Zed Audio Ra Installation manual

Zed Audio Ra Installation manual
Instruction and Installation Manual
MINOTAUR
DRACONIA
DREADNOUGHT
LEVIATHAN
RA
Designed and manufactured in the
United States of America
Index
Introduction
Page 1
Myths, Magic and Facts
Pages 2 to 16
Setting Controls
Page 17
Quality Control
Page 18
Installation instructions
Pages 19 to 20
Specifications
Pages 21 to 25
MINOTAUR
Pages 26 to 34
DRACONIA/DREADNOUGHT
Pages 35 to 48
LEVIATHAN
Pages 49 to 61
RA
Pages 62 to 66
....
Suggested Systems
Page 67
Trouble shooting
Page 68
Warranty and Return Policy
Pages 69 and 70
Registration Form
Page 71
New Products Schedule
Page 72
Zed Audio is proud to introduce our third line of innovative mobile amplifiers. The new
products were carefully selected to fill the need of the car audio enthusiasts.
The first is MINOTAUR an all new single channel (mono block) rated at 600w into 4 ohm and
1000w into 2 ohm. This is not your normal “run of the mill” mono block since this is actually a
full range amplifier with some unique features.
DRACONIA is the smaller of the new four channel offerings at 125w x 4 at 4 ohms and
DREADNOUGHT is the “Bad Boy”rated at 250w x 4 at 4 ohms. These amplifiers are suitable
for use in almost any system, small or large.
LEVIATHAN our six channel amplifier has been improved and some of the crossover
frequency selections have been updated.
RA the last of the new products is a remote control/pre amplifier whose features are
dedicated for sub-woofer duty.
Some facts about our amplifiers:
We use only high current large pack TO-247 MOSFETs in the power supplies. These are
superior to the smaller TO-220 packages in their ability to dissipate heat.
The power supplies are fully regulated and so the amplifiers are independent of battery
voltage (>12v).
Low ESR 105 deg C capacitors are used in the power supplies. Additional high frequency
bypass is done with ceramic capacitors (the best choice by far for this application).
High speed (35nsec) rectifier diodes are utilized for the secondary supplies and all low
voltage supplies use Schottky diodes which have zero reverse recovery time.
The main high current power supplies which feed the power amplifiers are choke type for
superior filtering and noise rejection and again low ESR 105 deg C capacitors are used.
All amplifiers feature a two stage power supply for increased efficiency.
New super high speed low noise IC chips are used.
The class D amplifiers utilize the latest generation of low gate charge, high current
MOSFETs.
MINOTAUR is an industry first with a 48dB/octave analog High Pass crossover.
The pre-amplifiers in all our amplifiers run off independent regulated supplies and drive the
power amplifiers in a full balanced differential mode.
This method of internal connection eliminates ground loops which cause alternator whine.
It also eliminates the need for balanced inputs of which we see many manufacturers using
RCA connectors which were NEVER designed for balanced connection.
Clipping LEDs are featured on all amplifiers.
MINOTAUR has 4 LEDs each spaced at 3dB intervals. (0dB, -3dB, -6dB and -9dB)
All amplifiers which have equalizers use constant Q types for a more precise result.
RCA sockets are solid gold plated machined brass with teflon inserts.
The power connectors accept wire with a diameter of 7mm (0.275”).
Low noise 1% metal film resistors are used in all gain and frequency dependent circuits.
All our amplifiers feature the usual plethora of protection circuits, such as DC, thermal and
short circuit. The short circuit is auto resetting and requires no input from the user.
The ZED logo doubles as a power and a protection indicator, flashing in protect mode and
solid under normal operating conditions.
Page 1
MYTHS, MAGIC AND FACTS
Amplifiers: What are they and what do they do?
ALL amplifiers are basically power supplies! This will shock almost all who read this.
Audio amplifiers are really a valve between the power supply and the speaker. This valve
is “instructed” by the incoming audio signal to allow a given amount of the voltage and
current from the power supply to reach the loudspeaker dependent solely on the
amplitude and polarity of the incoming signal. This blows away the pre conceptions of all
who read this of what amplifiers really are. Remember there are two main components in
any amplifier, a power supply which is the sole source of power/energy and the
“amplifier” which channels the power from the power supply by virtue of “commands”
given by the driving audio signal. With this said let’s see what’s cookin’ inside our black
boxes.
So with these facts established, our class A, class B or class D amplifier channels
POWER SUPPLY energy to the speaker but waste a lot or a little energy performing this
feat (depending on the class of amplifier used).
The task of the amplifier is quite simple really. Take the input signal, make it larger in
terms of voltage and supply enough current from the power supply to drive the
loudspeaker. Remember the speaker’s impedance is typically less than 8 ohms and
greater than 1 ohm.
The task of increasing the voltage and current levels to that sufficient to drive a typical
speaker is not difficult at all. The challenging part is how well the amplifier can do this.
The frequency response and phase must be unaltered, and distortion must not be added
to the signal. This of course is impossible to do perfectly but in the past 40 years we have
come a long way and there are many fine amplifiers.
Amplifiers can be of two types, a voltage source or a current source. 99.99% of audio
amplifiers are voltage sources. In other words the amplifier tries to hold its voltage output
constant (assuming a steady signal being a sine wave) no matter what the load
impedance. The ONLY way an amplifier can achieve this is to have zero output
impedance (ie an infinite damping factor) and zero losses in the output stages. The first is
somewhat achievable by introducing positive feedback which in theory will give the
amplifier a NEGATIVE output impedance. Zero losses in the output stages are impossible
to overcome. The prefect output transistor/MOSFET/tube has not yet been invented and
never will be!
A current source amplifier tries to keep the current through the load constant no matter the
load/speaker impedance. Some simple examples on the following page.
Page 2
MYTHS, MAGIC AND FACTS
Let us use a 50w amplifier as our example. We shall assume a lossless output stage and
a perfectly regulated power supply capable of tons of current and enough rail voltage to
supply 8 ohm loads..
The constant voltage amplifier will deliver 14.14 volts across whatever load we present to
it. So at 8 ohms power is 25w, at 4 ohms it is 50w, at 2 ohms 100w...you get the idea so
far?
The constant current amplifier will deliver 14.14 volts across a 4 ohm load (The design
centre point) and this means we are running 3.5 amps through this load and thus the
amplifier delivers 50 watts. OK now let us increase the load to 8 ohms. Cool things
happen. The amplifier will deliver the same 3.5 amps into the 8 ohm load. The power
formula is I x I x R (Current x current x load impedance). A “funny” thing has happened.
The power is now 98 watts, so it has INCREASED from the 4 ohm load (opposite to what
we are accustomed to with constant voltage amplifiers). Well now it is kind of downhill
when we throw on a 2 ohm load. The output is 3.5 x 3.5 x 2 = 24.5 watts!
So what can we conclude from all of this? Well constant current type amplifiers are sort of
distant cousins of tube amplifiers which traditionally have high output impedances. (Think
of taking your amplifier and putting great big 2 to 4 ohm resistor in series with the output).
A constant current amplifier behaves the same.
An interesting idea comes to mind to have a mixture of both constant voltage and
constant current in the same amplifier. Keep your ears and eyes open for some future
product from Zed with this feature.
Amplifiers, be they class A, B or D behave and sound better into higher load impedances
like 6 or 8 ohms. Class A amplifiers buy virtue of their design do behave better at lower
load impedances than the B and D versions but they are not immune to these ills..
This is the first time I bring up low impedance loads and it will not be the last.
The idea of trying to maximize the output power simply because the manufacturer states
that his amplifier can deliver 8.24 Zillion watts into 1 ohm means nothing to us at Zed.
Every one of these monster class D (They generally are not made as class B any longer)
amplifiers has proved to be unreliable and sound just as bad. More about this on the
following pages.
We rate our amplifiers at 2 ohms ONLY because we recognize that firstly 4 ohm speakers
have impedance dips at various frequencies and that as much as we try to steer our
customer to higher impedance loads, there will be a contingent that will insist on the 2
ohm route. We have done design to keep our amplifiers more linear into these 2 ohm
loads however.
Page 3
MYTHS, MAGIC AND FACTS
Class A and class B amplifiers do not have output filters and so the feedback network is
always taken off from the output node of the amplifier. Class D amplifiers have a “monkey
on their backs” in that they ALL have to have an output demodulator filter to get rid of the
high frequency carrier. Class D amplifiers are simply Pulse Width Modulated power
supplies where the modulation is the audio signal. How good or bad they sound depends
on how the whole design is implemented.
Our class D amplifiers are of the self oscillating type which has proved to be simpler and
better sounding than driven types (Where a fixed clock at some high frequency is used as
the carrier). Analogous to FM or AM radio where the signal is transmitted at some high
frequency, your radio picks up this signal (Which contains both the carrier and the audio)
and then finally demodulates ie. Filters out the carrier leaving just the audio.
The absolute vast majority of sub woofer class D amplifiers sold today come from Asia
and they typically use designs from one or two different companies. They all make one
error, their feedback is taken BEFORE the output filter. What does this mean? Quite
simply the deficiencies of the inductor and capacitor in the filter will contaminate the signal
and the response will vary with frequency.
The reactance (AC resistance) of the coil which after all is in series with the speaker is
calculated from this formula Xl = 2 x Pi x F x L.
Xl = Reactance = AC resistance
Pi = 3.14
F = Frequency at which we want to calculate Xl
L = Inductance of the coil.
Simple example: F is 100KHz and L is 150uH (150 micto Henry) typical of these amps.
Xl = 94.2 ohms at 100KHz
Xl = 0.0942 ohms at 100Hz
Xl = 0.0188 ohms at 20Hz.
The 94.2 ohms is great because at 100KHz we want it has high as possible for maximum
rejection of the carrier. However we see in the narrow range from 20Hz to 100Hz is has
varied by a ratio of 5 as to 1. We have not included the simple DC resistance of the coil
which must be added to the 0.0942 and 0.0188 numbers. A typical coil in one of these
amplifiers uses a mean turn length of about 50mm (2”) per turn and may have between 70
to 100 turns of wire. #15 wire (whether made from a single strand or many strands if finer
wire) has a DC resistance of 3.18 ohms per 307 metres (1000’). So we will have about 70
x 2” of wire = 140” = 11.66 feet call it 12 feet for round numbers. Well 12 feet have a DCR
of 0.038 ohms and this does not include the second series coil used in everyone of these
Far Eastern made amplifiers. So giving the benefit of the doubt to the second coil lets give
it a DCR of only 0.002 ohms so our total DCR of wire in SERIES with the speaker is 0.04
ohm. Well now what do we have here?
Page 4
MYTHS, MAGIC AND FACTS
What we have is a big old amplifier with a 0.04 ohm “resistor” in series with the output.
The DCR of the wire on the inductors is absolutely equal to a resistor with regards to
straight DCR. The output impedance of the amplifier is at best 0.04 ohms and this does
not take into account the output stage’s resistance which typically is at least 0.01 to 0.02
ohms. Rounding off let’s go for 0.05 ohms and this is at 20Hz. At 100Hz the value is 0.134
ohms.
Now I am not a big fan of the Damping Factor hoopla. What I object to is the claim of DF
values for these “mega watt” and other class D offerings of 300, 500 and 1000w etc. At
best the DF with 4 ohm at 20Hz is 0.05 + 0.0188 (do not forget the AC impedance of the
coil) = 0.0688 ohms. Divide 4 by 0.0688 and we have a DF of 58 with a 4 ohm load, 29
with a 2 ohm load and just 14.5 with a 1 ohm load. At 100Hz the DF at 4 ohm is 4/0.134 =
29.8, at 2 ohm it is 14.9 and at 1 ohm 7.46....mmm interesting is it not.
As the saying goes, “make my day”. Please read the specifications of all of these
amplifiers and I bet each and everyone will claim massive DF numbers and distortion in
the “double 00’s”. The THD of an uncompensated output filter is quite high.
These Far Eastern class D amplifiers typically use a switching frequency of 100KHz or
less. OK for sub woofer application but useless for full range (20Hz-20KHz) operation.
Unfortunately even at 100KHz one has to use a pretty aggressive filter to attenuate the
carrier. The inductors range from 80 to 200 micro Henry and the capacitors from 22mfd to
220 mfd.
Zed is not the first to use post filter feedback but it solves all of the above issues to a great
degree. Here is what we incorporate. The distortion of the filter is reduced by the feedback
factor and in our amplifiers is typically about 15 times. The DCR of our output inductors is
an order of magnitude lower than the above, even with Draconia having the skinniest wire
we use less turns as our inductors are in the 22-30uH range. We use switching
frequencies close to half a megahertz (500KHz) and so our filter parts are of lower values.
Now any DCR in the inductor is taken care of by the feedback network and so does not
appear as a series resistive element. Our DF values are modest even with reflected
inductor DCR of about 0.002 ohms.
Finally we have low THD as the imperfections of the filter components are almost
eliminated by the feedback being post filter. The frequency response of our class D
amplifiers is flat from less than 10Hz to 25KHz within 0.1dB and less than 2dB down at
55KHz..
Page 5
MYTHS, MAGIC AND FACTS
Please read this paragraph very carefully. When typical bench testing of amplifiers is
performed we generally use sine waves, a quite severe torture test for almost all
amplifiers. The stress on both the power supply and the actual amplifier is far greater than
with music or speech. Typically any amplifier driven to 1/8th of its absolute clipped power
(1% THD) with sine waves, expends the same energy as music driving the amplifier to
occasional clipping. Easy to verify, We use pink noise (Google it and see what it really is)
to simulate music and this proves, at least to us that pink noise driving the amplifier to clip
occasionally is the same as that 1/8th power deal. What this is all about is that the peak to
average ratio of music is between 10 to 15 percent. In other words your 1,000w brand
spanking new mega Dollar amplifier is only a very good 100 to 150w amplifier which is
capable of musical peaks of 1000 watts ASSUMING that just occasional peaks of the
musical waveform are clipped! You have all been duped over the years by the power
issue. Now I must add this: When playing certain types of music there are times where the
musical signal is remarkably similar to those brute force sine waves us engineers like to
use for testing. Pipe organ music, of which I am a fan is one of these. A sustained organ
note drives the amplifier much harder than typical music almost like a sine wave.
Class B amplifiers can be made more efficient by using some smart power supply
technology. The “enemy” of the class B amplifier is the value of the power supply voltage
required to deliver the specified output for that particular power.
The technologies available are beyond the scope of this manual but more about this issue
Is available on our website at www.zedaudiocorp on the Techtalk link.
Back to our class D (not digital) amplifiers. These, as our analog cousins, are again power
supplies BUT with a difference. They are Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) power supplies
whose reference voltage is the incoming analog signal, ie a variable signal being music or
sine waves which changed the width of the pulses. Sounds nice of course but due to the
fact that the PWM operates at a very high frequency of typically greater than 250KHz in
full range class D amplifiers, we use a reconstructive filter to remove the carrier
frequency.
Now for another “bombshell”. Class D amplifiers are NOT 90+% efficient as advertised by
pretty much all companies who tout their wares. A well designed class D amplifier will be
90+% efficient based on two conditions. First that the amplifier is driven into some
optimum impedance (typically greater than 2 ohms) and secondly that the amplifier be
driven with a sine wave at just below clipping (typically 1% THD). Mmmmmm well this
now opens a new can of worms, does it not?
I would like to find the people who listen to sine waves. I am still looking! We all listen to
music. Well music is transient in nature and the average signal level varies over quite a
wide dynamic range. Thus our cuddly class D amplifier is NOT being driven at its optimum
Page 6
MYTHS, MAGIC AND FACTS
Output level all the time, in fact very rarely. So referring back to the fact that the average
level is about 10-15% of the maximum or peak power of the amplifier, the efficiency is
substantially lower than the 90+%. Typically with a class D amplifier this figure is around
75% or less which is an order of magnitude better than class B amplifiers. This ability of a
class D amplifier makes it a far more viable choice than class B amplifiers for producing
efficient or green (might I say?) amplifiers.
The impedance of the speaker also determines the point at which the efficiency is
optimized. Well as was said on a famous TV show “FOREGETABOUTIT”, this is a pipe
dream. Speaker’s impedance curves are all over the map and too many car audio buffs
love to drive their megawatt class D amplifiers into low impedances, like 1 and 2 ohms.
Well now that I mention “1 ohm”, I cannot resist getting into this subject. Scenario: Kid (or
middle aged person) buys gizzilion watt amplifier with manufacturer’s specifications of x
watts into 4 ohm, y watts into 2 ohm and z watts into 1 ohm. Well let’s take a wild guess
and I bet you all that the vast majority will drive the amplifier into 1 ohm. Why? Easy, he
feels that he is getting his “moneys worth” by doing this. OK let’s see what reality is. Said
amplifier is maybe rated at say 600w into 4 ohm, 1000w into 2 ohm and 1500w into 1
ohm. We will assume that the speaker impedance is resistive. The difference between the
4 and 2 ohm power is 2.2dB, the difference between the 2 and 1 ohm power is 1.76dB
and the difference between 4 and 1 ohm power is 3.9dB. So what do these numbers tell
us. First if the speaker is 4 ohms vs 2 ohms, no way you can hear any difference. Same
issue comparing 2 as to 1 ohm. I grant you that between 4 and 1 ohm there is almost 4dB
difference BUT at what price and this difference is just percebtible! Two issues. Low
impedance loads affect the amplifier’s sound quality adversely and this is quite easy to
prove. Load an amplifier with a 4 ohm woofer and listen. Add parallel resistors to the
speaker to make the amplifier “think” that it is driving a low impedance speaker and listen
to the difference in sound quality. You will be surprised. This test is not 100% valid in fact
as the resistive loads added, let the amplifier off the hook as the reactive components of
the load are confined to the 4 ohm part. The idea of this test is to keep the loudness about
constant but load down the amplifier.
The average person can just perceive a 3dB (doubling of power) difference and to actually
double the sound pressure on your eardrum, you require TEN TIMES the amplifier power.
Yes TEN TIMES!
The other consequence of driving amplifiers into these ridiculously low impedances is that
the amplifier is stressed substantially more as compared to when driven into more sane
impedances. Efficiency drops as the losses in the output stages increase dramatically
even with “super efficient” class D amplifiers.
We at Zed are absolutely against these loads of less than 2 ohm. It
serves ONLY to boost the ego of the owner of the car so he can quote numbers to his
buddies.
Page 7
MYTHS, MAGIC AND FACTS
Our design philosophies have been influenced by both the professional and home audio
markets. Traditionally the professional market has been driven by reliability with sound
quality as second. The home market was the reverse. Today however both reliability and
sound quality carry equal weight in both sectors. Cosmetics for obvious reasons are
important in any sector. My experience in designing and building professional amplifiers
has helped me in taking a similar approach in the design of mobile audio amplifiers. No
matter how pretty or good sounding an amplifier may be, if it fails then it is a bad amplifier.
The lesson learned many years ago was “silicon”, and use lots of it. All things being
equal, if an amplifier drive circuit is stable, then adding an output stage (itself stable as
well) with enough power devices will make the amplifier reliable. This assumes of course
that mechanical issues are taken care of. Zed has always been a proponent of using a
generous amount of power transistors in the output stages of our amplifiers. In addition
we design at temperatures of 80 degrees Celsius. All semiconductors must be derated at
these elevated temperatures and we use enough power devices for safe operation into
the lowest load impedance the particular amplifier has been designed to drive.
Cables and others.
Our personal opinion about “fancy” cables and exotic passive components may shock
some of you. I have never been able to hear the difference between a cheap or an
expensive RCA patch cord. My listening has been done using double blind A-B
comparisons. Electrons are not very clever things and they have no knowledge of the type
of material through which they are flowing at the speed of light (312,000 Km/second). The
ONLY reason we recommend high quality double shielded RCA patch cords in mobile
installations is to reject noise. My opinion about speaker cables is the same. As long as
the wire is thick enough, it’s construction makes no difference. As long as the amplifier is
stable into reactive loads with phase angles of up to 60 degrees, the amplifier is none the
wiser what type of speaker cable is used.
The use of teflon, polypropylene, tantalum or other capacitors does not make a good
sounding amplifier. There are too many other variables in the audio chain that one
capacitor can make a difference. The use of metal film resistors is only of use in low noise
circuits and where tolerance is of an issue. Never forget what the music signal had to go
through to get onto your CD or vinyl. The signal began as a micro volt specimen at the
microphone, sent through a high gain pre-amplifier, passed through equalization circuits,
possible compressors, limiters or other processing gear and then mixed with all the other
tracks. In analog days and today still, this signal was sent to a 24 track tape recorder
again through a multitude of transformers, pre-amplifiers, equalizers and yikes the tape
heads themselves. Then the signals were passed back through the tape deck’s playback
circuits including the equalizer for playback, then back into the mixing console for mixdown to two track and then this was repeated again onto a two track tape recorder, then
sent to the cutting head amplifier where the masters were then cut. A torturous journey
one could say for this fragile audio signal.
Page 8
MYTHS, MAGIC AND FACTS
Oh I forgot some facts about cables I would like to mention.
This applies really to home stereo. The typical RCA patchcord cable length from CD
player/Tuner to the pre amplifier is maybe 1.5 metres (4.8’). Even if the capacitance
between the inner conductor and shield is 350pF (Pico Farads) the CD player or tuner
has absolutely ZERO knowledge of this amount of capacitance. The same argument
applies to mobile systems where yes the RCA cables are maybe 5 metres (16’) in length
and typically we use a stronger construction type of cable in the vehicle, the interconductor capacitance is again meaningless.
I measured a 6.5’ length of really cheap RCA-RCA cable and the capacitance was 500pF.
Example: The output impedance of the Head unit is say 1K ohm (On the high side in my
opinion) and together with the cable capacitance of 500pF forms a low pass filter with an
Fo (-3dB) of 318.471KHz! With a more typical output impedance of say 50 ohms this Fo
moves to 636.942KHz. So using a 5m (16’) decent quality well shielded RCA-RCA cable
from the Head to the amplifiers should not cause any high frequency roll off that you can
hear - unless you are a bat of course.
Here are two interesting takes on this issue.
Http://www.mmxpress.com/technical/interconnect_myths.htm
Http://www.audioholics.com/education/cables/skin-effect-relevance-in-speaker-cables
I read an interesting article from a guy “down under”. He makes some interesting claims
concerning cables one of them being that skin effect is audible. It is well known that skin
effect (the tendency of current to flow only on the outside surface of the cable) only occurs
at frequencies above about 100KHz. Now we are not bats (no I do not have a bat as a
pet) and no music gets to 100KHz so the cable companies push this %#@&* to sell to
unsuspecting consumers.
Semiconductors have more tolerance in their specifications than any capacitor or
resistor.
A well known fact is that different types of capacitors work better at certain jobs than
others.
Example, disc ceramic capacitors are better in high frequency compensation circuits
than film types. Film types work better in audio frequency selective circuits than ceramics.
So we at Zed choose our components to suit the application.
Finally this “fetish” that has been thrown around about low ESR 105C capacitors. If you
are looking for long lasting electrolytic capacitors then choose the hideously expensive
10,000 to 15,000 hour types. I have not seen a rational manufacturer using these in a
consumer product. To obtain low ESR (Equivalent Series Resistance) you can use a
single low ESR capacitor OR use a few “regular ESR” types in parallel, the result is the
same. Space restrictions force us to use low ESR types in many places but I have no
aversion to those regular old 85C electrolytic capacitors.
Page 9
MYTHS, MAGIC AND FACTS
Zed does not recommend the use of power distribution blocks for the purpose of
distributing the +12volt voltage to several amplifiers. The reason is that the vehicle’s
battery is the lowest AC impedance point in the power grid of the vehicle. We want each
amplifier to draw it’s current from this low impedance point. Thus any modulation on any
+12v power cable (which is inevitable) is then shunted to ground by the massive
capacitance of the battery. This is the reason that “star” grounding is used in grounding
circuits/equipment so that ground current is drawn from a common point and thus no
ground loop can occur. Fortunately for us, the body of a vehicle made of steel is so large,
and is thus a very low impedance path for ground currents, that it is not necessary to
ground all equipment at one point. In fact we do not advocate it at all as this would then
necessitate the head unit’s ground running all the way to the battery location and the
amplifier’s ground(s) also running all the way to the battery.
If multiple amplifiers are being used we highly recommend the use of separate ground
points at the amplifiers’ location. This spreads out the amount of current being drawn
through one bolt connection.
However we do recognize the impractical issues of running separate +12v wires to the
battery and so of course accept that distribution blocks will be used.
Stiffening capacitors. These are of NO use with our amplifiers due to the fact that
We utilize fully regulated power supplies. The power supplies will compensate
for small volt drops which exist on the +12v power cable. The amount of current drawn by
a particular amplifier would drain a fully charged 1 Farad capacitor almost instantly.
Consider the theory:
Energy(Joules) = Power(Watts) x Time(Seconds). The energy in a 1 Farad capacitor =
0.5CV.V = 0.5x1x12x12= 72 Joules. Let us assume an amplifier such as MINOTAUR. Let
us assume that we are playing it such that the amplifier(into a 4 ohm load) is just clipping
on the loudest musical peaks. This means that we are delivering 500 watts on peaks. The
amplifier’s average efficiency is about 75%. The peak to average power ratio is about
10% so average power is 10% of 500 = 50 watts. The input power is therefore 66 watts. If
the 1 Farad capacitor was charged to 12 volt and we remove the main source of power -the battery, the amp would remain playing for 1.075 seconds! (Put the numbers in the
formula (E=PxT above and solve for time T). Now compare this to the battery. The
amplifier will play for some hours (depends on actual battery of course) as compared to
1.075 seconds! So what good is a 1 Farad capacitor?
Power cables - Owing to the high efficiency of our amplifiers, #8 wire is sufficient for a 5
metre run from the battery to the amplifier. If a distribution block is used with multiple
amplifiers, then #4 wire from the battery to the block is required. From the distribution
block to each amplifier again #8 is all that is required.
Page 10
MYTHS, MAGIC AND FACTS
Damping Factor - This amplifier specification has been blown out of all proportion. What
it means is the ability of the amplifier to resist a change in it’s output voltage. The formula
is DF= Speaker Z / Amplifier output Z (where Z is impedance). So many manufacturers
have claimed ridiculous, and often false damping factors. A damping factor of 1000
implies that the output impedance of the amplifier is 0.004 ohms (4 ohm load). The only
way to attain this figure is to apply masses of negative feedback (or use positive
feedback) and too much feedback makes amplifiers sound harsh and clinical. Also
damping factor changes with frequency. The lower the frequency the higher the DF
number. Typically the DF can be ten times larger at higher frequencies.
Let us take this amplifier whose output impedance is 0.004 ohms (Zout). The speaker
circuit is a series circuit and the following impedances(resistances) are in series with this
0.004 ohms. Let us assume that this DF measurement was made at the amplifier’s
speaker terminal. The first extra contact resistance is the speaker wire to the speaker
terminal (WT ohms). Then there is that of the wire itself for two conductors (W). Next is
the contact resistance of the wire to the speaker terminal (WS). Next there is the contact
resistance of the wire from the speaker terminal to the voice coil (WV) and lastly there is
the DC resistance of the voice coil itself (DCR). So what we have is a series circuit with
the following resistances in series and adding up. WT+W+WS+WV+DCR+Zout.
WT,W,WS,WV and Zout are very small indeed. Certainly less than 0.1 ohms. Whoa, look
what has happened the EFFECTIVE DAMPING FACTOR has been reduced from 1000 to
40 by just taking into account those pesky unavoidable contact resistances. Now for the
cruncher, remember that the DCR is also in series and is typically 3.2 ohms for a nominal
4 ohm speaker. So we must add 0.1+3.2 = 3.3 ohms and now EFFECTIVE DAMPING
FACTOR is now a magnificent 1.212! (4 divided by 3.3)This is the real world. We see that
the DCR of the speaker swamps all other resistances in the speaker circuit and the 0.004
ohms amplifier output impedance is almost meaningless. It has been found that a DF of
about 20 is quite sufficient to dampen the voltage spikes from the speaker. An eye opener
this one is it not? Good tube amps sound marvelous - low damping factors!!
Output Power of Amplifiers - This spec has been so badly abused it is not even funny.
Peak power, Maximum power, Transient power, RMS power these are titles that have
been given to the power spec of amplifiers. The above all mean nothing. Peak power
needs to be associated with a time period, Maximum power is just nonsense, Transient
power is even more nonsense and RMS power is just not a specification. The ONLY
meaningful way to specify an amplifier’s output power in watts is CONTINUOUS POWER.
The formula for power is: (RMS volts x RMS amps) or (RMS volts x RMS
volts/Impedance) or (RMS amps x RMS amps x Impedance). In each of these formulae
there is an RMS number multiplied by another RMS number (or by itself) and RMS x RMS
cannot = RMS. So THERE IS SIMPLY NO SUCH THING AS RMS POWER. RMS means
root mean square and it is the same as saying 4 x 4 = 4 Which we know is not true.
The answer is just 4 with no root sign attached.
Page 11
MYTHS, MAGIC AND FACTS
Bridging two channels of an amplifier is not a magical thing. Most are mystified by the
power figures quoted under the “bridge” column. It is actually very simple. When two
channels are driving a common load, one channel is out of phase with the other by 180
degrees. So when one channel swings positive the other swings negative. There is a
catch however. Each channel “sees” fifty percent of the common load and that means that
each channel of the bridged pair must be capable of delivering current to this lower load
impedance. Thus a 4 ohm bridged load presents a 2 ohm load to each of the bridged
channels. The power into a 4 ohm load in bridged mode is twice the rated 2 ohm power
per channel, the reason is that the power supply voltage is effectively doubled when two
channels are bridged.
Harmonic Distortion - This specification has for years been a benchmark with which to
compare one amplifier to another. This is all fine on the test bench where pure resistive
loads are used and sinewaves are amplified. Unfortunately it tells us very little about the
audible performance of an amplifier. Today it is relatively easy to build an amplifier with
THD figures in the “triple oh” region, but what do they sound like. Normally not very good.
To obtain these low THD numbers all we do is design an amplifier with high open loop
gain. That is before negative feedback is applied. Once we apply a lot of global feedback,
we improve all measured parameters such as THD, Noise, Frequency response and
Damping factor. Our class B amplifiers are designed a little differently. We use very little
global feedback but rather optimize each stage with local feedback. This allows us to
design an amplifier with lower open loop gain and thus we only have to apply about 8dB of
global feedback. Ultra low THD was not our goal but rather an amplifier which sounds the
way we want it to. Other factors affect THD such as PCB layout, grounding and power
distribution to the amplifier channels. Our class B amplifiers do however achieve very low
distortion due to the fact that we follow the “rules” and their circuit design is conducive to
low distortion. Class D amplifiers operate somewhat differently to Class B types.
Headroom
This term does not refer to how much room there is above your head! Rather it is a
specification that signifies how good or bad the power supply is. Zed Audio has NEVER
quoted a headroom specification. Why you may ask? Simple our amplifiers have no
headroom, zero dB, zip dB, nada dB however you say it. A regulated power supply does
not allow the amplifier to have any headroom. A quote from a well respected designer who
said that amplifiers with many dB of headroom simply have poorly designed power
supplies, either through ignorance or to save costs. When one sees a specification of an
amplifier quoting a headroom figure of 3dB this means that the droop of the power supply
is such that when unloaded it is capable of twice the power as compared to it’s loaded
condition.
Page 12
MYTHS, MAGIC AND FACTS
Headroom - continued.
So a 100w/ch amplifier running into 4 ohms must develop 20 volts across the speaker
terminal. This requires a net (under load) rail voltage of about +/- 33 volts. Now for it to
have 3dB of headroom it must be capable of delivering 28.28 volts across the speaker
terminal. This requires a rail voltage of +/- 43 volts. So the above power supply will droop
a total of +/- 10 volts (a 23% droop!). This puts additional stress on the output devices
(Mosfets or Bipolars) because they still have to deal with this higher rail voltage . To us
this kind of power supply sounds like the amplifier is “breathing” and not the kind of
amplifier we want to listen to. Regulated power supplies are more expensive to
manufacture, are less efficient but we feel those are tradeoffs we can live with!
If one examines the specifications of an amplifier, it is relatively easy to tell apart those
With well regulated power supplies and those with sloppy unregulated power supplies.
The ratio of 4 ohm as to 2 ohm power will readily inform us of the quality of that power
supply. Typically if the amplifier can double or almost double it’s continuous power rating
from 4 ohm to 2 ohm at ALL battery voltages this is indicative of a well regulated power
supply. There are a few manufacturers who manipulate the rail voltages at lower speaker
impedances so that the 4,2 and 1 ohm power specs are the same. We believe that this is
a cop out to save putting in a beefy power supply which is capable of the higher currents
needed for these low impedance loads.
Fusing of amplifiers. Of all the amplifiers which we see at Zed,
less than “5%” have
correctly rated fuses installed. These are non Zed manufactured amplifiers. The result of
this over fusing practice is that the power devices and printed circuit card burn up and
save the fuse (Ever heard of Murphy’s Law)?
During the past year we have done quite a bit of testing with regards to how large a fuse is
required. The rating of the fuse is dependent on two things, the impedance of the
speakers and how long and how loud the music is to be played. The average power is
about 10-15% of the maximum peaks. So add up all the channels and multiply by the
power per channel. Divide this by 0.3 for an average efficiency of 30%. Let’s divide this by
say 5 (20% average to peak ratio for some fudge factor) and this number divide by 12.
Example: A 100 watt x 4 at 4 ohms amplifier. We will assume that we will be playing it so
musical peaks reach 100w/ch. Okay so 100 x 4 = 400. Divide by 0.3 = 1333 Divide by 5 =
266 and divide this by 12 = 22 amps. Use a 25 or 30 amp fuse.
Putting a 100 or 150 amp fuse * on an amplifier is useless. That guy Murphy says the
amplifier will burn up to protect the fuse..... And it will.
* Of course very powerful amplifiers >2Kw require large fuses.
Page 13
MYTHS, MAGIC AND FACTS
Subsonic filters and CLIPPING. The former are simply steep slope high pass filters with a
frequency range between 10 to 50Hz. Their only function is to filter out those frequencies
which lie below audibility. The woofer’s cone will not “flop” around as it does without the
use of the filter and because all the low frequency energy that we cannot hear is filtered
out, the amplifier runs more efficiently since it does not have to amplify all those inaudible
low frequencies. Remember one fact, ALL amplifiers are pretty dumb. They will amplify
anything you put into them (assuming the amplifier’s frequency response is wide enough)
and whether we can hear a particular frequency range is not the amplifier’s concern. Put
in an inaudible frequency and the amplifier dutifully does it’s thing. It does not care about
the load. This is why tweeters are easily burnt when amplifiers are clipping. The amplifier
generates high frequency harmonics and this energy is thrown to the unsuspecting
tweeter. When an amplifier is driven into clipping it basically generates a square wave.
This contains a large amount of energy but also due to the fact that the square wave sits
at a positive (or negative) state for a “long” period of time, the natural cooling effect of a
continuously moving cone/voice coil is inhibited and can lead to failure of a speaker.
Typically woofers are more tolerant of clipped power than mids and tweeters due to the
fact that they are more robust and that they do not respond to those high frequency
harmonics very well (but do not be fooled, woofers can be hurt by these harmonics even if
we cannot hear them). The inductive reactance is (2 x 3.14 x freq x inductance) and so
the higher the frequency the higher the inductive reactance of the speaker becomes.
However it’s DCR does not change with frequency.
A quick point about the term DCR (resistance at DC). I believe that this term was coined
because we all use a meter which operates with batteries and we measure the simple
resistance of a resistor or piece of wire with this meter. We take this measurement at a
frequency which is low enough so that if we increased the measurement time the result
would be the same. So using an ohm meter which works at say 50Hz would yield the
same result as long as the measured part has no AC reactive component.
Page 14
The following pages show some interesting facts
about sound, hearing issues, power and most of all
dispel many of the ill gained facts in the car audio
industry.
DECIBELS (dB)
POWER RATIO
0.5
0.7
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
10.0
20.0
VOLTAGE RATIO
1.12
1.17
1.26
1.58
2.0
2.5
3.16
4.0
10.0
100
1.06
1.08
1.12
1.26
1.414
1.58
1.78
2.0
3.16
10.0
Perceptions of Increase in Decibel level
1dB
2dB
3dB
5dB
10dB
20dB
Imperceptible change
Imperceptible change
Barely Perceptible change
Quite Noticeable change
Twice as loud
Approximately four times as loud
So as we can see a 1dB change in power results in a power increase of 26%which is
absolutely inaudible. The 100w amplifier as compared to 125w - NO difference, or a 500w
as compared to 625w, again NO difference.
2dB power increase a similar result where the power increase is 58%! The 100w as
compared to the 158w amplifier again nothing.
At a 3dB power increase (doubling the power) we have a barely perceptible change. So
upgrading that 100w to a 200w amplifier is just barely audible in terms of loudness.
Now a 10dB power increase (10 times the power) results in a doubling of sound pressure
on your ear drum.
PLEASE LISTEN TO YOUR MUSIC RESPONSIBLY - ONLY 1 SET
OF EARS IS GIVEN TO US.
Page 15
Page 16
Setting the controls on amplifiers
L
evel control - This control is the most misunderstood control on any amplifier. It’s sole
purpose in life is to level match the head unit’s output voltage to the gain structure of
the amplifier so that the user can use the head unit’s volume control in the “best
physiological position”. To best understand this let us look at a simple example. Assume
that the head unit is rated at 1 volt output. Now what this means is rather ambiguous.
Does the head deliver 1volt with the volume control at maximum, at 75% or where?
Unfortunately no head manufacturers supply this information. Also it depends on the
modulation level of the program material. Be it a CD/Mini Disc or FM we have no control
of this specification. Most consumers never want the volume control to be turned past 3
o’clock (We use a traditional rotary control for reference since all digital controls do not
have the same amount of digits or “little blocks” on their LCD displays to show relative
volume level). On head units which we have tested the results are all over the page so we
shall assume the 3 o’clock position as the maximum we want the control to be turned to.
So far you can see that the need for level matching is critical indeed as there are no
standards from head manufacturers. So we now have this 1 volt level. What this means is
that the output voltage from the head will approach 1 volt on musical peaks. Let assume
we have an amplifier of 100 watts. This implies that we can deliver 20 volts across a 4
ohm load. Let us assume that the amplifier needs 1 volt in for the 20 volt out - a gain
structure of 20x. So in this case with the head delivering 1 volt on peaks, the amplifier will
deliver 100 watts into 4 ohms on the same musical peaks. Well this sounds all well and
good but we have a small problem and it is that all heads are not rated at 1 volt, and all
amplifiers have variable level controls. This actually means we can change the gain
structure of the amplifiers from “x” to “y”. With no standard levels we have to set the level
control on the amplifier to “match” to that of the head. We have tested no head units
whose output level corresponds with that of the printed specifications. Typically the output
level is substantially lower than the specification. Here is our recommendation. With your
favorite music playing set the amplifier’s level control to minimum (CCW) and set the
head unit’s volume control to 3 o’clock. Assuming all crossover controls have been set,
advance the level control on the amplifier until the music is as loud as desired. This is the
only way to do this without the use of an oscilloscope. In multi way systems begin with the
low frequency amplifier, set its level to a point where the bass is as loud as you want it,
turn back the Hu’s volume to a sane level, then repeat the level adjusting process on the
midrange and tweeter amplifiers. You will have to tweak these level controls again several
times to attain a good balance between the various amplifiers.
C
rossover and equalizer controls - The crossover controls must be set to suit the
speakers being used.
The equalizer controls can be set by ear or with instruments. This is a personal
preference. Most users only have ears (duh) and not instruments so ears must suffice!
Page 17
Quality control (QC) is a process which begins from the first designs entered into a
computer and then never ends.
Zed is continually striving to improve the products which we design and manufacture.
All our semiconductors are purchased from either the manufacturer direct or through
reputable distributors. Electrolytic capacitors which have the highest long term failure rate
of any component are chosen for their durability and sonic qualities.
Each and every product manufactured at Zed is tested using Audio Precision test
equipment. Software is written for each type of amplifier and then on final test the
amplifier must pass these rigorous tests.
If not it is rejected and returned to the production line
for repair. Samples are pulled from the line for further testing.
Mechanical inspection is done throughout the manufacturing process. Before each
amplifier is packed it is fully inspected again for any cosmetic flaws. Any damaged or
any part which is out of specification is replaced.
Zed takes pride in what we design and manufacture and we trust that this shows in the
final product.
Stephen Mantz
Page 18
Installation Instructions
Location:
Choose a suitable location in the vehicle which will allow sufficient airflow over the
amplifier. The preferred mounting direction is with the heatsink fins in a vertical direction.
However we do recognize that this is not always possible.
Mounting the amplifier(s)
These amplifiers can be mounted in one of two ways. The first is by using the supplied
mounting feet. Each foot is bolted to the underside of the chassis using the supplied
metric M4 bolts. Please use a phillips screwdriver which fits the head of the bolts
correctly. Make sure that the bolts are tight but DO NOT over tighten them as you may
strip the threads in the bottom of the heat sink.
Depending on the surface to which the amplifier is mounted use either wood screws or a
machine screw with nut of either M5 or 10/32” size.
The second method is to forego the use of the four mounting feet and use metric M4 bolts
to bolt directly into the threaded holes on the underside of the heat sink. This method
requires that you determine the thickness of the mounting board and add 6mm (0.23”) to
it. Then select the correct length M4 bolt. If the bolt is too long you will feel it bottom out in
the threaded holes. Please be careful so as not to damage the threads in the bottom of
the heat sink. We supply four longer M4 bolts with each amplifier.
Fusing of amplifiers. Almost every amplifier I have worked on is OVER FUSED - period!
Over fusing is just a silly thing to do in the first place as it affords ZERO protection and
only results in printed circuit cards being burnt together with a bunch of expensive silicon.
The formula is quite simple. For class A/B amplifiers add up the total wattage of all
channels into the impedance into which they are driven. Divide this number by 18 and use
the closest value fuse. Example a 100w x 4 at 4 ohm amplifier is 400w total. Divide by 18
= 22.22 so use a 25A fuse. A 1500w amplifier requires a 90A fuse. I prefer to make up a
final fuse value by using several lower amperage fuses in parallel. This results in better
thermal efficiency as the current flow is spread over several pieces of metal.
We advocate strongly to under fuse and if you find under hard drive that the fuses
occasionally open up then it is way less drag on your wallet to replace some fuses with a
slightly higher value.
A repeat here for those who did not read the “low impedance” point I made. The higher
the impedance of the speaker (>4 ohm) the better the sound quality. These amplifiers are
NOT SPL tools, they are for listening to good music at reasonable levels - protect your
ears!
Use 8 or 4 ohm speakers and you will be surprised at the results.
Page 19
Connecting the Amplifier
Once the amplifier has been correctly mounted the electrical connections can now be
made. The first step is to connect the loudspeakers. Using the appropriate size of wire
(we recommend a min of #14) connect the speakers as shown in later diagrams,
depending on which amplifier(s) are being installed. The next step is to connect the line
inputs using high quality RCA-RCA cables. The source to which the line inputs are
connected depends on the amplifier type and the particular installation. Again refer to
later diagrams.
The next step is to connect the power inputs. The first is the ground wire. This wire is
connected to the (-) connection on the 3 terminal power connector. Using #8 wire or
larger(#4 max) insert one end into the connector’s GROUND terminal after stripping off
about 19mm (0.75”) of insulation. Trim the wire to a maximum length of 1 metre (39”) this
ground wire (normally BLACK in colour) is then crimped (and preferably soldered) into an
appropriate size ring lug. This lug is then bolted to the chassis of the car (normally in the
trunk). The hole to which the lug shall be bolted must be rust and paint free. It is also a
good idea to use a star washer between the lug and the chassis of the vehicle. We prefer
the use of a machine bolt and nut rather than a self tapper. The torque that the machine
bolt can exert is greater than that of a self tapper and due to the large currents flowing
through this ground connection the contact resistance shall be lower with the machine
screw.
Next is the remote turn on wire. This is normally connected to the remote output of the
head unit. Using #14 wire, stripping one end to 19mm (0.75”), insert one end into the
smaller centre hole of the power connector. Run this cable to the head unit’s location and
connect to the “remote out” terminal of the head. Please be sure to use a 0.25A fuse at
the head. This fuse will blow if any portion of the remote wire is accidentally shorted to
chassis ground.
Last is the +12volt connection. Using #8 (#4 max)or larger, strip the wire to 19mm (0.75”)
and insert in to the hole marked BATT (+) on the power connector. Run the cable (away
from all audio cables) to the location of the vehicle’s battery. At the battery location install
the a fuse holder no further away from the battery (+) terminal than 300mm (12”). Insert
this end of the +12volt power cable into the fuse holder. Making sure that the fuse is
removed, connect the other end of the fuse holder to the battery’s (+) terminal using
appropriate high quality battery connectors. Insert the supplied fuse. DO NOT
OVERFUSE as this can be a fire hazard.
The power connector on our amplifiers can accommodate wire with a copper diameter of
up to 7mm (0.275”).
Page 20
Specifications
Specification
MINOTAUR
Continuous Output Power into 2 ohm ++
Continuous Output Power into 4 ohm ++
1300w x 1
750w x 1
Continuous Output Power 2 AMPLIFIERS bridged into 4 ohm ++
Continuous Output Power 2 AMPLIFIERS bridged into 8 ohm ++
2600w x 1
1500w x 1
Minimum Speaker Impedance
2 ohm
Minimum Speaker Impedance in Bridge Mode (2 amplifiers)
4 ohm
Power Response at any power into 4 ohms
Frequency Response at rated power into 4 ohms
10-60KHz -2dB
10Hz-30KHz -0.1dB
Input Voltage range for rated power into 4 ohms
0.35 to 8.6 volt
Input Impedance at 2KHz
47K ohm
Noise below rated output (30KHz limited)
-103dB
Damping Factor at 20Hz with 4 ohms
>80
Total Harmonic Distortion with 4 ohm 20Hz-20KHz
From 1 watt to rated power. Typically less than 0.05%
<0.2%
Intermodulation Distortion
<0.2%
Phase response at 20KHz
Lagging 12 deg
Slew rate (volts per micro second)-In”Flat” mode
12
Low Pass Crossover (24dB/octave)
45Hz to230Hz
High Pass Crossover (48dB/octave)
10Hz to100Hz
Equalization (5 controls +/-12dB boost and cut)
25Hz, 31Hz, 40Hz, 50Hz, 63Hz with constant Q
Phase Control
Variable from zero to -180 degrees
Line Outputs (Normal and Inverted phase)
Yes
Protection - Short Circuit, DC, Thermal
Yes
Power Source
Current Consumption with Sine wave at 4 ohms
Average current Consumption with Music at 4 ohms
Idling Current
10-14.5v DC Negative Ground
52A
11 to 15A
<1.5A
Fuse rating with 4 ohm load
25A-35A depending on usage
Fuse rating with 2 ohm loadl ****
40A -60A depending on usage
Size W x H (247mmx55mm/9.7”x2.1”) x L
275mm/10.82” Excludes connectors
Shipping Weight (Kg/Lbs)
5.9/13
++ Driving amplifiers with continuous sine wave power is very stressful and is not indicative of an
amplifier’s real world performance. We actually prefer to use PINK NOISE as our test signal as it very
closely replicates typical music which is what our amplifiers were intended for in the first place. Our
amplifiers will double the 4 ohm power at 2 ohm when driven with pink noise
**** Under normal operating conditions the fuse rating for 4 ohm loads will suffice for 2 ohm loads. If the amplifier is driven for long periods of time into
2 ohm loads l the fuse rating may be increased as shown. DO
NOT OVER FUSE ANY AMPLIFIER.
Page 21
Specifications
Specification
DRACONIA
Continuous Output Power into 2 ohm ++
Continuous Output Power into 4 ohm ++
240w x 4
150w x 4
Continuous Output Power 2 channels bridged into 4 ohm ++
Continuous Output Power 2 channels bridged into 8 ohm ++
480w x 2
30
300w x 2
Minimum Speaker Impedance
2 ohm per channel
Minimum Speaker Impedance in Bridge Mode (2 channels)
4 ohm
Power Response at any power into 4 ohms
Frequency Response at rated power into 4 ohms
10-60KHz -2dB
10Hz-30KHz -0.1dB
Input Voltage range for rated power into 4 ohms
0.26 to 8.0 volt
Input Impedance at 2KHz
47K ohm
Noise below rated output (30KHz limited)
-98dB
Channel separation at 2KHz
>80dB
Damping Factor at 20Hz with 4 ohms
>80
Total Harmonic Distortion with 4 ohm 20Hz-20KHz
From 1 watt to rated power. Typically less than 0.05%
<0.2%
Intermodulation Distortion
<0.2%
Phase response at 20KHz
Lagging 12 deg
Slew rate (volts per micro second)-In”Flat” mode
12
Low Pass Crossovers (24dB/octave)
55Hz to 4KHz
High Pass Crossovers (24dB/octave)
55Hz-4KHz
Sub Sonic Filter (24dB/octave)
11Hz to 48Hz
Equalization (Zero to +12dB variable control with constant Q)
Boost @40Hz with constant Q
Line Outputs
No
Protection - Short Circuit, DC, Thermal
Yes
Power Source
Current Consumption with Sine wave at 4 ohms
Average current Consumption with Music at 4 ohms
Idling Current
10-14.5v DC Negative Ground
42A
8 to 15A
<1.5A
Fuse rating with 4 ohm load
25A-30A depending on usage
Fuse rating with 2 ohm load ****
30A -50A depending on usage
Size W x H (247mmx55mm/9.7”x2.1”) x L
275mm/10.82” Excludes connectors
Shipping Weight (Kg/Lbs)
5.9/13
++ Driving amplifiers with continuous sine wave power is very stressful and is not indicative of an
amplifier’s real world performance. We actually prefer to use PINK NOISE as our test signal as it very
closely replicates typical music which is what our amplifiers were intended for in the first place. Our
amplifiers will double the 4 ohm power at 2 ohm when driven with pink noise
**** Under normal operating conditions the fuse rating for 4 ohm loads will suffice for 2 ohm loads. If the amplifier is driven for long periods of time into
2 ohm loads l the fuse rating may be increased as shown. DO
NOT OVER FUSE ANY AMPLIFIER.
Page 22
Specifications
Specification
DREADNOUGHT
Continuous Output Power into 2 ohm ++
Continuous Output Power into 4 ohm ++
Typical Output Power into 4 ohm per channel (1% THD) ++
400w x 4
250w x 4
300w x 4
Continuous Output Power 2 channels bridged into 4 ohm ++
Continuous Output Power 2 channels bridged into 8 ohm ++
800w x 2
500w x 2
Minimum Speaker Impedance
2 ohm per channel
Minimum Speaker Impedance in Bridge Mode (2 channels)
4 ohm
Power Response at any power into 4 ohms
Frequency Response at rated power into 4 ohms
10-60KHz -2dB
10Hz-30KHz -0.1dB
Input Voltage range for rated power into 4 ohms
0.26 to 8.0 volt
Input Impedance at 2KHz
47K ohm
Noise below rated output (30KHz limited)
-102dB
Channel separation at 2KHz
>80dB
Damping Factor at 20Hz with 4 ohms
>80
Total Harmonic Distortion with 4 ohm 20Hz-20KHz
From 1 watt to rated power. Typically less than 0.05%
<0.2%
Intermodulation Distortion
<0.2%
Phase response at 20KHz
Lagging 12 deg
Slew rate (volts per micro second)-In”Flat” mode
12
Low Pass Crossovers (24dB/octave)
55Hz to 4KHz
High Pass Crossovers (24dB/octave)
55Hz-4KHz
Sub Sonic Filter (24dB/octave)
11Hz to 48Hz
Equalization (Zero to +12dB variable control with constant Q)
Boost @40Hz with constant Q
Line Outputs
No
Protection - Short Circuit, DC, Thermal
Yes
Power Source
Current Consumption with Sinewave at 4 ohms
Current Consumption with Music at 4 ohms
Idling Current
10-14.5v DC Negative Ground
94A
18 to 28A
<1.5A
Fuse rating with 4 ohm load
30A-40A depending on usage
Fuse rating with 2 ohm load ****
40A -80A depending on usage
Size W x H (247mmx55mm/9.7”x2.1”) x L
410mm/16.14” Excludes connectors
Shipping Weight (Kg/Lbs)
7.72/17
++ Driving amplifiers with continuous sine wave power is very stressful and is not indicative of an
amplifier’s real world performance. We actually prefer to use PINK NOISE as our test signal as it very
closely replicates typical music which is what our amplifiers were intended for in the first place. Our
amplifiers will double the 4 ohm power at 2 ohm when driven with pink noise
**** Under normal operating conditions the fuse rating for 4 ohm loads will suffice for 2 ohm loads. If the amplifier is driven for long periods of time into
2 ohm loads l the fuse rating may be increased as shown. DO
NOT OVER FUSE ANY AMPLIFIER.
Page 23
Specifications
Specification
LEVIATHAN
Continuous Output Power into 2 ohm ++
Continuous Output Power into 4 ohm ++
Continuous Output Power into 6 ohm ++
Continuous Output Power into 8 ohm ++
Typical Output Power into 4 ohm per channel (1% THD) ++
330w x 6
190w x 6
125w x 6
100w x 6
235w x 6
Continuous Output Power 3 pairs of channels bridged into 4 ohm ++
Continuous Output Power 2 channels bridged into 8 ohm ++
660w x 3 Channel pairs may be bridged independently
380w x 3 Channel pairs may be bridged independently
Minimum Speaker Impedance
2 ohm per channel ##
Minimum Speaker Impedance in Bridge Mode (2 channels)
4 ohm ##
Power Response at any power into 4 ohms
Frequency Response at rated power into 4 ohms
10-60KHz -2dB
10Hz-30KHz -0.1dB
Input Voltage range for rated power into 4 ohms
0.25 to 8.6 volt
Input Impedance at 2KHz
47K ohm
Noise below rated output (30KHz limited)
-100dB
Channel separation at 2KHz
>80dB
Damping Factor at 20Hz with 4 ohms
>80
Total Harmonic Distortion with 4 ohm 20Hz-20KHz
From 1 watt to rated power. Typically less than 0.05%
<0.2%
Intermodulation Distortion
<0.2%
Phase response at 20KHz
Lagging 12 deg
Slew rate (volts per micro second)-In”Flat” mode
12
High Pass Crossovers (24dB/octave) Channels 1+2 and 3+4
55Hz-4KHz
Low Pass Crossovers (24dB/octave) Channels 3+4
55Hz to 4KHz
High Pass Crossovers (24dB/octave) Channels 5+6
10Hz-105Hz May be used as a Sub Sonic Filter
Low Pass Crossovers (24dB/octave) Channels 5+6
40Hz to 235Hz
Protection - Short Circuit, DC, Thermal
Yes
Power Source
Current Consumption with Sinewave at 4 ohms
Current Consumption with Music at 4 ohms
Idling Current
10-14.5v DC Negative Ground
94A
18 to 28A
<1.5A
Fuse rating with 4 ohm load
30A-40A depending on usage
Fuse rating with 2 ohm load ****
40A -80A depending on usage
Size W x H (247mmx55mm/9.7”x2.1”) x L
410mm/16.14” Excludes connectors
Shipping Weight (Kg/Lbs)
5.9/13
++ Driving amplifiers with continuous sine wave power is very stressful and is not indicative of an
amplifier’s real world performance. We actually prefer to use PINK NOISE as our test signal as it very
closely replicates typical music which is what our amplifiers were intended for in the first place. Our
amplifiers will double the 4 ohm power at 2 ohm when driven with pink noise
**** Under normal operating conditions the fuse rating for 4 ohm loads will suffice for 2 ohm loads. If the amplifier is driven for long periods of time into
2 ohm loads l the fuse rating may be increased as shown. DO
NOT OVER FUSE ANY AMPLIFIER.
## The amplifier has no issues driving 3 ohm bridged loads on channels 5+6 where channels 1-4 are run
In band or high pass mode
Page 24
Specifications
Specification
RA
Frequency Response
15Hz-240Hz Bandwidth Limited
Input Voltage range
0 to 2.25 volt (can be factory adjusted to any setting)t
Input Impedance from 15Hz to 240Hz
10K ohm
Output impedance
Approximately 100 ohms
Output voltage
Can drive a 600 ohm load at 9v RMS
Noise below 5 volt output (30KHz limited)
-100dB
Total Harmonic Distortion 15Hz to 240Hz
Less than 0.008%
Intermodulation Distortion
Less than 0.01%
Low Pass Crossover (24dB/octave)
45Hz to 230Hz
Sub Harmonic Synthesizer
Two bands, 32Hz and 45Hz
Level controls Sub harmonic Synthesizer
32Hz, 45Hz and Master
Compressor Attack Time
15msec
Compressor Release Time
1 second
Threshold
Variable
System gain with no compression
Maximum of 12.3dB
Volume control
Variable from off to maximum
Power Source
10-14.5v DC Negative Ground
Current Consumption with Music at 4 ohms
Less than 0.5A
Fuse rating
Internal 3A
Size W x H x D Chassis mm
112.54 x 20 x 73
Size W x H x D Chassis inches
4.43 x 0.79 x 2.87
Size front panel W x H mm/inches
124.54/4.9 x 23.5/0.925
Shipping Weight (Kg/Lbs)
0.45/1.0
A NEW VERSION OF RA IS COMING SOON AND WILL HAVE ADDITIONAL
FEATURES. THESE ARE A VARIABLE PHASE SHIFT AND LOW
FREQUENCY SET OF CONTROLS.
Page 25
MINOTAUR
MINOTAUR is the first of our new generation of mono block/single channel amplifiers.
These are capable of full range operation for those who demand high power for midrange
and lower midrange drivers in multi way systems. However its primary goal is for sub
woofers. The on board crossovers have been optimized for low frequency operation.
Using the four (4) RCA inputs facilitates constant sub woofer fading by using head units
with front and rear line outputs. For those who choose to only use two inputs, a switch
combines the signals of the RCA inputs 1+3 and 2+4. Thus using the 1 and 2 inputs
simply allows 3+4 to be pass through for easy daisy chaining of amplifier inputs.
An industry first 48dB/octave Linkwitz-Riley High Pass crossover serves as both a sub
sonic filter and the HIGH PASS section of a BANDPASS crossover when used in
conjunction with the on board LOW PASS crossover.
Variable phase shift and a 24dB/octave Linkwitz-Riley Low Pass crossover complete the
first part of the signal chain.
A MODE switch configures the amplifier for 3 modes of operation. First when in FLAT
mode the High Pass, Phase and Low Pass functions are bypassed and the signal is then
only affected by the EQUALIZER and LEVEL controls. This mode has been designed for
use with outboard processors. Second when in the PRE mode the full functions
MINOTAUR are in circuit. Third when in the SLAVE mode the complete pre amplifier is
bypassed and the main amplifier is fed from the #1 RCA input (refer to application
drawings).
The five (5) band equalizer has been designed for constant Q operation. What this means
is that the bandwidth of the boosted (or cut) signal remains constant no matter the
amount of boost or cut. Pretty much all equalizers in mobile electronics use simple forms
of equalizers wherein the Q(bandwidth) varies depending on the amount of boost (or cut)
being of low Q (wide bandwidth) at low to moderate amounts of boost/cut and only
attaining the designed Q at close to full boost/cut. Please refer to the diagrams on the
next page.
In order to bridge two MINOTAURs we shall of course use two amplifiers, one being the
MASTER and the other the SLAVE. The master’s pre amplifier is used and the SLAVE
has its pre amplifier bypassed via the MODE switch. The line output marked INVERT is
used to drive from the MASTER to the SLAVE.
A further mode of operation is available when the NON INVERT line output is used on the
MASTER. This line out is simply fed to the SLAVE and the two amplifiers each simply
drive their own speakers with no bridging invoked.
Page 26
Four (4) MINOTAURS may be connected in a parallel-bridge configuration when the need
for ultra high power is required. Refer to the later diagrams.
Graphs showing the difference between conventional and constant Q equalizers
LOW IMPEDANCE LOADS - 1 Ohm and below - Our philosophy
WE ARE ABSOLUTELY 100% AGAINST THESE LOADS
There is no reason to run a “daily driver” or SQ system into these loads. The aim is quality
after all and not sound pressure.
We believe that the person who chooses to own one of our amplifiers has one interest
only and that is sound quality.
The amount of heat generated by an amplifier when driving 1 ohm or less is tremendous.
The gain is simply an ego trip. The loss is reliability and sound quality. Yes MINOTAUR
doubles its power from 4 to 2 ohm BUT this only represents a 3dB gain in power and in
our opinion is not audible.
We recognize that many will drive 2 ohm loads and MINOTAUR has been designed for
this. However we always urge our customers to choose their speaker impedance wisely
especially when using DVC drivers.
Page 27
MINOTAUR driving one or more speakers as a stand alone
amplifier from a four output signal source.
1/slave
3
EQUALIZER
INVERT
0
25Hz
0
0
0
40Hz
31Hz
0
50Hz
PEAK OUTPUT
63Hz
125 250 500
63
+12
-12
-12
+12
+12
-12
35
20
1+2
130
LINE IN
NON
INVERT
1-4
LINE OUT
LINE IN
85
63
12
4
2
100
HIGH PASS
0
w/4Ohm
+12
-6
-9
1.9v
-3
0
dB
210
45
180
PHASE
-12
185
60
80
10
+12
-12
230
LOW PASS
8.0v
0.25v
FLAT
PRE SLAVE
MODE
LEVEL
THE CONTROLS SHOWN IN GREEN
ARE APPLICABLE ONLY
FRONT
REAR
BATTERY
TRACK 7
FUSE
REMOTE >3v
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
+ +
POWER CONNECTIONS
GND REM BATT+
REFER TO THE MANUAL FOR
INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO BRIDGE
A PAIR OF THESE AMPLIFIERS
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM
CHASSIS
A SECOND DRIVER MAY BE CONNECTED
IN PARALLEL WITH THE FIRST DRIVER
THE NET MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHMS SO USE
TWO 4 OHM DRIVERS. (1,000w)
SINGLE DVC 4 OHM, PARALLEL THE COILS FOR 2 OHM NET (1,000W)
+ -
+ -
SINGLE DVC 2 OHM, SERIES THE COILS FOR 4 OHM NET (500w)
TWO DVC 4 OHM DRIVERS. PARALLEL EACH DRIVER’S COILS
AND SERIES THE TWO DRIVERS FOR 4 OHM NET (500w)
TWO DVC 2 OHM DRIVERS. PARALLEL EACH DRIVER’S COILS
AND SERIES THE TWO DRIVERS FOR 2 OHM NET (1,000w)
Page 28
MINOTAUR driving one or more speakers as a stand alone
amplifier from a two output signal source.
1/slave
3
EQUALIZER
INVERT
0
25Hz
0
0
0
40Hz
31Hz
0
50Hz
PEAK OUTPUT
63Hz
125 250 500
63
+12
-12
-12
+12
+12
-12
35
20
1+2
130
LINE IN
NON
INVERT
1-4
LINE OUT
LINE IN
85
63
12
4
2
100
HIGH PASS
0
w/4Ohm
+12
-6
-9
1.9v
-3
0
dB
210
45
180
PHASE
-12
185
60
80
10
+12
-12
230
LOW PASS
8.0v
0.25v
FLAT
PRE SLAVE
MODE
LEVEL
THE CONTROLS SHOWN IN GREEN
ARE APPLICABLE ONLY
RCAs 3 AND 4 ARE NOW LOOP
OUTPUTS AND MAY FEED A
SECOND AMPLIFIER WITH A
FLAT RESPONSE SIGNAL
FRONT
REAR
BATTERY
TRACK 7
FUSE
REMOTE >3v
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
+ +
POWER CONNECTIONS
GND REM BATT+
REFER TO THE MANUAL FOR
INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO BRIDGE
A PAIR OF THESE AMPLIFIERS
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM
CHASSIS
A SECOND DRIVER MAY BE CONNECTED
IN PARALLEL WITH THE FIRST DRIVER
THE NET MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHMS SO USE
TWO 4 OHM DRIVERS. (1,000w)
SINGLE DVC 4 OHM, PARALLEL THE COILS FOR 2 OHM NET (1,000W)
+ -
+ -
SINGLE DVC 2 OHM, SERIES THE COILS FOR 4 OHM NET (500w)
TWO DVC 4 OHM DRIVERS. PARALLEL EACH DRIVER’S COILS
AND SERIES THE TWO DRIVERS FOR 4 OHM NET (500w)
TWO DVC 2 OHM DRIVERS. PARALLEL EACH DRIVER’S COILS
AND SERIES THE TWO DRIVERS FOR 2 OHM NET (1,000w)
Page 29
MINOTAUR driving one or more speakers as a stand alone
amplifier from a four output signal source and set to
FLAT mode. This drawing applies to any configuration where a
single MINOTAUR is used.
1/slave
3
EQUALIZER
INVERT
0
25Hz
0
0
0
40Hz
31Hz
0
50Hz
PEAK OUTPUT
63Hz
125 250 500
63
+12
-12
-12
+12
+12
-12
35
20
1+2
130
LINE IN
NON
INVERT
1-4
LINE OUT
LINE IN
85
63
12
4
2
100
HIGH PASS
0
w/4Ohm
+12
-6
-9
1.9v
-3
0
dB
210
45
180
PHASE
-12
185
60
80
10
+12
-12
230
LOW PASS
8.0v
0.25v
FLAT
PRE SLAVE
MODE
LEVEL
THE CONTROLS SHOWN IN GREEN
ARE APPLICABLE ONLY
FRONT
REAR
BATTERY
TRACK 7
FUSE
REMOTE >3v
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
+ +
POWER CONNECTIONS
GND REM BATT+
REFER TO THE MANUAL FOR
INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO BRIDGE
A PAIR OF THESE AMPLIFIERS
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM
CHASSIS
A SECOND DRIVER MAY BE CONNECTED
IN PARALLEL WITH THE FIRST DRIVER
THE NET MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHMS SO USE
TWO 4 OHM DRIVERS. (1,000w)
SINGLE DVC 4 OHM, PARALLEL THE COILS FOR 2 OHM NET (1,000W)
+ -
+ -
SINGLE DVC 2 OHM, SERIES THE COILS FOR 4 OHM NET (500w)
TWO DVC 4 OHM DRIVERS. PARALLEL EACH DRIVER’S COILS
AND SERIES THE TWO DRIVERS FOR 4 OHM NET (500w)
TWO DVC 2 OHM DRIVERS. PARALLEL EACH DRIVER’S COILS
AND SERIES THE TWO DRIVERS FOR 2 OHM NET (1,000w)
Page 30
FRONT
Two MINOTAURS driving one or more speakers each.
Signal source shown as 2 but may be a 2 or 4 source
(See previous drawings)
REAR
TRACK 7
THE CONTROLS SHOWN IN GREEN
ARE APPLICABLE ONLY
1/slave
3
EQUALIZER
INVERT
0
25Hz
0
0
0
40Hz
31Hz
0
50Hz
PEAK OUTPUT
63Hz
63
+12
-12
-12
+12
35
20
1+2
LINE IN
1/slave
3
NON
INVERT
1-4
LINE OUT
LINE IN
25Hz
A
RC
-9
1.9v
ble
ca
0
0.25v
8.0v
230
FLAT
0
0
50Hz
+12
-12
+12
20
130
1-4
LINE OUT
LINE IN
85
63
12
NON
INVERT
MASTER
dB
PRE SLAVE
100
HIGH PASS
0
180
PHASE
125 250 500
w/4Ohm
+12
1.9v
-9
-6
-3
0
dB
SLAVE
210
45
230
LOW PASS
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
+ +
-12
185
60
80
10
+12
-12
+12
-12
35
1+2
LINE IN
0
PEAK OUTPUT
63Hz
63
4
-3
MODE
LEVEL
LOW PASS
0
40Hz
31Hz
-12
2
-6
EQUALIZER
INVERT
0
A
RC
to
PHASE
w/4Ohm
210
45
180
0
100
HIGH PASS
125 250 500
+12
185
60
80
10
-12
130
85
63
12
4
2
+12
-12
+12
-12
8.0v
0.25v
FLAT
PRE SLAVE
MODE
LEVEL
POWER CONNECTIONS
GND REM BATT+
MASTER
REFER TO THE MANUAL FOR
INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO BRIDGE
A PAIR OF THESE AMPLIFIERS
FUSE
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM
CHASSIS
+ -
+ -
BATTERY
FUSE
150A
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
+ +
POWER CONNECTIONS
GND REM BATT+
REFER TO THE MANUAL FOR
INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO BRIDGE
A PAIR OF THESE AMPLIFIERS
FUSE
SLAVE
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM
CHASSIS
+ -
+ FOR SPEAKER IMPEDANCE INFORMATION
REFER TO Page 30
Page 31
Two MINOTAURS bridged and driving one or more speakers
Signal source shown as 2 but may be a 2 or 4 source
(See previous drawings Pgs 28 and 29)
FRONT
REAR
TRACK 7
THE CONTROLS SHOWN IN GREEN
ARE APPLICABLE ONLY
1/slave
3
EQUALIZER
INVERT
0
0
25Hz
0
0
40Hz
31Hz
0
50Hz
PEAK OUTPUT
63Hz
63
+12
-12
-12
+12
35
20
1+2
LINE IN
1/slave
3
NON
INVERT
1-4
LINE OUT
LINE IN
0
25Hz
A
RC
R
to
-9
1.9v
ble
ca
0.25v
8.0v
230
FLAT
0
0
50Hz
+12
-12
+12
130
1-4
LINE OUT
LINE IN
85
63
12
NON
INVERT
MASTER
dB
PRE SLAVE
100
HIGH PASS
0
180
PHASE
125 250 500
w/4Ohm
+12
1.9v
-9
-6
-3
0
dB
SLAVE
210
45
230
LOW PASS
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
+ +
-12
185
60
80
10
+12
-12
+12
-12
35
20
1+2
LINE IN
0
PEAK OUTPUT
63Hz
63
4
-3
MODE
LEVEL
LOW PASS
0
40Hz
31Hz
-12
2
-6
EQUALIZER
INVERT
0
CA
PHASE
w/4Ohm
210
45
180
0
100
HIGH PASS
125 250 500
+12
185
60
80
10
-12
130
85
63
12
4
2
+12
-12
+12
-12
8.0v
0.25v
FLAT
PRE SLAVE
MODE
LEVEL
POWER CONNECTIONS
GND REM BATT+
MASTER
REFER TO THE MANUAL FOR
INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO BRIDGE
A PAIR OF THESE AMPLIFIERS
FUSE
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM
CHASSIS
#8 GROUND STRAP CONNECTED
BETWEEN “-” SPEAKER TERMINALS
OF EACH AMPLIFIER
BATTERY
FUSE
150A
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
+ +
POWER CONNECTIONS
GND REM BATT+
REFER TO THE MANUAL FOR
INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO BRIDGE
A PAIR OF THESE AMPLIFIERS
FUSE
SLAVE
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM
CHASSIS
+ -
MINIMUM SPEAKER IMPEDANCE
IN BRIDGE MODE IS 4 OHMS
FOR SPEAKER IMPEDANCE INFORMATION
REFER TO Page 22
Page 32
FRONT
FOUR MINOTAURS in a parallel/bridge mode configuration
Signal source shown as 2 but may be a 2 or 4 source
(See previous drawings)
REAR
TRACK 7
3
EQUALIZER
INVERT
0
25Hz
0
0
0
40Hz
31Hz
0
50Hz
PEAK OUTPUT
63Hz
63
+12
-12
-12
+12
20
1+2
LINE IN
RCA to RCA cable
1/slave
3
NON
INVERT
1-4
LINE OUT
LINE IN
85
63
0
0
0.25v
8.0v
230
FLAT
0
0
50Hz
-12
+12
20
1+2
+12
-12
1/slave
3
NON
INVERT
1-4
LINE OUT
LINE IN
85
63
-12
PHASE
-9
0
0.25v
8.0v
230
FLAT
0
0
50Hz
+12
-12
+12
20
1+2
+12
-12
NON
INVERT
1-4
LINE OUT
LINE IN
85
63
-12
PHASE
-9
0
0.25v
8.0v
230
FLAT
0
w/4Ohm
dB
SLAVE 2
PRE SLAVE
MODE
LEVEL
LOW PASS
0
0
50Hz
PEAK OUTPUT
63Hz
63
+12
-12
+12
+12
-12
1+2
20
130
NON
INVERT
1-4
LINE IN
85
63
12
LINE OUT
100
HIGH PASS
0
180
PHASE
-12
125 250 500
w/4Ohm
+12
1.9v
-9
-6
-3
0
dB
SLAVE 3
185
60
80
10
+12
-12
35
210
45
230
LOW PASS
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
+ +
-3
210
0
40Hz
31Hz
-12
4
-6
EQUALIZER
0
LINE IN
125 250 500
185
45
180
0
100
HIGH PASS
INVERT
25Hz
2
SLAVE 1
PRE SLAVE
+12
1.9v
60
80
10
+12
-12
130
12
3
w/4Ohm
dB
PEAK OUTPUT
63Hz
63
1/slave
0
MODE
LEVEL
LOW PASS
35
RCA to RCA cable
-3
210
0
40Hz
31Hz
-12
4
-6
EQUALIZER
0
LINE IN
125 250 500
185
45
180
0
100
HIGH PASS
INVERT
25Hz
2
MASTER
PRE SLAVE
+12
1.9v
60
80
10
+12
-12
130
12
RCA to RCA cable
w/4Ohm
dB
PEAK OUTPUT
63Hz
63
+12
35
4
0
MODE
LEVEL
LOW PASS
0
40Hz
31Hz
-12
LINE IN
-3
EQUALIZER
INVERT
25Hz
2
-6
185
45
PHASE
-9
210
180
0
100
HIGH PASS
125 250 500
+12
1.9v
60
80
10
-12
130
12
4
2
+12
-12
+12
-12
35
8.0v
0.25v
FLAT
PRE SLAVE
MODE
LEVEL
POWER CONNECTIONS
THE CONTROLS SHOWN IN GREEN
ARE APPLICABLE ONLY
1/slave
GND REM BATT+
MASTER
REFER TO THE MANUAL FOR
INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO BRIDGE
A PAIR OF THESE AMPLIFIERS
FUSE
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM
CHASSIS
#8 GROUND STRAP CONNECTED
BETWEEN “-” SPEAKER TERMINALS
OF EACH AMPLIFIER
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
+ +
POWER CONNECTIONS
GND REM BATT+
REFER TO THE MANUAL FOR
INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO BRIDGE
A PAIR OF THESE AMPLIFIERS
FUSE
SLAVE 1
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM
FUSE
150A
CHASSIS
+ -
MINIMUM SPEAKER IMPEDANCE
IN BRIDGE MODE IS 4 OHMS
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
+ +
FOR SPEAKER IMPEDANCE INFORMATION
REFER TO Page 22
POWER CONNECTIONS
GND REM BATT+
REFER TO THE MANUAL FOR
INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO BRIDGE
A PAIR OF THESE AMPLIFIERS
SLAVE 2
BATTERY
FUSE
150A
FUSE
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM
CHASSIS
#8 GROUND STRAP CONNECTED
BETWEEN “-” SPEAKER TERMINALS
OF EACH AMPLIFIER
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
+ +
POWER CONNECTIONS
GND REM BATT+
REFER TO THE MANUAL FOR
INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO BRIDGE
A PAIR OF THESE AMPLIFIERS
FUSE
SLAVE 3
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM
CHASSIS
+ -
MINIMUM SPEAKER IMPEDANCE
IN BRIDGE MODE IS 4 OHMS
FOR SPEAKER IMPEDANCE INFORMATION
REFER TO Page 22
Page 33
FOUR MINOTAURS in a parallel/bridge mode configuration
continued.
The MASTERamplifier receives the signals from the source unit.
SLAVE 1 and the MASTER are bridged as a pair as per instructions on Page 32.
The MASTER drives from its NON INVERT line output to SLAVE 2
SLAVE 2 drives SLAVE 3 from its INVERT line output.
SLAVE 2 and SLAVE 3 are then connected in bridge mode.
The MASTER controls the crossover frequencies, the phase, the master level and the
equalization.
SLAVE 2’s LEVEL control shall control the relative level of the second bridged pair.
Leave the equalization controls on SLAVE 2 in their “0” positions.
Page 34
DRACONIA and dreadnought
DRACONIA AND DREADNOUGHT are the first new 4 channel amplifiers. DRACONIA’S
output is a modest 100w x 4 at 4 ohm but by no means a wimp when bridged as a 2
channel amplifier into 4 ohms where the amplifier delivers 400w/ch and 200w/ch into 8
ohms.
DREADNOUGHT at 225w x 4 at 4 ohm is the powerhouse and when bridged into 4 ohms
delivers 800w/ch and into 8 ohms 400w/ch..
Versatility was one of the prime requirements in the design of these two amplifiers. They
share the same features but for the difference in power.
Some basic features:
Channels 1+2 may be run in flat mode ie. No signal processing.
Channels 1+2 may be run in high pass, low pass or bandpass modes.
Channels 1+2 can be switched to use the signal path from channels 3+4.**
The LEVEL control of channels 1+2 sets the level for these two channels.
Channels 3+4 can be switched to use the signal from channels 1+2 inputs(2 input source)
Channels 3+4 may be run in high pass, low pass or bandpass modes.
Channels 3+4 can be switched to SUB mode where a sub sonic filter and 40Hz equalizer
are switched into circuit. This SUB mode used the mono mix of all four inputs.
If only 2 inputs are used the gain is reduced by 12dB. This can be adjusted at the factory
for zero insertion loss.
Each channel has its own LED to indicate channel clipping. When an LED flashed this
indicates the onset of clipping. Typically one can accept about 1 to 1.5dB of clipping at low
frequencies however our ears are more sensitive to clipping and mid and high
frequencies.
The overbuilt power supplies are run at 75KHz and DRACONIA uses six 110 amp power
MOSFETs in the supply, DREADNOUGHT has twelve. Each amplifier employs a total of
13 regulated power supplies, so they are quite immune to changes in battery voltage.
A new generation of IC chips from National Semiconductor is used in the pre amplifier
sections of both amplifiers. They contribute almost zero THD and they are extremely low
noise.
The class D amplifiers in DRACONIA use ultra low gate charge MOSFETs rated at 18
amps each. DREADNOUGHT employs a similar low gate charge part but these are rated
at 50 amps each. The carrier frequencies used in the class D amplifiers varies between
400 and 500KHz which prevents inter channel frequency beating.
The ZED logo doubles as a power and a protection indicator, flashing in protect mode
and solid under normal operating conditions.
Page 35
DRACONIA/DREADNOUGHT driving four channels
all in FLAT mode using component speakers.
Signal source is front and rear.
3
1
SOURCE HIGH PASS
LOW PASS SUBSONIC
MODE
290
290
1+2 135
760 BP
SUB 135
760 20
85
135
85
2
4
BP
4K
HIGH PASS
135
LP
MODE
4K
55
11
+4dB
8v
FLAT HP LP/BP
0.25v
1
4K
8v
LOW PASS
+12dB
0
3+4
1.5K
55
3+4
48
1.3v
760
40Hz EQ
1.3v
44
1.5K
85
NOR
290
LP
85
1.5K
55
INPUTS
1.5K
4K
LEVEL
40
15
55
3+4
290
760
MODE
30
0.25v
LEVEL
1+2
MODE
2
3
4
FLAT HP LP/BP
1+2
MODE
CLIP
THE CONTROLS SHOWN IN GREEN
ARE APPLICABLE ONLY
FRONT
REAR
BATTERY
TRACK 7
FUSE
REMOTE >3v
BRIDGE
1+
1_
2+
BRIDGE
2_
3+
3 _ 4+
POWER CONNECTIONS
4_
GND REM BATT+
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM/CHANNEL or 4 OHM/ BRIDGED PAIR
CHASSIS
+ -
+ -
+ -
+ -
Page 36
DRACONIA/DREADNOUGHT driving four channels
all in FLAT mode using component speakers.
Signal source is TWO (2) channel.
IN THIS MODE THE SIGNAL IS ROUTED TO BOTH SETS OF CHANNEL PAIRS
AND EACH CHANNEL PAIR IS INDEPENDENT
3
1
SOURCE HIGH PASS
LOW PASS SUBSONIC
MODE
290
290
1+2 135
760 BP
SUB 135
760 20
135
55
3+4
290
760
85
2
4
4K
BP
4K
HIGH PASS
135
LP
MODE
4K
55
NOR
290
LP
11
+4dB
8v
FLAT HP LP/BP
0.25v
1
4K
8v
LOW PASS
+12dB
0
3+4
1.5K
55
3+4
48
1.3v
760
40Hz EQ
1.3v
44
1.5K
85
85
1.5K
55
INPUTS
1.5K
LEVEL
40
15
85
MODE
30
0.25v
LEVEL
1+2
MODE
2
3
4
FLAT HP LP/BP
1+2
MODE
CLIP
THE CONTROLS SHOWN IN GREEN
ARE APPLICABLE ONLY
FRONT
REAR
BATTERY
TRACK 7
FUSE
REMOTE >3v
BRIDGE
1+
1_ 2+
BRIDGE
2_
3+
3 _ 4+
POWER CONNECTIONS
4_
GND REM BATT+
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM/CHANNEL or 4 OHM/ BRIDGED PAIR
CHASSIS
+ -
+ -
+ -
+ -
Page 37
DRACONIA/DREADNOUGHT driving four channels
all in FLAT mode using component speakers.
Signal source is TWO (2) channel from 3+4 inputs.
IN THIS MODE THE SIGNAL IS ROUTED TO CHANNEL 3+4 PRE AMPLIFIERS ONLY
BUT ALL FUNCTIONS OF 3+4 AFFECT 1+2 - LEVEL CONTROLS ARE INDEPENDENT
3
1
SOURCE HIGH PASS
LOW PASS SUBSONIC
MODE
290
290
1+2 135
760 BP
SUB 135
760 20
135
55
3+4
290
760
85
2
4
4K
BP
4K
HIGH PASS
135
LP
MODE
4K
55
NOR
290
LP
11
+4dB
8v
FLAT HP LP/BP
0.25v
1
4K
8v
LOW PASS
+12dB
0
3+4
1.5K
55
3+4
48
1.3v
760
40Hz EQ
1.3v
44
1.5K
85
85
1.5K
55
INPUTS
1.5K
LEVEL
40
15
85
MODE
30
0.25v
LEVEL
1+2
MODE
2
3
4
FLAT HP LP/BP
1+2
MODE
CLIP
THE CONTROLS SHOWN IN GREEN
ARE APPLICABLE ONLY
FRONT
REAR
BATTERY
TRACK 7
FUSE
REMOTE >3v
BRIDGE
1+
1_ 2+
BRIDGE
2_
3+
3 _ 4+
POWER CONNECTIONS
4_
GND REM BATT+
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM/CHANNEL or 4 OHM/ BRIDGED PAIR
CHASSIS
+ -
+ -
+ -
+ -
Page 38
DRACONIA/DREADNOUGHT driving four channels
all in HIGH PASS mode using component speakers.
Signal source is FRONT and REAR
THE SPEAKERS ARE NOT NECESSARILY COMPONENT TYPES,
THEY OF COURSE CAN BE TWEETERS
3
1
SOURCE HIGH PASS
LOW PASS SUBSONIC
MODE
290
290
1+2 135
760 BP
SUB 135
760 20
135
55
3+4
290
760
85
2
4
4K
BP
4K
HIGH PASS
135
LP
MODE
4K
55
NOR
290
LP
11
+4dB
8v
FLAT HP LP/BP
0.25v
1
4K
8v
LOW PASS
+12dB
0
3+4
1.5K
55
3+4
48
1.3v
760
40Hz EQ
1.3v
44
1.5K
85
85
1.5K
55
INPUTS
1.5K
LEVEL
40
15
85
MODE
30
0.25v
LEVEL
1+2
MODE
2
3
4
FLAT HP LP/BP
1+2
MODE
CLIP
THE CONTROLS SHOWN IN GREEN
ARE APPLICABLE ONLY
FRONT
REAR
BATTERY
TRACK 7
FUSE
REMOTE >3v
BRIDGE
1+
1_ 2+
BRIDGE
2_
3+
3 _ 4+
POWER CONNECTIONS
4_
GND REM BATT+
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM/CHANNEL or 4 OHM/ BRIDGED PAIR
CHASSIS
+ -
+ -
+ -
+ -
Page 39
DRACONIA/DREADNOUGHT driving four channels
all in HIGH PASS mode using component speakers.
Signal source is 1+2
THE SPEAKERS ARE NOT NECESSARILY COMPONENT TYPES,
THEY OF COURSE CAN BE TWEETERS
3
1
SOURCE HIGH PASS
LOW PASS SUBSONIC
MODE
290
290
1+2 135
760 BP
SUB 135
760 20
135
55
3+4
290
760
85
2
4
4K
BP
4K
HIGH PASS
135
LP
MODE
4K
55
NOR
290
LP
11
+4dB
8v
FLAT HP LP/BP
0.25v
1
4K
8v
LOW PASS
+12dB
0
3+4
1.5K
55
3+4
48
1.3v
760
40Hz EQ
1.3v
44
1.5K
85
85
1.5K
55
INPUTS
1.5K
LEVEL
40
15
85
MODE
30
0.25v
LEVEL
1+2
MODE
2
3
4
FLAT HP LP/BP
1+2
MODE
CLIP
THE CONTROLS SHOWN IN GREEN
ARE APPLICABLE ONLY
FRONT
REAR
BATTERY
TRACK 7
FUSE
REMOTE >3v
BRIDGE
1+
1_ 2+
BRIDGE
2_
3+
3 _ 4+
POWER CONNECTIONS
4_
GND REM BATT+
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM/CHANNEL or 4 OHM/ BRIDGED PAIR
CHASSIS
+ -
+ -
+ -
+ -
Page 40
DRACONIA/DREADNOUGHT driving four channels
all in HIGH PASS mode using component speakers.
Signal source is 3+4
IN THIS MODE THE SIGNAL IS ROUTED TO CHANNEL 3+4 PRE AMPLIFIERS ONLY
BUT ALL FUNCTIONS OF 3+4 AFFECT 1+2 - LEVEL CONTROLS ARE INDEPENDENT
3
1
SOURCE HIGH PASS
LOW PASS SUBSONIC
MODE
290
290
1+2 135
760 BP
SUB 135
760 20
135
55
3+4
290
760
85
2
4
4K
BP
4K
HIGH PASS
135
LP
MODE
4K
55
NOR
290
LP
11
+4dB
8v
FLAT HP LP/BP
0.25v
1
4K
8v
LOW PASS
+12dB
0
3+4
1.5K
55
3+4
48
1.3v
760
40Hz EQ
1.3v
44
1.5K
85
85
1.5K
55
INPUTS
1.5K
LEVEL
40
15
85
MODE
30
0.25v
LEVEL
1+2
MODE
2
3
4
FLAT HP LP/BP
1+2
MODE
CLIP
THE CONTROLS SHOWN IN GREEN
ARE APPLICABLE ONLY
FRONT
REAR
BATTERY
TRACK 7
FUSE
REMOTE >3v
BRIDGE
1+
1_ 2+
BRIDGE
2_
3+
3 _ 4+
POWER CONNECTIONS
4_
GND REM BATT+
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM/CHANNEL or 4 OHM/ BRIDGED PAIR
CHASSIS
+ -
+ -
+ -
+ -
Page 41
DRACONIA/DREADNOUGHT driving four channels
all in LOW PASS mode using woofers.
Signal source is 1+2
THE TWO PAIRS OF CHANNELS USE THEIR OWN LOW PASS CROSSOVERS.
USING ALL FOUR INPUTS REQUIRES THIS SWITCH TO BE IN THE “3+4 POSITION
AND SIGNALS MUST BE FED INTO CHANNELS 3+4 AS WELL
USING Y ADAPTORS
3
1
SOURCE HIGH PASS
LOW PASS SUBSONIC
MODE
290
290
1+2 135
760 BP
SUB 135
760 20
135
55
3+4
290
760
85
2
4
4K
BP
4K
HIGH PASS
135
8v
FLAT HP LP/BP
0.25v
+12dB
0
3+4
1
4K
LOW PASS
3+4
48
1.3v
760
8v
MODE
11
+4dB
1.5K
55
LP
4K
55
NOR
290
LP
40Hz EQ
1.3v
44
1.5K
85
85
1.5K
55
INPUTS
1.5K
LEVEL
40
15
85
MODE
30
0.25v
LEVEL
1+2
MODE
2
3
4
FLAT HP LP/BP
1+2
MODE
CLIP
THE CONTROLS SHOWN IN GREEN
ARE APPLICABLE ONLY
FRONT
REAR
BATTERY
TRACK 7
FUSE
REMOTE >3v
BRIDGE
1+
1_ 2+
BRIDGE
2_
3+
3 _ 4+
POWER CONNECTIONS
4_
GND REM BATT+
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM/CHANNEL or 4 OHM/ BRIDGED PAIR
CHASSIS
+ -
+ -
+ -
+ -
Page 42
DRACONIA/DREADNOUGHT driving four channels
all in LOW PASS (SUB) mode using woofers.
Signal source is 3+4
NOTE THAT CHANNELS 1+2 USE THE CROSSOVER AND EQ SETTINGS
FROM 3+4 AND THE TWO LEVEL CONTROLS SET THE GAINS INDEPENDENTLY
WITH THE SWITCHES SET AS SHOWN BELOW, THE SIGNAL IS 12dB DOWN IN LEVEL.
TO RETURN IT TO 0dB THE RCA INPUTS 1+2 MUST BE Y-ADAPTED WITH THE
SIGNALS OF 3+4
THIS MODE SWITCH IS OUT
THIS MODE SWITCH IS IN
3
1
SOURCE HIGH PASS
LOW PASS SUBSONIC
MODE
290
290
1+2 135
760 BP
SUB 135
760 20
135
55
3+4
290
760
85
2
4
4K
BP
4K
HIGH PASS
135
8v
FLAT HP LP/BP
0.25v
+12dB
0
3+4
1
4K
LOW PASS
3+4
48
1.3v
760
8v
MODE
11
+4dB
1.5K
55
LP
4K
55
NOR
290
LP
40Hz EQ
1.3v
44
1.5K
85
85
1.5K
55
INPUTS
1.5K
LEVEL
40
15
85
MODE
30
0.25v
LEVEL
1+2
MODE
2
3
4
FLAT HP LP/BP
1+2
MODE
CLIP
THE CONTROLS SHOWN IN GREEN
ARE APPLICABLE ONLY
FRONT
REAR
BATTERY
TRACK 7
FUSE
REMOTE >3v
BRIDGE
1+
1_ 2+
BRIDGE
2_
3+
3 _ 4+
POWER CONNECTIONS
4_
GND REM BATT+
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM/CHANNEL or 4 OHM/ BRIDGED PAIR
CHASSIS
+ -
+ -
+ -
+ -
Page 43
DRACONIA/DREADNOUGHT driving four channels
1+2 in HIGH PASS and 3+4 in LOW PASS
Signal source is 1+2
NOTE WITH THESE SETTINGS THE SUBSONIC AND 40Hz EQ HAVE NOT BEEN INVOKED
ON CHANNELS 3+4
3
1
SOURCE HIGH PASS
LOW PASS SUBSONIC
MODE
290
290
1+2 135
760 BP
SUB 135
760 20
135
55
3+4
290
760
85
2
4
4K
BP
4K
HIGH PASS
135
8v
FLAT HP LP/BP
0.25v
+12dB
0
3+4
1
4K
LOW PASS
3+4
48
1.3v
760
8v
MODE
11
+4dB
1.5K
55
LP
4K
55
NOR
290
LP
40Hz EQ
1.3v
44
1.5K
85
85
1.5K
55
INPUTS
1.5K
LEVEL
40
15
85
MODE
30
0.25v
LEVEL
1+2
MODE
2
3
4
FLAT HP LP/BP
1+2
MODE
CLIP
THE CONTROLS SHOWN IN GREEN
ARE APPLICABLE ONLY
FRONT
REAR
BATTERY
TRACK 7
FUSE
REMOTE >3v
BRIDGE
1+
1_ 2+
BRIDGE
2_
3+
3 _ 4+
POWER CONNECTIONS
4_
GND REM BATT+
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM/CHANNEL or 4 OHM/ BRIDGED PAIR
CHASSIS
+ -
+ -
+ -
+ -
Page 44
DRACONIA/DREADNOUGHT driving four channels
1+2 in HIGH PASS and 3+4 in LOW PASS
Signal source is 1+2 and 3+4
CHANNELS 3+4 PROCESS THE MIX OF INPUTS 1-4, THE SIGNAL IS MONO AND
CHANNELS 3+4 MAY BE BRIDGED, CHANNELS 1+2 ARE IN STEREO
THIS MODE SWITCH IS OUT
3
1
THIS MODE SWITCH IS IN
SOURCE HIGH PASS
LOW PASS SUBSONIC
MODE
290
290
1+2 135
760 BP
SUB 135
760 20
135
3+4
290
760
85
2
4
55
4K
BP
4K
HIGH PASS
NOR
290
LP
135
8v
FLAT HP LP/BP
0.25v
+12dB
0
3+4
1
4K
LOW PASS
3+4
48
1.3v
760
8v
MODE
11
+4dB
1.5K
55
LP
4K
55
40Hz EQ
1.3v
44
1.5K
85
85
1.5K
55
INPUTS
1.5K
LEVEL
40
15
85
MODE
30
0.25v
LEVEL
1+2
MODE
2
3
4
FLAT HP LP/BP
1+2
MODE
CLIP
THE CONTROLS SHOWN IN GREEN
ARE APPLICABLE ONLY
IF ALL 4 CHANNELS ARE REQUIRED FOR SUBS
SET THIS SWITCH TO THE “3+4” POSITION.
FRONT
REAR
BATTERY
TRACK 7
FUSE
REMOTE >3v
BRIDGE
1+
1_ 2+
BRIDGE
2_
3+
3 _ 4+
POWER CONNECTIONS
4_
GND REM BATT+
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM/CHANNEL or 4 OHM/ BRIDGED PAIR
CHASSIS
+ -
+ -
+ -
+ -
- +
ALTERNATE CONNECTION
WOOFER BRIDGED ON
CHANNELS 3+4
Page 45
DRACONIA/DREADNOUGHT driving four channels
1+2 in BAND PASS and 3+4 in BAND PASS
Signal source is 1+2
CHANNELS 1+2 HANDLE THE UPPER MIDRANGE, 3+4 THE LOWER MIDRANGE
THE HIGH AND LOW PASS CROSSOVERS ARE SET TO SUIT THE DRIVERS
THIS MODE SWITCH IS IN
3
1
THIS MODE SWITCH IS OUT
SOURCE HIGH PASS
LOW PASS SUBSONIC
MODE
290
290
1+2 135
760 BP
SUB 135
760 20
135
3+4
290
760
85
2
4
55
4K
BP
4K
LP
HIGH PASS
NOR
290
LP
135
MODE
4K
55
11
+4dB
8v
FLAT HP LP/BP
0.25v
55
+12dB
0
3+4
1
1.5K
4K
8v
LOW PASS
3+4
48
1.3v
760
40Hz EQ
1.3v
44
1.5K
85
85
1.5K
55
INPUTS
1.5K
LEVEL
40
15
85
MODE
30
0.25v
LEVEL
1+2
MODE
2
3
4
FLAT HP LP/BP
1+2
MODE
CLIP
THE CONTROLS SHOWN IN GREEN
ARE APPLICABLE ONLY
SIGNAL INPUTS ARE VIA 1+2
FRONT
REAR
BATTERY
TRACK 7
FUSE
REMOTE >3v
BRIDGE
1+
1_
2+
BRIDGE
2_
3+
3 _ 4+
POWER CONNECTIONS
4_
GND REM BATT+
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM/CHANNEL or 4 OHM/ BRIDGED PAIR
CHASSIS
+ -
+ -
+ -
+ -
Page 46
DRACONIA/DREADNOUGHT Bridging instructions
Any pair of channels may be bridged independently of the others where the minimum load
impedance is 4 ohm per bridged pair.
For a pair of channels to be bridged it is required that the input signals of the channels be
the same.
To bridge channels 1+2 a Y-Adaptor is required and of course the signal should be mono.
However no harm can come to the amplifier if the signal content of the channels is not
identical.
Running channels 3+4 in “sub” mode (see page 43) automatically ensures that 3+4 have
the same signal as “sub” mode mono mixes the 3+4 input signals and send these to both
power amplifiers.
Below is shown the bridged connection for the four channels.
BRIDGE
1+
1_
2+
BRIDGE
2_
3+
3 _ 4+
POWER CONNECTIONS
4_
GND REM BATT+
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM/CHANNEL or 4 OHM/ BRIDGED PAIR
+ -
+ -
MINIMUM IMPEDANCE IS 4 OHM
PER BRIDGED PAIR
Page 47
DRACONIA/DREADNOUGHT Front panel controls
3
1
SOURCE HIGH PASS
LOW PASS SUBSONIC
MODE
290
290
1+2 135
760 BP
SUB 135
760 20
135
55
3+4
290
760
85
2
4
INPUTS
1.5K
4K
135
BP
55
4K
HIGH PASS
8v
0.25v
3+4
1
4K
1+2
0.25v
2
3
4
FLAT HP LP/BP
MODE
LEVEL
LOW PASS
3+4
+12dB
0
1.5K
8v
MODE
FLAT HP LP/BP
760
55
LP
+4dB
48
11
1.3v
85
1.5K
4K
55
NOR
290
LP
40Hz EQ
1.3v
44
1.5K
85
LEVEL
40
15
85
MODE
30
1+2
MODE
CLIP
INPUTS FOR CHANNELS 1+2
HIGH PASS CROSSOVER
MODE SWITCH CASCADES THE HP and LP CROSSOVER FOR A BANDPASS FUNCTION
LOW PASS CROSSOVER
LEVEL CONTROL
MODE SWITCH SELECTS THE SIGNAL FROM PREAMPS 1+2 OR 3+4 - IN “3+4” THE PROCESSED SIGNAL
FROM 3+4 IS ROUTED TO THE MAIN AMPLIFIERS OF 1+2
MODE SWITCH SELECTS “FLAT”, “HIGH PASS” and “LOW PASS/BANDPASS” FUNCTIONS
INPUTS FOR CHANNELS 3+4
SOURCE- ALLOWS CHANNELS 3+4 TO SELECT THE INPUT SIGNAL FROM 1+2
HIGH PASS CROSSOVER
MODE-SELECTS LP or BP FUNCTIONS - THE HP and LP CROSSOVERS ARE CASCADED
IN “SUB” MODE THE INPUT IS A MIX OF 1-4, THE SUBSONIC CROSSOVER AND 40Hz EQ ARE INSERTED
LOW PASS CROSSOVER
SUB SONIC CROSSOVER USED IN “SUB” MODE ONLY
MODE SWITCH SELECTS “FLAT”, “HIGH PASS” and “LOW PASS/BANDPASS” FUNCTIONS
LEVEL CONTROL
40Hz CONSTANT Q EQUALIZER
3
1
SOURCE HIGH PASS
LOW PASS SUBSONIC
MODE
290
290
1+2 135
760 BP
SUB 135
760 20
135
3+4
290
760
85
2
4
INPUTS
55
1.5K
4K
BP
4K
HIGH PASS
135
LP
MODE
11
+4dB
FLAT HP LP/BP
8v
0.25v
1
4K
8v
LOW PASS
+12dB
0
3+4
1.5K
55
3+4
48
1.3v
760
85
1.5K
55
NOR
290
LP
4K
55
40Hz EQ
1.3v
44
1.5K
85
LEVEL
40
15
85
MODE
30
0.25v
LEVEL
1+2
MODE
2
3
4
FLAT HP LP/BP
MODE
1+2
CLIP
Page 48
LEVIATHAN
We are proud to introduce the second generation of the LEVIATHAN amplifier. The
previous generation LEVIATHAN proved that there is a need for multi channel amplifiers
(>4 channels) in the mobile market. Several improvements have been incorporated into
the new amplifier.
1) Channels 5+6 have an expanded high pass crossover frequency range of 11Hz to
105Hz which will now enable LEVIATHAN to be part of a 4 way system. Channels 1+2 will
supply the tweeters- typically 3 to 4KHz and above, 3+4 the upper midrange - typically
200Hz to 3/4KHz and channels 5+6 will supply the lower mids from about 40-100Hz to
200Hz.
2) Channels 1+2 and 3+4 have had their crossover ranges extended to 55Hz for both low
and high pass.
3) A next generation of power supply design is used with improvements in the areas of
regulation and noise.
4) The pre amplifiers now employ an audiophile chip from National Semiconductor and we
feel that these are superior to the Burr Brown chips used previously. The Burr Browns are
outstanding chips in their own right but are now showing their age.
5) The class D amplifiers now operate at a higher carrier frequency (Between 400 and
500KHz) owing to the fact that we now use a new power MOSFET which has very low
gate charge and is also rated at 50 amps. These MOSFETs have an on resistance which
is one third that of the previous generation so the losses (= heat) are greatly reduced.
LEVIATHAN can perform in many roles. We shall now go through these permutations and
see how they all stack up.
1) Run all six channels in FLAT mode. This will enable you to use an outboard processor
of your choice including our upcoming full tube electronic crossover.
2) Run all channels in flat mode and bridge any or all of the 3 pairs of channels.
3) Run channels 1+2 in high pass independently of the other channels
4) Run channels 3+4 in high, low or band pass independently of the other channels. There
are two crossovers available on channels 3+4 and switching the high and low pass to be
in cascade allows for a band pass mode.
5) Run channels 5+6 in low pass mode using the dedicated RCA inputs.
6) Run channels 5+6 in low pass mode using the summed inputs of channels 1-4. The
signal is now MONO and this mono signal is routed to the main channel 5+6 amplifiers.
7) Channels 1+2 can be switched to receive the mono low pass signal from channels 5+6
8) Channels 3+4 can be switched to receive the mono low pass signal from channels 5+6
9) For a tri-amplified system, channels 1+2 are run high pass, channels 3+4 bandpass
and channels 5+6 low pass.
10) All six channels can be run mono low pass for those systems where there are many
single woofers.
Page 49
11) Run channels 1+2 as high pass and channels 3,4,5 and 6 as low pass for a typical
front stage system.
12) Run channels 1+2 in high pass for the front stage, channels 3+4 in high pass for the
rear fill and channels 5+6 for the subs.
13) Run channels 1+2 in high pass for the front stage tweeters, channels 3+4 in band
pass for the front stage midrange and channels 5+6 for the subs.
14) A high power front stage system. Run Chs 1+2 as high pass in bridge (300w @ 8
ohm/600w @ 4 ohm), Chs 3+4 as high pass in bridge (300w @ 8 ohm/600w @ 4 ohm)
and channels 5+6 as low pass.
15) Run channels 5+6 in bandpass mode for 4 way systems where 5+6 run the lower
midrange drivers.
So as can be seen this amplifier can do quite a few things. For those of you who only
choose to use four of the six channels, just leave all connections free to the channels you
have chosen not use.
Some will ask why there are no switches to parallel the RCA input sockets. The answer is
quite simple.....there is no place to add these switches! So those of you who may use
Leviathan as a two channel tri-amplified system you will have to use Y-adaptors or if
you are bridging a pair of channels and need to feed both inputs with the same signal.
Alternatively we can add the links before shipping and these links are easily removable.
Please refer to the diagram at the end of the LEVIATHAN diagrams. We can supply these
links on request or with your order.
LEVIATHAN uses ultra fast MOSFETs in each channel rated at 50A. The power supply
incorporates the same 110A MOSFETs as are used in our other amplifiers except that 12
are used. The power supply in LEVIATHAN uses smart technology in the power supply
and this increases the efficiency of the amplifier. Isolated ground pre amplifier with
balanced drive is used.
The following diagrams show the many options available with LEVIATHAN
LEVIATHAN.. Referring to
the above 16 options we believe that the following diagrams will allow most installers to
configure LEVIATHAN correctly for each particular system.
Important note: Do NOT power up LEVIATHAN or any of our amplifiers with the
volume level high. The internal initializing circuits will “see” this as a fault condition and
shut the amplifier down. The ZED logo will flash on and off and the amplifier will have to
be powered down for >5 seconds and then reset. This has been done to protect all
components in the system, including YOUR ears!
Page 50
LEVIATHAN run with all 6 channels with FLAT response
1
5
3
HIGH PASS
25
75
10
290
4
55
105
760
55
1+2
1
235
FLAT
LP 5+6
1.4v
290
135
85
135
290
760
85
4K
MODE
2
3
4
5
6
8.6v 0.25v
1.4v
1.5K
1.5K
55
760
55
4K
FLAT HP LP5+6
LEVEL
CLIP
LP
LP 1-4
4K
HIGH PASS
5+6
200
40
8.6v 0.25v
INPUTS
1.4v
180
1.5K
85
6
LEVEL
120
75
90
18
2
LOW PASS
45
8.6v 0.25v
FLAT HP LP/BP
LEVEL
MODE
HIGH PASS LOW PASS
LP BP LP5+6
MODE-LP/BP
3+4
THE CONTROLS SHOWN IN GREEN
ARE APPLICABLE ONLY
THE SIX (6) INPUTS CAN BE DRIVEN FROM SIX
DIFFERENT SOURCES OR Y ADAPTED AS REQUIRED
FRONT
REAR
REMOTE >3v
TRACK 7
BRIDGE
1+
1_
2+
BRIDGE
2_
3+
3 _ 4+
BRIDGE
4_
5+
5 _ 6+
POWER CONNECTIONS
6_
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM/CHANNEL or 4 OHM/ BRIDGED PAIR
GND REM BATT+
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
FUSE
+ -
+ -
+ -
+ -
+ -
+ -
BATTERY
Page 51
LEVIATHAN with 6 channels in FLAT response and bridged
5
3
1
HIGH PASS
25
75
18
10
4
2
6
1+2
1.4v
180
55
105
55
1
235
135
85
LEVEL
135
760
85
4K
290
760
55
3
4
5
6
8.6v 0.25v
1.4v
4K
FLAT HP LP5+6
MODE
2
1.5K
1.5K
55
4K
HIGH PASS
FLAT
LP 5+6
290
1.5K
85
CLIP
LP
LP 1-4
1.4v
760
5+6
200
40
8.6v 0.25v
INPUTS
LEVEL
120
75
90
290
LOW PASS
45
HIGH PASS LOW PASS
8.6v 0.25v
FLAT HP LP/BP
LEVEL
MODE
LP BP LP5+6
MODE-LP/BP
3+4
THE CONTROLS SHOWN IN GREEN
ARE APPLICABLE ONLY
THE THREE (3) INPUTS CAN BE DRIVEN FROM THREE
DIFFERENT SOURCES OR Y ADAPTED AS REQUIRED
FRONT
REAR
REMOTE >3v
TRACK 7
BRIDGE
6_
6+ 5 _
BRIDGE
5+
4_
4+ 3 _
BRIDGE
3+
2_
2+ 1_
POWER CONNECTIONS
1+
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM/CHANNEL or 4 OHM/ BRIDGED PAIR
GND REM BATT+
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
FUSE
- +
- +
- +
MINIMUM IMPEDANCE IS 4 OHMS PER BRIDGED OUTPUT
BATTERY
Page 52
LEVIATHAN with Chs 1+2 in high pass
5
3
1
HIGH PASS
25
75
18
10
4
2
6
85
55
105
CLIP
LP
LP 1-4
1
235
FLAT
LP 5+6
1.4v
760
5+6
200
40
290
135
1.5K
135
290
760
85
85
760
4K
MODE
3
4
5
6
8.6v 0.25v
1.4v
55
4K
FLAT HP LP5+6
LEVEL
2
1.5K
1.5K
55
4K
HIGH PASS
1+2
1.4v
180
55
8.6v 0.25v
INPUTS
LEVEL
120
75
90
290
LOW PASS
45
HIGH PASS LOW PASS
8.6v 0.25v
FLAT HP LP/BP
LEVEL
MODE
LP BP LP5+6
MODE-LP/BP
3+4
THE CONTROLS SHOWN IN GREEN
ARE APPLICABLE ONLY
THESE TWO INPUTS ARE DRIVEN FROM AN
APPLICABLE SOURCE
FRONT
REAR
REMOTE >3v
TRACK 7
BRIDGE
1+
1_
2+
BRIDGE
2_
3+
3 _ 4+
BRIDGE
4_
5+
5 _ 6+
POWER CONNECTIONS
6_
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM/CHANNEL or 4 OHM/ BRIDGED PAIR
GND REM BATT+
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
FUSE
+ -
+ -
BATTERY
Page 53
LEVIATHAN with Chs 3+4 in high pass
5
3
1
HIGH PASS
25
75
18
10
4
2
6
1+2
1.4v
180
55
105
55
1
235
135
85
LEVEL
135
760
85
4K
290
760
55
3
4
5
6
8.6v 0.25v
1.4v
4K
FLAT HP LP5+6
MODE
2
1.5K
1.5K
55
4K
HIGH PASS
FLAT
LP 5+6
290
1.5K
85
CLIP
LP
LP 1-4
1.4v
760
5+6
200
40
8.6v 0.25v
INPUTS
LEVEL
120
75
90
290
LOW PASS
45
HIGH PASS LOW PASS
8.6v 0.25v
FLAT HP LP/BP
LEVEL
MODE
LP BP LP5+6
MODE-LP/BP
3+4
THE CONTROLS SHOWN IN GREEN
ARE APPLICABLE ONLY
THESE TWO INPUTS ARE DRIVEN FROM AN
APPLICABLE SOURCE
FRONT
REAR
REMOTE >3v
TRACK 7
BRIDGE
1+
1_ 2+
BRIDGE
2_
3+
3 _ 4+
BRIDGE
4_
5+
5 _ 6+
POWER CONNECTIONS
6_
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM/CHANNEL or 4 OHM/ BRIDGED PAIR
GND REM BATT+
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
FUSE
+ -
+ -
BATTERY
Page 54
LEVIATHAN with Chs 3+4 in low pass
5
3
1
HIGH PASS
25
75
18
10
4
2
6
1+2
1.4v
180
55
105
55
1
235
135
85
LEVEL
135
760
85
4K
290
760
55
3
4
5
6
8.6v 0.25v
1.4v
4K
FLAT HP LP5+6
MODE
2
1.5K
1.5K
55
4K
HIGH PASS
FLAT
LP 5+6
290
1.5K
85
CLIP
LP
LP 1-4
1.4v
760
5+6
200
40
8.6v 0.25v
INPUTS
LEVEL
120
75
90
290
LOW PASS
45
HIGH PASS LOW PASS
8.6v 0.25v
FLAT HP LP/BP
LEVEL
MODE
LP BP LP5+6
MODE-LP/BP
3+4
THE CONTROLS SHOWN IN GREEN
ARE APPLICABLE ONLY
THESE TWO INPUTS ARE DRIVEN FROM AN
APPLICABLE SOURCE
FRONT
REAR
REMOTE >3v
TRACK 7
BRIDGE
1+
1_
2+
BRIDGE
2_
3+
3 _ 4+
BRIDGE
4_
5+
5 _ 6+
POWER CONNECTIONS
6_
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM/CHANNEL or 4 OHM/ BRIDGED PAIR
GND REM BATT+
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
FUSE
+ -
+ -
BATTERY
Page 55
LEVIATHAN with Chs 3+4 in band pass
5
3
1
HIGH PASS
25
75
18
10
4
2
55
105
55
1+2
1
235
FLAT
LP 5+6
290
135
85
LEVEL
135
760
85
4K
290
760
55
3
4
5
6
8.6v 0.25v
1.4v
4K
FLAT HP LP5+6
MODE
2
1.5K
1.5K
55
4K
HIGH PASS
CLIP
LP
LP 1-4
1.4v
760
5+6
200
40
8.6v 0.25v
INPUTS
1.4v
180
1.5K
85
6
LEVEL
120
75
90
290
LOW PASS
45
HIGH PASS LOW PASS
8.6v 0.25v
FLAT HP LP/BP
LEVEL
MODE
LP BP LP5+6
MODE-LP/BP
3+4
THE CONTROLS SHOWN IN GREEN
ARE APPLICABLE ONLY
THESE TWO INPUTS ARE DRIVEN FROM AN
APPLICABLE SOURCE
FRONT
REAR
REMOTE >3v
TRACK 7
BRIDGE
1+
1_
2+
BRIDGE
2_
3+
3 _ 4+
BRIDGE
4_
5+
5 _ 6+
POWER CONNECTIONS
6_
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM/CHANNEL or 4 OHM/ BRIDGED PAIR
GND REM BATT+
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
FUSE
+ -
+ -
BATTERY
Page 56
LEVIATHAN with Chs 5+6 in low pass using
5+6 inputs
5
3
1
HIGH PASS
75
10
40
55
INPUTS
1+2
1
235
135
85
LEVEL
135
760
85
4K
290
760
55
3
4
5
6
8.6v 0.25v
1.4v
4K
FLAT HP LP5+6
MODE
2
1.5K
1.5K
55
4K
HIGH PASS
FLAT
LP 5+6
290
8.6v 0.25v
CLIP
LP
LP 1-4
1.4v
760
5+6
200
1.5K
85
6
1.4v
180
55
105
290
4
LEVEL
120
75
90
18
2
LOW PASS
45
25
8.6v 0.25v
FLAT HP LP/BP
LEVEL
MODE
HIGH PASS LOW PASS
LP BP LP5+6
MODE-LP/BP
3+4
THE CONTROLS SHOWN IN GREEN
ARE APPLICABLE ONLY
THESE TWO INPUTS MAY BE
Y-ADAPTED AND THE CHANNELS
RUN IN BRIDGE MODE
THESE TWO INPUTS ARE DRIVEN FROM AN
APPLICABLE SOURCE
FRONT
REAR
REMOTE >3v
TRACK 7
BRIDGE
1+
1_ 2+
BRIDGE
2_
3+
3 _ 4+
BRIDGE
4_
5+
5 _ 6+
POWER CONNECTIONS
6_
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM/CHANNEL or 4 OHM/ BRIDGED PAIR
GND REM BATT+
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
BRIDGE
5+
5 _ 6+
6_
FUSE
+ -
+ -
+ -
Chs 5+6 MAY BE RUN IN BRIDGE
MODE (MIN SPEAKER IMPEDANCE IS 4 OHMS)
BATTERY
Page 57
LEVIATHAN with Chs 5+6 in low pass using
INPUTS 1,2,3 and 4
5
3
1
HIGH PASS
75
10
40
55
INPUTS
1+2
1
235
135
85
LEVEL
135
760
85
4K
290
760
55
3
4
5
6
8.6v 0.25v
1.4v
4K
FLAT HP LP5+6
MODE
2
1.5K
1.5K
55
4K
HIGH PASS
FLAT
LP 5+6
290
8.6v 0.25v
CLIP
LP
LP 1-4
1.4v
760
5+6
200
1.5K
85
6
1.4v
180
55
105
290
4
LEVEL
120
75
90
18
2
LOW PASS
45
25
8.6v 0.25v
FLAT HP LP/BP
LEVEL
MODE
HIGH PASS LOW PASS
LP BP LP5+6
MODE-LP/BP
3+4
THE CONTROLS SHOWN IN GREEN
ARE APPLICABLE ONLY
THESE FOUR INPUTS CAN BE DRIVEN FROM
EITHER SEPARATE SIGNAL SOURCES
(FRONT+REAR OUTPUTS FROM HU) OR
FROM A MONO SIGNAL SOURCE
FRONT
REAR
REMOTE >3v
TRACK 7
BRIDGE
1+
1_
2+
BRIDGE
2_
3+
3 _ 4+
BRIDGE
4_
5+
5 _ 6+
POWER CONNECTIONS
6_
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM/CHANNEL or 4 OHM/ BRIDGED PAIR
GND REM BATT+
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
BRIDGE
5+
5 _ 6+
6_
FUSE
+ -
+ -
+ -
Chs 5+6 MAY BE RUN IN BRIDGE
MODE (MIN SPEAKER IMPEDANCE IS 4 OHMS)
BATTERY
Page 58
LEVIATHAN with Chs 5+6 in low pass using
inputs 1,2,3 and 4 and Ch 1,2,3 and 4 switched
to LP5+6
5
3
1
HIGH PASS
LOW PASS
LEVEL
45
120
1.4v
25
75
10
290
4
6
105
1+2
235
760
55
135
85
LEVEL
135
760
85
290
4K
760
55
3
4
5
6
8.6v 0.25v
1.4v
4K
FLAT HP LP5+6
MODE
2
1.5K
1.5K
55
4K
HIGH PASS
FLAT
LP 5+6
290
1.5K
85
1
200
40
CLIP
LP
LP 1-4
1.4v
8.6v 0.25v
INPUTS
180
55
90
18
2
75
5+6
8.6v 0.25v
FLAT HP LP/BP
LEVEL
MODE
HIGH PASS LOW PASS
LP BP LP5+6
MODE-LP/BP
3+4
THE CONTROLS SHOWN IN GREEN
ARE APPLICABLE ONLY
THESE FOUR INPUTS CAN BE DRIVEN FROM
EITHER SEPARATE SIGNAL SOURCES
(FRONT+REAR OUTPUTS FROM HU) OR
FROM A MONO SIGNAL SOURCE
FRONT
THIS DIAGRAM SHOWS LEVIATHAN AS A 6
CHANNEL SUB WOOFER AMPLIFIER DRIVEN
FROM INPUTS 1-4. YOU MAY USE INPUTS
5+6 BY CHANGING THE POSITION OF THE
INPUT SELECTOR ON Chs 5+6
REAR
REMOTE >3v
TRACK 7
BRIDGE
1+
1_
2+
BRIDGE
2_
3+
3 _ 4+
BRIDGE
4_
5+
5 _ 6+
POWER CONNECTIONS
6_
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM/CHANNEL or 4 OHM/ BRIDGED PAIR
GND REM BATT+
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
FUSE
+ -
+ -
+ -
+ -
+ -
ANY PAIR OF CHANNELS MAY BE BRIDGED
(MIN SPEAKER IMPEDANCE IS 4 OHMS)
+ -
BATTERY
Page 59
LEVIATHAN as a 2 channel tri-amplified system
5
3
1
HIGH PASS
LOW PASS
LEVEL
45
120
1.4v
25
75
10
290
4
105
40
55
1+2
235
135
85
135
290
760
760
85
55
4K
55
MODE
3
4
5
6
8.6v 0.25v
1.4v
4K
FLAT HP LP5+6
LEVEL
2
1.5K
1.5K
4K
HIGH PASS
FLAT
LP 5+6
290
8.6v 0.25v
INPUTS
1
1.4v
760
CLIP
LP
LP 1-4
200
1.5K
85
6
180
55
90
18
2
75
5+6
8.6v 0.25v
FLAT HP LP/BP
LEVEL
MODE
HIGH PASS LOW PASS
LP BP LP5+6
MODE-LP/BP
3+4
THE CONTROLS SHOWN IN GREEN
ARE APPLICABLE ONLY
THE 2 CHANNEL INPUT SIGNAL IS FED
THROUGH Y-ADAPTORS SO CHANNELS
1+3 ARE FED A LEFT SIGNAL AND 2+4 A RIGHT
FRONT
REAR
REMOTE >3v
TRACK 7
BRIDGE
1+
1_
2+
BRIDGE
2_
3+
3 _ 4+
BRIDGE
4_
5+
5 _ 6+
POWER CONNECTIONS
6_
MINIMUM LOAD IS 2 OHM/CHANNEL or 4 OHM/ BRIDGED PAIR
GND REM BATT+
DESIGNED AND ASSEMBLED
IN THE USA by ZED AUDIO
FUSE
+
-+
-
+
-+
-
+ -
+ -
Chs 5+6 MAY BE RUN IN BRIDGE
MODE (MIN SPEAKER IMPEDANCE IS 4 OHMS)
BATTERY
Page 60
LEVIATHAN jumper links to parallel the inputs instead of using external Y-Adaptors.
Remove the Lexan top and remove the three RCA connector plugs from the main PCB.
These are plugged into connectors “CON4, CON2 and CON3” as shown below. When re
inserting them they can only lock in in one direction.
HDR6 connects inputs 1 to 3 and 3 to 5 where HDR7 connects 2 to 4 and 4 to 6
These jumper links are available upon request
Page 61
RA the Egyptian sun God was the inspiration behind this new product. He is considered
the father of Gods, and was the most important and worshipped king of Gods in ancient
Egypt..
We are sure that our humble version of RA will also be “worshipped”. It is truly a unique
pre amplifier.
The purpose behind RA was to enable the user to have substantially more control over
the sub woofer’s sound than just a simple remote volume control which is supplied with
every mono block. These remote volume controls work in one of two ways, either a simple
shunt potentiometer with the attendant problems of running low level audio up and down
unshielded telephone cable. The second and more elegant way is to use a VCA (Voltage
Controlled Amplifier) whose gain is varied by the application of a varying DC voltage.
Thus only raw DC is run on the telephone cable. Unfortunately the VCAs used are noisy
and have high distortion and the more exotic VCAs which perform well are never used
owing to their high cost.
Another issue with these tethered remote volume controls is exactly that, they are
tethered to their “mother” amplifier and cannot be used with a different manufacturer’s
product.
Zed made a decision to design a stand alone remote which has no allegiance to any
amplifier, it is universal. On board is a small switching supply which of course requires
three wires (+12v, ground and remote) to power it. Our opinion is that the small
inconvenience of having to run these three low current wires (#18 is quite sufficient) is
well worth the results which RA will produce.
RA is a mono pre amplifier which receives a stereo signal and mixes it to mono. If desired
a mono input may be applied to either the left or right inputs and the 6dB loss in gain due
to the missing input may easily be made up by RA having extra built in gain. Alternatively
a simple y-adaptor may be used to feed the signal to both inputs.
The first order of business once the signal is converted to mono is a 24dB/octave
Linkwitz-Riley Low Pass crossover variable from 45Hz to 230Hz. We have included this
crossover for one reason and that is if RA is used with an amplifier whose low pass
crossover is not “up to snuff”......well then RA will take over.
If the user decides to use the crossover in either the associated amplifier, signal
processor or head unit all that is done is to set the low pass on RA to 230Hz which
effectively removes it from the pass band.
Conversely if the user wants to use the crossover on RA, then the crossover on the
amplifier, signal processor or head unit is turned up to its highest frequency or if a bypass
switch is available to set it to the bypass position.
Page 62
Once the signal leaves the low pass crossover it is routed to the Sub Harmonic
Synthesizer. I bet that most have never heard of such a device but they are common in
pro audio and have been made for car audio however in much simpler forms. The basic
principle is to take a band of frequencies and synthesize them down to half their original
frequency (one octave down). We have taken this one step further. The signal is fed into
two separate filters, each tuned to a different frequency and these are individually
synthesized and then via two level controls and a master level, the synthesized signals
are mixed back with the original signal.
The two level controls at 32Hz and 45Hz may be set to suit the taste of the listener and
then the master level sets the amount of synthesized signal mixed into the main signal
path. The effects of this are truly amazing.
The compressor follows and this to the best of our knowledge has never been
incorporated in a car stereo product. Of course compressors are common fare in the pro
audio industry. Owing to space limitations we were not able to include variable ATTACK,
RELEASE and RATIO controls. Instead these parameters have been set for the band of
frequencies which RA is processing, namely those below 100Hz. A variable
THRESHOLD control is included with a front panel LED which flashes when compression
begins.
OK here is a short electronics lesson for those who want to know a little more about
compressors.
Dynamic Range is the ratio of the specified maximum signal level capability of a system
or component to its noise level; usually expressed in decibels. Human hearing has a very
high dynamic range. A human is capable of hearing anything from a quiet whisper to the
sound of the loudest jet aircraft. The difference can get to over 100 decibels (a factor of
10,000,000,000 in power!) If we want to reduce this dynamic range we use a downward
compressor (commonly called a compressor). The compressor will “kick in” at a specified
signal level determined by the THRESHOLD control. At this level the compressor will
prevent the output level from increasing linearly with increasing input level.
On the next page is a graph showing the relationship between the input signal and the
output signal. With the compressor out the ratio is 1:1 meaning that if the gain structure of
the device is say 5x, put in 0.1v get out 0.5v, put in 1v get out 5v and so on. (No you
cannot put in 10,000v and get out 50,000v)! If the gain structure was 1x, then put in 1v
and get out 1v. The graph shown shows a 1x (unity gain) structure.
With say a ratio of 4:1 means that a signal that would be 4dB above the threshold is
reduced to 1dB above by the compressor.
The THRESHOLD control on RA does not control the absolute level but only the signal
level which enters the side chain of the compressor.
Page 63
UNITY GAIN
2:1
THRESHOLD OF COMPRESSION
10:1
>20:1 = LIMITING
OUTPUT
SIGNAL
INPUT SIGNAL
The ATTACK time determines how quickly the compressor can react to signals which are
above the threshold. The RELEASE time determines how quickly the compressor
releases the signal and return to normal gain. The RATIO control sets the ratio of input
level to output level and typically compressors have ratio controls with ranges from 2:1 up
to 12:1 dependent on the type of signal being compressed. RA also uses RMS sensing of
the signal to control the compressor. Peak sensing is typically used in limiters (A limiter is
just a compressor with a higher ratio setting and different attack and release times.
RA uses a hard “knee” at the compression threshold point meaning that compression
instantly takes place and this form is best for low frequencies and percussive instruments
such as drums.
Another use for this compressor is to prevent amplifier clipping from damaging the
woofers and also to protect the amplifier. Setting the volume level to the loudest that you
want, set the THRESHOLD control on RA so that the compressor LED flashes regularly.
The last control is the VOLUME control and this of course sets the level of the sub
woofers. It also controls the “make up gain” required by the compressor so that even
though the compressor is set to compress, the gain can still be increased but in a
compressed mode. Remember that the final signal level reaching the speakers is also
controlled by the level setting on the amplifier and that is why we include CLIPPING LEDs
on all our amplifiers.
RA can be mounted in two ways, first by having a cut out in a panel which is slightly
larger than the X-Y dimension of the chassis and the front panel is then bolted to the
mounting surface. The second is to use the two mounting brackets and hang RA from a
horizontal surface - or it may be mounted in a glove box with the mounting brackets
forming a stand.
Please take care when playing your system at high volume levels as hearing loss is
NON REVERSIBLE.
Page 64
Instructions for setting the Threshold control of the compressor.
The compressor’s threshold control is relatively easy to set as long as one understands
the various electronic “blocks” involved. Please read the following text carefully.
RA can be considered simply as a pre-amplifier, with variable gain (the front panel volume
control) and a compressor circuit whose threshold has nothing to do with the amplifier
which drives the sub woofers or where the gain setting is on the amplifier. The threshold
control’s setting is entirely dependent on the output level of the head unit (HU). It is not
affected by the volume control of RA.
In this example setting the volume level on the HU to some arbitrary level will send a
signal of say 0.4v on musical peaks from the HU to RA. Whether the Sub Harmonic
Synthesizer is used or not does not affect this example. RA will amplify this signal by
12dB (4 times) to a level of 1.6v peak. The compressor’s threshold control now uses this
1.6v peak signal to activate the compression system and the threshold control simply acts
as a “volume” control for the compressor. It takes the 1.6v signal and depending on the
setting of the threshold control instructs the compressor to activate and begin
compressing the signal. Only when the RED LED on the front panel turns on does
compression begin. The volume control on the front panel simply controls the output level
of RA.
Now we must set the amplifier’s level control so that all the parts work together.
All Zed amplifiers have LEDs on their front panel to indicate that the amplifier channel is
clipping. Our mono blocks have four LEDs set at 0dB (rated power), -3dB (half rated
power), -6dB (one quarter rated power and -9dB (one eighth rated power).
In our example we have decided to have the compressor come in at say -3dB. How do we
set up the various controls....easy!
With NO compression set the Hu’s volume control to the highest level you are comfortable
with (suggestion about 85% of the maximum). Do the same with the volume control on
RA. Now set the level control on the Zed mono block to a level where the -3dB LED is just
lighting on the loudest musical peaks of your favourite bass CD. Now set the threshold
control that the RED LED on the front panel turns on at these loudest musical peaks. If
you want some extra compression (tighter bass) advance the threshold control so that the
LED lights more often or even stays solidly lit (lots of compression).
If you set the level control on the amplifier so that the 0dB LED lights and you use the
compressor, the net result is twofold, you have compression and you prevent the amplifier
from clipping.
Page 65
RA Panel controls and connections
130
85
SUB HARMONIC SYNTHESIZER
COMPRESSOR
RA
185
60
210
45
230
LOW PASS
MIN
MAX
MIN
MASTER
MAX
MIN
45Hz
MAX
32Hz
HIGH
LOW
THRESHOLD
MIN
MAX
VOLUME
We feel the panel controls require no further explanation
BATT GND REM
RA
POWER
L
OUTPUT
R
INPUTS
FUSE
0.5A
GROUND
FROM REMOTE OUT
OF HEAD UNIT
TO BATTERY OR CLEAN 12v SUPPLY POINT
PLACE FUSE AS CLOSE TO THIS +12v POINT
AS POSSIBLE
TO AMPLIFIER
LINE INPUT
FROM SIGNAL SOURCE
IF A MONO SOURCE IS
ONLY AVAILABLE THEN
CHOOSE EITHER INPUT
OR Y-ADAPT THE INPUTS
THERE IS ENOUGH GAIN WITHIN RA TO
MAKE UP FOR THE 6dB LOSS OF GAIN
WHEN ONLY ONE INPUT IS USED
Page 66
Some suggested systems using various combinations of Zed amplifiers.
4 way using a MINOTAUR and a LEVIATHAN:
The LEVIATHAN is used for the lower mids (ch 5+6), upper mids (ch 3+4) and tweeters
(ch 1+2), MINOTAUR is used for the sub woofers.
4 way using DRACONIA and DREADNOUGHT:
The DRACONIA is used for tweeters (ch 1+2), midrange (ch 3+4), DREADNOUGHT runs
the lower mids (ch 1+2) and subs are handled by ch 3+4.
4 way using DRACONIA and DRACONIA or DREADNOUGHT and DREADNOUGHT:
As above but use the same amplifier type.
3 way using a MINOTAUR and either a DRACONIA or DREADNOUGHT:
MINOTUAR runs the subs, channels 3+4 of the four channel amplifier runs the mids and
the channels 1+2 the tweeters.
High powered 3 way using two LEVIATHANS:
Each LEVIATHAN is run with channels 1+2 and 3+4 bridged for the tweeters and
midrange (Yes over kill for the tweeters) and channels 5+6 bridged on each amplifier into
either an 8 or 4 ohm sub.
Front stage only system using either DRACONIA or DREADNOUGHT:
Channels 1+2 drive the front component speakers and channels 3+4 run the subs in
either two channel or bridged mode.
Medium or high powered multi sub woofer system using either DRACONIA,
DREADNOUGHT or LEVIATHAN:
Many of our customers want to run multiple subs where each sub is not necessarily the
same impedance or even make of driver.
LEVIATHAN - inputs to channels 5+6 only, set channels 1+2and 3+4 to “LP 5+6” on their
respective MODE switches. ALL 6 channels will then follow the settings of channels 5+6
but LEVEL controls are independent for each channel pair.
DRACONIA or DREADNOUGHT - Set the MODE switch on ch 1+2 to the “3+4” position
and set channels 3+4 to run in LP/BP on the slide MODE switch and to “SUB” on the push
MODE switch.
RA may be used as a line level interface before any amplifier (or channels of a
multichannel amplifier) which is being used for sub duty.
Page 67
Troubleshooting
Amplifier will not power up.
Amplifier gets hot
High “hiss” heard in speakers
Protection LEDs flash
Engine noise
Alternator whine
Sound is distorted
Check for battery power at amplifier’s
power terminals.
Check for voltage at REMOTE terminal
must be greater than 3 volts
Make sure protection LED is off. If it is on,
turn the amplifier off for 5 seconds and
then power up again. If LED comes on
Again refer to notes below.
The amplifier is OK if you can keep your hand
on the chassis with no discomfort.
Make sure the speaker impedance is correct.
Remove the RCA plugs from the amplifier.
If hiss disappears the problem is the source.
Set the amplifier’s level control as insensitive
as possible.
It is best to drive the highest signal level from
the head unit as possible. The higher this signal
level the better the subjective S/N ratio is.
Remove speaker connections from amplifier.
Turn amplifier off for 5 seconds.
Turn on again, if LED is off the problem is with
the speakers. Check for shorts on the cables
and on each speaker.
If the LED comes on, the amplifier is faulty.
Check spark plug wires.
Check that RCA cables run away from power
cables.
Use only high quality RCA cables.
Check grounding of head unit.
Run head unit’s +12 connections directly to
the battery +12v terminal.
Make sure all ground connections are rust free.
Check that RCA cable grounds are not shorted
to the chassis in their run from the amplifier to
the head unit.
Disconnect the RCA cables from the amplifier.
If whine disappears the problem is upstream.
Check RCA cables for shorts
Check speakers and cables
Check amp level is matched to that of head unit.
Page 68
Limited Warranty
This Zed Audio product is warrantied to the ORIGINAL purchaser against defects in
material and workmanship from the factory. This warranty is for a period of 90 days from
date of purchase from Zed Audio Corporation or an authorised dealer. This warranty is
valid in the country in which it was purchased and is non-transferable. To obtain the two
(2) year warranty requires the user to register the product with Zed Audio Corp. This
registration must be mailed to us at the address on page 39 OR a scan of the information
can be done and emailed to us at [email protected] Please refer to this registration
form on the last page of this manual. You may print that page and use it to send to us.
This warranty covers only the product purchased from Zed Audio Corporation and does
not cover damage to any other associated equipment or the vehicle(s) in which the
equipment is/was installed.
This warranty does NOT cover damage due to incorrect installation, faulty or bad
equipment associated with the installation.
This warranty does NOT cover any charges associated with removing the equipment from
the vehicle.
If this product is tampered with or altered in any way by unauthorized personnel, or the
serial number is removed/altered/defaced the warranty is null and void. There are NO
exceptions to this.
To obtain factory service under the terms of this warranty, the purchaser must contact
Zed Audio Corporation or an appointed service centre to obtain a Return Merchandise
number which shall be issued by Zed Audio Corporation or an authorized agent. No
product shall be accepted without this number. A copy of the original purchase receipt
must be included with the product. This procedure must be followed otherwise the product
shall NOT be repaired under warranty. There are NO exceptions to this.
Product returned for repair either out of warranty or if no receipt is included shall be
charged at the current hourly rate.
Equipment returned under warranty shall have the return freight prepaid by the service
centre. Any freight and insurance costs in sending the product in for service is the
responsibility of the end user.
Equipment returned out of warranty shall have the return freight and insurance charges
added to the cost of the service bill.
All incoming equipment is carefully inspected before any service or repair is attempted.
The condition of the equipment is noted on the invoice. Please make sure that you pack
your unit well before sending it back for repair/service.
Page 69
All warranty claims shall be decided at the discretion of Zed Audio Corporation or an
appointed representative.
Zed Audio Corporation reserves the right to make changes and/or improvements upon it’s
products. We do not assume any obligation to install such changes and/or improvements
to existing equipment previously manufactured.
Zed Audio Corporation,
743 Cochran Street
Suite D
Simi Valley
Ca 93065 USA
Email [email protected]
Website www.zedaudiocorp.com
Tel
(805) 526-5315
30 day return policy
Zed Audio Corporation offers a money back guarantee for any of the products described in
this manual. This 30 day money back guarantee has the following stipulations attached:
The product must be returned with a copy of the original sales invoice.
The 30 day period is calculated from the date of shipment + 5 days.
The full purchase price shall be refunded less the original freight amount.
For any damaged or missing parts on the amplifier, including packaging materials the
replacement thereof shall be deducted from the refund amount including the labour to
replace these parts.
Amplifiers cannot be returned for reasons other than non performance of the amplifier.
PLEASE READ THIS CAREFULLY
Please retain all packaging materials and documents in case the product is returned for a
refund.
Zed Audio is not responsible for the freight from the consumer to Zed Audio when our
refund option is exercised.
Every product built by Zed Audio goes through a series of exhaustive tests and so we are
100% sure that each and every product meets the advertised specifications. Please have
a qualified person check the installation if for some reason there seems to be something
not functioning correctly, or feel free to contact us and we shall attempt to solve the
problem.
Page 70
Registration Form
Name of owner:
Address:
Name of product(s) purchased:
Serial number:
Name and address from whom this product was purchased.
Date of purchase
Please do not forget to mail a copy of the retail invoice OR scan it an email to us.
If you are mailing us your registration, you may print a copy of this page
Page 71
New products scheduled for 2012 release
Owing to the bad economic climate we have decided to delay the launch of MEGALITH
and the tube hybrid amplifiers.
We are instead launching 5 new products which will fit below these products in this manual. They are less expensive but do
not lack features or power.
As of this time we have not decided on the names of the new amplifiers and so we have given them generic names.
MIKRO 1 - A 200w 4 0hm mono block with these features:
* Balanced inputs accept line of OEM head unit signal levels with no adaptors
* High pass subsonic crossover 10Hz-50Hz
* Low pass 24dB/octave crossover 45Hz-240Hz Linkwitz
* Low frequency Eq at 40Hz variable 0 to +12dB
* Level control with a range of 350mV-8.7v
* Remote level control
* Auto turn on via signal sense, switches automatically if no 3-12v trigger voltage is sensed.
* Extremely small footprint of approximately 8”x5”x 1.5” high.
MIKRO 4 - A four channel amplifier rated at 60w x 4
* Balanced inputs accept line of OEM head unit signal levels with no adaptors
* High or Low Pass crossovers on both pairs of channels 50Hz-3KHz at 12dB/octave Butterworth
* Level controls with a range of 320mV-7v
* Auto turn on via signal sense, switches automatically if no 3-12v trigger voltage is sensed.
* Extremely small footprint of approximately 8”x5”x 1.5” high.
TRIDENT 1 - A 350w 4 ohm mono block with these features
* Balanced inputs accept line of OEM head unit signal levels with no adaptors
* High pass subsonic crossover 10Hz-50Hz at 24dB/octave Linkwitz
* Low pass 24dB/octave crossover 40Hz-235Hz Linkwitz
* Variable phase shift control
* Low frequency Eq at 40Hz variable 0 to +12dB with constant Q response
* Level control with a range of 250mV-8.2v
* Remote level control
* Auto turn on via signal sense, switches automatically if no 3-12v trigger voltage is sensed.
TRIDENT 4 - A four channel amplifier rated at 100w x 4
* Balanced inputs accept line of OEM head unit signal levels with no adaptors
* High and Low Pass crossovers on both pairs of channels 55Hz-4KHz at 12dB/octave Butterworth
* Flat, High Pass, Low Pass or Band Pass on both pairs of channels
* 2 or 4 input configuration
* Channels 3+4 have a low Eq control at 40Hz
* Channels 3+4 offer a sub mode with mono mixing
* Level controls with a range of 250mV-7.8v
* Auto turn on via signal sense, switches automatically if no 3-12v trigger voltage is sensed.
TRIDENT 6 - A six channel amplifier rated at 70w x 6 or 70w x 4 + 250w x 1
* Balanced inputs accept line of OEM head unit signal levels with no adaptors
* Channels 1+2 can run in Flat, High Pass, Low Pass or Band Pass mode 55Hz-4KHz
* Channels 3+4 can run in Flat, High Pass, Low Pass or Band Pass mode 55Hz-4KHz
* Channels 5+6 can run in Flat or Low Pass mode also with a high pass subsonic crossover
* Channels 5+6 feature a MONO mode with 40Hz low Eq variable 0 to +12dB
* Channels 5+6 feature a remote level control port - remote control is included
* 2 , 4or 6 input configuration
* Level controls with a range of 250mV-7.8v
* Auto turn on via signal sense, switches automatically if no 3-12v trigger voltage is sensed.
Page 72
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