
1
(TEngine − J ring1ω ring1 − J sun1ω sun1 )
k1
(5.31)
k1 + 1
(TEngine − J ring1ω ring1 − J carrierω carrier )
k1
(5.32)
PG2 at this mode was also a torque splitter. As ring gear on PG2 connected to M/G1, the motor
torque was transferred to the final shaft as in Eq. (5.33).
Tout = −(k2 + 1)TM / G 2 −
k1 + 1
TEngine
k1
(5.33)
That final torque available to the final shaft was decided. As k1 equals to k2 in this study, the
result was simplified as the following equation,
1
1
1
Tout = −(1 + )TEngine − (1 + k )TM / G 2 − ω carrier ((2 + + k ) J carrier + (k + 1)2 J sun 2 ) − ω ring1 (1 + ) J ring1
k
k
k
(5.34)
Based on speed and torque relations explained in chapter 5.1 and section 5.2.3, a two-mode
transmission model was built in Simulink to incorporate with the rest of ADVISOR models.
Figure 5-23 is the top level of a two-mode transmission model built in Simulink. This model
received 5 inputs externally and sent out 4 outputs.
These inputs and outputs decide the torque
and speed for a specific powertrain components based on demand from one other. The
functionalities of the input and output ports are explain in Table 5-8.
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Table 5-8 Signal Interface Explanation of a Two-mode Transmission Model
Inputs
Input1
Input2
Input3
Input4
Input5
Torque and speed required
from output shaft
Torque and speed available at
engine
Torque and speed available at
M/G1
Torque and speed available at
M/G2
Mode Shifting Signal
Outputs
Out1
Torque and speed available at
output shaft
Out2
Torque and speed required
from engine
Out3
Torque and speed required
from M/G1
Out4
Torque and speed required
from M/G2
The model contains three blocks, a first mode block, a second mode block and a mode selector as
shown in Figure 5-23.
When one mode is activated, the other mode block is bypassed. The
mode selection is decided by input 5 which contains engine speed to be used with vehicle speed.
Figure 5-23 Two-mode Transmission Model and its Controller
Figure 5-24 is the detailed diagram in first mode block. The torque and speed on each gear were
calculated according to relations explained previously.
on a similar basis, which is not explained in detail.
The second mode block was constructed
92
Figure 5-24 First Mode Block in Transmission Model
5.3.
Control Strategy of a Two-mode Hybrid Vehicle
5.3.1. Review on HEV Control Development
The control strategies of hybrid electric are in an area of high interest due to the complex nature
of hybrid electric vehicles. Engineering intuitions based control strategies frequently fail to
achieve the optimal of overall system efficiency.
An optimal control strategy for a parallel
hybrid truck using dynamic programming methods was introduced in [63, 64].
Other
researchers explored different ways leading to an optimal control to minimize fuel consumption
of parallel hybrid vehicles in general [9, 65-68].
An approach to control powertrain of series
hybrid electric vehicles from the aspect of excitation of motor winding control was presented in
[69]. Power management logics for fuel cells hybrid electric vehicles were given in [70, 71].
93
The study of two-mode hybrid vehicles control strategy was not available in literature. The
review and modeling of two-mode hybrid electric were studied in detail by the author’s research
group [11]. The control theory in this simulation is explained in the following section.
5.3.2. Mode Selection
Figure 5-25 Mode Switch Control
Figure 5-25 shows the basis on how the mode is selected. The mode switch speed is determined
by the engine speed. With an engine speed range between 2000 rpm and 3000 rpm, the mode
switch speed changes from 40 km/hr to 60 km/hr.
If the current vehicles become greater than
the mode switch speed, mode 2 will be chosen. Otherwise, mode 1 will be selected. In a
two-mode configuration, the mode was switched when both ends of the clutch reached the same
speed.
It also guaranteed the smooth operation of the vehicle.
During the mode switch
according to Figure 5-26, the engagement of clutch 2/3 was switched from fixture to sun gear 1
when M/G1 reaches stationary point (direction change).
The switch speed (in km/h) was decided
using the following equation.
k
Vswitch = ( 1 )ωengine ÷ R final × rwheel × 3.6
1 + k1
(5.35)
94
5.3.3. Power Management of First Mode
Due to the difference of mechanic configurations on each of the two modes, power management
strategies were studied differently. On first mode, as the configuration shown in Figure 5-9, ring
gear of PG2 was fixed.
Figure 5-26 Speed Profile of All Shafts (Engine Speed predefined)
The control strategy of mode 1 is explained in Figure 5-27. As in a backward mode, the power
demand from the transmission output can be calculated according to speed profile of drivecycle
and the vehicle dynamic model.
Instead of producing the exact power at each time instance,
such as on a non-hybrid vehicle, the engine on a hybrid vehicle only produced the average power
demand based on last 14 seconds power demand average. The speed of both motors discussed in
section 5.1.3 was calculated from the engine speed and vehicle speed. The torque of M/G1 was
decided by engine, to ensure the transmission operating at relative steady status.
produced the supplementary torque to the final drive.
M/G2
95
Figure 5-27 Power Management Chart Mode 1
The main objective of this control theory was to maintenance the battery SOC with in a
predefined to range. Table 5-9 showed the value of SOC target and range in this simulation. In
order to catch regenerative braking power, the SOC range was decided at between 0.45 and 0.75,
with a target at 0.6. While the battery operated with the predefined SOC range, a control signal
was generated either to increase or reduce the engine power so that the target SOC could be
achieved.
While operating beyond the range, as a reason of battery inefficiency or low
capability, a penalty value was be added to ensure the battery operating within the range.
Table 5-9 ESS SOC Management
Initial
0.7
Target
0.6
Low
0.45
High
0.75
96
5.3.4. Power Management of Second Mode
The power management chart of second mode is as shown in Figure 5-28.
The only difference
between first and second mode is how M/G1 power was decided. In second mode, M/G1 was
connected to both sun gear on PG1 and ring gear on PG2. Therefore, power of M/G1 was
decided by both the output wheels.
The ESS SOC management for this mode was same as that in first mode.
control theory was used as discussed previously.
Figure 5-28 Power Management Chart Mode 2
Therefore, the same
97
5.4.
Computer Simulation
To evaluate the performance of a two-mode hybrid vehicle, a conventional vehicle model was
used a guideline.
The modeling of the conventional vehicle was described by [28].
The
vehicle weight reflected the vehicle in a loaded condition. The specification of the vehicle
simulated is shown in Table 5-10.
Table 5-10 Simulation Vehicles Specification
Two-mode
Conventional
Engine
Motor/Generator 1
Motor/Generator 2
Energy Storage System
Transmission
Weight
Engine
Transmission
Weight
171 kW Diesel
GE-AC83
GE-AC83
200 Units of Ni-MH 6Ah/7.2V
2 Planetary Gears
12311 kg
246 kW Cummins Diesel
Eaton Fuller 10-Speed
12311 kg
5.4.1. Drive Cycles
Drive cycles for real life vehicles are well developed. These velocity profiles can be valuable in
exploring and comparing the performance of different vehicles, as they can closely reflect
real-world driving patterns.
Many of these driving cycles are standardized for particular
purposes by various international bodies.
For example determining the city and highway
mileage figures for new cars is accomplished by using two different standard velocity profiles.
Other driving cycles had been obtained experimentally from driving in various regions, including
New York City during a daily commute, or on the highway in Madras, India.
After the
simulation was completed, results can be obtained including values from the vehicle as a whole or
of individual sub-systems. Information from individual time periods during the simulation or
aggregate results can be collected and compared.
The model showed the difference between the
achieved speed and the desired speed, as well as how much power was required to reach the
98
driving cycle. Four drive cycles were chosen for the simulations. These drive cycles represent
drive schedules for all types of conditions.
Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule for Heavy Duty Vehicles (UDDSHEV)
UDDSHEV represents a less busy traffic urban drive condition for heavy duty vehicles. It is an
8.94 km cycle last 1060 seconds. The average speed is 30.3 km/h while the max speed is as high
as 92 km/h. The peak acceleration is 2m/s2.
There are 14 stops during the cycle. The total
idling time is 353 seconds.
New York City Truck Driving Schedule (NYCTRUCK)
NYCTRUCK represents a busier traffic urban drive condition for heavy duty vehicles based on
New York City. It is a 3.43 km cycle last 1016 seconds.
the max speed is as high as 54.7 km/h.
during the cycle.
The average speed is 12.16 km/h while
The peak acceleration is 2m/s2. There are 20 stops
The total idling time is 529 seconds.
City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Route (CSHVR)
CSHVR represents a composite drive cycle of various macro trip pulled from on-road test data.
It represents typical city suburban driving for a heavy vehicle.
seconds.
It is a 10.81 km cycle last 1780
The average speed is 21.86 km/h while the max speed is as high as 70.49 km/h.
The
peak acceleration is 1.16m/s2. There are 18 stops during the cycle. The total idling time is 385
seconds.
Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET)
Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET) driving cycle used by the US EPA for Corporate Average
Fuel Economy certification of passenger vehicles in the US. It is a 16.51 km cycle last 765
seconds. The average speed is 77.58 km/h while the max speed is as high as 96.4 km/h.
The
peak acceleration is 1.43m/s2. There is only 1 stop during the cycle. The total idling time is 6
seconds.
99
5.4.2. Road Performance
In this section, the road performance of the two-mode vehicle model was presented based on four
drive cycles.
The simulation results on these speed profiles were first compared with speed
requested (drive cycle). Then an acceleration test and a grade ability test were carried out.
Figure 5-29 shows the simulation result of vehicle speed following the UDDSHEV drivecycle.
The dashed line is cycle speed requested while the solid line is vehicle speed achieved. There
were barely noticeable differences between the two which are circled in the figure.
Figure 5-29 Vehicle Speed on the UDDSHEV Cycle
Figure 5-30 shows the simulation result of the vehicle speed on the NYCTRUCK drivecycle.
The dashed line is cycle speed requested while the solid line is vehicle speed achieved. The
speed differences between the two are circled in the figure. The vehicle showed slightly under
power during the rapid acceleration. However, the difference was within the acceptable range.
100
Figure 5-30 Vehicle Speed on NYCTRUCK Cycle
Figure 5-31 shows the simulation result of vehicle speed following the CSHVR drivecycle.
The
dashed line is cycle speed requested while the solid line is vehicle speed achieved. The average
speed difference was 0.67 km/h. The vehicle showed adequate power supply at higher speed.
The missing cycle was mostly due to gearbox response at low speed.
The simulation result of vehicle speed on the HWFET cycle is shown in Figure 5-32. The
dashed line is cycle speed requested while the solid line is vehicle speed achieved. The average
speed difference was 0.7 km/h. The vehicle showed slightly under power during acceleration.
The speed curve on the high speed was nicely satisfied. The missing cycles are circled in the
figure.
101
Figure 5-31 Vehicle Speed on CSHVR Cycle
Figure 5-32 Vehicle Speed on HWFET Cycle
102
5.4.3. System Operation
Using ADVISOR, the performance characteristic of each subsystem can be obtained. In this
section, NYCTRUCK cycle was used as the simulation cycle. The operation condition on each
of the components were simulated and analyzed. Figure 5-33 shows the engine power and
vehicle power demand during NYCTRUCK driving cycle. The engine power demand was
calculated based on the average power demand of last 14 seconds.
Therefore, the engine power
curve was much smoother than the actual real time power demand.
A negative value on engine
power was a result of engine brake. Figure 5-34 further shows the power demand at both
electric motors, where a negative value represent power generation mode.
From this result, the
output power at M/G2 was in much dramatic changing manner than M/G1.
Figure 5-33 Engine Power on NYCCTRUCK Cycle
103
Figure 5-34 Electric Motors Power Demand over NYCCTRUCK Cycle
Figure 5-35 shows the speed of the engine, the electric motors and the output shaft. The engine
speed was no longer decided by gear ratio but by different control strategies. The engine was
designed to operate at an optimal speed regarding to every power demand. The negative value
on M/G1 speed reflected the opposite direction of rotation.
Figure 5-35 Speed of Engine and Electric Motors on NYCTRUCK Cycle
104
Figure 5-36 Battery SOC History on NYCTRUCK
Figure 5-36 is the history of battery SOC during running the NYCTRUCK cycle. The initial
ESS SOC was 0.7. The operation range was between 0.55 and 0.7. The downward trend of the
curve reflected the discharging nature during the short simulation period. The fluctuant of SOC
was caused by charging power from regenerative braking.
5.4.4. System Efficiency
Hybrid electric vehicles achieve a higher fuel economy by improving efficiency of engine
operation. However, electric power loss is introduced due to the additional electric motors and
energy storage system.
To evaluate the overall system, efficiency of sub components were
simulated and analyzed. Engine efficiency was calculated based on mechanical energy produced
divided by energy from fuel. Efficiencies of both electric motors considered both power mode
and regenerative mode. The axle loss between the two vehicles was the same.
The overall
efficiency was calculated as Eq. (5.36);
(5.36)
105
Figure 5-37 to Figure 5-40 are simulation results of the system efficiency on each subsystem. It
shows that the engine efficiency on most driving cycles was improved while an electric loss was
also introduced. The added loss was on energy storage systems and both electric motors. The
efficiency of electrical components on a conventional vehicle of an ICE engine was assumed to be
100% since it is not equipped with these electrical components.
The engine efficiency
improvement was considerably greater than the improvement of the overall system.
Therefore,
efficiency improvement on electrical components (electric motors, energy storage system and
power electronics) would further help to improve the overall efficiency.
Figure 5-37 Efficiency of Two Mode HEV and Conventional ICE Vehicle on UDDSHEV
Cycle
106
Figure 5-38 Efficiency of Two Mode HEV and Conventional ICE Vehicle on
NYCCTRUCK Cycle
Figure 5-39 Efficiency of Two Mode HEV and Conventional ICE Vehicle on CSHVR
Cycle
107
Figure 5-40 Efficiency of Two Mode HEV and Conventional ICE Vehicle on HWFET
Cycle
Figure 5-41 Summery of Fuel Consumptions
Figure 5-41 summarized simulation result of vehicle fuel consumptions over the four driving
cycles.
Two-mode HEV shows 25% improved fuel efficiency on average.
The most
108
significant improvement was on NYCTRUCK cycle which is a busy urban traffic schedule based
on New York City. The least improvement is on the HWFET cycle, a highway driving cycle.
5.4.5. All Electric Range
In the end, an all-electric-mode (AEM) was simulated. All electric range was activated when
engine was switched off. The intention to keep engine off was largely due to the in-efficient
operation of engine at low speed.
With limited energy storage system and motor power,
all-electric-mode was activated at low speed and low power conditions.
vehicle speed at AEM.
Figure 5-42 shows
The vehicle showed significant under power during acceleration and
higher speeds exceed 40 km/h. Therefore, it was only feasible to operate in AEM at low speed.
Figure 5-42 All Electric Mode Operation on NYCCTRUCK
Figure 5-43 shows the history of battery SOC when running NYCTRUCK at AEM.
The battery
SOC dropped from 0.7 to 0.55 at the first load cycle at about 250 seconds.
Due to the
inefficiency of battery operating at a low SOC, the vehicle had reached a point in which engine
had to start. Therefore, the AEM running time in this driving cycle was 250 seconds unless
109
capacity of energy storage system was increased.
The AEM time is always case dependent and
there is no definite time or range for it.
Figure 5-43 Battery SOC on NYCTRUCK at AEM
5.5.
Conclusions
In this study, a two-mode HEV model was built. The operation of each powertrain component
as well as the overall system was simulated. The results of the study on the two-mode vehicle
were both promising and unsatisfactory.
The simulated vehicle succeeded in completing four driving cycles with no significant cycle
miss-match.
demand.
This indicated that the two-mode truck provided adequate power to the road
The engine efficiency was improved by at least 35% and an average of 56% over 4
drive cycles. The engine speed was no longer restrained to the vehicle speed and gear ratios.
With the added degrees of freedom, the engine speed was decided according to engine power
efficiency map.
The overall improvement on fuel efficiency was also promising. The vehicle
achieved a higher efficiency gain at a busy urban traffic schedule. The improvement on a
highway cycle was a bit less but also attractive. Besides, the vehicle power was adequate to
110
propel the vehicle at a lower speed when engine is switched off.
The all electric range was
limited but can be improved with increased energy storage capacity.
The future improvements needed on the model is to better reflect the nature of real world vehicles.
More refined control strategies have to be developed and electric loss should be reduced.
However, there are a series of restrictions to improve the model in ADVISOR.
ADVISOR is a
well developed tool and fast to simulate. It contains numerous valuable data which were tested
by different agencies. The main limitation of it is the nature of empirical model based on fixed
testing environments which couldn’t be modified to reflect changed operation conditions.
One
of author’s intentions is to develop a “hybrid ESS” which introduces ultracapacitors to work with
batteries so that the performance of hybrid energy storage could be explored. Some challenges
were found to carry on this work on ADVISOR.
Besides, the backward modeling approach of
ADVISOR has a distinct difference theory of operation from the real world vehicle driving. To
solve these problems and limitations on ADVISOR, a more flexible model tool using a forward
modeling approach was studied and introduced in the following chapter.
111
CHAPTER 6 Modeling of ICE Hybrid Powertrain for a
Parallel Hybrid Truck Using Modelica/Dymola
and Validation
At the later stage of this study, a collaborative research agreement was made with a leading HEV
manufacturer. The objective of this collaboration is to build a computer model that reflects the
vehicle in production and also to explore the potential powertrain efficiency gain using other
hybrid drivetrain designs.
To further improve the flexibility of vehicle simulations, Dymola was used to perform the work.
As previously introduced in CHAPTER 3, Dymola is an efficient tool to develop complex
physical models.
The programming nature of Dymola is close to Simulink in MatLab.
However, with vehicles libraries developed based on Dymola, modeling a hybrid vehicle in
Dymola becomes easier. In this study, two libraries were used to facilitate the modeling process,
the Powertrain library and the Smart Electric Drive library.
Validation of the Dymola models and simulation using experiment test data of four major
powertrain components have shown satisfactory results, although validation at the system level
has not yet been completed due to time constraint and the complexity of the task.
6.1.
Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle
The baseline vehicle in this collaboration work is a parallel hybrid vehicle. The configuration of
a parallel hybrid vehicle was introduced in Section 1.3. As the electric motor is located after the
transmission, the vehicle is so called a post-transmission parallel hybrid vehicle.
112
Figure 6-1 a Post-Transmission Parallel HEV Configuration
Figure 6-1 shows the configuration of this parallel HEV. An inline motor was used to couple
with the engine torque. A clutch is located prior to inline motor could be used to disengage the
gearbox when engine is switched off.
The principal torque and speed relations on a parallel
HEV are described as Eq. (6.1) and Eq. (6.2), where Tfinal and Vfinal are torque and speed to final
drive, Tengine and Vengine are torque and speed for engine, and Tmotor and Vmotor are for electric motor.
Rgearbox is the gear ratio at gear box.
(6.1)
(6.2)
As there is only one electric motor in a Parallel HEV, the motor operates at either powering or
generating mode.
While engine power supply exceeds power demand at the wheel, the motor
regenerates the excess energy and stores it in the ESS.
While a power surge is demanded at the
wheel which is higher than engine outputting power, the motor withdraws power from ESS and
supplies the additional torque. The motor is also used to regenerate energy from braking.
6.2.
Vehicle Modeling in Dymola
In contract to a backward modeling approach used in ADVISOR, a forward modeling approach
was used in this parallel HEV modeling in Dymola. A forward modeling approach is known to
better represent the behavior of a real vehicle and driver. The modeling algorithm of a generic
vehicle model is shown in Figure 6-2. A driver model decides pedal and brake signal according
to system response.
Then the vehicle responses to the operation command and vehicle speed is
calculated. The vehicle speed is compared with cycle speed demand.
error) is sent back to driver model to adjust the pedal and brake.
The speed difference (or
113
In a conventional vehicle, the pedal signal is directly interpreted as engine fuel injection or torque
been generated accordingly.
The brake signal on the other hand would be interpreted at braking
force applied on the brake disk.
In a parallel HEV, the pedal and brake signal is considered
differently. As the power sources include both engine and motor, the pedal signal controls the
added power from both sources.
This is also understood as a control strategy to split the torque
load so that the engine operates more efficiently. The brake signal controls both the mechanical
brake disk as well as the electric motor because of the regenerative braking. The direct control
logic is to maximize the motor regenerative capacity and to use brake disk for further assistance.
Figure 6-2 Forward Vehicle Modeling Algorithm in Dymola
6.2.1. Engine Modeling
The engine model built in Dymola consists of three parts, a base engine, a starter motor and a
speed governor. The base engine receives power request from a driver model and generates the
torque accordingly. Engine frictions and other losses are considered. A starter motor is used to
generate the starting torque to start the engine. A speed governor is used to confine engine speed.
It restricts engine speed between the range of maximum speed and idle speed.
The outline of
114
engine model in Dymola is shown at Figure 6-3.
Figure 6-3 Engine Model in Dymola
A simplified base engine model theory is explained in Figure 6-4. The base engine receives
pedal signal from driver model and translates it into engine torque request. The engine loss and
auxiliary load are calculated according to engine speed. Finally, the engine torque at output
shaft is decided.
The fuel consumption is calculated based on experimental engine data provided
by the industrial partner.
115
Figure 6-4 Base Engine Modeling
An engine speed governor model is used to confine engine speed within a range. This model
receives engine speed Vr and calculates a desirable engine speed Va. The difference (error) is
corrected by controlling the pedal signal through a P controller.
Figure 6-5 Engine Speed Governor Modeling
6.2.2. Transmission Modeling
A 5 speed automatic transmission was used in this vehicle. The transmission model includes a
torque converter, two clutches, a gearbox model and two switching controllers. Figure 6-6
shows the transmission model in Dymola. Flange_a receives output torque from engine.
Then
clutch and Torque converter adjust the input torque for gear shifting. The controlledWheelset
decides the dynamic gear ratio change on the gear selected. The last component on drivetrain is
116
a one way clutch which is used to disengage gearbox in all electric mode (AEM).
Figure 6-6 Transmission Model in Dymola
The transmission loss consists of two parts, one is spin loss; the other is torque loss. The spin
loss is decided by output gear speed and gear selected.
The torque loss is decided by turbine
torque at torque converter and gear selected.
6.2.3. Chassis and Resistance Modeling
The chassis model in Dymola includes a brake, a differential and two tires as shown in Figure 6-7.
The brake signal is inputted from the drive model. The normal force acted on the brake disk is
proportional to the brake signal.
The differential block was modeled as a fixed ratio gear. A
power transmission efficiency of 98% was used.
117
Figure 6-7 Chassis Model in Dymola
The resistance model was modelled similar to drivetrain model described at section 5.2.1.
forces were considered, acceleration, air-drag, rolling resistance and grade force.
Four
The schematic
drawing of these forces was shown in Figure 5-19. Figure 6-8 is the modeling diagram of
vehicle resistance in Dymola.
Figure 6-8 Vehicle Resistance Model
118
6.2.4. Driver Modeling
A driver model in a forward vehicle modeling approach simulates behaviors of a human when
operating a motor vehicle. A driver decides whether to accelerate or to brake in order to follow
the drivecycle closely. The “brain work” is usually done by using a PI controller or a Lead
Compensator. In this model, both controllers were modeled. A PI controller was selected as it
provided a better match of the drive cycle from the simulation results.
Figure 6-9 Driver Model
6.3.
Models Simulation and Validations
Upon completion of the modeling, experimental data provided by the manufacturer were used to
validate each component. The experimental data was obtained from the industrial partner. The
validated models include the engine, the transmission, the torque converter and the vehicle chassis
resistance.
6.3.1. Engine Model Validation
The engine data was based on a ten seconds incremental pedal position from 0 to 1. Figure 6-10
shows the comparison of simulation results and test data. It is shown that the engine model
provided a close match to test result. The initial starting period shows a considerable mismatch.
119
However, the simulation result of engine shows a closer match with the test data after 4 seconds
after.
Table 6-1 Engine Model Input
Input
Pedal Position
Load
Description
Y=0.1t, for 10 seconds
20 kg.m2
Figure 6-10 Engine Model Validation
6.3.2. Torque Converter Model Validation
A torque converter is used to adjust the torque and speed from the engine to the gearbox for an
automatic transmission. The loss at a torque converter sometime is significant which results in a
higher fuel consumption of an automatic vehicle compared with its manual transmission
counterpart. Therefore, it is important to model a torque converter which accurately reflects the
120
power transfer and loss on an actual vehicle. In order to evaluate the output from the computer
model, a comparison was made using an input as shown in Table 6-2.
Table 6-2 Torque Converter Model Input
Input
Torque Input
Load
Description
T=50sin(t)+150
50 kg.m2
Figure 6-11 and Figure 6-12 show the comparison of simulation result on torque and speed. The
comparison shows a close match of the test and the simulation data.
Figure 6-11 Torque Converter Validation - Output Torque
121
Figure 6-12 Torque Converter Validation - Output Speed
6.3.3. Transmission Model Validation
The transmission model validation was carried out on each of the five gears. A known torque
was inputted to the torque converter to simulate an engine torque.
A rigid body with inertia of
50 kgm2 was used to attach to the output shaft to simulate the load. Figure 6-13 shows the
comparison of simulation results and data from the manufacturer. The transmission speed at
output shaft matched most of the test data. Therefore, the transmission model is considered
adequately accurate to represent transmission tested.
Table 6-3 Transmission Input
Input
Torque Input
Load
Description
Y=150+sin(t)
50 kg.m2
122
Figure 6-13 Transmission Model Validation - Output Speed
6.3.4. Chassis and Resistance Model Validation
The chassis and resistance model in Dymola was simulated to compare against results provided
by manufacturer.
A torque was inputted at final axle to simulate a torque output from
transmission. The input torque is shown at Table 6-3. The simulated data shows the chassis
and resistance model provides a close match with test data.
Table 6-4 Transmission Input
Input
Torque Input
Description
Y=500+3000sin(t)
123
Figure 6-14 Vehicle Chassis Model Validation - Vehicle Speed
6.4.
Overview and Conclusions
At the current stage, a simulation using Dymola model at the system level has not yet been carried
out. Several key drivetrain components in the system have been modeled.
Simulations were
run on these models to compare the results with test data provided by the manufacturer. The
results on most simulations showed a very good match to experimental data. It is therefore
demonstrated that Dymola is capable of modeling a complex vehicle system.
To complete the modeling of a parallel HEV, additional work in several areas has to be carried out.
The motor, energy storage device and power electronics units have to be modeled and validated.
Afterwards an optimal control strategy should be introduced and applied on the vehicle model.
Improvements on efficiency and performance using the optimized control strategy need be
verified.
124
CHAPTER 7 Summary
7.1.
Research Problem
The improvement of HEV design over conventional vehicle is largely on better powertrain
efficiency.
To verify the optimal design of vehicle powertrain, validation using costly prototype
is expensive and sometime impractical.
Vehicle simulation is a method for fast and systematic
investigation of different design options and configurations, including the choice of various types
of battery, transmission, fuel cells, fuel reformer, etc as well as their parameters.
Therefore,
simulation based analysis on vehicle performance is both useful and crucial to the development of
new hybrid vehicles.
At present, the available vehicle simulation tools cannot support the
modeling and analysis of all vehicle design options, rather than focusing on very specific
applications.
Considerable work is needed to introduce more capable and reliable powertrain
modeling and simulation tools to guide new hybrid vehicle design.
7.2.
Technology Review
In this study, two general issues of hybrid electric vehicles were reviewed, including the
state-of-the-art powertrain configurations and advanced energy storage systems.
Comparisons
were made to find optimal design for certain application. A review of vehicle simulation tool
was carried out.
Two modeling platforms introduced in detail were Matlab/Simulink and
Modelica/Dymola. These simulation packages were used extensively through this study.
7.3.
Vehicle Modeling
To better assist the design and development of future generation HEV, three distinct vehicular
systems were studied and modeled using two vehicle modeling packages, ADVISOR and Dymola.
125
The first model is a fuel cell based hybrid power backup system used for an elevator in a high-rise
building. It is modified from an electric vehicle model built in ADVISOR.
The simulation
results demonstrated the technical and cost feasibility of using fuel cell power system to provide
uninterrupted power to the elevator system. A second model built is a Class 7 commercial truck
using a two-mode truck model built on ADVISOR.
The simulation results showed that the
two-mode hybrid powertrain has adequate power as well as a dramatic improvement on fuel
efficiency.
The last vehicle model of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle was done on the Dymola
platform.
Computer models of key vehicle powertrain components, engine, transmission, and
chassis were built. The simulation results are validated using test data provided by the vehicle
manufacturer. The integrated system model is not yet completed and vehicle simulation was not
performed.
7.4.
Future Work
The research forms the foundation for further studies on the modeling and analysis of advanced
hybrid vehicle powertrain configurations using advanced modeling and simulation tools.
The preliminary studies on fuel cell hybrid power system for elevator power backup system; the
two mode hybrid vehicle powertrain configuration; and the use of Dymola to model complex
hybrid vehicle powertrain and ESS provide promising research directions that deserve further
study.
126
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