Citrix Systems MetaFrame MetaFrame Presentation Server Installation guide

Citrix Systems MetaFrame MetaFrame Presentation Server Installation guide
Front cover
Implementing Windows Terminal
Server and Citrix MetaFrame on
IBM Eserver xSeries Servers
Design a terminal server solution using
xSeries and BladeCenter servers
Learn how to use sizing methodologies
for key server resources
Discover what’s new with WTS
in Windows Server 2003
Darryl Miles
ibm.com/redbooks
Redpaper
International Technical Support Organization
Implementing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix
MetaFrame on IBM ^ xSeries Servers
April 2003
Note: Before using this information and the product it supports, read the information in “Notices” on page v.
First Edition (April 2003)
This edition applies to Windows Terminal Server, a component of Windows Server 2003, and Citrix
MetaFrame XP Presentation Server.
© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2003. All rights reserved.
Note to U.S. Government Users Restricted Rights -- Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP Schedule
Contract with IBM Corp.
Contents
Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .v
Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
About the author. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
Become a published author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii
Comments welcome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii
Chapter 1. Introduction to Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame . . . . . . . .
1.1 Windows Terminal Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Microsoft Network Load Balancing and Session Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Citrix MetaFrame. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4 Citrix MetaFrame XP Presentation Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5 Web Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6 Secure Access Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.7 Secure Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.8 Licensing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 2. xSeries thin-client servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.1 Rack optimized servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.2 Blade servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.3 Virtual MetaFrame servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.4 Larger MetaFrame servers of the future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.5 Which servers to use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Chapter 3. Running a Windows Terminal Server and MetaFrame pilot . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1 Pilot phases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.1 Testing applications in a multi-user environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.2 Securing the terminal server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.3 Choosing a pilot group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.4 Performing the pilot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Sizing your server for WTS and MetaFrame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1 WTS performance counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.2 Interpreting your memory and CPU pilot results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.3 Interpreting your pilot bandwidth requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.4 WTS testing tools and scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.5 Using script results to assess real-world requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 4. Examples of Windows Terminal Server and MetaFrame design . . . . . . . .
4.1 Small WTS and MetaFrame environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Medium WTS and MetaFrame environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 Large WTS and MetaFrame environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 A consolidated MetaFrame environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 5. Installing and configuring the software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1 Windows Terminal Server and MetaFrame installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 Group Policy Object (GPO) and profile configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.1 Windows 2003 profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.2 Group Policy Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
iii
iv
5.3 Application installation and configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4 Application installation and configuration examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.1 Microsoft Office 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.2 Microsoft Office XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.3 Notes R5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.4 Notes R6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
42
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45
Related publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM Redbooks and redpapers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Referenced Web sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Citrix sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Microsoft sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to get IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM Redbooks collections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Implementing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ xSeries Servers
Notices
This information was developed for products and services offered in the U.S.A.
IBM may not offer the products, services, or features discussed in this document in other countries. Consult
your local IBM representative for information on the products and services currently available in your area. Any
reference to an IBM product, program, or service is not intended to state or imply that only that IBM product,
program, or service may be used. Any functionally equivalent product, program, or service that does not
infringe any IBM intellectual property right may be used instead. However, it is the user's responsibility to
evaluate and verify the operation of any non-IBM product, program, or service.
IBM may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter described in this document. The
furnishing of this document does not give you any license to these patents. You can send license inquiries, in
writing, to:
IBM Director of Licensing, IBM Corporation, North Castle Drive Armonk, NY 10504-1785 U.S.A.
The following paragraph does not apply to the United Kingdom or any other country where such provisions are
inconsistent with local law: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION PROVIDES THIS
PUBLICATION "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF NON-INFRINGEMENT,
MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Some states do not allow disclaimer of
express or implied warranties in certain transactions, therefore, this statement may not apply to you.
This information could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically made
to the information herein; these changes will be incorporated in new editions of the publication. IBM may make
improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described in this publication at any time
without notice.
Any references in this information to non-IBM Web sites are provided for convenience only and do not in any
manner serve as an endorsement of those Web sites. The materials at those Web sites are not part of the
materials for this IBM product and use of those Web sites is at your own risk.
IBM may use or distribute any of the information you supply in any way it believes appropriate without incurring
any obligation to you.
Information concerning non-IBM products was obtained from the suppliers of those products, their published
announcements or other publicly available sources. IBM has not tested those products and cannot confirm the
accuracy of performance, compatibility or any other claims related to non-IBM products. Questions on the
capabilities of non-IBM products should be addressed to the suppliers of those products.
This information contains examples of data and reports used in daily business operations. To illustrate them
as completely as possible, the examples include the names of individuals, companies, brands, and products.
All of these names are fictitious and any similarity to the names and addresses used by an actual business
enterprise is entirely coincidental.
COPYRIGHT LICENSE:
This information contains sample application programs in source language, which illustrates programming
techniques on various operating platforms. You may copy, modify, and distribute these sample programs in
any form without payment to IBM, for the purposes of developing, using, marketing or distributing application
programs conforming to the application programming interface for the operating platform for which the sample
programs are written. These examples have not been thoroughly tested under all conditions. IBM, therefore,
cannot guarantee or imply reliability, serviceability, or function of these programs. You may copy, modify, and
distribute these sample programs in any form without payment to IBM for the purposes of developing, using,
marketing, or distributing application programs conforming to IBM's application programming interfaces.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
v
Trademarks
The following terms are trademarks of the International Business Machines Corporation in the United States,
other countries, or both:
BladeCenter™
Domino®
™
IBM®
ibm.com®
iSeries™
Lotus Notes®
Lotus®
Notes®
Perform™
Rational Software Corporation®
Rational®
Redbooks™
Redbooks(logo)
™
xSeries®
The following terms are trademarks of other companies:
ActionMedia, LANDesk, MMX, Pentium and ProShare are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the United
States, other countries, or both.
Microsoft, Windows, Windows NT, and the Windows logo are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the
United States, other countries, or both.
Java and all Java-based trademarks and logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems,
Inc. in the United States, other countries, or both.
C-bus is a trademark of Corollary, Inc. in the United States, other countries, or both.
UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries.
SET, SET Secure Electronic Transaction, and the SET Logo are trademarks owned by SET Secure Electronic
Transaction LLC.
Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, other countries, or both.
Other company, product, and service names may be trademarks or service marks of others.
vi
Implementing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ xSeries Servers
Preface
Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame provide a powerful thin-client solution to
centralize administration, rapidly deploy applications, and extend the life of existing PC
hardware. IBM® provides a range of IBM ~™ xSeries® thin-client solutions from rack
optimized servers, IBM BladeCenter™, and larger multiprocessor servers running many
virtual Citrix servers.
This IBM Redpaper outlines a thin-client design and deployment methodology. It includes
conducting your Citrix pilot, choosing the appropriately sized xSeries technology, and
installing, tuning, and securing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame, running on
Windows Server 2003. It also explores such topics as virtual MetaFrame servers, disaster
recovery, load balancing, and network sizing.
This redpaper provides several thin-client solutions. In addition, it includes tips and tricks
gained from our experiences in implementing large MetaFrame solutions.
About the author
This Redpaper was written by Darryl Miles and produced by the International Technical
Support Organization, Raleigh Center.
Darryl Miles is an IT Architect with IBM Australia. He has worked at IBM for nine years and
has supported various network operating systems, thin-client solutions, and electronic mail.
Darryl is a Citrix Certified Administrator (CCA), Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer
(MCSE), Certified Lotus® Professional (CLP), Cisco Certified Network Associated (CCNA), a
Certified Novell Engineer (CNE), and an IBM Professional Server Engineer. He holds an
honors degree in electrical and computer systems engineering from Monash University,
Australia. Currently, his main focus is to provide thin-client solutions for customers in Asia
Pacific.
Thanks to the following people for their contributions to this project:
Doug Brown
Rick Dehlinger
Debbie Ferencsik
Citrix Systems
Nathan McAfee
Mike Schutz
Microsoft
Scott Searle
David Watts
IBM USA
Steve Russell
IBM UK
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
vii
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viii
Implementing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ xSeries Servers
1
Chapter 1.
Introduction to Windows
Terminal Server and Citrix
MetaFrame
This chapter introduces you to Windows Terminal Server (WTS), a component of Windows
Server 2003, and the Citrix MetaFrame XP Presentation Server. This introduction includes an
overview of thin-client technology and the features and benefits of the latest WTS and Citrix
MetaFrame solutions. It also looks at several additional thin-client solutions such as Citrix
MetaFrame’s Web Interface, Secure Access Manager, and Secure Gateway products.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
1
1.1 Windows Terminal Server
Windows Terminal Server, a component of Windows Server 2003 and Windows 2000 Server,
is designed to distribute Windows applications by using thin-client technology. A thin client is
a device that is easy to install and connects to a high-powered server running WTS that
provides the computing services the thin client needs. We call the server running WTS the
terminal server. WTS communicates with a small client program installed on any PC or
handheld device.
Tip: Windows Terminal Server is often also called Windows Terminal Services. These
terms are largely interchangeable.
Terminal Services is the name of a family of related technologies, including Remote
Desktop Connection (RDC), Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP), Terminal Server, Remote
Assistance, and Remote Desktop for Administration. Terminal Server is the name of the
Windows Server 2003 component that enables multi-user access to applications running
on Windows Server. It is the name that is applied to the Client Access Licenses.
We use the term terminal server (all lower case) to indicate the server on which Windows
Terminal Server is running.
The user starts the client program, which then displays the name of the terminal server. When
the user double-clicks the terminal server name, the user sees the server’s logon display, as
shown in the example in Figure 1-1. Each user can log on to the terminal server. Then the
remote server provides a Windows XP desktop in the client window. Users can interact with
this desktop just as if they have their own high-powered Windows XP workstation. However,
the processing is performed on the server, not the workstation, which merely provides input
from the user and output to the display.
Only screens, mouse clicks
and keystrokes travel the
network
Remote Windows XP desktop
displayed by a thin-client device
Figure 1-1 Windows Terminal Server and client relationship
Windows Server 2003 has two Terminal Server modes:
򐂰 Remote Desktop: This allows administrators to remotely log on to the server from remote
workstations. They can enable the Remote Desktop through the system control panel’s
Remote page, rather than installing Terminal Services for Remote Administration in
Windows 2000 Server. Remote Desktop allows remote administration for a maximum of
two concurrent connections. The administrator also has the ability to connect to the server
console by running the Remote Desktop Connection client (mstsc.exe) with the /console
switch.
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Implementing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ xSeries Servers
򐂰 Application Server mode: This is where the terminal server allows multiple clients to
access the servers resources for application hosting. This is enabled by adding the
“Terminal Server” component using the Windows Components portion of the Add/Remove
Programs wizard as shown in Figure 1-2.
Figure 1-2 Adding Terminal Server to enable Application Server mode or application hosting
1.2 Microsoft Network Load Balancing and Session Directory
The Network Load Balancing feature in Windows 2000 Advanced Server is also available in
Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition or Datacenter Edition. Network Load Balancing is
used to distribute work between two or more terminal servers.
Network Load Balancing works by representing a group of terminal servers by one IP address
so many servers can be grouped together to support larger numbers of users. A large number
of terminal servers is typically called a server farm. Server farms can be used to deploy a
single Windows desktop through to thousands of users.
A new feature of Windows Server 2003 is Session Directory, which is a Windows service that
keeps a list of sessions indexed by user name. This allows the user to reconnect to the server
where their disconnected session resides and continue working with their applications.
Session Directory prevents the user from connecting to another server in the farm and having
independent sessions running on multiple servers.
1.3 Citrix MetaFrame
Citrix MetaFrame is an extension to Windows Terminal Server. This software is installed on
Windows Server 2003 to allow a broader range of clients such as Java, Linux, OS/2, and
numerous other client devices.
The standard Remote Desktop Client (RDC) can connect to the server using only the TCP/IP
protocol. MetaFrame adds the ability for clients to connect using protocols not supported by
Chapter 1. Introduction to Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame
3
WTS, such as IPX, NetBIOS, and Async (modem) using the Independent Computing
Architecture (ICA) protocol. MetaFrame provides essentially the same function set to clients
as WTS does, but MetaFrame broadens the client base and manageability of those clients.
MetaFrame also provides clients with services such as published applications. By publishing
an application on the server, an administrator makes the application available to users as a
resource. Users of client machines can select an application and launch it for use. Figure 1-3
illustrates a user’s view of a set of published applications.
Figure 1-3 Citrix Program Neighborhood with some published applications
Users with Windows 95, 98, NT, 2000, and XP and Java clients (in MetaFrame XP FR3) can
run these applications in seamless mode. This means that the remote application looks as if it
is running locally. The application window can be resized and moved around a user’s desktop
alongside other, perhaps local, applications. The Citrix ICA client can be loaded on Windows
clients automatically from a Citrix Web Interface server, making it a quick process for
companies to distribute new applications rapidly across an entire organization.
The benefit to administrators is that they can easily make applications available without
visiting users’ computers to install the application software. Managing the application is also
simplified since upgrades and patches can be applied centrally.
You may hear this technology dubbed thin client. This is because the entire Windows desktop
or a Citrix MetaFrame published application is provided by a central high-powered server. It
uses a small client program (usually 1 to 2 MB in size) to render the display updates and
transmit keyboard and mouse input.
1.4 Citrix MetaFrame XP Presentation Server
The Citrix MetaFrame product suite has been simplified from previous versions, removing the
need for additional products like Load Balancing Services. Many of these additional services
have been integrated into the core product.
MetaFrame XP Presentation Server is available in three versions, XPs, XPa, and XPe.
Table 1-1 shows the product highlights of all three versions.
4
Implementing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ xSeries Servers
Table 1-1 Differences between MetaFrame XPs, XPa and XPe
Version
Product highlights
XPs
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
XPa
XPs features and:
򐂰 Multiple Server Operation
򐂰 Advanced Load Management
Large to enterprise server farms consist of
many servers.
XPe
XPa features and:
򐂰 Application Packaging & Delivery
򐂰 Network Management
򐂰 System Monitoring & Analysis
Large to enterprise server farms consist of
many servers. Additional tools are necessary
to assist with management and application
deployment.
Single Server Operation
Citrix Management Console
Centralized Printer Management
Centralized License Management
Active Directory Support
Advanced Shadowing
Client Time Zone Support
Web Interface
Typical environments
One server deploys applications for a
small-to-medium sized company.
Typically if a MetaFrame server farm consists of two or more servers, a customer purchases
either Citrix MetaFrame XPa or XPe for its advanced load balancing capability.
Overall performance is improved in multiserver environments by using Load Balancing
Services. Using the Windows Calculator program (calc.exe) as a trivial example, if you decide
to publish Calculator to your users, you can make it available on two or more servers. Then,
when a user wants to use Calculator, the user’s client asks a server, called the Data Collector,
to identify those servers that are running the application. The Data Collector (DC) then
determines which server is the least busy. It notifies the user’s client software with the name
of the server to which it should connect to run the application. You can configure specific load
evaluator rules for each application based on parameters such as server user load,
application user load, CPU, and memory utilization.
The user’s workstation then executes Calculator on the least busy server. Of course, this all
occurs without the user being aware of it. With Load Balancing, you can specify to consider
parameters, such as CPU load, available memory, and so on, at various priority levels by the
Data Collector in determining which server is the least busy. We look at the Data Collector
when we look at a scalable Citrix solution in 4.3, “Large WTS and MetaFrame environment”
on page 31.
1.5 Web Interface
MetaFrame Web Interface, previously known as Citrix NFuse, is a component of MetaFrame.
You can download it from the Web at:
http://www.citrix.com
Web Interface allows a user to log on to a Web site to see a personalized list of applications
available from the server farm. Figure 1-4 shows an example display.
Chapter 1. Introduction to Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame
5
Figure 1-4 Example Web Interface window
Web Interface can automatically install the appropriate Citrix ICA client on the user’s
computer. For more information on Web Interface, see:
http://www.citrix.com/site/PS/products/
feature.asp?familyID=19&productID=186&featureID=6903
Citrix Engineer, Doug Brown, provides an excellent source of Web Interface information at:
http://www.dabcc.com/NFuse/
1.6 Secure Access Manager
Citrix MetaFrame Secure Access Manager allows an organization to deliver Web-based
content. It also allows an organization to deliver Citrix MetaFrame XP Presentation Server
content to users in an easy-to-deploy, easy-to-use, and easy-to-manage Web-based
interface. Coupled with the new “out of the box” security product, Secure Gateway, Secure
Access Manager allows secure access to all the content to both internal and external users.
For more information on Secure Access Manager, see:
http://www.citrix.com/site/PS/products/product.asp?family=19&productID=184
1.7 Secure Gateway
Secure Gateway (SG) is used to secure communications between remote ICA clients and
Citrix MetaFrame servers using Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) or Transport Layer Security
(TLS) encryption. SGs are typically used to deploy published applications or full screen
desktop to remote clients on the Internet. This can allow users to securely access their
desktop applications at home or Internet Cafe via the Internet. Users log on to the same Web
Interface logon window as shown in Figure 1-4. All client to server communication is secured
through 128-bit SSL encryption.
6
Implementing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ xSeries Servers
You can find an excellent source of information on installing and configuring a Secure
Gateway, including video setup examples at:
http://www.dabcc.com/thinsol/csg/
1.8 Licensing
Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame operate for a grace period of 120 and 35
days respectively before each product license must be activated. Microsoft licensing has
been extended to provide per-user Client Access Licenses (CALs). Citrix licensing in
MetaFrame is based on a concurrent user licensing system.
For more information on Microsoft Terminal Services licensing requirements, see:
http://www.microsoft.com/windows.netserver/howtobuy/licensing/overview.mspx
For Citrix MetaFrame, see the following Web site and search on document ID CTX017616:
http://knowledgebase.citrix.com/
Chapter 1. Introduction to Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame
7
8
Implementing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ xSeries Servers
2
Chapter 2.
xSeries thin-client servers
This chapter discusses how you can use xSeries servers to deploy Citrix MetaFrame
thin-client solutions. MetaFrame solutions were traditionally deployed using powerful 1U
(1.75-inch)-high dual-processor servers. However, several new technologies, such as virtual
machines and blade servers, have expanded the choices that are available.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
9
2.1 Rack optimized servers
Over the past few years, the physical size of dual processor servers was dramatically reduced
to the rack optimized servers of today such as the xSeries 335 (x335). These servers do not
sacrifice size for performance. They are fitted with dual Intel Xeon processors, onboard SCSI
RAID controller, and onboard management.
Figure 2-1 xSeries 335 dual processor server 1U high
The x335 is a popular choice by Citrix MetaFrame designers for many reasons:
򐂰 The small form factor of the x335 allows hundreds of thin-client users to be supported with
minimal filled rack space. 42 x335 servers can fit into a standard 42U rack.
򐂰 Extra thin-client capacity is available by installing additional x335 servers into the server
farm, or “scaling out” for extra capacity. Capacity can be increased gradually by buying
additional smaller servers, as opposed to buying additional larger servers.
򐂰 Larger servers may not effectively use all of the memory and CPU resources due to
application or operating system limitations. 32-bit memory addressing limitations limit the
amount of memory used higher than 4 GB.
򐂰 If a smaller server fails, the number of users affected is much smaller than a large server
that supports a larger number of users.
򐂰 It is used for the following server roles: MetaFrame Servers, Dedicated Data Store,
Domain Controllers, Secure Gateway, etc.
You can learn how to determine the number of thin-client users that you can support in your
environment in 3.2, “Sizing your server for WTS and MetaFrame” on page 18. After you
calculate a number of users per server, you can determine how many servers are required.
You should always consider purchasing one or more servers to meet your capacity
requirements in the event of a server failure or a server off-line for maintenance. Consider
using additional servers for a thin-client development environment.
To build multiple MetaFrame servers, start with a standard Windows Server 2003 and Citrix
MetaFrame server. Use Microsoft’s System Preparation (sysprep) tool to create a master
image from which to build additional servers with the same configuration.
Section 9.1 of Doug Brown’s “Methodology in a Box” provides further details about the steps
that are required to clone a MetaFrame server. You can find Methodology in a Box on the Web
at:
http://www.dabcc.com/miab/
2.2 Blade servers
Blade servers are a relatively new technology that is particularly useful in a thin-client
solution. For medium-sized Citrix farms, which may consist of ten or more MetaFrame
servers, IBM BladeCenter can be considered as an alternative to many 1U servers. Blade
10
Implementing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ xSeries Servers
servers can reduce cost with a more efficient use of valuable floor space and simplified
management.
Figure 2-2 IBM BladeCenter fitted with 14 HS20 servers
The key features of the IBM ^ BladeCenter and BladeCenter HS20 Servers are:
򐂰 The rack-optimized, 7U modular design enclosure holds up to 14 hot-swap BladeCenter
HS20 blades with up to six enclosures in a 42U rack.
򐂰 They contain a high availability midplane that supports the hot-swap of individual blades.
򐂰 A management module lets you manage and control components in the enclosure.
򐂰 Optional hot-swap redundant Ethernet and Fibre Channel switch modules support up to
four network switch modules.
򐂰 You have a choice between 2.0 or 2.4 GHz Intel Xeon processors with quad-pumped 400
MHz front-side bus and full-speed 512 KB ECC L2 caches.
򐂰 Each HS20 supports a minimum of 512 MB and a maximum of 4 GB of system memory.
With the availability of 2 GB memory DIMMs, the maximum system is 8 GB.
򐂰 They offers Dual Broadcom Gigabit Ethernet controllers with teaming and failover support.
򐂰 The ATA-100 IDE controller offers an economical interface for up to two optional 40 GB
IDE HDDs.
BladeCenter is equivalent to having 14 individual MetaFrame servers installed in a single
chassis, reducing rack space, cabling requirements, and ongoing power savings. Each
individual HS20 server provides excellent performance for thin-client purposes. Each server
can be fitted with dual Intel Xeon processors and a maximum of 8 GB of RAM.
The IBM Redpaper Deploying Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ BladeCenter, REDP3583,
is an excellent source of information about the details of the IBM BladeCenter. It includes
installation and configuration instructions for Windows 2000 and Citrix MetaFrame.
2.3 Virtual MetaFrame servers
Virtual machines have long been used in IBM’s midrange and mainframe systems to partition
development and production environments into separate logical machines on a single
physical server. Over the last few years, the use of virtual machines on Intel servers has
become increasingly popular through the use VMware’s virtual machine products. VMware
offers three products:
򐂰 VMware Workstation
򐂰 GSX Server
򐂰 ESX Server
Chapter 2. xSeries thin-client servers
11
VMware Workstation is used for development and demonstration purposes. The GSX Server
and ESX Server versions are used for consolidating and partitioning systems in
high-performance environments.
Increasing capacity in a Citrix MetaFrame farm is typically through a “scale out” methodology
by simply installing extra additional servers. For very large thin-client environments, this may
consist of hundreds of MetaFrame servers.
In these large environments, multiple MetaFrame servers can be consolidated to a single
xSeries 440 (x440) server running VMware ESX Server. A single x440 server can be
expanded to eight processors and 32 GB of RAM.
Figure 2-3 shows an x440 server running multiple MetaFrame Virtual Servers.
MetaFrame Server #1
MetaFrame Server #2
on one
} Running
physical server
xSeries 440
Figure 2-3 Virtual MetaFrame servers running on an x440 server
Testing in IBM’s performance laboratories has determined that an 8-way x440 server can
support approximately 307 heavy users. You can learn about heavy users in 3.2.4, “WTS
testing tools and scripts” on page 23. That section also provides a link to the IBM Web site
where you can download the x440 and VMware performance report.
In real-world environments, depending on application usage, the x440 supports 250 to 500
active MetaFrame users using multiple virtual machines. These enterprise environments
consist of large servers running one virtual MetaFrame server per processor.
By using VMware, you benefit from rapidly provisioning new servers. For example, a new
server can be commissioned by simply taking a copy of an existing virtual machine directory
and starting the new virtual machine. You must still prepare the Windows Server 2003 virtual
machine using sysprep just as you would do with a traditional server.
2.4 Larger MetaFrame servers of the future
The majority of today’s terminal server environments are dual processor servers or larger
servers running virtual machines. The memory limitations of 32-bit Windows applications
restrict the amount of memory that these applications can access without using Intel Physical
12
Implementing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ xSeries Servers
Addressing Extensions (PAE) or Address Windowing Extensions (AWE). Even with PAE
enabled, the underlying architecture of the system is still based on 32-bit linear addresses.
The solution is to use the Windows Server 2003 64-bit edition, which allows large servers to
effectively scale to many processes and terabytes of RAM. This requires 64-bit versions of
today’s 32-bit client applications to run natively in 64-bit mode. However, 32-bit applications
can run using an emulation layer, much like Windows Server 2003 can run 16-bit applications
today but with the associated emulation overhead.
2.5 Which servers to use
Table 2-1 offers a guide for choosing an appropriate xSeries model for your Citrix MetaFrame
farm.
Table 2-1 xSeries guide for a Citrix MetaFrame environment
Citrix farm size
Description
xSeries model guide
Small
One to two MetaFrame servers supporting less than 100
users
x335
Medium
Server farm of two to 10 MetaFrame servers
x335
BladeCenter
Large
Less than 50 servers
x335
BladeCenter
x440 and VMware
Enterprise
Greater than 50 MetaFrame servers
x335
BladeCenter
x440 and VMware
Rack optimized x335 servers can be used for all environments from several MetaFrame
servers through enterprise environments that consist of server farms located across multiple
locations. For larger Citrix farms, IBM BladeCenter may be more cost effective and use less
rack space. It’s worthwhile to consider the number of MetaFrame servers you need today as
well as the number that you may purchase in the years to come.
For large and enterprise Citrix environments, the x440 using VMware may be another way to
consolidate the number of MetaFrame servers while providing the same level of performance
of smaller dual processor servers in a scale-out design.
Chapter 2. xSeries thin-client servers
13
14
Implementing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ xSeries Servers
3
Chapter 3.
Running a Windows Terminal
Server and MetaFrame pilot
Running a thorough Windows Terminal Server and MetaFrame pilot test helps to eliminate
surprises after your system is installed in production. It also provides information in regard to:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
The stability of the system
How the system can be made fault tolerant
What other network requirements are necessary
How the new solution fits in with the existing infrastructure and user requirements
You can use the methodology outlined in this chapter to determine application characteristics
and server sizing requirements. The terminal server resources evaluated during capacity
planning testing are processor, memory, and network performance. We recommend that you
perform your testing on the same hardware you will use for your final solution. You can
extrapolate the load measured on the system during the pilot to estimate overall capacity
limits.
If you don't have the time, resources, or budget to perform a Terminal Server pilot, we provide
some good sizing “rules of thumb”. These rules of thumb were obtained by combining
industry experience with Microsoft and MetaFrame guidelines.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
15
3.1 Pilot phases
A WTS and MetaFrame pilot can be divided into the following phases:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Install the applications and test functionality in a multi-user environment.
Define the number of users and significant performance factors.
Define acceptable performance.
Establish baseline Terminal Server performance.
Run the pilot with your group of test users.
Measure Terminal Server performance during the test.
Gather user feedback.
Identify capacity limits.
Resolve issues found during the pilot.
Using the information gained from the pilot allows you to make sound judgements about the
number of servers required and the overall system design.
Consider reviewing Citrix Engineer Douglas Brown’s “Methodology in a Box”. It provides an
overall Citrix thin-client methodology that can assist you from the pilot through
implementation. You can find Methodology in a Box on the Web at:
http://www.dabcc.com/miab/default.htm
3.1.1 Testing applications in a multi-user environment
This is one of the most important phases of your Windows Terminal Server pilot. You need to
install all of the applications that you want to run on WTS to ensure that they operate as
expected in a multi-user environment. To illustrate the importance of testing, we provide a
real-life example.
One of our customers wanted to run a Telnet application on WTS. In principle, this is a simple
exercise. However, during testing, we found that user authentication was not working
correctly. Analysis showed that the server was authenticating users based on each
individual’s IP address. In a WTS environment, all users share a single IP address. The
resolution was to transmit the user’s Independent Computing Architecture (ICA) client name
to the server for use as a unique identifier.
This example illustrates that, in a WTS environment, you need to ensure that you test all
functions of your application thoroughly, especially before a large WTS rollout. You can find
information about installation and compatibility for several common applications in 5.4,
“Application installation and configuration examples” on page 43.
3.1.2 Securing the terminal server
Windows Terminal Server should be further secured using Group Policy Objects (GPOs).
Typical examples include using a GPO to hide a server’s drives from users or to remove a
user’s ability to run administrative tools. Use the pilot to test how you will implement GPOs
and to ensure they meet your security needs. The power of GPOs to secure and manage your
environment is enhanced with Windows Server 2003.
You can find a sample of GPO in 5.2, “Group Policy Object (GPO) and profile configuration”
on page 37. The same section also explains how to customize your users’ Start menu under
Windows 2000 to provide a simplified user desktop.
16
Implementing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ xSeries Servers
AppSense also provides a range of tools to secure your Terminal Server. For more
information, see:
http://www.appsense.com/
3.1.3 Choosing a pilot group
Choose a number of users who are willing to test your new terminal server. You want a
sufficient number of users to place a moderate load on your server. The actual number varies
depending on your server configuration, the application mix, and the sophistication of your
users. When selecting a representative set of users, you may ask such questions as:
򐂰 How many use one application at a time?
򐂰 How many are power users?
As stated previously, it is important that you run your test on the same hardware that you will
use for your final solution. A linear extrapolation to a larger number of users is a reasonable
way to approximate the size your server must be.
Table 3-1 shows a list of users that may be involved in a typical Windows Terminal Server and
MetaFrame pilot test. It also shows the job category and workstation types that will be tested.
Note that we chose a staff with a number of different job roles to get a good cross-section of
user types.
Table 3-1 Example pilot members
Current job role
Names
Secretary
John Smith, Mary Wilson
Administration
John Harris, Michelle Sargent
Sales or Management
Allen Jones, Stephen Candell
Be sure to tell each user that their experience will be used to determine the outcome of the
pilot test. You may find it useful to give users a prepared set of questions to answer at the end
of the test. Some questions you may consider asking include:
򐂰 How easy was the terminal server to use? (very easy, easy, average, poor, or difficult)
򐂰 How fast, relative to your existing computer, was the terminal server? (very fast, fast,
average, slow, or very slow)
򐂰 Did you experience any problems? If yes, please give brief details.
򐂰 Did your computer have any errors or stop working? If so, please give brief details.
򐂰 What is your overall impression of the terminal server? (excellent, good, average, poor, or
very poor)
Your goal is for the pilot group to find WTS easy to use, fast, and convenient. The pilot
feedback gives an indication of whether a broader rollout of WTS is feasible.
3.1.4 Performing the pilot
Run the pilot for at least four or five business days. The users in your test group should
access a single Windows Terminal Server that you are monitoring with the Windows
Performance tool. Be sure to monitor the server at different times each day: during the
morning logon load, at lunch time when the server is usually less busy, and perhaps in the
evening when batch-type jobs are run. These different sample times give you a feel for how
Chapter 3. Running a Windows Terminal Server and MetaFrame pilot
17
busy the server is and how the load varies over time. The following section discusses the
performance counters you should track during your pilot.
At the end of the test period, you can gather the user feedback sheets to determine how well
Windows Terminal Server was rated by your users. Also, check that all applications and
network services, such as printing, worked as expected.
3.2 Sizing your server for WTS and MetaFrame
Windows Terminal Server provides users with a desktop (operating system), applications,
and network resources by way of remote network communications between the client and
WTS. In the WTS computing environment, bottlenecks can quickly degrade performance and
provide unacceptable response times for users. It is the dramatic user impact of system
bottlenecks on a Windows Terminal Server that makes capacity planning a critical part of
designing a WTS solution.
Server performance is affected by many interacting factors. The raw CPU performance and
the number of processors, the amount of memory installed in the server, disk subsystem
performance, and the network bandwidth available to the server all play their part.
The monitoring tool that we recommend you use to record performance parameters is the
Windows Performance tool. This is integrated in the operating system and does not require
you to install additional software components on the WTS system. The following sections
provide information about important counters that are used to analyze Windows Terminal
Server performance.
In most server applications, disk subsystem performance has a strong effect on overall
system performance. We recommend that you purchase a high-performance disk subsystem
to minimize this effect. Using RAID technology can also improve throughput.
We also recommend that you measure performance counters from a remote workstation to
minimize the effect of taking measurements on the server.
3.2.1 WTS performance counters
Measuring the performance of your Windows Terminal Server is similar to recording the
performance in both the Windows 2003 Server and Windows XP versions. However, the
counters of interest and their baseline values are different.
Use the counter logs in the Windows Performance tool to record the servers performance
during the pilot. Record your log files as comma-delimited text files to easily import them into
such tools as Microsoft Excel.
Some counters, such as Terminal Services Session, record data only while a user is logged
on to the WTS. If a user logs off and their session ends, data is no longer recorded.
Therefore, it is important to monitor who is logged on during the pilot and to start new Counter
Logs if and when required.
Table 3-2 shows the typical counters of interest for a WTS pilot. The following sections explain
how you can interpret the results recorded with the Performance tool.
18
Implementing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ xSeries Servers
Table 3-2 Windows Server 2003 and Citrix MetaFrame Counters to record in a pilot
Object and counter
Instance
Description
What to see for acceptable user
performance in the pilot...
% Processor Time
_Total
This shows how much time the CPUs are
busy executing a non-idle thread. This
parameter can be monitored per CPU by
selecting the appropriate CPU instance.
Average values are less than 80%. If
the value is constantly more than
80%, you need either a faster CPU
or fewer concurrent users per
terminal server.
Interrupts/sec
_Total
The number of interruptions that the CPUs
receive.
Low values. The acceptable value
depends on the processor type and
the workload. You should establish a
baseline.
---
Instantaneous count of the number of
threads waiting to be serviced by a CPU.
All the CPUs share the same queue.
Should be smaller than twice the
number of processors for acceptable
user response.
Available MB
---
Available memory (including virtual
memory).
High values. High values mean
more memory is available to be used
more concurrent users and
applications.
Pages/sec
---
The number of pages read or written to
disk to resolve memory references to
pages that were not in memory at the time.
Low values. The value on average
should not be more than 20. A
constantly high value may indicate a
lack of memory.
---
The current number of active users
accessing the terminal server. This should
be plotted against the other performance
values so you can extrapolate your servers
performance.
You should try and have a minimum
of 10 active users so you can
extrapolate some meaningful
performance data.
Processor
System
Processor Queue
Length
Memory
Terminal services
Active Sessions
Terminal services session
% Processor Time
Remote
Desktop
Protocol
(RDP) or
ICA
session
number. *
The amount of Processor Time for each
user session. This per user value can
assist you in determining whether one
user’s set of applications is more CPU
intensive than another.
A small value as a percentage of the
total % Processor Time. A larger
value for a particular user indicates
one user is running a particular CPU
intensive application.
Total Bytes (per
second)
RDP or
ICA
session
number. *
The ICA or RDP network bandwidth per
user transmitted and received on the
network between the client and server. You
can use Excel to multiply each value by
0.008 to obtain a Kbps value so you can
determine terminal server wide area
network (WAN) requirements.
The amount of bandwidth varies
depending on the graphical nature of
the users session. See 3.2.3,
“Interpreting your pilot bandwidth
requirements” on page 21, for more
details on bandwidth.
Chapter 3. Running a Windows Terminal Server and MetaFrame pilot
19
Object and counter
Instance
Description
What to see for acceptable user
performance in the pilot...
Working Set
RDP or
ICA
session
number. *
The approximate amount of bytes used by
each user. Use Excel to convert each value
into a MB value so you can interpret more
easily.
The more programs a user runs, the
larger the per session Working Set
is. You can use this per user value to
determine your typical users’
memory requirements.
_Total
The average time the disk subsystem has
been busy serving a read or write request.
Low values. If this counter is more
than 70%, the disk subsystem may
be a bottleneck. This should not be a
problem on a fast SCSI disk
subsystem.
Physical Disk
% Disk Time
*: Each time a user logs on to WTS, they are allocated a new session number.
Note: Logical and physical disk performance counters are automatically enabled on
demand. There is no need to run the diskperf -Y command.
3.2.2 Interpreting your memory and CPU pilot results
From your pilot’s Performance Counter Logs, you can determine the final number of users
that you can expect to support on your terminal server hardware. Use Excel to graph the
Counter Log CSV files. Start by plotting the CPU utilization and the number of Active
Sessions on the same graph. This allows you to determine the CPU utilization for various
user loads.
Figure 3-1 is a graph from a Citrix pilot. It shows the CPU utilization on a dual processor x335
server with approximately 15 users running Office 2000 and Lotus Notes® 5.
Figure 3-1 Processor utilization and active sessions during the MetaFrame pilot
20
Implementing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ xSeries Servers
This graph shows that the average processor utilization was only 3%. This is well below the
average processor guideline of 80%. Based on the CPU results alone in this example, the
terminal server can support several hundred concurrent users.
You must also consider the application’s RAM requirements before a final number of users
per server. For the user’s RAM requirements, graph the per session Working Set values and
Available Memory to determine the average RAM requirements per user. Microsoft’s memory
guideline for WTS is to provide a minimum of 10 MB per user. As a general rule of thumb,
based on work in IBM’s performance laboratory, we recommend that you configure servers so
that average memory utilization does not exceed 70%. Thirty percent is usually enough
extra memory so that the server does not expand storage onto disk or page memory onto
disk during periods of peak activity.
Using this memory recommendation, you can calculate the maximum number of terminal
server users, given a particular amount of server memory. Determine the maximum amount
of RAM your production servers will have on your virtual machines. You must use Windows
Server 2003, Enterprise Edition, if more than 4 GB of RAM will be installed.
Use the following formula to determine the maximum number of users from your pilot memory
results:
Maximum number of users per server (due to RAM limits) =
(Maximum server memory in MB - 128) x 0.7 / per user RAM required in MB
For example, if you determine from your pilot that the average per user RAM requirements is
35 MB and your servers will be installed with 4 GB of RAM, you can calculate the maximum
amount of users as:
Maximum amount of users = (4096 - 128) x 0.7 / 35 = 80 users
Based on your application’s RAM requirements, the number of users per server varies
depending on the applications installed, how much they are used, and how much memory
each application requires.
3.2.3 Interpreting your pilot bandwidth requirements
Bottlenecks in network communications can occur in four different areas:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
The client’s network interface
The physical network media
The server’s client-to-server network interface
The server’s network interface for server to server/host communications
Bottlenecks in network communications directly impact the user at the client workstation.
When network delays are encountered, the delay in response time on the client workstations
is instantaneous. You may consider WTS performance unacceptable because of delays in
network communications even though the CPU and memory are available.
A server running Windows Terminal Server communicates with its clients via the RDP over
TCP/IP. Citrix MetaFrame communicates with thin clients by the ICA protocol. This protocol
can operate using transport protocols such as TCP/IP, NetBEUI, or IPX/SPX.
Both ICA and RDP are on demand protocols. This means that when the display is static and
no keys presses, mouse movements, or clicks occur, no bandwidth is consumed. This
provides for much more efficient use of the network.
The amount of bandwidth that your Citrix users require can be determined by graphing the
per session Total Bytes as Kbps. Figure 3-2 shows the bandwidth measurements for ten
Chapter 3. Running a Windows Terminal Server and MetaFrame pilot
21
users at a remote office. These users were connected to the MetaFrame server over a
128 Kbps Committed Information Rate (CIR) frame-relay link.
Figure 3-2 Example pilot bandwidth results
This pilot determined that the average bandwidth requirements were 5 Kbps. Therefore, the
bandwidth requirement for 10 users is 50 Kbps. Given the link had a CIR of 128 Kbps, no link
upgrade is required to support these remote Citrix users across the WAN. You can see from
the graph in Figure 3-2 that the total bandwidth required for ICA traffic “bursts” by nature, as
users type on their keyboard, move their mouse, and print to locally attached printers via
Citrix.
Citrix recommends that, for optimal performance in an active ICA session, 20 Kbps of
bandwidth must be available for each session before the bandwidth becomes a constraint.
Bandwidth usage can vary during a session depending on session activity. Latency of 1000
ms or more is likely to be unacceptable.
In practical environments, we found that 20 Kbps per each Citrix user provides excellent
performance. For more information on ICA bandwidth requirements, refer to the Citrix online
forum and search on the keyword “bandwidth”:
http://support.citrix.com/
You can install such hardware devices as Packeteer Packetshaper and NetReality WiseWan
between a site’s router and LAN. The devices can provide a breakdown of the bandwidth and
response times. They can also provide additional information in sizing your wide area network
(WAN) links for MetaFrame. You should seriously consider these devices for enterprise
thin-client solutions to provide quality of service (QoS).
22
Implementing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ xSeries Servers
3.2.4 WTS testing tools and scripts
For situations where you do not have a group of users to pilot your Citrix solution, Microsoft
and Citrix provide automated tools to simulate a pilot environment. Microsoft provides such
tools as Microsoft RoboServer, RoboClient, and SMClient to assist you with WTS capacity
planning. Both tools are included in the Windows Server 2003 Resource kit.
Citrix provides an equivalent tool for MetaFrame, called the Citrix Server Test Kit. You can
download the kit from the Citrix Developer Network Web site under SDK:
http://www.citrix.com/cdn
Both tools use client drivers to send keystrokes, mouse movements, and clicks to a terminal
server to simulate real users. You can use these tools to determine the maximum number of
terminal server users that your environment will support. Many hardware vendors also supply
performance information using one or more of the commonly used scripts listed in Table 3-3.
Table 3-3 Windows Terminal Server capacity scripts
Vendor
Testing script
Description
Microsoft
Knowledge worker
Based on the Gartner Group specification, this script simulates a user that
keeps a number of applications open all of the time, switching between them to
perform a number of tasks. The user’s typing rate is 35 words per minute (WPM).
Microsoft
Structured task worker
Based on the Gartner Group specification, the structured task worker script
simulates a user who opens and closes applications while moving between
different tasks. The user’s typing rate is 60 WPM. This script provides a more
stressful test than the knowledge worker script.
Citrix
Normal user
The normal user script simulates a user running one application at a time. For
example, the script may write and save a letter using Microsoft Word.
Citrix
Power user
This script simulates a user running two or more applications simultaneously.
The power user typically uses more system resources than a normal user. For
example, a power user script may open Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel at
the same time and merge an address book in Excel with a letter in Word.
IBM
Light user
The light user script represents task-oriented users who normally use a single
data entry type application. In most tests, light users are represented as
Microsoft Outlook users who typically send and receive a text message every
five minutes.
IBM
Medium user
This script represents normal users who typically have two or three
non-computational applications open in the same session space, with light
switching among them. In most tests, medium users are represented as using
Microsoft Word to create small documents, Microsoft Excel for simple data entry,
Microsoft Outlook for sending and receiving e-mail, and Microsoft Internet
Explorer for browsing an intranet site.
IBM
Heavy user
The heavy user script simulates power users who typically use multiple
applications that require large amounts of memory space and processing power.
In most tests, heavy users are represented as using Microsoft Word to create
several documents, Microsoft Excel for extensive data manipulation and to
create graphs and charts, Microsoft Outlook for reading and sending significant
amounts of e-mail, and Microsoft Internet Explorer for extensive browsing of an
intranet site.
The typing rate of your users, measured in WPM, affects the capacity of your server. As the
average typing rate increases, the number of users that can be supported by your server
decreases. Users who open and close applications, rather than switching between them, also
place a greater load on a terminal server.
Chapter 3. Running a Windows Terminal Server and MetaFrame pilot
23
You can find IBM benchmarks for Windows Server 2003 and Citrix on the Web at:
http://www.pc.ibm.com/ww/eserver/xseries/benchmarks/series.html
3.2.5 Using script results to assess real-world requirements
An underestimation can occur due to the differences between the benchmark environment in
which WTS scripts are run and the real world environment. Scripts generate a synthetic
workload that provides repeatability but that is not particularly representative of any specific
real-world situation. Repeatability allows comparison of the effects of changes to the server
and software configuration. This means that the server may be finely tuned for this specific
and stable workload. Production environments are more subject to variation than this.
Another important factor is the rate at which the workload is placed on the server. In
benchmarks, some effort is made at randomizing the work presented to the server, but real
users’ work patterns can create significant peaks and valleys on a daily, weekly, or even
longer cyclical basis. For example, daily peaks can be expected when everyone logs on to the
system when they arrive in the morning, while workload dips usually occur at lunch time and
overnight.
In practice, test results provide appropriate “rules of thumb” for most users who run
applications such as Microsoft Office, IBM Lotus Notes, or Microsoft Outlook. For more
complicated or custom applications, you should be more conservative in your server sizing
and use the results from the structured task workers, power users, or heavy user scripts.
For this situation, IBM and other vendors have developed guidelines to map Terminal Server
script results to recommended maximum values that customers can use for production
servers for particular client workloads.
Rule of thumb
for WTS users
The following rule of thumb determines the upper bound on the number of production WTS
clients actively connected at any one time to your xSeries server:
80% of script result = maximum number of production WTS users
For example, a particular script may be running on a particular server configuration and
indicate that a maximum of 100 terminal server users are supported. In this case, you can
expect to support up to about 80 users of the type represented by the test script in your
production environment.
This rule of thumb provides some spare capacity for your production environment. These
guidelines vary from vendor to vendor. However, they all aim to provide a reasonable safety
margin in their calculations. With this, you can feel confident that your server can support the
load that is quoted and cope with reasonable peaks in demand.
Tip: Up to 90 concurrent knowledge workers or medium users can be supported on a dual
Intel Xeon processor terminal server and receive acceptable response times. In practice,
this relates to general application use of such products as Microsoft Office and Lotus
Notes. Using our rule of thumb, this equates to 90 x 0.8 = 72 concurrent production users
or approximately 70 users.
Rule of thumb
for terminal
server RAM
Use the following rule of thumb as a useful guide to provide a minimum estimate for the
amount of RAM required for your terminal server if you have not conducted a pilot. The
minimum amount of RAM you need in your terminal server is:
128 + 15 x (Concurrent number of terminal server users) MB
24
Implementing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ xSeries Servers
Add an additional 30% of additional RAM so that the server does not expand storage onto
disk or page memory onto disk during periods of peak activity.
Remember that this RAM requirement includes only the WTS requirements. If you have any
backup and recovery or antivirus software running on your server, you must configure
additional RAM for your server.
Chapter 3. Running a Windows Terminal Server and MetaFrame pilot
25
26
Implementing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ xSeries Servers
4
Chapter 4.
Examples of Windows Terminal
Server and MetaFrame design
This chapter discusses several Windows Server 2003 Terminal Services and Citrix
MetaFrame design examples. Note that these are examples only. Consider the specifics of
your own environment when sizing and implementing your own terminal servers and when
you need to purchase the additional services of Citrix MetaFrame. Always consult with your
colleagues and management before you make server and configuration decisions.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
27
4.1 Small WTS and MetaFrame environment
A customer wanted to install a Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame for 20 users at
a single location. The customer had a mixture of older computers that did not have the
capacity to run Windows 2000 or Windows XP. The customer wanted to reuse these
computers by converting them to thin clients and using WTS. All users will run applications
such as those in the Microsoft Office suite. The customer also wanted the ability to remotely
control users’ desktops and to minimize the amount of end-user training with a thin-client
environment.
The solution was to use Windows Server 2003 and Citrix MetaFrame XPa. MetaFrame XPa
was chosen because the customer did not expect to install an additional server in the short
term. The thin clients were a mixture of DOS clients and published applications to existing
Windows 9X clients. TCP/IP was used as the network protocol.
Our choice for this customer was to run Windows Terminal Services and Citrix MetaFrame on
an xSeries 335 (x335). The customer did not expect significant growth in the short term and
cost constraints prohibited installing an extra processor. The x335 has sufficient performance
for this small Citrix network to provide Microsoft Office applications. Given that all users
connected to MetaFrame via a 100 Mbps Ethernet network, no bandwidth sizing was
necessary.
Using our memory formula, we calculated that we needed a minimum of 428 MB of RAM. The
customer wanted to run backup and restore and virus protection software, so another 32 MB
of RAM was required, for a total of 460 MB of memory. The server comes standard with 512
MB of memory which met our memory requirements with an additional 10% for headroom.
The x335 also allows the customer to fit an extra processor if a greater workload is placed on
the system in the future.
Looking at what software and data should be on the server, we made the following
recommendations:
򐂰 The Citrix server should not hold any user data, only the applications to be published to
your users. In our example, the Citrix server was installed with the customer’s applications,
which included Office XP and Lotus Notes. 16-bit and DOS applications should not be
installed on Windows Terminal Server due to their increased system requirements and the
possible system instability that they may cause.
򐂰 The x335 is fitted with an integrated RAID adapter. The disk requirements were met by two
32 GB, 15,000 RPM drives, configured as a RAID-1 logical drive. In the event of an
Ethernet adapter failure, the two onboard Ethernet adapters were logically teamed so that
if an adapter fails, the network connectivity is not affected.
28
Implementing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ xSeries Servers
xSeries 335
Desktop used by
remote thin-client
Published
Applications
DOS Client
Win9X Client
Figure 4-1 A single MetaFrame XPa server
The Windows Terminal Server, Citrix MetaFrame, and applications were installed using the
instructions provided in Chapter 5, “Installing and configuring the software” on page 35. The
terminal server was installed as a stand-alone server rather than running the additional
Domain controller tasks.
The server was a member of the Active Directory Domain, and the server object was placed
in its own Organizational Unit (OU). Placing the server object in its own OU allows it to be
easily secured by Group Policy Objects. You can see a sample Group Policy Object in 5.2,
“Group Policy Object (GPO) and profile configuration” on page 37.
A license server is a Windows 2000 Server on which Terminal Services Licensing is enabled.
This server tracks the number of licenses that are purchased and must be installed for WTS
to operate.
The customer was running an existing file and print server with several different types of
network printers. Our recommendation was to only use the multi-user printer drivers that are
shipped with Windows Server 2003. Using third-party printer drivers in a multi-user
environment is known to result in system instability and the well-known blue-screen trap in a
Windows Server 2003 environment. For more information, consult the Citrix forum at:
http://www.citrix.com/support/forums.asp
4.2 Medium WTS and MetaFrame environment
Another customer wanted to use Windows Terminal Server and MetaFrame XP to support a
total of 200 users for a single client/server application, with the expectation of significant
growth in user numbers in the short term. Thirty of the users were located in the customer's
headquarters, connected by a switched 10/100 Mbps Ethernet network. The other 30 users
were located in a remote overseas office via a 128 Kbps frame-relay wide area network
(WAN) link.
The application was to be accessed as a published application allowing users to easily
connect to the new client/server application from their Independent Computing Architecture
(ICA) clients. For Windows 32-bit clients, the application can be seamlessly accessed as if it
is a local application. MetaFrame XPe allows the customer to rapidly roll out this application to
all users in the company.
Chapter 4. Examples of Windows Terminal Server and MetaFrame design
29
The customer wanted efficient multi-CPU servers with a small form factor with the ability to
add additional capacity quickly. Using our guideline of 90 users per server with dual
processors, and scaling this value by 80%, we specified a maximum of 70 users per server.
IBM BladeCenter was chosen as the appropriate server solution. The customer chose to start
with four HS20 servers, to support the existing user load with some additional capacity in the
event of a server failure or maintenance. The client/server application was load balanced
across the servers by using MetaFrame XPe’s load balancing capability. As additional
capacity is required, additional HS20 servers can be installed into BladeCenter.
IBM BladeCenter with each
HS20 blade running
Windows Server 2003 and
Citrix MetaFrame XPe
Client/server application
deployed via Citrix to
remote desktop
Figure 4-2 Citrix MetaFrame XPe farm running on IBM BladeCenter
The customer was not able to perform a full-capacity planning pilot for the client/server
application. Each HS20 was fitted with dual processors to provide additional scalability. Using
our memory formula, we calculated that we needed 1178 MB of RAM (128 MB + 70 x 15 MB).
We installed an additional 30% of RAM for short-term requirements. The customer also
wanted to run backup and restore and virus protection software. Therefore, another 32 MB of
RAM was required. This gave us a total of 1714 MB of RAM as a minimum. Allowing for the
granularity of memory packaging, the customer decided to configure the server with 2 GB of
RAM.
The customer used Citrix’s bandwidth guideline to size the frame-relay link as a Committed
Information Rate (CIR) of 600 Kbps. However, the customer felt that it was unlikely that 30
concurrent users would access the application from the remote office overseas at the same
time, so the link CIR was reduced. The customer may increase the frame-relay link speed in
the future if their carrier reports high utilization. We informed the customer that users,
particularly those working across a WAN, obtain increased performance and user experience
by activating bitmap caching on all ICA clients and using SpeedScreen Latency Reduction.
The terminal server was installed as a stand-alone server. The server object was placed in its
own Organizational Unit in the Active Directory. Placing the server object in its own OU
allowed it to be secured by Group Policy Objects. A sample Group Policy Object is provided in
5.2, “Group Policy Object (GPO) and profile configuration” on page 37.
As discussed previously, a license server is a Windows Server 2003 server on which Terminal
Services Licensing is enabled. This server tracks the number of licenses that are purchased
and must be installed for WTS to operate. It was important this server is not a terminal server
in the farm and is always available.
The customer configured the Windows Terminal Server using a drive partitioning scheme that
we find useful. The operating system was placed on the C: drive, with data on the D: drive.
30
Implementing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ xSeries Servers
Both were formatted using NTFS. A third, FAT, partition formed the E: drive. Using imaging
software, such as Symantec Ghost, images of the operating system and data drives can be
created and stored on the E: drive.
It is a good idea to make a new image after the initial installation and then prior to any major
change to the server. Then, in the event of a system failure, you can rapidly bring the server
back online by restoring it from these backup images.
4.3 Large WTS and MetaFrame environment
A large customer needed a reliable, expandable, and centralized Citrix MetaFrame XPe
environment for 1,000 users. The customer had several existing servers at their
headquarters, including IBM ~ iSeries™ servers running business applications and
Lotus Domino™, and xSeries servers as Windows file and print servers. The customer
wanted to maintain this centralization. They wanted to keep major computing resources close
to their support staff for better service, manageability, and increased security. The customer
wanted Citrix MetaFrame to provide a full-screen desktop and several applications, such as
Office XP and Lotus Notes, to their users. The desktop was to be secured and simplified for
all users.
The customer’s headquarters was running a switched 10/100 Mbps Ethernet network with
Gbps backbone and frame-relay links to many remote offices. An implementation requirement
was to have the terminal servers join the company’s existing Active Directory so that users
could log on to any terminal server using the same account and password. A dedicated Active
Directory Domain Controller was assigned to the MetaFrame server farm to authenticate
users and to store the users’ roaming profiles. The server also had Terminal Server Licensing
enabled, which tracks the number of licenses that the customer had purchased for all of their
terminal servers.
The Citrix MetaFrame’s server farm is stored in the data store. The data store can be either
an Access, SQL Server, or Oracle database. The function of the data store is to provide a
repository of persistent farm information for all servers to reference, such as published
application configuration, licenses, and servers in the farm. To ensure a reliable and high
performance store, Citrix recommends using enterprise databases such as SQL Server or
Oracle for larger MetaFrame server farms. A dedicated server running SQL Server performs
the data store function.
We recommended that at least two domain controllers run to provide fault tolerance. The
MetaFrame domain controller was installed on an x335 server because it can be rack
mounted and has high availability options such as hot swap hard drives and redundant power
supplies.
We recommended that the customer implement several small MetaFrame servers rather than
one or two large ones. This allows the customer easily to scale the solution as user numbers
increase. It also means that fewer users are affected in the event of a system failure. The
other servers can support the slightly increased user load if one server is shut down for
maintenance or repairs.
The customer chose the x335 for the server farm. Using our CPU and memory guidelines, we
determined that each x335 could support up to 70 concurrent users. This is a conservative
estimate that should ensure excellent performance for all users. Our memory guideline
determined that supporting 70 concurrent users required 1.6 GB of RAM, which was rounded
to 2 GB. Each server was fitted with two Intel Xeon processors.
Chapter 4. Examples of Windows Terminal Server and MetaFrame design
31
Fifteen x335 servers were configured in this way to support 1,000 concurrent MetaFrame
users. We recommended a sixteenth server so that, in the event of a server failure, the 1,000
users can be supported without a drop in quality of service. The design can be scaled out by
installing additional x335 servers if required.
Rack fitted with 19 IBM x335 servers:
• 16 MetaFrame XPe Servers
• 2 Active Directory Domain Controllers
(one running Windows Licensing Service)
•
1 SQL Data Store
Figure 4-3 Large MetaFrame XPe farm running on xSeries 335 servers
Each x335 server has two 32 GB, with 15,000 RPM drives connected to the onboard RAID
adapter and configured as a RAID-1 logical drive. This gives an effective disk space of 32 GB
per server.
One x335 server was installed with Windows Server 2003, Citrix MetaFrame XPe, and the
appropriate applications. While building the server, it is important not to join the domain and
to keep the local administrative password blank. We then used Microsoft’s sysprep utility to
prepare this server as our Master Terminal Server image. Using a disk imaging utility, such as
Symantec Ghost, the customer can distribute this image to the other x335 servers. After each
server is imaged, each server can join the domain. By using sysprep, large numbers of
identical MetaFrame servers can be rapidly installed.
The customer configured the servers using a drive partitioning scheme that we found useful.
The operating system was placed on the C: drive, with data on the D: drive. Both were
formatted using NTFS. A third FAT partition formed the E: drive. Using imaging software, such
as Symantec Ghost, images of the operating system and data drives can be created and
stored on the E: drive. It is a good idea to make a new image after the initial installation and
then prior to any major change to the server. Then, in the event of a system failure, you can
bring the server back online rapidly by restoring the server from these backup images. Only
use ghost partition images on the same server from which it is imaged.
When all MetaFrame servers were installed in the Citrix farm, a published application was
created using the Citrix Management Console to distribute a Windows desktop. All of the
servers in the farm were selected to distribute the Windows desktop published application.
Load balancing allows the desktop published application to be available as a single selection
for the user rather than the user having 16 desktop applications from which to choose. When
the user connects to the Citrix servers, a MetaFrame server in the farm configured as the
Data Collector (DC) seamlessly directs them to the least busy server. Several other servers
were configured as backup Data Collectors for extra redundancy. From the user’s perspective,
connecting to a “server farm” of 16 servers was the same as connecting to a single
MetaFrame server. If a server fails or is made unavailable for maintenance purposes, users
connect to one of the remaining servers.
32
Implementing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ xSeries Servers
The customer desired to provide users with a consistent environment, regardless of which
MetaFrame server they log on to. This includes a user’s default printer, last documents
accessed, and Web favorites. This is achieved by using roaming profiles, stored on a file
server. When a user logs on to one of the MetaFrame servers, the user’s profile is
downloaded from the file server and saved back to the server when the user logs off.
To secure the 16 terminal servers and to provide a list of application icons for each user,
Group Policies are used. All 16 terminal servers are placed in their own Active Directory
Organizational Unit, to which a Group Policy is assigned. See 5.2, “Group Policy Object
(GPO) and profile configuration” on page 37, for more details on Group Policies.
All user data is stored on separate file servers. Applications are installed identically on each
MetaFrame server.
The customer performed network bandwidth capacity planning and found that ICA traffic was
on average 5 Kbps for each remote user. For 50 users accessing Citrix from a remote
location, the recommended CIR for the frame-relay network is 250 Kbps. Under the ICA
client’s Server Group configuration setting, the TCP/IP address of Data Collector server and
Backup Data Collector servers are entered. All ICA clients configured in this way contact the
Data Collector server for published application information across a wide area network.
4.4 A consolidated MetaFrame environment
A large customer with an substantial investment in Citrix MetaFrame wants to upgrade and
consolidate the 60 Citrix MetaFrame servers it has across its organization. These servers are
evenly distributed across two data centers. The various applications are assessed. Then it is
decided to consolidate the MetaFrame servers running standard desktop applications such
as Microsoft Office and Outlook. Other applications with more demanding CPU and memory
requirements remain on their dedicated MetaFrame servers. Forty-six of the 60 servers are
consolidated.
We recommended that the customer fits large x440 servers with eight processors and 16 GB
of RAM. Each x440 server is installed with VMware ESX Server and is configured to run eight
virtual Citrix MetaFrame XPe servers. For optimum performance, each virtual machine is
allocated a virtual CPU to a physical CPU. Each virtual machine is also configured with 2 GB
of RAM, which was equivalent to the amount of RAM allocated to each MetaFrame server in
the existing environment. Six large x440 servers replace the existing 46 MetaFrame servers.
Chapter 4. Examples of Windows Terminal Server and MetaFrame design
33
Eight virtual machines
each running Windows
Server 2003 and Citrix
MetaFrame XPe
xSeries 440 fitted with
8 processors and 16
GB of RAM running
VMWare ESX
Existing MetaFrame XPe
servers
Figure 4-4 MetaFrame server consolidation using x440 and VMware
To ensure there is equivalent redundancy in the final design, three x440 servers are located in
one office with another three x440 servers located in another office. By having more than one
x440 server at each location, we consolidate the existing MetaFrame environment but do not
introduce a single point of failure.
The consolidation is achieved by installing the first virtual server with Windows Server 2003
and Citrix MetaFrame XPe. It is then a simple process to use Microsoft’s sysprep utility to
prepare a master MetaFrame server image and then simply create copies of the virtual
machines directory. This is an even quicker method than disk imaging utilities to create many
MetaFrame servers in a virtual machine environment. These MetaFrame servers are installed
into the existing server farm. After the applications are installed and tested, these new servers
can be allocated to their appropriate published applications. Users can migrate to these
servers without any change to their ICA client.
34
Implementing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ xSeries Servers
5
Chapter 5.
Installing and configuring the
software
This chapter provides detailed instructions for how to install and configure Windows Server
2003 Terminal Services, Citrix MetaFrame, and several common applications. Use these
installation and configuration instructions to help you install and configure your own servers.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
35
5.1 Windows Terminal Server and MetaFrame installation
The following steps include our configuration suggestions in regard to Windows 2003
Terminal Services:
1. Create a system partition of 8 GB, and format the partition as NTFS.
2. Enter the appropriate regional settings and input locales when prompted.
3. When Windows Server 2003 is installed, create the partitions and drive letters as we
suggest in Figure 5-1. You can create an X: FAT partition of size 2048 MB to begin, and
then create an NTFS D: drive from the remaining space. The E: drive is formatted with the
FAT file system so it can be used to store images of the C: and D: drives. Images can be
made to assist in disaster recovery situations by using such software as Symantec's
Ghost and a Windows 95/98 boot disk.
Figure 5-1 Disk Administrator Windows 2003 partitions
4. Install Windows Terminal Server:
a. Click Start -> Manage Your Server and select Add or remove a role. Click Next and
wait for the server Wizard to detect your network and operating system configuration.
a. Select Custom configuration and click Next.
b. Select Terminal Server and click Next.
c. You are asked if you want to install WTS. Click Next to continue.
d. You are informed that the server needs to restart after WTS is installed. Click OK.
e. Windows Server 2003 installs WTS and restarts the server when completed.
5. Log on to the server as administrator after the server restarts. You are informed that the
server is now a terminal server and that a license server is required before the 120 days
grace period.
6. Copy the I386 directory from the Windows Server 2003 CD-ROM to the D: drive of the
server. This allows you to add components in the future without inserting the CD-ROM.
7. In the Control Panel, follow these steps:
a. Double-click the System icon.
b. Select the Advanced tab. Select the Performance options and click Settings.
c. Click the Visual Effects tab. Select Adjust for best performance and click Apply.
d. Click the Advanced tab. Change the Memory usage option to Programs.
e. On the Virtual memory option, click the Change button. Set the initial and maximum
paging file size to 1.5 times to 2.5 times the total amount of physical RAM. For
example, if the server has 1024 MB of RAM, then set the initial and maximum paging
file size to at least 1536 MB. We found that if the paging file is too small, even with large
amounts of physical RAM in your terminal server, you can still get virtual memory
errors. Click OK to save the Virtual Memory settings. Then click OK twice to exit the
system program.
f. You must restart the server for the changes to take effect.
8. Set a system screen saver, such as the Default Screen Saver, that does not consume
much CPU and sends negligible screen updates to remote terminal server users.
36
Implementing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ xSeries Servers
9. Create a directory called \SPOOL on the D: drive.
10. From the Windows Start menu, select Settings -> Printers -> File -> Server Properties.
11.Select the Advanced tab.
12.Set the spool configuration as shown in Figure 5-2 for WTS to spool all printing to the D:
drive. Then click OK.
Figure 5-2 Changing the server’s spool folder to D:\SPOOL
13.By default, the Windows Server 2003 directory permissions are set to secure each
directory from unauthorized user access. Browse the root directories on each drive and
inspect the security settings. Ensure that users do not have Full Control, Write, or Modify
rights where they are not required.
14.Install Citrix MetaFrame as explained in the Citrix MetaFrame Installation Guide, which is
included in Adobe PDF format on the installation media CD-ROM.
We recommend that you refer to Citrix Engineer Rick Dehlinger’s paper Citrix MetaFrame
for Windows Servers- Installation and Tuning Tips, which is available on the Web at:
http://www.tweakcitrix.com
This paper contains a great list of Citrix MetaFrame server tuning tips such as disabling
paging of the Windows NT executive, disabling Dr. Watson, etc. which you can set on your
server.
5.2 Group Policy Object (GPO) and profile configuration
Complete the steps in the following sections to configure and secure the Windows Terminal
Server you just installed.
Chapter 5. Installing and configuring the software
37
5.2.1 Windows 2003 profiles
The Start Menu in Windows Server 2003 provides the user with several unnecessary
applications and system configuration tools as shown in Figure 5-3.
Figure 5-3 Windows 2003 Terminal default Start menu
We recommend that users be supplied with a simplified Start menu that provides access only
to those applications required to perform their work. You should remove access to
applications which are used to configure the server or perform administrative functions, such
as Command Prompt and Administrative Tools.
Under Windows Server 2003, all user profiles are stored in the C:\Documents and Settings
folder. Using Windows Explorer, follow these steps:
1. Go to Tools -> Folder Options.
2. Select the View tab and click the Show hidden files and folders radio button.
3. Click OK to close the Folder Options window.
You can now see the hidden folder called Default User. When a new user logs on to the
server, the Default User profile is used as a template to create a new profile for the user.
Editing the Default profile to remove items in the Start menu ensures that new users are set
up without access to the removed items. Before you delete items from this folder, you may
want to make sure you have a backup copy available in case you decide later to restore some
features.
To edit the default user profile, browse the Default User folder using Windows Explorer and
remove those folders and program icons which you do not want your users to access with
WTS.
Another approach is to customize a template user account and copy the settings to the
Default User. We recommend that you follow these steps:
1. Create a special user account called Templateuser, for example.
2. Log on to the server using the Templateuser account.
38
Implementing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ xSeries Servers
3. Customize the Start menu, application settings, screen saver, and desktop color to suit
your preferences.
4. Log off the terminal server and log on using the Administrator account.
5. In Control Panel, double-click the System icon and select the User Profiles tab of the
resulting window.
6. Select the Templateuser profile from the list and copy it to the C:\Documents and
Settings\Default User folder. Now all new users who log on to the terminal server get the
same settings as those set up for Templateuser.
After you make such changes as these to the Default User profile, notice that terminal server
users still have access to several important folders, such as Administrative Tools. These
folders are provided to the user from the All Users profile. Application shortcuts placed in the
All Users profile are available to all terminal server users. We show you how to use a Group
Policy Object to hide icons in the All Users profile from users in 5.2.2, “Group Policy Objects”
on page 39. In this way, you provide a simplified set of applications for your terminal server
users to access.
Roaming user profiles allow users to move between different terminal servers and maintain
the same environment and preference settings. Windows Server 2003 now has the ability to
set all Roaming Users Profiles by a Group Policy setting.
5.2.2 Group Policy Objects
In Windows Server 2003, Group Policy Objects allow administrators to control users’
desktops and to secure terminal servers. The functionality of Group Policies has been
expanded to provide additional management of settings for client/server data redirection,
temporary folder settings, and session settings
GPOs are linked to selected Active Directory containers such as sites, domains, and
organizational units (OUs). Looking at the example in Figure 5-4, you can see the Active
Directory configuration for the fictional company acme.com.
Figure 5-4 Example Active Directory
Chapter 5. Installing and configuring the software
39
A GPO is defined for the domain acme.com by selecting the Properties of the acme.com
object. This displays the GPOs for acme.com. Policies are applied in the following order:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Local group
Site group
Domain group
Organizational unit
Using the example above, users Bob Smith, Ted Jones, and Michelle Sargent have the
acme.com policy applied unless Group Policies are defined for lower OUs such as accounts
or sales. The policy applied is the same regardless of the computer or terminal server that
they log on to in the company.
In many cases, you may want a more secure policy for your terminal server. The solution is to
apply an alternative policy when a user logs on to a particular computer. To do this, create an
OU for your terminal servers as shown in Figure 5-4. Our example shows our terminal server
is located in the OU acme.com/Servers/terminal servers. For this OU, create another Group
Policy with the settings you want applied for all terminal server users as shown in Figure 5-5.
Figure 5-5 The Default Domain Group Policy Object for acme.com
Ensuring that users have sufficient freedom on their own PC, while providing adequate
protection to the terminal server, is achieved by using the loopback processing mode.
In Figure 5-6, you can see the Group Policy for the acme.com/Servers/Terminal Servers OU.
Set the User Group Policy loopback processing mode to Enabled with a mode setting of
Replace. Now when users log on to a terminal server whose computer object is in the
acme.com/Servers/Terminal Servers OU, they receive user policy settings based on the
computer object location, rather than the user object location.
You must shut down and restart your terminal server for the loopback processing mode to
take effect.
40
Implementing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ xSeries Servers
Figure 5-6 Enabling User Group Policy loopback processing
Table 5-1 lists some suggested Group Policy Object settings to control the user’s desktop and
secure your terminal server. Review the online help in the Microsoft Management Console for
a detailed explanation of these settings.
Table 5-1 Terminal Server Group Policy Object setting
Policy
Value
Computer Configuration
Windows Settings\Security Settings\Local Policies\Security
Options\Interactive Logon:Do not display last user name
Enabled
Administrative Templates\Windows Components\Windows Explorer\Hide
these specified drives in My Computer
Enabled, Restrict A, B,
C and D only
Administrative Templates\Windows Components\Terminal Services\Set
path for TS Roaming Profiles
Enabled, set path to
roaming profile directory
Administrative Templates\System\Group Policy\User Group Policy
loopback processing mode
Enabled, mode setting
of Replace
Administrative Templates\System\User Profiles\Delete cached copies of
roaming profiles
Enabled
User Configuration
Administrative Templates\Start Menu & Taskbar\Remove common
program groups from Start Menu
Enabled
Administrative Templates\Start Menu & Taskbar\Remove Run menu from
Start Menu
Enabled
Administrative Templates\Start Menu & Taskbar\Add Logoff to the Start
Menu
Enabled
Chapter 5. Installing and configuring the software
41
Policy
Value
Administrative Templates\Start Menu & Taskbar\Prevent changes to
Taskbar and Start Menu Settings
Enabled
Administrative Templates\Desktop\Active Desktop\Disable Active Desktop
Enabled
Administrative Templates\Control Panel\Show only Specified Control
Panel applets
Enabled, add Printers
and Mouse
Administrative Templates\Control Panel\Printers\Prevent Addition of
Printers
Enabled
Administrative Templates\Control Panel\Printers\Prevent Deletion of
Printers
Enabled
Disable and remove Shutdown command
Enabled
Administrative Templates\Windows Components\Windows
Update\Remove Access to use all Windows Update Features
Enabled
Administrative Templates\Network\Offline Files\Prohibit user configuration
of Offline Files
Enabled
Administrative Templates\System\User Profiles\Limit profile Size
Enabled
Administrative Templates\System\Prevent access to the command
prompt\
Enabled
Administrative Templates\System\Prevent access to registry editing tools
Enabled
Explaining all of the features of Group Policies is beyond the scope of this document. For
more information on how to create a Group Policy Object, refer to the Microsoft document
Step-by-Step Guide to Understanding the Group Policy Feature Set, available on the Web at:
http://www.microsoft.com/windows2000/techinfo/planning/management/groupsteps.asp
5.3 Application installation and configuration
Windows 2003 Server Terminal Services requires that all applications are installed using the
Add/Remove Programs function in the Control Panel. This ensures that application settings
are configured for a multi-user environment. When applications are installed using this tool,
the server is placed into Install Mode automatically.
In the Install Mode, WTS monitors how the application is installed, so that the application can
be used in Windows Terminal Server’s multi-user environment. If you run the installation
program without using the Add/Remove Programs function, the application you are installing
may operate inconsistently for your users. You can also perform the same function using the
command:
change user /install
All applications must be installed from an Administrator account. Also ensure that no users
are currently accessing the server. You can prevent users from logging on to the server by
using the MetaFrame Administrator program, or by simply disconnecting the server from the
network.
After an application is completes its installation, you are prompted to click Next, and you see
Finish Admin Install window (Figure 5-7).
42
Implementing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ xSeries Servers
Figure 5-7 Windows Server 2003 after installing an application
It is imperative that you follow the instructions to click the Finish button, regardless of whether
the installation completed successfully. This turns off Install Mode and returns WTS to
Execute Mode. You can also perform the same function using the command:
change user /execute
5.4 Application installation and configuration examples
This section provides sample installation and configuration steps for several common
Windows applications.
5.4.1 Microsoft Office 2000
To install Microsoft Office 2000, perform the following steps:
1. Go to the Microsoft 2000 Resource Kit page (at the following address), which explains how
to install Microsoft Office in a WTS environment:
http://www.microsoft.com/office/ork/2000/two/30t3_1.htm
This Web site provides information on how to install Microsoft Office 2000 on the
predecessor of Windows 2000, Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0, Terminal Server Edition
(TSE). The instructions provided may not change with Windows 2000, but check the Web
site for the latest information.
2. Download the Office 2000 Resource kit core tool set (ORKTools.exe).
3. Customize the Windows 2000 transform file (TermSrvr.mst) to meet your needs.
4. In Control Panel, double-click the Add/Remove Programs icon.
5. Follow these steps:
a. Click Add New Programs.
b. Click CD or Floppy.
c. Click Next.
d. Click Browse.
Chapter 5. Installing and configuring the software
43
e. In the root folder of the Office Disc 1, select setup.exe and click Open to insert
setup.exe in the command line of the installation dialog.
f. On the command line, add the following two parameters after setup.exe, separated by
spaces:
TRANSFORMS="path\TermSrvr.mst"
This command identifies the Terminal Server transform for Setup to use during
installation.
g. Specify the correct path to the MST file:
/l* "%WINDIR%\Office 2000 Setup(0001).txt"
This optional command places the Setup log file in the Windows folder, rather than in
the %TEMP% folder, so that it is not deleted automatically by Windows.
Tip: The character after the forward slash is a lowercase letter L.
h. Click Finish to start the installation program.
6. After the program is installed, click Close on the Add/Remove Programs window.
By default, the Terminal Server transform (TermSrvr.mst) does not install any Office
Assistants. After running Office Setup, you can install the Motionless Office Assistant
(Stillogo.acs) included in the Office Resource Kit. This Office Assistant uses no animation, so
there is minimal network traffic between the Terminal Server computer and the Terminal
Client computer. For information about installing the Motionless Office Assistant, see Terminal
Server Tools in the Office 2000 Resource Kit Toolbox.
5.4.2 Microsoft Office XP
This suite of programs is the latest Office release from Microsoft. Office XP Setup detects that
it is being run under Terminal Services and it preconfigures all the proper options. For this
detection to occur on Windows 2000 Server, Application Server mode must be enabled.
5.4.3 Notes R5
Notes R5 provides e-mail and groupware services to users. Follow these steps:
1. Log on to the server as Administrator and ensure no users are currently accessing the
server.
2. In Control Panel, double-click the Add/Remove Programs icon.
3. Complete the following steps to add a program:
a. Click Add New Programs.
b. Click CD or Floppy.
c. Click Next.
d. Run the Lotus Notes 5 install program setup.exe from the CD-ROM.
i. Click Next to continue on the first Notes installation window.
ii. Click Yes to accept the Notes licensing agreement.
iii. Enter the company name in the appropriate fields. Do not enter a user’s name in
either field because data entered here is seen by all users.
iv. Select the Shared install check box.
44
Implementing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ xSeries Servers
v. Enter the destination folder as D:\APPS\Lotus\Notes.
vi. Notes installation now copies files to the hard drive.
vii. Click Finish when Notes is completed.
e. Create a folder on the server called r5clienttemplate. Share the folder using the
same name for the share and set Permissions to give read access to everyone.
f. Connect the standard user’s home letter to this share. For example, enter the
command:
NET USE U: \\AUTS03\R5CLIENTTEMPLATE
g. Run the D:\APPS\Lotus\Notes\setup.exe Notes installation program.
i.
Click Next to continue on the first Notes installation window.
ii. Click Yes to accept licensing of Notes.
iii. Click Next to accept the existing Company name field.
Note: In the next step, you are directed to store the user data files to a file server.
However, remote data directories (or user data directories on a file server) are not
supported by Lotus. Although the configuration to place the data directories on a file
server actually works in several configurations, Lotus only supports user data
directories stored on the Citrix system unit. Therefore, all other configurations are at
your own risk. Additional reference regarding this procedure: Lotus technote
1086958.
iv. Change the destination folder from C:\Lotus\Notes\Data to H:\Lotus\Notes\Data and
click Next, where H: is the letter of all users’ home drive.
v. Click Finish when completed. Do not launch Notes now.
h. After the program is installed, click Finish on the Add/Remove Programs window.
4. Using Windows Explorer, cut and paste C:\WTSRV\NOTES.INI (equivalent to moving the
file) to the directory H:\Lotus\Notes.
5. Create a common desktop icon for all users to run Notes:
a. From the Windows Explorer menu, select File -> New -> Shortcut.
b. Enter D:\APPS\Lotus\Notes\Notes.exe in the Location field and click Next.
c. Enter Lotus Notes in the Name field and click Finish.
6. Still in Windows Explorer, right-click the newly created Lotus Notes shortcut.
7. Select Properties and then select the Shortcut tab.
8. Set the Start in: field to H:\Lotus\Notes.
9. Copy the contents of the r5clienttemplate directory (including the Notes folder within that
folder) to each user’s home directory (or H: drive). This is a standard Lotus Notes
administration task.
5.4.4 Notes R6
Notes R6 is the latest release of the Notes e-mail and groupware services product. Follow
these steps:
1. Log on to the server as administrator and ensure no users are currently accessing the
server.
Chapter 5. Installing and configuring the software
45
2. Create a folder on the server called r6clienttemplate. Share the folder using the same
name for the share. Set Permissions to give read access to the Everyone group and Full
rights for administrators.
3. Connect to the above share with your standard user’s home drive assignment. For
example, if your home drive is typically H:, enter the command:
NET USE H: \\TERMSERVER \R6CLIENTTEMPLATE
4. Log on to the server as administrator and ensure that no users are currently accessing the
server.
5. In Control Panel, double-click the Add/Remove Programs icon.
6. Complete the following steps:
a. Click CD or Floppy.
b. Click Next.
c. Run the Lotus Notes 6 install program setup.exe from the CD-ROM:
i. Click Next to continue on the first Notes installation window.
ii. Click Next to continue.
iii. Select I accept the terms in the license agreement and click Next.
iv. Enter the company name in the User Name and Organization fields. Do not enter a
user’s name in either field because data entered here is seen by all users.
v. Select to install this application Only for me (Single User Install) and click Next.
Note: In the next step, you are directed to store the user data files to a file server.
However, remote data directories (or user data directories on a file server) are
not supported by Lotus. Although the configuration to place the data directories
on a file server actually works in several configurations, Lotus only supports user
data directories stored on the Citrix system unit. Therefore, all other
configurations are at your own risk. Additional reference regarding this
procedure: Lotus technote 1086958.
vi. Change the Install data files to: from C:\program files\lotus\notes\data\ to
H:\notes\data. Click Next.
vii. On the Feature Install window, deselect Modem Files, Client Single Logon
Feature, Domino Enterprise Connection Services. Click Next.
viii.Click Install.
ix. Click Finish when complete.
d. After the program finishes installing, click Next.
e. Click Finish.
7. Using Windows Explorer, cut and paste C:\WINDOWS\NOTES.INI (equivalent to moving
the file) to the directory H:\notes\data.
8. Edit the NOTES.INI file and add the following entry below the [Notes] line:
Directory=H:\notes\data
9. Create a common desktop icon for all users to run Notes:
a. From the Windows Explorer menu, select File -> New -> Shortcut.
b. Enter C:\Program Files\Lotus\Notes\Notes.exe in the location field and click Next.
c. Enter Lotus Notes 6 in the name field and click Finish.
46
Implementing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ xSeries Servers
10.Still in Windows Explorer, right-click the newly created Lotus Notes shortcut.
11.Set the Target: field to:
"C:\Program Files\Lotus\Notes\notes.exe" =H:\notes\data\Notes.ini
Note: There is a space between the “ and the = sign.
12.Set the Start in: field to H:\Lotus\Data.
13.Copy the contents of the r6clienttemplate directory (the Notes folder within that folder) to
each user's home directory (or H: drive). You may want to automate this process using the
following script:
if not exist h:\notes md h:\notes
if not exist h:\notes\data md h:\notes\data
if not exist h:\notes\data\notes.ini xcopy /s
"\\FILESERVER\r6clienttemplate\notes\data\*.*" "h:\notes\data"
Note: There is a space between the quotation marks.
14.Setup each users Notes client. This is a standard Lotus Notes administration task.
Chapter 5. Installing and configuring the software
47
48
Implementing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ xSeries Servers
Related publications
The publications listed in this section are considered particularly suitable for a more detailed
discussion of the topics covered in this Redpaper.
IBM Redbooks and redpapers
For information on ordering these publications, see “How to get IBM Redbooks” on page 50.
򐂰 Deploying Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ BladeCenter, REDP3583
Other resources
These publications are also relevant as further information sources:
򐂰 Step-by-Step Guide to Understanding the Group Policy Feature Set
http://www.microsoft.com/windows2000/techinfo/planning/management/groupsteps.asp
򐂰 Citrix MetaFrame for Windows Servers- Installation and Tuning Tips
http://www.tweakcitrix.com
Referenced Web sites
The following Web sites are also relevant as further information sources.
Citrix sites
򐂰 Web site run by Citrix Engineer Doug Brown
http://www.dabcc.com
򐂰 Web site run by Citrix Engineer Rick Dehlinger
http://www.tweakcitrix.com
򐂰 Technical information about MetaFrame Web Interface
http://www.dabcc.com/NFuse
򐂰 MetaFrame product information
http://www.citrix.com/products/
򐂰 Technical information on Secure Gateway
http://www.dabcc.com/thinsol/csg
򐂰 Methodology in a Box
http://www.dabcc.com/miab/
򐂰 Citrix MetaFrame knowledge base
http://knowledgebase.citrix.com
򐂰 Citrix Developer Network
http://www.citrix.com/cdn
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2003. All rights reserved.
49
򐂰 Support site and forums for Citrix
http://support.citrix.com
򐂰 AppSense Technologies
http://www.appsense.com/
Microsoft sites
򐂰 WTS licensing requirements
http://www.microsoft.com/windows.netserver/howtobuy/licensing/overview.mspx
򐂰 Document Step-by-Step Guide to Understanding the Group Policy Feature Set
http://www.microsoft.com/windows2000/techinfo/planning/management/groupsteps.asp
򐂰 Installing Office 2000 in a WTS environment
http://www.microsoft.com/office/ork/2000/two/30t3_1.htm
IBM sites
򐂰 xSeries benchmark results
http://www.pc.ibm.com/ww/eserver/xseries/benchmarks/series.html
How to get IBM Redbooks
You can order hardcopy Redbooks, as well as view, download, or search for Redbooks at the
following Web site:
ibm.com/redbooks
You can also download additional materials (code samples or diskette/CD-ROM images) from
that site.
IBM Redbooks collections
Redbooks are also available on CD-ROMs. Click the CD-ROMs button on the Redbooks Web
site for information about all the CD-ROMs offered, as well as updates and formats.
50
Implementing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame on IBM ^ xSeries Servers
Back cover
Implementing Windows Terminal
Server and Citrix MetaFrame on
IBM Eserver xSeries Servers
Design a terminal
server solution using
xSeries and
BladeCenter servers
Learn how to use
sizing methodologies
for key server
resources
Discover what’s new
with WTS in Windows
Server 2003
®
Redpaper
Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame provide a
powerful thin-client solution to centralize administration, rapidly
deploy applications, and extend the life of existing PC hardware.
IBM provides a range of IBM ~™ xSeries® thin-client
solutions from rack optimized servers, IBM BladeCenter™, and
larger multiprocessor servers running many virtual Citrix servers.
INTERNATIONAL
TECHNICAL
SUPPORT
ORGANIZATION
This IBM Redpaper outlines a thin-client design and deployment
methodology. It includes conducting your Citrix pilot, choosing
the appropriately sized xSeries technology, and installing, tuning,
and securing Windows Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame,
running on Windows Server 2003. It also explores such topics as
virtual MetaFrame servers, disaster recovery, load balancing, and
network sizing.
BUILDING TECHNICAL
INFORMATION BASED ON
PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE
This redpaper provides several thin-client solutions. In addition,
it includes tips and tricks gained from our experiences in
implementing large MetaFrame solutions.
IBM Redbooks are developed
by the IBM International
Technical Support
Organization. Experts from
IBM, Customers and Partners
from around the world create
timely technical information
based on realistic scenarios.
Specific recommendations
are provided to help you
implement IT solutions more
effectively in your
environment.
For more information:
ibm.com/redbooks
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