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TC 21-305-3
TRAINING PROGRAM FOR
THE M939 SERIES 5-TON TACTICAL
CARGO TRUCK
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
*TC 21-305-3
Training Circular
No. 21-305-3
HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
Washington, D.C., 1 August 1997
TRAINING PROGRAM FOR
THE M939 SERIES 5-TON TACTICAL CARGO TRUCK
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
PREFACE...............................................................................................................................iii
CHAPTER 1 RISK MANAGEMENT .............................................................................. 1-1
1-1. GENERAL............................................................................................ 1-1
1-2. BACKGROUND................................................................................... 1-1
1-3. DEFINITIONS...................................................................................... 1-1
1-4. RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESS....................................................... 1-2
1-5. RISK ASSESSMENT ELEMENTS ...................................................... 1-3
1-6. DECISION AID .................................................................................... 1-7
1-7. RISK CONTROL ALTERNATIVES .................................................... 1-7
1-8. SUPERVISION..................................................................................... 1-7
1-9. PAYOFFS............................................................................................. 1-7
CHAPTER 2 INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS ........................................................................... 2-1
2-1. STUDENT REQUIREMENTS.............................................................. 2-1
2-2. INSTRUCTOR REQUIREMENTS....................................................... 2-1
2-3. TRAINING FACILITIES...................................................................... 2-2
2-4. TRAINING AIDS AND DEVICES ....................................................... 2-2
CHAPTER 3 SAMPLE TRAINING SCHEDULE ........................................................... 3-1
CHAPTER 4 LESSON OUTLINES FOR TRUCK OPERATIONS ............................... 4-1
Use Technical Manuals (TMs) and Lubrication Orders (LOs), and
Make Entries on DA Form 2404 (Equipment Inspection and Maintenance
Worksheet) .................................................................................................... 4-1
Prepare DD Form 1970 (Motor Equipment Utilization Record)....................... 4-10
Report an Accident (Make Required Entries on DD Form 518 and SF 91) ...... 4-15
Perform Operator Preventive Maintenance Checks and Services (PMCS)........ 4-27
Identify Cab Controls, Instruments, and Indicators ......................................... 4-31
Operate the Central Tire Inflation System (CTIS) on an M939A2 Series
Vehicle .......................................................................................................... 4-36
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
*This publication supersedes TC 21-305-3, 10 December 1990.
Page
i
TC 21-305-3
Drive an M939 Series Cargo Truck............................................................. 4-40
Drive an M939 Series Cargo Truck on the Road.......................................... 4-51
Drive an M939 Series Cargo Truck Off Road.............................................. 4-64
Drive an M939 Series Cargo Truck at Night ............................................... 4-73
CHAPTER 5 LESSON OUTLINES FOR TRAILER OPERATIONS...........................5-1
Perform Operator Preventive Maintenance Checks and Services (PMCS)
on Trailers ....................................................................................................5-1
Drive an M939 Series Cargo Truck with Trailer............................................5-4
CHAPTER 6 SAMPLE TRAINING AREAS FOR THE 5-TON CARGO TRUCK .....6-1
CHAPTER 7 END OF COURSE COMPREHENSIVE TEST .......................................7-1
GLOSSARY............................................................................................................ Glossary-1
REFERENCES .................................................................................................... References-1
INDEX .........................................................................................................................Index-1
ii
TC 21-305-3
PREFACE
This TC provides a training program for the M939 series 5-ton cargo vehicle operator according to
AR 600-55. It provides standardized training and testing in the operation, maintenance, and safety
of this vehicle. It stresses hands-on training with minimal classroom instruction and does not include
any theater-unique requirements. Also during the development of this TC, it was assumed that each
driver candidate would have a state driver’s license, have completed accident avoidance training
according to TC 21-305, and possess an OF 346 (stamped as a learner’s permit).
The lesson content for this training program is arranged sequentially and separated into three
chapters (Chapters 4, 5, and 7). Chapter 4 contains training for driving operations and Chapter 5
for trailer operations. Testing is contained in Chapter 7. For those operators trained on truck
operations, testing is conducted after the training in Chapter 4. Operators that are trained in trailer
operations are tested after receiving all training in Chapters 4 and 5. This allows the commander the
flexibility to tailor 5-ton operator training based on the unit’s equipment. Also, all training should be
annotated on DA Form 348 (or ULLS-generated DA Form 348-E) according to AR 600-55.
To provide effective training, each instructor should ensure his operators are trained and tested to the
standards in this TC. Any deviation from the successful completion of these basic standards will
only lessen the soldiers’overall driving effectiveness.
Graduates of this training program (licensed drivers) should be supervised until they have gained the
experience to safely operate the M939 series 5-ton cargo truck. They should not be placed in
situations that may be above their skill level. Periodically, the supervisor should ride with each
driver to observe safe operating procedures and to determine the need for additional training.
The proponent of this publication is HQ TRADOC. Submit changes for improving this publication
on DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) and forward it to
Commandant, US Army Transportation School, ATTN: ATSP-TDI-DX, Fort Eustis, Virginia
23604-5389.
The US Army’s environmental strategy into the 21st century defines the Army’s leadership
commitment and philosophy for meeting present and future environmental challenges. It provides a
framework to ensure that environmental stewardship ethic governs all Army activities. The Army’s
environmental vision is to be a national leader in environmental and natural resource stewardship for
present and future generations, as an integral part of all Army missions. The Army’s environmental
vision statement communicates the Army’s commitment to the environment.
Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to
men.
iii
TC 21-305-3
CHAPTER 1
RISK MANAGEMENT
1-1.
GENERAL. This chapter explains risk management as it applies to wheeled vehicle driver
training. For more detailed risk management guidance, refer to FM 101-5, Appendix J.
1-2.
BACKGROUND. Ground vehicle accidents cost the Army millions of dollars each year
and significantly reduce mission capabilities. Leaders must develop techniques that will save
resources. Because the Army must be prepared to operate worldwide, the training mission has
become increasingly demanding and so have the risks inherent in that mission. This increase in risk
requires leaders to balance mission needs with hazards involved and make wise risk decisions.
1-3. DEFINITIONS.
a. Risk Management. Risk management is the process of identifying and controlling
hazards to protect the force. It is a step-by-step process that provides a framework for analyzing
any mission or task. The following are the five steps of risk management:
(1) Step 1 – Identify Hazards. Identify hazards to the force. Consider all aspects
of current and future situation, environment, and known historical problem areas.
(2) Step 2 – Assess Hazards. Assess hazards to determine risks. Assess the
impact of each hazard in terms of potential loss and cost based on probability and severity.
(3) Step 3 – Develop Controls and Make Risk Decision. Develop control
measures that eliminate the hazards or reduce its risk. As control measures are developed, risks are
reevaluated until all risks are reduced to a level where benefits outweigh potential cost.
(4) Step 4 – Implement Controls. Put controls in place that eliminate the hazards
or reduce their risk.
(5) Step 5 – Supervise and Evaluate. Enforce standards and controls. Evaluate
the effectiveness of control and adjust/update as necessary.
b. Hazard. Any real or potential condition that can cause injury, illness, or death of
personnel; or damage to or loss of equipment or property.
c. Risk. Chance of hazard or bad consequences; exposure to chance of injury or loss.
Risk level is expressed in terms of hazard probability and severity.
d. Exposure. The frequency and length of time subjected to a hazard.
e. Probability. The likelihood that an event will occur.
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TC 21-305-3
f. Severity. The expected consequence of an event in terms of degree of injury, property
damage, or other mission impairing factors (loss of combat power, adverse publicity, and so forth)
that could occur.
g. Controls. Actions taken to eliminate hazards or reduce their risk.
h. Risk Assessment. The identification and assessment of hazards (first two steps of risk
management process).
i. Residual Risk. The level of risk remaining after controls have been identified and
selected for hazards that may result in loss of combat power. Controls are identified and selected
until residual risk is at an acceptable level or until it cannot be practically reduced further.
j.
Risk Decision. The decision to accept or not accept the risk(s) associated with an
action.
1-4.
RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESS. The risk management process uses the following
approach:
a. Identify Hazards. Look for hazards in each phase of the training or operation.
b. Assess the Risk. Ask these questions:
• What type of injury or equipment damage can be expected?
• What is the probability of an accident happening?
NOTE: A low probability of an accident and an expected minor injury equals low risk. A high
probability of an accident and an expected fatality equals extremely high risk.
c. Develop Risk Control Alternatives and Make Risk Decisions. If you cannot
eliminate the risk, then you must control it without sacrificing essential mission requirements. You
can control some risks by modifying tasks, changing location, increasing supervision, wearing
protective clothing, changing time of operation, and so on. Decisions take several forms:
• Selecting from available controls.
• Modifying the mission because risk is too great.
• Accepting risk because mission benefits outweigh potential loss.
d. Implement Risk Control Measures. You must integrate procedures to control risks
into plans, orders, SOPs, and training. You must also ensure risk reduction measures are used
during actual operations.
e. Supervise the Operations. Make sure leaders know what controls are in place, what
standards are expected, and then hold those in charge accountable for implementation. This is the
point when accident prevention actually happens.
1-2
TC 21-305-3
1-5.
RISK ASSESSMENT ELEMENTS. There are no hard and fast rules for assessing risk.
Different training tasks involve different elements that can affect training safety. However, the
following seven elements are central to safely completing most driver training tasks:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Soldier qualification.
Supervision.
Vehicle type.
Equipment.
Weather.
Time of day.
Terrain.
Using matrices that assign a risk level to each of the elements is one way to quickly appreciate the
overall risks. The following matrices (Tables 1-1 through 1-7) are examples of risk assessments for
the seven elements common to driver training missions.
NOTE: The factors are arbitrarily weighted. Modify them based on your particular mission and
unit.
• Measure soldier qualification risk (Table 1-1) by comparing the level of task difficulty
to the soldier’s military driving experience.
Table 1-1. Soldier qualification risk value
SOLDIER QUALIFICATION RISK VALUE
DRIVING EXPERIENCE
TASK
LICENSED OVER 1
YEAR
LICENSED UNDER 1
YEAR
UNLICENSED
COMPLEX
ROUTINE
SIMPLE
Moderate
Low
Low
High
Moderate
Low
High
High
Moderate
EXAMPLE: Unlicensed drivers learning braking techniques in a 5-ton cargo truck with air brakes
would be a high risk situation requiring substantial controls (new drivers generally do not have
experience with air brake vehicles).
1-3
TC 21-305-3
• Measure vehicle type risk (Table 1-2) by comparing the vehicle configuration to the
locations of the training tasks.
Table 1-2. Vehicle type risk value
VEHICLE TYPE RISK VALUE
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION
LOCATION OF
TRAINING
SMALL
TRUCKS
STRAIGHT
TRUCKS
COMBINATION
UNITS
ROAD
TRAINING AREA
MOTOR POOL
Moderate
Low
Low
High
Moderate
Low
High
High
Moderate
EXAMPLE: Driving a 5-ton cargo truck over the road would have a high risk value.
• Measure weather risk (Table 1-3) by comparing road conditions with visibility.
Table 1-3. Weather risk value
WEATHER RISK VALUE
VISIBILITY
ROAD
CONDITIONS
CLEAR
REDUCED
UNFAVORABLE
ADEQUATE
FAVORABLE
Moderate
Low
Low
High
Moderate
Moderate
EXAMPLE: Driving on icy roads in fog would have a high risk value.
1-4
RESTRICTED
High
High
High
TC 21-305-3
• Measure terrain risk (Table 1-4) by comparing the physical features of the land with the
existing road network.
Table 1-4. Terrain risk value
TERRAIN RISK VALUE
ROAD NETWORK
TYPE OF
TERRAIN
MOUNTAIN
DESERT/JUNGLE
FLAT/ROLLING
IMPROVED
ROADS
SECONDARY
ROADS
Moderate
Low
Low
High
Moderate
Low
UNIMPROVED
High
High
Moderate
EXAMPLE: Driver training conducted at Fort Bragg, NC, over trails would have a moderate risk
value.
• Measure supervision risk (Table 1-5) by comparing the level of supervision to the task
location.
Table 1-5. Supervision risk value
SUPERVISION RISK VALUE
TASK LOCATION
LEVEL OF
SUPERVISION
NOT OBSERVING
OBSERVING
IN VEHICLE
MOTOR POOL
High
Low
Low
TRAINING AREA/
NONCONGESTED
ROAD
High
Moderate
Low
OFF ROAD/
CONGESTED ROAD
High
High
Moderate
EXAMPLE: A student driving alone, but observed, in a training area would have a moderate risk
value.
1-5
TC 21-305-3
• Measure equipment risk (Table 1-6) by comparing the equipment’s age to the time
(months) since the last semiannual service. Equipment age is defined as; old is 15 or more years old,
average is 5 to 15 years old, and new is 5 or less years old.
Table 1-6. Equipment risk value
EQUIPMENT RISK VALUE
LAST SEMIANNUAL SERVICE
EQUIPMENT AGE
OLD
AVERAGE
NEW
0 TO 2 MONTHS
Moderate
Low
Low
+2 TO 4 MONTHS
Moderate
Moderate
Low
+4 MONTHS
High
High
Moderate
EXAMPLE: An eight-year-old 5-ton cargo truck serviced 3 months ago would have a moderate risk
value.
• Measure time of day risk (Table 1-7) by comparing the level of light to familiarity with
the route.
Table 1-7. Time of day risk value
TIME OF DAY RISK VALUE
LIGHT LEVEL
ROUTE
FAMILIARITY
NEVER DRIVEN
ROUTE
DRIVEN ROUTE
1 TO 3 TIMES
FAMILIAR ROUTE
DAY
DAWN/DUSK
NIGHT
Moderate
High
High
Low
Moderate
High
Low
Low
Moderate
EXAMPLE: A driving task over a familiar route that starts during the day but ends at dusk would
have a moderate risk value.
1-6
TC 21-305-3
After assessing all the risks, the overall risk value equals the highest risk identified for any one
element. Now is the time to focus on high risk elements and develop controls to reduce risks to an
acceptable level. Control examples may include conducting training in a different location or at a
different time of day, putting an instructor in the vehicle with the student, waiting for better weather,
using a different vehicle, and so on.
1-6.
DECISION AID. The level of the decision maker should correspond to the level of the risk.
The greater the risk, the more senior the final decision maker should be. The matrix shown in Table
1-8 is a proposed decision aid to help determine the leadership decision-making level.
Table 1-8. Proposed decision aid
DECISION AID
RISK
DECISION LEVEL
LOW
MODERATE
HIGH
SENIOR INSTRUCTOR
COMPANY COMMANDER
BATTALION COMMANDER
a. Moderate risk training warrants complete unit command involvement. For example, a
moderate risk value in the weather element category indicates the soldiers are more susceptible to
cold injuries and require closer supervision or a rescheduling of training. If you cannot reduce the
risk level, the company commander should decide to train or defer the mission.
b. Operations with a high risk value warrant battalion involvement. If you cannot reduce
the risk level, the battalion commander should decide to train or defer the mission.
1-7.
RISK CONTROL ALTERNATIVES. The following options can help control risk:
•
•
•
•
Eliminate the hazard totally, if possible, or substitute a less hazardous alternative.
Reduce the magnitude of the hazard by changing tasks, locations, times, and so forth.
Modify operational procedures to reduce risk exposure consistent with mission needs.
Train and motivate personnel to perform to standards to avoid hazards.
1-8.
SUPERVISION. Leaders must monitor the training to ensure risk control measures are
followed. Never underestimate subordinates ability to sidetrack a decision they do not understand or
support. You must also monitor the impact of risk reduction procedures when they are implemented
to see that they really work. This is especially true of new, untested procedures.
1-9.
PAYOFFS. Risk management lets you use realistic training scenarios reducing personnel
and equipment losses while training. Risk management is consistent with METT-T decision
processes and can be used in battle to increase mission effectiveness.
1-7
TC 21-305-3
SAMPLE RISK ASSESSMENT WORK SHEET FOR DRIVER TRAINING
TRAINING TASK: ___________________________________________________________
RISK LEVEL: ________________
____________1. SOLDIER QUALIFICATION
SOLDIER QUALIFICATION RISK VALUE
DRIVING EXPERIENCE
TASK
LICENSED OVER 1
YEAR
LICENSED UNDER 1
YEAR
UNLICENSED
COMPLEX
ROUTINE
SIMPLE
Moderate
Low
Low
High
Moderate
Low
High
High
Moderate
____________2. VEHICLE TYPE
VEHICLE TYPE RISK VALUE
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION
LOCATION OF
TRAINING
SMALL
TRUCKS
STRAIGHT
TRUCKS
COMBINATION
UNITS
ROAD
TRAINING AREA
MOTOR POOL
Moderate
Low
Low
High
Moderate
Low
High
High
Moderate
____________3. WEATHER
WEATHER RISK VALUE
VISIBILITY
1-8
ROAD
CONDITIONS
CLEAR
REDUCED
UNFAVORABLE
ADEQUATE
FAVORABLE
Moderate
Low
Low
High
Moderate
Moderate
RESTRICTED
High
High
High
TC 21-305-3
____________4. TERRAIN
TERRAIN RISK VALUE
ROAD NETWORK
TYPE OF
TERRAIN
MOUNTAIN
DESERT/JUNGLE
FLAT/ROLLING
IMPROVED
ROADS
SECONDARY
ROADS
Moderate
Low
Low
High
Moderate
Low
UNIMPROVED
High
High
Moderate
____________5. SUPERVISION
SUPERVISION RISK VALUE
TASK LOCATION
LEVEL OF
SUPERVISION
MOTOR POOL
NOT OBSERVING
OBSERVING
IN VEHICLE
High
Low
Low
TRAINING AREA/
NONCONGESTED
ROAD
High
Moderate
Low
OFF ROAD/
CONGESTED ROAD
High
High
Moderate
____________6. EQUIPMENT
EQUIPMENT RISK VALUE
LAST SEMIANNUAL SERVICE
EQUIPMENT AGE
OLD
AVERAGE
NEW
0 TO 2 MONTHS
Moderate
Low
Low
+2 TO 4 MONTHS
Moderate
Moderate
Low
+4 MONTHS
High
High
Moderate
1-9
TC 21-305-3
_____________7. TIME OF DAY
TIME OF DAY RISK VALUE
LIGHT LEVEL
ROUTE
FAMILIARITY
NEVER DRIVEN
ROUTE
DRIVEN ROUTE
1 TO 3 TIMES
FAMILIAR ROUTE
DAY
DAWN/DUSK
NIGHT
Moderate
High
High
Low
Moderate
High
Low
Low
Moderate
____________OVERALL RISK LEVEL
DECISION AID
RISK
DECISION LEVEL
LOW
MODERATE
HIGH
SENIOR INSTRUCTOR
COMPANY COMMANDER
BATTALION COMMANDER
APPROVED BY: ____________________________________________ DATE: ____________
1-10
TC 21-305-3
2-1. STUDENT REQUIREMENTS.
a. Vehicles Per Student. Vehicle to student ratio is contained in the instructional material
and varies from 1:1 to 1:2.
b. Forms Per Student.
• DD Form 518. Accident Identification Card.
• DD Form 1970. Motor Equipment Utilization Record (or DA Form 5987-E, Motor
Equipment Dispatch).
• DA Form 348. Equipment Operator’s Qualification Record (Except Aircraft).
• DA Form 2404. Equipment Inspection and Maintenance Worksheet (or DA Form
5988-E, Equipment Inspection Maintenance Worksheet).
• DA Form 6125-R. Road Test Score Sheet.
• OF 346. US Government Motor Vehicle Operator’s Identification Card.
• SF Form 91. Motor Vehicle Accident Report.
c. Publications Per Student.
• TM 9-2320-272-10. Operator’s Manual for Truck, 5-Ton, 6X6, M939, M939A1,
and M939A2 Series Trucks (Diesel).
• LO 9-2320-272-12. Lubrication Order for Truck, 5-Ton, 6X6, M939, M939A1,
and M939A2 Series Trucks (Diesel).
d. Nonstandard Items.
• Forty empty POL drums, traffic cones, or locally fabricated standards.
• Vehicle loads.
2-2.
INSTRUCTOR REQUIREMENTS.
• One each of the above forms.
• One each of the above publications.
• AR 385-55. Prevention of Motor Vehicle Accidents.
• AR 600-55. The Army Driver and Operator Standardization Program (Selection,
Training, Testing, and Licensing).
• DA Pamphlet 738-750. Functional Users Manual for the Army Maintenance
Management System (TAMMS).
• FM 21-305. Manual for the Wheeled Vehicle Driver.
• STP 55-88M12-SM. Soldier’s Manual, MOS 88M, Motor Transport Operator,
Skill Levels 1/2.
• All HN or local directives and regulations.
2-1
TC 21-305-3
2-3.
TRAINING FACILITIES.
•
•
•
•
2-4.
TRAINING AIDS AND DEVICES.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
2-2
Classroom.
Motor pool.
Training area(s).
Suitable road network for driver training (primary, secondary, and off road).
Overhead projector.
Projection screen.
Transparencies (paper copies included with the instructional material).
Television monitor.
Videocassette player.
TVT 20-1088. M939 Series: Operating at Risk. 1996. (PIN: 708408).
TVT 55-16. The M939A2 Series Cargo Truck. 1991. (PIN: 709233DA).
TC 21-305-3
CHAPTER 3
SAMPLE TRAINING SCHEDULE
WHEN
WHAT
WHERE
TASK
NUMBER
Classroom
551-721-1352
Classroom
Classroom
551-721-1366
551-721-1388
Classroom
Motor Pool
551-721-1352
551-721-1352
Motor Pool
551-721-1391
Motor Pool
551-721-1352
TRUCK OPERATIONS
DAY 1
0730-0830
0830-0930
0930-1130
1130-1230
1230-1300
1300-1400
1400-1430
1430-1630
Use TM, LO, and Make Entries on
DA Form 2404
Prepare DD Form 1970
Report an Accident
Lunch
Perform Operator PMCS
Identify Cab Controls, Instruments,
and Indicators
Operate CTIS on the M939A2 Series
Vehicle
Perform Operator PMCS
TRUCK OPERATIONS
DAY 2
0730-0800
0800-0830
0830-1130
1130-1230
1230-1600
1600-1630
Drive an M939 Series Cargo Truck
Perform Before-Operation PMCS
Drive an M939 Series Cargo Truck
Lunch
Drive an M939 Series Cargo Truck
(continued)
Perform After-Operation PMCS
Classroom
551-721-1366
Motor Pool
551-721-1352
Training Area 551-721-1366
Training Area 551-721-1366
Motor Pool
551-721-1352
Motor Pool
551-721-1366
TRUCK OPERATIONS
DAY 3
0730-0830
0830-0900
0900-1130
1130-1230
1230-1600
1600-1630
Drive an M939 Series Cargo Truck on
the Road
Perform Before-Operation PMCS
Drive an M939 Series Cargo Truck on
the Road
Lunch
Drive an M939 Series Cargo Truck on
the Road (continued)
Perform After-Operation PMCS
Motor Pool
551-721-1352
Driver
551-721-1366
Training Route
Driver
551-721-1366
Training Route
Motor Pool
551-721-1352
3-1
TC 21-305-3
WHEN
WHAT
WHERE
TASK
NUMBER
TRUCK OPERATIONS
DAY 4
0730-0800
0800-0830
0830-1130
Drive an M939 Series Cargo Truck Off Road
Perform Before-Operation PMCS
Drive an M939 Series Cargo Truck
Off Road
1130-1230
1230-1400
Lunch
Drive an M939 Series Cargo Truck
Off Road (continued)
1400-1430
1900-1930
1930-2330
Perform After-Operation PMCS
Perform Before-Operation PMCS
Drive an M939 Series Cargo Truck at Night
2330-2400
Perform After-Operation PMCS
Motor Pool
551-721-1360
Motor Pool
551-721-1352
Off Road
551-721-1360
Driver
Training Area
Off Road
Driver
Training Area
Motor Pool
Motor Pool
Motor Pool/
Driver
Training Route
Motor Pool
551-721-1360
551-721-1352
551-721-1352
551-721-1366
551-721-1352
TRUCK OPERATIONS
DAY 5
1230-1300
1300-1600
1600-1630
Perform Before-Operation PMCS
Drive an M939 Series Cargo Truck on
the Road (continued)
Perform After-Operation PMCS
Motor Pool
551-721-1352
Driver
551-721-1366
Training Route
Motor Pool
551-721-1352
TRUCK OPERATIONS
DAY 6
NOTE: This day 6 is for straight truck drivers only. Drivers training for trailer operations will
continue to trailer operations day 6 and testing on day 8.
0730-0800
0800-1100
Perform Before-Operation PMCS
Drive an M939 Series Cargo Truck on
1100-1130
1130-1230
1230-1630
Perform After-Operation PMCS
Lunch
End of Course Comprehensive Test
and
Perform PMCS
3-2
Motor Pool
551-721-1352
Driver
551-721-1366
Training Route
Motor Pool
551-721-1352
Classroom/
All Tasks
Motor Pool/
Road Test
Route/Off Road
Training Area
Motor Pool
551-721-1352
TC 21-305-3
WHEN
WHAT
WHERE
TASK
NUMBER
TRAILER OPERATIONS
DAY 6
0730-0830
0830-0900
Perform PMCS on Trailers
Perform Before-Operation PMCS
0900-1130
Drive an M939 Series Cargo Truck
with Trailer
1130-1230
1230-1600
Lunch
Drive an M939 Series Cargo Truck
with Trailer (continued)
1600-1630
Perform After-Operation PMCS
Motor Pool
Motor Pool
551-721-1353
551-721-1352
551-721-1353
Motor Pool/
551-721-1380
Training Area/ 551-721-1385
Driver
Training Route
Training Area/ 551-721-1380
Driver
551-721-1385
Training Route
Motor Pool
551-721-1352
551-721-1353
TRAILER OPERATIONS
DAY 7
0730-0800
Perform Before-Operation PMCS
0800-1130
Drive an M939 Series Cargo Truck
with Trailer (continued)
1130-1230
1230-1600
Lunch
Drive an M939 Series Cargo Truck
with Trailer (continued)
1600-1630
Perform After-Operation PMCS
Motor Pool
551-721-1352
551-721-1353
Training Area/ 551-721-1380
Driver
551-721-1385
Training Route
Training Area/ 551-721-1380
Driver
551-721-1385
Training Route
Motor Pool
551-721-1352
551-721-1353
TRAILER OPERATIONS
DAY 8
0730-0800
0800-1100
1100-1130
1130-1230
1230-1630
Perform Before-Operation PMCS
Drive an M939 Series Cargo Truck on
the Road (continued)
Perform After-Operation PMCS
Lunch
End of Course Comprehensive Test
and
Perform PMCS
Motor Pool
551-721-1352
Driver
551-721-1366
Training Route
Motor Pool
551-721-1352
Classroom/
All Tasks
Motor Pool/
Road Test
Route/Off Road
Training Area 551-721-1352
Motor Pool
551-721-1353
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LESSON TITLE:
USE TECHNICAL MANUALS (TMs) AND LUBRICATION ORDERS
(LOs), AND MAKE ENTRIES ON DA FORM 2404 (EQUIPMENT
INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE WORKSHEET)
TASK NUMBER:
551-721-1352 (Perform Vehicle Preventive Maintenance Checks and
Services [PMCS])
A. TRAINING OBJECTIVE.
TASK:
Use the M939 Series TM/LO and make operator entries on
DA Form 2404.
CONDITIONS:
Given instruction, TM 9-2320-272-10, LO 9-2320-272-12,
DA Form 2404, and a practical exercise.
STANDARD:
Locate information in the TM/LO and make the required operator
entries on DA Form 2404 in the correct sequence according to
DA Pamphlet 738-750. Each student has 15 minutes to complete
the practical exercise without error and will be graded on a
GO/NO-GO basis.
B. INTERMEDIATE TRAINING.
Intermediate Training Objective 1
TASK:
Use the M939 Series TM and LO.
CONDITIONS:
Given instruction, TM 9-2320-272-10, LO 9-2320-272-12, and a
practical exercise in a classroom environment.
STANDARD:
Answer the questions correctly in the practical exercise by
locating information in the TM/LO. Each student will be graded
on a GO/NO-GO basis.
Intermediate Training Objective 2
TASK:
Document a no-fault situation on DA Form 2404.
CONDITIONS:
Given instruction, TM 9-2320-272-10, a practical exercise, and
DA Form 2404 in a classroom environment.
STANDARD:
You must fill out a no-fault situation on DA Form 2404 in the
correct sequence according to DA Pamphlet 738-750. Each
student will be graded on a GO/NO-GO basis.
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Intermediate Training Objective 3
TASK:
Document a fault situation on DA Form 2404.
CONDITIONS:
Given instruction, TM 9-2320-272-10, a practical exercise, and
DA Form 2404 in a classroom environment.
STANDARD:
You must fill out a fault situation on DA Form 2404 in the correct
sequence according to DA Pamphlet 738-750. Each student will
be graded on a GO/NO-GO basis.
C. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS.
1. Training time: As scheduled.
2. Training location: Scheduled classroom.
3. Training type: Conference and practical exercise.
4. Students: Scheduled personnel.
5. Principal and assistant instructors required: One primary instructor for the class and one
assistant instructor for every 20 students for the practical exercise.
6. Training aids and equipment: Overhead projector, screen, transparency (DA Forms
2404), TM 9-2320-272-10 (one per student), LO 9-2320-272-12 (one per student), DA Form 2404
(four per student), and a practical exercise situation sheet (one per student).
7. References: DA Pamphlet 738-750, TM 9-2320-272-10, and LO 9-2320-272-12.
D. SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY.
NOTE: Before class arrival, ensure that each student desk or table has a TM 9-2320-272-10,
LO 9-2320-272-12, and two DA Forms 2404. Completed samples of DA Forms 2404 are shown in
Figure 4-1, page 4-6 and Figure 4-2, page 4-7. These samples can be used to make transparencies
for an overhead projection system or reproduced as student handouts.
1. Introduction:
a. Interest device.
b. Tie-in.
c. Lesson objective (paragraph A).
d. Procedures:
(1) Explanation.
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(2) Practical exercise.
(3) Summary.
2. Explanation and demonstration:
a. Proper technique for using the M939 Series -10 series TM.
(1) Front cover index - corresponding thumb tab blackened pages and
table of contents.
(2) Warning summary and caution - warning statements.
(3) PMCS tables.
(4) Alphabetical subject index.
b. Use of the M939 series LO 9-2320-272-12.
(1) Cards (tables).
(2) Warnings, cautions, and notes.
(3) Level of maintenance codes.
(4) Lubricant abbreviations and intervals.
(5) Lubricate after fording and high-pressure washing.
c. DA Form 2404 no-fault situation:
NOTE: If the organization is using ULLS, ULLS generated DA Form 5988-E may be used instead
of using DA Form 2404. The blocks of DA Form 5988-E are completed similar to those of DA
Form 2404.
(1) Organization.
(2) Nomenclature and model.
(3) Registration/serial number/NSN.
(4) Type of inspection (PMCS).
(5) TM number and TM date.
(6) Date of inspection (column c).
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(7) Type of inspection (entered in column d when used for concurrent
inspections).
(8) Disposition of DA Form 2404.
d. DA Form 2404 fault situation.
NOTE: If the organization is using ULLS, ULLS generated DA Form 5988-E may be used instead
of using DA Form 2404. The blocks of DA Form 5988-E are completed similar to those of DA
Form 2404.
(1) Deferred maintenance. Check DA Form 2408-14 for any deferred
maintenance before listing faults on DA Form 2404. Do not list faults that
are already listed on DA Form 2404 or DA Form 2408-14. (This form is
not required when an automated system such as ULLS, provides a list or
printout of deferred maintenance and uncorrected faults that includes all
elements on the DA Form 2408-14.)
NOTE: Explain to the students that when a DA Form 2404 has previous no-fault daily annotations,
a new form does not have to be initiated when a fault is found. Tell them to use the same form and
some of the steps listed below would already be completed.
(2) Organization.
(3) Nomenclature and model.
(4) Registration/serial number/NSN.
(5) Miles. If the reading is in kilometers, put the letter “K” before the
number.
(6) Hours.
(7) Date.
(8) Type of inspection (PMCS).
(9) TM number and TM date.
(10) Signature and rank in block 8a.
(11) TM item number entered in column a. Circle item number if the
fault makes the equipment NMC.
(12) Status symbol entered in column b.
(13) Deficiencies or shortcomings entered in column c.
(14) Disposition of DA Form 2404.
4-4
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3. Practical exercise: Hand out one practical exercise and two DA Forms 2404 (or if using
ULLS, ULLS generated DA Form 5988-E) to each student. Students will complete the practical
exercise as outlined in paragraph 2 above within 15 minutes.
4. Evaluate: Check each student’s practical exercise.
5. Summary:
a. Recap main points.
b. Allow for questions.
c. Clarify questions.
d. Give closing statement.
6. Retraining: Retrain and retest NO-GOs after normal duty hours.
E. SAFETY RESTRICTIONS. None.
F. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS. None.
G. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND INFORMATION. Recommended instructional time is
1.0 hours (.5 conference and .5 practical exercise).
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Figure 4-1. DA Form 2404 (No Fault Situation)
4-6
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Figure 4-2. DA Form 2404 (Fault Situation)
4-7
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PRACTICAL EXERCISE
LESSON TITLE:
USE TECHNICAL MANUALS AND LUBRICATION ORDERS AND
MAKE ENTRIES ON DA FORM 2404
NAME___________________________________RANK___________DATE_______________
To complete this practical exercise, you will need appropriate vehicle operator’s TM, LO, two blank
DA Forms 2404 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5988-E), and a pencil. You have 15 minutes to
complete this practical exercise.
FIRST REQUIREMENT
Using the appropriate vehicle TM and LO, answer the following questions by writing your answer in
the space provided after each question.
1. At what interval does the operator check the transmission for proper operation?
2. Where would you find the definition for the different classes of leaks?
3. In what section of the operator’s TM would you find the BII authorized for the M923A2 cargo
truck?
4. In what paragraph of the operator’s TM would you find instructions for correct braking
procedures?
5. What type of gear oil is used for the transfer case?
6. In what publication did you find the answer to question 5 above?
4-8
TC 21-305-3
SECOND REQUIREMENT
NAME___________________________________RANK___________DATE_______________
From the following information, make the required operator entries on DA Form 2404 (or ULLS
generated DA Form 5988-E):
You are assigned to the 58th Transportation Company as the operator of an M923A2 5-ton cargo
truck, with registration number 23G9J111.
a. On 13 January 1997, you perform a daily PMCS and find no faults.
b. On 14 January 1997, you perform a daily PMCS and again find no faults.
c. On 15 January 1997, you perform a daily PMCS and your vehicle voltmeter is
registering in the red. Your odometer reading is 21,864 miles and your hour meter reads 1546.
d. On 16 January 1997, you perform a daily PMCS and find your voltmeter has been
repaired. No other faults are discovered.
e. On 17 January 1997, you perform a weekly PMCS and find no faults.
4-9
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LESSON TITLE:
PREPARE DD FORM 1970 (MOTOR EQUIPMENT UTILIZATION
RECORD)
TASK NUMBER:
551-721-1366 (Drive Vehicle with Automatic Transmission)
A. TRAINING OBJECTIVE.
TASK:
Make correct vehicle operator entries on DD Form 1970.
CONDITIONS:
Given instruction, DD Form 1970, pencil, and a practical exercise.
STANDARD:
Make the required operator entries on DD Form 1970 in correct
sequence according to DA Pamphlet 738-750. Each student has
15 minutes to complete the practical exercise with no errors.
Students will be graded on a GO/NO-GO basis.
B. INTERMEDIATE TRAINING. None.
C. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS.
1. Training time: As scheduled.
2. Training location: Classroom.
3. Training type: Conference and practical exercise.
4. Students: Scheduled personnel.
5. Principal and assistant instructors required: One primary instructor for the conference
and one assistant instructor for each 20 students for the practical exercise.
6. Training aids and equipment: Overhead projector, screen, transparencies, practical
exercise situation sheet (one per student), and DD Form 1970 (one per student).
7. References: DA Pamphlet 738-750.
D. SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY.
1. Introduction:
a. Interest device.
b. Tie-in.
c. Lesson objective (paragraph A).
4-10
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d. Procedures:
(1) Explanation.
(2) Practical exercise.
(3) Summary.
2. Explanation and demonstration:
NOTE: Two completed samples of DD Form 1970 are shown in Figure 4-3, page 4-12, and
Figure 4-4, page 4-13. These samples can be used to make transparencies for an overhead
projection system or reproduced as student handouts.
a. Explain the purpose and use of DD Form 1970. Also explain the dispatcher
entries entered on the form.
b. Explain the operator entries that must be entered on DD Form 1970.
3. Practical exercise: Hand out one practical exercise and one DD Form 1970 to each
student. Students will complete the practical exercise within 15 minutes.
4. Evaluate: Check each student’s practical exercise.
5. Summary:
a. Recap main points.
b. Allow for questions.
c. Clarify questions.
d. Give closing statement.
6. Retraining: Retrain NO-GOs and slow learners. NO-GOs will be retrained after normal
duty hours.
E. SAFETY RESTRICTIONS. None.
F. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS. None.
G. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND INFORMATION. Recommended instructional time is
1 hour (.5 conference and .5 practical exercise).
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Note: An * denotes dispatcher entries.
Figure 4-3. Sample 1 of DD Form 1970
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Note: An * denotes dispatcher entries.
Figure 4-4. Sample 2 of DD Form 1970
4-13
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PRACTICAL EXERCISE
LESSON TITLE:
PREPARE DD FORM 1970 (MOTOR EQUIPMENT UTILIZATION
RECORD)
NAME___________________________________RANK___________DATE_______________
To complete this practical exercise, you will need one DD Form 1970 (with dispatcher entries made)
and a pen or pencil. You have 15 minutes to complete this practical exercise.
Use the information provided in the situation below to make all required operator entries on
DD Form 1970 in the proper sequence and in the prescribed time limit.
1. SITUATION:
a. You left the motor pool in an M923A2, 5-ton cargo truck. Your run included stops at
the following areas:
LOCATION
Motor Pool
Building 661
Building 705
Training area TA102
Dining facility, Building 663
Training area TA191
Motor pool
ARRIVED
DEPARTED
NA
0730
0800
0920
1120
1300
1600
0715
0750
0830
1050
1230
1530
b. The NCOIC was SSG Smith. He released you when you departed TA191 at 1530.
c. When you returned to the motor pool, your odometer reading was 8202 and your hour
meter reading was 503. You also noted that you filled the vehicle with 5 gallons of diesel
and no oil was added.
2. REQUIREMENT:
a. Complete the attached DD Form 1970.
b. Be sure your entries are legible (other people can read your handwriting) and accurate
(the entries agree with the details of the information in the situation).
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LESSON TITLE:
REPORT AN ACCIDENT (MAKE REQUIRED ENTRIES ON
DD FORM 518 AND SF 91)
TASK NUMBER:
551-721-1388 (Complete DD Form 518 and SF 91)
A. TRAINING OBJECTIVE.
TASK:
Make required entries on DD Form 518 and SF 91.
CONDITIONS:
Given instruction, DD Form 518, SF 91, pencil, and a practical
exercise.
STANDARD:
Make the required entries on DD Form 518 and SF 91 accurately,
legibly, and completely according to FM 21-305. Each student
has one hour to complete the practical exercise with no errors.
Students will be graded on a GO/NO-GO basis.
B. INTERMEDIATE TRAINING. None.
C. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS.
1. Training time: As scheduled.
2. Training location: Classroom.
3. Training type: Conference and practical exercise.
4. Students: Scheduled personnel.
5. Principal and assistant instructors required: One primary instructor for the conference
and one assistant instructor for each 20 students for the practical exercise.
6. Training aids and equipment: Overhead projector, screen, transparencies, practical
exercise situation sheet (one per student), DD Form 518 (one per student), and SF 91 (one per
student).
7. References: FM 21-305.
D. SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY.
1. Introduction:
a. Interest device.
b. Tie-in.
c. Lesson objective (paragraph A).
4-15
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d. Procedures:
(1) Explanation.
(2) Practical exercise.
(3) Summary.
2. Explanation and demonstration:
NOTE: A completed sample of a DD Form 518 is shown in Figure 4-5, page 4-18. A completed
sample of SF 91 is shown in Figures 4-6 through 4-9, pages 4-19 through 4-22, and a completed
sample of SF 94 is shown in Figures 4-10 and 4-11, pages 4-23 and 4-24. These samples can be
used to make transparencies for an overhead projection system or reproduced as student handouts.
a. Precautions and procedures. The following is not necessarily in the correct
order. Each accident must be assessed to determine what should be done and in
what order.
(1) Stop immediately.
(2) Take precautions to prevent further accidents or injuries by using road
guards, highway warning devices, and flares.
(3) Render first aid to the injured.
(4) If fire breaks out, use an extinguisher or sand. Notify the fire
department. Take precautions to prevent fire; for example, shut off
engines and prohibit smoking.
(5) Notify authorities (civil or military depending on who has jurisdiction)
for emergency services (police, ambulance, rescue, or fire fighting).
(6) Follow the rules or regulations of the state or area where accident took
place when moving the vehicle from the scene of the accident.
b. Driver’s responsibilities.
(1) When involved in an accident, always stop and investigate the
accident.
(2) Secure hard-to-get facts first (names and addresses of people involved
and witnesses, condition of the road, position of the vehicles, and an
estimate of the amount of damage). Ask the witness(es) to complete
SF 94.
(3) Be exact. Spell names correctly. Give street addresses by number.
State visible damage. Show exactly where vehicles were before and after
the accident and what obstacles blocked the driver’s view.
4-16
TC 21-305-3
(4) Do not sign any paper or make any statement as to who was at fault
(except to your supervisor or to a Federal Government investigator).
(5) Be polite. Try to get all the necessary information.
(6) Submit all reports and data to your supervisor ASAP but do not
exceed one working day.
c. Instructions for filling out DD Form 518.
(1) Explain the purpose and use of DD Form 518. This form is used to
give any persons involved in an accident all of the information that they
require from you.
(2) Explain how to fill out this form block by block. Ensure zip codes are
included and the students know that disclosure of the social security
number is voluntary.
(3) Explain the disposition of the form. Give it to the person directly
involved in the accident. Or, if a parked vehicle, place it in or on the
parked vehicle in a conspicuous and secure location, such as under the
windshield wiper.
d. Instructions for filling out SF 91.
(1) Explain the purpose and use of SF 91. Even though an accident is
minor or not your fault, you must report it so that the facts will be clearly
presented and so that you can give the names of the witnesses.
(2) Explain how to fill out this form block by block. The driver is
responsible for filling out Sections I through IX. Section X, items 72
through 82c are filled out by the driver’s supervisor. Sections XI through
XIII are filled out by an accident investigator for bodily injury, fatality,
and/or damage exceeding $500. No blocks should be left completely
blank. If there is no information to put in a certain block, write None,
Unknown, or NA.
e. SF 94 may be given to any witness at the scene of the accident. It is normally
mailed to the witness by the investigating officer, commander, or supervisor.
3. Practical exercise: Hand out one practical exercise, SF 91, and DD Form 518 to each
student. Students will complete the practical exercise within one hour.
4. Evaluate: Check each student’s practical exercise.
4-17
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5. Summary:
a. Recap main points.
b. Allow for questions.
c. Clarify questions.
d. Give closing statement.
6. Retraining: Retrain NO-GOs and slow learners. NO-GOs will be retrained after normal
duty hours.
E. SAFETY RESTRICTIONS. None.
F. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS. None.
G. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND INFORMATION. Recommended instructional time is
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2 hours (1.0 conference and 1.0 practical exercise).
Figure 4-5. DD Form 518
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Figure 4-6. SF 91, page 1
4-19
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Figure 4-7. SF 91, page 2
4-20
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Figure 4-8. SF 91, page 3
4-21
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Figure 4-9. SF 91, page 4
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Figure 4-10. SF 94, front
4-23
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FILE REFERENCE:
Figure 4-11. SF 94, back
4-24
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PRACTICAL EXERCISE
LESSON TITLE:
REPORT AN ACCIDENT (MAKE REQUIRED ENTRIES ON
DD FORM 518 AND SF 91)
NAME___________________________________RANK___________DATE_______________
To complete this practical exercise, you will need one DD Form 518, one SF 91, and a pen or pencil.
You have 45 minutes to complete this practical exercise.
1. SITUATION:
On Friday, 17 January 1997 at 0800, you left the motor pool in an M925A2, 5-ton cargo truck
(registration number AA101BB) that had been dispatched to you. Your destination was the orderly
room, Company A, 225th Infantry Battalion, Fort Walk, NY 09111-5000. You were to report to
your first sergeant.
Approximately 10 minutes later, you were driving east on MacArthur Boulevard (a four-lane street)
in the right lane at 20 MPH. A civilian vehicle driving north on Pershing Street made a right turn
(east) onto MacArthur Boulevard. You applied your brakes but hit the civilian’s truck on the left
rear fender. The civilian was in the right lane traveling 5 to 10 MPH when you hit him. His truck
moved 20 to 30 feet ahead after the collision and stopped by the right curb. Your vehicle also moved
another 20 to 30 feet and ended up in the left lane. The weather was clear. The concrete roadway
was dry.
You stopped your vehicle, jumped out, and ran to the civilian’s vehicle. Luckily, he was not hurt.
Since there were no other occupants in either vehicle and no threat of fire or explosion, there was no
need to call the fire company or an ambulance. You and the civilian driver exchanged information.
You wrote down the following information from his driver’s license and registration:
Operator’s name:
Operator’s home address:
Operator’s state permit number and state:
Make of vehicle:
Type:
Year:
Vehicle license number and state:
Vehicle owned by:
Owner’s address:
John P. Jones
121 Buffalo Street, Indian, Montana 54321-1000
111-00-1000, Montana
Dodge
Dakota pickup
1990
123-ABC, Montana
John P. Jones
121 Buffalo Street, Indian, Montana 54321-1000
If you have any reason to doubt the information you were given was correct, note it on your form.
Record the estimates of damage to each vehicle. You looked at the civilian’s truck. His left rear
fender was dented, taillight broken, and the tailgate was bent. He estimated the amount of damage at
$1,000. Then you looked at your vehicle. Your front bumper was scratched and bent; you
approximate the amount of damage at $200.
4-25
TC 21-305-3
After estimating the damage, you went to a telephone across the street and called the MP. Within
minutes MP officer SPC Joe Smith, Badge Number 321, Company B, 123d MP Battalion, arrived.
He recorded comments made by you and the civilian. There were no other witnesses to the accident.
The officer did record that there is a traffic light with a turn-on-red signal at the southeast corner of
Pershing Street, that your vehicle was equipped with seat belts, and that you were wearing your seat
belt at the time of the accident. Since you had recorded the information and given the other driver a
copy of DD Form 518, you drove back to the motor pool.
2. REQUIREMENT:
a. Complete the attached DD Form 518 and SF 91.
b. Be sure your entries are legible (other people can read your handwriting) and accurate
(the entries agree with the details of the information in the situation). Use your name, rank, social
security number, and present age to complete these forms. Your military driver’s license number is
R-1456. You live in the A Company barracks. The barracks telephone number is 555-9999.
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LESSON TITLE:
PERFORM OPERATOR PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE CHECKS
AND SERVICES (PMCS)
TASK NUMBER:
551-721-1352 (Perform Vehicle Preventive Maintenance Checks and
Services [PMCS])
A. TRAINING OBJECTIVE.
TASK:
Perform operator PMCS on an M939 series cargo truck.
CONDITIONS:
Given instruction, DA Form 2404 (or ULLS generated DA Form
5988-E), pencil, TM 9-2320-272-10, equipment records folder,
rags, lubricants, coolant, and an M939 series cargo truck with BII.
STANDARD:
Inspect the vehicle according to the PMCS tables listed in
TM 9-2320-272-10, correct all faults within the operator’s level of
maintenance, and legibly record all others on DA Form 2404 (or
ULLS generated DA Form 5988-E). If no faults are found, make
necessary entries on DA Form 2404 (or ULLS generated DA
Form 5988-E).
B. INTERMEDIATE TRAINING. None.
C. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS.
1. When training will be given: As scheduled.
2. Training location: Classroom and motor pool as scheduled.
3. Training type: Conference, demonstration, and practical exercise.
4. Who will be trained: Personnel as scheduled.
5. Principal and assistant instructors required: One primary instructor for the class and one
assistant instructor for every two students for the demonstration and practical exercise.
6. Training aids and equipment: Television, VCR, TVT 55-16, hearing protection, rags,
lubricants, and coolant. DA Form 2404 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5988-E), pencil,
TM 9-2320-272-10, equipment records folder, and an M939 series cargo truck with BII for every
two students.
7. References: AR 385-55, DA Pamphlet 738-750, and TM 9-2320-272-10.
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D. SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY.
1. Introduction:
a. Interest device.
b. Tie-in.
c. Lesson objective (paragraph A).
d. Procedures:
(1) Explanation.
(2) Practical exercise.
(3) Summary.
2. Explanation and demonstration:
a. Show TVT 55-16.
b. Demonstrate before, during, after, weekly, and monthly checks to students.
3. Practical exercise:
a. Assign students to vehicles and issue TM 9-2320-272-10, pencils, DA Form
2404 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5988-E), and equipment records folder. Tell
students where rags, lubricants, and coolant are located.
b. Students perform PMCS.
4. Evaluate: Check each student’s PMCS performance.
5. Summary:
a. Recap main points.
b. Allow for questions.
c. Clarify questions.
d. Give closing statement.
6. Retraining: Students perform PMCS daily and have it reinforced throughout the course.
PMCS is tested on the EOCCT.
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E. SAFETY RESTRICTIONS.
1. Ensure that all chock blocks are in place when vehicles are parked or maintenance is to
be performed.
2. Ensure the transmission is in N, the parking brake is set, and the engine is shut off before
leaving the vehicle, when the vehicle is parked, or maintenance is being performed.
3. Ensure all personnel remove all wristwatches, rings, bracelets, ID tags, neck chains, and
any other jewelry before working in or around the vehicle.
4. Ensure all personnel pay particular attention to the cautions and warnings listed in the
operator’s manual.
5. Ensure the driver and ground guides know and understand the hand and arm signals,
especially the signal to stop, as outlined in FM 21-305.
6. Ensure ground guide(s) are used when backing.
7. Ensure all backing is conducted at a speed of 5 MPH or less.
8. Hearing protection is required for all personnel working in and around this vehicle while
the engine is running.
9. Inspect all seat belts for damage and ensure all occupants wear seat belts while the
vehicle is in operation.
10. Ensure personnel maintain at least three points of contact when mounting or
dismounting the vehicle (to include performing PMCS).
11. Ensure all personnel are clear of vehicle before engine start is attempted. Operator
must visually check to see that all areas of the truck are clear of personnel before attempting to start
the engine. Failure to do so could result in serious injury or death to personnel.
12. Extreme care should be taken when removing the surge tank filler cap if the temperature
gauge reads above 175° F. Steam or hot coolant under pressure will cause injury such as serious
burns.
13. The exhaust pipe and muffler can become very hot during vehicle operation. Be careful
not to touch these parts with bare hands or allow the body to come in contact with the exhaust pipe
or muffler. Exhaust system parts can become hot enough to cause serious burns.
14. Reemphasize the removal of all jewelry such as rings, ID tags, or bracelets before
working around batteries. Be careful not to short out battery terminals. If jewelry or tools contact
the battery terminal, a direct short may occur resulting in instant heating, damage to equipment, and
injury to personnel. Do not smoke or use open flame near batteries. Batteries may explode from a
spark. Battery acid is harmful to skin and eyes.
4-29
TC 21-305-3
15. Fuel is very flammable and can explode easily. To avoid serious injury or death, keep
fuel away from open fire and keep a fire extinguisher within easy reach when working with fuel. Do
not work on the fuel system when the engine is hot. Fuel can be ignited by the hot engine. When
working with fuel, post signs that read: “NO SMOKING WITHIN 50 FEET OF VEHICLE”.
16. Alcohol used in alcohol evaporator is flammable, poisonous, and explosive. Do not
smoke when adding fluid and do not drink fluid. Failure to do this will result in injury or death.
17. Do not put the vehicle in motion until the low air pressure warning light goes out and
the alarm (buzzer) stops sounding. Air pressure gauges should indicate at least 90 psi. If warnings
continue beyond three minutes, and/or pressure gauges do not reach 90 psi, turn the ignition switch
and battery switch to OFF positions, and notify unit maintenance. Failure to do this could result in
injury or death.
18. When raising the vehicle hood, ensure it is secured from falling. Do this by securing the
hood retaining bar to the bumper bracket with the safety pin. Failure to do so may damage the
vehicle or cause injury or death to personnel.
F. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS.
1. Ensure that all hazardous materials and hazardous wastes are stored and labeled
properly.
2. Ensure that spill kits are within reach when changing or adding vehicle fluids or in the
case of vehicle failures. Spill kits should enable the soldiers to contain a spill on land or in water.
3. Ensure that drip pans remain under parked vehicles.
4. Ensure that containers are the proper size and type for draining vehicle fluids.
G. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND INFORMATION. Recommended instructional time is
2.5 hours (.5 conference, 1.0 demonstration and 1.0 practical exercise). The remaining PMCS is
performed throughout the course in conjunction with driving tasks.
4-30
TC 21-305-3
LESSON TITLE:
IDENTIFY CAB CONTROLS, INSTRUMENTS, AND INDICATORS
TASK NUMBER:
551-721-1352 (Perform Vehicle Preventive Maintenance Checks and
Services [PMCS])
A. TRAINING OBJECTIVE.
TASK:
Identify cab controls, instruments, and indicators.
CONDITIONS:
Given instruction on the M939 series cargo truck and a
requirement to identify and explain the functions of cab controls,
instruments, and indicators.
STANDARD:
Correctly identify and explain the functions of cab controls,
instruments, and indicators.
B. INTERMEDIATE TRAINING. None.
C. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS.
1. Training time: As scheduled.
2. Training location: Scheduled motor pool.
3. Training type: Conference.
4. Students: Scheduled personnel.
5. Principal and assistant instructors required: One primary instructor for the class and one
assistant instructor for every three students.
6. Training aids and equipment: One M939 series cargo truck for each three students. If
the class is large, a PA system may be needed for the primary instructor.
7. References: TM 9-2320-272-10.
D. SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY.
1. Introduction:
a. Interest device.
b. Tie-in.
c. Lesson objective (paragraph A).
4-31
TC 21-305-3
d. Procedures:
(1) Explanation.
(2) Summary.
NOTE: The instructor will emphasize the importance of safely getting into and out of the cab
(maintaining three points of contact), observing all warnings, and using seat belts.
NOTE: At this time, separate the class into groups of three and assign each group to a vehicle.
Ensure each group has an assistant instructor. The assistant instructor will identify and demonstrate
the use of each item to his group of students as the instructor explains each item.
2. Explanation and demonstration: Location, description, and use of the cab controls,
instruments, and indicators.
a. Air cleaner indicator shows red when engine air filter needs servicing.
b. Parking brake warning light illuminates when parking brakes are engaged.
c. Low air pressure warning light illuminates when air brake system pressure drops
below 50 to 60 psi.
d. Spring brake warning light illuminates when spring brakes are engaged.
e. Low coolant level light (M939A2 series vehicle) illuminates when engine coolant
level is low.
f. Axle lock-in light illuminates when front-wheel drive lock-in switch is engaged.
g. High beam indicator illuminates when front headlights are on high beam.
h. Hand throttle control sets engine speed at desired rpm without maintaining pressure
on the accelerator pedal. The throttle control locks in the desired position when pulled
out. Rotating the control handle clockwise or counterclockwise unlocks it. The hand
throttle is used for engine warm up and so forth. It is NOT to be used as a “cruise
control”.
i. Battery switch activates and deactivates all electrical circuits on or off except arctic
heater and lights.
j. Ignition switch has off, run, and start positions. Switch automatically returns from
start to run when hand pressure is released.
k. Tachometer indicates engine speed in rpm and operating hours in tenths.
l. Speedometer/odometer indicates vehicle speed and total mileage.
4-32
TC 21-305-3
m. Engine coolant temperature gauge indicates engine coolant temperature. The
normal engine coolant operating temperature for M939/A1 series vehicles is 175 to
195° F and 190 to 200° F for the M939A2 series vehicles.
n. Primary air pressure gauge indicates air pressure in the primary brake system. The
normal pressure is 90 to 130 psi.
o. Defroster control opens vents to direct heated air to the windshield.
p. Heat vent control controls the amount of heat blown into the cab by adjusting the
opening of the heat ventilation doors.
q. Fresh air vent control pulls out to open ventilation doors. This allows outside air to
circulate in the cab.
r. Spring brake release control is pushed in to release spring brakes independently of
the mechanical parking brake. The control is used to release spring brakes in order to
test and adjust mechanical brakes.
s. Voltmeter indicates the charging condition of the battery.
t. Secondary air pressure gauge indicates air pressure in the secondary brake system.
The normal operating pressure is 90 to 130 psi.
u. Transmission oil temperature gauge indicates the temperature of the transmission
oil. The normal operating temperature is 120 to 220° F.
v. Engine oil pressure gauge indicates oil pressure when the engine is running.
The normal operating pressure at idle is 15 psi.
w. Fuel gauge indicates the fuel level in the fuel tank.
x. Emergency engine stop control is pulled out to cut off fuel to the engine. It is
used only in an emergency.
y. Heater blower motor switch activates the heater blower.
z. Wiper motor switches activate wipers and controls windshield wiper speed.
aa. Windshield washer control is pushed in to spray cleaning solution on the
windshield.
bb. Turn signal control lever is moved down to operate the vehicle left turn signals, up
to operate the right turn signals. The level automatically returns to the off position
after the turn is completed. The turn signal control is also equipped with a hazard tab
button control (four-way flashers).
cc. Horn button is pressed to operate the vehicle horn.
4-33
TC 21-305-3
dd. Front wheel drive lock-in switch allows operator to engage front wheel drive
and is used only when the vehicle’s transfer case is in high range. In low range,
the vehicle’s front-wheel drive engages automatically. The vehicle may be in
motion or stopped to engage the front-wheel drive lock-in switch.
ee. Light switch controls the operation of the vehicle’s lights.
ff. Ether start switch injects ether into the engine for cold weather starting.
gg. Instrument panel lights illuminate instrument panel gauges.
hh. Transmission power take-off control lever (M925/A1/A2 and M928/A1/A2)
engages the transmission PTO to provide power for the winch.
ii. Front winch control lever (M925/A1/A2 and M928/A1/A2) is pulled back to
wind the front winch and forward to unwind for lowering loads during A-frame
operation.
jj. Automatic transmission selector lever is used to select the vehicle driving gear.
kk. Mechanical parking brake control lever is pulled up to engage the parking
brakes and down to disengage the brakes. The knob on top of the handle is turned
clockwise to increase parking brake tension, counterclockwise to decrease parking
brake tension. Applying the parking brake lever also trips a valve to release air
pressure from the spring brakes. This engages the spring brakes.
ll. Transfer case shift lever is pushed down to high range for light load operations,
up to low range for heavy road operations. Six-wheel drive is achieved
automatically when the transfer case shift lever is placed in low range.
mm. Accelerator pedal controls speed.
nn. Brake pedal is depressed to stop or slow the vehicle.
oo. Dimmer switch is depressed to raise or lower the headlight beam.
pp. Cowl ventilator (one on each side of cab) is opened manually to provide fresh
air ventilation.
qq. Access door (M939/A1) opens to provide access to the transmission dipstick
and oil fill.
rr. Transmission dipstick (M939/A1) is turned counterclockwise to remove and to
check transmission oil level.
3. Practical exercise: None.
4. Evaluate: Students are evaluated daily during driving tasks and are tested during the EOCCT.
4-34
TC 21-305-3
5. Summary:
a. Recap main points.
b. Allow for questions.
c. Clarify questions.
d. Give closing statement.
6. Retraining: Training is reinforced during daily driving tasks.
E. SAFETY RESTRICTIONS.
1. Ensure that all chock blocks are in place when vehicles are parked or maintenance is to
be performed.
2. Ensure the transmission is in N, the parking brake is set, and the engine is shut off before
leaving the vehicle, when the vehicle is parked, or maintenance is being performed.
3. Ensure all personnel remove all wristwatches, rings, bracelets, ID tags, neck chains, and
any other jewelry before working in or around the vehicle.
4. Ensure all personnel pay particular attention to the cautions and warnings listed in the
operator’s manual.
5. Ensure personnel maintain at least three points of contact when mounting or dismounting
the vehicle (to include performing PMCS).
F. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS. None.
G. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND INFORMATION. Recommended instructional time is 1
hour conference.
4-35
TC 21-305-3
LESSON TITLE:
OPERATE THE CENTRAL TIRE INFLATION SYSTEM (CTIS) ON
AN M939A2 SERIES VEHICLE
TASK NUMBER:
551-721-1391 (Operate a Central Tire Inflation System (CTIS) on the
M939A2 Series Vehicle)
A. TRAINING OBJECTIVE.
TASK:
Operate the CTIS on the M939A2 series cargo truck.
CONDITIONS:
Given instruction on the M939A2 series cargo truck and a
requirement to locate the controls and explain the function of
CTIS in all four operating modes.
STANDARD:
Correctly locate the controls and explain the operation of the
CTIS.
B. INTERMEDIATE TRAINING. None.
C. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS.
1. Training time: As scheduled.
2. Training location: Motor pool as scheduled.
3. Training type: Conference.
4. Students: Scheduled personnel.
5. Principal and assistant instructors required: One primary instructor for the class.
6. Training aids and equipment: An M939A2 series cargo truck for the class.
7. References: TM 9-2320-272-10 and STP 55-88M12-SM.
D. SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY.
1. Introduction:
a. Interest device.
b. Tie-in.
c. Lesson objective (paragraph A).
d. Procedures:
(1) Explanation.
4-36
TC 21-305-3
(2) Practical exercise.
(3) Summary.
2. Explanation and demonstration:
NOTE: The instructor should point out the location of the components and controls as he is
explaining each item to the students.
a. Central tire inflation system . The CTIS is designed to work automatically in
case of tire leakage. The CTIS will also adjust tire pressure when a road surface
selection is made to preset values.
b. CTIS integration with the air brake system. The CTIS uses the same air
compressor that supplies air to the vehicle brakes. The vehicle brakes are always
given priority over the CTIS. When brake operation causes the air pressure in the
air reservoir to fall below a preset limit (90 to 105 psi), inflation will stop until the
air compressor has refilled the brake reservoir. If the CTIS was deflating the tires,
it would continue to do so.
c. Rapid inflation. The most rapid tire pressure increase is achieved during
vehicle operation. Keep the transmission downshifted to a lower gear and
maintain engine speed at 2,000 rpm. This engages the turbocharger which
supplies extra air directly to the air compressor.
d. Selector panel. The selector panel is part of the ECU and contains selectors for
four preset tire pressure modes and a run flat selector. Each selector has its own
light. A steady selector light shows that the tire pressure selected has been
achieved. A flashing selector light means that the system is working to change tire
pressures.
(1) HWY mode. The highway tire pressure selector is the normal
operating mode of CTIS. The highway mode is automatically set each
time the engine is started. The HWY mode is 60 psi. If a lower tire
pressure mode had been selected the last time the truck was operated, the
CTIS will automatically begin to inflate to the highway setting.
(2) X-C mode. The cross-country tire pressure selector is used for
operating the vehicle on non-paved secondary roads and unimproved
surfaces. It allows operation up to 35 MPH. When 35 MPH is exceeded
for more than one minute, the amber overspeed warning light on the
instrument panel will flash. If 35 MPH is exceeded for more than two
minutes, the CTIS will automatically begin to inflate to the HWY
pressure. (When driving on secondary roads, the driver must be aware of
his speed. If the system does add air to the tires, this smaller footprint can
cause traction problems and the driver may lose control of the vehicle.
This is especially true of “washboard roads” that cause tires to bounce.)
4-37
TC 21-305-3
(3) Sand mode. When the mission requires maximum traction in sand,
snow, or mud, select sand on the selector panel. It allows operation up to
20 MPH. When 20 MPH is exceeded for more than one minute, the amber
overspeed warning light on the instrument panel will flash. If 20 MPH is
exceeded for more than two minutes, CTIS will automatically begin to
inflate to the X-C pressure.
CAUTION
Speed must be limited to 10 MPH in the emergency mode to prevent damage to
tires.
(4) Emergency mode. When the mission requires maximum traction on
extremely adverse terrain, select emergency mode by depressing EMER
on the selector panel. The dash mounted amber warning light will
illuminate. Operation in emergency mode is limited to 10 minutes, then
the system automatically inflates to the sand pressures. If the mission
demands extended emergency mode use, select EMER as needed.
(5) Run flat selector. When the mission requires operation with a
punctured tire, select run flat by depressing RUN FLAT on the selector
panel. Run flat causes CTIS to check tire pressure every 15 seconds.
Normally, checks occur every 15 minutes. Repeated damage detection
results in repeated inflation attempts. The punctured tire receives a new
supply of air each 15 seconds. Operation in run flat is limited to 10
minutes unless reselected. If no longer required, press the run flat selector
a second time.
3. Practical exercise: The practical exercise for this lesson is integrated in the driving and
off-road driving lessons.
4. Evaluate: Students are evaluated in the driving lessons and tested on the EOCCT.
5. Summary:
a. Recap main points.
b. Allow for questions.
c. Clarify questions.
d. Give closing statement.
6. Retraining: Training is reinforced during daily driving tasks.
4-38
TC 21-305-3
E. SAFETY RESTRICTIONS. None.
F. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS. None.
G. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND INFORMATION.
1. Recommended instructional time is .5 hour conference.
2. The following additional M939A2 CTIS tasks are contained in STP 55-88M12-SM:
TASK NUMBER
551-721-1392
551-721-1393
551-721-1394
551-721-1395
551-721-1396
551-721-1397
551-721-1398
TASK
Remove and Remount Tires on Vehicle with Central Tire Inflation System
(CTIS)
Replace Rear Wheel with Spare Tire on the M939A2 Series Vehicle
Remove the Rear Wheel Valve from the M939A2 Series Vehicle
Install Rear Wheel Valve on the Spare Tire of an M939A2 Series Vehicle
Replace Front Wheel with Spare Tire on the M939A2 Series Vehicle
Remove the Front Wheel Valve from the M939A2 Series Vehicle
Install Front Wheel Valve on the Spare Tire of a M939A2 Series Vehicle
4-39
TC 21-305-3
LESSON TITLE:
DRIVE AN M939 SERIES CARGO TRUCK
TASK NUMBER:
551-721-1366 (Drive Vehicle with Automatic Transmission)
A. TRAINING OBJECTIVE.
TASK:
Drive an M939 series cargo truck.
CONDITIONS:
Given instruction, DD Form 1970 (or ULLS generated DA Form
5987-E), DA Form 2404 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5988-E),
pencil, TM 9-2320-272-10, equipment records folder, rags,
lubricants, coolant, a suitable driver training area, an M939 series
cargo truck with BII, and a requirement to drive the truck; start the
vehicle, put the vehicle in motion, read gauges, upshift and
downshift the transmission, manipulate the controls, use correct
braking procedures, perform basic driving maneuvers to include
backing using ground guides, and shut off the engine.
STANDARD:
Drive the vehicle correctly and safely without accident or injury.
B. INTERMEDIATE TRAINING. None.
C. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS.
1. Training time: As scheduled.
2. Training location: Classroom, motor pool, and training area as scheduled.
3. Training type: Conference, demonstration, and practical exercise.
4. Students: Scheduled personnel.
5. Principal and assistant instructors required: One primary instructor for the conference,
one assistant instructor for the demonstration, and one assistant instructor for each two students for
the practical exercise.
6. Training aids and equipment: Television, VCR, TVT 55-16, TVT 20-1088, rags,
lubricants, coolant, and 40 traffic cones or empty POL drums. DD Form 1970 (or ULLS generated
DA Form 5987-E), DA Form 2404 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5988-E), pencil, TM 9-2320272-10, equipment records folder, and an M939 series cargo truck with BII for each two students.
7. References: AR 385-55, DA Pamphlet 738-750, FM 21-305, and TM 9-2320-272-10.
D. SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY.
1. Introduction:
a. Interest device.
4-40
TC 21-305-3
b. Tie-in.
c. Lesson objective (paragraph A).
d. Procedures:
(1) Explanation.
(2) Practical exercise.
(3) Summary.
2. Explanation and demonstration:
NOTE: An instructor will be in the cab sitting next to the driver, with nothing between the student
and instructor, whenever a student is driving the M939 series cargo truck.
a. Show TVT 55-16 and TVT 20-1088.
b. Place vehicle in motion:
(1) Perform before-operation PMCS.
WARNING
When raising the vehicle hood, ensure it is secured from falling. Do this by
securing the hood retaining bar to the bumper bracket with the safety pin.
Failure to do so may damage the vehicle, or cause injury or death to
personnel.
(2) Remove and stow wheel chocks.
(3) Check load, if present, for blocking and bracing and cargo tiedowns
for security.
(4) Adjust seat as needed.
(5) Adjust each rear view mirror so back of truck and view of road can be
seen.
(6) Adjust and fasten seat belt.
4-41
TC 21-305-3
WARNING
Ensure all personnel are clear of vehicle before engine start is attempted.
Operator must visually check to see that all areas of the truck are clear of
personnel before attempting to start the engine. Failure to do so could result in
serious injury or death to personnel.
(7) Start engine and allow it to warm up.
(8) Check all gauges and instruments. Ensure that they are registering
normal readings.
WARNING
Do not put the vehicle in motion until the low air pressure warning light goes out
and the alarm (buzzer) stops sounding. Air pressure gauges should indicate at
least 90 psi. If warnings continue beyond three minutes, and/or pressure gauges
do not reach 90 psi, turn the ignition switch and battery switch to OFF positions,
and notify unit maintenance. Failure to do this could result in injury or death.
(9) Turn on lights as appropriate .
CAUTION
Do not shift the transfer case shift lever from high range to low range, or low
range to high range, unless the transmission range selector is in N.
(10) With the transmission range selector in N, select the transfer case
driving range:
(a) Depress lockout switch and press transfer case shift lever
down to high range for normal driving conditions. (The transfer
case may be shifted to high range when the vehicle is stopped or
moving at any speed.)
(b) Depress lockout switch and lift transfer case shift lever up to
low range if vehicle is heavily loaded, facing a steep grade, and/or
operating off road. (The transfer case may be shifted to low range
when the vehicle is stopped or moving at speeds of 22 MPH or
less.)
4-42
TC 21-305-3
(11) Apply the service brake, and move the transmission range selector to
the appropriate range as shown in Table 4-1.
Table 4-1. Transmission driving range selection table
Maximum Operating Speeds w/Transfer
Case
Range
Condition
M939
Series
M939A1 and
M939A2 Series
Selection
In High
R (reverse)
Easy grades clear of traffic
with ground guide
N (neutral)
In Low
In High
In Low
5 MPH
-
5 MPH
-
-
-
-
-
1-5 (drive)
Good roads, grades, traffic
condition
*50 MPH
22 MPH
*50 MPH
26 MPH
1-4 (fourth)
Moderate grades, traffic
restricted speed limits
*43 MPH
17 MPH
*50 MPH
20 MPH
1-3 (third)
Moderate grades, heavy
traffic, restricted speed limits
*33 MPH
13 MPH
*38 MPH
16 MPH
1-2 (second)
Steep grades, heavy traffic,
rough terrain
*25 MPH
10 MPH
*29 MPH
12 MPH
1 (first)
Starting heavy loads, extreme
grades, rough terrain
*12 MPH
5 MPH
*15 MPH
6 MPH
* PRECAUTIONARY NOTE: The following information was extracted from GPM, TACOM
No. 96-4:
1. A large number of driving accidents have occurred while operating/driving the M939 series 5ton trucks. The cause of these accidents are commonly the result of the vehicle operators driving
too fast for the conditions and/or locking the wheels when attempting to stop the vehicles.
2. The air brakes of the M939 series truck are very sensitive when the trucks are lightly loaded,
empty, or when driving on wet/slippery pavement.
3. The operator must gradually apply the brakes when stopping the vehicle. “Overbraking” will
lockup the rear wheels. Locking the wheels may cause the engine to stall which leads to loss of
steering. Any of these situations can lead to: loss of vehicle control often resulting in collisons,
jackknifing, and/or rollovers.
4. For these reasons the maximum safe operating speeds for the M939 series truck is limited to:
highway and secondary roads -- 40 MPH, cross country roads - 35 MPH, sand and snow - 25
MPH, and icy conditions - 12 MPH.
5. A new GPM is expected to be released by TACOM during FY 97.
4-43
TC 21-305-3
(12) Release the parking brake by pushing forward to the floor.
(13) Release the service brake pedal and slowly press the accelerator
pedal until the vehicle reaches the desired speed.
(14) Accelerate, brake, and steer as required.
WARNING
Do not use hand throttle while driving. When brakes are applied, the hand
throttle does not automatically disengage. Using the hand throttle as a cruise
control device could result in injury or death.
CAUTION
Do not hold the steering wheel at the full left or right position for longer than 10
seconds. Power steering oil overheating and pump damage can result.
(15) Manually downshift the transmission range selector to match driving
conditions.
c. Stop the truck.
(1) Release the accelerator pedal.
(2) Depress the brake pedal.
WARNING
Apply brakes gradually when slowing or stopping and pump brakes gradually
when slowing or stopping the vehicle on ice, snow, or wet pavement. A panic
stop will cause the vehicle wheels to lock and the engine to stall. Power steering
will be lost. Failure to apply brakes gradually can result in injury or death.
WARNING
Rapid operation repeatedly of service brakes will consume compressed air supply
and cause automatic spring brake application. Failure to follow proper service
brake operating procedures may cause serious injury or death to personnel.
4-44
TC 21-305-3
(3) As the vehicle begins to reduce speed, decrease brake pedal pressure.
(4) Stop smoothly by releasing the brake pedal pressure gradually as the
stopping rate increases.
(5) After stopping, apply the brake just enough to keep the truck stopped.
d. Backing the truck. Since the driver cannot see directly behind his vehicle,
backing is always a dangerous maneuver. Common sense therefore dictates that
backing be avoided whenever possible. For example, if the vehicle must be
parked, the driver parks so that he will be able to pull forward when leaving. Even
though planning ahead can reduce the need to back, almost everyone who drives
will have to back on occasion. These four simple rules will help in backing safely:
(1) Inspect your intended path.
(2) Back and turn toward the driver’s side.
(3) Use four-way flashers and horn.
(4) Use ground guide(s).
WARNING
Do not back up without a ground guide. Failure to do this may result in damage to
vehicle, injury, or death.
WARNING
When backing or going forward, ground guides should never stand directly in the
vehicle’s path. Keep 10 yards between the vehicle and ground guides at the front
or rear and at the corners of the vehicle (never directly behind the vehicle).
Ground guides must not position themselves between the vehicle being guided and
another object where an inadvertent engine surge or momentary loss of vehicle
control could cause injury. The vehicle driver will immediately stop the vehicle if
he loses sight of ground guides or notes that the guide is dangerously positioned
between the vehicle and another object. In such cases, the vehicle driver will
secure his vehicle, dismount, and make an on-the-spot correction before
commencing operations.
CAUTION
Do not back up with transfer case shift lever in low range.
4-45
TC 21-305-3
e. Park the truck and shut down the engine.
(1) Align the front tires in a straight ahead position.
(2) Apply parking brake by pulling up on parking brake lever.
(3) Move the transmission selector lever to N.
(4) Chock wheels (for proper placement see Figure 4-12). The rear
suspension of the M939 series cargo truck is designed to ride over
obstacles and can easily roll or be pushed over the chock blocks placed at
the intermediate or rear wheels. The front axle suspension on these
vehicles is much firmer, therefore the rolling resistance is greatly
increased.
CHOCKS
CHOCKS
VEHICLE
PARKED
UPHILL
VEHICLE
PARKED
DOWNHILL
CHOCKS
VEHICLE
PARKED
ON
LEVEL
SURFACE
Figure 4-12. Correct chock block placement
(5) Let engine idle for five minutes if engine coolant temperature gauge
reads above 195° F.
(6) Turn the vehicle light switch, ignition switch, and battery switch to
off. Hold the engine stop switch all the way down until the engine shuts
down.
CAUTION
Pull out emergency engine stop control if engine continues to run after ignition and
battery switches are in the off position. Do not attempt to restart the
M939/M939A1 series vehicle engine until unit maintenance has reset fuel cutoff
valve.
4-46
TC 21-305-3
(7) Perform after-operation PMCS.
WARNING
When raising the vehicle hood, ensure it is secured from falling. Do this by
securing the hood retaining bar to the bumper bracket with the safety pin. Failure
to do so may damage the vehicle, or cause injury or death to personnel.
f. Give safety briefing to include safety restrictions and ground guide precautions
for backing the truck.
g. Demonstrate hand and arm signals required for this exercise.
h. Demonstrate driving within the training area.
3. Practical exercise:
a. Assign students to vehicles and issue TM 9-2320-272-10, pencil, DD Form
1970 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5987-E), DA Form 2404 (or ULLS generated
DA Form 5988-E), and equipment records folder. Tell students where rags,
lubricants, and coolant are located.
b. Students perform before-operation PMCS.
c. Students practice maneuvering the truck through the courses laid out in the
training area(s). Sample training areas are in Chapter 6 (Figures 6-1 through 6-7).
During-operation PMCS is also conducted at this time.
NOTE: As each student practices driving, an assistant instructor rides in the seat next to the driver.
The assistant instructor explains driving techniques, ensures the driver is aware of driving situations,
and conducts AARs with each driver. Now is the time to pass on valuable experience and correct
any bad driving habits.
d. Students perform after-operation PMCS. Ensure all operator entries required
on DD Form 1970 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5987-E) and DA Form 2404 (or
ULLS generated DA Form 5988-E) are accurate, complete, and legible.
4. Evaluate: Check each student’s performance of PMCS and driving.
5. Summary:
a. Recap main points.
b. Allow for questions.
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TC 21-305-3
c. Clarify questions.
d. Give closing statement.
6. Retraining: Retrain NO-GOs and slow learners. This can be accomplished using
TVT 55-16. Students perform driving tasks daily and are tested on the EOCCT.
E. SAFETY RESTRICTIONS.
1. Ensure that all chock blocks are in place when vehicles are parked or maintenance is to
be performed.
2. Ensure the transmission is in N, the parking brake is set, and the engine is shut off before
leaving the vehicle, when the vehicle is parked, or maintenance is being performed.
3. Ensure all personnel remove all wristwatches, rings, bracelets, ID tags, neck chains, and
any other jewelry before working in or around the vehicle.
4. Ensure all personnel pay particular attention to the cautions and warnings listed in the
operator’s manual.
5. Ensure the driver and ground guides know and understand the hand and arm signals,
especially the signal to stop, as outlined in FM 21-305.
6. Ensure ground guide(s) are used when backing.
7. Ensure all backing is conducted at a speed of 5 MPH or less.
8. Hearing protection is required for all personnel working in and around this vehicle while
the engine is running.
9. Inspect all seat belts for damage and ensure all occupants wear seat belts while the
vehicle is in operation.
10. Ensure personnel maintain at least three points of contact when mounting or
dismounting the vehicle (to include performing PMCS).
11. Ensure all personnel are clear of vehicle before engine start is attempted. Operator
must visually check to see that all areas of the truck are clear of personnel before attempting to start
the engine. Failure to do so could result in serious injury or death to personnel.
12. Extreme care should be taken when removing the surge tank filler cap if the temperature
gauge reads above 175° F. Steam or hot coolant under pressure will cause injury such as serious
burns.
13. The exhaust pipe and muffler can become very hot during vehicle operation. Be careful
not to touch these parts with bare hands or allow the body to come in contact with the exhaust pipe
or muffler. Exhaust system parts can become hot enough to cause serious burns.
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14. Reemphasize the removal of all jewelry such as rings, ID tags, or bracelets before
working around batteries. Be careful not to short out battery terminals. If jewelry or tools contact
the battery terminal, a direct short may occur resulting in instant heating, damage to equipment, and
injury to personnel. Do not smoke or use open flame near batteries. Batteries may explode from a
spark. Battery acid is harmful to skin and eyes.
15. Fuel is very flammable and can explode easily. To avoid serious injury or death, keep
fuel away from open fire and keep a fire extinguisher within easy reach when working with fuel. Do
not work on the fuel system when the engine is hot. Fuel can be ignited by the hot engine. When
working with fuel, post signs that read: “NO SMOKING WITHIN 50 FEET OF VEHICLE”.
16. Alcohol used in alcohol evaporator is flammable, poisonous, and explosive. Do not
smoke when adding fluid and do not drink fluid. Failure to do this will result in injury or death.
17. Do not use hand throttle while driving. When brakes are applied, the hand throttle does
not automatically disengage. Using the hand throttle as a cruise control device will result in injury or
death.
18. Apply brakes gradually when slowing or stopping and pump brakes gradually when
slowing or stopping the vehicle on ice, snow, or wet pavement. A panic stop will cause the vehicle
wheels to lock and the engine to stall. Power steering will be lost. Failure to apply brakes gradually
can result in injury or death.
19. Rapid operation repeatedly of service brakes will consume compressed air supply and
cause automatic spring brake application. Failure to follow proper service brake operating
procedures may cause serious injury or death to personnel.
20. Never use the parking brake for normal braking. The wheels will lock up causing a
severe skid. A skidding vehicle could result in serious injury or death.
21. Excessive use of the service brake to control downhill speed will result in the loss of
braking power because of heat buildup.
22. Do not put the vehicle in motion until the low air pressure warning light goes out and
the alarm (buzzer) stops sounding. Air pressure gauges should indicate at least 90 psi. If warnings
continue beyond three minutes, and/or pressure gauges do not reach 90 psi, turn the ignition switch
and battery switch to OFF positions, and notify unit maintenance. Failure to do this will result in
injury or death.
23. When raising the vehicle hood, ensure it is secured from falling. Do this by securing the
hood retaining bar to the bumper bracket with the safety pin. Failure to do so may damage the
vehicle, or cause injury or death to personnel.
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F. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS.
1. Ensure that all hazardous materials and hazardous wastes are stored and labeled
properly.
2. Ensure that spill kits are within reach when changing or adding vehicle fluids or in the
case of vehicle failures. Spill kits should enable the soldiers to contain a spill on land or in water.
3. Ensure that drip pans remain under parked vehicles.
4. Ensure that containers are the proper size and type for draining vehicle fluids.
G. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND INFORMATION. Recommended instructional time is 8
hours (.5 conference, .5 demonstration, and 7.0 practical exercise, including 1.0 PMCS).
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LESSON TITLE:
DRIVE AN M939 SERIES CARGO TRUCK ON THE ROAD
TASK NUMBER:
551-721-1366 (Drive Vehicle with Automatic Transmission)
A. TRAINING OBJECTIVE.
TASK:
Drive an M939 series cargo truck (empty, partially loaded [2 to 3
tons], and fully loaded) on the road (primary and secondary).
CONDITIONS:
Given instruction, DD Form 1970 (or ULLS generated DA Form
5987-E), DA Form 2404 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5988-E),
pencil, TM 9-2320-272-10, equipment records folder, rags,
lubricants, coolant, designated driving route (improved surfaced
and secondary roads), an M939 series cargo truck with BII, vehicle
loads, and a requirement to drive a designated route (to include
making right and left turns, making gradual steering corrections,
signal intentions in advance, pass oncoming vehicles, maintain
vehicle interval, obey highway warning and regulatory signs,
operate the lights as required, monitor gauges and indicator lights,
upshift/downshift the transmission through all gear ranges,
manipulate the controls, and perform basic driving maneuvers to
include downhill braking and backing using ground guides).
STANDARD:
Operate the vehicle correctly and safely without accident or injury.
B. INTERMEDIATE TRAINING. None.
C. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS.
1. Training time: As scheduled.
2. Training location: Motor pool and driver training route (built up and rural areas) as
scheduled.
3. Training type: Conference and practical exercise.
4. Students: Scheduled personnel.
5. Principal and assistant instructors required: One primary instructor for the conference
and one assistant instructor for each two students for the practical exercise.
6. Training aids and equipment: Hearing protection, rags, lubricants, coolant, DD Form
1970 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5987-E), DA Form 2404 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5988E), pencil, TM 9-2320-272-10, equipment records folder, an M939 series cargo truck with BII for
each two students, and vehicle loads.
7. References: AR 385-55, DA Pamphlet 738-750, FM 21-305, and TM 9-2320-272-10.
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D. SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY.
1. Introduction:
a. Interest device.
b. Tie-in.
c. Lesson objective (paragraph A).
d. Procedures:
(1) Explanation.
(2) Practical exercise.
(3) Summary.
2. Explanation and demonstration:
NOTE: An instructor will be in the cab sitting next to the driver, with nothing between the student
and instructor, whenever a student is driving the M939 series cargo truck.
NOTE: The students will be required to drive the vehicle fully loaded, partially loaded, and empty.
If three vehicles are used, the following arrangement will allow the students to rotate in a round robin
fashion:
• One vehicle should be loaded (load should be as close to maximum weight as
possible [-5 tons]).
• A second vehicle should be partially loaded (2 to 3 tons).
• The third vehicle should be empty.
NOTE: To prevent loss of cargo or shifting en route, check cargo for blocking/bracing and cargo
tiedowns for security before operation and repeatedly during operation.
a. Explain braking precautions. Most likely, this is the first exposure to air brake
equipped vehicles for these students. They really need to understand the difference
between air brakes and hydraulic brakes. The M939 family carries with it a known
risk: They have conventional air-brake systems, and the air brakes are very
sensitive. Air brakes are unique in that braking force is proportional to pedal travel,
but the driver does not experience resistance from the brake pedal. Air brakes do
not “feel” like hydraulic brakes. The untrained driver, or even the cross-trained one,
may respond to this lack of resistance by applying too much force to the brake
pedal. This causes the brakes to lock up and the vehicle to become uncontrollable.
All drivers of these trucks must be thoroughly trained in operating tactical trucks
with air brakes. A warning is printed in the technical manual. This warning can
also be considered a control: Apply brakes gradually when stopping. Panic stops
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will cause vehicle wheels to lock and the engine to stall. Power steering will be lost.
Failure to apply brakes gradually may result in injury or death.
WARNING
Apply brakes gradually when slowing or stopping and pump brakes gradually
when slowing or stopping the vehicle on ice, snow, or wet pavement. A panic stop
will cause the vehicle wheels to lock and the engine to stall. Power steering will be
lost. Failure to apply brakes gradually can result in injury or death.
WARNING
Rapid operation repeatedly of service brakes will consume compressed air supply
and cause automatic spring brake application. Failure to follow proper service
brake operating procedures may cause serious injury or death to personnel.
WARNING
Never use the parking brake for normal braking. The wheels will lock up causing
a severe skid. A skidding vehicle could result in serious injury or death.
b. Explain procedures for hill climbing.
(1) The engine works hardest when moving a loaded vehicle up a grade.
Proper use of gear ranges will shorten the time on hills.
(2) Unless the hill is extreme, begin in gear range 1-5 (drive), and depress
the accelerator pedal all the way downward. Keep it there as the vehicle
moves up the grade. Remain in this gear range and allow the transmission
to upshift and downshift automatically. If the transmission is constantly
changing gears, then downshift one selection at a time, such as 1-4, then
1-3.
(3) As you progress up the hill count the number of downshifts.
NOTE: The automatic transmission is equipped with a lockup clutch which automatically engages
after the load is rolling and torque demand is low. This provides increased fuel economy at highway
cruising speeds. It automatically releases at lower vehicle speeds. Lockup engagement, like range
shifts, may be felt under some conditions and you may hear a slight change in engine sound as rpm
drop. A little driving experience will enable you to tell the difference between gear range changes
and lockup engagement or disengagement.
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(4) When you reach the top of the hill, manually downshift the transmission
to the gear that the transmission is in (this was the reason for counting the
number of downshifts). This is normally the gear the truck should be in to
descend the other side of the hill.
CAUTION
Do not accelerate at full power when downshifting or upshifting to and from
forward driving range 1 (first).
CAUTION
Do not allow the M939 series vehicles to exceed 5 MPH or M939A1/A2 series
vehicles to exceed 6 MPH when transfer case is in low and the transmission is in
1 (first). Failure to do so will result in damage to internal engine components.
(5) For starting on maximum grades with maximum load (such as vehicle
fully loaded), stop the vehicle and shift the transmission to N and the
transfer to low. Start in transmission gear range 1 or 1-2, depress the
accelerator pedal to the floor, and manually upshift the transmission
selector lever one range at a time, shifting when engine speed approaches
2,000 rpm.
CAUTION
Do not allow engine speed to exceed 2,100 rpm in any transmission gear ratio.
c. Explain procedures for downhill driving.
(1) Select a “safe” speed that is not too fast for the following:
•
•
•
•
•
Total weight of the vehicle and cargo.
Length of the grade.
Steepness of the grade.
Road conditions.
Weather.
(2) Manually downshift the transmission into a lower gear before starting
downgrade. (The general rule is to use the same gear to descend the grade
that would be needed to climb the grade.)
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TC 21-305-3
(3) Check brakes before starting the downgrade.
(4) Pay attention to signs indicating the location of escape ramps.
CAUTION
Do not allow engine speed to exceed 2,100 rpm in any transmission gear ratio.
(5) When vehicle speed reaches the maximum “safe” speed, apply the
brakes just hard enough to feel a definite slowdown.
(6) When the vehicle speed has been reduced to approximately 5 MPH
below the “safe” speed, release the brakes. (This brake application should
last for about 3 seconds.)
NOTE: New drivers generally have two problems with air brake systems on down grades:
• They try to maintain a constant speed down hill by dragging the
brakes. This glazes the brakes and they become completely
ineffective.
• They drain the air system by continually pumping the brakes.
(7) When vehicle speed has increased to the “safe” speed, repeat steps
(5) and (6).
(8) If braking power diminishes, pull off to the side of the road and allow
the brakes to cool.
CAUTION
Excessive use of the service brake to control downhill speed will result in the loss
of braking power because of heat buildup.
WARNING
Rapid operation repeatedly of service brakes will consume compressed air supply
and cause automatic spring brake application. Failure to follow proper service
brake operating procedures may cause serious injury or death to personnel.
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d. Explain following distances.
(1) Maintain one second for each ten feet of vehicle length (40 MPH and
less). (The M923A2 is 40.8 feet long [other models vary], so at speeds of
up to 40 MPH, allow four seconds following distance.)
(2) Increase by one second for speeds over 40 MPH. At 45 MPH, with the
M923A2, allow five seconds following distance.
(3) Increase by several seconds for rain, fog, and winter conditions.
e. Explain driving in adverse weather conditions. Two major hazards associated in
driving during adverse weather conditions are reduced visibility and reduced
traction.
(1) Countermeasures for driving during periods of reduced visibility:
(a) Travel at reduced speeds and be prepared to meet sudden
changes in road conditions.
(b) Do not use high beams. Switch to low beams if high beams are
on.
(c) Look to the right if blinded by oncoming vehicles.
(d) Do not overrun the headlights and stay twice the normal
distance from the vehicle ahead.
(e) Give turn signals sooner.
(f) Apply brakes sooner and press brake pedal lightly to give early
warning that vehicle will slow or stop.
(g) Use defrosters and wipers to help keep the windshield clear.
(h) Keep windshield, windows, mirrors, headlights, brake lights,
reflectors, and area around air cleaner intake free of snow and ice.
Snow and ice may melt, refreeze, and cause restriction in the air
intake system.
(i) Watch for pedestrians and vehicles pulled over to the side of the
road.
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(j) Use caution when weather reduces visibility to near zero. This
is particularly true at night, in heavy snow, in a downpour of rain,
or dense fog. When this happens, it is unsafe to drive.
• Exit the highway, stop, and wait until visibility improves
before continuing.
• Do not stop on the shoulder with flashers on. Stopping on
shoulders may induce a rear end collision/chain reaction.
(2) Reduced traction countermeasures:
CAUTION
Attempting operation of the M939 series cargo truck with only one drive wheel
equipped with tire chain may result in damage to tire and/or power train.
(a) Install tire chains, if needed, for snow or ice. Use tire chains on
the intermediate axle tires only. For M939 series vehicles, place
chains on outside tires. Remove as soon as mission allows. For
M939A2 series vehicles, select the sand setting on the CTIS
selector panel. (Tire chains are authorized for use on the M939A2
series vehicles, however chains could cause damage to CTIS
components.)
WARNING
Apply brakes gradually when slowing or stopping and pump brakes gradually
when slowing or stopping the vehicle on ice, snow, or wet pavement. A panic stop
will cause the vehicle wheels to lock and the engine to stall. Power steering will be
lost. Failure to apply brakes gradually can result in injury or death.
WARNING
Rapid operation repeatedly of service brakes will consume compressed air supply
and cause automatic spring brake application. Failure to follow proper service
brake operating procedures may cause serious injury or death to personnel.
(b) Pump the brakes gradually when stopping the vehicle on snow
and ice (pumping air brake vehicles may be dangerous, do not
pump the brakes more than three to four times and allow the air
pressure to build back up before reapplying the brakes). Sudden
braking will cause wheels to lock and vehicle to slide out of control.
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TC 21-305-3
(c) Place the transmission shift lever and the transfer case shift
lever in the appropriate driving range to descend or climb steep
hills.
(d) Place the vehicle in motion slowly to prevent wheels from
spinning.
(e) Press the accelerator pedal slowly when changing speed.
(f) Keep the accelerator pedal steady after vehicle reaches the
desired speed.
(g) Turn the vehicle slowly and make gradual steering adjustments
when on slippery surfaces.
(h) Steer the vehicle away from ruts and large snow banks.
(i) Steer the vehicle straight up and down hills if possible.
(j) Check for black ice. Black ice is clear and cannot be seen
because the road surface is visible through the ice. The ice
becomes invisible to the driver. Black ice usually occurs on
bridges, beneath underpasses, in dips in the road, in shaded areas,
and on lower sides of banked curves.
• When driving in rain or near freezing temperatures, feel for
ice along the front of a mirror. If ice is there it may be on
the road surface as well.
• When in doubt, test surface traction by first checking to see
that nothing is following your vehicle, then slow down and
apply the brakes gently to see if the vehicle skids.
(k) Sudden changes in speed or direction result from over
acceleration, over braking, and over steering. These changes result
in skidding and jackknifing. Use the following procedures if the
vehicle’s rear skids:
• Let up on the accelerator pedal.
• Steer in the same direction in which the rear of the vehicle
is skidding.
• When vehicle is under control, press the brake pedal
lightly.
• Steer vehicle on a straight course and slowly press the
accelerator pedal.
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(l) Do the following if the vehicle starts to slide while climbing a
hill:
• Let up on the accelerator pedal.
• Steer the vehicle in the direction of the slide until the
vehicle stops sliding.
• Slowly press the accelerator pedal and steer the vehicle on
a straight course.
(m) The best advice in regard to a stuck vehicle is to avoid getting
stuck. However, do the following if the vehicle does get stuck:
• Shovel clear path ahead of each wheel. Put boards, brush,
sand, gravel, or similar material in cleared paths to get
better traction.
• If the vehicle is equipped with CTIS (M939A2 series),
lower the tire pressure to the emergency setting.
• If additional power is needed to extract vehicle when
mired in snow, place transmission in 1 (first gear range)
and transfer case in low range. Do not rock the vehicle or
spin the wheels.
• If vehicle remains stuck, use wrecker or another vehicle
equipped with winch to tow or winch the stuck vehicle.
• If vehicle is equipped with a self recovery winch, it may
be used to help free the vehicle.
(n) Drive slowly and test brakes after driving through slush or
water. If brakes slip do the following:
• Continue to drive slowly.
• Apply moderate pressure on brake pedal to cause slight
brake drag.
• When brakes are dry and they no longer slip and uneven
braking ceases, let up on the brake pedal.
• Resume normal driving speed.
(o) When driving during hot weather, adjust your driving for
bleeding tar conditions on the roadway. Do the following to drive
under these conditions:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Frequently scan the roadway ahead.
Identify a black tar area ahead.
Maintain steady speed.
Make no sudden steering maneuvers.
Make no sudden braking maneuvers.
If braking is required, ensure all wheels are on a similar
surface.
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TC 21-305-3
f. Explain driving on secondary roads.
(1) When driving CTIS equipped vehicles, select the X-C setting on the
CTIS selector panel. Speed in this mode is limited to 35 MPH. If this
speed is exceeded for more than two minutes, CTIS will automatically
inflate the tires to the highway setting. At the highway setting, this smaller
footprint can cause traction problems and the driver may lose control of the
vehicle.
(2) Do not drive in dust clouds created by other vehicles. Maintain a
longer following distance when traveling on dusty roads. Establish
procedures to warn approaching vehicles (driving in dust and other
restricted visibility conditions) of vehicles that are stopped or broken down.
(3) Drive slowly on secondary roads. All models of the M939 series trucks
have been known to lose traction on secondary roads, especially when the
vehicles are empty or lightly loaded. This is because the rear wheels tend to
bounce on the rough road.
(4) Travel on the solid part of the roadway and stay away from the edge of
soft shouldered roads. Edges of trails and secondary roads have been
known to give way, causing the vehicle to roll on its side.
g. Give safety briefing to include safety restrictions and ground guide precautions
for backing the truck.
3. Practical exercise:
a. Assign students to vehicles and issue TM 9-2320-272-10, pencil, DD Form 1970
(or ULLS generated DA Form 5987-E), DA Form 2404 (or ULLS generated DA
Form 5988-E), and equipment records folder. Tell students where rags, lubricants,
and coolant are located.
b. Students perform before-operation PMCS.
c. Students practice driving the truck on the road (primary and secondary). Duringoperation PMCS is also conducted at this time.
NOTE: As each student practices driving, an assistant instructor rides in the seat next to the driver.
The assistant instructor explains driving techniques, ensures the driver is aware of driving situations,
and conducts AARs with each driver. Now is the time to pass on valuable experience and correct
any bad driving habits.
d. Students perform after-operation PMCS. Ensure all operator entries required on
DD Form 1970 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5987-E) and DA Form 2404 (or
ULLS generated DA Form 5988-E) are accurate, complete, and legible.
4. Evaluate: Check each student’s performance of PMCS and driving.
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5. Summary:
a. Recap main points.
b. Allow for questions.
c. Clarify questions.
d. Give closing statement.
6. Retraining: Retrain NO-GOs and slow learners. Students perform driving tasks daily
and are tested on the EOCCT.
E. SAFETY RESTRICTIONS.
1. Ensure that all chock blocks are in place when vehicles are parked or maintenance is to
be performed.
2. Ensure the transmission is in N, the parking brake is set, and the engine is shut off before
leaving the vehicle, when the vehicle is parked, or maintenance is being performed.
3. Ensure all personnel remove all wristwatches, rings, bracelets, ID tags, neck chains, and
any other jewelry before working in or around the vehicle.
4. Ensure all personnel pay particular attention to the cautions and warnings listed in the
operator’s manual.
5. Ensure the driver and ground guides know and understand the hand and arm signals,
especially the signal to stop, as outlined in FM 21-305.
6. Ensure ground guide(s) are used when backing.
7. Ensure all backing is conducted at a speed of 5 MPH or less.
8. Hearing protection is required for all personnel working in and around this vehicle while
the engine is running.
9. Inspect all seat belts for damage and ensure all occupants wear seat belts while the
vehicle is in operation.
10. Ensure personnel maintain at least three points of contact when mounting or
dismounting the vehicle (to include performing PMCS).
11. Ensure all personnel are clear of vehicle before engine start is attempted. Operator
must visually check to see that all areas of the truck are clear of personnel before attempting to start
the engine. Failure to do so could result in serious injury or death to personnel.
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12. Extreme care should be taken when removing the surge tank filler cap if the temperature
gauge reads above 175° F. Steam or hot coolant under pressure will cause injury such as serious
burns.
13. The exhaust pipe and muffler can become very hot during vehicle operation. Be careful
not to touch these parts with bare hands or allow the body to come in contact with the exhaust pipe
or muffler. Exhaust system parts can become hot enough to cause serious burns.
14. Reemphasize the removal of all jewelry such as rings, ID tags, or bracelets before
working around batteries. Be careful not to short out battery terminals. If jewelry or tools contact
the battery terminal, a direct short may occur resulting in instant heating, damage to equipment, and
injury to personnel. Do not smoke or use open flame near batteries. Batteries may explode from a
spark. Battery acid is harmful to skin and eyes.
15. Fuel is very flammable and can explode easily. To avoid serious injury or death, keep
fuel away from open fire and keep a fire extinguisher within easy reach when working with fuel. Do
not work on the fuel system when the engine is hot. Fuel can be ignited by the hot engine. When
working with fuel, post signs that read: “NO SMOKING WITHIN 50 FEET OF VEHICLE”.
16. Alcohol used in alcohol evaporator is flammable, poisonous, and explosive. Do not
smoke when adding fluid and do not drink fluid. Failure to do this will result in injury or death.
17. Do not use hand throttle while driving. When brakes are applied, the hand throttle does
not automatically disengage. Using the hand throttle as a cruise control device will result in injury or
death.
18. Apply brakes gradually when slowing or stopping and pump brakes gradually when
slowing or stopping the vehicle on ice, snow, or wet pavement. A panic stop will cause the vehicle
wheels to lock and the engine to stall. Power steering will be lost. Failure to apply brakes gradually
can result in injury or death.
19. Rapid operation repeatedly of service brakes will consume compressed air supply and
cause automatic spring brake application. Failure to follow proper service brake operating
procedures may cause serious injury or death to personnel.
20. Never use the parking brake for normal braking. The wheels will lock up causing a
severe skid. A skidding vehicle could result in serious injury or death.
21. Excessive use of the service brake to control downhill speed will result in the loss of
braking power because of heat buildup.
22. Do not put the vehicle in motion until the low air pressure warning light goes out and
the alarm (buzzer) stops sounding. Air pressure gauges should indicate at least 90 psi. If warnings
continue beyond three minutes, and/or pressure gauges do not reach 90 psi, turn the ignition switch
and battery switch to OFF positions, and notify unit maintenance. Failure to do this will result in
injury or death.
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23. When raising the vehicle hood, ensure it is secured from falling. Do this by securing the
hood retaining bar to the bumper bracket with the safety pin. Failure to do so may damage the
vehicle or cause injury or death to personnel.
24. Ensure a safe following distance and speed are maintained when driving on the
designated route (as determined by the local command).
F. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS.
1. Ensure that all hazardous materials and hazardous wastes are stored and labeled
properly.
2. Ensure that spill kits are within reach when changing or adding vehicle fluids or in the
case of vehicle failures. Spill kits should enable the soldiers to contain a spill on land or in water.
3. Ensure that drip pans remain under parked vehicles.
4. Ensure that containers are the proper size and type for draining vehicle fluids.
G. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND INFORMATION. Recommended instructional time is
16 hours (1.0 conference and 15.0 practical exercise, including 3.0 PMCS).
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LESSON TITLE:
DRIVE AN M939 SERIES CARGO TRUCK OFF ROAD
TASK NUMBER:
551-721-1360 (Drive Cargo Vehicle on Side Roads and Unimproved
Roads)
A. TRAINING OBJECTIVE.
TASK:
Drive an M939 series cargo truck (empty, partially loaded [2 to 3
tons], and fully loaded) off road.
CONDITIONS:
Given instruction, DD Form 1970 (or ULLS generated DA Form
5987-E), DA Form 2404 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5988-E),
pencil, TM 9-2320-272-10, equipment records folder, rags,
lubricants, coolant, designated driving route (improved surfaced
and secondary roads), an M939 series cargo truck with BII, vehicle
loads, and a requirement to operate the vehicle off road (to include
streams, ravines, gullies, ditches, wooded areas, rocky terrain,
swamps, and mud).
STANDARD:
Operate the vehicle safely at reduced speeds and over rough terrain
without injury to personnel or damage to the vehicle.
B. INTERMEDIATE TRAINING. None.
C. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS.
1. Training time: As scheduled.
2. Training location: Motor pool and off road driver training area as scheduled. A
classroom is required if optional videotape is shown.
3. Training type: Conference and practical exercise.
4. Students: Scheduled personnel.
5. Principal and assistant instructors required: One primary instructor for the conference
and one assistant instructor for each two students for the practical exercise.
6. Training aids and equipment: Hearing protection, rags, lubricants, coolant, DD Form
1970 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5987-E), DA Form 2404 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5988E), pencil, TM 9-2320-272-10, equipment records folder, an M939 series cargo truck with BII for
each two students, and vehicle loads. Television, VCR, and TVT 55-16 are required if the videotape
is reshown to the students.
7. References: AR 385-55, DA Pamphlet 738-750, FM 21-305, and TM 9-2320-272-10.
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TC 21-305-3
D. SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY.
1. Introduction:
a. Interest device.
b. Tie-in.
c. Lesson objective (paragraph A).
d. Procedures:
(1) Explanation.
(2) Practical exercise.
(3) Summary.
2. Explanation and demonstration:
NOTE: An instructor will be in the cab sitting next to the driver, with nothing between the student
and instructor, whenever a student is driving the M939 series cargo truck.
NOTE: The students will be required to drive the vehicle fully loaded, partially loaded, and empty.
If three vehicles are used, the following arrangement will allow the students to rotate in a round robin
fashion:
• One vehicle should be loaded (load should be as close to maximum weight as
possible [-5 tons]).
• A second vehicle should be partially loaded (2 to 3 tons).
• The third vehicle should be empty.
NOTE: To prevent loss of cargo or shifting en route, check cargo for blocking/bracing and cargo
tiedowns for security before operation and repeatedly during operation.
a. As an option, show TVT 55-16, to reinforce driving tasks. This step may be
deleted because the students should have viewed this TVT in earlier lessons.
b. General off road driving procedures:
(1) For starting with heavy loads, extreme grades, and in rough terrain,
with the transfer case shift lever in high, and the transmission selector lever
in 1 (first), limit speed to 12 MPH (15 MPH for the M939A1 and A2
models). If the transfer case shift lever is in low and the transmission
selector lever is in 1 (first), limit speed to 5 MPH (6 MPH for the M939A1
and A2 models).
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TC 21-305-3
(2) For steep grades, heavy traffic, and rough terrain, with the transfer case
shift lever in high and the transmission selector lever in 1-2 (second), limit
speed to 25 MPH (29 MPH for the M939A1 and A2 models). If the
transfer case shift lever is in low and the transmission selector lever is in
1-2 (second), limit speed to 10 MPH (12 MPH for the M939A1 and A2
models).
(3) When operating M939A2 series vehicles cross country, pre-select the
X-C mode on the CTIS selector panel. When the mission requires
maximum traction in sand, snow, or mud, select sand on the selector panel.
When the mission requires maximum traction in extremely adverse terrain,
select emergency on the selector panel.
(4) When operating vehicle without CTIS (M939 and A1 series vehicles)
off the road in heavy rain, deflate tires to 25 psi. Inflate tires immediately
to the correct pressure when operation changes to paved roads.
c. Shallow ditches require the following maneuvers:
(1) Stop the vehicle.
(2) Check the terrain for obstacles.
(3) Place the transfer case shift lever in high.
(4) Engage front wheel drive lock-in switch.
(5) Place the transmission shift lever in 1 or 1-2.
(6) Steer the vehicle toward the ditch so that one wheel on the axle will
leave the ditch as the other wheel on the same axle enters it.
d. Deep ditches require the following driving techniques:
(1) Stop the vehicle.
(2) Check the terrain for obstacles.
(3) Cut away sides of the ditch, if necessary.
(4) Place the transfer case shift lever in low (low range automatically
engages 6X6 drive).
(5) Place the transmission shift lever in 1 or 1-2.
(6) Approach the ditch at an angle.
(7) Accelerate the vehicle enough to keep it rolling as it goes up the other
side.
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TC 21-305-3
e. Gullies and ravines require the following maneuvers:
(1) Stop the vehicle.
(2) Check the terrain for obstacles.
(3) Place the transfer case shift lever in low (low range automatically
engages 6X6 drive).
(4) Place the transmission shift lever in 1 or 1-2.
(5) Ease the front wheels over the edge into the ravine.
(6) Steer a straight course so that both front wheels strike the bottom at the
same time.
(7) Accelerate enough so that the vehicle can climb up the opposite bank.
f. Wooded area driving techniques include the following:
(1) Stop the vehicle.
(2) Check the terrain for obstacles.
(3) Remove tarps and bows as necessary.
(4) Place the transfer case shift lever in high.
(5) If needed, engage front wheel drive lock-in switch.
(6) Place the transmission shift lever in 1 or 1-2.
(7) Maneuver around obstacles.
(8) Center larger saplings on the vehicle bumper.
g. Rocky terrain requires the following driving techniques:
(1) Stop the vehicle. CTIS should be set to the X-C mode. Any lower tire
pressure can cause breaks in the tires as large rocks force the tire to contact
the rim.
(2) Check the terrain for obstacles.
(3) Drive slowly choosing route while advancing. Drivers should achieve a
“rolling” effect as they cross large rocks by braking as the vehicle’s wheels
ride over a rock so the axle settles relatively gently on the far side.
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TC 21-305-3
(4) Remove stones as often as possible from between dual tires (M939
series vehicles only).
h. Fording shallow streams (30 inches or less) calls for these handling techniques:
(1) Stop the vehicle.
(2) Check the terrain for obstacles.
(3) Check the stream for depth and firm support.
(4) Tighten fuel tank cap.
(5) Secure all loose objects on vehicle.
(6) Make sure battery caps are all installed and tight. Make sure
transmission dipstick is secured.
(7) Start engine. Make sure engine is running properly.
(8) Pull the transfer case shift lever up to low range and place the
transmission selector lever in 1 (first).
WARNING
Do not attempt to cross water deeper than 30 inches. Limit vehicle speed while
fording to 3 or 4 MPH. Failure to do this could result in damage to the vehicle or
injury or death to personnel.
(9) Enter water slowly at a gentle sloping area.
(10) Maintain a constant vehicle speed while fording, and exit water in an
area with a gentle slope. Unless absolutely necessary, do not stop while in
the water.
(11) If vehicle accidentally enters water deeper than 30 inches, do the
following:
•
•
•
•
4-68
Apply brake pedal and hold to stop vehicle.
Shift transmission to N and transfer case to high range.
Move the transmission shift lever to R.
Let up on the brake pedal and slowly back vehicle out of the
water.
TC 21-305-3
WARNING
Do not rely on service brakes until they dry out. Keep applying brakes until
uneven braking ceases. Failure to do this could result in injury or death.
(12) After leaving the water, apply the brake pedal lightly and hold while
driving slowly to dry out brake linings.
(13) When clear of the fording area, stop the vehicle, apply and release the
parking brakes several times to remove water from brake components.
(14) Wash all parts of vehicle with fresh water as soon as possible and
have it serviced by organizational maintenance.
i. Mud and swamps require the following driving techniques:
(1) Stop the vehicle.
(2) Place the transfer case shift lever in low (low range automatically
engages 6X6 drive).
(3) Place the transmission shift lever in 1-5.
(4) Place vehicle in motion slowly without causing wheels to spin or engine
to race.
(5) Place transfer case shift lever in high range when vehicle is under way.
If necessary, engage front wheel dive lock-in switch.
j. Clean mud from wheels, brakes, axles, universal joints, steering mechanism, and
radiator as soon as possible. Make sure the axle breather vent caps move freely on
breather body.
k. Give safety briefing, to include reinforcing ground guide safety procedures for
backing the vehicle.
3. Practical exercise:
a. Assign students to vehicles and issue TM 9-2320-272-10, pencil, DD Form 1970
(or ULLS generated DA Form 5987-E), DA Form 2404 (or ULLS generated DA
Form 5988-E), and equipment records folder. Tell students where rags, lubricants,
and coolant are located.
b. Students perform before-operation PMCS.
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TC 21-305-3
c. Students practice driving the truck off road. During-operation PMCS is also
conducted at this time.
NOTE: As each student practices driving, an assistant instructor rides in the seat next to the driver.
The assistant instructor explains driving techniques, ensures the driver is aware of driving situations,
and conducts AARs with each driver. Now is the time to pass on valuable experience and correct
any bad driving habits.
d. Students perform after-operation PMCS. Ensure all operator entries required on
DD Form 1970 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5987-E) and DA Form 2404 (or
ULLS generated DA Form 5988-E) are accurate, complete, and legible.
4. Evaluate: Check each student’s performance of PMCS and off road driving.
5. Summary:
a. Recap main points.
b. Allow for questions.
c. Clarify questions.
d. Give closing statement.
6. Retraining: Retrain NO-GOs and slow learners. Students perform driving tasks daily
and are tested on the EOCCT.
E. SAFETY RESTRICTIONS.
1. Ensure that all chock blocks are in place when vehicles are parked or maintenance is to
be performed.
2. Ensure the transmission is in N, the parking brake is set, and the engine is shut off before
leaving the vehicle, when the vehicle is parked, or maintenance is being performed.
3. Ensure all personnel remove all wristwatches, rings, bracelets, ID tags, neck chains, and
any other jewelry before working in or around the vehicle.
4. Ensure all personnel pay particular attention to the cautions and warnings listed in the
operator’s manual.
5. Ensure the driver and ground guides know and understand the hand and arm signals,
especially the signal to stop, as outlined in FM 21-305.
6. Ensure ground guide(s) are used when backing.
7. Ensure all backing is conducted at a speed of 5 MPH or less.
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TC 21-305-3
8. Hearing protection is required for all personnel working in and around this vehicle while
the engine is running.
9. Inspect all seat belts for damage and ensure all occupants wear seat belts while the
vehicle is in operation.
10. Ensure personnel maintain at least three points of contact when mounting or
dismounting the vehicle (to include performing PMCS).
11. Ensure all personnel are clear of vehicle before engine start is attempted. Operator
must visually check to see that all areas of the truck are clear of personnel before attempting to start
the engine. Failure to do so could result in serious injury or death to personnel.
12. Extreme care should be taken when removing the surge tank filler cap if the temperature
gauge reads above 175° F. Steam or hot coolant under pressure will cause injury such as serious
burns.
13. The exhaust pipe and muffler can become very hot during vehicle operation. Be careful
not to touch these parts with bare hands or allow the body to come in contact with the exhaust pipe
or muffler. Exhaust system parts can become hot enough to cause serious burns.
14. Reemphasize the removal of all jewelry such as rings, ID tags, or bracelets before
working around batteries. Be careful not to short out battery terminals. If jewelry or tools contact
the battery terminal, a direct short may occur resulting in instant heating, damage to equipment, and
injury to personnel. Do not smoke or use open flame near batteries. Batteries may explode from a
spark. Battery acid is harmful to skin and eyes.
15. Fuel is very flammable and can explode easily. To avoid serious injury or death, keep
fuel away from open fire and keep a fire extinguisher within easy reach when working with fuel. Do
not work on the fuel system when the engine is hot. Fuel can be ignited by the hot engine. When
working with fuel, post signs that read: “NO SMOKING WITHIN 50 FEET OF VEHICLE”.
16. Alcohol used in alcohol evaporator is flammable, poisonous, and explosive. Do not
smoke when adding fluid and do not drink fluid. Failure to do this will result in injury or death.
17. Do not use hand throttle while driving. When brakes are applied, the hand throttle does
not automatically disengage. Using the hand throttle as a cruise control device could result in injury
or death.
18. Apply brakes gradually when slowing or stopping and pump brakes gradually when
slowing or stopping the vehicle on ice, snow, or wet pavement. A panic stop will cause the vehicle
wheels to lock and the engine to stall. Power steering will be lost. Failure to apply brakes gradually
can result in injury or death.
19. Rapid operation repeatedly of service brakes will consume compressed air supply and
cause automatic spring brake application. Failure to follow proper service brake operating
procedures may cause serious injury or death to personnel.
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TC 21-305-3
20. Never use the parking brake for normal braking. The wheels will lock up causing a
severe skid. A skidding vehicle could result in serious injury or death.
21. Excessive use of the service brake to control downhill speed will result in the loss of
braking power because of heat buildup.
22. Do not put the vehicle in motion until the low air pressure warning light goes out and
the alarm (buzzer) stops sounding. Air pressure gauges should indicate at least 90 psi. If warnings
continue beyond three minutes, and/or pressure gauges do not reach 90 psi, turn the ignition switch
and battery switch to OFF positions and notify unit maintenance. Failure to do this will result in
injury or death.
23. When raising the vehicle hood, ensure it is secured from falling. Do this by securing the
hood retaining bar to the bumper bracket with the safety pin. Failure to do so may damage the
vehicle or cause injury or death to personnel.
24. Do not rely on service brakes until they dry out. Keep applying brakes until uneven
braking ceases. Failure to do this could result in injury or death.
25. Ensure a safe following distance and speed are maintained when driving on the
designated route (as determined by the local command).
F. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS.
1. Ensure that all hazardous materials and hazardous wastes are stored and labeled
properly.
2. Ensure that spill kits are within reach when changing or adding vehicle fluids or in the
case of vehicle failures. Spill kits should enable the soldiers to contain a spill on land or in water.
3. Ensure that drip pans remain under parked vehicles.
4. Ensure that containers are the proper size and type for draining vehicle fluids.
G. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND INFORMATION. Recommended instructional time is 6
hours (.5 conference and 5.5 practical exercise, including 1.0 PMCS).
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TC 21-305-3
LESSON TITLE:
DRIVE AN M939 SERIES CARGO TRUCK AT NIGHT
TASK NUMBER:
551-721-1366 (Drive Vehicle with Automatic Transmission)
A. TRAINING OBJECTIVE.
TASK:
Drive an M939 series cargo truck at night.
CONDITIONS:
Given instruction, DD Form 1970 (or ULLS generated DA Form
5987-E), DA Form 2404 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5988-E),
pencil, TM 9-2320-272-10, equipment records folder, rags,
lubricants, coolant, designated driving route (improved surfaced
and secondary roads), an M939 series cargo truck with BII, and a
requirement to drive a designated route at night with headlights
using defensive driving (accident avoidance) methods; operate the
lights, monitor gauges and indicator lights, manipulate the controls,
and perform basic driving maneuvers to include downhill braking
and backing using ground guides.
STANDARD:
Operate the vehicle correctly and safely without accident or injury.
B. INTERMEDIATE TRAINING. None.
C. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS.
1. Training time: As scheduled.
2. Training location: Motor pool and driver training route (built up and rural areas) as
scheduled.
3. Training type: Conference and practical exercise.
4. Students: Scheduled personnel.
5. Principal and assistant instructors required: One primary instructor for the conference
and one assistant instructor for each two students for the practical exercise.
6. Training aids and equipment: Rags, lubricants, coolant, DD Form 1970 (or ULLS
generated DA Form 5987-E), DA Form 2404 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5988-E), pencil, TM 92320-272-10, equipment records folder, and an M939 series cargo truck with BII for each two
students.
7. References: AR 385-55, DA Pamphlet 738-750, FM 21-305, and TM 9-2320-272-10.
4-73
TC 21-305-3
D. SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY.
1. Introduction:
a. Interest device.
b. Tie-in.
c. Lesson objective (paragraph A).
d. Procedures:
(1) Explanation.
(2) Practical exercise.
(3) Summary.
2. Explanation and demonstration:
NOTE: An instructor will be in the cab, sitting next to the driver with nothing between the student
and instructor, whenever a student is driving the M939 series cargo truck.
a. Night driving factors.
(1) Driver factors:
(a) Vision. The driver has limited vision at night because of the
following:
• Eyes need time to adjust to the change between light and
darkness.
• Drivers cannot see as sharply at night.
• Drivers cannot see to the sides as well at night.
(b) Glare. Temporary blindness is caused by glare, normally from
oncoming headlights but sometimes from other lights.
(c) Fatigue. Reduces the ability to see clearly. The driver
becomes less alert, slower to see hazards, and does not react as
promptly.
(d) Driver inexperience. Newness to driving, coupled with the
problems of reduced vision, glare, and fatigue account for the fact
new drivers have higher nighttime accident rates than more
experienced drivers.
4-74
TC 21-305-3
(2) Roadway factors:
(a) Low illumination. Illumination provided by street lights is
often only fair to poor. On most roads, the only illumination is
from the driver’s headlights. Headlights are useful for a relatively
short and narrow path directly ahead of the vehicle. Headlights do
not bend around corners.
(b) Variation in illumination. The driver must constantly adjust his
eyes to different types and degrees of lighting. Flashing lights
distract as much as they illuminate. Traffic signs are hard to see
against the background of other lights especially in towns and
cities.
(c) Familiarity with roads. The driver needs to be particularly
alert on roads that he has never driven during the day. On familiar
roads, drivers tend to be overconfident. This is dangerous because
of the following:
• The view of the roadway is not the same.
• Situations on some stretches will change.
(d) Other road users. The driver must adjust his driving to hazards
such as pedestrians, joggers, bicyclists, and animals.
(e) Drinking drivers. The likelihood of encountering drunken
drivers increases after sundown. Be especially alert when driving
near roadside taverns and similar attractions.
(3) Vehicle factors:
(a) Headlights. Sight distance is limited to the range of the
headlights. Therefore, the driver must drive at a speed that allows
him to stop within his sight distance.
(b) Auxiliary lights. Trucks are better seen at night by other
drivers when reflectors, marker lights, clearance lights, tail lights,
and brake lights are clean and working properly.
(c) Turn signals. The ability to communicate with other drivers
depends on turn signals. Nonfunctional or dirty turn signal lights
greatly increase the risk of an accident.
(d) Windshield and wipers. A clean windshield and properly
working wipers are a must for safe driving.
(e) Mirrors. Mirrors help the driver see what is going on around
him. Keep them clean and properly adjusted.
4-75
TC 21-305-3
b. Night driving procedures.
(1) Preparing to drive at night:
(a) Getting yourself ready.
• If you wear glasses, be sure they are clean.
• Remove sunglasses.
• Be well rested.
(b) Plan your route.
• Know the location of rest stops.
• Plan for hazards such as unlighted areas, exit ramps,
construction areas, and other changes in the highway
environment.
(c) Getting the vehicle ready.
• Ensure windshield, mirrors, lights, and reflectors are clean.
• Ensure all lights are operational.
(2) Driving at night:
(a) Avoid blinding others.
• Dim high beams when oncoming vehicles are less than 500
feet away.
• Do not use high beams to retaliate against other drivers.
(b) Avoid glare.
• Set interior panel lights at the lowest setting to reduce
glare.
• Look to the right when oncoming vehicles are using high
beams.
(c) Maximize visibility.
• Use low beams when desired visual range is about 250 feet.
• Use high beams when there are no oncoming vehicles and
desired visual range is 350 to 500 feet.
(d) Adjust basic driving techniques.
• Exercise additional caution because of reduced vision.
• Signal earlier than you would during daylight to give other
drivers more time to react.
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TC 21-305-3
3. Practical exercise:
a. Assign students to vehicles and issue TM 9-2320-272-10, pencil, DD Form 1970
(or ULLS generated DA Form 5987-E), DA Form 2404 (or ULLS generated DA
Form 5988-E), and equipment records folder. Tell students where rags, lubricants,
and coolant are located.
b. Students perform before-operation PMCS to include the operation and
cleanliness of all lights.
c. Give safety briefing with emphasis on safety precautions for night operations.
d. Students drive the designated route. During-operation PMCS is also conducted
at this time.
NOTE: As each student practices driving, an assistant instructor rides in the seat next to the driver.
The assistant instructor explains driving techniques, ensures the driver is aware of driving situations,
and conducts AARs with each driver. Now is the time to pass on valuable experience and correct
any bad driving habits.
e. Students perform after-operation PMCS. Ensure all operator entries required on
DD Form 1970 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5987-E) and DA Form 2404 (or
ULLS generated DA Form 5988-E) are accurate, complete, and legible.
4. Evaluate: Check each student’s performance of PMCS and night driving.
5. Summary:
a. Recap main points.
b. Allow for questions.
c. Clarify questions.
d. Give closing statement.
6. Retraining: Retrain NO-GOs and slow learners.
E. SAFETY RESTRICTIONS.
1. Ensure that all chock blocks are in place when vehicles are parked or maintenance is to
be performed.
2. Ensure the transmission is in N, the parking brake is set, and the engine is shut off before
leaving the vehicle, when the vehicle is parked, or maintenance is being performed.
3. Ensure all personnel remove all wristwatches, rings, bracelets, ID tags, neck chains, and
any other jewelry before working in or around the vehicle.
4-77
TC 21-305-3
4. Ensure all personnel pay particular attention to the cautions and warnings listed in the
operator’s manual.
5. Ensure the driver and ground guides know and understand the hand and arm signals,
especially the signal to stop, as outlined in FM 21-305.
6. Ensure ground guide(s) are used when backing.
7. Ensure all backing is conducted at a speed of 5 MPH or less.
8. Hearing protection is required for all personnel working in and around this vehicle while
the engine is running.
9. Inspect all seat belts for damage and ensure all occupants wear seat belts while the
vehicle is in operation.
10. Ensure personnel maintain at least three points of contact when mounting or
dismounting the vehicle (to include performing PMCS).
11. Ensure all personnel are clear of vehicle before engine start is attempted. Operator
must visually check to see that all areas of the truck are clear of personnel before attempting to start
the engine. Failure to do so could result in serious injury or death to personnel.
12. Extreme care should be taken when removing the surge tank filler cap if the temperature
gauge reads above 175° F. Steam or hot coolant under pressure will cause injury such as serious
burns.
13. The exhaust pipe and muffler can become very hot during vehicle operation. Be careful
not to touch these parts with bare hands or allow the body to come in contact with the exhaust pipe
or muffler. Exhaust system parts can become hot enough to cause serious burns.
14. Reemphasize the removal of all jewelry such as rings, ID tags, or bracelets before
working around batteries. Be careful not to short out battery terminals. If jewelry or tools contact
the battery terminal, a direct short may occur resulting in instant heating, damage to equipment, and
injury to personnel. Do not smoke or use open flame near batteries. Batteries may explode from a
spark. Battery acid is harmful to skin and eyes.
15. Fuel is very flammable and can explode easily. To avoid serious injury or death, keep
fuel away from open fire and keep a fire extinguisher within easy reach when working with fuel. Do
not work on the fuel system when the engine is hot. Fuel can be ignited by the hot engine. When
working with fuel, post signs that read: “NO SMOKING WITHIN 50 FEET OF VEHICLE”.
16. Alcohol used in alcohol evaporator is flammable, poisonous, and explosive. Do not
smoke when adding fluid and do not drink fluid. Failure to do this will result in injury or death.
17. Do not use hand throttle while driving. When brakes are applied, the hand throttle does
not automatically disengage. Using the hand throttle as a cruise control device will result in injury or
death.
4-78
TC 21-305-3
18. Apply brakes gradually when slowing or stopping and pump brakes gradually when
slowing or stopping the vehicle on ice, snow, or wet pavement. A panic stop will cause the vehicle
wheels to lock and the engine to stall. Power steering will be lost. Failure to apply brakes gradually
can result in injury or death.
19. Rapid operation repeatedly of service brakes will consume compressed air supply and
cause automatic spring brake application. Failure to follow proper service brake operating
procedures may cause serious injury or death to personnel.
20. Never use the parking brake for normal braking. The wheels will lock up causing a
severe skid. A skidding vehicle could result in serious injury or death.
21. Excessive use of the service brake to control downhill speed will result in the loss of
braking power because of heat buildup.
22. Do not put the vehicle in motion until the low air pressure warning light goes out and
the alarm (buzzer) stops sounding. Air pressure gauges should indicate at least 90 psi. If warnings
continue beyond three minutes, and/or pressure gauges do not reach 90 psi, turn the ignition switch
and battery switch to OFF positions, and notify unit maintenance. Failure to do this will result in
injury or death.
23. When raising the vehicle hood, ensure it is secured from falling. Do this by securing the
hood retaining bar to the bumper bracket with the safety pin. Failure to do so may damage the
vehicle or cause injury or death to personnel.
24. Ensure a safe following distance and speed are maintained when driving on the
designated route (as determined by the local command).
F. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS.
1. Ensure that all hazardous materials and hazardous wastes are stored and labeled
properly.
2. Ensure that spill kits are within reach when changing or adding vehicle fluids or in the
case of vehicle failures. Spill kits should enable the soldiers to contain a spill on land or in water.
3. Ensure that drip pans remain under parked vehicles.
4. Ensure that containers are the proper size and type for draining vehicle fluids.
G. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND INFORMATION. Recommended instructional time is 5
hours (.5 conference and 4.5 hours practical exercise, including 1.0 PMCS).
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TC 21-305-3
LESSON TITLE:
PERFORM OPERATOR PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE CHECKS
AND SERVICES (PMCS) ON TRAILERS
TASK NUMBER:
551-721-1353 (Perform Preventive Maintenance Checks and Services
[PMCS] on Trailers)
A. TRAINING OBJECTIVE.
TASK:
Perform operator PMCS on a trailer.
CONDITIONS:
Given instruction, DA Form 2404 (or ULLS generated DA Form
5988-E), pencils, appropriate trailer operator’s manual, equipment
records folder, rags, lubricants, and a trailer coupled to an M939
series cargo truck with BII.
STANDARD:
Inspect the trailer according to the PMCS tables listed in the
appropriate trailer operator’s manual, correct all faults within the
operator’s level of maintenance, and legibly record all others on DA
Form 2404 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5988-E). If no faults
are found, make necessary entries on DA Form 2404 (or ULLS
generated DA Form 5988-E).
B. INTERMEDIATE TRAINING. None.
C. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS.
1. When training will be given: As scheduled.
2. Training location: Motor pool as scheduled.
3. Training type: Demonstration and practical exercise.
4. Who will be trained: Personnel as scheduled.
5. Principal and assistant instructors required: One primary instructor for the class and one
assistant instructor for every two students for the demonstration and practical exercise.
6. Training aids and equipment: Rags, lubricants, DA Form 2404 (or ULLS generated DA
Form 5988-E), pencil, appropriate trailer operator’s manual, equipment records folder, and a trailer
coupled to an M939 series cargo truck with BII for each two students.
7. References: AR 385-55, DA Pamphlet 738-750, and appropriate trailer operator’s
manual.
5-1
TC 21-305-3
D. SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY.
1. Introduction:
a. Interest device.
b. Tie-in.
c. Lesson objective (paragraph A).
d. Procedures:
(1) Explanation.
(2) Practical exercise.
(3) Summary.
2. Explanation and demonstration: Demonstrate before, during, and after checks to
students.
3. Practical exercise:
a. Assign students to coupled trailers and issue trailer operator’s manuals, pencils,
DA Form 2404 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5988-E), and equipment records
folder. Tell students where rags and lubricants are located.
b. Students perform PMCS.
4. Evaluate: Check each student’s PMCS performance.
5. Summary:
a. Recap main points.
b. Allow for questions.
c. Clarify questions.
d. Give closing statement.
6. Retraining: Retrain NO-GOs and slow learners.
5-2
TC 21-305-3
E. SAFETY RESTRICTIONS.
1. Ensure that all chock blocks are in place when vehicles are parked or maintenance is to
be performed.
2. If trailer is not coupled to towing vehicle, ensure the trailer wheels are securely chocked.
Failure to do so may cause the trailer to roll, resulting in injury to personnel or damage to
equipment.
3. Ensure the transmission is in N, the parking brake is set, and the engine is shut off before
leaving the vehicle, when the vehicle is parked, or maintenance is being performed.
4. Ensure all personnel remove all wristwatches, rings, bracelets, ID tags, neck chains, and
any other jewelry before working in or around the vehicle or trailer.
5. Ensure all personnel pay particular attention to the cautions and warnings listed in the
operator’s manuals.
6. Ensure personnel maintain at least three points of contact when mounting or dismounting
the trailer (to include performing PMCS).
7. Ensure all personnel stand clear of towing vehicle and trailer during coupling and
uncoupling operations. Failure to follow this warning may result in serious injury or death.
F. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS.
1. Ensure that all hazardous materials and hazardous wastes are stored and labeled
properly.
2. Ensure that spill kits are within reach when changing or adding vehicle fluids or in the
case of vehicle failures. Spill kits should enable the soldiers to contain a spill on land or in water.
3. Ensure that drip pans remain under parked vehicles.
4. Ensure that containers are the proper size and type for draining vehicle fluids.
G. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND INFORMATION. Recommended instructional time is
1.0 hours (.5 demonstration and .5 practical exercise). The remaining PMCS is performed in
conjunction with driving tasks.
5-3
TC 21-305-3
LESSON TITLE:
DRIVE AN M939 SERIES CARGO TRUCK WITH TRAILER
TASK NUMBER:
551-721-1380 (Transport General Cargo in Trailer) and 551-721-1385
(Couple/Uncouple Pintle-Connected Trailer)
A. TRAINING OBJECTIVE.
TASK:
Drive an M939 series cargo truck with trailer.
CONDITIONS:
Given instruction, DD Form 1970 (or ULLS generated DA Form
5987-E), DA Form 2404 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5988-E),
pencil, TM 9-2320-272-10, appropriate trailer operator’s manual,
equipment records folder, rags, lubricants, coolant, designated
driving route (improved surfaced and secondary roads), an M939
series cargo truck with BII, trailer and vehicle loads, suitable
training area, and a requirement to drive a designated route.
STANDARD:
Without accident or injury, drive the designated route. Couple and
uncouple the trailer, back the trailer in a straight line, and perform
basic driving maneuvers.
B. INTERMEDIATE TRAINING. None.
C. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS.
1. When training will be given: As scheduled.
2. Training location: Motor pool, training area, and driver training route as scheduled.
3. Training type: Conference, demonstration, and practical exercise.
4. Who will be trained: Personnel as scheduled.
5. Principal and assistant instructors required: One primary instructor for the conference
and one assistant instructor for every two students for the demonstration and practical exercise.
6. Training aids and equipment: Rags, lubricants, coolant, 40 traffic cones or empty POL
drums, suitable driver training area, and designated driving route (improved surfaced and secondary
roads). DD Form 1970 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5987-E), DA Form 2404 (or ULLS
generated DA Form 5988-E), pencil, TM 9-2320-272-10, appropriate trailer operator’s manual,
equipment records folder, and a trailer coupled to an M939 series cargo truck with BII for each two
students.
7. References: AR 385-55, DA Pamphlet 738-750, FM 21-305, TM 9-2320-272-10, and
appropriate trailer operator’s manual.
5-4
TC 21-305-3
D. SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY.
1. Introduction:
a. Interest device.
b. Tie-in.
c. Lesson objective (paragraph A).
d. Procedures:
(1) Explanation.
(2) Practical exercise.
(3) Summary.
2. Explanation and demonstration:
NOTE: The instructions contained in this lesson for a pintle-connected trailer are in general terms
because this lesson covers a variety of trailers. Although procedures for these types of trailers are
similar, the instructor should consult the specific trailer operator’s manual for detailed instructions.
Also, when towing other authorized equipment such as towed howitzers, consult the specific TM for
the equipment being towed before conducting any towing operations.
a. Connect the trailer to the vehicle.
WARNING
All personnel must stand clear of towing vehicle and trailer during
coupling operation. Failure to comply with this warning may result
in serious injury or death to personnel.
(1) Sound the horn before backing. Using ground guides, back the
vehicle to the trailer. Be sure no one stands between the vehicle and
trailer.
WARNING
Do not back up without a ground guide. Failure to do this may result
in damage to vehicle, injury, or death.
5-5
TC 21-305-3
CAUTION
Do not back up with transfer case shift lever in low range.
WARNING
When backing or going forward, ground guides should never stand
directly in the vehicle’s path. Keep 10 yards between the vehicle
and ground guides at the front or rear and at the corners of the
vehicle (never directly behind the vehicle). Ground guides must not
position themselves between the vehicle being guided and another
object where an inadvertent engine surge or momentary loss of
vehicle control could cause injury. The vehicle driver will
immediately stop the vehicle if he loses sight of ground guides or
notes that the guide is dangerously positioned between the vehicle
and another object. In such cases, the vehicle driver will secure his
vehicle, dismount, and make an on-the-spot correction before
commencing operations.
(2) Stop the vehicle. Engage the parking brake. Shut off the engine. Get
out of the vehicle to connect the trailer.
(3) Remove the pintle safety cotter pin and open the pintle. Release the
trailer handbrake(s).
(4) Lift the trailer. (Some trailers are light and can be lifted by one
person, while others will require several people, and still others have a
mechanical lift.) Secure the trailer drawbar ring in the pintle of the towing
vehicle. Close the pintle. Install the pintle safety cotter pin in the pintle.
(5) Hook the two safety chains from the trailer to the rear lifting shackles
of the towing vehicle.
(6) Raise the retractable support (landing leg).
(7) Connect the intervehicular brake hoses to the towing vehicle. Turn on
the air supply.
(8) Connect the intervehicular electrical cable to the towing vehicle.
(9) Operate the controls in the towing vehicle to check brake action and
operation of all lights.
5-6
TC 21-305-3
b. Disconnect the trailer from the vehicle.
(1) Position the trailer on level ground if possible.
WARNING
All personnel must stand clear of towing vehicle and trailer during
uncoupling operation. Failure to comply with this warning may
result in serious injury or death to personnel.
(2) Close the vehicle’s air coupling shut-off cock(s) and disconnect the
intervehicular brake hose(s). Stow on the bracket provided on the trailer.
(3) Lower the retractable support (landing leg). Ensure it is locked in
position to prevent the trailer from falling.
(4) Unhook the safety chains.
(5) Remove the pintle safety cotter pin and open the pintle.
(6) With assistance, remove the drawbar ring from the towing vehicle and
lower the trailer on its support leg.
(7) Apply the trailer hand brake or chock wheels to prevent trailer
movement.
(8) Close the pintle. Reinstall the pintle safety cotter pin in the pintle.
(9) Level the trailer if required and perform after-operation PMCS on the
trailer.
c. Driving. When driving the towing vehicle and trailer, keep the overall length
of the unit in mind when passing other vehicles and turning. Backing is also
affected because the unit is hinged in the middle.
WARNING
Before moving trailer, ensure all loose equipment is properly stowed
and that nothing will drag on the ground. If trailer is loaded, ensure
that load is properly secured. Failure to follow this warning may
result in injury to personnel or damage to equipment.
(1) Safely towing a trailer requires increased concentration, alertness, and
strict compliance with towing speeds.
5-7
TC 21-305-3
(2) Trailers have a tendency to fishtail or swerve very easily when the
driver makes an erratic movement of any magnitude. This can be caused
by–
(a) Speed.
(b) A slight swerve to miss a pothole.
(c) A quick lane change.
(d) A slip of the hand on the steering wheel.
(e) Rough or uneven road.
(3) To prevent trailer fishtail or swerve–
(a) Never exceed the recommended speed for the trailer that you
are towing.
(b) Never exceed the trailer’s maximum recommended weight
capacity.
(c) Always slow down for curves, wet or rough roads, or
downgrades.
(d) Anticipate all stops to take longer as a result of the added
weight. Brake early and gently. Do not slam on the brakes.
(e) On downgrades, slow down before starting downhill. Use a
lower gear. Let the engine compression help slow the vehicle.
(4) To correct trailer fishtail or swerve–
(a) Steer straight ahead.
(b) Gradually decelerate.
(c) Do not brake until both the towing vehicle and trailer have
stabilized.
(5) When turning corners, allow for the fact that the trailer wheels turn
inside the turning radius of the towing vehicle.
(a) To make a right turn–
• Check traffic ahead, to the rear, and to the right side.
• If not in the right-hand lane, be sure that lane is clear,
signal, and move into the lane well in advance of the turn.
5-8
TC 21-305-3
• Signal for the turn at least 150 feet in advance and reduce
speed.
• Check other traffic that is in, at, or approaching the
intersection. (Be sure no bicycle or motorcycle is to the
right. Be especially alert for pedestrians.)
• Take a position farther from the curb or edge of the
pavement (still within the right lane) than the driver would
if driving a straight truck (no trailer).
• Drive the truck approximately halfway into the intersection
and then cut sharply to the right. This will keep the trailer
wheels off the curb.
• Keep the vehicle close enough to the edge of the road to
prevent following vehicles from trying to pass on the right.
• During the turn, monitor the mirrors for off-tracking and
keep both hands on the steering wheel.
• If you cannot make the turn without swinging into another
lane, turn wide as you complete the turn.
• If you must cross into an oncoming lane and a vehicle
comes toward you, allow it to get by you. Stop if you have
to, but do not back up.
• After completing the turn, cancel the signal.
• When it is safe to do so, steer the vehicle into the desired
lane (four-lane roads).
(b) To make a left turn–
• Check traffic ahead, to the rear, and to both sides.
• Signal for the turn at least 150 feet in advance and reduce
speed.
• Check other traffic that is in, at, or approaching the
intersection.
• Ensure there is an adequate gap to make a turn in front of
traffic.
• Before turning, drive the truck into the center of the
intersection to allow for the trailer.
• Turn hard to the left. Watch for oncoming traffic, if
applicable.
• During the turn, monitor the mirrors for off-tracking and
keep both hands on the steering wheel.
• If you are turning into a multi-lane street, enter the right
lane.
• If there are two left turning lanes, start your turn from the
right-most lane.
• After completing the turn, cancel the signal.
5-9
TC 21-305-3
(6) Stopping requires more distance when pulling a trailer. Apply brakes
gradually and smoothly. Stepping on the brake pedal will stop both the
towing vehicle and trailer.
WARNING
Apply brakes gradually when slowing or stopping and pump brakes
gradually when slowing or stopping the vehicle on ice, snow, or wet
pavement. A panic stop will cause the vehicle wheels to lock and the
engine to stall. Power steering will be lost. Failure to apply brakes
gradually can result in injury or death.
WARNING
Rapid operation repeatedly of service brakes will consume
compressed air supply and cause automatic spring brake application.
Failure to follow proper service brake operating procedures may
cause serious injury or death to personnel.
d. Backing the trailer in a straight line. Since the driver cannot see directly
behind the vehicle, backing is always dangerous. Avoid backing whenever
possible, even if you must go around the block to do so. When backing follow
these rules.
(1) Get out of the vehicle. Check the area to the sides, rear, and overhead
for obstructions.
(2) Use ground guides to direct while backing.
WARNING
When backing or going forward, ground guides should never stand
directly in the vehicle’s path. Keep 10 yards between the vehicle and
ground guides at the front or rear and at the corners of the vehicle
(never directly behind the vehicle). Ground guides must not position
themselves between the vehicle being guided and another object
where an inadvertent engine surge or momentary loss of vehicle
control could cause injury. The vehicle driver will immediately stop
the vehicle if he loses sight of ground guides or notes that the guide is
dangerously positioned between the vehicle and another object. In
such cases, the vehicle driver will secure his vehicle, dismount, and
make an on-the-spot correction before commencing operations.
5-10
TC 21-305-3
CAUTION
Do not back up with transfer case shift lever in low range.
(3) Adjust the rearview mirrors before backing.
(4) Sound the horn before backing, where it is legal to do so.
(5) Remember, when backing, the trailer’s rear will move in the opposite
direction from which the front towing vehicle wheels are turned.
(a) If the wheels are turned to the right, the trailer will go left.
(b) If the wheels are turned to the left, the trailer will go right.
(6) Make gradual steering corrections in relation to trailer alignment.
(7) Pull up if necessary to improve the trailer’s alignment.
(8) Stop the vehicle when the desired position is reached.
e. Explain to the students that they must perform before-, during-, and afteroperation PMCS on their assigned vehicle.
f. Demonstrate hand and arm signals required for this exercise.
g. Demonstrate driving through each maneuver.
3. Practical exercise:
a. Assign students to vehicles/trailers and issue TM 9-2320-272-10, trailer
operator’s manuals, pencil, DD Form 1970 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5987-E),
DA Form 2404 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5988-E), and equipment records
folder. Tell students where rags, lubricants, and coolant are located.
b. Students perform before-operation PMCS.
c. Students practice maneuvering the truck through the courses laid out in the
training area(s). Sample training areas are in Chapter 6. During-operation PMCS
is also conducted at this time.
NOTE: As each student practices driving, an assistant instructor rides in the seat next to the driver.
The assistant instructor explains driving techniques, ensures the driver is aware of driving situations,
and conducts AARs with each driver. Now is the time to pass on valuable experience and correct
any bad driving habits.
d. After the students have mastered driving the vehicle in the training area, they
will practice driving on the road.
5-11
TC 21-305-3
e. Students perform after-operation PMCS. Ensure all operator entries required
on DD Form 1970 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5987-E) and DA Form 2404 (or
ULLS generated DA Form 5988-E) are accurate, complete, and legible.
4. Evaluate: Check each student’s performance of PMCS and driving.
5. Summary:
a. Recap main points.
b. Allow for questions.
c. Clarify questions.
d. Give closing statement.
6. Retraining: Retrain NO-GOs and slow learners.
E. SAFETY RESTRICTIONS.
1. Ensure that all chock blocks are in place when vehicles are parked or maintenance is to
be performed.
2. Ensure the transmission is in N, the parking brake is set, and the engine is shut off before
leaving the vehicle, when the vehicle is parked, or maintenance is being performed.
3. Ensure all personnel remove all wristwatches, rings, bracelets, ID tags, neck chains, and
any other jewelry before working in or around the vehicle.
4. Ensure all personnel pay particular attention to the cautions and warnings listed in the
operator’s manuals.
5. Ensure the driver and ground guides know and understand the hand and arm signals,
especially the signal to stop, as outlined in FM 21-305.
6. Ensure ground guide(s) are used when backing.
7. Ensure all backing is conducted at a speed of 5 MPH or less.
8. Hearing protection is required for all personnel working in and around this vehicle while
the engine is running.
9. Inspect all seat belts for damage and ensure all occupants wear seat belts while the
vehicle is in operation.
10. Ensure personnel maintain at least three points of contact when mounting or
dismounting the vehicle (to include performing PMCS).
5-12
TC 21-305-3
11. Ensure all personnel are clear of vehicle before engine start is attempted. Operator
must visually check to see that all areas of the truck are clear of personnel before attempting to start
the engine. Failure to do so could result in serious injury or death to personnel.
12. Extreme care should be taken when removing the surge tank filler cap if the temperature
gauge reads above 175° F. Steam or hot coolant under pressure will cause injury such as serious
burns.
13. The exhaust pipe and muffler can become very hot during vehicle operation. Be careful
not to touch these parts with bare hands or allow the body to come in contact with the exhaust pipe
or muffler. Exhaust system parts can become hot enough to cause serious burns.
14. Reemphasize the removal of all jewelry such as rings, ID tags, or bracelets before
working around batteries. Be careful not to short out battery terminals. If jewelry or tools contact
the battery terminal, a direct short may occur resulting in instant heating, damage to equipment, and
injury to personnel. Do not smoke or use open flame near batteries. Batteries may explode from a
spark. Battery acid is harmful to skin and eyes.
15. Fuel is very flammable and can explode easily. To avoid serious injury or death, keep
fuel away from open fire and keep a fire extinguisher within easy reach when working with fuel. Do
not work on the fuel system when the engine is hot. Fuel can be ignited by the hot engine. When
working with fuel, post signs that read: “NO SMOKING WITHIN 50 FEET OF VEHICLE”.
16. Alcohol used in alcohol evaporator is flammable, poisonous, and explosive. Do not
smoke when adding fluid and do not drink fluid. Failure to do this could result in injury or death.
17. Do not use hand throttle while driving. When brakes are applied, the hand throttle does
not automatically disengage. Using the hand throttle as a “cruise control” device could result in
injury or death.
18. Apply brakes gradually when slowing or stopping and pump brakes gradually when
slowing or stopping the vehicle on ice, snow, or wet pavement. A panic stop will cause the vehicle
wheels to lock and the engine to stall. Power steering will be lost. Failure to apply brakes gradually
can result in injury or death.
19. Rapid operation repeatedly of service brakes will consume compressed air supply and
cause automatic spring brake application. Failure to follow proper service brake operating
procedures may cause serious injury or death to personnel.
20. Never use the parking brake for normal braking. The wheels will lock up causing a
severe skid. A skidding vehicle could result in serious injury or death.
21. Excessive use of the service brake to control downhill speed will result in the loss of
braking power because of heat buildup.
5-13
TC 21-305-3
22. Do not put the vehicle in motion until the low air pressure warning light goes out and
the alarm (buzzer) stops sounding. Air pressure gauges should indicate at least 90 psi. If warnings
continue beyond three minutes, and/or pressure gauges do not reach 90 psi, turn the ignition switch
and battery switch to OFF positions, and notify unit maintenance. Failure to do this could result in
injury or death.
23. When raising the vehicle hood, ensure it is secured from falling. Do this by securing the
hood retaining bar to the bumper bracket with the safety pin. Failure to do so may damage the
vehicle or cause injury or death to personnel.
24. All personnel must stand clear of towing vehicle and trailer during coupling and
uncoupling operations. Failure to comply with this warning may result in serious injury or death to
personnel.
25. Before moving trailer, ensure all loose equipment is properly stowed and that nothing
will drag on the ground. If trailer is loaded, ensure that load is properly secured. Failure to follow
this warning may result in injury to personnel or damage to equipment.
F. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS.
1. Ensure that all hazardous materials and hazardous wastes are stored and labeled
properly.
2. Ensure that spill kits are within reach when changing or adding vehicle fluids or in the
case of vehicle failures. Spill kits should enable soldiers to contain a spill on land or in water.
3. Ensure that drip pans remain under parked vehicles.
4. Ensure that containers are the proper size and type for draining vehicle fluids.
G. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND INFORMATION. Recommended instructional time is
15 hours (.5 conference, .5 demonstration, and 14.0 practical exercise, including 2.0 PMCS).
5-14
TC 21-305-3
CHAPTER 6
SAMPLE TRAINING AREAS FOR THE 5-TON CARGO TRUCK
This chapter shows the sample training areas for the 5-ton cargo truck. The figures in this
chapter depict the 5-ton cargo as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Figure 6-1, page 6-2, stopping within the prescribed limits.
Figure 6-2, page 6-3, diminishing clearance.
Figure 6-3, page 6-4, offset alley.
Figure 6-4, page 6-5, serpentine course.
Figure 6-5, page 6-6, forward stop/straight line backing.
Figure 6-6, page 6-7, left and right turns.
Figure 6-7, page 6-8, alley dock.
6-1
TC 21-305-3
5-TON CARGO STOPPING WITHIN
PRESCRIBED LIMITS
258' MIN
200'
A
20'
B
START POINT
APPLIES BRAKES
38'
C
STOP LINE
NOTES:
TRAFFIC CONES =
STOP LINE =
THE DISTANCE (WIDTH) BETWEEN TRAFFIC CONES IS 12 FEET.
THE DRIVER PULLS OUT AT POINT A. HIS SPEED AT POINT B SHOULD BE 10 MPH WITH
TRUCK LOADED AND 20 MPH WITH TRUCK EMPTY. HE APPLIES HIS BRAKES AT POINT B
AND MUST STOP BEFORE REACHING POINT C.
Figure 6-1. 5-ton cargo stopping within prescribed limits
6-2
TC 21-305-3
5-TON CARGO DIMINISHING CLEARANCE
200’
75'
FINISH
E
8'6"
D
8'8"
25'
25'
C
B
8'10"
25'
9'
25'
A
9'6"
25'
25'
100’
25'
10'
START
NOTES:
TRAFFIC CONES =
STOP LINE =
FORWARD =
Figure 6-2. 5-ton cargo diminishing clearance
6-3
TC 21-305-3
5-TON CARGO OFFSET ALLEY
180’
START
26'
50'
50'
50'
26'
26'
WIDTH OF ALLEY IS 9’2”
WIDTH OF ALLEY IS 9’2”
NOTES:
TRAFFIC CONES =
STOP LINE =
FORWARD =
Figure 6-3. 5-ton cargo offset alley
6-4
TC 21-305-3
5-TON CARGO SERPENTINE COURSE
200’
50'
40'
40'
70'
FINISH
35’
M
START
NOTES:
EMPTY POL DRUMS =
STANDARD =
FIXED BOUNDARIES =
(WIDTH BETWEEN STANDARDS IS 12’)
FORWARD =
BACKING =
START AND FINISH =
MIDPOINT = M
MINIMUM SIZE OF AREA IS 200’LONG AND 35’WIDE.
IF YOU HAVE A PERMANENT SITE, USE PAINT TO MARK THE FIXED BOUNDARIES. TO
MINIMIZE CONFUSION, PAINT OUT EXISTING LINES WITH A COLOR THAT MATCHES THE
PAVING. IF YOU CANNOT PAINT LINES, USE TRAFFIC CONES, ENGINEER TAPE OR YELLOW
POLYPROPYLENE ROPE.
Figure 6-4. 5-ton cargo serpentine course
6-5
TC 21-305-3
5-TON CARGO FORWARD STOP/
STRAIGHT LINE BACKING
200' MIN
50' MIN
50' MIN
100' MIN
DRIVES IN
BACKS OUT
12’
2’
6” WIDE
BACKING
STOP LINE
2” WIDE
CLEARANCE
LINE
2’
2” WIDE
CLEARANCE
LINE
6” WIDE
FORWARD
STOP LINE
NOTES:
TRAFFIC CONES =
FIXED BOUNDARIES =
IF YOU HAVE A PERMANENT SITE, USE PAINT TO MARK THE FIXED BOUNDARIES. TO
MINIMIZE CONFUSION, PAINT OUT EXISTING LINES WITH A COLOR THAT MATCHES THE
PAVING. IF YOU CANNOT PAINT LINES, USE TRAFFIC CONES, ENGINEER TAPE OR
YELLOW POLYPROPYLENE ROPE.
SCORING STANDARD FOR THE FORWARD STOP IS THE DRIVER DRIVES THROUGH THE
ALLEY AND STOPS SO THAT THE FRONT OF THE TRUCK IS BETWEEN THE CLEARANCE
LINE AND THE STOP LINE, WITHOUT HITTING ANY CONES OR TOUCHING THE BOUNDARIES.
SCORING STANDARD FOR THE STRAIGHT LINE BACKING IS THE DRIVER PULLS HIS
VEHICLE COMPLETELY OUT OF THE ALLEY. HE THEN MUST BACK THROUGH THE ALLEY
AND STOP WHEN THE FRONT OF THE TRUCK IS BETWEEN THE STOP LINE AND THE
CLEARANCE LINE WITHOUT HITTING ANY CONES OR TOUCHING THE BOUNDARY.
Figure 6-5. 5-ton cargo forward stop/straight line backing
6-6
TC 21-305-3
5-TON CARGO LEFT AND RIGHT TURNS
18" MARK
17’
X
34’
17’
X
18" MARK
NOTES:
TRAFFIC CONES =
FIXED BOUNDARIES =
IF YOU HAVE A PERMANENT SITE, USE PAINT TO MARK THE FIXED BOUNDARIES. TO
MINIMIZE CONFUSION, PAINT OUT EXISTING LINES WITH A COLOR THAT MATCHES THE
PAVING. IF YOU CANNOT PAINT LINES, USE TRAFFIC CONES, ENGINEER TAPE OR
YELLOW POLYPROPYLENE (POLY) ROPE.
ONE TRAINING AREA CAN BE USED FOR BOTH MANEUVERS, BUT THE MANEUVERS MUST
BE DONE SEPARATELY, SUCH AS ALL STUDENTS DOING THE RIGHT TURN FIRST, THEN
THE LEFT TURN.
THE ACCEPTABLE STANDARD IS, THE REAR WHEELS OF THE TRUCK (OR TRAILER) MUST
BE WITHIN 18”OF THE CONE, WITHOUT HITTING THE CONE OR GOING OVER ANY
BOUNDARIES.
Figure 6-6. 5-ton cargo left and right turns
6-7
TC 21-305-3
5-TON CARGO ALLEY DOCK
START POSITION
70’
IMAGINARY
REFERENCE
LINE
70’
USE 2 CONES
TO MARK ALLEY
ENTRANCE
70’
12’
2’
STOP LINE
NOTES:
TRAFFIC CONES =
2” WIDE
CLEARANCE
LINE
FIXED BOUNDARIES =
IF YOU HAVE A PERMANENT SITE, USE PAINT TO MARK THE FIXED BOUNDARIES. TO
MINIMIZE CONFUSION, PAINT OUT EXISTING LINES WITH A COLOR THAT MATCHES THE
PAVING. IF YOU CANNOT PAINT LINES, USE TRAFFIC CONES, ENGINEER TAPE OR YELLOW
POLYPROPYLENE ROPE.
THE DRIVER WILL DRIVE FORWARD TO THE LEFT SIDE OF THE REFERENCE LINE,WITHOUT
GOING PAST THE OUTER BOUNDARIES, KEEPING THE ALLEY ENTRANCE ON HIS LEFT SIDE.
HE WILL THEN BACK IN A CURVED PATH INTO THE ALLEY.
THE SCORING STANDARD IS TO BACK INTO THE ALLEY, WITHOUT HITTING ANY CONES OR
TOUCHING ANY BOUNDARIES, AND STOP WITH THE REAR OF THE TRUCK BETWEEN THE
STOP AND CLEARANCE LINES, WITH NO MORE THAN 2 PULL-UPS.
Figure 6-7. 5-ton cargo alley dock
6-8
TC 21-305-3
LESSON TITLE:
END OF COURSE COMPREHENSIVE TEST (EOCCT)
TASK NUMBER:
All previously taught tasks.
A. TRAINING OBJECTIVE.
TASK:
Pass the EOCCT.
CONDITIONS:
Given an examination booklet, pencil, DD Form 1970 (or ULLS
generated DA Form 5987-E), DA Form 2404 (or ULLS generated
DA Form 5988-E), TM 9-2320-272-10, equipment records folder,
rags, lubricants, coolant, an M939 series cargo truck with BII, road
test route, and a suitable off road training area. When testing for
trailer operations, additional requirements are appropriate trailer
operator’s TM and a trailer coupled to an M939 series cargo truck.
STANDARD:
Pass all written and performance tests.
B. INTERMEDIATE TRAINING.
Intermediate Training Objective 1
TASK:
Pass a written examination.
CONDITIONS:
Given an examination booklet and pencil.
STANDARD:
Answer correctly 21 of 30 questions within 40 minutes. Use either
the primary written test or the alternate written test.
Intermediate Training Objective 2
TASK:
Pass the driver’s road test.
CONDITIONS:
Given DD Form 1970 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5987-E),
DA Form 2404 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5988-E), pencil,
TM 9-2320-272-10, equipment records folder, rags, lubricants,
coolant, road test route, an M939 series cargo truck with BII, and
road test route. When testing for trailer operations, additional
requirements are appropriate trailer operator’s manual and a trailer
coupled to an M939 series cargo truck.
STANDARD:
Achieve a score of 75 or higher. Use the driver’s performance test
(road test) instructions and the driver’s road test score sheet
(DA Form 6125-R).
7-1
TC 21-305-3
Intermediate Training Objective 3
TASK:
Drive the M939 series cargo truck off road.
CONDITIONS:
Given DD Form 1970 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5987-E),
DA Form 2404 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5988-E),
TM 9-2320-272-10, equipment records folder, rags, lubricants,
coolant, a suitable off road training area, an M939 series cargo
truck with BII, and a requirement to operate the truck off road (to
include ditches, marshes, gullies, ravines, steep grades, woods,
mud, rocky terrain, and shallow streams [30 inches or less]) during
daylight hours. When testing for trailer operations, additional
requirements are appropriate trailer operator’s manual and a trailer
coupled to an M939 series cargo truck.
STANDARD:
Operate the vehicle safely at reduced speeds, taking precautions not
to damage the truck while driving over rough terrain and receive all
GOs on the performance test checklist.
C. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS.
1. Training time: As scheduled.
2. Training location: Classroom, motor pool, road test route, and off road training area(s)
as scheduled.
3. Training type: Performance evaluation.
4. Students: Scheduled personnel.
5. Principal and assistant instructors required: One primary instructor for the class for the
written tests and one assistant instructor for every student for the performance tests.
6. Training aids and equipment: Hearing protection, rags, lubricants, coolant, examination
booklet, pencil, DD Form 1970 (or ULLS generated DA Form 5987-E), DA Form 2404 (or ULLS
generated DA Form 5988-E), DA Form 6125-R, TM 9-2320-272-10, equipment records folder, and
an M939 series cargo truck with BII for every student. When testing for trailer operations,
additional requirements are appropriate trailer operator’s manual and a trailer coupled to an M939
series cargo truck.
7. References: AR 385-55, AR 600-55, DA Pamphlet 738-750, FM 21-305, TM 9-2320272-10, and appropriate trailer operator’s manual.
D. SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY.
1. Introduction:
a. Interest device.
7-2
TC 21-305-3
b. Tie-in.
c. Lesson objective (paragraph A).
d. Procedures.
(1) Performance testing.
(2) Evaluation.
(3) Summary.
2. Performance testing:
NOTE: The driver will test in the order listed below and will not do the next test until he
successfully passes the previous test.
a. Intermediate training objective 1 (written test).
b. Intermediate training objective 2 (road test).
c. Intermediate training objective 3 (off road driving without trailer).
3. Evaluate: Check written test results, road test score sheets, and performance test
checklists.
4. Summary:
a. Recap main points.
b. Allow for questions.
c. Clarify questions.
d. Give closing statement.
5. Retraining: Retrain and retest NO-GOs.
E. SAFETY RESTRICTIONS.
1. Ensure that all chock blocks are in place when vehicles are parked or maintenance is to
be performed.
2. Ensure the transmission is in N, the parking brake is set, and the engine is shut off before
leaving the vehicle, when the vehicle is parked, or maintenance is being performed.
3. Ensure all personnel remove all wristwatches, rings, bracelets, ID tags, neck chains, and
any other jewelry before working in or around the vehicle.
7-3
TC 21-305-3
4. Ensure all personnel pay particular attention to the cautions and warnings listed in the
operator’s manual.
5. Ensure the driver and ground guides know and understand the hand and arm signals,
especially the signal to stop, as outlined in FM 21-305.
6. Ensure ground guide(s) are used when backing.
7. Ensure all backing is conducted at a speed of 5 MPH or less.
8. Hearing protection is required for all personnel working in and around the vehicle while
the engine is running.
9. Inspect all seat belts for damage and ensure all occupants wear seat belts while the
vehicle is in operation.
10. Ensure personnel maintain at least three points of contact when mounting or
dismounting the vehicle (to include performing PMCS).
11. Ensure all personnel are clear of vehicle before engine start is attempted. Operator
must visually check to see that all areas of the truck are clear of personnel before attempting to start
the engine. Failure to do so could result in serious injury or death to personnel.
12. Extreme care should be taken when removing the surge tank filler cap if the temperature
gauge reads above 175° F. Steam or hot coolant under pressure will cause injury such as serious
burns.
13. The exhaust pipe and muffler can become very hot during vehicle operation. Be careful
not to touch these parts with your bare hands or allow the body to come in contact with the exhaust
pipe or muffler. Exhaust system parts can become hot enough to cause serious burns.
14. Reemphasize the removal of all jewelry such as rings, ID tags, or bracelets before
working around batteries. Be careful not to short out battery terminals. If jewelry or tools contact
the battery terminal, a direct short may occur resulting in instant heating, damage to equipment, or
injury to personnel. Do not smoke or use open flame near batteries. Batteries may explode from a
spark. Battery acid is harmful to skin and eyes.
15. Fuel is very flammable and can explode easily. To avoid serious injury or death, keep
fuel away from open fire and keep a fire extinguisher within easy reach when working with fuel. Do
not work on the fuel system when the engine is hot. Fuel can be ignited by the hot engine. When
working with fuel, post signs that read: “NO SMOKING WITHIN 50 FEET OF VEHICLE”.
16. Alcohol used in alcohol evaporator is flammable, poisonous, and explosive. Do not
smoke when adding fluid and do not drink fluid. Failure to do this will result in injury or death.
17. Do not use hand throttle while driving. When brakes are applied, the hand throttle does
not automatically disengage. Using the hand throttle as a cruise control device could result in injury
or death.
7-4
TC 21-305-3
18. Apply brakes gradually when slowing or stopping and pump brakes gradually when
slowing or stopping the vehicle on ice, snow, or wet pavement. A panic stop will cause the vehicle
wheels to lock and the engine to stall. Power steering will be lost. Failure to apply brakes gradually
can result in injury or death.
19. Rapid operation repeatedly of service brakes will consume compressed air supply and
cause automatic spring brake application. Failure to follow proper service brake operating
procedures may cause serious injury or death to personnel.
20. Never use the parking brake for normal braking. The wheels will lock up causing a
severe skid. A skidding vehicle could result in serious injury or death.
21. Excessive use of the service brake to control downhill speed will result in the loss of
braking power because of heat buildup.
22. Do not put the vehicle in motion until the low air pressure warning light goes out and
the alarm (buzzer) stops sounding. Air pressure gauges should indicate at least 90 psi. If warnings
continue beyond three minutes, and/or pressure gauges do not reach 90 psi, turn the ignition switch
and battery switch to OFF positions and notify unit maintenance. Failure to do this could result in
injury or death.
23. When raising the vehicle hood, ensure it is secured from falling. Do this by securing the
hood retaining bar to the bumper bracket with the safety pin. Failure to do so may damage the
vehicle or cause injury or death to personnel
24. All personnel must stand clear of towing vehicle and trailer during coupling and
uncoupling operations. Failure to comply with this warning may result in serious injury or death.
25. Before moving trailer, ensure all loose equipment is properly stowed and that nothing
will drag on the ground. If trailer is loaded, ensure that load is properly secured. Failure to follow
this warning may result in injury to personnel or damage to equipment.
26. If trailer is not coupled to towing vehicle, ensure the trailer wheels are securely chocked.
Failure to do so may cause the trailer to roll, resulting in injury to personnel or damage to
equipment.
F. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS.
1. Ensure that all hazardous materials and wastes are stored and labeled properly.
2. Ensure that spill kits are within reach when changing or adding vehicle fluids or in the
case of vehicle failures. Spill kits should enable the soldiers to contain a spill on land or in water.
3. Ensure that drip pans remain under parked vehicles.
4. Ensure that containers are the proper size and type for draining vehicle fluids.
G. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND INFORMATION. Recommended testing time is 4.0
hours.
7-5
TC 21-305-3
NAME _____________________________________ RANK __________ DATE __________
Instructions for Test
A. This test consists of 30 multiple choice questions.
B. Read all questions and answers carefully; then write the answer that is MOST correct on the
blank line to the left.
C. Any unanswered questions will be scored as incorrect responses.
___________1. In which gear do you start the engine?
a. 1-5.
b. 1-3.
c. “P”.
d. “N”.
___________2. What should you do when stopping the vehicle with a load?
a. Use the engine as a brake.
b. Downshift the transmission.
c. Use the service brakes.
d. All of the above.
___________3. How do you gain access to the battery compartment?
a. Raise the two-person crew seat.
b. Raise the hood.
c. Open the access door on the right fender.
d. Open the access panel above the right running board.
7-6
TC 21-305-3
___________4. The brake system in the M939 series vehicles is -a. An air over hydraulic system.
b. An air brake system.
c. A hydraulic over air system.
d. A hydraulic system.
___________5. For normal driving conditions, use which transmission gear range?
a. 1-5.
b. 1-4.
c. 1-3.
d. 1-2.
___________6. The recommended method of braking this truck is –
a. Push pedal down hard until the tires start to slide.
b. Continuously apply and release the brake pedal - pump the brakes.
c. Apply brakes gradually when slowing or stopping.
d. Deploy the parachute.
___________7. How many personnel are authorized to ride in the cab?
a. 1.
b. 2.
c. 3.
d. As many as can get in the cab.
___________8. The maximum hard bottom fording depth is how many inches?
a. 30.
b. 36.
c. 40.
d. 48.
7-7
TC 21-305-3
___________9. What braking procedure is used when stopping on ice or snow?
a. There is no specific method for applying the brakes.
b. Hit the brake pedal hard.
c. Ride the brakes.
d. Pump the brakes gradually.
___________10. What color will the air cleaner indicator show when it needs servicing?
a. Yellow.
b. Green.
c. Blue.
d. Red.
___________11. The spring brake warning light illuminates when -a. Spring brakes are not engaged.
b. There is too much tension on spring brake.
c. There is not enough tension on spring brake.
d. Spring brakes are engaged.
___________12. What is the purpose of the slave receptacle?
a. Of no purpose.
b. Hooks up to AC current to play your radio.
c. Is the plug-in point to slave start your vehicle when batteries have become
discharged.
d. To power auxillary work lights.
7-8
TC 21-305-3
___________13. What is the purpose of the tire davit boom?
a. To hold the spare tire in place.
b. To assist the driver in lifting and guiding the spare tire over the side of the truck.
c. To assist in replacing davits.
d. To raise the truck.
___________14. At what interval must the air tanks be drained?
a. After daily operation.
b. During daily operation.
c. Weekly operation.
d. Monthly operation.
___________15. What sequence and interval is used when performing PMCS?
a. No specific sequence or interval.
b. Any way that gets the job completed.
c. Made in the sequence as listed and at the designated intervals as set forth in the
operator’s (-10) manual.
d. Conduct weekly checks prior to any daily checks.
___________16. Do not operate the starter continuously for more than how many seconds?
a. 5.
b. 8.
c. 10.
d. 15.
7-9
TC 21-305-3
___________17. The air pressure gauge must read how many psi before the warning light goes out
and the warning buzzer stops?
a. 30 to 40.
b. 40 to 50.
c. 50 to 60.
d. 90 to 150.
___________18. What is a safe engine oil pressure gauge reading?
a. 15 psi or higher.
b. 10 psi.
c. 5 psi.
d. Any of the above.
___________19. When do you upshift and downshift the transmission selector lever?
a. When you want to.
b. When you reach the bottom of a grade.
c. As necessary whenever driving conditions change.
d. Never.
___________20. What is the maximum safe speed, in MPH, for shifting the transfer shift lever
from high range to low range?
a. 42.
b. 32.
c. 30.
d. 22.
7-10
TC 21-305-3
___________21. All M939 series vehicles are equipped with what type of hood?
a. A tilt forward hood.
b. A tilt back hood.
c. A split hood.
d. Cab over.
___________22. Which way should the vehicle face when parking in sand or extremely cold
weather?
a. Into the wind.
b. No specific way.
c. Away from the wind.
d. Sideways.
___________23. The purpose of the hand throttle is for which one of the following?
a. Engine warm-up and material handling equipment.
b. Highway operation, using it as a “cruise control”.
c. Raising and lowering the heavy hood.
d. Lowering the spare tire.
___________24. Hearing protection is required for -a. The driver only.
b. The assistant driver only.
c. Anyone working around the vehicle when the engine is running.
d. All the above.
7-11
TC 21-305-3
___________25. When the air brake pressure falls below 50 to 60 psi the low air pressure warning
light will -a. Start flashing.
b. Illuminate.
c. Go out.
d. Do nothing.
___________26. The two air pressure gauges found on the M939 series vehicles are -a. Primary and Secondary.
b. Primary and backup.
c. Secondary and backup.
d. Over and under.
___________27. What is the purpose of the emergency engine stop control?
a. Cuts off fuel to the engine and can be used at anytime.
b. Cuts off fuel to the engine in emergency situations only.
c. Cuts off fuel to engine if fuel pump delivers too much fuel to engine.
d. Disengages the ignition system.
___________28. When does the warning alarm buzzer sound?
a. Only when parking brakes are engaged.
b. The air-brake system pressure drops below 50 to 60 psi or when parking brake is
engaged.
c. Only when air-brake system pressure drops below 50 to 60 psi.
d. When spring brakes are applied.
7-12
TC 21-305-3
___________29. The transmission selector lever must be in what position to shift transfer case shift
lever?
a. “N”.
b. “1”.
c. “5”.
d. In any position.
___________30. How do you accelerate when operating in a sandy environment?
a. Any way.
b. Rapidly.
c. Slowly.
d. Run the engine to 1,500 rpm, then shift the transmission to 1-2.
7-13
TC 21-305-3
1. d
16. c
2. d
17. c
3. a
18. a
4. b
19. c
5. a
20. d
6. c
21. a
7. c
22. c
8. a
23. a
9. d
24. d
10. d
25. b
11. d
26. a
12. c
27. b
13. b
28. b
14. a
29. a
15. c
30. c
7-14
TC 21-305-3
NAME _____________________________________ RANK __________ DATE __________
Instructions for Test
A. This test consists of 30 multiple choice questions.
B. Read all questions and answers carefully; then write the answer that is MOST correct on the
blank line to the left.
C. Any unanswered questions will be scored as incorrect responses.
___________1. What is the purpose of the emergency engine stop control?
a. Cuts off fuel to the engine in emergency situations only.
b. Cuts off fuel to the engine and can be used at anytime.
c. Cuts off fuel to engine if fuel pump delivers too much fuel to engine.
d. Disengages the ignition system.
___________2. When does the warning alarm buzzer sound?
a. Only when parking brakes are engaged.
b. The air-brake system pressure drops below 50 to 60 psi or when parking brake is
engaged.
c. Only when air-brake system pressure drops below 50 to 60 psi.
d. When spring brakes are applied.
___________3. The spring brake warning light illuminates when -a. Spring brakes are not engaged.
b. There is too much tension on spring brake.
c. There is not enough tension on spring brake.
d. Spring brakes are engaged.
7-15
TC 21-305-3
___________4. The transmission selector lever must be in what position to shift transfer case shift
lever?
a. “5”.
b. “1”.
c. “N”.
d. In any position.
___________5. How do you accelerate when operating in a sandy environment?
a. Any way.
b. Rapidly.
c. Slowly.
d. Run the engine to 1,500 rpm, then shift the transmission to 1-2.
___________6. The brake system in the M939 series vehicles is -a. An air over hydraulic system.
b. An air brake system.
c. A hydraulic over air system.
d. A hydraulic system.
___________7. Hearing protection is required for -a. The driver only.
b. The assistant driver only.
c. Anyone working around the vehicle when the engine is running.
d. All of the above.
7-16
TC 21-305-3
___________8. The maximum hard bottom fording depth is how many inches?
a. 30.
b. 36.
c. 40.
d. 48.
___________9. What is the purpose of the slave receptacle?
a. Of no purpose.
b. Hooks up to AC current to play your radio.
c. Is the plug-in point to slave start your vehicle when batteries have become
discharged.
d. To power auxillary work lights.
___________10. For normal driving conditions, use which transmission gear range?
a. 1-5.
b. 1-4.
c. 1-3.
d. 1-2.
___________11. The recommended method of braking this truck is –
a. Push pedal down hard until the tires start to slide.
b. Continuously apply and release the brake pedal - pump the brakes.
c. Apply brakes gradually when slowing or stopping.
d. Deploy the parachute.
7-17
TC 21-305-3
___________12. How many personnel are authorized to ride in the cab?
a. 1.
b. 2.
c. 3.
d. As many as can get in the cab.
___________13. What sequence and interval is used when performing PMCS?
a. No specific sequence or interval.
b. Any way that gets the job completed.
c. Made in the sequence as listed and at the designated intervals as set forth in the
operator’s (-10) manual.
d. Conduct weekly checks prior to any daily checks.
___________14. Do not operate the starter continuously for more than how many seconds?
a. 5.
b. 8.
c. 10.
d. 15.
___________15. What is the purpose of the tire davit boom?
a. To hold the spare tire in place.
b. To assist the driver in lifting and guiding the spare tire over the side of the truck.
c. To assist in replacing davits.
d. To raise the truck.
7-18
TC 21-305-3
___________16. At what interval must the air tanks be drained?
a. During daily operation.
b. After daily operation.
c. Weekly operation.
d. Monthly operation.
___________17. The air pressure gauge must read how many psi before the warning light goes out
and the warning buzzer stops?
a. 30 to 40.
b. 40 to 50.
c. 50 to 60.
d. 90 to 150.
___________18. What is a safe engine oil pressure gauge reading?
a. 15 psi or higher.
b. 10 psi.
c. 5 psi.
d. Any of the above.
___________19. Which way should the vehicle face when parking in sand or extremely cold
weather?
a. Into the wind.
b. No specific way.
c. Away from the wind.
d. Sideways.
7-19
TC 21-305-3
___________20. When the air brake pressure falls below 50 to 60 psi the low air pressure warning
light will -a. Illuminate.
b. Start flashing.
c. Go out.
d. Do nothing.
___________21. All M939 series vehicles are equipped with what type of hood?
a. A tilt back hood.
b. A tilt forward hood.
c. A split hood.
d. Cab over.
___________22. The purpose of the hand throttle is for which one of the following?
a. Engine warm-up and material handling equipment.
b. Highway operation, using it as a “cruise control”.
c. Raising and lowering the heavy hood.
d. Lowering the spare tire.
___________23. The two air pressure gauges found on the M939 series vehicles are -a. Primary and backup.
b. Secondary and backup.
c. Over and under.
d. Primary and Secondary .
7-20
TC 21-305-3
___________24. In which gear do you start the engine?
a. 1-5.
b. 1-3.
c. “P”.
d. “N”.
___________25. When do you upshift and downshift the transmission selector lever?
a. When you want to.
b. When you reach the bottom of a grade.
c. As necessary whenever driving conditions change.
d. Never.
___________26. What is the maximum safe speed, in MPH, for shifting the transfer shift lever
from high range to low range?
a. 42.
b. 32.
c. 30.
d. 22.
___________27. What should you do when stopping the vehicle with a load?
a. Use the engine as a brake.
b. Downshift the transmission.
c. Use the service brakes.
d. All of the above.
7-21
TC 21-305-3
___________28. How do you gain access to the battery compartment?
a. Raise the two-person crew seat.
b. Raise the hood.
c. Open the access door on the right fender.
d. Open the access panel above the right running board.
___________29. What braking procedure is used when stopping on ice or snow?
a. There is no specific method for applying the brakes.
b. Hit the brake pedal hard.
c. Ride the brakes.
d. Pump the brakes gradually.
___________30. What color will the air cleaner indicator show when it needs servicing?
a. Yellow.
b. Red.
c. Green.
d. Blue.
7-22
TC 21-305-3
1. a
16. b
2. b
17. c
3. d
18. a
4. c
19. a
5. c
20. a
6. b
21. b
7. d
22. a
8. a
23. d
9. c
24. d
10. a
25. c
11. c
26. d
12. c
27. d
13. c
28. a
14. c
29. d
15. b
30. b
7-23
TC 21-305-3
INTERMEDIATE TRAINING OBJECTIVE 2
DRIVER’S PERFORMANCE TEST (ROAD TEST) INSTRUCTIONS
1.
GENERAL.
a. This test is to be conducted according to the guidelines set forth in AR 600-55. Also, the
specific directions for this test are to be followed without deviation. No omissions or changes in the
wording of these directions are permitted.
b. The purpose of the road test is to evaluate the driver’s ability to drive safely in most onthe-road situations. It serves as the basis for the issuance of an operator’s permit and provides a
means for instructional reinforcement and counseling. Driving weaknesses that surface as a result of
the test should be called to the attention of the examinee so that specific steps can be taken to
eliminate these weaknesses.
c. Final evaluations will be recorded on DA Form 348 (or ULLS generated DA Form 348E). Once this transfer of information has been accomplished, the completed DA Form 6125-R will
be destroyed.
d. The examiner will be a thoroughly qualified operator of the M939 series 5-ton cargo
truck. He will also be familiar with the road test route and the testing procedures as set forth in
AR 600-55 and this TC. Before administering the test to any examinees, he must practice
administering the test to a regular licensed driver qualified on the M939 series vehicles (must be
specifically qualified on the model he is driving, such as M923A2 or M923) This practice
administration will help him become acquainted with the test route and testing procedures.
NOTE: Operators trained in trailer operations will perform these tests with the trailer connected to
the vehicle.
e. The road test will consist of three scored phases: the PMCS test, the vehicle control test,
and the on-the-road driving test. The driver will be tested on these phases in the order listed and will
not move on to the next phase until successfully passing the previous phase. If the driver fails any
phase of the test, the entire road test will be terminated at that point and the examiner will annotate
the DA Form 6125-R and conduct an AAR with the driver. This procedure will help to ensure that
only safe and proficient drivers get behind the wheel of the M939 series vehicles.
2.
SETTING UP THE ROAD TEST. For the road test, the driver drives a predetermined
route. To set up the test, the examiner must plan the route to be used. Once a route is established
(in a given locality) it should be used for all examinees who are to be tested in the M939 series
vehicles. Should it prove necessary to vary the route, care should be taken that the different kinds of
route requirements, as well as the number of requirements remain the same. Every road test route
will meet the following requirements (to the extent possible):
7-24
TC 21-305-3
a. An area to conduct PMCS.
(1) The site should be a flat parking area suitable for heavy vehicles.
(2) There should be at least 8 feet of open space around the vehicle. This will give
the driver room to conduct the inspection and the examiner room to observe the driver’s inspection
performance.
(3) The site should be quiet enough that the examiner can hear the driver explain
what he is doing during the inspection.
(4) Avoid using a parking space on a street or any place where traffic is passing
close by.
b. A vehicle control test area with the following maneuvers:
(1) Forward stop (see Figure 6-5). Pull vehicle forward through a straight alley
and then stop the vehicle so that the frontmost part of the vehicle is within 2 feet of the forward stop
line.
(2) Straight line backing (see Figure 6-5). Back the vehicle through a straight alley
and then stop the vehicle so that the frontmost part of the vehicle is within 2 feet of the stop line.
(3) Right turn (see Figure 6-6). Drive the vehicle forward about 30 to 50 feet, and
then turn the vehicle right around a cone or other point. Bring the rear tires of the vehicle within 18
inches from the cone without touching it.
(4) Alley dock (see Figure 6-7). Pull the vehicle forward past the alley, keeping the
alley entrance on the left. Back in a curved path into the alley without touching the sides and stop
the rear of the vehicle within 2 feet of the stop line at the rear of the alley.
c. On-the-road driving test with the following maneuvers:
(1) Eight left turns and eight right turns. Include turns at traffic lights, stop signs,
and uncontrolled intersections. The turns should range from easy to somewhat difficult for a heavy
vehicle. Get a mixture of types of intersections so that they vary in complexity.
(2) A straight section of urban business streets. The section should be 1 to 2 miles
long with moderate traffic density. It should contain through intersections and intersections with
traffic lights. Try to get a section where the driver can make lane changes somewhere along the
route. The section should be one that lets the examiner see how the driver copes with traffic in a
typical business area.
(3) Two through intersections and two intersections where a stop has to be made.
If possible, these intersections should be included in the urban section.
(4) Two railway crossings. Try to get at least one uncontrolled crossing. The
crossing should have enough sight distance for the examiner to see if the driver makes head search
movements when approaching each crossing. The driver’s attempt to look left and right down the
7-25
TC 21-305-3
track will often be the only way to tell if the driver noticed the crossing. If the area does not have
any railway crossings, simulate this exercise.
(5) Two curves, one to the left and one to the right. Try to get curves tight enough
to produce noticeable off-tracking.
(6) A two-lane rural or semirural road. This section should be about 2 miles long.
If there is no rural road near the motor pool, an industrial street with few entrances and a higher
speed limit is a good substitute. An undeveloped suburban road is another good substitute. In
general, use any road that has characteristics similar to a rural road.
(7) A section of expressway. The section should start with a conventional ramp
entrance and end with a conventional ramp exit. The section should be long enough for the M939
series 5-ton cargo truck to make two lane changes. A section of four-lane highway can be used if
there is no expressway is available.
(8) A downgrade. The grade should be steep enough and long enough to require
gearing down and braking. A steep short hill is the next best choice if a long grade cannot be found.
If the local area does not have any steep grades, simulate this exercise.
(9) An upgrade. The grade should be steep enough and long enough to require gear
changing to maintain speed. A steep short hill is the next best choice if a long grade cannot be
found. If it is hard to find steep grades in the local area, use the same grade for both the downgrade
and the upgrade.
(10) A downgrade for stopping. This is a grade where a vehicle can safely stop (or
pull off) and park for a minute or so. The grade only needs to be steep enough to cause a vehicle to
roll if the driver does not park properly. If the local area does not have any steep grades, simulate
this exercise.
(11) An upgrade for stopping. This is another grade where a vehicle can safely
stop and park for a minute or so. If needed, use the same grade as was used for the downgrade stop.
(12) One underpass or low clearance and one bridge. The underpass should have a
posted clearance height. The bridge should have a posted weight limit. If the local area does not
have underpasses or bridges with posted limits, use ones that do not have posted limits. If needed,
substitute a bridge for an underpass or an underpass for a bridge. If the local area does not have any
low clearances or bridges, look for places that have signs an M939 series vehicle driver should see.
Examples of such signs are “No Commercial Vehicles after 11:00 PM” or “Bridge with 12 Ton
Weight Limit in 2 Miles.”
d. Route design.
(1) When designing a route, try to include all of the specified maneuvers. If there is
not an ideal example for a maneuver, find the closest substitute. Do not drop a maneuver because
there is not an ideal example. The most important thing is to have a route that tests the driver in as
wide a variety of situations as possible.
7-26
TC 21-305-3
(2) There is no minimum length for a route and no minimum amount of time that a
route must take. A route is acceptable whenever it has all the specified maneuvers. It is a good idea
to have at least two routes available so that there is an alternate route if construction or traffic
prevents using the primary route.
3.
ADMINISTERING THE ROAD TEST.
a. Preventing accidents.
(1) Road tests should normally NOT be given if road or weather conditions present
a hazard such as ice, snow, rain, or blowing dust. The exception is when testing is specifically for
driving under such conditions.
(2) The examiner must always watch traffic conditions and warn the examinee of
dangers which he may not see. If the driver becomes involved in a dangerous or unlawful moving
traffic incident or an accident, terminate the test immediately. The examiner will drive the vehicle
back to the start point once on-scene responsibilities are fulfilled.
b. Beginning the road test.
(1) Fill in the driver’s name and your name (examiner’s) on the front of the Road
Test Score Sheet. (A sample of a completed DA Form 6125-R is shown in Figure 7-1, page 7-28
and Figure 7-2, page 7-29). A reproducible DA Form 6125-R is located at the back of AR 600-55.
Read the following instructions to the driver at the beginning of the test:
DURING THE ROAD TEST, I WILL GIVE YOU DIRECTIONS AS WE GO ALONG.
I WILL ALWAYS GIVE DIRECTIONS FOR TURNS, AND SO ON, AS FAR IN ADVANCE AS
POSSIBLE.
THERE WILL BE NO TRICK DIRECTIONS TO GET YOU TO DO SOMETHING ILLEGAL OR
UNSAFE.
KEEP IN MIND THAT YOU ARE ALWAYS IN CHARGE OF THE VEHICLE. DO NOT FOLLOW
A DIRECTION IF IT TURNS OUT AT THE LAST MINUTE TO LEAD TO AN UNSAFE ACT.
AS WE GO ALONG, I WILL BE MAKING VARIOUS MARKS ON THE SCORING FORM. WHEN
YOU SEE THIS, IT DOES NOT NECESSARILY MEAN YOU HAVE DONE ANYTHING WRONG.
IT IS BEST FOR YOU TO CONCENTRATE ON DRIVING AND NOT WORRY ABOUT WHAT I
AM DOING.
YOUR SCORED TEST BEGINS WITH BEFORE-OPERATIONS PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
CHECKS AND SERVICES. IF YOU ARE SUCCESSFUL IN THAT PORTION OF THE TEST,
YOU WILL PROCEED TO THE VEHICLE CONTROL TEST, AND FINALLY TO THE ON-THEROAD DRIVING TEST.
ARE THERE ANY QUESTIONS?
7-27
TC 21-305-3
DATE
ROAD TEST SCORE SHEET
For use of this form, see AR 600-55; the proponent agency is OCSA
NAME OF DRIVER
7 MAR 97
NAME OF EXAMINER
BROOKS, CHARLES
SSAN
BAJSERT, BRIAN
SCORE
000-00-0000
ROUTE
-22
PRIMARY
STOP/START ON GRADE
Approach
EXPRESSWAY
Up
Traffic check .................................................
Signal On ......................................................
Maintains spacing ..........................................
Avoids stopping .............................................
Smooth merge ...............................................
Cancel signal .................................................
SA
M
PL
E
Traffic check .................................................
Signal On ......................................................
Moves to proper lane ......................................
Smooth deceleration .......................................
Does not coast to stop ...................................
Stop
-
-
DRIVING UP GRADE
DRIVING DOWN GRADE
Clear brakes ..................................................
In proper gear ................................................
Steady braking on grade .................................
Does not ride clutch .......................................
Maintain steady speed ....................................
Traffic check .................................................
Right
-
GENERAL DRIVING BEHAVIOR
In proper gear ................................................
Stays in right lane ..........................................
Uses 4-ways if slow .......................................
Traffic check .................................................
SEARCH .......................................................
DIRECTION....................................................
SPEED..........................................................
No errors .......................................................
Left
Exit
Traffic check .................................................
Signal on .......................................................
Smooth merge to exit lane ..............................
Decelerate in exit lane ....................................
Adequate spacing ..........................................
Correct ramp speed ........................................
Cancel signal .................................................
SEARCH .......................................................
DIRECTION...................................................
SPEED..........................................................
No errors ......................................................
Traffic check .................................................
4-ways off/signal on .......................................
Release parking brake.....................................
Did not stall engine .........................................
Traffic check .................................................
Accelerate to traffic fow .................................
SEARCH .......................................................
DIRECTION....................................................
SPEED..........................................................
No errors .......................................................
Lane Changes
Traffic check .................................................
Signal on .......................................................
Adequate spacing ...........................................
Smooth lane change .......................................
Cancel signal .................................................
Vehicle parallel to curb ...................................
Vehicle does not roll .......................................
Signal off/4-ways on ......................................
Parking brake on ............................................
Resume
Merge On
Down
-
Use clutch properly (to shift, double clutched, didn't ride) ............
Used gears properly (not over-rev/lug engine, clash gears, coast) ..
Used brakes properly (no hard braking, no riding or pumping
brake) ....................................................................................
Proper steering (both hands on wheel, not over/under steer) .........
Obeyed all traffic signs and signals ............................................
Drove without an accident ........................................................
Never put vehicle over sidewalks, lane markings, stop lines, etc. ...
Examiner was never thrown to left, right, or forward ...................
Driver was never forced to take evasive action ...........................
Wore seat belt ........................................................................
Yielded right of way to pedestrians ............................................
Yielded right of way to other vehicles, as appropriate ..................
No errors ................................................................................
-
NOTES
Before-operations PMCS satisfactory.
SEARCH .......................................................
DIRECTION....................................................
SPEED..........................................................
No errors .......................................................
DA FORM 6125-R, AUG 93
7-28
EDITION OF MAR 65 IS OBSOLETE.
USAPPC V1.00
TC 21-305-3
RIGHT TURNS
LEFT TURNS
Approach
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Traffic check ................
Signal on ......................
Smooth deceleration .....
Did not coast to start of
turn .............................
Correct lane to begin
turn .............................
1
2
3
Checks for trains ................................
Followed relevant laws ........................
Did not change gears ..........................
Did not stop on tracks .........................
No errors ...........................................
If Vehicle Stops
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
RAILWAY CROSSINGS
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Gap to vehicle in front ...
Not over stop line ..........
Came to full stop ...........
Wheels straight ahead....
Stop was necessary ......
Turning
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
E
L
P
M
SA
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Traffic check ................
Both hands on wheel .....
No gear change .............
Proper speed.................
Turn not too wide/short
Completes Turn
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Turned into correct lane..
Traffic Check ................
Cancel signal.................
Accelerated to traffic
flow .............................
SEARCH.......................
DIRECTION...................
SPEED..........................
No errors ......................
-
-
INTERSECTIONS
Stopping
Urban Rural
1 2
Traffic check ..............................................
Smooth deceleration ....................................
Did not coast to stop ...................................
Gap to vehicle in front .................................
Not over stop line ........................................
Came to full stop .........................................
Driving Through
-
-
LANE CHANGES
Left Right
REVERSE OF DA FORM 6125-R, AUG 93
CURVES
- - --- -- -
Regular traffic check .........................................
Selects proper lane ...........................................
Keeps vehicle in lane .........................................
Adequate following distance ..............................
Appropriate speed..............................................
Traffic check ....................................................
Signal one........................................................
Adequate spacing..............................................
Smooth lane change..........................................
Cancel signal....................................................
No errors..........................................................
-
Left Right
STRAIGHT SECTIONS
SEARCH..........................................................
.......................................................
DIRECTION
SPEED.............................................................
No errors .........................................................
Know weight limit on bridge ................
No error..............................................
Know clearance of underpass ...............
No errors............................................
Reduce speed on entering ....................
Maintain speed going through ...............
Stay in lane ........................................
Traffic check ......................................
No errors ...........................................
URBAN/RURAL
Regular traffic
BRIDGE/UNDERPASS
-
-
1 2
3 4
Traffic check ..............................................
Yields as necessary .....................................
No lane change ...........................................
No gear change...........................................
Accelerates to traffic flow ............................
SEARCH ....................................................
DIRECTION.................................................
SPEED........................................................
No errors ....................................................
- - - USAPPC V1.00
7-29
TC 21-305-3
(2) The road test actually begins when the driver starts his before-operations
PMCS. If the driver performs the PMCS to appropriate standards, the examiner will annotate in the
NOTES section of the DA Form 6125-R “Before-operations PMCS satisfactory.” If he does not
perform PMCS to the examiner’s satisfaction, the examiner will stop the road test at that point and
fail the driver. In this situation, the examiner will annotate “Before-operations PMCS
unsatisfactory” in the NOTES section, list specific deficiencies if any, and refer the driver for further
training. The examiner will follow the same procedures for grading during- and after-operations
PMCS.
(3) If the driver successfully completes the before-operations PMCS, he will
proceed to the vehicle control test. It is important to ensure that the driver is proficient in basic
vehicle control skills before taking him on the road with other traffic.
(a) Upon arrival at the vehicle control test site, give the driver an overview
of all four exercises (forward stop, straight line backing, right turn, and alley dock). Use a diagram
of the site to show the driver what to do, and explain that he will get detailed instructions for each
exercise as it comes up. When he is ready, the driver gets into the vehicle and proceeds to the first
exercise for instructions.
(b) The examiner will evaluate the exercises from the ground and observe
the driver’s ability to control the vehicle during each maneuver. If the driver demonstrates
satisfactory vehicle control skills, the examiner will indicate in the NOTES section “Vehicle control
test satisfactory.” If the driver is unable to satisfactorily negotiate the course, the examiner will stop
the road test and fail the driver at that point. The examiner will indicate in the NOTES section
“Vehicle control test unsatisfactory,” indicate specific weaknesses if any, and refer the driver for
further training.
(4) If the driver satisfactorily completes the vehicle control test, he will proceed to
the driving portion of the road test. When the driver is ready, get into the vehicle with the driver and
start giving directions for following the road test route. Give the directions in this form: At the
(location), make (maneuver). For example, “At the next intersection, turn right,” or “At the stop
sign, turn left.”
(5) If necessary, give combined directions. For example, “Immediately after you
complete your right turn, you will have to turn left into that road over there.”
(6) Avoid using commercial signs or buildings as landmarks for directions unless
there is no alternative. Do not assume that the driver is familiar enough with the area that he knows
such landmarks.
(7) Give directions well before the maneuver is to be performed. Always give a
direction at a point where the driver can see where he will do the maneuver. However, give the
directions close enough to the location so the driver can be sure of where to do the maneuver. For
example, do not tell the driver to turn at the next intersection if there is another intersection before
the one where you want the driver to turn.
7-30
TC 21-305-3
(8) In addition to directions for getting the driver around the route, there are some
directions to give for the expressway, urban straight, and rural sections.
(a) At the beginning of the expressway section say, “We will be driving
along this expressway for about (2 or however many) miles. When it is safe to do so, make a lane
change to the left. Then when it is safe to do so, make a lane change to the right.”
(b) At the beginning of the urban straight section, say, “We will be driving
along this street for about (2 or however many) miles. When it is safe to do so, make a lane change
to the left. Then when it is safe to do so, make a lane change back to the right. When we get near
the end of this section, I will tell you what to do next.”
(c) At the beginning of the rural section, say, “We will be driving along this
road for about (2 or however many) miles. When we get near the end, I will tell you what to do
next.”
(9) In general, give all directions in a way that avoids distracting the driver. Also,
avoid unnecessary conversation.
4.
SCORING THE ROAD TEST.
a. The scoring form for the road test is DA Form 6125-R, a two-sided single sheet. (A
sample of a completed DA Form 6125-R is at Figures 7-1 and 7-2). A reproducible DA Form 6125R is located at the back of AR 600-55. The main headings in the boxes give the names of the
different maneuvers. Each maneuver has a list of driver behaviors to be scored. Beside each
behavior is a letter “O” used for marking the driver for the behavior. In cases where a maneuver is
done several times on the route, there is a column of O’s for each time the maneuver appears on the
route.
b. To score a behavior, draw a stroke through the O whenever the driver’s performance is
unsatisfactory. Make no mark if the driver performs the behavior correctly. For each maneuver,
there is a “No Errors” category at the bottom of the list of behaviors. There is a space beside “No
Errors” where you can put a check mark if the driver is satisfactory on all behaviors. These check
marks will show that you scored the driver even if the driver made no errors.
c. The only other marking that needs to be done on the test is to indicate maneuvers that
were not done. A maneuver might not be done because you missed it for some reason or because
there was no opportunity for it on the route. To show that a maneuver was not performed, draw a
vertical line down through the entire column of O’s used for marking that maneuver.
d. To score the maneuver, follow these steps:
(1) Find the maneuver on the score sheet and be ready to mark it.
(2) Check the driver and the traffic. When the driver can pay attention, give the
directions for the next maneuver.
7-31
TC 21-305-3
(3) Watch the driver perform the maneuver.
(4) Mark the score sheet.
e. Mark the driver’s score sheet immediately after each maneuver. Do not try to remember
what the driver did and mark the sheet later on in the route or back at the office.
f. The following paragraphs describe how to mark the score sheet for each type of
maneuver:
(1) Stop/start on a grade. There are two columns of O’s to mark: one for the
upgrade stop and one for the downgrade stop. The columns are labeled “Up” and “Down.” The
behaviors are organized in three groups: approach, stop, and resume. Score each group separately
as the driver does them. Score the approach as soon as the driver comes to a stop. Then check the
stop behaviors and score them before telling the driver to continue. After the driver pulls away,
score the rest of the behaviors.
(2) Expressway. Score the expressway section in three phases: merge on, lane
changes, and exit. Mark each phase as the driver completes it. There are two columns of O’s for
the lane changes. Mark the one labeled “Left” for the lane change to the left. Mark the one labeled
“Right” for the lane change to the right.
(3) Driving upgrade and driving downgrade. Driving up a grade and driving down
a grade are scored separately. Observe how the driver handles the grade and score the behaviors
listed. It is especially important that the driver uses the proper gear and appropriate signals and
speed on grades because these can affect other traffic.
(4) General driving behavior. General behaviors such as gear changing should be
marked at the end of the test. Specific actions such as traffic violations can be marked when they
happen. There is also space to write notes. Use this space to make notes of things that do not fit
into any scoring categories or to record any unusual events during the test. Remember to draw a
vertical line through behaviors that are not graded, such as use of clutch when grading on the M939
series vehicle.
(5) Turns. There are eight columns of O’s on the left of the box; eight columns of
O’s on the right (see Figure 7-2). The columns on the left are for left turns. The ones on the right
are for right turns. The columns are numbered according to the order in which the turns occur on the
route. Column 1 of the left turn columns is for the first left turn on the route, column 2 is for the
second turn, and so on. The first few times an examiner uses a route, it is a good idea to write the
names of the locations of the turns at the tops of the columns. This will help keep track of the turns
until the route is completely memorized.
(a) Mark a turn in four steps: “Approach,” “If Vehicle Stops,” “Turning,”
and “Completes Turn.” Mark the “If Vehicle Stops” section only if the driver has to make a legal
stop before starting the turn, such as at a traffic light, a stop sign, or yield sign. Do not mark this
section if the driver stops for some other reason, such as being blocked by other vehicles part way
around the turn.
7-32
TC 21-305-3
(b) It is important to observe whether the driver is aware of his vehicle
position throughout the turn, because it can affect other traffic. If there is more than one left turn
lane, the driver should start his turn from the rightmost turn lane.
(6) Railway crossing. This section has three columns for scoring. The ones labeled
“1” and “2” are for actual railway crossings on the route. The one labeled “S” is for the simulated
crossing. Vehicles transporting passengers or hauling hazardous cargo are required by law to stop
between 15 and 50 feet from the nearest railroad crossing and take whatever actions are necessary
(for example an open window) to look and listen for trains.
(7) Bridge/underpass. There is one space for marking a bridge and one for marking
an underpass.
(8) Curves. There are two columns for scoring curves. The one labeled “Left” is
for a curve that turns to the left. The column labeled “Right” is for a curve that turns to the right.
Drivers should reduce to a safe speed before entering the curve, then maintain that speed during the
curve.
(9) Urban/rural straight sections. This section has two columns. Use the one
labeled “Urban” for the urban section. Use the one labeled “Rural” for the rural section. In most
cases you will mark the driver when he gets to the end of the section. However, if you see the driver
make an error while driving along the section, such as driving in the wrong lane, mark the error as
soon as you see it. The driver should drive in the right lane if it is clear or in the center lane if the
right lane is blocked or has a large volume of merging traffic.
(10) Lane changes. The column labeled “Left” is for a lane change to the left. The
column labeled “Right” is for a lane change to the right. The lane changes are part of the urban
section (in addition to the expressway section). Mark each lane change as soon as the driver makes
it.
(11) Intersections. There are four columns for marking the driver on intersections.
Columns 1 and 2 are for intersections where the driver has to make a legal stop; for example, at a
traffic light or a stop sign. Columns 3 and 4 are for marking intersections that the driver goes
straight through. There are two phases to marking a stop intersection, stopping and driving through.
For a stop intersection, driving through items cover the time from when the driver starts off from the
stop to when the driver resumes normal traffic speed. For a driving through intersection, you only
mark columns 3 and 4. The urban straight section normally has more than enough intersections to
score. Start scoring the intersections as soon as the examinee begins driving along the section.
Score stop and through intersections in whatever order they come up in. It does not matter if an
intersection with traffic lights is sometimes scored as a stop intersection and sometimes scored as a
through intersection.
(12) Search, direction, and speed. Most of the grading blocks discussed above have
areas for grading search, direction, and speed in addition to the other behaviors listed. These are
general categories which the examiner should be monitoring through each exercise.
(a) Search. At all times during the road test the driver must be constantly
checking the front, sides, and rear of his vehicle for traffic, pedestrians, obstructions, emergencies,
7-33
TC 21-305-3
and so forth. During each maneuver, the examiner must observe whether the driver is checking
around him and yields right of way to other road users when appropriate.
(b) Direction. The driver must be aware of the position of his vehicle at all
times. During each maneuver, the examiner must observe the vehicle position in the lane, whether
the vehicle is in the correct lane, and whether the driver maintains the appropriate distance from
traffic, stop lines, and so on.
(c) Speed. The driver must be aware not only of his speed in comparison
with the speed limit, but how his speed affects other traffic. During each maneuver the examiner
must watch to see that the driver maintains posted speed limits, accelerates and decelerates smoothly,
uses the proper gear for his speed, and blends in with the traffic flow. The examiner must also
observe that the driver does not lug or race the engine, coast the vehicle, change gears or brake on
tracks or in the middle of intersections, stall the engine, and so forth.
(13) Driver errors at nonmarking locations. Since the examiner scores at
predetermined locations, there will be occasions when the driver makes an error at some place other
than one of these locations. Score the error in the General Driving Behavior section of the form if
appropriate. Otherwise, ignore the error. If the route has a lot of places where the examiner cannot
score the driver, the route is probably inefficient. If the driver makes errors in places where the
examiner does not score, the driver will likely make errors in places where scoring can be done. Do
not decide where to score a driver based on when the driver makes an error. Stick to scoring at the
predetermined locations.
5.
COMPUTING THE DRIVER’S SCORE.
a. Road test score sheet. At the end of the test, make sure all driver and examiner
information is completed. Check that everything is marked clearly and correctly. Be sure to cross
out maneuvers that were not done on the test. Review the scored maneuvers for repeated errors and
score errors in the general driving behavior. Carefully add the number of marked letter O’s and
write the total in the “Score” space on the front of the form. A passing score is 25 errors or less.
The driver fails the road test if he makes 26 or more errors (errors accumulated on the vehicle
control test DO NOT count toward the score on the driving portion of the road test). If the score is
close to a failing score, double-check that you have added correctly.
b. Failures. Annotate reason for failure in the Notes section; for example, “Examinee
exhibited undue nervousness.” The following are some reasons for failures:
(1) Any unsafe driving act.
(2) Failure to properly perform PMCS.
(3) Not knowing location and function of gauges and controls.
(4) Unsatisfactory performance on vehicle control test.
(5) Undue nervousness.
(6) Failure to achieve minimum passing score.
7-34
TC 21-305-3
NOTE: If the individual scores 25 errors or less, but the examiner feels that the individual needs
additional training, the examiner has the right not to issue a license.
c. After-action review. Whether the driver passes or fails, the examiner will review the
results of the road test with him and bring to his attention any weaknesses that require further
practice or training. If the driver failed, tell him what caused him to fail. Advise him that an
standard Army OF 346 cannot be issued and he will have to retake the entire performance test at a
later date. Whether pass or fail, the results must be recorded on the DA Form 6125-R.
7-35
TC 21-305-3
INTERMEDIATE TRAINING OBJECTIVE 3
PERFORMANCE TEST - OFF ROAD DRIVING
NAME _____________________________ RANK __________ UNIT ___________________
EVALUATOR _____________________________ DATE _______________________
STEPS
1.
PRESETS THE CTIS SELECTOR TO THE CROSS-COUNTRY
(X-C) MODE (M939A2 SERIES).
2.
SHIFTS THE TRANSFER CASE SHIFT LEVER WITH THE
TRANSMISSION IN THE “N” POSITION.
3.
SHIFTS THE TRANSFER CASE SHIFT LEVER WHEN
VEHICLE SPEED IS LESS THAN 22 MPH.
4.
ALLOWS CTIS AMPLE TIME TO ADJUST BEFORE
ENCOUNTERING ADVERSE TERRAIN (M939A2 SERIES).
5.
ENGAGES FRONT WHEEL DRIVE LOCK-IN ONLY WHEN
THE TRANSFER CASE IS IN HIGH RANGE.
6.
SETS THE TRANSMISSION RANGE SELECTOR TO 1 AS
NEEDED.
7.
ANTICIPATES TERRAIN AND, BEFORE NEGOTIATING,
TAKES POSITIVE ACTION TO MATCH CTIS (M939A2
SERIES), TRANSMISSION AND TRANSFER CASE GEAR
SELECTION TO TERRAIN FEATURES.
8.
DOES NOT SHIFT INTO ANY LOWER GEAR THAN IS
NECESSARY TO MAINTAIN HEADWAY.
9.
CHECKS FOR OBSTRUCTIONS/CLEARANCES AND
CHOOSES THE BEST ROUTE OF TRAVEL TO AVOID
OBSTACLES.
10.
MAINTAINS CONTROL OF THE VEHICLE.
11.
MANEUVERS AROUND, NOT OVER OBSTACLES.
7-36
GO
NO-GO
TC 21-305-3
STEPS
12.
DRIVES SLOWLY ENOUGH TO PREVENT TRUCK DAMAGE,
LOOSE OR SHIFTING CARGO, AND INJURY TO VEHICLE
OCCUPANTS.
13.
MANUALLY DOWNSHIFTS/UPSHIFTS THE TRANSMISSION
PROPERLY WHEN NECESSARY, SUCH AS ON GRADES.
14.
DOES NOT BACK THE VEHICLE WITH THE TRANSFER
CASE IN LOW.
15.
DOES NOT ALLOW THE VEHICLE TO EXCEED 5 MPH
WHEN THE TRANSFER CASE IS IN LOW AND THE
TRANSMISSION IS IN “1”.
16.
ASCENDS/DESCENDS HILLS IN A STRAIGHT APPROACH.
17.
CROSSES RAVINES AND DITCHES PROPERLY.
18.
DOES NOT EXCEED THE FORDING DEPTH/SPEED.
GO
NO-GO
7-37
TC 21-305-3
AAR after-action review
AC alternating current
AR Army regulation
ASAP as soon as possible
ATTN attention
BII basic issue items
CTIS central tire inflation system
DA Department of the Army
DD Department of Defense
E electronic (as in electronic forms)
ECU electronic control unit
EMER emergency
EOCCT end of course comprehensive test
FY fiscal year
F Fahrenheit
FM field manual
GPM ground precautionary message
HN host nation
HQ headquarters
HWY highway
ID identification
K kilometers
LO lubrication order
MP military police
METT-T mission, enemy, terrain, troops, and time available
MIN minimum
MOS military occupational specialty
MPH miles per hour
N neutral
NA not applicable
NC North Carolina
NCOIC noncommissioned officer in charge
NMC not mission capable
No. number
NSN national stock number
NY New York
OF optional form
P park
PA public address
PIN production identification number
PMCS preventive maintenance checks and services
POL petroleum, oils, and lubricants
psi pounds per square inch
PTO power take-off
Qty quantity
Glossary-1
TC 21-305-3
R reverse
rpm revolutions per minute
rqr requirement
S simulated
SF standard form
SOP standing operating procedure
SSG staff sergeant
SPC specialist
STP soldier training publication
TA training area
TACOM US Army Tank-automotive and Armaments Command
TAMMS The Army Maintenance Management System
TC training circular
TM technical manual
TRADOC United States Army Training and Doctrine Command
TVT training videotape
ULLS unit level logistics system
US United States (of America)
VCR video cassette recorder
w with
X-C cross-country
Glossary-2
TC 21-305-3
SOURCES USED
These are the sources quoted or paraphrased in this publication.
AR 385-55. Prevention of Motor Vehicle Accidents. 12 March 1987.
AR 600-55. The Army Driver and Operator Standardization Program (Selection, Training,
Testing, and Licensing). 31 December 1993.
DA Form 348. Equipment Operator’s Qualification Record (Except Aircraft). October 1964.
DA Form 2028. Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms. February 1974.
DA Form 2404. Equipment Inspection and Maintenance Worksheet. April 1979.
DA Form 2408-14. Uncorrected Fault Record. June 1994.
DA Form 5987-E. Motor Equipment Dispatch. March 1991.
DA Form 5988-E. Equipment Inspection Maintenance Worksheet. March 1991.
DA Form 6125-R. Road Test Score Sheet. August 1993.
DA Pamphlet 738-750. Functional Users Manual for the Army Maintenance Management System
(TAMMS). 1 August 1994.
DD Form 518. Accident Identification Card. October 1978.
DD Form 1970. Motor Equipment Utilization Record. April 1981.
FM 21-305. Manual for the Wheeled Vehicle Driver. 27 August 1993.
FM 101-5. Staff Organization and Operations. 25 May 1984.
LO 9-2320-272-12. Truck, 5-Ton, 6X6, M939, M939A1, and M939A2 Series (Diesel).
11 June 1990.
OF 346. US Government Motor Vehicle Operator’s Identification Card. November 1985.
SF Form 91. Motor Vehicle Accident Report. February 1993.
SF Form 94. Statement of Witness. February 1983.
STP 55-88M12-SM. Soldier’s Manual, MOS 88M, Motor Transport Operator, Skill Levels 1/2.
23 December 1993.
References-1
TC 21-305-3
TC 21-305. Training Program for Wheeled Vehicle Accident Avoidance. 19 August 1996.
TM 9-2320-272-10. Operator’s Manual for Truck, 5-Ton, 6X6, M939, M939A1, and M939A2
Series (Diesel). 15 August 1996.
TVT 20-1088. M939 Series: Operating at Risk. 1996.
TVT 55-16. The M939A2 Series Cargo Truck. 1991.
References-2
TC 21-305-3
INDEX
correct chock block placement, 4-46
DA Form 2404
fault situation, 4-7
no fault situation, 4-6
DA Form 6125-R
back, 7-29
front, 7-28
DD Form 518 (sample), 4-18
DD Form 1970 (samples), 4-12 and 4-13
decision aid, 1-7
end of course comprehensive test, 7-1
forms
DA Form 2404, 4-6 and 4-7
DA Form 6125-R, 7-28 and 7-29
DD Form 518 (sample), 4-18
DD Form 1970 (samples), 4-12 and 4-13
SF 91, pages 4-19 through 4-22
SF 94, pages 4-23 and 4-24
instructional aids, 2-1 and 2-2
instructions for driver’s performance test (road test), 7-24
intermediate training objective 1, 7-6 through 7-23
intermediate training objective 2, 7-24 through 7-35
intermediate training objective 3, 7-36 and 7-37
lesson outlines (trailer operations)
drive an M939 series cargo truck with trailer, 5-4
perform operator PMCS on trailers, 5-1
lesson outlines (truck operations)
drive an M939 series cargo truck, 4-40
drive an M939 series cargo truck at night, 4-73
drive an M939 series cargo truck off road, 4-64
drive an M939 series cargo truck on the road, 4-51
identify cab controls, instruments, and indicators, 4-31
operate the CTIS on an M939A2 series vehicle, 4-36
perform operator PMCS, 4-27
prepare DD Form 1970, 4-10
report an accident (make required entries on DD Form 518 and SF 91), 4-15
use TMs and LOs, and make entries on DA Form 2404, 4-1
practical exercise
prepare DD Form 1970, 4-14
report an accident (make required entries on DD Form 518 and SF 91), 4-25
use TMs and LOs and make entries on DA Form 2404, 4-8 and 4-9
risk management process 1-1 and 1-2
risk assessment elements, 1-3
risk assessment work sheet (sample), 1-8, 1-9. 1-10
risk control alternatives, 1-7
Index-1
TC 21-305-3
risk value
equipment, 1-6
soldier qualification, 1-3
supervision, 1-5
terrain, 1-5
time of day, 1-6
vehicle type, 1-4
weather, 1-4
sample training schedule, 3-1, 3-2, 3-3
SF 91, pages 4-19 through 4-22
SF 94
back, 4-24
front, 4-23
tables
decision aid, 1-7
equipment risk value, 1-6
soldier qualification risk value, 1-3
supervision risk value, 1-5
terrain risk value, 1-5
time of day risk value, 1-6
transmission driving range selection table, 4-43
vehicle type risk value, 1-4
weather risk value, 1-4
training areas for 5-ton cargo (samples)
alley dock, 6-8
diminishing clearance, 6-3
forward stop/straight line backing, 6-6
left and right turns, 6-7
offset alley, 6-4
serpentine course, 6-5
stopping within prescribed limits, 6-2
transmission driving range selection table, 4-43
written tests
alternate, 7-15
primary, 7-6
Index-2
TC 21-305-3
1 August 1997
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
DENNIS J. REIMER
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
DISTRIBUTION:
Active Army, Army National Guard, and US Army Reserve: To be distributed in accordance with
the initial distribution number 114938, requirements for TC 21-305-3.
PIN: 065890-000
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