Cisco CISCO2821 Specification

Cisco CISCO2821 Specification
Cisco 2811 and Cisco 2821
Integrated Services Routers
with
AIM-VPN/EPII-Plus
FIPS 140-2 Non Proprietary Security Policy
Level 2 Validation
Version 1.6
September 08, 2008
© Copyright 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc.
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Table of Contents
1
INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................. 3
1.1 PURPOSE ............................................................................................................................. 3
1.2 REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................... 3
1.3 TERMINOLOGY .................................................................................................................... 3
1.4 DOCUMENT ORGANIZATION ................................................................................................ 3
2 CISCO 2811 AND 2821 ROUTERS......................................................................................... 5
2.1 THE 2811 CRYPTOGRAPHIC MODULE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS ...................................... 5
2.2 THE 2821 CRYPTOGRAPHIC MODULE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS ...................................... 8
2.3 ROLES AND SERVICES ........................................................................................................... 12
2.3.1. User Services ................................................................................................ 12
2.3.2 Crypto Officer Services .................................................................................. 12
2.3.3 Unauthenticated Services............................................................................... 13
2.3.4 Strength of Authentication .............................................................................. 14
2.4 PHYSICAL SECURITY ............................................................................................................. 14
2.5 CRYPTOGRAPHIC KEY MANAGEMENT .................................................................................. 19
2.6 SELF-TESTS ....................................................................................................................... 27
2.6.1 Self-tests performed by the IOS image ....................................................... 27
2.6.2 Self-tests performed by NetGX Chip ........................................................... 27
2.6.3 Self-tests performed by AIM ........................................................................ 28
3
SECURE OPERATION OF THE CISCO 2811 OR 2821 ROUTER ............................. 28
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
INITIAL SETUP ................................................................................................................... 28
SYSTEM INITIALIZATION AND CONFIGURATION ................................................................. 29
IPSEC REQUIREMENTS AND CRYPTOGRAPHIC ALGORITHMS ............................................. 29
PROTOCOLS ....................................................................................................................... 30
SSLV3.1/TLS REQUIREMENTS AND CRYPTOGRAPHIC ALGORITHMS ................................ 30
REMOTE ACCESS ............................................................................................................... 30
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1
Introduction
1.1 Purpose
This document is the non-proprietary Cryptographic Module Security Policy for the Cisco 2811
and 2821 Integrated Services Routers with AIM-VPN/EPII-Plus installed. This security policy
describes how the Cisco 2811 and 2821 Integrated Services Routers (Hardware Version: 2811 or
2821; Firmware Version: IOS 12.4 (15) T3) meet the security requirements of FIPS 140-2, and
how to operate the router enabled in a secure FIPS 140-2 mode. This policy was prepared as part
of the Level 2 FIPS 140-2 validation of the Cisco 2811 or 2821 Integrated Services router.
FIPS 140-2 (Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 140-2 — Security
Requirements for Cryptographic Modules) details the U.S. Government requirements for
cryptographic modules. More information about the FIPS 140-2 standard and validation program
is available on the NIST website at http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/STM/index.html.
1.2 References
This document deals only with operations and capabilities of the 2811 and 2821 routers with
AIM modules in the technical terms of a FIPS 140-2 cryptographic module security policy.
More information is available on the routers from the following sources:
The Cisco Systems website contains information on the full line of Cisco Systems
routers. Please refer to the following website:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/routers/index.html
For answers to technical or sales related questions please refer to the contacts listed on
the Cisco Systems website at www.cisco.com.
The NIST Validated Modules website
(http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/STM/cmvp/validation.html) contains contact information
for answers to technical or sales-related questions for the module.
1.3 Terminology
In this document, the Cisco 2811 or 2821 routers are referred to as the router, the module, or the
system.
1.4 Document Organization
The Security Policy document is part of the FIPS 140-2 Submission Package. In addition to this
document, the Submission Package contains:
Vendor Evidence document
Finite State Machine
Other supporting documentation as additional references
This document provides an overview of the routers and explains their secure configuration and
operation. This introduction section is followed by Section 2, which details the general features
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and functionality of the router. Section 3 specifically addresses the required configuration for
the FIPS-mode of operation.
With the exception of this Non-Proprietary Security Policy, the FIPS 140-2 Validation
Submission Documentation is Cisco-proprietary and is releasable only under appropriate nondisclosure agreements. For access to these documents, please contact Cisco Systems.
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2 Cisco 2811 and 2821 Routers
Branch office networking requirements are dramatically evolving, driven by web and ecommerce applications to enhance productivity and merging the voice and data infrastructure to
reduce costs. The Cisco 2811 and 2821 routers provide a scalable, secure, manageable remote
access server that meets FIPS 140-2 Level 2 requirements. This section describes the general
features and functionality provided by the routers. The following subsections describe the
physical characteristics of the routers.
2.1 The 2811 Cryptographic Module Physical Characteristics
Figure 1 – The 2811 router case
The 2811 Router is a multiple-chip standalone cryptographic module. The router has a
processing speed of 350MHz. Depending on configuration, installed AIM-VPN/EPII-Plus
module, or the internal NetGX chip or the IOS software is used for cryptographic operations.
The cryptographic boundary of the module is the device’s case. All of the functionality
discussed in this document is provided by components within this cryptographic boundary.
The interface for the router is located on the front and rear panels as shown in Figure 2 and
Figure 3, respectively.
Figure 2 – Front Panel Physical Interfaces
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Figure 3 – Rear Panel Physical Interfaces
The Cisco 2811 router features a console port, an auxiliary port, two Universal Serial Bus (USB)
ports, four high-speed WAN interface card (HWIC) slots, two10/100 Gigabit Ethernet RJ45
ports, an Enhanced Network Module (ENM) slot, and a Compact Flash (CF) drive. The 2811
router supports one single-width network module, four single-width or two double-width
HWICs, two slots for AIM-VPN/BPII-Plus cards1, two internal packet voice data modules
(PVDMs), two fast Ethernet connections, and 16 ports of IP phone power output. Figure 2 shows
the front panel and Figure 3 shows the rear panel. The front panel contains 4 LEDs that output
status data about the system power, auxiliary power, system activity, and compact flash busy
status. The back panel consists of 12 LEDs: two Ethernet activity LEDs, two duplex LEDs, two
speed LEDs, two link LEDs, two PVDM LEDs, and two AIM LEDs.
The front panel contains the following:
• (1) Power inlet
• (2) Power switch
• (3) Optional RPS input
• (4) Console and auxiliary ports
• (5) USB ports
• (6) CF drive
• (7) LEDs described in table 1.
The back panel contains the following:
• (1) Ground connector
• (2) and (3) Ethernet ports and LEDs
• (4)-(7) HWIC slots
• (8) ENM slot.
The following tables provide more detailed information conveyed by the LEDs on the front and
rear panel of the router:
Name
State
Description
System Power
Off
Blinking Green
Solid Green
Solid Orange
Power off
ROMMON mode
Operating normally
System Error Detected
1
The security policy covers the configuration in which one AIM card is used.
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Auxiliary Power
Activity
Compact Flash
Off
Solid Green
Solid Orange
Off
Blinking Green
Solid Green
Off
Solid Green
-48V PS and RPS not present
-48V PS or RPS present and functional
-48V PS or RPS present and failure detected
No interrupts or packet transfer occurring
System is servicing interrupts
System is actively transferring packets
No ongoing accesses, eject permitted
Device is busy, do not eject
Table 1 – 2811 Front Panel Indicators
Name
State
Description
PVDM1
Off
Solid Green
Solid Orange
Off
Solid Green
Solid Orange
Off
Solid Green
Solid Orange
Off
Solid Green
Solid Orange
PVDM1 not installed
PVDM1 installed and initialized
PVDM1 installed and initialized error
PVDM0 not installed
PVDM0 installed and initialized
PVDM0 installed and initialized error
AIM1 not installed
AIM1 installed and initialized
AIM1 installed and initialized error
AIM0 not installed
AIM0 installed and initialized
AIM0 installed and initialized error
PVDM0
AIM1
AIM0
Table 2 – 2811 Rear Panel Indicators
The following table describes the meaning of Ethernet LEDs on the rear panel:
Name
State
Activity
Off
Solid/Blinking Green
Off
Solid Green
One Blink Green
Two Blink Green
Off
Solid Green
Duplex
Speed
Link
Description
Not receiving packets
Receiving packets
Half-Duplex
Full-Duplex
10 Mbps
100 Mbps
No link established
Ethernet link is established
Table 3 – 2811 Ethernet Indicators
The physical interfaces are separated into the logical interfaces from FIPS 140-2 as described in
the following table:
Router Physical Interface
10/100 Ethernet LAN Ports
HWIC Ports
Console Port
Auxiliary Port
ENM Slot
USB Ports
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FIPS 140-2 Logical Interface
Data Input Interface
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Router Physical Interface
10/100 Ethernet LAN Ports
HWIC Ports
Console Port
Auxiliary Port
ENM Slot
USB Ports
10/100 Ethernet LAN Ports
HWIC Ports
Power Switch
Console Port
Auxiliary Port
ENM Slot
10/100 Ethernet LAN Port LEDs
AIM LEDs
PVDM LEDs
Power LED
Activity LEDs
Auxiliary LED
Compact Flash LED
Console Port
Auxiliary Port
USB Ports
Main Power Plug
Redundant Power Supply Plug
FIPS 140-2 Logical Interface
Data Output Interface
Control Input Interface
Status Output Interface
Power Interface
Table 4 – 2811 FIPS 140-2 Logical Interfaces
The CF card that stored the IOS image is considered an internal memory module, because the
IOS image stored in the card may not be modified or upgraded. The card itself must never be
removed from the drive. Tamper evident seal will be placed over the card in the drive.
2.2 The 2821 Cryptographic Module Physical Characteristics
Figure 4 – The 2821 router case
The 2821 router a multiple-chip standalone cryptographic module. The router has a processing
speed of 350MHz. Depending on configuration, either installed AIM-VPN/EPII-Plus card or the
internal NetGX chip or the IOS software is used for cryptographic operations.
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The cryptographic boundary of the module is the device’s case. All of the functionality
discussed in this document is provided by components within this cryptographic boundary.
The interfaces for the router are located on the front and rear panels as shown in Figure 5 and
Figure 6, respectively.
Figure 5 – 2821 Front Panel Physical Interfaces
Figure 6 – 2821 Rear Panel Physical Interfaces
The Cisco 2821 router features a console port, an auxiliary port, two Universal Serial Bus (USB)
ports, four high-speed WAN interface card (HWIC) slots, two10/100 Gigabit Ethernet RJ45
ports, a Enhanced Network Module (ENM) slot, a Voice Network Module (VeNoM) slot, and a
Compact Flash (CF) drive. The 2821 router supports one single-width network module, four
single-width or two double-width HWICs, has two slots for AIM-VPN/BPII-Plus cards2, three
internal packet voice data modules (PVDMs), two fast Ethernet connections, and 16 ports of IP
phone power output. Figure 5 shows the front panel and Figure 6 shows the rear panel. The front
panel contains 4 LEDs that output status data about the system power, auxiliary power, system
activity, and compact flash busy status. The back panel consists of 13 LEDs: two Ethernet
activity LEDs, two duplex LEDs, two speed LEDs, two link LEDs, three PVDM LEDs, and two
AIM LEDs.
The front panel contains the following:
• (1) Power inlet
• (2) Power switch
• (3) Console and auxiliary ports
2
The security policy covers the configuration in which one AIM card is used.
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•
•
•
•
(4) USB ports
(5) CF drive
(6) LEDs described in table 1.
(7) Optional RPS input
The back panel contains the following:
• (1) GE 0 port
• (2) GE 1 port
• (3) HWIC 0 slot
• (4) HWIC 1 slot
• (5) HWIC 2 slot
• (6) HWIC 3 slot
• (7) VeNoM slot
• (8) ENM slot
• (9) Ground connector
The following tables provide more detailed information conveyed by the LEDs on the front and
rear panel of the router:
Name
State
Description
System Power
Off
Blinking Green
Solid Green
Solid Orange
Off
Solid Green
Solid Orange
Off
Blinking Green
Solid Green
Off
Solid Green
Power off
ROMMON mode
Operating normally
System Error Detected
-48V PS and RPS not present
-48V PS or RPS present and functional
-48V PS or RPS present and failure detected
No interrupts or packet transfer occurring
System is servicing interrupts
System is actively transferring packets
No ongoing accesses, eject permitted
Device is busy, do not eject
Auxiliary Power
Activity
Compact Flash
Table 5 – 2821 Front Panel Indicators
Name
State
Description
PVDM2
Off
Solid Green
Solid Orange
Off
Solid Green
Solid Orange
Off
Solid Green
Solid Orange
Off
Solid Green
Solid Orange
Off
Solid Green
PVDM2 not installed
PVDM2 installed and initialized
PVDM2 installed and initialized error
PVDM1 not installed
PVDM1 installed and initialized
PVDM1 installed and initialized error
PVDM0 not installed
PVDM0 installed and initialized
PVDM0 installed and initialized error
AIM1 not installed
AIM1 installed and initialized
AIM1 installed and initialized error
AIM0 not installed
AIM0 installed and initialized
PVDM1
PVDM0
AIM1
AIM0
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Solid Orange
AIM0 installed and initialized error
Table 6 – 2821 Rear Panel Indicators
The following table describes the meaning of Ethernet LEDs on the front panel:
Name
State
Activity
Off
Solid/Blinking Green
Off
Solid Green
One Blink Green
Two Blink Green
Off
Solid Green
Duplex
Speed
Link
Description
Not receiving packets
Receiving packets
Half-Duplex
Full-Duplex
10 Mbps
100 Mbps
No link established
Ethernet link is established
Table 7 – 2821 Ethernet Indicators
The physical interfaces are separated into the logical interfaces from FIPS 140-2 as described in
the following table:
Router Physical Interface
10/100 Ethernet LAN Ports
HWIC Ports
Console Port
Auxiliary Port
ENM Slot
VeNoM Slot
USB Ports
10/100 Ethernet LAN Ports
HWIC Ports
Console Port
Auxiliary Port
ENM Slot
VeNoM Slot
USB Ports
10/100 Ethernet LAN Ports
HWIC Ports
Power Switch
Console Port
Auxiliary Port
ENM Slot
10/100 Ethernet LAN Port LEDs
AIM LEDs
PVDM LEDs
Power LED
Activity LEDs
Auxiliary LED
Compact Flash LED
Console Port
Auxiliary Port
USB Ports
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FIPS 140-2 Logical Interface
Data Input Interface
Data Output Interface
Control Input Interface
Status Output Interface
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Router Physical Interface
Main Power Plug
Redundant Power Supply Plug
FIPS 140-2 Logical Interface
Power Interface
Table 8 – 2821 FIPS 140-2 Logical Interfaces
The CF card that stored the IOS image is considered an internal memory module. The reason is
the IOS image stored in the card cannot be modified or upgraded. The card itself must never be
removed from the drive. Tamper evident seal will be placed over the card in the drive.
2.3 Roles and Services
Authentication in Cisco 2811 and 2821 is role-based. There are two main roles in the router that
operators can assume: the Crypto Officer role and the User role. The administrator of the router
assumes the Crypto Officer role in order to configure and maintain the router using Crypto
Officer services, while the Users exercise only the basic User services. The module supports
RADIUS and TACACS+ for authentication. A complete description of all the management and
configuration capabilities of the router can be found in the Performing Basic System
Management manual and in the online help for the router.
2.3.1. User Services
Users enter the system by accessing the console port with a terminal program or via IPSec
protected telnet or SSH session to a LAN port. The IOS prompts the User for username and
password. If the password is correct, the User is allowed entry to the IOS executive program.
The services available to the User role consist of the following:
Status Functions
View state of interfaces and protocols, version of IOS currently
running.
Network Functions
Connect to other network devices through outgoing telnet, PPP, etc.
and initiate diagnostic network services (i.e., ping, mtrace).
Adjust the terminal session (e.g., lock the terminal, adjust flow
control).
Display directory of files kept in flash memory.
Negotiation and encrypted data transport via SSL/TLS.
Negotiation and encrypted data transport via EASY VPN.
Terminal Functions
Directory Services
SSL-TLS/VPN
EASY VPN
2.3.2 Crypto Officer Services
During initial configuration of the router, the Crypto Officer password (the “enable” password) is
defined. A Crypto Officer can assign permission to access the Crypto Officer role to additional
accounts, thereby creating additional Crypto Officers.
The Crypto Officer role is responsible for the configuration and maintenance of the router.
The Crypto Officer services consist of the following:
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Configure the router
Define network interfaces and settings, create command aliases, set
the protocols the router will support, enable interfaces and network
services, set system date and time, and load authentication
information.
Define Rules and Filters Create packet Filters that are applied to User data streams on each
interface. Each Filter consists of a set of Rules, which define a set
of packets to permit or deny based on characteristics such as
protocol ID, addresses, ports, TCP connection establishment, or
packet direction.
View the router configuration, routing tables, active sessions, use
View Status Functions
gets to view SNMP MIB statistics, health, temperature, memory
status, voltage, packet statistics, review accounting logs, and view
physical interface status.
Log off users, shutdown or reload the router, erase the flash
Manage the router
memory, manually back up router configurations, view complete
configurations, manager user rights, and restore router
configurations.
Set up the configuration tables for IP tunneling. Set preshared keys
Set Encryption/Bypass
and algorithms to be used for each IP range or allow plaintext
packets to be set from specified IP address.
Bypass Mode
The routers implement an alternating bypass capability, in which some connections may be
cryptographically authenticated and encrypted while others may not. Two independent internal
actions are required in order to transition into each bypass state: First, the bypass state must be
configured by the Crypto Officer using “match address <ACL-name>" sub-command under
crypto map which defines what traffic is encrypted. Second, the module must receive a packet
that is destined for an IP that is not configured to receive encrypted data. The configuration table
uses an error detection code to detect integrity failures, and if an integrity error is detected, the
module will enter an error state in which no packets are routed. Therefore, a single error in the
configuration table cannot cause plaintext to be transmitted to an IP address for which it should
be encrypted.
2.3.3 Unauthenticated Services
The services available to unauthenticated users are:
• Viewing the status output from the module’s LEDs
• Powering the module on and off using the power switch
• Sending packets in bypass
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2.3.4 Strength of Authentication
The security policy stipulates that all user passwords must be 8 alphanumeric characters, so the
password space is 2.8 trillion possible passwords. The possibility of randomly guessing a
password is thus far less than one in one million. To exceed a one in 100,000 probability of a
successful random password guess in one minute, an attacker would have to be capable of 28
million password attempts per minute, which far exceeds the operational capabilities of the
module to support.
When using RSA based authentication, RSA key pair has modulus size of 1024 bit to 2048 bit,
thus providing between 80 bits and 112 bits of strength. Assuming the low end of that range, an
attacker would have a 1 in 280 chance of randomly obtaining the key, which is much stronger
than the one in a million chance required by FIPS 140-2. To exceed a one in 100,000 probability
of a successful random key guess in one minute, an attacker would have to be capable of
approximately 1.8x1021 attempts per minute, which far exceeds the operational capabilities of the
modules to support.
When using preshared key based authentication, the security policy stipulates that all preshared
keys must be 8 alphanumeric characters, so the key space is 2.8 trillion possible combinations.
The possibility of randomly guessing this is thus far less than one in one million. To exceed a
one in 100,000 probability of a successful random guess in one minute, an attacker would have
to be capable of 28 million attempts per minute, which far exceeds the operational capabilities of
the module to support.
2.4 Physical Security
The router is entirely encased by a metal, opaque case. The rear of the unit contains
HWIC/WIC/VIC connectors, LAN connectors, a CF drive, power connector, console connector,
auxiliary connector, USB port, and fast Ethernet connectors. The front of the unit contains the
system status and activity LEDs. The top, side, and front portion of the chassis can be removed
to allow access to the motherboard, memory, AIM slot, and expansion slots.
The Cisco 2811 and 2821 routers require that a special opacity shield be installed over the side
air vents in order to operate in FIPS-approved mode. The shield decreases the surface area of the
vent holes, reducing visibility within the cryptographic boundary to FIPS-approved
specifications.
Install the opacity plates as specified in the pictures below:
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Figure 7- 2811 – Opacity Shields
Figure 8 - 2821 opacity shield placement
Once the router has been configured in to meet FIPS 140-2 Level 2 requirements, the router
cannot be accessed without signs of tampering. To seal the system, apply serialized tamperevidence labels as follows:
For Cisco 2811:
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1. Clean the cover of any grease, dirt, or oil before applying the tamper evidence
labels. Alcohol-based cleaning pads are recommended for this purpose. The
temperature of the router should be above 10°C.
2. The tamper evidence label should be placed so that one half of the label covers
the front panel and the other half covers the enclosure.
3. The tamper evidence label should be placed over the CF card in the slot so that
any attempt to remove the card will show sign of tampering.
4. The tamper evidence label should be placed so that the one half of the label
covers the enclosure and the other half covers the port adapter slot.
5. The tamper evidence label should be placed so that the one half of the label
covers the enclosure and the other half covers the rear panel.
6. Place tamper evident labels on the opacity shield as shown in Figure 11.
7. The labels completely cure within five minutes.
Figures 9, 10 and 11 show the additional tamper evidence label placements for the 2811.
Figure 9 – 2811 Tamper Evident Label Placement (Back View)
Figure 10 – 2811 Tamper Evident Label Placement (Front View)
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Figure 11 – 2811 Tamper Evident Label Placement on the Opacity Shield
For Cisco 2821:
1. Clean the cover of any grease, dirt, or oil before applying the tamper evidence
labels. Alcohol-based cleaning pads are recommended for this purpose. The
temperature of the router should be above 10°C.
2. The tamper evidence label should be placed so that one half of the label covers
the front panel and the other half covers the enclosure.
3. The tamper evidence label should be placed over the CF card in the slot so that
any attempt to remove the card will show sign of tampering.
4. The tamper evidence label should be placed so that the one half of the label
covers the enclosure and the other half covers the port adapter slot.
5. The tamper evidence label should be placed so that the one half of the label
covers the enclosure and the other half covers the rear panel.
6. Place tamper evident labels on the opacity shield as shown in Figure 14.
7. The labels completely cure within five minutes.
Figures 12, 13 and 14 show the additional tamper evidence label placements for the 2821.
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Figure 12 – Cisco 2821 Tamper Evident Label Placement (Back View)
Figure 13 – Cisco 2821 Tamper Evident Label Placement (Front View)
Figure 14 – Cisco 2821 Tamper Evident Label Placement on the Opacity Shield
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The tamper evidence seals are produced from a special thin gauge vinyl with self-adhesive
backing. Any attempt to open the router will damage the tamper evidence seals or the material of
the module cover. Since the tamper evidence seals have non-repeated serial numbers, they can be
inspected for damage and compared against the applied serial numbers to verify that the module
has not been tampered. Tamper evidence seals can also be inspected for signs of tampering,
which include the following: curled corners, bubbling, crinkling, rips, tears, and slices. The word
“OPEN” may appear if the label was peeled back.
2.5 Cryptographic Key Management
The router securely administers both cryptographic keys and other critical security parameters
such as passwords. The tamper evidence seals provide physical protection for all keys. All keys
are also protected by the password-protection on the Crypto Officer role login, and can be
zeroized by the Crypto Officer. All zeroization consists of overwriting the memory that stored
the key. Keys are exchanged and entered electronically or via Internet Key Exchange (IKE) or
SSL handshake protocols.
The routers support the following FIPS-2 approved algorithm implementations:
Algorithm
Algorithm Certificate Number
Software (IOS) Implementations
AES
795
Triple-DES
683
SHA-1, SHA-256, SHA-512
794
HMAC-SHA-1
436
X9.31 PRNG
456
RSA
379
Onboard NetGX Implementations
AES
265
Triple-DES
347
SHA-1
344
HMAC-SHA-1
77
AIM Module Implementations
AES
100
Triple-DES
213
SHA-1
401
HMAC-SHA-1
38
X9.31 PRNG
80
RSA
383
The router is in the approved mode of operation only when FIPS 140-2 approved algorithms are
used (except DH and RSA key transport which are allowed in the approved mode for key
establishment despite being non-approved).
Note: The module supports DH key sizes of 1024 and 1536 bits and RSA key sizes of 1024,
1536 and 2048 bits. Therefore, the Diffie Hellmann Key agreement, key establishment
methodology provides between 80-bits and 96-bits of encryption strength per NIST 800-57. RSA
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Key wrapping, key establishment methodology provides between 80-bits and 112-bits of
encryption strength per NIST 800-57.
The following are not FIPS 140-2 approved Algorithms: DES, RC4, MD5, HMAC-MD5, RSA
key wrapping and DH; however again DH and RSA are allowed for use in key establishment.
The module contains a HiFn 7814-W cryptographic accelerator chip, integrated in the AIM card.
Unless the AIM card is disabled by the Crypto Officer with the “no crypto engine aim”
command, the HiFn 7814-W provides AES (128-bit, 192-bit, and 256-bit) and Triple-DES (168bit) encryption; MD5 and SHA-1 hashing; and hardware support for DH, X9.31 RNG, RSA
encryption/decryption, and RSA public key signature/verification.
The module supports the following types of key management schemes:
1. Pre-shared key exchange via electronic key entry. Triple-DES/AES key and HMACSHA-1 key are exchanged and entered electronically.
2. Internet Key Exchange method with support for pre-shared keys exchanged and entered
electronically.
• The pre-shared keys are used with Diffie-Hellman key agreement technique to
derive Triple-DES or AES keys.
• The pre-shared key is also used to derive HMAC-SHA-1 key.
3. RSA digital signatures based authentication is used for IKE, with Diffie-Hellman Key
agreement technique to derive AES or Triple-DES keys.
4. RSA encrypted nonces based authentication is used for IKE, with Diffie-Hellman Key
agreement technique to derive AES or Triple-DES keys.
5. RSA key transport is used to derive the Triple-DES or AES keys during SSLv3.1/TLS
handshake.
The module supports commercially available Diffie-Hellman and RSA key transport for key
establishment.
All pre-shared keys are associated with the CO role that created the keys, and the CO role is
protected by a password. Therefore, the CO password is associated with all the pre-shared keys.
The Crypto Officer needs to be authenticated to store keys. All Diffie-Hellman (DH) keys agreed
upon for individual tunnels are directly associated with that specific tunnel only via the IKE
protocol. RSA Public keys are entered into the modules using digital certificates which contain
relevant data such as the name of the public key's owner, which associates the key with the
correct entity. All other keys are associated with the user/role that entered them.
Key Zeroization:
Each key can be zeroized by sending the “no” command prior to the key function commands.
This will zeroize each key from the DRAM, the running configuration.
“Clear Crypto IPSec SA” will zeroize the Triple-DES/AES session key (which is derived using
the Diffie-Hellman key agreement technique) from the DRAM. This session key is only
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available in the DRAM; therefore this command will completely zeroize this key. The following
command will zeroize the pre-shared keys from the DRAM:
•
•
•
•
•
no set session-key inbound ah spi hex-key-data
no set session-key outbound ah spi hex-key-data
no set session-key inbound esp spi cipher hex-key-data [authenticator hex-key-data]
no set session-key outbound esp spi cipher hex-key-data [authenticator hex-key-data]
no crypto isakmp key
The DRAM running configuration must be copied to the start-up configuration in NVRAM in
order to completely zeroize the keys.
The RSA keys are zeroized by issuing the CLI command “crypto key zeroize rsa".
All SSL/TLS session keys are zeroized automatically at the end of the SSL/TLS session.
The module supports the following keys and critical security parameters (CSPs).
Key/CSP
Name
PRNG Seed
Algorithm
Description
Storage
Location
DRAM
Zeroization Method
X9.31
This is the seed for X9.31 PRNG.
This CSP is stored in DRAM and
updated periodically after the
generation of 400 bytes – after this
it is reseeded with router-derived
entropy; hence, it is zeroized
periodically. Also, the operator can
turn off the router to zeroize this
CSP.
PRNG Seed
Key
X9.31
This is the seed key for the PRNG.
DRAM
Turn off the router
Diffie
Hellman
private
exponent
Diffie
Hellman
public key
DH
DRAM
Automatically after
shared secret generated.
DRAM
Automatically after
shared secret generated.
skeyid
Keyed SHA-1
DRAM
Automatically after IKE
session terminated.
skeyid_d
Keyed SHA-1
The private exponent used in
Diffie-Hellman (DH) exchange as
part of IKE. Zeroized after DH
shared secret has been generated.
The public key used in DiffieHellman (DH) exchange as part of
IKE. Zeroized after the DH shared
secret has been generated.
Value derived from the shared
secret within IKE exchange.
Zeroized when IKE session is
terminated.
The IKE key derivation key for non
ISAKMP security associations.
DRAM
Automatically after IKE
session terminated.
skeyid_a
HMAC-SHA-1
The ISAKMP security association
authentication key.
DRAM
Automatically after IKE
session terminated.
skeyid_e
TRIPLEDES/AES
The ISAKMP security association
encryption key.
DRAM
Automatically after IKE
session terminated.
DH
© Copyright 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc.
21
Automatically every 400
bytes, or turn off the
router.
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IKE session
encrypt key
TRIPLEDES/AES
The IKE session encrypt key.
DRAM
Automatically after IKE
session terminated.
IKE session
authentication
key
ISAKMP
preshared
HMAC-SHA-1
The IKE session authentication
key.
DRAM
Automatically after IKE
session terminated.
Shared secret
NVRAM
“# no crypto isakmp
key”
IKE hash key
HMAC-SHA-1
DRAM
IKE RSA
Authentication
private Key
RSA
Automatically after
generating IKE shared
secret keys.
“# crypto key zeroize
rsa"
IKE RSA
Authentication
Public Key
RSA
IKE RSA
Encrypted
Nonce Private
Key
IKE RSA
Encrypted
Nonce Public
Key
IPSec
encryption
key
IPSec
authentication
key
Configuration
encryption
key
RSA
The key used to generate IKE
skeyid during preshared-key
authentication. “no crypto isakmp
key” command zeroizes it. This key
can have two forms based on
whether the key is related to the
hostname or the IP address.
This key generates the IKE shared
secret keys. This key is zeroized
after generating those keys.
RSA private key for IKE
authentication. Generated or
entered like any RSA key, set as
IKE RSA Authentication Key with
the “crypto keyring” or “ca trustpoint” command.
RSA public key for IKE
authentication. Generated or
entered like any RSA key, set as
IKE RSA Authentication Key with
the “crypto keyring” or “ca trustpoint” command.
RSA private key for IKE encrypted
nonces. Generated like any RSA,
with the “usage-keys” parameter
included.
RSA public key for IKE encrypted
nonces. Generated like any RSA,
with the “usage-keys” parameter
included.
The IPSec encryption key. Zeroized
when IPSec session is terminated.
HMAC-SHA-1
AES
Router
authentication
key 1
Shared secret
RSA
DES/TRIPLEDES/AES
NVRAM
NVRAM
“# crypto key zeroize
rsa"
NVRAM
“# crypto key zeroize
rsa"
NVRAM
“# crypto key zeroize
rsa"
DRAM
“# Clear Crypto IPSec SA”
The IPSec authentication key. The
zeroization is the same as above.
DRAM
“# Clear Crypto IPSec SA”
The key used to encrypt values of
the configuration file. This key is
zeroized when the “no key configkey” is issued. Note that this
command does not decrypt the
configuration file, so zeroize with
care.
This key is used by the router to
authenticate itself to the peer. The
router itself gets the password (that
is used as this key) from the AAA
server and sends it onto the peer.
The password retrieved from the
NVRAM
“# no key config-key”
DRAM
Automatically upon
completion of
authentication attempt.
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PPP
authentication
key
RFC 1334
Router
authentication
key 2
Shared Secret
SSH session
key
Various
symmetric
User password
Shared Secret
Enable
password
Shared Secret
Enable secret
Shared Secret
RADIUS
secret
Shared Secret
secret_1_0_0
TACACS+
secret
Shared Secret
TLS server
private key
TLS server
public key
TLS premaster secret
RSA
RSA
Shared Secret
AAA server is zeroized upon
completion of the authentication
attempt.
The authentication key used in
PPP. This key is in the DRAM and
not zeroized at runtime. One can
turn off the router to zeroize this
key because it is stored in DRAM.
This key is used by the router to
authenticate itself to the peer. The
key is identical to Router
authentication key 1 except that it
is retrieved from the local database
(on the router itself). Issuing the
“no username password” zeroizes
the password (that is used as this
key) from the local database.
This is the SSH session key. It is
zeroized when the SSH session is
terminated.
The password of the User role. This
password is zeroized by
overwriting it with a new password.
The plaintext password of the CO
role. This password is zeroized by
overwriting it with a new password.
The ciphertext password of the CO
role. However, the algorithm used
to encrypt this password is not
FIPS approved. Therefore, this
password is considered plaintext
for FIPS purposes. This password
is zeroized by overwriting it with a
new password.
The RADIUS shared secret. This
shared secret is zeroized by
executing the “no radius-server
key” command.
The fixed key used in Cisco vendor
ID generation. This key is
embedded in the module binary
image and can be deleted by
erasing the Flash.
The TACACS+ shared secret. This
shared secret is zeroized by
executing the “no tacacs-server
key” command.
1024/1536/2048 bit RSA private
key used for SSLV3.1/TLS.
1024/1536/2048 bit RSA public
key used for SSLV3.1/TLS.
Shared Secret created using
asymmetric cryptography from
which new TLS session keys can
be created
© Copyright 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc.
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DRAM
Turn off the router.
NVRAM
“# no username
password”
DRAM
Automatically when
SSH session terminated
NVRAM
Overwrite with new
password
NVRAM
Overwrite with new
password
NVRAM
Overwrite with new
password
NVRAM
“# no radius-server key”
NVRAM
Deleted by erasing the
Flash.
NVRAM
“# no tacacs-server key”
NVRAM
“# crypto key zeroize
rsa"
“# crypto key zeroize
rsa"
Automatically when
TLS session is
terminated
NVRAM
DRAM
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TLS
Encryption
Key
TLS Integrity
Key
AES/TRIPLEDES
Key used to encrypt TLS session
data
DRAM
HMAC-SHA-1
HMAC-SHA-1 used for TLS data
integrity protection
DRAM
Automatically when
TLS session is
terminated
Automatically when
TLS session is
terminated
Security Relevant Data Item
PRNG Seed
d
r
PRNG Seed Key
d
r
Diffie Hellman private
exponent
r
Diffie Hellman public
key
r
skeyid
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
skeyid_d
r
skeyid_a
r
skeyid_e
r
IKE session encrypt
key
r
IKE session
authentication key
r
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r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
Change WAN Interface Cards
Set Encryption/Bypass
Manage the Router
Status Functions
Define Rules and Filters
Configure the Router
Crypto Officer Role
EASY VPN
SSL-TLS/VPN
Directory Services
Terminal Functions
Network Functions
Status Functions
(r = read,
w = write,
d = delete)
User Role
SRDI/Role/Service
Access Policy
Roles/Service
Table 5 - Cryptographic Keys and CSPs
ISAKMP preshared
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
IKE hash key
r
IKE RSA
Authentication private
Key
IKE RSA
Authentication Public
Key
IKE RSA Encrypted
Nonce Private Key
IKE RSA Encrypted
Nonce Public Key
r
r
r
r
IPSec encryption key
r
IPSec authentication
key
r
Configuration
encryption key
Router authentication
key 1
PPP authentication key
Router authentication
key 2
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
r
w
r
w
r
w
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
r
w
d
r
d
r
w
d
r
SSH session key
r
w
d
r
User password
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
Enable password
Enable secret
RADIUS secret
secret_1_0_0
© Copyright 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc.
r
w
r
w
d
25
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TACACS+ secret
TLS server private key
r
TLS server public key
r
TLS pre-master secret
r
TLS Encryption Key
r
TLS Integrity Key
r
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
r
w
Table 6 – Role and Service Access to CSP
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r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
r
w
d
2.6 Self-Tests
In order to prevent any secure data from being released, it is important to test the cryptographic
components of a security module to insure all components are functioning correctly. The router
includes an array of self-tests that are run during startup and periodically during operations. All
self-tests are implemented by the software. An example of self-tests run at power-up is a
cryptographic known answer test (KAT) on each of the FIPS-approved cryptographic algorithms
and on the Diffie-Hellman algorithm. Examples of tests performed at startup are a software
integrity test using an EDC. Examples of tests run periodically or conditionally include: a bypass
mode test performed conditionally prior to executing IPSec, and a continuous random number
generator test. If any of the self-tests fail, the router transitions into an error state. In the error
state, all secure data transmission is halted and the router outputs status information indicating
the failure.
Examples of the errors that cause the system to transition to an error state:
•
•
•
•
•
IOS image integrity checksum failed
Microprocessor overheats and burns out
Known answer test failed
NVRAM module malfunction.
Temperature high warning
2.6.1
•
Self-tests performed by the IOS image
IOS Self Tests
o POST tests
AES Known Answer Test
RSA Signature Known Answer Test (both signature/verification)
Software/firmware test
Power up bypass test
RNG Known Answer Test
Diffie Hellman test
HMAC-SHA-1 Known Answer Test
SHA-1/256/12 Known Answer Test
Triple-DES Known Answer Test
o Conditional tests
Pairwise consistency test for RSA signature keys
Conditional bypass test
Continuous random number generation test for approved and nonapproved RNGs.
2.6.2
Self-tests performed by NetGX Chip
o POST tests
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2.6.3
•
3
AES Known Answer Test
Triple-DES Known Answer Test
SHA-1 Known Answer Test
HMAC-SHA-1 Known Answer Test
Self-tests performed by AIM3
AIM Self Tests
o POST tests
AES Known Answer Test
Triple-DES Known Answer Test
SHA-1 Known Answer Test
HMAC-SHA-1 Known Answer Test
RNG Known Answer Test
Firmware integrity test
Diffie Hellman Test
RSA signature gen/ver known answer test
o Conditional Tests
Pairwise consistency test for RSA signature keys
Continuous RNG test for the hardware RNG
Secure Operation of the Cisco 2811 or 2821 router
The Cisco 2811 and 2821 routers meet all the Level 2 requirements for FIPS 140-2. Follow the
setting instructions provided below to place the module in FIPS-approved mode. Operating this
router without maintaining the following settings will remove the module from the FIPS
approved mode of operation.
3.1
Initial Setup
1. The Crypto Officer must apply tamper evidence labels as described in Section 2.4 of this
document.
2. The Crypto Officer must disable IOS Password Recovery by executing the following
commands:
configure terminal
no service password-recovery
end
show version
NOTE: Once Password Recovery is disabled, administrative access to the module
without the password will not be possible.
3
Unless disabled by Crypto Officer.
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3.2
System Initialization and Configuration
1. The Crypto Officer must perform the initial configuration. IOS version 12.4 (15) T3,
Advanced Security build (advsecurity) is the only allowable image; no other image
should be loaded.
2. The value of the boot field must be 0x0102. This setting disables break from the console
to the ROM monitor and automatically boots the IOS image. From the “configure
terminal” command line, the Crypto Officer enters the following syntax:
config-register 0x0102
3. The Crypto Officer must create the “enable” password for the Crypto Officer role. The
password must be at least 8 characters (all digits; all lower and upper case letters; and all
special characters except ‘?’ are accepted) and is entered when the Crypto Officer first
engages the “enable” command. The Crypto Officer enters the following syntax at the
“#” prompt:
enable secret [PASSWORD]
4. The Crypto Officer must always assign passwords (of at least 8 characters) to users.
Identification and authentication on the console port is required for Users. From the
“configure terminal” command line, the Crypto Officer enters the following syntax:
line con 0
password [PASSWORD]
login local
5. RADIUS and TACACS+ shared secret key sizes must be at least 8 characters long.
3.3
IPSec Requirements and Cryptographic Algorithms
1. The only type of key management that is allowed in FIPS mode is Internet Key Exchange
(IKE).
2. Although the IOS implementation of IKE allows a number of algorithms, only the
following algorithms are allowed in a FIPS 140-2 configuration:
ah-sha-hmac
esp-sha-hmac
esp-Triple-DES
esp-aes
3. The following algorithms are not FIPS approved and should not be used during FIPSapproved mode:
DES
MD-5 for signing
MD-5 HMAC
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3.4
Protocols
1. SNMP v3 over a secure IPSec tunnel may be employed for authenticated, secure SNMP
gets and sets. Since SNMP v2C uses community strings for authentication, only gets are
allowed under SNMP v2C.
3.5
SSLv3.1/TLS Requirements and Cryptographic Algorithms
When negotiating SSLv3.1/TLS cipher suites, only FIPS approved algorithms must be
specified.
All other versions of SSL except version 3.1 must not be used in FIPS mode of operation
The following algorithms are not FIPS approved and should not be used in the FIPSapproved mode:
MD5
RC4
RC2
DES
3.6
Remote Access
1. Telnet access to the module is only allowed via a secure IPSec tunnel between the remote
system and the module. The Crypto officer must configure the module so that any remote
connections via telnet are secured through IPSec, using FIPS-approved algorithms. Note
that all users must still authenticate after remote access is granted.
2. SSH access to the module is only allowed if SSH is configured to use a FIPS-approved
algorithm. The Crypto officer must configure the module so that SSH uses only FIPSapproved algorithms. Note that all users must still authenticate after remote access is
granted.
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CISCO EDITOR’S NOTE: You may now include all standard Cisco information included
in all documentation produced by Cisco. Be sure that the following line is in the legal
statements at the end of the document:
By printing or making a copy of this document, the user agrees to use this information for
product evaluation purposes only. Sale of this information in whole or in part is not
authorized by Cisco Systems.
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