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Application Report
SNVA489C – November 2011 – Revised April 2013
AN-2162 Simple Success With Conducted EMI From DCDC Converters
Alan Martin
.....................................................................................................................................
ABSTRACT
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) is an unwanted effect between two electrical systems as a result of
either electromagnetic radiation or electromagnetic conduction. EMI is the major adverse effect caused by
the application of switch-mode power supplies (SMPS). In switching power supplies, EMI noise is
unavoidable due to the switching actions of the semiconductor devices and resulting discontinuous
currents. EMI control is one of the more difficult challenges in SMPS design, beyond functional issues,
robustness, cost, thermal and space constraints.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Contents
Overview ..................................................................................................................... 2
Conducted EMI .............................................................................................................. 2
Conducted EMI Characteristics And Mitigation Technique ............................................................ 3
EMI Filter Design ............................................................................................................ 5
4.1
Required Attenuation .............................................................................................. 5
4.2
Inductor Selection: Lf .............................................................................................. 5
4.3
Capacitor Selection: Cf ............................................................................................ 6
4.4
Damping capacitor: Cd ............................................................................................. 6
Design Example ............................................................................................................. 7
5.1
Example 1: LMZ23605 ............................................................................................ 7
5.2
Example 2: LMZ14202 ............................................................................................ 9
Line Impedance Stabilization Network (LISN) ......................................................................... 10
References ................................................................................................................. 12
List of Figures
..............................................................................................
1
Three-Line SMPS Input Port
2
Two-Line SMPS Input Port With Differential Mode Noise Only ....................................................... 3
3
Conducted EMI Measurement Without Filter Switching Frequency = 370 kHz ..................................... 3
4
Simplified Schematic For EMI Filter Design ............................................................................. 4
5
Small Ripple Approximation ............................................................................................... 5
6
Example Of Undamped And Damped Filter ............................................................................. 6
7
Bode Plot of the LMZ23605 Additional (Lf ,Cf) Input Filter ............................................................. 7
8
LMZ23605 Evaluation Board Conducted EMI Measurement Without Filter ......................................... 8
9
LMZ23605 Evaluation Board Conducted EMI Measurement With Filter
10
Bode Plot of the LMZ14202 additional (Lf ,Cf) input filter .............................................................. 9
11
LMZ14202 Evaluation Board Conducted EMI Measurement Without Filter ....................................... 10
12
LMZ14202 Evaluation Board Conducted EMI Measurement With Filter ........................................... 10
13
Schematic of Test Setup Showing Internal LISN Components...................................................... 11
14
Schematic of Test Setup With LISN Equivalent Circuit in DC-DC Converters .................................... 11
............................................
2
8
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1
Overview
1
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Overview
To prevent electronics from interfering with the operation of other devices, EMI is regulated by the
government where the electronic device is being sold. In Europe, there are the European norms,
(EN55022, and so forth) and in the USA there is FCC part 15. EMI in SMPS is classified in two forms:
conducted EMI and radiated EMI. They are differentiated by the manner in which the EM field propagates
between circuits. For conducted EMI, noise is coupled via conductors or through parasitic impedances, or
power and ground connections. While for radiated EMI, unwanted noise is coupled via radio transmission.
This brief focuses on the theory and mitigation techniques of the conducted portion of EMI, specifically as
generated by a step-down switcher.
2
Conducted EMI
Conducted EMI arises from the normal operation of switching circuits. The ON and OFF actions of the
power switches generate large discontinuous currents. The discontinuous currents are present at the input
side of buck converters, the output side of boost converters and at both input and output ports of flyback
and buck-boost topologies. Voltage ripple generated by discontinuous currents can be conducted to other
systems via physical contact of the conductors. Without control, excessive input and/or output voltage
ripple can compromise operation of the source, load or adjacent system. The discontinuous currents at the
input port of a converter need to be filtered by an input filter to smooth out the voltage perturbations
leading to the source. Meanwhile, the output side is usually well filtered by the existing output filter of the
converter. Proper application of filtering leads to meeting regulatory requirements that allow the end
product to be sellable in the marketplace.
Conducted EMI is sub-divided into differential-mode and common-mode categories as the two modes are
similarly measured but controlled through different methods. The following schematic is a representation
of a SMPS system showing common mode and differential mode signal locations. This configuration is
generally found with the AC-DC type SMPS as well as galvanically isolated DC-DC converters, as shown
in Figure 1.
ILINE1
LINE 1
ILINE2
LINE 2
SAFETY
GROUND
SMPS
ISGND
Figure 1. Three-Line SMPS Input Port
The common mode noise VCOMM and differential mode noise VDIFF are described by
VCOMM= (VLINE1+VLINE2) / 2 and VDIFF= (VLINE1 - VLINE2) / 2,
(1)
where VLINE1 and VLINE2 are the noise voltages on line and return terminals, respectively. Common mode
conducted noise is a signal which is found in-phase on both the line and return conductors with respect to
safety ground. Common mode noise also typically has equal amplitude on both line and return conductors
with respect to neutral. In contrast, differential mode interference is a noise signal which exists between
the line and return conductors. (Line 1 and Line 2)
In a typical IC based non-isolated DC-DC SMPS, only two lines connect to the input port. So any current
going in through one terminal has to go out through the other. In this configuration, the common mode
noise VCOMM will always be zero.
Figure 2 represents a typical SMPS system that has differential mode noise only. This configuration is
found with non-isolated DC-DC type SMPS. The balance of this application report focuses on the
reduction of this type of differential mode conducted EMI.
2
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Conducted EMI Characteristics And Mitigation Technique
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IDIFF
LINE 1
SMPS
IDIFF
LINE 2
Figure 2. Two-Line SMPS Input Port With Differential Mode Noise Only
3
Conducted EMI Characteristics And Mitigation Technique
Conducted EMI involves the normal operation of DC-DC converters. It does not involve circuit parasitics
except input or output capacitor ESR and ESL. PCB layout itself is not going to help reduce conducted
EMI. Further, conducted EMI is only related to the current level, not the voltage level at input or output
ports. In another words, with the same power level buck converter, lower input voltage means higher input
current, thus worse input conducted EMI.
Compliance with conducted EMI standards usually requires the addition of a low pass filter between a
switching-mode power converter and the input power source. Typically this is a passive LC filter with the
inductor placed on the “hot” input lead of the SMPS (LINE1 in Figure 2).
The input port EMI noise comes from voltage ripple generated by the discontinuous current on the input
capacitors. The fundamental frequency of the voltage ripple is the switching frequency of the converter.
Higher order harmonics of the fundamental frequency also exist in the noise spectrum. Figure 3
represents a typical conducted differential-mode EMI plot of a DC-DC buck SMPS prior to the addition of
the EMI filter. Note that the fundamental switching frequency and several harmonics extend above the
regulatory limits. The height of the fundamental above the target limit line establishes the required
additional filter attenuation needed in order to comply with the desired limit. Also note that from the
standpoint of regulatory test requirements, the measurement frequency span extends from 10 kHz up to
30 MHz. However, there may be system requirements above the frequency range of the regulatory spec
that fall into the scope of the SMPS input filter. These system requirements should also be considered and
evaluated. It has been observed that keeping the conducted differential EMI performance in check above
30 MHz will assist in meeting the separately tested radiated EMI requirements. For a discussion of
radiated EMI mitigation, see AN-2155 Layout Tips for EMI Reduction in DC / DC Converters Data Sheet
(SNVA638).
Figure 3. Conducted EMI Measurement Without Filter
Switching Frequency = 370 kHz
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Conducted EMI Characteristics And Mitigation Technique
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Figure 4 shows the conventional circuit configuration with a DC power source, the LC EMI filter and the
target SMPS. Note the EMI filter configuration is actually from the right to the left. In other words the filter
“ac input” is VBand the filter “ac output” is VA. Filter design is accomplished by choosing the inductor Lf and
the capacitor Cf.
Lf
VA
DC
power
source
VB
+
Cf
Cd
CIN
Switching
converter
EMI filter
Figure 4. Simplified Schematic For EMI Filter Design
The typical procedure for designing an input filter for a Buck or Buck-Boost converter is summarized
below:
1. Identify noise level at the switching frequency. Figure 3 shows the most significant noise magnitude
appearing at the switching frequency. The required attenuation is the difference between the nonfiltered noise level and the governing EMI standard requirement at the switching frequency. The low
pass filter provides even greater attenuation for the higher order harmonics of the switching frequency.
The switching frequency attenuation is the worst case condition and is the focus of the filter design.
The typical procedure is to measure the EMI peak level without added filters under worst case
operation (highest input current.) The repeatable measurement of conducted EMI performance
requires the inclusion of a Line Impedance Stabilization Network (LISN) between the power source and
the EMI filter. Details on noise measurement by a LISN is provided in a later session of the document
Section 6. (This brief also provides two methods to quantify the noise magnitude without a LISN.)
2. Calculate the required attenuation. The difference between the noise level at the fundamental
switching frequency and the required level defined in the appropriate standard for the target market
place.
3. Select filter inductance Lf.
4. Calculate filter capacitance Cf.
5. Calculate damping capacitance Cd. Another aspect of the design of the LC stage is that large values of
Lf and small values of CIN can lead to input instability on the SMPS with accompanying adverse effects
on the normal operation of the supply. The damping capacitance Cd can be used to provide extra
damping such that the input filter is not affecting the stability of the converter.
4
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EMI Filter Design
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4
EMI Filter Design
This brief provides simple equations to predict the required attenuation and Lf, Cf selection.
4.1
Required Attenuation
Two easy-to-use methods introduced here can be used to estimate the required EMI filter attenuation
previous to making a certified measurement using a LISN and spectrum analyzer.
METHOD 1
It has been observed that the time domain amplitude of input ripple can lend to an estimate of the required
attenuation needed and can be done using a wide bandwidth oscilloscope. Observing the voltage ripple
on the input of the SMPS with an oscilloscope and applying the following equation allows us to estimate
the fundamental EMI amplitude. This method allows a first pass design of the filter components previous
to certified measurements.
|Att|dB=20 log (Vin-ripple-p2p/ 1µV) - Vmax
(2)
where |Att|dB is the required attenuation for the input filter design in dB; the Vin-ripple-p2p is the measured
peak-to-peak voltage ripple at the switching frequency in volts; and Vmax is the target maximum allowable
value at the switching frequency in dB. Vmax is a noise level requirement found in the appropriate EMI
standard at the switching frequency.
METHOD 2
The current at the input can be modeled as a square wave (by assuming small ripple approximation), as
shown in Figure 5.
Small ripple
approximation
Input
current
No approximation
I
t
DxT
T
Figure 5. Small Ripple Approximation
By simply extracting the first harmonic of current from the Fourier series of the input current waveform and
multiplying that value by the impedance at the input port (the impedance is defined by the existing input
capacitor CIN), an analytical formula can be derived to obtain the required attenuation:
|Att|dB = 20 log (
I
sin(SD)
S2fsCIN
1 PV
) - Vmax
(3)
Where D is the duty cycle, I is the DC inductor current (which corresponds to the output current in case of
a buck converter), fs is the switching frequency, and CIN is the existing input capacitor of the converter
which is assumed to be a low ESR ceramic type.
4.2
Inductor Selection: Lf
The inductor defines the resonant frequency of the EMI filter hence its value (Lf) is usually in the range of
1 µH to 10 µH for low and medium power applications. Choose the highest value in compliance with
amperage and physical size requirements.
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EMI Filter Design
4.3
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Capacitor Selection: Cf
Pick the higher value determined by the following two formulas:
Cfa =
CIN
CINLf(2Sfs/10)2 -1
|Att|dB /40
Cfb =
1 10
(
Lf
2Œfs
(4)
2
)
(5)
Where fs is the switching frequency of the converter.
The first formula ensures that the resonance frequency of the EMI input filter is at least one decade below
the switching frequency. The second formula is derived from an approximation that ensures proper
attenuation of the EMI filter. Select the higher value of Cfa and Cfb because both conditions must be met.
4.4
Damping capacitor: Cd
Addition of an input filter to a switching regulator leads to a modified control-to-output transfer function.
The output impedance of the filter must be sufficiently small at point VB so that input filter does not
significantly affect the loop gain of the SMPS. The peak of the impedance at the filter's resonance corner
frequency is largely dependent on the filter LC parasitics. Added damping is needed when the output
impedance is very high at the resonant frequency (that is, Q of filter formed by CIN and Lf is too high.)
An electrolytic cap Cd can be used as damping device, with value
Cd≥4×CIN
(6)
And ESR value:
ESRd § L f /C IN
(7)
The purpose of ESRd is to reduce the peak output impedance of the filter at the cutoff frequency. The
capacitor Cd blocks the dc component of the input voltage, and avoids excessive power dissipation on
ESRd. The capacitor Cd should have lower impedance than ESRd at the resonant frequency, with a value
greater than the filter capacitor CIN, in order to not affect the cutoff point of the main filter. Figure 6 shows
transfer functions of an undamped (solid line) and a damped (dotted line) filter as an example. This
represents the source impedance of the EMI filter output at point VB, looking toward the dc source. The
impedance peak of the filter is greatly reduced with the addition of the damping capacitor. The dc voltage
rating of the electrolytic should be at least 25% larger than the worst case maximum source voltage.
Figure 6. Example Of Undamped And Damped Filter
6
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Design Example
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5
Design Example
5.1
Example 1: LMZ23605
The first design example is based on LMZ23605 evaluation board. For the details about the board, see the
AN-2085 LMZ23605/03, LMZ22005/03 Evaluation Board User's Guide (SNVA457).
The operation condition of the experiment is summarized below:
VIN (min)
30 V
VOUT
3.3 V
IOUT (max)
3A
CIN
2 x 10 µF
fS
800 kHz
The input filter component values used in the experiment is listed below:
Est. Noise Level
≈ 80 dBµV
Required Noise Level Vmax
≈ 40 dBµV
Required Attenuation
40 dB
Selected Lf
1 µH
Calculated Cfa
4.9 µF
Calculated Cfb
2.5 µF
Selected Cf
4.7 µF
Cd
150 µF*
NOTE: * Cd here is part of the input capacitors on the LMZ23605 evaluation board.
Figure 7 shows the additional attenuation provided by the addition of Lf and Cf. Figure 8 shows the
conducted differential-mode EMI plot of the LMZ23605 evaluation board before and after the addition of
LC filter.
VA 60
VB 40
20
(dB)
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
7
10
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Figure 7. Bode Plot of the LMZ23605 Additional (Lf ,Cf) Input Filter
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Design Example
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Figure 8. LMZ23605 Evaluation Board Conducted EMI Measurement Without Filter
Figure 9. LMZ23605 Evaluation Board Conducted EMI Measurement With Filter
8
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Design Example
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5.2
Example 2: LMZ14202
The second example is based on LMZ14202 evaluation board. For more details, see the AN-2024
LMZ1420x / LMZ1200x Evaluation Board User's Guide (SNVA422).
The operation condition of the experiment is summarized below:
VIN (min)
30 V
VOUT
3.3 V
IOUT (max)
1.6 A
CIN
10 µF + 1 µF
fS
370 kHz
The input filter component values used in the experiment is listed below:
Est. Noise Level
≈ 80 dBµV
Required Noise Level Vmax
≈ 40 dBµV
Required Attenuation
40 dB
Selected Lf
3.9 µH
Calculated Cfa
8.3 µF
Calculated Cfb
6.4 µF
Selected Cf
10 µF
Cd
100 µF
Figure 10 shows the additional attenuation provided by the addition of Lf and Cf. Figure 11 shows the
conducted differential-mode EMI plot of the LMZ23605 evaluation board before and after the addition of
LC filter.
VA 60
VB
40
20
(dB)
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
7
10
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Figure 10. Bode Plot of the LMZ14202 additional (Lf ,Cf) input filter
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Line Impedance Stabilization Network (LISN)
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Figure 11. LMZ14202 Evaluation Board Conducted EMI Measurement Without Filter
Figure 12. LMZ14202 Evaluation Board Conducted EMI Measurement With Filter
In most cases, the LC design will benefit from iteration. In these examples, the SMPS system now passes
required conducted compliance levels.
The EMI measurements shown in this document are obtained using a LISN. The details of a LISN are
discussed in Section 6.
6
Line Impedance Stabilization Network (LISN)
For consistent results, conducted EMI tests are performed using a temporarily installed passive device
called a LISN. The LISN is connected in series with the power input lines to the SMPS under test. The
LISN establishes consistent source and measurement impedance allowing for repeatability of test results.
Conducted emissions are measured using a spectrum analyzer via an RF connection to a port on the
LISN. The LISN is employed for both common mode and differential mode tests.
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Line Impedance Stabilization Network (LISN)
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The schematic of a three-line SMPS test system with the LISN included is shown in Figure 13. Figure 14
shows the LISN equivalent circuit in a two-line SMPS. Run EMI scans with the spectrum analyzer
connected first to Line 1 and then to Line 2 and select the scan with the highest graphical results. Note
that average and quasi-peak limit lines are illustrated on the EMI plots. Consult the spectrum analyzer
equipment operating manual for proper interpretation.
Regulatory standards suggest the required bench arrangement for location of source, LISN, SMPS under
test, and their locations relative to the measurement bench top. These locations must certainly be
observed for certified tests. However, there is notable freedom to depart from these positions for trial
readings provided the power cables aren’t coiled up tightly. Tightly coiled power cords may contribute
series cable inductance that may falsely lower the analyzer reading.
50 PH
+
0.1 PF
LINE 1
1 PF
1000:
BATTERY
POWER
SOURCE
TO 50:
METER
C1
1000:
SMPS
EMI
FILTER
1 PF
0.1 PF
CIN
CD
LINE 2
50 PH
Figure 13. Schematic of Test Setup Showing Internal LISN Components
Llisn
100 PH
Lf
Vdm(t)
+
Vg
+
-
Rlisn
100:
Clisn
0.5 PF
+
Cd
Cf
CIN
i(t)
LISN
DC
power
source
EMI filter
Switching
converter
Figure 14. Schematic of Test Setup With LISN Equivalent Circuit in DC-DC Converters
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References
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CAUTION
The LISN is traditionally employed to test AC line operated products and
usually has conventional US NEMA AC power connectors for I/O. These need
to be adapted to appropriate DC connections for the power source and system
under test. Caution - Be sure to securely stow these AC/DC cord adapters
when not in use as the open wire terminations will present lethal voltages if
inappropriately connected to mains wiring. It also can lead to disastrous results
if AC mains voltage is applied to the DC-DC converter input.
The LISN has a selector switch to connect its monitoring output to either the hot
or return supply leads labeled Line1 and Line2. A measurement scan is
performed separately on each switch setting. Each spectrum analyzer scan
takes approximately 10 minutes to complete.
It is highly recommended that a battery be used as the measurement system
power source. A battery provides a quiet source of dc power that won’t create
or couple additional sources of EMI. Since batteries are a low impedance
source, always include a series fuse for fire safety protection. Additionally an
On-Off switch provides a convenient method of preserving battery run time
between scans. LED indicators can provide quick operating status without
added complexity.
An auxiliary function of the LISN is to protect the spectrum analyzer from the dc
voltage present on the supply and return power conductors. This is
accomplished by the 0.1 uF blocking capacitor(s) preceding the Line1-Line2
switch. The capacitor forms a high pass filter function that blocks the DC supply
voltage from the sensitive 50 Ohm spectrum analyzer input. However, the high
pass filter also faithfully couples the step voltage change that occurs when the
Line1-Line2 or battery power switches are actuated. So it is advisable that the
spectrum analyzer input be temporarily disconnected prior to any switching
event. (As the measurement bandwidth is only 30 MHz, BNC interconnects can
speed this step.) This will reduce the chance of damage to the spectrum
analyzer input as the result of a switch induced transient. Damage to the input
of the spectrum analyzer is both costly and time consuming to properly repair.
7
References
•
•
•
•
•
12
Robert W. Erickson, “Optimal Single Resistor Damping for Input Filter”
R.D. Middlebrook, “Design Techniques for preventing Input Filter Oscillations in Switched-mode
regulators
M. Sclocchi, “Input filter design for switching power supplies”
Robert W. Erickson, “Fundamentals of Power Electronics”
Mark J. Nave, “Power Line Filter Design for Switched- Mode Power Supplies
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