Compaq Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Technical data

Compaq Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Technical data
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
Concepts and Planning
Part Number: AA-Q06TF-TE
April 2002
Software Version:
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Version 5.3
Operating Systems:
OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.2–2, 7.3 OpenVMS VAX Version
7.2, 7.3
This manual describes concepts and planning tasks to prepare you to use the Compaq TCP/IP
Services for OpenVMS product.
Compaq Computer Corporation
Houston, Texas
© 2002 Compaq Information Technologies Group, L.P.
COMPAQ, the Compaq logo, Alpha, OpenVMS, Tru64, VAX, VMS, and the Compaq logo are trademarks of Compaq
Information Technologies Group, L.P., in the U.S. and/or other countries.
Microsoft, MS-DOS, Visual C++, Windows, and Windows NT are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the U.S.
and/or other countries.
Intel, Intel Inside, and Pentium are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the U.S. and/or other countries
Motif, OSF/1, and UNIX are trademarks of The Open Group in the U.S. and/or other countries.
Java and all Java-based marks are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc., in the U.S.
and other countries.
All other product names mentioned herein may be trademarks of their respective companies.
Confidential computer software. Valid license from Compaq required for possession, use or copying. Consistent
with FAR 12.211 and 12.212, Commercial Computer Software, Computer Software Documentation, and Technical
Data for Commercial Items are licensed to the U.S. Government under vendor’s standard commercial license.
Compaq shall not be liable for technical or editorial errors or omissions contained herein. The information is
provided “as is” without warranty of any kind and is subject to change without notice. The warranties for Compaq
products are set forth in the express limited warranty statements accompanying such products. Nothing herein
should be construed as constituting an additional warranty.
Contents
Preface
1
Introducing Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
1.1
1.1.1
1.1.2
1.1.3
1.1.4
1.2
1.2.1
1.3
1.3.1
1.3.2
1.3.3
1.3.4
1.4
2
1–2
1–3
1–3
1–3
1–4
1–5
1–5
1–5
1–5
1–6
1–6
1–7
1–7
Understanding OpenVMS and UNIX Implementations
2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.4
2.2.5
2.2.6
2.2.7
2.2.8
2.2.9
2.2.10
2.2.11
2.3
2.4
3
Overview of TCP/IP Services .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Data Link Layer .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Internet Layer .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Transport Layer .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Application Layer .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Application Support .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
PATHWORKS and DECnet-over-TCP/IP Support .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
APIs . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Berkeley Sockets Interface . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
OpenVMS QIO System Service Interface .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
ONC RPC Programming Interface .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
SNMP Programming Interface . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Understanding RFCs . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Evaluating the Computing Environment . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Understanding the Open Systems Concept .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Understanding the Middleware Concept . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
File Compatibility .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Directory Hierarchies . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
File Specifications .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Absolute and Relative File Specifications .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
File Specifications .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Case Sensitivity .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
File Types . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Version Numbers . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Linking Files .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
File Structures .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
File Ownership . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
File Protections . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Portability .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Determining Which File System to Use . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
2–1
2–1
2–2
2–2
2–3
2–4
2–5
2–6
2–6
2–7
2–7
2–7
2–8
2–8
2–9
2–10
2–11
OpenVMS Server and Network Configurations
3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.3
Understanding OpenVMS VAX and Alpha Systems .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
User Environment . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
System Management Environment . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Programming Environment .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
OpenVMS Cluster Configuration . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Failover Capability .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Connection Load Balancing .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Multihoming and Multiple Interfaces . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Contents
3–1
3–1
3–2
3–2
3–3
3–3
3–4
3–4
iii
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.4
4
4.6.5
4–1
4–2
4–2
4–3
4–3
4–3
4–4
4–4
4–4
4–4
4–5
4–5
4–7
4–7
4–7
4–9
Network Time Protocol (NTP) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Time Distributed Through a Hierarchy of Servers . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
How the OpenVMS System Maintains the System Clock . .. .. .. ..
How NTP Adjusts System Time . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Configuring the Local Host . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Using the Distributed Time Synchronization Service (DTSS) .. ..
Routing . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Static Routing .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Dynamic Routing . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Remote Client Management (BOOTP/DHCP) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
How DHCP Operates .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
How DHCP Allocates IP Addresses . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Relationship Between DHCP and BOOTP . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Client ID . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
File Transfer Services .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Trivial FTP (TFTP) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
R Commands .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Differences Between FTP and RCP . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Configuring SNMP . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Ensuring Access to Mounted Data .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
5–1
5–2
5–2
5–2
5–3
5–3
5–3
5–4
5–4
5–6
5–6
5–7
5–9
5–9
5–9
5–10
5–10
5–10
5–11
5–12
5–12
5–13
Mail Services
6.1
6.1.1
iv
TCP/IP Management Control Program .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Defining Logical Names . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
OpenVMS System Dump Analysis (SDA) Tool . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
System Messages . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
OPCOM .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Log Files . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
ODS-5 and ODS-2 File Structures . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Considerations for System Management . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Considerations for Users .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Considerations for Applications .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Network Printers . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Line Printer Daemon (LPD) Service .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
TELNET Print Symbiont . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Serial Line Printer Connections . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Sharing Network Printers Using PATHWORKS (Advanced
Server) . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
PC-NFS .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Network Server Services
5.1
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.1.3
5.1.4
5.1.5
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
5.4
5.4.1
5.4.2
5.4.3
5.4.4
5.5
5.5.1
5.5.2
6
3–5
3–5
3–6
3–6
OpenVMS Operating System TCP/IP Features
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.4.1
4.4.2
4.5
4.5.1
4.5.2
4.5.3
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
4.6.4
5
Multihomed Computers . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Primary Interface .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Pseudointerfaces . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Serial Line Connections .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Contents
Post Office Protocol (POP) . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
POP Server Process .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
6–1
6–1
6.1.2
6.1.3
6.1.4
6.1.5
6.2
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
6.3
6.3.1
6.3.2
6.3.3
6.3.4
6.3.5
7
6–2
6–2
6–2
6–3
6–5
6–5
6–6
6–6
6–6
6–7
6–7
6–8
6–8
6–8
Connectivity Services
7.1
7.2
7.2.1
7.2.2
7.2.3
7.3
7.3.1
7.3.2
7.3.3
7.3.4
7.3.5
7.4
7.5
8
How to Access Mail Messages from the POP Server .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
How the POP Server Handles Foreign Message Formats . .. .. .. ..
How the POP Server Authorizes Users . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Understanding POP Message Headers . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
How SMTP Clients and Servers Communicate . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Understanding How SMTP Translates OpenVMS Mail Headers
Understanding SMTP Addresses .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
IMAP .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
IMAP Server Process .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
How OpenVMS Mail Folder Names Map to IMAP Mailbox
Names .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
How the IMAP Server Handles Foreign Message Formats .. .. .. ..
Understanding IMAP Message Headers . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
How IMAP Rebuilds OpenVMS Mail Address Fields .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
TELNET .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
PPP and SLIP . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Assigning an IP Address to Your PPP or SLIP Interface .. .. .. .. ..
Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Network File System (NFS) . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Clients and Servers .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
NFS File Systems on OpenVMS . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
How the Server Grants Access to Users and Hosts . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
How the Server Maps User Identities .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Granting Access to PC-NFS Clients . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
X Display Manager (XDM) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
DECnet over TCP/IP . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
7–1
7–1
7–1
7–2
7–2
7–3
7–3
7–3
7–4
7–4
7–5
7–5
7–6
Domain Name System/BIND (DNS/BIND)
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.4.1
8.4.2
8.5
8.5.1
8.6
8.7
8.7.1
8.7.2
8.7.3
8.7.4
8.7.5
8.7.6
8.7.7
8.8
8.9
8.9.1
Overview of the BIND Service .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
BIND Service Components .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Domains .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Domain Names .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Types of Domain Names .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Domain Name Format . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Zones .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Delegation . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Reverse Domains .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
BIND Server Functions .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Root Name Servers .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Master Name Server .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Slave Name Server . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Forwarder Servers . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Caching-Only Servers . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Configurations Without Internet Access . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Zone Transfers .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
BIND Server Configuration Files .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
BIND Server Database Files .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Master Zone File . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
8–1
8–2
8–2
8–3
8–3
8–3
8–4
8–4
8–4
8–5
8–5
8–6
8–6
8–6
8–6
8–7
8–7
8–8
8–8
8–8
Contents
v
8.9.2
Reverse Zone File .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
8.9.3
Loopback Interface Files .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
8.9.4
Hints File .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
8.10
BIND Resolver .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
8.10.1
Default Domain .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
8.10.2
Search List .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
8.10.3
Name Servers . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
9
8–8
8–9
8–9
8–9
8–9
8–9
8–9
IPv6
9.1
9.1.1
9.2
9.3
9.3.1
9.3.2
9.3.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
Understanding IPv6 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Mobile IPv6 . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Understanding How Tunnels Work .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Developing an Implementation Plan .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Intranet Scenario .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Intranet-to-Internet Scenario .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Intranet-to-Internet-to-Intranet Scenario .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Porting Existing IPv4 Applications .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Obtaining IPv6 Addresses . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Installing IPv6-Capable Routers . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Configuring Domain Name System/BIND (DNS/BIND) Servers .. .. ..
Configuring IPv6 Routers . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Configuring IPv6 Hosts .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
9–1
9–1
9–3
9–4
9–4
9–7
9–8
9–9
9–9
9–10
9–10
9–11
9–11
The TCP/IP Model .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Comparison of OpenVMS and UNIX .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Comparison of UNIX Directory and OpenVMS Directory
Hierarchies .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Routing IPv6 Traffic from Host A to Host F .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Routing IPv6 Traffic from Host A to Host I . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Routing IPv6 Traffic from Host I to Host A . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Routing IPv6 Traffic from Host A to Host J .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Routing IPv6 Traffic from Host A to Host K .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
1–2
2–2
Directory Hierarchy Differences .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
File Specification Differences . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Absolute and Relative File Specification Differences . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
File Specification Differences . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Case-Sensitivity Differences .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
File Type Differences . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Version Number Differences .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Link Files Differences .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
File Structure Differences . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
File Ownership Differences . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Comparison of File Protection .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
2–3
2–5
2–6
2–6
2–7
2–7
2–7
2–8
2–8
2–9
2–9
Glossary
Index
Figures
1–1
2–1
2–2
9–1
9–2
9–3
9–4
9–5
2–4
9–5
9–6
9–7
9–8
9–9
Tables
2–1
2–2
2–3
2–4
2–5
2–6
2–7
2–8
2–9
2–10
2–11
vi
Contents
2–12
3–1
5–1
5–2
5–3
6–1
6–2
6–3
6–4
6–5
6–6
6–7
7–1
9–1
NFS Server Features Available to Non-OpenVMS Clients . .. .. .. .. .. ..
OpenVMS VAX and OpenVMS Alpha Similarities and Differences ..
GATED Protocols and RFCs .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
DHCP IP Address Allocation Methods .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
SNMP Components . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
POP User Authorization Methods .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Forwarded POP Mail Messages Header . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
OpenVMS Address Types .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
SMTP Client Commands .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
OpenVMS Mail Folder-Name Mapping . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
IMAP Server Forwarded Message Headers . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Various Address Types . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
SLIP Characters .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Tunnel Configurations . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
2–11
3–2
5–5
5–8
5–12
6–3
6–3
6–4
6–6
6–7
6–8
6–9
7–2
9–3
Contents
vii
Preface
An open communications standard defined by the worldwide networking
community, TCP/IP consists of numerous application, routing, transport, and
network management protocols. These protocols enable any connected host to
communicate with any other connected host, without needing to know details
about the other host or the intervening network topology. Computers and networks
from different manufacturers running different operating systems can interoperate
seamlessly.
The Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS product is Compaq’s implementation
of the TCP/IP networking protocol suite and internet services for OpenVMS Alpha
and OpenVMS VAX systems.
This manual introduces the TCP/IP Services product and provides conceptual and
planning information to help you configure and manage the product.
Intended Audience
This manual is for anyone who needs an overview of the TCP/IP Services product.
See the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS User’s Guide for information
on using TCP/IP Services applications and the Compaq TCP/IP Services for
OpenVMS Management guide for details on configuring and managing the TCP/IP
Services product.
Document Structure
This manual contains the following chapters:
Chapter 1 provides an overview of the TCP/IP Services product.
Chapter 2 describes the network implementation differences between UNIX and
OpenVMS.
Chapter 3 describes the many decisions you need to make about OpenVMS
configuration options before configuring TCP/IP Services.
Chapter 4 describes OpenVMS operating system features that support the TCP/IP
environment.
Chapter 5 describes key concepts of network server features: NTP, routing, BOOTP
and DHCP, FTP, and SNMP.
Chapter 6 describes mail services: Post Office Protocol (POP), SMTP, and IMAP.
Chapter 7 discusses ways to connect to the network, such as TELNET, PPP and
SLIP, DECnet-over-TCP/IP, NFS, and XDM.
Chapter 8 describes the TCP/IP Services implementation of the Berkeley Internet
Name Domain (BIND) service.
Chapter 9 provides guidelines, scenarios, and checklists for deploying IPv6 on
a single system in a network.
The Glossary defines terms and acronyms related to TCP/IP Services.
Preface
ix
Related Documentation
The following table lists the documents available with this version of Compaq
TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS:
x
Manual
Contents
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
Concepts and Planning
This manual introduces TCP/IP Services
and provides conceptual and planning
information to help you configure and
manage the product.
This manual also provides a glossary
of terms and acronyms, lists the RFCs
associated with this product, and documents
how to register your network and domain
and name servers.
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
Release Notes
This text file describes new features
and changes to the software, including
installation, upgrade, configuration, and
compatibility information. These notes
also describe new and existing software
problems and restrictions, and software and
documentation corrections.
Print this text file at the beginning of the
installation procedure and read it before
you install Compaq TCP/IP Services for
OpenVMS.
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
Installation and Configuration
This manual explains how to install and
configure the Compaq TCP/IP Services for
OpenVMS product.
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
User’s Guide
This manual describes how to use the
applications available with Compaq TCP/IP
Services for OpenVMS, such as remote
file operations, e-mail, TELNET, TN3270,
and network printing. This manual also
explains how to use these services to
communicate with systems on private
internets or on the worldwide Internet.
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
Management
This manual describes how to configure and
manage the Compaq TCP/IP Services for
OpenVMS product.
Use this manual with the Compaq TCP/IP
Services for OpenVMS Management
Command Reference manual.
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
Management Command Reference
This manual describes the Compaq TCP/IP
Services for OpenVMS management
commands.
Use this manual with the Compaq TCP/IP
Services for OpenVMS Management
manual.
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
ONC RPC Programming
This manual presents an overview of
high-level programming using open
network computing remote procedure calls
(ONC RPC). This manual also describes the
RPC programming interface and how to use
the RPCGEN protocol compiler to create
applications.
Preface
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
Sockets API and System Services
Programming
This manual describes how to use the
Sockets API and OpenVMS system services
to develop network-based applications.
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
SNMP Programming and Reference
This manual describes the Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP) and the
SNMP application programming interface
(eSNMP). It describes the subagents
provided with TCP/IP Services, utilities
provided for managing agents, and how to
build your own subagents.
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
Management Command Quick Reference
Card
This reference card lists the TCP/IP
management commands by component and
describes the purpose of each command.
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
UNIX Command Reference Card
This reference card contains information
about commonly performed network
management tasks and their corresponding
TCP/IP management and Compaq Tru64
UNIX command formats.
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
Tuning and Troubleshooting
This manual provides information about
how to isolate the causes of network
problems and how to tune the TCP/IP
Services software for the best performance.
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
Guide to IPv6
This manual describes the IPv6
environment, the roles of systems in this
environment, the types and function of
the different IPv6 addresses, and how to
configure TCP/IP Services to access the
6bone network.
For additional information about TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS, access the
Compaq OpenVMS World Wide Web site at the following URL:
http://www.openvms.compaq.com
This manual describes concepts that are specific to the Compaq TCP/IP Services
for OpenVMS implementation of TCP/IP. If you are looking for a comprehensive
overview of the TCP/IP protocol suite, you might find the following useful:
•
Comer, Douglas E. Internetworking with TCP/IP Volume 1: Principles,
Protocols, and Architecture. 4th edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall;
ISBN: 0130183806, 2000.
•
Stevens, W. Richard. UNIX Network Programming Volume 1: Networking APIs:
Sockets and XTI. Second edition, Prentice Hall PTR; ISBN: 013490012X, 1997
Preface
xi
Reader’s Comments
Compaq welcomes your comments on this manual. Please send comments to either
of the following addresses:
Internet: [email protected]
Mail: Compaq Computer Corporation
OSSG Documentation Group, ZKO3-4/U08
110 Spit Brook Rd.
Nashua, NH 03062-2698
How to Order Additional Documentation
Visit the following World Wide Web address for information about how to order
additional documentation:
http://www.openvms.compaq.com
Conventions
The following conventions are used in this manual:
Ctrl/ x
Indicates that you must hold down the key labeled Ctrl
while you press another key or a pointing device button.
PF1x
A sequence such as PF1x indicates that you must first
press and release the key labeled PF1 and then press and
release another key or a pointing device button.
Return
In an example, a key name enclosed in a box indicates that
you press that key.
…
xii
A horizontal ellipsis in examples indicates one of the
following possibilities:
•
Additional optional arguments in a statement have
been omitted.
•
The preceding item or items can be repeated one or
more times.
•
Additional parameters, values, or other information
can be entered.
..
.
A vertical ellipsis indicates the omission of items from
a code example or command format; the items are
omitted\par because they are not important to the topic
being discussed.
()
In command format descriptions, parentheses indicate that
you must enclose choices in parentheses if you specify
more than one.
[]
In command format descriptions, brackets indicate optional
choices. You can choose one or more items or no items. Do
not type the brackets on the command line. However, you
must include the brackets in the syntax for OpenVMS
Preface
directory specifications and for a substring specification in
an assignment statement.
|
In command format descriptions, vertical bars separate
choices within brackets or braces. Within brackets, the
choices are optional; within braces, at least one choice is
required. Do not type the vertical bars on the command
line.
{}
In command format descriptions, braces indicate required
choices; you must choose at least one of the items listed. Do
not type the braces on the command line.
Type
This typeface represents the introduction of a new. It also
represents the name of argument an attribute, or a reason.
italics
Italic text indicates important information, complete titles
of manuals, or variables. Variables include information
that varies in system output (Internal error number), in
command lines (/PRODUCER=name), and in command
parameters in text (where (dd) represents the predefined
par code for the device type.
UPPERCASE TEXT
Uppercase text indicates a command, the name of a
routine, the name of a file, or the abbreviation for a system
privilege.
Monospace text
Monospace type indicates code examples and interactive
screen displays.
In the C programming language, monospace type in text
identifies the following elements: keywords, the names of
independently compiled externalfunctions and files, syntax
summaries, and references to variables or identifiers
introduced in an example.
–
A hyphen at the end of a command format description,
command line, or code line indicates that the command or
statement continues on the following line.
numbers
All numbers in text are assumed to be decimal unless
otherwise noted. Nondecimal radixes---binary, octal, or
hexadecimal---are explicitly indicated.
Preface
xiii
1
Introducing Compaq TCP/IP Services for
OpenVMS
The Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS product is the OpenVMS
implementation of the industry-standard TCP/IP suite of communications
protocols. With TCP/IP Services, users, administrators, and programmers can
perform tasks from anywhere in the network, such as:
•
Network file access: accessing files on remote hosts
•
Sending e-mail: exchanging messages between hosts
•
Application development: developing TCP/IP applications for communication
between local and remote hosts
•
File transfer: exchanging files between hosts
•
Accessing user information: accessing information about other users logged
onto local or remote hosts
•
Remote management: managing and monitoring the network and applications
from remote hosts
•
TELNET: logging on to a remote host
•
Remote command execution: issuing commands to remote hosts
•
Remote printing: sending print jobs to a remote printer, and receiving print
jobs from a remote host
•
Networking booting: providing boot service for a remote host
Users can perform internetworking tasks seamlessly without worrying about
the hardware details of each individual network. The TCP/IP Services provides
interoperability and resource sharing between OpenVMS systems, UNIX systems,
and other systems that support the TCP/IP protocol suite and Sun Microsystems
Network File System (NFS). Internet hosts share data and resources by using
standard TCP/IP protocols over a number of network hardware configurations
including Ethernet, Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), Token Ring, and
asynchronous transfer mode (ATM).
This chapter discusses the following topics. More details about these topics are
provided elsewhere in this manual and in other Compaq TCP/IP Services for
OpenVMS and OpenVMS documentation set manuals.
•
Overview of TCP/IP Services
•
Other Compaq OpenVMS products that require TCP/IP
•
Application programming interfaces (APIs)
•
Requests for Comments (RFCs)
Introducing Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
1–1
1.1 Overview of TCP/IP Services
TCP/IP Services provides support for several protocols at every level of the TCP/IP
model’s protocol layers.
•
Data Link layer
•
Internet layer
•
Transport layer
•
Application layer
Figure 1–1 shows the various layers and protocols of the TCP/IP model. A
description of each layer and protocol follows the figure.
Figure 1–1: The TCP/IP Model
Application Layer
Routing discovery
protocols and
daemons
OSPF
Load Broker
Printing: LPD
& TELNETSYS
Network Time
Protocol
(NTP)
Finger
Protocol
Simple Network
Management
Protocol (SNMP)
Remote
Terminal Protocol
(TELNET)
Trivial File
Transfer Protocol
(TFTP)
File Transfer
Protocol (FTP)
Dynamic Host
Configuration
Protocol (DHCP)
Remote
Commands
(R Commands)
Berkeley Internet
Name Domain
(BIND) Server
Mail:
SMTP and POP
Network File
System (NFS)
and PC-NFS
Transport Layer
Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP)
User Datagram
Protocol (UDP)
Internet Layer
Address Resolution
Protocol (ARP)
Internet Protocol
(IP)
Internet Control
Message Protocol
(ICMP)
Data Link Layer
Network Device Drivers
SLIP/PPP
Network Controllers
Local Area Network
VM-0402A-AI
1–2
Introducing Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
1.1.1 Data Link Layer
At the base of the TCP/IP layers, the Data Link layer formats data and provides
services that directly access the physical network.
This layer also receives data that is routed from the Internet layer and transmits
the data to its destination, converting logical IP addressesto physical addresses
of the network adapter or network interface cards (NICs) using the Address
Resolution Protocol (ARP).
Some commonly used network architectures designed for the physical network are
Ethernet and its variants, Token Ring, FDDI, and ATM.
A single host computer can have multiple NICs. This configuration is termed
a multihomed host. Depending on your network setup, the Data Link layer’s
configuration may vary. For more information, see Chapter 3.
1.1.2 Internet Layer
The Internet layer moves data around the internet. The Internet Protocol uses
addressing to deliver and route packets across networks independently of the
network cabling.
At this level, the protocols are:
•
Internet Protocol (IP)
•
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
•
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
The protocol also encapsulates datagram headers, sends ICMP error and control
messages, and maps ARP address conversions.
Routing protocols at this layer are:
•
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Versions 1 and 2
•
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Version 2
•
Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)
•
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
•
Router Discovery
For more information about these protocols, see Chapter 5.
1.1.3 Transport Layer
The Transport layer enables a flow of data between two hosts. The protocols
at this layer are either connection oriented, in which the protocol establishes
and maintains the connection between communicating hosts to prevent errors, or
connectionless, in which a one-way datagram is sent to a destination host.
The TCP/IP Services supports both transport protocols:
•
The connection-oriented protocol, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) provides
a reliable data flow between two hosts. TCP is used for complex, large packets
that have an IP address.
•
The connectionless protocol, User Datagram Protocol (UDP) provides a much
simpler service to the Application layer than TCP but does not guarantee
reliability. UDP is used for simple, small packets and requests for dynamic IP
address assignment. UDP packets have a MAC address.
Introducing Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
1–3
1.1.4 Application Layer
The top layer of the TCP/IP protocol suite, the Application layer handles the details
of the particular application, protocol, or user command; it is not concerned with
the movement of data across the network.
TCP/IP Services supports the following TCP/IP applications, protocols, and user
services:
Remote Computing Services
Remote computing applications enable networked users to run software on remote
systems. TCP/IP Services include the following remote computing application
components:
•
TELNET enables remote login to other hosts in the network. Compaq TCP/IP
Services provides simultaneous multiple sessions, IBM3270 terminal emulation
(TN3270) and two interface formats: DCL style and UNIX style.
•
Remote, or R, commands are use for the following:
–
RLOGIN for remote login
–
RSH for remote shell capabilities
–
REXEC to execute commands to a remote host
–
RMT/RCD to read magnetic tapes or CD-ROMs from remote hosts
•
XDM is a network-based graphics window system based on the client/server
application model. It enables a system to display information output from an
application that is running on another system in the network.
•
The FINGER utility is used to display user information for the network.
File Transfer Services
TCP/IP Services includes the following components that let users transfer data
files between local and remote hosts:
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) transfers files between hosts.
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) downloads and transfers files. Compaq
TCP/IP Services supports downloading of system image and other information to
client hosts.
Resource Services
Line printer/line printer daemon (LPR/LPD) provides printing services to
local and remote hosts.
TELNET print symbiont (TELNETSYM) provides remote printing services that
enable OpenVMS printing features not available with the LPR/LPD print service.
Network File System (NFS) is a protocol that allows computers to access
remote files as if they were local files, regardless of operating system, hardware
type, or architectural differences between the local and remote systems. This is
accomplished in a client/server environment where specific implementations on
NFS exist on both the client and server machines.
PC-NFS is a daemon that enables access to the NFS server from a PC by providing
authentication services to PC-NFS clients.
1–4
Introducing Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
Electronic Mail Services
Communication functions such a electronic mail are vital both within an
organizational internet and across the Internet worldwide. The electronic mail
components of TCP/IP Services are:
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is the TCP/IP standard protocol for
transferring electronic mail messages from one system to another.
IMAP is the Internet Message Access Protocol. IMAP enables clients to access
email messages and folders from an IMAP server and synchronize them locally.
This enables a client to organize email messages and folders without continuous
access to the server.
Post Office Protocol (POP) is a mail repository used primarily by PCs.
1.2 Application Support
Beyond the industry-standard TCP/IP application services, TCP/IP Services
provides support for the following Compaq products:
•
PATHWORKS or Advanced Server
•
DECnet-Plus
1.2.1 PATHWORKS and DECnet-over-TCP/IP Support
The Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS software includes the PWIP driver and
the PWIPACP network ancillary control process (ACP). The PWIP driver enables
communication between OpenVMS systems running both PATHWORKS server
and TCP/IP Services software, and personal computers running PATHWORKS
client software. It also enables the DECnet-over-TCP/IP feature, which is included
with the DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS Version 6.0 and later software. For more
information, see Chapter 7.
1.3 APIs
Network applications specific to the Compaq TCP/IP Services can use the following
application programming interfaces (APIs):
•
Berkeley Sockets Interface
•
OpenVMS QIO System Services interface
•
ONC RPC programming interface
•
SNMP programming interface
1.3.1 Berkeley Sockets Interface
Sockets have become a popular programming interface. The Berkeley Sockets
Interface is a programming interface that provides applications with access to
network communication protocols. A socket is a generalized UNIX communication
endpoint on which the TCP/IP protocols have been implemented. Using the socket
programming interface makes it easy to implement network applications.
OpenVMS provides support for the socket interface through the C programming
language and the Compaq C Run-Time Library. The benefits of using the socket
interface on the OpenVMS platform include:
•
Ease of porting network applications from other platforms to the OpenVMS
platform. A sockets interface can be generic.
Introducing Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
1–5
•
Many application developers are familiar with the programming environment.
•
In addition to the TCP/IP protocols, there are options for other types of
protocols.
For more details, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Sockets API
and System Services Programming manual.
1.3.2 OpenVMS QIO System Service Interface
The standard I/O programming interface on OpenVMS uses the QIO (queue
input/output) system services. QIO services provide a rich set of functions for
controlling devices, and connections and for performing input (read) and output
(write) operations.
The benefits of using the OpenVMS QIO interface include:
•
Support for the QIO interface in the following programming languages:
MACRO-32
Compaq C
Compaq Fortran
Compaq Ada
Compaq and VAX BASIC
VAX BLISS-32
Compaq COBOL
VAX Pascal
Compaq PL/1
•
Ability to handle complex applications with many concurrent connections
•
Efficient input/output operations
•
Robust asynchronous event handling (While sockets offer the ability to
do nonblocking I/O operations, they do not offer the ability to perform
asynchronous I/O.)
•
Ease of DECnet applications portability to TCP/IP protocols
For more details, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Sockets API
and System Services Programming manual.
SRI QIO Compatibility
TCP/IP Services provides support for customer applications using the
INETDRIVER QIO interface developed at Stanford Research Institute (SRI) in
1980-81. An SRI QIO emulator that translates non-TCP/IP Services QIO interfaces
into TCP/IP Services QIO programming interfaces can be configured by using
the TCPIP$CONFIG procedure.
1.3.3 ONC RPC Programming Interface
The RPC programming interface is an industry-standard, portable API that is an
efficient alternative to using sockets for application development. Programmers do
not need an in-depth knowledge of networking protocols to use RPC.
One strong point of the RPC interface is its ability to distribute functions across the
network. This is done in an architecture-independent manner, thereby avoiding
problems with floating-point formats and byte-address ordering that often occur
when interacting between architectures.
This API includes:
1–6
Introducing Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
•
Library of RPC function calls
•
Portmapper service, which is a service that client programs can use
to determine the port number that another service uses. Clients use the
Portmapper Service for NFC, PC-NFS, and RPC applications.
•
External data representation (XDR) routines
For more details, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Service ONC RPC Programming
manual.
1.3.4 SNMP Programming Interface
The Extensible Simple Network Management Protocol (eSNMP) API provides
routines for developing applications that remotely manage and collect data from
network devices such as routers, bridges, and hosts.
These network devices run software that carries out management commands that
either get information from devices or set operating parameters for devices.
Other network applications send commands to network devices to perform
configuration management, monitor network traffic, or troubleshoot network
problems.
The SNMP API provides routines for the following functions:
•
Establish, maintain, and terminate communication with the master agent
•
Manipulate, reformat, extract, and compare data
•
Control information that is written to log files
The SNMP API routines are almost identical in function and interface with the
routines in the Compaq Tru64 UNIX API.
For more details, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS SNMP
Programming and Reference manual.
1.4 Understanding RFCs
Although TCP/IP is monitored by a number of organizations, no single entity owns
this protocol; its specifications are publicly available and are constantly growing as
communications requirements evolve.
The process by which the specifications evolve is through a mechanism called
Requests for Comments (RFCs). When someone has an idea for a new or
improved capability for TCP/IP, he or she writes a proposal, posts it on the Internet
as an Internet draft, and requests comments from the networking community.
After a review and revision cycle, working code is developed and an RFC becomes a
standard protocol.
RFCs are available on the Internet from the Internet Network Information Center
(InterNIC). The following web site provides links to several RFC international
repositories, lists all RFCs, and explains how you can obtain copies:
http://www.rfc-editor.org
Note that, although RFCs recommend implementation guidelines, the actual
implementation of an RFC can and must differ from the RFC in minor ways. When
product documentation refers to specific RFCs, be aware that the RFC only sets the
standard for development. Product developers must design their software for the
specific environment and requirements of their customers.
Introducing Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
1–7
2
Understanding OpenVMS and UNIX
Implementations
An important step in planning a network host implementation is to gain an
understanding of the computing environments in which the network services will
run. Compaq Tru64 UNIX implementations of TCP/IP Services are often ported to
OpenVMS. As a result, they often appear to be identical. However, there are many
significant differences. This chapter describes key implementation differences
between UNIX and OpenVMS networks. The following topics are discussed:
•
Evaluating the computing environment
•
File compatibility
•
Portability
•
Determining which file system to use
Things to Consider
In planning your TCP/IP Services environment, consider the following:
•
Do I need to migrate from one operating system to the other?
•
Do I need to set up a system that coexists with multiple operating systems?
•
Should I choose a Files–11 file system or a container file system?
2.1 Evaluating the Computing Environment
The issues of working in a heterogeneous computing environment that includes
OpenVMS and Tru64 UNIX operating systems are complex. Consider these
concepts when evaluating or implementing an interoperability strategy:
•
Migration occurs when software applications are rewritten as necessary to be
ported from one operating system to the other. In a general sense, not only the
applications but also the users migrate to another system. Migration implies a
gradual replacement of the original system with the new system.
•
Coexistence occurs when two or more systems, such as OpenVMS and
Tru64 UNIX, are maintained as part of a larger, heterogeneous computing
environment. The amount of interoperability varies with the individual
configurations. It is possible to set up nearly identical network configurations,
thereby reducing maintenance.
2.1.1 Understanding the Open Systems Concept
The client/server model of computing means that users running applications on
their PCs and workstations are networked with larger departmental systems. The
departmental systems provide a variety of services to the clients, such as access to
common database, print, and backup/archive services.
To best serve this model of computing, the systems must be open. Open
environments support interoperability and application portability and enable
developers and users to easily use different platforms. The OpenVMS operating
system is an open system with an extensive list of functions.
Understanding OpenVMS and UNIX Implementations
2–1
An open system allows the OpenVMS operating system, whether powered by
Alpha or VAX, to interoperate efficiently with Compaq Tru64 UNIX and with
other vendors’ operating systems, particularly with Windows NT and other UNIX
operating systems.
2.1.2 Understanding the Middleware Concept
Implementing open systems means using the right middleware between the
operating system and the hardware platform and applications. Consistent
middleware affords interoperability and portability when and where it is needed.
An open systems strategy involves a consistent middleware approach that is
based on standards and is embodied in layered software and in individual
operating systems, such as OpenVMS and UNIX. Compaq DCE is an example
of middleware, with standard interfaces supported on both OpenVMS and
UNIX. Compaq DCE, or Distributed Computing Environment, is an architecture
of standard programming interfaces, conventions, and server functions that
transparently distributes applications across heterogeneous networks.
As shown in Figure 2-1, OpenVMS and UNIX interoperate efficiently, especially
in areas that are common to both platforms: windowing interface, standard
POSIX and DCE programming interfaces, compilers, networking products, and
applications.
Figure 2–1: Comparison of OpenVMS and UNIX
UNIX Commands and Shells
DIGITAL Command Language
CDE Windows Interface
OpenVMS Mail
UNIX Mail Utilities
World Wide Web Browsers
EDT, TPU editors
Common Applications
OpenVMS System
Management Utilities
vi, ed, emacs, ex editors
UNIX System
Management Utilities
TCP/IP Networking
DECnet Networking Utilities
UNIX Networking Utilities
OpenVMS System Services
Run-Time Libraries
OpenVMS RMS
UNIX Libraries
Common Compilers
DCE
AdvFS and
other file systems
DECset Source Control
RCS/SCCS
OpenVMS Debugger
Ladybug, DEC FUSE
VM-0896A-AI
2.2 File Compatibility
The Network File System, or (NFS) provides a standard for the exchange of data
between machines running different operating systems. NFS enables users to
2–2
Understanding OpenVMS and UNIX Implementations
access directories and files on remote computers transparently, as if they were on
the local system. NFS accomplishes this because it is implemented on the both the
remote and the local computer.
NFS protocol achieves portability between different machines, operating systems,
network architectures, and transport protocols through the use of Remote
Procedure Call (RPC) and External Data Representation (XDR). For more
information about RPCs and XDR, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services for
OpenVMS ONC RPC Programming manual.
Using NFS is simple. Configuring and implementing NFS, however, are more
complex. For NFS concepts and considerations, as well as detailed configuration
and implementation information, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services for
OpenVMS Management guide.
TCP/IP Services accommodates the numerous key differences between UNIX and
OpenVMS to make user interaction between the two operating systems appear
transparent. This enables all systems on a heterogeneous network to store and
share files and applications regardless of file specification and structure differences.
This section discusses:
•
Directory hierarchies
•
File specifications
•
Linking files
•
File structures
•
File ownership
•
File protection
•
UNIX style file system on TCP/IP Services hosts
2.2.1 Directory Hierarchies
Unlike OpenVMS, the UNIX hierarchy appears as one tree (starting from the root
directory, or “/”) that can be located on more than one device. Table 2-1 describes
the differences between the OpenVMS and Tru64 UNIX directory hierarchies.
Table 2–1: Directory Hierarchy Differences
OpenVMS
UNIX
Reside on one volume having one root above
all directories on the volume.
Can reside on multiple volumes.
Device names included in file specifications.
Device names not included in file
specifications.
Figure 2-2 illustrates the differences between a UNIX file structure and an
OpenVMS file structure.
Understanding OpenVMS and UNIX Implementations
2–3
Figure 2–2: Comparison of UNIX Directory and OpenVMS Directory Hierarchies
Tru64 UNIX
/
bin
public
news.txt
usr
tools.dat
dev
jay
profile
jones
smith
work
prog_1.c
calc.pas
etc
accounting.com
done.txt
OpenVMS
DBB1
DBB2
[000000]
Master file directory
(MFD)
DUA0
DUA1
DUA2
[000000]
Master file directory
(MFD)
PUBLIC.DIR
JAY.DIR JONES.DIR SMITH.DIR
NEWS.TXT;2
TOOLS.DAT;2
LOGIN.COM;4
WORK.DIR PROG_1.C;2 ACCOUNTING.COM;3
CALC.PAS;2
DONE.TXT;2
VM-0897A-AI
2.2.2 File Specifications
There are basic differences between OpenVMS and UNIX file specifications. Table
2–2 summarizes the differences.
2–4
Understanding OpenVMS and UNIX Implementations
Table 2–2: File Specification Differences
OpenVMS
UNIX
Files are delimited in the following way:
The slash (/) is the only delimiter that the
UNIX file specification format uses.
The first slash in a UNIX file specification
represents the root directory. Subsequent
slashes separate each element of the file
specification (the directories from the other
directories and the file name). In theory,
there is no limit to the number of directory
levels in a UNIX file specification.
•
A colon (:) separates the device from
the directory.
•
Square brackets ([ ]) or angle brackets
(< >) enclose the directory and any
subdirectories.
•
A period (.) separates directories from
subdirectories and separates the file
name from the file type.
•
A semicolon (;) or period (.) separates
the file type from the version number.
The ODS-5 file system implements
extended file specifications and is a step
toward improving interoperability. ODS-5
is described later in this chapter.
For complete details about the ODS-5
file specification, refer to the OpenVMS
product documentation.
OpenVMS file specification format
On a standard Files-11 On-Disk Structure Level 2 (ODS-2) volume, an
OpenVMS file specification has the following format:
device:[directory.subdirectory]filename.type;version
UNIX file specification format
On a UNIX system, the file specification has the following format:
/directory/subdirectory/filename
2.2.3 Absolute and Relative File Specifications
OpenVMS and UNIX both have two types of file specifications or pathnames:
absolute and relative. Table 2–3 describes the differences between the two
platforms.
Understanding OpenVMS and UNIX Implementations
2–5
Table 2–3: Absolute and Relative File Specification Differences
OpenVMS
UNIX
The relative path for file calc;1 in
directory usr:[jones] is:
[.accounting.calc;1]
The absolute path is:
usr:[jones.accounting.calc;1]
The relative pathname for file calc in
directory /usr/jones is
accounting/calc
The absolute pathname is
/usr/jones/accounting/calc
On UNIX systems, absolute pathnames
use the entire directory path that leads to
the file, beginning with the root, which is
represented by an initial slash.
The root directory is the first directory
in the file system. All other files and
directories trace their ancestry back to
the root. Relative pathnames begin the
directory path with the current working
directory and exclude the current working
directory name in the pathname. There is
no initial slash in a relative pathname.
2.2.4 File Specifications
There are fundamental differences between file names specified in OpenVMS and
in UNIX. Table 2–4 describes those differences.
Table 2–4: File Specification Differences
OpenVMS (ODS-2)
UNIX
Includes, in this order:
Contains up to 1024 characters, with each
element of the pathname containing up to
255 characters. UNIX file specifications
have the following format:
file_name.txt
Some older versions of the UNIX operating
system limit the size of one element to 14
characters, or have other limits that you
can change if you recompile the kernel.
In theory, you can use any ASCII character
in a UNIX pathname except for the slash (/)
and null characters. For example, a valid
file name in UNIX can be:
report.from.january_24
However, avoid characters (such as the
pipe (|) character) that can have special
meaning to the UNIX shell.
1.
the file name
2.
the file type
3.
an optional version number
An OpenVMS file specification can have a
maximum of 255 characters.
The file name and file type can have up to
39 characters each and are separated by a
period. For example:
FILE_NAME.TXT;1
Valid characters in an OpenVMS file name
or type include: A–Z, a–z, 0–9, underscore
(_), hyphen (-), and dollar sign ($). The
version number (preceded by a semicolon)
is a decimal number from 1 to 32767; it
differentiates versions of the same file.
2.2.5 Case Sensitivity
Case sensitivity differs between the two operating systems. Table 2–5 describes
the difference.
2–6
Understanding OpenVMS and UNIX Implementations
Table 2–5: Case-Sensitivity Differences
OpenVMS (ODS-2)
UNIX
Stores everything in uppercase. For
example, any case variations of the
following file name is stored in uppercase:
CHAPTER_ONE.TXT;1
Regards uppercase and lowercase
characters as different characters.
For example, on a UNIX system, the
following file names represent three
different files:
•
CHAPTER_ONE.TXT
•
Chapter_One.Txt
•
chapter_one.txt
2.2.6 File Types
Table 2–6 describes the file type differences between OpenVMS and UNIX.
Table 2–6: File Type Differences
OpenVMS
UNIX
Important in OpenVMS file identification
The file type usually describes the kind of
data in the file.
UNIX systems do not use file types.
However, UNIX has certain naming
conventions that resemble OpenVMS file
types.
For example, a text file typically has a file
type of .TXT.
All OpenVMS directories have a file type
of .DIR.
For example, file names ending in txt are
text files.
UNIX directories do not have file types.
2.2.7 Version Numbers
Table 2–7 describes file version number differences between OpenVMS and UNIX.
Table 2–7: Version Number Differences
OpenVMS
UNIX
Every file has a version number.
When a file is created, the system assigns it
a version number of 1. Subsequently, when
a file is edited or when subsequent versions
of that file are created, the version number
automatically increases by 1. Therefore,
many versions of a file with the same file
name can exist in the same directory.
The UNIX file system does not support
automatic creation of multiple versions.
In most cases, if you edit a UNIX file, the
system saves only the most recently edited
copy.
For example:
FILE_NAME.TXT;1
FILE_NAME.TXT;2
FILE_NAME.TXT;3
For example:
file_name.txt
2.2.8 Linking Files
A link is a directory entry that refers to a file or another directory. Table 2–8
describes the differences between OpenVMS and UNIX file linking.
Understanding OpenVMS and UNIX Implementations
2–7
Table 2–8: Link Files Differences
OpenVMS
UNIX
Files can exist without links.
Files cannot exist without links.
Hard Links
OpenVMS systems allows you to perform a
function similar to hard links with the SET
FILE/ENTER and SET FILE/REMOVE
commands.
The OpenVMS operating system does not
maintain a count of links to a file. As a
result, you can delete a file without deleting
its links.
Hard Links
Hard links allow users to share the same
file under different pathnames. A hard link
cannot span file systems.
On UNIX systems, any changes to the file
are independent of the link used to refer
to the file. The UNIX system maintains a
count of the number of links to each file. If
removing a link results in the link count
becoming zero, the file is deleted. A file can
be deleted only by removing all of its links.
Symbolic Links
OpenVMS file systems do not support
symbolic links.
Symbolic Links
A symbolic link is a file that contains the
name of the file to which it is connected.
Symbolic links provide a path to the original
file.
A UNIX symbolic link can span file systems.
Unlike a hard link, a symbolic link does not
maintain a link count. In addition, symbolic
links can exist after the file is deleted.
However, the system returns an error if the
symbolic link file is accessed after the file
it names is deleted.
2.2.9 File Structures
Table 2–9 describes the differences between the OpenVMS and UNIX file
structures.
Table 2–9: File Structure Differences
OpenVMS
UNIX
Supports three file structures: indexed,
relative, and sequential. OpenVMS also
supports the following record formats and
record attributes:
Supports byte streams only.
The records in UNIX text files have the
same format as the OpenVMS Record
Management Services (RMS) STREAM_LF
record format.
•
Fixed length
•
Variable length
•
Variable with fixed-length control (VFC)
•
Stream (including STREAM_LF and
STREAM_CR)
•
Undefined
•
Carriage return/carriage control
•
Fortran carriage control
•
VFC carriage control
2.2.10 File Ownership
The OpenVMS and UNIX operating systems use different mechanisms for file
ownership. Table 2–10 describes those differences.
2–8
Understanding OpenVMS and UNIX Implementations
Table 2–10: File Ownership Differences
OpenVMS
UNIX
The OpenVMS operating system controls
file ownership and access through a user
identification code (UIC). A UIC is a
32-bit value that consists of a 14-bit group
number, a 16-bit member number, and 2
reserved bits. Each user of the system has a
UIC defined in the SYSUAF file. Access to
objects depends on the relationship between
the UIC of the accessing process and the
UIC of the object (the file or directory).
OpenVMS controls file access through an
access control list (ACL). You can deny
or grant read, write, execute, delete, and
control access to a user or group of users
who have the identifier specified by the
ACL. For additional ACL information, refer
to the OpenVMS documentation set.
The NFS protocol does not provide ACL
support. Therefore, the NFS client is
unaware of ACLs that the NFS server
applies to the file. Consequently, the
NFS client cannot use an ACL to control
file access. Access control is determined
through standard file protections. For more
information, see Chapter 2.
The UNIX operating system controls access
to files with user identification (UID)
and group identification (GID). Tru64
UNIX uses 32-bit UIDs and GIDs. For
compatibility, NFS also recognizes 32–bit
UIDs and GIDs.
2.2.11 File Protections
The OpenVMS and UNIX operating systems use similar file protection schemes, as
shown in Table 2–11.
Table 2–11: Comparison of File Protection
Mechanism
OpenVMS
UNIX
User classifications
SYSTEM (S)
OWNER (O)
GROUP (G)
WORLD (W)
Classification depends on the
relationship between the UIC
of the accessing process and the
object.
user (u) --- The user has a
matching UID
group (g) --- The user has a
matching GID
other (o) --- Any other user
System category is not used;
system administrators always
have access to UNIX files.
Understanding OpenVMS and UNIX Implementations
2–9
Table 2–11: Comparison of File Protection (cont.)
Protection levels
READ (R)
WRITE (W)
EXECUTE (E) – Controls file
execution and directory search
access
DELETE (D)
read (r) — The user has a
matching UIC
write (w) — Controls
unlinking files to the directory.
execute (x) — Controls file
execution and directory search
access
A file is deleted if it is unlinked
from the directory and had
no links in other directories.
Write access to the directory is
refused.
Syntax
s:rwed, o:rwed, g:rwed,
w:rwed
rwxrwxrwx
The protection levels are divided
into groups of three characters:
•
First three characters:
protection levels for the
owner.
•
Second three characters:
protection levels for the
group.
•
Last three characters:
protection levels for all other
users.
2.3 Portability
The TCP/IP Services allows you to create a logical UNIX style file system on an
OpenVMS host. Remote UNIX hosts that have NFS software can then access
this file system. When a remote UNIX system accesses files, these files conform
to UNIX file system rules, not to the OpenVMS rules. This ensures that existing
UNIX applications work without change. The logical UNIX file system resides
on a Files-11 formatted disk and is represented as a set of Files-11 files called a
container file system. For information about creating a UNIX file system on an
OpenVMS host, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Management
guide.
The UNIX file names and attributes are catalogued in the container file, one of the
files in the container file system. The container file also has a representation of
the UNIX directory hierarchy and a pointer to the data file for each file name.
In addition to its UNIX name, each file in the container file system has a valid
Files-11 file name assigned by the system. An OpenVMS directory exists for each
UNIX directory stored in the container file. All files catalogued in a UNIX directory
are also catalogued in the corresponding OpenVMS directory. However, the UNIX
directory hierarchy is not duplicated in the OpenVMS directory hierarchy. Each
UNIX file is represented as an OpenVMS data file. Therefore, OpenVMS utilities,
such as BACKUP, can use standard methods to access these files.
2–10
Understanding OpenVMS and UNIX Implementations
2.4 Determining Which File System to Use
The first step in managing your TCP/IP Services system is to decide which file
system to use. NFS on OpenVMS enables you to set up and export three different
kinds of file systems:
•
OpenVMS On-Disk Structure (ODS-2) file system, in which devices,
directories, and files are stored on a Files-11 formatted disk
•
OpenVMS On-Disk Structure (ODS-5) file system, which enables creation
and storage of files with extended file names for compatibility with other file
systems, such as Windows.
•
UNIX, or container, file system, built on top of an OpenVMS system. If you
are not familiar with OpenVMS file systems, refer to the OpenVMS System
Manager’s Manual: Essentials to learn how to set up and initialize a Files-11
disk. As Figure 2–2 shows, both file systems are structured as hierarchical,
multilevel directories. On OpenVMS systems, the top level is called the master
file directory, or MFD. This directory contains all the directories and reserved
system files. The directory is named [000000]. On UNIX systems, the top-level
directory is called the root, or / .
Table 2–12 lists the NFS server features available to non-OpenVMS clients based
on file system choice.
Table 2–12: NFS Server Features Available to Non-OpenVMS Clients
Features
ODS-2
OD2–2 with name
conversion
ODS-5
Container file
system
Files easily shared
between remote
clients and local
OpenVMS users
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Mixed case, special
characters, and extra
dots in file names
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Long file names
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
N/A
File names look
the same to remote
clients and local
OpenVMS users
Uppercase
to local
users,
lowercase
to remote
clients
Support for hard
links, symbolic links,
special files
No
No
No
Yes
UNIX compatible
timestamps
No
No
No
Yes
Case-sensitive
lookup
N/A
Yes
No
Yes
The dual cataloguing of files to both OpenVMS file systems limits the set of DCL
commands. OpenVMS utilities, such as BACKUP, can use standard methods to
access the files. However, except for backing up and restoring files, you should not
use DCL commands to manipulate files in a container file system.
Understanding OpenVMS and UNIX Implementations
2–11
_____________________
Decision Point
_____________________
Your file system choice depends on your environment and the user needs
on the NFS client host. Consider using an OpenVMS file system if:
Your users share most files between your OpenVMS system and
another OpenVMS host, or between your OpenVMS system and a
UNIX client.
Your client users need to maintain multiple versions of files.
You share files between users on OpenVMS and users on NFS clients.
File sharing between your OpenVMS system and a UNIX client is
minimal.
Client applications use symbolic or hard links or special files.
For More Information
For more information about the following topics, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP
Services for OpenVMS Management manual:
•
Setting up container file systems
•
Configuring and implementing the NFS server
For a list of commonly used Tru64 UNIX commands and their equivalents on
OpenVMS, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Tuning and
Troubleshooting manual.
For more details about interoperability between UNIX and OpenVMS, refer to
the OpenVMS and Compaq UNIX Interoperability and Migration Guide. This
guide discusses products and services, available both from Compaq and from other
vendors, that might provide solutions to interoperability problems.
For more information about RPCs and XDR, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services
for OpenVMS ONC RPC Programming manual.
For additional ACL information, refer to the OpenVMS documentation set.
2–12
Understanding OpenVMS and UNIX Implementations
3
OpenVMS Server and Network
Configurations
There are several server and network configurations to consider before installing
TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS. This chapter describes the following concepts that
will enable you to make informed decisions about these configuration options:
•
OpenVMS VAX and Alpha similarities and differences
•
Cluster environments
•
Multiple interfaces and multihoming
•
Pseudointerfaces
•
Serial lines
_________________________
Note
_________________________
VAX development has limited continued support. VAX users should
consider migrating to Alpha, if possible.
Things to Consider
In planning your TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS configurations, consider the
following:
•
Does the network contain VAX or Alpha systems, or both?
•
Is my system running a DHCP server?
•
Is my system running a DHCP client?
•
How many interfaces does the system have?
•
Do I have serial lines in my network? If so, for which systems are they used?
3.1 Understanding OpenVMS VAX and Alpha Systems
You need to consider several issues when you plan to add one or more OpenVMS
Alpha systems to your OpenVMS VAX computing environment. For full details
about the similarities and differences between OpenVMS Alpha and OpenVMS
VAX, refer to the OpenVMS Compatibility Between VAX and Alpha guide, which
is available on line at:
http://www.openvms.compaq.com/doc
3.1.1 User Environment
The user environment on OpenVMS Alpha is virtually the same as that on
OpenVMS VAX. Table 3–1 describes the similarities and differences.
OpenVMS Server and Network Configurations
3–1
Table 3–1: OpenVMS VAX and OpenVMS Alpha Similarities and Differences
Component Similarities
OpenVMS VAX Differences
OpenVMS Alpha Differences
DIGITAL Command
Language (DCL)
Essentially the same on
both systems.
None
Refer to the few exceptions in
the OpenVMS Compatibility
Between VAX and Alpha
guides available on line.
DCL Help
Most DCL help text is
common to both systems.
System-specific
information is identified by
the phrase “On VAX.”
System-specific information
is identified by the phrase
“On Alpha.”
DCL command procedures
Most DCL command
procedures, with commands,
qualifiers, and lexical
functions, work on both
systems.
None
A few command procedures
contain qualifiers not
available on OpenVMS
Alpha.
Databases
Standard databases, such
as Oracle Rdb, function the
same on both systems.
None
Most third-party databases
available for OpenVMS
VAX are also available for
OpenVMS Alpha.
For more information,
refer to the OpenVMS
Compatibility Between VAX
and Alpha guide, available
on line.
3.1.2 System Management Environment
Most OpenVMS VAX system management utilities, command formats, and tasks
are identical on OpenVMS Alpha, with the following exceptions:
•
On VAX, use of the POLYCENTER Software Installation utility is limited to the
installation of layered products, such as Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS.
•
On Alpha, the POLYCENTER Software Installation utility is also used to
install both the OpenVMS operating system and layered products.
For more information about implementation differences between OpenVMS VAX
and OpenVMS Alpha, refer to the OpenVMS System Manager’s Manual.
3.1.3 Programming Environment
The same types of programming development tools that OpenVMS VAX
programmers use are available on OpenVMS Alpha systems, such as the Linker
3–2
OpenVMS Server and Network Configurations
utility, the Librarian utility, the OpenVMS Debugger (also known as the symbolic
debugger), the Delta/XDelta Debugger, and run-time libraries. However, some
TCP/IP Services components are available only on OpenVMS Alpha, including:
•
BIND Version 9
•
IMAP
•
PPP
These components are introduced later in this manual.
For details about the similarities and differences between the programming
environment on VAX and Alpha, refer to A Comparison of System Management on
OpenVMS AXP and OpenVMS VAX, which provides guidelines for developing
applications that run on both OpenVMS VAX and OpenVMS Alpha, as well as
additional guidelines for systems that run in a mixed-architecture OpenVMS
Cluster.
3.2 OpenVMS Cluster Configuration
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS supports OpenVMS Cluster systems and
the use of cluster aliases. The network sees the cluster as one system with one
name, the cluster alias. A remote host can use the cluster alias to address the
cluster as one host, or it can use the host name of a cluster member to address a
cluster member individually.
In a DECnet network, it is convenient to be able to treat nodes within a
homogeneous OpenVMS Cluster as though they were a single node. You can do this
by establishing an alias node identifier for the cluster. You can specify the alias
node identifier as either a unique node address or a corresponding node name. Any
member node can elect to use this special node identifier as an alias while retaining
its own unique node identification. For more information on the use of the optional
cluster alias node identifier, refer to the DECnet for OpenVMS Networking Manual.
_________________________
Note
_________________________
DECnet–Plus software is not required in an OpenVMS Cluster
configuration. However, DECnet–Plus is necessary if internode
process-to-process communication using DECnet mailboxes is
needed. For more information about DECnet-Plus in an OpenVMS
Cluster configuration, refer to the Guidelines for OpenVMS Cluster
Configurations manual.
For load balancing, an OpenVMS Cluster can consist entirely of OpenVMS Alpha
nodes or of a combination of OpenVMS VAX and OpenVMS Alpha nodes.
You can have numerous OpenVMS Cluster configurations. For complete
information about supported devices and configurations, refer to Guidelines for
OpenVMS Cluster Configurations and the OpenVMS Cluster Software Software
Product Description (SPD). For complete information about setting up and using an
OpenVMS Cluster environment, refer to the OpenVMS Cluster Systems manual.
3.2.1 Failover Capability
Failover capability is the hallmark of a cluster environment. If one computer , or
node, in the cluster fails, the others can assume its functionality and continue. This
is called automatic failover.
OpenVMS Server and Network Configurations
3–3
Each node (as a member of the host configuration in the cluster) retains a separate
IP address. This is beneficial for troubleshooting the individual node because you
can ping the specific node to see whether it is running.
All of the TCP/IP services support automatic failover and can run on multiple
nodes in an OpenVMS Cluster. For example, if more than one node in the cluster
is running the NFS server, the cluster can appear to the NFS client as a single
host. For more information about configuring a specific service for cluster failover,
refer to the particular service in the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
Management guide.
3.2.2 Connection Load Balancing
Load balancing using the TCP/IP Services is defined by the load broker. The load
broker is a configurable, calculated, load-balancing mechanism for distributing the
work load among DNS (Domain Name System, which maintains and distributes
information about Internet hosts) cluster members. For more information about
DNS, see Chapter 5.
Unlike round-robin scheduling (the default method used by most DNS name
servers, in which each individual node in the cluster is polled in a continual,
specific order), the load broker takes into account the load on all DNS cluster
participants. The load broker polls DNS cluster members and updates the metric
server accordingly.
When the load broker starts, it reads its configuration file and starts polling DNS
cluster members. The load broker exchanges messages with DNS cluster members
that run the metric server, which calculates the current load on a DNS cluster
host by using a specific equation. The metric server calculates the current rating
and reports it when polled by the load broker. Periodically, the load broker sorts
the list of addresses based on metric rating reports, drops the systems that do not
respond after being polled three times, and compares a subset of the list with
the name server information.
To do the comparison, the load broker sends a host lookup request to the specified
name server. If the lists are the same, the load broker does not make changes. If
the lists are different, the load broker updates the name server data by sending
a dynamic update request to the specified name server. The name server uses
round-robin scheduling to further balance the load across the members of a DNS
cluster. Thus, every consecutive request for translating the DNS cluster name
results in a returned list, is rotated by one.
For specific information about configuring the load broker, starting and stopping
the metric server, and troubleshooting, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services for
OpenVMS Management guide.
3.3 Multihoming and Multiple Interfaces
Although host computers can have several network interface cards (NICs)
installed, you can configure the host through a single, primary interface. This
section introduces the following concepts:
3–4
•
Multihomed computers
•
Primary interface
•
Pseudointerfaces
OpenVMS Server and Network Configurations
3.3.1 Multihomed Computers
Individual host computers can have multiple network interface cards per computer.
Such a computer is called multihomed. These physical interfaces can be connected
to different types of networks, such as Ethernet, FDDI, Token Ring, asynchronous
transfer mode (ATM), Gigabit Ethernet, and serial communications lines. Each
physical interface is associated with one device driver (network interface). A single
network interface can have more than one IP address.
_________________________
Note
_________________________
If a host has multiple interfaces under DHCP (Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol) control and receives a different host name
from a DHCP server on each of the DHCP-controlled interfaces, the
DHCP client uses the host name it receives on the primary interface
to configure the host name for the client. For more information about
DHCP, see Chapter 5.
3.3.2 Primary Interface
Although you can have multiple physical interfaces on a single computer, some of
the parameters that are configurable by DHCP are interface specific. Examples
of interface-specific parameters are the IP address and subnet mask. However,
most DHCP configurable parameters are systemwide configurable parameters.
Examples of systemwide parameters are the host name and DNS domain name.
The TCP/IP Services DHCP client supports controlled configuration of systemwide
configurable items by designation of a primary interface.
The primary interface is the interface on which the DHCP client uses systemwide
parameters received from the DHCP server to configure the system. Systemwide
parameters received on an interface that is not designated as primary are not
configured on your system by the server. Although only one interface on a system
is designated as the primary DHCP interface, the system is not required to have
any interface designated as primary.
If a system has multiple interfaces and only one is under DHCP control, you can
configure the systemwide parameters manually. DHCP client uses the following
rules to resolve conflicts:
•
The only-one-primary-interface rule
This rule solves the potential conflict between two DHCP controlled interfaces
on a host getting different systemwide parameter values. To resolve the conflict,
you designate one interface to be the primary interface and the parameters that
you receive on that interface are the values the DHCP client uses to configure
the system. TCP/IP Services does not let you designate two primary interfaces.
•
The primary-interface-not-required rule
This rule solves the problem of DHCP configuring interfaces with an IP address
but also keeping manual control of the systemwide parameters. In this case,
the DHCP client does not designate the interface as the primary interface, and
it ignores any systemwide parameters it receives from a DHCP server.
For details about configuring multiple interfaces, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP
Services for OpenVMS Management guide.
OpenVMS Server and Network Configurations
3–5
3.3.3 Pseudointerfaces
To use extended routing, you can define pseudointerfaces. A pseudointerface is
a data structure that extends subnet routing using a network interface. Each
network interface has one name and at most nine pseudointerface names. Each
network interface and pseudointerface has its own IP address, network mask, and
broadcast mask.
Like an interface, the name of an internet pseudointerface consists of three
alphabetic characters, followed by the pseudointerface unit number in the range of
0 through 255. The first two characters are the same as the two characters in the
internet interface name (interface type and interface class). The third character
identifies the controller letter that corresponds to the OpenVMS hardware
controller. For more information about interface names, refer to the Compaq
TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Management guide.
3.4 Serial Line Connections
A serial connection is made between two systems using modems and telephone
lines or other serial lines. TCP/IP Services supports serial connections using PPP
(Point-to-Point Protocol) and SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol). SLIP includes
CSLIP (compressed SLIP). You can use any standard OpenVMS terminal device as
a PPP or a SLIP line. However, PPP is available for OpenVMS Alpha systems only.
One of the largest applications for IP over serial lines is dialup access. With
this type of configuration, your OpenVMS host answers calls and establishes a
connection initiated by a user on a client host. The client host can be another
OpenVMS system, a UNIX system, or a PC. Alternatively, users on your host can
originate the dialup connection to a remote host or terminal server that is running
the same protocol. Dedicated serial lines running PPP or SLIP can also be used
to connect separate LANs into a single WAN. In such a configuration, the host at
each end of the serial connection is always the same; no other hosts are allowed to
connect to either serial device.
If your OpenVMS system is part of a large network, you will probably use both
PPP and SLIP for your serial connections. As an Internet standard, PPP is often
preferred because it ensures interoperability between systems from a wide variety
of vendors. PPP provides a way for your OpenVMS Alpha system to establish a
dynamic IP network connection over a serial line without additional router or
server hardware.
SLIP has been in use for a longer period of time than PPP and is available for
most terminal servers and in most PC implementations of TCP/IP. Because SLIP
and PPP do not communicate with each other, hosts must use the same protocol
in order to communicate. For example, if your terminal server supports only
SLIP, remote hosts that connect through this server must also use SLIP. For more
information about configuring serial lines, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services
for OpenVMS Management guide.
For More Information
For more information about the following topics, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP
Services for OpenVMS Management guide.
3–6
•
Configuring and troubleshooting OpenVMS Clusters, including load balancing
and failover configurations
•
Configuring multiple interfaces and multihomed systems
•
Details about pseudointerfaces
OpenVMS Server and Network Configurations
•
Configuring serial lines
For detailed descriptions of OpenVMS Alpha and VAX similarities and differences,
refer to A Comparison of System Management on OpenVMS AXP and OpenVMS
VAX.
For complete information about supported devices and configurations, refer to
the Guidelines for OpenVMS Cluster Configurations and the OpenVMS Cluster
Software Software Product Description (SPD). For complete information about
setting up and using an OpenVMS Cluster environment, refer to the OpenVMS
Cluster Systems manual.
OpenVMS Server and Network Configurations
3–7
4
OpenVMS Operating System TCP/IP Features
The OpenVMS operating system contains a number of features that are of specific
benefit to the TCP/IP environment. This chapter discusses the following topics
related to these features:
•
TCP/IP management commands
•
Using logical names
•
OpenVMS System Dump Analysis (SDA) Tool
•
Accessing system messages through operator communication manager
(OPCOM) and log files
•
Comparison of ODS-5 and ODS-2 file structures
•
Print queues (network printers)
Things to Consider
In planning your TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS, consider the following:
•
Should I use ODS-5? For which disks?
•
Where should I store the log files?
•
Which printers in my system are network shareable? How will users access
them?
•
Which printers in my system are on a serial line?
•
Should I configure PATHWORKS shares for printers?
4.1 TCP/IP Management Control Program
The TCP/IP Services Management Control Program is a comprehensive, easy-to-use
network management tool that includes more than 100 OpenVMS commands.
TCP/IP Services provides this management command interface to configure and
modify parameters of components, configure customer-developed services, enable
and disable running components, and monitor the running software
To start the management control program, enter the following command:
$ TCPIP
TCPIP>
At the TCPIP> prompt, you can enter commands such as the following:
SHOW SERVICES
SHOW CONFIGURATION
HELP
SET HOST
COPY
DIR
OpenVMS Operating System TCP/IP Features
4–1
You can also use UNIX management commands to manage some components of
TCP/IP Services.
To use UNIX management commands at the DCL prompt, run the following
command procedure:
$ @SYS$MANAGER:TCPIP$DEFINE_COMMANDS
Then enter UNIX commands as you would on a Tru64 UNIX system.
TCP/IP management commands are described fully in the Compaq TCP/IP
Services for OpenVMS Management Command Reference manual, and in the
TCP/IP Services online help.
TCPIP> HELP
To exit the management control program, enter the following command:
TCPIP> EXIT
To obtain information about TCP/IP Services, enter the following command at
the DCL prompt:
$ HELP TCPIP_SERVICES
4.2 Defining Logical Names
Logical names allow you to customize component behavior. Logical names can
point to directories, database files, and log files.
To define a logical name, enter the following DCL command:
$ DEFINE logical-name
For more information about these logical names, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP
Services for OpenVMS Management guide.
The TCPIP$CONFIG database predefines logical names for various databases.
During the menu-driven installation procedure, the software configures either the
components you select or all of the TCP/IP Services software components. These
defaults are designed to get your system up and running as an internet host with
minimal effort. TCPIP$CONFIG creates the database files.
After the initial configuration of a component, you can use logical names to modify
the settings of the component-specific parameters. Many logical names are
defined as “existence logical names”; that is, they can be either on or off. Any
value associated with them is ignored. Others require a value of text string as a
definition. Every logical name has a default setting.
For more information about how TCP/IP Services components uses logical names,
see relevant chapters in this manual and refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services for
OpenVMS Management guide.
4.3 OpenVMS System Dump Analysis (SDA) Tool
TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS provides network-specific enhancements to the
OpenVMS System Dump Analysis (SDA) tool. For more information about SDA
enhancements, refer to DCL online help.
If your system fails, you can run the SDA tool on system reboot to analyze
the system crash dump. You can do this by adding command lines to the
SYSTARTUP_VMS.COM procedure.
4–2
OpenVMS Operating System TCP/IP Features
If you are unable to analyze a process dump with the debugger, use the System
Dump Analyzer (SDA) utility. Refer to the ANALYZE/CRASH command in online
help for more information. For example:
$ ANALYZE/CRASH billsystem.dmp
OpenVMS (TM) Alpha system dump analyzer
...analyzing a compressed process dump...
Dump taken on 24-JUL-2002 12:03:40.95
SDA>
For details, refer to the OpenVMS VAX System Dump Analyzer Utility Manual and
the OpenVMS Alpha System Dump Analyzer Utility Manual.
4.4 System Messages
You can keep log files of events, changes, and other configuration data in two ways.
•
Using OPCOM (operator communication manager) — available only if you
have system privileges.
•
Using log files that most components establish when they are configured.
System messages are saved to either one of these utilities. Both are described in
this section.
4.4.1 OPCOM
Any terminal that is connected to the operating system can be established as an
operator’s terminal if OPCOM (operator communication manager) is running.
When an operator who is logged in to an account with OPER privilege enters the
REPLY/ENABLE command at the designated terminal, that terminal can be used
to respond to user requests and to monitor device status. Operator messages are
displayed on the system console terminal unless the terminal is explicitly disabled
as an operator’s terminal.
To set up a terminal to receive OPCOM messages, enter the following command:
$ REPLY/ENABLE
4.4.2 Log Files
Event logging can help you manage the TCP/IP Services software. By default,
user-defined services do not log events, but event logging is enabled by default for
all supplied services. You can configure the product to log events to the operator’s
console or to a log file, or to both. Every component has a default log file. For more
information about log files, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
Management guide.
To set up event logging, enter the following command:
TCPIP> SET SERVICE service-name /LOG_OPTIONS=ALL
For a list of all the logging options, refer to the SET SERVICE command description
in the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Management Command Reference
manual.
Some product components provide additional event logging capabilities. For more
information, see the relevant chapters in this manual.
OpenVMS Operating System TCP/IP Features
4–3
4.5 ODS-5 and ODS-2 File Structures
OpenVMS implements On-Disk Structure Level 5 (ODS-5). This structure provides
the basis for creating and storing files with extended file names. The format was
introduced for compatibility with other file systems, such as Windows. You can
choose whether or not to convert a volume to ODS-5 on your OpenVMS Alpha
systems.
The ODS-5 volume structure provides the following features:
•
Long file names
•
More legal characters in file names
•
Preservation of case in file names
These features are described in detail in the OpenVMS product documentation.
ODS-5 provides enhanced file-sharing capabilities for TCP/IP Services as well
as for Advanced Server for OpenVMS (or PATHWORKS for OpenVMS), DCOM,
and Java™ applications. Once ODS-5 volumes are enabled, some of the new
capabilities can impact certain applications or layered products as well as some
areas of system management.
The following sections summarize how the enabling of ODS-5 volumes can impact
system management, users, and applications.
4.5.1 Considerations for System Management
RMS access to deep directories and extended file names is available only on ODS-5
volumes mounted on OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.2 systems and higher. Compaq
recommends that ODS-5 volumes be enabled only on homogeneous OpenVMS
Alpha clusters. If ODS-5 is enabled in a mixed-version or mixed-architecture
OpenVMS Cluster, the system manager must follow special procedures and must
be aware of the following specific restriction: users must access ODS-5 files and
deep directories from OpenVMS Alpha systems only because these capabilities are
not supported on earlier versions of the operating system.
4.5.2 Considerations for Users
Users on OpenVMS Alpha systems can take advantage of all Extended File
Specifications capabilities on ODS-5 volumes that are mounted on those systems.
A user on a mixed-version or mixed-architecture OpenVMS Cluster is subject to
some limitations in ODS-5 functionality.
For detailed information about mixed-version or mixed-architecture support, refer
to the OpenVMS product documentation.
4.5.3 Considerations for Applications
You can select ODS-5 functionality on a volume-by-volume basis. If ODS-5 volumes
are not enabled on your system, all existing applications will continue to function
as before. If ODS-5 volumes are enabled, be aware of the following changes:
•
4–4
OpenVMS file handling and command-line parsing are modified to enable
them to work with extended file names on ODS-5 volumes and maintain
compatibility with existing applications. The majority of existing, unprivileged
applications will work with most extended file names, but some applications
might need modifications to work with all extended file names.
OpenVMS Operating System TCP/IP Features
•
Privileged applications that perform filename parsing and need to access
ODS-5 file names or volumes should be analyzed to determine whether they
require modification.
On ODS-5 volumes, existing applications and layered products that are coded to
documented interfaces, as well as most DCL command procedures, should continue
to work without modification.
However, applications that are coded to undocumented interfaces or that include
any of the following might need to be modified to function as expected on an ODS-5
volume:
•
Internal knowledge of the file system, including knowledge of:
Data layout on the disk
Contents of file headers
Contents of directory files
•
File name parsing tailored to a particular on-disk structure.
•
Assumptions about the syntax of file specifications, such as the placement of
delimiters and legal characters.
•
Assumptions about the case of file specifications. Mixed-case and lowercase file
specifications are not converted to uppercase. This can affect string-matching
operations.
4.6 Network Printers
Resource sharing lets users access network printers as if they were directly
connected to the user’s local systems. With resource sharing, users can access these
resources directly after making the initial connection. This is different from file
transfer programs in which files must be transferred completely from the remote
system before they can be used.
The printer-sharing components of TCP/IP Services include:
•
Line printer/line printer daemon (LPR/LPD), which provides print services to
remote and local hosts.
•
The TELNET print symbiont (TELNETSYM) provides remote printing services
that enables OpenVMS printing features not available with the LPR/LPD
print service.
•
Serial line connection.
•
PC-NFS, which provides authentication and print services for personal
computers running PC-NFS.
If a printer is on the network, you must set it up like any OpenVMS printer. For
information about setting up OpenVMS printers, refer to the relevant OpenVMS
documentation.
4.6.1 Line Printer Daemon (LPD) Service
The Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS software provides network printing
through LPR/LPD. The LPR/LPD service has both a client component (LPR) and a
server component (LPD). LPD provides remote printing services for many client
hosts, including OpenVMS, UNIX, and Windows NT client hosts. Each print queue
is either local or remote. Local print queues handle inbound jobs; remote print
queues handle outbound jobs for remote printers.
The print setup utility (TCPIP$LPRSETUP) does the following:
OpenVMS Operating System TCP/IP Features
4–5
•
Updates the related printcap database.
•
Creates and starts queues.
•
Allows you to add commands to the automatic startup and shutdown command
procedures.
To print, users at an OpenVMS client enter the DCL command PRINT.
Users working on UNIX clients typically enter the lpr command.
To use the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS network printer services, you
need the following:
•
The remote host name.
•
The name of the remote print queue or the local queue name. (LPD accepts
both local and remote entries.)
•
Compaq PrintServer extensions to use the PRINT/PARAMETERS=options=value command.
•
TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS installed and LPR/LPD enabled on your
OpenVMS system.
Both the client component (LPR) and the server component (LPD) are partially
included in an OpenVMS queue symbiont. The client is activated when you use
one of the following commands
•
PRINT—to submit a print job to a remote printer whose queue is managed
by the LPD symbiont.
•
LPRM—to remove (cancel) a pending print job that was previously spooled.
•
LPQ—to view the queue of pending jobs for a remote printer
The LPD server is activated when a remote user submits a print job to a printer
that is configured on the OpenVMS server. The LPD server consists of the following
two components:
•
LPD receiver—a process that handles the incoming request from the remote
system over the network. The LPD receiver copies the control file (CF) and
data file (DF) that represent the print job to the requested printer’s LPD spool
directory, and places the control file in the print queue for further processing.
The receiver also handles LPQ and LPRM functions from remote clients.
•
LPD symbiont—parses the print job’s control file, and submits the data files to
the designated local printer’s print queue.
The same LPD symbiont image is used for both client and server. It
acts as the client on queues that are set up for remote printers, and it
acts as the server on the local LPD queue. The LPD uses the printcap
database to process print requests. The printcap database, located in
SYS$SPECIFIC:[TCPIP$LPD]TCPIP$PRINTCAP.DAT, is an ASCII text file that
defines the print queues. The printcap entries are similar in syntax to the entries
in a UNIX /etc/printcap file.
Use the printer setup program LPRSETUP to configure or modify printers. The
setup program creates spool directories and log files based on the information you
supply. For more information and example setup listings, refer to the Compaq
TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Management guide.
For more information about the following network printing services, refer to the
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS User’s Guide:
•
4–6
Sending print jobs to a printer connected to a remote internet host
OpenVMS Operating System TCP/IP Features
•
Displaying print queue status
•
Canceling print jobs
•
Receiving on local (OpenVMS system) print queues print jobs initiated from a
user on a UNIX system
•
Getting a "finished" notification through SMTP mail
4.6.2 TELNET Print Symbiont
The TELNET print symbiont (TELNETSYM) provides remote printing services
that enables OpenVMS printing features not available with the LPR/LPD print
service. With TELNETSYM, the local OpenVMS system drives a remote printer as
if it were directly connected. This is achieved by attaching a printer to a remote
TCP/IP terminal server. The TELNET print symbiont has the following functions:
•
Transfers record-oriented data to and from disks and printers.
•
Configures printers attached to terminal servers that support TELNET.
•
Supports outbound functions (to a remote printer), and offers preformatting to
outbound print jobs.
_________________________
Note
_________________________
TELNET does not work with terminal servers that use only the local
area transport (LAT) protocol. The terminal server must support TCP/IP.
The system that originates the print jobs handles the standard print control
functions, such as header-page generation, pagination, queuing, and handling of
multiple forms. TELNETSYM extends the OpenVMS print symbiont by redirecting
its output to a network channel.
Each TELNETSYM process can control up to 16 print queues. You
can control the maximum number of print queues by defining the
TCPIP$TELNETSYM_STREAMS logical.
For detailed information about configuring and managing TELNETSYM, refer to
the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Management guide.
4.6.3 Serial Line Printer Connections
A serial connection for a remote printer is made between a system and a serial line
printer. Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS supports serial connections using
the PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) and SLIP (Serial Line IP), or CSLIP protocols.
You can use any standard OpenVMS terminal device as a PPP or a SLIP line. If
the remote system is configured as a gateway to a network, local users can also
reach other systems on that network through the serial connection. For more
information about serial line configurations, see Chapter 3.
4.6.4 Sharing Network Printers Using PATHWORKS (Advanced Server)
Because everyone on a network uses print services, make sure that network print
operations are set up efficiently and cost effectively. The choices that you need
to make might include the following:
•
Which printers to use
•
Which computers to use as print servers
•
How to configure shared printers for maximum use
OpenVMS Operating System TCP/IP Features
4–7
Determine which printers you want to make available to your server community.
Some considerations regarding printers include:
•
Location
Select printers that are closest to the physical location of users who require
their output.
•
Cost of use
You might want to restrict access to expensive-to-use printers rather than
make them available to all network users. Conversely, using one network
printer for several groups in a building is less expensive than using separate
printers for each group in the building.
•
Resolution
Users who frequently print graphics require printers with higher resolution.
Groups who usually print text files can use lower-resolution printers.
A computer can act simultaneously as a print server and a file server. The decision
to combine print and file servers might depend on security concerns. Although
printers should always be available to their users, you might want to locate a
file server in a secure place. Regardless of the size of your network, you most
likely will install printers on a few select computers. The only special hardware
requirement for print servers is that, if you are using parallel or serial printers,
the print servers must have the correct output ports.
Unlike parallel and serial devices, printers with built-in network adapter cards do
not have to be adjacent to the print server. Network-interface printers are attached
to the network through a built-in adapter card. The location of this type of printer
has no effect on printing performance, provided that users and printers are not on
opposite sides of a network bridge. A Compaq Advanced Server print server can
control a virtually unlimited number of network-interface printers.
The Compaq Advanced Server makes printers available to network users through
print shares. In addition, you can use a generic queue when several like printers
are available to the user. A generic queue can point to several execution queues
and is used to distribute printer work load among several like printers by routing a
print job to the first available printer through that printer’s execution queue. (If
you manage the shared printers from Windows NT, the Advanced Server allows you
to set up a printer pool, which is similar in function to an OpenVMS generic queue.)
You can use the Advanced Server ADMINISTER command line interface to add
printers (as print queues) and print shares to the Advanced Server and to manage
them. Alternatively, beginning with Version 7.3 of the Advanced Server for
OpenVMS, you can configure the server to allow management of shared printers
from Windows NT using the Windows NT print services. The default is to use the
Advanced Server ADMINISTER command line interface.
Each print share points to a single print queue with the same name as the
share. Permissions that you assign to the share are applied automatically to the
associated print queue. As with any other shared resource, a share can be accessed
over the network by users who have the appropriate permissions. Four types of
permissions apply to print shares: Print (the default), None (no access), Manage
Documents, and Full (full control).
For more information about sharing network printers, refer to the Compaq
Advanced Server for OpenVMS Concepts and Planning Guide.
4–8
OpenVMS Operating System TCP/IP Features
4.6.5 PC-NFS
The PC-NFS server provides authentication and print services for PCs running
NFS. Users on a PC client can associate the name of the PC printer with an
OpenVMS print queue and can print files to the associated queue. However,
Compaq recommends that PC clients use other mechanisms for accessing
OpenVMS print queues.
To access the NFS server, PC users must have an entry in the proxy database and
must have corresponding OpenVMS accounts on the server. For more information
about configuring PC-NFS, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
Management guide.
For More Information
For detailed information about configuring and managing TELNETSYM, LPD, and
PC-NFS, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Management guide.
For more information about network printing services, refer to the Compaq
TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS User’s Guide.
For more information about the management control commands and for a list of
all the logging options within the SET SERVICE command, refer to the Compaq
TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Management Command Reference manual or
to online help.
For complete information about ODS-5 features, refer to the OpenVMS
documentation set.
For more information about sharing network printers, refer to the Compaq
Advanced Server for OpenVMS Concepts and Planning Guide.
For more information about preinstallation tasks and the step-by-step installation,
refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Installation and Configuration
guide.
OpenVMS Operating System TCP/IP Features
4–9
5
Network Server Services
This chapter describes key concepts for the following network server features:
•
Network Time Protocol (NTP)
•
Routing
•
Remote client management (BOOTP/DHCP)
•
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
•
SNMP
Things to Consider
In planning your TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS, consider the following:
•
Will the system serve as a time server and at what stratum? Where does the
authoritative time come from?
•
Do I need to remote boot any clients? Which kinds?
•
Will the system serve as a router? What kind?
•
Which file transfer method should I use: FTP or RCP? What are the security
needs, client types, and the purposes of the transfer?
•
Will I need to service SNMP programs?
5.1 Network Time Protocol (NTP)
The Network Time Protocol (NTP) synchronizes time and coordinates time
distribution throughout a TCP/IP network. TCP/IP Services NTP software is an
implementation of the NTP Version 4 specification and maintains compatibility
with NTP Versions 1, 2, and 3.
Time synchronization is important in client/server computing. For example,
systems that share common databases require coordinated transaction processing
and timestamping of instrumental data.
Synchronized timekeeping means that hosts with accurate system timestamps
send time quotes to each other. Hosts running NTP can be either a time server
or a time client, although they often are both a server and a client. NTP does
not attempt to synchronize clocks to each other. Rather, each server attempts to
synchronize to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) using the best available source
and the best available transmission paths to that source. NTP expects that the
time being distributed from the root of the synchronization subnet is derived from
some external source of UTC (for example, a radio clock).
If your network is isolated and you cannot access other NTP servers on the
internet, you can designate one of your nodes as the reference clock to which all
other hosts will synchronize.
Running an NTP server is optional. If you do set up an NTP server, you must
decide whether it will be the authoritative server or whether you will get time
from another server.
Network Server Services
5–1
5.1.1 Time Distributed Through a Hierarchy of Servers
In the NTP environment, time is distributed through a hierarchy of NTP time
servers. Each server adopts a stratum that indicates how far away it is operating
from an external source of UTC. NTP times are an offset of UTC. Stratum 1
servers have access to an external time source, usually a radio clock. A stratum 2
server is one that is currently obtaining time from a stratum 1 server; a stratum
3 server gets its time from a stratum 2 server, and so on. To avoid long-lived
synchronization loops, the number of strata is limited to 15.
Stratum 2 (and higher) hosts might be company or campus servers that obtain time
from some number of primary servers and provide time to many local clients. In
general:
•
Lower-stratum hosts act as time servers.
•
Higher-stratum hosts are clients that adjust their time clocks according to
the servers.
Internet time servers are usually stratum 1 servers. Other hosts connected to an
internet time server have stratum numbers of 2 or higher and may act as time
servers for other hosts on the network. Clients usually choose one of the lowest
accessible stratum servers from which to synchronize.
5.1.2 How the OpenVMS System Maintains the System Clock
The OpenVMS system clock is maintained as a software timer with a resolution of
100 nanoseconds, updated at 10-millisecond intervals. A clock update is triggered
when a register, loaded with a predefined value, has decremented to zero. Upon
reaching zero, an interrupt is triggered that reloads the register, and repeats the
process.
The smaller the value loaded into this register, the more quickly it reaches zero
and triggers an update. In such an instance, the clock runs more quickly. A larger
value means more time between updates; therefore, the clock runs more slowly.
The amount of time between clock updates is known as a clock tick.
5.1.3 How NTP Adjusts System Time
Once NTP has selected a suitable synchronization source, NTP compares the
source’s time with that of the local clock. If NTP determines that the local clock is
running ahead of or behind the synchronization source, NTP uses a general drift
mechanism to slow down or speed up the clock as needed. NTP accomplishes this
by issuing a series of new clock ticks. For example, if NTP detects that the local
clock is drifting ahead by +0.1884338 second, it issues a series of new ticks to
reduce the difference between the synchronization source and the local clock.
If the local system time is not reasonably correct, NTP does not set the local clock.
For example, if the new time is more than 1000 seconds off in either direction, NTP
does not set the clock. In this case, NTP logs the error and shuts down.
NTP maintains a record of the resets it makes along with informational messages
in the NTP log file, TCPIP$NTP_RUN.LOG. For more details about event logging
and for help interpreting an NTP log file, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services for
OpenVMS Management guide.
Fore information regarding operating system and daylight saving time issues, refer
to the OpenVMS documentation set.
5–2
Network Server Services
5.1.4 Configuring the Local Host
As the system manager of the local host, you determine which network hosts to
use for synchronization and for populating an NTP configuration file with a list of
the participating hosts.
You can configure NTP hosts in one or more of the following modes:
•
Client/server mode
This mode indicates that the local host wants to obtain time from the remote
server and is willing to supply time to the remote server, if necessary. This
mode is appropriate in configurations that involve a number of redundant
time servers interconnected through diverse network paths. Most internet
time servers use this mode.
•
Client mode
This mode indicates that the local host wants to obtain time from the remote
server but it is not willing to provide time to the remote server. Client mode
is appropriate for file server and workstation clients that do not provide
synchronization to other local clients. In general, hosts with a higher stratum
use this mode.
•
Broadcast mode
This mode indicates that the local server will send periodic broadcast messages
to a client population at the broadcast/multicast address specified. Normally,
this specification applies to the local server that is operating as a sender. To
specify broadcast mode, use a broadcast declaration in the configuration file.
For information about additional modes, refer to the TCP/IP Services release notes.
5.1.5 Using the Distributed Time Synchronization Service (DTSS)
Your system might be using the Distributed Time Synchronization Service (DTSS).
DTSS is provided as an option with DECnet-Plus and the Distributed Computing
Environment (DCE). If you are using DTSS, you must use the procedures supplied
with DTSS to set time zone information.
If you are running Version 7.3 or later, you can disable DTSS in favor of running
NTP. Define the logical name NET$DISABLE_DTSS to keep DECnet-Plus DECdts
from starting.
5.2 Routing
Routing is the act of forwarding datagrams based on information stored in a routing
table. Routing allows traffic from your local network to reach its destination
elsewhere on the internet. Hosts and gateways on a network use routing protocols
to exchange and store routing information.
If the hosts on your network need to communicate with computers on other
networks, a route through a gateway must be defined. All hosts and gateways on a
network store information about routes in routing tables. With TCP/IP Services,
routing tables are maintained on the disk and in dynamic memory.
The TCP/IP Services product provides two types of routing. You can define routes
manually (static routing), or you can enable routing protocols that exchange
information and build routing tables based on the exchanged information
(dynamic routing).
Network Server Services
5–3
5.2.1 Static Routing
Because static routing requires manual configuration, it is most useful when the
number of gateways is limited and when routes do not change frequently. For
information about manually configuring routing, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP
Services for OpenVMS Management guide.
5.2.2 Dynamic Routing
Complex environments require a more flexible approach to routing than a static
routing table provides. Routing protocols distribute information that reflect
changing network conditions and update the routing table accordingly. Routing
protocols can switch to a backup route when a primary route becomes unavailable,
and can determine the best route to a given destination.
Dynamic routing tables use information that is received by means of routing
protocol updates; when routes change, the routing protocol provides information
about the changes.
Routing daemons implement a routing policy, that is, a set of rules that specify
which routes go into the routing table. A routing daemon writes routing messages
to a routing socket, which causes the kernel to add a new route or delete , or
modify, an existing route.
The kernel also generates routing messages that can be read by any routing socket
when events occur that might be of interest to the process (for example, the
interface has gone down or a redirect has been received).
TCP/IP Services implements two routing daemons: the Routing Daemon
(ROUTED) and the Gateway Routing Daemon (GATED). The following
sections provide more information about these daemons.
Routing Daemon (ROUTED)
The ROUTED daemon (pronounced “route-dee”) supports the Routing Information
Protocol (RIP). When ROUTED starts, it issues routing update requests and
then listens for responses. A system that is configured to supply RIP information
responds to the request with an update packet. The update packet contains
destination addresses and routing metrics associated with each destination. After
receiving a RIP update, the ROUTED uses the information to update its routing
table.
For details about how to configure dynamic routing with ROUTED, refer to the
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Management guide.
_________________________
Note
_________________________
ROUTED supports Routing Information Protocol (RIP) V1 only.
ROUTED is considered older technology, and many system
administrators are replacing it with GATED.
Gateway Routing Daemon (GATED)
The GATED daemon (pronounced “gate-dee”) supports interior and exterior
gateway protocols. It obtains information from several routing protocols and selects
the best routes based on that information. You can configure GATED to use one or
more of the protocols described in Table 5–1.
5–4
Network Server Services
Table 5–1: GATED Protocols and RFCs
Protocol
Description
Described in this RFC
Routing Information
Protocol (RIP) supports
both Versions 1 and 2
RIP is a commonly used
interior protocol that selects
the route with the lowest
metric (hop count) as the best
route.
RFCs 1058, 1723
Open Shortest Path First
(OSPF) Version 2
Another interior routing
protocol, OSPF is a link state
protocol (shortest path first).
It is better suited than RIP
for use in complex networks
with many routers.
RFC 1583
Exterior Gateway Protocol
(EGP)
EGP exchanges reachability
information between
autonomous systems.
An autonomous system
is usually defined as a set
of routers under a single
administration, using an
interior gateway protocol
and common metric to
route packets. Autonomous
systems use exterior routing
protocols to route packets to
other autonomous systems.
RFC 904
Border Gateway Protocol
(BGP)
Like EGP, BGP exchanges
reachability information
between autonomous
systems but supports
nonhierarchical topologies.
BGP uses path attributes
to provide more information
about each route. Path
attributes can include, for
example, administrative
preferences based on
political, organizational,
or security considerations.
RFCs 1163, 1267, 1771
Router Discovery
This protocol is used
to inform hosts of the
availability of routers that
it can send packets to, and
to supplement a statically
configured default router.
RFC 1256
_________________________
Note
_________________________
The list in Table 5–1 is continually updated. For the latest details,
refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Software Product
Description (SPD 46.46.xx).
The routing protocols described in Table 5–1 are configured in the GATED
configuration file, TCPIP$GATED.CONF. This file contains statements that control
tracing options, select routing protocols, manage routing information, and manage
independent system routing.
Under GATED, load balancing provides for identical routes based on the reference
count and use count (you can observe this through netstat -r). GATED chooses
Network Server Services
5–5
from among identical routes the one with the lowest reference count. If there is
more than one lowest reference count, it uses the lowest use count.
Although ROUTED allows multiple default routes, it does not monitor interface
states. Conversely, GATED monitors interface status changes; however, it does not
allow multiple default routes.
For information about configuring dynamic routing with GATED, refer to the
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Management guide.
5.3 Remote Client Management (BOOTP/DHCP)
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), a superset of the Bootstrap Protocol
(BOOTP), provides a centralized approach to the configuration and maintenance of
IP address space. DHCP allows system managers to configure various clients on a
network from a single location.
DHCP allocates temporary or permanent IP addresses from an address pool to
client hosts on the network. DHCP can also configure client parameters (such as
default gateway parameter), domain name server (DNS) parameters, and subnet
masks for each host running a DHCP client.
With DHCP, system managers can centralize TCP/IP network configurations and
management tasks involved with network connections. DHCP makes network
administration easier by allowing:
•
Consistent application of network parameters, such as subnet masks and
default routers, to all hosts on a network
•
Support for both DHCP and BOOTP clients
•
Static (permanent) mapping of hardware addresses to IP addresses
•
Dynamic (temporary) mapping of hardware addresses to IP addresses, where
the client leases the IP address for a defined length of time
_________________________
Note
_________________________
An OpenVMS system running TCP/IP Services can be configured
as either a DHCP server or a client, but not as both. Moreover, do
not attempt to configure both BOOTP and DHCP; if you do, the
configuration generates a warning message.
In addition, the TCP/IP Services implementation of DHCP includes support for
DHCP server failover in an OpenVMS Cluster environment. For more information
about the OpenVMS Cluster environment, refer to Chapter 3.
As a superset of BOOTP functionality, DHCP offers robust configuration services,
including IP addresses, subnet masks, and default gateways.
DHCP is built on the client/server model in the following respects:
•
The DHCP server is a host that provides initialization parameters.
•
The DHCP client is a host that requests initialization parameters from a DHCP
server. A router cannot be a DHCP client.
5.3.1 How DHCP Operates
DHCP consists of two components:
•
5–6
A mechanism for allocating network addresses to clients
Network Server Services
•
A set of rules for delivering client-specific configuration parameters from a
DHCP server to a client
The server and client communicate to accomplish the following steps:
1.
When a DHCP client boots, it broadcasts a DHCP request, asking that any
DHCP server on the network provide it with an IP address and configuration
parameters.
2.
A DHCP server on the network that is authorized to configure this client sends
the client a reply that offers an IP address.
3.
When the client receives the offer, it can accept it or wait for other offers from
other servers on the network.
4.
Once the client accepts an offer, it sends an acceptance message to the server.
5.
When the server receives the acceptance message, it sends an acknowledgment
with the offered IP address and any other configuration parameters that the
client requested. (The server only responds to specific client requests; it does
not impose any parameters on the client.)
6.
If the dynamic address allocation method is used, the IP address offered to the
client has a specific lease time that determines how long the IP address is valid.
During the lifetime of the lease, the client repeatedly asks the server to renew. If
the client does not renew it, the lease expires.
Once the lease expires, the IP address can be recycled and given to another client.
When the client reboots, it can be given the old address, if available, or it can be
assigned a new address.
For more information about how DHCP operates, refer to RFC 2131 and RFC 1534.
5.3.2 How DHCP Allocates IP Addresses
With TCP/IP Services, DHCP uses dynamic and static IP address-mapping
methods. Table 5–2 describes the allocation methods that service DHCP and
BOOTP-only client requests.
Network Server Services
5–7
Table 5–2: DHCP IP Address Allocation Methods
Method
Applicable Client
Description
Dynamic
DHCP and BOOTP
The DHCP server assigns an IP
address from an address pool to a client
for a specified amount of time (or until
the client explicitly relinquishes the
address). Addresses no longer needed
by clients can be reused.
Use dynamic allocation when:
•
Clients will be connected to the
network only temporarily.
•
You have a limited pool of IP
addresses that must be shared
among clients that do not need
permanent IP addresses.
•
IP address are scare, and you need
to reclaim retired addresses so you
can assign them the new clients
being permanently connected to the
network.
For BOOTP clients, DHCP assigns
dynamic IP addresses from the address
pool and stores the addresses in the
lease database by assigning each lease
a time of infinity.
Static
DHCP and BOOTP
The system manager manually assigns
an IP address to a client and uses
DHCP to pass the assigned address to
the client.
Use static allocation in an error-prone
environment where it is desirable to
manage IP address assignment outside
of DHCP control.
Finite
BOOTP-only
The DHCP server assigns an IP
address from the pool to the BOOTP
client and defines a lease time based
on certain parameters you define in
the SERVER.PCY file. When the lease
expires, the DHCP server pings the IP
address. If the server receives a reply,
it extends the lease and does not offer
the address to a new client. If not, the
address is free and can be assigned to a
new client.
The typical network uses a combination of static and dynamic DHCP addressing.
As the local system manager or network administrator, you must decide which IP
addressing methods are appropriate for your specific policies and environment.
For detailed information about configuring the different types of addressing for
clients on your network, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
Management guide.
5–8
Network Server Services
5.3.3 Relationship Between DHCP and BOOTP
From the client’s perspective, DHCP is an extension of the BOOTP functionality.
DHCP allows existing BOOTP clients to operate with DHCP servers without
having to change the client’s initialization software.
Based on the format of BOOTP messages, the DHCP message format does the
following:
•
Captures the BOOTP relay agents and eliminates the need for a DHCP server
on each physical network segment.
•
Allows existing BOOTP clients to operate with DHCP servers.
Messages that include a DHCP message-type option are assumed to have been sent
by a DHCP client. Messages without the DHCP message-type option are assumed
to have been sent by a BOOTP client.
DHCP improves the BOOTP-only functionality in the following ways:
•
DHCP allows the serial reassignment of network addresses to different clients
by assigning a network address for a finite lease period.
•
DHCP allows clients to acquire all of the IP configuration parameters they
need to operate.
_________________________
Note
_________________________
BOOTP is considered older technology and many system administrators
are replacing it with DHCP.
5.3.4 Client ID
With BOOTP, a client is identified by its unique media access control (MAC)
address, which is associated with the network adapter card.
DHCP uses a client identifier (ID) to uniquely identify the client and to associate
it with a lease. The client creates the client ID from one of the following types
of addresses:
•
The MAC address.
•
A variation of the MAC address. For example, Windows clients create the client
ID by prepending the hardware type to the hardware address.
If the client does not include a client ID in the request, the server uses the client’s
MAC address.
5.4 File Transfer Services
TCP/IP Services includes the following components enable users to transfer data
files between local and remote hosts:
•
FTP (File Transfer Protocol), which transfers files between hosts.
•
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP), which downloads and transfers files.
•
R commands, which copy files to or from remote hosts.
Network Server Services
5–9
5.4.1 FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
FTP is a TCP/IP standard, high-level protocol used to transfer files bidirectionally.
FTP enables users to access files interactively, list directories on a remote host,
delete and rename files on the remote host, and transfer files between hosts.
FTP also provides authentication control, which requires users or clients to
correctly enter a login name and password to the server before requesting file
transfers. The server can refuse access if login and password combinations are
invalid.
FTP allows users who do not have a login name or a password to access certain
files on a system using an anonymous login name. This functionality is called
Anonymous FTP and might include one or more of the following restrictions:
•
Limited browsing through the file system. Users can access only the anonymous
guest (or home) directory and a public directory. The public directory might
contain general bulletin information to which the user has read-only access.
•
Access to files from (get) or copying files to (put) the guest directory only.
•
Access to files (get) from the public directory only.
•
Delete privileges for files in the guest directory that are owned by the
anonymous account.
For more information about setting up FTP, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services
for OpenVMS Management guide.
5.4.2 Trivial FTP (TFTP)
TFTP provides a simple, unsophisticated file transfer service. It is intended for
applications that do not need complex interactions between a client and server.
TFTP can be hardcoded in read-only memory to execute a network bootstrap
program. Once it begins execution, TFTP allows the bootstrap program to use the
same underlying protocols that the operating system uses. This makes it possible
for one host to boot from a server on another physical network.
TCP/IP Services supports downloading of system images and other types of
information for client hosts with TFTP.
TFTP transfers files from a TFTP server to diskless clients or other remote
systems. The client initiates the file transfer. If the client sends a read request to
the TFTP server, the server attempts to locate this file.
TFTP has the following characteristics:
•
TFTP clients are not registered in a database.
•
TFTP runs as an unprivileged user in the TCPIP$TFTP account and therefore
is restricted to files that the unprivileged user can access.
•
TFTP clients are not regulated by the usual OpenVMS user security methods.
•
No user name or password is required to use the TFTP service.
For information about how to set up TFTP, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services
for OpenVMS Installation and Configuration manual.
5.4.3 R Commands
The TCP/IP Services software includes client and server implementations of the
Berkeley Remote (R) command applications. These applications provide users
with the following capabilities:
5–10
Network Server Services
•
RCP – Allows files to be copied between remote hosts.
•
RLOGIN — Provides interactive access to remote hosts.
•
RSH — Passes a command to a remote host for execution.
•
REXEC – Authenticates and executes RCP and other commands.
•
RMT/RCD – Provides remote access to magnetic tape and CD-ROM drives.
In addition to password authentication, the R commands use a system based on
trusted hosts and users. Trusted users on trusted hosts are allowed to access the
local system without providing a password.
Trusted hosts are also called equivalent hosts because the software assumes that
users who have access to a remote host should be given equivalent access to the
local host. The system assumes that user accounts with the same name on both
hosts are ‘‘owned’’ by the same user. For example, the user logged in as BETHANY
on a trusted system is granted the same access as a user logged in as BETHANY
on the local system.
This authentication system requires databases that define the trusted hosts and
the trusted users. On UNIX systems, these databases are:
•
/etc/hosts.equiv — defines the trusted hosts and users for the entire
system.
•
rhosts — defines the trusted hosts and users for an individual user account.
This file is located in the user’s home directory.
On OpenVMS hosts, the proxy database TCPIP$PROXY.DAT defines trusted hosts
and trusted users for the entire system.
Each of these topics is covered in detail in the Compaq TCP/IP Services for
OpenVMS Management guide.
5.4.4 Differences Between FTP and RCP
Unlike FTP, the RCP protocol provides no method of transferring file type
information between the sender and the recipient. It transfers only length, a
modified and created timestamp, protection mode, and the byte stream of file data.
As a result, RCP is unable to determine the file type of a file it receives.
To revert the file type to a usable format in transfers between OpenVMS systems,
if the original file is fixed length or undefined, you can change the attributes on
the Stream_LF copy to correspond to the format of the original file. To do so, enter
the DCL command SET FILE in the following format:
SET FILE/ATTR=(file-attribute[,...])
For example, the following command transfers an OpenVMS executable image file
(with a fixed record length of 512-bytes, and makes the file executable again.
$ SET FILE/ATTR=(rfm:fix, lrl:512) rcp-copied-file.exe
You can also use a logical name to change the behavior set by the options.
Although RCP uses secure authentication for security, it has file size limitations
that FTP does not have. FTP has no security; passwords are sent in ASCII. RCP
sends only the length of the file (in ASCII format). OpenVMS interprets this length
as a signed 32-bit integer. Therefore, files transferred using RCP must no more
than (2 GB -1) bytes (0x7FFFFFF=2147483647 bytes or roughly 1 byte less than
4194304 RMS 512 byte blocks).
Network Server Services
5–11
5.5 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is network management
technology that facilitates the management of a TCP/IP network or internet in a
vendor-independent manner. SNMP enables a network administrator to manage
the various network components using a set of well-known procedures understood
by all components, regardless of the original manufacturers.
Configuring SNMP on your OpenVMS system allows a remote SNMP management
client to obtain information about your host and to set system and network
parameters.
5.5.1 Configuring SNMP
Systems using SNMP fall into two categories:
•
Management consoles (sometimes called clients, network management stations,
or directors)
•
Agents (sometimes called servers)
The management console is the system that issues a query; the agents run on
the system being queried. Queries are sent and received in the form of protocol
data units (PDUs) inside SNMP messages, which are carried in user data protocol
(UDP) datagrams. You can configure your host so that an SNMP client can obtain
information about your host and perform updates on your host’s management
information base (MIB) data items. For example, you can configure your host to:
•
Respond to a client’s read requests (Gets) for network information.
•
Process client write requests (Sets) on your host’s MIB data items.
•
Send alert messages (Traps) to a client as a result of events that might need to
be monitored (for example, an authentication failure).
Table 5–3 describes the SNMP components and the sample code supplied for
custom subagent development.
Table 5–3: SNMP Components
5–12
Component
Description
Master agent SNMP Version 2
Process name: TCPIP$SNMP_n. Keeps
track of managed objects and allows objects
to register themselves. Sends information
about these objects to remote SNMP
management consoles. Also maintains
a small set of variables for the MIB II
component.
MIB II
Process name: TCPIP$OS_MIBS. Provides
information about the TCP/IP protocol
stack and other network activity.
Host Resources MIB
Process name: TCPIP$HR_MIB. Provides
information about the host system.
MIB converter
Extracts a MIB definition in ASN.1 notation
into a MIB definition (.MY) file.
MIB compiler
Compiles a MIB-definition files (for
example, CHESS_MIB.MY) into source
code templates for use in building
subagents.
Network Server Services
Table 5–3: SNMP Components (cont.)
SNMP utility programs
Acts as a simple client to obtain a set of
values for a MIB and to listen for and send
trap messages. For information about
using the MIB utility programs, refer to the
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
SNMP Programming and Reference guide.
SNMP subagent example
Implements an example based on the chess
game; includes executable and source code.
5.5.2 Ensuring Access to Mounted Data
If the proxy setup between the SNMP server and the NFS server is not correct, the
host resources MIB subagent cannot access data that has been mounted.
To ensure access to mounted data, set up a proxy to an anonymous user (for
example, to TCPIP$NOBODY) on the NFS server system. For more information
about adding proxy entries, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
Management guide.
For More Information
For detailed information about the following topics, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP
Services for OpenVMS Management guide:
•
Event logging
•
Help interpreting an NTP log file
•
Configuring static routing
•
Configuring dynamic routing
•
Configuring the different types of addressing for clients on your network
•
Configuring FTP
•
Using R commands
For more information about NTP OpenVMS issues, visit the OpenVMS FAQ web
site at:
http://www.openvms.compaq.com/wizard/
Search on keyword NTP. For information about NTP time settings, refer to the
OpenVMS System Manager’s Manual.
Network Server Services
5–13
6
Mail Services
Mail Services are an extremely important part of TCP/IP Services. Everyone who
uses the network — from administrators, to programmers, to users accesses —
this service on a regular basis. This chapter describes Post Office Protocol (POP),
SMTP, and IMAP.
Things to Consider
In planning your TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS mail services, consider the
following:
•
Should I use POP or IMAP for my mail services?
•
Can my SMTP clients and servers communicate?
•
Will OpenVMS mail headers be translated by the chosen protocol?
•
What types of mail clients will I support?
•
What types and sizes of files will the mail system encounter?
6.1 Post Office Protocol (POP)
The Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Post Office Protocol (POP) server
and the SMTP server work together to provide a reliable mail service. POP is
a mail repository used primarily by PCs to ensure that mail is accepted even
when the PC is turned off. With POP, the PC user need not be concerned with
configuring the system as an SMTP server. The user logs on to the client system’s
mail application, and the POP server forwards any new mail messages from
the OpenVMS NEWMAIL folder to the PC. The POP server is an OpenVMS
implementation of the Post Office Protocol, Version 3 (RFC 1725) and is based on
the Indiana University POP server (IUPOP3).
The POP server is assigned port 110, and all POP client connections are made to
this port.
6.1.1 POP Server Process
The POP server is installed with SYSPRV and BYPASS privileges and runs in the
TCPIP$POP account, which receives the correct quotas from the TCPIP$CONFIG
procedure. The POP server is invoked by the auxiliary server.
TCP/IP Services implements the UNIX internet daemon inetd function, through
the security and event logging of the auxiliary server process. The auxiliary server
simplifies application writing and manages overhead by reducing simultaneous
server processes on the system. In addition, the auxiliary server does the following:
•
Eliminates high overhead resulting from nonstop running of all service
processes.
•
Uses proxy and service databases to provide system security through
authentication of service requests.
•
Supports event and error logging.
Mail Services
6–1
The POP server uses security features provided in the protocol and in the
OpenVMS operating system, as well as additional security measures. These
methods provide a secure process that minimizes the possibility of inappropriate
access to a user’s mail file on the served system.
You can modify the POP server default characteristics, and you can implement
new characteristics by defining logical names described in the Compaq TCP/IP
Services for OpenVMS Management guide.
6.1.2 How to Access Mail Messages from the POP Server
To access mail messages from the POP server, you configure a user name and
password or the POP shared secret-password string, into your client mail
application.
Your client system opens the TCP connection and attempts to access the server
by entering applicable POP commands such as USER (user name) and PASS
(password), or APOP (shared secret password). In addition, POP supports the UID
command, which some POP clients use, in which the UID (user identification)
that POP creates for each mail message is a concatenation of the user name and
the date of arrival.
By default, the POP server reads mail from the user’s OpenVMS NEWMAIL folder.
If you do not instruct the POP server to delete the mail, the server either moves the
mail to the MAIL folder (if the logical name TCPIP$POP_USE_MAIL_FOLDER
is defined) or keeps it in the NEWMAIL folder (if the logical name
TCPIP$POP_LEAVE_IN_NEWMAIL is defined). These logical names are
described in the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Management guide.
6.1.3 How the POP Server Handles Foreign Message Formats
POP contains minimal support for mail messages that contain foreign formats.
Such messages are usually binary and therefore are not transferred to the POP
client. Instead, the POP server transfers the message headers, along with a brief
message instructing the user to log in and extract the foreign message into a file.
Foreign messages are moved into your OpenVMS MAIL folder; the POP server
then never deletes.
6.1.4 How the POP Server Authorizes Users
Table 6–1 describes the methods the POP server process uses to authorize user
access.
6–2
Mail Services
Table 6–1: POP User Authorization Methods
Method
Description
Shared secret password
Most secure POP server access method.
Initiated by the client system through the
APOP command.
Allows a user to become authorized by
the POP server without having to send a
password over the network. Eliminates
a potential path for unauthorized users
to obtain a password and break into the
system.
POP requires a shared secret password
from any user who wants to read mail
using the APOP authorization method.
For information about creating the shared
secret password, refer to the Compaq
TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS User’s
Guide.
User name and password
Least secure POP server access method.
Initiated by the client system through the
USER and PASS commands.
The POP server authorizes the client to
access the desired mailbox based on receipt
of a valid user name and password.
OpenVMS SYSUAF settings on user
accounts
Access to the POP server is not permitted if:
Ability to disable the USER and PASS
commands
•
Either the DISMAIL or DISUSER flags
are set for the account.
•
The account has expired according to
the SYSUAF expiration date.
•
Access has been denied because of an
incorrect user name and password.
Allows the system manager to use the
APOP authorization method for all POP
clients, the more secure means of user
authorization. When you disable the USER
and PASS commands (by defining the
logical name TCPIP$POP_DISUSERPASS),
the POP server responds to the commands
with a failure message.
6.1.5 Understanding POP Message Headers
Mail message headers sent by the POP server must conform to the standard
specified for SMTP in RFC 822. Because many of the messages received on an
OpenVMS system are not in SMTP format (for example, DECnet mail or mail from
another message transport system), the POP server builds a new set of headers for
each message based on the OpenVMS message headers.
Table 6–2 describes POP headers on forwarded mail messages.
Table 6–2: Forwarded POP Mail Messages Header
POP Message Header
Obtained From
Date:
Arrival date of message. Changed to UNIX
format.
Mail Services
6–3
Table 6–2: Forwarded POP Mail Messages Header (cont.)
From:
OpenVMS message From: field. Rebuilt to
ensure RFC 822 compatibility.
To:
OpenVMS Mail To: field. Not rebuilt.
CC:
OpenVMS Mail CC: field. Not rebuilt.
Subject:
OpenVMS Mail Subj: field. Not rebuilt.
X-VMS-From:
OpenVMS Mail From: field. Not rebuilt.
X-POP3-Server:
Server host name and POP version
information. Sent only if logical name
TCPIP$POP_SEND_ID_HEADERS is
defined.
X-POP3-ID:
Message UID. Sent only if logical name
TCPIP$POP_SEND_ID_HEADERS is
defined.
How POP Rebuilds the OpenVMS Mail From: Field
The most important message header is the From: header because it can be used as
a destination address if a reply is requested from the POP client. Therefore, the
POP server rebuilds the OpenVMS Mail From: field in compliance with RFC 822
before sending the header to the POP client.
Table 6–3 describes the types of addresses that can appear in the OpenVMS Mail
From: field.
Table 6–3: OpenVMS Address Types
Address Type
Address Format
SMTP
SMTP%legal-address, where legal-address
is an address that is compliant with RFC
822 and is commonly in the [email protected]
format.
DECnet
node::username
User name
username
DECnet address within quotation marks
node::"[email protected]"
Cluster-forwarding SMTP address
node::SMTP%”[email protected]"
A host name is local if one of the following is true:
•
The host name is the same as the substitute domain specified in the SMTP
configuration.
•
The host name is found in the TCPIP$SMTP_LOCAL_ALIASES.TXT file.
Some POP client systems are confused by the use of personal names when you
attempt to reply to a mail message or when the name contains commas or other
special characters. If you define the TCPIP$POP_PERSONAL_NAME logical
name described in the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Management guide,
make sure you test the configuration carefully with your POP client systems.
If the logical name TCPIP$POP_IGNORE_MAIL11_HEADERS is defined and
the address is an SMTP address, the rebuilt From: field is not displayed to the
user. In this case, the POP server sends the actual headers from the body of the
mail as the mail headers.
6–4
Mail Services
6.2 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
To be reliable, electronic mail systems must be able to cope with situations in
which the recipient is temporarily unavailable; for example, if the recipient’s host
is down or off line. Mail must also be able to handle situations in which some of the
recipients on a distribution list are available and some are not.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is the TCP/IP standard protocol for
transferring electronic mail messages from one system to another. SMTP specifies
how systems interact and the format of the mail messages they exchange. The
Compaq TCP/IP Services SMTP implementation uses the OpenVMS Mail utility.
The OpenVMS Mail utility automatically recognizes an SMTP host address. For
example:
$ MAIL
MAIL> SEND
To:
[email protected]
6.2.1 How SMTP Clients and Servers Communicate
In most implementations, SMTP servers listen at port 25 for client requests. In the
TCP/IP Services implementation of SMTP, the SMTP receiver is invoked by the
auxiliary server when an inbound TCP/IP connect arrives at port 25 (if the SMTP
service is enabled). The auxiliary server runs the command procedure specified
in the SMTP service database entry that runs the receiver. The receiver image is
SYS$SYSTEM:TCPIP$SMTP_RECEIVER.EXE. The receiver process runs in the
TCPIP$SMTP account.
The SMTP symbiont processes all mail on the host. It receives jobs one at a
time from the generic SMTP queue and delivers them either locally by means of
OpenVMS Mail or remotely by means of SMTP.
After receiving a client request, the SMTP server responds, indicating its status
(available or not available). If the server is available, it starts an exchange of
control messages with the client to relay mail. (Like FTP, SMTP does not define a
message format. SMTP commands are sent as ASCII text, and the SMTP server at
the remote host parses the incoming message to extract the command.)
The following steps occur:
1.
The auxiliary server listens for requests, starts the SMTP receiver, and accepts
the TCP connection.
2.
The client identifies itself by sending its fully qualified domain name.
3.
The server replies with its own fully qualified domain name.
4.
The client sends the full e-mail address of the sender enclosed in angle
brackets; if the server is able to accept the mail, it returns a readiness code.
5.
The client sends the full mail address (also enclosed in angle brackets) of the
message’s intended recipient.
6.
The client sends the body of the message. A minimum of five control message
commands are required to conduct steps 1 through 5.
Table 6–4 describes the control message commands.
Mail Services
6–5
Table 6–4: SMTP Client Commands
Command
Description
HELLO
Identifies the originating host to the server
host. Use the /DOMAIN qualifier to provide
the name of the originating host.
MAIL FROM:<reverse-path>
Identifies the address at which
undeliverable mail should be returned.
Usually is the originating host.
RCPT TO:<forward-path>
Address of the intended receiver. If sending
mail to multiple recipients, use one RCPT
TO command for each recipient.
DATA
Signals the end of the RCPT TO commands
and tells the recipient to prepare to receive
the message.
QUIT
Signals the end of the RCPT TO commands
and tells the recipient to prepare to receive
the message.
These commands are described in detail in RFC 821.
The configuration procedure TCPIP$CONFIG sets up the SMTP queues for you.
For more information about configuring SMTP, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP
Services for OpenVMS Management guide.
6.2.2 Understanding How SMTP Translates OpenVMS Mail Headers
The OpenVMS Mail utility contains up to four headers in a mail message:
•
From:
•
To:
•
Subj:
• CC:
SMTP supports a large set of mail headers, including:
•
Resent-Reply-To:
•
Resent-From:
•
Reply-To:
•
Resent-Sender:
•
Sender:
•
ReturnPath:
When it composes an OpenVMS Mail message, SMTP uses the text from the first
SMTP header in the list that it finds for the OpenVMS Mail From: header.
6.2.3 Understanding SMTP Addresses
SMTP addresses are of the form [email protected], where domain.name is a
domain for which there is a DNS Mail Exchange (MX) record. Mail Exchange
records tell SMTP where to route the mail for the domain.
6.3 IMAP
IMAP is the Internet Message Access Protocol. The IMAP Server allows users to
access their OpenVMS Mail mailboxes by clients communicating with the IMAP4
6–6
Mail Services
protocol as defined in RFC 2060. The supported clients used to access e-mail are
PC clients running Microsoft Outlook or Netscape Communicator.
By default, the IMAP Server is assigned port number 143. All IMAP clients
connect to this port.
The following sections review the IMAP process and describe how the TCP/IP
Services software implements IMAP. If you are not familiar with IMAP, refer to
RFC 2060 or introductory IMAP documentation for more information.
6.3.1 IMAP Server Process
The IMAP Server is installed with SYSPRV, BYPASS, DETACH, SYSLCK,
SYSNAM, NETMBX, and TMPMBX privileges. It runs in the TCPIP$IMAP
account, which receives the correct quotas from the TCPIP$CONFIG procedure.
The IMAP Server is invoked by the auxiliary server.
The IMAP Server uses security features provided in the protocol and in the
OpenVMS operating system, as well as additional security measures. These
methods provide a secure process that minimizes the possibility of inappropriate
access to a user’s mail file on the served system.
You can modify the IMAP Server default characteristics and implement new
characteristics by defining the configuration options described in the TCP/IP
Services release notes.
6.3.2 How OpenVMS Mail Folder Names Map to IMAP Mailbox Names
OpenVMS Mail folders are presented to the IMAP client as IMAP mailboxes. All
mailboxes are presented to the client in lowercase characters, beginning with an
initial capital letter, and with capital letters following each space, at sign (@),
opening parenthesis ( "(" ), underscore (_), and hyphen (-).
The OpenVMS NEWMAIL folder requires special treatment . Because the IMAP
protocol requires a top-level mailbox called Inbox, the NEWMAIL folder is mapped
to Inbox. When the user opens the mailbox called Mail (which maps to file
MAIL.MAI), the NEWMAIL folder is not listed so that the user is not confused
by seeing the same folder listed twice.
OpenVMS Mail folder names are usually in all uppercase characters but can
contain lowercase characters. Any lowercase characters are mapped to an
underscore (_ ) followed by the character’s uppercase equivalent. Underscores
are mapped to double underscores (_ _), and dollar signs are mapped to double
dollar signs ($$).
Table 6–5 shows the effects of folder-name mapping.
Table 6–5: OpenVMS Mail Folder-Name Mapping
OpenVMS Mail Folder Name
IMAP Mailbox Name
HELLO
Hello
Hello
H_e_l_l_o
HELLO-ALL
Hello-All
HELLO_ALL
Hello_ _All
HELLO$ALL
Hello$$All
Mail Services
6–7
6.3.3 How the IMAP Server Handles Foreign Message Formats
The IMAP Server determines the correct format for common file types.
It does this by checking the beginning of the file for a recognizable
file header that matches a set contained in the configuration file
TCPIP$IMAP_HOME:TCPIP$IMAP_MAGIC.TXT (analogous to the magic files
found on UNIX systems). If a matching file header is found, the server can let the
client know the MIME type and subtype of the file.
6.3.4 Understanding IMAP Message Headers
Mail message headers sent by the IMAP Server must conform to the standard
specified in RFC 822. Because many of the messages received on an OpenVMS
system are not in the RFC 822, or Internet, format (for example, DECnet mail or
mail from another message transport system), the IMAP Server builds a new set
of headers for each message that is not RFC 822 format and that is based on the
OpenVMS message headers.
Table 6–6 describes the headers on mail messages that are forwarded by the
IMAP Server.
Table 6–6: IMAP Server Forwarded Message Headers
IMAP Message Header
Obtained From
Date:
Arrival date of message. Changed to
Internet format, which shows the day of the
week, the date, the time, and the time zone
offset from Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
An example of the format is Wed, 30 May
01 16:19:53 +0100.
From:
OpenVMS message From: field. Rebuilt to
ensure RFC 822 compatibility.
To:
OpenVMS Mail To: field. Rebuilt to ensure
RFC 822 compatibility.
CC:
OpenVMS Mail CC: field. Rebuilt to ensure
RFC 822 compatibility.
Subject:
OpenVMS Mail Subj: field. Accented
characters are RFC 2047 encoded, but the
change is not visible to users because IMAP
clients reverse the encoding.
X-VMS-From:
OpenVMS Mail From: field. Not rebuilt.
X-IMAP4-Server:
Server host name and IMAP version
information. Sent only if configuration
option Send-ID-Headers is set to True.
X-IMAP4-ID:
Message UID. Sent only if configuration
option Send-ID-Headers is set to True.
The IMAP Server sends these message headers to the IMAP Client unless both of
the following conditions are true:
•
The configuration option Ignore-Mail11-Headers is set to True or is not defined.
•
The message text starts with SMTP headers.
6.3.5 How IMAP Rebuilds OpenVMS Mail Address Fields
It is important for the IMAP Server to rebuild the From: header, because this
header can be used as a destination address if a reply is requested from the IMAP
6–8
Mail Services
client. The same is true for To: and CC: headers if the user requests that a reply
be sent to other listed recipients. Therefore, the IMAP Server rebuilds these fields
in compliance with RFC 822 before sending the header to the IMAP Client.
Table 6–7 describes the different types of addresses that can appear in the
OpenVMS Mail address fields.
Table 6–7: Various Address Types
Address Type
Address Format
SMTP
SMTP%"legal-address", where
legal-address is an address that is
compliant with RFC 822 and is commonly
in the format [email protected]
DECnet
node::username
User name
username
DECnet
address node::"[email protected]"
Cluster forwarding
node::SMTP%"[email protected]"
SMTP_address
A host name is local if one of the following conditions is true:
•
The host name is the same as the substitute domain specified in the SMTP
configuration.
•
The host name is found in the TCPIP$SMTP_LOCAL_ALIASES.TXT file.
Some IMAP client systems are confused by the use of personal names when you
attempt to reply to a mail message or when the name contains commas or other
special characters. If you define the configuration option Personal-Name described
in the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Management guide, make sure you
test the configuration carefully with your IMAP Client systems before going live to
ensure that message replies work successfully.
For More Information
For detailed information about the following topics, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP
Services for OpenVMS Management guide:
•
Defining the system logical names to modify the POP server default
characteristics and implement new characteristics
•
The logical names TCPIP$POP_USE_MAIL_FOLDER and
TCPIP$POP_LEAVE_IN_NEWMAIL for storing POP mail.
•
The TCPIP$POP_PERSONAL_NAME logical name.
•
SMTP
For more information about the TCP/IP management commands, refer to the
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Management Commands Reference
manual.
For more information about IMAP modifications, commands, and configurations,
refer to the TCP/IP Services release notes.
For more information about creating the shared secret string using the APOP
authorization method, see the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS User’s guide.
Mail Services
6–9
For more information about the SET MX_RECORDS command, see the Compaq
TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Management Command Reference guide.
6–10
Mail Services
7
Connectivity Services
Compaq TCP/IP Services provides several ways to connect to the network. This
chapter discusses the following connectivity methods:
•
TELNET
•
PPP and SLIP
•
NFS
•
XDM
•
DECnet over TCP/IP
Things to Consider
In planning your TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS configuration, consider the
following:
•
Should I configure SLIP or PPP?
•
Should I configure for DECnet over TCP/IP?
•
Do I need to set up NFS?
7.1 TELNET
TELNET is a standard protocol that provides remote terminal connection or login
service. TELNET enables users at one site to interact with a remote system at
another site, as if the user terminals were connected directly to the remote system.
The Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS product implements TELNET to
provide:
•
Simultaneous multiple sessions
•
IBM 3270 terminal emulation (TN3270)
•
Two supported interface formats: DCL style and UNIX style
For more information about managing TELNET, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP
Services for OpenVMS Management guide. For more information about using
TELNET, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS User’s Guide.
7.2 PPP and SLIP
At the Network Interface layer, standard encapsulation of IP packets are defined
for the various hardware types. For example, Ethernet uses the Ethernet frame
standard to enclose the data being sent with header fields. Serial line connections
use either the Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP or CSLIP) or the Point-to-Point
Protocol (PPP) (Alpha only).
7.2.1 Assigning an IP Address to Your PPP or SLIP Interface
Every network interface must have its own unique IP address. Interfaces cannot
share IP addresses.
If you configure PPP interfaces for multiple remote hosts, the remote hosts can
obtain their individual IP addresses from your host when they connect. Similarly,
Connectivity Services
7–1
you can configure a PPP interface on your system without knowing your own IP
address, and you can obtain the IP address when you connect to a remote system.
Before you establish SLIP communication with a remote host, however, you must
obtain the IP address for the host’s serial interface and assign IP addresses for
each interface you configure on the local host.
When using SLIP, consider placing each serial line in a separate subnetwork.
You accomplish this by assigning the same subnet mask for the interfaces at
either end of the link.
If you need to use an address in the same subnetwork as your site LAN, use the
proxy Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) feature. For more information about ARP,
refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Management guide.
7.2.2 Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP)
SLIP sends a datagram across the serial line as a series of bytes. Table 7–1 shows
how SLIP uses the following characters to determine when a series of bytes should
be grouped together.
Table 7–1: SLIP Characters
Character
Function
Hexadecimal Value
Decimal Value
END
Marks the end of the
datagram. When
the receiving SLIP
encounters the END
character, SLIP
knows that it has a
complete datagram.
C0
192
ESC
Indicates the end
of the SLIP control
characters.
DB
219
SLIP starts by sending an END character. If END is encountered within the
datagram as data, SLIP inserts an escape character, sending the two character
sequence DB DC instead. If the ESC character appears within the datagram as
data, it is replaced with the two-character sequence DB DD. The datagram ends
with the END character after the last byte in the packet is transmitted.
There is neither a standard SLIP specification nor a defined maximum packet
size for SLIP. The TCP/IP Services implementation of SLIP accepts 1006-byte
datagrams and does not send more than 1006 bytes in a datagram.
Compressed SLIP provides header compression that is beneficial for small packets
and for low-speed serial links. Header compression improves packet throughput.
You can enable CSLIP by using the /COMPRESS qualifier when you enter the
SET INTERFACE command.
7.2.3 Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
PPP uses a frame format that includes a protocol field. The protocol field identifies
the protocol (for example, IP, DECnet, or OSI) to be used for communication
between the two hosts. The PPP defines the network frame in a 5-byte header and
3-byte trailer. A PPP frame starts and ends with the control byte 7E hexadecimal
(126 decimal). The address and control bytes are constant. The 2-byte protocol field
indicates the contents of the PPP frame.
7–2
Connectivity Services
7.3 Network File System (NFS)
The Network File System (NFS) server software lets you set up file systems on
your OpenVMS host for export to users on remote NFS client hosts. These files and
directories appear to the remote user to be on the remote host even though they
physically reside on the local system.
After the NFS server is installed on your computer, you must configure the server
to allow network file access.
_________________________
Note
_________________________
If your network includes PC clients, you might want to configure
PC-NFS.
NFS software was originally developed and used on UNIX machines. For this
reason, NFS implementations use UNIX conventions and characteristics. The rules
and conventions that apply to UNIX files, file types, file names, file ownership, and
user identification also apply to NFS.
Because the TCP/IP Services product runs on OpenVMS, the NFS software must
accommodate the differences between UNIX and OpenVMS file systems, for
example, by converting file names and mapping file ownership information. You
must understand these differences to configure NFS properly on your system,
to select the correct file system for the application, and to ensure that your file
systems are adequately protected while granting access to users on remote hosts.
7.3.1 Clients and Servers
NFS is a client/server environment that allows computers to share disk space and
allows users to work with their files from multiple computers without copying them
to their local system. The NFS server can make any of its file systems available
to the network by exporting the files and directories. Users on authorized client
hosts access the files by mounting the exported files and directories. The NFS
client systems accessing your server might be running UNIX, OpenVMS, or other
operating systems.
The NFS client identifies each file system by the name of its mount point on the
server. The mount point is the name of the device or directory at the top of the file
system hierarchy that you create on the server. An NFS device is always named
DNFSn. The NFS client makes file operation requests by contacting your NFS
server. The server then performs the requested operation.
7.3.2 NFS File Systems on OpenVMS
The OpenVMS system includes a hierarchy of devices, directories and files stored
on a Files–11 On-Disk Structure Level 2 (ODS-2) or Level 5 (ODS-5) formatted
disk. OpenVMS and ODS-2 define a set of rules that govern files within the
OpenVMS file system. These rules define the way that files are named and
catalogued within directories.
If you are not familiar with OpenVMS file systems, refer to the OpenVMS System
Manager’s Manual: Essentials to learn how to set up and initialize a Files–11 disk.
You can set up and export two different kinds of file systems: a traditional
OpenVMS file system or a UNIX style file system built on top of an OpenVMS file
system. This UNIX style file system is called a container file system.
Connectivity Services
7–3
Each file system is a multilevel directory hierarchy: on OpenVMS systems, the
top level of the directory structure is the master file directory (MFD). The MFD
is always named [000000] and contains all the top-level directories and reserved
system files. On UNIX systems or with a container file system, the top-level
directory is called the root.
For information about container file systems and about selecting a file system,
refer to Chapter 2.
7.3.3 How the Server Grants Access to Users and Hosts
Once a disk on the OpenVMS system is mapped to a pathname, the MFD or any
directory below it can be exported. The server uses the following database files to
grant access to users on client hosts:
•
The export database, TCPIP$EXPORT.DAT, is a collection of entries that
store information about the file systems you want to make available to users on
client hosts.
Each entry specifies a directory on the local system and one or more remote
hosts that are allowed to mount that directory. A user on a client host can
mount any directory at or below the export point, as long as OpenVMS allows
access to the directory. Exporting specific directories to specific hosts provides
more control than exporting the root of a file system (or the MFD in an
OpenVMS system) to all hosts.
•
The proxy database, TCPIP$PROXY.DAT, is a collection of entries that
register the identities of users on client hosts. To access file systems on your
local server, remote users must have valid accounts on your OpenVMS host.
The proxy entries map each user’s remote identity to a corresponding identity
associated with each user’s OpenVMS account. When a user on the client host
initiates a file access request, the server checks the proxy database before
granting or denying the user access to the file.
These database files are created by TCPIP$CONFIG and can be shared by all
OpenVMS Cluster nodes running TCP/IP Services. To control access to these
database files, set the OpenVMS file protections accordingly. By default, world
access is denied.
For more information about how to create these database files on your server, refer
to the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Management guide.
7.3.4 How the Server Maps User Identities
Both OpenVMS and UNIX systems use identification codes as a general method
of resource protection and access control. Just as OpenVMS employs user names
and UICs for identification, UNIX identifies users with a user name and a user
identifier (UID) and one or more group identifiers (GIDs). Both UIDs and UICs
identify users on a system.
The proxy database contains entries for each user who accesses a file system on
your local server. Each entry contains the OpenVMS user name, the UID/GID pair
that identifies the user’s account on the client system, and the name of the client
host. This file is loaded into dynamic memory when the server starts.
When a user on the OpenVMS client host requests access to a file, the client
searches its proxy database for an entry that maps the requester’s identity to
a corresponding UID/GID pair. (Proxy lookup is performed only on OpenVMS
servers; UNIX clients already know the user by its UID/GID pair.) If the client
finds a match, it sends a message to the server that contains the following:
7–4
Connectivity Services
•
Identity of the requester as a UID/GID pair
•
Requested NFS operation and any data associated with the operation
The server searches its proxy database for an entry that corresponds to the
requester’s UID/GID pair. If the UID maps to an OpenVMS account, the server
grants access to the file system according to the privileges set for that account. In
the following example, the proxy entry maps a client user with UID=15/GID=15, to
the OpenVMS account named ACCOUNT2. Any files owned by user ACCOUNT2
are deemed also to be owned by user UID=15 and GID=15.
OpenVMS
User_name
ACCOUNT2
Type User_ID
OND
Group_ID
15
Host_name
15 *
After the OpenVMS identity is resolved, the NFS server uses this acquired identity
for all data access, as described in the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
Management guide.
7.3.5 Granting Access to PC-NFS Clients
TCP/IP Services provides authentication services to PC-NFS clients by means of
PC-NFS. As with any NFS client, users must have a valid account on the NFS
server host, and user identities must be registered in the proxy database.
Because PC operating systems do not identify users with UID/GID pairs, these
pairs must be assigned to users. PC-NFS assigns UID/GID pairs based on
information you supply in the proxy database. The following describes this
assignment sequence:
1.
The PC client sends a request for its UID/GID pair. This request includes
the PC’s host name with an encoded representation of the user name and
password.
2.
PC-NFS responds by searching the proxy database and SYSUAF for a
matching entry and by checking the password. If a matching entry is located,
PC-NFS returns the UID/GID pair to the PC client. The PC stores the
UID/GID pair for later NFS requests.
3.
If PC-NFS does not find an entry for the PC client in the proxy database, it
maps the PC client to the default user TCPIP$NOBODY account. In this
case, the client may abort the mount attempt. If the client does complete
the mount, restricted access may be granted based on privileges established
for the default user account.
For more discussion about the default user, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services
for OpenVMS Management guide.
7.4 X Display Manager (XDM)
The X Window System, developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is
a network-based graphics window system based on the client/server application
model. The X protocol, through which the client and server communicate, runs on
UNIX domain sockets, TCP/IP, or DECnet. This means that an X display on one
system can display information output from an application running on another
system in the network.
An X display is a graphic output device that is known by the X Display Manager
(XDM). These devices can include:
•
An X terminal
Connectivity Services
7–5
•
A workstation that has the X Window System software installed and configured
•
A PC running Windows or Windows NT and some X Window System software,
such as eXcursion or Exceed
The X Display Manager (XDM) is an X client that manages the login process of
a user’s X window session. XDM is responsible for displaying a login screen on a
display specified by an X server, establishing an X window session, and running
scripts that start other X clients. When the user logs out of the X session, XDM
is responsible for closing all connections and for resetting the terminal for the
next user session.
An earlier version of XDM had limitations that were resolved with the introduction
of the XDM Control Protocol (XDMCP). Before XDMCP, XDM used the XSERVERS
file to keep track of the X terminals for which it managed the login process. At
startup, XDM initialized all X terminals listed in the XSERVERS file. If the X
terminal was turned off and then turned on again, XDM had no way of knowing
that a new login process should be initiated at the X terminal. To reinitialize the X
terminal, the XDM process had to be restarted. XDMCP solves this problem.
With XDMCP, XDM can listen for management requests from X terminals as well
as use the XSERVERS file for the X terminals that were not XDMCP compatible.
(Most X terminals today are XDMCP compatible.)
The TCP/IP Services implementation of XDM is based on the X11R6.1 release
from X Consortium.
7.5 DECnet over TCP/IP
TCP/IP Services software includes the PATHWORKS Internet Protocol (PWIP)
driver and the PWIP ancillary control process (PWIP_ACP). The PWIP driver
allows OpenVMS systems that are running DECnet over TCP/IP, which is included
with the DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS Version 6.0 and later software.
In a multiprotocol networking environment, DECnet-Plus enables OSI and DECnet
applications to run over an IP network backbone. The OSI over TCP/IP (using RFC
1006) software enables OSI applications such as FTAM, Virtual Terminal, and
X.400 to run over TCP/IP. The DECnet over TCP/IP (using RFC 1859) feature
allows traditional DECnet applications to run over TCP/IP. Examples of traditional
DECnet applications are mail, cterm, and fal.
With RFC 1006 and RFC 1859, OSI and DECnet applications can accept IP names
and addresses. These names and addresses are translated by BIND servers. The
DECnet and OSI applications include those supplied by Compaq, third-party
applications, and user-written applications.
RFC 1006 is a standard of the Internet community. It defines how to implement
ISO 8073 Class 0 on top of TCP. Hosts that implement RFC 1006 are expected to
listen on TCP port 102.
DECnet over TCP/IP uses RFC 1859, which defines how to implement ISO 8073,
Transport Class 2 Non-Use of Explicit Flow Control on Top of TCP (RFC 1006
Extension). Hosts that implement RFC 1859 are required to listen on well-known
TCP port 399.
_____________________
Decision Point
Use DECnet over TCP/IP if you need to:
Link DECnet nodes using TCP/IP.
7–6
Connectivity Services
_____________________
Join two existing DECnet networks without renumbering.
Run IP-only traffic in part of the backbone and continue using
DECnet applications and user interfaces without extra costs and
retraining.
When running DECnet over TCP/IP, you can use an IP host name such as the
one in the following example:
$ set host remotehst6.acme.com
For more information about making connections using DECnet over TCP/IP, see
the DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS documentation.
For More Information
For detailed information about the following topics, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP
Services for OpenVMS Management guide:
•
Managing TELNET
•
The proxy Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) feature
•
Commands to use to edit the container file system files
•
Backing up and restoring files or setting up container file systems
•
Creating specific database files on your server.
•
The acquired identity that NFS server uses for all data access
•
Instructions for modifying SYSCONFIG variables to change the default values
•
Disabling the default user mapping and setting additional security controls
•
Setting ACLs to deny access
•
The default user
For more information about using TELNET, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services
for OpenVMS User’s Guide.
For more information about access checking, refer to the OpenVMS Guide to
System Security.
To learn how to set up and initialize a Files–11 disk, refer to the OpenVMS System
Manager’s Manual: Essentials.
Connectivity Services
7–7
8
Domain Name System/BIND (DNS/BIND)
TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS software supports the Berkeley Internet Name
Domain (BIND) service, which is a popular implementation of the Domain Name
System (DNS). BIND has been ported to many platforms, including UNIX,
Windows NT, and OpenVMS.
Before you add BIND servers to your network, you should understand the basic
BIND service concepts as they apply to the TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS product.
They are described in this chapter in the following topics:
•
Overview of the BIND Service
•
BIND Service Components
•
Domains
•
Domain Names
•
Zones
•
Reverse Domain
•
BIND Server Functions
•
BIND Server Configuration File
•
BIND Server Database Files
•
BIND Resolver
_________________________
Note
_________________________
BIND Version 9 is supported on Alpha systems only, and future support
of BIND Version 8 on VAX systems will be limited. Therefore, if you are
using BIND Version 8 on a VAX system, Compaq recommends that you
upgrade your BIND server to an Alpha system.
Things to Consider
In planning your TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS configuration, consider the
following:
•
Should I configure BIND as a resolver only?
•
Should I configure BIND as a name server only?
•
Should I configure BIND and both a resolver and name server?
8.1 Overview of the BIND Service
DNS has a hierarchical, distributed namespace that makes it easy for people to
remember and locate the many hosts located throughout the Internet. Since
computers remember and locate the same hosts through a numerical address,
computers need a method for converting the host name to a numerical address.
BIND is a lookup service that maps host names to IP addresses and IP addresses
to host names in response to queries from other BIND servers and clients in
Domain Name System/BIND (DNS/BIND)
8–1
the network. BIND can also provide information on available mail servers and
well-known services for a domain.
Based on a client/server model, BIND servers maintain databases of host names,
IP addresses, mail records, text records, and other network objects. When client
systems require this information, they query the servers.
IP address space allocation is one of the many duties for which ICANN (Internet
Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers), a non-profit corporation, assumes
responsibility. ICANN also manages protocol parameter assignment, domain name
system management, and root server system management functions, which were
previously performed under U.S. Government.
8.2 BIND Service Components
The BIND service contains two parts: the BIND resolver and the BIND server.
•
•
BIND resolver — client software interface that:
–
Formulates queries.
–
Sends queries to BIND servers for answers.
–
Interprets the server’s answer.
–
Returns the information to the requesting network application.
BIND server — server software that responds to client queries by providing:
–
Authoritative or nonauthoritative answers to queries about host names and
IP addresses for which the server has an answer.
–
Information about other authoritative servers that can answer queries
about host names/IP addresses for which the server does not have an
answer.
–
Information about how to get closer to the answer if the server does not
have either an answer or information about other authoritative servers
–
Information about mail servers and other network application servers (for
example, FTP, TELNET).
8.3 Domains
The Internet name space is based on a hierarchical tree structure. Each node in the
tree is referred to as a domain or a subdomain. A domain is an administrative
entity that allows for decentralized management of host names, addresses, and
user information. Domains can refer to an administrative point in the name space
tree or a specific host. A domain is identified by a domain name and includes
the name space at or below the domain name. A subdomain is every domain in
the name space below the root domain.
Typically, each domain has a domain administrator responsible for coordinating
and managing the domain. The domain administrator registers a second-level or
lower domain by interacting with the domain administrator in the next higher-level
domain.
The domain administrator’s duties include:
8–2
•
Ensuring reliable service
•
Ensuring that the BIND data is current
•
Taking prompt action when necessary, for example, if protocols are violated or
other serious issues occurs
Domain Name System/BIND (DNS/BIND)
•
Controlling the assignments of the host and domain names
The domain administrator furnishes users with access to names and name-related
information both inside and outside the local domain.
8.4 Domain Names
The InterNIC assigns names for all top-level domains as well as domains directly
below the top-level domains. Individuals are responsible for assigning lower-level
domains and host names.
Each domain has a label. For example, the label for the top-level domain for
commercial organizations is com. A label is unique within its parent domain.
The concatenation of all the domain labels from the top-level domain to the
lowest-level domains is called a fully qualified domain name. The labels are
listed from right to left and are separated by dots. For example, the domain name
for a subdomain within the com domain would be abc.com; abc is the label for the
ABC company’s subdomain, and com is the label for the commercial domain. This
structure allows administration and data maintenance to be delegated down the
hierarchical tree.
_________________________
Note
_________________________
The term domain name is sometimes used to refer to a specific domain
label. The name of the root domain of the name space is a dot (.).
8.4.1 Types of Domain Names
There are two types of domain names: the fully qualified name and the relative
name.
•
The fully qualified name represents the complete domain name. This is also
known as the absolute or canonical name. For example:
boston.cities.compaq.com
A domain name that is fully qualified is absolute. You should not append
further BIND extensions to the name.
•
The relative name represents the starting name (label) of an absolute domain
name. Relative names are incomplete but are completed by the BIND
service using knowledge of the local domain. Relative host names, such as
boston.cities, are automatically expanded to the fully qualified domain
name when given in a typical command.
8.4.2 Domain Name Format
The format of domain and host labels have the following characteristics::
•
Contains characters, digits, or a hyphen.
•
Must begin with a character or digit.
•
Must not end with a hyphen.
•
Has a maximum of 63 characters for each label.
•
Has a maximum of 255 characters in a fully qualified domain name.
Although label names can contain up to 63 characters, it is best to choose names
that are 12 characters or less because the canonical (fully qualified) domain names
Domain Name System/BIND (DNS/BIND)
8–3
are easier to keep track of if they are short. The sum of all the label characters
and label lengths cannot exceed 255.
_________________________
Note
_________________________
Domain names are not case sensitive. However, the case of entered
names is preserved whenever possible.
For example, the fully qualified domain name euro.sales.compaq.com is broken
down as follows (from right to left):
•
The com label refers to the commercial top-level domain.
•
The compaq label refers to the compaq domain, a subdomain of the commercial
domain.
•
The sales label refers to the sales domain, a subdomain of the compaq
domain.
•
The euro label refers to the host called euro, a subdomain of the sales
domain.
8.5 Zones
For management reasons, a domain can be divided into zones, which are discrete,
nonoverlapping subsets of the domain. A zone usually represents an administrative
or geographic boundary, and authority for the zone may or may not be delegated to
another responsible group or person. Each zone starts at a designated level in the
domain name tree and extends down to the leaf domains (individual host names) or
to a point in the tree where authority has been delegated to another domain.
A common zone is a second-level domain, such as abc.com. Many second-level
domains divide their zones into smaller zones. For example, a university might
divide its domain name space into zones based on departments. A company might
divide its domain name space into zones based on branch offices or internal
divisions. Authority for the zone is generally delegated to the department or
branch office. The department or branch office then has the responsibility for
maintaining the zone data.
All the data for the zone is stored on the master server in zone files.
8.5.1 Delegation
When a zone is very large and difficult to manage, authority for a portion of the
zone can be delegated to another server; the responsibility for maintaining the zone
information is also delegated.
For example, the edu zone contains many educational organizations. Each
organization is delegated the authority for managing their portion of the edu zone,
thereby creating subzones. For example, both rpi.edu and uml.edu are subzones
of the edu zone and each organization has the responsibility for maintaining the
zone information and the master and slave servers for their respective zones.
8.6 Reverse Domains
The Internet has a special domain used for locating gateways and supporting
internet address-to-host name lookups. The mapping of internet addresses to
domain names is called reverse translation. The special domain for reverse
translation is the IN-ADDR.ARPA domain.
8–4
Domain Name System/BIND (DNS/BIND)
8.7 BIND Server Functions
If a network consists of relatively few hosts, host name to IP address translations
can be accomplished by using a centralized hosts database file.
As soon as a network connects to another network, or when the number of hosts
grows large, a more robust method for performing host name/IP address translation
is required. In particular, when a network is part of the worldwide internet, no
single database can keep track of all addressing information. A considerable
number of hosts and network domains are added, changed, and deleted every day.
BIND uses different types of name servers to ensure that all queries are resolved
quickly and efficiently:
•
Root servers
•
Master name servers
•
Slave name servers
•
Forwarder servers
•
Caching-only servers
When a client makes a query, a name server can be in one of three possible states:
•
It knows the IP address authoritatively, based on addresses residing in its
data files.
•
It knows the IP address but not authoritatively, from data cached in its memory
from a previous query
•
It does not know the address and must refer the query to another server.
The following sections discuss the different types of name servers and their
primary responsibilities in the distributed environment of BIND and DNS.
8.7.1 Root Name Servers
Root name servers are the master name servers for the top-level domains of the
internet root zone. If the root name server is not the authority for a zone, it knows
whom to contact to find out which server is the authority.
If a nonroot server receives a request for a name that is not within its zone, the
server starts name resolution at the root zone and accesses the root servers to get
the needed information.
The InterNIC determines root servers for the top-level domain, such
as A.ROOT_SERVERS.NET, which is a current server name (formerly,
ns.internic.net). These servers change from time to time. You can obtain
the up-to-date list by:
•
Copying the named root file maintained at the InterNIC by using FTP
anonymous login to ftp.rs.internic.net (198.41.0.6). The file is in the
domain subdirectory.
•
Using the dig utility.
•
Using the online registration process at the InterNIC web site.
These servers know about all the top-level DNS domains on the Internet. You
must know about these servers when you make queries about hosts outside of
your local domain. The host names and internet addresses of these machines
change periodically. Therefore, check with the InterNIC to obtain changes, and
store them in the hints file of the BIND name servers (usually called ROOT.HINT
on a TCP/IP Services system).
Domain Name System/BIND (DNS/BIND)
8–5
8.7.2 Master Name Server
There are two types of master servers: a master name server and a slave name
server (also called a secondary master name server).
The master server is the primary authority for the zone. The master server has
complete information about the zone, and it stores the information in its database
files. If network information changes, those changes are captured in the master
server’s database files.
A server can be a master server for more than one zone, acting as the master name
server for some zones and a slave name server for others.
You can have more than one master server; however, maintaining two sets of
database files requires making the same changes to both sets of files. A more
efficient solution is to have one master server and one or more slave servers that
obtain their zone information from the master server.
8.7.3 Slave Name Server
A slave name server is an administrative convenience that provides redundancy
of information and that shares the load of the master name server. A slave name
server receives its authority and zone data from a master name server. Once it is
running, a slave name server periodically checks with the master name server for
zone changes. If the slave’s serial number is less than the master’s serial number,
the slave requests a zone transfer.
The slave name servers poll the master server at predetermined intervals specified
in the zone database files. A time lapse between changing the master server’s
databases and the slave name servers requesting the update may exist.
8.7.4 Forwarder Servers
Often it is beneficial to limit the traffic to the Internet. The reason might be a slow
internet connection or you are being charged by the number of packets.
Funneling DNS Internet queries through one name server can reduce the number
of queries going out to the Internet. A name server that performs this function is a
forwarder. The forwarder handles all off-site queries and in doing so builds up
a cache of information; this reduces the number of queries that the forwarder
needs to make to satisfy a query.
Forwarder servers have access to the Internet and are able to obtain information
regarding other servers that is not currently found in local caches. Because a
forwarder server can receive requests from several slave servers, it can acquire
a larger local cache than can a slave server. All hosts in the domain have more
information available locally because the forwarder servers have a large cache.
This means that the server sends fewer queries from that site to root servers on
networks outside the internet.
8.7.5 Caching-Only Servers
All servers cache the information they receive for use until the data expires. The
length of time a server caches the information is based on a time-to-live (TTL) field
attached to the data the server receives.
Caching-only servers have no authority for any zone, and thus do not have
complete information for any zone. Their database contains information acquired
in the process of finding answers to clients’ queries.
8–6
Domain Name System/BIND (DNS/BIND)
8.7.6 Configurations Without Internet Access
You can run the BIND service on a local network that does not have internet
access. In this configuration, the servers resolve local queries only. Any request
that depends on Internet access goes unresolved.
8.7.7 Zone Transfers
Zone transfers are the process by which slave servers obtain their zone data. When
a slave server starts up and periodically thereafter, the server checks whether its
data is up to date. It does this by polling a master server to see whether the master
server’s zone database serial number is greater than the slave’s. If so, the slave
performs a zone transfer over the network.
An essential point in this polling environment is that whenever a change is made to
a master server’s zone database file, the zone’s serial number must be incremented
for the change to propagate to other servers. If the serial number does not change,
the slave server does not know it should perform a zone transfer.
Zone Change Notification
In addition to slave servers polling to determine the necessity for a zone transfer,
BIND provides a mechanism for a master server to notify slaves of changes to
a zone’s database.
When a master server determines that a change has been made to a database, it
will send a NOTIFY message to all the slave servers for the zone. The slave servers
respond with a NOTIFY response to stop any further NOTIFY messages from the
master before they query the master server for the start of authority (SOA)
record of the zone. When the query is answered, the slave checks the serial number
in the SOA record and if the serial number changes, the slave transfers the zone.
This interrupt feature combined with polling provides a good balance between slow
propagation of data because of long refresh times and periods of inconsistent data
between authority servers when zone data is updated.
Dynamic Update
DNS Dynamic Update, a BIND feature, provides for zone changes in real time,
without having to change a database file and then signal the master server
to reload the zone data. Most often, these changes come from other network
applications, like DHCP servers, which automatically assign an IP address to a
host and then want to register the host name and IP address with BIND.
Dynamic Update provides for:
•
Adding and deleting individual resource records
•
Deleting a set of resource records with the same name, class, and type
•
Deleting all records associated with a given name
•
Specifying that prerequisite records exist before adding an address record
Dynamic updates are remembered over system reboots or restart of the BIND
server. Whenever the BIND server starts up, it looks for and reads the file where it
logged updates (typically, domain.db_jnl) and merges the updates into its cache
of zone data. While running, the BIND server occasionally writes any pending
dynamic updates to the zone database file.
Domain Name System/BIND (DNS/BIND)
8–7
_________________________
Note
_________________________
You should not manually edit the zone database file of a zone that is
being dynamically updated.
8.8 BIND Server Configuration Files
BIND reads information from an ASCII file called TCPIP$BIND.CONF. On
UNIX systems, the file name is named.conf. This configuration file consists of
statements that specify:
•
The location of each BIND database file
•
Global configuration options
•
Logging options
•
Zone definitions
•
Information used for authentication
8.9 BIND Server Database Files
Files residing on BIND server systems contain the database of information needed
to resolve BIND queries. The following sections describe the four database files
used by the server:
•
Master zone file
•
Reverse zone file
•
Loopback interface files
•
Hints file
For detailed information about how to create and name these files, refer to the
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Management manual.
8.9.1 Master Zone File
A master server maintains the master zone file. This file contains:
•
Start-of-authority (SOA) records, which specify the domain name for the zone,
a serial number, refresh time, retry and other administrative information
•
NS records, which specify all the servers for the zone
•
Address resource (A) records for each host in the zone
•
MX records for mail servers
•
CNAME records for specifying alias names for hosts
•
Other various resource records
There is one master zone file for each zone for which the server has authority.
8.9.2 Reverse Zone File
For every host with an A record in the master zone file, an IP address must be
mapped back to a host name. This is accomplished by using a zone file for a special
domain called the IN-ADDR.ARPA domain.
The zone file for this domain contains PTR records that specify the reverse
translations (address-to-host name) required for the zone. There is an
8–8
Domain Name System/BIND (DNS/BIND)
IN-ADDR.ARPA zone file for each network represented in the master zone file
including the loopback interface.
8.9.3 Loopback Interface Files
The loopback interface files define the zone of the local loopback interface, known
as LOCALHOST. There is a master zone file and a reverse zone file for LOCALHOST.
The resource record for this file defines LOCALHOST with a network address of
127.0.0.1. TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS configuration procedure creates these two
files and calls them LOCALHOST.DB and 127_0_0.DB.
8.9.4 Hints File
The hints file contains information about the authoritative name servers for
top-level domains. You can obtain this information from the InterNIC. However,
the TCP/IP Services TCPIP$CONFIG procedure creates this file during the
configuration procedure.
8.10 BIND Resolver
The BIND resolver is a set of routines that is linked into each network application
that needs DNS name resolution services. The resolver formulates one or more
queries based on the resolver’s configuration and information supplied by network
applications; it sends the queries to a server to obtain an answer.
You can configure the following resolver features:
•
Define the default domain.
•
Specify a domain search list.
•
Specify the name servers to query.
•
Specify a transport (either UDP or TCP).
•
Specify a timeout interval for requests.
The Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Management guide contains
information about how to configure the resolver.
8.10.1 Default Domain
The default domain is the domain in which the client host resides. When resolving
a query when just the host name is supplied, the resolver appends the default
domain to the host name and then processes the query. This is a convenience for
the user. It saves typing a fully qualified domain name.
8.10.2 Search List
The search list is also another convenience for the user. The default search list is
derived from the default domain and is applied if the user enters a domain name
that is not fully qualified.
8.10.3 Name Servers
You can configure the resolver to query any name server, including the local host,
and you can specify a maximum of three name servers. The resolver queries each
name server in the order listed until it receives an answer or times out.
Domain Name System/BIND (DNS/BIND)
8–9
For More Information
For detailed information about DNS/BIND, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services
for OpenVMS Management guide.
8–10
Domain Name System/BIND (DNS/BIND)
9
IPv6
Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), as defined in RFC 2460, is the replacement
Network layer protocol for the Internet and is designed to replace Internet Protocol
Version 4 (IPv4). IPv6 also changes the structure of the Internet architecture.
This does not mean that you have to deploy IPv6 all at once across your network;
rather, you can make the change in stages because IPv6 and IPv4 were designed
to interoperate. This chapter provides guidelines for deployment, deployment
scenarios, and checklists for you to consult before you configure a single system
or your entire network.
Things to Consider
Before implementing IPv6 into your network, consider the following:
•
Is my system part of an IPv6 network?
•
What is my internet/intranet scenario?
9.1 Understanding IPv6
The following is a summary of IPv6 features:
•
Addressing
The IPv6 address is 128 bits in length (compared with the 32-bit IPv4 address)
and uses a new text representation format. In addition, there are three types of
IPv6 addresses: unicast, anycast, and multicast. The unicast address consists
of an address prefix and a 64-bit interface identifier. For information about
IPv6 addresses, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Guide to
IPv6 manual and to RFC 2373.
•
Neighbor discovery
Neighbor discovery is a mechanism by which IPv6 nodes on the same link
discover each other’s presence, determine each other’s link-local addresses, find
routers, and maintain reachability information about paths to active neighbors
and remote destinations. For more information, refer to RFC 2461.
•
Stateless address autoconfiguration
The process by which IPv6 nodes listen for router advertisement packets
from routers and learn IPv6 address prefixes. The node creates IPv6 unicast
addresses by combining the prefix with a datalink-specific interface identifier
that is typically derived from the datalink address of the interface. The
OpenVMS operating system performs this process automatically. For more
information, refer to RFC 2462.
9.1.1 Mobile IPv6
TCP/IP Services enables an OpenVMS node to operate as a mobile IPv6
correspondent node as defined in the Internet draft “Mobility Support in IPv6”
(David B. Johnson and Charles Perkins). For more information about this proposed
standard, refer to:
http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt
IPv6
9–1
_________________________
Note
_________________________
This site lists Internet-Drafts documents, all of which are works in
progress and subject to change at any time.
The Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) was designed to support mobility through
features like its extensible header structure, address autoconfiguration, security
(IPsec) and tunneling. mobile IPv6 builds upon these features.
In a mobile IPv6 environment, nodes can have the following roles:
•
Mobile node, which is a host or router that can change its point of attachment
from one link to another while still being reachable through its home address.
•
Correspondent node, which is a peer node with which a mobile node is
communicating. The correspondent node (host or router) can be either mobile
or stationary.
•
Home agent, which is a router on a mobile node’s home link with which the
mobile node registers its current care-of address. (Currently, OpenVMS cannot
operate as a home agent).
A mobile node on its home link has a home address. The subnet prefix of
this address is the home network’s subnet prefix. The mobile node is always
addressable by its home address.
When the mobile node is away from home, on a foreign link, it acquires a care-of
address. The subnet prefix of this address is the foreign network’s subnet prefix. A
mobile node can have multiple care-of addresses, the care-of address registered
with the mobile node’s home agent is called its primary care-of address.
The association of the mobile node’s home address with its care-of address is
called a binding. This association has a lifetime. Each node maintains a cache of
all bindings.
When the mobile node is on its home link, packets from the correspondent node
that are addressed to the mobile node’s home address are delivered through
standard IP routing mechanisms.
When the mobile node is on a foreign link, it configures a care-of address and
registers it with its home agent by sending the home agent a binding update.
Packets sent by a correspondent node to the mobile node’s home address arrive
at its home link. The home agent intercepts the packets, encapsulates them, and
tunnels them to the mobile node ’s registered care-of address.
After the mobile node receives the tunneled packets, the mobile node assumes that
the original sending correspondent node has no binding cache entry for the mobile
node care-of address, otherwise the correspondent node sends the packet directly to
the mobile node using a routing header.
The mobile node then sends a binding update to the correspondent node. The
correspondent node creates a binding between the home address and care-of
address.
Packets flow directly between the correspondent node and mobile node. This
route optimization eliminates what is commonly known as triangle routing. or
congestion at the mobile node’s home agent and home link. It also reduces the
impact of any possible failure of the home agent, the home link, or intervening
networks leading to or from the home link, since these nodes and links are not
involved in the delivery of most packets to the mobile node.
9–2
IPv6
Away from home, the mobile node sends a home address option to inform the
receiver of its home address enabling the receiver to correctly identify the
connection to which the packet belongs. When the mobile node returns to its
home link, the mobile node sends a binding update to the home agent and to the
correspondent node to clear the bindings.
For more information about mobile IPv6, refer to the TCP/IP Services release notes.
9.2 Understanding How Tunnels Work
Tunneling IPv6 packets in IPv4 is a mechanism that allows IPv6 nodes to
interoperate with IPv4 hosts and routers. This approach enables the gradual
deployment of IPv6 in your network.
OpenVMS systems can have both an IPv4 address and an IPv6 address. An end
system with both addresses is considered a v4/v6 host; a router with both addresses
is considered a v4/v6 router. A v4/v6 host can use IPv6 to communicate with other
v4/v6 hosts on the same communications link. However, when these hosts need
to communicate over an IPv4 network, the hosts need to tunnel the IPv6 packets
in IPv4 packets in order for the IPv4 routing infrastructure to route the packets
to the destination host.
The OpenVMS implementation of tunneling IPv6 packets in IPv4 uses bidirectional
configured tunnels to carry IPv6 packets through an IPv4 routing infrastructure;
unidirectional tunnels are not supported. This means that a configured tunnel
must be created on the nodes at both ends of the tunnel. A bidirectional
configured tunnel behaves as a virtual point-to-point link. For the remainder of
this chapter, the term configured tunnel refers to a bidirectional configured tunnel.
A configured tunnel has a source IPv4 address and a destination IPv4 address.
Table 9–1 describes which configured tunnels are possible.
Table 9–1: Tunnel Configurations
Tunnel
Configuration
Description
Described in...
Router-to-router
tunnel
The v4/v6 routers are connected
by an IPv4 infrastructure. For
end-to-end communications, this
represents only one segment of
the total path.
Section 9.3.3
Host-to-router
tunnel
The v4/v6 host and v4/v6 router
are connected by an IPv4
infrastructure. For end-to-end
communications, this represents
the first segment of the total
path.
Section 9.3.1
Host-to-host
tunnel
The v4/v6 hosts are connected
by an IPv4 infrastructure. For
end-to-end communications, this
represents the total path since
the tunnel spans the total path.
Router-to-host
tunnel
The v4/v6 router and v4/v6
host are connected by an IPv4
infrastructure. For end-to-end
communications, this represents
the final segment of the total
path.
Section 9.3.2
IPv6
9–3
For more information about tunnels refer to Compaq TCP/IP Services for
OpenVMS Guide to IPv6.
TCP/IP Services Version 5.3 includes support for a new tunnel IPv6 transition
mechanism called 6to4, as defined in RFC 3056.
For more information about the 6to4 mechanism, refer to the TCP/IP Services
release notes.
9.3 Developing an Implementation Plan
The following three scenarios, in order of increasing complexity, serve as models for
deploying IPv6 in your network:
•
Intranet
•
Intranet-to-internet
•
Intranet-to-internet-to-intranet
The following sections describe each scenario.
9.3.1 Intranet Scenario
In this scenario, you deploy IPv6 hosts on a small subnet in your network. These
hosts communicate with each other using link-local addresses. If you add an IPv6
router to the subnet and advertise an address prefix, each IPv6 host autoconfigures
a global IPv6 address and uses that address to communicate with other IPv6 hosts.
As you become more experienced with using IPv6, for the next phase you can add
an IPv6 host or hosts on other subnets in your network. Communications between
IPv6 hosts on different subnets occur using configured router-to-host tunnels and
host-to-router tunnels. The existing IPv4 routing infrastructure is used to get
the packets end to end.
The following figures illustrate an intranet scenario in which a corporation has
three departments in a local geographic area. Department A has deployed v4/v6
hosts and a v4/v6 router. Departments B and C have deployed only one v4/v6
host each, with a majority of v4 hosts.
In Figure 9–1, to communicate with host F, native IPv6 traffic is routed from host
A to host F via router A.
9–4
IPv6
Figure 9–1: Routing IPv6 Traffic from Host A to Host F
Host A
v4/v6
Host B
Host C
v4/v6
v4/v6
Router A
v4/v6
Department A
v4
v4
Host D
Host E
v4/v6
Host F
Router B
v4/v6
Department B
Router C
v4
v4
v4
Host G
Host H
v4/v6
Host I
Department C
VM-0950A-AI
In Figure 9–2, to communicate with host I, host A sends an IPv6 packet to router
A. Router A forwards the IPv6 packet to router B. Router B encapsulates the IPv6
packet and sends the IPv4 packet over a router-to-host tunnel to Host I, which
decapsulates the IPv4 packet. The IPv4 infrastructure routes the packet to host I.
For hosts, the host-to-router tunnel is more efficient because host A, host B, and
host C administrators do not need to create individual host-to-host tunnels for
each destination host.
IPv6
9–5
Figure 9–2: Routing IPv6 Traffic from Host A to Host I
Host A
v4/v6
Host B
Host C
v4/v6
v4/v6
Router A
v4/v6
Department A
v4
v4
Host D
Host E
v4/v6
Host F
Router B
v4/v6
Department B
Router C
v4
v4
v4
Host G
Host H
v4/v6
Host I
Department C
VM-0951A-AI
In Figure 9–3, to communicate with host A, host I encapsulates the IPv6 packet
and sends the IPv4 packet over a host-to-router tunnel to router B. From there,
router B decapsulates the IPv4 packet and routes the IPv6 packet to host A. For
hosts, the host-to-router tunnel is more efficient because the host I administrator
does not need to create individual host-to-host tunnels for each destination host.
9–6
IPv6
Figure 9–3: Routing IPv6 Traffic from Host I to Host A
Host A
v4/v6
Host B
Host C
v4/v6
v4/v6
Router A
v4/v6
Department A
v4
v4
Host D
Host E
v4/v6
Host F
Router B
v4/v6
Department B
Router C
v4
v4
v4
Host G
Host H
v4/v6
Host I
Department C
VM-0952A-AI
9.3.2 Intranet-to-Internet Scenario
In this scenario, you add a v4/v6 router to your network and use it to communicate
with the global Internet. The IPv6 hosts communicate with the v4/v6 router using
IPv6. For IPv6 traffic to v4/v6 hosts on the 6bone or the Internet, you configure
router-to-host tunnels.
Figure 9–4 illustrates a scenario in which the corporation described in the chapter
adds a connection from router A to the Internet. Potential destination nodes are in
turn connected to the Internet.
In Figure 9–4, to communicate with host J, host A sends the IPv6 packet to router
A. Router A encapsulates the IPv6 packet and sends the IPv4 packet over a
router-to-host tunnel to host J, which decapsulates the IPv4 packet.
IPv6
9–7
Figure 9–4: Routing IPv6 Traffic from Host A to Host J
Host A
v4/v6
Host B
Host C
v4/v6
Host J
v4/v6
Router A
v4/v6
Department A
Internet
6bone
Point of
Entry
v4
v4
Host D
Host E
v4/v6
Host F
Router B
v4/v6
Department B
Router C
v4
v4
v4
Host G
Host H
v4/v6
Host I
Department C
VM-0953A-AI
To communicate with the 6bone, host A sends the IPv6 packet to router A. Router
A encapsulates the IPv6 packet and sends the IPv4 packet over a router-to-host
tunnel to the 6bone point of entry. The point of entry router decapsulates the IPv4
packet and routes the IPv6 packet to its destination.
9.3.3 Intranet-to-Internet-to-Intranet Scenario
In this scenario, you add v4/v6 routers on remote subnets and connect the two of
them through the Internet to create a virtual private network (VPN). An example
of this might be a global corporation with manufacturing in one country and a
design center in another country. The IPv6 hosts communicate with the v4/v6
routers using IPv6. For IPv6 traffic between the v4/v6 routers on each subnet,
you configure router-to-router tunnels.
Figure 9–5 illustrates a scenario in which the corporation described in the previous
sections wants to connect its corporate network with one of its geographically
remote departments to create a VPN.
To communicate with host K, host A sends the IPv6 packet to router A. Router A
encapsulates the IPv6 packet and sends the IPv4 packet over a router-to-router
tunnel to router E, which decapsulates the IPv4 packet and routes the IPv6 packet
to host K. For routers, the router-to-router tunnel is more efficient because the
router A administrator does not need to create individual router-to-host tunnels for
each destination host.
9–8
IPv6
Figure 9–5: Routing IPv6 Traffic from Host A to Host K
Host A
v4/v6
Host B
Host C
v4/v6
Host J
v4/v6
Router A
v4/v6
v4
Internet
Department A
v4
v4
Host D
Host E
Host K
Host L
v4/v6
v4
Router E
v4/v6
Department D
v4/v6
Host F
Router B
v4/v6
Department B
Router C
v4
v4
v4
Host G
Host H
v4/v6
Host I
Department C
VM-0954A-AI
9.4 Porting Existing IPv4 Applications
The OpenVMS operating system provides the basic application programming
interfaces (APIs) as defined in RFC 2553. You can use the APIs and the AF_INET6
sockets in your existing applications (or in new applications) to communicate with
IPv4 nodes today. Your ported applications will continue to communicate with IPv4
nodes and will be ready to communicate with IPv6 nodes. For more information,
refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Sockets API and System
Services Programming manual and the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
Guide to IPv6 manual.
9.5 Obtaining IPv6 Addresses
IPv6 addresses are now being deployed by the regional registries. To obtain an
IPv6 address or block of addresses, contact your Internet Service Provider (ISP).
If you are an Internet Service Provider, contact your upstream registry or one of
the registries at the following locations:
•
APNIC (Asia-Pacific Network Information Center)
•
ARIN (American Registry for Internet Numbers)
•
RIPE NCC (Réseau IP Européens)
Because of the need to test various implementation of the IPv6 RFCs, the Internet
Engineering Task Force (IETF) has defined a temporary IPv6 address allocation
scheme. You can assign the addresses in this scheme to hosts and routers for
IPv6
9–9
testing IPv6 on the 6bone. For more information about 6bone address allocation
and assignment, refer to the 6bone home page at the following location:
http://www.6bone.net
After you contract with your ISP for a block of addresses, your deployment of
IPv6 in your network begins the process of renumbering of your network. In
IPv4, network renumbering was a difficult and time-consuming process. In IPv6,
network renumbering is more dynamic. This enables you to renumber your
network for any of the following reasons:
•
Your enterprise is growing and needs more address space.
•
Your network needs are changing.
•
Your enterprise wants a global presence.
•
You are outgrowing your ISP.
Whatever the reason, when your current ISP contract expires, your right to use the
block of IPv6 addresses also expires. Although network renumbering is simplified
in IPv6, the following points will help ease the process:
_____________________
Decision Point
_____________________
Have your routers advertise new network prefixes and deprecate the
old prefixes by setting a lifetime.
Change DNS servers to advertise node names and the new addresses.
Do not hard code addresses in configuration files, because this
makes the process more complex and labor intensive.
Clear all server caches, as appropriate.
9.6 Installing IPv6-Capable Routers
This process depends on the hardware vendor you have chosen. You will need to
define what address prefixes the router will advertise and the interfaces over
which to advertise them.
9.7 Configuring Domain Name System/BIND (DNS/BIND)
Servers
The OpenVMS operating system supports AAAA lookups over IPv4 (AF_INET)
connections only. The resolver and server have not been ported to IPv6, but IPv6
applications can make getaddrinfo and getnameinfo calls to retrieve the AAAA
records.
Before you configure a DNS/BIND server to operate in an IPv6 environment,
review the following steps:
1.
Select a node to function as an IPv6 name server.
2.
Dedicate a zone to IPv6 addresses or add IPv6 addresses to your enterprise’s
current zone. If you want global IPv6 name services, you must delegate a
domain under the ip6.int domain for the reverse lookup of IPv6 addresses.
Do not point different zone names to the same zone database file.
3.
See RFC 1886 and RFC 3152 for more information.
If the system is configured as a DNS/BIND server, change the resolver
configuration to point to the local node for name lookups.
9–10
IPv6
For more information about configuring Domain Name System, refer to the
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Guide to IPv6 manual.
9.8 Configuring IPv6 Routers
Before you configure IPv6 routers, consider the following points:
_____________________
Decision Point
_____________________
Identify the interfaces over which to run IPv6.
Decide whether you need a configured IPv4 tunnel for
communications with other IPv6 nodes or networks. You will need
the remote node’s IPv4 address (the remote end of the tunnel) and
your node’s IPv4 address (this end of the tunnel).
Decide whether you want to configure static routes. You might want
to configure static routes if one of the following conditions is true:
–
You want a configured tunnel and you are not advertising an
address prefix on the tunnel link.
–
You want a configured tunnel and the router on the other end of
the tunnel is not running the RIPng protocol.
–
Your system is not running the RIPng protocol.
Identify the interface (LAN, SLIP, or configured tunnel) on which
you want to run the RIPng protocol or to advertise an address
prefix. If you choose the latter, you must decide on the address
prefix to advertise.
For more information, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Guide to
IPv6 manual.
9.9 Configuring IPv6 Hosts
Before you configure an IPv6 host, consider the following points:
_____________________
Decision Point
_____________________
Identify the interfaces over which to run IPv6.
Decide whether you need a configured IPv4 tunnel for
communications with other IPv6 nodes or networks. You will need
the remote node’s IPv4 address (the remote end of the tunnel) and
your node’s IPv4 address (this end of the tunnel).
Decide whether you want to configure static routes. You might
want to configure static routes if you want a configured tunnel to
a router and the router is not advertising itself as a default router
on the tunnel link.
For more information, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services for
OpenVMS Guide to IPv6 manual.
For More Information
For detailed information about the following topics, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP
Services for OpenVMS Guide to IPv6 manual:
•
IPv6 addresses
IPv6
9–11
•
APIs and the AF_INET6 sockets
•
Developing applications that use AF_INET6 sockets and client/server code
•
Configuring the DNS/BIND server
•
Changing the resolver configuration to point to the local node for name lookups
•
Configuring IPv6 routers
•
Configuring an IPv6 host
For more information about APIs and the AF_INET6 sockets, refer to the Compaq
TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Sockets API and System Services Programming
guide.
For more information about advanced IPv6 API, refer to the TCP/IP Services
release notes.
9–12
IPv6
Glossary
This glossary defines terms that pertain to the features and operation of the
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS product.
absolute path name
A path name that starts with a slash (/); specifies a file that can be found by
starting at the root of the file system and traversing the file tree.
absolute time
A specific date or time of day; specified in the following format: [dd-mmm-yyyy]
[:hh:mm:ss:cc] .
abstract syntax
The description of a data structure that is independent of host structures or codes.
Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1)
The language used by ISO protocols for describing abstract syntax. Most notable
use in TCP/IP is for Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). The rules of
ASN.1 are independent of the encoding techniques used to represent them.
access control information
A character string with login information that validates connect or login at a
remote host.
access control list (ACL)
A list that defines the kinds of access to be granted or denied to users.
access rights
A set of privileges that determines what users can do.
ACK
See acknowledgment.
acknowledgment (ACK)
A type of message sent to indicate that a block of data arrived at its destination
without error. A control bit (acknowledgment flag) in the TCP header indicates
that the acknowledgment number field is significant for each segment in a packet.
ACL
See access control list.
ACP
See ancillary control process.
active port
A port that is bound to a process.
address
A number or group of numbers that uniquely identifies a network node within its
own network or internet. See also IP address and hardware address.
address mask
A 32-bit value used to identify which bits in an IP address correspond to the
network and subnet portions of the address.
Glossary–1
address resolution
The process of relating an IP address to a hardware address, when both refer to
the same device, for example, conversion of an IP address into the corresponding
Ethernet, Token Ring, or FDDI hardware address. This may require broadcasting
on a local network. See also Address Resolution Protocol.
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
The TCP/IP protocol that dynamically binds an IP address to a hardware address
such as an Ethernet or FDDI address; limited to physical network systems that
support broadcast packets that can be heard by all hosts on a single, physical
network. See also proxy ARP.
addressing
The function that ensures that network systems are correctly identified at all times.
addressing authority
The authority, such as the American National Standards Institute (ANSI),
responsible for assigning Network Interface layer addresses within an addressing
domain.
addressing domain
A level in a hierarchy of Network Interface layer addresses.
adjacency
A single connection to an adjacent node; collection of state information representing
a node in the local node’s routing databases.
A relationship formed between selected neighboring routers for the purpose of
exchanging routing information. Not every pair of neighboring routers becomes
adjacent.
adjacency address
An address that identifies a local subnet access point and a subnet address of an
adjacent system.
adjacent nodes
The nodes with direct lines between them; can communicate without an
intermediate system. For example, all nodes on an Ethernet LAN are adjacent
to each other.
administrative domain
A group of hosts, routers, and networks operated and managed by a single
organization. Routing within an administrative domain is based on a consistent
technical plan. An administrative domain is viewed from the outside, for purposes
of routing, as a cohesive entity, of which the internal structure is unimportant.
Information passed by other administrative domains is trusted less than
information from one’s own administrative domain.
advertisement lifetime
A field in the Router Discovery Protocol router advertisement message that
indicates how long advertisement addresses are valid. A lifetime of zero indicates
that one or more addresses are no longer valid.
aged packet
A data packet that is discarded because it exceeded the maximum number of hops
while being forwarded through the network.
agent
A system that acts on behalf of another system. (1) Client/server model: Part of the
system that initiates, prepares, and exchanges information preparation on behalf
Glossary–2
of a client or server application. (2) Network management: Portion of an entity
that responds to management requests and/or preprogrammed trap.
agent access module
The portion of an agent responsible for the agent’s end of SNMP.
agent access point
The instance of a connection between a client or director and a server or agent.
agent address
An address that specifies the information needed by a director to establish
communications with the agent’s management interface.
agent attributes
The attributes maintained by the agent. The attributes do not cross the internal
management interface.
aggregate throughput
See throughput.
alias
A name, usually easy to remember, that is translated from a different name,
usually difficult to remember. Most often used as an optional alternate name for
a host. See also host name.
alias node identifier
An optional node name used by some or all nodes in an OpenVMS Cluster that
allows them to be treated as one node.
alternate address notation
The internet address notation that conveys the same information as the common
notation, but consists of two parts: network and host.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
The organization that coordinates U.S. standards in many areas, including
computers and communications.
American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)
The standard character set that assigns an octal sequence to each letter, number,
and selected control characters.
ancillary control process (ACP)
The process that acts as an interface between user software and an I/O driver.
The process provides functions supplementary to those performed in the driver,
such as file and directory management.
Anonymous FTP
A convention of the File Transfer Protocol that allows a user who does not have
explicit authorization to transfer files to and from a host without the need for
an account and password. The user usually logs in with a generic user ID and
an e-mail address as password.
ANSI
See American National Standard Institute.
API
See Application Programming Interface.
application
A program that provides functionality for end users of systems.
Glossary–3
Application layer
The top-most layer in the Internet architecture model where the user interacts
with an application such as Network File Service (NFS), File Transfer Protocol
(FTP), and mail.
application process
A part of a distributed application running on a single host.
application programming interface (API)
A standardized set of routines that makes system functions available to
programmers.
architecture
The structure of a system, a description of which can be used to recreate the system.
ARP
See address resolution protocol.
ASCII
See American Standard Code for Information Interchange.
assigned numbers
The numbers officially assigned as part of the Internet standards.
asynchronous transfer mode (ATM)
The method for dynamic allocation of bandwidth using a fixed-size packet (called a
cell). Also known as fast packet.
asynchronous transmission
The mode of transmission in which the time intervals between character
transmissions differ. Each character is surrounded by start and stop bits to allow
the receiving device to recognize the beginning and end of each character (also
called start-stop transmission).
ATM
See asynchronous transfer mode.
attribute
The controllable or observable part of an entity; a variable that network managers
and applications programmers can manipulate for optimal performance.
attribute group
A named collection of attributes grouped together, such as all information relating
to errors.
authentication
Verification of the identity of a person or process attempting to access a system.
authentication server
The software that searches the proxy database for valid user and group
identification for remote personal computer users and returns them to PC-NFS.
authority
A name server is said to have authority for a zone. That is, the name server has
complete information about a part of a domain space for which the name server is
considered to be the authority. A name server may be the authority for one or more
zones. Authority for a domain space may be delegated to one or more zones.
authoritative answer
In response to an nslookup or a resolver query, an answer is an authoritative
answer if a server queries the authority for the zone and returns the answer. A
Glossary–4
server returns a nonauthoritative answer when the server’s answer comes from
its own cache.
autonomous confederation
A group of independent computer systems that trust each other regarding routing
and reachability information; members believe information provided by other
members in preference to information received from systems that are not part of
the confederation.
autonomous system (AS)
A collection of networks controlled by one administrative authority. The gateways
within this system are expected to trust one another and to share and update
routing information among themselves by any mutually agreeable protocol. A
core gateway must also be designated to share routing information with other
autonomous systems by means of an External Gateway Protocol. See also
External Gateway Protocol.
A set of routers under a single technical administration, using an interior gateway
protocol and common metrics to route packets within the AS, and using an exterior
gateway protocol to route packets to other ASs. Since this classic definition was
developed, it has become common for a single AS to use several interior gateway
protocols and sometimes several sets of metrics within an AS.
The use of the term autonomous system stresses that even when multiple internal
gateway protocols and metrics are used, the administration of an AS appears to
other ASs to have a single coherent interior routing plan and presents a consistent
picture of what networks are reachable through it. The AS is represented by
a number between 1 and 65534, assigned by the Internet Assigned Numbers
Authority.
automounting
The process of mounting NFS file systems on an as-needed basis. The NFS file
system automatically unmounts after a period of inactivity on the file system.
(The default is 5 minutes.) You specify file systems to be automounted in the
automounts map file.
auxiliary server
The Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS software that runs as a background
process and listens for incoming requests for services. When it receives a request,
it runs the appropriate server application; includes inetd, security, and logging
options.
availability
The proportion of time a specific piece of equipment, system, or network is usable,
compared to the total time it is expected to be.
backbone
The primary connectivity mechanism of a hierarchical distributed system. Usually
a high-speed high-performance network that links together other networks into
an internetwork. All systems with connectivity to an intermediate system on the
backbone will connect to each other. This does not prevent systems from setting
up private arrangements with each other to bypass the backbone for reasons of
cost, performance, or security.
background mounting
In the UNIX environment, the default mount option is to retry remote mount
requests in the foreground. If during a boot process, any server listed in
/etc/fstab is not currently available, the local system will not finish booting
until the server becomes available. With background mounting, a remote mount
Glossary–5
request is executed once in a foreground process. If the mount request fails, the
request is retried in a background process. This allows the local system to continue
the boot procedure without waiting for the server to become available.
bandwidth
(1) Technically: The difference, in Hertz (Hz), between the highest and lowest
frequencies of a transmission channel. (2) Typically: The amount of data that can
be sent through a communications circuit.
baseband
A characteristic of any network technology that uses a single carrier frequency and
requires all stations attached to the network to participate in every transmission;
only one communication channel is provided at a time. See also broadband.
BBS
See Bulletin Board System.
Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND)
The implementation of a DNS server developed and distributed by the University
of California at Berkeley. Host name and address lookup service for the Internet;
implemented in a client/server model. The client software, referred to as the
resolver, allows client systems to obtain host names and addresses from servers
rather than from locally hosted databases.
Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD)
The derivation of the original UNIX operating system developed by the Computer
Systems Research Group of the Department of Electrical Engineering and
Computer Science at the University of California at Berkeley. The Compaq UNIX
operating system is based on the BSD version of UNIX.
best-effort delivery
A characteristic of network technologies that will attempt to deliver data but will
not try to recover if there is an error such as a line failure. Internet protocols IP
and UDP provide best-effort delivery service to application programs.
BG driver
The Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS implementation of a network device
driver. See also device driver.
BGP
See Border Gateway Protocol.
big endian
The format for storage or transmission of binary data in which the most significant
bit (or byte) comes first. The reverse convention is called little endian.
BIND resolver
A set of library routines compiled into a client application like telnet or ftp that
formulates a query to ask a name server to look up name and address information.
BIND server
The software that responds to queries from BIND resolvers for name and address
lookups; can be local or distributed. See also cache server, forwarder server,
primary server, and secondary server.
binding
Defining a remote file system to be a part of the local OpenVMS file system.
bits per second (bps or b/s)
The measure of the rate of data transmission.
Glossary–6
block
A contiguous unit of user information grouped together for transmission, such as
the user data within a packet, excluding the protocol overhead.
boot file
A database file that BIND servers use to determine their type, the zones for which
they have authority, and the location of other BIND database files.
BOOTP
The mnemonic for Bootstrap protocol. The protocol used for booting diskless
systems remotely to a network. See also remote boot.
BOOTP database
A Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS database with entries for diskless
network clients that depend on a boot server to download their operating system
images.
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
The interautonomous system routing protocol used to exchange network
reachability information between autonomous systems. BGP runs over TCP.
One of a class of exterior gateway protocols, described in more detail in the BGP
section of UNIX reference page gated.proto(4).
bottleneck
A point in the network where traffic is delayed or blocked. Bottlenecks are the
limiting factors in network performance.
bound port
An I/O function specifying a port number and IP address for the device socket to
bind a port to a process.
bps
See bits per second.
bridge
A device that connects two or more physical networks and then stores and forwards
complete packets between them. A bridge can usually be made to filter packets
(that is, to forward only certain traffic).
broadband
A characteristic of any network that multiplexes multiple, independent network
carriers onto a single cable; usually using frequency division multiplexing.
Broadband technology allows several networks to coexist on one single cable;
traffic from one network does not interfere with traffic from another because the
"conversations" happen on different frequencies.
broadcast
A delivery system where a copy of a packet is sent simultaneously to many hosts;
can be implemented with hardware (for example, as in Ethernet) or with software
(for example, as in Cypress). See also multicast.
broadcast address
The address that designates all hosts on a physical network. The broadcast address
contains a hostid of all ones.
broadcast addressing
A type of multicast addressing in which all nodes receive a message simultaneously.
Glossary–7
broadcast circuit
A circuit on which multiple nodes are connected. A message can be transmitted to
multiple receivers, and all nodes are adjacent.
broadcast end-node adjacency
An end node connected to the same broadcast circuit as the local node. See also
adjacency.
broadcast router adjacency
An intermediate system (router) connected to the same broadcast circuit as the
local node. See also adjacency.
broadcast mask
A mask used to interpret the IP address as a broadcast address.
broadcast storm
An incorrect packet broadcast on a network that causes most hosts to respond all
at once, typically with wrong answers that start the process over again.
brouter
A bridge/router; a device that forwards messages between networks at both
network and data link levels.
BSD
See Berkeley Software Distribution.
Bulletin Board System (BBS)
A message database where people can log in and leave broadcast messages for
others grouped (typically) into topic groups.
buffer
A device or an area of memory used for temporary storage when transmitting data
from one device to another. Compensates for a difference in rate of data flow or in
time of occurrence of events. Used on routing nodes to temporarily store data that
is to be forwarded from one node to another.
buffering level
The number of buffers provided at one time by the network software to handle
data. Level can be single or multiple. Single buffering tends to be less efficient
than multibuffering but uses less memory on the local system. Multibuffering
provides better performance, and a network can send or process several buffers of
data in quick succession.
bus
(1) A LAN topology in which all nodes connect to a single transmission medium.
All nodes are equal, and all nodes hear all transmissions on the medium. Bus
topologies are reliable because failure of a node does not affect the ability of
other nodes to transmit and receive. (2) A flat, flexible cable consisting of many
transmission lines or wires used to interconnect computer system components to
provide communication paths for addresses, data, and control information.
cache
A portion of a computer’s RAM reserved to act as a temporary memory for items
read from a disk. These items become instantly available to the user.
cache server
A BIND server that has no authority for any zone; acquires information in the
process of resolving clients’ queries and stores it in its cache. See also BIND
server, forwarder server, primary server, and secondary server.
Glossary–8
canonical name
The main or official name for a host; other names for the same host are aliases.
In a BIND configuration, you specify the canonical name in a CNAME record of
the named.hosts file.
category phrase
A BIND configuration logging statement phrase that specifies the different
categories for which to log messages. Categories include: config, parser,
queries, lame-servers, statistics, panic, update, ncache, xfer-in,
xfer-out, db, eventlib, packet, cname, security, os, insist, maintenance,
load, response-checks, and default.
centralized management
A form of network management that manages from a single point in the network.
channel
The data path between two or more stations, including the communications control
capability of the associated stations.
channel phrase
A BIND configuration logging statement that specifies output methods, format
options, and severity levels associated with a category of messages to be logged.
checksum
A computed value based on the contents of a packet. The value is sent with the
packet when it is transmitted. The receiving host computes a new value based on
the received data. If the originating and receiving values are the same, the receiver
has a high degree of confidence that the data was received correctly.
circuit
A logical (virtual) link that provides a communications connection between
adjacent nodes.
class name
The name of an entity class. For example, node is the global entity class.
client
A computer system or process that requests a service of another computer service
or process.
client/server relationship
A model of interaction used in distributed processing products when a client
process sends a request and waits for the results from a server process.
clock
The combined hardware interrupt timer and software register that maintain
system time. In many systems, the hardware timer sends interrupts to the
operating system; at each interrupt, the operating system adds an increment to a
software register that contains the time value.
cluster alias
An optional node name and address used by some or all nodes in an OpenVMS
Cluster, allowing these nodes to be reachable on the network with the same address.
cluster failover environment
An environment that allows a system in a cluster to take on the responsibilities of
a system that crashed or is otherwise unavailable. For example, you can configure
a system to become a DHCP server when the primary DHCP server process
crashes or when the system that the primary DHCP server is running on becomes
unavailable.
Glossary–9
collision
The condition in which two data packets are transmitted over a medium at the
same time, making both unintelligible.
common address notation
The common way of expressing an Internet address. The 32-bit address uses four
fields that are separated by periods; each field ranges from 0 to 255.
communications link
The physical medium connecting two systems.
communications server
A special-purpose standalone system dedicated to managing communications
activities for other computer systems.
concatenation
The process of joining two or more items together, as when input files are appended
to a new output file.
configuration database
The Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS database with SMTP, SNMP, and
TIME specifications.
congestion
The condition in which a network or part of a network is overloaded and has
insufficient communication resources for the volume of traffic.
connection
A logical communication path between two processes that are using the TCP
protocol. The communication path must exist before data can be sent in either
direction. A three-way handshake occurs between the requesting and receiving
process to establish a port through which the two processes communicate.
connection-oriented
The model of interconnection that consists of three phases: establish connection,
transfer data, and release connection. TCP is a connection-oriented protocol.
connectionless
The model of interconnection in which communication takes place without first
establishing a connection. UDP, IP, and IPX are connectionless protocols.
connectivity
The degree to which network nodes are interconnected. Full connectivity means all
nodes have links to every other node.
container file
A data file on a Compaq OpenVMS NFS server with a UNIX directory structure
and UNIX file attributes for a local, logical UNIX-style file system. Each UNIX
regular file is stored as a separate data file. The directory data files in the
container file contain the UNIX file names and a pointer to the corresponding
OpenVMS Files-11 data file.
container file system
A logical UNIX-style file system that resides on a Files-11 formatted disk and is
represented as a set of Files-11 files. See also container file.
contention
The condition when two or more stations attempt to use the same channel at the
same time.
Glossary–10
contention control
The scheme of access control used by many networks. Control is distributed among
the nodes of the network. Any node wanting to transmit can do so, accessing
the network on a first-come, first-served basis. However, it is possible that two
nodes are in contention, or start transmitting at the same time, in which case a
collision occurs. Each node must then back off and retransmit after waiting a
random period of time.
control cluster
A group of small (256-byte) buffers dynamically allocated from nonpaged pool
memory; stores information related to device sockets, internal control structures,
IP addresses, Internet routes, and Internet packet headers.
Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)
Greenwich Mean Time.
cost
An OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) protocol metric. See metric and OSPF.
counters
The performance and error statistics kept for an entity by network management,
such as lines and nodes.
CRC
See cyclic redundancy check.
cyclic redundancy check (CRC)
An error detection scheme whereby a number is derived from a set of data before it
is transmitted. Once transmitted, the receiving node recalculates the number and
compares it to the value originally transmitted. If the numbers are different, some
type of transmission error has occurred.
daemon
A process that executes in the background waiting for some event to occur.
data cluster
A group of large (1792-byte) buffers that store data in the system space; transmit
and receive operations service user processes by moving data to and from data
clusters.
Data Encryption Key (DEK)
Used for encryption of message text and (with certain choices among a set
of alternative algorithms) for computation of message integrity check (MIC)
quantities.
Data Encryption Standard (DES)
A type of encryption scheme approved by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards.
data link
A logical connection between two systems on the same circuit on which data
integrity is maintained.
Data Link layer
The layer in a network model that handles communication between physical hosts.
data octet
See octet.
data overrun
The data blocks received that arrived too quickly to be processed by the receiver
and were, therefore, lost.
Glossary–11
datagram
A self-contained package of data carrying enough information to be routed from
source to destination without reliance on earlier exchanges between source and
destination or the transporting network.
datagram fragment
The result of fragmenting a datagram. Fragments carry a portion of data from
the larger original and a copy of the original datagram header. The header
fragmentation fields are adjusted to indicate the fragment’s relative position
within the original datagram.
datagram reassembly time
The time allowed for reassembly of a fragmented datagram.
datagram service
The mode of delivery for a datagram which is delivered in such a way that the
receiver can determine the boundaries of the datagram as it was entered by the
source.
DCE
See Distributed Computing Environment.
DCL
See DIGITAL Command Language.
decision
The routing process that determines the path, or route, along which a data packet
travels to reach its destination; forwards packets on the lowest-cost path even if
that one does not have the fewest hops. The path that the data takes through the
network is transparent to users.
decoding
The process by which the transfer syntax representation of a data value is
transformed into the local representation of that value.
dedicated serial connection
A permanent connection between two hosts using an RS232 serial port. SLIP or
PPP can be used for TCP/IP communication between the two hosts.
default route
The route used to direct any data addressed to network host addresses for which
no explicit route is specified.
delay
A HELLO metric. Valid values are from 0 to 30000, inclusive. The value of 30000
is the maximum metric and means unreachable. See metric and HELLO.
delete access
The access right that grants users the ability to remove data from the domain.
DEK
See data encryption key.
DES
See Data Encryption Standard.
designated router
In OSPF, a designated router is a multiaccess network that has at least two
attached routers. The designated router generates a link state advertisement
Glossary–12
for the multiaccess network and assists in running the protocol. The designated
router is elected by the HELLO protocol.
destination address
The IP address that specifies where a datagram is to be sent; contains the network
and host identifiers.
Any network or host.
destination port
A 2-octet value in the TCP and UDP header field that identifies the destination
upper-level protocol for a packet’s data.
device driver
The software associated with each physical device; serves as the interface between
the operating system and the device controller.
device socket
The extension of the pseudodevice, used for communications; consists of the
Internet pseudodevice and the socket. See also pseudodevice.
DHCP
See Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.
dialogue
The sequence of message exchanges between open systems that represents a single
association and the set of underlying connections.
dialup
A temporary (as opposed to dedicated) network connection established through a
telephone line with a modem.
dialup provider
A host that responds to incoming PPP connection requests. A PPP server.
DIGITAL Command Language (DCL)
The command interface of the OpenVMS operating system.
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
The Compaq software product implemented on OpenVMS as an ancillary control
process (ACP) and a network device driver (BG driver) with executive-level
components and user applications that use TCP/IP protocols.
distance
An EGP metric. See metric and EGP. Valid values are from 0 to 255 inclusive.
Distributed Computing Environment (DCE)
An architecture of standard programming interfaces, conventions, and server
functions (for example, naming, distributed file system, remote procedure call)
for transparently distributing applications across networks of heterogeneous
computers.
distributed database
A collection of several different data repositories that look like a single database to
the user. The Domain Name System (DNS) is a distributed database.
distributed management
A form of network management in which network managers and management
software are dispersed across many systems.
Glossary–13
distributed processing
The technology that enables the distribution throughout the network of computing
power and storage facilities to user work areas, such as offices, laboratories, or
machines on factory floors.
distributed system
A collection of computer systems, tied together by communications networks for
the purpose of sharing resources; end users do not need to be aware of the physical
location of the shared resources.
DNS
See Domain Name System.
domain
An organizational unit with administrative responsibility for naming networks or
hosts. An internet domain name consists of a sequence of names (labels) separated
by periods (dots); for example, tundra.mpk.ca.us.
domain name
The name used to refer to a fully qualified domain or subdomain. For example,
in cat.food.iams.com, food.iams.com, iams.com, and .com are all domain
names. Each name specifies a different domain level.
Domain Name System (DNS)
A distributed database system that allows TCP/IP applications to resolve a host
name into a correct IP address.
dot address
See dotted-decimal notation.
dotted-decimal notation
The syntactic representation for a 32-bit integer that consists of four 8-bit numbers
written in base 10 with periods (dots) separating them; used to represent IP
addresses in the Internet, as in 192.67.67.20. Many Internet application programs
accept dotted-decimal notation in place of destination machine names.
downline loading
Transferring a copy of a system image from a load host to a target. Some systems,
such as DEC WANrouter systems and Compaq DECserver terminal servers,
automatically request a downline load of their image upon startup and reboot.
One of the functions of a TFTP server.
drift
The change in a clock’s time rate over a specified period.
A measure, in Hertz per second, of how quickly the skew of a clock is changing.
See also skew.
dynamic adaptive routing
The automatic rerouting of traffic based on a sensing and analysis of current actual
network conditions; not including cases of routing decisions taken on predefined
information.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
A superset of the BOOTP protocol that enables the automatic assignment of
IP addresses to clients on networks from a pool of addresses. The IP address
assignment and configuration occurs automatically whenever appropriate client
systems (workstations and portable computers) attach to a network. The TCP/IP
Services for OpenVMS implementation of DHCP is based on the JOIN product
by Competitive Automation.
Glossary–14
dynamic routing
A type of routing where a host or router talks to adjacent routers to learn what
networks each router is connected to. Subsequently, the kernel’s routing tables
are updated when the router learns new information. There are many routing
protocols including Interior Gateway Protocols (RIP, OSPF) and Exterior Gateway
Protocols (EGP and BGP).
ephemeral port number
A port number temporarily assigned to a client process for the duration of a session.
When the client process terminates, the port number can be assigned to another
process. The port number is usually from 1024 to 5000.
EGP
See Exterior Gateway Protocol.
elective protocol
The classification in Internet standards for optional protocols.
electronic mail
The service whereby a computer user can exchange messages with other computer
users (or groups of users) by means of a communications network; one of the most
popular uses of the Internet.
e-mail
See electronic mail.
encapsulation
A technique used by layered protocols in which a layer adds header information
to the protocol data unit (PDU) from the layer below. As an example, in Internet
terminology, a packet would contain a header from the physical layer, followed by a
header from the Network layer (IP), followed by a header from the Transport layer
(TCP), followed by the application protocol data.
encryption
A process of encoding information so the meaning of its content is no longer
immediately obvious to anyone who obtains a copy of it.
end node
See end system.
end system
A nonrouting system; can receive data packets addressed to it and send data
packets to other systems on the same subnet but cannot relay, route, or forward
data packets to other systems.
entity
An individual, manageable piece of a network; has attributes that describe it, a
name that identifies it, and an interface that supports management operations.
entity class
A collection of entities that share the same properties and have the same parent
entity; each member of the class has a unique identifier within the class. Entity
classes have class names.
entity group
An architecturally defined collection of entities. The entities in the group must
have a common top entity and must all be of the same class.
Glossary–15
entity hierarchy
A logical hierarchical tree structures of manageable entities in which child entities
are below their parent entities. Children can be accessed only through their
parents’ agent.
entity identifier
An attribute that specifically identifies an entity. See also attribute group.
entity name
A label associated with some entities used to identify or locate them for
management purposes.
entity type
The subgrouping of an entity that determines its relationship to other entities.
Ethernet
A baseband network medium. Commonly used to connect a local area network.
event
A measurable network-specific or system-specific occurrence for which a logging
component maintains a record.
experimental protocol
The classification in Internet standards for protocols that are developed as part
of an ongoing research project not related to an operational service offering; not
intended for operational use.
export database
The Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS database with directory names that
can be mounted from remote NFS clients.
exported file
A file in an exported directory or a subdirectory of an exported directory. See also
exporting.
exported file systems
A file system that can be accessed by a remote system using the Network File
System. The local system imports the remote file system. Both the remote and
local system must be configured to grant and receive access to the file system.
exporting
Identifying a directory on an NFS server that can be remotely mounted by NFS
clients.
Extended File Specifications
A feature of OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.2 that allows the use of Windows-style
file specifications. This feature provides greater flexibility for OpenVMS Alpha
systems to store, manage and access files that have names similar to those in a
Windows 95 or Windows NT environment.
extended LAN
Multiple LANs connected with data link relays or bridges.
Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)
The protocol that distributes routing information to the gateways that interconnect
networks.
A class of routing protocols used to exchange routing information within an
autonomous system.
One of a class of exterior gateway protocols.
Glossary–16
FDDI
See Fiber Distributed Data Interface.
fetch/store operation
The operation of two commands that allow a system manager to fetch a value from
a data item or to store a value into a data item.
Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
The high-speed (100 mb/s) networking standard based on fiber optics, established
by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI); uses 1300 nanometer light
wavelength. FDDI networks are limited to approximately 200 km in length, with
repeaters every 2 km or less.
file
A uniquely named collection of information with shared managerial and structural
properties.
file attribute
The characteristic of a file, such as its size or creation date. The values of some
file attributes may change during the lifetime of a file.
file data
The information that is stored within a file and comprises its contents (as opposed
to its attributes).
file designation
System-specific information that identifies a file on its storage system.
file server
The host whose principal purpose is to store files and provide network access to
them.
file specification
System-specific information that identifies a file on its storage system.
file system
A method for recording, cataloging, and accessing files on a volume.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
The protocol and software that permit a user on one host to access and transfer files
to and from another host over a network. See also Trivial File Transfer Protocol.
Files-11 On-Disk Level 2 or Level 5 (ODS-2 or ODS-5)
The set of rules that govern the organization of the OpenVMS file system, external
to the files themselves.
FINGER utility
The utility that provides information about users on local and remote systems.
flow control
(1) The function of a receiving entity to limit the amount or rate of data that is sent
by a transmitting entity. (2) The control of the rate at which hosts or gateways
inject packets into a network or Internet, usually to avoid congestion. Flow control
mechanisms can be implemented at various levels and allow communicating layers
to match their data transfer and receive rates. Simplistic schemes, like ICMP
source quench, simply ask the sender to cease transmission until congestion ends.
More complex schemes vary the transmission rate continuously.
Glossary–17
forwarder server
The name server that processes recursive requests that a slave server cannot
resolve locally; has access to the Internet. See also BIND server, cache server,
primary server, secondary server, and slave server.
forwarding information base
The table that GATED uses internally to store routing information it learns from
routing protocols is a routing table; also known as a routing information base, or
RIB. The routing table is used to collect and store routes from various protocols.
forwarding table
The table in the kernel that controls the forwarding of packets is a forwarding
table, also known as a forwarding information base, or FIB.
FQDN
See fully qualified domain name.
fragment
A piece of a packet that results from a router dividing an IP datagram into
smaller pieces for transmission across a network that cannot handle the original
datagram size. Fragments use the same format as datagrams; fields in the IP
header declare whether a datagram is a fragment and, if so, where the data in the
fragment occurred in the original datagram. IP software at the receiving end must
reassemble the fragments. See also maximum transmission unit.
fragmentation
The IP process of breaking up packets into smaller packets for transmission; allows
a packet originating in a network that allows a large packet size to traverse a
network that limits packets to a smaller size. The destination host reassembles the
fragments. See also maximum transmission unit.
frame
A Data Link layer packet that contains the header and trailer information required
by the physical medium.
FTP
See File Transfer Protocol.
full-duplex circuit
A circuit designed for transmission in both directions at the same time. Contrast
with half-duplex circuit.
full-duplex transmission
Data transmission in both directions at the same time. Contrast with half-duplex
transmission.
fully qualified domain name (FQDN)
The full site name of a system, such as scryber.enet.dec.com rather than
just the host name of scryber.
function code
A parameter in a $QIO system service call that defines the specific function of
that $QIO.
GATED
A routing daemon that can be configured to route one or more of the following
protocols: RIP, BGP, EGP, and OSPF.
Glossary–18
gateway
A communications device or program that passes data between networks having
similar functions but dissimilar implementations. The term router is now used in
place of the original definition of gateway.
An intermediate destination by which packets are delivered to their ultimate
destination.
A host address of another router that is directly reachable through an attached
network. As with any host address it may be specified symbolically.
gateway client
Another term for an access system.
Gateway Routing Daemon
See GATED.
GID
See group identification.
gigabit
One billion bits.
gigabyte
One billion bytes.
group identification (GID)
The identification code for a group of UNIX users.
half-duplex circuit
A circuit designed for transmission in either direction, but only one direction at one
time. Contrast with full-duplex circuit.
half-duplex transmission
Data transmission in either direction, but only one direction at a time. Contrast
with full-duplex transmission.
handshaking sequence
The exchange of connection information between two communicating entities;
takes place to enable the successful completion of a connection. Used, for example,
in establishing a TCP connection between client and server applications.
hardware address
The address that identifies the connection device between the network controller
of a host and the network cable. See also address.
hard link
A mechanism that allows you to assign more than one name to a file. Both the new
name and the file being linked must be in the same file system. See also link.
header
The portion of a packet that precedes the actual data and contains control
information such as source and destination address and error checking.
header compression
A technique used by PPP and SLIP protocols to reduce the number of bytes per
frame when sending packets over a slow serial link. The use of header compression
is negotiated between the client and servers processes to reduce the size of the IP
and TCP headers.
Glossary–19
heterogeneous network
A network consisting of different network protocols or different operating system
software, such as OpenVMS and UNIX.
hierarchical routing
Routing based on domains. Interdomain routers are responsible only for getting
data to the right domain and intradomain routers take responsibility for routing
within the domain.
hop count
The number of connections between two hosts, based on the number of different
routers needed to traverse the distance between the two hosts.
hop
A term used in routing. Number of hosts separating a source and final destination
(including the final destination) on a network.
host
A computer system that acts as a source or destination of network messages
sometimes called node.
The IP address of any system. Usually specified in dotted-decimal notation.
There are four values in the range from 0 to 255 inclusive, separated by dots (.).
For example, 132.236.199.63 or 10.0.0.51. It can also be specified as an 8-digit
hexadecimal string preceded by 0x. For example, 0x0a000043. In addition, if the
options noresolv statement is not specified, this can be a symbolic host name.
For example, gated.cornell.edu or nic.ddn.mil. The numeric forms are
preferred over the symbolic form.
host address
See host number.
hosts database
The Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS database that is created by default;
allows users to use host names; contains host names, IP addresses of the hosts, and
any alias names for the hosts.
host name
The name given to a network host. See also fully qualified domain name and
alias.
host number
The part of an IP address that identifies which host on the network is being
addressed.
Host-to-Host Communication layer
Also called Transport layer. The second-highest level in the Internet architecture
model; provides end-to-end communication services, including mechanisms such as
end-to-end reliability and network control. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) reside in this layer.
IAB
See Internet Architecture Board.
IBM TN3270
The TELNET options that allow TELNET users to connect to hosts that support
3270 terminals.
ICMP
See Internet Control Message Protocol.
Glossary–20
IETF
Internet Engineering Task Force. A large international community of network
designers, operators, vendors and researchers concerned with the evolution of the
Internet architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet. Membership is
open to everyone. See the http://www.ietf.org/ web site for more information.
IGP
See Interior Gateway Protocol.
IMAP
The Internet Message Access Protocol. IMAP enables clients to access email
messages and folders from an IMAP server and synchronize them locally. This
enables a client to organize email messages and folders without continuous access
to the server.
inetd
A UNIX internet daemon. A server process listens for client requests for specific
services. When inetd receives a request for a service, it starts the appropriate
server process.
initial sequence number
The first sequence number used for sending or receiving on a connection.
inode
A UNIX file structure used to address a file block. There is a unique inode allocated
for each active file with a name made up of a device/i-number pair.
interface
The boundary between two parts of a system across which communication can
occur; may be defined through hardware or software.
The host address of an attached network interface. This is the address of a
broadcast, nbma, or loopback interface, and the remote address of a point-to-point
interface. As with any host address, it can be specified symbolically.
The connection between a router and one of its attached networks. A physical
interface can be specified by a single IP address, domain name, or interface name
(unless the network is an unnumbered point-to-point network). Multiple levels of
reference in the configuration language allow the identification of interfaces by
using wildcard, interface type name, or delete word address. Be careful using
interface names because future versions might allow more than one address per
interface. Dynamic interfaces can be added or deleted and indicated as up or down
as well as changes to address, netmask, and metric parameters.
Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP)
The protocol used to propagate network reachability and routing information
within an autonomous system; RIP is among the most popular.
One of a class of routing protocols used to exchange routing information within
an autonomous system.
interface list
A list of one or more interface names, including wildcard names (names without
a number) and names that may specify more than one interface or address, or
the token all-for-all interfaces.
intermediate system
An OSI system that performs Internet layer forwarding. A routing system receives
data packets from a system on one subnet and passes them on to a system on
another subnet; it receives data packets from a source end system, or from the
Glossary–21
previous intermediate system on the route, and passes them on to the destination
end system, or to the next intermediate system on the route.
internet
A shortened form of internetwork; a network of networks; interconnected TCP/IP
networks that function as one large virtual network. Differs from the Internet by
their lack of connectivity with the global Internet.
Internet
The worldwide network of networks and gateways that use the TCP/IP protocol
suite and function as one virtual network; provides universal connectivity and three
levels of network services: unreliable, connectionless packet delivery; reliable,
full-duplex stream delivery; and application level services such as electronic mail
that build on the first two. The Internet connects many universities, government
research labs, military installations, and private businesses.
Internet architecture
A four-layered communications model that consists of the following: Application
layer, Transport layer, Internet layer, and Network Interface layer.
Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
The technical body that oversees the development of the Internet suite of protocols
(TCP/IP). It has a research task force and an engineering task force, each
responsible for investigating a particular area.
Internet Autonomous System
A system that consists of a set of gateways, each of which can reach any other
gateway in the same system using paths by means of gateways only in that system.
The gateways of a system cooperatively maintain a routing database using an
interior gateway protocol.
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
An extension to the Internet Protocol; used by gateways to communicate with
the network software in hosts.
Internet header length
An IP header field that indicates the number of 32-bit words making up the
Internet header.
Internet layer
The layer in the TCP/IP network model where data is transferred between hosts
across networks. Also referred to as Network Interface layer.
Internet number
See IP address.
Internet Protocol (IP)
A connectionless, best-effort, packet-switching protocol that resides in the Internet
layer and has two major functions: internet addressing and fragmentation of
messages.
Internetwork
A collection of many different computing systems which communicate with each
other. The computing systems can include different hardware architectures,
operating systems, and network technologies.
interoperability
The ability of software and hardware on multiple machines from multiple vendors
to communicate meaningfully.
Glossary–22
InterNIC Registration Services
The Internet Network Information Center; organization that provides the Internet
community with registration, directory, database, and information services.
I/O status block (IOSB)
A data structure associated with the $QIO system service. The IOSB holds
information about how the I/O request completes.
IP
See Internet Protocol.
IP address
An address that identifies the connection between the network controller of a
node using TCP/IP and the network cable. The 32-bit address is composed of two
parts: network number and host number.
IP datagram
The basic unit of information passed across the Internet; contains source and
destination addresses, the data, and fields that define the length of the datagram,
the header checksum, and flags indicating whether the datagram can be (or has
been) fragmented. An IP datagram is to the Internet what a hardware packet is to
a physical network. See also datagram.
IP forwarding
A configurable kernel option that controls whether a host forwards IP datagrams.
Generally, hosts do not forward IP datagrams.
IP trailer protocol
A protocol in which the protocol header follows the data.
KA9Q
A popular implementation of TCP/IP and associated protocols for amateur radio
systems.
Kbps
See kilobits per second.
kernel
The software that provides the standard API for application programs. Generally
speaking, the kernel embodies the policy and structure of an operating system. In
a narrower sense, the kernel provides a programmatic interface to any hardware
resources available. In a UNIX system, the kernel is a program that contains the
device drivers, the memory management routines, the scheduler, and system calls;
always running while the system is operating.
kilobits per second (Kbps or Kb/s)
The measure of data transmission rate.
LAN
See local area network.
layer
(1) The grouping of related communication functions that provide a well-defined
service to a client independently of the protocols and other means used to provide
it. (2) A software protocol levels that make up network architectures; each layer
performs certain functions for the layers above and below it.
Glossary–23
limited use protocol
A classification in Internet standards for protocols that are intended for use in
limited circumstances; possibly because of their experimental state, specialized
nature, limited functionality, or historic state.
line printer daemon (LPR/LPD)
The Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS remote printing services for UNIX and
OpenVMS client hosts.
line speed
The maximum rate at which data can be reliably transmitted over a line;
varies with the capability of the modem or hardware device that performs the
transmitting.
link
A directory entry referring to a file; one file can have several links to it.
little endian
The format for storage or transmission of binary data in which the least significant
byte comes first. The reverse convention is called big endian.
load broker
A TCP/IP Services component that provides configurable, calculated methods for
distributing BIND services among systems in a cluster.
local address
The address of a host within a subnet.
The host address of an attached interface. This is the address of a broadcast or
loopback interface, and the local address of a point-to-point interface. As with any
host address, it can be specified symbolically.
local area network (LAN)
A self-contained group of computers and communications devices (such as modems,
routers, servers, and repeaters) that offers a high-speed, reliable communications
channel. LANs span a limited distance such as a building or group of buildings,
but can be connected to wide area networks (WANs) with gateways. Contrast with
wide area network (WAN).
local data
Any data stored locally by a system.
local network
A network directly attached to a host or gateway.
local node
A node at which the user is located.
local subnet
A subnet directly attached to a host or gateway.
lock manager
An NFS component that allows an NFS client to lock portions of files that reside
on an NFS server.
logical connectivity
The ability of nodes to communicate.
logical link
A temporary connection between processes on source and destination nodes (or
between two processes on the same node).
Glossary–24
Logical Link Control
The upper portion of the Data Link layer that presents a uniform interface to the
user of the data link service, usually the Internet layer.
loop node
A local node that is associated with a particular address and is treated as if it were
a remote node. All traffic to the loop node is sent over the associated address;
used for loopback testing.
loopback
A program that sends packets to a remote host on the Internet and looks for
replies; works by means of the echoing facility provided by the ICMP protocol
and is a way to determine if an Internet host is reachable from your host. See
also packet internet groper.
LPR/LPD
See remote line printing or line printer daemon.
mail bridge
A mail gateway that forwards electronic mail between two or more networks while
ensuring that the messages it forwards meet certain administrative criteria;
specialized form of mail gateway that enforces an administrative policy with
regard to what mail it forwards.
Mail Exchange record (MX record)
The Domain Name System resource record type indicating which host can handle
mail for a particular domain or host.
Mail exchange (MX)
The Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS implementation of a mail exchanger
that allows hosts in a local network to forward mail to systems that might not be
directly connected to the local network.
mail exploder
The part of an electronic mail delivery system that allows a message to be
delivered to a list of addressees. Users send messages to one address (e.g.,
[email protected]) and the mail exploder handles delivery to the individual
mailboxes.
mail gateway
A host that connects two or more electronic mail systems (especially dissimilar
mail systems on two different networks) and transfers messages between them.
mail path
A series of hosts used to direct electronic mail from one user to another.
Management Information Base (MIB)
A database used by the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) to check
network statistics and configurations. An SNMP management station can query a
MIB or set it in an SNMP agent (for example, router). Standard, minimal MIBs
have been defined (MIB I, MIB II), and vendors often have custom entries. In
theory, any SNMP manager can talk to any SNMP agent with a properly defined
MIB.
Management Information Base II (MIB-II)
Data that can be accessed by a network management protocol; for, the database
maintained by a gateway running SNMP.
management station
The workstation of a network manager running SNMP.
Glossary–25
mask
A means of subdividing networks using address modification. A mask is a dotted
quad specifying the bits of the destination that are significant. Except when used
in a route filter, GATED supports only contiguous masks.
mask length
The number of significant bits in the mask.
master file directory (MFD)
The root of an OpenVMS file system on a particular physical device.
master server
The name server that is the authority for a specific domain space. See also BIND
server.
maximum transmission unit (MTU)
The largest possible unit of data that can be sent on a given physical medium. See
also fragmentation.
MBUFs
See memory buffers.
memory buffers (MBUFs)
The portions of memory that act as queues for data arriving at a port before the
process is ready to claim that data.
message
A message block or a series of message blocks that constitute a logical grouping of
information; each is delimited by communications control characters.
metric
One of the units used to help a system determine the best route. Metrics may be
based on hop count, routing delay, or an arbitrary value set by the administrator
depending on the type of routing protocol. Routing metrics may influence the value
of assigned internal preferences. See also preference.
MFD
See master file directory.
MIB
See Management Information Base.
MIB-II
See Management Information Base II.
MIME
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions; a specification for the transfer of nontext
files with regular Internet e-mail.
mode
A protection placed on a file.
modem (modulator/demodulator)
A device that translates digital signals (electrical impulses) generated by a
computer into analog signals (tones) that can be transmitted over telephone lines,
and vice versa.
mount
An NFS process that makes a remote directory available to local users.
Glossary–26
mount point
A directory on an NFS client that is associated with a remote file system. The
directory must exist before NFS can use it as a mount point.
MTU
See maximum transmission unit.
multiaccess networks
Physical networks that support the attachment of multiple (more than two) routers.
Each pair of routers on such a network is assumed to be able to communicate
directly.
multicast
A transmission of network traffic intended for multiple hosts (but not all connected
hosts) within a network or internet.
multicast address
An address that designates a subset of nodes that are all listening for packets
destined to this address.
multicast addressing
An addressing mode in which a data packet is targeted to a group of nodes that are
of the same type, for example, all level 1 routers or all level 2 routers.
multihomed host
A host that has two or more hardware connections to a network; requires multiple
IP addresses.
multiplexing
Using a single connection to carry several data streams and the mechanism for
assigning these streams to that connection.
multipoint circuit
A circuit that connects multiple systems.
multiprocessing system
A network consisting of multiple processors.
MX record
See Mail exchange record.
NAK
See negative acknowledgment.
name resolution
The process of mapping a host name to its corresponding address. See also
Domain Name System.
named
The BIND Name Server daemon.
namespace
A commonly distributed set of names in which all names are unique.
negative acknowledgment (NAK)
The response to receipt of a corrupted packet of information. See also
acknowledgment.
Glossary–27
neighbor
Another router with which implicit or explicit communication is established by a
routing protocol. Neighbors are usually on a shared network, but not always. This
term is mostly used in OSPF and EGP. Usually synonymous with peer.
neighboring routers
Two routers that have interfaces to a common network. On multiaccess networks,
routers are dynamically discovered by OSPF’s HELLO protocol.
network
A group of computer systems that can communicate with each other; can be
composed of computers in a single building (local area networks, or LANs), or
computers thousands of miles apart (wide area networks or WANs). The Internet is
a worldwide collection of computer networks that can intercommunicate.
Any packet-switched network. A network may be specified by its IP address or
network name. The host bits in a network specification must be zero. Default may
be used to specify the default network (0.0.0.0).
The IP address of a network. Usually specified as a dotted quad, with one to four
values in the range of 0 through 255, separated by dots (.); for example, 132.236.199,
132.236, or 10. It can also be specified as a hexadecimal string preceded by 0x
with an even number of digits between 2 and 8; for example, 0x??????, 0x???? or
0x0a. Also allowed is the symbolic value default that has the value 0.0.0.0, the
default network. If options noresolv statement is not specified, this can also be
a symbolic network name. For example, nr-tech-prod, cornellu-net, and
arpanet. The numeric forms is preferred over the symbolic form.
network address
A unique identifier of a specific system on a network, usually represented as a
number or series of numbers. See also IP address.
network architecture
The specification of a network’s functions and its parts, together with the ways in
which the network is organized; specifies the layers of different functions in the
network, ranging from data transmission at the lowest levels to user applications
at the highest levels.
network byte order
The order in which bytes of information are sent or received by network applications
as opposed to how the bytes are stored in memory by different operating systems
and hardware architectures. The standard network byte order is big endian.
network class
A definition of the type of network addressing scheme being used; high-order bits
in the network number designate the network class of the IP address.
network database
The Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS database that allows users to refer
to networks by name rather than network number; contains network names, IP
addresses for the networks, and any alias names for the networks.
network delay
The time it takes to get a unit of data from the source of a transmission to the
destination; usually refers to delay from the network and not by system-dependent
application processing delays at source and destination nodes.
A HELLO metric. Valid values are from 0 to 30000, inclusive. The value of 30000
is the maximum metric and means unreachable. See also metric and HELLO.
Glossary–28
network diameter
The distance (number of hops) between the two nodes in the network with the
greatest reachability distance. The reachability distance is the path with the
fewest number of hops between two nodes.
Network File System (NFS)
A protocol developed by Sun Microsystems that allows a computer system to access
files over a network as if they were on its local disks.
Network Information Service (NIS)
A set of services in the Network File System that propagate information out
from masters to recipients; used for the maintenance of system files on complex
networks.
Network Interface
A device driver that communicates with the IP layer of the TCP/IP protocol suite
and the network interface card.
Network Interface layer
The layer in the TCP/IP architecture model that provides the mechanism for
connecting the hosts to the networks.
network management
See MIB-II and Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).
network mask
A mask used to determine the subnet in the IP address; each bit that is turned on
(binary one) in the mask is interpreted as part of the network and subnet address.
Synonymous with subnet mask.
A means of subdividing networks using address modification. A mask is a dotted
quad specifying the bits of the destination that are significant. Except when used
in a route filter, GATED supports only contiguous masks.
network meltdown
The state of complete network overload; the network equivalent of thrashing. See
also broadcast storm.
network number
The part of an IP address that designates the network to which the destination
host belongs.
network performance
The description of how a network performs, as measured against the expectations
or requirements of users, customers, designers, or implementors, or as claimed by
sales and marketing personnel. The criteria for network performance include
parameters such as throughput, response time, and resource utilization.
network status notification
Information about the state of logical and physical links over which two tasks
communicate. A nontransparent task can use this information to take appropriate
action under conditions such as third-party disconnections and a partner’s exiting
before I/O completion.
network task
A nontransparent task that can process multiple inbound connection requests; that
is, it has a declared network name or object number.
Glossary–29
Network Time Protocol (NTP)
The protocol that ensures accurate local timekeeping with reference to radio and
atomic clocks located on the Internet; capable of synchronizing distributed clocks
within milliseconds over long time periods.
NFS
See Network File System.
NFS client
The software that requests remote file services from an NFS server. Client system
users access files that physically reside on an NFS server system.
NFS server
The software that provides remote file services to NFS clients.
NFS server (OpenVMS server)
A computer system that offers services to NFS clients within an Internet
environment; can be a single host, a whole OpenVMS Cluster system, or members
of an OpenVMS Cluster system.
NIS
See Network Information Service.
nobody
A UNIX convention used when file ownership is not known; maps to an account
with a UID and GID of -2.
node
(1) A system on a network; also referred to as a host. (2) One member in an
OpenVMS Cluster system.
node address
The required unique numeric identification of a specific node in the network.
node name
The alphanumeric identification associated with the node address for one-to-one
mapping.
nonadjacent nodes
Nodes without direct lines between them; can communicate only if intermediate
systems forward the data along the path between the source and the destination.
nonauthoritative answer
A name server’s answer is nonauthoritative when the server answer comes from
its own cache.
nontransparent task
A form of device-dependent I/O that uses system services for network-specific
functions; can initiate and complete a logical link connection, exchange messages
between two tasks, and terminate the communication process. Application that
has direct access to network-specific information and operations, such as optional
user data on connects and disconnects and interrupt messages, to monitor the
communications process; can receive and process multiple inbound connection
requests.
normalization
The estimation of the change in a counter value over a specified time period.
Glossary–30
nslookup
The Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS utility that allows you to interactively
query domain name servers (BIND servers) and helps you set up and manage the
BIND server software.
NTP
See Network Time Protocol.
NTP packet
A message sent over the network that conforms to the Network Time Protocol
format. This format includes space for recording the current time. See also poll.
null modem
A simple form of modem connection in which only the data interchange circuits,
not the modem control circuits, are used.
occluded mounting
A TCP/IP Services/NFS method of mounting an NFS file system onto a client
mount point that is higher or lower in the directory structure than an active mount.
octet
A single, 8-bit unit of data. A networking term used instead of the term byte
because some systems have bytes that are not 8 bits long.
ODS-2 disk structure
An OpenVMS On-Disk Structure. This is the default disk structure of the
OpenVMS operating system.
ODS-5 disk structure (Alpha only)
An OpenVMS On-Disk Structure that is an extension to the existing ODS-2 disk
structure. It adds the ability to use extended file names that can be more easily
mapped between Windows and OpenVMS. ODS-5 expands the available character
set and filename length to be consistent with Windows 95 and Windows NT. ODS-5
also supports deeper directories.
On-Disk Structure (ODS)
A logical structure given to information stored on a disk or CD-ROM. ODS is a
hierarchical organization of files, their data, and the directories needed to gain
access to them. The OpenVMS file system implements the On-Disk Structure and
provides access control to the files located on the disk.
OPCOM
See operator communication manager.
OPCOM messages
Messages broadcast by the operator communication manager (OPCOM). These
messages are displayed on operator terminals and written to the operator log file.
The messages might be general messages that you send, user requests, operator
replies, or system events.
OPCOM process
The system process that manages operator communication manager (OPCOM)
operations.
open network
A network made up of nonproprietary, interoperable systems.
open network computing (ONC) remote procedure call (RPC)
An easy and popular paradigm for implementing the client/server model of
distributed computing. In general, the local system (client) sends a request to
Glossary–31
a remote system (server) to execute a designated procedure, using supplied
arguments, and the remote system returns the result to the local system.
operator communication manager
A system administration tool for communicating with users and operators on the
system.
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)
One of a class of interior gateway protocols, described in more detail in the OSPF
section of gated.proto(4).
open system
A nonproprietary, interoperable system with communications software.
Open System Interconnection (OSI)
A suite of protocols, designed by ISO committees, to be the international standard
of computer network architecture.
OpenVMS Cluster
A configuration of OpenVMS processors in which the network sees the cluster as
one system with one name, the cluster alias.
OpenVMS Cluster alias
An alias that allows remote hosts to address the cluster members as one host, as
well as any cluster member individually.
OpenVMS file system
The OpenVMS files and directories on a mounted OpenVMS volume. These files
and directories reside on a Files-11 On-Disk Structure (ODS-2 or ODS-5) disk.
origination
The beginning point of communications on a circuit.
overmounting
The process of NFS mounting another directory over an existing mount point.
The original file system is dismounted from the mount point, and the new file
system is mounted.
packet
A unit of data sent across a network.
Packet Internet Groper (PING)
A program used to test reachability of a destination by sending an ICMP echo
request and waiting for a reply. See also loopback.
packet looping
A condition in which a packet revisits a node. See also aged packet.
packet size
The amount of data in a packet.
packet switching
A communication paradigm in which packets are individually routed between
hosts, with no previously established communication path.
path
The physical lines between source nodes and destination nodes; can comprise a
sequence of connected nodes. The path that the data takes through the network
is transparent to users.
Glossary–32
path cost
The sum of the circuit costs along a path between two nodes.
An OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) protocol metric. See metric and OSPF.
path length
The total distance (the number of circuits) between a source node and a destination
node, measured in hops. Each line between systems, including routing nodes and
end nodes, equals one hop. See also network diameter.
path name
A unique designation that identifies a directory or subdirectory. UNIX path names
are composed of a series of fields separated by slashes (/); each field designates a
file name that is uniquely contained in the previous field (directory).
path MTU
The smallest MTU of any data link that packets traverse between two hosts. The
path MTU depends upon the route being used at the time. Therefore, the sending
path MTU may differ from the receiving path MTU.
path MTU discovery
A mechanism to determine the path MTU at any one time.
path splitting
The ability to split the transmission load destined for a single node over several
paths of equal path cost. Any destination node receiving data that has been split
over several paths must support out-of-order packet caching.
PC-NFS Daemon
The server software that handles authentication and printing requests from
personal computer implementations of NFS.
peer
Another router with which implicit or explicit communication is established by a
routing protocol. Peers are often on a shared network. This term is used mostly by
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). Usually synonymous with neighbor.
physical address
A unique address of each physical connection of a node to the physical medium.
physical connection
The Physical layer communications path between two systems.
physical connectivity
The Physical layer connectivity that is a result of nodes being attached to each
other via active lines and nodes.
PING
See Packet Internet Groper.
point-to-point circuit
A circuit that connects only two nodes. A point-to-point configuration requires a
separate physical connection between each pair of nodes. Point-to-point systems
communicate directly with other systems. Contrast with multipoint circuit.
point-to-point line
A line that connects two systems by using a single circuit.
Glossary–33
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
A method for transmitting datagrams over serial point-to-point lines where a line
is established between a remote host (usually over a telephone line) and another
host acting as a gateway to a remote host.
poll
The sending of an NTP packet from a host to an NTP time server to request the
current time. The server responds by recording the current time in the packet,
then sending it back to the originating host. See also NTP packet.
polling
Connecting to another system to check for things such as mail or news.
POP
See Post Office Protocol.
port
The endpoint of a communication link between two processes.
A UDP or TCP port number. Valid values are from 1 through 65535.
port number
A 16-bit number used to identify applications using TCP or UDP. The number is
stored in the Transport layer protocol headers to identify the application.
Portmapper Service
A service that client programs can use to determine the port number that another
service uses. Clients use the Portmapper Service for NFC, PC-NFS, and RPC
applications.
post
To send a message to a mailing list or newsgroup. Distinguished in context from
mail.
Post Office Protocol (POP)
The TCP/IP-based protocol for client stations to read mail from a server.
PPP
See Point-to-Point Protocol.
PPP client
A host requiring a temporary PPP connection to a dialup provider or a terminal
server.
PPP dialup provider
A host that answers modem calls from PPP clients, assigns IP addresses and
establishes PPP connections initiated by PPP clients.
preference
A preference is a value from 0 to 255 used to select a route from many routes to
the same destination. The route with the best (numerically lowest) preference is
selected as the active route. The active route is the one installed in the kernel
forwarding table and exported to other protocols. Preference zero is usually
reserved for routes to directly attached interfaces. A default preference is assigned
to each source from which GATED receives routes.
prefix
A contiguous mask covering the most significant bits of an address. The prefix
length specifies how many bits are covered.
Glossary–34
primary server
A BIND name server that maintains the database for a zone; secondary servers
copy their information from primary servers. Also called primary master or master
server. See also BIND server, cache server, forwarder server, and secondary
server.
printcap database
The Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS database that maps local queues to
printers on remote hosts; specifies local queues for LPD printing from remote
hosts. Equivalent to the UNIX /etc/printcap file.
privileged port
A port in which the remote host has done some level of checking against the
application using the port; privileged port numbers range from 1 to 1023.
process
The context within a system in which a specific computing session occurs; provides
the context in which an application executes.
protocol
A set of rules that controls the communications between computers. Also, a set of
conventions between communicating processes regarding the format and contents
of messages to be exchanged.
Protocols can describe low-level details of machine-to-machine interfaces, such
as the order in which the bits from a byte are set across a wire, or high-level
exchanges between applications programs such as the way in which two programs
transfer a file across the Internet.
protocol data unit (PDU)
The unit of data sent across a network. Also called a packet.
protocol machine
The set of data structures and routines that implements a specific protocol and
controls the progress of a communication between peer entities.
protocol overhead
The part of communications data or processing not directly consumed by the users
but necessary to successfully bring about the transfer of user information.
protocol port
An abstraction that transport protocols use to distinguish among multiple
destinations within a given host computer. Internet protocols identify ports using
small positive integers. Usually the operating system allows an application
program to specify which port it wants to use. Some ports are reserved for standard
services such as electronic mail.
protocol transparency
The quality in a communications device or system that allows various higher-level
protocols to coexist on the same wire. The protocols are transparent to the device
or system.
The degree to which users of underlying protocols are aware of the specifics of
those protocols.
protocol sequence
An ordered list of protocol identifiers.
Glossary–35
protocol stack
The set of functions, one at each layer of the protocol stack, that work together to
form a set of network services; each layer of the protocol stack uses the services of
the module beneath it.
proxy
The mechanism whereby one system acts on behalf of another system in responding
to protocol requests. uses a proxy mechanism to provide an OpenVMS identity
(account) for each UNIX client by adding the name and identification codes of
the client to a proxy database.
proxy ARP
The technique in which one machine, usually a router, answers Address Resolution
Protocol (ARP) requests intended for another machine. By "faking" its identity, the
router accepts responsibility for routing packets to the "real" destination. Proxy
ARP allows a site to use a single IP address with two physical networks. Normally,
creating a subnet is a better solution.
proxy database
The database that provides OpenVMS identities for remote NFS clients and
UNIX-style identities for local NFS client users; provides proxy accounts for
remote processes.
pseudodevice
A software device used to implement special-purpose transports and not directly
associated with hardware.
pseudointerface
A method of extending subnet routing using a network interface. Each network
interface has one name and at most nine pseudointerface names. Each network
interface and pseudointerface has its own IP address, network mask, and broadcast
mask.
public domain
Intellectual property available to users that does not require payment of a fee.
quality of service (QoS)
The OSI equivalent of TOS.
RARP
See Reverse Address Resolution Protocol.
RCD
See RMT/RCD.
RCP
See remote copy program.
reachable node
The node to which the local node has a usable communications path.
read access
The access right that grants the ability to view data.
reassembly
The process of piecing together datagram fragments to reproduce the original
datagram based on the fragmentation data in the IP header of the datagram.
Glossary–36
reassembly time
A routing parameter that can be set to specify the length of time allowed for the
reassembly of a message received in fragments. If the reassembly time expires
before all fragments are received, the fragments are discarded.
Record Management Services (RMS)
The OpenVMS data management subsystem that defines the rules that govern the
internal organization of and the methods of accessing file data.
reliability
The ability of a protocol to recover data that is damaged, lost, duplicated, or
delivered out of order.
relative path name
A path name that does not start at the root; default directory is merged with the
relative path name to form the absolute path name.
remote boot (BOOTP)
The software that supports the downloading of system images and other types
of files to requesting clients.
remote copy program (RCP)
The program based on the Berkeley UNIX (see BSD) rcmd protocol that permits
files to be copied from one computer to another by an extension to the syntax of the
UNIX cp (copy) command. (RCP) does not provide the word-length adaptability
and flexibility that the FTP protocol does.
remote line printing (LPR/LPD)
The remote printing services for UNIX and OpenVMS client hosts.
remote node
A node in the network other than the local node.
remote file system
A file system that resides on a network host other than the local node.
remote procedure call (RPC)
A programming interface for implementing the client/server model of distributed
computing. In general, a request is sent to a remote system to execute a designated
procedure, using arguments supplied, and the result returned to the caller. See
also ONC RPC.
remote shell
A program that sends a command, shell, script, or command procedure to a remote
host for execution.
remote task
A task either executing or originating at a remote host.
repeater
A bidirectional device that amplifies or synchronizes signals into standard voltages,
currents, and timing; propagates electrical signals from one Ethernet to another
without making routing decisions or providing packet filtering; Physical layer
intermediate system. See also bridge and router.
Request for Comments (RFC)
A series of documents, begun in 1969, that describes the Internet suite of protocols
and related experiments. Very few RFCs describe Internet standards, but all
Internet standards are written as RFCs.
Glossary–37
resolver
A mechanism or process to correlate a network host name into an appropriate
network address in support of network applications; a network name resolver. See
BIND resolver.
reserved port
An assigned port that provides services to unknown callers by providing a service
contact point; reserved port numbers range from 1 to 255.
resynchronization
A process that enables the recovery of user information lost or corrupted during
transfer across an association. Sets the association back to the state it was in at a
specified point in the transfer.
retransmission
A method of error recovery in which stations receiving messages acknowledge
the receipt of correct messages and, on receipt of incorrect messages, either do
not acknowledge or acknowledge in the negative. The lack of acknowledgment
or receipt of a negative acknowledgment indicates to the sending station that it
should transmit the failed message again.
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)
The TCP/IP protocol that provides the reverse function of ARP. This protocol maps
a physical (hardware) address to an IP address. Often used by diskless nodes when
they first initialize to find their Internet address.
reverse domain
An Internet domain that BIND servers use to map IP addresses to domain names.
RFC
See Request for Comments.
RFC 822
The TCP/IP standard format for electronic mail message headers; often referred to
as "822 messages". The name comes from RFC 822 that contains the specification;
previously known as 733 format.
RIB (routing information base)
routing database
RIP
See Routing Information Protocol.
rlogin
Remote login: The Berkeley 4.3 BSD service that allows users of one machine to
connect to other systems across the Internet and interact as if their terminals
are connected the machines directly.
RMS
See Record Management Services.
RMT/RCD
Remote command that allows remote users to access magnetic tapes and CD drives.
root
The top level directory in a UNIX-style file system; also used to indicate a user (the
superuser) who has special privileges. See superuser.
root mode
The file protection placed on a container file when it is created.
Glossary–38
root name
The element of a path name that identifies the target file system.
root server
An Internet name server that knows about all of the top-level domains on the
Internet network; the master servers for the Internet root zone.
round-trip delay
The total time during communications that implement a protocol with positive
acknowledgments, for a message to be transmitted, arrive at its destination, and
its corresponding acknowledgment to be sent and subsequently received by the
sender of the original message.
The time it takes for a host to send an NTP packet to another host and get an
NTP packet back from that host in reply.
round-trip time (RTT)
A variable computed during TCP sessions that indicates the total time required to
send a TCP segment to a remote host and receive a reply.
route
The path over the network that information takes to get from one source to its
destination.
route through
Data packets not destined for the local node.
routes database
The Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS database that specifies Internet
gateways.
ROUTED
See Routing Daemon.
Routing Daemon (ROUTED)
A program that runs under 4.2BSD/4.3BSD UNIX systems (and derived operating
systems) to propagate routes among machines on a local area network using the
Routing Information Protocol; pronounced "route-dee."
One of a class of interior gateway protocols, described in more detail in the RIP
section of gated.proto(4).
router
A node that can send and forward data to and receive data from other nodes.
router advertisement
A Router Discovery Protocol message sent out by Router Discovery Servers to
announce their existence to hosts. The router advertisement contains a list of all
router addresses on a given interface and their preferences for use as a default
router.
Router Discovery Protocol
An IETF standard protocol used to inform hosts of the existence of routers. It
is used in place of or in addition to statically configured default routes in hosts.
The protocol has a server portion that runs on routers, and a client portion that
runs on hosts.
router id
A 32-bit number assigned to each router running the OSPF protocol. This number
uniquely identifies the router within the autonomous system.
Glossary–39
router_id
An IP address used as unique identifier assigned to represent a specific router.
This is usually the address of an attached interface.
router solicitation
A Router Discovery Protocol message sent out by a host to request router
advertisement responses from a router.
routing
A Network layer function, implemented in intermediate systems, that determines
the path along which data travels to its destination and the movement of that
data. See also decision.
routing database
The database that contains routing information, including destination host names,
IP addresses for the hosts, gateway host names, and IP addresses for the gateways.
There are two route databases: the static route database that is maintained on
disk, and the volatile database in memory.
The repository of all of GATED’s retained routing information, used to make
decisions and as a source for routing information that is propagated.
routing domain
A set of hosts and routers within a single administrative domain that operates
according to the same routing procedures.
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
The protocol that enables gateways to broadcast their current routing database to
hosts and networks that are connected directly to them. software implements the
RIP through its dynamic routing Zserver.
One of a class of interior gateway protocols, described in more detail in the RIP
section of gated.proto(4).
routing protocol
A protocol sent between routers by which routers exchange information on how to
route to various parts of the network. The TCP/IP family of protocols has many of
this type of protocol, such as RIP, EGP, BGP, OSPF, and dual IS-IS.
routing socket
A data structure used by processes to communicate routing information to the
kernel. A process can add and delete routes, dump the routing table, and read
messages from the kernel. The only type of socket supported in the AF_ROUTE
domain is a raw socket.
routing table
The repository of all of gated’s retained routing information, used to make
decisions and as a source for routing information that is propagated.
RPC
See remote procedure call and ONC RPC.
rshell
Remote shell; a remote utility that enables the user to open a shell session on a
remote host.
RTL
See run-time library.
RTT
See round-trip time.
Glossary–40
run-time library (RTL)
A collection of OpenVMS procedures available to native mode images at run time;
provide support routines for high-level language compilers.
SCALE
A TCP window scaling option; allows window information to be interpreted as
being scaled by 1 to 16 powers of 2, thus increasing the size of the effective window.
secondary server
A master BIND server that receives authoritative database information from a
primary server. Also known as slave server. See also BIND server, cache server,
forwarder server, and primary server.
segment
A unit of data exchanged by the TCP modules.
segment length
The amount of sequence number space occupied by a segment, including controls
that occupy sequence space.
sequence number
A 32-bit field in the TCP header that contains the sequence number of a sequenced
control flag, the first byte of data, or empty segments (The sequence number of
the next data octet to be sent).
serial device
A device that uses serial transmission; that is, transmits data one bit at a time
on a single channel as opposed to parallel transmission, which transmits one or
more bits at a time on one or more channels. Typically, terminals and printers
are serial devices.
Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP)
A protocol designed to allow a host to connect to another host over serial lines, such
as telephone circuits or RS-232 cables.
server
A process that offers a service to another process over the network and accepts
requests from other processes, known as clients.
service
(1) A task that an application can carry out. (2) The interface provided by a service
element or layer for accessing one or more function.
service interface
The boundary at which a layer provides a service to the adjacent higher layer in
the network architecture; may vary between implementations.
service parameter
The means by which a service user and a service provider exchange information.
service provider
In network architecture, the service element or layer that provides a set of services
to the layer immediately above.
service specification
An international standard that describes the functions and service parameters
of every service of a service provider.
service user
An application program, service element, or Network layer that uses the services of
a service provider.
Glossary–41
services database
The Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS database created by default that
contains one entry for each service configured.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
An Internet standard protocol for transferring electronic mail messages from one
machine to another; specifies how two mail systems interact and the format of
control messages they exchange to transfer mail.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
The network management protocol of choice for TCP/IP-based internets; allows
remote monitoring and management of network devices (particularly routers and
servers) from across an Internet.
simplex
An interface may be marked as simplex either by the kernel or by the interface
configuration. A simplex interface is an interface on a broadcast medium that is
not capable of receiving packets it broadcasts.
The GATED daemon takes advantage of interfaces that are capable of receiving
their own broadcast packets to monitor whether an interface appears to be
functioning properly.
skew
A measure, in Hertz, of the difference between the actual frequency of a clock and
what its frequency should be to keep perfect time. See also drift.
slave server
A name server that has no access to the Internet and relies on forwarder servers to
resolve queries that it cannot resolve locally. As slave servers receive information
from forwarder servers, they store that information in their cache. See also cache
server, forwarder server, primary server, and secondary server.
slew
To adjust gradually the time of a clock until it tells the correct time. Compare
with step.
SLIP
See Serial Line Internet Protocol
SMI
See Structure of Management Information.
SMTP
See Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.
SNMP
See Simple Network Management Protocol.
socket
The endpoint of communication to which an IP address and port may be bound.
When writing an application, it is a data structure that is part of the Internet
pseudodevice created every time an OpenVMS process assigns a communication
channel. The other part of the Internet pseudodevice is the device socket.
socket API
An application programming interface for implementing TCP/IP protocols.
Sometimes called Berkeley Sockets indicating where the API was developed.
Glossary–42
socket pair
The client IP address and port number, and the server IP address and port number
that uniquely identify a TCP connection.
source
The IP header field that contains the IP address of the datagram’s point of origin.
source port
A 2-octet value in the TCP or UDP header field that identifies the upper-level
application or protocol associated with the data in the segment.
spanning tree
A logical arrangement created by bridges in an extended LAN in which all LANs
are connected and there are no loops.
split horizon
When a router (or group of routers work together) accepts routing information from
multiple external networks, but does not pass on information learned from one
external network to others. This is an attempt to prevent false routes to a network
from being propagated because of gossip or counting to infinity.
splitting
The process of mapping one transport connection to several network connections.
stateless
A characteristic of a server designed to simplify crash recovery after a server
crashes and reboots. The server does not keep track of the status of ongoing client
interactions. Servers that do not keep track of client status are called stateless
servers.
static routing
A routing method by which a system manager manually adds routes to the kernel’s
routing table. This method is generally used on small networks. On Open VMS
systems, you use the SET ROUTE command to add static routes and on UNIX
systems, you use the route command.
step
To change the time of a clock to the correct time with no intermediate adjustments.
Compare with slew.
stratum
The distance a host running the NTP time daemon is from an external source of
Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). A stratum 1 server has direct access to an
external source of UTC, such as a radio clock synchronized to a standard time
signal broadcast. In general, a stratum n server is n - 1 network hops away from a
stratum 1 server. For example, a stratum 4 server is 3 hops away from a stratum 1
server. Also, a stratum n server is at a higher stratum than a stratum n - 1 server.
For example, a stratum 3 server is at a higher stratum than a stratum 2 server,
and at a lower stratum than a stratum 4 server. See also time daemon.
stream-oriented
The type of transport service that allows its client to send data in a continuous
stream; guarantees that all data will be delivered to the other end in the same
order as sent and without duplicates. Also known as a reliable transport service.
Structure of Management Information (SMI)
The rules used to define the objects that can be accessed by means of a network
management protocol. See also Management Information Base.
Glossary–43
subnet
An organization of hosts within a network into logical groups. A network can
be comprised of several subnets. The portion of a network, which might be a
physically independent network, that shares a network address with other portions
of the network and is distinguished by a subnet number. A subnet is to a network
what a network is to an internet.
subnet address
A part of the Internet addressing scheme. If a site uses a single IP address for
multiple physical networks, there is one subnet address for each physical network.
Each such address is composed of the network part of the full address and part
of the local part (host).
subnet field
A bit field in an IP address that denotes the subnet number. The bits making up
this field are not necessarily contiguous in the address.
subnet mask
A method of representing the portion of the IP network address that is devoted to
subnet address. Each bit that is turned on (binary one) in the mask is interpreted
as part of the network and subnet address. Synonymous with network mask.
See address mask.
superuser
A UNIX user who has been granted special privileges; has an effective UID of 0.
symbiont
A process that transfers record-oriented data to and from a mass storage device; for
example, from disks to printers.
Synonym for daemon.
symbolic link
In the UNIX file system, a symbolic link is a file that contains a pointer to another
file or directory. The link (also called a soft link) may be created across a different
UNIX file system. Any changes to the file can be seen when you access the file
through the file name or through the symbolic link. If you delete the file, the
symbolic link will point to a nonexistent file.
synchronous transmission
Data transmission in which characters are transmitted at a fixed rate. The
transmitter and receiver are synchronized, gaining greater efficiency than in
asynchronous transmission. Synchronous transmissions send a predetermined
group of "sync" characters ahead of a long stream of data. The sync characters
enable the communicating devices to synchronize with each other in accordance
with a time clock at each end. Contrast with asynchronous transmission.
syntax
The rules for formatting or interpreting data.
TAC
See terminal access controller.
target system
The intended destination of messages.
TCP
See Transmission Control Protocol.
Glossary–44
TCP/IP
An Internet suite of protocols. See also Transmission Control Protocol and
Internet Protocol.
TELNET
An Internet protocol for remote terminal connection. TELNET allows a user at one
site to interact with remote timesharing systems at another site as if the user’s
terminal were directly connected to the remote host.
terminal access controller (TAC)
A program and hardware that connects terminals to the Internet, usually using
dialup modem connections.
terminal emulator
A program that allows a computer to emulate a terminal; a workstation thus
appears as a terminal to the host.
terminal server
A device that handles terminal operations for host nodes on a LAN; can be used to
connect terminal users to nodes on the same LAN and to users on nodes located
off the LAN. Offloads the terminal connection and I/O responsibilities from host
nodes, and reduces the number of direct terminal connections to each host, thus
saving substantial power, packaging, and cabling expense.
terminating packet
A packet whose destination is the local node.
TFTP
See Trivial File Transfer Protocol.
thread
(1) A request from an NFS client to the NFS server. (2) A single unit of execution
within a program.
throughput
A measure of how much data is sent, or can be sent, between two points in a
specified unit of time; often used in either of two contexts:
•
Rated throughput, which refers to the bandwidth or capacity of a component.
•
Real throughput, which refers to actual measured throughput.
time
A time value, usually a time interval that can be specified in any one of the
following forms:
number
A non-negative decimal number of seconds. For example, 27, 60, or
3600.
number:number
A non-negative decimal number of minutes followed by a seconds value
in the range of zero to 59, inclusive. For example, 0:27, 1:00, or
60:00.
number:number:number
A non-negative decimal number of hours followed by a minutes value in
the range of zero to 59, inclusive, followed by a seconds value in
the range of zero to 59, inclusive. For example, 0:00:27, 0:01:00,
or 1:00:00.
time to live (TTL)
A field in the IP header that indicates how long this packet should be allowed to
be forwarded to other routers before being discarded.
Glossary–45
The Time To Live (TTL) of an IP packet. Valid values are from 1 to 255 inclusive.
time daemon
The program running on a host that synchronizes the host’s hardware clock
to Coordinated Universal Time in accordance with the protocols known as the
Network Time Protocol.
timeo
A timeout option for the NFS mount command.
TN3270
TELNET options that allows TELNET users to connect to hosts that support 3270
model terminals.
Token Ring
A type of LAN that has stations wired in a ring, where each station constantly
passes a special message (a "token") on to the next; technically referred to as
IEEE 802.5.
topology
The architecture of a network. A network topology shows the computers and the
links between them within a network.
TOS (type of service)
An IP header field that specifies the importance of a datagram and how to make
tradeoffs between delay, throughput, reliability, and cost when the datagram
travels across a network. The parameters are mapped into actual service
parameters for the particular networks the datagram crosses.
traffic
The measurement of data flow, volume, and velocity over a communications link.
transceiver
Transmitter-receiver; a physical device required in baseband networks that takes
the digital signal from a computer or terminal and imposes it on the baseband
medium; connects a host interface to a LAN, such as Ethernet.
transient information
Network management information carried in an operation; is meaningful only
while the operation is being performed.
transit network
A network that passes traffic between networks in addition to carrying traffic for
its own hosts; must have multiple connections to the internet.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
A Transport layer protocol that provides the reliable, full-duplex, stream service
on which many application protocols depend. TCP allows a process on one host to
send a stream of data to a process on another. It is connection-oriented in the sense
that before transmitting data, participants must establish a connection.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
The acronym for the suite of application and transport protocols that run over IP,
such as FTP, TELNET, and UCP, as well as TCP and IP.
Transport layer
The layer in the TCP/IP architecture model where network traffic is passed
between an application on one host and an application on another host.
Glossary–46
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
The Internet protocol for file transfer with minimal capability and minimal
overhead. The simple design of the facility is intended for use in application
environments that do not require complex interactions among clients and servers.
TFTP is a simple service running on top of UDP, using timeout and retransmission
to ensure that data arrives. The sending side transmits a 512-byte, fixed-size
file, and awaits an acknowledgment for each block before sending the next. The
receiver acknowledges each block. See also File Transfer Protocol.
TTL
See time to live.
tunneling
The encapsulation of protocol A within protocol B such that A treats B as though B
were a Network Interface layer. Used to get data between administrative domains
that use a protocol not supported by the internet connecting those domains.
UAF
See user authorization file.
UCP
See Management Control Program.
Management Control Program
The Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS network management control software;
includes a command-line interface.
UDP
See User Datagram Protocol.
UID
See user identification.
UNIX-style file system
An OpenVMS organization of files based on the UNIX operating system. Also
known as a container file system.
UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program (UUCP)
A program that allows one UNIX system to copy files to or from another UNIX
system.
upline dumping
A TFTP server function allowing a TFTP client to transfer data or a program image
to the TFTP server’s public directories. The opposite function of downline loading.
user authorization file (UAF)
An OpenVMS file that contains account names and their associated attributes.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
An Internet transport protocol. A connectionless, unreliable Transport layer
protocol for the exchange of requests and replies between networked hosts. UDP,
like TCP, uses IP for message delivery from one host to another; however, unlike
TCP, UDP provides for exchange of datagrams without acknowledgments or
guaranteed delivery of data. Each UDP message contains the data sent by a user
process, a destination port number, and a source port number.
user identification (UID)
A unique number that identifies a user of a UNIX system. The number along with
an associated group identification number (GID) determines file access privileges.
UID also tracks accounting statistics and other collected information.
Glossary–47
UUCP
See UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program.
virtual circuit
The network service that allows two processes to communicate as if they were
directly connected, regardless of the structure of the underlying subnet.
WAN
See wide area network.
well-known port
A port number assigned for use by a specific network application for connections
made with either UDP or TCP. Every implementation of TCP/IP that provides
well-known services provides them with the well-known port numbers from 1 to
1023. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) manages the well-known
port numbers.
wide area network (WAN)
A network, usually constructed with serial lines, which covers large geographic
areas.
wildcarding
A method for generalizing parts of a OpenVMS file designation to encompass a set
of files by substituting a symbol to represent one or more characters. OpenVMS
wildcarding symbols are the percent sign (%) for a single character, and the
asterisk (*) for a character string of any length, including zero.
window
A 2-octet field in a TCP header indicating the number of data octets (relative to
the acknowledgment number in the header) that the sender is currently willing
to accept.
write access
An access right that grants users the ability to change data.
zone
A subdivision of the Internet hierarchy that starts at a domain and extends down
to leaf domains (individual host names) or to domains where other zones begin;
usually represents an administrative boundary. Contrast with domain.
zone file
A master name server file that describes the domain names for which the server
has authority.
Acronyms
The following table shows Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS acronyms and
other acronyms related to open networking:
Acronym
Meaning
ACK
acknowledgment
ACL
access control list
ACP
ancillary control process
ANSI
American National Standards Institute
API
application programming interface
ARP
Address Resolution Protocol
Glossary–48
Acronym
Meaning
ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ATM
asynchronous transfer mode
BBS
Bulletin Board System
BGP
Border Gateway Protocol
BIND
Berkeley Internet Name Domain
BOOTP
Bootstrap Protocol
bps
bits per second
BSD
Berkeley Software Distribution
CSLIP
Compressed Serial Line Internet Protocol
DCE
Distributed Computing Environment
DCL
DIGITAL Command Language
DEK
data encryption key
DES
data encryption standard
DNS
Domain Name System
eSNMP
extensible Simple Network Management Protocol
EGP
External Gateway Protocol
FDDI
Fiber Distributed Data Interface
EOF
end of file
EOL
end of line
FQDN
fully qualified domain name
FTP
File Transfer Protocol
GID
group identification (UNIX)
IAB
Internet Architecture Board
ICMP
Internet Control Message Protocol
IGP
Internal Gateway Protocol
InterNIC
Internet Network Information Center
IP
Internet Protocol
ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Networks
IVP
installation verification procedure
Kbps
kilobits per second
LAN
local area network
LPD
line printer daemon
LPR
remote line printing
MBUF
memory buffer
MCP
Management Control Program
MFD
master file directory
MIB
Management Information Base
MIB-II
Management Information Base II
Glossary–49
Acronym
Meaning
MTU
maximum transmission unit
MX
Mail exchange
NAK
negative acknowledgment
NFS
Network File System
NIS
Network Information Service
NOC
Network Operations Center
NTP
Network Time Protocol
PDU
protocol data unit
PING
Packet Internet Groper
POP
Post Office Protocol
PPP
Point-to-Point Protocol
PSDN
Packet Switching Data Network
PWIP
PATHWORKS Internet Protocol
RARP
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
RCP
remote copy
REXEC
remote execute
RFC
Request for Comments
RLOGIN
remote login
RIP
Routing Information Protocol
RMS
Record Management Services
RPC
remote procedure call
RSH
remote shell
RTL
run-time library
RTT
round-trip time
SLIP
Serial Line Internet Protocol
SMI
structure of management information
SMTP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol
TAC
terminal access controller
TCP
Transmission Control Protocol
TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TFTP
Trivial File Transfer Protocol
TP
Time Protocol
TTL
time to live
UAF
user authorization file
Glossary–50
Acronym
Meaning
UDP
User Datagram Protocol
UID
user identification (UNIX)
UTC
Coordinated Universal Time
UUCP
UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program
WAN
wide area network
WKS
well-known server
XDR
external data representation
Glossary–51
Index
A
Absolute domain name, 8–3
Access control, 7–4
Accounts
remote user, 7–4
user, 5–11, 6–3t
ACL (access control list), 2–9
definition, 2–9
ACP (ancillary control process), 1–5
Addressing
( See IP address )
Alias
cluster, 3–3
node identifier, 3–3
Anonymous FTP, 5–10
Anonymous user access, 5–13
Application layer protocols, 1–4
FTP, 1–4
LPR/LPD, 1–4
NFS, 1–5
TELNET, 1–4
TFTP, 1–4
Application programming interface
(API)
Berkeley Sockets, 1–5
ONC RPC, 1–6
QIO, 1–6
SNMP, 1–7
Application support
for PATHWORKS, 1–5
for SRI QIO, 1–5
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol),
1–3
ATM, 1–3
Automatic failover, 3–3
Auxiliary server, 6–1
B
Berkeley Sockets Interface, 1–5
BIND service, 8–1
BOOTP, 5–6
C
Clock tick, 5–2
Clusters, 3–3
Coexistence
definition of, 2–1
Configurations, 3–1
Connection-oriented protocols, 1–3
Connectionless protocols, 1–3
Connectivity services, 7–1
Container file system
definition of, 2–10
D
Data Link layer, 1–3
DCE, 2–2
DECnet over TCP/IP
support, 1–5
DHCP, 5–6
Directory structures
OpenVMS and UNIX differences, 2–3
DNS (Domain Name System), 3–4,
8–1
domain name
absolute, 8–3
fully qualified, 8–3
types of, 8–3
Domain name, 8–3
Dynamic routing, 5–3
E
Equivalent hosts, 5–11
Ethernet, 1–1
Export database, 7–4
F
Failover, 3–3
FDDI, 1–1, 1–3
File link
definition of, 2–7
differences between OpenVMS and
UNIX, 2–7
File ownership
differences between OpenVMS and
UNIX, 2–8
File protections
differences between OpenVMS and
UNIX, 2–9
File specifications
absolute and relative paths, 2–5
Index–1
differences between OpenVMS and
UNIX, 2–4
File structures
differences between OpenVMS and
UNIX, 2–8
File version numbers
differences between OpenVMS and
UNIX, 2–7
FINGER utility
definition of, 1–4
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
definition of, 1–4
Fully qualified domain name, 8–3
G
GATED (Gateway Routing Daemon),
5–4
H
Hard links, 2–8
definition of, 2–11
Middleware
definition of, 2–2
Migration
definition of, 2–1
Mount point, 7–3
Multihomed, 3–5
definition of, 1–3
N
Neighbor discovery, 9–1
Network server services, 5–1
Networks
OpenVMS and UNIX implementation
differences, 2–1
NFS (Network File System)
definition of, 1–4, 2–2
exporting, 7–3
mounting, 7–3
NIC (network interface card), 1–3
Node, 3–4
O
I
IMAP service
definition of, 1–5
Implementation differences between
UNIX and OpenVMS networks, 2–1
Interfaces
DHCP, 3–5
multiple, 3–5
primary, 3–5
pseudodevices, 3–6
Internet layer protocol, 1–3
InterNIC, 1–7
IP address
logical, 1–3
IPv6, 9–1
tunneling, 9–3
L
ODS-2 (On-Disk Structure Level 2)
definition of, 2–11
ODS-5 (On-Disk Structure Level 5)
definition of, 2–11
ONC RPC programming interface,
1–6
OPCOM (operator communication
manager), 4–3
Open system
definition of, 2–1
OpenVMS
IMAP Server, 6–7
IPv6 processes, 9–1
operating system TCP/IP features, 4–1
POP server security features, 6–2
porting existing IPv4 applications to
IPv6, 9–9
support for AAAA lookups over IPv4,
9–10
Link files
( See File link )
Load balancing, 3–3
Load broker, 3–4
LPR/LPD (line printer/line printer
daemon)
definition of, 1–4
M
MAC (media access control), 5–9
Mail services, 6–1
Metric server, 3–4
MFD (master file directory)
Index–2
P
PATHWORKS
support, 1–5
PC-NFS
definition of, 1–4
POP (Post Office Protocol)
definition of, 1–5
Portmapper
definition of, 1–7
Primary interface, 3–5
Programming environment, 1–5
Proxy database, 7–4
Pseudointerface, 3–6
PWIP driver, 1–5
PWIPACP, 1–5
definition of, 1–4
TELNETSYM (TELNET print
symbiont)
definition of, 1–4
TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol),
1–4
Q
QIO programming interface , 1–6
R
R commands
definition of, 5–10
Remote commands
( See R commands )
Requests for Comments (RFCs)
definition of, 1–7
Round-robin scheduling, 3–4
ROUTED (Routing Daemon), 5–4
RPC (remote procedure call)), 2–3
S
Serial connection, 3–6
SLIP, 1–1
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer
Protocol)
definition of, 1–5
Static routing, 5–3
Symbolic links, 2–8
T
TCP, 1–3
( See also Transport layer protocols )
TELNET
Token ring, 1–3
Transport layer protocols, 1–3
TCP, 1–3
UDP, 1–3
triangle routing, 9–2
Tunnel, configured, 9–3
U
UDP (User Datagram Protocol), 1–3
( See also Transport layer protocols )
UNIX
Berkeley Sockets Interface on, 1–5
clients, 7–4
DNS/BIND on, 8–1
root, 7–4
TELNET on, 1–4
understanding implementation
differences between OpenVMS and,
2–1
use of identification codes, 7–4
X protocol, 7–5
X
X protocol, 7–5
XDM
definition of, 1–4
XDR (external data representation),
2–3
Index–3
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement