Cabletron Systems MT8-MIM Specifications

Cabletron Systems MT8-MIM Specifications
Cabletron Systems
Cabling Guide
Notice
Notice
Cabletron Systems reserves the right to make changes in specifications and other information
contained in this document without prior notice. The reader should in all cases consult Cabletron
Systems to determine whether any such changes have been made.
The hardware, firmware, or software described in this manual is subject to change without notice.
IN NO EVENT SHALL CABLETRON SYSTEMS BE LIABLE FOR ANY INCIDENTAL, INDIRECT,
SPECIAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
TO LOST PROFITS) ARISING OUT OF OR RELATED TO THIS MANUAL OR THE INFORMATION
CONTAINED IN IT, EVEN IF CABLETRON SYSTEMS HAS BEEN ADVISED OF, KNOWN, OR
SHOULD HAVE KNOWN, THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
Copyright  1996 by Cabletron Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America.
Order Number: 9031845-02E1 December 1996
Cabletron Systems, Inc.
P.O. Box 5005
Rochester, NH 03866-5005
Cabletron Systems, SPECTRUM, BRIM, DNI, FNB, LANVIEW, Multi Media Access Center, are
registered trademarks, and Bridge/Router Interface Modules, BRIM-A100, Desktop Network
Interface, EPIM, EPIM-3PS, EPIM-A, EPIM-C, EPIM-F1, EPIM-F2, EPIM-F3, EPIM-T, EPIM-T1,
EPIM-X, Media Interface Module, MicroMMAC, MIM, MMAC, MMAC-3FNB, MMAC-5FNB,,
MMAC-M8FNB, MMAC-Plus, RMIM, SPECTRUM Element Manager, SPECTRUM for Open
Systems, are trademarks of Cabletron Systems, Inc.
All other product names mentioned in this manual may be trademarks or registered trademarks of
their respective companies.
i
Notice
ii
Contents
Chapter 1
Introduction
Using This Guide ......................................................................................................................... 1-1
Document Organization ............................................................................................................. 1-1
Document Conventions .............................................................................................................. 1-3
Warnings and Notifications ................................................................................................ 1-3
Formats .................................................................................................................................. 1-3
Additional Assistance ................................................................................................................. 1-4
Related Documentation .............................................................................................................. 1-4
Chapter 2
Cabling Terms
Physical Components.................................................................................................................. 2-1
Media...................................................................................................................................... 2-1
Cable....................................................................................................................................... 2-1
Wire......................................................................................................................................... 2-2
Connector .............................................................................................................................. 2-3
Port ......................................................................................................................................... 2-6
Test Characteristics ...................................................................................................................... 2-6
Chapter 3
Relevant Specifications
EIA/TIA........................................................................................................................................ 3-1
Universal Service Order Code (USOC) .................................................................................... 3-2
National Electrical Code (NEC)................................................................................................. 3-2
Chapter 4
Ethernet Media
Cabling Types............................................................................................................................... 4-1
Attachment Unit Interface (AUI) ....................................................................................... 4-1
Coaxial Cable ........................................................................................................................ 4-3
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP).......................................................................................... 4-5
Fiber Optics ......................................................................................................................... 4-14
Connector Types ........................................................................................................................ 4-17
AUI ....................................................................................................................................... 4-17
Coaxial Cable ...................................................................................................................... 4-19
UTP Cable............................................................................................................................ 4-23
Fiber Optics ......................................................................................................................... 4-28
iii
Chapter 5
Ethernet Network Requirements
10BASE-T ......................................................................................................................................5-1
Cable Type .............................................................................................................................5-1
Insertion Loss (Attenuation) ...............................................................................................5-1
Impedance .............................................................................................................................5-2
Jitter.........................................................................................................................................5-2
Delay.......................................................................................................................................5-2
Crosstalk ................................................................................................................................5-3
Noise.......................................................................................................................................5-3
Other Considerations ...........................................................................................................5-3
Length.....................................................................................................................................5-4
10BASE-F (Multimode) ...............................................................................................................5-4
Cable Type .............................................................................................................................5-4
Attenuation............................................................................................................................5-5
Insertion Loss ........................................................................................................................5-5
Delay.......................................................................................................................................5-5
Length.....................................................................................................................................5-6
Ethernet FOIRL (Single Mode)...................................................................................................5-6
Cable Type .............................................................................................................................5-6
Attenuation............................................................................................................................5-6
Insertion Loss ........................................................................................................................5-7
Delay.......................................................................................................................................5-7
Length.....................................................................................................................................5-7
10BASE2 ........................................................................................................................................5-8
Cable Type .............................................................................................................................5-8
Termination............................................................................................................................5-8
Connectors/Taps ..................................................................................................................5-8
Grounding .............................................................................................................................5-9
Length.....................................................................................................................................5-9
10BASE5 (Coaxial Cable) ............................................................................................................5-9
Cable Type .............................................................................................................................5-9
Termination............................................................................................................................5-9
Connectors/Taps ................................................................................................................5-10
Grounding ...........................................................................................................................5-10
Length...................................................................................................................................5-10
Chapter 6
Full-Duplex Ethernet Network Requirements
Full-Duplex 10BASE-T ................................................................................................................6-1
Cable Type .............................................................................................................................6-1
Insertion Loss (Attenuation) ...............................................................................................6-2
Impedance .............................................................................................................................6-2
Jitter.........................................................................................................................................6-2
Delay.......................................................................................................................................6-2
Crosstalk ................................................................................................................................6-3
Noise.......................................................................................................................................6-3
Other Considerations ...........................................................................................................6-3
Length.....................................................................................................................................6-4
iv
10BASE-F (Multimode)............................................................................................................... 6-4
Cable Type ............................................................................................................................. 6-4
Attenuation............................................................................................................................ 6-5
Insertion Loss ........................................................................................................................ 6-5
Delay....................................................................................................................................... 6-5
Length .................................................................................................................................... 6-6
Ethernet FOIRL (Single Mode) .................................................................................................. 6-6
Cable Type ............................................................................................................................. 6-6
Attenuation............................................................................................................................ 6-6
Insertion Loss ........................................................................................................................ 6-7
Delay....................................................................................................................................... 6-7
Length .................................................................................................................................... 6-7
Chapter 7
Fast Ethernet Network Requirements
100BASE-TX.................................................................................................................................. 7-1
Cable Type ............................................................................................................................. 7-1
Insertion Loss (Attenuation) ............................................................................................... 7-2
Impedance ............................................................................................................................. 7-2
Jitter ........................................................................................................................................ 7-2
Delay....................................................................................................................................... 7-3
Crosstalk ................................................................................................................................ 7-3
Noise....................................................................................................................................... 7-3
Other Considerations........................................................................................................... 7-3
100BASE-FX (Multimode) .......................................................................................................... 7-4
Cable Type ............................................................................................................................. 7-4
Attenuation............................................................................................................................ 7-4
Insertion Loss ........................................................................................................................ 7-4
Delay....................................................................................................................................... 7-5
Length .................................................................................................................................... 7-5
Hybrid Installations .................................................................................................................... 7-5
Repeater Classes ................................................................................................................... 7-6
Buffered Uplinks................................................................................................................... 7-7
v
Chapter 8
Full-Duplex Fast Ethernet Network Requirements
100BASE-TX..................................................................................................................................8-1
Cable Type .............................................................................................................................8-1
Insertion Loss (Attenuation) ...............................................................................................8-2
Impedance .............................................................................................................................8-2
Jitter.........................................................................................................................................8-2
Crosstalk ................................................................................................................................8-2
Noise.......................................................................................................................................8-3
Other Considerations ...........................................................................................................8-3
Length.....................................................................................................................................8-4
100BASE-FX (Multimode) ..........................................................................................................8-5
Cable Type .............................................................................................................................8-5
Attenuation............................................................................................................................8-5
Insertion Loss ........................................................................................................................8-5
Delay.......................................................................................................................................8-5
Length.....................................................................................................................................8-6
Chapter 9
Token Ring Media
Cabling Types ...............................................................................................................................9-1
Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)................................................................................................9-1
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)..........................................................................................9-5
Fiber Optics............................................................................................................................9-8
Connector Types.........................................................................................................................9-10
STP ........................................................................................................................................9-10
Unshielded Twisted Pair Cable ........................................................................................9-15
Fiber Optics..........................................................................................................................9-17
Chapter 10
Token Ring Network Requirements
IEEE 802.5 Shielded Twisted Pair ............................................................................................10-1
Cable Type ...........................................................................................................................10-1
Attenuation..........................................................................................................................10-2
Impedance ...........................................................................................................................10-2
Link Length .........................................................................................................................10-3
Trunk Cable Length............................................................................................................10-4
IEEE 802.5 Unshielded Twisted Pair .......................................................................................10-5
Cable Type ...........................................................................................................................10-5
Attenuation..........................................................................................................................10-5
Impedance ...........................................................................................................................10-6
Crosstalk ..............................................................................................................................10-6
Link Length .........................................................................................................................10-6
Trunk Cable Length............................................................................................................10-7
vi
IEEE 802.5j (Multimode Fiber Optics) .................................................................................... 10-8
Cable Type ........................................................................................................................... 10-8
Attenuation.......................................................................................................................... 10-9
Link Length ......................................................................................................................... 10-9
Trunk Cable Length............................................................................................................ 10-9
IEEE 802.5j Single Mode Fiber Optics................................................................................... 10-10
Cable Type ......................................................................................................................... 10-10
Attenuation........................................................................................................................ 10-10
Link Length ....................................................................................................................... 10-10
Trunk Cable Length.......................................................................................................... 10-10
Chapter 11
FDDI Media
Cabling Types............................................................................................................................. 11-1
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)........................................................................................ 11-1
Shielded Twisted Pair (STP).............................................................................................. 11-5
STP Cable Quality .............................................................................................................. 11-7
Fiber Optics ......................................................................................................................... 11-8
Connector Types ...................................................................................................................... 11-11
UTP ..................................................................................................................................... 11-11
STP ...................................................................................................................................... 11-12
Fiber Optics ....................................................................................................................... 11-13
Chapter 12
FDDI Network Requirements
MMF-PMD.................................................................................................................................. 12-1
Cable Type ........................................................................................................................... 12-1
Attenuation.......................................................................................................................... 12-1
Length .................................................................................................................................. 12-2
Emitted Power .................................................................................................................... 12-2
SMF-PMD ................................................................................................................................... 12-2
Cable Type ........................................................................................................................... 12-2
Attenuation.......................................................................................................................... 12-2
Length .................................................................................................................................. 12-3
Emitted Power .................................................................................................................... 12-3
LCF-PMD .................................................................................................................................... 12-3
Cable Type ........................................................................................................................... 12-3
Attenuation.......................................................................................................................... 12-3
Length .................................................................................................................................. 12-4
Emitted Power .................................................................................................................... 12-4
TP -PMD (UTP) .......................................................................................................................... 12-4
Cable Type ........................................................................................................................... 12-4
Attenuation.......................................................................................................................... 12-4
Length .................................................................................................................................. 12-5
TP-PMD (STP) ............................................................................................................................ 12-5
Cable Type ........................................................................................................................... 12-5
Attenuation.......................................................................................................................... 12-5
Length .................................................................................................................................. 12-5
vii
Chapter 13
Cabling Devices
Hardware Mounting..................................................................................................................13-2
Relay Rack ...........................................................................................................................13-2
Enclosed Equipment Cabinet............................................................................................13-3
Cable Termination......................................................................................................................13-4
Patch Panel ..........................................................................................................................13-4
Harmonica ...........................................................................................................................13-5
Punchdown Block...............................................................................................................13-6
Distribution Box..................................................................................................................13-7
Wallplate ..............................................................................................................................13-8
Surface Mount Box .............................................................................................................13-9
Facility Cable Management......................................................................................................13-9
Conduit ................................................................................................................................13-9
D-Rings...............................................................................................................................13-10
J-Hooks............................................................................................................................... 13-11
Strain-Relief Bracket......................................................................................................... 13-11
Innerduct............................................................................................................................13-12
Latching Duct ....................................................................................................................13-12
Raceway .............................................................................................................................13-13
Labeling Tape ....................................................................................................................13-13
Ty-Wraps and Adhesive Anchors...................................................................................13-14
Chapter 14
Connecting and Terminating
Ethernet .......................................................................................................................................14-1
DB15......................................................................................................................................14-1
RJ45 .......................................................................................................................................14-3
RJ21 .......................................................................................................................................14-4
BNC ......................................................................................................................................14-5
N-Type..................................................................................................................................14-7
ST Connector .......................................................................................................................14-7
Token Ring ..................................................................................................................................14-9
DB9........................................................................................................................................14-9
RJ45 .....................................................................................................................................14-10
Token Ring MIC ................................................................................................................14-12
ST Connector .....................................................................................................................14-13
FDDI...........................................................................................................................................14-14
RJ45 .....................................................................................................................................14-14
FDDI MIC ..........................................................................................................................14-16
SC Connector.....................................................................................................................14-18
Appendix A Charts and Tables
Ethernet ........................................................................................................................................A-1
Token Ring ...................................................................................................................................A-4
FDDI..............................................................................................................................................A-6
viii
Chapter 1
Introduction
Using This Guide
The Cabletron Systems Cabling Guide is intended to provide much of the
information necessary to allow Network Managers to plan facility network
cabling and to ensure that the cabling is usable by the networking devices that
will populate the cabling.
This Cabling Guide also provides instructions that may be helpful for connecting
Cabletron Systems networking devices to an existing facility cabling
infrastructure.
Document Organization
This guide begins with an overview of the important aspects of cabling and
cables. The information presented in the initial sections is essential to a complete
understanding of the material that is presented in later sections. Following the
introductory material, detailed examinations of the standard media and
connectors used for Ethernet, Token Ring, and Fiber Distributed Data Interface
(FDDI) networks are presented. The closing sections of the document describe
some common installation and cable management devices, and explain some
methods for testing cables and planning installations.
The remainder of this guide contains charts and tables which supply much of the
information that the cable system planning process requires, and an extensive
glossary of the terms used within this guide and other Cabletron Systems
publications.
1-1
Introduction
The following summarizes the organization of this manual:
Chapter 1, Introduction, discusses the use and contents of this guide.
Chapter 2, Cabling Terms, defines and explains some of the terminology
used throughout this document to describe aspects and components of
cabling and installation planning.
Chapter 3, Relevant Specifications, details some relevant specifications and
standards that apply to the installation of facility network cabling.
Chapter 4, Ethernet Media, identifies and discusses several networking
cables and their characteristics when used in Ethernet and Fast Ethernet
networking environments. The chapter examines the physical characteristics
and requirements of both physical cabling and the connectors and ports used
with the cabling.
Chapter 5, Ethernet Network Requirements, provides a series of test
envelopes and installation requirements that Ethernet cabling must meet in
order to conform to the Ethernet standard.
Chapter 6, Full-Duplex Ethernet Network Requirements, supplies the test
characteristics and network limitations of Ethernet networks intended to
operate in full-duplex mode.
Chapter 7, Fast Ethernet Network Requirements, deals with the cable
characteristics and requirements of the Fast Ethernet networking technology,
including 100BASE-TX and 100BASE-FX.
Chapter 8, Full-Duplex Fast Ethernet Network Requirements, Provides
specific information related to the requirements of full-duplex Fast Ethernet
network cabling.
Chapter 9, Token Ring Media, identifies and details the cables and
connectors that may be used in Token Ring network environments.
Chapter 10, Token Ring Network Requirements, lists the required
performance and test characteristics of Token Ring cabling.
Chapter 11, FDDI Media, lists and describes the various cabling types that
may be used with Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) networks.
Chapter 12, FDDI Network Requirements, lists the required test
characteristics and accepted maximums of cabling used in FDDI network
installations.
Chapter 13, Cabling Devices, provides a list of several useful tools and
accessories that can aid in the installation, management, and control of
installed cabling in a facility.
Chapter 14, Connecting and Terminating, describes the procedures involved
in connecting and disconnecting the standard connectors of each network
technology treated in Chapters 4, 9, and 11.
1-2
Document Organization
Introduction
Appendix A, Charts and Tables, provides the information contained in the
network requirements chapters of this document in a simplified table form.
Tables of test requirements and acceptable levels are provided for all media
discussed in this document.
Following the appendix, the Cabletron Systems Glossary of Terms may be found.
Document Conventions
Warnings and Notifications
NOTE
Note symbol. Calls the reader’s attention to any item of
information that may be of special importance.
Tip symbol. Used to convey helpful hints concerning
procedures or actions that would assist the operator in
performing the task in a more timely manner in the future.
TIP
!
Caution symbol. Used to caution against an action that could
result in damage to equipment or poor equipment performance.
CAUT ION
Warning symbol. Used to warn against an action that could
result in personal injury or death and equipment damage.
Formats
References to chapters or sections within this document are printed in boldface
type.
References to other Cabletron Systems publications or documents are printed in
italic type.
Document Conventions
1-3
Introduction
Additional Assistance
The planning and installation of facility cabling for network operation is a
complex and highly specialized process. Due to the different nature of each and
every cabling installation and the special problems and concerns raised by any
facility, there may be aspects of installation planning that are not covered in this
guide.
If you have questions or concerns about your cabling design, or if you require
installation personnel to perform the actual installation process, Cabletron
Systems maintains a staff of network design personnel and a sizable team of
highly-trained cabling and hardware installation technicians. The services of the
Networking Services group are available to customers at any time. If you are
interested in obtaining design assistance or a network installation plan from the
Networking Services group, contact your Cabletron Systems Sales
Representative.
In addition to the availability of Networking Services, the Cabletron Systems
Technical Support department is available to answer customer questions
regarding existing Cabletron Systems networks or planned expansion issues.
Contact Cabletron Systems at (603) 335-9400 to reach the Technical Support
department with any specific product-related questions you may have.
Related Documentation
The following publications may be of assistance to you in the design process.
Several of these documents present information supplied in this Cabling Guide in
greater or lesser detail than they are presented here.
1-4
•
Cabletron Systems Networking Guide - MMAC-FNB Solutions
•
Cabletron Systems Ethernet Technology Guide
•
Cabletron Systems Token Ring Technology Guide
•
Cabletron Systems FDDI Technology Guide
•
EIA/TIA 568 Specification
•
IEEE 802.3 Specifications
•
IEEE 802.5 Specifications
•
ANSI X3T9.5 Specification
Additional Assistance
Chapter 2
Cabling Terms
This chapter identifies and defines several terms that are used throughout the text of this manual.
Physical Components
The following terms and definitions deal with the physical makeup of cabling
used in Local Area Networks.
Media
Media refers to a type or family of cables. When the term media is used, it
indicates a type of cabling, rather than a specific cable. A reference to “fiber optic
media” deals with the characteristics of all fiber optic cable types, such as single
or multimode fiber optics.
Cable
The term cable, as used in this document, indicates either a specific type of
transmission media (i.e., multimode fiber optic cable) or indicates a physical
section of that media (i.e., “the installed cable must be no longer than 200 m”).
Facility Cabling
Facility cabling, sometimes referred to as building cable or horizontal cable, is the
network cabling that is installed in a building or office. It only includes the actual
wires that are placed within the walls, conduits, or specific cable channels of the
building. The majority of cabling used in a network installation is facility cabling.
2-1
Cabling Terms
Jumper Cabling
Jumper cabling is a term that identifies short, inexpensive cables that are used to
make connections between nearby cabling devices. Typically, workstations and
network devices are connected to the facility cabling of a site with jumper cables.
Run
A “run” of cabling is a single end-to-end cable path in a networked facility. The
cable run typically begins at a network device such as a hub or bridge and ends at
a workstation or other end node. The cable run, if calculated, must include all
areas on the cable to which signals will travel. On point-to-point media, such as
UTP or fiber optics, this will be the same as the measure of cabling between
stations. In a shared media environment, however, the measure of a run must
include the total length of the shared cable being used, regardless of the distance
between stations on that cable.
A cable run includes the facility cabling, jumper cabling, and any passive cable
management devices, such as wallplates, patch panels, and punchdown blocks,
between the two devices. When a specific type of cabling is referred to when
identifying a cable run, the term refers only to the total length of that type of cable
in the installation.
As an example, if a thick coaxial cable run is referred to in an installation
description, it is concerned with the total length of coaxial cable and does not
include the AUI cables used to connect stations to transceivers on the thick coaxial
cable. If a UTP cable run is referred to, it includes only the jumper cables, patch
panels, wallplates, and facility cabling between the devices in question.
Wire
The wire terms listed below deal with the components that make up a physical
cable.
Core
The core of a wire is that portion of the wire upon which the electrical (or light, in
the case of fiber optics) signals of network communications travel. In all cases, the
term core refers to the transmissive center of the cable or wire in question. The
term core is most often used when referring to a cable that has a single
transmission path. Cables with multiple transmission paths cannot have an
overall core.
2-2
Physical Components
Cabling Terms
Strand
A strand is a metal or glass (in the case of fiber optics) transmission media that is
typically surrounded by an insulator. Strands in metallic cables may be made up
of either solid lengths of relatively thick wire (solid core) or a bundle of much
thinner wires that contact one another throughout the wire (stranded).
Insulator
An insulator is a layer of non-conductive material that protects the core or strands
of a cable from both physical damage and from the effects of other strands within
a multistranded cable. Insulator also protects the strands or core from the effects
of external electrical noise to a small extent.
Shield
A shield is a layer of metal foil or braided screen that protects the core or strands
of the cable from interference from outside electrical influences. The shield is
wrapped around the core, and is separated from the core by a layer of insulator.
Gauge
The gauge of a wire is an indication of its thickness. Gauge is typically measured
in American Wire Gauge (AWG). The lower the AWG number of a strand or core,
the thicker it is. The gauge of a wire has an affect on the resistance it presents to
electrical signals attempting to travel through it. In general, lower-gauge (thicker)
strands allow network communications to travel through them more readily than
strands with a higher gauge.
Connector
A connector is a metal, plastic, or composite assembly that is used to simplify the
connection of separate lengths of cable or to connect cables to devices. Connectors
are only found on cables (ports are located on devices). The terms that follow
define important parts of connectors.
Physical Components
2-3
Cabling Terms
Housing (Shell)
The basis of the connector is its housing. A housing is the metal or plastic parts
that make up the shape of the connector and determine its characteristics and
what ports or other connectors it may be attached to. The purpose of the housing
is to separate and organize any strands in the cable being connected and arrange
them in a standard fashion for connection to a port or other connector.
If a housing can be assembled and disassembled easily, or is made up of several
separate sections, it may be called a shell.
Pin
A pin is an exposed metal prong or wire that is either inserted into a channel or
allowed to touch a contact. In this fashion, the pin creates a path for network
signals to flow from the connector to the port or device it is connected to.
Pins may be fully exposed, for insertion into a channel, or partially exposed, for
connection to a contact. Fully exposed pins will protrude from a housing or
insulator. Partially exposed pins are encased on two or three sides by the
construction material of the connector housing. An example of a partially exposed
pin is that used in the RJ45 modular connector.
Contact
A contact refers to a location where one electrical transmission carrier meets
another and creates a link through which electrical signals may be passed.
Contacts, when referred to as physical parts of a connector or port, are usually
flat, exposed metal surfaces.
Channel
A channel is a hollow cylinder, usually metal, that receives a fully exposed pin.
The pin is inserted into the channel, where an electrical contact is made.
The cabling term “channel” should not be confused with the networking term
“channel,” which refers to a logical path or group of paths of transmission and
reception for network signals.
2-4
Physical Components
Cabling Terms
Gender
The gender of a connector refers to the organization of the pins, contacts, or
channels of the connector. Connectors may be identified as male, female,
hermaphroditic, or genderless. The most common types of connectors in
networking are male and female.
A male connector is one that is inserted into a recessed or hollow port. In the case
of some connectors, the determination of male gender is based upon whether the
connector makes its networking connection through a pin or a channel.
Connectors with pins are considered male.
Female connectors are those that are constructed to accept a male connector.
Female connectors typically provide channels into which the pins of male
connectors are inserted. A readily available example of male and female
connectors is the standard electrical extension cord. The extension cord has a male
end, the prongs that are placed in the wall outlet, and a female end, the slots on
the opposite end of the cable.
Connections in any gendered cable systems must be made between one male
connector and one female connector. The connectors themselves will not allow
male/male or female/female connections.
Some connectors are genderless or hermaphroditic. These are connectors that
have aspects of both male and female connector types. They may be connected to
any other port or connector. The Token Ring MIC connector is perhaps the most
common genderless connector in networking.
Keyed
A keyed connector is one that has a housing specifically designed to be connected
to a port in a particular orientation. The keyed connector is shaped in such a way
that it may only be inserted into the port or connector so that the pins or channels
of the housing match up properly.
Threaded
Threaded connectors are designed to be secured to other threaded connectors or
ports. They are designed to be screwed together. The threads hold the connectors
in place.
Locking
A locking connector is one that snaps into place. Locking connectors are usually
keyed, and are often gendered. The locking action holds the connector firmly in
place and makes the connection resistant to disconnection due to strain or
movement. Locking may be accomplished by a spring clip mechanism or by the
use of key pins and locking channels.
Physical Components
2-5
Cabling Terms
Port
A port is a set of pins or channels on a networking or cabling device that are
arranged to accept a connector. Ports are constructed much like connectors, and
will only accept the connector type they are specifically designed for. Ports may
be keyed, gendered, or locking, in the same fashion as connectors.
Jack
A jack is a term that is usually synonymous with port, and indicates a port
location. Typically, the term refers to ports located on wallplates or other passive
cabling devices.
Test Characteristics
The following section deals with the various important specifications and testing
information related to the cabling and connectors used in LAN environments.
Impedance
Impedance is the resistance that a conductive cable offers to the transmission of
current. Impedance is measured in ohms (Ω). Cables with high Impedance values
are highly resistant to the transmission of electrical signals. Some network
operation specifications and network devices require the use of cabling with
specific impedance levels and will not work properly with cabling having
significantly higher or lower values.
Crosstalk
Crosstalk is electrical interference between wires in a multi-stranded cable, such
as Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cabling. Crosstalk occurs when a cable strand
or group of strands absorb signals from other wires that they are adjacent to.
Crosstalk can be caused by a break in the insulation or shielding that separates
wires from one another in a bundle.
Noise
In regards to network cabling, the term noise refers to electrical noise, electrical
signals that are spontaneously introduced onto a cable due to that cables
proximity to noise sources. Typical sources of electrical noise include lighting
fixtures, electric motors, and transformers.
2-6
Test Characteristics
Cabling Terms
Delay
The term delay, when applied to network cabling, typically refers to the
propagation delay of the segment or network. As signals in both electrically
conductive cables and fiber optic cables travel through the transmission media at
a fraction of the speed of light, there is an appreciable delay between the
transmission of a signal on one end of a cable and the reception of the same signal
on the other end. Network delay is typically measured in microseconds (µs). One
microsecond is equal to 1/1,000,000 of a second.
Attenuation
Attenuation is the reduction of signal strength in a cable as a result of absorption
or dispersion of the electrical or optical impulse traveling through the cable. The
effect of attenuation is a gradual decrease in the power or clarity of a signal after it
traverses a length of cabling. The measure of the attenuation of a cable is
expressed in decibels (dB).
There are two different measures of attenuation that are important from a
networking point of view. The first is the attenuation characteristics of a cable.
These are estimates of the expected attenuation that a signal will suffer for
passing through a given length of the cable. Expected attenuation values are
expressed in dB/m, dB/km, or dB/ft.
The second measure of attenuation is that which is determined by testing a length
of cable to determine its total attenuation. Total attenuation takes into account all
components of the cable run and is expressed as a total measure of signal loss in
decibels from one end of the cable to the other.
Test Characteristics
2-7
Cabling Terms
2-8
Test Characteristics
Chapter 3
Relevant Specifications
This chapter presents and examines a number of networking specifications and how they are related
to planning and installing network cabling.
Just as there are specifications that deal with the tested aspects of installed cabling
and their fitness for use with a particular networking technology, there are also
standards that deal with the construction of cables and the methods by which
they may be installed. These higher-level cabling standards involve such things as
the pairing and insulating of cables within a multi-wire cable, the labeling of cable
jackets, and the allowable proximity of cables of certain types to other cables or
electrical equipment.
These higher-level specifications are out of the purview of this Cabling Guide,
and are not covered in detail within this document. Some of the aspects treated by
the higher-level specifications are discussed in the sections which follow, as they
impact or affect the use or selection of cabling materials in certain facilities or for
use with individual networking standards.
EIA/TIA
The EIA/TIA specifications deal with the recommended methods and practices
for constructing, installing, and terminating wiring. There are several different
EIA/TIA specifications which cover different aspects of wiring. EIA/TIA
specification number 568 is the one that network installers are most commonly
interested in, as it deals with the installation of networking and telephony and
networking cable.
The construction specifications of the EIA/TIA specification are important only
when selecting a specific type of cable. The EIA/TIA construction specification
used in the manufacture of that cable determines the construction and tested
characteristics of the cable, the organization and quality of its components, and
what applications it is suited for.
3-1
Relevant Specifications
The installation procedures of the EIA/TIA help to ensure that care is taken to
avoid cabling situations that are possibly hazardous or which can result in
degradation of the operating quality of the installed cable.
The EIA/TIA 568 specification details the minimum distance that cables may be
located away from sources of electrical noise, what types of power cables or other
telephony cabling the cables being installed may be next to, how the connectors
must be installed, and other aspects which affect the overall usability of the cable
for a particular purpose.
Full copies of the EIA/TIA 568 specification may be obtained from a technical
document seller or ordered directly from the Electronics Industries
Association/Telecommunications Industry Association.
Universal Service Order Code (USOC)
The USOC specification is similar to many EIA/TIA specifications, including
EIA/TIA 568. The USOC specification describes, among other things, the
construction and installation characteristics of a type of twisted pair cable. The
USOC specification deals with the same aspects of the installation process as the
EIA/TIA specifications, but provides slightly different guidelines.
Originally, the specification was drafted by the Bell System, and copies of the
USOC specification may be obtained from technical booksellers or those Regional
Bell Operating Companies (RBOCs) which provide specifications to customers.
National Electrical Code (NEC)
The National Electrical Code or NEC is an overall specification to which all
facility wiring of any kind in the United States of America must be held. As the
NEC is a higher-level standard than either the EIA/TIA or USOC specifications,
the two lower-level specifications are designed to be automatically in accordance
with the NEC.
3-2
Universal Service Order Code (USOC)
Chapter 4
Ethernet Media
This chapter examines the physical characteristics and requirements of both physical cabling and the
connectors and ports used with the cabling in Ethernet , Full-Duplex Ethernet, and Fast Ethernet
environments.
Cabling Types
Attachment Unit Interface (AUI)
Attachment Unit Interface cable (referred to hereafter as AUI cable) is a shielded,
multistranded cable that is used to connect Ethernet network devices to Ethernet
transceivers. AUI cable should be used for no other purpose. AUI cable is
available in two basic types: standard AUI and office AUI.
AUI cable is made up of four individually shielded pairs of wire surrounded by
an overall cable shielding sheath. The doubled shielding makes AUI cable more
resistant to electrical signal interference than other, lighter cables, but increases
the signal attenuation suffered over long distances.
AUI cables are connected to other devices through DB15 connectors. The
connectors of an AUI cable run from Male to Female at all times. Any transceiver
cable that uses a Male/Male or Female/Female configuration is a non-standard
cable, and should be avoided.
4-1
Ethernet Media
YES
NO
NO
1845n01
Figure 4-1. AUI Cable Configurations
The reason for the configuration of AUI cables as Male to Female only is due to
their intended use. AUI cables are designed to attach transceivers to workstations
or other active network equipment. Transceivers require power to operate, and
that power is supplied either by an external power supply or by a pair of wires
dedicated to power in the cable. A Male/Male or Female/Female AUI cable does
not correctly supply power and grounding to the transceiver. If you use a
Female/Female AUI cable between two transceiver devices, both transceivers will
try to draw power from each other. Neither is capable of providing this power.
Therefore, this configuration will not function. Likewise, two AUI device ports
should never be directly attached without using transceivers.
NOTE
If you find yourself in need of a gender changer to connect a
device with AUI cable, you are doing something wrong.
Standard
The gauge of the internal wires that make up the cable determines the thickness
and relative flexibility of the AUI cable. Standard AUI cable (containing pairs of
AWG 20 or 22 wire) is capable of reaching a maximum distance of 50 meters
between transceivers and the network device, but is thick, (0.420 inch) and
somewhat inflexible.
Standard AUI cables, due to their bulk, are typically used in environments that
require the 50 meter distances that standard AUI cables can provide. In situations
where the workstations or networking equipment are close to the transceivers
they are to be connected to, Office AUI cable, being more easily managed and
more flexible, is often used.
4-2
Cabling Types
Ethernet Media
Office
Office AUI cable is a thinner cable that is more convenient to use on many
environments than standard AUI. This lighter-gauge AUI cable is made up of four
pairs of AWG 28 wire, which is thinner (at 0.26 inch) and much more easily flexed,
but can only be run to a maximum distance of 16.5 meters.
Office AUI cable is intended to be used in places where standard AUI cable would
be cumbersome and inflexible. Typically, office AUI is used in locations where a
large number of workstations are concentrated in a single area.
Coaxial Cable
Coaxial cable is a cabling type where two or more separate materials share a
common central axis. While several types of networking cables could be
identified as having coaxial components or constructions, there are only two cable
types that can support network operation using only one strand of cabling with a
shared axis. These are commonly accepted as the coaxial cables, and are divided
into two main categories: thick and thin coaxial cable.
Thick Coaxial Cable
Thick coaxial cable (also known as thick Ethernet cable, “thicknet,” or 10BASE5
cable), is a cable constructed with a single solid core, which carries the network
signals, and a series of layers of shielding and insulator material. The shielding of
thick coaxial cable consists of four stages. The outermost shield is a braided metal
screen. The second stage shield, working inward, is usually a metal foil, but in
some brands of coaxial cable may be made up of a second screen. The third stage
consists of a second braided shield followed by the fourth stage, a second foil
shield. The various shields are separated by non-conductive insulator materials.
Foil Shield
Outer Jacket
Solid Core
Insulator
1845n02
Braided Shield
Figure 4-2. Thick Coaxial Cable Diagram
Cabling Types
4-3
Ethernet Media
Thick coaxial cable is a media used exclusively in Ethernet installations,
commonly as a backbone media. Transceivers are connected to the cable at
specified distances from one another, and standard transceiver cables connect
these transceivers to the network devices.
Due to the extensive shielding, thick coaxial cable is highly resistant to electrical
interference by outside sources such as lighting, machinery, etc. Because of the
bulkiness (typically 0.405 inch in diameter or thicker) and limited flexibility of the
cable, thick coaxial cable is primarily used as a backbone media and is placed in
cable runways or laid above ceiling tiles to keep it out of the way.
Thick coaxial cable is designed to be accessed as a shared media. Multiple
transceivers can be attached to the thick coaxial cable at multiple points on the
cable itself. A properly installed length of thick coaxial cable can support up to
100 transceivers.
Annular Rings
Coaxial Cable
N-Type
Connector
2.5 m
(10BASE5)
1845n03
Figure 4-3. Annular Rings
Multiple transceivers on a thick coaxial cable must be spaced at least 2.5 meters
from any neighboring transceivers or terminators. Thick coaxial cable is often
bright yellow or orange in color. The outer jacket will frequently be marked with
annular rings, dark red or black sections of jacketing that are spaced 2.5 meters
from one another. These annular rings are a useful guide for ensuring that
terminators and transceivers are spaced not less than 2.5 m from one another.
Thin Coaxial Cable
Thin coaxial cable (also known as thin Ethernet cable, “thinnet,” “cheapernet,”
RG-58 A/U, BNC or 10BASE2 cable) is a less shielded, and thus less expensive,
type of coaxial cabling. Also used exclusively for Ethernet networks, thin coaxial
cable is smaller, lighter, and more flexible than thick coaxial cable. The cable itself
resembles (but is not identical to) television coaxial cable.
Thin coaxial cable is made up of a single outer copper shield that may be braided
or foil, a layer beneath that of non-conductive dielectric material, and a stranded
center conductor. This shielding makes thin coaxial cable resistant to
electromagnetic interference as the shielding of thick coaxial cable does, but does
not provide the same extent of protection. Thin coaxial cable, due to its less
extensive shielding capacity, can be run to a maximum length of 185 meters
(606.7 ft).
4-4
Cabling Types
Ethernet Media
Building Network Coax (BNC) connectors crimp onto a properly prepared cable
end with a crimping tool. To prevent signal reflection on the cable, 50 Ohm
terminators are used on unconnected cable ends.
As with thick coaxial cable, thin coaxial cable allows multiple devices to connect
to a single cable. Up to 30 transceivers may be connected to a single length of thin
coaxial cable, spaced a minimum of 0.5 meter from one another. This minimum
spacing requirement keeps the signals from one transceiver from interfering with
the operation of others. The annular rings on the thin coaxial cable are placed 0.5
meter apart, and are a useful guide to transceiver placement.
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
Unshielded Twisted Pair cabling (referred to here as UTP, but also may be termed
copper wire, 10BASE-T wire, Category 3, 4, or 5 Ethernet wire, telephone cable, or
twisted pair without shielded or unshielded qualifier) is commonly made up of
two, four, or 25 pairs of 22, 24, or 26 AWG unshielded copper solid or stranded
wires. These pairs of wires are twisted together throughout the length of the
cable, and are broken up into transmit and receive pairs. In each pair, one wire
carries the normal Ethernet transmission, while its associated wire carries a copy
of the transmission that has been inverted.
Tx+
TxRxRx+
1845n04
Figure 4-4. UTP Cable Pair Association
The twisting of associated pairs helps to reduce the interference of the other
strands of wire throughout the cable. This is due to the method of transmission
used with twisted pair transmissions.
In any transceiver or Network Interface Card (NIC), the network protocol signals
to be transmitted are in the form of changes of electrical state. The means by
which the ones and zeroes of network communications are turned into these
signals is called encoding. In a twisted pair environment, once a transceiver has
been given an encoded signal to transmit, it will copy the signal and invert the
polarity of that signal (see Figure 4-5). The result of this inverted signal is a mirror
opposite of the original signal.
Cabling Types
4-5
Ethernet Media
Both the original and the inverted signal are then transmitted, the original signal
over the TX+ wire, the inverted signal over the TX - wire. As these wires are the
same length and of the same construction, the signal travels (propagates) at the
same rate through the cable. Since the pairs are twisted together, any outside
electrical interference that affects one member of the pair will have the same effect
on the other member of that pair.
The transmissions travel through the cable, eventually reaching a destination
transceiver. At this location, both signals are read in. The original signal is
unchanged, but the signal that had previously been inverted is reverted to the
original state. When this is done, it returns the encoded transmission to its
original state, but reverses the polarity of any signal interference that the encoded
transmission may have suffered.
Once the inverted transmission has been returned to the normal encoded state,
the transceiver adds the two signals together. As the encoded transmissions are
now identical, there is no change to the data content. Line noise spikes, however,
are combined with noise spikes of their exact opposite polarity, causing them to
cancel one another out.
Normal
Transmission
Induced
Noise Spike
Noise spikes
cancel out
Original Signal
Inverted
Transmission
Reversion of Inverted
Transmission
Resulting Signal
1845n05
Figure 4-5. UTP Signal Equalization
The UTP cable used in network installations is the same type of cable used in the
installation of telephone lines within buildings. UTP cabling is differentiated by
the quality category of the cable itself, which is an indicator of the type and
quality of wire used and the number of times the wires are twisted around each
other per foot. The categories range from Category 1 to Category 5, with Category
5 cabling being of the highest quality.
The wires that make up a length of UTP cable are numbered and color coded.
These color codes allow the installer of the networking cable to determine which
wires are connected to the pins of the RJ45 ports or patch panels. The numbering
of the wires in EIA/TIA standard cables is based on the color of the insulating
jacket that surrounds the core of each wire.
4-6
Cabling Types
Ethernet Media
The association of pairs of wire within the UTP cable jacket are decided by the
specifications to which the cable is built. There are two main specifications in use
around the world for the production of UTP cabling: EIA/TIA 568A and the
EIA/TIA 568B. The two wiring standards are different from one another in the
way that the wires are associated with one another at the connectors.
The arrangement of the wires in the two EIA/TIA specifications does not affect
the usability of either type of connector style for 10BASE-T purposes. As the
arrangement of the wires into pairs and the twisting of the pairs throughout the
cable remain the same regardless of the EIA/TIA specification being used, the
two specifications can be considered equivalent. As the specifications terminate
the wires into different arrangements, care must be taken to keep all the cables at
a facility terminated to the same EIA/TIA standard. Failure to do so can result in
the mis-association of wires at the connectors, making the cabling unable to
provide a connection between Ethernet devices. The arrangement of the wires
and pairs in the two EIA/TIA specifications is discussed in the UTP Cable
portion of the Connector Types section of this chapter.
Keep in mind that the selection of an EIA/TIA wiring scheme determines the
characteristics of Wallplates, Patch Panels, and other UTP interconnect hardware
you add to the network. Most manufacturers supply hardware built to both of
these specifications. The more common of the two specifications in 10BASE-T
applications is EIA/TIA 568A.
Four-Pair Cable
The typical single UTP cable is a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or plenum-rated plastic
jacket containing four pairs of wire. The majority of facility cabling in current and
new installations is four-pair cable of this sort. The dedicated single connections
made using four-pair cable are easier to troubleshoot and replace than the
alternative, bulk multipair cable such as 25-pair cable.
The jacket of each wire in a four-pair cable will have an overall color: brown, blue,
orange, green, or white. In a four-pair UTP cable (the typical UTP used in
networking installations) there is one wire each of brown, blue, green, and
orange, and four wires whose overall color is white. The white wires are
distinguished from one another by periodically placed (usually within 1/2 inch of
one another) rings of the other four colors.
Wires with a unique base color are identified by that base color: blue, brown,
green, or orange. Those wires that are primarily white are identified as
white/<color>, where <color> indicates the color of the rings of the other four
colors in the white insulator.
The 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX standards are concerned with the use of two
pairs, Pair 2 and Pair 3 (of either EIA/TIA 568 specification). The 10BASE-T and
100BASE-TX standards configure devices to transmit over Pair 3 of the EIA/TIA
568A specification (Pair 2 of EIA/TIA 568B), and to receive from Pair 2 of the
EIA/TIA 568A specification (Pair 3 of EIA/TIA 568B). The use of the wires of a
UTP cable is shown in Table 4-1.
Cabling Types
4-7
Ethernet Media
Table 4-1. 10BASE-T/100BASE-TX Four-Pair Wire Use
Ethernet Signal Use
Wire Color
EIA/TIA Pair
568A
White/Blue (W-BL)
Blue (BL)
White/Orange (W-OR)
Orange (OR)
White/Green (W-GR)
Green (GR)
White/Brown (W-BR)
Brown (BR)
NOTE
Pair 1
Pair 2
Pair 3
Pair 4
568B
Not Used
RX+
TX+
RX-
TX-
TX+
RX+
TX-
RX-
Not Used
Do not split pairs in a twisted pair installation. While you may
consider combining your voice and data cabling into one piece
of horizontal facility cabling, the Crosstalk and interference
produced by this practice greatly reduces the viability of the
cable for either application. The use of the pairs of cabling in
this fashion can also prevent the future usage of advanced
networking technologies such as FDDI TP-PMD and
100BASE-T4, that require the use of all four pairs in a twisted
pair cable.
Twenty-Five Pair Cable
UTP cabling in large installations requiring several cable runs between two points
is often 25-pair cable. This is a heavier, thicker form of UTP. The wires within the
plastic jacket are of the same construction, and are twisted around associated
wires to form pairs, but there are 50 individual wires twisted into 25 pairs in these
larger cables. In most cases, 25-pair cable is used to connect wiring closets to one
another, or to distribute large amounts of cable to intermediate distribution
points, from which four-pair cable is run to the end stations.
4-8
Cabling Types
Ethernet Media
As with four-pair cable, the wires within a 25-pair cable are identified by color.
The jacket of each wire in a 25-pair cable has an overall color: violet, green, brown,
blue, red, orange, yellow, gray, black, and white. In a 25-pair UTP cable all wires
in the cable are identified by two colors. The first color is the base color of the
insulator, while the second is the color of narrow bands painted onto the base
color. These identifying rings are periodically placed on the wire, and repeat at
regular intervals. When a wire is identified in a 25-pair cable, it is identified first
by its base color, and then further specified by the color of the bands or rings.
As a 25-pair cable can be used to make up to 12 connections between Ethernet
stations (two wires in the 25-pair cable are typically not used), the wire pairs need
to be identified not only as transmit or receive pairs, but what other pair they are
associated with. There are two ways of identifying sets of pairs in a 25-pair cable.
The first is based on the connection of a 25-pair cable to a specific type of
connector designed especially for it, the RJ21 connector. The second is based on
connection to a punchdown block, a cable management device typically used to
make the transition from a single 25-pair cable to a series of four-pair cables
easier.
For further information on the RJ21 connector, refer to the Connector Types
section later in this chapter. A description of punchdown blocks may be found in
Chapter 13, Cabling Devices, and details of the punchdowns may be found in the
Connector Types section later in this chapter.
Table 4-2. 25-Pair Cable Pair Mapping
Port Number
1
2
3
Cabling Types
Wire Use
RJ21 Pin
Number
Wire Color
Punchdown
In Number
Punchdown
Out Number
RX +
White/Blue
26
A1
B1
RX -
Blue/White
1
A2
B2
TX +
White/Orange
27
A3
B3
TX -
Orange/White
2
A4
B4
RX +
White/Green
28
A5
B5
RX -
Green/White
3
A6
B6
TX +
White/Brown
29
A7
B7
TX -
Brown/White
4
A8
B8
RX +
White/Gray
30
A9
B9
RX -
Gray/White
5
A10
B10
TX +
Red/Blue
31
A11
B11
TX -
Blue/Red
6
A12
B12
4-9
Ethernet Media
Table 4-2. 25-Pair Cable Pair Mapping (Continued)
Port Number
4
5
6
7
8
9
4-10
Wire Use
RJ21 Pin
Number
Wire Color
Punchdown
In Number
Punchdown
Out Number
RX +
Red/Orange
32
A13
B13
RX -
Orange/Red
7
A14
B14
TX +
Red/Green
33
A15
B15
TX -
Green/Red
8
A16
B16
RX +
Red/Brown
34
A17
B17
RX -
Brown/Red
9
A18
B18
TX +
Red/Gray
35
A19
B19
TX -
Gray/Red
10
A20
B20
RX +
Black/Blue
36
A21
B21
RX -
Blue/Black
11
A22
B22
TX +
Black/Orange
37
A23
B23
TX -
Orange/Black
12
A24
B24
RX +
Black/Green
38
A25
B25
RX -
Green/Black
13
A26
B26
TX +
Black/Brown
39
A27
B27
TX -
Brown/Black
14
A28
B28
RX +
Black/Gray
40
A29
B29
RX -
Gray/Black
15
A30
B30
TX +
Yellow/Blue
41
A31
B31
TX -
Blue/Yellow
16
A32
B32
RX +
Yellow/Orange
42
A33
B33
RX -
Orange/Yellow
17
A34
B34
TX +
Yellow/Green
43
A35
B35
TX -
Green/Yellow
18
A36
B36
Cabling Types
Ethernet Media
Table 4-2. 25-Pair Cable Pair Mapping (Continued)
Port Number
10
11
12
Unused Pair
Cabling Types
Wire Use
RJ21 Pin
Number
Wire Color
Punchdown
In Number
Punchdown
Out Number
RX +
Yellow/Brown
44
A37
B37
RX -
Brown/Yellow
19
A38
B38
TX +
Yellow/Gray
45
A39
B39
TX -
Gray/Yellow
20
A40
B40
RX +
Violet/Blue
46
A41
B41
RX -
Blue/Violet
21
A42
B42
TX +
Violet/Orange
47
A43
B43
TX -
Orange/Violet
22
A44
B44
RX +
Violet/Green
48
A45
B45
RX -
Green/Violet
23
A46
B46
TX +
Violet/Brown
49
A47
B47
TX -
Brown/Violet
24
A48
B48
N/A
-
25
N/A
N/A
N/A
-
50
N/A
N/A
4-11
Ethernet Media
Crossovers
The 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX specifications require that some UTP connections
be crossed over. Crossing over is the reversal of the transmit and receive pairs at
opposite ends of a single cable. Each cable that swaps the location of the transmit
and receive pairs at only one end is called a crossover cable. Those cables that
maintain the same pin numbers for transmit and receive pairs at both ends are
called straight-through cables.
The 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX specifications are designed around connections
from networking hardware to end user stations being made through
straight-through cabling. Because of this, the transmit wires of a networking
device such as a standalone hub or repeater connect to the receive pins of a
10BASE-T or 100BASE-TX end station.
If two similarly-designed network devices are connected using a straight-through
cable, the transmit pins of one device are connected to the transmit pins of the
other device. In effect, the two devices will both attempt to transmit on the same
pair of the cable between them.
To overcome this, a crossover must be placed between two like devices on a
network, forcing the transmit pins of one device to connect to the receive pins of
the other device. When two like devices are being connected to one another using
UTP cabling, an odd number of crossover cables, preferably one, must be part of
the cabling between them.
Path of Transmission
Tx+
Straight-Through
Tx+
Tx-
Tx-
Rx-
Rx-
Rx+
Rx+
Tx+
Crossover
Tx-
Rx+
RxTxTx+
RxRx+
Path of Transmission
1845n06
Figure 4-6. Straight-Through vs. Crossover Cables
4-12
Cabling Types
Ethernet Media
UTP Cable Quality
UTP cabling is produced in a number of overall quality levels, called Categories.
The requirements of networking limit UTP cabling for Ethernet to Categories 3, 4,
and 5. Any of these cable Categories can be used in an Ethernet installation,
provided that the requisite IEEE 802.3 specifications regarding the cables are met.
Category 3
UTP cabling that is built to the Category 3 specification consists of two or more
pairs of solid 24 AWG copper strands. Each strand, approximately 0.02 inch thick,
is surrounded by a layer of insulation. The characteristics of the insulation are
determined by the fire resistant construction of the cable (plenum cable is thicker
and made with slightly different material than normal PVC cabling).
The individual wires are twisted into pairs. The twisted pairs of cable are laid
together within an outer jacket, that may be low-smoke PVC plastic or a
plenum-rated insulating material. The outer jacket surrounds, but does not
adhere to, the wire pairs that make up the cable.
Category 3 UTP cabling must not produce an attenuation of a 10 MHz signal
greater than 98 dB/km at the control temperature of 20° C.
Category 4
Category 4 UTP cabling is constructed in the same manner as the Category 3
cabling discussed previously. Category 4 UTP is constructed using copper center
strands of 24 or 22 AWG. The resulting wire pairs are then covered by a second
layer of insulating jacketing. Higher-quality materials and a closer association of
the twisted pairs of wire improve the transmission characteristics of the cable in
comparison to Category 3 cabling.
Category 4 UTP cabling must not produce an attenuation of a 10 MHz signal
greater than 72 dB/km at the control temperature of 20° C.
Category 5
Category 5 UTP cabling is manufactured in the same fashion as Category 3 cable,
but the materials used are of higher quality and the wires that make up the pairs
are more tightly wound than those in lower Category classes. This closer
association helps to reduce the likelihood that any one member of a pair may be
affected by external noise sources without the other member of the pair
experiencing the same event. Only Category 5 cable may be used in 100BASE-TX
networks.
Cabling Types
4-13
Ethernet Media
Category 5 UTP consists of 2 or more pairs of 22 or 24 AWG wire. Category 5 cable
is constructed and insulated such that the maximum attenuation of a 10 MHz
signal in a cable run at the control temperature of 20° C is 65 dB/km. A cable that
has a maximum attenuation higher than 65 dB/km does not meet the Category 5
requirements.
Fiber Optics
Fiber optic cable is a high performance media constructed of glass or plastic that
uses pulses of light as a transmission method. Because fiber optics do not utilize
electrical charges to pass data, they are free of interference due to proximity to
electrical fields. This, combined with the extremely low rate of signal degradation
and dB loss makes fiber optics able to traverse extremely long distances. The
actual maximums are dependent upon the architecture being used, but distances
upwards of 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) are not uncommon.
Glass optical fiber is made up of a glass strand, the core, that allows for the easy
transmission of light, the cladding, a less transmissive glass layer around the core
that helps keep the light within the core, and a plastic buffer that protects the
cable.
Cladding
Transmissive Core
PVC Buffer (Jacketing)
1845n07
Figure 4-7. Fiber Optic Cable Construction (multimode)
There are two basic types of fiber optics, multimode and single mode. The names
come from the types of light used in the transmission process. Multimode fiber
uses inexpensive Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) that produce light of a single
color. Due to the nature of the LED, the light produced is made up of a number of
differing wavelengths of light, fired outward from the center of the LED. Not all
the rays of light enter the fiber, and those that do often do so at an angle, which
reduces the amount of distance the signal can effectively cover. Single mode fiber
optics use lasers to achieve greater maximum distances. Since light from a laser is
all of the same wavelength, and travels in a coherent ray, the resulting signal
tends to be much clearer at reception than an LED signal under the same
circumstances.
4-14
Cabling Types
Ethernet Media
Fiber optics of both types are measured and identified by a variety of means. The
usual means of referring to a fiber optic cable type is to identify if it is single mode
or multimode, and to describe the thickness of each strand. Fiber optics are very
thin, and the diameter of each strand is measured in microns (µm). Two
measurements are important in fiber optic identification; the diameter of the core,
where signals travel, and the diameter of the cladding, which surrounds the core.
Thus, fiber optic measurements will usually provide two numbers separated by
the “/” symbol. The first number is the diameter, in microns, of the core. The
second is the diameter of the cladding. Thus, a 62.5/125 multimode cable is a type
of fiber optic cabling with a 62.5 micron core and 125 micron cladding, which is
commonly used by LED driven transmitting devices.
In much the same way that UTP cabling is available in two-, four-, 25-, and 50-pair
cables, strands of fiber optic cabling are often bound together with other strands
into multiple strand cables. These multiple strand cables are available with
anywhere from two to 24 or more strands of fiber optics, all gathered together into
one protective jacket.
TIP
Cabletron Systems recommends that customers planning to
install fiber optic cabling not install any facility fiber optics
(non-jumper cabling) containing fewer than six strands of
usable optical fiber. The minimum number of strands needed to
make an end-to-end fiber optic link between two network
devices is two (using the Ethernet network architecture). In the
event that a strand within the cable is damaged during
installation or additional fiber pairs become desired along the
cable path, the availability of extra strands of optical fiber will
reduce the likelihood that a new cable must be pulled. The
existing, unused pairs of optical fiber can be terminated and
used immediately.
Multimode
Multimode fiber optic cabling is designed and formulated to allow the
propagation of many different wavelengths, or modes, of light. Multimode fiber
optics are the most commonly encountered fiber type in Ethernet installations,
due to their lower cost compared to other fiber types.
Multimode fiber optics may be terminated with any type of fiber optic connector;
SMA, ST, FDDI MIC, or the new and not currently standardized SC connector.
Cabling Types
4-15
Ethernet Media
Single Mode
Single mode fiber optics are designed specifically to allow the transmission of a
very narrow range of wavelengths within the core of the fiber. As the precise
wavelength control required to accomplish this is performed using lasers, which
direct a single, narrow ray of light, the transmissive core of single mode fiber
optics is typically very small (8 to 10 µm). Single mode fiber is more expensive to
produce than multimode fiber, and is typically used in long-haul applications.
Due to the very demanding tolerances involved in connecting two transmissive
media with diameters approximately one-quarter as thick as a sheet of paper,
single mode fiber optics require very precise connectors that will not move or
shift over time. For this reason, single mode fiber optics should only be
terminated with locking, preferably keyed, connectors. Fiber optic connector
types such as the ST, SC, or FDDI MIC connector all meet the requirements of
single mode fiber optics, if installed and tested properly.
4-16
Cabling Types
Ethernet Media
Connector Types
AUI
AUI cabling is always connected with DB15 ports and connectors. The use of any
other type of connector for AUI cable is a violation of the IEEE 802.3 specification
and is considered nonstandard.
DB15
The DB15 connector (male or female) provides 15 pins or channels (depending on
gender). For identification, these pins are numbered from 1 to 15. To identify the
number of a pin, look at the front of the connector, holding the DB15 as shown in
Figure 4-8, below, keeping the longer edge of the D-shaped connector up.
Channel #15
Channel #1
Pin #1
Female
Pin #15
Male
1845n08
Figure 4-8. DB15 Connectors
The channel located at the upper right-hand corner of the female DB15 connector
is identified as channel 1. The numbering continues across the top of the
connector, to channel 8 at the upper left-hand corner. The channels from 9 to 15
are the seven channels at the bottom of the connector, from the lower right-hand
corner (9) to the lower left-hand corner (15). The male DB15 connector reverses
the left-right order of numbering, placing pin 1 at the upper left-hand corner, then
following the path across and down to pin 15 at the lower right-hand corner.
The wires of an AUI cable are connected to different locations (pins or channels)
of the male and female DB15 connectors. The differing organizations are called
“pinouts.” The standard Ethernet DB15 pinout is discussed below.
Connector Types
4-17
Ethernet Media
Table 4-3. AUI Pinouts
AUI Connector Pin
4-18
Wire Function
1
Logic Ref
2
Collision +
3
Transmit +
4
Logic Ref
5
Receive +
6
Power Return
7
No Connection
8
Logic Ref
9
Collision -
10
Transmit -
11
Logic Ref
12
Receive -
13
Power (+12 Vdc)
14
Logic Ref
15
No Connection
Connector Types
Ethernet Media
Coaxial Cable
The connectors available for coaxial cabling are dependent upon the type of
coaxial cabling in question. Thick coaxial cable may be tapped into without
breaking the continuity of the cable or may be physically cut and re-connected.
Thin coaxial cable cannot support the non-intrusive tap style, and must be split
and connected to a junction device at each point where a connection is to be made.
N-Type
N-Type connectors are used for the termination of thick coaxial cables and also for
the connection of transceivers to the cable. When used to provide a transceiver
tap, the coaxial cable is broken at an Annular Ring and two N-Type connectors are
attached to the resulting bare ends. These N-Type connectors, once in place, are
screwed onto a barrel housing. The barrel housing contains a center channel that
the signals of the cable are passed across, and a pin or cable that contacts this
center channel, providing access to and from the core of the coaxial cable. The pin
that contacts the center channel is connected to the transceiver assembly and
provides the path for Ethernet transmission and reception.
Crimping Sleeve
Coaxial Cable
Center Pin
Threaded Connector
Terminator Barrel
Insulator
Center Channel
Threaded Connector
Insulator
1845n09
Figure 4-9. N-Type Connector and Terminator
Connector Types
4-19
Ethernet Media
Thick coaxial cables require termination with N-Type connectors. As the coaxial
cable carries network transmissions as voltage, both ends of the thick coaxial
cable must be terminated with N-Type connectors and terminators to keep the
signal from reflecting throughout the cable, which would disrupt network
operation. The terminators used for thick coaxial cable are 50 Ohm (Ω)
terminators. These terminators are screwed into an N-Type connector placed at
the end of a run of thick coaxial cabling.
Non-Intrusive
Tapping a thick coaxial cable may be done without breaking the cable itself. The
non-intrusive, or “vampire” tap (Figure 4-10), inserts a solid pin through the thick
insulating material and shielding of the coaxial cable. The solid pin reaches in
through the insulator to the core wire where signals pass through the cable. By
contacting the core, the pin creates a tap. The signals travel through the pin to and
from the core.
Non-Intrusive taps are made up of saddles, which bind the connector assembly to
the cable, and tap pins, which burrow through the insulator to the core wire.
Non-Intrusive connector saddles are clamped to the cable to hold the assembly in
place, and usually are either part of, or are easily connected to, an Ethernet
transceiver assembly.
Compression
Screw
Annula
r Ring
Tap Pin
("stinger")
Transceiver
Contact
1845n10
Figure 4-10. Non-Intrusive Tap and Cable Saddle
The non-intrusive tap’s cable saddle is then inserted into a transceiver assembly
(Figure 4-11). The contact pin, that carries the signal from the tap pin’s connection
to the coaxial cable core, makes a contact with a channel in the transceiver
housing. The transceiver breaks the signal up and carries it to a DB15 connector,
to which an AUI cable may be connected.
4-20
Connector Types
Ethernet Media
Coax Cable
le
add
ble S
Ca
Contact Pin
ER
SCEIV
TRAN
1845n11
AUI Connector
(Female)
Figure 4-11. Cable Saddle and Transceiver Assembly
BNC
The BNC connector, used in 10BASE2 environments, is an intrusive connector
much like the N-Type connector used with thick coaxial cable (described above).
The BNC connector (shown in Figure 4-12) requires that the coaxial cable be
broken at an annular ring to make the connection. Two BNC connectors are either
screwed onto or crimped to the resulting bare ends. Cabletron Systems
recommends the use of the crimp-on BNC connectors for more stable and
consistent connections. BNC connectors use the same pin-and-channel system to
provide a contact that is used in the thick coaxial N-Type connector.
BNC Male connectors are attached to BNC female terminators or T-connectors
(Figure 4-13). The outside metal housing of the BNC male connector has two
guide channels that slip over corresponding locking key posts on the female BNC
connector. When the outer housing is placed over the T-connector or terminator
locking keys and turned, the connectors will snap securely into place.
Connector Types
4-21
Ethernet Media
Key Guide Channel
Locking Key
Metal Casing
Insulator
Solid Center Strand
Hollow Center Channel
1845n12
Figure 4-12. BNC connectors
T-Connector
Connections from the cable to network nodes are typically made using
T-connectors, which provide taps for additional runs of coaxial cable to
workstations or network devices. T-connectors, as shown in Figure 4-13, below,
provide three BNC connections, two of which attach to Male BNC connectors on
the cable itself and one of which is used for connection to the Female BNC
connection of a transceiver or Desktop Network Interface Card (DNI or NIC) on a
workstation.
1845n13
Figure 4-13. Thin Coax T-Connector
NOTE
4-22
T-connectors should be attached directly to the BNC
connectors of Network Interface Cards or other Ethernet
devices. The single solid strand connector of a T-connector
should not be attached to a coaxial jumper cable of any length.
Connector Types
Ethernet Media
UTP Cable
RJ45
The RJ45 connector is a modular, plastic connector that is often used in UTP cable
installations. The RJ45 is a keyed connector, designed to be plugged into an RJ45
port only in the correct alignment. The connector is a plastic housing that is
crimped onto a length of UTP cable using a custom RJ45 die tool. The connector
housing is often transparent, and consists of a main body, the contact blades or
“pins,” the raised key, and a locking clip and arm.
Contact Blades
Locking Arm
Locking Clip
1845n14
Figure 4-14. RJ45 Connector
The locking clip, part of the raised key assembly, secures the connector in place
after a connection is made. When the RJ45 connector is inserted into a port, the
locking clip is pressed down and snaps up into place. A thin arm, attached to the
locking clip, allows the clip to be lowered to release the connector from the port.
For a complete discussion of connecting and disconnecting RJ45 connectors, refer
to Chapter 14, Connecting and Terminating.
RJ45 connectors for UTP cabling are available in two basic configurations;
stranded and solid. These names refer to the type of UTP cabling that they are
designed to connect to. The blades of the RJ45 connector end in a series of points
that pierce the jacket of the wires and make the connection to the core. Different
types of connections are required for each type of core composition.
A UTP cable that uses stranded core wires will allow the contact points to nest
among the individual strands. The contact blades in a stranded RJ45 connector,
therefore, are laid out with their contact points in a straight line. The contact
points cut through the insulating material of the jacket and make contact with
several strands of the core.
Connector Types
4-23
Ethernet Media
Staggered Teeth
Clamp Core Wire
Solid Core
Inline Teeth Nest
in Core Strands
Stranded Core
Insulator
Insulator
1845n15
Figure 4-15. Solid and Stranded RJ45 Blades
The solid UTP connector arranges the contact points of the blades in a staggered
fashion. The purpose of this arrangement is to pierce the insulator on either side
of the core wire and make contacts on either side. As the contact points cannot
burrow into the solid core, they clamp the wire in the middle of the blade,
providing three opportunities for a viable connection.
The contact pins and their associated wires are organized into what is known as a
pinout. The pinout of a connector or port is the layout of the wires or cables
coming into the connector. The pinout used in any connector is dependent upon
the wiring specification to which the cable is constructed. The 10BASE-T standard
requires that all the cables used in the network end in connectors with particular
pinouts. The pinout form required by the 10BASE-T standard is the EIA/TIA
568A specification.
The EIA/TIA 568A specification orders the pairs in a four-pair cable into the
pinout shown in Figure 4-16, below. The RJ45 connector in Figure 4-16 is being
viewed from the contact blade end, with the locking clip up.
Pair 2
Pair 3
W-GR
GR
Pair 4
Pair 1
W-OR
BL
W-BL
OR
W-BR
BR
1845n16
Figure 4-16. EIA/TIA 568A Pair Association
4-24
Connector Types
Ethernet Media
The EIA/TIA 568B specification reverses the arrangement of Pair 1 and Pair 2, but
does not change the association of pairs within the cable. The Universal Service
Order Code, or USOC, a standard used for Token Ring network installations or
some telephone wiring, uses a different pair association than EIA/TIA 568A. The
USOC standard will cause a split pair condition in an IEEE 10BASE-T
environment, causing a loss of network functionality. For further information on
the differences between the standards, refer to the USOC and EIA/TIA
specifications.
RJ21 (Telco)
The RJ21 or “Telco” connector is another standard 10BASE-T connector type. The
RJ21 connector is a D-shaped metal or plastic housing that is wired and crimped
to a UTP cable made up of 50 wires, a 25-pair cable. The RJ21 connector can only
be plugged into an RJ21 port. The connector itself is sizable, and the cables that it
connects to are often quite heavy, so the RJ21 relies on a tight fit and good cable
management practices to keep itself in the port. Some devices may also
incorporate a securing strap that wraps over the back of the connector and holds
it tight to the port.
25-Pair Cable
Contact Pins
1845n17
Figure 4-17. The RJ21 Connector
The RJ21 is used in locations where 25-pair cable is being run either to stations or
to an intermediary cable management device such as a patch panel or
punchdown block. Due to the bulk of the 25-pair cable and the desirability of
keeping the wires within the insulating jacket as much as possible, 25-pair cable is
rarely run directly to Ethernet stations.
The RJ21 connector, when used in a 10BASE-T environment, must use the
EIA/TIA 568A pinout scheme. The numbers of the RJ21 connector’s pins are
detailed in Figure 4-18, below. The actual association of the wire colors into pairs
and the organization that these pairs may use to connect to a punchdown block
are discussed in the Cabling Types portion of this chapter.
Connector Types
4-25
Ethernet Media
Receive
1
2
Transmit
+
26
Receive
27
Transmit
1
26
2
27
3
28
4
29
5
30
6
31
7
32
8
33
9
34
10
35
11
36
12
37
13
38
14
39
15
40
16
41
17
42
18
43
19
44
20
45
21
46
22
47
23
48
24
49
25
50
1845n18
Figure 4-18. RJ21 Pinout Mapping for 10BASE-T
Punchdown Blocks
While not strictly a connector type, the punchdown block is a fairly common
component in many Ethernet 10BASE-T installations that use 25-pair cable. The
punchdowns are bayonet pins to which UTP wire strands are connected. The
bayonet pins are arranged in 50 rows of four columns each. The pins that make up
the punchdown block are identified by the row and column they are members of.
Each of the four columns is lettered A, B, C, or D, from leftmost to rightmost. The
rows are numbered from top to bottom, one to 50. Thus, the upper left hand pin is
identified as A1, while the lower right hand pin is identified as D50.
4-26
Connector Types
Ethernet Media
A
B
C
D
01
10
11
20
21
30
31
40
41
50
1845n19
Figure 4-19. Punchdown Block Mapping for UTP Cabling
Connector Types
4-27
Ethernet Media
Fiber Optics
As both multimode and single mode fiber optics use the same standard connector
in the Ethernet 10BASE-FL and FOIRL specifications, both cabling types are
treated in the section that follows. The recommended connector for 100BASE-FX
networks is discussed in the closing pages of this section.
NOTE
The 10BASE-F specification is broken up into three main
categories; 10BASE-FP Passive Fiber Optic Star, 10BASE-FB
Active Fiber Optic Backbone, and 10BASE-FL Active Fiber
Optic Link. Cabletron Systems produces Ethernet products that
comply with the 10BASE-FL specification.
Straight-Tip
The 10BASE-FL standard and FOIRL specification for Ethernet networks define
one style of connector as being acceptable for both multimode and single mode
fiber optic cabling - the Straight-Tip or ST connector (note that ST connectors for
single mode and multimode fiber optics are different in construction and are not
to be used interchangeably). Designed by AT&T, the ST connector replaces the
earlier Sub-Miniature Assembly or SMA connector. The ST connector is a keyed,
locking connector that automatically aligns the center strands of the fiber optic
cabling with the transmission or reception points of the network or cable
management device it is connecting to.
Side Elev.
Front Elev.
Hollow Center
Channel
Solid Glass
Center
Pla s
ti
Locking Key
cH
g
Key Guide
Channel
o u si n
Keyed
Connector
Cladding
1845n20
Figure 4-20. ST Connectors
4-28
Connector Types
Ethernet Media
The key guide channels of the male ST connector allow the ST connector to only
be connected to a female ST connector in the proper alignment. The alignment
keys of the female ST connector ensure the proper rotation of the connector and,
at the end of the channel, lock the male ST connector into place at the correct
attitude. An integral spring helps to keep the ST connectors from being crushed
together, damaging the fiber optic cables. For a complete discussion of connecting
and disconnecting ST connectors, refer to Chapter 14, Connecting and
Terminating.
SC Connector
The SC connector is a gendered connector that is recommended for use in Fast
Ethernet networks that incorporate multimode fiber optics adhering to the
100BASE-FX specification. It consists of two plastic housings, the outer and inner.
The inner housing fits loosely into the outer, and slides back and forth with a
travel of approximately 2 mm (0.08 in).
The inner housing ends in two floating ferrules, which are very similar to the
floating ferrules used in the FDDI MIC connector. The 100BASE-FX specification
requires very precise alignment of the fiber optic strands in order to make an
acceptable connection. In order to accomplish this, SC connectors and ports each
incorporate “floating” ferrules that make the final connection between fibers.
These floating ferrules are held in place relatively loosely. This arrangement
allows the ferrules to move slightly when making a connection. This small
amount of movement manages to accommodate the subtle differences in
construction found from connector to connector and from port to port.
The sides of the outer housing are open, allowing the inner housing to act as a
latching mechanism when the connector is inserted properly in an SC port.
Guide Keys
Sliding Latch
1845n28
"Floating" Ferrules
Figure 4-21. Fast Ethernet SC Connector
Connector Types
4-29
Ethernet Media
4-30
Connector Types
Chapter 5
Ethernet Network Requirements
This chapter provides test parameters and specification requirements for Ethernet network cabling.
10BASE-T
All Cabletron Systems 10BASE-T products require that installed facility cabling
and cable hardware meet the following minimum specifications. If a network
cabling installation is not within the limitations presented here, the operation of
the 10BASE-T products may be affected.
Cable Type
10BASE-T network operations are more demanding than normal telephony, and
thus require specific, high-quality cabling in order to function properly. The
10BASE-T specification for Ethernet networks requires UTP cabling of Category 3,
4, or 5. Categories of UTP cabling below Category 3 may not meet the quality
requirements of the networking specification, and may therefore be unable to
meet the tested characteristics listed below.
The Category of cabling used in a network installation is dependent upon all the
components that make up the cabling run. If an installation utilizes Category 5
cabling, and the wallplates and patch panels to which that cabling is connected
are Category 3 compliant, the cable does not meet the EIA/TIA end-to-end
specifications for a Category 5 installation.
Insertion Loss (Attenuation)
The maximum allowable insertion loss for any 10BASE-T station on the Ethernet
network is 11.5 dB at frequencies from 5 to 10 MHz. This calculation must take all
cabling devices in the cable path into account. A typical insertion loss test must
include the jumper cabling used at the station and at the wiring closet, and any
patch panels, punchdown blocks, and wallplates in the installation.
5-1
Ethernet Network Requirements
The insertion loss characteristics of a cable are one of the main determinants of
link length allowed by the Ethernet and 10BASE-T specifications. As long as a
UTP cable does not exceed the total insertion loss of 11.5 dB, it may be any length
up to 200 m (656 ft). The 200 meter maximum total length is based on the total
allowable propagation delay in the network, and cannot be exceeded.
NOTE
As longer cables are more susceptible to other limiting factors,
Cabletron Systems does not recommend the installation of
10BASE-T cabling over 100 m in length.
Impedance
Cabletron Systems 10BASE-T equipment requires that 10BASE-T cables in the
Ethernet network have an impedance within the range of 75 - 165 Ω. Typical UTP
cables used in Ethernet environments have an impedance between 85 to 150 Ω.
Jitter
Jitter may be caused by intersymbol interference and reflection of signal.
Networking technologies that rely on particular timing or clocking schemes may
be affected by jitter due to excessive signal reflection. Any 10BASE-T cable
installation should not exceed 5.0 ns of jitter. If a cable run meets the 10BASE-T
impedance requirements (detailed above), jitter should not be a concern.
Delay
The maximum propagation delay allowable on a 10BASE-T segment is 1
microsecond (µs). If an Ethernet signal is unable to traverse the entire length of an
installed UTP cable run within 1 µs, Out of Window (OOW) errors will occur due
to excessive delays between transmission of signals and notification of collisions.
This propagation delay requirement limits UTP cabling to a total maximum
length of 200 m (656 ft).
NOTE
5-2
As longer cables are more susceptible to other limiting factors,
Cabletron Systems does not recommend the installation of
10BASE-T cabling over 100 m in length.
10BASE-T
Ethernet Network Requirements
Crosstalk
Crosstalk is electrical interference between wires. Crosstalk occurs when a cable
strand absorbs signals from other wires that it is adjacent to. Excessive crosstalk
can be caused by a break in the insulation or shielding that separates wires from
one another in a bundle.
Ethernet UTP cables should be checked for Near-End Crosstalk, or NEXT, at
installation. The allowable amount of NEXT for a UTP cable is dependent upon
the type of cable used in the installation.
25-Pair Cable
The acceptable amount of NEXT between pairs in a 25-pair cable is at least 60 dB
for a 10 MHz link.
Four-Pair Cable
The acceptable amount of NEXT between pairs in a four-pair cable is not less than
60 dB for a 10 MHz link.
Noise
As “noise” is not a readily quantified and tested aspect of installed cables, there
are no hard and fast rules for the amount of acceptable cable noise on a 10BASE-T
segment. If a cable that meets all other requirements for 10BASE-T operation is
experiencing an unusual number of errors, the introduction of noise may be a
problem.
If you suspect noise of causing signal degradation, examine the cable or cables in
question. If they are near possible sources of outside noise, such as lighting
fixtures, electric motors, or transformers, reroute the cable.
Other Considerations
UTP cabling, due to the small gauge of the wires it is constructed out of, is
susceptible to changes in attenuation due to heat. In an installation that exceeds
the control temperature of 20° C (68° F), the attenuation of PVC jacketed UTP
cabling that is within the 11.5 dB limitations may fall outside the acceptable range.
In installations where UTP cables are expected to be subjected to temperatures of
40° C (104° F) or greater, the use of plenum-jacketed cabling is recommended. The
thicker insulating jacket of a plenum-rated cable reduces the susceptibility of that
cable to heat-induced changes in attenuation characteristics.
10BASE-T
5-3
Ethernet Network Requirements
The IEEE 802.3 10BASE-T specification requires that all 10BASE-T devices
support UTP cables of not less than 100 m (328 ft) in length. This requirement
does not factor in losses due to connectors, patch panels, punchdown blocks, or
other cable management hardware, which introduce additional loss.
For each connector or other intrusive cable management device in the total link,
subtract 12 m (39.4 ft) from the total allowable link length.
Length
The 10BASE-T standard specifies that any 10BASE-T compliant device must be
capable of transmitting an Ethernet signal not less than 100 m (328 ft) over a UTP
cable segment that meets the minimum quality values listed above. As long as all
specifications are met for the entire length of the cable, UTP cable segments can be
run up to a maximum allowable length of 200 m (656 ft).
NOTE
As longer cables are more susceptible to noise and other
limiting factors, Cabletron Systems does not recommend the
installation of 10BASE-T cabling over 100 m in length.
10BASE-F (Multimode)
All Cabletron Systems 10BASE-F and FOIRL products require that installed
facility cabling and cable hardware meet the following minimum specifications. If
a network cabling installation is not within the limitations presented here, the
operation of the 10BASE-F products may be affected.
Cable Type
10BASE-F network devices require specific types of cabling. 10BASE-F multimode
fiber optic devices manufactured by Cabletron Systems are able to support
connections to and from the following types of multimode fiber optics:
•
•
•
5-4
50/125 µm
62.5/125 µm
100/140 µm
10BASE-F (Multimode)
Ethernet Network Requirements
Attenuation
Multimode fiber optic cables must be tested for attenuation with a fiber optic
attenuation test set. The test set must be configured to determine attenuation of
the cable at a wavelength of 850 nm. The attenuation test will confirm or deny that
the cable falls within an acceptable level. The acceptable level of attenuation for a
cable is dependent upon the type of multimode fiber optic cable being tested. The
acceptable levels of attenuation for the types of multimode fiber optic cabling
supported by Cabletron Systems products are listed in Table 5-1 below:
Table 5-1. Multimode Fiber Optic Attenuation Limits
Cable Type
Maximum
Attenuation
50/125 µm
13.0 dB
62.5/125 µm
16.0 dB
100/140 µm
19.0 dB
Insertion Loss
The 10BASE-F specification allows for a total dB loss of 10 dB or less between any
two stations or devices connected by fiber optic cabling. When calculating
insertion loss, you must consider and count any loss introduced by fiber optic
splices, barrel connectors, distribution boxes or other cable management devices.
The typical dB loss for a splice or a connector is less than 1 dB. The loss statistics
for any fiber optic cable management hardware should be available from the
manufacturer.
Delay
As fiber optic cabling is often used to make connections between Ethernet
repeaters or hubs, the 10BASE-F specification allows a multimode fiber optic link
to be configured such that the total propagation delay for the link is less than or
equal to 25.6 µs one-way. Keep in mind, however, that propagation delay must be
calculated for the entire network. If there are more stations than the one
connected by your fiber optic link, you must also calculate the propagation delay
for the longest of those station links.
If there is any signal path whose total one-way propagation delay exceeds 25.6 µs,
the Ethernet network is out of specifications, and error conditions may result. To
eliminate propagation delay problems, incorporate some form of segmentation,
such as bridging or routing, into the network to separate the problem signal paths
from one another.
10BASE-F (Multimode)
5-5
Ethernet Network Requirements
Length
The 10BASE-F specification limits a multimode fiber optic cable segment to 2 km
or less. Assuming that a fiber optic cable meets all other limitations for 10BASE-F
usage, it is possible to extend a multimode fiber optic link to an absolute
maximum of 2 km. At a length of more than 2 km, the propagation delay
introduced by the multimode fiber optic cable segment may exceed the 25.6 µs
limit of the Ethernet specification and cause excessive OOW errors. Cabletron
Systems does not recommend the installation or use of any multimode fiber optic
cable segment that exceeds 10BASE-F limitations of 2 km.
Older networking equipment for fiber optic connections may be built to the
FOIRL specification. FOIRL devices will support a multimode fiber optic link of
up to 1 km.
Ethernet FOIRL (Single Mode)
All Cabletron Systems FOIRL products require that installed single mode fiber
optic facility cabling and cable hardware meet the following minimum
specifications. If a network cabling installation is not within the limitations
presented here, the operation of the FOIRL products may be affected.
Cable Type
FOIRL network devices require specific types of cabling. FOIRL single mode fiber
optic devices manufactured by Cabletron Systems are able to support connections
to and from the following types of single mode fiber optics:
•
•
8/125 µm
12/125 µm
Some Cabletron Systems single mode fiber optic devices may be connected to
multimode fiber optic cabling with measurements of 62.5/125 µm, but the greater
optical loss characteristics of multimode fiber optics will limit the maximum
distance of the single mode fiber optic signal to approximately 2 km.
Attenuation
Single mode fiber optic cabling must be tested with a fiber optic attenuation test
set configured to determine attenuation of the cable at a wavelength of 1300 nm.
The acceptable level of attenuation for a single mode fiber optic is less than or
equal to 10.0 dB for any given link.
5-6
Ethernet FOIRL (Single Mode)
Ethernet Network Requirements
Insertion Loss
The FOIRL specification allows for a total loss of 10 dB or less between any two
stations or devices connected by fiber optic cabling. When calculating insertion
loss, you must consider and count any loss introduced by fiber optic splices,
barrel connectors, distribution boxes or other cable management devices. The
typical dB loss for a splice or a connector is less than 1 dB. The loss statistics for
any fiber optic cable management hardware should be available from the
manufacturer.
Delay
If there is any signal path in the overall network whose total one-way propagation
delay exceeds 25.6 µs, the Ethernet network is out of specifications, and error
conditions may result. To eliminate propagation delay problems, incorporate
some form of segmentation, such as bridging or routing, into the network to
separate the problem signal paths from one another.
Length
The FOIRL specification limits single mode fiber optic cabling links to a total of 1
km or less. If a single mode fiber optic cable is used to form a link between two
bridges and shares no connection with other Ethernet stations, the total segment
length may reach up to 5 km, assuming all other requirements for a FOIRL
network are met. At lengths over 5 km, propagation delays for the fiber optic link
exceed the 25.6 µs limit of Ethernet networks. Cabletron Systems does not
recommend the installation or use of any single mode fiber optic cable segment
that exceeds the FOIRL limitations of 1 km.
Ethernet FOIRL (Single Mode)
5-7
Ethernet Network Requirements
10BASE2
All Cabletron Systems 10BASE2 products require that installed thin coaxial cables
and related cabling hardware meet the following minimum specifications. If a
network installation does not comply with the following specifications, operation
of the 10BASE2 products may be affected.
Cable Type
Cabletron Systems 10BASE2 products are designed to be connected to 50 Ohm
RG-58 A/U type coaxial cable. If Cabletron Systems products are connected to
other types of thin coaxial cable, the 10BASE2 networks will be subject to errors
and poor performance.
Termination
All 10BASE2 cables must be terminated at both ends of the cable with 50 Ohm
terminators. Some 10BASE2 network equipment is capable of performing internal
termination. If a network device supports internal termination, and that device is
located at one end of the 10BASE2 cable, no external terminators need to be added
to the cable segment.
Connectors/Taps
10BASE2 cables may only be terminated with BNC connectors. Connectors on the
10BASE2 cable must be spaced more than 0.5 m (1.64 ft) from any other connector
or tap in the cable. If connectors are located closer to one another than this
minimum, signal reflection may occur, causing network errors and a loss of
performance.
One segment of 10BASE2 thin coaxial cable can support no more than 30 stations.
When planning a thin coaxial cable segment that will connect to a bridge,
repeater, or hub, keep in mind that one connection must be reserved for the
network device, leaving a maximum of 29 stations that may be connected to one
segment.
Connections from T-connectors to network devices may not be made through thin
coaxial jumper cables; connections must be made from the T-connector directly to
the device.
5-8
10BASE2
Ethernet Network Requirements
Grounding
Each thin coaxial cable segment should be connected to earth ground at only one
point. The connection to a ground should not be made through the BNC ports of a
network device or T-connector unless the connection to the ground is made
through the BNC terminator at the end of the cable. The grounding wire must be
connected to the outer metal shield of the coaxial cable and should be no longer
than 10 m (32.8 ft). If insulated, grounding wires should be green in adherence
with accepted wiring practice.
Length
10BASE2 specifications allow thin coaxial cable segments to be no longer than
185 m (606.7 ft). The use of longer cable segments can cause excessive error
conditions and poor network operation.
10BASE5 (Coaxial Cable)
The IEEE 802.3 10BASE5 specification details the use of thick coaxial cabling and
Attachment Unit Interface (AUI) cables. If a thick coaxial cable network does not
meet the requirements listed here, operation of the 10BASE5 networking
components may be adversely affected.
Cable Type
Cabletron Systems 10BASE5 transceivers are designed to be connected to IEEE
802.3-compliant 50 Ω thick coaxial cable with a core gauge of 12 AWG. If
Cabletron Systems products are connected to other types of thin coaxial cable, the
10BASE5 network may be subject to errors and poor performance.
Termination
All 10BASE5 cables must be terminated at both ends of the cable with 50 Ω
terminators. Any time an N-Type barrel connector or intrusive tap is removed
from the thick coaxial cable segment, the segment or segments resulting from the
cable split must be either reconnected or terminated at the resulting ends. Failure
to terminate a thick coaxial cable segment can cause reflection of signal and the
creation of excessive error conditions.
10BASE5 (Coaxial Cable)
5-9
Ethernet Network Requirements
Connectors/Taps
10BASE5 cables may be terminated with intrusive (N-Type) connectors or tapped
by coring through the cable to the transmissive core wire. Termination of the cable
segment must be accomplished with intrusive connectors. Connectors or taps on
the 10BASE5 cable must be spaced no less than 2.5 m (8.2 ft) from one another or
the cable termination. If connectors are located closer to one another than this
minimum, a loss of network performance may result.
One segment of 10BASE5 cabling can support up to 100 taps or intrusive
connectors. This number does not count the terminating connectors at each end of
the cable as taps.
Grounding
Each thick coaxial cable segment should be connected to earth ground at only one
point. The connection to a ground should not be made through an N-Type
connector unless the connection to the ground is made through the N-Type
terminator at the end of the cable. The grounding wire must be connected to the
outer metal shield of the coaxial cable and should be no longer than 10 m (3.28 ft).
If insulated, grounding wires should be green in adherence with accepted wiring
practice.
Length
10BASE5 specifications allow a thick coaxial cable segment to be no longer than
500 meters (1,646 ft). The use of longer cable segments can cause excessive error
conditions and poor network performance.
5-10
10BASE5 (Coaxial Cable)
Chapter 6
Full-Duplex Ethernet Network
Requirements
This chapter provides test parameters and specification requirements for Full-Duplex Ethernet network
cabling.
Full-Duplex 10BASE-T
All Cabletron Systems Full-Duplex 10BASE-T products require that installed
facility cabling and cable hardware meet the following minimum specifications. If
a network cabling installation is not within the limitations presented here, the
operation of the 10BASE-T products may be affected.
Note that Full-Duplex Ethernet links are dependent upon dedicated links from
one Ethernet switch to another Ethernet switch or from one Ethernet switch to a
single workstation. Both the end devices must be capable of operating in
full-duplex mode.
Cable Type
Network operations using 10BASE-T are more demanding than normal
telephony, and thus require specific, high-quality cabling in order to function
properly. The 10BASE-T specification for Ethernet networks requires UTP cabling
of Category 3, 4, or 5. Categories of UTP cabling below Category 3 may not meet
the quality requirements of the networking specification, and may therefore be
unable to meet the tested characteristics listed below.
The Category of cabling used in a network installation is dependent upon all the
components that make up the cabling run. If an installation utilizes Category 5
cabling, and the wallplates and patch panels to which that cabling is connected
are Category 3 compliant, the cable will not meet the EIA/TIA end-to-end
specifications for a Category 5 installation.
6-1
Full-Duplex Ethernet Network Requirements
Insertion Loss (Attenuation)
The maximum allowable insertion loss for any 10BASE-T station on the Ethernet
network is 11.5 dB at frequencies from 5 to 10 MHz. This calculation must take all
cabling devices in the cable path into account. A typical insertion loss test must
include the jumper cabling used at the station and at the wiring closet, and any
patch panels, punchdown blocks, and wallplates in the installation.
The insertion loss characteristics of a cable are one of the main determinants of
link length allowed by the Ethernet and 10BASE-T specifications. As long as a
UTP cable does not exceed the total insertion loss of 11.5 dB, it may be any length
up to 200 m (656 ft). The 200 meter maximum total length is based on the total
allowable propagation delay in the network, and cannot be exceeded.
NOTE
As longer cables are more susceptible to other limiting factors,
Cabletron Systems does not recommend the installation of
10BASE-T cabling over 100 m in length.
Impedance
Cabletron Systems 10BASE-T equipment requires that 10BASE-T cables in the
Ethernet network have an impedance within the range of 75 to 165 Ω. Typical UTP
cables used in Ethernet environments have an impedance between 85 and 150 Ω.
Jitter
Jitter may be caused by intersymbol interference and reflection of signal.
Networking technologies that rely on particular timing or clocking schemes may
be affected by jitter due to excessive signal reflection. Any 10BASE-T cable
installation should not exceed 5.0 ns of jitter. If a cable run meets the 10BASE-T
impedance requirements (detailed above), jitter should not be a concern.
Delay
As Full-Duplex Ethernet operation eliminates the possibility of collisions
occurring, total media length for a Full-Duplex link is determined by signal
strength, noise, and jitter. Delay is not a factor in Full-Duplex Ethernet network
cabling design.
6-2
Full-Duplex 10BASE-T
Full-Duplex Ethernet Network Requirements
Crosstalk
Crosstalk is electrical interference between wires. Crosstalk occurs when a cable
strand absorbs signals from adjacent wires. Excessive crosstalk can be caused by a
break in the insulation or shielding that separates wires from one another in a
bundle.
Ethernet UTP cables should be checked for Near-End Crosstalk, or NEXT, at
installation. The allowable amount of NEXT for a UTP cable is dependent upon
the type of cable used in the installation.
25-Pair Cable
The acceptable amount of NEXT between pairs in a 25-pair cable is at least 60 dB
for a 10 MHz link.
Four-Pair Cable
The acceptable amount of NEXT between pairs in a four-pair cable is not less than
60 dB for a 10 MHz link.
Noise
As “noise” is not a readily quantified and tested aspect of installed cables, there
are no hard and fast rules for the amount of acceptable cable noise on a 10BASE-T
segment. If a cable that meets all other requirements for 10BASE-T operation is
experiencing an unusual number of errors, the introduction of noise may be a
problem.
If you suspect that noise is causing signal degradation, examine the cable or
cables in question. If they are near possible sources of outside noise, such as
lighting fixtures, electric motors, or transformers, reroute the cable.
Other Considerations
Due to the small gauge of the wires which make up UTP cabling, it is susceptible
to changes in attenuation due to heat. If the temperature at the installation site
exceeds the control temperature of 20°C (68°F), the attenuation of PVC jacketed
UTP cabling that is within the 11.5 dB limitations may fall outside the acceptable
range. In installations where UTP cables are expected to be subjected to
temperatures of 40° C (104° F) or greater, the use of plenum-jacketed cabling is
recommended. The thicker insulating jacket of a plenum-rated cable reduces the
susceptibility of that cable to heat-induced changes in attenuation characteristics.
Full-Duplex 10BASE-T
6-3
Full-Duplex Ethernet Network Requirements
The IEEE 802.3 10BASE-T specification requires that all 10BASE-T devices
support UTP cables of not less than 100 m (328 ft) in length. This requirement
does not factor in losses due to connectors, patch panels, punchdown blocks, or
other cable management hardware, which introduce additional loss.
For each connector or other intrusive cable management device in the total link,
subtract 12 m (39.4 ft) from the total allowable link length.
Length
The 10BASE-T standard specifies that any 10BASE-T compliant device must be
capable of transmitting an Ethernet signal not less than 100 m (328 ft) over a UTP
cable segment that meets the minimum quality values listed above. As long as all
specifications are met for the entire length of the cable, UTP cable segments can be
run up to a maximum allowable length of 200 m (656 ft).
NOTE
As longer cables are more susceptible to noise and other
limiting factors, Cabletron Systems does not recommend the
installation of 10BASE-T cabling over 100 m in length.
10BASE-F (Multimode)
All Cabletron Systems 10BASE-F and FOIRL products require that installed
facility cabling and cable hardware meet the following minimum specifications. If
a network cabling installation is not within the limitations presented here, the
operation of the 10BASE-F products may be affected.
Cable Type
Networking devices built to the 10BASE-F standard require specific types of
cabling. The 10BASE-F multimode fiber optic devices manufactured by Cabletron
Systems are able to support connections to and from the following types of
multimode fiber optics:
•
•
•
6-4
50/125 µm
62.5/125 µm
100/140 µm
10BASE-F (Multimode)
Full-Duplex Ethernet Network Requirements
Attenuation
Multimode fiber optic cables must be tested for attenuation with a fiber optic
attenuation test set. The test set must be configured to determine attenuation of
the cable at a wavelength of 850 nm. The attenuation test will confirm or deny that
the cable falls within an acceptable level. The acceptable level of attenuation for a
cable is dependent upon the type of multimode fiber optic cable being tested. The
acceptable levels of attenuation for the types of multimode fiber optic cabling
supported by Cabletron Systems products are listed in Table 6-1 below:
Table 6-1. Multimode Fiber Optic Attenuation Limits
Cable Type
Maximum
Attenuation
50/125 µm
13.0 dB
62.5/125 µm
16.0 dB
100/140 µm
19.0 dB
Insertion Loss
The 10BASE-F specification allows for a total dB loss of 10.0 dB or less between
any two stations or devices connected by fiber optic cabling. When calculating
insertion loss, you must consider and count any loss introduced by fiber optic
splices, barrel connectors, distribution boxes or other cable management devices.
The typical dB loss for a splice or a connector is less than 1 dB. The loss statistics
for any fiber optic cable management hardware should be available from the
manufacturer.
Delay
As is the case with Full-Duplex 10BASE-T operation, Full-Duplex 10BASE-F
operation eliminates the possibility of collisions on a network link. Again, for
interoperability with the half-duplex 10BASE-F specifications, Cabletron Systems
recommends that a 10BASE-F link not exceed 5 km in length or 25.6 µs of total
one-way propagation delay.
10BASE-F (Multimode)
6-5
Full-Duplex Ethernet Network Requirements
Length
The 10BASE-F specification limits a multimode fiber optic cable segment to 2 km
or less. Assuming that a fiber optic cable meets all other limitations for 10BASE-F
usage, it is possible to extend a multimode fiber optic link to an absolute
maximum of 2 km. At a length of more than 2 km, the propagation delay
introduced by the multimode fiber optic cable segment may exceed the 25.6 µs
limit of the Ethernet specification and cause excessive OOW errors. Cabletron
Systems does not recommend the installation or use of any multimode fiber optic
cable segment that exceeds 10BASE-F limitations of 2 km.
Older networking equipment for fiber optic connections may be built to the
FOIRL specification. FOIRL devices will support a multimode fiber optic link of
up to 1 km.
Ethernet FOIRL (Single Mode)
All Cabletron Systems FOIRL products require that installed single mode fiber
optic facility cabling and cable hardware meet the following minimum
specifications. If a network cabling installation is not within the limitations
presented here, the operation of the FOIRL products may be affected.
Cable Type
FOIRL network devices require specific types of cabling. FOIRL single mode fiber
optic devices manufactured by Cabletron Systems are able to support connections
to and from the following types of single mode fiber optics:
•
•
8/125 µm
12/125 µm
Some Cabletron Systems single mode fiber optic devices may be connected to
multimode fiber optic cabling with measurements of 62.5/125 µm, but the greater
optical loss characteristics of multimode fiber optics will limit the maximum
distance of the single mode fiber optic signal to approximately 2 km. Connecting
single mode devices to multimode fiber optic cabling is not recommended and is
not compliant with the FOIRL specification.
Attenuation
Single mode fiber optic cabling must be tested with a fiber optic attenuation test
set configured to determine attenuation of the cable at a wavelength of 1300 nm.
The acceptable level of attenuation for a single mode fiber optic is less than or
equal to 10.0 dB for any given link.
6-6
Ethernet FOIRL (Single Mode)
Full-Duplex Ethernet Network Requirements
Insertion Loss
The FOIRL specification allows for a total loss of 10.0 dB or less between any two
stations or devices connected by fiber optic cabling. When calculating insertion
loss, you must consider and count any loss introduced by fiber optic splices,
barrel connectors, distribution boxes or other cable management devices. The
typical dB loss for a splice or a connector is less than 1 dB. The loss statistics for
any fiber optic cable management hardware should be available from the
manufacturer.
Delay
If there is any signal path in the overall network whose total one-way propagation
delay exceeds 25.6 µs, the Ethernet network is out of specifications, and error
conditions may result. To eliminate propagation delay problems, incorporate
some form of segmentation, such as bridging or routing, into the network to
separate the problem signal paths from one another.
Length
The FOIRL specification limits single mode fiber optic cabling links to a total of 1
km or less. If a single mode fiber optic cable is used to form a link between two
bridges and shares no connection with other Ethernet stations, the total segment
length may reach up to 5 km, assuming all other requirements for a FOIRL
network are met. At lengths over 5 km, propagation delays for the fiber optic link
exceed the 25.6 µs limit of Ethernet networks. Cabletron Systems does not
recommend the installation or use of any single mode fiber optic cable segment
that exceeds the FOIRL limitations.
Ethernet FOIRL (Single Mode)
6-7
Full-Duplex Ethernet Network Requirements
6-8
Ethernet FOIRL (Single Mode)
Chapter 7
Fast Ethernet Network
Requirements
This chapter provides test parameters and specification requirements for Fast Ethernet network
cabling.
100BASE-TX
All Cabletron Systems 100BASE-TX products require that installed facility cabling
and cable hardware meet the following minimum specifications. If a network
cabling installation is not within the limitations presented here, the operation of
the 100BASE-TX products may be affected.
Cable Type
The operation of a 100BASE-TX network is more demanding than that of standard
Ethernet, and high-quality cables are required. The 100BASE-TX specification for
Fast Ethernet networks requires UTP cabling Category 5. Categories of UTP
cabling below Category 5 may not meet the quality requirements of the
networking specification, and may therefore be unable to meet the tested
characteristics listed below.
The Category of cabling used in a network installation is dependent upon all the
components that make up the cabling run. If an installation utilizes Category 5
cabling, and the wallplates and patch panels to which that cabling is connected
are Category 3 compliant, the cable does not meet the EIA/TIA end-to-end
specifications for a Category 5 installation.
NOTE
Due to the construction of the connectors and organization of
wires, the 25-pair RJ21 connector is not Category 5 compliant.
7-1
Fast Ethernet Network Requirements
The TIA/EIA 568A cabling specification for Category 5 compliant UTP
installations allows the use of two different types of cable: horizontal wire and
patch wire. The specification allows horizontal wire to be used to cover distances
of up to 90 m, while patch wire is restricted to a maximum length of 10 m.
NOTE
A third type of TIA/EIA 568 A cabling, backbone wire, does not
apply to this implementation of the 100BASE-TX standard, and
is not discussed in this chapter.
Horizontal wire must be constructed with solid core wires. Horizontal wire is
intended to be used as the “in-the-wall” cabling of the network. Patch wire is
constructed with more flexible stranded core wires, and is useful in situations
where bending or movement of the wire is expected. Patch wire should only be
used for connections between punchdown blocks, patch panels, or workstations.
Insertion Loss (Attenuation)
The maximum allowable insertion loss for any 100BASE-TX station on the Fast
Ethernet network is 24.0 dB at a frequency of 100 MHz. This calculation must take
all cabling devices in the cable path into account. A typical insertion loss test must
include the jumper cabling used at the station and at the wiring closet, and any
patch panels, punchdown blocks, and wallplates in the installation.
Impedance
Cabletron Systems 100BASE-TX equipment requires that 100BASE-TX cables in
the Fast Ethernet network have an impedance within the range of 75 to 165 Ω.
Typical UTP cables used in Fast Ethernet environments have an impedance
between 85 and 111 Ω.
Jitter
Jitter may be caused by intersymbol interference and reflection of signal.
Networking technologies that rely on particular timing or clocking schemes may
be affected by jitter due to excessive signal reflection. Any 100BASE-TX cable
installation should not exceed 1.4 ns of jitter. If a cable run meets the 100BASE-TX
impedance requirements (detailed above), jitter should not be a concern.
7-2
100BASE-TX
Fast Ethernet Network Requirements
Delay
The maximum propagation delay allowable on a 100BASE-TX segment is
1 microsecond (µs). If a Fast Ethernet signal is unable to traverse the entire length
of an installed UTP cable run within 1 µs, Out of Window (OOW) errors will
occur due to excessive delays between transmission of signals and notification of
collisions. This propagation delay requirement limits UTP cabling to a total
maximum length of 100 m (328 ft).
Crosstalk
Fast Ethernet UTP cables should be checked for Near-End Crosstalk, or NEXT, at
installation. The acceptable amount of NEXT between pairs in a four-pair cable is
not less than 27 dB for a 100 MHz link.
Noise
As “noise” is not a readily quantified and tested aspect of installed cables, there
are no hard and fast rules for the amount of acceptable cable noise on a
100BASE-TX segment. If a cable that meets all other requirements for
100BASE-TX operation is experiencing an unusual number of errors, the
introduction of noise may be a problem.
If you suspect that noise is causing signal degradation, examine the cable or
cables in question. If they are near possible sources of outside noise, such as
lighting fixtures, electric motors, or transformers, reroute the cable.
Other Considerations
Due to the small gauge of the wires in a UTP cable, it is susceptible to changes in
attenuation due to heat. In an installation that exceeds the control temperature of
20° C (68° F), the attenuation of PVC jacketed UTP cabling that is within the 11 dB
limitations may fall outside the acceptable range of attenuation. In installations
where UTP cables are expected to be subjected to temperatures of 40° C (104° F) or
greater, the use of plenum-jacketed cabling is recommended. The thicker
insulating jacket of a plenum-rated cable reduces the susceptibility of that cable to
heat-induced changes in attenuation characteristics.
The IEEE 802.3 100BASE-TX specification requires that all 100BASE-TX devices
support UTP cables up to 100 m (328 ft) in length. This requirement does not
factor in losses due to connectors, patch panels, punchdown blocks, or other cable
management hardware, which introduce additional loss.
For each connector or other intrusive cable management device in the total link,
subtract 12 m (39.4 ft) from the total allowable link length for purposes of
estimation.
100BASE-TX
7-3
Fast Ethernet Network Requirements
100BASE-FX (Multimode)
All Cabletron Systems 100BASE-FX products require that installed facility cabling
and cable hardware meet the following minimum specifications. If a network
cabling installation is not within the limitations presented here, the operation of
the 100BASE-FX products may be affected.
Cable Type
Networking devices built to the 100BASE-FX specification require specific types
of cabling. 100BASE-FX multimode fiber optic devices manufactured by
Cabletron Systems are able to support connections to and from 62.5/125 µm
multimode fiber optics.
Attenuation
Multimode fiber optic cables must be tested for attenuation with a fiber optic
attenuation test set. The test set must be configured to determine attenuation of
the cable at a wavelength of 850 nm. The attenuation test will confirm or deny that
the cable falls within an acceptable level. The acceptable level of attenuation for a
100BASE-FX cable is 11.0 dB.
Insertion Loss
The 100BASE-FX specification allows for a total dB loss of 10.0 dB or less between
any two stations or devices connected by fiber optic cabling. When calculating
insertion loss, you must consider and count any loss introduced by fiber optic
splices, barrel connectors, distribution boxes or other cable management devices.
The typical dB loss for a splice or a connector is less than 1 dB. The loss statistics
for any fiber optic cable management hardware should be available from the
manufacturer.
7-4
100BASE-FX (Multimode)
Fast Ethernet Network Requirements
Delay
As fiber optic cabling is often used to make connections between Fast Ethernet
repeaters or hubs, the 100BASE-FX specification allows a multimode fiber optic
link to be configured such that the total propagation delay for the link is less than
or equal to 2.56 µs one-way. Keep in mind, however, that propagation delay must
be calculated for the entire network. If there are more stations than the one
connected by your fiber optic link, you must also calculate the propagation delay
for the longest of those station links.
If the total one-way propagation delay of any signal path exceeds 2.56 µs, the Fast
Ethernet network is out of specifications, and error conditions may result. To
eliminate propagation delay problems, incorporate some form of segmentation,
such as bridging or routing, into the network to separate the problem signal paths
from one another.
Length
The 100BASE-FX specification limits a multimode fiber optic cable segment to
412 m or less. Assuming that a fiber optic cable meets all other limitations for
100BASE-FX usage, it is possible to extend a multimode fiber optic link to an
estimated maximum of 2 km. At a length of more than 2 km, the propagation
delay introduced by the multimode fiber optic cable segment may exceed the
2.56 µs limit of the Fast Ethernet specification and cause excessive OOW errors.
Cabletron Systems does not recommend the installation or use of any multimode
fiber optic cable segment that exceeds 100BASE-FX limitations of 412 m.
Hybrid Installations
In Fast Ethernet networks, the combining of fiber optic and unshielded twisted
pair media in a single, repeated network requires calculating a network radius.
This is because the delay requirements for a Fast Ethernet network are so
demanding that a mixed-media network must take the differences between the
standard media into account.
The network radius is the calculation of the longest path in the Fast Ethernet
repeater domain (from one station to a Fast Ethernet repeater and out to another
station). Figure 7-1 shows an example of a mixed media Fast Ethernet repeater
domain.
Hybrid Installations
7-5
Fast Ethernet Network Requirements
Link B
Link A
Fast Ethernet Repeater
1845n29a
Figure 7-1. Fast Ethernet Network Radius
If the two longest links in the Fast Ethernet repeater domain are both made using
UTP cable, each UTP segment may be 100 m in length, for a total network radius
of 200 m. If these links were both made using multimode fiber optics, the
allowable maximum network radius would be 272 m, less than that allowed by a
repeater with a single 100BASE-FX link.
When media are mixed in a Fast Ethernet network, the allowable network radius
changes slightly. In a mixed UTP and multimode fiber optic network, the
maximum radius is 263 m. This means that the longest UTP segment in the Fast
Ethernet network may be up to 100 m, and the longest 100BASE-FX link may be
160 m. The maximum network radius for each Fast Ethernet media configuration
is provided in Table 7-1.
Repeater Classes
Repeaters in Fast Ethernet networking are divided into two categories, or
“classes” by the 100BASE-TX standard. The difference between these Class I and
Class II repeaters is the method each uses to handle received signals for
transmission. The different techniques result in different rules of configuration for
a Fast Ethernet network.
Class I repeaters receive the 100BASE-TX electrical signal on one interface and
translate that signal from its electrical form into a digital series, much in the same
way that a Fast Ethernet station receives a transmission. The Class I repeater then
generates a new signal on each of its interfaces using the translated digital series.
The Class I repeater does not make any decisions based of the received signal, nor
does it perform any error-checking. The translation of the received signal is
intended to improve the strength and validity of the repeated Fast Ethernet frame.
The Class II repeater receives and immediately repeats each received transmission
without performing any translation. The repeating process is a simple electrical
duplication and strengthening of the signal.
7-6
Hybrid Installations
Fast Ethernet Network Requirements
The design and operation of these different repeater types result in different
operating characteristics and network limitations. Class I repeaters, by translating
the received signal, produce a stronger repeated transmission. The translation
process, however, takes up a number of microseconds. This additional delay
reduces the total distance a signal may travel before the allowable delay for that
transmission has elapsed. While Class II repeaters are faster, the signals they
produce are less precise, and they cannot connect to different media types.
These differences mean that, in any Fast Ethernet network, there may be a
maximum of one Class I or two Class II repeaters between any two end stations.
These implementations also result in different maximum network radii, as shown
in Table 7-1.
Buffered Uplinks
Several Fast Ethernet devices support the incorporation of buffered uplinks to
help alleviate the pressures placed on network design by the small network
radius of Fast Ethernet networks. The buffered uplink acts as a non-filtering
bridge, providing little more than retiming and regeneration of signals. In effect,
the buffered uplink provides only the distance characteristics of a bridged
connection. Fast Ethernet networks that incorporate a buffered uplink effectively
extend the maximum network radius. The multimode fiber optic buffered uplink
can be up to 400 m in length. The overall allowable network radius for Fast
Ethernet networks that incorporate buffered uplinks are also provided in
Table 7-1.
Table 7-1. Fast Ethernet Maximum Network Radii
Repeater
Class
UTP
UTP & Fiber
Optics
Fiber Optics
UTP &
Buffered
Uplink
Fiber Optics
and Buffered
Uplink
Class I
200 m
260 m
272 m
500 m
800 m
Class II
200 m
N/A
320 m
N/A
N/A
Hybrid Installations
7-7
Fast Ethernet Network Requirements
7-8
Hybrid Installations
Chapter 8
Full-Duplex Fast Ethernet Network
Requirements
This chapter provides test parameters and specification requirements for Full-Duplex Fast Ethernet
network cabling.
100BASE-TX
All Cabletron Systems 100BASE-TX products require that installed facility cabling
and cable hardware meet the following minimum specifications. If a network
cabling installation is not within the limitations presented here, the operation of
the 100BASE-TX products may be affected.
It is important to remember that full-duplex Fast Ethernet operation requires
dedicated single links from one port of a Fast Ethernet switch to another Fast
Ethernet switch or a Fast Ethernet workstation. If both endstations are not capable
of full-duplex operation, a standard Fast Ethernet link will be automatically
established.
Cable Type
100BASE-TX network operations are more demanding than those of standard
Ethernet, and high-quality cables are required. The 100BASE-TX specification for
Fast Ethernet networks requires UTP cabling meeting Category 5 specifications.
Categories of UTP cabling below Category 5 may not meet the quality
requirements of the networking specification, and may therefore be unable to
meet the tested characteristics listed below.
The Category of cabling used in a network installation is dependent upon all the
components that make up the cabling run. If an installation utilizes Category 5
cabling, and the wallplates and patch panels to which that cabling is connected
are Category 3 compliant, the cable does not meet the EIA/TIA end-to-end
specifications for a Category 5 installation.
8-1
Full-Duplex Fast Ethernet Network Requirements
Insertion Loss (Attenuation)
The maximum allowable insertion loss for any 100BASE-TX station on the Fast
Ethernet network is 11.5 dB at frequencies from 5 to 10 MHz. This calculation
must take all cabling devices in the cable path into account. A typical insertion
loss test must include the jumper cabling used at the station and at the wiring
closet, and any patch panels, punchdown blocks, and wallplates in the
installation.
The insertion loss characteristics of a cable are one of the main determinants of
link length allowed by the Fast Ethernet and 100BASE-TX specifications. As long
as a UTP cable does not exceed the total link length of 11.5 dB, it may be any
length up to 100 m (328 ft). The 100 meter maximum total length is based on the
total allowable propagation delay in the network, and cannot be exceeded.
NOTE
As longer cables are more susceptible to other limiting factors,
Cabletron Systems does not recommend the installation of
100BASE-TX cabling over 100 m in length.
Impedance
Cabletron Systems 100BASE-TX equipment requires that 100BASE-TX cables in
the Fast Ethernet network have an impedance within the range of 75 to 165 Ω.
Typical UTP cables used in Fast Ethernet environments have an impedance
between 85 and 111 Ω.
Jitter
Jitter may be caused by intersymbol interference and reflection of signal.
Networking technologies that rely on particular timing or clocking schemes may
be affected by jitter due to excessive signal reflection. Any 100BASE-TX cable
installation should not exceed 1.4 ns of jitter. If a cable run meets the 100BASE-TX
impedance requirements (detailed above), jitter should not be a concern.
Crosstalk
Crosstalk is electrical interference between wires. Crosstalk occurs when a cable
strand absorbs signals from other wires that it is adjacent to. Excessive crosstalk
can be caused by a break in the insulation or shielding that separates wires from
one another in a bundle.
Fast Ethernet UTP cables should be checked for Near-End Crosstalk, or NEXT, at
installation. The allowable amount of NEXT for a UTP cable is dependent upon
the type of cable used in the installation.
8-2
100BASE-TX
Full-Duplex Fast Ethernet Network Requirements
25-Pair Cable
The acceptable amount of NEXT between pairs in a 25-pair cable is at least 60 dB
for a 10 MHz link.
NOTE
Due to the construction of the connectors and organization of
wires, the 25-pair RJ21 connector is not Category 5 compliant.
Four-Pair Cable
The acceptable amount of NEXT between pairs in a four-pair cable is not less than
60 dB for a 10 MHz link.
Noise
As “noise” is not a readily quantified and tested aspect of installed cables, there
are no hard and fast rules for the amount of acceptable cable noise on a
100BASE-TX segment. If a cable that meets all other requirements for
100BASE-TX operation is experiencing an unusual number of errors, the
introduction of noise may be a problem.
If you suspect that noise is causing signal degradation, examine the cable or
cables in question. If they are near possible sources of outside noise, such as
lighting fixtures, electric motors, or transformers, reroute the cable.
Other Considerations
Due to the small gauge of the wires in UTP cabling, it is susceptible to changes in
attenuation due to heat. In an installation that exceeds the control temperature of
20° C (68° F), the attenuation of PVC jacketed UTP cabling that is within the 11.5
dB limitations may fall outside the acceptable range. In installations where UTP
cables are expected to be subjected to temperatures of 40° C (104° F) or greater, the
use of plenum-jacketed cabling is recommended. The thicker insulating jacket of a
plenum-rated cable reduces the susceptibility of that cable to heat-induced
changes in attenuation characteristics.
The IEEE 802.3 100BASE-TX specification requires that all 100BASE-TX devices
support UTP cables of not less than 100 m (328 ft) in length. This requirement
does not factor in losses due to connectors, patch panels, punchdown blocks, or
other cable management hardware, which introduce additional loss.
For each connector or other intrusive cable management device in the total link,
subtract 12 m (39.4 ft) from the total allowable link length.
100BASE-TX
8-3
Full-Duplex Fast Ethernet Network Requirements
Length
The 100BASE-TX standard specifies that any 100BASE-TX compliant device must
be capable of transmitting a Fast Ethernet signal not less than 100 m (328 ft) over a
UTP cable segment that meets the quality values listed above. As long as all
specifications are met for the entire length of the cable, UTP cable segments can be
run up to a maximum allowable length of 260 m (852 ft).
NOTE
8-4
As longer cables are more susceptible to noise and other
limiting factors, Cabletron Systems does not recommend the
installation of 100BASE-TX cabling over 100 m in length.
100BASE-TX
Full-Duplex Fast Ethernet Network Requirements
100BASE-FX (Multimode)
All Cabletron Systems 100BASE-FX products require that installed facility cabling
and cable hardware meet the following minimum specifications. If a network
cabling installation is not within the limitations presented here, the operation of
the 100BASE-FX products may be affected.
Cable Type
Cabletron Systems 100BASE-FX network devices require specific types of cabling.
100BASE-FX multimode fiber optic devices manufactured by Cabletron Systems
are able to support connections to and from the following types of multimode
fiber optics:
•
•
•
50/125 µm
62.5/125 µm
100/140 µm
Attenuation
Multimode fiber optic cables must be tested for attenuation with a fiber optic
attenuation test set. The test set must be configured to determine attenuation of
the cable at a wavelength of 850 nm. The attenuation test will confirm or deny that
the cable falls within an acceptable level. The acceptable level of attenuation for a
100BASE-FX cable is 11.0 dB.
Insertion Loss
The 100BASE-FX specification allows for a total dB loss of 10 dB or less between
any two stations or devices connected by fiber optic cabling. When calculating
insertion loss, you must consider and count any loss introduced by fiber optic
splices, barrel connectors, distribution boxes or other cable management devices.
The typical dB loss for a splice or a connector is less than 1 dB. The loss statistics
for any fiber optic cable management hardware should be available from the
manufacturer.
Delay
As fiber optic cabling is often used to make connections between Fast Ethernet
repeaters or hubs, the 100BASE-FX specification allows a multimode fiber optic
link to be configured such that the total propagation delay for the link is less than
or equal to 2.56 µs one-way. Keep in mind, however, that propagation delay must
be calculated for the entire network. If there are more stations than the one
connected by your fiber optic link, you must also calculate the propagation delay
for the longest of those station links.
100BASE-FX (Multimode)
8-5
Full-Duplex Fast Ethernet Network Requirements
If there is any signal path whose total one-way propagation delay exceeds 2.56 µs,
the Fast Ethernet network is out of specifications, and error conditions may result.
To eliminate propagation delay problems, incorporate some form of
segmentation, such as bridging or routing, into the network to separate the
problem signal paths from one another.
Length
The 100BASE-FX specification limits a multimode fiber optic cable segment to
412 m or less. Assuming that a fiber optic cable meets all other limitations for
100BASE-FX usage, it is possible to extend a multimode fiber optic link to an
estimated maximum of 2 km. At a length of more than 2 km, the propagation
delay introduced by the multimode fiber optic cable segment may exceed the 2.56
µs limit of the Fast Ethernet specification and cause excessive OOW errors.
Cabletron Systems does not recommend the installation or use of any multimode
fiber optic cable segment that exceeds 100BASE-FX limitations of 412 m.
8-6
100BASE-FX (Multimode)
Chapter 9
Token Ring Media
This chapter examines the physical characteristics and requirements of both cabling and the
connectors and ports used in Token Ring networks.
Cabling Types
Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)
Shielded Twisted Pair cabling is a multistranded cable most often constructed of
eight 26 AWG conductive copper solid or stranded core wires. Each wire is
surrounded by a non-conductive insulating material such as Polyvinyl Chloride
(PVC). These wires are twisted around one another in a specific arrangement to
form pairs. The pairs are made up of associated wires - transmit wires are paired
with transmit wires, receive wires are paired with receive wires.
Each pair in the STP cable is then surrounded by a metallic foil shield that runs
the length of the cable. Some types of STP incorporate an additional braided or
foil shield that surrounds each of the shielded pairs in the cable. The overall cable
is wrapped in an insulating jacket which covers the shields and holds the wires
together.
9-1
Token Ring Media
Overall Shield
Tx+
TxRxRx+
Outer Jacket
Pair Shield
1845n21
Figure 9-1. STP Cable Pair Association
Twisting the pairs together throughout the cable helps to reduce the effects of
externally-induced electrical noise on the signals that pass through the cable. In
each pair, one wire carries the normal network signal, while its associated wire
carries a copy of the transmission that has been inverted.
The twisting of associated pairs helps to reduce the interference of the other
strands of wire throughout the cable. This is due to the method of transmission
used with twisted pair transmissions.
In any transceiver or Desktop Network Interface Card (DNI or NIC), the network
protocol signals to be transmitted are in the form of changes of electrical state. The
means by which the ones and zeroes of network communications are turned into
these signals is called encoding. In a twisted pair environment, once a transceiver
has been given an encoded signal to transmit, it copies the signal and inverts the
voltage (see Figure 9-2). The result of this inverted signal is a mirror opposite of
the original signal.
Both the original and the inverted signal are then transmitted, the original signal
over the TX + transmit wire, the inverted signal over the TX - wire. As these wires
are the same length, the signal travels at the same rate (propagates) through the
cable. Since the pairs are twisted together, any outside electrical interference that
affects one member of the pair will have the same effect on the other member of
that pair.
The transmission travels through the cable, eventually reaching a destination
transceiver. At this location, both signals are read in. The original signal is
unchanged, but the signal that had previously been inverted is reverted to the
original state. When this is done, it returns the encoded transmission to its
original state, but reverses the polarity of any signal interference that the encoded
transmission may have suffered.
Once the inverted transmission has been returned to the normal encoded state,
the transceiver adds the two signals together. As the encoded transmissions are
now identical, there is no change to the data content. Line noise spikes, however,
are combined with noise spikes of their exact opposite polarity, causing them to
cancel one another out.
9-2
Cabling Types
Token Ring Media
Induced
Noise Spike
Normal
Transmission
Noise spikes
cancel out
Original Signal
Inverted
Transmission
Reversion of Inverted
Transmission
Resulting Signal
1845n05
Figure 9-2. Twisted Pair Signal Equalization
STP cable is made up of four or more wires, and each wire within the cable has a
specific insulator color. These colors are part of the IEEE specifications to which
the cable construction process must be held. Each color identifies a particular
usage for the cable. The four standard colors are black, red, green, and orange.
Table 9-1, below, identifies the type of signal that each wire carries.
Table 9-1. STP Cable Wire Identifications
Cable Color
Application
Black
TX -
Red
RX +
Green
RX -
Orange
TX +
STP cabling is available in several different arrangements and construction styles,
called Types. The type definitions are based on the IBM cabling system. STP
cabling that may be used in Token Ring environments falls into four types, called
Type 1, Type 2, Type 6, and Type 9. Any of these cable Categories can be used in a
Token Ring installation, provided that the requisite IEEE 802.5 specifications
regarding the cables are met.
Type 1
Type 1 STP consists of two pairs of solid 22 AWG copper strands. Each strand,
approximately 0.02 inch thick, is surrounded by a layer of insulation. The
characteristics of the insulation is determined by the fire resistance construction of
the cable (plenum cable is thicker and made with slightly different material than
normal PVC cabling).
Cabling Types
9-3
Token Ring Media
The individual wires are twisted into pairs. The pairs that are formed by this
twisting are then surrounded by a mylar foil shield. These shielded pairs are then
laid alongside one another in an overall braided metal shield. The shield
containing the twisted pairs is then surrounded by a tight outer covering. Type 1
STP is heavy and rather inflexible, but provides excellent resistance to
interference and noise due to its construction characteristics. Type 1 STP is most
commonly used as a facility cabling, while more flexible cabling is used for
jumper cables and patch panel connections.
Type 2
IBM Type 2 cable is constructed in much the same fashion as Type 1 cable. The
two central shielded pairs and the overall braided shield which surrounds them
are constructed of the same materials, and then two additional pairs of AWG 22
insulated solid copper wires are laid outside the braided shield before the whole
cable is surrounded by the tight outer covering. These outer wires may be used to
carry telephone traffic, as the shields surrounding the inner, network wires is
intended to eliminate the interference that might otherwise occur between the
inner and outer pairs.
NOTE
Cabletron Systems does not recommend combining active
voice and data wiring in the same cable. Degradation of
network performance may result from any non-standard uses
of cable.
The added pairs of wire in a Type 2 cable make it even less flexible than Type 1
cable. For this reason, it is typically used as facility cable. Lighter-gauge, more
flexible cable types, such as Types 6 and 9, discussed below, are frequently used as
patch cables between networking hardware and Type 2 cable.
Type 6
Type 6 cable uses the same dual-shielded construction that Type 1 and Type 2
cable use, but the materials used in the construction are of a narrower gauge. The
wires that make up the twisted pairs in a Type 6 cable are constructed of 26 AWG
stranded conductors.
The construction materials used in Type 6 cabling make it a much more flexible
form of STP, but greatly reduce the cable’s ability to carry network signals over
long distances. Type 6 cable is intended for use as jumper or patch panel cabling
only.
9-4
Cabling Types
Token Ring Media
Type 9
Type 9 cable is similar in construction to Type 6 cable, and is intended to be used
for the same purposes. The center strands of a Type 9 cable are made of either
solid or stranded 26 AWG conductors.
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
Unshielded Twisted Pair cabling (referred to here as UTP) is commonly made up
of two or four pairs of 22, 24, or 26 AWG unshielded copper solid or stranded
wires. These pairs of wires are twisted together throughout the length of the
cable. These twisted pairs of wire within the UTP cable are broken up into
transmit and receive pairs. The UTP cable used in network installations is the
same type of cable used in the installation of telephone lines within buildings.
UTP cabling is differentiated by the quality category of the cable itself, which is an
indicator of the type and quality of wire used and the number of times the wires
are twisted around each other per foot. The categories range from Category 1 to
Category 5, with Category 5 cabling being of the highest quality.
The wires that make up a length of UTP cable are numbered and color coded.
These color codes allow the installer of the networking cable to determine which
wires are connected to the pins of the RJ45 ports or patch panels. The numbering
of the wires in USOC standard cables is based on the color of the insulating jacket
that surrounds the core of each wire.
Each jacket will have an overall color: brown, blue, orange, green, or white. In a
4-pair UTP cable (the typical UTP used in networking installations) there will be
one wire each of brown, blue, green, and orange, and four wires whose overall
color is white. The white wires will be distinguished from one another by
periodically placed (usually within 1/2 inch of one another) rings of the other
four colors.
Wires with a unique base color are identified by that base color: blue, brown,
green, or orange. Those wires that are primarily white are identified as
white/<color>, where <color> indicates the color of the rings of the other four
colors in the white insulator.
The association of pairs of wire within the UTP cable jacket are decided by the
specifications to which the cable is built. There are two main specifications in use
around the world for the production of UTP cabling: EIA/TIA 568 and USOC.
The two wiring standards are different from one another in the way that the wires
are associated with one another throughout the cable.
The arrangement of the wires in the two specifications does not affect the
usefulness of the resultant cables for Token Ring networking. The arrangement of
the wires and pairs in the EIA/TIA and USOC specifications is discussed in the
UTP Cable portion of the Connector Types section of this chapter.
Cabling Types
9-5
Token Ring Media
While UTP cables are usually built to provide four pairs of wire, IEEE 802.5
standards only require the use of two pairs, referred to as Pair 1 and Pair 2 (Pair 1
and Pair 3 of the EIA/TIA 568A specification). Pair 2 of the connector is the
transmit pair and Pair 1 of the connector is the receive pair. This organization of
wires at the connector is referred to as a pinout. Pinouts will be discussed in
greater detail in the Connector Types section of this chapter.
Table 9-2. IEEE 802.5 Wire Use
Token Ring Signal Use
Wire Color
USOC Pair
568A
White/Blue (W-BL)
Blue (BL)
White/Orange (W-OR)
Orange (OR)
White/Green (W-GR)
Green (GR)
White/Brown (W-BR)
Brown (BR)
NOTE
568B
Pair 1
Pins 3 and 4
TX+
RX+
TX-
RX-
Pair 2
Pins 2 and 5
RX+
TX+
RX-
TX-
Pair 3
Pins 1 and 6
Not Used
Pair 4
Pins 7 and 8
Not Used
Do not split pairs in a twisted pair installation. While you may
consider combining your voice and data cabling into one piece
of horizontal facility cabling, the crosstalk and interference
produced by this practice greatly reduces the viability of the
cable for either application. The use of the pairs of cabling in
this fashion can also prevent the future usage of advanced
networking technologies that require the use of all four pairs in
a twisted pair cable.
UTP cabling is produced in a number of overall quality levels, called Categories.
The requirements of networking limit UTP cabling for Token Ring to Categories 3,
4, or 5. Any of these cable Categories can be used in a Token Ring installation,
provided that the requisite IEEE 802.5 specifications regarding the cables are met.
9-6
Cabling Types
Token Ring Media
Category 3
UTP cabling that is built to the Category 3 specification consists of two or more
pairs of solid 24 AWG copper strands. Each strand, approximately 0.02 inch thick,
is surrounded by a layer of insulation. The characteristics of the insulation are
determined by the fire resistant construction of the cable (plenum cable is thicker
and made with slightly different material than normal PVC cabling).
The individual wires are twisted into pairs. The twisted pairs of cable are laid
together along with a thin nylon cord. This “ripcord” is useful for stripping the
outer jacket of the cable, which may be low-smoke PVC plastic or a plenum-rated
insulating material. The outer jacket surrounds, but does not adhere to, the wire
pairs which make up the cable.
Category 3 UTP cabling must not produce an attenuation of a 16 MHz signal
greater than 40 dB/305 m (1000 ft) at the control temperature of 20° C.
Category 4
Category 4 UTP cabling is constructed in the same manner as the Category 3
cabling discussed previously. Category 4 UTP is constructed using copper center
strands of 24 or 22 AWG. Each strand is insulated and twisted together with
another strand to form a pair. The resulting wire pairs are then covered by a
second layer of insulating jacketing.
Category 4 UTP must not produce an attenuation of a 16 MHz signal greater than
27 dB/305 m (1000 ft) at the control temperature of 20° C.
Category 5
Category 5 UTP cabling is manufactured in the same fashion as Category 3 cable,
but the materials used are of higher quality and the wires that make up the pairs
are more tightly wound.
Category 5 UTP consists of 2 or more pairs of 22 or 24 AWG wire. Category 5 cable
is constructed and insulated such that the maximum attenuation of a 16 MHz
signal in a cable run at the control temperature of 20° C is 0.655 dB/m
(25 dB/1000 ft). A cable that has a higher maximum attenuation than 0.655 dB/m
does not meet the Category 5 requirements.
Cabling Types
9-7
Token Ring Media
Fiber Optics
Fiber optic cable is a high performance media constructed of glass or plastic that
uses pulses of light as a transmission method. Because fiber optics do not utilize
electrical charges to pass data, they are free from the possibility of interference
due to proximity to electrical fields. This, combined with the extremely low rate of
signal degradation and dB loss makes fiber optics able to traverse extremely long
distances. The actual maximums are dependent upon the architecture being used,
but distances up to 10 km (6.2 miles) are not uncommon.
Glass optical fiber is made up of a glass strand, the core, which allows for the easy
transmission of light, the cladding, a glass layer around the core that helps keep
the light within the core, and a plastic buffer that protects the cable.
Cladding
Transmissive Core
PVC Buffer (Jacketing)
1845n07
Figure 9-3. Fiber Optic Cable Construction
There are two basic types of fiber optics: multimode and single mode. The names
come from the types of light used in the transmission process. Multimode fiber
uses inexpensive Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) that produce light of a single
color. Due to the nature of the LED, the light produced is made up of a number of
differing wavelengths of light, fired outward from the center of the LED. Not all
the rays of light enter the fiber, and those that do often do so at an angle, which
reduces the amount of distance the signal can effectively cover. Single mode fiber
optics use lasers to achieve greater maximum distances. Since light from a laser is
all of the same wavelength, and travels in a coherent ray, the resulting signal
tends to be much clearer at reception than an LED signal under the same
circumstances.
Fiber optics of both types are measured and identified by a variety of means. The
usual means of referring to a fiber optic cable type is to identify if it is single mode
or multimode, and to describe the thickness of each strand. Fiber optics are very
thin, and the width of each strand is measured in microns (µm). Two
measurements are important in fiber optic identification: the diameter of the core,
where signals travel, and the diameter of the cladding, which surrounds the core.
Thus, fiber optic measurements will usually provide two numbers separated by
the “/” symbol. The first number is the diameter, in microns, of the core. The
second is the diameter of the cladding. Thus, a 62.5/125 multimode cable is a type
of fiber optic cabling with a 62.5 micron core and 125 micron cladding, which can
be used by inexpensive LED equipment, as it allows multiple modes of light to
pass through it. Incidentally, 62.5/125 µm multimode cabling is a very common
type of fiber optics.
9-8
Cabling Types
Token Ring Media
In much the same way that UTP cabling is available in two-, four-, 25-, and 50-pair
cables, strands of fiber optic cabling are often bound together with other strands
into multiple strand cables. These multiple strand cables are available with
anywhere from two to 24 or more strands of fiber optics, all gathered together into
one protective jacket.
TIP
Cabletron Systems recommends that customers planning to
install fiber optic cabling not install any facility fiber optics
(non-jumper cabling) containing fewer than six strands of
usable optical fiber. The minimum number of strands needed to
make an end-to-end fiber optic link between two network
devices is two. In the event that a strand within the cable is
damaged during installation or additional fiber pairs become
desired along the cable path, the availability of extra strands of
optical fiber will reduce the likelihood that a new cable must be
pulled. The existing, unused pairs of optical fiber can be
terminated and used immediately.
Multimode
Multimode fiber optic cabling is designed and formulated to allow the
propagation of many different wavelengths, or modes, of light. Multimode fiber
optics are the most commonly encountered fiber type in network installations,
due to their lower cost compared to other fiber types.
Token Ring fiber optic devices that meet the IEEE 802.5j specification are
terminated with ST connectors. Older network installations may utilize the IBM
biconic connector or the Sub-Miniature Assembly (SMA) connector.
Single Mode
Single mode fiber optics are designed specifically to allow the transmission of a
very narrow range of wavelengths within the core of the fiber. As the precise
wavelength control required to accomplish this is performed using lasers, which
direct a single, narrow ray of light, the transmissive core of single mode fiber
optics is typically very small (8 to 12 µm). Single mode fiber is more expensive to
produce than multimode fiber, and is typically used in long-haul applications.
Due to the very demanding tolerances involved in connecting two transmissive
media with diameters approximately one-quarter as thick as a sheet of paper,
single mode fiber optics require very precise connectors that will not move or
shift over time. For this reason, single mode fiber optics should only be
terminated with locking, preferably keyed, connectors. Token Ring fiber optic
installations must use the ST connector to be compliant with the IEEE 802.5j
specification.
Cabling Types
9-9
Token Ring Media
Connector Types
STP
Medium Interface Connector (MIC)
The Medium Interface Connector is a genderless connector that is designed to be
used with IBM Type 6 and Type 9 STP cabling. The MIC connector may also be
used on Type 1 or Type 3 STP cabling.
The design of the MIC connector allows it to be properly and securely connected
to any other Token Ring MIC connector. It is made up of a plastic outer shell and
four gold-plated contacts arranged in two rows of two each, as shown in
Figure 9-4.
Locking Arm
Contact Plates
1845n23
Figure 9-4. The Medium Interface Connector
The design of the MIC connector allows it to internally self-short. Spring-release
mechanisms within the connector open the transmit and receive paths in the MIC
connector when it is properly attached to another MIC connector. Once
unplugged, the paths are looped back onto one another, allowing Token Ring
signals to travel back through the cable and remain in the Token Ring network,
keeping the ring whole. This helps prevent error conditions from occurring every
time a station or cable is unplugged.
Attaching a MIC connector to the end of an STP cable run is relatively simple to
understand, as the pins of the MIC connector are color coded in the same manner
as the wires of the STP cable. To attach the connector, the individual wires of the
STP cable are attached to the four pins in the arrangement shown by the color
coded posts that hold the wires once the connector is assembled.
9-10
Connector Types
Token Ring Media
DB9
The DB9 connector is a smaller standard connector for IEEE 802.5 networking
applications, typically used for desktop and networking hardware connections. It
is used in locations where a sturdy connection to STP cabling is required, but the
use of MIC connectors is either impossible or undesirable. The DB9 cabling is
usable on all types of STP cabling, but is most commonly found on jumper cabling
such as IBM Types 6 and 9.
The DB9 connector is a metal or composite shell with nine pins or channels at the
end of the connector, arranged in two staggered rows. The pins are numbered
from one to nine, beginning with the upper row of five pins or channels, that are
numbered one to five, starting from the far right pin. The lower four pins are
numbered from six to nine, beginning also at the far right. The arrangement of
pins in the DB9 connector is shown in Figure 9-5, below.
Pin Ordering
5
4
9
3
8
2
7
1
6
1845n24
Figure 9-5. DB9 Pin Arrangement
The male DB9 connector housing, or shell, also incorporates two securing screws.
These screws are used to secure the DB9 connector to a female DB9 connector and
hold it in place. The screws of a DB9 connector should always be used to ensure a
solid connection between two connectors, otherwise, disconnection of the cable or
damage to the connectors may result.
NOTE
Connector Types
The DB9 connector looks identical to the PC EGA monitor
connector. If a Token Ring lobe connection is attached to the
monitor port, the Token Ring network will enter an error state.
This is due to the resemblance that EGA monitor current has to
the phantom current required to open a Token Ring lobe
connection.
9-11
Token Ring Media
The DB9 connector does not perform a wrap on disconnect as does the larger MIC
connector. There is no internal mechanism for performing these operations.
Stations connected to networking hardware with DB9 connectors rely on the
networking hub to perform any wrapping in the event of a disconnection or cable
error.
STP wires that are connected to a DB9 cable must be set up in the fashion detailed
below:
Table 9-3. IEEE 802.5 DB9 Pinouts
STP Wire
Color
IEEE 802.5
Signal
DB9 Pinout
Black
TX -
1
Green
RX -
5
Orange
TX +
6
Red
RX +
9
RJ45
The shielded RJ45 connector used with STP cable is identical in shape to the
standard RJ45 connector used in other network applications such as Ethernet and
FDDI TP-PMD. The difference between the shielded RJ45 and the standard RJ45 is
the addition of a metal shielding ground to the plastic housing of the RJ45
connector. This shield is connected to the braided outermost shield of the STP
cable.
The connector itself is a rectangular keyed connector with a locking clip. The RJ45
connector can only be inserted into an RJ45 port in its proper alignment, and,
when inserted, will lock into place. Due to the lighter construction characteristics
of the RJ45 connector in comparison with the other STP cable connectors, care
should be taken to ensure that the strain placed on an RJ45 connection is
minimized through proper use of cable management hardware.
9-12
Connector Types
Token Ring Media
Plastic Hood
Contact Blades
Metal Shielding
Locking Clip
1845n25
Figure 9-6. The Shielded RJ45 Connector
The shielded RJ45 cable is made up of the plastic and metal outer housing and
locking clip. Within the housing, a series of contact blades are lined up next to one
another to provide contact points for the pins of the RJ45 port. The contact blades
themselves are square-shaped, flat on three sides and with a set of two or three
triangular teeth on one side. The teeth of the connector are at the bottom of the
blades to pierce the individual wires of the STP cable when the connector is
crimped shut.
Shielded RJ45 connectors are available in configurations designed to attach to
either solid core or stranded core STP wires. Be sure when selecting cabling and
connectors that the RJ45 connector chosen is correct for the type of cabling to be
used. The blades of the RJ45 connector (shown in Figure 9-8) end in a series of
points that pierce the jacket of the wires and make the connection to the core.
Different types of connections are required for each type of core composition.
These connectors are differentiated by the arrangement of the teeth of the contact
blades.
An STP cable that uses solid core wires requires the use of contact blades with
three teeth. This is due to the inability of the teeth to effectively penetrate the solid
core of the STP wire without damaging the cable. The three teeth are placed in a
staggered left-right-left orientation that pierces the insulator of the STP wire and
wedges the core between the teeth, making an electrical contact at three points.
A cable that uses stranded core wires will allow the contact points to nest among
the individual strands. The contact blades in a stranded RJ45 connector, therefore,
are laid out with their contact points in a straight line. The contact points cut
through the insulating material of the jacket and make contact with several
strands of the core.
Connector Types
9-13
Token Ring Media
The wires of the STP cable must be organized in the RJ45 connector properly,
based upon the USOC specification and the IEEE 802.5 specification. This
organization of the wires at the connector is known as a pinout. The proper
pinout for the Token Ring shielded RJ45 connector is given in Table 9-4, below. In
addition to arranging the cables properly, the braided shield of the STP cable must
be connected to the metal shield of the RJ45 connector.
The USOC specification orders the pairs in a four-pair cable into the pinout
shown in Figure 9-7, below. The RJ45 connector in the figure is being viewed from
the contact blade end, with the locking clip up. The contact blades of the RJ45
connector are numbered one through eight from left to right for purposes of
identification.
Pair 2
Pair 1
BK
RE
GR
OR
Pair 3
Pair 4
1845n22
Figure 9-7. USOC Pair Organization - STP
Table 9-4. IEEE 802.5 RJ45 Pinouts for STP
Wire Color
9-14
IEEE 802.5
Signal
RJ45 Pinout
Black
TX -
3
Red
RX +
4
Green
RX -
5
Orange
TX +
6
Connector Types
Token Ring Media
Unshielded Twisted Pair Cable
RJ45
The RJ45 connector is a modular, plastic connector that is often used in UTP cable
installations. The RJ45 is a keyed connector, designed to be plugged into an RJ45
port only in the correct alignment. The connector is a plastic housing that is
crimped onto a length of UTP cable using a custom RJ45 die tool. The connector
housing is often transparent, and consists of a main body, the pins, the raised key,
and a locking clip.
The locking clip, part of the raised key assembly, secures the connector in place
after a connection is made. When the RJ45 connector is inserted into a port, the
locking clip is pressed down and snaps up into place. A thin arm, attached to the
locking clip, allows the clip to be lowered to release the connector from the port.
For a complete discussion of connecting and disconnecting RJ45 connectors, refer
to Chapter 14, Connecting and Terminating.
RJ45 connectors for UTP cabling are available in two basic configurations;
stranded and solid. These names refer to the type of UTP cabling that they are
designed to connect to. The blades of the RJ45 connector end in a series of points
that pierce the jacket of the wires and make the connection to the core. Different
types of connections are required for each type of core composition.
A UTP cable that uses stranded core wires will allow the contact points to nest
among the individual strands. The contact blades in a stranded RJ45 connector,
therefore, are laid out with their contact points in a straight line. The contact
points cut through the insulating material of the jacket and make contact with
several strands of the core.
Staggered Teeth
Clamp Core Wire
Solid Core
Insulator
Inline Teeth Nest
in Core Strands
Stranded Core
Insulator
1845n15
Figure 9-8. Solid and Stranded Contact Blades
The solid UTP connector arranges the contact points of the blades in a staggered
fashion. The purpose of this arrangement is to pierce the insulator on either side
of the core wire and make contacts on either side. As the contact points cannot
burrow into the solid core, they clamp the wire in the middle of the blade,
providing three opportunities for a viable connection.
Connector Types
9-15
Token Ring Media
The wires of the UTP cable must be organized in the RJ45 connector properly,
based upon the USOC specification and the IEEE 802.5 specification. This
organization of the wires at the connector is known as a pinout. The proper
pinout for the Token Ring RJ45 connector is given in Table 9-5.
The USOC specification orders the pairs in a four-pair cable into the pinout
shown in Figure 9-9, below. The RJ45 connector in the figure is being viewed from
the contact blade end, with the locking clip up. The contact blades of the RJ45
connector are numbered from left to right for purposes of identification.
Pair 2
Pair 1
BK
RE
GR
OR
Pair 3
Pair 4
1845n22
Figure 9-9. USOC Pair Association
The EIA/TIA specifications, which are used in Ethernet environments, do not
match those of the USOC specification. The difference in the two specifications is
the arrangement of Pair 3 and Pair 4. While EIA/TIA cables may be used in an
IEEE 802.5 installation, they are not preferred. Although EIA/TIA cables will
function in a Token Ring environment, USOC cables will not function in an
Ethernet or FDDI TP-PMD environment. This is due to the usage of different wire
pairs by the different networking technologies.
9-16
Connector Types
Token Ring Media
The connection of individual wires of a UTP cable to the pins of an IEEE 802.5
compliant RJ45 connector are given in Table 9-5.
Table 9-5. IEEE 802.5 RJ45 Pinout for UTP
Wire Color
IEEE 802.5
Signal
RJ45 Pinout
White/Orange
TX -
3
Blue
RX +
4
White/Blue
RX -
5
Orange
TX +
6
Fiber Optics
Straight-Tip
Fiber optic connectors in Token Ring environments must meet the IEEE 802.5j
specifications, which requires the use of Straight-Tip (ST) connectors for any fiber
optic cabling strand. The ST connector is a locking, keyed connector. The ST
connector may either be male or female. Male ST connectors are typically attached
to cable strand ends, while the female ST connectors are usually found on
networking and cable management hardware.
Side Elev.
Front Elev.
Hollow Center
Channel
Solid Glass
Center
Pla s
ti
Locking Key
cH
g
Key Guide
Channel
o u si n
Keyed
Connector
Cladding
1845n20
Figure 9-10. ST Connectors
Connector Types
9-17
Token Ring Media
The male ST connector is inserted into the channel of the female connector, its
guide channels aligned with the locking pins of the female connector. Once the ST
connector has been properly aligned, it is pressed in and rotated clockwise, the
locking pins and guide channels pulling the ST connectors together. Once the
locking pins have reached the ends of the guide channels, the ST connector locks
into position.
The locking mechanism of the ST connector assures proper alignment of the fiber
optic strands within the cable and the fiber optic receptors or transmitters in the
networking hardware. The locking mechanism also helps to eliminate excess
pressure or stress on the connection that may be caused by over-torquing a
threaded connector.
9-18
Connector Types
Chapter 10
Token Ring Network Requirements
This chapter provides test parameters and specification requirements for Token Ring network cabling.
IEEE 802.5 Shielded Twisted Pair
All Cabletron Systems Token Ring products for STP Token Ring connectivity
require that installed facility cabling and cable management hardware meet the
following minimum specifications. If the network cabling in question is not
within the limitations and ranges presented in this chapter, the operation of the
Token Ring network may be adversely affected.
Cable Type
The IEEE 802.5 specifications for Token Ring require the use of STP cables that
meet certain design and construction requirements. Cabling that is not specifically
designed for use in IEEE 802.5 network installations should not be used. Within
the class of compatible STP cabling, only certain types of STP are allowed for use
with IEEE 802.5 networking devices. These are IBM Cable Types 1, 2, 6, and 9. The
use of any other type of STP cabling may result in a loss of performance or poor
network operation.
Due to the differences between cable types, the network requirements of STP
cabling given below will be broken up by cable type. The requirements are also
separated by the type of Token Ring network devices being used: active or
passive circuitry.
10-1
Token Ring Network Requirements
Attenuation
The attenuation limit for any Token Ring STP cable link is dependent upon the
operating speed of the Token Ring network. Token Ring networks that operate at
a 16 Mbps speed (16 MHz) have slightly different cabling requirements than those
Token Ring networks operating at 4 Mbps (4 MHz).
Attenuation, when calculated, must take all cabling devices in the cable path into
account. A typical attenuation test must include the jumper cabling used at the
station and at the wiring closet, and any patch panels, punchdown blocks, and
wallplates in the installation.
STP Type 1,2
Acceptable levels of attenuation for STP cables of Types 1 and 2 are not dependent
upon the circuitry type being used by the Token Ring networking hardware. The
attenuation limit for Type 1 or Type 2 STP at 4 MHz is 22 dB/km or less. If the
speed of the Token Ring network is 16 Mbps, the attenuation limit is 45 dB/km or
less.
STP Type 6,9
The attenuation limits for Type 6 and Type 9 STP cabling are slightly higher for
each speed class. Networks operating at 4 MHz may use cabling with an
attenuation of less than 33 dB/km, while 16 MHz networks may use cabling with
attenuation levels below 66 dB/km.
Impedance
All STP cable used in a Token Ring installation must have an impedance rating
between 127.5 Ω and 172.5 Ω. STP cables of any type that are not within this
impedance window may not function properly with the Token Ring hardware,
causing poor network performance or error conditions.
10-2
IEEE 802.5 Shielded Twisted Pair
Token Ring Network Requirements
Link Length
The operation of the Token Ring network places limitations on the amount of time
a signal may travel through the Token Ring. This limitation, in conjunction with
the amounts of loss that signals are susceptible to over different types of cabling,
results in specified maximum link lengths for all cabling in any Token Ring
network. The maximum link lengths given below assume that the cabling being
used to make the link is all of a homogenous type (all Type 1, all Type 6, etc.) and
that all cabling meets the other specified limits for Token Ring cabling.
The link length maximums are dependent upon the operating speed of the Token
Ring network and the circuitry type being used. Active circuitry connections
(those that provide regeneration and reclocking of the Token Ring signal at each
port) can support longer links than passive Token Ring networks.
STP Type 1,2
An active Token Ring network operating at 4 Mbps may incorporate Type 1 or
Type 2 STP links with lengths not exceeding 300 m (984 ft). If the Token Ring
network operates at 16 Mbps, this length is reduced to 150 m (492 ft).
If the Token Ring network does not incorporate active technology, the maximum
link length for a 4 Mbps Type 1 or 2 STP connection is 200 m (656 ft). When the
network speed is 16 Mbps, the maximum length is reduced to 100 m (328 ft).
STP Type 6
No matter what circuitry or speed is used in a Token Ring network, the length of
any Type 6 cable in that network may not exceed 30 m (98 ft). Type 6 cabling that
exceeds this 30 m length limit may not function properly in a Token Ring
network.
NOTE
STP cables of Type 6 should only be used as jumper or patch
cables.
STP Type 9
An active Token Ring network operating at 4 Mbps may incorporate Type 9 STP
links with lengths not exceeding 200 m (656 ft). If the Token Ring network
operates at 16 Mbps, this length is reduced to 100 m (328 ft).
If the Token Ring network does not incorporate active technology, the maximum
link length for a 4 Mbps Type 9 STP connection is 133 m (436 ft). When the
network speed is 16 Mbps, the maximum length is reduced to 66 m (216 ft).
IEEE 802.5 Shielded Twisted Pair
10-3
Token Ring Network Requirements
Special Cases of Link Length
If cable types are mixed in an installation, the different cable attenuations and
qualities must be compensated for. In any installation, Type 6 and Type 9 cable
may only be run for 2/3 the distance of Type 1 or Type 2 cable. This means that in
order to be equivalent to a 10 meter length of Type 1 cable, Type 6 cable must be
2/3 of 10 meters, or 6.6 meters.
When calculating the longest link length in the installation, this compensation can
be used to determine the absolute maximum Type 6 jumper cable length that may
be used. For example: If a 16 Mbps Token Ring using passive circuitry had a Type
1 STP link measuring 60 meters, the maximum length of Type 6 cable that could
be connected to it would be 26.4 m.
-
100 m (Maximum Type 1 Cable Length)
60 m (Length of Existing Type 1 Cable)
40 m (Remaining Type 1 Length Budget)
40m
0.66
26.4 m Maximum Type 6 Cable Length
Figure 10-1. Type 6 Cable Calculations
Trunk Cable Length
Just as there are maximum lengths for lobe cabling, Ring-In/Ring-Out, or trunk
cables, must be within specified limits. The length limitations given here assume
that the trunk cabling under examination meets all other specifications of the
IEEE 802.5 standard for STP cabling.
IBM Type 1
The maximum link length of a Type 1 STP trunk cable at 4 Mbps is 770 m
(2,525 ft). A 16 Mbps Token Ring network would allow a maximum Type 1 STP
trunk link length of 346 m (1,134 ft). Other types of STP cable are not
recommended for use as trunk cables by the IEEE 802.5 specification.
10-4
IEEE 802.5 Shielded Twisted Pair
Token Ring Network Requirements
IEEE 802.5 Unshielded Twisted Pair
Cable Type
The IEEE 802.5 specification for Token Ring networks requires UTP cabling of
Category 3, 4, or 5. Categories of UTP cabling below Category 3 may not meet the
quality requirements of the networking specification, and may therefore be
unable to meet the tested characteristics listed below. As the requirements for
Category 3 installations are different from those required of a Category 5
installation, the three different cabling types and their respective test
specifications are discussed separately in each section that follows. Each
discussion of a cabling Category differentiates between any specifications for
passive and active Token Ring networking devices.
The Category of cabling used in a network installation is dependent upon all the
components that make up the cabling run. If an installation utilizes Category 5
cabling, and the wallplates and patch panels to which that cabling is connected
are Category 3 compliant, the cable does not meet the EIA/TIA end-to-end
specifications for a Category 5 installation.
Attenuation
The maximum allowable attenuation for any Token Ring UTP cable link is
dependent upon the operating speed of the Token Ring network. Token Ring
networks that operate at a 16 Mbps speed (16 MHz) have more stringent cabling
requirements than those Token Ring networks operating at 4 Mbps (4 MHz).
Token Ring lobe cabling of Category 3 quality that is to be used in a 4 Mbps Token
Ring network is allowed a maximum total attenuation of 56 dB/km at 4 MHz.
Category 3 cabling to be used in a 16 Mbps Token Ring network may not exceed a
total end to end attenuation of 131 dB/km at 16 MHz.
Category 4 lobe cabling intended for use in a 4 Mbps Token Ring network may
not exceed 42 dB/km. If the same Category 4 UTP cabling is to be used in a 16
Mbps Token Ring network, the maximum attenuation allowable is 88 dB/km.
Lobe cabling of Category 5 quality may not be allowed to exceed 42 dB/km for a
4 Mbps network, or 82 dB/km for a 16 Mbps Token Ring.
Attenuation, when calculated, must take all cabling devices in the cable path into
account. A typical attenuation test must include the jumper cabling used at the
station and at the wiring closet, and any patch panels, punchdown blocks, and
wallplates in the installation.
IEEE 802.5 Unshielded Twisted Pair
10-5
Token Ring Network Requirements
Impedance
All UTP cabling used in a Token Ring installation must test to an impedance of 85
to 115 Ohms. Cabling with higher or lower impedance ratings may not operate
properly in the Token Ring network environment.
Crosstalk
Crosstalk is electrical interference between wires. Crosstalk occurs when a cable
strand absorbs signals from other wires that it is adjacent to. Excessive crosstalk
can be caused by a break in the insulation or shielding that separates wires from
one another in a bundle.
Token Ring UTP cables should be checked for Near-End Crosstalk, or NEXT, at
installation.
Category 3
The maximum acceptable amount of near-end crosstalk for a Category 3 UTP link
is 23 dB/1000 ft.
Category 4
The maximum acceptable amount of near-end crosstalk for a Category 4 UTP link
is 36 dB/1000 ft.
Category 5
The maximum acceptable amount of near-end crosstalk for a Category 5 UTP link
is 44 dB/1000 ft.
Link Length
Category 3, 4
UTP cabling of Categories 3 and 4 are similar enough in quality to receive similar
treatments and specifications under the IEEE 802.5 standard. Cabling of Category
3 or 4 is allowed different maximum link lengths based on the speed of the
network and the use of active or passive Token Ring circuitry.
In an active network, a UTP link using Category 3 or 4 UTP may be 200 m (656 ft)
or less at 4 Mbps. A 16 Mbps active Token Ring network may support a Category
3 or 4 link of up to 100 m (328 ft).
10-6
IEEE 802.5 Unshielded Twisted Pair
Token Ring Network Requirements
When passive Token Ring technology is used, the link length for each network
operating speed is reduced. A passive 4 Mbps Token Ring network may support
Category 3 or 4 UTP cabling lengths of 100 m (328 ft) or less, while a 16 Mbps
network can support a maximum length of 60 m (196 ft).
Category 5
Category 5 UTP cabling, being of higher construction quality, is capable of
supporting longer link lengths than UTP cabling of Categories 3 or 4. As with
other types of UTP cabling, the type of circuitry used and the speed of the
network affect the maximum link length allowable.
A Token Ring network using active technology and operating at 4 Mbps may
support a Category 5 UTP cable link of 250 m (820 ft), while the same network, if
set to operate at the higher 16 Mbps speed, can support a maximum Category 5
link length of 120 m (393 ft).
The use of passive Token Ring technology reduces the maximum link length to
130 m (426 ft) at 4 Mbps, or 85 m (278 ft) at 16 Mbps.
The maximum link lengths specified for UTP cabling of any Category assume that
all other specifications and limitations for IEEE 802.5-compliant UTP cabling have
been met.
Trunk Cable Length
The length limitations given here assume that the trunk cabling under
examination meets all other specifications of the IEEE 802.5 standard for UTP
cabling.
UTP is not recommended for Ring-In/Ring-Out connections.
NOTE
Category 3/4
The tested requirements for Category 3 or 4 UTP trunk cables are the same as
those required for UTP lobe cables using Category 3 or Category 4 cabling. The
maximum link length of a Category 3 or 4 trunk cable at 4 Mbps is 200 m (656 ft).
A 16 Mbps Token Ring network would allow a maximum Category 3 or 4 UTP
trunk link length of 100 m (328 ft).
IEEE 802.5 Unshielded Twisted Pair
10-7
Token Ring Network Requirements
Category 5
The tested requirements for Category 5 UTP trunk cables are the same as those
required for UTP lobe cables using Category 5 cabling. The maximum link length
of a Category 5 trunk cable at 4 Mbps is 250 m (820 ft). A 16 Mbps Token Ring
network would allow a maximum Category 5 UTP trunk link length of 120 m
(393 ft).
IEEE 802.5j (Multimode Fiber Optics)
Cable Type
IEEE 802.5j multimode fiber optic products for Token Ring networks require
specific types of cabling. Token Ring multimode fiber optic devices manufactured
by Cabletron Systems are able to support connections to and from the following
construction sizes of multimode fiber optics:
•
•
•
50/125 µm
62.5/125 µm
100/140 µm
The use of other types of multimode fiber optic cabling may result in poor
network performance or inability to establish links.
10-8
IEEE 802.5j (Multimode Fiber Optics)
Token Ring Network Requirements
Attenuation
Multimode fiber optic cables must be tested for attenuation with a fiber optic
attenuation test set. The test set must be configured to determine attenuation of
the cable at a wavelength of 850 nm. The attenuation test will confirm or deny that
the cable falls within an acceptable level. The acceptable level of attenuation for a
cable is dependent upon the type of multimode fiber optic cable being tested. The
acceptable levels of attenuation for the types of multimode fiber optic cabling
supported by Cabletron Systems products are listed in Table 10-1:
Table 10-1. Multimode Fiber Optic Attenuation Limits
Cable Type
Maximum
Attenuation
50/125 µm
13.0 dB
62.5/125 µm
16.0 dB
100/140 µm
19.0 dB
Link Length
The IEEE 802.5j specification sets the maximum length of a multimode fiber optic
link in a Token Ring installation at 2 km (6,560 ft). This maximum length assumes
that all other requirements for a Token Ring fiber optic link as detailed above are
met.
Trunk Cable Length
The maximum length of a multimode fiber optic trunk cable is identical to the
maximum allotment for station connections using the same media.
IEEE 802.5j (Multimode Fiber Optics)
10-9
Token Ring Network Requirements
IEEE 802.5j Single Mode Fiber Optics
Cable Type
IEEE 802.5j single mode fiber optic products for Token Ring networks require
specific types of cabling. Token Ring single mode fiber optic devices
manufactured by Cabletron Systems are able to support connections to and from
the following construction sizes of single mode fiber optics:
•
•
8.3/125 µm
12/140 µm
The use of other types of single mode fiber optic cabling, or any type of
multimode fiber optic cabling, may result in poor network performance or
inability to establish links.
Attenuation
Single mode fiber optic cables must be tested with an attenuation test set
configured for a 1,300 nm wavelength. The attenuation test will confirm or deny
that the cable falls within an acceptable level. All single mode fiber optic cables
that are allowable by the IEEE 802.5j specification must not exceed 15.1 dB of total
attenuation.
Link Length
The IEEE 802.5j specification sets the maximum length of a single mode fiber optic
station cable to 10 km (32,800 ft). The single mode fiber optic cable must meet all
other requirements of single mode fiber optic cables as detailed above.
Trunk Cable Length
The maximum length of a single mode fiber optic trunk cable is identical to the
maximum allotment for station connections using the same media.
10-10
IEEE 802.5j Single Mode Fiber Optics
Chapter 11
FDDI Media
This chapter details the standard media and connector types that may be used in Fiber Distributed
Data Interface (FDDI) networks.
Cabling Types
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
Unshielded Twisted Pair cabling (referred to here as UTP, but also may be termed
copper wire, 10BASE-T wire, Category 5 wire, telephone cable, or twisted pair
without shielded or unshielded qualifier) is commonly made up of four pairs of
22, 24, or 26 AWG unshielded copper solid or stranded wires. These pairs of wires
are twisted together throughout the length of the cable. These twisted pairs of
wire within the UTP cable are broken up into transmit and receive pairs. In each
pair, one wire carries the normal FDDI transmission, while its associated wire
carries a copy of the transmission that has been inverted.
Tx+
TxRxRx+
1845n04
Figure 11-1. UTP Cable Pair Association (2 Pairs Shown)
The twisting of associated pairs helps to reduce the interference of the other
strands of wire throughout the cable. This is due to the method of transmission
used with twisted pair transmissions.
11-1
FDDI Media
In any transceiver or Network Interface Card (NIC), the network protocol signals
to be transmitted are in the form of changes of electrical state. The means by
which the ones and zeroes of network communications are turned into these
signals is called encoding. In a twisted pair environment, once a transceiver has
been given an encoded signal to transmit, it will copy the signal and invert the
polarity of that signal (see Figure 11-2, below). The result of this inverted signal is
a mirror opposite of the original signal.
Both the original and the inverted signal are then transmitted, the original signal
over the one transmit wire, the inverted signal over the other. As these wires are
the same length, the signal travels at the same rate (propagates) through the cable.
Since the pairs are twisted together, any outside electrical interference that affects
one member of the pair with have the same effect on the other member of that
pair.
The transmission travels through the cable, eventually reaching a destination
transceiver. At this location, both signals are read in. The original signal is
unchanged, but the signal that had previously been inverted is reverted to the
original state. When this is done, it returns the encoded transmission to its
original state, but reverses the polarity of any signal interference that the encoded
transmission may have suffered.
Once the inverted transmission has been returned to the normal encoded state,
the transceiver adds the two signals together. As the encoded transmissions are
now identical, there is no change to the data content. Line noise spikes, however,
are combined with noise spikes of their exact opposite polarity, causing them to
cancel one another out.
Normal
Transmission
Induced
Noise Spike
Noise spikes
cancel out
Original Signal
Inverted
Transmission
Reversion of Inverted
Transmission
Resulting Signal
1845n05
Figure 11-2. UTP Signal Equalization
11-2
Cabling Types
FDDI Media
The UTP cable used in network installations is the same type of cable used in the
installation of telephone lines within buildings. UTP cabling is differentiated by
the quality category of the cable itself, which is an indicator of the type and
quality of wire used and the number of times the wires are twisted around each
other per foot. The categories range from Category 1 to Category 5, with Category
5 cabling being of the highest quality.
The wires that make up a length of UTP cable are numbered and color coded.
These color codes allow the installer of the networking cable to determine which
wires are connected to the pins of the RJ45 ports or patch panels. The numbering
of the wires in EIA/TIA standard cables is based on the color of the insulating
jacket that surrounds the core of each wire.
The association of pairs of wire within the UTP cable jacket are decided by the
specifications to which the cable is built. There are two main EIA/TIA
specifications in use around the world for the production of UTP cabling;
EIA/TIA 568A and the EIA/TIA 568B. The two wiring standards are different
from one another in the way that the wires are associated with one another at the
connectors.
Since the FDDI Twisted Pair - Physical Medium Dependent (TP-PMD)
specification requires the use of all eight wires in a four-pair cable, the EIA/TIA
specification to which the cable is constructed is of prime importance. The
arrangement of the wires and pairs in the EIA/TIA 568 specifications is discussed
in the UTP portion of the Connector Types section of this chapter.
Keep in mind that the selection of an EIA/TIA wiring scheme will determine the
characteristics of Wallplates, Patch Panels, and other UTP interconnect hardware
you add to the network. Most manufacturers supply hardware built to both of
these specifications.
NOTE
TP-PMD Specifications limit the use of UTP cabling to Single
Attached Station connections from FDDI concentrators to
stations (M ports to S ports).
Crossovers
As all connectors in the FDDI TP-PMD specification are organized in the same
fashion with regard to pinouts, the FDDI TP-PMD specification requires UTP
connections between TP-PMD devices be crossed over. Crossing over is the
reversal of the transmit and receive pairs at opposite ends of a single cable. Each
cable that swaps the location of the transmit and receive pairs at only one end is
called a crossover cable. Those cables that maintain the same location for transmit
and receive pairs at both ends are called straight-through cables.
If two TP-PMD devices are connected using a straight-through cable, the transmit
pins of one device will be connected to the transmit pins of the other device. In
effect, the two devices will both attempt to transmit on the same pair of the cable
between them. This will cause the FDDI ring to wrap.
Cabling Types
11-3
FDDI Media
To overcome this, a crossover must be placed between the FDDI TP-PMD ports,
forcing the transmit pins of one device to connect to the receive pins of the other
device. When two devices are being connected to one another using UTP cabling,
an odd number of crossover cables, preferably one, must be part of the cabling
between them. For ease of cable management, it is preferable to use
straight-through cabling for horizontal cable runs, and place any necessary
crossover cables in the wiring closet or data center.
Path of Transmission
Tx+
Straight-Through
Tx+
Tx-
Tx-
Rx-
Rx-
Rx+
Rx+
Tx+
Crossover
Tx-
Rx+
RxTxTx+
RxRx+
Path of Transmission
1845n06
Figure 11-3. Straight-Through vs. Crossover Cables
UTP Cable Quality
UTP cabling is produced in a number of overall quality levels, called Categories.
The UTP cabling used in FDDI installations must adhere to the minimum quality
characteristics detailed in the ANSI X3T9.5 TP-PMD specification. UTP cabling
that is Category 4 or lower is not capable of meeting the stringent quality
requirements of the TP-PMD specification, and should never be used in an FDDI
environment. Only cabling of Category 5 may be used for FDDI TP-PMD
installations. Descriptions of lower-quality cables may be found in the Ethernet
and Token Ring sections of this document.
Category 5
Category 5 UTP cabling is manufactured in the same fashion as standard
telephone installation cable, but the materials used are of higher quality and the
wires that make up the pairs are more tightly wound. This closer association
helps to reduce the likelihood that any one member of a pair may be affected by
external noise sources without the other member of the pair experiencing the
same event.
11-4
Cabling Types
FDDI Media
Category 5 UTP consists of 2 or more pairs of 22 or 24 AWG wire. Category 5 cable
is constructed and insulated such that the maximum attenuation of a 10 MHz
signal in a cable run at the control temperature of 20° C is 65 dB/km. A cable that
has a higher maximum attenuation than 65 dB/km does not meet the Category 5
requirements.
Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)
The TP-PMD specification is also able to utilize high-quality Shielded Twisted
Pair, or STP cable. Shielded Twisted Pair cabling is a multistranded cable most
often constructed of four 26 AWG conductive copper solid or stranded core wires.
Each wire is surrounded by a non-conductive insulating material such a
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC). These wires are twisted around one another in a
specific arrangement to form pairs. The pairs are made up of associated wires transmit wires are paired with transmit wires, receive wires are paired with
receive wires.
Each pair in the STP cable is then surrounded by a metallic foil shield that runs
the length of the cable. Some types of STP incorporate an additional braided or
foil shield that surrounds each of the shielded pairs in the cable. The overall cable
is wrapped in an insulating jacket that covers the shields and holds the wires
together.
Overall Shield
Tx+
TxRxRx+
Outer Jacket
Pair Shield
1845n21
Figure 11-4. STP Cable Pair Association
Twisting the pairs together throughout the cable helps to reduce the effects of
externally-induced electrical noise on the signals that pass through the cable. In
each pair, one wire carries the normal network signal, while its associated wire
carries a copy of the transmission that has been inverted.
The twisting of associated pairs helps to reduce the interference of the other
strands of wire throughout the cable. This is due to the method of transmission
used with twisted pair transmissions.
Cabling Types
11-5
FDDI Media
In any transceiver or Network Interface Card (NIC), the network protocol signals
to be transmitted are in the form of changes of electrical state. The means by
which the ones and zeroes of network communications are turned into these
signals is called encoding. In a twisted pair environment, once a transceiver has
been given an encoded signal to transmit, it copies the signal and inverts the
voltage (see Figure 11-5, below). The result of this inverted signal is a mirror
opposite of the original signal.
Both the original and the inverted signal are then transmitted, the original signal
over the one transmit wire, the inverted signal over the other. As these wires are
the same length, the signal travels at the same rate (propagates) through the cable.
Since the pairs are twisted together, any outside electrical interference that affects
one member of the pair will have the same effect on the other member of that pair.
The transmission travels through the cable, eventually reaching a destination
transceiver. At this location, both signals are read in. The original signal is
unchanged, but the signal that had previously been inverted is reverted to the
original state. When this is done, it returns the encoded transmission to its
original state, but reverses the polarity of any signal interference that the encoded
transmission may have suffered.
Once the inverted transmission has been returned to the normal encoded state,
the transceiver adds the two signals together. As the encoded transmissions are
now identical, there is no change to the data content. Line noise spikes, however,
are combined with noise spikes of their exact opposite polarity, causing them to
cancel one another out.
Normal
Transmission
Induced
Noise Spike
Noise spikes
cancel out
Original Signal
Inverted
Transmission
Reversion of Inverted
Transmission
Resulting Signal
1845n05
Figure 11-5. Twisted Pair Signal Equalization
STP cable is made up of four or more wires, and each wire within the cable has a
specific insulator color. These colors are part of the industry specifications to
which the cable construction process must be held. Each color identifies a
particular usage for the cable. The four colors are black, red, green, and orange.
Table 11-1, below, identifies the type of signal that each wire carries.
11-6
Cabling Types
FDDI Media
Table 11-1. STP Cable Wire Identifications
NOTE
Cable Color
Application
Black
TX -
Red
RX +
Green
RX -
Orange
TX +
As STP cabling provides only two pairs of wire, it may only be
used for Single Attached Station connections from FDDI
concentrators to stations (M ports to S ports).
STP Cable Quality
STP cable is available in a series of construction and quality styles, known as
Types. FDDI TP-PMD applications require STP cables that meet the quality and
construction specifications of Type 1 or Type 2 STP cable, as detailed in the
sections that follow.
Type 1
Type 1 STP consists of two pairs of solid 22 AWG copper strands. Each strand,
approximately 0.02 inch thick, is surrounded by a layer of insulation. The
characteristics of the insulation is determined by the fire resistance construction of
the cable (plenum cable is thicker and made with slightly different material than
normal PVC cabling).
The individual wires are twisted into pairs. The pairs that are formed by this
twisting are then surrounded by a mylar foil shield. These shielded pairs are then
laid alongside one another in an overall braided metal shield. The shield
containing the twisted pairs is then surrounded by a tight outer covering. Type 1
STP is heavy and rather inflexible, but provides excellent resistance to
interference and noise due to its construction characteristics. Type 1 STP is most
commonly used as a facility cabling, while more flexible cabling is used for
jumper cables and patch panel connections.
Cabling Types
11-7
FDDI Media
Type 2
IBM Type 2 cable is constructed in much the same fashion as Type 1 cable. The
two central shielded pairs and the overall braided shield that surround them are
constructed of the same materials, and then two additional pairs of AWG 22
insulated solid copper wires are laid outside the braided shield before the whole
cable is surrounded by the tight outer covering. These outer wires may be used to
carry telephone traffic, as the shields surrounding the inner, network wires is
intended to eliminate the interference that might otherwise occur between the
inner and outer pairs.
NOTE
Cabletron Systems does not recommend combining active
voice and data wiring in the same cable. Degradation of
network performance may result from any non-standard uses
of cable.
The added pairs of wire in a Type 2 cable make it even less flexible than Type 1
cable. For this reason, it is typically used as facility cable.
Fiber Optics
Fiber optic cable is a high performance media constructed of glass or plastic
which uses pulses of light as a transmission method. Because fiber optics do not
utilize electrical charges to pass data, they are free from the possibility of
interference due to proximity to electrical fields. This, combined with the
extremely low rate of signal degradation and dB loss makes fiber optics able to
traverse extremely long distances. The actual maximums are dependent upon the
architecture being used, but distances of up to 50 km (164,000 ft) are not unknown
when using the FDDI technology.
Glass optical fiber is made up of a glass strand, the core, which allows for the easy
transmission of light, the cladding, a less transmissive glass layer around the core
which helps keep the light within the core, and a plastic buffer which protects the
cable.
Cladding
Transmissive Core
PVC Buffer (Jacketing)
1845n07
Figure 11-6. Fiber Optic Cable Construction
11-8
Cabling Types
FDDI Media
There are two basic types of fiber optics: multimode and single mode. The names
come from the types of light used in the transmission process. Multimode fiber
uses inexpensive Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) that produce light of a single
color. Due to the nature of the LED, the light produced is made up of a number of
differing wavelengths of light, fired outward from the center of the LED. Not all
the rays of light enter the fiber, and those that do often do so at an angle, which
reduces the amount of distance the signal can effectively cover. Single mode fiber
optics use lasers to achieve greater maximum distances. Since light from a laser is
all of the same wavelength, and travels in a coherent ray, the resulting signal
tends to be much clearer at reception than an LED signal under the same
circumstances.
Fiber optics of both types are measured and identified by a variety of means. The
usual means of referring to a fiber optic cable type is to identify if it is single mode
or multimode, and to describe the thickness of each strand. Fiber optics are very
thin, and the width of each strand is measured in microns (µm). Two
measurements are important in fiber optic identification: the diameter of the core,
where signals travel, and the diameter of the cladding, which surrounds the core.
Thus, fiber optic measurements will usually provide two numbers separated by
the “/” symbol. The first number is the diameter, in microns, of the core. The
second is the diameter of the cladding. Thus, a 62.5/125 multimode cable is a type
of fiber optic cabling with a 62.5 µm core and 125 µm cladding, which can be used
by inexpensive LED equipment, as it allows multiple modes of light to pass
through it. Incidentally, 62.5/125 µm multimode cabling is a very common type of
FDDI fiber optics.
In much the same way that UTP cabling is available in two-, four-, 25-, and 50-pair
cables, strands of fiber optic cabling are often bound together with other strands
into multiple strand cables. These multiple strand cables are available with
anywhere from two to 24 or more strands of fiber optics, all gathered together into
one protective jacket.
TIP
Cabling Types
Cabletron Systems recommends that customers planning to
install fiber optic cabling not install any facility fiber optics
(non-jumper cabling) containing fewer than six strands of
usable optical fiber. The minimum number of strands needed to
make an end-to-end fiber optic link between two FDDI network
devices is two. In the event that a strand within the cable is
damaged during installation or additional fiber pairs become
desired along the cable path, the availability of extra strands of
optical fiber will reduce the likelihood that a new cable must be
pulled. The existing, unused pairs of optical fiber can be
terminated and used immediately.
11-9
FDDI Media
Multimode
Multimode fiber optic cabling is designed and formulated to allow the
propagation of many different wavelengths, or modes, of light. Multimode fiber
optics are the most commonly encountered fiber type in FDDI installations, due to
their lower cost compared to other fiber types.
The FDDI MMF-PMD specification specifies the Media Interface Connector, or
MIC, as the standard connector for MMF-PMD networks. The LCF-PMD
specification recommends the use of the SC-Type connector for all station
connections. Other connector types are nonstandard and their use may result in
poor network performance. The MIC and SC connectors are described in greater
detail in the Connector Types section of this chapter.
Single Mode
Single mode fiber optics are designed specifically to allow the transmission of a
very narrow range of wavelengths within the core of the fiber. As the precise
wavelength control required to accomplish this is performed using lasers, which
direct a single, narrow ray of light, the transmissive core of single mode fiber
optics is typically very small (8 to 10 µm). Single mode fiber is more expensive to
produce than multimode fiber, and is typically used in long-haul applications.
The FDDI networking technology allows for the creation of single mode fiber
optic cabling runs of up to 58 km.
Due to the very demanding tolerances involved in connecting two transmissive
media with diameters approximately one-quarter as thick as a sheet of paper,
single mode fiber optics require very precise connectors that will not move or
shift over time. For this reason, single mode fiber optics should only be
terminated with locking, preferably keyed, connectors. The FDDI Single Mode
Fiber Physical Medium Dependent (SMF-PMD) specification requires that all
fiber optic cabling used in the FDDI network, regardless of type, should be
connected only with MIC connectors, which are discussed in detail later in this
chapter. Some FDDI devices for single mode fiber optics use the SC connector
used by the LCF-PMD specification.
Low-Cost
In response to the expensive media and bulky connectors of the MMF-PMD and
SMF-PMD standards, the Low Cost Fiber - Physical Medium Dependent, or
LCF-PMD has been proposed. The LCF-PMD specification uses multimode fiber
optics, and is terminated with smaller, less expensive connectors.The LCF-PMD
specification allows for connections that are not longer than 500 m (1,640 ft).
LCF-PMD links are designed for connections between concentrators and end
stations.
The LCF-PMD specification uses the SC Connector, a modular, keyed connector
designed much like the FDDI MIC connector (discussed in the Connector Types
section of this document).
11-10
Cabling Types
FDDI Media
Connector Types
UTP
RJ45
The RJ45 connector is a modular, plastic connector that is often used in UTP cable
installations. The RJ45 is a keyed connector, designed to be plugged into an RJ45
port only in the correct alignment. The connector is a plastic housing that is
crimped onto a length of UTP cable using a custom RJ45 die tool. The connector
housing is often transparent, and consists of a main body, the pins, the raised key,
and a locking clip.
The locking clip, part of the raised key assembly, secures the connector in place
after a connection is made. When the RJ45 connector is inserted into a port, the
locking clip is pressed down and snaps up into place. A thin arm, attached to the
locking clip, allows the clip to be lowered to release the connector from the port.
For a complete discussion of connecting and disconnecting RJ45 connectors, refer
to Chapter 14, Connecting and Terminating.
RJ45 connectors for UTP cabling are available in two basic configurations:
stranded and solid. The names refer to the type of UTP cabling that they are
designed to connect to. The blades of the RJ45 connector end in a series of points
that pierce the jacket of the wires and make the connection to the core.
NOTE
The Category 5 UTP cable required by FDDI TP-PMD
networking equipment is constructed with solid core wires only.
Do not use RJ45 connectors with contact blades designed for
stranded cable.
A UTP cable that uses solid core wires requires the use of contact blades with
three teeth. This is due to the inability of the teeth to effectively penetrate the solid
core of the UTP wire without damaging the cable. The three teeth are placed in a
staggered left-right-left orientation that pierces the insulator of the UTP wire and
wedges the core between the teeth, making an electrical contact at three points.
The order in which the connector and wiring standard place the wires of the cable
are called the pinout of the cable. The pinout order of an EIA/TIA 568A
compliant RJ45 connector is shown in Figure 11-7.
Connector Types
11-11
FDDI Media
Pair 2
Pair 3
W-GR
GR
Pair 4
Pair 1
W-OR
BL
W-BL
OR
W-BR
BR
1845n16
Figure 11-7. EIA/TIA 568A Pinout and Pair Association
The EIA/TIA 568 B specification reverses the arrangement of Pair 1 and Pair 2,
but does not change the association of pairs within the cable. The Universal
Service Order Code, or USOC, a standard often used for older building telephone
wiring, uses a different pair association than EIA/TIA 568A. The use of either of
these alternate cable construction standards will lead to error conditions in FDDI
TP-PMD networks.
STP
Shielded RJ45
The shielded RJ45 cable used with STP cable is identical in shape to the standard
RJ45 cable used in other network applications such as Ethernet and Token Ring.
The difference between the shielded RJ45 and the standard RJ45 is the addition of
a metal shielding ground to the plastic housing of the RJ45 connector. This shield
is connected to the braided outermost shield of the STP cable.
The connector itself is a rectangular keyed connector with a locking clip. The RJ45
connector may only be inserted into an RJ45 port in its proper alignment, and,
when inserted, will lock into place. Due to the lighter construction characteristics
of the RJ45 connector in comparison with the other STP cable connectors, care
should be taken to ensure that the strain placed on an RJ45 connection is
minimized through proper use of cable management hardware.
The shielded RJ45 cable is made up of the plastic and metal outer housing and
locking clip. Within the housing, a series of contact blades are lined up next to one
another to provide contact points for the pins of the RJ45 port. The contact blades
themselves are square-shaped, flat on three sides and with a set of two or three
triangular teeth on one side. The teeth of the connector are at the bottom of the
blades to pierce the individual wires of the STP cable when the connector is
crimped shut.
11-12
Connector Types
FDDI Media
NOTE
The type of STP cable required by FDDI TP-PMD networking
equipment is constructed with solid core wires only. Do not use
RJ45 connectors with contact blades designed for stranded
cable.
An STP cable that uses solid core wires requires the use of contact blades with
three teeth. This is due to the inability of the teeth to effectively penetrate the solid
core of the STP wire without damaging the cable. The three teeth are placed in a
staggered left-right-left orientation that pierces the insulator of the STP wire and
wedges the core between the teeth, making an electrical contact at three points.
The wires of the STP cable must be organized in the RJ45 connector properly,
based upon the USOC specification and the ANSI X3T9.5 specification. The
proper arrangement of the wires in the RJ45 connector are given in Table 11-2,
below. In addition to arranging the cables properly, the braided shield of the STP
cable must be connected to the metal shield of the RJ45 connector.
Table 11-2. FDDI TP-PMD Pinouts for STP
Wire Color
IEEE 802.5
Signal
RJ45 Pinout
Black
TX -
3
Red
RX +
4
Green
RX -
5
Orange
TX +
6
Fiber Optics
FDDI MIC
The FDDI Media Interface Connector, not to be confused with the Token Ring
Medium Interface Connector, is a gendered connector that is used with all fiber
optic cabling for FDDI networks meeting the MMF-PMD and SMF-PMD
standards. It consists of a plastic housing that separates the strands of a
two-strand fiber optic cable and a set of ferrules that provide the physical point of
connection for the fibers.
Connector Types
11-13
FDDI Media
Guide Channel
Locking Arm
1845n27
"Floating" Ferrules
Figure 11-8. FDDI Media Interface Connector
The MIC connector is designed to prevent the mis-connection of segments and
devices. It is specifically constructed in an asymmetrical fashion that prevents the
connection of transmit strands in the connector to the transmit devices of an FDDI
device.
The sides of the FDDI MIC connector have built-in locking arms that snap the
connector into place once it has been fully inserted and keep it from being pulled
out.
The FDDI standard requires very precise alignment of the fiber optic strands in
order to make an acceptable connection. In order to accomplish this, FDDI
connectors and ports each incorporate “floating” ferrules that make the final
connection between fibers. These floating ferrules are held in place relatively
loosely. This arrangement allows the ferrules to move slightly when making a
connection. This small amount of movement manages to accommodate the subtle
differences in construction found from connector to connector and from port to
port.
The FDDI MIC connector also has a built-in guide channel along one surface. This
guide channel allows small plastic keys to be snapped into place and restrict the
connection of the FDDI MIC connector to certain types of FDDI ports. Keys are
available for FDDI ports of types A, B, or M. Once a MIC connector has been
configured with a B key, it will only fit properly in a B port on an FDDI device.
11-14
Connector Types
FDDI Media
SC Connector
The SC connector is a gendered connector that is recommended for use in FDDI
networks that incorporate multimode fiber optics adhering to the LCF-PMD
specification. It consists of two plastic housings, the outer and inner. The inner
housing fits loosely into the outer, and slides back and forth with a travel of
approximately 2 mm (0.08 in). The inner housing ends in two floating ferrules,
which are very similar to the floating ferrules used in the FDDI MIC connector.
The sides of the outer housing are open, allowing the inner housing to act as a
latching mechanism when the connector is inserted properly in an SC port.
Guide Keys
Sliding Latch
1845n28
"Floating" Ferrules
Figure 11-9. FDDI SC Connector
Connector Types
11-15
FDDI Media
11-16
Connector Types
Chapter 12
FDDI Network Requirements
This chapter details the test specifications and limitations for media used in FDDI networks.
MMF-PMD
Cable Type
The FDDI PMD specification that deals with multimode fiber optic cabling in
FDDI environments specifies the use of 62.5/125 µm fiber optic cabling which is
designed for use with 1300 nm wavelengths. Other sizes of fiber optic cabling
may be used with MMF-PMD compliant products, but the performance of links
made with these nonstandard cables will be reduced.
Attenuation
The FDDI specification allows any FDDI link made over multimode fiber optic
cabling a total end to end attenuation of 11 dB at a wavelength of 1300 nm. Note
that connectors, splices and passive FDDI devices introduce additional loss into
cables. When estimating total loss, assume a loss of 0.5 dB for any splice or
connector other than those at the end stations. If an optical bypass switch is
included in the cable segment, the switch introduces additional loss, usually
2.5 dB.
12-1
FDDI Network Requirements
Length
As long as all other cable quality specifications are met, the FDDI PMD allows a
multimode fiber optic link to be no longer than 2 km from station to station. This
2 km length must include all connector and patch panels between the two
stations. Keep in mind when determining the maximum length of an FDDI fiber
optic link that the FDDI network may not exceed a maximum total length of
100 km. If the sum of all cable lengths within the network exceeds this 100 km
limit, the FDDI network will experience errors in token rotation timing and other
operations, and be unable to effectively recover from certain cable faults.
Emitted Power
The FDDI specification requires that links meet transmission power requirements.
If these power requirements are not met, the strength of the FDDI signal will be
insufficient for proper recognition and reception. If an FDDI transmitter does not
produce signals with an emitted power of -20 dBm or better, the signal will have
difficulty propagating through the cable effectively and may not be received
properly at the termination of the link.
SMF-PMD
Cable Type
The FDDI SMF-PMD specification requires the use of 8.3/125 µm single mode
fiber optic cabling which is designed for use with 1300 nm wavelengths. Other
sizes of single mode fiber optic cabling may be used with SMF-PMD compliant
products, but the performance of links made with these nonstandard cables will
be reduced.
Attenuation
The SMF-PMD specification allows any FDDI link made over single mode fiber
optic cabling a total end to end loss of 10 dB at a wavelength of 1300 nm. The
same penalties apply to the cable segment for splices and optical bypass switches
that apply to MMF-PMD links as discussed earlier.
12-2
SMF-PMD
FDDI Network Requirements
Length
If all other cable quality specifications are met, the FDDI SMF-PMD allows a
single mode fiber optic link to be no longer than 58 km from station to station.
This total length must include all connector and patch panels between the two
stations. Keep in mind when determining the maximum length of an FDDI fiber
optic link that the FDDI network may not exceed a total length of 100 km. If the
sum of all cable lengths within the network exceeds this 100 km limit, the FDDI
network will experience errors in token rotation timing and other operations, and
be unable to effectively recover from certain cable faults.
Emitted Power
The SMF-PMD specification requires that links meet transmission power
requirements. If these power requirements are not met, the strength of the FDDI
signal will be insufficient for proper recognition and reception. If an FDDI
transmitter does not produce signals with an emitted power of -20 dBm or better,
the signal will have difficulty propagating through the cable effectively and may
not be received properly at the termination of the link.
LCF-PMD
Cable Type
The LCF-PMD specification requires the use of 62.5/125 µm multimode fiber
optic cabling. While some other sizes of fiber optic cabling are permitted and may
partially interoperate with LCF-PMD devices, their use is nonstandard and not
recommended.
Attenuation
The LCF-PMD specification allows any FDDI link made over low-cost fiber optic
cabling a total end to end loss of 7 dB at a wavelength of 1300 nm. The same
penalties apply to the cable segment for splices and optical bypass switches that
apply to MMF-PMD links as discussed earlier.
LCF-PMD
12-3
FDDI Network Requirements
Length
Assuming that all other cable quality specifications are met, the FDDI LCF-PMD
allows a low-cost fiber optic link to be no longer than 500 m from station to
station. This total length must include all connectors and patch panels between
the two stations. Keep in mind when determining the maximum length of an
FDDI fiber optic link that the FDDI network may not exceed a total length of
100 km. If the sum of all cable lengths within the network exceeds this 100 km
limit, the FDDI network will experience errors in token rotation timing and other
operations, and be unable to effectively recover from certain cable faults.
Emitted Power
The LCF-PMD specification requires that links meet transmission power
requirements. If these power requirements are not met, the strength of the FDDI
signal will be insufficient for proper recognition and reception. If an FDDI
transmitter does not produce signals with an emitted power of -22 dBm or better,
the signal will have difficulty propagating through the cable effectively and may
not be received properly at the termination of the link.
TP -PMD (UTP)
Cable Type
The demands of the TP-PMD specification are such that only Category 5 UTP
cabling may be used for TP-PMD links. All connectors, patch panels, and other
cable management hardware incorporated in the cable installation must also be
Category 5 compliant in order for the cabling to be viable in a TP-PMD
environment.
Attenuation
The TP-PMD specification allows any FDDI link made over Category 5 UTP
cabling a total end to end loss of 11 dB at a frequency of 100 MHz. Note that
connectors, splices, and passive FDDI devices introduce additional loss into
cables.
12-4
TP -PMD (UTP)
FDDI Network Requirements
Length
TP-PMD cabling which is within all other requirements of the specification may
be no longer than 100 m from station to station. This total length must include all
connectors and patch panels between the two stations. As with fiber optic
connections, it is important to remember the 100 km total ring length of FDDI
networks when planning installations.
TP-PMD (STP)
Cable Type
The TP-PMD specification demands cables of very high quality. The STP cable
type which has construction characteristics that are of sufficient quality for the
TP-PMD specification is IBM Type 1 STP cabling.
As IBM Type 1 cabling is made up of only two pairs of wire, the TP-PMD
specification details the use of STP cabling for Single Attached Station connections
only. The use of STP cabling to configure a dual counterrotating ring is not in
compliance with the TP-PMD specification, and such a connection will not
provide a failover path for transmission and reception of network signals.
Attenuation
The TP-PMD specification allows any FDDI link made over Type 1 STP cabling a
total end to end loss of 11 dB at a frequency of 100 MHz. Note that connectors,
splices and passive FDDI devices introduce additional loss into cables.
Length
TP-PMD cabling that is within all other requirements of the specification may be
no longer than 100 m from station to station. This total length must include all
connectors and patch panels between the two stations. As with fiber optic
connections, it is important to remember the 100 km total ring length of FDDI
networks when planning installations.
TP-PMD (STP)
12-5
FDDI Network Requirements
12-6
TP-PMD (STP)
Chapter 13
Cabling Devices
This chapter identifies a number of commonly-used cabling installation and management devices
which may be used to facilitate easy network troubleshooting, installation, and expansion.
Cable management devices are those pieces of equipment which allow the organization of cables and
networking hardware into well-defined and easily modified groups. Good use of the cable
management devices described in this chapter can greatly aid future changes to the cabling plant or
troubleshooting operations, and can help speed the process of locating and repairing cable problems.
The three types of cable management devices treated in this section are those used for hardware
mounting, cable termination, and facility cable management. Hardware mounting equipment
provides centralized locations where networking devices such as hubs and routers or other cable
management devices may be placed. Cable termination equipment provides easy to use endpoints for
facility cabling and access to the cabling by users and end stations. Facility cable management devices
are those used to divide cabling into specific groups or separate cables and groups from one another.
13-1
Cabling Devices
Hardware Mounting
Relay Rack
The relay rack, or electrical equipment rack, is a metal frame that is commonly
used to secure and support networking, electrical, or telephony equipment in
network centers or wiring closets. Most large cable management devices and
networking products such as modular chassis are designed to be either mounted
directly in the relay rack or placed on shelves set up in the rack.
Relay racks are available in a range of heights from as small as one meter (3.28 ft)
to as tall as two meters (6.56 ft) or more. Equipment is fastened to the rack with
screws or bolts. The bolts are passed through some form of frame on the device to
be mounted in the rack and through the upright, perforated metal supports of the
relay rack. Once tightened, the bolts hold the equipment safely.
When loading a relay rack, attempt to keep the majority of the
weight of the components at or near the bottom of the rack.
Locating heavy devices at the top of the rack can lead to
top-heaviness, which can cause the rack to tip over and cause
damage to equipment or potential injury.
19" Wide
May be mounted on casters
or bolted to floor
1845n29
Figure 13-1. Relay Rack
13-2
Hardware Mounting
Cabling Devices
Enclosed Equipment Cabinet
The enclosed equipment cabinet, sometime referred to as a “glass front rack,” is
basically a relay rack inside a protective metal frame. The enclosed equipment
cabinet allows networking devices to be secured as though in a relay rack, and
also prevents unauthorized access to the equipment. Keeping the cabinet door
closed and locked helps to ensure that unauthorized personnel will not be able to
modify the current organization of cables and devices.
The enclosed equipment cabinet also presents a more finished appearance, and is
often used in locations where there is no wiring closet to hide cable management
devices in. In these cases, a smoked glass front door allows LEDs and lit
indicators to be examined without having to reveal the array of cabling inside.
Back Panel Cable
Access Depicted
Fan Housing
May be mounted on casters
or bolted to floor
May be locked for
physical security
1845n30
Figure 13-2. Enclosed Equipment Cabinet
Hardware Mounting
13-3
Cabling Devices
Cable Termination
Cable termination equipment provides points where facility cabling may be easily
connected to jumper cabling. Cable termination equipment basically provides
endpoints for the raw facility cabling.
Patch Panel
A patch panel is a piece of cable termination equipment which connects raw
facility cabling to standard ports or connectors. These ports or connectors may
then be used for simplified connections to jumper cabling, allowing a single,
manageable point of access for several cables.
Patch panels are typically built to be mounted in a relay rack or enclosed
equipment cabinet. The front surface, or faceplate, of the patch panel provides a
series of modular ports or connectors, depending upon the media being
connected. The back of the patch panel is made up of a number of connection
points for facility cable.
The most common types of patch panels are those for twisted pair cabling (UTP
or STP) and for fiber optic cabling.
RJ45 Ports
Front
Rear
1845n31
UTP Wire Connection Points
Figure 13-3. Twisted Pair Patch Panel
13-4
Cable Termination
Cabling Devices
Harmonica
The Harmonica is a specialized type of patch panel. It is used only in twisted pair
networking situations. The harmonica provides front surface modular
connections like a patch panel. The back surface provides one or more RJ21
connectors. Through the use of a harmonica, one or more 24-pair UTP cables with
50-pin connectors can be broken out into 12 separate RJ45 ports.
RJ45 Ports
Labeling Windows
Front
Rear
50-pin RJ21 Port
1845n32
Figure 13-4. Harmonica
Cable Termination
13-5
Cabling Devices
Punchdown Block
A punchdown block is another means of attaching raw strands of facility cable to
a single jumper cable. The punchdown block allows the actual metal strands of
facility UTP cable to be punched down, using a special tool, onto bayonet pins.
These bayonet pins are connected to one another through the punchdown block’s
internal wiring. Most punchdown blocks wire the leftmost column of pins to the
left inside column, and the rightmost column of pins to the inside right column.
Punchdown blocks are also available which provide a prewired 50-pin RJ21
connector for connection to 25-pair facility UTP.
Punchdown blocks are commonly used in the same way patch panels are. They
provide an access point for connecting and repairing cables. The exposed,
conductive bayonet pins provide an easily accessible testing point for checking
the operation of a cable after installation.
Punchdown blocks are often identified by a model number. A very common type
of punchdown block is the AT&T 66 block.
"Bayonet" pins
(detail)
Punchdown
Tool
Mounting
Bracket
1845n33
Figure 13-5. AT&T 66 Punchdown Block
13-6
Cable Termination
Cabling Devices
Distribution Box
A distribution box is a form of patch panel that is used with fiber optic cabling.
The distribution box provides an access point for multiple strand facility fiber
optic cable. As distribution boxes are commonly used as intermediary cabling
devices, they are designed to be mounted to walls or ceilings.
Hinged or Latched Access Door
Fiber Optic Barrel
Connectors
Two-strand
Jumper Cable
12-strand
Facility Cable
1845n34
Figure 13-6. Fiber Optic Distribution Box
Cable Termination
13-7
Cabling Devices
Wallplate
A wallplate is a form of small patch panel typically used at end user locations.
The wallplate provides a connection and termination point for the facility cabling
to which a user station may be connected with a length of jumper cabling.
Wallplates are available in several styles, and for all types of standard connectors.
Wallplates may provide only one connector, or may be capable of supporting
eight or more separate connectors. Those wallplates which can support multiple
connectors are called modular wallplates. The construction of a modular
wallplate allows a number of individually selected connector types to be placed
in each individual wallplate. Using the modular wallplate construction options,
you may have wallplates with a mix of RJ45, BNC, or fiber optic ST connectors, all
based upon the needs of the location in question.
Wallplate Eliminator
(fastened within wall)
1845n35
Wallplate Insert
Modular Wallplate Jack
(RJ45 shown)
Figure 13-7. Modular Wallplate
Wallplates are installed by cutting a hole in the wall where the wallplate is to be
located. Into this hole you place a wallplate eliminator, a recessed box which
performs the actual securing for the wallplate assembly. The wallplate itself, once
the cable connections are made, is locked or fastened into the wallplate eliminator.
13-8
Cable Termination
Cabling Devices
Surface Mount Box
A surface mount box is a type of wallplate which, instead of being mounted in a
hole in the wall is attached to the wall with an adhesive. The surface mount box is
typically used in locations where connections to end user stations are to be made
from a wall which is constructed of a material that is not easily cut through.
Firewalls, cinderblock, and packed-earth are some of the wall types that should
not be punctured to run cabling.
Facility Cable Management
The devices described in the following sections are used to organize and control
the placement of cable in a facility. Cable management is an often-overlooked, but
exceptionally important, part of installation planning and maintenance. The
devices described below can prove very useful for facilitating easier installation,
troubleshooting, and expansion of the network.
Conduit
Conduit is pre-installed PVC or metal pipe which is run through a building to
ease the installation of cable. Most conduit is 1.25 cm (0.5 inch) in diameter or
larger. Conduit is commonly used to provide readily-accessible paths for cable
between floors in a facility or to simplify the installation of cable through firewalls
and around obstacles such as elevator shafts and structural supports. Conduit in
plenum environments should be steel piping. All conduit should contain
pullstrings for cable installation.
Facility Cable Management
13-9
Cabling Devices
D-Rings
D-rings are metal rings that are mounted to a wall or beam. The D-rings are
shaped like the letter “D”. Once the rings are in place and secured (using screws,
rivets, or adhesive) cabling is passed through the rings. The D-rings support the
weight of the cables run through them and keep the cables in one location.
D-rings may also be useful for holding cables away from sources of electrical
interference or physical damage, such as lighting, automation, or HVAC
equipment.
1845n36
Figure 13-8. D-rings
13-10
Facility Cable Management
Cabling Devices
J-Hooks
J-hooks are cable management devices similar in form and function to D-rings.
Whereas a D-ring, once mounted on a wall, support, or other solid surface, is a
closed hoop through which cable is threaded, J-hooks are open, and simply act as
a support for the cable. J-hooks are often used to provide strain relief at strategic
points in a run of cable or bundle of cables, or may be used in locations where
cables must be added or removed from easily-accessible areas often. An example
of this latter type of installation might be a testing laboratory which provides lines
of J-hooks along the walls for the routing of temporary cables.
1845n37
Figure 13-9. J-Hooks
Strain-Relief Bracket
The strain-relief bracket is a cable management device that is often used when
networking hardware is mounted in an equipment cabinet or electrical
equipment rack. The strain-relief bracket is a wide, U-shaped metal bar tthat
extends forward from a device which cables plug into.
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
UTP Cables
1845n38
Figure 13-10. Strain Relief Bracket
The strain-relief bracket provides a location where cables may be tied off. This
alleviates the strain of the weight of the cable, removing it from the port or
connector and transferring it to the strain-relief bracket. Cables may be fastened to
strain-relief brackets with wire twist ties, string, or Ty-Wraps.
Facility Cable Management
13-11
Cabling Devices
Innerduct
Innerduct is a corrugated plastic tubing that is used to protect cabling. Most often,
innerduct is used with fiber optic cabling, due to that media’s susceptibility to
damage during or following installation. Typically bright orange in color,
innerduct may be pulled through a conduit or raceway before fiber optic cable
installation, or used in areas where the cable would otherwise be exposed.
Innerduct
1845n39
Fiber Optic cable
Figure 13-11. Innerduct
Latching Duct
Firewalls, filled cinderblock walls, and packed-earth walls should not be cored
through for the installation of wallplates. By the same token, unless cable
conduits specifically for network or telephony cabling are already installed in
walls of these types, cabling should not be fished down within them. In these
situations, the use of a surface mount box takes care of the need for a wallplate.
Cabling to the surface mount box is run up from the floor or down from the
ceiling (depending upon the location of the horizontal facility cabling) along the
walls. Latching duct provides a plastic channel that can be affixed to the wall and
protect the cable. Latching duct is made of two sections, front and rear. The rear
section is backed with adhesive, allowing it to be easily affixed to walls. Once the
rear section is in place, the cable is laid in the duct and the front section is snapped
into place.
Cable Guideway
Foward Latch Section
Back Latch Section
Adhesive Backing
1845n40
Figure 13-12. Latching Duct
13-12
Facility Cable Management
Cabling Devices
Raceway
The term “Raceway” is used to refer to several items in cable installation. A
raceway of any type is a channel, tray, or platform along which cable is laid. Most
raceways are differentiated from conduits in the construction of each; where a
conduit is a cylinder that is closed on all sides and open at both ends, raceway is
typically open on one side along its entire length.
Floor raceway is a channel or trench set into the floor of a facility that cable may
be placed in. Floor raceway usually is a characteristic of a facility’s construction
that cannot be added after the facility has been completed.
Another common type of raceway is the tray-type raceway. Open on the top, the
tray-type raceway is often run along walls like a series of D-rings or used in open
areas, such as the space above suspended ceilings, to force cabling to follow a
specific path, routing it around sources of potential physical damage or electrical
noise.
1845n41
Figure 13-13. Tray-Type Raceway
Labeling Tape
All cables in an installation should be labeled. The addition of detailed labels to
cabling in an installation makes the process of installing, troubleshooting,
repairing, replacing, or expanding the facility cabling much easier. Cable labeling
tape is a markable tape (it may be written upon) with strong adhesive. When
labeling cables, keep the installation requirements of the cable run in mind. If a
cable which you are labeling needs to be pulled through a conduit or innerduct,
large, loose labels may bind or be pulled off during installation.
Facility Cable Management
13-13
Cabling Devices
Ty-Wraps and Adhesive Anchors
Ty-Wraps, also called Ty-Fasts, plastic securing straps, and zip straps, are ribbons
of tough plastic, usually white in color. The center portion of the plastic strip is
ribbed or knurled, and one end of the strap is a slot with a racheting or
friction-based means of holding the center portion of the plastic ribbon tightly.
Ty-wraps are typically wrapped around a cable or bundle of cables. The flat end
of the plastic strip is inserted into the securing slot at the other end. The ribbon is
then pulled through the slot until all slack in the Ty-Wrap has been taken up. The
racheting or friction mechanism of the end slot will only allow the ribbon to pass
in one direction, thus the Ty-wrap can be tightened but never loosened.
1845n42
Figure 13-14. Ty-Wraps and Adhesive Anchor
!
CAUT ION
Some cable types, notably fiber optic cables, may be damaged
by excessive pressure applied to them. Do not tighten
Ty-wraps or other securing materials to the point of “denting”
the outer jacket of the cable.
Ty-wraps are inexpensive and easy to use, even with one hand. They are tough
and flexible, resistant to water and moisture, and last for years. Besides being
used to bundle cable together, Ty-wraps can be used in conjunction with adhesive
anchors to provide securing points for cables. These securing points can help to
alleviate the strain of a cable’s weight resting on a suspended ceiling or another
structure. Adhesive anchors provide a raised, slotted platform through which the
Ty-wrap is threaded, and an adhesive backing for fastening to a smooth surface.
Ty-Wraps and anchors are ideal for securing temporary cables to desks and
smooth cubicle walls.
When the Ty-wrap needs to be removed, it must be cut. This is easily
accomplished with a normal cable stripping and cutting tool or a pair of heavy
shears.
13-14
Facility Cable Management
Chapter 14
Connecting and Terminating
This chapter deals with the methods used to attach connectors to facility or jumper cables and the
termination requirements of the cable and connector types.
Ethernet
DB15
DB15 connectors and ports are used to make connections between Ethernet
transceivers and Ethernet stations. The DB15 connector is the most commonly
encountered Ethernet AUI cable connector, and is often used to connect a
workstation or Ethernet device to a coaxial cable backbone. The instructions
which follow detail the process used to connect a DB15 connector to a station
port.
14-1
Connecting and Terminating
1. Align the DB15 connector of the AUI cable with the AUI port of the network
device as shown in Figure 14-1. The port will only connect if it is properly
aligned.
1845n43
Figure 14-1. DB15 Connector Insertion
2. Firmly press the AUI connector over the AUI port. The locking clips on the
sides of the AUI connector should snap into place when the connection is
made.
3. If a sliding latch is present on the connector or port, slide it into place to
secure the connector to the port.
If a link indicator is present for the port, check to see if it is on. If it is not on,
perform the following actions until you achieve a valid link.
14-2
•
Check that the Ethernet transceiver device at the other end of the AUI segment
is operating.
•
Check the DB15 connector for bent or missing pins. Keep in mind that several
DB15 connectors do not provide pins for the inactive wires in the AUI cable.
•
Verify that the DB15 connectors on the AUI segment have the proper pinouts.
•
Attempt the connection with a known good patch cable.
•
Check that the AUI connection meets all cable specifications outlined in
Ethernet Network Requirements.
•
If all else fails, contact Cabletron Systems Technical Support.
Ethernet
Connecting and Terminating
To remove the DB15 connector from the port once it is locked in, examine the
connector for a sliding latch or other locking method. If one is present, slide it to
the unlocked position. Grasp the connector firmly between your thumb and
forefinger. Pull the connector straight out of the port. The spring clips at the side
of the connector should disengage under light strain and allow the connector to
pull free. Do not rock the connector or attempt to jerk it out of the port by the
cable.
RJ45
The RJ45 connector is used to make connections to UTP and some STP cabling.
The instructions which follow detail the process used to connect an RJ45
connector to a station port.
1. Align the RJ45 connector with the socket of the RJ45 port. The connector will
only insert and lock if the raised locking clip of the RJ45 connector is inserted
into the correct location.
1845n44
Figure 14-2. RJ45 Connector Insertion
2. Press the RJ45 connector into the port until the click of the locking clip is felt.
The pressure required to perform this should be minimal. If you encounter
resistance or excessive friction, remove the connector and check the port for
obstruction. Also, verify that the connector and the port are of the same type.
Once the locking clip snaps into place, the RJ45 connector will remain in the port.
If a link indicator is present for the port, check that it is on. If the indicator is not
on, the port does not have a valid link. Perform each of the following actions until
you reach a resolution of the problem and achieve a link.
Ethernet
•
Check that the 10BASE-T device at the other end of the twisted pair segment
is on.
•
Verify that the RJ45 connectors on the twisted pair segment have the proper
pinouts.
•
Verify the proper crossover of the cable link between the two devices.
•
Check the cable for continuity.
14-3
Connecting and Terminating
•
Check that the twisted pair connection meets dB loss and cable specifications
outlined in 10BASE-T Twisted Pair Network Requirements.
•
If all else fails, contact Cabletron Systems Technical Support.
To remove the RJ45 connector from the port once it is locked in, grasp the cable
where it enters the network device. Using your finger or a non-conductive probe,
pinch the exposed arm of the locking clip towards the main body of the housing.
When the arm contacts the housing, the locking clip has been disengaged.
Without releasing the arm, gently pull the RJ45 connector directly out of the port.
If the connector will not come out, there may be damage to the locking clip.
Examine the arm of the locking clip. While pressing the arm back toward the shell
of the connector, verify that the clip, located within the port, is being moved. If the
clip is broken, you may need to use a non-conductive probe to disengage the
locking clip.
Do not place foreign objects into device ports while they are
connected to a power source.
RJ21
The RJ21 connector is commonly used to make connections to 25-pair UTP
cabling. To connect the RJ21 connector to a port on a module or other device,
follow the procedure below.
1. Align the RJ21 connector with the RJ21 port on the device. The D shape of
the connector should align with the D shape of the port. Firmly press the
connector into the port.
1845n45
Figure 14-3. RJ21 Connector Insertion
14-4
Ethernet
Connecting and Terminating
2. When the RJ21 connector has been correctly inserted, it should remain in
place naturally. If there are Velcro fastening straps provided, use them to
secure the connector to the port.
If link indicators are present for the ports serviced by the RJ21 connector, check
that they are on. If an indicator is not on, that port does not have a valid link.
Perform each of the following actions until you reach a resolution of the problem
and achieve a link.
•
Check that the 10BASE-T device at the other end of the twisted pair segment
is on.
•
Verify that the RJ21 connector has the proper pinouts.
•
Verify the proper crossover of the cable link between the two devices.
•
Examine the punchdown block or patch panel that the UTP cable is connected
to for proper wiring or punchdowns.
•
Check the cable for continuity.
•
Check that the twisted pair connection meets dB loss and cable specifications
outlined in 10BASE-T Twisted Pair Network Requirements.
•
If all else fails, contact Cabletron Systems Technical Support.
To remove the RJ21 connector from the jack, unfasten any locking straps or clips
that are present and pull the connector straight out of the port. Do not rock the
connector from side to side, as damage to the contacts may result.
BNC
The BNC connector is used for connections to 10BASE2 coaxial cable. The
instructions which follow detail the process used to connect a male BNC
connector to a female BNC barrel connector.
Before attaching a male BNC connector to a female BNC barrel connector or
terminator, look into the end of the male connector to verify that the gold contact
pin is present and centered. Any bent or broken pins may not connect properly
and should be replaced.
1. Align the guide channels of the BNC (male) metal housing with the locking
keys of the BNC barrel (female) connector. Slide the metal housing of the
male connector straight over the metal housing of the female connector.
1845n46
Figure 14-4. BNC Connector Insertion
Ethernet
14-5
Connecting and Terminating
2. Once the housing stops moving in, turn the metal housing clockwise while
continuing to apply light forward pressure. It is likely that the female connector
will have to be secured in order to stop it from rotating as you turn the male
connector.
3. The locking keys of the female connector will pull the connector in until they
reach the circular locking holes at the end of the guide channels. The keys will
click the connector into place and hold it there.
If a link indicator is present for the connector, check that it is on. If the link
indicator does not show a valid connection, perform the following actions until
you achieve a link.
•
Examine the BNC connector for a bent or damaged center pin. A
badly-corroded pin may not connect properly.
•
Verify that the cable is 50 Ohm RG-58 A/U type thin coaxial cable.
•
Examine the cable for breakage or kinks that may indicate fracturing of the
cable due to overbending or poor maintenance.
•
Check the cable for continuity.
•
Check that the thin coaxial cable segment meets the cable specifications
outlined in Ethernet Network Requirements.
•
If all else fails, contact Cabletron Systems Technical Support.
To remove the BNC connector, perform the numbered procedures above in
reverse order, turning the metal housing counter-clockwise and pulling the
connector straight off of the female BNC connector.
14-6
Ethernet
Connecting and Terminating
N-Type
The N-Type connector is used for intrusive taps in thick coaxial cabling. The
instructions which follow detail the process used to connect a male N-Type
connector to a female N-Type barrel connector.
Before attaching a male N-Type connector to a female N-Type barrel connector or
terminator, look into the end of the male connector to verify that the gold contact
pins are present and centered. Any bent or broken pins may not connect properly
and should be replaced.
N-Type Barrel Connector
1845n47
Figure 14-5. N-Type Connector Insertion
1. Slide the threaded metal housing of the male connector straight over the
metal housing of the female connector.
2. Once the housing stops moving in, turn the metal housing clockwise while
continuing to apply light forward pressure. As the threads of the male and
female housings match up, the contacts will be pulled together.
3. Once the male N-type connector housing can no longer be turned by hand, do
not tighten any further.
ST Connector
Each fiber optic link consists of two strands of fiber optic cabling: the transmit
(TX) and the receive (RX). The transmit strand from a module port connects to the
receive port of a fiber optic Ethernet device at the other end of the segment. The
receive strand of the applicable port on the module connects to the transmit port
of the fiber optic Ethernet device.
Cabletron Systems recommends labeling fiber optic cables to indicate receive and
transmit ends. Many cables are prelabeled, providing matching labels or tapes at
both ends of each strand of cable.
The instructions which follow detail the process used to connect an ST connector
to a station port.
Ethernet
14-7
Connecting and Terminating
1. Remove the protective plastic covers from the fiber optic ports on the
applicable port on the module, and from the ends of the connectors on each
fiber strand.
!
CAUT ION
Do not touch the ends of the fiber optic strands, and do not let
the ends come in contact with dust, dirt, or other contaminants.
Contamination of cable ends causes problems in data
transmissions. If necessary, clean contaminated cable ends
using alcohol and a soft, clean, lint-free cloth.
2. Attach one fiber to the applicable receive port on the module. Insert the ST
connector into the port with the alignment slot on the connector inserted over
the locking key on the port. Turn the connector clockwise to lock it down
1845n48
Figure 14-6. ST Connector Insertion
3. Attach the other fiber of the pair to the applicable transmit port on the module.
Use the same procedure for insertion of the ST connector.
4. At the other end of the fiber optic cable, attach the fiber pair to the transmit
and receive ports of the device.
If link indicators are present for the fiber optic connection, check that they are on.
If an indicator is present but not on, that port does not have a valid link. Perform
each of the following steps until you reach a resolution of the problem and
achieve a link.
•
Check that the device at the other end of the link is operating.
•
Verify proper crossover of the fiber strands. Try swapping the transmit and
receive connections at only one end of the link.
•
Verify that the fiber connection meets the dB loss specifications outlined in
Fiber Optic Network Requirements.
If you are still unable to establish a link, attempt to make the connection between
the devices with another fiber optic cable. If this is unsuccessful, contact
Cabletron Systems Technical Support.
14-8
Ethernet
Connecting and Terminating
Token Ring
DB9
The DB9 connector is often used to connect Token Ring stations to STP jumper
cables. The instructions which follow detail the process used to connect a DB9
connector to a station port.
NOTE
The DB9 connector looks identical to the PC EGA monitor
connector. If a Token Ring lobe connection is attached to the
monitor port, the Token Ring network will enter an error state.
This is due to the resemblance that EGA monitor current has to
the phantom current required to open a Token Ring lobe
connection.
1. Align the DB9 connector of the STP cable with the DB9 port of the network
device as shown in Figure 14-7. The D-shape of the connector should be
aligned with the D-shape of the port. The connector will only connect if it is
properly aligned.
LNK
1845n49
Figure 14-7. DB9 Connector Insertion
2. Firmly press the DB9 connector over the DB9 port. Once the connector has
been fully inserted, secure the connector to the port by screwing in the small
machine screws on either side of the DB9 connector.
Token Ring
14-9
Connecting and Terminating
If a link indicator is present for the port, check to see if it is on. If it is not on,
perform the following actions until you reach a resolution of the problem and
achieve a link.
•
Check that the Token Ring device at the other end of the AUI segment is
operating.
•
Verify proper crossover of the STP segment.
•
Check the DB9 connector for bent or missing pins. Keep in mind that several
DB9 connectors provide only four pins at the connector.
•
Verify that the DB9 connectors on the STP segment have the proper pinouts.
•
Attempt the connection with a known good patch cable.
•
Check that the twisted pair connection meets all cable specifications outlined
in Token Ring Network Requirements.
•
If all else fails, contact Cabletron Systems Technical Support.
To remove the DB9 connector from the port once it is locked in, unscrew both of
the machine screws at either side of the connector which fasten it to the port.
Grasp the connector firmly between your thumb and forefinger. Pull the
connector straight out of the port. Do not rock the connector or attempt to jerk it
out of the port by the cable.
RJ45
The RJ45 connector is used to make connections to UTP and STP cabling. The
instructions which follow detail the process used to connect an RJ45 connector to
a station port.
1. Align the RJ45 connector with the socket of the RJ45 port. The connector will
only insert and lock if the raised locking clip of the RJ45 connector is inserted
into the correct location.
1845n44
Figure 14-8. RJ45 Connector Insertion
14-10
Token Ring
Connecting and Terminating
2. Press the RJ45 connector into the port until the click of the locking clip is felt.
The pressure required to perform this should be minimal. If you encounter
resistance or excessive friction, remove the connector and check the port for
obstruction. Also, verify that the connector and the port are of the same type.
Once the locking clip snaps into place, the RJ45 connector will remain in the port.
If a link indicator is present for the port, check that it is on. If the indicator is not
on, the port does not have a valid link. Perform each of the following actions until
you reach a resolution of the problem and achieve a link.
•
Check that the Token Ring device at the other end of the twisted pair segment
is on.
•
Verify that the RJ45 connectors on the twisted pair segment have the proper
pinouts.
•
Check the cable for continuity.
•
Check that the twisted pair connection meets dB loss and cable specifications
outlined in IEEE 802.5 Twisted Pair Network Requirements.
•
If all else fails, contact Cabletron Systems Technical Support.
To remove the RJ45 connector from the port once it is locked in, grasp the cable
where it enters the network device. Using your finger or a non-conductive probe,
pinch the exposed arm of the locking clip towards the main body of the housing.
When the arm contacts the housing, the locking clip has been disengaged.
Without releasing the arm, gently pull the RJ45 connector directly out of the port.
If the connector will not come out, there may be damage to the locking clip.
Examine the arm of the locking clip. While pressing it back toward the shell of the
connector, verify that the clip, located within the port, is being moved. If the clip
is broken, you may need to use a non-conductive probe to disengage the locking
clip.
Do not place foreign objects into device ports while they are
connected to a power source.
Token Ring
14-11
Connecting and Terminating
Token Ring MIC
Token Ring MIC connectors only attach to other Token Ring MIC connectors or
ports. In order to connect two Token Ring MICs, perform the following
procedures:
1. Align the connectors such that the moving arms at the outside edges of both
connectors are aligned. Looking at the connectors from the side, it should be
obvious if the connectors will nest properly in their current arrangement.
1845n50
Figure 14-9. Token Ring MIC Connector Insertion
2. Press the two connectors straight into one another. The connectors should
meet and the locking arms on the top and bottom of one connector should
snap into place with an audible click. If the connectors do not slide together,
rotate one of the two connectors 180° and re-attempt the connection.
To disconnect a pair of MIC connectors, grasp each connector firmly. Place the
thumb and forefinger of one hand over the latching arms at the rear of one
connector and press them in toward the housing. This should release the locking
clips at the front of the connector. The MIC connectors may then be pulled apart.
If the latching arms do not move, there may be a physical lock inserted behind
them to keep them from releasing inadvertently. Either remove any physical locks
under the latching arms or attempt to move the latching arms of the other MIC
connector.
14-12
Token Ring
Connecting and Terminating
ST Connector
The instructions which follow detail the process used to connect a set of ST
connectors to a station port.
ST connectors for fiber optic cables are connected to ST ports on devices through a
“twist and lock” procedure.
Each fiber optic link consists of two strands of fiber optic cabling: the transmit
(TX) and the receive (RX). The transmit strand from a module port connects to the
receive port of a fiber optic Ethernet device at the other end of the segment. The
receive strand of the applicable port on the module connects to the transmit port
of the fiber optic Ethernet device.
Cabletron Systems recommends labeling fiber optic cables to indicate receive and
transmit ends. Many cables are prelabeled, providing matching labels or tapes at
both ends of each strand of cable.
1. Remove the protective plastic covers from the fiber optic ports on the
applicable port on the module, and from the ends of the connectors on each
fiber strand.
!
CAUT ION
Do not touch the ends of the fiber optic strands, and do not let
the ends come in contact with dust, dirt, or other contaminants.
Contamination of cable ends causes problems in data
transmissions. If necessary, clean contaminated cable ends
using isopropyl alcohol and a soft, clean, lint-free cloth.
2. Attach one fiber to the applicable receive port on the module. Insert the ST
connector into the port with the alignment slot on the connector inserted over
the locking key on the port. Turn the connector clockwise to lock it down.
1845n48
Figure 14-10. ST Connector Insertion
3. Attach the other fiber of the pair to the applicable transmit port on the module.
Use the same procedure for insertion of the ST connector.
4. At the other end of the fiber optic cable, attach the fiber pair to the transmit
and receive ports of the device.
Token Ring
14-13
Connecting and Terminating
If link indicators are present for the fiber optic connection, check that they are on.
If an indicator is present but not on, that port does not have a valid link. Perform
each of the following actions until you reach a resolution of the problem and
achieve a link.
•
Check that the device at the other end of the link is on.
•
Verify proper cross-over of the fiber strands. Try swapping the transmit and
receive connections at only one end of the link.
•
Verify that the fiber connection meets the dB loss specifications outlined in
Fiber Optic Network Requirements.
If you are still unable to establish a link, attempt to make the connection between
the devices with another fiber optic cable. If this is unsuccessful, contact
Cabletron Systems Technical Support.
FDDI
RJ45
The RJ45 connector is used to make TP-PMD connections using either UTP or STP
cabling. The instructions which follow detail the process used to connect an RJ45
connector to a station port.
1. Align the RJ45 connector with the socket of the RJ45 port. The connector will
only insert and lock if the raised locking clip of the RJ45 connector is inserted
into the correct location.
1845n44
Figure 14-11. RJ45 Connector Insertion
2. Press the RJ45 connector into the port until the click of the locking clip is felt.
The pressure required to perform this should be minimal. If you encounter
resistance or excessive friction, remove the connector and check the port for
obstruction. Also, verify that the connector and the port are of the same type.
Once the locking clip snaps into place, the RJ45 connector will remain in the port.
14-14
FDDI
Connecting and Terminating
If a link indicator is present for the port, check that it is on. If the indicator is not
on, the port does not have a valid link. Perform each of the following actions until
you reach a resolution of the problem and achieve a link.
•
Check that the FDDI device at the other end of the twisted pair segment is on.
•
Verify that the RJ45 connectors on the twisted pair segment have the proper
pinouts.
•
Check the cable for continuity.
•
Check that the twisted pair connection meets dB loss and cable specifications
outlined in TP-PMD Network Requirements.
•
If all else fails, contact Cabletron Systems Technical Support.
To remove the RJ45 connector from the port once it is locked in, grasp the cable
where it enters the network device. Using your finger or a non-conductive probe
(the cap of a ballpoint pen is a useful tool for recessed ports) pinch the exposed
arm of the locking clip towards the main body of the housing. When the arm
contacts the housing, the locking clip has been disengaged. Without releasing the
arm, gently pull the RJ45 connector directly out of the port.
If the connector will not come out, there may be damage to the locking clip.
Examine the arm of the locking clip. While pressing it back toward the shell of the
connector, verify that the clip, located within the port, is being moved. If the clip
is broken, you may need to use a non-conductive probe to disengage the locking
clip.
Do not place foreign objects into device ports while they are
connected to a power source.
FDDI
14-15
Connecting and Terminating
FDDI MIC
Before attaching connectors to an FDDI MIC port, remove the protective rubber
plug from the FDDI port. Also remove the plastic hood from the MIC connector to
be used. Usually, there will be three plastic inserts, colored red, blue, and green, in
holders on the connector hood. These plastic inserts are used to key the MIC
connector for use only in certain types of FDDI ports.
Using a paper clip or probe, push the insert you require out of its holder. The
insert colors and the FDDI port type they key the MIC connector for are listed in
Table 14-1, below. Snap the insert into place in the recessed channel of the FDDI
MIC connector. The MIC connector is now ready to be connected to the type of
port indicated by the key.
Table 14-1. FDDI MIC Key Coloration
Port Type*
Color
Red
A
Blue
B
Green
M
*. FDDI S ports are not keyed, and
can accept any connection.
1. Align the MIC connector with the FDDI MIC port, such that the side of the
connector containing the key is lined up with the side of the port which
contains the internal raised guide, or “rib.”
2. Press the MIC connector into the port. As the connector reaches the back
side of the port, the clips on either side of the MIC connector will pull in toward
the connector housing. When the clips spring back to their rest positions, the
connector is locked in place.
14-16
FDDI
Connecting and Terminating
1845n51
Figure 14-12. FDDI Media Interface Connector Insertion
The link LED associated with the port should come on, indicating a valid link. If
the link LED for the port does not light up, there is a condition present which will
not allow the FDDI device to recognize a link. Perform the following
examinations and actions until you achieve a link.
•
Check that the FDDI device at the other end of the cable is on.
•
Check the connection type that you have made against the FDDI connection
table below. Any connection other than M to M or S to S should function
properly.
•
Test the FDDI cable for continuity.
•
Check that the fiber optic connection meets all cable specifications outlined in
ANSI X3T9.5 MMF-PMD or SMF-PMD Network Requirements, whichever
applies.
•
If all else fails, contact Cabletron Systems Technical Support.
To remove the MIC connector, grasp the protruding portion of the connector,
holding the two locking clips with your thumb and forefinger. Pinch both clips
back toward the main housing until they contact the sides of the connector. With
the clips still held against the connector housing, firmly pull the MIC connector
straight out of the port. Do not rock the connector back and forth, as damage to
the port or connector may result.
Once the connector has been removed, cover the exposed end of the connector
with the plastic hood and insert the rubber plug into the exposed FDDI port to
protect the fiber optic ends.
FDDI
14-17
Connecting and Terminating
SC Connector
Each fiber optic link consists of two strands of fiber optic cabling: the transmit
(TX) and the receive (RX). The transmit strand from a module port connects to the
receive port of a fiber optic Ethernet device at the other end of the segment. The
receive strand of the applicable port on the module connects to the transmit port
of the fiber optic Ethernet device. As duplex SC Connectors are designed to only
be inserted into SC ports in one fashion, there is little chance of a mis-connection
due to improper crossover occurring.
Cabletron Systems recommends labeling fiber optic cables to indicate receive and
transmit ends. Many cables are prelabeled, providing matching labels or tapes at
both ends of each strand of cable.
1. Remove the protective plastic covers from the fiber optic port on the
applicable module, and from the ends of the ferrules of the SC Connector.
!
CAUT ION
Do not touch the ends of the fiber optic strands, and do not let
the ends come in contact with dust, dirt, or other contaminants.
Contamination of cable ends causes problems in data
transmissions. If necessary, clean contaminated cable ends
using isopropyl alcohol and a soft, clean, lint-free cloth.
2. Align the SC connector with the SC port to which it is to be connected. Hold
the SC Connector as shown in the figure below, with the raised guide keys at
the top.
1845n52
Figure 14-13. SC Connector Insertion
3. Press the connector straight into the port. When the port is fully inserted, the
inner housing will latch and lock the connector into place.
14-18
FDDI
Connecting and Terminating
If link indicators are present for the fiber optic connection, check that they are on.
If an indicator is present but not on, that port does not have a valid link. Perform
each of the following actions until you reach a resolution of the problem and
achieve a link.
•
Check that the device at the other end of the link is on.
•
Verify proper crossover of the fiber strands. Try swapping the transmit and
receive connections at only one end of the link.
•
Verify that the fiber connection meets the dB loss specifications outlined in
FDDI Network Requirements.
If you are still unable to establish a link, attempt to make the connection between
the devices with another fiber optic cable. If this is unsuccessful, contact
Cabletron Systems Technical Support.
To remove the SC connector from the port, grasp it firmly with thumb and
forefinger and pull it straight out of the port. There will be some initial resistance
before the inner latching mechanism allows the connector to slip. Do not pull
quickly or rock the connector back and forth, as damage to the connector or port
may result.
Once the connector is removed, place the protective plastic covers over the fiber
optic port on the module, and over the ends of the ferrules of the SC Connector.
FDDI
14-19
Connecting and Terminating
14-20
FDDI
Appendix A
Charts and Tables
This chapter presents essential information dealing with the minimum, maximum, and recommended
characteristics for standards-compliant cabling for Ethernet, Token Ring, and FDDI networks.
Ethernet
10BASE5 Cable Characteristics
Aspect
Limit
Tap Spacing
≥ 2.5 m
Max Length
500 m
Max Stations
100
10BASE2 Cable Characteristics
Aspect
Limit
Tap Spacing
≥ 0.5 m
Max Length
185 m
Max Stations
30
A-1
Charts and Tables
10BASE-T Cable Characteristics
Aspect
Limit
Impedance
75 - 165 Ω
Insertion Loss @ 10 MHz
11.5 dB
Jitter
≤ 5.0 ns
One-way Propagation Delay
1000 ns
Max Length
200 m
10BASE-F Cable Characteristics (multimode)
50/125 µm
62.5/125 µm
100/140 µm
Attenuation @ 850 nm
≤ 13.0 dB
≤ 16.0 dB
≤ 19.0 dB
Insertion Loss @ 10 MHz
≤ 10 dB
≤ 10 dB
≤ 10 dB
Aspect
25.6 µs
One-way Propagation Delay
Max Length
2 km
10BASE-F Cable Characteristics (single mode)
8/125 µm
12/125 µm
Attenuation @ 1300 nm
10.0 dB
10.0 dB
Insertion Loss @ 10 MHz
≤ 10 dB
≤ 10 dB
Aspect
One-way Propagation Delay
Max Length
A-2
25.6 µs
5 km
Ethernet
Charts and Tables
These are not correct yet:
100BASE-TX Cable Characteristics
Aspect
Limit
Impedance
75 - 165 Ω
Insertion Loss @ 10 MHz
11.5 dB
Jitter
≤ 5.0 ns
One-way Propagation Delay
1000 ns
Max Length (simplex)
200 m
Max Length (duplex)
200 m
100BASE-FX Cable Characteristics (multimode)
50/125 µm
62.5/125 µm
100/140 µm
Attenuation @ 850 nm
≤ 13.0 dB
≤ 16.0 dB
≤ 19.0 dB
Insertion Loss @ 10 MHz
≤ 10 dB
≤ 10 dB
≤ 10 dB
Aspect
25.6 µs
One-way Propagation Delay
Max Length (simplex)
2 km
Max Length (duplex)
412 m
100BASE-FX Cable Characteristics (single mode)
8/125 µm
12/125 µm
Attenuation @ 1300 nm
10.0 dB
10.0 dB
Insertion Loss @ 10 MHz
≤ 10 dB
≤ 10 dB
Aspect
One-way Propagation Delay
Max Length
Ethernet
25.6 µs
5 km
A-3
Charts and Tables
Token Ring
Lobe Cable Distances
Media
Circuitry
active
STP
passive
active
UTP
passive
Fiber Optics
active
Cable
Type
Max Lobe Length
4 Mbps
16 Mbps
IBM Types 1, 2
300 m
150 m
IBM Types 6, 9*
200 m
100 m
IBM Types 1, 2
200 m
100 m
IBM Type 9
133 m
66 m
Category 5
250 m
120 m
Categories 3, 4
200 m
100 m
Category 5
130 m
85 m
Categories 3, 4
100 m
60 m
Multimode
2000 m
2000 m
Single Mode
2000 m
2000 m
*. IBM Type 6 cable is recommended for use as jumper cabling only, and should not
be used for facility cabling installations.
Trunk Cable Distances
Max Distance
(4 Mbps)
Max Distance
(16 Mbps)
770 m
346 m
Category 3/4
200 m
100 m
Category 5
250 m
120 m
Fiber Optics (Multimode)
2000 m
2000 m
Fiber Optics (Single Mode)
2000 m
2000 m
Media
Shielded Twisted Pair
Unshielded Twisted Pair
A-4
Token Ring
Charts and Tables
STP Test Requirements
Type 1/2
Type 6/9
Aspect
4 Mbps
16 Mbps
4 Mbps
16 Mbps
127.5 - 172.5 Ω
Impedance
Attenuation (dB/km)
≤ 22
≤ 45
≤ 33
≤ 66
UTP Test Requirements
Category 3
Category 4
Category 5
Aspect
4 Mbps
16 Mbps
4 Mbps
16 Mbps
4 Mbps
16 Mbps
≤ 42
≤ 82
85 - 115 Ω
Impedance
Attenuation (dB/km)
≤ 56
≤ 131
Near-End Crosstalk
23 dB/1000 ft
≤ 42
≤ 88
36 dB/1000 ft
44 dB/1000 ft
Multimode Fiber Optic Test Requirements
Aspect
Total Attenuation
50/125 µm Multimode
62.5/125 µm Multimode
100/140 µm Multimode
13.0 dB @ 850 nm
16.0 dB @ 850 nm
19.0 dB @ 850 nm
Single Mode Fiber Optic Test Requirements
Aspect
Total Attenuation
Token Ring
8.3/125 µm Single mode
12/140 µm Single mode
15.1 dB @ 1300 nm
A-5
Charts and Tables
FDDI
Maximum Cable Distances
Table 14-2. FDDI Distance Limitations
Media
PMD Standard
Max Link Distance
Fiber Optics (Multimode)
MMF-PMD
2 km
Fiber Optics (Single Mode)
SMF-PMD
60 km
Unshielded Twisted Pair*
Shielded Twisted Pair†
TP-PMD
100 m
100 m
*. Category 5 UTP cabling only
†. IBM Type 1 STP cabling only
A-6
FDDI
Glossa
This glossary provides brief descriptions of some of the recurrent terms in the main text, as well as
related terms used in discussions of the relevant networking discussions. These descriptions are not
intended to be comprehensive discussions of the subject matter. For further clarification of these terms,
you may wish to refer to the treatments of these terms in the main text.
Words in the glossary description text listed in boldface type indicate other entries in the glossary
which may be referred to for further clarification.
10BASE2
IEEE standard which governs the operation of devices connecting to
Ethernet thin coaxial cable.
10BASE5
IEEE standard which governs the operation of devices connecting to
Ethernet thick coaxial cable.
10BASE-FL
IEEE standard which governs the operation of devices connecting to
Ethernet fiber optic cable. Supersedes previous FOIRL standard.
10BASE-T
IEEE standard which governs the operation of devices connecting to
Ethernet Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable.
A/B Ports
FDDI ports which provide connection, in pairs, to the dual
counter-rotating ring.
Alarm
A notification, generated by the operation of SNMP, which is sent to a
management station to indicate a problem with the network or warn of
an error condition.
Application
1: A software operation performed by a workstation or other network
node. 2: A layer of the OSI Model.
Architecture
A collective rule set for the operation of a network. Architectures describe
the means by which network devices relate to one another. Architecture
types include Mainframe-Terminals, Peer-to-Peer, and Client-Server.
ATM
Asynchronous Transfer Mode. A networking technology that is based on
the use of connections between communicating devices that are set up,
used, and then eliminated.
Glossary-1
Attenuation to Card
Attenuation
Loss of signal power (measured in decibels) due to transmission through
a cable. Attenuation is dependent on the type, manufacture and
installation quality of cabling, and is expressed in units of loss per length,
most often dB/m.
AUI
Attachment Unit Interface. A cabling type used in Ethernet networks,
designed to connect network stations and devices to transceivers.
Backbone
A portion of a network which provides the interconnection of a number
of separate, smaller networks.
Backplane
The portion of a modular chassis to which all modules are connected.
Typically the backplane provides power and management functions to
each module, and is used to provide networking connections, via buses,
to all modules in the modular chassis.
Bit
Binary Digit. A bit is the smallest unit of information, consisting of a
single binary number. A bit is represented by a numerical value of 1 or 0.
BOOTP
Bootstrap Protocol. Checks MIB variables of an SNMP manageable
device to determine whether it should start up using its existing firmware
or boot up from a network server specifically configured for the purpose.
Branch Group
A collection of MIBs related by common function. These MIBs are
collected into families called branches. See also Leaf Object, MIB Tree.
Bridge
Bridges are network devices which connect two or more separate
network segments while allowing traffic to be passed between the
separate networks when necessary. Bridges read in packets and decide to
either retransmit them or block them based on the destination to which
the packets are addressed.
BRIM
Bridge/Router Interface Module. BRIMs are added to BRIM-capable
Cabletron Systems equipment to provide connections to external
networks through an integrated bridge or router.
Broadcast
A type of network transmission; a broadcast transmission is one which is
sent to every station on the network, regardless of location, identification,
or address.
Buses
Physical portions of the backplane of a modular chassis which pass
information between modules.
Card
See Module.
Glossary-2
Channel to Crosstalk
Channel
A portion of a backplane bus which is specifically partitioned off for the
transmission of one type of network data.
Chassis
See Modular Chassis.
Client
A workstation or node which obtains services from a server device
located on the network.
Client-Server
A computing model which is based on the use of dedicated devices
(servers) for the performance of specific computational or networking
tasks. These servers are accessed by several clients, workstations which
cannot perform those functions to the same extent or with the same
efficiency as the servers.
Coaxial
An Ethernet media type which consists of a core of electrically conductive
material surrounded by several layers of insulation and shielding.
Community Name
An identification which allows a specific level of access to the network
device. Similar to a password, a Community Name acts to restrict access
to control capabilities and network statistics.
Concentrator
A network device which allows multiple network ports in one location to
share one physical interface to the network.
Congestion
An estimation or measure of the utilization of a network, typically
expressed as a percentage of theoretical maximum utilization of the
network.
Connectivity
The physical connection of cabling or other media to network devices.
The coupling of media to the network.
Console
See Terminal.
Crossover
A length of multi-stranded cable in which the transmit wire(s) of one end
is/are crossed over within the cable to connect to the receive wire(s) of
the other end. Crossovers are used to connect devices to like devices,
ensuring that transmit and receive connections are properly made.
Crosstalk
A corruption of the electrical signal transmitted through a Shielded or
Unshielded Twisted Pair cable. Crosstalk refers to signals on one strand
or set of strands affecting signals on another strand or set of strands.
Glossary-3
CSMA/CD to Dual Attached
CSMA/CD
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection. CSMA/CD is the
basis for the operation of Ethernet networks. CSMA/CD is the method
by which stations monitor the network, determine when to transmit data,
and what to do if they sense a collision or other error during that
transmission.
Data
Information, typically in the form of a series of bits, which is intended to
be stored, altered, displayed, transmitted, or processed.
Data Loop
A condition caused by the creation of duplicate paths which network
transmissions could follow. Data loops are created by the use of
redundant connections between network segments or devices. Ethernet
networks cannot effectively function with data loops present. To allow
the creation of fault-tolerant networks, data loops are automatically
detected and eliminated by the Spanning Tree algorithm.
DB15
A 15-pin connector used to terminate transceiver cables in accordance
with the AUI specification.
DB9
A 9-pin connector, typically used in Token Ring networks and for serial
communications between computers.
Decryption
The translation of data from an encrypted (see encryption) form into a
form both recognizable and utilizable by a workstation, node, or network
device.
Dedicated
Assigned to one purpose or function.
Default Gateway
The IP address of the network or host to which all packets addressed to
unknown network or host are sent.
Device (network)
Any discrete electronic item connected to a network which either
transmits and receives information through it, facilitates that
transmission and reception, or monitors the operation of the network
directly.
DLM
Distributed LAN Monitor. DLM is a feature of some SNMP management
devices which allows that device to locally monitor other devices under
its control and report to a central network management station any noted
errors. This frees the network management station from directly
monitoring every SNMP device.
DNI
Desktop Network Interface. DNI cards are devices which are added to
workstations to provide them with a connection to a network (NIC).
Dual Attached
Connected to an FDDI dual counter-rotating ring through the use of A/B
ports.
Glossary-4
Dual Homing to FNB
Dual Homing
A station connection method for FDDI which connects a device’s A/B
ports to the M ports of two separate dual-attached concentrator devices,
providing fault-tolerance.
EEPROM
Electronic Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory.
Encryption
A security process which encodes raw data into a form that cannot be
utilized or read without decryption.
EPIM
Ethernet Port Interface Module. EPIMs are added to
specifically-designed slots in Cabletron Systems Ethernet products to
provide connections to external media. EPIMs allow a great flexibility in
the media used to connect to networks.
Ethernet
A networking technology which allows any station on the network to
transmit at any time, provided it has checked the network for existing
traffic, waited for the network to be free, and checked to ensure the
transmission did not suffer a collision with another transmission. See also
CSMA/CD.
Fault-Tolerance
The ability of a design (device or network) to operate at full or reduced
capacity after suffering a failure of some essential component or
connection. See also redundant.
FDDI
Fiber Distributed Data Interface. A high-speed networking technology.
FDDI requires that stations only transmit data when they have been
given permission by the operation of the network, and dictates that
stations will receive information at pre-determined intervals. See also
Token.
Fiber Optics
Network media made of thin filaments of glass surrounded by a plastic
cladding. Fiber optics transmit and receive information in the form of
pulses of light. See multimode and single mode.
File
A collection of related data.
Fileserver
A network server device which stores and maintains data files for access
and modification by users.
Firmware
The software instructions which allow a network device to function.
Flash EEPROM
See EEPROM.
FNB
Flexible Network Bus. A Cabletron Systems backplane design which
enables an FNB-configured chassis to support multiple network
technologies simultaneously.
Glossary-5
Frame to Interface
Frame
A group of bits that form a discrete block of information. Frames contain
network control information or data. The size and composition of a frame
is determined by the network protocol being used. Frames are typically
generated by operations at the Data Link Layer (Layer 2) of the
OSI Model.
Gateway
A device which connects networks with dissimilar network architectures
and which operates at the Application Layer of the OSI Model. May also
be used to refer to a router.
Heartbeat
See SQE.
Hexadecimal
A base 16 numerical system. Digits in hexadecimal run from 0 to 9 and
continue from A to F, where F is equivalent to the decimal number 16.
Host
A device which acts as the source or destination of data on the network.
Hot Swap
Hot Swap capability indicates that a product is capable of being removed
from an operating modular chassis and reinserted or replaced without
requiring that the chassis and all associated modules be powered down.
Hub
See Modular Chassis.
IANA
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. An agency which assigns and
distributes IP addresses.
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. A standards-making body.
IETF
Internet Engineering Task Force. A standards-making body.
Image File
Software instruction code which is downloaded to an intelligent network
device. See also Firmware.
Impedance
A measure of the opposition of electrical current or signal flow in a length
of cable.
In-Band
Performed through the operating network architecture. Refers most
commonly to management functions. See also Out-of-Band.
Interface
A connection to a network. Unlike a port, an interface is not necessarily
an available physical connector accessible through the front panel of a
device. Interfaces may be used as backplane connections, or may be
found only in the internal operation of a module (All ports are interfaces,
but not all interfaces are ports).
Glossary-6
Internet to MAU
Internet
A world-wide network which provides access through a vast chain of
private and public LANs.
Interoperability
The capacity to function in conjunction with other devices. Used
primarily to indicate the ability of different vendors’ networking
products to work together cohesively.
IP
Internet Protocol.
IP Address
Internet Protocol address. The IP address is associated, by the network
manager or network designer, to a specific interface. The availability of IP
addresses is controlled by the IANA.
ISO
International Organization for Standardization. The ISO has developed a
standard model on which network operation is based, called the OSI
Model.
Jitter
Degradation of network signals due to a loss of synchronization of the
electrical signals. Jitter is often a result of passing a signal through too
many repeaters.
LAN
Local Area Network.
LANVIEW
A system which relates diagnostic, troubleshooting, and operational
information pertaining to network devices through the use of
prominently displayed LEDs.
LDRAM
Local Dynamic Random Access Memory.
Leaf Object
An end unit in a MIB tree. Leaf objects are accessed through a series of
branch groups. Leaf objects are always individual MIBs.
LED
Light Emitting Diode. A simple electronic light, used in networking
equipment to provide diagnostic indicators. Also used as a light source
for some fiber optic communications equipment.
Load
An indication of network utilization.
M Ports
FDDI connectivity ports located on concentrator devices, to which end
nodes connect through their S ports.
MAC Address
Media Access Control address. The MAC address is associated, usually at
manufacture, with a specific interface.
MAU
Multistation Access Unit.
Glossary-7
Mbps to NVRAM
Mbps
Megabits Per Second. Mbps indicates the number of groups of 1000 bits
of data that are being transmitted through an operating network. Mbps
can be roughly assessed as a measure of the operational “speed” of the
network.
Media
Physical cabling or other method of interconnection through which
network signals are transmitted and received.
MIC Connector
1: Token Ring genderless connector. 2: FDDI fiber optic connector which
may be keyed to act as an M or S connector or A/B connector.
Micron (µ)
A micrometer, one millionth of a meter.
MIM
Media Interface Module. See also Module.
Mission-Critical
Vital to the operation of a network, company, or agency.
Modular Chassis
A device which provides power, cooling, interconnection, and
monitoring functions to a series of flexible and centralized modules for
the purposes of creating a network or networks.
Module
A discrete device which is placed in a modular chassis to provide
functionality which may include, but is not limited to, bridging, routing,
connectivity, and repeating. Modules are easily installed and removed.
Also, any device designed to be placed in another device in order to
operate.
Multichannel
A Cabletron Systems Ethernet design which provides three separate
network channels (of Ethernet or Token Ring technology) through the
backplane of a chassis, allowing for the creation of multiple networks in a
single chassis.
Multimode
A type of fiber optics in which light travels in multiple modes, or
wavelengths. Signals in Multimode fiber optics are typically driven by
LEDs.
Nanometer
One billionth of a meter.
NAUN
Nearest Active Upstream Neighbor.
Node
Any single end station on a network capable of receiving, processing, and
transmitting packets.
NVRAM
Non-Volatile Random Access Memory. Memory which is protected from
elimination during shutdown and between periods of activity, frequently
through the use of batteries.
Glossary-8
Octet to Redundant
Octet
A numerical value made up of eight binary places (bits). Octets can
represent decimal numbers from zero (0000 0000) to 255 (1111 1111).
OID
Object Identifier.
OSI Model
Open Standards Interconnect. A model of the way in which network
communications should proceed from the user process to the physical
media and back.
Out-Of-Band
Performed without requiring the operation of the network technology.
Most commonly used in reference to local management operations.
Packet
A discrete collection of bits that form a block of information. Packets are
similar to frames. Packets are typically generated at the Network Layer
(Layer 3) of the OSI Model, and are encapsulated in frames before being
transmitted onto a network media.
Passive
Not utilizing per-port reclocking and regeneration of the signal which is
propagated throughout the device. Commonly applied to Token Ring
equipment to distinguish it from active devices.
Phantom Current
A weak voltage passed by Token Ring end nodes to the MAU to open the
relay for that port.
Plenum
A cabling term which indicates a cable with insulating material that is
considered safe to use in return-air plenum spaces (in contrast to PVC
insulation) due to its low relative toxicity if ignited.
Port
A physical connector which is used as an interface to cabling with
modular or pinned connectors. Ports are associated with Interfaces.
Port Assignment
The association, through software management, of specific ports on a
network device to specific channels of a backplane. This assignment is
done on an individual port basis.
Protocol
A set of rules governing the flow of information within a communications
infrastructure. Protocols control operations such as frame format, timing,
and error correction. See also Architecture.
PVC
Polyvinyl Chloride. A material commonly used in the fabrication of cable
insulation. This term is used to describe a non-plenum rated insulating
material. See also Plenum. PVC releases toxic smoke when burned.
Redundant
Extra or contingent. A redundant system is one that is held in reserve
until an occurrence such as a failure of the primary system causes it to be
required.
Glossary-9
Relay to SIMM
Relay
An electrical switch which opens and closes in response to the application
of voltage or current.
Repeater
A network device consisting of a receiver and transmitter which is used
to regenerate a network signal to increase the distance it may traverse.
Ring-In/Ring-Out
Token Ring connections which are made between MAUs utilizing two
separate physical cables and incorporating an auto-wrap recovery
feature.
RJ45
A modular connector style used with twisted pair cabling. The RJ45
connector resembles the modern home telephone connector (RJ11).
RMIM
Repeating Media Interface Module. A term used to indicate a family of
Cabletron Systems Ethernet Media Interface Modules (See MIM) which
are capable of performing their own repeater functions.
RMON
Remote MONitoring. RMON is a network management standard which
provides more detailed network information and status reporting than
SNMP.
Router
A router is a device which connects two or more different network
segments, but allows information to flow between them when necessary.
The router, unlike a bridge, examines the data contained in every packet
it receives for more detailed information. Based on this information, the
router decides whether to block the packet from the rest of the network or
transmit it, and will attempt to send the packet by the most efficient path
through the network.
S Ports
FDDI ports which are used by FDDI stations and end nodes to make
single attached connections to FDDI concentrators.
SDRAM
Shared Dynamic Random Access Memory.
Segment
A portion of a network which is separated from other networks. A
segment may be one portion of a bridged, switched, or routed network.
Segments must be capable of operating as their own networks, without
requiring the services of other portions of the network.
Server
A workstation or host device that performs services for other devices
(clients) on the network.
SIMM
Single In-line Memory Module. A collection of Random Access Memory
(RAM) microprocessors which are placed on a single, replaceable printed
circuit board. These SIMMs may be added to some devices to expand the
capacity of certain types of memory.
Glossary-10
Single Attached to Subnet Mask
Single Attached
Connected to an FDDI network through a single cable which does not
provide for auto-wrap functions.
Single Mode
A type of fiber optics in which light travels in one predefined mode, or
wavelength. Signals in single mode fiber optics are typically driven by
lasers. The use of lasers and the transmission characteristics of single
mode fiber optics allow the media to cover greater distances than
multimode fiber optics.
SMA
Sub-Miniature Assembly. A modular connector and port system used in
multimode fiber optic cabling. The SMA connector is threaded, and is
screwed into an SMA port.
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol. SNMP is a standardized set of
network monitoring tools. See also RMON.
Spanning Tree
A mathematical comparison and decision algorithm performed by
Ethernet bridges at power-up. Spanning tree detects the presence of data
loops and allows the bridges to selectively activate some ports while
others remain in a standby condition, avoiding the data loops and
providing redundant paths in the event of bridge failures.
SQE
Signal Quality Error. A self-monitoring test performed by some Ethernet
equipment which examines the status of the device at arbitrary and
predefined intervals.
ST
Straight-Tip. A modular connector and port system used with both
multimode and single mode fiber optic cabling. The ST connector utilizes
an insert and twist-lock mechanism.
Station
See node.
STP
Shielded Twisted Pair. Refers to a type of cabling, most commonly used in
Token Ring networks, which consists of several strands of cables
surrounded by foil shielding, which are twisted together. See also UTP.
Straight-Through
A length of multi-stranded cable in which the transmit wire(s) of one end
is/are passed directly through the cable to the same location on the other
end. Straight-through cables are used for most facility cabling. See also
crossover.
Subnet
A physical network within an IP network.
Subnet Mask
A 32-bit quantity which may be set up in SNMP management devices to
indicate which bits in an IP address identify the physical network.
Glossary-11
Switch to UTP
Switch
A network device which connects two or more separate network
segments and allows traffic to be passed between them when necessary. A
switch determines if a packet should be blocked or transmitted based on
the destination address contained in that packet.
TCP
Transmission Control Protocol.
Terminal
A device for displaying information and relaying communications.
Terminals do not perform any processing of data, but instead access
processing-capable systems and allow users to control that system.
Throughput
The rate at which discrete quantities of information (typically measured
in Mbps) are received by or transmitted through a specific device.
Token
A particular type of frame which informs a station in the Token Ring and
FDDI network technologies that it may transmit data for a specified
length of time. Once that time has expired, the station must stop
transmitting and pass the token along to the next station in the network.
Token Ring
A network technology which requires that stations only transmit data
when they have been given permission by the reception of a Token, and
dictates that stations will receive information at pre-determined intervals
and in a definite series.
Topology
The physical organization of stations and devices into a network.
TP-PMD
Twisted Pair - Physical Medium Dependent.
Transceiver
A device which transmits and receives. A transceiver provides the
electrical or optical interface to the network media, and may convert
signals from one media for use by another.
Trap
See Alarm.
User
Any person who utilizes a workstation or node on the network.
UTP
Unshielded Twisted Pair. A type of network media which consists of a
number of individual insulated cable strands which are twisted together
in pairs.
Glossary-12
Index
Numerics
100BASE-FX
attenuation 7-4, 8-5
cable requirements 7-4, 8-5
full-duplex 8-5
insertion loss 7-4, 8-5
link length 8-6
multimode 7-5
propagation delay 7-5, 8-5
100BASE-TX
attenuation 7-2, 7-3, 8-2, 8-3
cable requirements 7-1, 8-1
crosstalk 7-3, 8-2
full-duplex 8-1
impedance 7-2, 8-2
interference - See crosstalk, above
interference See crosstalk, above
jitter requirements 7-2, 8-2
link length 8-2, 8-4
propagation delay 7-3
10BASE2
cable requirements 5-8
connections 5-8
grounding requirements 5-9
link length 5-9
station count 5-8
terminators 5-8
10BASE5
cable requirements 5-9
connectors 5-10
grounding 5-10
link length 5-10
terminators 5-9
10BASE-F
attenuation 5-5, 6-5
cable requirements 5-4, 6-4
insertion loss 5-5, 6-5
link length 5-6, 6-6
propagation delay 5-5, 6-5
10BASE-T 5-1, 6-1
attenuation 5-1, 5-3, 6-2, 6-3
cable description 4-5
cable requirements 5-1, 6-1
crosstalk 5-3, 6-3
impedance 5-2, 6-2
interference
See crosstalk, above
interference - See crosstalk, above
jitter requirements 5-2, 6-2
link length 5-2, 5-4, 6-2, 6-4
propagation delay 5-2, 6-2
25-pair cable 4-8
4-pair cable 4-7
A
Annular ring 4-19
Assistance 1-4
Attenuation 5-1, 6-2, 7-2, 8-2, 10-2, 10-5, 12-1
B
BNC connector 4-21
C
Cable saddle 4-20
Cable terms 2-1
Chapter summaries 1-2
Cheapernet - See 10BASE2
Cladding 4-14
Coaxial Cable
See also - 10BASE2, 10BASE5
Coaxial cable
connectors 4-19 to 4-22
Core 4-14
Crossovers 4-12, 11-3
Crosstalk - See 10BASET, 100BASE-TX, Token
Ring
Customer Support 1-4
Index-1
D
DB15
connector 4-17
pinout 4-17
Document organization 1-2
E
EIA/TIA
568A RJ45 jack 4-24
definition 3-1
pair association 4-7
Ethernet - See applicable 10BASE standard
F
FDDI
LCF-PMD
attenuation 12-3
cable type 12-3
cable types 11-10
connectors 11-15
link length 12-4
power 12-4
MMF-PMD
attenuation 12-1
cable types 11-10, 12-1
connectors 11-13
link length 12-2
power 12-2
SMF-PMD
attenuation 12-2, 12-3
cable type 12-2
cable types 11-10
connectors 11-13
power 12-3
TP-PMD
crossovers 11-4
STP attenuation 12-5
STP cable quality 11-7
STP cable types 12-5
STP link length 12-5
UTP attenuation 12-4
UTP cable quality 11-4
UTP cable types 11-1, 12-4
UTP link length 12-5
Index-2
Fiber Optics
composition 4-14
identifying 4-15
multimode 4-14
single mode 4-16
Also - 10BASE-F, 100BASE-FX, LCF-PMD,
MMF-PMD, SMF-PMD, Token
Ring
FOIRL 5-6, 6-6
attenuation
single mode 5-6, 6-6
cable requirements
single mode 5-6, 6-6
insertion loss
single mode 5-7, 6-7
link length
single mode 5-7, 6-7
propagation delay
single mode 5-7, 6-7
full-duplex 6-1
H
Help 1-4
I
Impedance 10-2, 10-6
Introduction 1-1
L
Laser 4-16
LCF-PMD - See FDDI
LED 4-14
M
MIC connector
FDDI 11-13
MMF-PMD - See FDDI
N
NEC 3-2
Networking Services 1-4
NEXT - See Crosstalk
N-Type
description 4-19
Numerics IX-1
P
Patch panel 13-4
Punchdown block 4-26, 13-6
R
Related documents 1-4
RG58 A/U - See 10BASE2
RJ21 4-25
pair mapping 4-9
RJ45 4-23, 11-11
RJ45 (shielded) 11-12
S
SC connector 4-29, 11-15
SMF-PMD - See FDDI
ST connector 4-28
STP 9-1
T
UTP
attenuation 10-5
crosstalk 10-6
impedance 10-6
link length 10-6
trunk length 10-7
TP-PMD - See FDDI
Twisted Pair
shielded 9-1
unshielded 4-5
U
USOC
definition 3-2
UTP
25-pair cable 4-8
categories 4-6, 4-13
description 4-5
four-pair 4-7
wire color 4-7, 4-9
T-connector 4-22, 5-8
Technical Support 1-4
Telco connector - See RJ21
Termination
thick coax 4-20
thin coax 4-5
Thicknet - See 10BASE5
Thin coaxial cable 4-4
Thinnet - See 10BASE2
Token Ring
link length
combined media 10-4
multimode fiber
attenuation 10-9
link length 10-9
trunk length 10-9
single mode fiber
attenuation 10-10
link length 10-10
trunk length 10-10
STP
attenuation 10-2
impedance 10-2
link length 10-3
trunk length 10-4
Index-3
Index-4
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