PHY131H1F Introduction to Physics I Review of the first half Chapters 1-8 + Error Analysis • • • • • • • • Position, Velocity, Acceleration Significant Figures, Measurements, Errors Equations of constant acceleration Vectors, Relative Motion Forces and Newton’s 3 Laws Free Body Diagrams Equilibrium and Non-equilibrium Problems Circular Motion, Centripetal Force 1 The Particle Model Often motion of the object as a whole is not influenced by details of the object’s size and shape We only need to keep track of a single point on the object So we can treat the object as if all its mass were concentrated into a single point A mass at a single point in space is called a particle Particles have no size, no shape and no top, bottom, front or back Below us a motion diagram of a car stopping, using the particle model 2 Position-versus-Time Graphs • Below is a motion diagram, made at 1 frame per minute, of a student walking to school. A motion diagram is one way to represent the student’s motion. Another way is to make a graph of x versus t for the student: 3 Acceleration Sometimes an object’s velocity is constant as it moves More often, an object’s velocity changes as it moves Acceleration describes a change in velocity Consider an object whose velocity changes from v1 to v2 during the time interval Δt The quantity Δv = v2 – v1 is the change in velocity The rate of change of velocity is called the average acceleration: 4 Acceleration (a.k.a. “instantaneous acceleration”) v dv a lim t 0 t dt v0 v 1 v a Units of v are m/s. Units of a are m/s2. 5 A ball rolls up a ramp, and then down the ramp. We keep track of the position of the ball at 6 instants as it climbs up the ramp. At instant 6, it stops momentarily as it turns around. Then it rolls back down. Shown below is the motion diagram for the final 6 instants as it rolls down the ramp. At which instant is the speed of the ball the greatest? A. B. C. D. E. 6 9 11 The speed is zero at point 6, but the same at points 7 to 11 The speed is the same at points 6 through 11 6 A ball rolls up a ramp, and then down the ramp. We keep track of the position of the ball at 6 instants as it climbs up the ramp. At instant 6, it stops momentarily as it turns around. Then it rolls back down. Shown below is the motion diagram for the final 6 instants as it rolls down the ramp. At which instant is the speed of the ball the greatest? A. B. C. D. E. 6 9 11 The speed is zero at point 6, but the same at points 7 to 11 The speed is the same at points 6 through 11 7 A ball rolls up a ramp, and then down the ramp. We keep track of the position of the ball at 6 instants as it climbs up the ramp. At instant 6, it stops momentarily as it turns around. Then it rolls back down. Shown below is the motion diagram for the final 6 instants as it rolls down the ramp. At which instant is the acceleration of the ball the greatest? A. B. C. D. 6 9 11 The acceleration is zero at point 6, but about the same at points 7 to 11 E. The acceleration is about the same at points 6 through 11 8 A ball rolls up a ramp, and then down the ramp. We keep track of the position of the ball at 6 instants as it climbs up the ramp. At instant 6, it stops momentarily as it turns around. Then it rolls back down. Shown below is the motion diagram for the final 6 instants as it rolls down the ramp. At which instant is the acceleration of the ball the greatest? A. B. C. D. 6 9 11 The acceleration is zero at point 6, but about the same at points 7 to 11 E. The acceleration is about the same at points 6 through 11 9 Unit Conversions It is important to be able to convert back and forth between SI units and other units One effective method is to write the conversion factor as a ratio equal to one Because multiplying by 1 does not change a value, these ratios are easily used for unit conversions For example, to convert the length 2.00 feet to meters, use the ratio: So that: 10 Significant Figures It’s important in science and engineering to state clearly what you know about a situation – no less, and no more For example, if you report a length as 6.2 m, you imply that the actual value is between 6.15 m and 6.25 m and has been rounded to 6.2 The number 6.2 has two significant figures More precise measurement could give more significant figures The appropriate number of significant figures is determined by the data provided Calculations follow the “weakest link” rule: the input value with the smallest number of significant figures determines the number of significant figures to use in 11 reporting the output value 12 When do I round? • The final answer of a problem should be displayed to the correct number of significant figures • Numbers in intermediate calculations should not be rounded off • It’s best to keep lots of digits in the calculations to avoid round-off error, which can compound if there are several steps 13 Suggested Problem Solving Strategy • MODEL Think about and simplify the situation, guess at what the right answer might be. • VISUALIZE • SOLVE • ASSESS Draw a diagram. It doesn’t have to be artistic: stick figures and blobs are okay! Set up the equations, solve for what you want to find. (This takes time..) Check your units, significant figures, do a “sanity check”: does my answer make sense? This is just a suggested strategy. Whatever method works for you is fine, as long as you don’t make a mistake, 14 and you show how you got to the correct answer, it’s 100%! Error Analysis Almost every time you make a measurement, the result will not be an exact number, but it will be a range of possible values. The range of values associated with a measurement is described by the uncertainty, or error. 1600 ± 100 apples: 1600 is the value 100 is the error Exactly 3 apples (no error) 15 Errors Errors eliminate the need to report measurements with vague terms like “approximately” or “≈”. Errors give a quantitative way of stating your confidence level in your measurement. Saying the answer is 10 ± 2 means you are 68% confident that the actual number is between 8 and 12. It also implies that and 14 (the 2-σ range). N A histogram of many, many measurements of the same thing: ±1 σ ±2 σ 16 (x x ) 2 The Gaussian: N(x) N(x) Ae 2 2 A x x x x A is the maximum amplitude. x is the mean or average. σ is the standard deviation of the distribution. 17 Normal Distribution σ is the standard deviation of the distribution Statisticians often call the square of the standard deviation, σ2, the variance σ is a measure of the width of the curve: a larger σ means a wider curve 68% of the area under the curve of a Gaussian lies between the mean minus the standard deviation and the mean plus the standard deviation 95% of the area under the curve is between the mean minus twice the standard deviation and the mean plus twice the standard deviation 18 Estimating the Mean from a Sample Suppose you make N measurements of a quantity x, and you expect these measurements to be normally distributed Each measurement, or trial, you label with a number i, where i = 1, 2, 3, etc You do not know what the true mean of the distribution is, and you cannot know this However, you can estimate the mean by adding up all the individual measurements and dividing by N: N 1 xest xi N i1 19 Estimating the Standard Deviation from a Sample Suppose you make N measurements of a quantity x, and you expect these measurements to be normally distributed It is impossible to know the true standard deviation of the distribution The best estimate of the standard deviation is: N 1 2 est (xi xest ) N 1 i1 The quantity N – 1 is called the number of degrees of freedom In this case, it is the number of measurements minus one because you used one number from a previous calculation 20 (mean) in order to find the standard deviation. Reading Error (Digital) For a measurement with an instrument with a digital readout, the reading error is usually “± one-half of the last digit.” This means one-half of the power of ten represented in the last digit. With the digital thermometer shown, the last digit represents values of a tenth of a degree, so the reading error is ½ × 0.1 = 0.05°C You should write the temperature as 12.80 ± 0.05 °C. 21 Significant Figures when Error are Involved There are two general rules for significant figures used in experimental sciences: 1. Errors should be specified to one, or at most two, significant figures. 2. The most precise column in the number for the error should also be the most precise column in the number for the value. So if the error is specified to the 1/100th column, the quantity itself should also be specified to the 1/100th column. 22 Propagation of Errors of Precision When you have two or more quantities with known errors you may sometimes want to combine them to compute a derived number You can use the rules of Error Propagation to infer the error in the derived quantity We assume that the two directly measured quantities are x and y, with errors Δx and Δy respectively The measurements x and y must be independent of each other. The fractional error is the value of the error divided by the value of the quantity: Δx / x To use these rules for quantities which cannot be negative, 23 the fractional error should be much less than one Propagation of Errors • Rule #1 (sum or difference rule): • If z = x + y • or z = x – y • then z x y 2 2 • Rule #2 (product or division rule): • If z = xy • or z = x/y • x y z x y z 2 then 2 24 Propagation of Errors • Rule #2.1 (multiply by exact constant rule): • If z = xy or z = x/y • and x is an exact number, so that Δx=0 • then z x y • Rule #3 (exponent rule): n • If z = x • then z x n z x 25 The Error in the Mean Many individual, independent measurements are repeated N times Each individual measurement has the same error Δx Using error propagation you can show that the error in the estimated mean is: xest x N 26 The 4 Equations of Constant Acceleration: 1. vf vi at Does not contain position! 2. s s v t 1 a(t) 2 f i i 2 3. v 2 v 2 2a(s s ) f i f i v i v f 4. sf si t 2 Does not contain vf ! Does not contain t ! Does not contain a ! (but you know it’s constant) Strategy: When a = constant, you can use one of these equations. Figure out which variable you don’t know and don’t care about, and use the equation which doesn’t 27 contain it. Free Fall The motion of an object moving under the influence of gravity only, and no other forces, is called free fall Two objects dropped from the same height will, if air resistance can be neglected, hit the ground at the same time and with the same speed Consequently, any two objects in free fall, regardless of their mass, have the same acceleration: The apple and feather seen 28 here are falling in a vacuum. Free Fall Figure (a) shows the motion diagram of an object that was released from rest and falls freely Figure (b) shows the object’s velocity graph The velocity graph is a straight line with a slope: where g is a positive number which is equal to 9.80 m/s2 on the surface of the earth Other planets have different values of g 29 Two-Dimensional Kinematics If the velocity vector’s angle θ is measured from the positive x-direction, the velocity components are where the particle’s speed is Conversely, if we know the velocity components, we can determine the direction of motion: 30 Projectile Motion The start of a projectile’s motion is called the launch The angle θ of the initial velocity v0 above the x-axis is called the launch angle The initial velocity vector can be broken into components where v0 is the initial speed 31 Projectile Motion Gravity acts downward Therefore, a projectile has no horizontal acceleration Thus The vertical component of acceleration ay is −g of free fall The horizontal component of ax is zero Projectiles are in free fall 32 Reasoning About Projectile Motion A heavy ball is launched exactly horizontally at height h above a horizontal field. At the exact instant that the ball is launched, a second ball is simply dropped from height h. Which ball hits the ground first? If air resistance is neglected, the balls hit the ground simultaneously The initial horizontal velocity of the first ball has no influence over its vertical motion Neither ball has any initial vertical motion, so both fall distance h in the same amount of time 33 Range of a Projectile A projectile with initial speed v0 has a launch angle of θ above the horizontal. How far does it travel over level ground before it returns to the same elevation from which it was launched? This distance is sometimes called the range of a projectile Example 4.5 from your textbook shows: The maximum distance occurs for θ = 45° Trajectories of a projectile launched at different angles with a speed of 99 m/s. 34 Reference Frames Relative Velocity • Relative velocities are found as the time derivative of the relative positions. • CA is the velocity of C relative to A. • CB is the velocity of C relative to B. • AB is the velocity of reference frame A relative to reference frame B. • This is known as the Galilean transformation of velocity. 35 Slide 4-69 Relative Motion • Note the “cancellation” • vTG = velocity of the Train relative to the Ground • vPT = velocity of the Passenger relative to the Train • vPG = velocity of the Passenger relative to the Ground vPG = vPT + vTG Inner subscripts disappear 36 You are running toward the right at 5 m/s toward an elevator that is moving up at 2 m/s. Relative to you, the direction and magnitude of the elevator’s velocity are A. B. C. D. E. down and to the right, less than 2 m/s. up and to the left, less than 2 m/s. up and to the left, more than 2 m/s. up and to the right, less than 2 m/s. up and to the right, more than 2 m/s. 37 You are running toward the right at 5 m/s toward an elevator that is moving up at 2 m/s. Relative to you, the direction and magnitude of the elevator’s velocity are A. B. C. D. E. down and to the right, less than 2 m/s. up and to the left, less than 2 m/s. up and to the left, more than 2 m/s. up and to the right, less than 2 m/s. up and to the right, more than 2 m/s. 38 What is a force? A force is a push or a pull A force acts on an object Pushes and pulls are applied to something From the object’s perspective, it has a force exerted on it • The S.I. unit of force is the Newton (N) • 1 N = 1 kg m s–2 39 Tactics: Drawing force vectors 40 41 N1 Newton’s First Law The natural state of an object with no net external force on it is to either remain at rest or continue to move in a straight line with a constant velocity. 42 Inertial Reference Frames If a car stops suddenly, you may be “thrown” forward You do have a forward acceleration relative to the car However, there is no force pushing you forward This guy thinks there’s a force hurling him into the windshield. What a dummy! We define an inertial reference frame as one in which Newton’s laws are valid The interior of a crashing car is not an inertial reference 43 frame! Thinking About Force Every force has an agent which causes the force Forces exist at the point of contact between the agent and the object (except for the few special cases of long-range forces) Forces exist due to interactions happening now, not due to what happened in the past Consider a flying arrow A pushing force was required to accelerate the arrow as it was shot However, no force is needed to keep the arrow moving forward as it flies It continues to move because of inertia 44 What is Mass? • Mass is a scalar quantity that describes an object’s inertia. • It describes the amount of matter in an object. • Mass is an intrinsic property of an object. • It tells us something about the object, regardless of where the object is, what it’s doing, or whatever forces may be acting on it. 45 What Do Forces Do? A Virtual Experiment Attach a stretched rubber band to a 1 kg block Use the rubber band to pull the block across a horizontal, frictionless table Keep the rubber band stretched by a fixed amount We find that the block moves with a constant acceleration 46 N2 Newton’s Second Law The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it, and inversely proportional to its mass. Fnet a m 47 Equilibrium An object on which the net force is zero is in equilibrium If the object is at rest, it is in static equilibrium If the object is moving along a straight line with a constant velocity it is in dynamic equilibrium The requirement for either type of equilibrium is: The concept of equilibrium is essential for the engineering analysis of stationary objects such 48 as bridges. Non-Equilibrium Suppose the x- and y-components of acceleration are independent of each other That is, ax does not depend on y or vy, and ay does not depend on x or vx Your problem-solving strategy is to: 1. Draw a free-body diagram 2. Use Newton’s second law in component form: The force components (including proper signs) are found from the free-body diagram 49 Universal Law of Gravitation Gravity is an attractive, long-range force between any two objects. When two objects with masses m1 and m2 are separated by distance r, each object pulls on the other with a force given by Newton’s law of gravity, as follows: (Sometimes called “Newton’s 4th Law”, or “Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation”) 50 Gravity for Earthlings If you happen to live on the surface of a large planet with radius R and mass M, you can write the gravitational force even more simply as where the quantity g is defined to be: At sea level, g = 9.83 m/s2. At 39 km altitude, g = 9.71 m/s2. 51 Gravity: FG = mg is just a short form! and are the same equation, with different notation! The only difference is that in the second equation we have assumed that m2 = M (mass of the earth) and r ≈ R (radius of the earth). 52 Weight: A Measurement You weigh apples in the grocery store by placing them in a spring scale and stretching a spring The reading of the spring scale is the magnitude of Fsp We define the weight of an object as the reading Fsp of a calibrated spring scale on which the object is stationary Because Fsp is a force, weight is measured in newtons 53 Weight: A Measurement The figure shows a man weighing himself in an accelerating elevator Looking at the free-body diagram, the y-component of Newton’s second law is: The man’s weight as he accelerates vertically is: You weigh more as an elevator accelerates upward! 54 Normal Force When an object sits on a table, the table surface exerts an upward contact force on the object This pushing force is directed perpendicular to the surface, and thus is called the normal force A table is made of atoms joined together by molecular bonds which can be modeled as springs Normal force is a result of many molecular springs being compressed ever so slightly 55 Tension Force When a string or rope or wire pulls on an object, it exerts a contact force called the tension force The tension force is in the direction of the string or rope A rope is made of atoms joined together by molecular bonds Molecular bonds can be modeled as tiny springs holding the atoms together Tension is a result of many molecular springs stretching ever so slightly Why does friction exist? Because at the microscopic level, nothing is smooth! Static Friction The figure shows a person pushing on a box that, due to static friction, isn’t moving Looking at the free-body diagram, the x-component of Newton’s first law requires that the static friction force must exactly balance the pushing force: fs points in the direction opposite to the way the object would move if there were no static friction 58 Static friction acts in response to an applied force. 59 Maximum Static Friction There’s a limit to how big fs can get. If you push hard enough, the object slips and starts to move. In other words, the static friction force has a maximum possible size fs max. • The two surfaces don’t slip against each other as long as fs ≤ fs max. •A static friction force fs > fs max is not physically possible. Many experiments have shown the following approximate relation usually holds: where n is the magnitude of the normal force, and the proportionality constant μs is called the “coefficient of 60 static friction”. “Kinetic Friction” fk • Also called “sliding friction” • When two flat surfaces are in contact and sliding relative to one another, heat is created, so it slows down the motion (kinetic energy is being converted to thermal energy). • Many experiments have shown the following approximate relation usually holds for the magnitude of fk: f k k n fk where n is the magnitude of the normal force. The direction of fk is opposite the direction of motion. 61 A Model of Friction The friction force response to an increasing applied force. 62 A wooden block weighs 100 N, and is sitting stationary on a smooth horizontal concrete surface. The coefficient of static friction between wood and concrete is 0.2. A 5 N horizontal force is applied to the block, pushing toward the right, but the block does not move. What is the force of static friction of the concrete on the block? A. 100 N, to the left B. 20 N, to the left F C. 5 N, to the left D. 20 N, to the right E. 5 N, to the right 63 A wooden block weighs 100 N, and is sitting stationary on a smooth horizontal concrete surface. The coefficient of static friction between wood and concrete is 0.2. A 5 N horizontal force is applied to the block, pushing toward the right, but the block does not move. What is the force of static friction of the concrete on the block? A. 100 N, to the left B. 20 N, to the left F C. 5 N, to the left D. 20 N, to the right E. 5 N, to the right 64 A wooden block weighs 100 N, and is sitting stationary on a smooth horizontal concrete surface. The coefficient of static friction between wood and concrete is 0.2. A horizontal force is applied to the block, pushing toward the right. What is the magnitude of the maximum pushing force you can apply and have the block remain stationary? F A. B. C. D. E. 200 N 100 N 20 N 10 N 5N 65 A wooden block weighs 100 N, and is sitting stationary on a smooth horizontal concrete surface. The coefficient of static friction between wood and concrete is 0.2. A horizontal force is applied to the block, pushing toward the right. What is the magnitude of the maximum pushing force you can apply and have the block remain stationary? F A. B. C. D. E. 200 N 100 N 20 N 10 N 5N 66 Rolling Motion If you slam on the brakes so hard that the car tires slide against the road surface, this is kinetic friction Under normal driving conditions, the portion of the rolling wheel that contacts the surface is stationary, not sliding If your car is accelerating or decelerating or turning, it is static friction of the road on the wheels that provides the net force which accelerates the car 67 Rolling Friction A car with no engine or brakes applied does not roll forever; it gradually slows down This is due to rolling friction The force of rolling friction can be calculated as where μr is called the coefficient of rolling friction. The rolling friction direction is opposite to the velocity of the rolling object relative to the surface 68 Drag The air exerts a drag force on objects as they move through the air Faster objects experience a greater drag force than slower objects The drag force on a high-speed motorcyclist is significant The drag force direction is opposite the object’s velocity 69 Drag For normal sized objects on earth traveling at a speed v which is less than a few hundred meters per second, air resistance can be modeled as: A is the cross-section area of the object ρ is the density of the air, which is about 1.2 kg/m3 C is the drag coefficient, which is a dimensionless number that depends on the shape of the object 70 Cross Sectional Area depends on size, shape, and direction of motion. …Consider the forces on a falling piece of paper, crumpled and not crumpled. 71 Terminal Speed The drag force from the air increases as an object falls and gains speed If the object falls far enough, it will eventually reach a speed at which D = FG At this speed, the net force is zero, so the object falls at a constant speed, called the terminal speed vterm 72 Terminal Speed The figure shows the velocity-versus-time graph of a falling object with and without drag Without drag, the velocity graph is a straight line with ay = −g When drag is included, the vertical component of the velocity asymptotically approaches −vterm 73 Propulsion If you try to walk across a frictionless floor, your foot slips and slides backward In order to walk, your foot must stick to the floor as you straighten your leg, moving your body forward The force that prevents slipping is static friction The static friction force points in the forward direction It is static friction that propels you forward! What force causes this sprinter to accelerate? 74 Interacting Objects If object A exerts a force on object B, then object B exerts a force on object A. The pair of forces, as shown, is called an action/reaction pair. 75 N3 Newton’s Third Law If object 1 acts on object 2 with a force, then object 2 acts on object 1 with an equal force in the opposite direction. F1 on 2 F2 on 1 76 Acceleration Constraints If two objects A and B move together, their accelerations are constrained to be equal: aA = aB This equation is called an acceleration constraint Consider a car being towed by a truck In this case, the acceleration constraint is aCx = aTx = ax Because the accelerations of both objects are equal, we can drop the subscripts C and T and call both of them ax 77 Acceleration Constraints Sometimes the acceleration of A and B may have different signs Consider the blocks A and B in the figure The string constrains the two objects to accelerate together But, as A moves to the right in the +x direction, B moves down in the −y direction In this case, the acceleration constraint is aAx = −aBy 78 The Massless String Approximation Often in physics problems the mass of the string or rope is much less than the masses of the objects that it connects. In such cases, we can adopt the following massless string approximation: 79 In the figure to the right, is the tension in the string greater than, less than, or equal to the force of gravity on block B? A. Equal to B. Greater than C. Less than 80 In the figure to the right, is the tension in the string greater than, less than, or equal to the force of gravity on block B? A. Equal to B. Greater than C. Less than 81 Motion on a Circular Path Consider a particle at a distance r from the origin, at an angle θ from the positive x axis The angle may be measured in degrees, revolutions (rev) or radians (rad), that are related by: 1 rev = 360° = 2π rad If the angle is measured in radians, then there is a simple relation between θ and the arc length s that the particle travels along the edge of a circle of radius r: 82 Angular Velocity As the time interval Δt becomes very small, we arrive at the definition of instantaneous angular velocity 83 Angular Velocity in Uniform Circular Motion When angular velocity ω is constant, this is uniform circular motion In this case, as the particle goes around a circle one time, its angular displacement is Δθ = 2π during one period Δt = T The absolute value of the constant angular velocity is related to the period of the motion by 84 Angular Velocity of a Rotating Object The figure shows a wheel rotating on an axle Points 1 and 2 turn through the same angle as the wheel rotates That is, Δθ1 = Δθ2 during some time interval Δt Therefore ω1 = ω2 = ω All points on the wheel rotate with the same angular velocity We can refer to ω as the angular velocity of the wheel 85 Tangential Velocity The tangential velocity component vt is the rate ds/dt at which the particle moves around the circle, where s is the arc length The tangential velocity and the angular velocity are related by In this equation, the units of vt are m/s, the units of ω are rad/s, and the units of r are m 86 Centripetal Acceleration In uniform circular motion, although the speed is constant, there is an acceleration because the direction of the velocity vector is always changing The acceleration of uniform circular motion is called centripetal acceleration The direction of the centripetal acceleration is toward the center of the circle: 87 Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion An object in uniform circular motion is not traveling at a constant velocity in a straight line Consequently, the particle must have a net force acting on it Without such a force, the object would move off in a straight line tangent to the circle The car would end up in the ditch! Highway and racetrack curves are banked to allow the normal force 88 of the road to provide the centripetal acceleration of the turn. Banked Curves Real highway curves are banked by being tilted up at the outside edge of the curve The radial component of the normal force can provide centripetal acceleration needed to turn the car For a curve of radius r banked at an angle θ, the exact speed at which a car must take the curve without assistance from friction is v0 rg tan 89 Banked Curves Consider a car going around a banked curve at a speed higher than v0 rg tan In this case, static friction must prevent the car from slipping up the hill 90 Banked Curves Consider a car going around a banked curve at a speed slower than v rg tan 0 In this case, static friction must prevent the car from slipping down the hill 91 Circular Orbits An object in a low circular orbit has acceleration: If the object moves in a circle of radius r at speed vorbit the centripetal acceleration is: The required speed for a circular orbit near a planet’s surface, neglecting air resistance, is: 92 Loop-the-loop The figure shows a rollercoaster going around a vertical loop-the-loop of radius r Because the car is moving in a circle, there must be a net force toward the center of the circle 93 Loop-the-loop The figure shows the roller-coaster free body diagram at the bottom of the loop Since the net force is toward the center (upward at this point) n > FG This is why you “feel heavy” at the bottom of the valley on a roller coaster The normal force at the bottom is larger than mg 94 A car is rolling over the top of a hill at speed v. At this instant, FG mg A. n > FG. B. n < FG. C. n = FG. D.We can’t tell about n without knowing v. 95 A car is rolling over the top of a hill at speed v. At this instant, FG mg A. n > FG. B. n < FG. C. n = FG. D.We can’t tell about n without knowing v. 96 Angular Acceleration Suppose a wheel’s rotation is speeding up or slowing down This is called nonuniform circular motion We can define the angular acceleration as The units of α are rad/s2 The figure to the right shows a wheel with angular acceleration α = 2 rad/s2 97 The Sign of Angular Acceleration If ω is counter-clockwise and |ω| is increasing, then α is positive If ω is counter-clockwise and |ω| is decreasing, then α is negative If ω is clockwise and |ω| is decreasing, then α is positive If ω is clockwise and |ω| is increasing, then α is negative 98 Angular Kinematics The same relations that hold for linear motion between ax, vx and x apply analogously to rotational motion for α, ω and θ There is a graphical relationship between α and ω: The table shows a comparison of the rotational and linear kinematics equations for constant α or constant as: 99 Nonuniform Circular Motion The particle in the figure is speeding up as it moves around the circle The tangential acceleration is The centripetal acceleration is ar = v2/r = ω2r 100

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