M-Audio | StudioPro 4 | User`s manual | M-Audio StudioPro 4 User`s manual

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DVD Studio Pro
User’s Manual
Includes instructions for installing and using your software
K Apple Computer, Inc
© 2001 Apple Computer, Inc. All rights reserved.
Under the copyright laws, this manual may not be copied, in whole or in part, without the written consent of Apple.
Your rights to the software are governed by the accompanying software license agreement.
The Apple logo is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. Use of the
“keyboard” Apple logo (Option-Shift-K) for commercial purposes without the prior written consent of Apple may
constitute trademark infringement and unfair competition in violation of federal and state laws.
Every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this manual is accurate. Apple is not responsible for
printing or clerical errors.
Apple Computer, Inc.
1 Infinite Loop
Cupertino, CA 95014-2084
408-996-1010
http://www.apple.com
Apple, the Apple logo, Final Cut Pro, FireWire, Mac, Macintosh, and QuickTime are trademarks of Apple Computer,
Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries.
DVD Studio Pro and Finder are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated or its subsidiaries and may be registered in certain
jurisdictions.
Other company and product names mentioned herein are trademarks of their respective companies. Mention of
third-party products is for informational purposes only and constitutes neither an endorsement nor a
recommendation. Apple assumes no responsibility with regard to the performance or use of these products.
Simultaneously published in the United States and Canada.
Contents
Preface
Getting Started With DVD Studio Pro
9
What Is DVD Studio Pro? 9
System Requirements 10
Hardware Requirements 10
Software Requirements 10
Software Installation and Registration 11
Installing and Registering DVD Studio Pro 11
Installing and Registering QuickTime Pro 11
Overview of the DVD Creation Process 12
Creating Source Material 12
Encoding Video and Audio 12
Authoring With DVD Studio Pro 13
Creating a Disc 13
Resources for Learning About DVD Studio Pro 14
1
DVD Studio Pro Tutorial
15
Getting the Tutorial Files and Starting the Program 16
DVD Studio Pro Building Blocks 17
The DVD Studio Pro Workspace 18
Importing Assets 19
Adding Assets With the Import Command 19
Adding Assets by Dragging 20
Viewing the Properties of an Item 21
Creating a Basic DVD 22
Setting Disc Properties 22
3
Adding a Track 22
Previewing Audio Streams 24
Creating a Multi-Angle Track 24
Adding Angles 25
Previewing Angles 25
Creating a Still Menu 26
Adding Buttons to a Still Menu 29
Naming the Buttons 30
Specifying Button States 30
Previewing Buttons 31
Creating a Motion Menu 32
Previewing a Motion Menu 34
Specifying Button States in Motion Menus 34
Adding Markers 35
Previewing Markers 37
Creating a Slideshow 37
Previewing Slideshows 39
Linking Things Together Using the Action Menus 39
Linking a Button to a Track 40
Jumping Somewhere When a Track Is Finished 41
Setting a Startup Action 41
Setting the Actions of Standard Remote Control Keys 42
Previewing Links and Actions 42
Expanding Your DVD 43
Creating a Story 43
Creating Interactive Markers 45
Specifying the Shape of the Button Area That Changes Color 47
Adding Subtitles 48
Adding Web Links to Your Project 48
Writing a Simple Script 51
Setting a Timeout Action 52
Testing Your Project 52
Building the Finished Project 53
Using the Apple DVD Player 54
4
Contents
What’s Next? 55
2
Preparing Source Material
57
Capturing Video and Audio 58
Capturing Video for 16:9 Aspect Ratio 58
Segmenting Your Material 59
Preparing Video Content 59
Encoding Video to MPEG Format 59
The QuickTime MPEG Encoder 59
Encoding Video for Multi-Angle Tracks 62
Preparing Audio Content 62
Encoding Audio 62
The A.Pack Application 63
Creating Material for Menus 63
Creating Graphics for Still Menus 63
Creating Video for Motion Menus 64
Creating Video for Interactive Markers 65
Creating Graphics for Slideshows 65
Preparing Graphics for Use With 16:9 Aspect Ratio 65
Building Menus in Multiple Languages 65
Preparing Subtitles 66
3
Using DVD Studio Pro
67
Setting Preferences for a New Project 68
Setting Disc Properties for a New Project 69
Setting Remote Control Properties for a New Project 70
Views Available in DVD Studio Pro 71
The Graphical View 72
Customizing the Appearance of the Graphical View 73
The Project View 74
The Property Inspector 76
The Editors 82
Preview Mode 82
Troubleshooting Windows 83
The Matrix Views 83
Contents
5
4
Working With Languages and Subtitles
87
Working With Languages 87
Setting Up Multiple Language Audio in Slideshows 89
The Subtitle Editor 89
Preparing Source Material for Subtitles 89
Setting Preferences for the Subtitle Editor 90
Starting a New Subtitle Project 91
Changing the Location and Duration of Subtitles 94
Locking and Unlocking Subtitle Positions 94
Linking Subtitles 94
Selecting Multiple Subtitles 94
Importing Subtitles 95
Compiling a Subtitle Stream 95
Working With Subtitle Streams in DVD Studio Pro 95
Keyboard Shortcuts 96
5
Using Scripts
97
Creating a Script 98
Assigning Scripts 99
Assigning Global Variables for Scripts 100
Viewing Script Properties 101
Scripting Reference 101
About Registers, Parameters, and Variables 101
Limitations of Variables and Registers 102
Script Reference Conventions 102
Numbers 102
Labels 103
Comments 103
Functions and Commands 103
Using NVRAM in DVD Studio Pro 110
Determining Whether NVRAM Is Available 112
6
Previewing, Testing, and Building Your DVD
Using Preview Mode 114
Limitations of Preview Mode 115
6
Contents
113
Previewing on an External Video Monitor 115
Debugging 116
Debugging in Preview Mode 116
Using Built-in Error Checking 118
Finding Missing Asset Files 118
Finding Unassigned Asset Files 119
Getting Information About Your Project 119
Using Project Description Files 119
Using the Log Window 120
Building Your Project 121
Tracking the Multiplexing Process 122
Solving Multiplexing Problems 122
Creating Your Disc 123
Appendix A
Using A.Pack to Encode AC-3 Sound
125
What Is A.Pack? 125
Creating AC-3: An Overview 125
Using A.Pack for Encoding 127
Opening A.Pack 128
Converting to AC-3 Format Using the Instant Encoder 128
Converting to AC-3 Format in Batches 129
Specifying Encoding Settings 131
Using A.Pack for Playback and Decoding 134
Setting Up Stereo Playback 134
Setting Up Multi-Channel Playback 134
Playing an AC-3 Stream 136
Decoding an AC-3 Stream 136
Getting Information 137
Options for Spatial Mixing 138
Using the Center Channel 138
Using Surround Channels 138
Limitations of the LFE Channel Versus the Subwoofer Signal 138
Accommodating Stereo Playback 139
Contents
7
Appendix B
More About DVD
141
DVD in Detail 141
Comparison of DVD and CD 141
Disc Types and Capacities 142
Physical Formats 143
Logical Formats 143
Video in DVD-Video 144
Audio in DVD Video 145
DVD-Audio Compatibility 148
Subtitles in DVD-Video 148
Text in DVD-Video 148
Navigation on a DVD-Video 149
File Structure of a DVD-Video 150
Copy-Protection and Region Coding 150
Specifications for DVD Compliance 152
Video 152
Audio 153
How the Technology Works 154
About Macrovision Copy-Protection 155
Index
8
Contents
157
P R E F A C E
Getting Started With DVD Studio Pro
What Is DVD Studio Pro?
DVD Studio Pro is software for authoring DVD-Video discs. It works with audio, video,
graphics, and text materials that you have already created and edited and orchestrates them
into a DVD that can be played on a DVD player or a suitably equipped computer.
DVD Studio Pro is both powerful and easy to use. If you have used such production tools as
Final Cut Pro, Adobe™ Photoshop, Media100, or Media Cleaner, DVD Studio Pro is easy to
learn. You can use it to construct sophisticated training material or prepare a motion picture
for release on DVD.
When you install DVD Studio Pro, you have access to the following tools (in addition to the
DVD-authoring software) to help you prepare your material, learn the program, and view
your DVD:
m QuickTime MPEG Encoder, for encoding video to MPEG-2 streams
m Apple A.Pack, for encoding audio in Dolby Digital® (AC-3) format
m Subtitle Editor (STE), for creating and importing subtitle streams
m Tutorial files, for creating a DVD project with prepared files to help you learn the program
m Apple DVD Player, for playing your finished project on the computer as if it were a
physical DVD
Read this preface for system requirements, a brief overview of the DVD-authoring process,
and resources for learning more about the program.
Then work through the tutorial in Chapter 1 to learn the basics of DVD Studio Pro.
9
System Requirements
You need the following hardware and software to use DVD Studio Pro:
Hardware Requirements
m
m
m
m
Computer with a G4 processor and an Apple-supplied AGP graphics card
128 megabytes (MB) of random-access memory (RAM)
DVD drive
Display software and hardware capable of 1024 x 768 pixels at thousands or
millions of colors
m For writing to disc: DVD-R recorder, DVD-RAM drive, or DLT tape drive
You should have at least twice as much hard disk storage space as the size of your project.
(For DVD-5, for example, you need 5 gigabytes [GB] for the source files, and another 5 GB to
hold the multiplexed project.) For best multiplexing performance, dedicate two or three
Ultra Wide A/V or FireWire hard disks to your project (make sure they contain only your
media and no other programs that might fragment the disk and decrease performance). If
you have three disks, use one for video assets, one for audio assets, and the third for the
finished files. If you have two disks, use one for source assets and one for final files.
Software Requirements
m
m
m
m
Mac OS 9.0.4 or 9.1
QuickTime Pro 4.1 or later (included on the DVD Studio Pro CD)
Apple DVD Player 2.3 or later (installed with the DVD Studio Pro software)
Edited video and audio files in MPEG or AC-3 format; or video creation and editing
software, such as Final Cut Pro or any video and audio editing programs that support
QuickTime and its component technology
m MPEG encoding software, such as the QuickTime MPEG Encoder included with
DVD Studio Pro. ( You can also use any MPEG encoder, software or hardware based, that
produces DVD-compliant streams.)
m Adobe Photoshop (version 4.0 or later) for creating menus and buttons
10
Preface
Software Installation and Registration
When you install DVD Studio Pro, the following items are placed on your hard disk in the
DVD Studio Pro folder:
m DVD Studio Pro application
m Subtitle Editor application
m A.Pack application
m DVD Studio Pro manual in PDF format
m Read Me file for DVD Studio Pro
If necessary, Apple DVD Player version 2.3 is also installed.
The DVD Studio Pro CD also comes with the latest version of QuickTime Pro, which must be
installed separately.
You need to install and register DVD Studio Pro and QuickTime Pro before you
can use the QuickTime MPEG Encoder.
Important
Installing and Registering DVD Studio Pro
To install the DVD Studio Pro software:
1
Insert the DVD Studio Pro CD into your CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive.
2
Open and read the Read Me file for late-breaking news.
3
Open the DVD Studio Pro Installer and follow the onscreen instructions.
You need to restart your computer when installation is complete.
4
After restarting your computer, open the DVD Studio Pro application and enter your
registration information and serial number. The serial number is on the sleeve of the
DVD Studio Pro CD.
Installing and Registering QuickTime Pro
To install QuickTime Pro:
1
Open the QuickTime Installer folder on the DVD Studio Pro CD.
2
Open the QuickTime Installer and follow the onscreen instructions.
3
When Choose Installation Type appears, click Custom, then click Continue.
4
Click Select All, then click Continue.
You need to restart your computer when installation is complete.
5
After restarting your computer, follow the instructions in the update titled “Read This Before
Installing DVD Studio Pro” that came with your copy of DVD Studio Pro. You need to supply
a registration name and the serial number printed on that sheet to unlock QuickTime Pro.
Getting Started With DVD Studio Pro
11
Overview of the DVD Creation Process
There are four steps to creating a DVD:
m Creating your source material
m Encoding video and audio in DVD-compatible formats
m Authoring (creating the disc’s menus and link structure and verifying navigation)
m Multiplexing (creating the final files for the disc) and creating the disc
DVD Studio Pro helps you with the last three parts of this process.
Creating Source Material
Before you use DVD Studio Pro you need to create, edit, and assemble your source material.
For example, you can use software such as Final Cut Pro to edit your video and add scene
transitions, special effects, and so on. You can design graphics for your project’s buttons and
menus using software such as Photoshop. Once your material has been created and edited,
you are ready to begin putting it together in DVD Studio Pro.
If you are converting an existing program to DVD, you need to gather your original video and
audio material and design graphics for the DVD menus.
See Chapter 2, “Preparing Source Material,” on page 57 for detailed information on how to
prepare your source material to work with DVD Studio Pro.
Encoding Video and Audio
The video and audio you use in your project needs to be encoded, that is, converted to
DVD-compliant formats. The most commonly used formats are MPEG-2 for video and AC-3
for audio. See Appendix B, “More About DVD,” on page 141 for more information about the
different formats that you can use and the pros and cons of each.
DVD Studio Pro is designed to work easily with files from Final Cut Pro, but you can use any
video and audio creation software that can create files compatible with the MPEG encoder
that you plan to use. (The encoder must be able to create DVD-compliant streams, with
audio and video in separate files.)
You will probably find it easiest to save assets as QuickTime movies and use the QuickTime
MPEG Encoder that comes with DVD Studio Pro. See “The QuickTime MPEG Encoder” on
page 59 for more information.
12
Preface
Authoring With DVD Studio Pro
The role of DVD Studio Pro is to orchestrate your linear video and audio material and
graphics into interactive DVD-Video, complete with menus, buttons, subtitles, and alternate
languages or sound tracks. You can script buttons to perform actions, define links between
parts of your material, and see a real-time preview of your DVD as you create it.
Here are the general steps for authoring your material in DVD Studio Pro:
1
Import your edited video, audio, graphics, and subtitle files into the program.
2
Create one or more tracks (a track is a segment of video, audio, and subtitle information).
3
Create one or more menus to define the structure of your DVD.
4
Add buttons to your menus to allow users to navigate.
5
Create interactivity in the form of scripts, slideshows, and Web links.
6
Link the tracks and interactive material on your DVD to menu buttons and to functions on
the remote control.
7
Preview and test as you go, using DVD Studio Pro’s real-time emulator/multiplexer.
8
Build the project as a set of files on your hard disk.
9
Record a DVD-R or DVD-RAM, or format a DLT tape, using DVD Studio Pro’s built-in
recording module.
Creating a Disc
The output of DVD Studio Pro is a folder on your hard disk containing multiplexed files.
(Multiplexed means that the contents of several different kinds of files—video, audio, and so
forth—have been combined into one file.)
You can open and play the contents of this folder as if it were on a DVD, using the Apple DVD
Player, or you can use the following methods to put the material on a disc:
m DVD-R: If you have a DVD-R drive, you can use the built-in recording module of
DVD Studio Pro to write the VIDEO_TS directory directly to a DVD-R recordable disc. The
resulting disc can be used in most DVD-Video players.
m DVD-RAM, DVD-RW, or DLT tape: You can use the built-in recording module of
DVD Studio Pro to write the VIDEO_TS directory to these media. If you want the
disc to work in standard DVD-Video players, you can send the disc or tape to a service
bureau or replicator.
Getting Started With DVD Studio Pro
13
Resources for Learning About DVD Studio Pro
The most effective way to learn about DVD Studio Pro is to work through the tutorial in
Chapter 1 of this manual. The tutorial will teach you the basic tasks you need to know to
work successfully with this program. In addition to this manual, DVD Studio Pro provides
other sources of support. See the table below to find the information you need:
Where to find
more information
14
Preface
This manual
m Go through Chapter 1, “DVD Studio Pro Tutorial,” to learn
how to use the program.
m See Chapters 2 and 3 for information on preparing your
material and setting preferences.
m See Chapters 4, 5, and 6 for information on working with
subtitles and scripts and building your disc.
m See Appendixes A and B to learn how to use the A.Pack
application and to find out more about DVD.
DVD Studio Pro Help
If you need help working with the software after you have
completed the tutorial, look in DVD Studio Pro Help by choosing
DVD Studio Pro Help from the Help menu.
Read Me file
You can find late-breaking information in this file on the
DVD Studio Pro CD.
Updates
Look in the box for other essential information.
Apple DVD Studio Pro
Web site
For general product information and updates, visit the Apple
DVD Studio Pro Web site at www.apple.com/dvd
C H A P T E R
1
1
DVD Studio Pro Tutorial
This tutorial gives you a hands-on introduction to DVD Studio Pro. In the two parts of
this step-by-step tutorial, you will create a basic DVD-Video project using many of the
key features of DVD Studio Pro, and then you will enhance it using some of the more
advanced tools.
You will learn how to do the following tasks:
m Create a new DVD Studio Pro project and set its properties
m Create a multi-angle video track with audio streams and subtitles
m Create still and motion menus
m Add markers to tracks and set startup actions and links
m Add buttons to menus and chapter markers
m Assemble a slideshow using still images and audio
m Write a simple script
m Preview and test your project
m Build the finished project on your hard disk
m Play the project using the Apple DVD Player
The tutorial takes approximately one hour.
Note: DVD Studio Pro can create either PAL or NTSC projects. The sample material is in
NTSC format. Even if you live in an area where PAL is the standard, you can still complete the
tutorial using the supplied sample files.
15
Getting the Tutorial Files and Starting the Program
If you haven’t installed DVD Studio Pro yet, follow the instructions in the Preface, “Getting
Started With DVD Studio Pro,” on page 9. Be sure to look at the Read Me file for any new
information about DVD Studio Pro.
You need at least 500 megabytes (MB) of free space on your hard disk to complete the
tutorial. The tutorial files require about 300 MB of free space. You need an additional 200 MB
to write the finished project.
1
Copy the Tutorial folder from the DVD Studio Pro CD to your hard disk.
When you’re finished copying, your hard disk should contain a folder with the following files:
2
Double-click the DVD Studio Pro icon (in the DVD Studio Pro folder) to start the program.
The DVD Studio Pro workspace appears. You use the windows in this workspace to build
your DVD project.
16
Chapter 1
DVD Studio Pro Building Blocks
In DVD Studio Pro, every project is constructed from these basic components:
m Assets: Video, audio, graphics, and subtitle files.
m Tracks, markers, and stories: Each track has up to 9 video streams, 8 audio streams, and
32 subtitle streams, linked together in a single structure (the DVD specification calls these
video title sets). Each track can have up to 99 markers (spots within the track where you
can start play). Markers can be arranged in sequences called stories, which can be thought
of as “virtual” tracks.
m Slideshows: Each slideshow can use up to 99 assets, which can be MPEG video streams or
still pictures in PICT format. Up to 8 audio streams can be assigned to each asset.
m Menus and buttons: A menu is a graphic backdrop for buttons, which allow the viewer to
interact with your program. You can create as many menus as you want. Each menu can
have up to 36 buttons.
m Scripts: These are simple programs that can add sophisticated interactivity to your DVD.
DVD Studio Pro scripts can also use the special memory (NVRAM) in the Philips
Professional DVD Player.
m Languages: These labels make it easy to construct multi-language titles. You can put up
to 16 languages on a disc.
DVD Studio Pro Tutorial
17
The DVD Studio Pro Workspace
In DVD Studio Pro, you work in four main windows: the Graphical View, the Project View, the
Property Inspector, and the Preview window (which you see when you preview an item in
your project). When you begin a new project, these windows are empty. Before you can
begin creating a project, you need to import the files you want to work with into the Assets
container in the Project View.
Graphical View window
Project View
window and tabs
18
Chapter 1
Assets container (“torn out”
from the Project View)
Property
Inspector
Importing Assets
The various files in your project—video, audio, and graphics files—are collectively called
assets. You can import assets individually or in groups, either by using the Import command
or by dragging files from the Finder.
Adding Assets With the Import Command
1
Choose Import from the File menu.
2
Navigate to the Tutorial folder using the controls in the upper half of the dialog box.
3
Display the contents of the folder called “Graphic files” in the upper half of the dialog box,
and click the Add All button to add all the files to the list of items to import.
4
Next, navigate to the “Video files - MPEG2” folder, select Offbeat Scenes.m2v, and click the
Add button to add it to the list of items to import.
5
When all the files have been selected, click the Import button to import them into the
Assets container.
DVD Studio Pro Tutorial
19
Adding Assets by Dragging
It’s often faster and easier to add assets by dragging them to a project.
20
Chapter 1
1
In the Finder, select the remaining files (shown below).
2
Drag the selected items to the Assets container.
3
When you’re finished adding assets, make sure the Assets container has the following files:
Viewing the Properties of an Item
Every item in a DVD project has properties and settings that affect its behavior within the
project. You can view and change most properties using the Property Inspector. The Property
Inspector always shows the properties of the currently selected item.
To see the properties of an item:
m Click the item in any of the DVD Studio Pro windows.
Note: If you don’t see the Property Inspector, choose it from the Windows menu.
To see the properties of the entire disc:
m Click an empty area of any DVD Studio Pro window.
DVD Studio Pro Tutorial
21
Creating a Basic DVD
In this part of the tutorial you will create a simple DVD that you can interact with using the
Preview Mode of DVD Studio Pro. In the second part of the tutorial, you will learn how to
enhance parts of your project and add additional interactivity to it.
Setting Disc Properties
After importing the assets for your project, you need to make some basic settings before you
begin adding and creating the different disc elements.
1
View the disc properties in the Property Inspector by clicking an empty area of any
DVD Studio Pro window.
2
Choose the video standard for your menus.
3
In the Region Code pop-up menu, leave the default setting—All Regions Selected—for now.
4
Now is a good time to save your project. Choose Save As from the File menu and give it a name.
Note: It’s a good idea to save your project periodically throughout this tutorial so that you
don’t need to repeat sections in case you are interrupted.
Adding a Track
The pieces of video and audio that make up your DVD are held in tracks. A track is simply a
collection of video, audio, and subtitles that play as a unit. A DVD can have anywhere from 1
to 99 tracks. Each track can contain up to 9 video streams (angles), 8 audio streams (different
sound tracks), 32 subtitle streams, and 99 chapter markers and stories.
Your first track will have one video and two audio streams.
1
Click the Add Track button at the bottom of the Graphical View.
2
In the Track area of the Property Inspector, name the track OffBeat Scenes. ( You can also
change the name in the text box on the track tile.)
3
In the Video area of the Property Inspector, choose OffBeat Scenes.m2v from the Asset popup menu.
The assets available in this pop-up menu are those that you imported earlier.
22
Chapter 1
4
Click the audio icon on the track tile.
The track’s Audio Streams container opens.
5
Choose New Audio Stream from the Item menu.
6
Select the Untitled Audio item in the container. Then locate the Asset pop-up menu in the
General area of the Property Inspector and choose OffBeat Scenes - AIFF.
7
Type the name Example 1 in the Name text box in the Audio Stream area of the
Property Inspector.
8
In the Language pop-up menu in the General area, choose English.
9
Instead of using the icons on the track tile, you can drag an audio stream directly to a track.
Select the asset Heartland – AC-3 in the Assets container (in the Project View) and drag it to
the OffBeat Scenes track.
Its name appears in the Asset pop-up menu in the Property Inspector.
10
Name the new stream Example 2 and choose German from the Language pop-up menu. The
Audio Streams container should look like this:
DVD Studio Pro Tutorial
23
Previewing Audio Streams
You can preview nearly every aspect of a project at any time. In this section you will preview
the audio streams you just added to the OffBeat Scenes track.
1
Select the track.
2
Choose Preview Menu from the Item menu, or click the Preview button in the lower-right
corner of the Graphical View.
Preview Mode starts.
3
To switch between the two audio streams, click the Audio key at the bottom of the Preview
window.
Stop key
4
Audio key
Click the Stop key to return to the DVD Studio Pro workspace.
Creating a Multi-Angle Track
A multi-angle track is a track with more than one video stream. Despite their name, multiangle tracks don’t have to contain different angles of the same subject. They can be used
whenever you want to be able to switch freely among “parallel” video clips. The viewer can
switch between streams using the Angle key on the remote control. A track can contain up to
eight alternate video streams, plus its main video stream.
All video streams used as alternate angles must be exactly the same length as the
main video stream and must be encoded using identical settings.
Important
For your sample project, you’ll create a short track that has two alternate angles.
24
Chapter 1
1
Create a track by dragging the Angle 1.m2v asset into the Graphical View.
2
Change the track’s name to Views.
Note: When you create a video track by dragging an asset into the Graphical View, the
Property Inspector shows the video assets by default. Select the track to access the Track area
of the Property Inspector. You can name the track here, or use the text box on the track tile.
3
Drag the audio stream Angle 1 - AIFF onto the track tile to add it.
Adding Angles
1
Click the track’s angle icon.
Angle icon
The track’s Angles container opens.
2
Choose New Angle from the Item menu.
3
Select the angle in the Angles container and use the Property Inspector to change its
name to Angle 2.
4
In the Property Inspector, set this angle’s General Asset to Angle 2.m2v.
5
Add a third angle named Angle 3 and assign it the Angle 3.m2v asset.
Previewing Angles
You can preview your multi-angle track.
1
Select the track, then click the Preview button.
2
While the track is playing, click the Angle key in the lower portion of the Preview window to
switch to other views.
Angle key
DVD Studio Pro Tutorial
25
The angle indicator at the top of the Preview window shows the current selection.
Note: There may be a short delay before the new angle appears. This is normal. If
previewing angles does not work, make sure Show All Angles is selected in the Preview area
of the Preferences window.
Creating a Still Menu
Menus are graphic or video backdrops for buttons. There are two types of menus: still and
motion. Still menus use a Photoshop or PICT file for the background. Motion menus use a
video clip for the background. In this section you will create a still menu.
1
Click the Add Menu button at the bottom of the Graphical View.
If the new menu tile overlaps the existing tile, drag the new tile to another part of the
Graphical View.
26
Chapter 1
2
Name the menu Main Menu. (This menu will be the main menu for your project.)
Note: If the menu tile doesn’t look like the one below, choose Large from the View Size
pop-up menu in the Graphical View to see the large version of item tiles.
3
In the Property Inspector for this menu, make sure the Picture area is expanded. If not, click
the triangle next to Picture.
4
Select a Photoshop file to use for this menu by choosing “Still menus.psd” from the Asset
pop-up menu.
When you use a Photoshop file, you can specify that different layers of the file be used
for the background of the menu, as well as for the different states of the buttons that
appear on the menu. The layers of the Photoshop file are available in different areas of the
Property Inspector.
5
In the Main Menu tile, double-click the rectangle (also called the thumbnail area).
A window called the menu editor opens, with one button automatically created.
6
In the Picture area of the Property Inspector, click the underlined property labeled “Layers
(always visible).”
A box appears that displays the available layers in the Photoshop file you are working with.
Note: It’s easiest to work with Photoshop layers if you organize the layers according to the
button positions in the containers in the Project View. (First the layers for the background,
then the layers for Button 1, then the layers for Button 2, and so on.) If you create empty
layers beginning with a hyphen (“-”), they appear as menu dividers in the Property
Inspector’s Layers menu.
DVD Studio Pro Tutorial
27
28
Chapter 1
7
Drag to select the layers shown here. Bullets indicate the selected items.
8
Click OK.
9
The selected layers now appear in the menu editor. (The untitled button is still present.)
Adding Buttons to a Still Menu
Buttons allow the user to interact with the DVD. When you create a new menu, one button
appears automatically. You can work with this button and add more as needed. All menus
must have at least one button, and can have as many as 36.
1
Position the pointer inside the button rectangle and drag it to the graphic labeled OffBeat
Action.
The button’s rectangle represents its “hot,” or active, area. When the viewer uses your DVD
on a computer and clicks inside the hot area, the button is activated (it changes color and the
action assigned to it is carried out).
2
Resize the active area of the button by dragging a corner. The active area should be slightly
larger than the graphic.
3
To create a button for the graphic labeled OffBeat Crew, drag from the upper-left corner of
the graphic to the lower-right corner.
4
Repeat step 3 to create buttons for the rectangles labeled OffBeat Views and OffBeat Online.
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Naming the Buttons
Every item in a DVD project has a default name. If you like, you can edit the name in the
Property Inspector.
m Select each button in turn and give it a new name. (Name the buttons Action, Crew,
Views, and Online.)
When you’re finished, the names of the buttons appear in the menu editor.
Specifying Button States
Each button on a menu has three possible states: normal, selected, and activated. (“Selected”
means that if the viewer clicks the Enter or OK key on the remote control, the button will be
activated and its actions will be carried out.) Each state can use different layers of the source
Photoshop file. (This is known as the Photoshop Layer method.) In this way, you can make it
easy for the viewer of your disc to determine which button is currently selected.
Note: DVD Studio Pro also supports the standard highlighting method used in some other
authoring tools. See “Specifying Button States in Motion Menus” on page 34 for more
information.
30
Chapter 1
For a still menu, such as the one you’re creating now, you can use the three State pop-up
menus in the Display area of the Property Inspector to specify additional layers of the
Photoshop file that will appear whenever a button is in a particular state.
1
In the menu editor, click the Action button to select it.
2
In the Display area of the Property Inspector, choose “Action button - selected” from the
Selected State pop-up menu.
To see the layer, choose Show Selected State from the Buttons menu. This is the way the
button will look when a viewer selects it.
3
Next, choose the layer “Action button - activated” from the Activated State pop-up menu.
To see how the activated button will look, choose Show Activated State from the
Buttons menu.
4
Repeat steps 1–3 for the three remaining buttons.
5
When you’re finished, click the close box to close the menu editor.
Previewing Buttons
Now that you have set the selected and activated states for the Main Menu buttons, you can
preview them to see how they will look in a DVD player.
1
Select the Main Menu in the Graphical View.
2
Click the Preview button.
The menu appears with the first button selected.
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3
Use the arrow keys to select the other menu buttons. By default, DVD Studio Pro
automatically links buttons according to their order in the menu editor (each button is linked
to the next, and the last is linked back to the first).
Angle keys
4
Stop key
To see how a button will look when it’s activated, select it and then click OK on the
remote control.
Because these buttons are not yet linked to any actions, nothing happens when you activate
them, but you can see how they change color.
5
Click the Stop key to return to the DVD Studio Pro workspace.
Creating a Motion Menu
Motion menus are similar to still menus except that they use a video clip for the background.
They can also include composited video images on the clip so it appears that each button is
playing its own small video clip. You create them the same way that you create still menus.
1
Click the Add Menu button at the bottom of the Graphical View.
Note: You can drag a still menu asset directly to the Graphical View to create a still menu,
but if you use this technique with a video asset you will create a track, not a menu. When you
create a motion menu, you need to use the Add Menu button.
2
32
Chapter 1
Name the new menu Scene menu, and set its Picture Asset to OffBeat Menu.m2v.
3
Choose “OffBeat menu - AIFF” from the Audio pop-up menu to add an audio stream to
the menu.
4
Choose Edit from the Item menu to open the menu editor (or double-click the thumbnail area).
The first frame of the selected video stream and one untitled button are visible.
5
Drag the button into position over the small “video window” in the lower-left corner, and
resize it to enclose the entire underwater image.
6
Draw five additional buttons (three for the remaining video windows, and one each for the
Main and Next arrows).
When you’re finished, your menu should look something like this:
You must create and edit the video asset you use for a motion menu (using a
program such as Final Cut Pro) before you work with it in DVD Studio Pro. The QuickTime
file used to create this motion menu is provided in the tutorial files (in the “Files to encode”
folder in the Tutorial folder). You cannot create or edit video files using DVD Studio Pro.
Important
7
Using the Property Inspector, name the buttons at the top of the motion menu Main Menu
and Next and the buttons at the bottom Waves, Heat, Air, and Chill.
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Looping the Video in a Motion Menu
The video for a motion menu can be set to repeat (loop) indefinitely. For this project you will
set the menu to loop.
1
Set the Loop property to On in the Timeout area of the Property Inspector.
2
Close the menu editor.
Previewing a Motion Menu
To see how the motion menu looks so far:
1
Select the Scene menu tile and click Preview.
2
Click the Stop key to return to the DVD Studio Pro workspace.
Specifying Button States in Motion Menus
When you set the button states in the still menu, you used the Photoshop Layer method to
indicate which button had been selected and when a button had been activated. To set this
feedback in a motion menu, you specify highlight colors for the selected and activated states
of the buttons.
1
If necessary, open the Scene menu in the menu editor by double-clicking its thumbnail area.
2
Open the Buttons menu and make sure Show Selected Hilites is selected.
3
Click the background image in the menu editor to deselect any buttons.
4
In the Button Hilites area of the Property Inspector, set the color for Selected Set 1 to yellow
and the transparency to 66 percent.
Each button in the menu editor is covered by a yellow rectangle.
5
Set the color for Activated Set 1 to red and its transparency to 66 percent.
To see how the buttons will look when activated, choose Show Activated Hilites from the
Buttons menu. Each button in the menu editor is now covered by a red rectangle.
34
Chapter 1
When you’re finished, the Property Inspector should look something like this:
Adding Markers
When you play a track within a DVD project, it starts from the beginning. If you want to be
able to start playback at, or jump to, specific spots within a track, you insert chapter markers.
Every track has a “Start of track” marker, so the marker you add will be the second marker on
the track.
1
Click the marker icon on the OffBeat Scenes track to open the Markers container.
2
Choose New Marker from the Item menu.
3
Select the new marker and choose Edit from the Item menu (or hold down the Option key
and double-click the marker).
The marker editor opens.
4
In the Marker area of the Property Inspector, name the marker Heat.
5
At the top of the marker editor, click the time code button and enter 30:15. Then click OK.
You can also drag the slider at the bottom of the marker editor to move through the track
and place your marker.
Note: When you type a time code, DVD Studio Pro sets the marker at the closest valid
location, which may not be the exact number you entered.
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6
Add two more markers. ( You can follow the steps above, or click the New Marker button at
the bottom of the marker editor.) Make sure you set the marker’s location before you name
the marker.
m Add a marker named Air at 1:00:00.
m Add a marker named Chill at 1:31:00.
7
To jump to other markers while in the marker editor, choose them from the marker
pop-up menu.
8
When you’re finished, close the marker editor.
Your list of markers should look something like this.
36
Chapter 1
Previewing Markers
You can see how markers work by previewing the OffBeat Scenes track.
1
Select the OffBeat Scenes track and click Preview.
2
Click the Next Track key (also called the Skip key) on the remote control to jump to the
next marker.
Next Track key
Stop key
After you reach the last marker, the video track plays until the end. The Next Track key will
not take you from the last marker back to the “Start of track” marker.
3
Click the Stop key to return to the DVD Studio Pro workspace.
Creating a Slideshow
Besides tracks, which hold video and audio, a DVD can contain slideshows, which hold
sequences of still images or video clips, with or without audio. A slideshow can be set
to advance automatically or to wait for the viewer to click the Next Track key on the
remote control.
In this section you’ll add a slideshow to your project:
1
Click the Add Slideshow button in the Graphical View.
2
Name the slideshow Crew.
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3
Double-click the tile’s thumbnail area to open the slideshow editor.
The list on the right shows all the assets in your project that are suitable for use in a
slideshow. To assemble the slideshow, you drag items from the Assets list on the right to the
Slide list on the left.
38
Chapter 1
4
Drag the Slide 1 PICT file into the Slide list.
5
Add audio to the slide by dragging the audio stream Slide 1 - AIFF from the Assets list
onto the slide file.
6
Add the remaining three slides (Slide 2, Slide 3, Slide 4) and their matching audio files.
7
Click OK to close the slideshow editor.
Previewing Slideshows
1
Select the slideshow tile and click Preview.
2
You can use the Next Track and Previous Track keys on the remote control to jump to
different slides.
3
Click the Stop key to return to the DVD Studio Pro workspace.
Linking Things Together Using the Action Menus
Virtually any item in a DVD project can be connected to any other. A track can jump to a
menu, a button can jump to a script, a script can play a track, and so on. This linking is
accomplished primarily by setting the item’s “Jump when activated” and “Jump when
finished” properties.
You can see the choices available for these properties in the Property Inspector’s action
menus. These choices are always the same: all menus, tracks, markers, stories, slideshows,
slides, and scripts you’ve created in your project.
Contents of an
action menu
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Linking a Button to a Track
40
Chapter 1
1
Open the Main Menu in the menu editor by double-clicking its thumbnail area.
2
Select each button and set its “Jump when activated” property (in the Action area of the
Property Inspector):
m Action: Scene menu
m Crew: Crew
m Views: Views
m Online: Leave this as “not set.”
3
Close the menu editor.
4
Open the Scene menu in the menu editor and set the “Jump when activated” actions for its
six buttons:
m Main Menu: Main Menu
m Next: Views
m Waves: OffBeat Scenes
m Heat: OffBeat Scenes::Heat (a marker)
m Air: OffBeat Scenes::Air (a marker)
m Chill: OffBeat Scenes::Chill (a marker)
5
Close the menu editor.
Jumping Somewhere When a Track Is Finished
A DVD often displays a menu after a video has finished playing. In your project you’ll set the
three main items to jump back to the main menu when they are finished.
1
Select the OffBeat Scenes track.
2
Using the General area of the Property Inspector, set the “Jump when finished” property to
Main Menu.
3
For the Views track and the Crew slideshow, also set the “Jump when finished” property to
Main Menu.
Setting a Startup Action
When you put a DVD-Video disc into a DVD player, you expect something to happen. For
example, a video might play, a menu might appear, or a “don’t copy this disc” warning might
be displayed. What happens first is called the startup action. The startup action can be any
item in your project (a track, marker, story, menu, script, slide, or slideshow).
Here you’ll set the startup action for your project:
1
Select the disc by clicking an empty area of the Graphical View.
2
In the General area of the Property Inspector, choose Main Menu from the Startup Action
pop-up menu.
Now, when this disc is inserted into a DVD player, it will begin by displaying the main menu.
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Setting the Actions of Standard Remote Control Keys
All DVD players are required to have certain keys on their remote controls. Besides the arrow
and OK keys, the required controls include Menu, Title (or Disc), Audio, Subtitles, and
Return.
DVD Studio Pro gives you complete flexibility to determine what these keys do within your
project. For this tutorial, you’ll program the Title and Menu keys to display the main menu.
1
Select the disc by clicking an empty area of the Graphical View.
2
In the Remote-Control area of the Property Inspector, choose Main Menu from the Title
pop-up menu and the Menu pop-up menu.
Note: In the Apple DVD Player, the Title key is called the Disc key.
For more information about setting remote control keys, see “Setting Remote Control
Properties for a New Project” on page 70.
Previewing Links and Actions
Now that you have created links, set actions, and specified remote control keys, you can use
Preview Mode and interact with your project much as you would if you were playing it in a
DVD player.
Note: You can see how all your tiles are linked together by choosing Always from the Lines
menu in the Graphical View.
Follow these steps to preview your project:
42
Chapter 1
1
Select the Main Menu and click the Preview button.
2
Use the onscreen remote control keys at the bottom of the window to control your project.
m Use the arrow keys to move from one button to another.
m To activate a button (jump to the item that the button is linked to), select the button and
click OK in the remote control.
m Use the Next Track and Previous Track keys to move through slides or to jump between
markers.
m To return to the previously active track, click the Return key.
m Click the Menu or Disc key to jump to the Main Menu at any time.
m Use the Audio and Angle keys to switch to alternate audio streams or angles.
3
Click the Stop key when you want to exit Preview Mode.
Arrow keys
Stop key
You have now completed the first part of this tutorial. To learn more about the features of
DVD Studio Pro, continue with “Expanding Your DVD,” next.
Expanding Your DVD
In this section of the tutorial you will continue working on the basic DVD project you created
in the first part of this chapter. If you prefer to start a new project, close the project you
currently have open, then choose New from the File menu.
Creating a Story
A story is a collection of markers that play in a particular order. To create a story, you first
create the markers you want to use in the story. Then you move the markers that indicate the
beginning of each clip that you want to use to the Stories Folder. The markers that indicate
the ending point of the clip need to be created in the track, but they are not included in the
Stories Folder. (Unlike a standalone marker, a marker in a story plays only until the next
marker in a track is reached, even if that marker is not used in the story.)
For this project, you will create a story using the OffBeat Scenes track. The OffBeat Scenes
track already contains four markers. You will add four new markers to this track that will mark
the end of each clip. You will then move the four original markers to the track’s Stories
Folder to create the story.
Creating New Markers
1
Open the OffBeat Scenes track in the marker editor by double-clicking its thumbnail area.
The track appears at the “Start of track” marker.
2
Click the New Marker button and name the marker End of start in the Property Inspector.
3
Click the time code button and set the new marker at 10:15.
4
Create three more new markers:
m Add a marker named End of heat at 40:15.
m Add a marker named End of air at 1:08:15.
m Add a marker named End of chill at 1:42:15.
5
Close the marker editor.
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Moving Markers to the Stories Folder
1
Click the story icon on the OffBeat Scenes track to open the Stories Folder.
2
Choose New Story from the Item menu and name the story Highlights.
3
It is easiest to work with multiple containers within one track using the Tracks container in
the Project View. In the Project View, click the Tracks tab to access the Tracks container, and
click the triangle next to OffBeat Scenes to see the contents of the track.
You can pull the Tracks container away from the Project View and expand it to make it easier
to work in.
4
Open the Markers folder.
5
Drag the following markers from the Markers container to the Highlights story: Start of
track, Heat, Air, and Chill.
Hold down the Command key to select noncontiguous items.
44
Chapter 1
6
You will link the story to the Next button on the Scene menu. Double-click the thumbnail
area on the Scene menu to open it in the menu editor.
7
Select the Next button and choose OffBeat Scenes•Highlights from the “Jump when
activated” pop-up menu in the Property Inspector.
8
Open the Scene menu in Preview Mode and activate the Next button to preview your story.
Creating Interactive Markers
You can place buttons on top of tracks (or parts of tracks) that are assigned a video stream.
Buttons on tracks are called interactive markers. Like the buttons on menus, they allow the
viewer to choose various actions.
Because the video stream won’t usually include button graphics, you need to apply an
overlay image to define the shape and position of the buttons and their highlights. An
overlay image is a black-and-white graphic file (a PICT file or a layer of a Photoshop file).
You can apply an overlay to buttons and interactive markers.
Overlay image defining
button shapes and
highlights
Interactive markers are created using the subtitle feature of DVD players, so you
cannot combine subtitles and interactive markers within one track.
Important
Note: To use an overlay image you must have already created one and added it to the Assets
container. The tutorial files include overlay images for you to use.
For your project you will add buttons to the second and third markers in your story, Heat
and Air. (These are actually the third and fifth markers in the track.)
1
Double-click the thumbnail area on the OffBeat Scenes track to open the marker editor, and
choose Heat from the marker pop-up menu.
2
In the Buttons area of the Property Inspector, choose “Overlay for track buttons” from the
Overlay Picture pop-up menu.
3
For the Normal state of the button, choose the medium gray in the pop-up menu, and set its
transparency to 80 percent.
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4
For Selected Set 1, choose light brown at 66 percent. For the Activated Set 1, choose yellow
at 100 percent.
5
Draw buttons enclosing the two button images and their text.
Because you are using an overlay image that contains button graphics, the shape of the
buttons will reflect the overlay image, instead of being a solid rectangle.
You should now see the highlights outlining the button images in the video.
46
Chapter 1
6
In the Property Inspector, name the button enclosing the left-pointing arrow Action Menu,
and name the button enclosing the right-pointing arrow Main Menu.
7
Set the “Jump when activated” properties for the two buttons:
m Action Menu: Scene menu
m Main Menu: Main Menu
m For this track, you will use the same buttons in both markers. The Use Buttons Of
property lets one marker inherit the settings of another.
8
Jump to the next marker that you want to create buttons for, Air.
9
In the Property Inspector, set the Use Buttons Of property to Heat.
You do not need to re-create the buttons on the Air marker if you set the Use Buttons Of property.
Specifying the Shape of the Button Area That Changes Color
As you saw in the last section, you can use an overlay image to specify the button shapes in
interactive markers. You can also use overlay images to specify button highlights in buttons
that are created by dragging over a previously created button image in a menu (an overlay
image masks the color change).
In this section you will modify the button highlights in the Scene menu.
1
Select the Scene menu.
2
In the Button Hilites area of the Property Inspector, choose “Overlay for OffBeat menu” from
the Overlay Picture pop-up menu.
3
Double-click the thumbnail area to open the menu editor.
The appearance of the buttons should change to display highlighting only in the areas
defined within the overlay graphic. In this case, the buttons are outlined with the highlighted
color, instead of being completely covered by it.
Without overlay
4
With overlay
Close the menu editor.
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Adding Subtitles
You can create subtitle streams for your video streams and position them at precise points
using the Subtitle Editor. For this project you will use two streams that are already prepared.
For more information on creating subtitles, see Chapter 4, “Working With Languages and
Subtitles,” on page 87.
Interactive markers are created using the subtitle feature of DVD players, so you
cannot combine subtitles and interactive markers within one track.
Important
1
Click the subtitle icon on the Views track.
2
Choose New Subtitle from the Item menu.
3
Using the Property Inspector, change the subtitle’s name to English subtitle.
4
In the General area, choose English.spu from the Asset pop-up menu.
5
Choose English from the Language pop-up menu.
6
Make a second subtitle, named German subtitle, and set its asset to German.spu and its
language to German.
When you play your DVD and click the Subtitle key on the remote control, you can switch
back and forth between English and German subtitles.
Adding Web Links to Your Project
DVD Studio Pro allows you to add Web links to a DVD project. Web links work when a DVD is
played on a computer. This feature, called DVD@CCESS, can be “attached” to any track,
menu, or slideshow. Although you can’t directly attach a link to a button, you can achieve the
same effect by linking the button to a menu with its @ccess (Access) property set.
Note: If you use DVD@CCESS links in your DVD, installers for those links are included on
the final disc when you build it. Depending on the kind of computer you are using to play
your DVD, you may need to install the installers for the Web links to work.
48
Chapter 1
For this project, you’ll create a menu that lets the viewer know that the Web browser is
opening and loading the specified URL. You’ll link this menu to a button on the main menu.
1
Add a new menu to your project by dragging the asset “Still menus.psd” from the Assets
container to the Graphical View.
2
Name the menu Online.
3
Double-click the thumbnail area to open the menu editor.
4
In the Picture area, click “Layers (always visible)” and select the layers shown below.
Hold down the Command key to select noncontiguous files.
5
In the menu editor, move and resize the default button to enclose the Back graphic.
6
Select the button. Name the button Back. In the Display area of the Property Inspector set
the selected state of the button to “Back Button - selected” and the activated state to “Back
Button - activated.”
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7
In the Action area of the Property Inspector, choose Main Menu from the “Jump when
activated” pop-up menu. The menu and button should like this:
8
Select the background image of the menu to access the menu’s properties. In the @ccess
area of the Property Inspector, set the @ccess Type to URL.
9
Type Web Site as the @ccess name and http://www.apple.com/dvd/offbeat as the
@ccess URL.
10
Close the menu editor.
Linking the Web Link to the Main Menu
1
Open the Main Menu in the menu editor and select the Online button.
2
Choose Online as its “Jump when activated” property. ( You left this property as “not set”
when you assigned the other button properties in the first part of the tutorial.)
3
Close the menu editor, then open the Main Menu in Preview Mode to see if the Web link works.
4
Use the arrow keys to select the OffBeat Online button and click OK on the remote control.
Your browser software should open.
5
50
Chapter 1
Close the browser window to return to Preview Mode.
Writing a Simple Script
DVD Studio Pro supports the DVD-Video scripting language, which allows you to construct
sophisticated interactivity that works on all DVD players. In this section you’ll add a short
script to your project that randomly plays one of four tracks or slideshows.
This script has two parts. The first part generates a random number between 1 and 4. The
second part plays a particular item in your project depending on which number is generated.
1
Click the Add Script button in the Graphical View.
2
Name the script RandomPlay.
3
Double-click the orange script tile to open the script editor.
4
Type this script exactly as shown (if you used different names for your items, type the names
you used).
A ?=
if A
if A
if A
if A
5
4
==
==
==
==
1
2
3
4
then
then
then
then
play
play
play
play
track “OffBeat Scenes”
track “Views”
slideshow “Crew”
story “Highlights” Of track “OffBeat Scenes”
Click OK when you’re finished.
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Setting a Timeout Action
Any menu can have a timeout action assigned to it, something that happens if the viewer
doesn’t make a choice on the remote control for a specified period of time. This feature
allows you to automate a DVD title, create self-running demos, sales presentations, and so on.
1
Select the Main Menu.
2
In the Timeout area of the Property Inspector, set the Action property to the script you just
created, RandomPlay.
3
In the Timeout area, enter 30 for the Duration property.
Whenever the Main Menu is displayed, if no remote control keys are pressed for 30 seconds,
the script will run. Use the preview function to see how it works.
Testing Your Project
At this point, the navigation for your project should be complete. Use Preview Mode to try it.
If you set up everything correctly, you’ll be able to jump back to the main menu at any time
using the Menu or Disc key on the remote control, and the buttons should all jump to their
intended menus, tracks, slides, slideshows, markers, stories, or Web sites.
52
Chapter 1
Building the Finished Project
You have now completed both sections of the tutorial project. All that remains is to get it
onto the desired output media. DVD Studio Pro can write directly to DVD-R, DVD-RAM, or
DLT. It can also save completed projects to your hard disk. The process of formatting the
project data so that it’s ready for a DVD is called building the disc or multiplexing (muxing
for short).
Follow these steps to build the tutorial project:
1
Choose Build Disc from the File menu.
2
Choose a location.
As the disc is being built, a Progress window shows data about the multiplexing process.
When building is finished, the Log window opens, showing a completion message and listing
any errors that have occurred.
The end result is a folder called VIDEO_TS, which contains the complete DVD-Video structure.
s
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Using the Apple DVD Player
Once the project is built you can play it from your hard disk using the Apple DVD Player,
exactly as if it were a physical DVD. By playing the completed project from your hard disk,
you can verify that everything works the way you intended before investing the time and
money to make copies.
54
Chapter 1
1
Open the Apple DVD Player (available in the Apple menu).
2
Open the player’s Preferences window.
3
Turn on the options labeled “Enable DVD@ccess web links” and “Add ‘Open VIDEO_TS’
menu item to File Menu.”
4
Choose Open VIDEO_TS from the File menu.
5
Navigate to the VIDEO_TS folder and click Choose.
6
Click the Play button to start playback.
The project should play as if it were on a DVD disc.
What’s Next?
Congratulations! You’ve successfully made your first DVD project. Read the rest of this
manual to learn about preparing source material; using the QuickTime MPEG Encoder and
A.Pack application to prepare DVD-compliant files; working with languages and the Subtitle
Editor; and writing projects to DVD-R, DVD-RAM, or DLT.
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C H A P T E R
2
2
Preparing Source Material
Before you can begin building a DVD project, you must have correctly prepared source
material: edited video and audio, subtitles, and graphics or video for menus. After you have
captured and edited your source material, you need to encode it to make it DVD-compliant.
DVD Studio Pro includes two encoders to help you format your material:
m The QuickTime MPEG Encoder, for encoding video to MPEG-2 streams (The QuickTime
MPEG Encoder also outputs elementary PCM audio.)
m The Apple A.Pack application, for encoding audio in Dolby Digital (AC-3) format
This chapter describes how to prepare source material for use in DVD Studio Pro and how to
use the QuickTime MPEG Encoder. For detailed information on using the A.Pack application,
see Appendix A, “Using A.Pack to Encode AC-3 Sound,” on page 125. For more information
on DVD-compliant material, see “Specifications for DVD Compliance” beginning on page 152.
57
Capturing Video and Audio
For best results, you should create and capture your video and audio using the settings
required for DVD:
m Frame size: 720 x 480 pixels (NTSC); 720 x 576 pixels (PAL)
m Frame rate: 29.97 frames per second (NTSC); 25 frames per second (PAL)
m Aspect ratio: 4:3 or 16:9
m Audio resolution: 16 or 24 bits
m Audio sample rate: 48 kHz or 96 kHz
If you are unable to capture and edit using these settings, most MPEG encoders can convert
from other resolutions and sizes.
Capturing Video for 16:9 Aspect Ratio
Standard NTSC and PAL monitors have a picture aspect ratio of 4:3 or 1.33. (The aspect ratio
is the ratio of the width of the visible area to the height of the visible area.) High Definition
Television (HDTV ) uses formats that have a picture aspect ratio of 16:9 or 1.78. If a program
recorded with an aspect ratio of 16:9 and 480 active lines (as in NTSC-DV ) is displayed on a
device with an aspect ratio of 4:3, only 360 lines, or 75 percent of the image, is shown.
To show the whole image, you can use anamorphic transfer—a process that stretches the
active area of the 16:9 program vertically to fill all 480 lines. To show this material correctly,
the display device needs to shrink the vertical dimension to cancel the stretch performed
during recording.
About Anamorphic Transfer
You can use Final Cut Pro 1.2.5 or later to capture, import, edit, and export 16:9 anamorphic
media for NTSC and PAL. When you capture or import, you need to specify that the material
is 16:9 anamorphic.
Note: 16:9 anamorphic is different from letterbox (4:3 aspect ratio). Although both are
sometimes called widescreen, to a DVD-Video player they are different formats. 16:9
anamorphic is squeezed horizontally and looks unnaturally tall and skinny on a 4:3 screen.
With letterbox, the widescreen effect is accomplished by placing the widescreen image in a
field of 4:3 black. The width of the image determines its vertical size. This leaves bands of
black across the top and the bottom of the 4:3 screen.
You have two options for anamorphic transfer. In both cases the recorded image requires an
NTSC or PAL monitor with a 16:9 setting to look correct.
m If you use a camera with an anamorphic lens adapter, the image appears stretched in the
camera’s viewfinder.
m If you use a DV camera set to 16:9 mode, the image looks correct in the viewfinder.
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Chapter 2
Segmenting Your Material
If you plan to divide your project into multiple tracks, your source material must be divided
in the same way. It’s easiest to segment the material when preparing it for encoding. If your
encoder works with QuickTime movies, you can segment your tracks once they are digitized
into the computer.
Usually you work with your primary video and audio tracks together as a single file until they
are encoded. At that point they need to be separated into audio and video “elementary”
streams.
The end result of this phase of the production is
m edited video material either on tape or in digital format, such as QuickTime
m edited audio material either on tape or in digital format, such as SoundDesigner,
AIFF, or WAVE
Preparing Video Content
Encoding Video to MPEG Format
Before it can be imported into DVD Studio Pro, video material must be encoded in a
DVD-compatible format, usually MPEG-2. You can encode material using software (if your
video is in the form of QuickTime movies, you can use the QuickTime MPEG Encoder) or
hardware (a hardware encoder usually requires the material on tape). Make sure the tool you
use produces separate DVD-compliant audio and video streams. (DVD Studio Pro cannot use
multiplexed MPEG streams such as System, Program, or Transport streams.)
The QuickTime MPEG Encoder
When you install DVD Studio Pro, a new MPEG-2 exporting option becomes available to the
QuickTime Player and Final Cut Pro (and other applications that support the QuickTime
Export feature). (DVD Studio Pro installs a new extension in the QuickTime Extensions folder
inside the Extensions folder in the System Folder.)
Note: To use the QuickTime MPEG Export feature, your computer needs at least 25 MB of
available RAM. DVD Studio Pro must be installed and must have a valid serial number.
The QuickTime MPEG Encoder outputs an MPEG-2 video stream at a variable bit rate ( VBR),
with a closed GOP (Group of Pictures) pattern and a fixed GOP size. The exported MPEG
video stream can be used for multi-angle tracks. The file type is m2v.
Preparing Source Material
59
To export files prepared in Final Cut Pro or the QuickTime Player to MPEG-2:
1
Choose Export from the File menu and QuickTime from the submenu.
2
In the dialog box that appears, choose “Movie to MPEG 2” from the Export pop-up menu,
then choose a location and name for the file.
3
In the settings dialog box, set options appropriate for your material.
m Select Save Audio if you want to encode both audio and video. (The QuickTime MPEG
Encoder outputs PCM audio only.)
m Select Write Protocol File to create a detailed encoding log in the destination folder.
The estimated size for the quality level you chose appears in the Info area.
If you are working with
streams other than DV
streams, you may need
to change their field
order using the Field
Dominance pop-up
menu, even if the
encoder always tries to
predict the correct
order.
When you’re finished, click OK.
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Chapter 2
A progress window shows you information during the MPEG-2 export. Click the
expansion triangle to see the currently encoding frame.
Note: Previewing during encoding reduces performance by approximately 20 percent.
For faster encoding, click the triangle to hide the preview image.
Preparing Source Material
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Encoding Video for Multi-Angle Tracks
DVD Studio Pro supports multi-angle video, a track with up to eight alternate video streams
(for a total of nine video streams per track). The viewer can switch among angles using the
Angle key on the remote control.
Requirements for MPEG Streams for Multi-Angle Video
The QuickTime MPEG Encoder produces streams that meet the criteria for multi-angle use:
m All streams must be the same length.
m All streams must have the same resolution and frame rate.
m The length and pattern of GOPs (Group of Pictures) must be the same on all tracks
(angles). (Use an encoder that allows you to turn scene detection off.)
m All GOPs must be closed. You cannot create angles for a track that has open GOPs.
Maximum Bit Rates for Multi-Angle Tracks
The maximum bit rate for a multi-angle track is different from other tracks. It is
calculated by adding the bit rate for each video stream to the bit rate for all of the
track’s audio streams.
m 5 angles or fewer: 8 Mbps maximum for each angle stream
m 6–8 angles: 7.5 Mbps maximum for each angle stream
m 9 angles: 7 Mbps maximum for each angle stream
Preparing Audio Content
Encoding Audio
DVD Studio Pro accepts audio streams in these formats:
m PCM audio (AIFF, SoundDesigner, or WAVE format, 16- or 24-bit resolution, 48 or 96 kHz
sample rate, stereo or mono files)
m MPEG audio (MPEG-1, layer 2 audio, 48 kHz resolution, 32–384 Kbps data rate. MPEG-2
audio is not supported.)
m Dolby AC-3 audio
The QuickTime MPEG Encoder outputs PCM audio only.
Note: All audio streams used within one slideshow must have the same format (for example,
MPEG or PCM). All audio tracks for motion menus must have the same format.
For more information on the different audio formats, see “Audio in DVD Video” beginning on
page 145.
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Chapter 2
The A.Pack Application
The preferred audio format for DVD-Video discs is Dolby Digital (also known as AC-3). To
encode AC-3 audio, you can use the A.Pack application supplied with DVD Studio Pro. For
more information, see Appendix A, “Using A.Pack to Encode AC-3 Sound,” on page 125.
Creating Material for Menus
Creating Graphics for Still Menus
DVD Studio Pro uses the Photoshop (psd) format for still menu graphics. Layers are used to
specify images for the background and the selected and activated states of buttons. If you
like, you can keep the graphics for all your menus in one Photoshop file (more than one
menu can reference a Photoshop file), or you can use a separate file for each menu. The
maximum number of layers in a Photoshop file is 100.
Note: Photoshop’s effects layers do not work with DVD Studio Pro. Be sure to flatten any
effects layers before using them in DVD Studio Pro. (Flattening a layer is not the same as
flattening a file. Flattened files do not work with DVD Studio Pro.)
Keep in mind the following menu graphic tips:
m Set the size of the Photoshop file to match the resolution of your project.
m Remember that graphics created in Photoshop will be slightly squeezed (horizontally
for NTSC and vertically for PAL) when viewed on a TV, because TV formats are based on
non-square pixels. To compensate for this in NTSC, create your graphics at 720 x 540, then
resize them to 720 x 480.
m Name layers according to their function.
Preparing Source Material
63
m Use empty layers named with a hyphen (“-”) as dividers to organize the Layers palette.
They appear as menu dividers in the DVD Studio Pro Layer menu.
Empty layers named with a
hyphen in the Photoshop
file appear as dividers in the
Layer menu.
m Make horizontal lines taller than 1 pixel so they won’t flicker on TV screens.
m Consider various shapes for your highlighted buttons—they don’t have to be rectangles.
Sample button highlights
m Normal-state buttons that are always visible can be merged with the background layer.
That way, you’ll only need a separate layer for the highlighted and activated state of each
button.
m If you link a Photoshop file to a DVD Studio Pro project and then later reorder or add
layers to the file, DVD Studio Pro can relink layers to their assigned buttons or menu, as
long as the layer names are the same.
Creating Video for Motion Menus
In a motion menu, each button may appear to include a segment of video. In fact, a motion
menu is made up of a single video segment. To create an illusion in which some parts of the
menu appear still while other parts appear to move, you need to create a composited video
clip. If you want the clip to loop, make sure to create a smooth transition between the
beginning and end of the video.
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Chapter 2
Creating Video for Interactive Markers
Interactive markers are buttons that appear “on top of ” tracks, using the subtitle feature. If
you want buttons in a track, you need to create video that includes button images and an
overlay graphic (PICT or Photoshop) for defining the button highlights.
You can create composites using a standard video editing tool like Final Cut Pro.
Creating Graphics for Slideshows
m Still images for slideshows can be in PICT or Photoshop format (but only the first layer of
a Photoshop file is shown).
m Still images must match the resolution of your project.
m All audio streams used within one slideshow must have the same format.
Preparing Graphics for Use With 16:9 Aspect Ratio
To ensure that widescreen menu graphics don’t look stretched, edit in widescreen resolution
(854 x 480 for NTSC or 1024 x 576 for PAL), then resize graphics down to normal resolution
(720 x 480 NTSC, 720 x 576 PAL) just before use. The results may look squeezed in
DVD Studio Pro, but they will look correct on a DVD player.
Use these settings in
Photoshop to resize
menus for use with NTSC.
Building Menus in Multiple Languages
With DVD Studio Pro your project can offer menus in multiple languages. The viewer selects
a language using the player’s setup menu, and the player automatically displays the menus
for that language. DVD Studio Pro creates a menu for each language you create in the
project. If you are using still menus, you need a separate Photoshop file for each language,
and all files must have the identical layer structure and layer names.
If you are using motion menus, you can assign the same video stream for each language or
different streams for different languages.
Preparing Source Material
65
Preparing Subtitles
Each track on a DVD-Video disc can contain up to 32 subtitle streams, each of which can be
associated with a language or used to present supplemental material. With the
DVD Studio Pro Subtitle Editor application, you can enter, format, and synchronize your
subtitles with the video material, then save them as subtitle streams.
The Subtitle Editor uses QuickTime video or audio streams as source material. For
complete instructions on creating and editing subtitles, see Chapter 4, “Working With
Languages and Subtitles.”
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Chapter 2
C H A P T E R
3
3
Using DVD Studio Pro
When you start a new DVD project, you need to set certain preferences and disc properties
before you begin working with your assets. After you have set those preferences and
imported your assets, you are ready to build your project.
DVD Studio Pro includes a number of views and windows that you use while building your
DVD. This chapter explains the initial settings you need to make and then describes the
specific features of the different views that you work in.
For information not covered in this chapter, see Chapter 1, “DVD Studio Pro Tutorial,” on
page 15 or look in DVD Studio Pro Help.
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Setting Preferences for a New Project
You use the Preferences window to configure certain settings for new projects.
To set preferences:
1
Choose Preferences from the File menu.
2
Specify the default TV system (NTSC or PAL).
This setting affects the size of menus. It applies to new projects only. You can change the
format for a current project in the disc properties in the Property Inspector.
3
Specify how you will preview projects.
m Use @ccess: If you want DVD Studio Pro to open your Web browser to check Web links,
turn this option on. If you are checking other aspects of your disc structure, turn this
option off so that DVD Studio Pro does not open your Web browser every time it
encounters a URL. ( You can still add Web links if this option is turned off.)
m Show All Angles: Previewing alternate angles on multi-angle tracks may slow down
preview. To preview only the base video stream, turn this option off.
m Enable NVRAM: If you are authoring a disc to be used on a Philips Professional DVD
Player, which has an additional register allowing enhanced scripting, make sure this
option is on.
4
Specify which region code to use during preview. For more information, see “CopyProtection and Region Coding” on page 150.
5
Specify a multiplexing option.
You can increase the speed of multiplexing by about 20 percent by selecting “Slow-Down
Background Tasks.” This may decrease the performance of other programs while you’re
building the disc.
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Chapter 3
Setting Disc Properties for a New Project
Creating your project proceeds more smoothly if you set certain properties for the disc at the
outset.
To set disc properties:
1
Select the disc by clicking an empty area of the DVD Studio Pro workspace.
2
If it’s not already open, choose Property Inspector from the Windows menu. Click the
triangles to expand and collapse the various areas.
3
Choose specific properties from the pop-up menus.
Some property names, such as Region Code, are underlined. You can click underlined items
to assign properties using a list window instead of a pop-up menu.
Note: It is especially important to specify settings in the Disc Menu Settings area and Disc
Media and Number Of Sides in the General area at the beginning, because these properties
work together to alert you if your project may be getting too big to fit on your disc. A bar in
the Graphical View shows you how much space is remaining.
4
After you have created the item that will appear when the disc starts up, specify the Startup
Action property in the General area.
A startup action is needed to use the Preview Mode of DVD Studio Pro.
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Setting Remote Control Properties for a New Project
A DVD player has six standard remote control keys that are programmed to act in default
ways. However, you can set up your DVD so that these keys perform different functions. To
do so, you assign actions to the keys using the Remote-Control area of the Property
Inspector. An action can be any item on a disc: track, marker, story, menu, script, slideshow,
or single slide. If you do not specify actions for the remote control keys, the default
programming applies.
Note: The programming of some set-top player models may override the settings you make
for your disc. On those models, navigation may not work the way you specify.
The standard remote control keys and their default assignments are listed here:
m Title: Goes to the main menu of the DVD-Video project. A disc is required to have one
and only one title menu.
m Root (called Menu in the Property Inspector): Goes to the main menu for a single title
set of a disc. A title set is required to have one and only one root menu.
m Track: Displays a selection of the individual clips in a title set. (Optional)
m Audio: Allows viewers to change to another audio stream; for example, from English to
German. (Optional)
m Subtitle: Allows viewers to choose subtitles. (Optional)
m Return: Usually goes back to the item that was playing before the viewer displayed a menu.
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Chapter 3
Views Available in DVD Studio Pro
The DVD Studio Pro workspace has several views and windows to represent the facets of
your project. The workspace is flexible: you can open as many or as few windows as you like,
and move the windows anywhere on your screen.
Items in the DVD Studio Pro workspace are color-coded: menus and their assets are blue,
tracks are green, slideshows are gray, and scripts are orange.
m The Graphical View: Represents your project as tiles and shows the links among items.
m The Project View windows: Hold the pieces of your project in folder-like containers,
accessible by tabs.
m The Property Inspector: Shows the information and settings belonging to a selected item.
m Editors: Special windows for creating menus, markers, slideshows, and scripts.
m Matrix Views: Allow you to link items together efficiently.
m Preview Mode: Shows you how your project looks and works.
m Troubleshooting windows: Alert you to potential problems in your project.
Property Inspector
Graphical View
Project View
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The Graphical View
The Graphical View provides a direct visual representation of the way components of your
project are linked together.
You can specify whether these links are visible in the Lines pop-up menu. Choose Configure
to show or hide specific kinds of links.
In the Graphical View:
m Menu, slideshow, and track tiles have thumbnail images indicating their contents.
m Types of assets you can assign to an item (for example, buttons, video, and audio streams)
appear as icons inside the item tiles.
Links among items are represented by colored lines and arrows:
m Blue line: A link you’ve explicitly set.
m Grey line: Remote control buttons.
m Black line: Jumps from scripts, menu timeouts, and any other automatic action.
m Red arrow: The start of a link.
m Blue arrow: The end of a link.
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Chapter 3
If you specified a disc medium in the Property Inspector for the disc, the bar next to the disc
icon estimates the size of the finished project. If the size is larger than the selected medium
for the disc, the bar appears red.
Customizing the Appearance of the Graphical View
To switch between a large and small view of item tiles:
m Choose a size from the View Size pop-up menu.
Smaller tiles do not have buttons or thumbnails but they allow you to see more in the
window.
To select a thumbnail image for an item tile (tracks, menus, or slideshows):
m Choose Change Thumbnail from the Item menu.
Note: Only specific frames of a track (technically speaking, the first I-frame in a GOP) can
be selected as thumbnails.
Thumbnail area
Navigating in the Graphical View
To jump to an item tile:
m Choose the item tile’s name from the GoTo pop-up menu.
To jump to the container for an asset:
m Click the asset’s icon (works in large view only).
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The Project View
The Project View represents your DVD project as icons inside containers accessible by tabs.
Items in tabs are not actual files, but links to files (like Finder aliases). There are six tabs:
Assets, Menus, Tracks, Slideshows, Scripts, and Languages. Some item types (for example,
tracks) have subcontainers.
m A number in parentheses after an item name indicates how many items are assigned to
that item.
m An arrow (“->”) followed by a name represents something an item is linked to.
m An item listed in italics is incomplete (some of its properties still must be set).
Working With Items in the Project View
The following methods work in the Project View.
To select an item so that its properties appear in the Property Inspector:
m Click the item.
To add a new, untitled item to a container:
m Click the tab, open the Item menu, and choose the command for the new item.
To reorder items:
m Drag them to new positions in the container. Most items are written on the disc in the
order specified.
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Chapter 3
To open a container in a separate window:
m Drag the container’s tab.
Note: If you close a container that is in a separate window, that container does not
reappear in the Project View window. To make the container and its tab reappear,
close the Project View window and then re-open it by choosing Project View from
the Windows menu.
To see labels and comments in the Project View:
m Drag the size box to expand the window horizontally.
You can set labels and comments in the Property Inspector.
To assign or link an item:
m Drag it to another container or to an item within another container.
For example, to assign a sound file to a track, drag the sound file from the Assets
container to the track’s icon in the Tracks container.
Note: When you assign an item, DVD Studio Pro creates a link to the item. The item itself
is not moved or copied.
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The Property Inspector
The Property Inspector displays the settings and properties of a selected item.
m Properties are organized into areas that can be expanded or collapsed.
m Different items have different sets of properties.
m Only valid items appear in pop-up menus. For example, if you’re working with an item
that requires an asset in a particular format, only assets in that format appear in the menu.
m Underlined properties and those with pop-up menus or text boxes can be assigned
or edited.
m Properties with no underlining or menu are for information only.
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Chapter 3
There are three ways to edit or assign a property, depending on the kind of property it is.
m Text properties: The property itself (for example, the item’s name) is in a text box to
indicate it can be changed. To change it, select it and type in the text box.
Click a property in a
text box to edit it.
m Properties with menus: Choose an item from the pop-up menu.
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m Properties that allow multiple assignments: These properties are underlined and also
have a pop-up menu. You can assign these properties by making multiple choices from the
pop-up menu, or by clicking the name and choosing properties in the list that appears.
Drag or Shift-click to select
contiguous items. Command-click
to select separate items.
To see an item’s properties:
m Select the item. (If necessary, choose Property Inspector from the Windows menu to see
the Property Inspector.)
To see the disc properties:
m Click an empty area of the workspace.
To collapse or expand all the properties of all the items of a selected type (for example, all
menus):
m Select an item and choose “Collapse all Properties” or “Expand all Properties” from the
Item menu.
To copy and paste properties to another item:
1
Select the item whose properties you want to copy, then choose Copy Properties from the
Edit menu.
2
Select the target item and choose Paste Properties from the Edit menu.
3
In the list that appears, choose the properties to paste and click OK.
Only properties that can be pasted appear in the list.
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Chapter 3
The individual sections of the Property Inspector in which you specify item settings are
known as areas. The following sections describe some of these in detail.
Disc area
m Name: This name is for your use. It does not have to match the filename of the project
on your hard disk, and it is not included on the final DVD.
m Label: You can assign a Finder label to the disc.
m Comment: You can enter information or reminders here.
m Estimated Size: DVD Studio Pro estimates the size of the completed disc based on the
assets you have assigned so far.
General area
m Disc Media: Choose a type of disc from this pop-up menu. If you specify a single- or
double-sided disc, DVD Studio Pro keeps a running estimate of the size of your project
and alerts you if your project may be getting too big to fit on your disc. A bar in the
Graphical View shows you how much space is remaining.
m Region Code: Region codes are areas of the world where your disc can play (if the player
has a matching region code). You can choose items from the pop-up menu or click the
underlined text and choose items in the list that appears. (For more information, see
“Copy-Protection and Region Coding” on page 150.)
m Number Of Sides: Specify a single- or double-sided disc. DVD Studio Pro indicates which
side of the disc you are working on.
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m CSS: Specifies whether to copy-protect the disc using the industry-standard Content
Scramble System. (For more information, see “Copy-Protection and Region Coding” on
page 150.)
m Startup Action: Determines what happens when your disc is inserted in a DVD player.
You can choose any track, marker, story, menu, script, slideshow, or single slide.
Note: If you do not choose a startup action, nothing happens when the disc is inserted,
and the Preview Mode of DVD Studio Pro does not work.
Disc Menu Settings area
Settings in this area specify the size of menus (720 x 480 for NTSC, 720 x 576 for PAL) and the
aspect ratio (4:3 full screen or 16:9 widescreen). If you assign a video or picture asset to a
menu, these settings automatically match those of the asset.
Variable Names area
You can create and name up to eight global variables (also called GPRMs), which store data
used by scripts. Variable names can be changed at any time. For more information, see
“Assigning Global Variables for Scripts” on page 100.
Remote-Control area
See “Setting Remote Control Properties for a New Project” on page 70 for information about
this area of the Property Inspector.
Time Search / Time Play
Some DVD players can access material on a disc using time values. DVD players reset the
content of all variables (GPRMs) whenever Time Search or Time Play is used. If your project
depends on maintaining variable values, you can turn off this option.
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Chapter 3
Important Properties
You can assign any property using the Property Inspector, but the Property Inspector is
especially useful for assigning particular types of properties. Some of these are described in
the following sections.
Action / Jump Action
Action menus list all menus, tracks, markers, scripts, slideshows, slides, and stories in your
project. Depending on the item selected, the menu may include other predefined actions.
Actions you can specify include
m startup action (when a disc is inserted)
m jump action (when a button is activated or an item finishes playing)
m remote control key assignments (when the viewer clicks a remote control key)
m timeout action (when the viewer does not make a choice within a set time)
Button Link
This button property specifies which button is selected next if the viewer presses an arrow
key. You can link to a button’s name, or you can use relative options (previous, next) based
on button positions in the containers in the Project View.
By default, DVD Studio Pro sets button links using a wraparound strategy (each button is
linked to the next, and the last is linked back to the first).
Default Button
This menu property lists all the buttons defined on the active menu and specifies which
button is selected when the menu appears.
You can select “1st button” (based on the button positions in the containers in the Project
View), or you can select a button by name.
Picture, Layer, and Hilite
These properties specify the appearance of menus and buttons in their activated and
selected states.
Layer properties list all the layers in a Photoshop file. You specify layers to use for the
background of a menu and the normal, selected, and activated states of each button.
Selected layers are indicated with the • symbol. Photoshop layers that have names beginning
with “-” appear as dividers in the Layer menu.
Pre-Script
This property allows you to specify a script to run before an item begins playing.
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Remote-Control
Specifies the actions of remote control keys when the item is playing. Actions you choose for
markers override actions you choose for tracks, which in turn override actions you choose
for the disc as a whole.
Selection Condition
Highlights the selected button (instead of the default one) if a chosen track, audio stream,
or subtitle stream was playing just before this button’s menu appeared. In the menu, tracks
are specified by name and audio or subtitle streams by number, based on the item order in
the container.
The Editors
Besides the main workspace windows in DVD Studio Pro, smaller, more task-specific
windows are available when you are working with menus, markers, scripts, and slideshows.
The appearance of the editor depends on the kind of asset you are working with.
The menu editor
To open an item’s editor:
m Double-click the item (or its thumbnail area).
Preview Mode
You can preview your project at any time without waiting for it to be multiplexed. See
Chapter 6, “Previewing, Testing, and Building Your DVD,” on page 113 for more information
about Preview Mode.
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Chapter 3
Troubleshooting Windows
DVD Studio Pro includes several features that check your material, making sure that all links
are valid and all necessary settings have been made.
m The Asset Files window shows the name and location of every asset file used in your
project. You can use it to locate missing files or to change the source files assigned to
particular assets.
m A project description file contains a specially formatted description of every aspect of a
DVD Studio Pro project, including absolute paths specifying the location of each file.
m The Log window displays status messages, copy-protection details, and disc build errors.
It opens automatically if you try to import assets with invalid formats.
For more information on these views, see Chapter 6, “Previewing, Testing, and Building
Your DVD,” on page 113.
The Matrix Views
The Matrix Views help you work with connections between elements of your project in the
following ways:
m You can edit many settings in one place.
m You can crosscheck settings made elsewhere.
m You can see at a glance the dependencies between many related items.
m You can easily assign replacement assets.
After some practice, you’ll be able to see patterns in the matrix, which can help you
spot errors.
There are three Matrix Views:
m Asset Matrix: For assigning assets to tracks.
m Jump Matrix: For assigning jumps and links to menus and buttons.
m Layer Matrix: For assigning Photoshop layers to menus and buttons.
Getting Around in the Matrix Views
The Matrix Views show assets, jumps, or layers across the top and containers along the left.
A right-pointing arrow indicates a collapsed container; a downward-pointing arrow indicates
an expanded one. Gray dots indicate assignments within a collapsed container. Black dots
indicate assignments within an open one. A container must be open to change its
assignments.
To open a Matrix View:
m Select a disc or menu and choose a command from the Matrix menu.
The commands in the menu change depending on what you’ve selected.
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To expand or collapse a container:
m Click the arrow to the left of the container.
To assign an asset to a menu or track:
1
Make sure the container is expanded (the arrow to the left points down).
2
Click to place a dot at the intersection of the asset column and the container row.
To uncouple an asset from a menu or track:
1
Make sure the container is expanded (the arrow to the left points down).
2
Click to remove the dot at the intersection of the asset column and the container row.
Asset Matrix
The Asset Matrix shows assets (video, audio, and subtitle streams) across the top and
containers (menus and tracks) down the side.
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Jump Matrix
The Jump Matrix shows possible jump actions along the top and containers (disc, menus,
buttons, tracks and so on) along the side.
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Layer Matrix
The Layer Matrix shows the layers of a Photoshop file along the top and the button states
(normal, selected, and activated) along the side.
Note: If you arrange the layers in your Photoshop files in a logical order, you will see
patterns in the Layer Matrix that can help you spot mistakes.
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C H A P T E R
4
4
Working With Languages and Subtitles
Working With Languages
DVD Studio Pro automatically creates one untitled language in a new project. The Languages
container includes a container for this language and for each additional language you define
in your project. You can assign up to 16 languages.
Languages can be added at any point in the creation of a project, but it’s most convenient to
assign them at the beginning.
To assign a new language:
1
Click the Languages tab.
2
Choose New Language from the Item menu.
3
Select the language you’ve just assigned.
4
In the Property Inspector, name the language and choose one of the DVD standard languages
from the Language pop-up menu.
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Each language on a disc must have its own menu assets. DVD Studio Pro automatically adds a
container for the new language to each menu item and adds a property for the language to
the Pictures and Audio areas of the menu properties.
Language choices are
available only if you have
added additional
languages to your project.
The assets used for alternate-language versions of a menu must have the same
format and structure (in the case of Photoshop files). If you assign a Photoshop file, the files
assigned to the other languages must have the same number of layers, the layers must be in
the same order, and they must have the same names as those in the first file assigned. If you
assign a video stream to a menu, the streams assigned to the other languages must be exactly
the same length.
Important
To assign assets to menus for different languages:
m In the Property Inspector for the menu, expand the Pictures area and choose assets from
the pop-up menu for each language. If you’re using sound in menus, choose assets in the
Audios area also.
m With the menu for a particular language open in the menu editor, choose a language from
the Language menu.
m Select the menu in the Graphical View or Project View, then select the alternate version in
the Property Inspector.
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Chapter 4
Setting Up Multiple Language Audio in Slideshows
If you assign multiple language audio streams to each slide, make sure that they are always in
the same order. For example, add English first, then German, and then French. Then in the
Property Inspector for the slideshow, set Audio Language 1 to English, Audio Language 2 to
German, and Audio Language 3 to French.
The Subtitle Editor
The Subtitle Editor (STE for short) is an easy way to create subtitle streams for your
video streams.
With the Subtitle Editor, you can navigate through a source movie, listen to its dialog, and
precisely position subtitles. You can also import previously prepared subtitle text generated
by an editing system or a subtitling service bureau.
Preparing Source Material for Subtitles
Before you can create subtitles, you need a movie in a QuickTime-compatible format for each
segment of video and audio that you want to create subtitles for.
Your project won’t use the movie itself, so you can save storage space by preparing a lowresolution version. If you are just transcribing dialog into subtitles, for example, you can use
an audio track or convert a PCM audio stream to QuickTime.
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Setting Preferences for the Subtitle Editor
You can specify the default actions of the Subtitle Editor by choosing Preferences from the
File menu.
To edit the names and colors that appear in the color menu of the subtitle editor:
1
Click Color Menu Settings.
2
In the Color Menu Settings dialog box, select and change the names of any colors.
3
Click a color, then use the color picker to choose a new color.
The color picker is described in the onscreen help for your operating system.
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Chapter 4
Starting a New Subtitle Project
1
Open the STE.
Several windows appear. You can show or hide any window using the Windows menu.
2
In the Project Settings dialog box, click Select Project Movie and choose a source movie.
Working With Languages and Subtitles
91
3
Choose NTSC or PAL from the DVD-Videosize pop-up menu.
4
Set margins in the Subtitle Settings area.
Margins restrict subtitles to a defined area. If you set the margins to zero, subtitles can be
positioned anywhere in the movie frame. Use the following settings for typical subtitles,
which appear in one or two lines at the bottom of a frame:
5
Margin
NTSC
PAL
Top
400
450
Left
25
35
Right
25
35
Bottom
25
35
Click Rendering Options to select the appearance of your subtitles when rendered.
This window shows the
effects of your choices.
You can specify border and shadow options (color and offset) for subtitles. These settings
are used when the finished project is complied into a subtitle stream. Click OK when
you’re finished.
6
Click Preview Window Color to specify a color for the background of the Preview window.
This color does not influence how subtitles are rendered.
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7
Navigate to the spot in the movie where you want to begin your subtitle by doing one of the
following:
m Use the controls in the QuickTime Preview window.
m Enter a new time code in the time code box in the upper-left corner of the Preview
window.
m Select a marker’s name in the Marker window or the Markers menu.
m Choose the Find command from the Markers menu to search for a marker by name.
m Choose “GoTo in Movie” from the Edit menu and enter a time code.
8
In the Subtitles window, click New.
9
Click the triangle next to the subtitle, or double-click the line containing the subtitle, to open
it for editing.
10
Type the subtitle text.
11
Style the text using the buttons along the top of the Subtitles window.
The results appear in the Preview window.
Don’t use more than four text colors within a subtitle stream. If you are using
more than one subtitle within one track, use no more than two colors (including black and
white). Because of the technical limitations of the DVD-Video standard (and the small
amount of memory available on consumer DVD players), using more colors may cause
subtitles to display incorrectly during play.
Important
Working With Languages and Subtitles
93
Changing the Location and Duration of Subtitles
To change the In point, Out point, or duration of the current subtitle, do one of the following:
m In the Subtitles window, type a new time code in the In or Out box.
m Choose Set In Point or Set Out Point from the Subtitle menu.
Locking and Unlocking Subtitle Positions
You can lock the In point or Out point of a subtitle (the point in the track where it appears or
disappears). If you do so, the subtitle will always begin or end at that point, even if it is linked
to other subtitles whose In or Out points subsequently change.
To lock a subtitle, do one of the following:
m In the Subtitles window, select the subtitle and click the lock icon next to the In time code
or Out time code.
m Select the subtitle’s In point or Out point and choose Lock or Unlock from the Subtitle menu.
Linking Subtitles
When linking is turned on, the Out points of the linked subtitles change dynamically to keep
the subtitles linked. You can still edit the In points.
To link a subtitle to the next subtitle:
1
Select a subtitle.
2
Click the magnet icon next to the Out time code, or choose Link from the Subtitle menu.
Selecting Multiple Subtitles
To select all the subtitles that occur between two time codes that you specify:
m Choose Select from the Edit menu and Subtitles from the submenu, then enter a time
code range.
To select a contiguous set of subtitles:
m Select a subtitle at the beginning or end of the set, then hold down the Shift key and click
the subtitle at the other end.
To select noncontiguous subtitles:
m Hold down the Command key while you click subtitles.
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Chapter 4
Importing Subtitles
You can import subtitles from a plain text file, such as a script or EDL. The text file must
contain three fields for each entry:
m start time code for the subtitle
m end time code for the subtitle
m subtitle text ( You can specify line breaks within a single screen of subtitles by inserting the
HTML paragraph tag <P> into the text to be imported.)
To import subtitles:
1
Choose Import from the File menu, then choose Subtitles from the submenu.
2
Select the file you want to open.
Compiling a Subtitle Stream
When you’re finished creating subtitles, you need to compile them into a subtitle stream that
can be used in DVD Studio Pro.
To compile a subtitle stream:
1
Choose Compile Project from the File menu.
2
Select a location for the file.
Working With Subtitle Streams in DVD Studio Pro
To import a subtitle stream:
m Drag the stream to the Assets container.
To add a subtitle stream to a track:
m In the Project View or Graphical View, drag the subtitle stream to the container of the
track or track item.
To create a new subtitle:
m Choose New Subtitle from the Item menu.
Note: When working with a subtitle asset, be sure it is assigned a language in the Property
Inspector for the subtitle.
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Keyboard Shortcuts
Many of the STE commands can be accessed using the keyboard. In addition to the standard
commands visible in the menus, the STE has these keyboard shortcuts:
Key command
Function
Keys on the numeric keypad
0
Rewind movie to start
, or .
Stop
7, 9
Previous marker, next marker
4, 6
Previous subtitle, next subtitle
1, 3
Previous frame, next frame
Arrow keys
Left
Previous frame
Right
Next frame
Up
Start of movie
Down
End of movie
Miscellaneous
Space bar
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Chapter 4
Start/stop movie play
C H A P T E R
5
5
Using Scripts
The DVD-Video specification includes a simple yet powerful scripting language.
DVD Studio Pro gives you full access to this capability. You can add sophisticated interactivity
and control to a project with only a few simple scripts.
Scripts in DVD Studio Pro are created as separate items within a project, so they can be
assigned easily to any item that supports a script. Scripts can be assigned to buttons or
attached to the start or end of any track, story, menu, or marker.
With scripts you can
m allow viewers choices that affect what buttons, menus, and tracks they see
m add random play to your project
m allow viewers to create a playlist of favorite tracks
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Creating a Script
You use the script editor to enter the text of your scripts.
To open the script editor:
1
Double-click a script tile.
The script editor appears.
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Chapter 5
2
To enter a script, do one of the following:
m Type in the editor window.
m Choose from menus to automatically enter commands and names of items in
your project.
3
Click OK or close the script editor to format the script.
Assigning Scripts
Once you create a script, you can assign it as the action for a button, track, menu, marker,
story, slideshow, or remote control key.
To assign a script:
1
Create the script.
2
Select the item to which you want to assign the script.
3
In the Property Inspector, choose the script from the appropriate pop-up menu.
You can assign scripts to control the following types of actions:
m A pre-script runs before its assigned item is displayed.
m A timeout action runs if the viewer does not choose an option within a preset
period of time.
m A script assigned to a remote control key runs if the viewer clicks that key.
m An action runs when an item (such as a button or menu) is displayed or activated.
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99
Assigning Global Variables for Scripts
You can create and name up to eight global variables (also called GPRMs) for scripts. The
variables store data used by scripts. To create a variable, you use it in a script or name it in the
Property Inspector. The variables are stored as properties of the disc.
DVD players reset the content of all variables whenever the viewer uses the
Time Search or Time Play functions of the remote control. If your project depends on
maintaining variable values, you should prohibit use of these functions. To do so, view the
disc in the Property Inspector, open the Remote-Control area, and choose Prohibited from
the Time Search / Time Play pop-up menu.
Important
To view global script variables:
m Select the disc to see its properties in the Property Inspector.
Click to edit variable names.
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Chapter 5
Viewing Script Properties
To view or change information about a script:
1
Select a script.
2
In the Property Inspector, make the changes you want.
The DVD-Video standard limits the number of commands in a script to 128. One line of a
script is roughly equivalent to one command. The Commands Used and Commands Free
values give an indication of the size of the script.
Scripting Reference
About Registers, Parameters, and Variables
Variables are called registers or parameters in the parlance of DVD-Video players. Each
player has several registers or parameters. Each register can hold a positive, whole-number
value between 0 and 65535.
There are two kinds of registers:
m System parameters: Hold information about languages, tracks, and subtitle and audio
streams. You can use system parameter information through routines built into the
scripting language.
m General-purpose parameters: Can be used by an application created with
DVD Studio Pro for such features as auto-selection of buttons. There are eight generalpurpose parameters.
Registers work like global variables. You can use them in any script. Any change to a register
is reflected at once in all scripts.
When a disc starts, the registers are set to zero. The values of the registers are lost if the
viewer ejects or stops the disc or turns off the player. In this manual, the values of registers or
parameters are called variables.
Using Scripts
101
Limitations of Variables and Registers
m DVD-Video players don’t support recursion or local variables.
m Registers have no overflow or underflow flags.
m If the script tries to store a value smaller than 0 or larger than 65535, no error message is
given; instead, the value “wraps around.” For example, if you subtract 7 from 3, you would
normally get –4. But if you do this in a script, 65532 will be stored. If you add 6 to 65534
in a script, 4 is stored instead of 65540.
Depending on the application design, plausibility checks may be necessary. You cannot
create compound statements. For example,:
The first line must be written as:
B = getAudioStream()
if A == B then nop
The second line must be stated as:
A = B
A += C
This code is not allowed:
if A == getAudioStream() then nop
A = B + C
Script Reference Conventions
In this scripting reference, the eight registers available for scripting are called variables.
“Variable” stands for one of your variables.
“Constant” stands for an integer value between 0 and 65535.
“Function” stands for any of the built-in functions.
Items enclosed in square brackets are options. For example, the following code means that
you can either use a variable or a constant after the = sign:
variable = [variable|constant]
Numbers
There are three ways to enter numbers in scripts:
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Decimal numbers are written directly in
the script.
A = 10
Hexadecimal numbers must begin with a
dollar ($) sign.
A = $FFE3
Binary numbers have a leading
percentage (%) sign.
A = %00011101
Labels
Any line in a script can have a label associated with it. You can jump to a label with the gotoLabel
command. A label must begin with a letter.
Example
label: A= 5
Comments
A line with a # sign at the beginning is not executed. You can use these lines to write notes about the
script or to disable certain lines of the script.
Example
# This is a comment.
Functions and Commands
Operators
Assignment
Assigns the value on the right to the variable on the left. The value can come from another
variable, a constant, or a built-in function.
Syntax
variable = [variable|constant|function]
Examples
A = B
A = 5
A = getAudioStream()
Operators With Assignment
Addition
Adds the value from the right to the variable on the left.
Syntax
variable += [variable|constant]
Examples
A += B
A += 7
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103
Subtraction
Subtracts the value on the right from the variable on the left.
Syntax
variable -= [variable|constant]
Examples
A -= B
A -= 3
Multiplication
Multiplies the variable on the left by the value on the right; stores the result in the variable on
the left.
Syntax
variable *= [variable|constant]
Examples
A *= B
A *= 8
Division
Divides the variable on the left by the value on the right; stores the result in the variable on
the left. The result is truncated to an integer.
A division by zero results in $FFFF or 65535.
Syntax
variable /= [variable|constant]
Examples
A /= B
A /= 19
Modulo
Divides the variable on the left by the value on the right; stores what’s left over (modulo) in
the variable on the left.
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Chapter 5
Syntax
variable %= [variable|constant]
Examples
A %= B
A %= 20
Bit-wise And
Does a “bit-wise and” operation with the two operands.
Syntax
variable &= [variable|constant]
Examples
A &= B
A &= 6532
Bit-wise Or
Does a “bit-wise or” operation with the two operands.
Syntax
variable |= [variable|constant]
Examples
A |= B
A |= 456
Bit-wise Exclusive Or
Does a “bit-wise exclusive or” operation with the two operands.
Syntax
variable ^= [variable|constant]
Examples
A ^= B
A ^= 21
Random Number
Generates a random number between 1 and the value on the right.
Syntax
variable ?= [variable|constant]
Examples
A ?= B
A ?= 34
Functions
getAudioStream()
Yields the current audio stream number (between 1 and 8).
Syntax
variable = getAudioStream()
Example
A = getAudioStream()
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105
getSubtitleStream()
Yields the current subtitle stream number (between 1 and 32).
Syntax
variable = getSubtitleStream()
Example
A = getSubtitleStream()
getRegionCode()
Yields the region code of the player. This is a binary value. Bit 0 means region 1, bit 1 means
region 2, and so on.
Syntax
variable = getRegionCode()
Example
A = getRegionCode()
getCurrentItem()
Yields the current item (usually the item the script is attached to: a script, if the script was
called directly, or a menu or track, if the script was assigned as a pre-script).
Syntax
variable = getCurrentItem()
Example
A = getCurrentItem()
getLastItem()
Yields the last item played.
Syntax
variable = getLastItem()
Examples
A = getLastItem()
if A == Track “drehung shell.dvd.mpv Track”
then nop
getCurrentTrack()
Yields the track currently playing or the track that was playing before a jump to a menu.
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Chapter 5
Syntax
variable = getCurrentTrack()
Example
A = getCurrentTrack()
Procedures
setAudioStream
Sets the number of the audio stream to be played.
Syntax
setAudioStream [constant]
Example
setAudioStream 5
setSubtitleStream
Sets the number of the subtitle stream to be displayed.
Syntax
setSubtitleStream [constant]
Example
setSubtitleStream 19
Commands
nop
This command does nothing. It serves as a placeholder.
Syntax
nop
Example
if A == 5 then nop
stop
This command is equivalent to clicking the Stop key on the remote control.
Syntax
stop
Example
stop
exitScript
This command, which only works with pre-scripts, exits from the running script immediately.
The player goes to the next item to which the pre-script is assigned.
Syntax
exitScript
Example
exitScript
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107
gotoLabel
This command jumps to another position in the script.
Syntax
gotoLabel [label]
Example
gotoLabel here_next
return
This command returns from a menu to the player’s position before the jump to the menu.
(The player continues playing the track as if nothing happened.)
Syntax
return
Example
return
play
This command plays an object. Objects are tracks, markers, menus, buttons, and scripts.
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Chapter 5
play Track
Plays the track from the start.
play Marker
“myMarker” of Track
“myTrack”
Plays the track starting from the marker.
play Menu
Evaluates all the selection conditions.
play Button
When this menu appears, this button is selected. Overrides
selection conditions normally assigned to the button.
play Script
Calls that script, stopping the execution of the current script.
Syntax
play [object]
Examples
play Track “myTrack”
play Marker “myMarker” of Track “myTrack”
play Menu “MyMenu”
play Button “myButton” of Menu “myMenu”
play Script “myScript”
A = getLastItem()
if A == Menu “shell step 01 Menu” then play
Button “1step” of Menu “5T84”
Control Structures
if then
Syntax
if variable [operator] [variable|constant] then
[assignment|procedure|command]
The “if ” clause enables comparisons and the execution of commands based on the result of
comparisons.
Several operators are available for the if clause:
Equal
This operator compares the values on both sides of the operator and executes the “then”
condition if they are equal.
Syntax
variable == [variable|constant]
Example
if A == B then nop
Not Equal
This operator compares the values on both sides of the operator and executes the “then”
condition if they are not equal.
Syntax
variable != [variable|constant]
Example
if A != B then play Track “myTrack”
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Using NVRAM in DVD Studio Pro
DVD Studio Pro supports the Philips Professional DVD Player 170. This player has NVRAM, or
non-volatile memory, which means variables remain stored when the player is turned off. To
use the NVRAM feature with DVD Studio Pro, the player must have firmware version 9.25 or
later installed. Upgrade information is available from Philips.
The NVRAM has 256 addresses from 0 to 255. Every address has a size of 16 bits.
When Use NVRAM is turned on in the Preferences and you use NVRAM commands in your
project, DVD Studio Pro creates a folder called PROF containing a file named INFO.ID. This file
contains the NVRAM information for the disc. Do not edit this file. When you multiplex your
disc, make sure the folder is stored in the same folder as the VIDEO_TS directory.
When you choose Build & Format Disc from the File menu, DVD Studio Pro automatically
includes the PROF folder in the proper place on the disc.
When you preview your project, the debugging window shows all current values stored in
the NVRAM. (See “Debugging in Preview Mode” on page 116.)
To store information in or read information from the NVRAM, you use four simple commands
in your scripts. (Using NVRAM commands on a player without installed NVRAM has no effect.)
poke
This command stores the value of the first global variable (by default, this variable is named
A; you can change the name in the disc properties) in the NVRAM at the address specified.
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Chapter 5
Syntax
poke [address]
Example
poke 33
pokeAll
This command stores the values of all global variables (by default, these variables are named
A through H; you can change the name in the disc properties) in the NVRAM. A is stored in
the address specified, B is stored in the next address, and so on.
Syntax
pokeAll [address]
Example
pokeAll 33
peek
This command retrieves the value from the NVRAM address specified and writes it to the
corresponding global variable. For example, if you store variables A–H in addresses 33–40
and you use the command peek 34, the command retrieves the value of address 34 and
writes it to variable B.
Syntax
peek [address]
Example
peek 33
peekAll
This command retrieves the contents of eight sequential addresses beginning with the
address specified and writes the contents in the same order in the global variables A–H.
Syntax
peekAll [address]
Example
peekAll 33
To avoid loss of information, after using the poke or pokeAll command,
instruct the player to wait at least one second before using it again. The player needs this
time to store the information safely.
Important
Using Scripts
111
Determining Whether NVRAM Is Available
You can use this simple test procedure to find out whether NVRAM is active. Script 1
writes the value 5 into the NVRAM at address 33. Script 2 sets variable A to 0 and then reads
the value in address 33 and stores it in variable A. If the value remains at 0, then NVRAM is
not available.
1
Create two simple menu graphics and name them NVRAM installed and NVRAM not installed.
2
Create two scripts:
Script 1:
#storing A in the NVRAM
A = 5
Poke 33
Script 2:
#retrieving value of location 33 and storing it in variable A:
A = 0
Peek 33
if A==0 then play menu "NVRAM not installed"
play menu "NVRAM installed"
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3
Assign the scripts to a menu.
4
Preview the menu.
C H A P T E R
6
6
Previewing, Testing, and Building
Your DVD
As you create your DVD you may find it useful to check your work. DVD Studio Pro includes
technology that lets you see, hear, and interact with your DVD project before you spend time
building it. A debugging feature helps you locate any linking mistakes.
DVD Studio Pro uses a special real-time multiplexing technique that makes it possible to
preview without waiting for the project to be multiplexed. This method of previewing uses
no simulation, so what you see is exactly what will appear on your final DVD, with one
exception: because of the overhead involved, you may notice slight glitches during
previewing. These glitches will not appear in the finished DVD.
When you’re finished putting together and testing your project, you build it by combining
the files in a process called multiplexing. The finished product is a folder called VIDEO_TS
that contains all the information needed to write a DVD. You can create an image file of this
folder or copy your project onto a disc or DLT tape.
113
Using Preview Mode
1
Select an item.
You can select the disc, a track, angle, marker, story, menu, audio stream, video stream, or
slideshow. Selecting the disc previews its startup behavior.
2
Choose Preview from the Item menu, or click the Preview button in the Graphical View.
Other windows close, the Preview window opens, and you see or hear the selected item.
Note: Preview does not work if any of the following are missing:
m assigned picture assets for the menus for all languages you’ve created
m one basic asset assigned for each track and slideshow
m the startup action for the disc
3
Use the onscreen remote control to navigate through your project.
The remote control keys (except for the Stop key) will perform whatever actions you
previously assigned to them in the Property Inspector of the item you’re previewing. These
are typical actions assigned to the keys:
m Return key: Goes back to the previously active item.
m Next Track/Previous Track (Skip) keys: Jump to the previous or next point defined by a
marker. If no markers are assigned to a track, nothing happens.
m Arrow keys: Select menu buttons.
m OK key (also known as Enter key): Activates the selected menu button.
Return key
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Chapter 6
Previous
Track key
Arrow
keys
Next Track key
4
To rotate through alternate audio streams, subtitle streams, or angle streams, click the Audio,
Subtitle, or Angle key in the lower-right portion of the remote control.
5
When you’re finished, click the Stop key on the remote control or press the Esc key on the
keyboard.
Limitations of Preview Mode
m Depending on the speed of your processor, you may be able to preview only a limited
number of angles in Preview Mode. To see all angles, you may need to build the disc.
m Some set-top player models may be programmed slightly differently from Preview Mode.
Navigation may not work exactly the same way on those models.
Previewing on an External Video Monitor
You can preview on a different monitor if you have one attached to your computer.
To preview using a different monitor:
1
Choose the monitor from the pop-up menu marked with the monitor icon.
2
To specify the shape of pixels, choose an item from the pop-up menu marked with arrows
inside a square.
Choose square pixels to see how your project will look on a computer screen. Choose
rectangular pixels to preview the look of your project on a TV monitor.
3
For best results, stop and restart Preview Mode after specifying a different monitor.
Previewing, Testing, and Building Your DVD
115
Debugging
You can use the DVD Studio Pro debugging feature to locate linking mistakes.
Debugging in Preview Mode
To view debugging information while you are previewing:
m Click the button shown below (in the upper-right corner of the Preview window).
The debugging window shows the following information:
m last item played
m current item playing
m current track
m value of each variable used in a script
m log of each action
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If you are authoring a disc for use on a Philips Professional DVD Player and you turn on Use
NVRAM in the Preferences dialog box, the debugging window also shows the values assigned
to its registers and buttons that allow you to clear, load, and save the contents of the
registers.
By paying attention to this information while stepping through your project with the remote
control, you can find errors in your action assignments, button links, and scripts.
Previewing, Testing, and Building Your DVD
117
Using Built-in Error Checking
Error-Checking When Adding Assets
When you import or add assets to a project, DVD Studio Pro checks whether they are valid. If
you try to import a video stream with an inappropriate frame rate or an audio stream with an
incorrect frequency, the Log window displays an error message.
DVD Studio Pro keeps track of which items on your DVD are not complete. Incomplete items
appear in italics. To see what’s missing, select the item and view it in the Property Inspector.
If you try to delete an item that is linked to other items, you see a message explaining the
error and listing the links. Click Show Item to view the item so you can unlink it from other
items. (Show Item is not available if the item is not assigned as a property of the disc.)
Finding Missing Asset Files
The Asset Files window shows the name and location of every asset file used in your
project. You can use it to locate missing files or to change the source files assigned to
particular assets.
If you open a saved project and DVD Studio Pro cannot locate one or more asset files, the
Asset Files window shows a list of the missing files.
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To open the Asset Files window:
m Choose Asset Files from the Item menu.
To locate a file assigned to an asset:
m Select an asset and click the Locate button. Locate and select the file in the dialog
box that appears.
If you select a file in a folder that contains other missing asset files, you can reassign the
other assets in that folder as well.
To assign a new file to an asset:
m Select an asset and click Assign, then assign a new file in the dialog box that appears.
Finding Unassigned Asset Files
To find asset files that haven’t yet been assigned to any items:
1
Click the Assets tab.
2
Open the Item menu and choose By Usage from the Sort Assets submenu.
Any assets not currently used in your project appear at the top of the Asset list.
Getting Information About Your Project
Using Project Description Files
A description is a text file containing a specially formatted description of every aspect of a
DVD Studio Pro project, including absolute paths specifying the location of each file.
With a description file you can
m make global changes in your project using the search and replace functions of
a text editor
m use the file as a template from which to create new projects
m set up a database or other custom application to create description files, opening the
possibility of semi-automated custom DVD production (advanced)
To create a description of your current project:
m Choose Save Description from the File menu and select a location and name.
To start a new project using a description:
m Choose Load Description from the File menu and locate the file you want.
To edit a description file:
m Open and change the file in a text editor.
Previewing, Testing, and Building Your DVD
119
Using the Log Window
The Log window displays useful information about the workings of DVD Studio Pro,
including
m status messages
m copy-protection details
m disc build errors: If an error occurs while you’re building your disc, the Log window
opens. For more information about error messages, see “Solving Multiplexing Problems”
on page 122.
m asset import errors: If you try to import assets with invalid formats, the Log window
explains the error.
m item descriptions: You can see a text description of any selected item in your project.
This information is in the same format as the project description file. You can copy the
information to the Clipboard for use in a project description file.
To open the Log window:
m Choose Log from the Windows menu.
To see item description information:
m Select the item and choose Show Description from the Item menu.
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Building Your Project
When you’re finished putting together and testing your project, it’s time to build it. Building
combines the files in a process called multiplexing. The finished product is a folder called
VIDEO_TS containing all the information needed to write a DVD.
To build your project:
1
Choose Build Disc from the File menu.
If the command is not available, there are missing or incorrect settings in your project. Items
with incomplete settings appear in italics in the Project View. To see what’s missing, select
the item and view it in the Property Inspector.
If you have selected a disc medium in the disc properties, and DVD Studio Pro
estimates that the project will take more space than is available on that medium, you see an
error message.
Important
2
Select the location where you want the VIDEO_TS folder created.
For fastest results, select a different hard disk from the one containing your files.
3
If you specify a location that already contains a VIDEO_TS folder, choose whether to reuse
material that has not changed.
Warning If you choose not to reuse material in the folder, DVD Studio Pro deletes the
folder and all its data. If you aren’t sure whether the folder contains material you need,
choose a different location to build your disc.
Depending on the bit rates of your tracks and the speed of your computer and hard
disks, building takes from 1/4 to 1/2 the length of all your tracks combined. If you have an
hour of material in your project, it will take between 15 and 30 minutes to multiplex it.
Previewing, Testing, and Building Your DVD
121
Tracking the Multiplexing Process
As the disc is built, the Progress window displays the name and bit rate of the track being
processed and the current multiplexing speed.
To display the memory available to DVD Studio Pro and the memory currently being used:
m Press the Caps Lock key on the keyboard.
The Log window also displays a status message when the disc has been successfully built,
such as “Disc complies to DVD Video standard 1.0 or 1.1.” This final confirmation
depends on the audio formats used. Standard 1.0 uses PCM or AC-3 audio; standard 1.1
allows MPEG audio or a mixture of AC-3, PCM, and MPEG.
Solving Multiplexing Problems
If an error occurs while you are building your disc, the Log window opens automatically and
displays an error message in red text. The following are some error messages you may
encounter and solutions to the problems they describe:
Data rate too high
Multiplexing stops and this error appears if one of the following is true:
m The total data rate for the video content of a track exceeds 9.8 Mbps.
m The total data rate for all assets used in a track exceeds 10.085 Mbps. To solve this problem,
use fewer audio or subtitle streams, or re-encode the video content at a lower data rate.
Found VOBU error
m “Found VOBU longer than 1.0 seconds at sector xxxxx” (any GOP in a VOBU)
m “Found VOBU longer than 1.2 seconds at sector xxxxx” (last GOP in a VOBU only)
m “Found VOBU shorter than 0.4 seconds at sector xxxxx” (any GOP in a VOBU)
These messages mean the GOP pattern of an underlying video stream is out of range.
Multiplexing does not stop. Depending on the tolerance of the decoder, VOBU errors can
cause audio and video to go out of sync.
To solve this problem, re-encode the MPEG stream.
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Bad encoded video
Multiplexing stops. This message means the encoding did not work properly—frames inside a
GOP may be missing, too long, or too short; the temporal reference that defines the order of
the I, P, and B frames in a GOP may be incorrect.
To solve this problem, re-encode the MPEG stream.
Creating Your Disc
After multiplexing is finished, you can create an image file or copy your project onto a disc or
DLT tape.
Note: If you used DVD@CCESS links in your DVD, installers for those links are included on
the final disc when you build it. Depending on the kind of computer you are using to play
your DVD, you may need to install the installers for the Web links to work.
To create the disc:
1
If you want to copy your project onto a disc or DLT tape, connect a recording device to your
computer (following the instructions that came with the device).
2
Choose Build & Format Disc from the File menu.
3
In the Format Disc window, choose whether to save the project as an image file or record it
to a device.
4
If you want to simulate the build disc operation to check for errors before creating a disc,
select the DVD-R Simulation Mode checkbox.
Previewing, Testing, and Building Your DVD
123
5
If you choose Record To Device, select the device from the list and make settings for the device.
If a device appears not to be ready, check that it’s connected properly and has power.
m DVD recorder: Select a DVD recorder from the list and insert a recordable DVD-R.
m DLT tape drive: Select a DLT device from the list. Choose the format that works with your
replicator. (DDP 2.0 is an old mastering format. CMF is the new standard as of April 1999.)
Insert a tape.
m DVD-RAM drive: Select a DVD-RAM drive from the list and insert a DVD-RAM disc.
Before creating a disc,
you can simulate the
build disc operation to
check for errors.
6
Click OK.
If you’re recording onto DLT tape and you’ve specified a dual-layer disc (in the disc
properties), the formatter asks you for a second tape when ready.
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A P P E N D I X
A
A
Using A.Pack to Encode AC-3 Sound
What Is A.Pack?
Apple A.Pack is software for encoding audio in the Dolby Digital format (also known as
AC-3). Dolby Digital is the preferred audio format for DVD-Video discs.
A.Pack accepts your multi-channel sound files in a variety of formats and gives you complete
control over the encoding process.
Using A.Pack you can monitor your AC-3 files as a stereo downmix using your computer’s
sound system.
A.Pack is Dolby-certified, so you can be sure it will produce high-quality, compatible output.
Creating AC-3: An Overview
A.Pack is not a sound editing or mixing tool. To give your listeners a “surrounding” audio
experience, your sound must be created with that goal in mind. For example, if you want the
sound of an explosion coming from behind the listener, you need to put the sound in the
rear channels during recording and mixing.
125
Step 1: Recording Sound
As with any audio track, the first step is finding and recording the sound that you want. Keep
your end result in mind. If you want to position particular sounds in the surround sound
environment, you should record them separately.
Step 2: Mixing Sound
The second step is mixing the audio. You need a separate audio file for each channel. If you
want to create Dolby Digital 5.1 sound, you need a file for each of the six source channels—
left front, right front, center front, left rear, right rear, and Low Frequency Effects (LFE).
To create files for channels, you assign your sounds to channels using a recording/mixing
system that supports six-track playback.
When mixing, you can enhance the video action by dynamically moving the sounds within
the surround field. The following are some common approaches to multi-channel sound:
m Use the surround channels for effects only. Create a stereo mix, then add “sweetening”
sound effects in the surround channels.
m Create special sounds for the rear and low-frequency channels (the rumble of an
earthquake, the pounding of drums, an airplane buzzing overhead, and so on) and add
them to a standard stereo mix. (To create sound for the LFE channel, you can extract low
frequencies from the rest of your sound using band-pass filters.)
m Position instruments, effects, and voices anywhere in the sound field.
m Use the center channel for voice-over, leaving it out of the left and right channels. (This is
called stereo plus center.)
See “Options for Spatial Mixing” beginning on page 138 for further information.
Step 3: Digitizing Sound
Once your sound is mixed, save the resulting channels as sound files in one of these formats:
m AIFF
m SoundDesigner II
m QuickTime
m WAVE
Depending on the format, a file can contain a single channel (mono), dual channels (stereo),
or multiple channels. A.Pack supports all these formats.
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Appendix A
Your sound files must also conform to the following rules:
m All source files should be the same length (if not, A.Pack sets the length of the AC-3
stream to match the length of the longest file).
m All files must have the same sample rate—for DVD, 48 kHz (although A.Pack also supports
32 and 44.1 kHz).
m AC-3 streams must have a multiple of 1536 samples. If the selected input files do not,
A.Pack adds digital silence to the end of the files.
If you label your files with the suffixes listed below, A.Pack automatically assigns each file to
the correct surround position when you drag multiple files to the Instant Encoder.
Position
File Extension
Left front
.L
Right front
.R
Center front
.C
Left rear
.Ls
Right rear
.Rs
Subwoofer
.LFE or .SUB
Step 4: Encoding Sound Files
In the final step, encoding to AC-3 format, you select the sound files and assign them to
positions in the sound field. A.Pack does the rest, giving you an AC-3 audio stream ready to
include on a DVD.
Using A.Pack for Encoding
With A.Pack, you can do the following:
m Convert sound files to Dolby AC-3 format using settings that you specify.
m Play AC-3 files using the Mac OS Sound Manager or an ASIO sound system connected to
your computer.
m Convert AC-3 files to individual channel files or to a downmixed stereo file.
Converting files is called an encoding job. Two or more jobs can be combined into batches,
which can run unattended. The result of encoding is a single AC-3 stream.
On a 400 MHz computer system, encoding takes approximately as long as the length of your
sound files (a 10-minute track takes about 10 minutes to encode).
Using A.Pack to Encode AC-3 Sound
127
Opening A.Pack
Before you can use A.Pack you need to install, register, and supply the serial number for
DVD Studio Pro.
Converting to AC-3 Format Using the Instant Encoder
When you first open A.Pack, the Instant Encoder appears. ( You can specify what happens
when you open A.Pack using the Preferences command in the Edit menu.) You use the
Instant Encoder to encode one AC-3 stream at a time. To encode multiple streams, see
“Converting to AC-3 Format in Batches” beginning on page 129.
To encode a single AC-3 stream:
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Appendix A
1
Drag a sound file to an input channel button, or click a button and choose a sound file in the
dialog box that appears.
2
If you assign a sound file that has more than one channel, choose the channel you want to
assign in the Channel pop-up menu and click OK.
The name of the file appears on the input channel button.
3
Repeat steps 1 and 2 until all input channels are assigned.
4
If you want to specify encoding settings, click the expansion triangle in the upper-right
corner of the Instant Encoder.
For information about settings, see “Specifying Encoding Settings” beginning on page 131.
5
Click Encode.
6
Specify a name and location for the file.
To change the assigned channel of a multiple-channel sound file:
m Hold down the Control key and click the input channel button, then choose a new
channel in the pop-up menu.
Converting to AC-3 Format in Batches
If you have more than one job to process, you can set them up as a batch and encode them
all at once.
To create an encoding batch:
1
Choose New Batch List from the File menu.
2
Select the source file for each channel by doing one of the following:
m Click Select and choose a file in the dialog box that appears.
m Drag an individual file to a channel.
m Drag a set of files (with the proper suffixes) to the channel selection area.
Using A.Pack to Encode AC-3 Sound
129
If you label your files with the suffixes listed here, A.Pack automatically assigns each file to
the correct surround position when you drag multiple files to the Instant Encoder:
m .L (left front)
m .R (right front)
m .C (center front)
m .Ls (left rear)
m .Rs (right rear)
m .LFE or .SUB (subwoofer)
3
If you assign any source files with multiple channels, use the pop-up menu to select the
channels you want.
4
Click Set Output and specify a name for the AC-3 stream (for this job only).
5
If you want, specify encoding settings for this job.
For information about settings, see “Specifying Encoding Settings” beginning on page 131.
6
To reduce workspace clutter, click the triangle to collapse the settings for this job.
7
To add the next job, click New and repeat steps 2–6.
8
When you’re finished, click Encode.
9
Select a folder for the encoded streams.
A status window appears while the batch is being processed.
To change the order of jobs in a batch:
m Drag a job to a new position in the window.
To set parameters for several jobs at once:
m Select the jobs and set encoding parameters. Your settings will apply to all selected jobs.
To import settings for jobs in a batch:
m Select the jobs and choose Import Settings from the File menu.
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Appendix A
To export settings of a job in a batch:
m Select a job and choose Export Settings from the File menu.
When you create a new job for encoding or change the settings for a job, a red
checkmark appears to the right of the Set Output button. When encoding is finished, the
checkmark disappears.
To manually flag or unflag a job, do one of the following:
m Click the flag column. (To change all jobs in the list, hold down the Option key and click.)
Click the flag column to
flag or unflag a job.
m Select the job and choose Mark Done or Mark Not Done from the Batch menu.
To encode several batches at once:
m Choose Encode Multiple from the Batch menu to encode all currently open batch lists.
Specifying Encoding Settings
A.Pack uses default settings to encode files. Most of the time these settings should be
adequate for your needs, but you can change them in the settings panels.
To view and specify settings in the Instant Encoder:
m Click the downward-pointing triangle in the upper-right corner of the window.
To specify settings in batch mode:
m Select a job or jobs and change settings in the panel to the right.
Using A.Pack to Encode AC-3 Sound
131
Audio Settings
m Target System: A.Pack limits available settings to those appropriate for the target system.
If you’re encoding for use with DVD Studio Pro, choose DVD-Video.
m Audio Coding Mode: Specifies audio channels of the encoded stream. For example, “3/1
(L, C, R, S)” means three front channels (left, center, right), and one rear channel
(surround). Affects settings such as the available bandwidth and surround channel
preprocessing.
m Enable Low Frequency Effects: Includes the LFE channel in the encoded stream. (Not
available for mono or stereo.)
m Data Rate: Choices depend on coding mode and target system. The higher the rate, the
better the quality. AC-3 streams have a constant data rate. At 448 Kbps, which is the
default for 5.1 encoding, one minute of AC-3 audio takes about 3.3 MB of storage space.
m Dialog Normalization: Specifies the average volume of the dialog in your sound files
relative to full modulation. The playback device uses this information to maintain similar
volume among different AC-3 streams.
m Bit Stream Mode: Defines the purpose of the encoded audio material. The information is
included in the finished stream and can be read by some decoding systems.
Options in the Bit
Stream Mode menu
Bit Stream Settings
These settings are stored in the finished stream for use by the playback device. Leave them at
their default values unless you have a specific technical reason for changing them.
m Center Downmix, Surround Downmix: If your encoded audio has these channels, but
the player does not, the channels are mixed into the stereo output at the specified level.
m Dolby Surround Mode: When encoding in 2/0 (stereo) mode, specifies whether the
signal uses Dolby Surround (Pro Logic).
m Audio Production Information: Check this box to specify how the encoded audio
content was mixed. Playback devices may use this information to adjust output settings.
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Appendix A
m Peak Mixing Level: Specifies peak sound pressure level (SPL) (between 80 dB and
111 dB) in the production environment when this mix was mastered.
m Room Type: Specifies information about the mixing studio.
Preprocessing Settings
Preprocessing options are applied to the audio data before encoding. Leave them at their
default values unless you have a specific technical reason for changing them.
m Compression Preset: Specifies one of the dynamic range processing modes built
into AC-3.
m RF Overmodulation Protection: Determines whether to use an RF preemphasis filter in
the clip protection algorithm to prevent RF overmodulation in set-top-box decoders.
m Apply Digital Deemphasis: Specifies whether input audio data is preemphasized and
needs to be deemphasized before encoding.
m Full Bandwidth Channels
m Apply Low-Pass Filter: Turns on a low-pass filter with a cut-off near the available audio
bandwidth that is applied to the main input channels. If the digital signal fed to the
main input channels does not contain information above the available audio
bandwidth, you can turn off this filter. A.Pack will automatically determine the available
bandwidth.
m Apply DC Filter: Turns on a DC high-pass filter for all input channels as a simple way to
remove DC offsets. Most mixed audio material is already free of DC offsets.
m LFE Channel—Apply Low-Pass Filter: Activates a 120 Hz low-pass filter to the Low
Frequency Effects channel. Turn off this filter if the digital signal fed to the LFE’s input
does not contain information above 120 Hz.
m Surround Channels
m Apply 90° Phase-Shift: Generates multi-channel AC-3 streams that can be downmixed
in an external 2-channel decoder to create true Dolby Surround–compatible output.
m Apply 3 dB Attenuation: Applies a 3 dB cut to the surround channels of a multichannel film soundtrack being transferred to a consumer home theater format.
Cinema surround channels are mixed 3 dB “hot” (higher) relative to the front channels
to account for cinema amplifier gains.
Using A.Pack to Encode AC-3 Sound
133
Using A.Pack for Playback and Decoding
Once your job has been encoded, you can use the AC-3 Monitor to listen to the completed
AC-3 stream.
Setting Up Stereo Playback
You can use the Mac OS Sound Manager to listen to an AC-3 stream in stereo. A.Pack
automatically downmixes the file to stereo.
To set up stereo playback:
1
Choose Preferences from the Edit menu.
2
Choose Sound Manager in the Output System pop-up menu.
Note: If you have an audio card installed, you may have more routing options for stereo
output. Make sure a Sound Manager driver for the card is installed and selected in the Sound
control panel. Then choose Sound Manager in the Output System pop-up menu.
Setting Up Multi-Channel Playback
If you have ASIO playback hardware in your computer, you can hear the AC-3 stream in
multi-channel format.
To set up multi-channel playback:
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Appendix A
1
Create a folder named ASIO Drivers in the same folder as A.Pack.
2
Copy your ASIO drivers into the ASIO Drivers folder.
3
Open A.Pack and choose Preferences from the Edit menu.
4
Choose ASIO in the Output System pop-up menu.
5
To have A.Pack create a stereo mix of the output, click the Stereo Downmix checkbox.
6
Click Options to open the ASIO Setup window.
7
Choose the settings for your ASIO system.
The settings vary depending on the system you have installed. See the documentation that
came with your sound system for further details.
ASIO Compatibility Notes
m A.Pack allocates surround sound channels to a driver’s output channels in the following
order: Left, Right, Center, LFE (subwoofer), Left Surround, Right Surround.
m If you’re using a Korg 1212io card, all ASIO data is sent to ADAT outputs 1–6 in the order
specified in the ASIO Setup window. To use the Analog or S/PDIF outputs of the Korg
1212io card, install and turn on the K1212io Sound Manager driver, and choose Sound
Manager as the output system in the Preferences dialog box.
m The Apple DAV and Apple Sound Manager ASIO drivers do not support playback at
48 kHz. To use these, choose Sound Manager as the output system in the Preferences
dialog box.
Using A.Pack to Encode AC-3 Sound
135
Playing an AC-3 Stream
To play an AC-3 stream within A.Pack through your currently selected output system:
1
Select a file to play by doing one of the following:
m Click the Select button and choose a file from the dialog box that appears.
m Double-click an AC-3 stream.
m Drag an AC-3 stream to the AC-3 Monitor.
The AC-3 Monitor opens.
Hold down the Option key and
click the Play/Stop button to
rewind the track to the beginning.
2
Click the Play button in the Player area.
Decoding an AC-3 Stream
You can use A.Pack to separate an AC-3 stream into PCM audio files for each individual
channel or to create a stereo downmix.
To decode an AC-3 stream:
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Appendix A
1
Select a stream by doing one of the following:
m Click the Select button and choose a file from the dialog box that appears.
m Double-click an AC-3 stream.
m Drag an AC-3 stream to the AC-3 Monitor.
2
Click the Decode As button.
3
Specify a name and location for the file.
4
Choose whether to create a stereo downmix before you click Save.
Getting Information
To get information about a stream:
1
Open the stream in the AC-3 Monitor.
2
Click the Get Info button.
To get information about operations, results, and errors:
You use the Log window to see information about operations, results, and errors that occur
while using A.Pack.
To open the Log window:
m Choose Log Window from the Window menu.
Using A.Pack to Encode AC-3 Sound
137
Options for Spatial Mixing
This section offers some additional insights and suggestions for using the channels in a Dolby
Digital program.
Using the Center Channel
In a multi-channel system, there are three ways to achieve a centrally placed sound image.
Each approach offers advantages and drawbacks.
m Create a phantom center (mix sound to the left and right equally, as with stereo). Well
understood, but assumes the listener is seated exactly between the speakers (not possible
in automobiles and not always the case in homes). The timbre of sound is not the same as
from a direct speaker because of cross-cancellation effects.
m Use the center channel alone. Creates a stable center image for listeners in any location.
(To prevent it from sounding too focused or narrow, its reverb can be spread to the L/R
channels.)
m Use all three front channels equally or in various proportions. Allows greater control of
the range of spatial depth and width. The phantom center can be reinforced by additional
signals in the center channel. The center channel can be enhanced by signal spread into
the L/R pair. The disadvantage is that sound from all three speakers may not blend well or
may not arrive at the listener all at the same time, causing side effects such as comb
filtering, shifts in tone color, or smearing. To counteract these side effects, the additional
signals can first be processed to change their spatial character, timbre, or prominence
relative to the main center signal.
Using Surround Channels
Subtle surround effects can greatly enhance the listener’s sense of depth compared to
conventional stereo. Popular music often benefits from creative use of surround. But don’t
overdo it. The film industry guideline—don’t use the surrounds to distract the listeners from
the story—also works well for music.
Limitations of the LFE Channel Versus the Subwoofer Signal
The LFE channel is a separate, limited frequency range signal created by the mixing engineer
and delivered alongside the main channels in the mix. A “brickwall” filter at 120 Hz in the
Dolby Digital encoder limits its use to the bottom two audible octaves. Dolby recommends
limiting the signal to 80 Hz in the console to ensure uniformity.
In most music productions (with such exceptions as the famous cannon shots in the 1812
Overture), the LFE channel is not necessary. The LFE signal is also discarded in the Dolby
Digital downmix process, so intense bass signals do not stress small stereo systems. Be sure
not to include vital information in the LFE channel that would be missed in mono, stereo, or
Pro Logic playback.
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Appendix A
Because LFE is separate from other channels, its ability to blend with higher frequencies can
be affected by filters used to generate the LFE signal. To ensure a cohesive audio signal, keep
the entire signal together in the main channel or channels.
Avoid creating an LFE channel for material originally produced without one. Dolby Digital’s
five main channels are all full-range, and the LFE channel does not extend frequency
response. Dolby Digital decoders offer bass management, directing low frequencies to a
subwoofer or other suitable speakers. An LFE track may interfere with bass management.
Accommodating Stereo Playback
Even with the popularity of 5.1 systems, there will always be a need to address stereo
reproduction. There are three basic ways to do this.
m Prepare a new stereo mix from the original multi-track elements (using today’s
conventional stereo-mixing sessions).
m Prepare a studio-adjusted downmix from the multi-channel mix. This takes advantage of
the work that has gone into the mixing of the 5.1 channel version. It retains flexibility in
the exact proportions of each channel represented in the final stereo mix.
m Let the decoder derive a stereo downmix, based on preset formulas in the decoder.
Downmix options and dynamic range control effects can be previewed and adjusted in
the production studio, and a range of adjustments are possible.
Always check the mix on a “budget” surround system to evaluate how well it sounds on
modest playback systems.
Note: For more information about Dolby Digital, see “Frequently Asked Questions about
Dolby Digital” by Dolby Laboratories Inc., available at the Web site www.dolby.com
Using A.Pack to Encode AC-3 Sound
139
A P P E N D I X
B
B
More About DVD
Philips and Sony defined the first CD format with the Red Book in 1980. Sixteen years later, a
new standard was launched, which promises to have an even more significant impact—DVD.
DVD’s popularity is based primarily on its superior sound and picture quality, but also on its
ability to deliver a richer entertainment experience. New DVD-based technologies promise to
deliver previously unheard-of performance and value in areas such as interactivity, storage,
and more.
DVD in Detail
DVD technology is similar to CD technology, but uses a different recording method that
allows a disc to store considerably more material (up to 17 gigabytes [GB] per disc).
Comparison of DVD and CD
Specifications
DVD
CD
Diameter
120 mm
120 mm
Track distance
0.74 microns
1.6 microns
“Pit” length
0.4 microns
.834 microns
Laser wavelength
635–650 nm
780–790 nm
Speed
3.49 m/s
1.2–1.4 m/s
Maximum data speed
11.08 Mbps
1.536 Mbps
141
The basic bit rate of a DVD is 1200 kilobits per second (Kbps), 8 times that of a 1x CD-ROM at
150 Kbps. A single-sided, single-layered DVD has a maximum storage capacity of 66.8 minutes. A
typical 2x DVD-ROM drive performs at levels comparable to the fastest standard CD drives.
DVD speed
Bit rate (Kbps)
CD speed
1x
1200
8x
2x
2450
16x
A DVD has the same physical dimensions as a CD, but unlike a CD it has two sides—two 0.6
mm thick discs glued together back-to-back. Also, each side of a DVD can contain two layers
of data, one on top of the other. By refocusing the read laser to a lower depth, a DVD player
can read “through” the top layer to retrieve the data from the lower layer.
Disc Types and Capacities
To achieve a high data capacity, DVD packs many digital “pits” on its surface. The pits are
smaller and closer together than on a CD, and the space between “rings” of pits is also smaller.
The DVD player uses shorter wavelength lasers for reading. Accuracy is also enhanced because
the laser has to penetrate only half the thickness of plastic to read the data.
On a dual-layer disc, one layer is semi-transparent, which reduces the reflectivity and
readability of both layers. Therefore, dual-layer discs are recorded less densely than singlelayer discs. A dual-layer disc stores 8.5 GB; a single-layer disc stores 4.7 GB.
Dual-sided DVDs must be turned over during play.
A DVD can be produced in four configurations:
Type
Abbreviation
Name
Storage capacity
12 cm DVD (GB)
Single side/
single layer
ss/sl
DVD-5
4.7
Single side/
dual layer
ss/dl
DVD-9
8.54
Dual side/
single layer
ds/sl
DVD-10
9.4
Dual side/
dual layer
ds/dl
DVD-18
17.08
Unlike CDs, which are recorded with several incompatible formats, all DVD data is written in
the same logical format—Universal Disk Format (UDF). This standardization eliminates the
format confusion that has plagued the CD authoring process.
142
Appendix B
Physical Formats
There are four physical DVD formats:
Physical
format
ss/sl
ss/dl
ds/sl
ds/dl
Conceptually
similar to
DVD-ROM
x
x
x
x
CD-ROM
DVD-R
x
–
–
–
CD-R
DVD-RW
x
–
–
–
CD-RW
Can be rewritten a
number
of times
DVD-RAM
–
–
x
–
PD
Caddy; 2 sides at 2.6
GB and 4.7 GB
Comment
Logical Formats
DVD-ROM
Contains a UDF file system with any type of data. No multi-session ability intended.
DVD-Video
Contains a UDF file system and an ISO directory; intended for such video content as movies
and training material. The contents of the ISO directory have been defined precisely and are
readable by standardized set-top players. DVD-Video provides picture and audio quality far
surpassing that of VHS tape and laserdisc. DVD-Video titles can have up to 8 sound tracks, up
to 32 subtitle tracks, and up to 9 views or angles. Menu structures allow the creation of
flexible content using simple building blocks.
DVD Audio
Replaces the current Red Book audio CD standard, delivering higher sound quality and including
the flexibility of adding video or other data. Supports audio sampling rates up to 192 kHz.
Hybrid DVD
A type of DVD-Video or audio disc that includes additional files that do not comply with the
DVD-Video and audio standards.
More About DVD
143
Video in DVD-Video
The DVD standard supports video material encoded in either MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 format.
MPEG-2 video can be displayed on a full, wide, or 16:9 screen.
MPEG (Motion Picture Expert Group) is a group that came together in 1980 under the
auspices of the International Standards Organization (ISO) to define a standard for the
compression of digital video and audio data. The format it developed is based on the
H.261 standard and includes some algorithms and experience derived from JPEG ( Joint
Photographic Experts Group).
MPEG-1
MPEG-1 is used when picture quality is less important. It allows a maximum data rate of 1.8
megabits per second (Mbps) and is always encoded at a constant bit rate (CBR), so simple
and complex scenes require the same amount of data per second. With suitable source
material, this yields quality roughly equivalent to VHS tape.
Video standard
Resolution
Frequency (Hz)
Aspect ratio
PAL
352 x 288
25
4:3
NTSC
352 x 240
29.97
4:3
MPEG-2
MPEG-2 gives higher picture quality by allowing data rates up to 9.8 Mbps. DVD-Video can
display the picture in a 16:9 aspect ratio, but the number of pixels used doesn’t increase.
MPEG-2 can be encoded with a variable bit rate ( VBR), which means that simple scenes use
less space on the disc than complex scenes. This decreases storage requirements while
increasing quality in complex scenes. With most video material, VBR encoding makes it
possible to record considerably more than the minimum hour’s worth of playing time
on a DVD.
Video standard
Resolution
Frequency (Hz)
Aspect ratio
PAL
720 x 576
251
4:3 or 16:9
NTSC
720 x 480
29.971
4:3 or 16.9
1
144
Appendix B
In contrast to MPEG-1, MPEG-2 makes it possible for both fields of a video frame to be encoded (PAL: 50 Hz, NTSC: 59.94 Hz).
The MPEG standard for video defines three frame types: I-, P- and B-Frames. Each is
compressed in a different way. Specific sequences of these frame types make up a Group of
Pictures (GOP). The result of stringing together GOPs is an MPEG video stream. Playback of
an MPEG video stream can only start from the beginning of a GOP.
I-Frames (Intra Frames)
I-Frames are encoded independently of other frames. They are equivalent to key frames in
other video compression processes. The complete frame is divided into macro blocks, using
a technique similar to that of JPEG. The blocks are transformed mathematically using discrete
cosine transformation (DCT). The results are quantified and compressed using simple
statistical procedures.
P-Frames (Predicted Frames)
P-Frames take advantage of the fact that successive frames of a video are often very similar.
But instead of simply calculating the difference between two pictures and then compressing
what has been changed, the system also checks whether the macro blocks have been
displaced. Therefore a displacement vector can be calculated for each macro block that has
moved. The rest of the picture is encoded like an I-Frame, but quantification uses different
parameters. Since a P-Frame only contains the data that has changed, it can’t be played on
its own.
B-Frames (Bidirectional Predicted Frames)
These frames are encoded like P-Frames, except that the displacement vectors are calculated
based on both the previous and subsequent frames. This allows additional redundancies to
be removed from the picture data. B-Frames need to be placed in the stream according to
their time stamp, because the subsequent frame (in time) must be loaded and decompressed
first in order to display the B-Frame. This is why B-Frames can’t be displayed on their own.
Audio in DVD Video
The DVD standard allows audio material in three formats: PCM, AC-3, and MPEG audio. It also
supports variations such as DTS and SDDS. Multiple sound tracks can be linked, and
multi-channel support is built in. Playback systems automatically downsample multi-channel
tracks for play on normal stereo equipment.
Audio formats for PAL and NTSC differ slightly:
Video standard
Stream type
PAL (625/50)
Linear PCM, MPEG audio, or AC-3
NTSC (525/60)
Linear PCM or AC-3
More About DVD
145
Thus a DVD must use PCM or AC-3 audio to be playable worldwide.
Linear
PCM
Dolby
AC-3
MPEG-1
audio
MPEG-2
audio
DTS
SDDS
Sample frequency
(kHz)
48/96
32/44.1/48
48
48
48
48
Resolution (bits)
16/20/24
compr.
compr.
compr.
compr.
compr.
Maximum bit rate
(bps)
6144
448
384
912
1536
1280
Maximum number
of channels
8
5.11
2
7.11
5.11
7.11
1
“.1” describes the additional subwoofer channel, which usually has a smaller bandwidth than the other channels.
Linear PCM
Linear PCM audio is the same as that used on audio CDs. The analog signal is scanned
using a particular sampling frequency, and the values determined are entered into a grid
(quantification). The quantification of these values results in a small loss of quality compared
to the analog signal. No compression is built into the system, so PCM achieves high fidelity at
the cost of high storage space. The sampling rate of 96 kHz on a DVD-Video can only be used
with linear PCM.
Dolby Digital (AC-3)
AC-3 is a sophisticated compression procedure using knowledge about how people hear to
remove certain proportions from the frequency spectrum of an audio signal. This reduces
the size of the data stream without affecting the sound. Dolby AC-3 compression results in
the loss of information—decompressed audio data is no longer identical to the original data.
However, this difference is hardly noticeable to the human ear. The sampling rates are 32,
44.1, and 48 kHz. The system supports up to 5 channels plus a narrower subwoofer channel,
also called LFE (Low Frequency Effects). AC-3 ranges from 64 to 448 Mbps; typical rates are
192 Mbps for stereo and 384 Mbps for 5.1 channels.
146
Appendix B
MPEG Audio
MPEG audio is a compression scheme providing up to 8 channels of sound. The two
additional channels are called Left-Center and Right-Center and are used in the 7.1 channel
configuration. Possible channel combinations are 1/0, 2/0, 2/1, 2/2, 3/0, 3/1, 3/2, and 5/2. The
subwoofer is optional in each case. The difference between MPEG audio and AC-3 lies in the
encoding algorithm; the sound quality results are similar. For compatibility, the additional
channels in MPEG-2 audio are included as extensions of an MPEG-1 audio stream, allowing
MPEG-1 decoders to play the two stereo channels. The bit rates for MPEG audio are between
32 and 384 Mbps (MPEG-1) and up to 912 Mbps (MPEG-2). Typically, 384 Mbps is used. The
MPEG audio portion of a DVD-Video requires a sampling rate of 48 kHz instead of the 44.1
kHz used on Video-CDs and CD-i.
MPEG-2 layer III, also known as MP3, and MPEG-2 AAC are not supported by DVD-Video.
DTS (Digital Theatre System)
This optional audio format was originally developed for theatres. It provides 5.1 channels
at a sampling rate of 48 kHz with 20-bit resolution. The data rate can range from 64 to
1536 Mbps. Possible channel combinations are 1/0, 2/0, 3/0, 2/1, 2/2, and 3/2, plus the
subwoofer. DTS playback requires special hardware. Further information on DTS is available
at this Web site: www.dtstech.com
SDDS (Sony Dynamic Digital Sound)
This format is based on the ATRAC compression algorithm. It provides 5.1 or 7.1 channels
and was developed for theatres. The sampling rate is 48 kHz and the maximum data rate is
1280 Mbps. No current DVD systems use SDDS for DVD-Video.
Comparison of DVD Audio Formats
Linear
PCM
Dolby
AC-3
MPEG-1
audio
MPEG-2
audio
DTS
SDDS
Sample frequency
(kHz)
48/96
32/44.1/48
48
48
48
48
Resolution (bits)
16/20/24
compr.
compr.
compr.
compr.
compr.
Maximum bit rate
(bps)
6144
448
384
912
1536
1280
Maximum number
of channels
8
5.11
2
7.11
5.11
7.11
1
“.1” describes the additional subwoofer channel, which usually has a smaller bandwidth than the other channels.
More About DVD
147
DVD-Audio Compatibility
DVD-Audio players can access the audio data of a DVD-Video. You can create a DVD-Video
that is also compatible with DVD-Audio players.
Subtitles in DVD-Video
DVD-Video supports up to 32 subtitle streams per video track. This feature is used primarily
for displaying the text of the movie in alternate languages, or for closed captioning for the
hearing impaired.
Subtitles can be created in any color or font. They are encoded as bitmapped graphics to
ensure uniform appearance on all players. The bitmapped data “floats” above the video or
still picture and can be modified during playback through color changes or movements.
Subtitle graphics (also known as sub-pictures) are limited to four colors and every pixel has
one of 16 possible transparency values.
Sub-pictures can be used for the following:
Karaoke
The current word of a song’s lyrics can be highlighted by changing pixel values so that the
text to be sung appears in a different color.
Rolling Titles
The graphic used must be higher than the screen (576 lines for PAL, 480 for NTSC). The
width is always 720 pixels. It is possible to “skip” a number of lines before displaying 576 or
480 lines of the sub-picture. By increasing or decreasing this skip counter, the sub-picture
appears to roll upwards or downwards.
Menus
You can generate complete menus with the subtitle graphics. While a video is running or a
still picture is displayed, all other elements (buttons and so on) are defined with subtitle
graphics or changes to these graphics.
Text in DVD-Video
According to the standard, a DVD-Video can also contain text data that has not been saved as
a graphic. This can include titles or information on actors, authors, editing information, and
so on. DVD-Video players are not required to be able to display text, so currently this type of
data is not used.
148
Appendix B
Navigation on a DVD-Video
The viewer navigates through a DVD-Video with a remote control. According to the standard,
the remote control must provide certain basic functions:
Basic functions of a DVD
remote control
The user can stop (pause) the video at any time and call up menus to change the current
selection. Menus can also lead directly to specific chapters, to an index, and so on.
There are two distinct types of menus on a DVD-Video: system menus and in-title menus.
These types have no design differences.
System Menus
System menus are required for every language supported by the DVD-Video title. They
define the basic structure of the DVD-Video. The player tries to display the menu
corresponding to the language the player has been set to use. If it does not find a
corresponding menu, it displays the “first” menu.
Several types of menus can be accessed directly with a remote control key:
m Title: The main menus of the DVD-Video disc. Exactly one title menu is mandatory for
both the disc and the player.
m Root: Every title set of a disc has a set of submenus. The root menu is the main menu for
one of these title sets. Like the title menu, it is mandatory both for the player and the disc.
m Track: This optional menu displays a selection of the individual clips in a title set.
m Audio: This optional menu allows the viewer to switch to another audio stream—for
example, from English to German.
m Subtitle: This optional menu allows the viewer to choose subtitles.
“Optional” means the disc does not need to contain the menu even if the player has a remote
control key for it. If the player is not able to access the menu because the key has not been
linked to anything on the disc, then the disc must provide another way of accessing the
menu—for example, through a link from a mandatory menu.
More About DVD
149
In-Title Menus
These are “soft” menus that the content creator can define within the DVD-Video. Since
there are no dedicated keys on the remote to access these menus, the author must provide
links or other ways to display them.
Buttons
Menus consist of a still frame or a video that contains buttons (using subtitle graphics).
Every menu button has three states: normal, selected, and activated. There is always one
button selected on a menu. The viewer uses the arrow keys to select a different button.
If the viewer clicks the OK key, the selected button is activated. A button can also be set to
activate immediately upon selection.
File Structure of a DVD-Video
A DVD-Video is a DVD-ROM with precisely specified contents. This includes the file structure
(name and arrangement on the disc) and the formats of the individual files. A folder called
VIDEO_TS at the top directory level contains all files for the DVD-Video. If there are other
files on the DVD-ROM, it is referred to as a “hybrid DVD.”
The VIDEO_TS folder contains two types of files—presentation files (.VOB) containing video,
audio, and subtitles; and navigation files (.IFO) containing jumps, programs, button
definitions, and so on. The separate files allow the player to access the structural data of the
DVD-Video more quickly. To avoid data being lost through scratches, the IFO files are written
onto disc twice, once on the inside for quick access and once on the outside as BUP
(backup) files.
Copy-Protection and Region Coding
To help ensure the full participation of major movie studios, the DVD standard includes
sophisticated copy-protection and regionalization controls. This means, in general, that
commercial DVDs cannot be copied and can only be played in the regions of the world the
publisher intends.
A DVD-Video with a region code can be played anywhere in the world, whether it is in PAL or
NTSC format (assuming that its region code allows playback on the particular player).
150
Appendix B
The DVD copyright protection technology has three parts:
Region Code: The world is divided into eight regions. The producers of a DVD determine
which parts of their DVD can be played in which parts of the world. Each disc or portion
thereof is marked to indicate where it should be playable. Each DVD player also has a region
code. If a disc’s region code doesn’t match that of the player, the disc won’t play.
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
Region 1: Canada, USA
Region 2: Europe, Japan, the Near East, Egypt, and South Africa
Region 3: East Asia, Hong Kong, and South Asia
Region 4: Australia, the Caribbean, Central and South America, New Zealand
Region 5: Africa, India, Mongolia, Pakistan, North Korea, the states of the former USSR
Region 6: China
Region 8: Special Purpose (newly approved for in-flight entertainment; only playable on
Region 8 players installed in airplanes)
Each sector of the disc contains one region code byte, which consists of eight flags—one
per region. It’s possible to create a disc on which some material is restricted and other
material is not.
Scrambling: To prevent copying of the data on a DVD-Video, the author has the option of
using the Contents Scrambling System (CSS) to encrypt the data. Each sector of a DVD can
be scrambled. The data can only be unscrambled when a licensed DVD reader is connected
to a licensed DVD decoder card. CSS requires an individual encryption key, which can be
provided by most mastering plants. For more information about licensing CSS, contact the
Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) or the DVD Copy Control Association
(DVDCCA).
Macrovision copy-protection: To deter analog copying of DVD-Videos (to videotape, for
example), DVD incorporates Macrovision copy-protection, which causes extreme
degradation of the image quality if a copy is attempted. Macrovision protection is assigned
directly to tracks and markers. There are two levels of Macrovision. For more information,
see “About Macrovision Copy-Protection” on page 155.
More About DVD
151
Specifications for DVD Compliance
This section gives the detailed specifications that each type of source file must meet to be
DVD-compliant and usable in DVD Studio Pro. All MPEG streams must be elementary. No
transport, program, or system streams are accepted.
Video
MPEG-1
The MPEG-1 encoding has to be ISO 11172-2 compliant. The maximum bit rate of the
MPEG-1 video is 1856000 bps.
Constraints:
Parameter
NTSC
PAL
Picture size
352 x 240
352 x 288
Number of frames in a GOP
≤18
≤15
Picture rate (Hz)
29.97
25
Aspect ratio
1.095
0.9157
Constraint parameters flag:
m 1: Constant bit rate
m 0: Variable bit rate (The bit rate field in the stream has to be 0x3FFFF.)
MPEG-2
The MPEG-2 encoding has to be ISO 13818-2 compliant. The encoding profile has to be
MP@ML (main profile at main level) or SP@ML (simple profile at main level).
Bit rates are as follows:
m Constant bit rate (CBR): ≤9.8 Mbps
m Variable bit rate ( VBR): ≤9.8 Mbps (vbv_delay = 0xFFFF and lo_delay = 0x0)
Constraints:
Parameter
NTSC
PAL
Picture size
720 x 480
720 x 576
Number of frames in a GOP
≤36
≤30
Frame rate
29.97
25 H
The aspect ratio can be 4:3 or 16:9.
152
Appendix B
Audio
PCM
The audio data has to be stored in one of the following file formats: AIFF, WAVE, or
SoundDesigner II.
Requirements for PCM audio are
m Quantization: two’s complementary code, 16 or 24 bits/sample
m Sampling phase: simultaneous for all channels
m Sampling frequency: 48 Hz (optional 50/15 µs emphasis) or 96 Hz (no emphasis / emphasis
off )
The following table shows the maximum number of audio channels depending on bit depth
and sample rate:
48 kHz
96 kHz
16 bits/sample
8
4
24 bits/sample
5
2
AC-3 (Dolby Digital)
The encoding has to comply with the Dolby AC-3 Standard (ATSC STANDARD “DIGITAL
AUDIO COMPRESSION AC-3” Doc. A/52 20 Dec. 1995).
m Bit rate: 64–448 Kbps (constant bit rate)
m Sampling frequency: 48 Hz
m Allowed audio coding modes: 1/0, 2/0, 3/0, 2/1, 3/1, 2/2, and 3/2 (including modes with LFE)
MPEG
The MPEG-1 audio encoding has to be ISO 11172-3 compliant. The MPEG-2 audio encoding
has to be ISO 11172-3 and ISO 13818-3 compliant. The MPEG audio layer is always layer 2.
Setting
Value
Protection
Always on
Sampling frequency
48 kHz
Private bit
Always 0
Mode
Anything except dual channel
Emphasis
Anything except dual channel
Surround
0, 1, 2, or 3
More About DVD
153
Setting
Value
Dematrix procedure
Always 3
Number of multi-lingual
channels
Always 0
mc_prediction_on
Always 0
Number of bits reserved for
Always 16
dynamic_range_control
In ancillary data
m MPEG-1 Mono: 64–192 Kbps, CBR or VBR (bit_rate_index always ≠ 0)
m MPEG-1 Stereo: 64–384 Kbps, CBR or VBR (bit_rate_index always ≠ 0)
m MPEG-2: For the main stream, apply the same restrictions as for MPEG-1. The extension
stream may have a bit rate of up to 528 Kbps. Main and extension streams combined
should not exceed 912 Kbps.
How the Technology Works
Macrovision DVD copy-protection is activated during authoring. A menu allows you to set
Analog Protection System (APS) activation bits to “on.” These activation bits remain a part of
the program through replication.
When a protected disc is played back in any DVD player or DVD-ROM drive with video out,
the activation bits instruct a chip in the playback device to add Macrovision copy-protection
to the outgoing analog video. The original is not affected.
The DVD copy protection waveform is made up of two key elements: Automatic Gain Control
and Colorstripe. The Automatic Gain Control technology, virtually identical to the technology
used on over two billion videocassettes over the past ten years, consists of pulses in the
vertical interval that televisions do not detect. When a copy is attempted, the pulses confuse
a recording VCR’s AGC circuitry, causing copies to display characteristics such as dim or noisy
pictures, loss of color, loss of video, and so on. The Colorstripe Process consists of changes to
colorburst information that produce lines across the picture when an unauthorized copy is
played. Almost all copy-protected NTSC titles currently being released utilize both AGC and
Colorstripe. Only AGC is available in PAL. The technology works on all analog outputs,
including baseband, S-Video, and YUV.
154
Appendix B
About Macrovision Copy-Protection
Macrovision DVD copy-protection, also known as the Analog Protection System (APS),
thwarts attempts to copy DVD programming onto videotape. Used on the majority of
DVD-Video discs currently being produced, the technology degrades unauthorized copies
made on consumer VCRs. Almost all Hollywood studios, as well as many special interest and
corporate rights owners, are using the technology to protect their content from
unauthorized copying.
Note: Use of analog copy-protection for DVD applications is subject to the proprietary
intellectual property rights of Macrovision Corporation, of Sunnyvale, California, U.S.A., and
users require a usage agreement with Macrovision Corporation before the analog protection
system activation bits are set to “on.”
For further information, contact Macrovision:
m Telephone: (408) 743-8600
m Fax: (408) 743-8610
m Email: acp-info@macrovision.com
m Web site: www.macrovision.com
More About DVD
155
Index
# (number sign) 103
$ (dollar sign) 102
% (percent sign) 102
= (equal sign) 102
[] (square brackets) 102
4:3 aspect ratio 58
16:9 aspect ratio 58, 65
A
A.Pack 9, 57125–139
audio settings 132
creating AC-3 format 125–127
described 63, 125
digitizing sound 126–127
mixing sound 126
playback 134–136
recording sound 126
AC-3 format
audio streams 62
batch jobs 129–131
comparison 147
converting to 128–129
creating 125–127
described 146
DVD Audio 145, 146
encoding 153
AC-3 Monitor 134–137
AC-3 streams
decoding 136
encoding 128–129
getting information about 137
listening to 134–137
playing 136
action menus 81
Action property 81
actions
assigning scripts as 99
button actions 39–40
disc actions 82
finding errors in 117
jump actions 39, 81, 85
remote control key actions 42, 82
specifying 81
startup actions 41, 81
timeout actions 52, 81, 99
track actions 82
addition operator 103
Adobe Photoshop. See Photoshop
AGC (Automatic Gain Control) technology 154
AIFF format 62, 126, 153
Analog Protection System (APS) 154, 155
anamorphic transfer 58
angle icon 25
Angle key 62
angles
adding 25
previewing 25, 68
switching among 62
Apple DVD Player 9
playing projects with 54–55
preferences 54
software requirements 10
version of 11
Apple DVD Studio Pro Web site 14
APS (Analog Protection System) 154, 155
arrow keys 42, 81, 96, 114, 150
157
ASIO drivers 134, 135
ASIO playback hardware 134–135
ASIO Setup window 135
aspect ratio
4:3 aspect ratio 58
16:9 aspect ratio 58, 65
audio/video capture 58
constraints and 152
settings for 80
asset files 118–119
Asset Files window 83118–119
Asset Matrix 83, 84
assets
adding by dragging 20
adding with Import command 19
assigning to menus 84
assigning to tracks 84
described 17
displaying in Asset Matrix 84
error-checking 118
files assigned to 119
import errors 120
importing 19–20
jumping to asset containers 73
Preview Mode and 114
uncoupling from menus 84
uncoupling from tracks 84
Assets container 20
illustrated 18
assignment operator 103
ATRAC compression algorithm 147
audio
A.Pack software 125–139
capturing 58
compression 146
creating tracks for 22–24
Dolby Digital 5.1 126
DVD audio 145–148
encoding 12, 62
formats 62153–154
mixing 126
NTSC formats 145
PAL formats 145
PCM audio 62, 146, 153
preparing content 62
158
Index
recording 126
resolution 58
sample rate 58
settings 132
specifications 153–154
stereo plus center 126
surround sound 126, 135, 138, 139
audio “elementary” streams 59
audio icon 24
Audio key 70
Audio Language properties 89
audio menus 149
audio streams
changing 70
current number 105
multiple language 89
number of 107
slideshows and 62
switching between 24
Audio Streams container 23–24
audio tracks. See tracks
Automatic Gain Control (AGC) technology 154
B
“bad encoded video” error 123
batches, converting to AC-3 format 129–131
B-Frames (Bidirectional Predicted Frames) 145
Bidirectional Predicted Frames (B-Frames) 145
bit stream settings 132–133
“bit-wise and” operator 105
“bit-wise exclusive or” operator 105
“bit-wise or” operator 105
Build & Format Disc command 110, 123
Build Disc command 53, 121
build errors 120
building projects 53123–124
BUP files 150
Button Link property 81
Buttons 29
buttons
See also specific buttons
actions for 39–40
adding to still menus 29
appearance of 30–31, 81
defined on active menu 81
described 17
highlight colors 34–35
highlight shapes 47, 64
interactive markers 65
linking to tracks 40
links to 81
on menus 64, 150
naming 30
previewing 31
states 30–31, 64
tips for 64
on tracks 45
C
capturing audio 58
capturing video 58
CD technology 141–142
center channel 138
channels
AC-3 streams and 128–129
audio settings 132
center channel 138
creating files for 126
Dolby Digital programs 138–139
driver output channels 135
full bandwidth channels 133
LFE channel 138–139
subwoofer signal and 138–139
surround channels 138
chapter markers. See markers
clips, video 64
CMF standard 124
“Collapse all Properties” command 78
color
button highlights 34–35
highlight shapes 47
links 72
Preview window background 92
subtitles 90, 92, 93
Color Menu Settings box 90
Colorstripe process 154
commands
"Collapse all Properties" 78
"Expand all Properties" 78
Build & Format Disc 110, 123
Build Disc 53, 121
Copy Properties 78
exitScript 107
Find 93
GoTo in Movie 93
gotoLabel 108
Import 19
Load Description 119
maximum number in script 101
New Batch List 129
nop 107
NVRAM commands 110
Paste Properties 78
peek 111
peekAll 111
play 108
poke 110
pokeAll 111
return 108
Save As 22
Save Description 119
scripting commands 107–108
Set In Point 94
Set Out Point 94
STE commands 96
stop 107
Commands Free value 101
Commands Used value 101
Comment property 79
comments 75, 79, 103
composited video clips 64, 65
compound statements 102
compression
audio 146
constants 102
containers
adding items to 74
Assets container 20
Audio Streams container 23–24
collapsing 84
displaying in Asset Matrix 84
expanding 84
jumping to 73
Languages container 87
opening in separate window 75
Index
159
Contents Scrambling System (CSS) 80, 151
control structures 109
Copy Generation Management System. See
CGMS
Copy Properties command 78
copy-protection
CSS 80, 151
Macrovision 151, ??–154155
region codes 151
technology for 150–151
CSS (Contents Scrambling System) 151
CSS property 80
D
data
scrambling 80, 151
“data rate too high” error 122
DAV drivers 135
DCT (discrete cosine transformation) 145
debugging 116–119
debugging window 110116–117
decoders
VOBU errors and 122
decoding AC-3 streams 136
Default Button property 81
description files 83, 119
Digital Theatre System (DTS) format 147
digitizing sound 126–127
Disc area, Property Inspector 79
Disc Media property 69, 79
Disc Menu Settings area, Property Inspector 80
Disc Menu Settings property 69
discrete cosine transformation (DCT) 145
discs
actions for 82
assigning Finder label to 79
build errors 120
building 53123–124
comments 79
copy-protecting 80
creating 13123–124
dual-layer 124, 142
errors while building 122
naming 79
properties 2269–80
160
Index
region codes 79
size of 79
writing to 10
display. See monitors
division operator 104
DLT tape 13, 123
DLT tape drives 10, 124
Dolby AC-3. See AC-3
Dolby Digital 5.1 126
Dolby Digital programs 138–139
dollar sign ($) 102
drivers
ASIO drivers 134, 135
DAV drivers 135
K1212io drivers 135
Sound Manager drivers 134
DTS (Digital Theatre System) format 147
DVD 9, 62, 83
DVD@CCESS feature
described 48
DVD audio format 143145–148
DVD-Audio players 148
DVDCCA (DVD Copy Control Association) 151
DVD compliance 152–154
DVD Copy Control Association (DVDCCA) 151
DVD Player. See Apple DVD Player
DVD players
Apple DVD Player 10, 1154–55
color use and 93
DVD-Audio players 148
DVD-Video players 102, 148
Philips Professional DVD Player 17, 68, 110,
117
startup actions 80
time values 80
DVD-RAM drives 10, 124
DVD-RAM format 13, 143
DVD-R drives 13
DVD recorders 124
DVD-R format 143
DVD-ROM format 143, 150
DVD-R recorders 10
DVD-RW format 13, 143
DVDs
capacity of 142
configurations for 142
creation process 12–13
formats for 143
hybrid DVDs 143, 150
incomplete items on 118
types of 142
DVD Studio Pro
authoring with 13
described 9
getting started with 9–13
information on 14
installing 11
preferences for 68
starting program 16
system requirements 10
tutorial 15–55
workspace 18
DVD Studio Pro Help 14
DVD technology 141–154
benefits of 141
copy-protection 150–151
history of 141
region coding 150–151
specifications 141152–154
vs. CD technology 141–142
DVD-Video 144–145
copy-protecting 151
described 143
file structure 150
navigating 149–150
standard for 101
subtitles in 148
text in 148
DVD-Video players 102, 148
E
editors
See also specific editors 82
Enable NVRAM option 68
encoders
hardware encoders 59
Instant Encoder 127128–129, 131
MPEG encoders 10, 12
software encoders 59
encoding
A.Pack 127–133
audio 12127–133
problems with 123
video 1259–62
Enter key 114
equal operator 109
equal sign (=) 102
errors
asset import errors 120
“bad encoded video” 123
while building discs 122
“data rate too high” 122
disc build errors 120
finding 117
“Found VOBU” 122
insufficient space 121
in Log window 118
multiplexing 122–123
Estimated Size property 79
exitScript command 107
“Expand all Properties” command 78
exporting files 60–61
F
field dominance 60
files
See also Photoshop files
asset files 83, 118
assigned to assets 119
BUP files 150
creating for channels 126
description files 83, 119
exporting 60–61
flattening 63
IFO files 150
importing 95
INFO.ID file 110
multiplexed files 13
Read Me file 11, 14
VOB files 150
Final Cut Pro 12, 5860–61
Find command 93
finding items 83118–119
flattened files 63
flattened layers 63
Index
161
Format Disc window 123
formats
AC-3 62125–131
audio 153–154
audio streams 62
DVD 143
DVD audio 143145–148
MPEG 59–62
PCM 62
PICT 65
psd 63
TV 63
video 58
“Found VOBU” error 122
4:3 aspect ratio 58
frame rate 58
frames 58, 145
functions 102103–111
slideshows 65
still menus 63
subtitles 148
tips for menus 63–64
Group of Pictures (GOP) 59, 62, 145
G
“if ” clause 109
IFO files 150
I-Frames (intra frames) 145
images
See also graphics
anamorphic transfer 58
overlay images 47
thumbnail images 72, 73
Import command 19
importing items
asset import errors 120
assets 19–20
files 95
subtitles 95
subtitle streams 95
In 94
INFO.ID file 110
In points 94
installing DVD Studio Pro 11
installing QuickTime Pro 11
Instant Encoder 127128–129, 131
interactive markers 65
creating 45–47
International Standards Organization (ISO) 144
in-title menus 150
intra frames (I-Frames) 145
General area, Property Inspector 79–80
getAudioStream() function 105
getCurrentItem() function 106
getCurrentTrack() function 106
Get Info button 137
getLastItem() function 106
getRegionCode() operator 106
getSubtitleStream() function 106
global variables
assigning for scripts 100
creating 80
storing value in NVRAM 110–111
viewing 100
writing information to 111
GOP (Group of Pictures) 59, 62, 145
“GoTo in Movie” command 93
gotoLabel command 103, 108
GPRMs. See global variables
Graphical View 18, 7172–73
graphics
See also images
aspect ratio and 65
created in Photoshop 63–64
layers and 63
resolution 65
162
Index
H
hardware encoders 59
hardware requirements 10
HDTV (High Definition Television) 58
High Definition Television (HDTV ) 58
highlights
color of 34
shape of 47, 64
Hilite property 81
hybrid DVDs 143, 150
I
ISO (International Standards Organization) 144
items
adding to containers 74
assigning 75
assigning scripts to 99
copying properties to 78
deleting 118
descriptions 120
displaying properties 74
importing 95
incomplete items 118, 121
linking 39–40, 72, 75
opening editor for 82
pasting properties to 78
previewing 114–115
reordering 74
viewing properties 21, 78
working with 74
item tiles 73
J
Joint Photographic Experts Group ( JPEG) 144
JPEG ( Joint Photographic Experts Group) 144
Jump Action property 81
jump actions 81, 85
jumping
to labels 103
to markers 36
in scripts 108
when track is finished 41
Jump Matrix 83, 85
K
K1212io Sound Manager drivers 135
karaoke 148
keyboard shortcuts 96
Korg 1212io cards 135
L
Label property 79
labels 75, 103
languages
assigning new language 87–88
changing 70
described 17
maximum number allowed 87
motion menus and 65
multiple 17, 65, 89
working with 87–88
Languages container 87
layer 2 audio format 62
Layer Matrix 83, 86
Layer menu 64
Layer property 81
layers
Effects layers 63
flattening 63
Photoshop files 63, 81, 86
selecting 28
still-menu graphics 63
tips for using 63
letterbox format 58
LFE (Low Frequency Effects) 126
LFE channel 138–139
linear PCM format 145, 146, 147
links
appearance of 72
to buttons 81
color of 72
deleting and 118
to items 39, 75
Photoshop files to projects 64
project component links 72
to subtitles 94
Web links 48–50
Load Description command 119
local variables 102
locking subtitles 94
logical DVD formats 143
Log window
building projects 53
error messages 118, 120
status messages 122
using 120
viewing information in 137
looping video 34, 64
Low Frequency Effects (LFE) 126
Index
163
M
Macrovision copy-protection 151, ??–154155
manual, contents of 14
margins, subtitles 92
marker editor 36
markers
actions for 82
adding 35–36
adding buttons to 45–46
described 17
interactive markers 65
jumping to 36
navigating through movies with 93
playing tracks from 108
previewing 37
Markers menu 93
Marker window 93
Matrix Views 7183–86
memory
displaying 122
NVRAM 17110–112
system requirements for 10
menu 82
menu editor
adding Web links 49
creating still menus 27
Menu key 70
menus
action 39
action menus 81
adding buttons to 29
appearance of 81
aspect ratio 80
assigning assets to 84
audio menus 149
buttons on 81, 150
calling with remote control keys 149
creating material for 64–66
described 17
generating with subtitle graphics 148
graphic tips for 63–64
in-title menus 150
mandatory menus 149
motion menus 32–33
multiple languages 65
164
Index
optional menus 149
properties with 77
root menus 149
selecting thumbnail images for 73
size of 80
still menus 26–28, 63
subtitle menus 149
system menus 149
timeout actions for 52
title menus 149
track menus 149
types of 149
uncoupling assets from 84
mixing, spatial 138–139
mixing sound 126
modulo operator 104
monitors
16:9 aspect ratio 58
hardware requirements for 10
NTSC monitors 58
PAL monitors 58
previewing on external monitor 115
motion menus 32–33
audio tracks and 62
looping video for 34
multiple languages and 65
previewing 34
Motion Picture Association of America
(MPAA) 151
Motion Picture Expert Group. See MPEG
movies
QuickTime movies 59, 89
subtitles for 89–96
MP3 format 147
MPAA (Motion Picture Association of
America) 151
MPEG (Motion Picture Expert Group) 144
MPEG-1 audio format 62, 147
MPEG-1 encoding 152, 153
MPEG-1 video format 144
MPEG-2 AAC format 147
MPEG-2 audio format 147
MPEG-2 encoding 152
MPEG-2 exporting option 59
MPEG-2 layer III format 147
MPEG-2 video format 144
MPEG audio format 62, 145, 147
MPEG encoders 10, 12, 59
MPEG Export feature 59–61
MPEG format 59–62
multi-angle tracks 24–26, 62, 68
multi-angle video 62
multiplexed files 13
multiplexed MPEG streams 59
multiplexing
described 113, 121
increasing speed of 68
options for 68
performance 10
real-time multiplexing 113
solving problems 122–123
tracking process 122–123
multiplication operator 104
numbers, entering in scripts 102
number sign (#) 103
NVRAM 110–112
debugging and 117
retrieving information from 111
scripts and 17
storing information in 110–111
NVRAM commands 110
N
PAL
audio formats for 145
copy-protection and 154
graphics and 65
MPEG-1 video and 144
MPEG-2 video and 144
Photoshop graphics and 63
specifying default TV system 68
subtitle margins 92
PAL monitors 58
parameters 101
Paste Properties command 78
PCM audio files 136
PCM audio format 153
PCM format 62, 146, 147, 153
peekAll command 111
peek command 111
percent sign (%) 102
performance, multiplexing speed 68
P-Frames (Predicted Frames) 145
Philips Professional DVD Player 17, 68, 110, 117
Photoshop (psd) format 63
Photoshop files
layers 63, 81, 86
linking to projects 64
resolution and 63
Name property 79
navigation
DVD-Video 149–150
Graphical View 82
Matrix Views 83–84
projects 114–115
remote control keys 70
with time codes 93
New Batch List command 129
New Marker button 36
Next Track key 114
nop command 107
not equal operator 109
NTSC
audio formats for 145
copy-protection and 154
graphics and 65
MPEG-1 video and 144
MPEG-2 video and 144
Photoshop graphics and 63
specifying default TV system 68
subtitle margins and 92
NTSC-DV format 58
NTSC monitors 58
Number Of Sides property 69, 79
O
objects, playing 108
OK key 114
operators 103–105
Out 94
Out points 94
overlay image 45, 47
P
Index
165
size of 63
slides and 65
still menus and 63–64
Photoshop Layer method 30
Photoshop program 10
physical DVD formats 143
PICT format 65
Picture property 81
Pictures area, Property Inspector 88
pixels 115
playback
A.Pack 134–136
multi-channel playback 134–135
stereo playback 134, 139
Play button 55
play command 108
playing items
AC-3 streams 136
objects 108
projects 54–55
tracks 108
pokeAll command 111
poke command 110
preferences
Apple DVD Player 54
setting 68
subtitles 90
Preferences dialog box 68
preprocessing settings 133
pre-script 99, 107
Pre-Script property 81
previewing items
angles 25, 68
on external monitor 115
procedure for 114–115
projects 24–43, 52, 68
real-time multiplexing technique 113
region codes and 68
Preview Mode
debugging in 116–117
described 71
limitations of 115
problems with 114
starting 24
startup actions and 80
166
Index
using 113–115
Preview window 92, 114
Previous Track key 114
problems. See troubleshooting
procedures 107
PROF folder 110
Progress window 53, 122
projects
adding assets to 19–20
adding Web links to 48–50
basic components of 17
building 53123–124
component links in 72
connections between elements in 83
description files 83, 119
dividing into multiple tracks 59
getting information about 83119–120
linking items in 39–41
linking Photoshop files to 64
navigating through 114–115
playing 54–55
previewing 24–43, 52, 68
saving 22
size of 69, 73, 79
starting new subtitle project 91–93
testing 5254–55
Project View 74–75
illustrated 18
incomplete items in 121
working with items 74
working with languages 87–88
Project View windows 71
properties
See also specific properties
assigning 77–82
changing 21
copying to other items 78
discs 2269–80
displaying for items 74
editing 77–78
listed 81–82
with menus 77
multiple assignments 78
pasting to other items 78
in Property Inspector 76–82
scripts 101
text 77
viewing 21, 22, 78
Property Inspector
assigning properties 81–82
button appearance 30–31
button highlighting colors 34
changing properties 21
choosing scripts 99
described 71
displaying item properties 74
illustrated 18
overlays 47
setting disc properties 69–80
using 76–82
viewing global script variables 100
viewing incomplete items 118, 121
viewing properties 21, 22
viewing scripts 101
psd (Photoshop) format 63
pulse code modulation. See PCM
Q
QuickTime format 89, 126
QuickTime movies 59, 89
QuickTime MPEG Encoder 9, 10, 12, 57, 59, 62
using 59–61
QuickTime MPEG Export feature 59–61
QuickTime Player 59
QuickTime Preview window 93
QuickTime Pro 1011
R
RAM. See memory
random number operator 105
Read Me file 11, 14
recording audio 126
Record To Device option 124
recursion 102
Red Book 141, 143
Region Code property 79
region codes 68, 79, 106150–151
registers 101–102, 117
registration information 11
remote control
Angle key 62
navigating through DVD-Video 149–150
navigating through projects 114–115
Stop key 24, 107
variables and 100
Remote-Control area, Property Inspector 70, 80
remote control keys
actions of 42, 82
assignments 81
calling menus with 149
controlling projects with 42
default assignments 70
navigating with 114
scripts assigned to 99
Remote-Control property 82
rendering options, subtitles 92
resolution
audio 58
graphics 65
Photoshop files 63
widescreen resolution mode 65
return command 108
Return key 70, 114
rolling titles 148
Root key 70
root menus 149
S
sample rates 58
Save As command 22
Save Description command 119
scrambling data 80, 151
script editor 51, 98
scripting
commands 103–111
enhanced 68
functions 103–111
reference 101–109
scripts 97–112
actions for 99
assigning 99
changing information about 101
choosing 99
current item attached to 106
Index
167
described 17
disabling lines of 103
entering 98
exiting 107
finding errors in 117
global variables for 100
jumping to another position in 108
labels in 103
maximum number of commands in 101
numbers in 102
properties 101
size of 101
specifying 81
uses for 97
viewing 101
writing 51–52
Script window 98
SDDS (Sony Dynamic Digital Sound) 147
segments 59
Selection Condition property 82
serial number
DVD Studio Pro software 11
QuickTime Pro software 11
Set In Point command 94
Set Out Point command 94
setSubtitleStream function 107
settings
audio capture settings 58
audio settings 132
bit stream settings 132–133
preprocessing settings 133
video capture settings 58
shortcuts 96
Show All Angles option 26, 68
16:9 aspect ratio 58, 65
Skip keys 114
slideshow editor 38–39
slideshows
audio format and 62
creating 37–39
described 17
graphics 65
multiple languages in 89
Photoshop format 65
PICT format 65
168
Index
previewing 39
selecting thumbnail images for 73
Slow-Down Background Tasks option 68
software encoders 59
software requirements 10
Sony Dynamic Digital Sound (SDDS) 147
sound. See audio
Sound control panel 134
SoundDesigner format 62
SoundDesigner II format 126, 153
sound files, encoding with A.Pack 127–133
Sound Manager 134, 135
Sound Manager driver 134
source material
gathering 12
multiple tracks 59
preparing 57–66
segmenting 59
subtitles 89
types of 12, 57
spatial mixing 138–139
specifications
audio 153–154
DVD 141152–154
video 152
square brackets [] 102
Startup Action property 69, 80
startup actions 41, 81
STE. See Subtitle Editor
stereo playback 134, 139
stereo plus center 126
still menus
creating 26–28
creating graphics for 63
stop command 107
Stop key 24, 43, 107, 114, 115
stories
creating 43–44
described 17
Stories Folder 43
story icon 44
streams
AC-3 streams 128–129, 134–137
audio streams 59, 62, 70
getting information about 137
multiplexed MPEG streams 59
subtitle streams 95
video “elementary” streams 59
sub-pictures 148
Subtitle Editor (STE) 989–96
Subtitle key 70
subtitle menus 149
subtitles 89–96
adding 48
allowing viewers to choose 70
appearance of 92
changing duration 94
changing location 94
color in 93
compiling streams 95
creating 93, 95
DVD-Video 148
importing 95
interactive markers and 45, 48, 65
linking 94
locking position 94
margins for 92
preferences 90
preparing 66, 89
previewing 25
rendering options 92
selecting multiple 94
source material for 89
starting new project 91–93
unlocking position 94
subtitle streams 95, 106, 107
subtraction operator 104
subwoofer signal 138–139
surround channels 138
surround sound 126, 135, 138, 139
system menus 149
system requirements 10
T
testing items
projects 5254–55
text
DVD-Video 148
properties 77
“then” condition 109
thumbnail images 72, 73
time code button 35
time codes
importing subtitles and 95
navigating with 93
selecting subtitles between 94
timeout actions 52, 81, 99
time play function 100
Time Search/Time Play option 80
time search function 100
time values 80
Title key 70
title menus 70, 149
title set 70
Track key 70
track menus 149
tracks
actions for 82
adding a 22–24
adding angles 25
adding markers 35–36
adding subtitles 48
adding subtitle streams 95
assigning assets 84
buttons on 45
current track 106
described 17, 22
dividing projects into multiple tracks 59
linking buttons to 40
motion menus and 62
multi-angle tracks 24–26, 62, 68
playing 108
segmenting 59
thumbnail images 73
uncoupling assets from 84
troubleshooting
See also errors
encoding problems 123
multiplexing problems 122–123
Preview Mode 114
troubleshooting windows 83
tutorial 15–55
tutorial files 9, 16
TV formats 63
TV system, specifying default 68
Index
169
U
W, X, Y, Z
UDF (Universal Disk Format) 142
UDF file system 143
Universal Disk Format (UDF) 142
unlocking subtitles 94
Use @ccess option 68
Use Buttons Of property 47
WAVE format 62, 126, 153
Web browsers 68
Web links
adding to projects 48–50
opening with Web browser 68
Web sites
Apple DVD Studio Pro 14
Digital Theatre System 147
Dolby Digital 139
Windows menu 91
workspace 18
V
variable bit rate ( VBR) 59, 144
Variable Names area, Property Inspector 80
variables
conventions 102
creating 100
global variables 80100
limitations of 102
local variables 102
VBR (variable bit rate) 59, 144
video
16:9 aspect ratio 58
capturing 58
creating for interactive markers 65
creating tracks for 22–24
DVD-Video 144–145
encoding 12, 62
letterbox format 58
looping 34
multi-angle video 62
specifications 152
VIDEO_TS folder 53, 55, 110, 113, 121, 150
video clips 64
video “elementary” streams 59
video streams
alternate angles and 24
subtitles for 89–96
video title sets 17
video tracks. See tracks
views
described 18, 71
Graphical View 72–73
Matrix Views 83–86
Project View 74–75
Property Inspector 76–82
VOB files 150
170
Index
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