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TC 21-305-7
TRAINING PROGRAM FOR
LIGHT VEHICLES
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited
HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
TC 21-305-7
Training Circular
No. 21-305-7
Headquarters,
Department of the Army
Washington, DC, 16 September 1992
TRAINING PROGRAM FOR LIGHT VEHICLES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
PREFACE
………………………………………………………………………………
ii
CHAPTER 1
RISK MANAGEMENT…………………………...…………….……..…
1-1
CHAPTER 2
INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS…………………………………………………
2-1
CHAPTER 3
SAMPLE TRAINING SCHEDULE……………………....……………..
3-1
CHAPTER 4
LESSON OUTLINES………………………………………………..……
4-1
Use Technical Manuals (TMs) and Lubrication Orders (LOs) and Make
Entries on DA Form 2404…………………………………………………..
Know Safety Rules and Procedures for Driving Under Adverse Road
Conditions…………………………………………………………………..
Identify Controls: Instruments, Indicators, and Equipment…………..…....
Perform Operator Preventive Maintenance Checks and Services (PMCS)...
Prepare DD Form 1970 (Motor Equipment Utilization Record……….…...
Report an Accident (Make Required Entries on DD Form 518 and SF 91)..
Drive Vehicle with Manual Transmission……………………………….....
Drive Vehicle with Automatic Transmission……………………..………...
Drive Vehicle on the Road (Primary and Secondary)...………….……..….
Back and Park a Vehicle……….……………………………………..…….
Drive Vehicle at Night………………….…………………….………….....
4-9
4-15
4-19
4-21
4-26
4-36
4-40
4-44
4-54
4-58
ADDITIONAL SUBJECTS – LESSON OUTLINES………………..….
5-1
Drive a Vehicle with Balanced (Pintle-Connected) Trailer...….…………...
Drive a Wheeled Vehicle in a Convoy……………………………………...
Drive a Wheeled Vehicle in a Convoy Under Blackout Conditions……..…
5-1
5-7
5-11
CHAPTER 6
SAMPLE TRAINING AREAS…………………………………..……….
6-1
CHAPTER 7
END OF COURSE COMPREHENSIVE TEST (EOCCT)……...……..
6-1
APPENDIX
GROUND GUIDE SAFETY PROCEDURES…………………………...
A-1
GLOSSARY
………………………………………………………………………...…..Glossary-1
REFERENCES
…………………………………………………………………………..References-1
CHAPTER 5
4-1
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
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TC 21-305-7
PREFACE
This training circular (TC) provides a training program for the wheeled vehicle operator of
light vehicles (2 1/2 tons or less) in accordance with AR 600-55. It provides standardized
training and testing in the operation, maintenance, and safety of light vehicles. It can be used
to train drivers of tactical or commercially designed vehicles. It stresses hands-on training
with minimal classroom instruction, but it does not include any theater-unique requirements.
Instructions are written in general terms because this TC includes driver tasks for several
vehicles. For this reason, the appropriate vehicle operator's manual must be used along with
this training circular.
During the development of this TC, it was assumed that each driver candidate would have a
state driver's license and some past driving experience. Less experienced soldiers will require
additional subjects and time to train to these standards.
To provide effective training, each instructor should ensure his operators are trained and
tested to the standards contained in this TC. Any deviation from the successful completion of
these basic standards will only lessen the soldiers' overall driving effectiveness.
This training program offers some alternatives for the commander. Chapter 5 includes
additional subjects to allow the flexibility to add subjects based on the mission of the unit.
Graduates of this training program (licensed drivers) should be supervised until they have
gained the experience to operate safely. They should not be placed in situations that may be
above their skill level. Periodically, the supervisor should ride with each driver to observe
safe operating procedures and to determine the need for additional training.
The proponent of this publication is the US Army Transportation School. Submit changes for
improving this publication on DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and
Blank Forms) and forward it to Commandant, US Army Transportation School, ATSP-TDX,
Fort Eustis, Virginia 23604-5001.
Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer
exclusively to men.
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TC 21-305-7
CHAPTER 1
RISK MANAGEMENT
1-1. BACKGROUND. Leaders at all levels must develop techniques that will save resources.
Because the Army must be prepared to operate worldwide, the training mission has become
increasingly demanding, and so have the risks inherent in that mission. This increase in risks
requires that leaders minimize or balance risks with essential mission needs.
1-2. DEFINITION. Risk can be defined as the possibility of a loss. The loss can be death,
injury, property damage, or mission failure. Risk management is the identification of risks
associated with a particular operation and the requirement to weigh these risks against the overall
training value to be gained. There are three risk management basics:
a. Accept no unnecessary risk.
b. Accept necessary risks that produce a net Army benefit.
c. Make risk decisions at the proper command level.
1-3. RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESS. The risk management process uses the following
approach:
a. Detect hazards and associated risks. Look for risks in each phase of the training or
operation.
b. Assess the risk. Ask these questions:
•
What is the likelihood of a mishap?
•
What degree of injury or equipment damage is possible?
NOTE: A low likelihood of happening and a high probability of minor injury equals low
risk. A low likelihood of happening and a high probability of a fatality equals high risk.
c. Develop risk control alternates and make risk decisions. If the risk cannot be
eliminated, then it must be controlled without sacrificing essential mission requirements.
Some risks can be controlled by modifying task standards, operational procedures,
training requirements, maintenance standards, and so forth. Decisions take several forms:
•
Selecting from available controls.
•
Trading off mission elements against risk controls.
•
Determining if controls reduce the risk to an acceptable level considering the mission
benefits.
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TC 21-305-7
d. Implement the risk control measures. Procedures for controlling risks must be
integrated into plans, orders, standing operating procedures (SOPs), and training. They
must also be integrated into other means to ensure that the risk reduction measures will
be used during actual operations.
e. Supervise the operations. Leaders use the same supervision techniques such as on-thescene, spot-checks, and performance indicators to monitor risk controls that they use to
monitor overall operations.
f. Evaluate the results. Include the effectiveness of risk management controls in the
assessment of operational results.
1-4. RISK ASSESSMENT ELEMENTS. There are no hard and fast rules for assessing risks.
Different training tasks involve different elements that can affect training safety. However,
seven elements are central to the safe completion of most driver training tasks:
•
Soldier qualification
•
Vehicle type
•
Weather
•
Terrain
•
Supervision
•
Equipment
•
Time of day
Using matrices that assign a numerical value to each of the elements is one way to quickly gain
an appreciation of the overall risks. The following matrices offer examples of risk assessments
for each of the seven elements common to driver training missions.
NOTE: These are arbitrarily weighted factors; modify them based on your particular
mission and unit.
a. Soldier qualification is measured by comparing the level of task difficulty to the
soldier's military driving experience.
SOLDIER QUALIFICATION RISK VALUE
TASK
COMPLEX
ROUTINE
SIMPLE
1-2
DRIVING EXPERIENCE
LICENSED OVER 1
LICENSED UNDER 1
YEAR
YEAR
3
4
2
3
1
2
UNLICENSED
5
4
3
TC 21-305-7
EXAMPLE: Unlicensed drivers learning to drive a five-speed manual transmission in an
M35A2 would receive a risk value of 5.
b. Vehicle type is measured by comparing the vehicle configuration to the location of the
training tasks.
VEHICLE TYPE RISK VALUE
LOCATION OF
TRAINING
ROAD
TRAINING AREA
MOTOR POOL
VEHICLE CONFIGURATION
LIGHT
MEDIUM TRUCKS
TRUCKS
3
4
2
3
1
1
TRACTOR/
SEMITRAILERS
5
4
1
EXAMPLE: Driving an M35A2 over the road would have a risk value of 3.
c. Weather is measured by comparing temperature with moisture/ visibility conditions.
WEATHER RISK VALUE
TEMPERATURE
FAHRENHEIT
0-31˚ or 90˚+
32˚-59˚
60˚-89˚
VISIBILITY/MOISTURE
CLEAR
FOG/HUMID/
DRY
DRIZZLE
3
4
2
3
1
3
DUST/RAIN/
SNOW/ICE
5
5
5
EXAMPLE: A task conducted outdoors at a temperature of 20˚F with snow or ice would
receive a risk value of 5.
d. Terrain is measured by comparing the physical features of the land with the road
network that exists in the area.
TERRAIN RISK VALUE
TYPE OF
TERRAIN
JUNGLE/MOUNTAINS/
DESERTS
HILLS
FLAT/ROLLING
TRAFFICABILITY
STREETS/
CONGESTED
HIGHWAYS
STREETS/HIGHWAYS
3
4
2
1
4
3
TRAILS
CROSS-COUNTRY
5
4
3
EXAMPLE: Driver training conducted at Fort Bragg over trails would be assessed a value of 3.
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e. Supervision is measured by comparing the instructor to student ratio to the location of
the training tasks.
SUPERVISION RISK VALUE
INSTRUCTOR TO
STUDENT RATIO
NOT OBSERVING
OBSERVING
IN VEHICLE
CLASSROOM
3
2
1
TRAINING AREA/
MOTOR POOL
4
3
2
ON/OFF
ROAD
5
4
3
EXAMPLE: An instructor to student ratio of 1:8 for on-road driving would be assessed a value
of 5.
f. Equipment is measured by comparing the age of the equipment to the maintenance
level.
EQUIPMENT RISK VALUE
EQUIPMENT AGE
OLD
AVERAGE
NEW
C-1
3
2
1
C-2
4
3
2
C-3
5
4
3
EXAMPLE: A 20-year-old M35A2, maintained as C-2, would be assessed a value of 4.
g. Time of day is measured by comparing the level of light to familiarity with the route.
TIME OF DAY RISK VALUE
ROUTE FAMILIARITY
NEVER DRIVEN ROUTE
DRIVEN ROUTE 1-3 TIMES
FAMILIAR ROUTE
DAY
3
2
1
DAWN/DUSK
4
3
2
NIGHT
5
4
3
EXAMPLE: A driving task over a familiar route that starts during the day but ends at dusk
would have a risk value of 2.
h. After assessing all the risks, total the value and apply it to a quick-reference gauge.
QUICK REFERENCE GAUGE
RISK LEVEL
VALUES
LOW RISK
7-12
CAUTION
13-18
HIGH RISK
19-35
When two or more elements are assigned a risk value of 5, consider the overall rating as high
risk. (A risk value of 5 signifies hazards inherent in that task and should be analyzed for ways to
reduce or eliminate the danger.)
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TC 21-305-7
1-5. DECISION AID. The level of the decision-maker should correspond to the level of the
risk. The greater the risk, the more senior the final decision-maker should be. This matrix is a
proposed decision aid to assist in determining the leadership decision-making level.
DECISION AID
RISK
LOW
CAUTION
HIGH
POINTS
7-12
13-18
19-35
DECISION LEVEL
SENIOR INSTRUCTOR
COMPANY COMMANDER
BATTALION COMMANDER
a. Operations with a value of 7 to 12 are low risk, and normal standing operating
procedures apply.
b. A value of 13 to 18 is a caution area. Complete unit command involvement is
warranted. Give a caution rating special consideration if one or two elements have
significantly raised the overall risk level. For example, a risk value of 4 in the weather
element category indicates the soldiers are more susceptible to cold injuries and require
closer supervision. If the risk level cannot be reduced, the company commander must
approve the training mission.
c. Operations with a value of 19 to 35 or with two or more areas assigned a risk value of
5 are high risk. Procedures in b above apply. If the risk level cannot be lowered, the
battalion commander must approve the mission.
1-6. RISK CONTROL ALTERNATIVES. The following options can help control risk:
a. Eliminate the hazard totally, if possible, or substitute a less hazardous alternative.
b. Control the hazard by reducing the magnitude of the hazard or provide barriers.
c. Modify operational procedures to minimize risk exposure consistent with mission
needs.
d. Train personnel to use effective hazard avoidance actions.
e. Motivate personnel to use effective hazard avoidance actions.
1-7. RISK CONTROL MEASURES. Leaders must monitor the training to ensure that risk
control measures are followed. Never underestimate the ability of subordinates to sidetrack a
decision they do not understand or support. You will also need to monitor the impact of risk
reduction procedures when they are implemented to verify that they really are a good idea. This
is especially true of new and untested procedures.
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TC 21-305-7
1-8. PAYOFFS. Risk management permits realistic training scenarios to be performed without
a high potential cost in accidents. It also minimizes personnel and materiel losses in day-to-day
training activities.
1-6
TC 21-305-7
SAMPLE RISK ASSESSMENT WORK SHEET
TRAINING TASK: _________________________________________________________
POINTS:
__________1. SOLDIER QUALIFICATION
TASK
COMPLEX
ROUTINE
SIMPLE
LICENSED OVER 1
YEAR
3
2
1
LICENSED UNDER 1
YEAR
4
3
2
UNLICENSED
LIGHT
TRUCKS
3
2
1
MEDIUM TRUCKS
4
3
1
TRACTOR/
SEMITRAILERS
5
4
1
CLEAR/
DRY
3
2
1
FOG/HUMID/
DRIZZLE
4
3
3
DUST/RAIN/
SNOW/ICE
5
5
5
STREETS/
HIGHWAYS
3
CONGESTED
STREETS/HIGHWAYS
4
TRAILS/
CROSS-COUNTRY
5
2
1
4
3
4
3
5
4
3
__________2. VEHICLE TYPE
LOCATION OF
TRAINING
ROAD
TRAINING AREA
MOTOR POOL
__________3. WEATHER
TEMPERATURE
FAHRENHEIT
0-31˚ OR 90˚+
32˚-59˚
60˚-89˚
________4. TERRAIN
TYPE OF
TERRAIN
JUNGLE/MOUNTAINS/
DESERTS
HILLS
FLAT/ROLLING
1-7
TC 21-305-7
__________5. SUPERVISION
INSTRUCTOR TO
STUDENT RATIO
NOT OBSERVING
OBSERVING
IN VEHICLE
CLASSROOM
3
2
1
TRAINING AREA/
MOTOR POOL
4
3
2
ON/OFF
ROAD
5
4
3
C-1
3
2
1
C-2
4
3
2
C-3
5
4
3
__________6. EQUIPMENT
EQUIPMENT AGE
OLD
AVERAGE
NEW
__________7. TIME OF DAY
ROUTE FAMILIARITY
NEVER DRIVEN ROUTE
DRIVEN ROUTE 1-3 TIMES
FAMILIAR ROUTE
DAY
3
2
1
DAWN/DUSK
4
3
2
NIGHT
5
4
3
__________ TOTAL POINTS
QUICK REFERENCE GAUGE
RISK LEVEL
VALUES
LOW RISK
7-12
CAUTION
13-18
HIGH RISK
19-35
DECISION AID
RISK
LOW
CAUTION
HIGH
POINTS
7-12
13-18
19-35
DECISION LEVEL
SENIOR INSTRUCTOR
COMPANY COMMANDER
BATTALION COMMANDER
APPROVED BY: ______________________________________ DATE: ______________
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TC 21-305-7
CHAPTER 2
INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS
1. Student Requirements:
a. Vehicles per student: One wheeled vehicle for every three students.
b. Forms per student:
SF 91.
DD Form 518.
DD Form 1970.
DA Form 2404.
DA Form 2408-14.
c. Publications per student:
Appropriate vehicle operator's manual.
Appropriate vehicle lubrication order.
Appropriate trailer operator's manual.
d. Nonstandard items: 40 empty petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) drums, traffic
cones, or locally fabricated standards.
2. Instructor Requirements:
One each of the above forms.
One each of the above publications.
AR 600-55.
DA Pamphlet 738-750.
FM 21-60.
FM 21-305.
FM 55-312.
All host-nation or local directives and regulations.
3. Training Facilities:
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TC 21-305-7
Classroom.
Motor pool.
Training area(s).
Suitable roadnet for driver training.
4. Training Aids and Devices:
Overhead projector.
Projection screen.
5. Optional Training Aids and Devices:
Television monitor.
Videocassette player.
TVT 8-210, PIN: 709704DA, "Defense Driving Course – Coaching the Emergency
Vehicle Operator - Ambulance."
AFV 20-1, PIN: 707998DA, "Failure to Buckle Up."
AFV 20-3, PIN: 708004DA, "Fatal HMMWV Collision."
AFV 20-4, PIN: 708407DA, "Death Sleep."
AFV 20-5, PIN: 708402DA, "Unlicensed, Untrained Drivers."
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TC 21-305-7
CHAPTER 3
SAMPLE TRAINING SCHEDULE
WHEN
TASK
NUMBER
WHAT
WHERE
Use Technical Manuals and
Lubrication Orders and Make Entries
on DA Form 2404
Prepare DD Form 1970
Report an Accident
Lunch
Know Safety Rules and Procedures for
Driving Under Adverse Road
Conditions
Identify Controls, Instruments,
Indicators, and Equipment
Perform Operator PMCS
Classroom
551-721-1352
Classroom
Classroom
551-721-1352
551-721-1388
Classroom
551-721-1361
Motor Pool
551-721-1352
Motor Pool
551-721-1352
551-721-1353
Drive Vehicle with Automatic or
Manual Transmission
Perform Before-Operation PMCS
Drive Vehicle with Automatic or
Manual Transmission
Lunch
Drive Vehicle with Automatic or
Manual Transmission
Perform After-Operation PMCS
Motor Pool
551-721-1365
551-721-1366
551-721-1352
551-721-1365
551-721-1366
Training Area/ Driver
Training Route
Motor Pool
551-721-1365
551-721-1366
551-721-1352
Motor Pool
Training Area/ Driver
Training Route
551-721-1352
551-721-1365
551-721-1366
1130-1230
1230-1330
Perform Before-Operation PMCS
Drive Vehicle with Automatic or
Manual Transmission
Lunch
Drive Vehicle on the Road
Classroom
1330-1600
Drive Vehicle on the Road
Driver Training Route
1600-1630
Perform After-Operation PMCS
Motor Pool
551-721-1365
551-721-1366
551-721-1365
551-721-1366
551-721-1352
DAY 1
0730-0830
0830-0930
0930-1130
1130-1230
1230-1330
1330-1430
1430-1630
DAY 2
0730-0830
0830-0900
0900-1130
1130-1230
1230-1600
1600-1630
Motor Pool
Training Area
DAY 3
0730-0800
0800-1130
3-1
TC 21-305-7
WHEN
WHAT
WHERE
TASK
NUMBER
DAY 4
0730-0800
0800-1130
Perform Before-Operation PMCS
Drive Vehicle on the Road
Motor Pool
Driver Training Route
551-721-1352
551-721-1365
551-721-1366
1130-1230
1330-1600
Lunch
Drive Vehicle on the Road
Driver Training Route
1600-1630
Perform After-Operation PMCS
Motor Pool
551-721-1365
551-721-1366
551-721-1352
0730-0800
0800-1130
Perform Before-Operation PMCS
Back and Park a Vehicle
Motor Pool
Training Area
1900-1930
1930-2330
Perform Before-Operation PMCS
Drive Vehicle at Night
2330-2400
Perform After-Operation PMCS
Motor Pool
Motor Pool/Driver
Training Route
Motor Pool
DAY 5
551-721-1352
551-721-1365
551-721-1366
551-721-1352
551-721-1365
551-721-1366
551-721-1352
DAY 6
1230-1630
End of Course Comprehensive Test
and
Perform After-Operation PMCS
3-2
Classroom/ Motor
Pool/ Test Route
All Tasks
Motor Pool
551-721-1352
TC 21-305-7
CHAPTER 4
LESSON OUTLINES
LESSON TITLE:
USE TECHNICAL MANUALS (TMs) AND LUBRICATION ORDERS
(LOs) AND MAKE ENTRIES ON DA FORM 2404
TASK NUMBER:
551-721-1352 (Perform Vehicle Preventive Maintenance Checks and
Services [PMCS])
A. TRAINING OBJECTIVE.
TASK:
Use the appropriate vehicle TM/LO and make operator entries on
DA Form 2404 (Equipment Inspection and Maintenance
Worksheet).
CONDITIONS
Given instruction, DA Form 2404, a practical exercise, vehicle
operator's manual (TM), and LO.
STANDARD:
Locate information in the TM/LO and make the required operator
entries on DA Form 2404 in correct sequence in accordance with
DA Pamphlet 738-750. Each student has 15 minutes to complete
the practical exercise and will be graded on a Go/No-Go basis.
B. INTERMEDIATE TRAINING.
Intermediate Training Objective 1
TASK:
Use the appropriate vehicle TM and LO.
CONDITIONS:
Given instruction, vehicle operator's manual, LO, and a practical
exercise in a classroom environment.
STANDARD:
Answer the questions in the practical exercise by locating
information in the TM/LO. Each student will be graded on a
Go/No-Go basis.
Intermediate Training Objective 2
TASK:
Document a no-fault situation on DA Form 2404.
CONDITIONS:
Given instruction, a DA Form 2404, vehicle operator's manual,
and a practical exercise in a classroom environment.
STANDARD:
Fill out a no-fault situation on DA Form 2404 in the correct
sequence in accordance with DA Pamphlet 738-750. Each
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student will be graded on a Go/No-Go basis.
Intermediate Training Objective 3
TASK:
Document a fault situation on DA Form 2404.
CONDITIONS:
Given instruction, a DA Form 2404, vehicle operator's manual,
and a practical exercise in a classroom environment.
STANDARD:
Fill out a fault situation on DA Form 2404 in the correct
sequence, in accordance with DA Pamphlet 738-750. Each
student will be graded on a Go/No-Go basis.
C. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS.
1. Training time: As scheduled.
2. Training location: Scheduled classroom.
3. Training type: Conference and practical exercise.
4. Students: Scheduled personnel.
5. Principal and assistant instructors required: One primary instructor for the conference
and one assistant instructor for each 20 students for the practical exercise.
6. Training aids and equipment: Overhead projector, transparency, screen, appropriate
vehicle operator's manual (one per student), appropriate vehicle lubrication order (one per
student), DA Form 2404 (four per student), and a practical exercise situation sheet (one per
student).
7. References: DA Pamphlet 738-750 and appropriate vehicle operator's manual and
lubrication order.
D. SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY
NOTE: Prior to class arrival, ensure each student desk or table has an operator's manual,
lubrication order, and two DA Forms 2404.
1. Introduction:
a. Interest device.
b. Tie-in.
c. Lesson objective (paragraph A).
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d. Procedures:
(1) Explanation.
(2) Summary.
(3) Practical exercise.
2. Explanation and demonstration:
a. Proper technique for using the operator's manual (TM):
(1) Front cover table of contents and thumb tab subject index, if
applicable.
(2) Warning summary.
(3) Table of contents (chapters and appendixes), if applicable.
(4) Operating instructions to include PMCS tables.
(5) Alphabetical index.
b. Use of the lubrication order:
(1) Tables and notes.
(2) Level of maintenance codes.
(3) Lubrication after shallow or deepwater fording.
(4) Lubricant abbreviations and intervals.
c. DA Form 2404 no-fault situation:
(1) Organization.
(2) Nomenclature and model.
(3) Registration/serial number/national stock number (NSN).
(4) Type of inspection (PMCS).
(5) TM number and TM date.
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(6) Date of inspection (column c).
(7) Type of inspection (entered in column d when used for concurrent
inspections).
(8) Disposition of DA Form 2404.
d. DA Form 2404 fault situation:
(1) Deferred maintenance. Check DA Form 2408-14 (Uncorrected Fault
Record) for any deferred maintenance before listing any faults on DA
Form 2404. Do not list faults that are already listed on DA Form 2404 or
DA Form 2408-14.
NOTE: Explain to the students that when a DA Form 2404 has previous no-fault daily
annotations and a fault is found, a new form does not have to be initiated. The same
form would be used and some of the steps listed below would already be completed.
(2) Organization.
(3) Nomenclature and model.
(4) Registration/serial number/NSN.
(5) Miles. Round to the nearest mile or kilometer. Put the letter "M"
before the number if the reading is miles. Put the letter "K" before the
number if the reading is kilometers.
(6) Hours.
(7) Date.
(8) Type of inspection (PMCS).
(9) TM number and TM date.
(10) Signature and rank in block 8a.
(11) TM item number entered in column a. Circle item number if fault
makes equipment not mission capable (NMC).
(12) Status symbol entered in column b.
(13) Deficiencies or shortcomings entered in column c.
(14) Disposition of DA Form 2404.
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3. Practical exercise: Hand out one practical exercise and two DA Forms 2404 to each
student. Students will complete the practical exercise as outlined in paragraph 2 above within 15
minutes.
4. Evaluation: Check each student's practical exercise.
5. Summary:
a. Recap main points.
b. Allow for questions.
c. Clarify questions.
d. Give closing statement.
6. Retraining: No-Gos will be retrained and retested after normal duty hours.
E. SAFETY RESTRICTIONS. None.
F. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND INFORMATION. Recommended instructional time
is 1 hour (.5 conference and .5 practical exercise).
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NOTE: This is a sample DA Form 2404 used for operator/crew PMCS when no faults are
found. All entries are to be completed in pencil. This sample can be used to make a
transparency for overhead projection system.
4-6
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NOTE: This is a sample DA Form 2404 used for operator/crew PMCS when faults are found.
All entries are to be completed in pencil. This sample can be used to make a transparency for
overhead projection system.
4-7
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PRACTICAL EXERCISE
LESSON TITLE:
USE TECHNICAL MANUALS (TMs) AND LUBRICATION ORDERS
(LOs) AND MAKE ENTRIES ON DA FORM 2404
NAME___________________________________RANK___________DATE_______________
To complete this practical exercise, you will need the appropriate operator's manual (TM),
lubrication order, two blank DA Forms 2404, and a pencil. You have 15 minutes to complete
this practical exercise.
FIRST REQUIREMENT
Using the technical manual and lubrication order, answer the following questions by writing your
answer in the space provided after each question.
1. At what interval does the operator check the transmission lubricant level?
2. At what interval does the operator check the master cylinder level?
3. In what chapter and section of the operator's manual would you find information on starting
the vehicle?
4. At what interval is the battery electrolyte level checked?
5. What is the gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of this vehicle?
SECOND REQUIREMENT
From the following information, make the required operator entries on DA Form 2404.
You are assigned to the 223d Service Company as the operator of a _____________ (instructor
fills in type and model of vehicle) with a registration number of AG24BX.
a. On 6 Jan 92, you perform a daily PMCS and find no faults.
b. On 7 Jan 92, you perform a daily PMCS and again find no faults.
c. On 8 Jan 92, you perform a daily PMCS and while checking your vehicle parking brake, you
find the parking brake does not hold your vehicle. Your odometer reading is 2,845 miles.
d. On 9 Jan 92, you perform a daily PMCS and you find the parking brake has been repaired.
No other faults are discovered.
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e. On 10 Jan 92, you perform a weekly and monthly PMCS and find no faults.
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LESSON TITLE:
KNOW SAFETY RULES AND PROCEDURES FOR DRIVING
UNDER ADVERSE ROAD CONDITIONS
TASK NUMBER:
551-721-1361 (Drive Cargo Vehicle on Snow/Ice)
A. TRAINING OBJECTIVE.
TASK:
Demonstrate knowledge of procedures for driving under adverse
conditions (snow, ice, fog, rain, and bleeding tar).
CONDITIONS
Given instruction, pen or pencil, and practical exercise.
STANDARD:
Answer 7 of 10 questions correctly on the practical exercise
within 10 minutes.
B. INTERMEDIATE TRAINING. None.
C. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS.
1. Training time: As scheduled.
2. Training location: Scheduled classroom.
3. Training type: Conference and practical exercise.
4. Students: Scheduled personnel.
5. Principal and assistant instructors required: One primary instructor for the conference
and one assistant instructor for each 20 students for the practical exercise.
6. Training aids and equipment: Overhead projector, transparency, screen, and a
practical exercise (one per student).
7. References: FM 21-305 and appropriate vehicle operator's manual.
D. SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY.
1. Introduction:
a. Interest device.
b. Tie-in.
c. Lesson objective (paragraph A).
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d. Procedures:
(1) Explanation.
(2) Practical exercise.
(3) Summary.
2. Explanation: Two major hazards associated in driving during adverse weather
conditions are reduced visibility and reduced traction.
a. Countermeasures for driving during periods of reduced visibility:
(1) Travel at reduced speeds and be prepared to meet sudden changes in
road conditions.
(2) Do not use high beams. Switch to low beams if on high beams.
(3) Look to the right if blinded by oncoming vehicles.
(4) Do not overrun the headlights, and stay twice the normal distance
from the vehicle ahead.
(5) Give turn signals sooner.
(6) Apply brakes sooner, and press the brake pedal lightly to give an early
warning that the vehicle will slow or stop.
(7) Keep the windshield, windows, mirrors, headlights, brake lights,
reflectors, and area around the air cleaner intake free of snow and ice.
Snow and ice may melt, refreeze, and cause restriction in the air intake
system.
(8) Watch for pedestrians and vehicles pulled over to the side of the road.
(9) Use caution when weather reduces visibility to near zero. Visibility
can be reduced at night in heavy snow, during a downpour of rain, or in
dense fog. When this happens, it is unsafe to drive.
(a) Exit the highway, stop, and wait until visibility improves
before continuing.
(b) Do not stop on the shoulder with flashers on. Stopping on
shoulders may induce a rear end collision/chain reaction.
b. Reduced traction countermeasures:
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(1) Install tire chains if needed for snow or ice.
(2) Pump the brakes gradually when stopping a vehicle on snow and ice.
(Pumping air brake vehicles may be dangerous. Do not pump the brakes
more than three to four times. Allow the air pressure to build back up
before reapplying the brakes.) Sudden braking will cause the wheels to
lock and the vehicle to slide out of control.
(3) Place the transmission shift lever and transfer case shift lever (if
equipped) in the appropriate driving range to descend/climb steep hills.
(4) Place the vehicle in motion slowly to prevent the wheels from
spinning.
(5) Press the accelerator pedal slowly when changing speed.
(6) Keep the accelerator pedal steady after the vehicles reaches the
desired speed.
(7) Turn the vehicle slowly and make gradual steering adjustments when
on slippery surfaces.
(8) Steer the vehicle away from ruts and large snow banks.
(9) Steer the vehicle straight up and down hills if possible.
(10) Check for black ice. Black ice is clear and cannot be seen because
the road surface is visible through the ice. The ice becomes invisible to
the driver. Black ice usually occurs on bridges, beneath underpasses, in
dips in the road, in shaded areas, and on lower sides of banked curves.
(a) When driving in rain or near freezing temperature, feel for ice
along the front of a mirror. If ice is there, it may be on the road
surface as well.
(b) When in doubt, test surface traction by checking to see that
nothing is following your vehicle, slow down, and then apply the
brakes gently to see if the vehicle skids.
(11) Use the following procedures if the rear of the vehicle skids.
Skidding and jackknifing are caused by sudden changes in speed or
direction. These changes result from over acceleration, over braking, and
over steering.
(a) Let up on the accelerator pedal.
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(b) Steer in the same direction in which the rear of the vehicle is
skidding.
(c) When the vehicle is under control, press the brake pedal
lightly.
(d) Steer the vehicle on a straight course and slowly press the
accelerator pedal.
(12) If the vehicle starts to slide while climbing a hill, do the following:
(a) Let up on the accelerator pedal.
(b) Steer the vehicle in the direction of the slide until the vehicle
stops sliding.
(c) Slowly press the accelerator pedal and steer the vehicle on a
straight course.
(13) If the vehicle becomes stuck, do the following:
(a) Shovel a clear path ahead of each wheel. Put boards, brush,
sand, gravel, or similar material in cleared paths to get better
traction.
(b) If additional power is needed to extract the vehicle when mired
in snow, place the transmission in the lowest forward gear range
and the transfer case (if equipped) in low range. Do not rock the
vehicle or spin the wheels.
(c) If the vehicle remains stuck, use a wrecker or another vehicle
equipped with a winch to tow or winch the stuck vehicle.
(d) If the vehicle is equipped with a self-recovery winch, it may
be used to help free the vehicle.
(14) Drive slowly and test the brakes after driving through slush or water.
If the brakes slip, do the following:
(a) Continue to drive slowly.
(b) Apply moderate pressure on the brake pedal to cause slight
brake drag.
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(c) When the brakes are dry and no longer slip and uneven braking
ceases, let up on the brake pedal.
(d) Resume normal driving speed.
(15) When driving during hot weather, adjust your driving for bleeding tar
conditions on the roadway. To drive under these conditions-(a) Frequently scan the roadway ahead.
(b) Identify a black tar area ahead.
(c) Maintain steady speed.
(d) Make no sudden steering maneuvers.
(e) Make no sudden braking maneuvers.
(f) If braking is required, ensure all wheels are on a similar
surface.
3. Practical exercise: Hand out one practical exercise to each student. Students will
complete the practical exercise within 10 minutes.
4. Evaluation: Check each student's practical exercise.
5. Summary:
a. Recap main points.
b. Allow for questions.
c. Clarify questions.
d. Give closing statement.
6. Retraining: No-Gos will be retrained and retested after normal duty hours.
E. SAFETY RESTRICTIONS. None.
F. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND INFORMATION. Recommended instructional time
is 1 hour (.5 conference and .5 practical exercise).
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PRACTICAL EXERCISE
LESSON TITLE:
KNOW SAFETY RULES AND PROCEDURES FOR DRIVING
UNDER ADVERSE ROAD CONDITIONS
NAME___________________________________RANK___________DATE_______________
To complete this practical exercise, you will need a pen or pencil. You have 10 minutes to
complete this practical exercise. To pass this practical exercise, you must correctly answer 7 of
the 10 questions.
SECTION I. True/false questions: Read each question carefully and place a T or F on the
blank line to the left of each question.
_______ 1. Even after weather clears, ice, snow, mud, salt, or dirt on your light lenses and
reflectors can affect your vision and how well others can see you.
_______ 2. The only major hazard of driving in adverse weather conditions is reduced traction.
_______ 3. Releasing the accelerator quickly can cause a skid.
_______ 4. The area around the air cleaner intake must be kept free of snow and ice.
_______ 5. Skidding and jackknifing are caused by sudden changes in speed or direction.
_______ 6. The best advice in regard to a stuck vehicle is to avoid getting stuck.
SECTION II. Multiple choice: Read each question carefully and write the answer which is
most correct on the blank line to the left of each question.
_______ 7. If the vehicle starts to slide while climbing a hill, you would-a. Let up on the accelerator pedal.
b. Steer the vehicle in the direction of the slide until the vehicle stops.
c. Slowly press the accelerator pedal and steer the vehicle on a straight course.
d. Do all of the above.
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_______ 8. How should you dry wet brake linings?
a. Continue to drive at a slow speed with enough pressure on the brake pedal to
cause a slight drag on the brakes.
b. Pump the brake pedal.
c. Pull over and wait 25 to 30 minutes to allow the brakes to dry out.
d. Increase speed to allow more air to flow through the brakes.
_______ 9. For increased traction when driving in snow or on ice, you should-a. Steer the vehicle diagonally up hills.
b. Install tire chains (all driven wheels).
c. Install tire chains (all non-driven wheels).
d. Turn the vehicle quickly when on slippery surfaces.
_______ 10. If your vehicle starts to skid, which should you do?
a. Step on the brakes and hold the steering wheel straight.
b. Nothing.
c. Release the accelerator pedal and steer in the direction of the skid.
d. Release the gas pedal and steer in the opposite direction of the skid.
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LESSON TITLE:
IDENTIFY CONTROLS: INSTRUMENTS, INDICATORS, AND
EQUIPMENT
TASK NUMBER:
551-721-1352 (Perform Vehicle Preventive Maintenance Checks and
Services [PMCS])
A. TRAINING OBJECTIVE.
TASK:
Identify controls: instruments, indicators, and equipment.
CONDITIONS
Given instruction on the vehicle.
STANDARD:
Correctly identify and explain the function of the controls:
instruments, indicators, and equipment.
B. INTERMEDIATE TRAINING. None.
C. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS.
1. Training time: As scheduled.
2. Training location: Motor pool.
3. Training type: Conference.
4. Students: Scheduled personnel.
5. Principal and assistant instructors required: One primary instructor for the conference
and one assistant instructor for each three students.
6. Training aids and equipment: One vehicle for each three students. If the class is
large, a public address (PA) system may be needed for the primary instructor.
7. References: Appropriate vehicle operator's manual.
D. SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY.
1. Introduction:
a. Interest device.
b. Tie-in.
c. Lesson objective (paragraph A).
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d. Procedures:
(1) Explanation.
(2) Summary.
NOTE: At this time, separate the class into groups of three and assign each group to a vehicle.
Ensure each group has an assistant instructor. The assistant instructor will identify and
demonstrate the use of each item to his group of students as the instructor explains each
item.
2. Explanation and demonstration: Show the location and describe and explain the use
of the controls: instruments, indicators, and equipment. In the operator's manual and during this
class, the term "left" indicates the driver's side of the vehicle and the term "right" indicates the
passenger's side of the vehicle. There are basically three groups of controls: engine, primary
vehicle, and secondary vehicle. Vehicle instruments tell the driver about the the condition of the
vehicle and its accessories.
a. Engine controls. These controls start and shut down the engine. Engine
controls are similar in most vehicles; however, there are some variations
depending on the type of engine, manufacturer, and the type of starter.
(1) Engine control switch (battery or ignition switch). This switch
provides electrical energy to start the engine. In some vehicles, it is also
used to stop the engine.
(2) Starter button. This switch activates the starter. With most newer
vehicles, this switch is part of the ignition switch.
(3) Engine stop control knob. This is used on some diesel and multifuel
engines to shut off the engine. The knob or handle is pulled out and held
there until the engine stops.
b. Primary vehicle controls. These are the controls that are used to make the
vehicle do what the driver wants it to do.
(1) Clutch pedal. On vehicles equipped with manual transmission, the
clutch connects the engine to the drive train. It has three positions:
engaged, disengaged, and free play.
(2) Transmission controls. These vary with the different types of
transmissions: automatic, semiautomatic, and manual. Explain the shift
pattern and operating range.
(3) Accelerator pedal. This controls the vehicle's road speed. Push down
on the accelerator to increase speed and ease off to reduce speed.
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(4) Steering wheel. This is used to direct the vehicle. The steering wheel
should be grasped at the three o'clock and nine o'clock positions, with
palms facing inward.
(5) Brake controls:
(a) The foot brake operates the service brakes on the vehicle and
some trailers (if trailer is equipped with hydraulic or air brakes).
(b) The parking brake control may be a flip switch, a push-pull
knob, or a lever. It should be applied only after the vehicle has
been stopped.
(6) Traction control devices. Some vehicles are equipped with devices to
allow the operator to gain traction. This can be an interaxle differential
lock control, a transfer case sprag unit, or front wheel drive. Most are
controlled by switches or levers.
c. Secondary vehicle controls. These controls do not affect vehicle movement or
power. The number and function of the secondary controls vary with design and
available equipment options.
(1) Vision:
(a) Lights.
(b) Windshield wipers.
(c) Defrosters.
(d) Mirrors.
(2) Communication:
(a) Horns.
(b) Radios.
(c) Lights (headlights, brake lights, turn signals, four-way
flashers).
(3) Comfort:
(a) Seat position.
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TC 21-305-7
(b) Air vents.
(c) Air conditioner.
(d) Window operating mechanisms.
(e) Heater.
(4) Safety:
(a) Seat belts.
(b) Door locks.
d. Vehicle instruments. Gauges and indicators tell the driver about the condition
of the vehicle and its accessories. Vehicles are also equipped with warning lights
or buzzers to indicate when something has reached a danger point. Monitoring
the following will warn the driver of impending problems:
(1) Basic instruments, such as fuel gauge, speedometer, voltmeter, and
odometer.
(2) Pressure gauges, such as oil and air.
(3) Temperature gauges, such as water and transmission.
(4) Tachometer or tachograph, if equipped.
(5) Warning devices, such as low air pressure alarm and transmission
temperature alarm.
e. Basic issue items (BII) and troop-installed items. The following are BII or
troop-installed items:
(1) Fire extinguisher(s).
(2) First aid kit.
(3) Highway warning kit or flares.
(4) Tire chains, if required.
(5) Jack, lug wrench, tools, spare tire, and so forth.
3. Practical exercise: None.
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4. Evaluation: Students are evaluated daily during driving tasks and tested during the
end of course comprehensive test (EOCCT).
5. Summary:
a. Recap main points.
b. Allow for questions.
c. Clarify questions.
d. Give closing statement.
6. Retraining: Training is reinforced during daily driving tasks.
E. SAFETY RESTRICTIONS. None.
F. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND INFORMATION. Recommended instructional time
is 1 hour (conference).
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LESSON TITLE:
PERFORM OPERATOR PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE CHECKS
AND SERVICES (PMCS)
TASK NUMBER:
551-721-1352 (Perform Vehicle Preventive Maintenance Checks and
Services [PMCS]) and 551-721-1353 (Perform Preventive Maintenance
Checks and Services on Trailers)
A. TRAINING OBJECTIVE.
TASK:
Perform operator preventive maintenance checks and services on
wheeled vehicles and trailers.
CONDITIONS
Given instruction, a DA Form 2404, a pencil, appropriate vehicle
operator's manual, appropriate trailer operator's manual,
equipment records folder, rags, lubricants, coolant, a trailer, and a
wheeled vehicle with BII.
STANDARD:
Inspect the vehicle and trailer according to the PMCS tables listed
in the operator's manuals, correct all faults within the operator's
level of maintenance, and record all others legibly on DA Form
2404. If no faults are found, make necessary entries on DA Form
2404.
B. INTERMEDIATE TRAINING. None.
C. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS.
1. Training time: As scheduled.
2. Training location: Motor pool as scheduled.
3. Training type: Demonstration and practical exercise.
4. Students: Scheduled personnel.
5. Principal and assistant instructors required: One primary instructor, one assistant
instructor for each three students for the demonstration, and one assistant instructor for each
three students for the practical exercise.
6. Training aids and equipment: Rags, lubricants, coolant, DA Form 2404, pencil,
appropriate vehicle operator's manual, appropriate trailer operator's manual, equipment records
folder, a trailer, and a wheeled vehicle with BII for every three students.
7. References: Appropriate vehicle operator's manual, appropriate trailer operator's
manual, and DA Pamphlet 738-750.
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D. SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY.
1. Introduction:
a. Interest device.
b. Tie-in.
c. Lesson objective (paragraph A).
d. Procedures:
(1) Explanation.
(2) Practical exercise.
(3) Summary.
2. Explanation and demonstration: Demonstrate before, during, after, weekly, and
monthly PMCS to the students.
3. Practical exercise:
a. Assign students to vehicles/trailers and issue vehicle operator's manual, trailer
operator's manual, pencils, DA Form 2404, and equipment records folder.
Instruct students on the location of rags, lubricants, and coolant.
b. Students perform PMCS.
4. Evaluation: Check each student's performance of PMCS.
5. Summary:
a. Recap main points.
b. Allow for questions.
c. Clarify questions.
d. Give closing statement.
6. Retraining: Retrain No-Gos and slow learners. PMCS is conducted daily along with
driving tasks and reinforced throughout the course. Students are tested on the end of course
comprehensive test.
E. SAFETY RESTRICTIONS.
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1. Ensure all chock blocks (if required) are in place when vehicles are parked.
2. Ensure students remove all jewelry and identification tags before performing PMCS.
3. Ensure students pay particular attention to the cautions and warnings listed in the
operator's manual.
4. Ensure the transmission is always placed in neutral (some automatics are placed in
park), the parking brake is set, the engine is shut off, and the ignition key is removed (if
equipped) before leaving the vehicle.
F. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND INFORMATION. Recommended instructional time
is 2 hours (1.0 demonstration and 1.0 practical exercise). The remaining PMCS is performed
throughout the course along with driving tasks.
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LESSON TITLE:
PREPARE DD FORM 1970 (MOTOR EQUIPMENT ULITIZATION
RECORD)
TASK NUMBER:
551-721-1352 (Perform Vehicle Preventive Maintenance Checks and
Services)
A. TRAINING OBJECTIVE.
TASK:
Make correct vehicle operator entries on DD Form 1970.
CONDITIONS
Given instruction, DD Form 1970, pencil, and practical exercise.
STANDARD:
Make the required operator entries on DD Form 1970 in correct
sequence according to DA Pamphlet 738-750. Each student has
15 minutes to complete the practical exercise with no errors.
Student will be graded on a Go/No-Go basis.
B. INTERMEDIATE TRAINING. None.
C. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS.
1. Training time: As scheduled.
2. Training location: Scheduled classroom.
3. Training type: Conference and practical exercise.
4. Students: Scheduled personnel.
5. Principal and assistant instructors required: One primary instructor for the conference
and one assistant instructor for each 20 students for the practical exercise.
6. Training aids and equipment: Overhead projector, screen, transparencies, practical
exercise situation sheet (one per student), and DD Form 1970 (one per student).
7. References: DA Pamphlet 738-750.
D. SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY.
1. Introduction:
a. Interest device.
b. Tie-in.
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TC 21-305-7
c. Lesson objective (paragraph A).
d. Procedures:
(1) Explanation.
(2) Practical exercise.
(3) Summary.
2. Explanation and demonstration:
a. Explain the purpose and use of DD Form 1970. Also explain the dispatcher
entries that are entered on the form.
b. Explain the operator entries required to be entered on DD Form 1970.
3. Practical exercise: Hand out one practical exercise and one DD Form 1970 to each
student. Student will complete practical exercise within 15 minutes.
4. Evaluation: Check each student's practical exercise.
5. Summary:
a. Recap main points.
b. Allow for questions.
c. Clarify questions.
d. Give closing statement.
6. Retraining: Retrain and retest No-Gos. No-Gos will be retrained and retested after
normal duty hours.
E. SAFETY RESTRICTIONS. None.
F. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND INFORMATION. Recommended instructional time
is 1 hour (.5 conference and .5 practical exercise).
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NOTE: * Denotes dispatcher entries. This sample can be used to make a transparency for an
overhead projection system.
4-27
TC 21-305-7
NOTE: * Denotes dispatcher entries. This sample can be used to make a transparency for an
overhead projection system.
4-28
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PRACTICAL EXERCISE
LESSON TITLE:
PREPARE DD FORM 1970 (MOTOR EQUIPMENT UTILIZATION
RECORD)
NAME___________________________________RANK___________DATE_______________
To complete this practical exercise, you will need one DD Form 1970 with dispatcher entries
made and pen or pencil. You have 15 minutes to complete this practical exercise.
Using the information provided in the situation below, make all required operator entries on DD
Form 1970 in the proper sequence within the prescribed time limit.
1. SITUATION:
a. You left the motor pool in an M35A2 2 1/2-ton cargo truck. Your run included stops
at the following areas:
LOCATION
ARRIVED
Motor pool
Bldg 661
Bldg 705
Training area TA102
Dining facility Bldg 663
Training area TA191
Motor pool
0730
0800
0920
1120
1300
1600
DEPARTED
0715
0750
0830
1050
1230
1530
b. When you return to the motor pool, your odometer reading is 8202 and your
hourmeter reading is 503. You also note that you filled the vehicle with 5 gallons of diesel. No
oil was added. The NCOIC was SSG Smith and he releases you when you arrive back at the
motor pool at 1600 hours.
2. REQUIREMENT:
a. Complete the attached DD Form 1970.
b. Make sure your entries are legible (which means other people can read your
handwriting) and accurate (which means the entries agree with the details of the information in
the situation).
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LESSON TITLE:
REPORT AN ACCIDENT (MAKE REQUIRED ENTRIES ON DD
FORM 518 AND SF 91)
TASK NUMBER:
551-721-1388 (Complete DD Form 518 and SF 91)
A. TRAINING OBJECTIVE.
TASK:
Make required entries on DD Form 518 (Accident Identification
Card) and SF 91 (Operator's Report of Motor Vehicle Accident).
CONDITIONS
Given instruction, DD Form 518, SF 91, pencil, and practical
exercise.
STANDARD:
Make the required entries on DD Form 518 and SF 91 accurately,
legibly, and completely according to FM 21-305. Each student
has 45 minutes to complete the practical exercise with no errors.
Student will be graded on a Go/No-Go basis.
B. INTERMEDIATE TRAINING. None.
C. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS.
1. Training time: As scheduled.
2. Training location: Classroom as scheduled.
3. Training type: Conference and practical exercise.
4. Students: Scheduled personnel.
5. Principal and assistant instructors required: One primary instructor for the conference
and one assistant instructor for each 20 students for the practical exercise.
6. Training aids and equipment: Overhead projector, screen, transparencies, practical
exercise situation sheet (one per student), pencils, DD Form 518 (one per student), and SF 91
(one per student).
7. References: FM 21-305.
D. SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY.
1. Introduction:
a. Interest device.
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TC 21-305-7
b. Tie-in.
c. Lesson objective (paragraph A).
d. Procedures:
(1) Explanation.
(2) Practical exercise.
(3) Summary.
2. Explanation and demonstration:
a. Precautions and procedures. The following procedures are not necessarily in
the correct order. Each accident must be assessed to determine what should be
done and in what order.
(1) Take precautions to prevent further accidents or injuries, such as road
guards, highway warning devices, and flares.
(2) Render first aid to the injured.
(3) If a fire breaks out, use an extinguisher or sand and notify the fire
department. Take precautions to prevent fire; for example, shut off
engines and prohibit smoking.
(4) Notify authorities for emergency services (police, ambulance, rescue,
or fire fighting, civil or military depending on who has jurisdiction).
(5) Follow the rules or regulations of the state or area where the accident
took place when moving the vehicle from the scene of the accident.
b. Driver's responsibilities.
(1) When involved in an accident, always stop and investigate it.
(2) Secure hard-to-get facts first (names and addresses of people involved
and witnesses, condition of the road, position of the vehicles, and an
estimate of the amount of damage).
(3) Be exact (spell names correctly, give street addresses by number,
state visible damage, and show exactly where vehicles were before and
after the accident and what obstacles blocked the driver's view).
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TC 21-305-7
(4) Give no opinion about who was at fault, be polite, and try to get all the
necessary information.
c. Instructions for filling out DD Form 518 (Accident Identification Card).
(1) Explain the purpose and use of DD Form 518.
(2) Explain filling out this form block by block. Ensure zip codes are
included and the students are aware that disclosure of the social security
number is voluntary.
(3) Explain the disposition of the form. Give it to the person directly
involved in the accident or, if a parked vehicle, place it in or on the parked
vehicle in a conspicuous and secure location, such as under the windshield
wiper.
d. Instructions for filling out SF 91 (Operator's Report of Motor Vehicle
Accident).
(1) Explain the purpose and use of SF 91.
(2) Explain filling out this form block by block. No blocks should be left
completely blank. If there is no information to put in a certain block, write
"None," "Unknown," or "NA."
3. Practical exercise: Hand out (one of each) practical exercise, SF 91, and DD Form
518 to each student. Student will complete the practical exercise within 45 minutes.
4. Evaluation: Check each student's practical exercise.
5. Summary:
a. Recap main points.
b. Allow for questions.
c. Clarify questions.
d. Give closing statement.
6. Retraining: Retrain and retest No-Gos. No-Gos will be retrained and retested after
normal duty hours.
E. SAFETY RESTRICTIONS. None.
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F. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND INFORMATION. Recommended instructional time
is 2 hours (1.0 conference and 1.0 practical exercise).
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NOTE: This is a sample DD Form 518 and can be used to make a transparency for an overhead
projection system.
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TC 21-305-7
NOTE: This is a sample of SF 91, page 1, and can be used to make a transparency for an
overhead projection system.
4-35
TC 21-305-7
NOTE: This is a sample of SF 91, page 2, and can be used to make a transparency for an
overhead projection system.
4-36
TC 21-305-7
NOTE: This is a sample of SF 91, page 3, and can be used to make a transparency for an
overhead projection system.
4-37
TC 21-305-7
NOTE: This is a sample of SF 91, page 4, and can be used to make a transparency for an
overhead projection system.
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TC 21-305-7
PRACTICAL EXERCISE
LESSON TITLE:
REPORT AN ACCIDENT (MAKE REQUIRED ENTRIES ON DD
FORM 518 AND SF 91)
To complete this practical exercise, you will need one DD Form 518, one SF 91, and pen or
pencil. You have 45 minutes to complete this practical exercise.
1. SITUATION:
a. On Friday, 10 January 1992, at 0800 hours, you left the motor pool in an M35A2 2
1/2-ton cargo truck (registration number NG25PX) that had been dispatched to you. Your
destination was the orderly room, Company A, 225th Infantry Battalion, Fort Walk, NY 091115000, and you were to report to your first sergeant.
b. Approximately 10 minutes later, you were driving east on MacArthur Boulevard (a
four-lane street) in the right lane at 20 MPH. A civilian vehicle driving north on Pershing Street
made a right turn (east) onto MacArthur Boulevard. You applied your brakes but hit the
civilian's truck on the left rear fender. The civilian was in the right lane travelling 5 to 10 MPH
when he was hit. His truck moved 20 to 30 feet ahead after the collision, and stopped by the
right curb. Your vehicle also moved another 20 to 30 feet and ended up in the left lane. The
weather was clear, and the concrete roadway was dry.
c. You stopped your vehicle, jumped out, and ran up to the civilian's vehicle. Luckily,
he was not hurt. Since there were no other occupants in either vehicle and no threat of fire or
explosion, there was no need to call the fire department or an ambulance. You and the civilian
driver exchanged information. You wrote down the following information from his driver's
license and registration:
Operator's name:
Operator's home address:
Operator's state permit number
and state:
Make of vehicle:
Type:
Year:
Vehicle license number and state:
Vehicle owned by:
Owner's address:
John P. Jones.
121 Buffalo Street, Indian, Montana 54321-1000.
111-00-1000, Montana.
Dodge.
Dakota Pickup.
1990.
123-ABC, Montana.
John P. Jones.
121 Buffalo Street, Indian, Montana 54321- 1000.
d. If you have any reason to doubt the information you were given, you make a note of it
on your form. Record the estimates of damage done to each vehicle. You looked at the civilian's
truck. His left rear fender was dented, taillight broken, and the tailgate was bent; he estimated
the amount of damage at $1,000. Then you looked at your vehicle. Your front bumper was
scratched and bent; approximate amount of damage is $200.
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e. After estimating the damage, you went to a phone across the street and called the
military police. Within minutes, military police officer SPC Joe Smith, badge number 321,
Company B, 123d MP Battalion, arrived. He recorded your comments and the civilian's
comments. There were no other witnesses to the accident. The officer did note the fact that
there is a traffic light with a turn-on-red signal at the southeast corner of Pershing Street, that
your vehicle was equipped with seat belts, and that you were using the seat belt at the time of the
accident. The officer recorded the information. Since you had recorded the information and
given the other driver a copy of DD Form 518, you drove back to the motor pool.
2. REQUIREMENT:
a. Complete the attached DD Form 518 and SF 91.
b. Make sure your entries are legible (which means other people can read your
handwriting) and accurate (which means the entries agree with the details of the information in
the situation). Use your name, rank, social security number, and present age to complete these
forms. Your military driver's license number is R-1456. You live in the A Company barracks
and the barracks phone number is 555-9999.
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LESSON TITLE:
DRIVE VEHICLE WITH MANUAL TRANSMISSION
TASK NUMBER:
551-721-1365 (Drive Vehicle with Manual Transmission)
A. TRAINING OBJECTIVE.
TASK:
Drive vehicle with manual transmission.
CONDITIONS
Given instruction, DD Form 1970, DA Form 2404, pencil,
appropriate vehicle operator's manual, equipment records folder,
rags, lubricants, coolant, a suitable training area, improved
surfaced roads, and a manual transmission vehicle with BII.
STANDARD:
Without accident or injury, operate the vehicle: start the vehicle,
put the vehicle in motion, read gauges, upshift and downshift the
transmission smoothly through all gear ranges, manipulate the
controls, use correct braking procedures, perform basic driving
maneuvers, and shut down the engine.
B. INTERMEDIATE TRAINING. None.
C. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS.
1. Training time: As scheduled.
2. Training location: Motor pool, training area, and driver training route as scheduled.
3. Training type: Conference, demonstration, and practical exercise.
4. Students: Scheduled personnel.
5. Principal and assistant instructors required: One primary instructor for the conference,
one assistant instructor for each three students for the demonstration, and one assistant instructor
for each three students for the practical exercise.
6. Training aids and equipment: Rags, lubricants, coolant, 40 traffic cones or empty
POL drums, DA Form 2404, DD Form 1970, pencil, appropriate vehicle operator's manual,
equipment records folder, and a wheeled vehicle with BII for each three students.
7. References: Appropriate vehicle operator's manual and FM 21-305.
D. SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY.
1. Introduction:
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TC 21-305-7
a. Interest device.
b. Tie-in.
c. Lesson objective (paragraph A).
d. Procedures:
(1) Explanation and demonstration.
(2) Practical exercise.
(3) Summary.
2. Explanation and demonstration:
a. Starting the engine.
(1) Fuel efficient starting.
(2) Cold weather starting procedures.
(3) Engine warm up.
(4) Excessive idling.
b. Putting the vehicle in motion.
(1) Explain gearshift pattern.
(2) Depress the clutch pedal fully and shift to the lowest forward gear.
(3) Increase the engine revolutions per minute (RPM) slightly (gas
engines only).
(4) Release the clutch to the friction point.
(5) Release the parking brake and gradually release the clutch until it is
fully engaged.
(6) When the vehicle starts to move, gradually increase the engine RPM
to increase vehicle speed.
(7) When the vehicle is in motion with clutch fully engaged, remove foot
from clutch ready to shift to another gear or stop.
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(8) Avoid excessive clutch slippage by fully engaging it as soon as
possible without stalling the engine.
c. Double clutching (must be used in some vehicles).
(1) Basic upshifting method.
(a) Release the accelerator and push in the clutch and shift to
neutral at the same time.
(b) Release the clutch.
(c) Let the engine and gears slow down to the RPM required for
the next higher gear.
(d) Push in the clutch and shift to the higher gear at the same time.
(e) Release the clutch and press the accelerator at the same time.
(2) Basic downshifting method.
(a) Release the accelerator and push in the clutch and shift to
neutral at the same time.
(b) Release the clutch.
(c) Press the accelerator to increase engine and gear speed to the
RPM required in the lower gear.
(d) Push in the clutch and shift to the lower gear at the same time.
(e) Release the clutch and press the accelerator at the same time.
d. Upshifting the transmission.
(1) Explain the use of the clutch.
(2) Explain the speed at which to upshift.
(3) Continue shifting until the desired road speed is reached.
e. Downshifting the transmission.
(1) Explain the use of the clutch.
(2) Downshift only within the operating range of the engine (RPM).
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TC 21-305-7
(3) Describe road conditions requiring downshifting, such as before
starting down a grade and before entering a curve, rough roads, snow, rain,
restricted speed limits, and built-up areas.
f. Turning the vehicle.
(1) Basic rules.
(2) Off-tracking.
(3) Right turns.
(4) Left turns.
(5) Right and left curves.
g. Stopping the vehicle.
(1) Release the accelerator pedal.
(2) Downshift within the operating range of the engine (RPM).
(3) Depress the brake pedal.
(4) As the vehicle begins to reduce speed, decrease brake pedal pressure.
(5) Stop smoothly by releasing brake pressure gradually as the stopping
rate increases.
(6) As the vehicle halts, push in the clutch pedal and release the brake
pedal.
(7) After stopping, shift to neutral and reapply the brake just enough to
keep the vehicle stationary. Now release the clutch pedal.
h. Shutting down the engine. Shut down procedures vary from vehicle to vehicle.
Refer to the vehicle operator's manual for specific procedures.
i. Driving within the training area. Demonstrate driving within the training area.
3. Practical exercise:
a. Assign students to vehicles and issue vehicle operator's manuals, pencils, DA
Form 2404, DD Form 1970, and equipment records folder. Instruct students on
the location of rags, lubricants, and coolant.
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TC 21-305-7
b. Students perform before-operation PMCS on their assigned vehicle.
c. Students practice maneuvering the vehicle through the courses laid out in the
training area(s). (Sample training areas are at Chapter 6, Figures 6-1 through 65.) During-operation PMCS is also conducted at this time.
NOTE: As each student practices driving, an assistant instructor rides in the right front seat.
The other two students will ride in the rear seats or troop seats and rotate driving duties.
The assistant instructor explains driving techniques, ensures the driver is aware of
driving situations, and conducts after-action reviews with each driver. Now is the time
to pass on valuable experience and correct any bad driving habits.
d. After the students have mastered driving the vehicle in the training area, the
students will then practice driving on the road.
e. Students perform after-operation PMCS and ensure all operator entries
required on DA Form 2404 and DD Form 1970 are accurate, complete, and
legible.
4. Evaluation: Check each student's performance of PMCS and driving.
5. Summary:
a. Recap main points.
b. Allow for questions.
c. Clarify questions.
d. Give closing statement.
6. Retraining: Retrain No-Gos and slow learners. Students perform driving tasks daily
and are tested on the end of course comprehensive test.
E. SAFETY RESTRICTIONS.
1. Ensure all chock blocks (if required) are in place when vehicles are parked.
2. Ensure students remove all jewelry and identification tags before performing PMCS.
3. Ensure students pay particular attention to the cautions and warnings listed in the
operator's manual.
4. Ensure the transmission is always placed in neutral, the parking brake is set, the
engine is shut off, and the ignition key is removed (if equipped) before leaving the vehicle.
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5. Ensure a safe following distance and speed are maintained when driving in the
training area (as determined by the local command).
6. Ensure all occupants wear seat belts (if equipped) while vehicle is in operation.
F. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND INFORMATION. Recommended instructional time
is 12 hours (1.0 conference, 1.0 demonstration, and 10.0 practical exercise, including 1.5
PMCS).
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LESSON TITLE:
DRIVE VEHICLE WITH AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION
TASK NUMBER:
551-721-1366 (Drive Vehicle with Automatic Transmission)
A. TRAINING OBJECTIVE.
TASK:
Drive vehicle with automatic transmission.
CONDITIONS
Given instruction, DD Form 1970, DA Form 2404, pencil,
appropriate vehicle operator's manual, equipment records folder,
rags, lubricants, coolant, a suitable training area, improved
surfaced roads, and an automatic transmission vehicle with BII.
STANDARD:
Without accident or injury, operate the vehicle: start the vehicle,
put the vehicle in motion, read gauges, upshift and downshift the
transmission smoothly through all gear ranges, manipulate the
controls, use correct braking procedures, perform basic driving
maneuvers, and shut down the engine.
B. INTERMEDIATE TRAINING. None.
C. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS.
1. Training time: As scheduled.
2. Training location: Motor pool, training area, and driver training route as scheduled.
3. Training type: Conference, demonstration, and practical exercise.
4. Students: Scheduled personnel.
5. Principal and assistant instructors required: One primary instructor for the conference,
one assistant instructor for each three students for the demonstration, and one assistant instructor
for each three students for the practical exercise.
6. Training aids and equipment: Rags, lubricants, coolant, 40 traffic cones or empty
POL drums, DA Form 2404, DD Form 1970, pencil, appropriate vehicle operator's manual,
equipment records folder, and a wheeled vehicle with BII for each three students.
7. References: Appropriate vehicle operator's manual and FM 21-305.
D. SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY.
1. Introduction:
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a. Interest device.
b. Tie-in.
c. Lesson objective (paragraph A).
d. Procedures:
(1) Explanation and demonstration.
(2) Practical exercise.
(3) Summary.
2. Explanation and demonstration:
a. Starting the engine.
(1) Fuel efficient starting.
(2) Cold weather starting procedures.
(3) Engine warm-up.
(4) Excessive idling.
b. Explaining the gearshift pattern. Gearshift patterns differ somewhat on the
various models of vehicles equipped with automatic transmissions. The following
is a typical pattern:
(1) "P" (park). The transmission is locked; the truck will not move.
Some vehicles do not have a "P" selection. In these vehicles, "N" (neutral)
takes the place of "P."
(2) "R" (reverse). This puts the truck in reverse for normal backing
operations.
(3) "N" (neutral). The transmission mechanism is disengaged. The truck
wheels can move by coasting, but the truck is not in gear. This selection is
used for parking, if the transmission does not have a "P" (park) selection.
(4) "D" (drive). This is used for normal driving with light to moderate
loads. The vehicle automatically downshifts and upshifts based on vehicle
speed. A forced downshift occurs at slower speeds by depressing the
accelerator pedal all the way to the floor.
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TC 21-305-7
(5) "2" (second). This is used for hill climbing or engine braking to slow
the truck when going down a steep hill. The gearshift lever may be shifted
from "D" to "2" and from "2" to "D" under most driving conditions.
(6) "1" (first). This is used for maximum engine braking when driving
down very steep hills or when maximum performance is required to climb
a very steep hill or drive through deep snow or mud.
c. Describing driving tips for automatic transmission vehicles.
(1) Do not coast downhill in "N" (neutral).
(2) Do not shift the transmission gearshift lever to "P" (park) or "N"
(neutral) while the truck is in motion.
(3) Do not race or accelerate the engine when shifting from "P" (park) or
"N" (neutral) into another gear range.
(4) Do not shift the transmission between forward gear ranges and "R"
(reverse) while operating the engine at high speed or heavy throttle.
(5) Do not force the transmission gearshift lever.
(6) Do not shift the transmission gearshift lever to "P" (park) on a hill
before setting the parking brake. This puts force on the transmission and
makes it difficult to shift the transmission gearshift lever out of "P" (park).
(7) When preparing to drive, do not release the parking brake until the
transmission gearshift lever is shifted out of "P" (park).
d. Putting the vehicle in motion.
(1) Start the vehicle and allow the engine to warm up according to the
operator's manual.
(2) Shift the transmission gearshift lever to "D" (drive) for normal driving
conditions.
(3) Apply pressure to the service brake and release the parking brake.
(4) Release the service brake and accelerate as needed for road, weather,
and traffic conditions.
e. Turning the vehicle.
(1) Basic rules.
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(2) Off-tracking.
(3) Right turns.
(4) Left turns.
(5) Right and left curves.
f. Stopping the vehicle.
(1) Release the accelerator pedal.
(2) Depress the brake pedal.
(3) As the vehicle begins to reduce speed, decrease brake pedal pressure.
(4) Stop smoothly by releasing brake pressure gradually as the stopping
rate increases.
(5) After stopping, apply the brake just enough to keep the vehicle
stationary.
g. Shutting down the engine. Shut down procedures vary from vehicle to vehicle.
Refer to the vehicle operator's manual for specific procedures.
h. Driving within the training area. Demonstrate driving within the training area.
3. Practical exercise:
a. Assign students to vehicles and issue vehicle operator's manuals, pencils, DA
Form 2404, DD Form 1970, and equipment records folder. Instruct students on
the location of rags, lubricants, and coolant.
b. Students perform before-operation PMCS on their assigned vehicle.
c. Students practice maneuvering the vehicle through the courses laid out in the
training area(s). (Sample training areas are at Chapter 6, Figures 6-1 through 65.) During-operation PMCS is also conducted at this time.
NOTE: As each student practices driving, an assistant instructor rides in the right front seat.
The other two students will ride in the rear seats or troop seats and rotate driving duties.
The assistant instructor explains driving techniques, ensures the driver is aware of
driving situations, and conducts after-action reviews with each driver. Now is the time
to pass on valuable experience and correct any bad driving habits.
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TC 21-305-7
d. After the students have mastered driving the vehicle in the training area, the
students will then practice driving on the road.
e. Students perform after-operation PMCS and ensure all operator entries
required on DA Form 2404 and DD Form 1970 are accurate, complete, and
legible.
4. Evaluation: Check each student's performance of PMCS and driving.
5. Summary:
a. Recap main points.
b. Allow for questions.
c. Clarify questions.
d. Give closing statement.
6. Retraining: Retrain No-Gos and slow learners. Students perform driving tasks daily
and are tested on the end of course comprehensive test.
E. SAFETY RESTRICTIONS.
1. Ensure all chock blocks (if required) are in place when vehicles are parked.
2. Ensure students remove all jewelry and identification tags before performing PMCS.
3. Ensure students pay particular attention to the cautions and warnings listed in the
operator's manual.
4. Ensure the transmission is always placed in neutral (some automatics are placed in
park), the parking brake is set, the engine is shut off, and the ignition key is removed (if
equipped) before leaving the vehicle.
5. Ensure a safe following distance and speed are maintained when driving in the
training area (as determined by the local command).
6. Ensure all occupants wear seat belts (if equipped) while vehicle is in operation.
F. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND INFORMATION. Recommended instructional time
is 12 hours (1.0 conference, 1.0 demonstration, and 10.0 practical exercise, including 1.5
PMCS).
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LESSON TITLE:
DRIVE VEHICLE ON THE ROAD (PRIMARY AND SECONDARY)
TASK NUMBER:
551-721-1365 (Drive Vehicle with Manual Transmission) and 551-7211366 (Drive Vehicle with Automatic Transmission)
A. TRAINING OBJECTIVE.
TASK:
Drive vehicle on the road (primary and secondary).
CONDITIONS
Given instruction, DD Form 1970, DA Form 2404, pencil, vehicle
operator's manual, equipment records folder, rags, lubricants,
coolant, improved surfaced roads, secondary roads, and a wheeled
vehicle with BII.
STANDARD:
Without accident or injury, operate the vehicle: conduct visual
search, communicate intentions, manage space and speed,
monitor for hazards, maneuver in emergencies, and conduct skid
control and recovery.
B. INTERMEDIATE TRAINING. None.
C. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS.
1. Training time: As scheduled.
2. Training location: Classroom, motor pool, and driver training route (built-up and rural
areas) as scheduled.
3. Training type: Conference and practical exercise.
4. Students: Scheduled personnel.
5. Principal and assistant instructors required: One primary instructor for the conference
and one assistant instructor for each three students for the practical exercise.
6. Training aids and equipment: Rags, lubricants, coolant, 40 traffic cones or empty
POL drums, DA Form 2404, DD Form 1970, pencil, vehicle operator's manual, equipment
records folder, and a wheeled vehicle with BII for each three students.
7. References: FM 21-305 and appropriate vehicle operator's manual.
D. SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY.
1. Introduction:
a. Interest device.
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TC 21-305-7
b. Tie-in.
c. Lesson objective (paragraph A).
d. Procedures:
(1) Explanation.
(2) Practical exercise.
(3) Summary.
2. Explanation and demonstration:
a. Conduct visual search.
(1) Seeing ahead and to the sides.
(a) Importance of seeing properly. Get a clear, complete, and
accurate picture of the traffic scene. Look back and forth, near and
far.
(b) Distance scanning. Look 12 to 15 seconds ahead. In city
driving, this is equal to about one block, while on the open
highway, it is about one-quarter of a mile (a much greater
distance).
(c) Scanning to the sides:
•
Look for anything that could affect your travel path, such as
pedestrians, bicycles, intersections, merging lanes, road
shoulders, and parked or stalled vehicles.
•
Continually look for bailout areas--spaces that might be used to
avoid a collision.
(d) Procedures at intersections:
•
Look in the correct sequence--left, right, then left again.
•
Be aware of blind spots created by mirrors and corner posts of
cab.
(2) Using mirrors.
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(a) Importance of mirrors. Mostly, the scene behind can only be
seen through the left and right side mirrors.
(b) Two types of side mirrors:
•
Plain (flat) mirrors give the best view of the rear of the vehicle
and the roadway behind, but they do not give a wide view.
They can leave blind areas alongside most of the length of the
vehicle.
•
Convex mirrors are designed with a curvature to give a wideangle view. They are best used for side close-ups. Convex
mirrors eliminate most but not all of the blind area created by
the plain mirror. The images you see, however, will be
distorted.
(c) Care of mirrors. Clean, tighten, and adjust mirrors to get the
maximum view of conditions to the sides and rear of the vehicle.
(3) Seeing to the rear.
(a) Use mirrors to monitor to the rear. Monitor the mirrors every
six to eight seconds taking care to not take your eyes off the road
ahead for more than one second. Mirrors are used to monitor-•
Load and cargo security.
•
Loose or falling cargo.
•
Tire fires.
•
Any potential hazards on the sides of the vehicle.
•
What is beside or behind the vehicle that might be affected by a
sudden or emergency move.
(b) Use mirrors to check to the rear when changing speed or
position:
4-54
•
Speed. Monitor the roadway behind for position of other
traffic and be prepared to alert vehicles behind, when forced to
change speed quickly or unexpectedly.
•
Changing lanes. Use all mirrors when changing path of travel
to either the left or right. Be aware that blind spots exist both
behind and to the sides of the vehicle.
TC 21-305-7
•
Turning corners. Check the side view mirrors before reducing
speed and also while negotiating the turn. When turning, check
the mirrors to prevent the vehicle from causing damage to any
person or object.
b. Communicate intentions.
(1) Communicate intention to make a turn.
(a) Slow vehicle by downshifting or braking.
(b) Initiate turn signal as early as possible.
(c) After fully completing the turn, cancel the turn signal.
(2) Communicate intention to back the vehicle.
(a) Exit vehicle to check for possible obstacles.
(b) Station someone in the rear to ground guide and block traffic if
necessary.
(c) Turn on flashers and sound horn (when legal to do so).
(d) Align vehicle to gain the best possible angle of approach.
(e) Use mirror to assist in viewing the sides and rear of the
vehicle.
(3) Communicate intent to other drivers.
(a) Signal when changing lanes.
(b) Signal when turning.
(c) Signal when passing another vehicle.
(d) Signal when merging into traffic.
(e) Signal when approaching a parallel parking place.
(f) Signal when leaving a curb.
(g) Use four-way flashers when making emergency stops or
slowing vehicle.
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TC 21-305-7
(4) Communicate presence to other drivers in the area.
(a) Use horn (when legal to do so) to get attention of other drivers.
(b) Establish eye contact, once attention is obtained.
(c) Use horn early to prevent inappropriate action.
(d) Use long blast only in an emergency.
(e) Use headlights to get attention of other drivers.
(f) Flash headlights to communicate a hazard.
(g) Turn lights on when weather conditions or visibility is poor.
(h) Use four-way flashers when unloading, when at an accident
scene, or when travelling slow (below posted minimum speed limit
or well below the posted maximum speed limit).
c. Manage space.
(1) Maintain adequate clearance to the sides of the vehicle.
(a) Keep vehicle centered in the lane.
(b) Avoid traveling alongside other vehicles because it leads to an
increased chance of collision if either vehicle sways or drifts.
(c) Maintain adequate clearance between surrounding vehicles.
(d) Maintain a firm grip on the wheel and make minor corrections
for winds.
(e) Be prepared for drafting effects of surrounding vehicles.
(2) Deal with tailgaters.
(a) Do not tap the brake pedal.
(b) Do not turn on the headlights.
(c) Stay in the right lane or move into the right lane.
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(d) Maintain adequate space between your vehicle and the vehicle
ahead. Do not be pushed.
(e) Open up room in front to allow clearance for passing.
(3) Manage overhead space.
(a) The driver must understand that the vehicle's clearance can
change with the load.
(b) See the posted overhead clearance.
(c) Choose the lane that may afford more clearance.
(d) If unsure, approach slowly.
(e) Be careful if there is snow or ice on the road (decreased
clearance).
(f) If clearance is marginal, take an alternate route. If there is no
alternate route, stop and measure clearance before proceeding.
(4) Monitor space below the vehicle for obstructions.
(a) Be aware of railroad tracks.
(b) Be especially careful of unpaved roads.
(c) Check for drainage channels across roads.
(d) Cross potential obstacles at an angle.
(e) Heavy loads may require more caution.
(f) Be careful of hills and small rises in the road.
(g) Low slung trailers (pintle-connected) can become lodged on
rises in the road.
(5) Ensure there is adequate space for a right turn.
(a) Initiate turn signal.
(b) Keep rear of vehicle close to the curb.
(c) Pull far forward into the intersection; turn hard right.
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(d) Watch oncoming cars if swinging wide into the left or
oncoming lane.
(e) Steer vehicle into the desired lane.
(f) Cancel signal.
(6) Ensure there is adequate space for a left turn.
(a) Initiate turn signal.
(b) If there are two turn lanes, take the right-hand lane.
(c) Do not turn until you are in the center of the intersection.
(d) Ensure there is an adequate gap to make a turn in front of
traffic.
(e) If applicable, watch for oncoming traffic.
(f) Cancel signal.
d. Manage speed.
(1) Control speed on slippery surfaces.
(a) Decrease speed.
(b) Downshift or decelerate.
(c) Reach speed of approximately one-third less than posted
limits.
(d) On snow, reduce speed by approximately half of posted speed
limit.
(e) Make slight, gradual steering motions.
(f) When braking, do not lock the wheels.
(g) Maintain adequate following distance for weather conditions.
(2) Control speed when exiting an interstate highway.
(a) Signal intention to exit well in advance.
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(b) Slow to appropriate speed for exiting the highway. (The
posted speed limit is for cars; trucks generally must slow down 10
to 15 MPH less than the posted speed limit.)
(c) Downshift or brake to decelerate.
(d) Steer gradually in the direction of the exit ramp.
(e) Follow outside of the curve.
(f) Make gradual steering adjustments.
(g) Prepare to stop at the bottom of the exit.
(3) Control speed when descending an incline.
(a) Shift transmission into a lower gear before starting downgrade.
(b) Check brakes before starting the downgrade.
(c) Pay attention to signs indicating location of escape ramps.
(d) Use steady, light, continuous pressure on the brake pedal.
(e) Use pull off if braking power diminishes and allow brakes to
cool.
(4) Control speed in heavy traffic.
(a) Maintain proper following distance.
(b) Stay within legal speed limits.
(c) Try to maintain same speed as the surrounding traffic.
(d) If following distances are decreased, back off to allow gap
increase.
(e) Stay to the right, if necessary.
e. Monitor for hazards.
(1) Monitor the roadway to detect hazards.
(a) Scan 12 to 15 seconds ahead frequently; anticipate problems.
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(b) Be aware of work zones.
(c) Be aware of uneven pavement and pavement drop offs.
(d) Be aware of foreign objects in the road, such as mufflers and
debris.
(e) Monitor activities alongside the road, such as stores, shopping
areas, and stopped or disabled vehicles.
(f) Be aware of inappropriate braking of vehicles ahead (brakes
locked or continuously riding the brakes).
(g) Be aware of sudden swerving of vehicles ahead:
•
Reduce speed.
•
Maintain firm grip on the steering wheel.
•
Take evasive action, steer left or right, countersteer, or brake.
(2) Observe the driver of the vehicle ahead who is confused or not paying
full attention.
(a) Slow down.
(b) Attempt to pass, if possible. Initiate turn signal and check
mirror.
(c) Steer gradually to the passing lane.
(d) Pass as quickly as possible; maintain extra distance from the
vehicle.
(e) Initiate turn signal; check mirrors.
(f) Steer gradually to the original lane.
(g) Cancel turn signal.
(h) If unable to pass, back off and stay well behind.
(3) Observe shoppers/pedestrians in the area.
(a) Increase visual scanning; check mirrors.
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(b) Slow down.
(c) Be prepared to stop suddenly.
(d) Distance the vehicle from curbs.
(e) Be aware of pedestrians emerging from between parked cars.
(4) Observe slow driver ahead.
(a) Apply brakes or downshift.
(b) Initiate turn signals; check mirrors.
(c) Pass vehicle, if possible.
(d) If unable to pass, maintain adequate following distance, back
off, and stay well behind.
(5) Detect roadway obstructions (posted).
(a) Frequently scan roadway ahead.
(b) Cue in on signs that may indicate detours, work zones, and so
forth.
(c) Check posted load/speed limit for tunnels and bridges.
(d) Check for overhead clearance indications.
(e) Slow vehicle to appropriate speed.
(f) Check mirrors for vehicles alongside or following.
(g) Steer towards center of the lane, if clear.
(h) Maintain adequate clearance distance from other vehicles.
(6) Observe a vehicle on the shoulder with the hood up.
(a) Scan area for pedestrians.
(b) Scan inside of vehicle to determine status of occupants.
(c) Initiate signal.
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(d) Check mirrors for passing vehicles or vehicles alongside.
(e) Reduce speed by deceleration, downshifting, or braking.
(f) Steer gradually into left lane, or on two-lane roads, steer to the
left side of the occupied lane.
f. Maneuver in emergencies.
(1) Observe an oncoming car encroaching into the driver's lane.
(a) Hit horn or flash lights to alert oncoming vehicle.
(b) Move to the right, if possible (two-lane road).
(c) Check mirrors for vehicles to the side and approaching from
the rear, and if possible or necessary, steer to the right (four-lane
road).
(d) Do not brake while turning, but lift foot from the accelerator
pedal.
(e) If it is necessary to leave the road, follow these steps:
•
Avoid braking. If braking is necessary, brake gently to avoid
skidding.
•
Keep one set of wheels on the pavement.
•
Stay on the shoulder, if possible.
•
Turn sharply enough to get back on the road safely.
(2) Notice an animal walking in the road at night.
(a) Immediately slow vehicle.
(b) Brake/downshift.
(c) Flash lights.
(d) Sound horn.
(e) Turn lights off momentarily if animal is fixated on headlights.
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(f) Move away from lane animal was/is in, if possible.
(g) Stop vehicle, if necessary.
(h) If all the above fails, assess options:
•
Leave the road.
•
Or hit the animal.
•
Or hit another vehicle.
(3) Vehicle has a tire blowout while operating at highway speeds.
(a) Grasp the steering wheel firmly.
(b) Accelerate immediately to keep the momentum of the vehicle
in a straight line.
(c) Check the mirrors for vehicle to the sides and rear.
(d) Initiate signal.
(e) Decelerate and progressively downshift transmission to slow
the vehicle.
(f) Gradually steer vehicle to the shoulder.
(g) Avoid braking, but you may brake very gently if necessary.
(h) Pull vehicle onto the shoulder as far from traffic as possible.
(i) Set four-way flashers.
(j) Set out warning reflectors and change tire.
g. Conduct skid control and recovery.
(1) If you encounter a skidding condition as a result of overacceleration-(a) When you detect the rear of the vehicle is sliding, remove your
foot from the accelerator.
(b) Steer the vehicle gently in the direction the rear of the vehicle
is skidding.
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(c) When vehicle has straightened, use intermittent controlled
braking to slow vehicle.
(2) If you encounter a skidding condition as a result of overbraking-(a) Release brake pedal pressure to release locked brakes.
(b) When vehicle wheels are rolling, use controlled braking to
reduce speed.
(c) Steer in the intended direction of travel.
(3) If you encounter a skidding condition as a result of oversteering-(a) Remove your foot from the accelerator.
(b) Countersteer.
(c) Once control is gained, steer in the intended direction of travel.
h. Explain to the students that they will be required to perform before-, during-,
and after-operation PMCS on their assigned vehicle.
i. Demonstrate hand and arm signals required for this exercise.
j. Explain ground guide safety precautions for backing the vehicle. (During
training, ground guides are required for backing in the motor pool and training
areas.)
3. Practical exercise:
a. Assign students to vehicles and issue vehicle operator's manuals, pencils, DA
Form 2404, DD Form 1970, and equipment records folder. Instruct students on
the location of rags, lubricants, and coolant.
b. Students perform before-operation PMCS.
c. Students practice driving the vehicle on the road (primary and secondary).
During-operation PMCS is also conducted at this time.
NOTE: As each student practices driving, an assistant instructor rides in the right front seat.
The other two students will ride in the rear seats or troop seats and rotate driving duties.
The assistant instructor explains driving techniques, ensures the driver is aware of
driving situations, and conducts after-action reviews with each driver. Now is the time
to pass on valuable experience and correct any bad driving habits.
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d. Students perform after-operation PMCS and ensure all operator entries
required on DA Form 2404 and DD Form 1970 are accurate, complete, and
legible.
4. Evaluation: Check each student's performance of PMCS and driving.
5. Summary:
a. Recap main points.
b. Allow for questions.
c. Clarify questions.
d. Give closing statement.
6. Retraining: Retrain No-Gos and slow learners. Students perform driving tasks daily
and are tested on the end of course comprehensive test.
E. SAFETY RESTRICTIONS.
1. Ensure all chock blocks (if required) are in place when vehicles are parked.
2. Ensure students remove all jewelry and identification tags before performing PMCS.
3. Ensure students pay particular attention to the cautions and warnings listed in the
operator's manual.
4. Ensure the transmission is always placed in neutral (some automatics are placed in
park), the parking brake is set, the engine is shut off, and the ignition key is removed (if
equipped) before leaving the vehicle.
5. Ensure a safe following distance and speed are maintained when driving in the
training area (as determined by the local command).
6. Ensure all occupants wear seat belts (if equipped) while vehicle is in operation.
7. Ensure ground guide(s) is used when backing vehicles during training.
F. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND INFORMATION. Recommended instructional time
is 12 hours (1.0 conference, 1.0 demonstration, and 11.0 practical exercise, including 1.5
PMCS).
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LESSON TITLE:
BACK AND PARK A VEHICLE
TASK NUMBER:
551-721-1365 (Drive Vehicle with Manual Transmission) and 551-7211366 (Drive Vehicle with Automatic Transmission)
A. TRAINING OBJECTIVE.
TASK:
Back and park a vehicle.
CONDITIONS
Given DD Form 1970, DA Form 2404, pencil, appropriate
operator's manual, equipment records folder, rags, lubricants,
coolant, suitable training area, a wheeled vehicle with BII, and
ground guides.
STANDARD:
Without causing damage to the vehicle, physical surrounding, or
injury to personnel, back and park a vehicle.
B. INTERMEDIATE TRAINING. None.
C. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS.
1. Training time: As scheduled.
2. Training location: Motor pool and training area as scheduled.
3. Training type: Demonstration and practical exercise.
4. Students: Personnel as scheduled.
5. Principal and assistant instructors required: One primary instructor, one assistant
instructor for each three students for the demonstration, and one assistant instructor for each
three students for the practical exercise.
6. Training aids and equipment: Rags, lubricants, coolant, 40 traffic cones or empty
POL drums, DA Form 2404, DD Form 1970, pencil, appropriate vehicle operator's manual,
equipment records folder, and a wheeled vehicle with BII for each three students.
7. References: Appropriate vehicle operator's manual, FM 21-60, and FM 21-305.
D. SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY.
1. Introduction:
a. Interest device.
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b. Tie-in.
c. Lesson objective (paragraph A).
d. Procedures:
(1) Explanation.
(2) Practical exercise.
(3) Summary.
2. Explanation and demonstration:
a. General rules for backing safely. Since the driver cannot see directly behind
his vehicle, backing is always a dangerous maneuver. Common sense therefore
dictates that backing be avoided whenever possible. For example, if the vehicle
must be parked, the driver parks so that he will be able to pull forward when
leaving. Even though planning ahead can reduce the need to back, almost
everyone who drives will have to back on occasion. These four simple rules will
help you to back safely:
•
Inspect your intended path.
•
Back and turn toward the driver's side.
•
Use four-way flashers and horn.
•
Use ground guide(s).
(1) Inspect your path. Whether backing in a straight line or backing and
turning, inspect the line of travel before beginning to back. Get out and
walk around the vehicle. Check the clearance in or near the path the
vehicle will take. Also, make sure the road, parking, or docking area will
be able to support the vehicle.
(2) Back and turn toward the driver's (sight) side. You will have a better
view of what you are doing, and you will avoid the dangers brought about
by backing to the passenger's (blind) side. If you back toward your side,
you can watch the rear of the vehicle by looking out the side window and
by using the left mirror. You cannot see as much in the right side mirror
because you are farther away from it.
(3) Use four-way flashers and horn. Always turn on the four-way flashers
before backing. If the vehicle is not equipped with a back-up alarm, make
periodic, gentle taps on the electric horn (if it is safe and legal to do so).
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(4) Use ground guide(s). It is always best to use a ground guide or guides
to help back because the driver cannot see behind the vehicle and other
blind spots in the mirrors. A ground guide is essential in blind side
backing, but the driver is still responsible. Ground guide safety
procedures are in the appendix. FM 21-305 gives detailed ground guide
instructions. Before backing, the driver and ground guide(s) must know
the correct arm and hand signals (see FM 21-60 or FM 21-305).
WARNING
When backing up or going forward, ground guides should never stand directly in
the path of the vehicle. Keep 10 yards between the vehicle and ground guides
front or rear and to the corners of the vehicle, never directly behind the vehicle.
Ground guides will not position themselves between the vehicle being guided and
another object where an inadvertent engine surge or momentary loss of vehicle
control could cause injury. Drivers of vehicles will immediately stop their
vehicles if they lose sight of ground guides or note that the guide is dangerously
positioned between the vehicle and another object. Drivers of vehicles in such
cases will secure their vehicle, dismount, and make an on-the-spot correction
before commencing operations.
b. General backing procedures. There are four general procedures that should be
followed in backing:
•
Start in the proper position.
•
Back slowly.
•
Constantly check behind the vehicle.
•
Start over when necessary.
(1) Start in the right position. Position the vehicle properly before
attempting a backing maneuver. Starting from any but the right spot
makes the task more difficult or even impossible. The proper position is
reached by moving the vehicle forward. When the vehicle is in the right
position, stop, secure it, get out, and check the positioning from all angles.
(2) Back slowly. Use the lowest reverse gear and back slowly. Be
patient. If possible, do not use the accelerator; move in idle speed. Do not
ride the clutch (manual transmissions).
(3) Constantly check behind the vehicle. Use both mirrors or ground
guides (if available). If necessary, periodically get out of the vehicle and
check the vehicle path.
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(4) Start over when necessary. If the vehicle gets out of position, pull
forward and realign it with the desired path of travel. It is better to pull
forward in these situations rather than to fight it by continuing to back.
c. Arm and hand signals. Demonstrate the arm and hand signals required for this
exercise.
d. Ground guide safety precautions. Explain ground guide safety precautions for
backing.
e. Demonstration. Demonstrate backing and parking:
(1) Straight line.
(2) Parallel parking (sight side and blind side).
3. Practical exercise:
a. Assign students to vehicles and issue vehicle operator's manual, pencil, DA
Form 2404, DD Form 1970, and equipment records folder. Instruct students on
the location of rags, lubricants, and coolant.
b. Students perform before-operation PMCS.
c. Students practice backing and parking the vehicle through the courses laid out
in the training area. (Sample training areas are at Chapter 6, Figures 6-6 through
6-8.) During-operation PMCS is also conducted at this time.
NOTE: The success of the driver training program is the ability of the instructors to get in the
cab of the truck with the student driver and pass on valuable experience and techniques.
Now is the time to correct any bad driving habits.
d. Students perform after-operation PMCS and ensure all operator entries
required on DA Form 2404 and DD Form 1970 are accurate, complete, and
legible.
4. Evaluation: Check each student's performance of PMCS, backing, and parking.
5. Summary:
a. Recap main points.
b. Allow for questions.
c. Clarify questions.
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d. Give closing statement.
6. Retraining: Retrain No-Gos and slow learners.
E. SAFETY RESTRICTIONS.
1. Ensure all chock blocks (if required) are in place when vehicles are parked.
2. Ensure students remove all jewelry and identification tags before performing PMCS.
3. Ensure students pay particular attention to the cautions and warnings listed in the
operator's manual.
4. Ensure the transmission is always placed in neutral (some automatics are placed in
park), the parking brake is set, the engine is shut off, and the ignition key is removed (if
equipped) before leaving the vehicle.
5. Ensure a safe following distance and speed are maintained when driving in the
training area (as determined by the local command).
6. Ensure all occupants wear seat belts (if equipped) while vehicle is in operation.
7. Ensure ground guide(s) is used when backing vehicles during training.
F. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND INFORMATION. Recommended instructional time
is 4 hours (.5 demonstration and 3.5 practical exercise, including .5 PMCS).
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LESSON TITLE:
DRIVE VEHICLE AT NIGHT
TASK NUMBER:
551-721-1365 (Drive Vehicle with Manual Transmission) and 551-7211366 (Drive Vehicle with Automatic Transmission)
A. TRAINING OBJECTIVE.
TASK:
Drive vehicle at night.
CONDITIONS
Given instruction, DA Form 2404, DD Form 1970, pencil,
appropriate vehicle operator's manual, equipment records folder,
rags, lubricants, coolant, improved road surfaces, and a wheeled
vehicle with BII.
STANDARD:
Without accident or injury, drive the designated route at night
with headlights: use defensive driving (accident avoidance)
methods, operate the light switch, read gauges, upshift and
downshift the transmission, manipulate the controls, use correct
braking procedures, and perform basic driving maneuvers.
B. INTERMEDIATE TRAINING. None.
C. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS.
1. Training time: As scheduled.
2. Training location: Motor pool and driver training route (built-up and rural areas) as
scheduled.
3. Training type: Conference and practical exercise.
4. Students: Scheduled personnel.
5. Principal and assistant instructors required: One primary instructor for the conference
and one assistant instructor for each three students for the practical exercise.
6. Training aids and equipment: Rags, lubricants, coolant, DA Form 2404, DD Form
1970, pen or pencil, appropriate vehicle operator's manual, equipment records folder, and a
wheeled vehicle with BII for each three students.
7. References: FM 21-305 and appropriate vehicle operator's manual.
D. SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY.
1. Introduction:
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a. Interest device.
b. Tie-in.
c. Lesson objective (paragraph A).
d. Procedures:
(1) Explanation.
(2) Practical exercise.
(3) Summary.
2. Explanation and demonstration:
a. Night driving factors.
(1) Driver factors:
(a) Vision. The driver has limited vision at night because-•
Eyes need time to adjust to the change between light and
darkness.
•
Drivers cannot see as sharply at night.
•
Drivers cannot see to the sides as well at night.
(b) Glare. Temporary blindness is caused by glare, normally from
oncoming headlights but sometimes from other lights.
(c) Fatigue. Fatigue reduces the ability to see clearly. The driver
becomes less alert and slower to see hazards and therefore does not
react as promptly.
(d) Driver inexperience. Newness to driving, coupled with the
problems of reduced vision, glare, and fatigue account for the fact
new drivers have higher nighttime accident rates than more
experienced drivers.
(2) Roadway factors:
(a) Low illumination. Illumination provided by street lights is
often only fair to poor. On most roads, the only illumination is
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from the driver's headlights. Headlights are useful for a relatively
short and narrow path directly ahead of the vehicle. However,
headlights do not bend around corners.
(b) Variation in illumination. The driver must constantly adjust
his eyes to different types and degrees of lighting. Flashing lights
distract as much as they illuminate. Traffic signs are hard to see
against the background of other lights, especially in towns and
cities.
(c) Familiarity with roads. The driver needs to be particularly
alert on roads that he has never driven during the day. Also, on
familiar roads, drivers tend to be overconfident. This is dangerous
because-•
The view of the roadway is not the same.
•
Situations on some stretches will change.
(d) Other road users. The driver must adjust his driving to
hazards such as pedestrians, joggers, bicyclists, and animals.
(e) Drinking drivers. The likelihood of encountering drunken
drivers increases after sundown. Be especially alert when driving
near roadside taverns and similar attractions.
(3) Vehicle factors:
(a) Headlights. Sight distance is limited to the range of the
headlights. Therefore, the driver must drive at a speed that allows
him to stop within his sight distance.
(b) Auxiliary lights. Trucks are better seen at night by other
drivers when reflectors, marker lights, clearance lights, taillights,
and brake lights are clean and working properly.
(c) Turn signals. The ability to communicate with other drivers
depends on turn signals. Nonfunctional or dirty turn signal lights
greatly increase the risk of an accident.
(d) Windshields and wipers. A clean windshield and properly
working wipers are necessary for safe driving.
(e) Mirrors. Mirrors help the driver see what is going on around
him. Keep them clean and properly adjusted.
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b. Night driving procedures.
(1) Preparing to drive at night:
(a) Get yourself ready.
•
If you wear glasses, be sure they are clean.
•
Remove sunglasses.
•
Be well rested.
(b) Plan your route.
•
Know the location of rest stops.
•
Plan for hazards, such as unlighted areas, exit ramps,
construction areas, and other changes in the highway
environment.
(c) Get the vehicle ready.
•
Ensure windshield, mirrors, lights, and reflectors are clean.
•
Ensure all lights are operational.
(2) Driving at night:
(a) Avoid blinding others:
•
Dim high beams when oncoming vehicles are less than 500 feet
away.
•
Do not use high beams to retaliate against other drivers.
(b) Avoid glare:
•
Set interior panel lights at the lowest setting to reduce glare.
•
Look to the right when oncoming vehicles are using high
beams.
(c) Maximize visibility:
•
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Use low beams when desired visual range is about 250 feet.
TC 21-305-7
•
Use high beams when there are no oncoming vehicles and
desired visual range is 350 to 500 feet.
(d) Adjust basic driving techniques:
•
Exercise additional caution because of reduced vision.
•
Signal earlier than during daylight to give other drivers more
time to react.
3. Practical exercise:
a. Assign students to vehicles and issue vehicle operator's manual, pencil, DA
Form 2404, DD Form 1970, and equipment records folder. Instruct students on
the location of rags, lubricants, and coolant.
b. Students perform before-operation PMCS to include the operation and
cleanliness of all lights.
c. Students drive the designated route. During-operation PMCS is conducted at
this time.
NOTE: As each student practices driving, an assistant instructor rides in the right front seat.
The other two students will ride in the rear seats or troop seats and rotate driving duties.
The assistant instructor explains driving techniques, ensures the driver is aware of
driving situations, and conducts after-action reviews with each driver. Now is the time
to pass on valuable experience and correct any bad driving habits.
d. Students perform after-operation PMCS and ensure all operator entries
required on DA Form 2404 and DD Form 1970 are accurate, complete, and
legible.
4. Evaluation: Check each student's performance of PMCS and night driving.
5. Summary:
a. Recap main points.
b. Allow for questions.
c. Clarify questions.
d. Give closing statement.
6. Retraining: Retrain No-Gos and slow learners.
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E. SAFETY RESTRICTIONS.
1. Ensure all chock blocks (if required) are in place when vehicles are parked.
2. Ensure students remove all jewelry and identification tags before performing PMCS.
3. Ensure students pay particular attention to the cautions and warnings listed in the
operator's manual.
4. Ensure the transmission is always placed in neutral (some automatics are placed in
park), the parking brake is set, the engine is shut off, and the ignition key is removed (if
equipped) before leaving the vehicle.
5. Ensure a safe following distance and speed are maintained when driving on the
designated route (as determined by the local command).
6. Ensure all occupants wear seat belts (if equipped) while vehicle is in operation.
7. Ensure ground guide(s) is used when backing vehicles during training.
F. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND INFORMATION. Recommended instructional time
is 5 hours (.5 conference and 4.5 practical exercise, including 1.0 PMCS).
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CHAPTER 5
ADDITIONAL SUBJECTS - LESSON OUTLINES
LESSON TITLE:
DRIVE A VEHICLE WITH BALANCED (PINTLE-CONNECTED)
TRAILER
TASK NUMBER:
551-721-1380 (Transport General Cargo in Trailer) and 551-721-1385
(Couple/Uncouple Pintle-Connected Trailer)
A. TRAINING OBJECTIVE.
TASK:
Drive a vehicle with balanced (pintle-connected) trailer.
CONDITIONS
Given instruction, DD Form 1970, DA Form 2404, pencil, vehicle
operator's manual, trailer operator's manual, equipment records
folder, rags, lubricants, coolant, a suitable training area, a trailer,
and a wheeled vehicle with BII.
STANDARD:
Without accident or injury, drive the designated route, connect
and disconnect the trailer, back the trailer (in a straight line), and
perform basic driving maneuvers.
B. INTERMEDIATE TRAINING. None.
C. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS.
1. Training time: As scheduled.
2. Training location: Motor pool, training area, and driver training route.
3. Training type: Conference, demonstration, and practical exercise.
4. Students: Scheduled personnel.
5. Principal and assistant instructors required: One primary instructor for the conference
and one assistant instructor for each three students for the demonstration and practical exercise.
6. Training aids and equipment: Rags, lubricants, coolant, DA Form 2404, DD Form
1970, pencil, 40 traffic cones or empty POL drums, vehicle operator's manual, trailer operator's
manual, equipment records folder, and a trailer and a wheeled vehicle with BII for each three
students.
7. References: FM 21-305, trailer operator's manual, and vehicle operator's manual.
5-1
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D. SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY.
1. Introduction:
a. Interest device.
b. Tie-in.
c. Lesson objective (paragraph A).
d. Procedures:
(1) Explanation.
(2) Practical exercise.
(3) Summary.
2. Explanation and demonstration:
NOTE: The instructions contained in this lesson outline for a balanced (pintle-connected) trailer
are in general terms because this lesson covers a variety of trailers. Although
procedures for these type trailers are similar, the instructor should consult the specific
trailer operator's manual for detailed instructions.
a. Connect the trailer to the vehicle.
(1) Sound the horn before backing, and using ground guide(s), back the
vehicle to the trailer ensuring no one stands between the vehicle and the
trailer.
(2) Stop the vehicle, engage the parking brake, shut off the engine, and
get out of the vehicle to connect the trailer.
(3) Lift the trailer. (Some trailers are light and can be lifted by one
person, while others will require several people, and still others have a
mechanical lift.) Secure the trailer lunette in the pintle of the towing
vehicle. Secure the pintle, and install the pintle safety cotter pin in the
pintle.
(4) Hook the two safety chains from the trailer to the rear lifting shackles
of the towing vehicle.
(5) Release the trailer hand brake lever.
(6) Raise the retractable support (landing leg).
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TC 21-305-7
(7) Connect the intervehicular brake hoses to the towing vehicle, and turn
on the air supply.
(8) Connect the intervehicular electrical cable to the towing vehicle.
(9) Check the brake action and operation of all lights by operating the
controls in the towing vehicle.
b. Disconnect the trailer from the vehicle.
(1) Position the trailer on level ground, if possible.
(2) Apply the trailer hand brake or chock wheels to prevent movement of
the trailer.
(3) Disconnect the intervehicular brake hoses, and stow on the bracket
provided on the trailer.
(4) Lower the retractable support (landing leg).
(5) Unhook the safety chains and lunette from the towing vehicle.
(6) Secure the pintle, and reinstall the pintle safety cotter pin in the pintle.
(7) Level trailer, if required.
c. Drive the towing vehicle and trailer. Keep in mind the overall length of the
towing vehicle and trailer when passing other vehicles and turning. Backing is
also affected because the unit is hinged in the middle.
(1) Safely towing a trailer requires increased concentration, alertness, and
strict compliance with towing speeds.
(2) Trailers have a tendency to fishtail or swerve very easily when the
driver makes an erratic movement of any magnitude. This can be caused
by-(a) Speed.
(b) A slight swerve to miss a pothole.
(c) A quick lane change.
(d) A slip of the hand on the steering wheel.
5-3
TC 21-305-7
(e) Rough or uneven road.
(3) To prevent trailer fishtail or swerve-(a) Never exceed the recommended speed for the trailer that you
are towing.
(b) Never exceed the trailer's maximum recommended weight
capacity.
(c) Always slow down for curves, wet or rough road, or
downgrades.
(d) Anticipate that all stops will take longer as a result of the
added weight and brake early and gently. Do not slam on the
brakes.
(e) On downgrades, slow down before starting downhill. Use a
lower gear, and let the engine compression help slow the vehicle.
(4) To correct trailer fishtail or swerve-(a) Steer straight ahead.
(b) Gradually decelerate.
(c) Do not brake until both the towing vehicle and trailer have
stabilized.
(5) When turning corners, allow for the fact that the trailer wheels turn
inside the turning radius of the towing vehicle.
(a) To make a right turn--
5-4
•
Check traffic ahead, to the rear, and to the right side.
•
If not in the right-hand lane, make sure that lane is clear,
signal, and move into the lane well in advance of the turn.
•
Signal for the turn at least 150 feet in advance, and reduce
speed.
•
Check other traffic that is in, at, or approaching the
intersection. (Make sure there is no bicycle or motorcycle to
the right, and be especially alert for pedestrians.)
TC 21-305-7
•
Take a position farther from the curb or edge of the pavement
than the driver would if driving a straight truck.
•
Drive the towing vehicle about halfway into the intersection,
and then cut sharply to the right. This will keep the trailer
wheels off the curb.
•
Keep the vehicle close enough to the edge of the road to
prevent following vehicles from attempting to pass on the right.
•
If swinging wide to the left or oncoming lane, watch oncoming
vehicles.
•
During the turn, monitor the mirrors for off-tracking.
•
Do not shift gears during the turn. Keep both hands on the
steering wheel.
•
If unable to complete the turn, do not back up.
•
After completing the turn, cancel the signal.
•
When it is safe to do so, steer the vehicle into the desired lane
(on four-lane roads).
(b) To make a left turn-•
Check traffic ahead, to the rear, and to both sides.
•
Signal for the turn at least 150 feet in advance and reduce
speed.
•
Check other traffic that is in, at, or approaching the
intersection.
•
Ensure there is an adequate gap to make a turn in front of
traffic.
•
Before turning, drive the towing vehicle into the center of the
intersection to allow for the trailer.
•
Turn hard to the left and watch for oncoming traffic, if
applicable.
•
During the turn, monitor the mirrors for off-tracking.
5-5
TC 21-305-7
•
Do not shift gears during the turn. Keep both hands on the
steering wheel.
•
After completing the turn, cancel the signal.
•
When it is safe to do so, steer the vehicle into the desired lane
(on four-lane roads).
(6) Stopping requires more distance when pulling a trailer. Apply brakes
gradually and smoothly. Stepping on the brake pedal will stop both the
towing vehicle and the trailer.
d. Back the trailer (in a straight line). Since the driver cannot see directly behind
the vehicle, backing is always a dangerous maneuver. Avoid backing whenever
possible, even if it involves going around the block. When backing, follow these
rules:
(1) Get out of the vehicle, and check the area to the sides, rear, and
overhead for obstructions.
(2) Use ground guide(s) to direct while backing, when possible.
(3) Adjust the rear view mirrors before backing.
(4) Sound the horn before backing where it is legal to do so.
(5) Remember that when backing the rear of the trailer will move in the
opposite direction from which the front towing vehicle wheels are turned.
(a) If the wheels are turned to the right, the trailer will go left.
(b) If the wheels are turned to the left, the trailer will go right.
(6) Make gradual steering corrections in relation to trailer alignment.
(7) Pull up, if necessary, to gain improved alignment of trailer.
(8) Stop the vehicle when the desired position is achieved.
e. Explain to the students that they will be required to perform before-during-,
and after-operation PMCS on their assigned vehicle.
f. Demonstrate hand and arm signals required for this exercise.
g. Demonstrate driving through each maneuver.
5-6
TC 21-305-7
3. Practical exercise:
a. Assign students to vehicles/trailers, and issue vehicle operator’s manuals,
trailer operator's manuals, pencils, DA Form 2404, DD Form 1970, and the
equipment records folder. Instruct students on the location of rags, lubricants,
and coolant.
b. Students perform before-operation PMCS.
c. Students practice maneuvering the vehicle through the courses laid out in the
training area(s). (Sample training areas are at Chapter 6, Figures 6-2 through 6-5
and 6-8). They also conduct during-operation PMCS at this time.
d. After the students have mastered driving the vehicle in the training area, they
will practice driving on the road.
NOTE: As each student practices driving, an assistant instructor rides in the right front seat.
The other two students will ride in the rear seats or troop seats and rotate driving duties.
The assistant instructor explains driving techniques, ensures the driver is aware of
driving situations, and conducts after-action reviews with each driver. Now is the time
to pass on valuable experience and correct any bad driving habits.
e. Students perform after-operation PMCS and ensure all operator entries
required on DA Form 2404 and DD Form 1970 are accurate, complete, and
legible.
4. Evaluation: Check each student's performance of PMCS and driving.
5. Summary:
a. Recap main points.
b. Allow for questions.
c. Clarify questions.
d. Give closing statement.
6. Retraining: Retrain No-Gos and slow learners.
E. SAFETY RESTRICTIONS.
1. Ensure all chock blocks (if required) are in place when vehicles are parked.
5-7
TC 21-305-7
2. Ensure the transmission is always placed in neutral (some automatics are placed in
park), the parking brake is set, the engine is shut off, and the ignition key is removed (if
equipped) before leaving the vehicle.
3. Ensure students remove all jewelry and identification tags before performing PMCS.
4. Ensure students pay particular attention to the cautions and warnings listed in the
operator's manual.
5. Ensure ground guide(s) is used when backing the vehicle or trailer during training.
6. Ensure a safe following distance and speed are maintained when driving in the
training area and the driver training route (as determined by the local command).
7. Ensure all occupants wear seat belts (if equipped) while vehicle is in operation.
F. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND INFORMATION. Recommended instructional time
is 8 hours (.5 conference, .5 demonstration, and 7.0 practical exercise, including 1.0 PMCS).
5-8
TC 21-305-7
LESSON TITLE:
DRIVE A WHEELED VEHICLE IN A CONVOY
TASK NUMBER:
551-721-1359 (Drive Vehicle in a Convoy)
A. TRAINING OBJECTIVE.
TASK:
Drive a wheeled vehicle in a convoy.
CONDITIONS
Given instruction, a DD Form 1970, a DA Form 2404, a pencil,
vehicle operator's manual, equipment records folder, rags,
lubricants, coolant, a suitable training area, and a wheeled vehicle
with BII.
STANDARD:
Operate the vehicle in accordance with specific instructions of the
march unit commander. Using defensive driving (accident
avoidance) methods; maintain vehicle interval, obey highway
warning and regulatory signs, interpret and relay all mechanical/
hand signals correctly, and use correct braking procedures
without accident or injury.
B. INTERMEDIATE TRAINING. None.
C. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS.
1. Training time: As scheduled.
2. Training location: Motor pool and convoy route.
3. Training type: Conference and practical exercise.
4. Students: Scheduled personnel.
5. Principal and assistant instructors required: One primary instructor for the conference
and one assistant instructor for each three students for the practical exercise.
6. Training aids and equipment: Rags, lubricants, and coolant, DA Form 2404, DD
Form 1970, pencil, vehicle operator's manual, equipment records folder, convoy strip map, a
wheeled vehicle with BII for each three students, convoy signs ("CONVOY AHEAD" and
"CONVOY FOLLOWS"), convoy flags (blue, green, and black/white), and convoy control
vehicles (minimum of two vehicles required). A communication system for the control vehicles
is recommended.
7. References: FM 55-312, FM 21-305, and appropriate vehicle operator's manual.
5-9
TC 21-305-7
D. SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY.
1. Introduction:
a. Interest device.
b. Tie-in.
c. Lesson objective (paragraph A).
d. Procedures:
(1) Explanation.
(2) Practical exercise.
(3) Summary.
2. Explanation and demonstration:
a. Give convoy safety briefing (see attached sample convoy commander's
briefing).
b. The students will be required to perform before-, during-, and after-operation
PMCS on their assigned vehicle.
c. Demonstrate hand and arm signals required for this exercise.
3. Practical exercise:
a. Assign students to vehicles and issue vehicle operator's manuals, pencils, DA
Form 2404, DD Form 1970, convoy strip map, and equipment records folder.
Instruct students on the location of rags, lubricants, and coolant.
b. Students perform before-operation PMCS.
c. Students practice driving the vehicle on assigned convoy route. Duringoperation PMCS is conducted at this time.
NOTE: As each student practices driving, an assistant instructor rides in the right front seat.
The other two students will ride in the rear seats or troop seats and rotate driving duties.
The assistant instructor explains driving techniques, ensures the driver is aware of
driving situations, and conducts after-action reviews with each driver. Now is the time
to pass on valuable experience and correct any bad driving habits.
5-10
TC 21-305-7
d. Students perform after-operation PMCS and ensure all operator entries
required on DA Form 2404 and DD Form 1970 are accurate, complete, and
legible.
4. Evaluation: Check each student's performance of PMCS and driving the vehicle in
convoy.
5. Summary:
a. Recap main points.
b. Allow for questions.
c. Clarify questions.
d. Give closing statement.
6. Retraining: Retrain No-Gos and slow learners.
E. SAFETY RESTRICTIONS.
1. Ensure all chock blocks (if required) are in place when vehicles are parked.
2. Ensure the transmission is always placed in neutral (some automatics are placed in
park), the parking brake is set, the engine is shut off, and the ignition key is removed (if
equipped) before leaving the vehicle.
3. Ensure students remove all jewelry and identification tags before performing PMCS.
4. Ensure students pay particular attention to the cautions and warnings listed in the
operators manual.
5. Ensure ground guide(s) is used when backing the vehicle during training.
6. Ensure a safe following distance and speed are maintained when driving on the
convoy route (as determined by the local command).
7. Ensure all occupants wear seat belts (if equipped) while the vehicle is in operation.
8. Ensure no one walks between vehicles parked in a column.
F. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND INFORMATION. Recommended instructional time
is 5 hours (.5 conference and 4.5 practical exercise, including 1.0 PMCS).
5-11
TC 21-305-7
SAMPLE CONVOY COMMANDER'S BRIEFING
1. Always follow civilian and military police instructions when given.
2. Use only truck parking areas on controlled access highways.
3. Make only emergency halts on the roadside of controlled access highways.
4. Do not stand on the traffic side of a convoy during halts on conventional highways.
5. Perform vehicle operation maintenance and check cargo security at every halt.
6. Move vehicles off of the highway before beginning maintenance.
7. Have reflectors and warning devices in place before beginning maintenance.
8. Use warning lights during periods of darkness or reduced visibility.
9. Begin convoy movement only at the convoy commander's signal.
10. Vehicle speed restrictions: as determined by the local commander.
11. Vehicle intervals (minimums):
a. Controlled access highway - 200 yards.
b. Rural conventional highway - 150 yards.
c. Urban conventional highway - 50 yards.
12. Maintain a close interval until reaching main convoy route.
13. Use the acceleration lane, when available, to reach convoy speed.
14. Gradually attain the proper vehicle interval once on the main convoy route.
15. In the case of an accident, the main column does not stop to provide assistance. The next
following vehicle provides immediate assistance to the accident vehicle.
16. If an accident occurs to a vehicle ahead, make the maximum effort to clear traffic lanes.
17. Operate all vehicles with headlights on at all times.
18. Use warning devices correctly.
19. Add any additional comments as local conditions warrant.
5-12
TC 21-305-7
LESSON TITLE:
DRIVE A WHEELED VEHICLE IN A CONVOY UNDER
BLACKOUT CONDITIONS
TASK NUMBER:
551-721-1363 (Drive Vehicle in Blackout Conditions)
A. TRAINING OBJECTIVE.
TASK:
Drive a wheeled vehicle in a convoy under blackout conditions.
CONDITIONS
Given instruction, DD Form 1970, DA Form 2404, pencil, vehicle
operator's manual, equipment records folder, rags, lubricants,
coolant, a suitable training area, and a wheeled vehicle with BII.
STANDARD:
Operate the vehicle in accordance with specific instructions of the
march unit commander. Drive the designated convoy route at
night using defensive driving (accident avoidance) methods,
maintain vehicle interval, and operate the tactical light switch,
including headlights and blackout drive without accident or
injury.
B. INTERMEDIATE TRAINING. None.
C. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS.
1. Training time: As scheduled.
2. Training location: Motor pool and convoy route.
3. Training type: Conference and practical exercise.
4. Students: Scheduled personnel.
5. Principal and assistant instructors required: One primary instructor for the conference
and one assistant instructor for each three students for the practical exercise.
6. Training aids and equipment: Rags, lubricants, and coolant, DA Form 2404, DD
Form 1970, pencil, vehicle operator's manual, equipment records folder, convoy strip map, a
wheeled vehicle with BII for each three students, convoy signs ("CONVOY AHEAD" and
"CONVOY FOLLOWS"), convoy flags (blue, green, and black/white), and convoy control
vehicles (minimum of two vehicles required). A communication system for the control vehicles
is recommended.
7. References: FM 55-312, FM 21-305, and appropriate vehicle operator's manual.
5-13
TC 21-305-7
D. SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY.
1. Introduction:
a. Interest device.
b. Tie-in.
c. Lesson objective (paragraph A).
d. Procedures:
(1) Explanation.
(2) Practical exercise.
(3) Summary.
2. Explanation and demonstration:
a. Demonstrate night convoy control signals, as listed in FM 21-305.
b. Demonstrate the operation of the tactical light switch for turning on/off
headlights, blackout drive lights, and blackout marker lights.
c. Have three vehicles positioned with blackout drive lights on so the students
can see the rear blackout marker and stop light at different distances:
(1) Too far - more than 180 feet.
(2) Proper distance - between 60 and 180 feet.
(3) Too close - less than 60 feet.
d. Give convoy safety briefing (see attached sample convoy commander's
briefing).
3. Practical exercise:
a. Assign students to vehicles and issue vehicle operator's manual, pencils, DA
Form 2404, DD Form 1970, convoy strip map, and equipment records folder.
Instruct students on the location of rags, lubricants, and coolant.
b. Students perform before-operation PMCS to include the operation and
cleaning of all lights.
5-14
TC 21-305-7
c. Students practice driving the vehicle first with headlights on and then under
blackout conditions on the assigned convoy route. During-operation PMCS is
conducted at this time.
NOTE: As each student practices driving, an assistant instructor rides in the right front seat.
The other two students will ride in the rear seats or troop seats and rotate driving duties.
The assistant instructor explains driving techniques, ensures the driver is aware of
driving situations, and conducts after-action reviews with each driver. Now is the time
to pass on valuable experience and correct any bad driving habits.
d. Students perform after-operation PMCS and ensure all operator entries
required on DA Form 2404 and DD Form 1970 are accurate, complete, and
legible.
4. Evaluation: Check each student's performance of night driving both with headlights
and blackout drive.
5. Summary:
a. Recap main points.
b. Allow for questions.
c. Clarify questions.
d. Give closing statement.
6. Retraining: Retrain No-Gos and slow learners.
E. SAFETY RESTRICTIONS.
1. Ensure all chock blocks (if required) are in place when vehicles are parked.
2. Ensure the transmission is always placed in neutral (some automatics are placed in
park), the parking brake is set, the engine is shut off, and the ignition key is removed (if
equipped) before leaving the vehicle.
3. Ensure students remove all jewelry and identification tags before performing PMCS.
4. Ensure students pay particular attention to the cautions and warnings listed in the
operator's manual.
5. Ensure ground guide(s) is used when backing the vehicle during training.
6. Ensure a safe following distance and speed are maintained when driving on the
convoy route (as determined by the local command).
5-15
TC 21-305-7
7. Ensure all occupants wear seat belts (if equipped) while vehicle is in operation.
8. Ensure no one walks between vehicles parked in a column.
9. Ensure ground guides and road guides wear reflective vests and carry filtered
flashlights at night.
F. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND INFORMATION. Recommended instructional time
is 5 hours (.5 conference and 4.5 practical exercise, including 1.0 PMCS).
5-16
TC 21-305-7
SAMPLE CONVOY COMMANDER'S BRIEFING
1. Always follow civilian and military police instructions when given.
2. Use only truck parking areas on controlled access highways.
3. Make only emergency halts on the roadside of controlled access highways.
4. Do not stand on the traffic side of a convoy during halts on conventional highways.
5. Perform vehicle operation maintenance and check cargo security at every halt.
6. Move vehicles off of the highway before beginning maintenance.
7. Have reflectors and warning devices in place before beginning maintenance.
8. Use warning lights during periods of darkness or reduced visibility.
9. Begin convoy movement only at the convoy commander's signal.
10. Vehicle speed restrictions: as determined by the local commander.
11. Vehicle intervals (minimums):
a. Controlled access highway - 200 yards.
b. Rural conventional highway - 150 yards.
c. Urban conventional highway - 50 yards.
d. Blackout conditions - 60 to 180 feet.
12. Maintain close interval until reaching the main convoy route.
13. Use the acceleration lane, when available to reach convoy speed.
14. Gradually attain proper vehicle interval once on the main convoy route.
15. In case of an accident, the main column does not stop to provide assistance. The next
following vehicle provides immediate assistance to the accident vehicle.
16. If an accident occurs to a vehicle ahead, make the maximum effort to clear traffic lanes.
17. Operate all vehicles with headlights on at all times (except during blackout conditions).
18. Use warning devices correctly.
19. Add any additional comments as local conditions warrant.
5-17
TC 21-305-7
CHAPTER 6
SAMPLE TRAINING AREAS
This chapter shows the sample training areas for light vehicles. The figures in this
chapter depict light vehicles as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Figure 6-1, light vehicle serpentine course.
Figure 6-2, light vehicle stopping within prescribed limit.
Figure 6-3, light vehicle offset alley.
Figure 6-4, light vehicle right/left turns.
Figure 6-5, light vehicle diminishing clearance.
Figure 6-6, light vehicle parallel parking (blind side).
Figure 6-7, light vehicle parallel parking (sight side).
Figure 6-8, light vehicle straight line backing.
6-1
TC 21-305-7
Figure 6-1. Light Vehicle Serpentine Course.
Figure 6-2. Light Vehicle Stopping Within Prescribed Limit.
6-2
TC 21-305-7
Figure 6-3. Light Vehicle Offset Alley.
Figure 6-4. Light Vehicle Right/Left Turns.
6-3
TC 21-305-7
Figure 6-5. Light Vehicle Diminishing Clearance.
Figure 6-6. Light Vehicle Parallel Parking (Blind Side).
6-4
TC 21-305-7
Figure 6-7. Light Vehicle Parallel Parking (Sight Side).
Figure 6-8. Light Vehicle Straight Line Backing.
6-5
TC 21-305-7
CHAPTER 7
END OF COURSE COMPREHENSIVE TEST (EOCCT)
LESSON TITLE:
END OF COURSE COMPREHENSIVE TEST (EOCCT)
TASK NUMBER:
All previously taught tasks.
A. TRAINING OBJECTIVE.
TASK:
Pass the end of course comprehensive test (EOCCT).
CONDITIONS
Given an examination booklet, DD Form 1970, DA Form 2404,
pencil, vehicle operator's manual, equipment records folder, rags,
lubricants, coolant, suitable training area, and a wheeled vehicle
with BII.
STANDARD:
Answer correctly 21 of 30 questions on the written examination
and pass the driver's road test with a score of 70 or higher.
B. INTERMEDIATE TRAINING.
Intermediate Training Objective 1
TASK:
Pass a written examination.
CONDITIONS:
Given an examination booklet and a pencil.
STANDARD:
Answer correctly 21 of 30 questions within 30 minutes. Use
either the primary written test or the alternate written test.
Intermediate Training Objective 2
TASK:
Pass the driver's road test.
CONDITIONS:
Given a DD Form 1970, a DA Form 2404, a pencil, vehicle
operator's manual, equipment records folder, rags, lubricants,
coolant, road test route, and a wheeled vehicle with BII.
STANDARD:
Achieve a score of 70 or higher. Use the driver's performance test
(road test) instructions and the driver's road test checklist.
C. ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONS.
1. Training time: As scheduled.
7-1
TC 21-305-7
2. Training location: Classroom, motor pool, road test route, and training area as
scheduled.
3. Training type: Performance evaluation.
4. Students: Personnel as scheduled.
5. Principal and assistant instructors required: One primary instructor for the class for
the written test and one assistant instructor for every student for the performance test.
6. Training aids and equipment: Examination booklet, DD Form 1970, DA Form 2404,
pencil, vehicle operator's manual, equipment records folder, rags, lubricants, coolant, and a
wheeled vehicle with BII.
7. References: DA Pamphlet 738-750, FM 21-305, and appropriate vehicle operator's
manual.
D. SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY.
1. Introduction:
a. Interest device.
b. Tie-in.
c. Lesson objective (paragraph A).
d. Procedures:
(1) Explanation.
(2) Practical exercise.
(3) Summary.
2. Explanation and demonstration:
a. Administer written examination.
b. Administer driver's road tests.
3. Evaluation: Check driver's road test checklists and written test results.
4. Summary:
7-2
TC 21-305-7
a. Recap main points.
b. Allow for questions.
c. Clarify questions.
d. Give closing statement.
5. Retraining: Retrain and retest No-Gos.
E. SAFETY RESTRICTIONS.
1. Ensure all chock blocks (if required) are in place when vehicles are parked.
2. Ensure the transmission is always placed in neutral (some automatics must be in park),
the parking brake is set, the engine is shut off, and the ignition key is removed (if equipped)
before leaving the vehicle.
3. Ensure students remove all jewelry and identification tags before performing PMCS.
4. Ensure students pay particular attention to the cautions and warnings listed in the
operator's manual.
5. Ensure ground guide(s) is used when backing the vehicle during training (some light
vehicles do not normally require ground guides).
6. Ensure a safe following distance and speed are maintained when driving on the road
test route (as determined by the local command and traffic control devices).
7. Ensure all occupants wear hearing protection (if required) when working in or around
a running vehicle.
8. Ensure all occupants wear seat belts (if equipped) while the vehicle is in operation.
F. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND INFORMATION. Recommended testing time is 4.0
hours (1.0 for the written test, 3.0 for the road test).
7-3
TC 21-305-7
INTERMEDIATE TRAINING OBJECTIVE 1
WRITTEN TEST (PRIMARY)
NAME
RANK
DATE
UNIT
Section I. True/false questions: Read each question carefully and place a T or F on the blank
line to the left.
______ 1.
When driving during periods of reduced visibility, you need to stay at least twice
the normal distance from the vehicle ahead.
______ 2.
Black ice usually occurs on bridges, beneath underpasses, in dips in the road, and
in shaded areas.
______ 3.
When braking is required for bleeding tar conditions on the roadway, ensure that
at least one wheel is on a nonslippery surface.
______ 4.
The correct driver action to take for bleeding tar conditions on the roadway is to
maintain a steady speed and make no sudden steering or braking maneuvers.
______ 5.
Skidding and jackknifing are caused by sudden changes in speed or direction.
______ 6.
Installing tire chains on all driven wheels will increase traction when driving in
snow or on ice.
______ 7.
Engine controls start and shut down the engine.
______ 8.
Secondary vehicle controls affect vehicle movement or power.
Section II. Multiple choice: Read each question carefully and write the answer which is
MOST correct on the blank line to the left.
______ 9.
When looking ahead of your vehicle while driving, you should look-a.
b.
c.
d.
7-4
Straight ahead.
To the right side of the road.
To the left side of the road.
Back and forth, near and far.
TC 21-305-7
______ 10.
You are testing the stopping action of service brakes on a hydraulic system.
Which of these can mean there is a problem?
a.
b.
c.
d.
______ 11.
Which of these is a good rule for driving through work zones?
a.
b.
c.
d.
______ 12.
Drive slowly and activate your four-way flashers.
Drive at the posted speed.
Slam on your brakes to get even with tailgaters.
Decrease following distance between your vehicle and the vehicle ahead.
If you are being tailgated, you should-a.
b.
c.
d.
______ 13.
The vehicle stops in a straight line when the brake pedal is pressed.
Stopping action is normal.
The brake pedal feels spongy.
Brake pedal free travel is within tolerances.
Flash your brake lights.
Speed up.
Signal the tailgater when it is safe to pass you.
Increase the space in front of your vehicle.
Which of these is the proper use of vehicle lights and flashers?
a. Flashing your headlights to warn oncoming traffic that a state police vehicle
has radar in place ahead.
b. Flashing your brake lights to warn someone behind you of a hazard that will
require slowing down.
c. Driving at 55 MPH with your four-way flashers on.
d. Activating your left turn signal to prevent drivers from passing you on the left,
then making a right turn.
______ 14.
You are driving on a straight, level highway at 50 MPH. There are no vehicles in
front of you. Suddenly, a tire blows out on your vehicle. What should you do
first?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Stay off the brake until the vehicle slows down on its own.
Quickly steer onto the shoulder.
Begin light braking.
Begin stab braking.
7-5
TC 21-305-7
______ 15.
Which of these statements about using mirrors is true?
a.
b.
c.
d.
______ 16.
You are driving a 2 1/2-ton cargo truck. You must exit a highway using an off
ramp that curves downhill. You should-a.
b.
c.
d.
______ 17.
Slow down to a safe speed before the turn.
Slow to the posted speed limit for the off ramp.
Come to a full stop at the top of the ramp.
Wait until you are in the curve before downshifting.
You are driving on a two-lane road. An oncoming driver drifts into your lane and
is headed straight for you. Which of these is generally the best action to take?
a.
b.
c.
d.
______ 18.
You should look at a mirror for at least three seconds at a time.
Convex mirrors make things look farther away than they really are.
There are "blind spots" that your mirror cannot show you.
You only need to check your mirrors once for a lane change.
Brake hard.
Steer into the oncoming lane.
Steer onto the left shoulder.
Steer to the right.
You are driving a 2 1/2-ton vehicle with a manual transmission. You have to stop
the vehicle on the shoulder while driving on an uphill grade. Which of these is a
good rule to follow when putting it back in motion up the grade?
a. Keep the clutch slipping while slowly accelerating.
b. Use the parking brake to hold the vehicle until the clutch engages.
c. Let the vehicle roll straight backwards a few feet before you engage the clutch.
d. Let the vehicle roll backwards a few feet before you engage the clutch, but
turn the wheel so that the back moves away from the roadway.
______ 19.
Which of these is a good rule to follow when steering to avoid a crash?
a.
b.
c.
d.
7-6
Apply the brakes while turning.
Steer with one hand so that you can turn the wheel more quickly.
Do not turn any more than needed to clear what is in your way.
Avoid countersteering.
TC 21-305-7
______ 20.
Some traffic emergencies may require you to leave the road. Which of these is a
good thing to remember?
a.
b.
c.
d.
______ 21.
If you must leave the road, try to get all wheels off the pavement.
Brake gently to avoid skidding.
Use hard braking if you are moving at a speed greater than 20 MPH.
Most shoulders are soft and will not support a vehicle.
You should avoid driving through deep puddles or flowing water. But if you
must, which of these steps can help keep your brakes working?
a. Drive through quickly.
b. Apply hard pressure on both the brake pedal and accelerator while driving
through the water.
c. Turn on your brake heaters.
d. After coming out of the water, continue to drive at a slow speed with enough
pressure on the brake pedal to cause a drag on the brakes.
______ 22.
You must drive on a slippery road. Which of these is a good thing to do in such a
situation?
a.
b.
c.
d.
______ 23.
Use a smaller following distance.
Apply the brakes during turns.
Slow down gradually.
Maintain the maximum posted speed limit.
Which of these statements about downshifting is true?
a. When you downshift for a curve, you should do so before you enter the curve.
b. When you downshift for a hill going down, you should do so before you crest
the top of the hill.
c. When double clutching, you should let the RPM decrease while the clutch is
disengaged and the shift lever is in neutral.
d. It is not necessary to downshift a manual transmission.
______ 24.
When driving at night, you should-a.
b.
c.
d.
Look to the left side of the road when a vehicle is coming toward you.
Drive only up to 50 MPH with your low beams on.
Adjust your speed to keep your stopping distance within your sight distance.
Drive with your high beams on at all times.
7-7
TC 21-305-7
______ 25.
Which of these statements about backing a 2 1/2-ton cargo vehicle is true?
a.
b.
c.
d.
______ 26.
When should you wear seat belts?
a.
b.
c.
d.
______ 27.
Driving too fast for road conditions.
Poorly adjusted brakes.
Bad tires.
Poorly designed roads.
How far should a driver look ahead of the vehicle while driving?
a.
b.
c.
d.
______ 30.
Apply more power to the wheels.
Stop accelerating.
Apply the brake.
Downshift.
The most common cause of serious vehicle skids is-a.
b.
c.
d.
______ 29.
Any time you are in a moving vehicle.
Only in states where it is required by law.
Only when traveling on a highway.
Only when engaged in interstate commerce.
How do you correct a rear wheel acceleration skid?
a.
b.
c.
d.
______ 28.
Backing is always dangerous.
You should back and turn toward the driver's side whenever possible.
You should use ground guide(s) and communicate with hand signals.
All of the above are true.
6 to 9 seconds.
9 to 12 seconds.
12 to 15 seconds.
18 to 21 seconds.
Which of these statements about overhead clearance is true?
a. You should assume posted clearance signs are correct.
b. A vehicle's clearance can change with the load carried.
c. If the road surface causes your vehicle to tilt toward objects at the edge of the
road, you should drive close to the shoulder.
d. Extra speed will cause air to push your vehicle down for extra clearance.
7-8
TC 21-305-7
INTERMEDIATE TRAINING OBJECTIVE 1
WRITTEN TEST ANSWER SHEET (PRIMARY)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9
10.
T
T
F
T
T
T
T
F
D
C
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
A
D
B
A
C
A
D
B
C
B
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
D
C
A
C
D
A
B
A
C
B
7-9
TC 21-305-7
INTERMEDIATE TRAINING OBJECTIVE 1
WRITTEN TEST (ALTERNATE)
NAME
RANK
DATE
UNIT
Section I. True/false questions: Read each question carefully and place a T or F on the blank
line to the left.
______ 1.
Skidding and jackknifing are caused by sudden changes in speed or direction.
______ 2.
Installing tire chains on nondriven wheels only will increase traction when
driving in snow or on ice.
______ 3.
Engine controls start and shut down the engine.
______ 4.
Black ice usually occurs on bridges, beneath underpasses, in dips in the road, and
in shaded areas.
______ 5.
When braking is required for bleeding tar conditions on the roadway, ensure that
at least one wheel is on a nonslippery surface.
______ 6.
Primary vehicle controls affect vehicle movement or power.
______ 7.
When driving during periods of reduced visibility, you need to stay at least twice
the normal distance from the vehicle ahead.
______ 8.
The correct driver action to take for bleeding tar conditions on the roadway is to
maintain a steady speed and make no sudden steering or braking maneuvers.
Section II. Multiple choice: Read each question carefully and write the answer which is
MOST correct on the blank line to the left.
______ 9.
How far should a driver look ahead of the vehicle while driving?
a.
b.
c.
d.
7-10
6 to 9 seconds.
9 to 12 seconds.
12 to 15 seconds.
18 to 21 seconds.
TC 21-305-7
______ 10.
Which of these statements about overhead clearance is true?
a. You should assume posted clearance signs are correct.
b. A vehicle's clearance can change with the load carried.
c. If the road surface causes your vehicle to tilt toward objects at the edge of the
road, you should drive close to the shoulder.
d. Extra speed will cause air to push your vehicle down for extra clearance.
______ 11.
How do you correct a rear wheel acceleration skid?
a.
b.
c.
d.
______ 12.
The most common cause of serious vehicle skids is-a.
b.
c.
d.
______ 13.
Driving too fast for road conditions.
Poorly adjusted brakes.
Bad tires.
Poorly designed roads.
You are driving on a straight, level highway at 50 MPH. There are no vehicles in
front of you. Suddenly a tire blows out on your vehicle. What should you do
first?
a.
b.
c.
d.
______ 14.
Apply more power to the wheels.
Stop accelerating.
Apply the brake.
Downshift.
Stay off the brake until the vehicle slows down on its own.
Quickly steer onto the shoulder.
Begin light braking.
Begin stab braking.
Which of these is the proper use of vehicle lights and flashers?
a. Flashing your headlights to warn oncoming traffic that a state police vehicle
has radar in place ahead.
b. Flashing your brake lights to warn someone behind you of a hazard that will
require slowing down.
c. Driving at 55 MPH with your four-way flashers on.
d. Activating your left turn signal to prevent drivers from passing you on the left,
then making a right turn.
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TC 21-305-7
______ 15.
Which of these statements about using mirrors is true?
a.
b.
c.
d.
______ 16.
When looking ahead of your vehicle while driving, you should look-a.
b.
c.
d.
______ 17.
Flash your brake lights.
Speed up.
Signal the tailgater when it is safe to pass you.
Increase the space in front of your vehicle.
You are testing the stopping action of service brakes on a hydraulic system.
Which of these can mean there is a problem?
a.
b.
c.
d.
______ 20.
Drive slowly and activate your four-way flashers.
Drive at the posted speed.
Slam on your brakes to get even with tailgaters.
Decrease following distance between your vehicle and the vehicle ahead.
If you are being tailgated, you should-a.
b.
c.
d.
______ 19.
Straight ahead.
To the right side of the road.
To the left side of the road.
Back and forth, near and far.
Which of these is a good rule for driving through work zones?
a.
b.
c.
d.
______ 18.
You should look at a mirror for at least three seconds at a time.
Convex mirrors make things look farther away than they really are.
There are "blind spots" that your mirror cannot show you.
You only need to check your mirrors once for a lane change.
The vehicle stops in a straight line when the brake pedal is pressed.
Stopping action is normal.
The brake pedal feels spongy.
Brake pedal free travel is within tolerances.
You are driving a 2 1/2-ton vehicle with a manual transmission. You have to stop
the vehicle on the shoulder while driving on an uphill grade. Which of these is a
good rule to follow when putting it back in motion up the grade?
a. Keep the clutch slipping while slowly accelerating.
b. Use the parking brake to hold the vehicle until the clutch engages.
c. Let the vehicle roll straight backwards a few feet before you engage the clutch.
d. Let the vehicle roll backwards a few feet before you engage the clutch, but
turn the wheel so that the back moves away from the roadway.
7-12
TC 21-305-7
______ 21.
You are driving on a two-lane road. An oncoming driver drifts into your lane and
is headed straight for you. Which of these is generally the best action to take?
a.
b.
c.
d.
______ 22.
You are driving a 2 1/2-ton cargo truck. You must exit a highway using an off
ramp that curves downhill. You should-a.
b.
c.
d.
______ 23.
Backing is always dangerous.
You should back and turn toward the driver's side whenever possible.
You should use ground guide(s) and communicate with hand signals.
All of the above are true.
When should you wear seat belts?
a.
b.
c.
d.
______ 25.
Slow down to a safe speed before the turn.
Slow to the posted speed limit for the off ramp.
Come to a full stop at the top of the ramp.
Wait until you are in the curve before downshifting.
Which of these statements about backing a 2 1/2-ton cargo vehicle is true?
a.
b.
c.
d.
______ 24.
Brake hard.
Steer into the oncoming lane.
Steer onto the left shoulder.
Steer to the right.
Any time you are in a moving vehicle.
Only in states where it is required by law.
Only when traveling on a highway.
Only when engaged in interstate commerce.
Which of these statements about downshifting is true?
a. When you downshift for a curve, you should do so before you enter the curve.
b. When you downshift for a hill going down, you should do so before you crest
the top of the hill.
c. When double clutching, you should let the RPM decrease while the clutch is
disengaged and the shift lever is in neutral.
d. It is not necessary to downshift a manual transmission.
______ 26.
When driving at night, you should-a.
b.
c.
d.
Look to the left side of the road when a vehicle is coming toward you.
Drive only up to 50 MPH with your low beams on.
Adjust your speed to keep your stopping distance within your sight distance.
Drive with your high beams on at all times.
7-13
TC 21-305-7
______ 27.
Some traffic emergencies may require you to leave the road. Which of these is a
good thing to remember?
a.
b.
c.
d.
______ 28.
Which of these is a good rule to follow when steering to avoid a crash?
a.
b.
c.
d.
______ 29.
Apply the brakes while turning.
Steer with one hand so that you can turn the wheel more quickly.
Do not turn any more than needed to clear what is in your way.
Avoid countersteering.
You must drive on a slippery road. Which of these is a good thing to do in such a
situation?
a.
b.
c.
d.
______ 30.
If you must leave the road, try to get all wheels off the pavement.
Brake gently to avoid skidding.
Use hard braking if you are moving at a speed greater than 20 MPH.
Most shoulders are soft and will not support a vehicle.
Use a smaller following distance.
Apply the brakes during turns.
Slow down gradually.
Maintain the maximum posted speed limit.
You should avoid driving through deep puddles or flowing water. But if you
must, which of these steps can help keep your brakes working?
a. Drive through quickly.
b. Apply hard pressure on both the brake pedal and accelerator while driving
through the water.
c. Turn on your brake heaters.
d. After coming out of the water, continue to drive at a slow speed with enough
pressure on the brake pedal to cause a drag on the brakes.
7-14
TC 21-305-7
INTERMEDIATE TRAINING OBJECTIVE 1
WRITTEN TEST ANSWER SHEET (ALTERNATE)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9
10.
T
F
T
T
F
T
T
T
C
B
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
B
A
A
B
C
D
A
D
C
B
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
D
A
D
A
A
C
B
C
C
D
7-15
TC 21-305-7
INTERMEDIATE TRAINING OBJECTIVE 2
DRIVER'S PERFORMANCE TEST (ROAD TEST) INSTRUCTIONS
1. GENERAL
a. The driver's performance test determines whether an individual can operate a motor
vehicle properly and safely under conditions of traffic and terrain where he is expected to drive.
It serves as a basis for issuing an operator's permit. Furthermore, the test provides a means for
instructional reinforcement and counseling. Driving weaknesses that may show up as the result
of the test can be called to the examinee's attention and specific steps can be taken to eliminate
them.
b. Final evaluations are recorded on DA Form 348 or on an equivalent official form.
c. The examiner will be a qualified wheeled vehicle operator licensed on the vehicle used
for testing. He will be familiar with the road test route and the testing procedures. Before
administering the test to any examinees, he must practice administering the test to a regular
licensed driver qualified on that type of vehicle. This practice will help him become acquainted
with the test route and testing procedures.
2. TESTING METHOD
a. The specific directions for this test are to be followed without deviation. No
omissions or changes in the wording of these directions are permitted.
b. The instructions, which are indented and printed in large type, are read or spoken
aloud to the examinees. When giving instructions aloud, give the instructions slowly and
distinctly, making sure the examinees understand. The directions in regular type, including those
in parentheses, are for the information of the examiner only and are not given aloud.
3. DIRECTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING THE ROAD TEST
a. Setting Standards. The standard road test is 5 miles long, with traffic and terrain
representing those areas in which the examinee is expected to drive. About 2 miles of this route
is in a more congested traffic area. About 1 mile will be devoted to secondary road driving.
Once a route is established (in a given locality), use it for all examinees that are to be tested.
Should it prove necessary to vary the route, take care that the different kinds of route
requirements, as well as the number of requirements, remain the same. Every road test will meet
the following requirements (to the extent possible):
(1) Five right turns.
(2) Five left turns.
(3) Two intersections.
7-16
TC 21-305-7
(4) Two traffic lights or stop signs.
(5) Two slow zones.
(6) One railroad crossing.
(7) Two steep upgrades.
(8) Two steep downgrades.
(9) One backing area of 50 feet with a clearly marked line extending for the
whole length of the 50 feet.
b. Giving Road Tests. The road test consists of a series of operations that the examinee
must perform. These operations are listed on the Driver's Road Test Checklist, which must be
used in giving this test. Typical operations are starting the motor, pulling out, and parking.
c. Giving Instructions. Give instructions to perform an operation well in advance of that
operation to allow the driver sufficient time to conform. In giving instructions, first tell the
examinee where to perform the operation and then tell him what to do. For example, "At the
corner two blocks from here, turn right." Notice that the location was given in terms of
landmarks. This must always be done.
CAUTION
The driver must never be urged to do something which is unsafe or which he does
not want to do. Such urging may lead to an accident.
d. Preventing Accidents
(1) Road tests should NOT normally be given if road conditions present a hazard
such as ice or rain. The exception is when testing is specifically for driving under
such conditions.
(2) You must be prepared to take control of the vehicle at a moment's notice.
You must always watch traffic conditions and warn the examinee of dangers,
which you think he does not see. If the driver becomes involved in a dangerous
or unlawful moving traffic incident or an accident, the test is to be terminated
immediately and the examiner will drive the vehicle back to the start point (once
on-scene responsibilities are fulfilled).
e. Beginning the Road Test
(1) On the Driver's Road Test Checklist, enter the date in the appropriate place.
Then say to the examinee--
7-17
TC 21-305-7
WHAT IS YOUR NAME, LAST NAME FIRST, SPELL IT?
(2) Fill in the examinee's name after the word NAME, and then say-WHAT IS YOUR RANK?
(3) Enter the individual's RANK after the word RANK, and then say-WHAT IS YOUR ORGANIZATION?
(4) Enter the name of the organization after the word ORGANIZATION. Enter
your name after the word EXAMINER (last name first). After the word
VEHICLE, enter the model of vehicle used in the road test. Then say to the
examinee-THERE WILL BE NO "TRICK" ORDERS.
YOU WILL NOT BE ASKED TO DO ANYTHING IN VIOLATION OF
THE LAW OR OF GOOD DRIVING PRACTICES.
YOUR SCORED TEST BEGINS WITH BEFORE-OPERATIONS PMCS.
(The examiner may stop the PMCS process when he is sure the examinee is
knowledgeable in the PMCS procedures.)
FOLLOW MY INSTRUCTIONS. DRIVE PROPERLY AND SAFELY.
ARE THERE ANY QUESTIONS?
(5) Answer all questions except those pertaining to the scoring procedures; then
say-DURING THE TEST, I WILL MAKE SOME OBSERVATIONS AND
KEEP NOTES; DO NOT BE CONCERNED. YOUR SCORED ROAD
TEST STARTS NOW. ALL RIGHT, START YOUR MOTOR.
(6) Directions for each operations, such as "next block, turn left," are to be given
one at a time in their proper sequence, as set up by the test route according to
paragraph 3a, above.
4. SCORING THE ROAD TEST
a. Within each of the operations, which the examinee will be required to perform, there
is a list of errors on the Driver's Road Test Checklist. Every time the examinee makes one of
these errors under the specific operation, place a tally mark next to the error under that operation.
For example, if the examinee fails to signal when leaving the curb, place a tally mark next to
"fails to give proper signal" under the operation "Pulling Out" and nowhere else. The tally mark
7-18
TC 21-305-7
will be placed in the space to the left of the specific error. Since an individual will be required to
repeat some of the operations, such as right turns, a number of times, more than one tally mark
can be placed next to the same error under a given operation. Some test routes do not lend
themselves to all operations indicated on the checklist. In these cases, score only the operations
that apply.
b. At the completion of the test, count the number of tally marks and subtract this
number from 100 to obtain the examinee's score. Record the score in the space provided on the
checklist.
c. The lowest passing score is 70. If the examinee does not achieve 70 or above, the
reason for failure will be indicated in the space provided under REMARKS; for example,
"Examinee did not obtain minimum passing score" or "Examinee exhibited undue nervousness."
d. Automatic Failures
(1) Any unsafe driving act.
(2) Failure to properly perform PMCS.
(3) Not knowing location and function of gauges and controls.
(4) Undue nervousness.
(5) Failure to achieve minimum passing score.
(6) If an individual scores 70 or higher on the road test and, in the
opinion/judgment of the test examiner the examinee needs additional training, he
has the right not to issue a license.
5. AFTER-ACTION REVIEW (AAR). Weakness exhibited by the examinee in the test will
be brought to his attention, and he will be advised in what areas he needs further practice or
training. The counseling will be accomplished whether the examinee passes or fails the road
test. After the examinee has received additional training, he will be retested. An examinee that
fails the road test must retake the entire road test.
7-19
TC 21-305-7
INTERMEDIATE TRAINING OBJECTIVE 2
DRIVER'S ROAD TEST CHECKLIST
NAME___________________
RANK_______
ORGANIZATION________________________
DATE_________ VEHICLE__________
EXAMINER________________________
BEFORE STARTING ENGINE
FAILS TO -_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
Ensure vehicle is properly dispatched
Sign DD Form 1970 and/or other forms as required.
Perform before-operations maintenance checks and services (PMCS) using
appropriate -10 manual.
Unchock wheels and stow chock blocks (as required).
Adjust all mirrors.
Adjust seat.
Fasten seat belt/safety restraint.
STARTING ENGINE
FAILS TO -_______
_______
_______
_______
Ensure proper gear selection such as neutral.
Warm engine properly.
Check to ensure all gauges are functioning properly.
Ensure there is adequate air pressure (as required).
PULLING OUT
FAILS TO -_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
7-20
Select proper gear.
Release parking brakes.
Look back and check traffic (use mirrors and windows).
Give proper signal.
Allow traffic to pass.
Make a smooth start.
Check all gauges periodically.
Maintain adequate air pressure (as required).
Check mirrors periodically.
Keep both hands on steering wheel (except as required by driving needs).
TC 21-305-7
DRIVING IN TRAFFIC (SPEED)
FAILS TO -_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
Stay within the speed limits.
Reduce speed when required by road conditions.
Maintain adequate speed (drives too slow).
Maintain constant speed as much as possible (feeds gas erratically).
Maintain proper speed for gear selection.
Reduce speed when required by traffic conditions.
Check all gauges periodically.
Maintain adequate air pressure (as required).
Check mirrors periodically.
Keep both hands on steering wheel (except as required by driving needs).
DRIVING IN TRAFFIC (ATTENTION, ATTITUDE)
FAILS TO -_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
Stay in proper lane.
Maintain proper following distance from vehicle ahead in traffic (twice the
speedometer reading in feet).
Maintain proper following distance at high speeds (40 mph or over) from vehicle
ahead on open highways (two times the speedometer reading in yards).
Anticipate action of other drivers and pedestrians.
Observe and obey signs, signals, and/or police officers.
Give necessary warning (sound horn).
Yield right-of-way to other vehicles.
Yield right-of-way to pedestrians.
Be courteous toward other drivers.
Slow down when approaching railroad grade crossings.
Stop, look, and listen both ways before entering railroad grade crossings
(HAZMAT only).
Prevent creeping or drifting when stopped.
Perform during-operations maintenance.
Check all gauges periodically.
Check mirrors periodically.
Maintain adequate air pressure (as required).
Keep both hands on steering wheel (except as required by driving needs).
LEFT TURN
FAILS TO -_______
_______
_______
_______
Give proper signal in advance.
Turn from proper lane (usually adjacent to centerline).
Turn into proper lane (usually immediately to the right of the centerline).
Avoid cutting corners.
7-21
TC 21-305-7
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
Maintain safe speed.
Straighten out properly.
Check mirrors periodically (for traffic and off tracking).
Maintain adequate air pressure (as required).
Keep both hands on steering wheel (except as required by driving needs).
RIGHT TURN
FAILS TO -_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
Give proper signal in advance.
Turn from proper lane (usually the right lane).
Turn into proper lane (usually the right lane).
Avoid swinging too wide.
Maintain safe speed.
Avoid cutting corners.
Straighten out properly.
Check mirrors periodically (for traffic and off tracking).
Maintain adequate air pressure (as required).
Keep both hands on steering wheel (except as required by driving needs).
USE OF CONTROLS
FAILS TO -_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
Use proper shifting patterns (upshifting and downshifting).
Avoid racing engine.
Start on hill without rolling back.
Keep both hands on steering wheel (except as required by driving needs).
Check all gauges periodically.
Maintain constant engine speed.
SLOWING OR STOPPING
FAILS TO -_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
Signal intent in advance.
Observe traffic to the rear, using mirrors and windows.
Brake smoothly.
Use engine as a brake by downshifting the transmission (manual transmissions
only).
Maintain adequate air pressure (as required).
Keep both hands on steering wheel (except as required by driving needs).
OVERTAKING AND PASSING
FAILS TO -_______
_______
_______
_______
7-22
Check for other traffic (use mirrors and windows).
Signal in advance.
Maintain proper following distance before passing.
Pass in proper lane.
TC 21-305-7
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
Change lane gradually in passing.
Return to proper lane only after signaling intent and ensuring that lane is clear.
Obey "no passing" signs, rules, or regulations (such as hills, curves, and
intersections).
Check mirrors periodically.
Maintain adequate air pressure (as required).
Check all gauges periodically.
Keep both hands on steering wheel (except as required by driving needs).
BACKING
FAILS TO -_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
Look behind vehicle before backing.
Sound horn.
Back slowly.
Back smoothly.
Back in a straight line using mirrors and ground guide (50 feet within 6 inches of
line laterally).
Maintain adequate air pressure (as required).
Keep both hands on steering wheel (except as required by driving needs).
PARKING
FAILS TO -_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
Check for other traffic.
Give proper signal for traffic to pass.
Park within two attempts.
Park without bumping or scraping curb.
Park in space 3 feet wider than test vehicle (parallel parking).
Set parking brakes.
Chock wheels.
Maintain adequate air pressure (as required).
Perform after-operation PMCS.
Keep both hands on steering wheel (except as required by driving needs).
ROAD TEST SCORE
100
NUMBER OF TALLY MARKS (SUBTRACT)
_____
ROAD TEST SCORE
_____
REMARKS:
7-23
TC 21-305-7
APPENDIX
GROUND GUIDE SAFETY PROCEDURES
1. Keep 10 yards between ground guides and vehicles.
2. Ground guides are required when vehicles enter bivouac areas. The best method to guide a
vehicle at night into a bivouac area is to stop the vehicle, move forward to be sure the way is
clear, then signal the vehicle to move forward using a filtered flashlight. As the vehicle advances
forward, repeat the process. Use the same procedure during daylight using hand signals.
3. Backing wheeled vehicles will normally require one ground guide; however, two guides will
be used when visibility is restricted due to cargo, darkness, and so forth. Guides must be able to
see each other, and one must be visible to the driver. If the driver loses sight of the ground
guide, he must stop the vehicle immediately.
4. Before moving a wheeled vehicle in an assembly area, such as a motor pool or bivouac area,
the driver or ground guide must walk completely around the vehicle and inspect under the
vehicle and its path to ensure that no person or object may be harmed by the vehicle's movement.
5. Hand signals are the basic method used for ground guiding. Voice signals between a ground
guide and driver can be misunderstood.
6. The following are ground guide basic rules:
a. Give signals to only one person. Be sure that everyone involved in a move (the driver
and ground guide[s]) understands who will give the signal, who will relay the signal, and who
will receive it. Be sure everyone involved clearly understands all signals, especially the signal to
stop!
b. Remain out of the vehicle's path of travel.
c. If you must be in the path of travel, maintain a distance of at least 10 yards.
d. If your are guiding a vehicle into a close position and cannot maintain a 10-yard
forward distance-(1) Keep to the side and front (or rear) of the vehicle.
(2) Get on top of the object you are approaching, such as another vehicle or dock.
(3) Stay in the driver's line of sight.
e. When guiding a vehicle long distances, your best position is forward and to the left of
the vehicle.
A-1
TC 21-305-7
f. Never walk backwards to guide a vehicle. Instead, locate yourself 10 to 20 yards
behind the vehicle and face the vehicle and ground guide located in front of the vehicle. Once
the vehicle backs to your initial location then halt the vehicle, turn around and walk forward
another 10 to 20 yards. Turn around, face the vehicle and front ground guide, and continue
guiding the vehicle in this manner until the vehicle is in position.
A-2
TC 21-305-7
GLOSSARY
AAR
AFV
AR
BII
bldg
bn
co
D
DA
DD
EOCCT
F
FM
GVWR
HAZMAT
HMMWV
K
LO
M
MP
MPH
N
NA
NCOIC
NMC
no
NSN
P
PA
PIN
PMCS
POL
R
RPM
SF
SOP
SPC
SSG
T
TA
TC
TM
TVT
US
after-action review
accidentfax video
Army regulation
basic issue items
building
battalion
company
drive
Department of the Army
Department of Defense
end of course comprehensive test
Fahrenheit or false
field manual
gross vehicle weight rating
hazardous material
high mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle
kilometers
lubrication order
miles
military police
miles per hour
neutral
not applicable
noncommissioned officer in charge
not mission capable
number
national stock number
park
public address
production identification number
preventive maintenance checks and services
petroleum, oils, and lubricants
reverse
revolutions per minute
standard form
standard operating procedure
specialist
staff sergeant
true
training area
training circular
technical manual
television videotape
United States
Glossary-1
TC 21-305-7
REFERENCES
SOURCES USED
These are the sources quoted or paraphrased in this publication.
DA Form 2028. Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms. February 1974.
FM 55-312. Military Convoy Operations in the Continental United States. 3 April 1991.
DOCUMENTS NEEDED
These documents must be available to the intended users of this publication.
AR 600-55. Motor Vehicle Driver and Equipment Operator Selection, Training, Testing, and
Licensing. 26 September 1986.
DA Form 348. Equipment Operator's Qualification Record (Except Aircraft). October 1964.
DA Form 2404. Equipment Inspection and Maintenance Worksheet. 1 April 1979
DA Form 2408-14. Uncorrected Fault Record. January 1964.
*DA Pamphlet 738-750. Functional Users Manual for the Army Maintenance Management
System (TAMMS). 20 June 1991.
DD Form 518. Accident-Identification Card. 1 October 1978.
DD Form 1970. Motor Equipment Utilization Record. April 1981
FM 21-60. Visual Signals. 30 September 1987.
*FM 21-305. Manual for the Wheeled Vehicle Driver. 24 September 1984.
SF 91. Operator's Report of Motor Vehicle Accident. November 1976.
*This source was also used to develop this publication.
References-1
PIN: 070345-000
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