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*FM 5-412
Washington , DC, 13 June 1994
Field Manual
No. 5-412
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
*This publication supersedes FM 5-333, 17 February 1987.
FM 5-412
FM 5-412
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Field Manual (FM) 5-412 is intended for use
as a training guide and reference text for engineer personnel responsible for planning,
scheduling, and controlling construction projects in the theater of operations (TO). It
provides planning and management techniques to be applied when planning and
scheduling a construction project. This
manual also provides techniques and procedures for estimating material, equipment,
personnel, and time requirements for project
The proponent of this publication is the
United States Army Engineer School
(USAES). Send comments and recommendations on Department of the Army (DA) Form
2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) directly to Commandant, US Army Engineer School, ATTN:
ATSE-T-PD-P, Fort Leonard Wood, MO
Unless this publication states otherwise,
masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer
exclusively to men.
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Management definitions are as varied as the
authors who write books about the subject.
A good definition states that management is
“the process of getting things done through
people.” Project management may be defined more specifically as “the process of coordinating the skill and labor of personnel
using machines and materials to form the
materials into a desired structure. "Project
construction operations include planning,
designing facilities, procuring materials and
equipment, and supervising construction.
An important Army management principle
states that "continual improvement in systems, methods, and use of resources is required for continuous effectiveness in operations." In most large nontactical Army organizations, management engineering staffs
help commanders and line operators design
new ways to work faster, cheaper, and better.
Management principles have been developed
from experience and serve as a basis for
managing human and material resources.
They do not furnish definite formulas or solutions to all management problems, nor
are they infallible laws; they are only guidelines for action. Effective management
should encompass-Clearly defined policies understood by
those who are to carry them out.
Subdivision of work, systematically
planned and programmed.
Mission of Army Engineer Project Management
Specific assignment of tasks and an assurance that subordinates clearly under stand the tasks.
Adequate allocation of resources.
Delegation of authority equal to the
level of responsibility.
Clear authority relationships.
Unity of command and purpose throughout an organization.
Effective and qualified leadership at
each echelon.
Continuous accountability for use of resources and production results.
Effective coordination of all individual
and group efforts.
In a TO, construction, repair,
and maintenance of facilities differ considerably from civilian practices. Although the
engineering principles involved are unchanged, in combat area operations the factors of time, personnel, materials, and enemy action impose a great range of problems. This requires modification of construction methods and concentration of effort. Engineers in a TO nor really do not
build permanent facilities.
The variety of construction in the military,
often done on an expedited or "crash" basis,
creates challenging management problems.
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In fact, each project is unique in its location, weather conditions, climate, soil, and
possible enemy action. Standard designs
are used, but they must be adapted to each
particular site. Construction materials are
often less uniform than those used in the
manufacturing industries. Management under these conditions involves unusual problems.
Make assumptions based on facts.
Weather predictions are based on past
weather data. Policies for observing national holidays are expected to continue.
These are basic facts and forecast data that
may affect the future.
The effect of climate on construction operations is so great that the evaluation of this
item alone can be as important as all other
factors combined. If the planner fails to
consider weather, more time may be lost because of bad weather than would be needed
to finish all the work in favorable weather.
The planner must evaluate each type of
work to be done in relation to the weather
conditions expected during construction.
For example, for road and airfield work, it
may be better to do all the clearing and
stripping before starting subgrade and subbase operations. This may be done only if
it is certain that there will be little or no
rain during clearing and stripping, before
adequate drainage can be provided. Evaluating weather lets the planner determine
how much time to allow for weather delays.
Find and examine alternative courses of
action. Construction in a TO requires
speed, economy, and flexibility.
Speed. Speed is fundamental to all activities in a TO and is especially important to
the engineer. Recognizing the importance
of speed, the Corps of Engineers has developed and adopted certain policies and practices to help expedite project construction.
Standardization. For hospitals, depots,
and shelters, standard designs are used
in active TOs to save time in design and
construction. Standard designs present
the simplest method of using standard
materials to build acceptable installations. In building, they permit production-line methods in the prefabrication
of construction members. They are designed to reduce the variety of materials
required, ensure uniformity and standards, simplify procedures, and minimize
costs. Standard designs increase the efficiency of working parties that can repeat erection procedures until they become almost mechanical. Standardization of construction is especially
important in time of war.
Simplicity. Construction must be simple during war because of personnel,
material, and time shortages. The available labor uses the simplest methods
and materials to complete installations
in the shortest time.
Necessities and life expectancy. Military engineering in the TO is concerned
with only the bare necessities and temporary facilities. Adequate provisions
are made for safety, but they are not as
elaborate as in civilian practice. For example, local green timbers are often
used to construct wharves or pile-bent
bridges, even though marine borers will
rapidly destroy the timbers. By the
time that happens, the focus of military
effort may have changed. Sanitary facilities may consist of nothing more than
pit latrines. Using valuable time for
anything more permanent is not justified. In short, quality is sacrificed for
speed and economy.
Construction and repairs in a TO contribute to the sustainment and efficiency of field armies. In an active
theater, only essential construction
work and development of installations
and facilities are performed. The quality of construction does not exceed
standards established by the theater
commander. Modified emergency construction and the use of permanent
Mission of Army Engineer Project Management
materials (tile, stucco, concrete, and
steel) are authorized only in the following situations:
Such work is required by an agreement with the government of the
country in which the facilities are
to be located. Prior approval of
Headquarters, DA is also required.
Materials nor really used in emergency construction are not available or cannot be made available
in time to meet schedules. However, permanent construction materials are available or can be made
available in time to meet schedules, at no increase in total cost.
When permanent materials are
used, the interior and exterior finishes of structures must be in
keeping with emergency construction standards. The permanency
of any structure should be consistent with miliary needs at the time.
Phase construction. Construction in
various phases provides for the rapid
completion and use of parts of buildings
or installations before the entire project
is completed. Specialized crews or working parties, such as fabricating, foundation, plumbing, and roofing crews, may
be organized. Each crew performs a
specific task and moves on to the next
site. Large building projects, such as
hospitals, depots, and permanent cantonment areas, are suitable for this type
of construction.
Another system of phase construction
involves the refinement and evolution
of an installation. Construction of a
depot will serve as an illustration. Initially, storage is provided in structural frame buildings with footings
and roof cladding, but without wall
cladding. Later, concrete floors and
sidings may be provided, and development may progress in phases until the
facilities are adequate.
Both systems are used and have the
same objective: to have the using servMission of Army Engineer Project Management
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ice occupy the first building while the
second building is being constructed.
Phase construction is usually less efficient, but this is offset by the maximum use of facilities at the earliest
possible time.
Existing facilities. The use of existing facilities contributes greatly to the
essential element of speed. The advantages often influence the point of attack
in military operations.
Economy. Equipment, personnel, and materials must be used effectively and efficiently, since these resources are limited.
Flexibility. A military construction program
must be flexible. The ever-changing situation in military construction requires that
construction in all stages be adaptable to
new conditions. To meet this requirement,
standard plans are a part of the Army Facilities Components System (AFCS) and are
found in the four technical manuals (TM) described on the following page. The AFCS
provides logistical and engineering data
which is organized, coded, and published to
assist in planning and executing TO construction. The system determines personnel and material requirements as well as
the cost, weight, and volume of materials
needed for construction.
The AFCS provides construction planning
data for -Contingency, base development, construction, and logistical planners by presenting a flexible planning tool for TO
construction and construction support
Construction units for various utilities,
structures, facilities, installations, and
construction tasks required by the
Army and Air Force in support of military missions in a TO.
Logistical commands and supply agencies in requisitioning, identifying items,
costing, and other related supply functions.
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The AFCS consists of a series of four DA
TMs. They are—
TM 5-301, Army Facilities Components
System--Planning. This manual, which
is generally used by military planners,
contains installation, facility, and prepackaged expendable contingency supply (PECS) summaries. The TM 5-301
series is published in four volumes,
each addressing a separate climatic
zone. The summaries appearing in the
four volumes include cost, shipping
weight, volume, and man-hours required for construction.
- TM 5-301-1 (Temperate) covers geographical areas where mean annual temperatures are between
+30° and +70° Fahrenheit (F).
– TM 5-301-2 (Tropical) covers geographical areas where the mean annual temperatures are higher than
+70° F.
– TM 5-301-3 (Frigid) covers geographical areas where the mean annual temperatures are lower than
+30° F.
– TM 5-301-4 (Desert) covers geographical areas which are arid and
without vegetation.
TM 5-302, Army Facilities Components
System: Design. This five-volume manual contains site and utility plans for
the installation, construction drawings,
and construction detail drawings for the
facilities. New designs are added and
obsolete designs are revised as required
to meet the construction needs of the
Army. Drawings stamped “Under Revision, Do Not Use” should not be used
for construction or planning purposes.
However, drawings stamped “Under Re-
vision" may be used for planning purposes.
TM 5-303, Army Facilities Components
System--Logistic Data and Bills of Materials. This manual is generally used by
planners, builders, and suppliers in
identifying items contained in the bills
of materials.
TM 5-304, Army Facilities Components
System User Guide. This manual explains how to use the system.
Evaluate the alternatives. Various
courses of action are compared in terms of
personnel, material, equipment, and time.
This is often difficult because the typical
planning problem is filled with uncertainties
and intangible factors.
Select the course of action. Planning is
not yet complete just by accomplishing the
above steps. Derivative plans must be developed to support the basic plan. This
plan should include all aspects of the project involving administration and logistics.
These include, but are not limited to, the
Moving onto the jobsite.
Bringing in supplies and equipment.
Locating supply, assembly, work, dining, living, and administrative areas.
Obtaining and using natural resources.
Performing daily routine chores.
Providing area security in a tactical environment.
Planning for inclement weather.
Providing for adequate construction site
Mission of Army Engineer Project Management
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The functions of the military construction
manager are universal, although they may
differ in details from one activity to another. These functions should not be confused with operating tasks such as accounting, engineering, or procurement. The
managerial functions are planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling.
Each of these is aimed toward accomplishing the objective of the unit. To implement
these functions, the manager must understand the objectives, plans, and policies of
Planning means laying out something in advance. Planning creates an orderly sequence of events, defines the principles to
be followed in carrying them out, and describes the ultimate disposition of the results. It serves the manager by pointing
out the things to be done, their sequence,
how long each task should take, and who is
responsible for what.
Goal. The goal of planning is to minimize
resource expenses for a given task. Planning aims at producing an even flow of
equipment, materials, and labor and ensuring coordinated effort. Effective planning requires continually checking on events so
that the manager can make forecasts and
revise plans to maintain the proper course
toward the objective.
Much of the manager’s job will be characterized by his plans. If the plans are detailed and workable, and if the manager
has the authority to undertake them and
understands what is expected, he will require little of his superior’s time.
In military construction, the planning phase
should be divided into two stages: preliminary planning and detailed planning. These
are discussed more fully in Chapter 2.
Preliminary planning gives the engineer unit
commander a quick overview of the assigned
Mission of Army Engineer Project Management
task and the capacity of the constructing
unit to accomplish the tasks. It serves as a
guide to the detailed planning which follows. preliminary planning includes a preliminary estimate and procurement of critical items.
Detailed planning provides a schedule for
the entire construction project and develops
an accurate estimate of the materials, labor,
and equipment to do each of the subtasks
or activities. It includes detailed estimating, scheduling, procurement, and construction plant layout, as well as a review of
drawings and specifications.
Steps. Planning involves selecting objectives, policies, procedures, and programs.
The core of the manager’s job in planning is
making quality decisions based on investigation and analysis rather than on snap judgment.
Establish the objective. The objective provides the key for what to do, where to place
emphasis, and how to accomplish the objective.
Engineer construction functions in the TO
are the design, construction, repair, rehabilitation, and maintenance of structures.
These include roads, bridges, inland waterways, ports, industrial facilities, logistic support facilities, storage and maintenance areas, protective emplacements, hospitals,
camps, training areas, housing, administrative space, and utilities. Other functions
are the design, construction, and rehabilitation of railroads, airfields, and heliports.
The construction directive. The management process starts with the receipt of a
directive which is an order to construct, rehabilitate, or maintain a facility. The directive should include a description of the
project with plans and specifications. Regardless of the form of the directive or the
amount of detail, the construction directive
(Figure 1-1, page 1-6) should discuss items
essential for the success of the project.
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Mission of Army Engineer Project Management
These items, along with comments for planning considerations, are as follows:
Mission. The mission will state the exact assignment with all necessary details and
may include an implied mission.
Typically, combat battalion (heavy) missions
Construction or rehabilitation of lines of
communication (LOC), bridges, forward
tactical and cargo airfields, and heliports.
General construction of buildings, structures, and related facilities.
Limited reconstruction of railroads, railroad bridges, and ports.
Limited bituminous paving.
Minor protective construction.
When supported by attachments of specialized personnel and equipment, engineer
combat battalion (heavy) missions include:
Large-scale bituminous and portland cement paving operations.
Large-scale quarrying and crushing operations.
Major railroad and railroad bridge reconstruction.
Major port rehabilitation.
Major protective construction.
Pipeline and storage-tank construction.
Fixed and tactical bridges.
Corps combat engineer battalion missions
Construction, repair, and maintenance
of roads, fords, culverts, landing strips,
heliports, command posts, supply installations, buildings, structures, and related facilities.
Preparation and removal of obstacles, to
include minefields.
Construction and placement of deceptive devices and technical assistance in
camouflage operations.
Mission of Army Engineer Project Management
FM 5-412
Site preparation for air defense artillery
Construction of defensive installations.
Engagement in river-crossing operations, to include assault crossing of
troops and construction of tactical rafts
and bridges.
Each engineer command, brigade, group,
and battalion is authorized a staff to assist
the commander. The composition of these
staffs and the duties of the staff members
vary with the type of organization, its mission, and its echelon of command. Generally, engineer staffs at group or higher echelons perform as planners, designers, advisors, supervisors, inspectors, and coordinators. At battalion level, the staff members
are operators, Staff members supervise the
implementation of the plans of the higher
headquarters. For example, upon receipt of
a task directive from brigade, the group
staff designs the project, plans and assigns
the tasks, and directs the battalions (which
are the operating units) to perform the tasks.
For additional information on engineer unit
capabilities, see TM 5-304.
Location. This may be a definite location,
or the directive may require the manager to
select a site in a general area.
A site investigation should be made of the
selected site or general area. The manager
uses this information to determine how the
environment will affect the project. A site
investigation should provide answers to the
following questions:
What are the terrain features of the proposed site? Is it hilly, flat, wooded,
swampy, or desert? How will the terrain features affect the project?
What are the existing drainage characteristics? Is the site well drained?
What effort will be needed to keep it
drained before, during, and after construction?
What problems will be involved in accessibility? What effort will be required to
FM 5-412
permit travel to, from, and within the
What is the type of soil? What will the
unit need to do to prepare for vehicle
traffic and construction? How much additional work will the unit have to do to
complete the project?
What are the existing facilities (buildings, roads, or utilities) that the unit
could use?
What are the natural resources located
near the job site, such as timber, water,
aggregate, or borrow materials? How
far away are they? How many are there?
What weather conditions are expected
for the project’s duration?
What is the enemy situation? What are
the good and bad points of defending
the site? What improvements must be
Time. Time determines the start and finish
of the project. If the manager is responsible
for planning and estimating, he should be
the one to estimate project duration.
Extreme accuracy is not required, as precise calculations are delayed until the detailed planning stage. Approximate rates of
production, based on the unit’s experience,
are usually accurate enough. Where this information is unavailable, published rates in
civilian or military texts, tempered by the
planner’s knowledge of existing conditions,
are good substitutes.
item of the construction directive tells what
additional personnel are available, if
Despite the mechanization of modern warfare, battles are still won and territory is
still occupied by soldiers. For this reason,
highest priorities on personnel go to units
in contact with the enemy. In a combat
support role, the engineers have the problem of accomplishing construction quickly
with limited personnel. Labor conservation
is important. Every engineer must function
at peak efficiency for long hours. Assignments must be carefully planned and coordinated. Projects must be well organized and
supervised. Personnel must be well cared
for and carefully allocated.
A unit’s personnel must be considered only
in terms of “construction strength. ” The
project manager must use the number of
soldiers actually available to work on the
job for his calculations. In the current combat heavy battalion table of organization
and equipment (TOE 5-115H), only about
50 percent of a full-strength unit is productive in the construction effort. This figure
should be used for planning purposes only
when more exact data are not available.
The project manager must also consider if
the project requires large numbers of personnel with particular skills (for example,
plumbers or electricians).
The quantity takeoff uses available equipment and personnel to calculate the time required for each item. This time will be increased if the soldiers are inexperienced
and require on-site training. The total time
for the project is the sum of the times of
the subtasks less the time when two or
more work items will be done concurrently.
See Chapter 2 for detailed planning procedures to more accurately predict the overall
project time.
The manager should consider the training
of the personnel available for the construction effort. A full-strength battalion with
many inadequately trained personnel will result in low construction output. The ability
and number of supervisors (not included as
productive personnel) affects the construction capability of a unit as well. A shortage
of competent supervisory personnel will reduce the construction effectiveness of a
unit, even though the productive personnel
are adequate in number and ability. The
project manager may also want to consider
contract construction as an option (See Figure 1-2 for issues concerning contract construction.)
Personnel. The manager should already
know what personnel are available. This
Equipment. The manager needs to know
what equipment is on hand and what
Mission of Army Engineer Project Management
Mission of Army Engineer Project Management
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additional equipment is available, if needed,
to accomplish the mission. He also must
determine if the available resources will allow the constructing unit to do the job.
Due to the destructiveness of opposing
forces, normal peacetime construction equipment cannot handle the requirements of
wartime operations, regardless of the location. The economical use of equipment resources is essential.
The status of a unit’s construction equipment, particularly heavy equipment, is an
important factor in determining the ability
to do a job. The planner must consider the
average deadline rates for items of equipment and then judge whether the rates will
be maintained, improved, or worsened during a particular job.
Critical Equipment. Depending on the type
of job, certain items of equipment will be
critical because they will govern the overall
progress. For example, earth-moving equipment is critical for road and airfield work.
Woodworking sets are essential for wood
frame structures.
issue directives to serve as guidelines. Priority ratings are usually listed for items as
first, second, third, fourth, and so on. If a
priority rating contains several items that
might be worked on concurrently, these
items are numbered consecutively to show
their relative standing. For example, a theater Army commander might list the following priorities:
First priority: Initial beach landing and
docking facilities
Second priority: Hospital facilities
Third priority: Wharves and docks
NOTE: Details, such as which of the hospital facilities shall be constructed first, are
left to the discretion of the local commanders. This conforms to the principle of decentralization, which permits maximum operational freedom to subordinates. The dispersion of forces in a TO requires that engineer authority be decentralized. The engineer in charge of operations at a particular
locality must have authority equal to his responsibilities.
Distribution. The planner should tentatively assign the critical equipment to the
various construction operations. Assignment will depend on the amount of equipment on hand, deadline rates, and quantity
and type of work to be done. For example,
in assigning dozers and scrapers to cut and
fill operations, the quantities of earthwork
and the haul distances will determine how
many of the available dozers will be assigned to the scrapers and how many will
be used for dozing.
Reports. Required reports (for control purposes) should be listed and included in the
unit standing operating procedure (SOP).
Priority. This gives a single priority for the
entire project or separate priorities for different stages of a project.
During the preliminary planning stage, the
planner should keep notes on items that
may be critical to the job. These critical
items may be readily identified when using
the network analysis system (see Chapter 2).
Critical items may be materials, equipment, or soldiers with particular skills.
Their availability may be important because
they are needed immediately for the job, because they are not available locally, or
Prioritizing helps to determine how much
engineer effort will be devoted to a single
task. While detailed priority systems are
normally the concern of lower-echelon commands, all levels of command, beginning
with the theater commander, will frequently
NOTE: For more information on reporting,
described later in this chapter.
Materials. The construction directive is the
authority for requisitioning materials. This
item addresses the lead time necessary for
procurement, location, and delivery.
Mission of Army Engineer Project Management
because a long-lead item for procurement
may be required. The manager should
study the entire job and the notes and then
identify such critical items. The manager
can then take action to ensure that the
items will be on hand when required.
If necessary, the responsible leadership
must organize an overseas wartime construction program to execute the required work
in the time allotted and with a minimum of
shipped-in tonnage. Local resources must
be used, but these are often limited. Engineer battalions normally have no authority
for direct, local procurement, so senior engineer headquarters or other military or government organizations must provide materials. This imposes upon the Army the problems of coordination, purchase, and delivery. These materials are normally procured
in the United States and may require longlead times.
Special Instructions. This item gives any additional information concerning the project,
including instructions for coordinating with
the using agency.
The organizing function determines the activities required to complete the project,
counts and groups these activities, assigns
the groups, and delegates authority to complete them. Sometimes all this is called organization structure. The organization structure is a tool for accomplishing the project’s
objectives. It establishes authority relationships and provides for structural coordination. Therefore, organizing is the establishment of the structural relationships by
which an enterprise is bound together and
the framework in which individual efforts
are coordinated.
The power of decision granted to or assumed by the supervisor or manager is
authority. When the number of people involved in a project exceeds the span that
one person can control, the manager must
delegate authority. The delegation of authority is key to effective organization.
Mission of Army Engineer Project Management
FM 5-412
An officer making decisions also assumes responsibility and must answer for the results
of his decisions. Wherever authority is created, responsibility is created. Although
authority may be delegated and divided, responsibility cannot be delegated or divided.
No responsible officer can afford to delegate
authority without designing a system of control to safeguard the responsibilities.
A manager may delegate the authority to accomplish a service, and a subordinate in
turn may delegate a portion of the authority
received, but these superiors do not delegate
any of their responsibility. No supervisor
loses responsibility by assigning a task to
another person.
Staffing is finding the right person for the
job. Although the modern armed forces
place much emphasis on the effective use of
mechanized equipment, the military effort depends on the training, assigning, and supervising of people who use this equipment.
Often the engineers have construction problems due to limited trained personnel. Solutions to these problems require planning
and coordination of personnel assignments.
The management function of directing involves guiding and supervising subordinates
to improve work methods. Open LOC in organizations are maintained in vertical and
horizontal directions. While assignments of
tasks make organization possible, directing
adds a personal relationship. Directing embraces the practical problems in getting
personnel to work as a team to accomplish
the unit objective. Basically, it concerns
managing human behavior and taking action that will improve performance.
The commander must have a thorough
knowledge of the organization’s structure, the
interrelation of activities and personnel, and
the capabilities of the unit. In addition, the
military manager must be able to lead the
organization to accomplish its mission.
FM 5-412
The manager can create the best conditions
for superior effort by making certain subordinates understand the unit mission and
their particular roles in it. People who
"know the reason why" are better motivated.
A good leader makes it a point to explain to
the troops the reasons for undertaking a
particular mission.
The terms manager and leader are not synonymous. The manager coordinates activity
by executing managerial functions and accomplishes missions through people. (See
Figure 1-3.)
Control is a continuing process of adjusting
the operation to the situation in order to accomplish the desired objective. The manager
must measure and correct activities in order to compel events to conform to plans.
For effective control, the manager must be
in constant touch with the operations to be
sure they are proceeding on course and on
schedule. Most of the construction control
problem involves processing large volumes
of technical information.
The manager must be sure that the plans
are clear, complete, and integrated. Then
the necessary authority must be given to
the person responsible for a task.
Because of the many changes and situations that may arise on different projects,
a control system must be broad enough to
cope with all possibilities. Regardless of
the circumstances, control depends upon
the communication of information, both for
gathering data and for implementing the desired corrective action. To provide effective
control, communication of information must
be-Timely. In order to be meaningful, the
manager must receive and distribute
the information used for controlling in a
timely manner. Information should be
“forward looking.” Focus attention on
actions that will cause activities to occur as scheduled, instead of adjusting
for events in the past.
Mission of Army Engineer Project Management
FM 5-412
Accurate. Pinpoint and then truthfully
report the information necessary for control.
corrective action, by virtue of both
authority to do so and technical knowledge of the project.
Valid. Information is valid when its content represents a situation as it actually
exists. Present this information in appropriate and useful units of measure.
Economical. Collect only the information required for effective control, thus
minimizing the personnel, time, and
money needed to perform the control
Routed properly. Make information
used in controlling directly available to
the person who can take or recommend
Mission of Army Engineer Project Management
The controlling function as part of the entire project management process is shown
in Figure 1-4.
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The execution phase begins with the actual
start of construction, although some procurement actions may already have taken
place. To ensure compliance with the
schedule and with the project plans and
specifications, the engineer unit commander
uses supervision, inspections, and progress
reports. Any changes in project plans and
specifications made after construction has
begun involve replanning and rescheduling.
Mission of Army Engineer Project Management
FM 5-412
Engineers must manage engineer tasks,
whether the task is a rear-area construction job, such as a supply depot, or a forward-area combat engineer task, such as a
minefield. They must use a combination of
personnel, materials, and equipment to accomplish the mission. Task completion is
affected by available time and resources,
the tactical situation, weather, and terrain
These factors affect both construction planning and combat planning. How well the
engineer leader accomplishes a task depends in large part on his ability to plan,
schedule, and control resources within a
constrained environment. This chapter describes the basic elements of systems that
will aid the manager in accomplishing the
An excellent means of project planning and
control is the Gantt or bar chart (Figure 2-1,
page 2-2). Used primarily for smaller projects, it is simple, concise, and easy to prepare. The major disadvantage of this management tool is that the user must have a
detailed knowledge of the particular project
and of construction techniques. Problems
may occur if the project manager is suddenly replaced. The replacement manager
is left with a document in which all the relationships are not readily apparent.
Other disadvantages of planning with a
Gantt chart are--
It does not clearly show the detailed
sequence of the activities.
It does not show which activities are
critical or potentially critical to the successful, timely completion of the mission.
It does not show the precise effect of a
delay or failure to complete an activity
on time.
In an emergency, a project’s delay may
lead to incorrectly expediting noncritical
The critical path method (CPM) is a planning and control technique that overcomes
the disadvantages of using only a Gantt
chart and provides an accurate, timely, and
Planning and Scheduling Processes
easily understood picture of the project.
With this additional information, it is easier
to plan, schedule, and control the project.
Used together, the Gantt chart and the logic
network provide the manager all the critical
information needed to accomplish the task.
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The CPM requires a formal, detailed investigation into all identifiable tasks that make
up a project. This means that the manager
must visualize the project from start to finish and must estimate time and resource requirements for each task.
Uses. The CPM can be used to accomplish
construction and combat tasks at any level
of management from the engineer squad to
the engineer brigade. A squad leader needs
to have a basic knowledge of CPM for two
primary reasons.
Engineer tasks. As a member of a larger
work element, the squad leader will be responsible for assigned tasks within the
CPM network. Knowledge of CPM results in
a better understanding of the criticality of
the tasks in relation to the total project so
that the squad can be better prepared or
trained to accomplish these tasks.
Combat tasks. A squad may be attached to
a maneuver element if required by the tactical situation. Therefore, the squad leader
becomes an independent manager of personnel, material, and equipment and must now
plan, schedule, and control these assets.
Normally, a formal portrayal of the CPM
would not be required, but the basis for
CPM becomes a valuable tool for the squad
leader in accomplishing his combat tasks.
Planning and Scheduling Processes
Advantages. The CPM -Reduces the risk of overlooking essential tasks and provides a blueprint for
long-range planning and coordination of
the project.
Gives a clear picture of the logical relationships between activities in a project.
This is especially helpful if a new manager needs to take over the project.
Focuses the manager’s attention by
identifying the critical tasks.
Generates information about the project
so that the manager can make rational
and timely decisions if complications develop during the project.
Enables the manager to easily determine what resources he will need to accomplish the project and when these resources should be made available.
Allows the manager to quickly determine what additional resources he will
need if the project must be completed
earlier than originally planned.
Provides feedback on a finished project
that lets the manager improve techniques and assure the best use of resources on future projects.
Limitations. The CPM is not a cure-all for
engineer problems. It does not make decisions for the manager, nor can it contribute
anything tangible to the actual construction. The CPM should be used to assist the
manager in planning, scheduling, and controlling the project.
The first step in planning is to find out all
the essential information concerning the
project. Most of this information can be obtained from the construction directive published by the next higher headquarters for
the company or battalion actually performing the construction. If the information is
Planning and Scheduling Processes
FM 5-412
not there, the manager should ask for it.
At the platoon and squad levels, tasking is
normally accomplished by oral orders. After gathering information, the manager
should conduct a thorough site investigation, then check with the customer to ensure that the final facility, as planned, will
satisfy the needs. For more information on
preliminary planning, see Chapter 1.
The manager must study plans and specifications carefully, construct the project mentally, and break it down into its component
parts. Each component is termed an activity: a resource-consuming element of the
overall job which has a definable beginning
and ending.
Developing an activities list is the first step
in developing a CPM, and the step that
most easily frustrates many managers.
Breaking down a construction project into
activities and placing these activities in a
logical sequence requires skill and experience. Once the process of mentally constructing the project has begun, however,
the activities can come to mind easily. The
CPM planner must consult with the construction supervisor to get the required
data, and may gather valuable assistance
from experienced noncommissioned officers
(NCOs) in planning the project and developing estimates. Appendix A is a checklist
containing work elements or tasks for various construction jobs.
The number and detail of the activities on
the list will vary from job to job and will depend upon the intended use of the CPM network and the experience of the managers.
Use Figures 2-2 through 2-5, page 2-4, for
the following example: Someone, somewhere, gets an idea for a project, prepares
an activities list, and delegates these activities to subordinates (Figure 2-2).
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The next subordinate unit then also prepares an activities list and delegates these
activities to its subordinates (Figure 2-4).
The subordinate unit then prepares an activities list and delegates these activities to its
subordinates (Figure 2-3).
The next subordinate unit, in turn, prepares
an activities list and may or may not delegate further for each activity (Figure 2-5).
Planning and Scheduling Processes
The bottom line, however, is that the higherechelon levels need not list each and every
little possible activity (such as placing traffic signs) when it receives the “big picture”
mission. Activities should be only as specific as is consistent with the level of supervision.
ing questions for each activity on the activity list
Keep in mind that the activities list only
states what is to be done. It will not consider how the activities will be accomplished, in what order the activities will be
performed, or how long it will take to complete each activity. All that is necessary at
this point is to list what work must be done
to complete the mission. The other probblems will be addressed later, one at a time.
Which activities may either start or finish at the same time this one does?
The following guidelines offer some assistance, but should not be regarded as strict
Break the assigned job into separate operations, or activities, to complete the
job successfully. The number and detail of these tasks will vary from job to
Include a description of the work to be
performed within each activity.
Do not consider time, labor, order of
construction, material, or equipment.
Break the project into its component
parts only.
Check the activities list for completeness and accuracy.
One of the most important features of the
CPM is the logic diagram. The logic diagram graphically portrays the relationship
between a project’s many activities. This
benefits the manager by providing a tool to
use in eliminating many problems that
might arise during the construction phase
of the project. Before the diagram can be
drawn up, however, the project must first
be constructed both mentally and on paper
to determine the activities’ relationships.
The manager does this be asking the follow-
Planning and Scheduling Processes
Can this activity start at the beginning
of the project? (Start)
Which activities must be finished before
this one begins? (Precedence)
Which activities cannot begin until this
one is finished? (Succession)
Which activities may start when a portion of another activity is complete?
One way to determine these relationships is
to make one column to the right of the activities list titled "Proceeded Immediately By
(PIB)". Under this column, for each activity, list all other activity numbers (or letters
or symbols) which must immediately precede the activity in question. If the activity
can begin at the very beginning of the entire project, write "None."
Example: You are given the mission to build
a 40’ x 40’ x 8“ concrete pad and construct a
12-foot-wide, 1,000-yard-long gravel roadway leading to it. From your mental and paper construction of the project, you might decide that the activities for constructing the
roadway are: to clear the roadway, acquire
the gravel, prepare the subgrade/ subbase,
and lay the gravel. For the pad, your tasks
might be: to clear the site, acquire gravel,
prepare foundation, prepare forms, place
forms, mix and pour concrete, cure concrete,
and remove forms. (Obviously, these activities have been simplified to provide clarity
for the example. An actual activities list
would likely be much more detailed.)
Assuming that all resources are immediately available (except the gravel which
must be acquired), four of the activities
(A,B,C, and G listed below) can begin immediately and "None" will be noted in their
"PIB" column. Preparation of the pad
FM 5-412
foundation (activity D) cannot begin until
the pad site has been cleared (activity A), so
A will be placed under activity D’s “PIB” column. Since both activities F and I require
gravel (activity F because gravel is a component of concrete), then their “PIB” columns
will list activity C. By continuing in this
same manner, the activities list and PIB results that you develop might look like Table
tary and civilian managers is the activity-onthe-node format, or "precedence diagramming." The two basic logic symbols on the
precedence diagram are the node and the
precedence arrow.
Nodes. A node is simply a parallelogram
which represents an activity, and each activity on the activities list is represented by a
node on the logic diagram. The node is of
a standard shape and format, and contains
all the necessary information for the activity. It represents a period of time equal to
the activity duration. Each node includes
the activity’s number, duration, required resources, early and late start times, and
early and late finish times (Figure 2-6). Required resources information and activity
duration times are taken from the Activity
Estimate Sheet which is completed during
resource estimating (see Chapter 3). Development of activity numbers and start/finish
times will be discussed later.
Start and finish nodes are normally represented by a circle or oval. These kinds of
nodes have no duration and are known as
milestones. Milestones can also be used at
other points in the network to represent a
checkpoint, a major accomplishment, or a
deliverable result.
Precedence arrows. The precedence arrow
(or simply “arrow”) shows the order sequence and relationship between activities
(such as what activities must precede and
may follow another activity). The configura-
NOTE: Remember to mark only those items
that immediately precede the activity in
question. For example, even though activity B precedes activity F, it does not immediately precede it; activity B immediately
precedes activity E which in turn immediately precedes activity F.
Now that we have the necessary activity relationships needed to develop the logic diagram, we must determine which format of
logic diagraming we are going to use.
Whereas the activity-on-the-arrow format of
logic diagraming used to be a popular
method, the current standard for both mili2-6
Planning and Scheduling Processes
FM 5-412
tion of the diagram’s nodes and arrows is
the result of the PIB list (or the answers to
the five questions that were previously
asked of each activity). The logic behind
the diagram is such that an activity cannot
begin until all activities that send an arrow
to it are complete.
may run concurrently (such as activities F
and I), then they will both receive an arrow
from a preceding activity yet have no arrows connecting their own nodes, Finally,
all activities that do not have a succeeding
activity will go directly to the FINISH node
(activities F and K).
Using the previous example, the following is
a logic diagram to show the relationship between the project’s activities (Figure 2-7).
First, all activities that can begin at the
start of the project (activities not reliant
upon the completion of any other activity before it can begin) will come directly from
the START node (activities A, B, C, and G).
Since activity D cannot begin until activity
A is complete (activity D is “preceded immediately by” only activity A), an arrow will be
drawn from activity A to activity D. Since
activity H cannot begin until both activities
D and G are complete (activity H is “preceded immediately by” D and G), activity H
must receive an arrow from both activities
D and G. Since neither activity F nor activity I may begin until activity C is complete,
an arrow will be drawn from activity C to
both activities F and I. If two activities
Development of the actual diagram is often
through trial and error. It is best to form a
rough draft which satisfies some of the
logic criteria, and then modify the diagram
to meet the remaining criteria. Begin with
those activities which have “None” under
the PIB column. They will stem directly
from the START node. Then, after each of
these starting activities, place the activities
which immediately follows it. These followon activities are the ones which list the
starting activities in the PIB column. Continue using this same methodology until all
activities have been diagramed. Finally,
connect all the dangling activities to the
FINISH node, and check and modify the diagram to ensure none of the logic criteria
have been violated.
Planning and Scheduling Processes
FM 5-412
Once the logic diagram has been constructed, each activity, or node, is given a
number for identification on the diagram.
Two rules exist for activity node numbering:
1) every activity node number must be different, and 2) the activity node number at
the head of the logic arrow must be greater
than the number at the tail of the arrow.
Otherwise, any number may be chosen for
the activity node number. As you will discover later, numbering the activities reduces
confusion on a diagram and is very useful
during resource scheduling.
The activity node numbers are placed in the
upper middle sector of the node (see Figure
2-6, page 2-6) and normally use increments
of five or ten. This allows room for additional activity nodes to be inserted later, if
necessary. Once the activities are numbered, they may be referred by either their
names or their numbers. In this manual,
activity names will frequently be designated
by letters, as is shown in Table 2-1, page 2-6,
and in Figure 2-7, page 2-7, but the node
will receive a number once it has been
placed in a logic diagram.
Figure 2-8 shows a circular deadlock and a
violation of both diagram logic and numbering rules. The logic error stems from the
endless “loop” created by the arrow connecting activity 20 with activity 10. This diagram suggests that 10 is reliant upon 20
which is reliant upon 15 which is reliant
upon 10. This illogical diagram also violates numbering rules, since activity 20, at
the tail of the arrow, is not less than activity 10, which is at the head. Activity numbering rules help prevent this kind of error,
which is difficult to discover in a large network.
The logic network is constructed without regard to how long an activity will last or
whether all required resources are available. It simply displays the relationships
Planning and Scheduling Processes
FM 5-412
between activities, provides project understanding, and improves communications.
sis. A time analysis based on outdated estimates is useless.
Once the network has been drawn and activity numbers are in place, the manager
places activity duration and resource requirements in each activity node. The duration is placed in the center sector of the
node, and the resources are placed in the
lower middle sector (Figure 2-6, page 2-6).
The manager determines these times and resources using the estimating procedure discussed in Chapter 3. This procedure is recommended as a standard because it is flexible and lends itself to full documentation.
The next step in the CPM process is to calculate the earliest and latest times at which
the activities can occur without violating
the network logic or increasing the project’s
overall duration. This provides the manager with a time frame for each activity.
Within each time frame the activity must be
completed or else other activities become delayed or the entire project is delayed. From
this exercise, the manager will be able to
easily identify which tasks must be critically managed to ensure the project’s duration is minimized. Naturally, an event cannot begin until all events previous to it (arrows leading to it in the logic diagram) are
completed. The event-time numbers shown
in the corners of activity nodes represent
the end of the time period. Thus, a start
or finish time of day five would mean the
end of the fifth day (or the beginning of the
sixth day).
If an activity has too many resources to
list easily in the space provided in the
node, use a code to refer to the necessary
resources or list the resources for each activity as shown in Table 2-2.
Estimating is the lifeblood of the CPM time
analysis. Estimating data (durations and
crew sizes) forms the basis for calculating
early and late event times and critical activities, tabulating activity times, and scheduling. Thus, output of CPM time analysis
can be no better than the estimating input.
If an estimate changes because of new information or experience, the estimator must
use the new data to update the time analy-
Planning and Scheduling Processes
Table 2-2 activities list shows not only the
PIB, but also the new node numbers (replacing activity letters), the duration of each activity (in days), and the estimated resources
(from tables and personal experience; see
Chapter 3).
FM 5-412
The manager is now able to fill in the infor mation in all three center squares of his activity- nodes: the node number (increments
of 5 or 10, in increasing order), duration
(usually defined to be in hours, days, or
weeks), and resources needed. (See Figure
2-6, page 2-6).
Early start /early finish. The early start
times are positioned in the upper left corner
of the activity nodes. These are the earliest
times the activity events may start logically.
Since the beginning activities (in the above
example, activities 5, 10, 15, and 35) are at
the start of the project, the earliest time
that these events may start is zero (the end
of day zero or the beginning of day one).
Add the duration of each activity (center of
the node) to the early start time to compute
the early finish time, positioned in the upper right corner of the activity node (Figure
2-9). The early finish time is the earliest
time the activity event may finish, if indeed
the duration estimate is accurate.
Following the precedence arrows within the
logic diagram, the next activity’s early start
time (at the head of an arrow) is the same
as the previous activity’s early finish time
(at the tail of an arrow). Do not regard the
node’s bottom left and right corners at this
time. To determine an activity’s early start
time when more than one arrow head leads
into its node, choose the largest early finish time of all activities at the arrows’ tails
(Figure 2- 10). Logically, an activity cannot
begin until all preceding activities are complete.
Using this same systematic process, continue working through the entire logic diagram, computing all early start and early
finish times. This computational movement
through the logic diagram is known as the
forward pass. At the finish node, the overall duration for the project will be the largest early finish time of all activity nodes
leading into the finish node. In the example on the next page, the project duration
will be fourteen days, as determined by the
sequence of construction and the time duration on each activity, culminating in the
early finish time at node 55 of fourteen
days (Figure 2- 11).
Example: Node 30 has two arrows leading
into it, from nodes 15 and 25. To determine
the early start time of node 30, use the
larger of the two early finish times of node
15 (6) and node 25 (5). In this case, 6
would be the appropriate early start time for
node 30.
Late finish/late start. The late finish
times are positioned in the lower right corner of the activity nodes. These are the latest times the activity events may finish without delaying the entire project. Since the
last activities (in the above example, activities 30 and 55) are both at the end of the
fourteen-day project, the latest time that
both these events can finish is the project
duration’s finish, or the end of day fourteen. The number fourteen, then, should be
put in the lower right corner of both
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FM 5-412
FM 5-412
nodes. Subtract the duration of each activity (center of the node) from its late finish
time to compute the late start time, positioned in the lower left corner of the activity node (Figure 2-12). The late start time
is the latest time the activity event may
start without delaying the entire project, if
indeed the duration estimate is accurate.
Using this same systematic process, continue working backward through the entire
logic diagram (against the arrows), computing all late finish and late start times. This
computational movement back through the
logic diagram is known as the backward
pass. Back near the start node, at least
one of the late start times of an activity
coming from the start node must be zero.
In the above example, the late start time of
node 15 is zero (Figure 2-11, page 2- 11).
Example: Node 15 has two arrows leading
from it, to nodes 30 and 45. To determine
the late finish time of node 15, consider the
smaller of the two late start times of node
30 (12) and node 45 (6). In this case, 6
would be the appropriate late finish time for
node 15.
Following the precedence arrows backward
within the logic diagram (right to left), the
previous activity’s late finish time (at the
tail of an arrow) is the same as the next activity’s late start time (at the head of an arrow). Do not regard the early start and
early finish times within the nodes at this
time. To determine an activity’s late finish
time when more than one arrow tail leads
away from its node, choose the smallest
late start time of all activities at the arrows’
heads (Figure 2-13). Logically, an activity
must finish before all follow-on activities
may begin.
Figure 2-13. Retrieving the smallest late
start time
A critical activity can be determined from
the logic network by applying the following
Rule 1. The early start (ES) time for a
particular activity is the same as the late
start (LS) time.
Rule 2. The early finish (EF) time for a
particular activity is the same as the late
finish (LF) time.
Rule 3. The ES or LS added to the duration of the activity results in the EF or LF.
In the above example, nodes 15, 45, 50,
and 55 meet the three listed rules, thus
making them critical activities. A critical activity, if delayed by any amount of time, will
delay the entire project’s completion by the
same amount of time. Critical activities,
when linked together, will always form a
path along arrows from the start node to
the finish node, called a critical path. A
logic arrow between two critical activities
usually forms the critical path, but not always; the path between two critical activities is critical only when the EF of a critical
activity is equal to the ES of the following
critical activity. If it is not, the critical
path branches off to another critical activity
before linking back up. The critical path
Planning and Scheduling Processes
may indeed branch out or come back together at any point, but there will always
be one or more critical paths. All critical
paths must be continuous; any critical path
that does not start at the start node and
end at the finish node indicates a logic mistake. Critical paths are indicated on the
logic diagram by some method such as double lines, bold lines, or highlighted color
(see Figure 2-11, page 2- 11). Any activity
node not on the critical path will contain
some float. Float is extra time available to
complete an activity beyond the activity’s actual duration, such as having six days available to do four days worth of work. It is
the scheduling leeway. Naturally, all activities on the critical path will not have any
Total float. Total float (TF) is the entire
amount of time that an activity may be delayed without delaying the project’s estimated completion time. Total float for an
activity is determined by the equation
TF = LS - ES or TF = LF - EF.
Both equations will yield the same answer
if the manager has properly computed the
LS, ES, LF, and EF. Total float consists of
the sum of interfering float (IF) and free
float (FF): TF = IF + FF.
Interfering float. Interfering float is time
available to delay an activity without delaying the entire project’s estimated completion
time, but delaying an activity into interfering float will delay the start of one or more
other noncritical activities later in the project. Interfering float for an activity is determined by the equation IF = LF - (ES of following activity).
In the logic network, if more than one activity logically follows the activity in question,
choose the smallest ES of the choices for
the above equation.
Free float. Free float is also time available
to delay an activity without delaying the project’s estimated completion time and without delaying the start of any other activity
in the project. Free float for an activity is
determined by the equation FF = TF - IF.
Planning and Scheduling Processes
FM 5-412
Example: Activity 25 is not on the critical
path, so it must haue float. Total float
would be 7 (LS-ES or LF-EF). Interfering float would be 6 (LF of node 25- ES of
node 30). Free float would be 1 (TF-IF).
The manager is now able to construct an activity schedule, known as an early start
schedule. This schedule, when coupled
with a logic diagram, graphically shows all
necessary planning information for the manager. The first step is to list all activities in
numerical order. After each activity, note
in parentheses all immediately dependent
activities, or those activities that are connected with an arrow. For example, since
activities 30 and 45 cannot begin until activity 15 is complete, annotate activity 15 in
the schedule like this: 15 (30,45). If an activity leads into the finish node, put an “F”
in the parentheses after the activity number, or just list the activity number with no
The next step is to mark on the schedule
the time frame for each activity during
which each activity may be performed without delaying the project or violating any of
the diagram sequence relationships.
Consider node 40 in Figure 2-11. The ES
shows that the earliest this activity can begin is the end of day three (or the beginning of day four). Thus, the beginning of
day four to the end of day six (as determined from the LF) is the available time
span in which to complete this activity. Because of the nature of the logic diagram,
this activity cannot be scheduled earlier,
since activity 20 must be completed first.
It cannot be scheduled later, for that would
delay the entire project. As a reminder to
schedule the right bracket at the beginning
(morning) of the following day, use “ES + 1”
and “LF” as brackets (Figure 2-14, page 2-14).
Once the brackets are placed correctly, the
next step is to make a trial schedule, scheduling each activity as soon as possible
within the time frame, or flush with the left
bracket. To schedule a particular activity,
FM 5-412
place the number of each kind of resource
inside each box along the activity line. Do
not exceed the activity’s duration; stop at
the end of the early finish time day.
The remaining boxes within the brackets are left
blank for now and will become either free
or interfering float.
Example: Activity 40 requires two squads
for one day for maximum efficiency. To
show this activity scheduled as soon as possible, place the number 2 (number of squads)
in the first box only within the brackets (duration) as shown in Figure 2-15.
Scheduling all the activities as soon as possible yields the early start schedule as
shown in Figure 2-16. For clarity, only the
squads which are necessary for each activity are shown. All activities are scheduled
to begin at their ES times.
The “Xs” on the right end of some of the
bracketed activities denote days of interfering float. To figure these IF days, use the
formulas given earlier to compute total, interfering, and free float. For those activities
that have interfering float, begin at the
right bracket and work to the left, placing
an “X” in each box for each day of interfering float. For activities 25 and 35, interfer-
ing float is marked to a point, and the remaining blank boxes within the brackets
are free float. Some activities have all free
float (activity 40), and some have all interfering float (activity 10). All noncritical activities that are followed immediately by the
finish node in the logic diagram will always
have all free float (activity 30).
To double check proper placement of the interfering float “Xs”, consider the numbers in
parentheses after the activity numbers on
the schedule. If a dependent (follow-on) activity is scheduled to begin before the end
bracket of the activity in question, then
that activity will have interfering float starting at the day of the beginning of the dependent activity. For example, activity
35(40) begins on day 1 and the following activity, activity 40(45), begins on day 4.
Therefore, days 4 and 5 of activity 35(40)
will be interfering float, because if activity
35(40) is delayed past day three, it will delay activity 40(45 ). Remember, however,
that this will not yet delay the entire duration of the project, because activity 40(45)
can be delayed into free float for two days
before it bumps into the right bracket, and
becomes “critical”. If, hypothetically, activity 40(45 ) were delayed into interfering float
Planning and Scheduling Processes
also, it would subsequently delay some or
all of its follow-on activities, and so on.
In cases where many different kinds of resources are necessary for an activity such
as activity 15, managers may choose to use
several lines contained within one set of tall
brackets, as shown in Figure 2-17, page
2-16, and use each line for a different type
of resource. For example, “5T” represents a
5-ton truck, “SL” represents a scoop loader,
and “SQ” represents a squad. This is
known as a multiple-resource schedule.
When summing resources by the time period across the bottom of the early start
schedule, remember to sum for each different kind of resource.
As can be determined from the multiple-resource schedule, summed resources often
exceed available amounts for a given day,
and activities must be delayed (into float
whenever possible) to spread the resources’
use across the time frame of the project.
Planning and Scheduling Processes
FM 5-412
See Appendix B for the systematic procedure to constrain resources and for a sample problem.
If the CPM indicates that the project’s duration exceeds what higher headquarters gave
as a completion date, the manager should
examine the logic diagram’s critical path to
find activity durations which may be shortened. This is known as expediting, compressing, or crashing the project. Keep in
mind, however, that to shorten the project
duration, managers must focus on critical
activities only on the critical path. Shortening a noncritical activity will not shorten
the project duration. However, increasing
the allocation of resources to activities
which fall on the critical path may reduce
the duration of the project. Additional
equipment and personnel can be committed
or the same equipment and personnel can be
used for longer hours. Normally, a moderately
FM 5-412
Planning and Scheduling Processes
extended workday is the most economical
and productive solution. Managers may
also choose to work double shifts or work
on weekends. When expediting activities,
however, consider the long-term effects on
safety, morale, and equipment use and a
subsequent decrease in efficiency.
Materials. Committing additional materials
may also reduce a project’s duration. For
example, using individual sets of forms in
constructing concrete slabs is faster than
reusing forms. A construction agency
might expedite material deliveries by providing its own transportation. After a critical
path activity is reduced by one time unit,
the logic diagram must be checked to determine whether or not additional paths have
become critical, such as those activities
that previously had only one day of float.
Cost. If the estimates used in the CPM network reflect the most efficient methods of
construction, crashing the project to finish
before the determined duration will always
cost money. In order to reduce project duration, the estimator must first identify how
much each activity can be reduced in time
and how much this reduction will cost.
Then, through successive reductions in the
duration of the critical path(s), the project
is expedited at the least additional cost.
Redefined logic. The manager should review all the activities on the critical path to
examine if a situation exists where a preferred logic relationship is perhaps not absolutely necessary. There are two ways the
logic can be redefined:
1. Move activities within the logic diagram.
This is a technique that could be used
when the manager finds that two sequential
activities could actually be done concurrently. For example, if it will take another
hour before the small emplacement excavator (SEE) shows up to dig a fighting position, soldiers with hand tools can actually
start early and let the SEE finish upon its
2. Introduce a lag factor for an activity
that does not have to be entirely completed
before a following activity can be started.
For example, although a road must be
Planning and Scheduling Processes
FM 5-412
compacted before it can be paved, all 10
kilometers of the road need not be compacted before the paving can begin on the
areas already compacted. A 25 percent lag
factor may be introduced, such that paving
can begin once 25 percent of the compacting is complete. In Figure 2-18, page 2-18,
the addition of a 25% lag factor shows how
it reduces the duration from 24 to 15 time
The formula to figure the ES of a node after
the lag factor on the forward pass is:
(Duration of activity x % lag) + ES =
ES of following actiuity
The formula to figure the LF of a node before the lag factor on the backward pass is:
[Duration of previous activity x (l-% lag)] + LS=
LF of previous activity
Engineering skill is required to break a project down into an activities list, construct
PIB relationships, and estimate activity durations and crew sizes. Once these steps
are complete, the rest of the CPM (including
the logic relationships and diagram, node
times, and scheduling) can be done by computer. With further estimating data, project
expediting can also be done by computer.
The computer is significantly faster than
manual computations for time analysis of
networks with many activities. CPM updating, reporting, and war-gaming are also
much easier by computer. Before undertaking the CPM, investigate the availability of a
computer with CPM programs.
An automated version of the AFCS, called
Theater Construction Management System
(TCMS), is available. This package includes
all AFCS drawings and bills of materials, labor and equipment estimates, construction
directives, and an automated drafting program. Additionally, TCMS provides a link
for all this data and capability to an automated project-management software program,
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allowing planners greater flexibility and capability than ever before. For more information on TCMS, contact the AFCS section of
the Huntsville, Alabama, division of the
Corps of Engineers.
Planning and Scheduling Processes
FM 5-412
One of the most important steps in planning a project is estimating activity durations. Carelessly made estimates may lead
to failure to meet completion dates. They
may cause uneconomical use of personnel,
materials, time, and equipment and they
may seriously jeopardize a tactical or strategic situation. preliminary estimates yield
approximate data for planning purposes.
They are not exact for tasks of any large
size or complexity. More accurate, detailed
estimates are vital to the successful planning and execution of a mission. Succeeding steps in detailed planning depend upon
valid estimates. For these reasons, the military project manager must be a good estimator and must have competent estimators in
the organization.
Estimating procedures are designed to yield
various results. Initially, these results take
the form of material requirements or bills of
materials (BOM) and equipment/personnel
requirements. Ultimately, the manager can
derive an estimate of the time needed to accomplish each of the tasks in a project.
The following paragraphs detail a sequential
procedure to aid the estimator:
Step 1. Work items. Determine the work
items. These should agree with the CPM activities list, except where a more detailed
breakdown is required for accuracy and
Step 2. Materials. Determine the materials required for a given work item. Study
the plans and specifications in detail to ensure that all necessary materials are included.
Step 3. Quantities. Calculate the quantity of each item of material needed in the
work item.
Activity Estimates
Step 4. Waste factors. Apply a waste factor, if appropriate, to each of the materials
required. The waste factor should reflect
conditions at the work site, intended use of
the material, and skill level of the troops
working with the material. Include spillage,
breakage, cutting waste, and spoilage in the
waste factor. Typical waste factors are in
Appendix C. Investigate any unusually
high waste factor to determine if any action
can be taken to reduce it.
Step 5. Total material requirement.
Combine the originally calculated quantity
and the allowance for waste to give the total material required.
Step 6. Bill of materials. Draw up a consolidated BOM by combining like materials
from all the work items to obtain a grand total for each type of material needed. This
BOM should contain all the materials necessary to complete the job. The BOM is submitted through the appropriate supply channels for procurement.
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Step 1. Work items. List the work items to
be estimated. In most cases, these will be
the work items used in the material estimate,
although additional activities which require
workers or equipment without expending materials may be added.
Step 2. Available resources and methods.
Consider available resources and methods of
construction, to decide how to accomplish
the work component. Describe the method of
construction, including sketches (as required), to provide guidance for the supervisor. If the method of construction is different
from the method the work rate is based
upon, adjust the actual work rate for this difference.
Step 3. Material usage. From the material
estimate, determine the quantity of material
that will be handled. This material estimate
usually includes a waste factor. However,
since the purpose here is to apply a work
rate to the quantity of material handled, accuracy in determining how much of the material will be used at the specified work rate is
important. For example, if the work rate for
setting forms is given in terms of linear feet
of formwork per unit of time and if extra
form material has been ordered as waste, the
extra form material should be omitted from
this calculation. The amount of forms to be
set is determined by the configuration of the
concrete structure rather than by the quantity of material ordered. Even if the waste allowance is used, it most likely will be used to
replace broken, rotten, or lost wood and thus
not add to the linear feet of formwork actually set.
Step 4. Work rate. Select a work rate appropriate for the work item being estimated.
Chapters 6 through 17 provide estimating tables for various construction tasks. Estimates given in these chapters are based on
units deployed as combat support service or
category III units and therefore should be adjusted for operation in other categories. (See
Army Regulation (AR) 570-2 for additional information.) TM 5-304 provides an indicator
of adjustments to estimates for the environmental factor. If the information in these
tables is inadequate, consult other sources
such as other Army manuals, civilian texts,
experience, and unit records. An accurate
work rate is the heart of a good estimate.
Step 5. Labor. Calculate the standard effort
required to accomplish the work item. If
the work rate has been given in the usual
form of man-hours (the amount of effort produced by one person working for one hour)
or man-days per unit of quantity, multiply
the quantity from Step 3 by the work rate
to get the total man-hours or man-days for
the task. When a work rate is presented in
any other form, the planner should first convert to effort per unit of quantity.
Quantity x Work Rate = Standard Effort
Step 6. Efficiency factor. Decide whether
the unit or organization can operate at the
work rate given. If the work rate used in
the estimate has been taken from a standard source, expect variations in local conditions. To compensate for this, apply an efficiency factor. This factor is a measure of
the effectiveness of the troops in their situation compared to the standard conditions
used in the estimating reference source. It
is most commonly given as a percentage.
Step 7. Total labor hours. Divide the
standard effort computed in Step 5 by the
work-force efficiency to find “troop effort.”
Thus, if the standard effort originally calculated was 60 man-hours and the unit operates at 80 percent efficiency, the unit will
have to expend 75 man-hours to complete
the task.
Standard Effort/Efficiency = Troop Effort
Step 8. Project duration. Divide the total
effort by the crew size to obtain the duration. The crew must be capable of operating at the efficiency used in the estimate.
If not, the efficiency factor must be readjusted, changing the troop effort and affecting the duration.
Troop Effort/Crew Size = Duration
Activity Estimates
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Figure 3-1 shows a sample format for estimating work sheets based on the guidance
given in this chapter. While the format
shown is not standard, it can be helpful as
a guideline for estimating material, manhours, and equipment. The situation
shown requires the excavation of a rectangular ditch 60 feet long, 3 feet wide, and 4
feet deep. The work is to be done by hand;
construction troops are in good condition,
operating at 90 percent efficiency.
Lumber is ordered by standard commercial
lengths. The lengths available in engineer
depots range from 8 to 20 feet, in 2-foot increments. Always try to order the shorter 8foot, 10-foot, and 12-foot standard lengths
most commonly used in the military.
Length calculation. In many parts of a TO
building, it is obvious what commercial
Activity Estimates
lengths should be ordered. For example, if
the joists and girders are 10 feet, 0 inches
long, 10-foot commercial lengths are obviously needed. There are places in the building, however, where it is not quite as evident what length should be ordered. The
manager must then calculate the most economical standard length for the least waste.
The procedure for this is as follows:
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Number pieces/standard lengths.Calculate the number of pieces per standard
length for each of the three standard
lengths (8, 10, 12). If this number is not
an integer, round down.
Number standard lengths required. Find
the number of standard lengths required for each of the three alternatives.
If this number is not an integer, round
Total linear feet required. Calculate the
total linear feet required for each of the
three standard lengths and use the
linear feet =
one standard length (ft) x number of standard lengths
Sample problem. 50 pieces of 2- by 4-inch
lumber, 27 inches long, are required. Find
the most economical length and the number
of pieces to be ordered. There are three
standard lengths which can be ordered:
8-foot, 10-foot, or 12-foot. The following
analysis examines each:
Number pieces/standard length.
8 feet = 96 inches --- 96/27 = 3+
10 feet = 120 inches --- 120/27 = 4+
12 feet = 144 inches --- 144/27 = 5+
Thus, from each 96-inch length, we could
get 3 pieces; from each 120-inch length, 4
pieces; and from each 144-inch length, 5
Number standard lengths required.
8 feet--- 50/3 = 16+
10 feet --- 50/4 = 12+
12 feet --- 50/5 = 10
Total linear feet required.
8 feet --- 17 x 8 feet = 136 linear feet
10 feet --- 13 x 10 feet = 130 linear feet
12 feet --- 10 x 12 feet = 120 linear feet
Clearly, 12-foot standard lengths result in
the minimum amount of lumber required,
and 10 of these 12-foot lengths should be
Activity Estimates
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Site layout is the arrangement of the facilities and personnel required to carry out a
project. It is one of the most important
phases of construction engineering. The objective is to plan the physical arrangement
of the site so that the construction process
is carried out as efficiently as possible.
This means minimum movement of materials, equipment, and personnel, and minimum processing time for any individual
This chapter presents three approaches to
the site layout --systems analysis, time-motion studies, and methods engineering. The
three approaches can be used separately or
in combinations to gain efficiency in the
site arrangement of any construction project. However, site layout analysis is essential for batch plants, quarries, borrow pits,
prefabrication yards, and materials handling areas.
By custom, the first-line supervisor is responsible for efficient site layout. However,
this supervisor is often too involved in the
day-to-day operation of the project to be
able to step back and look at the overall arrangement of the site. Also, the supervisor
may have a routine way of doing a job
which may not be the most efficient for a
particular construction environment. Battalion and company operations officers are in
the best position to provide site layout
analysis for construction projects under
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their control. This analysis should be made
available to the construction unit both in
the project planning phase and during construction.
Many factors will influence site layout.
Four important considerations are: required facilities, topography, project size,
and construction aids.
Required facilities. The manager should
make a list of all facilities necessary to support the work site. This list should include
in-place equipment, storage areas, maintenance areas, motor pools, first-aid stations,
latrines, dining facilities, water points, billeting areas, work areas, control centers, and
security positions. Since the effort required
to plan and construct the site must be deducted from the total construction effort,
the site should be the absolute minimum required for efficiency.
Topography. Two identical construction
projects may have entirely different physical
configurations because of differing topographical conditions. The manager must incorporate the eight site factors listed in
Chapter 1 into any site layout analysis.
The following examples show how site factors influence site layout:
Existing facilities. Existing facilities, such
as utility lines or buildings, may determine
the location of critical items.
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Terrain. Terrain will be a major factor in
the layout of horizontal construction. If possible, locate borrow pits and quarries so
that the grade favors the load (empty, going
uphill; full, going downhill).
is not justified. An aid that is efficient on
one job is not necessarily efficient on another.
Drainage. Drainage is a crucial element in
any layout. Design the site so that normal
runoff will not halt construction or transportation. Providing adequate drainage may involve considerable construction effort. The
supervisor must decide at what point the
cost of additional drainage structures becomes greater than the risk of flooding.
Modern prefabrication techniques may have
several advantages over on-site construction: factory assembly, interchangeability
of components, and labor savings. Some
prefabrication is used in most construction.
It ranges from the use of precut structural
parts and fastenings to off-site assembly of
building sections. How much prefabrication
is practical depends upon several factors.
The manager must consider site convenience, climate, centralized management,
scale and physical nature of the project,
and program flexibility. Within each of
these areas, however, there are variations.
For that reason, labor savings and estimates of other advantages of prefabrication
cannot be precisely calculated. However, the
estimator should have a good understanding of the advantages of prefabrication
in order to decide when its use would be
Project size. The site for construction of
one TO building will look very different
from the site for construction of 50 buildings. The larger the job, the greater the opportunity to take advantage of specialization. The longer the construction unit
plans to remain on a project site, the
greater the initial effort in preparing the
site. For example, it would not be economical to upgrade a haul road to a borrow pit
to be used for only a few days. However, it
would be economical if this pit is to be
used for several weeks. The construction
site is generally not included in the plans
and specifications of the project.
Construction aids. Any device or apparatus installed to facilitate construction is a
construction aid. Loading traps and jigs or
templates for timber or steel fabrication are
typical. To be practical, a construction aid
must save more time than is required to establish and remove it. For example, suppose a troop camp is being built using
standard TO construction and involving the
fabrication of 2,180 identical roof trusses.
A decision must be reached as to how the
truss will be made -- prefabricated at a central mill or cut and assembled individually
at each building. Each truss will take an
estimated 1.5 man-hours to build at a central mill and 1.0 man-hours to build individually at the building site. The time
saved is 2,180 x 0.5, or 1,090 man-hours.
If fewer than 1,090 man-hours are needed
to set up and dismantle the central trussfabricating mill, its construction is justified.
If more hours are required, its construction
Factory assembly. Working in factories reduces loss of time due to bad weather and
other physical hazards. Quality control is
easier through the use of more complex machinery and concentrated facilities. Storage
security allows greater quantities of materials to be ordered and assembled in lots.
Working conditions are usually better than
those in the field and the resulting morale
may increase efficiency.
Disadvantages of factory assembly are the
need to construct the factory and any difficulty in making last-minute changes at the
construction site. Also, transportation
costs are doubled if raw materials must
travel to a distant factory before they are
ready for the construction site.
Component interchangeability. With interchangeable components, many types of
structures can be built from the same components, but design flexibility is limited.
Structural components may be either precut
pieces, frames, sheathed panels, or finished
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building sections. Partial assemblies may
be stored for future needs. Larger parts reduce fitting errors at the site and simplify
scheduling, since fewer steps are involved
in final construction. However, savings may
be offset by greater difficulty in joining sections and higher transportation costs for
these fragile units. Interchangeability requires modular coordination, and it often requires greater skill to assure precision in
subsequent fitting.
Labor savings. The major reasons for prefabricated construction are reduced construction time and use of general instead of
skilled labor. Designs involving platform
construction, panel, and/or modular compo-
nents allow for maximum utilization of prefabrication. Establishing a prefabrication
yard requires highly skilled personnel and
may involve several days of effort, but efficient layout and organization of personnel
will offset this work. Laying out the yard
to minimize the distances that materials
have to be carried will have a tremendous
effect on the duration of the project. Once
into the prefabrication process, most of the
work can be accomplished by general labor
or local personnel. The degree of substitution is dependent on breaking the operation
down into simple and repetitive motions,
At the building site, the use of prefabricated components will also greatly reduce
the effort involved in erection.
The first approach which could be used in
a layout problem is the systems analysis
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approach. This method consists of the following steps (see Table 4-1 for the systems
analysis work sheet):
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Step 1. List the design factors to be considered for the layout. Assign a weight to
each factor depending on its importance to
the project.
Step 2. Obtain a large-scale map of the
site (1: 1,000 or larger). It should show contours, natural resources, and existing facilities.
Step 3. List the facilities required for the
project. For each facility, make a cutout to
the same scale as the map.
Step 4. Place the cutouts on the map in
several different feasible configurations.
There is no set number of arrangements
which must be considered, but taking three
to five arrangements to start is a good rule
of thumb.
Step 5. For each configuration, assign a
number evaluation for each design factor
based on the configuration’s relative
strengths and weaknesses. For example,
one configuration may be best for drainage
(+5 on the scale in Table 4-1, page 4-3),
but weak on traffic flow (-2). Another configuration may have opposite ratings.
Step 6. Multiply factor weights by the
evaluations and sum scores for each configuration. Using the configuration with the
highest total, try to improve the total by
making minor location changes.
This systems analysis approach does not
eliminate engineering judgment. Listing
and weighing design factors require experience and engineering skill, as does the
evaluation of the various site configurations. However, systems analysis does provide a framework for discussion. Using systems analysis, site layout analysts can at
least agree on the points on which they disagreed. Systems analysis allows the planner to focus on specific problem areas, to
gather more data if necessary, and finally,
to make a decision based on analysis rather
than on intuition.
Once a project is under way, one of the most
valuable pieces of equipment to the site layout analyst is the stopwatch. For any repetitive process, the analyst asks the question,
“Can it be done better?” Thus, time-motion
improvements increase efficiency by saving
time and effort. Time-motion studies are
easy to do, although it takes ingenuity to see
changes which would improve routine processes.
First, the analyst finds a job that is being
done over and over again. This could be a
crane shovel operation, a haul, a paving operation, the assembly of a wall panel, or a
standard maintenance procedure. Then, the
analyst times the job, noting lost time due to
delays of excessive movements from one
place to another. Finally, the analyst suggests ways to eliminate delays or excess movements, and then retirees the new procedure.
Time-motion studies can result in increased
efficiency through such specific improvements as reducing the swing angle of a crane
shovel, eliminating the backing up of dump
trucks, coordinating the pusher-dozer with
the scraper, coordinating one apprentice with
several bricklayers, and rearranging storage
areas to reduce average movement distances.
Methods engineering enables the planner to
make a step-by-step approach, analyzing and
recording every detail involved. At the same
time, the planner is able to sketch a layout
plan that incorporates and conforms to the
process as it is developed. When it is time to
place this plan into operation, the person
charged with setting up the site will know exactly what to do. Furthermore, after the operation is under way, the entire process
should be analyzed in detail to determine
whether further refinements can be made.
Charts and diagrams. Three charts or diagrams have been developed which simplify
the planning process. They are commonly
called flow diagrams, flow process charts,
and layout plans, each designed for a
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specific purpose. The flow diagram enables
the planner to plot the flow of materials
through the site. On the flow process
chart, the planner details the processing of
each type of material, indicating what takes
place, the time required, and how far the
material must be moved. The machines
used are each considered in the same way
as the workers. The layout plan shows the
placement of equipment and materials to do
a particular job.
overall project. First, the planner determines the operational details of the job by
considering the major steps required to
process the various materials into the finished product. The objective is to determine an overall processing system with the
least number of major steps, delays, and
movements of material. This is the purpose
of the flow diagram. When completed, the
diagram will show the flow of materials
through the plant as they are processed
into the finished product.
Standard symbols. Standard symbols, approved by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), are used to identify
what is to occur in each step of a process
(Figure 4-1). These steps are operations,
transportation, inspections, delays, and storage. Identifying process steps in this manner helps the planner determine unnecessary steps and physical changes in materials.
Preparation. In preparing this diagram,
the planner first lists all the major steps in
successive order down the left side of the
form. Next, the planner details what takes
place by drawing the appropriate symbols
(Figure 4-1) within each major step and
then connecting all symbols by a single flow
The flow diagram follows the flow of materials through a sequence of operations. It
helps the planner visualize and analyze the
Flow diagram using one saw. Figure 4-2,
page 4-6, shows a complete flow diagram in
which only one power saw is used for cutting the members needed to fabricate the
truss shown in Figure 4-3, page 4-7. The
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material must be stacked to one side until a
predetermined number have been cut. Then
the angle of the saw blade must be adjusted
to make the seat cut. A careful study of the
various cuts that must be made for each
member of the truss will show that all members except the lower chord splice require
two separate saw setups to make the necessary cuts at the angles required. It is obvious that one saw is not adequate, and a better method must be found.
Flow diagram using two saws. Placing two
power saws in the flow diagram (Figure 4-4,
page 4-8) is a more workable solution. In
comparing Figures 4-2 and 4-4, notice that
the operations, storage and delays, and
transportation have each been reduced in
number Also notice that neither of these
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flow diagrams indicates how far the movements are, how long it takes for each step,
or how many workers are required to perform the various steps. This information is
given on the flow process chart.
Use the flow process chart to analyze the details of the operation. As the second step,
the chart is a tabulation of the chronological sequence of the details of each process
in the flow diagram (first step, page 4-5).
In addition, the flow process chart includes
the time needed to accomplish each detail
and the distances that materials are transported.
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Preparation. A flow process chart, Department of Defense (DD) Form 1723, provides
a standard for process charting. The process of cutting rafters (Figure 4-5, page 410), using two saws and based on the flow
diagram (Figure 4-4), will serve as an example.
NOTE: If DD Form 1723 is not available,
use a blank sheet and follow the format
shown in Figure 4-5.
Complete the data in the upper left corner
on the form, being specific in regard to the
identification of the process to be charted,
the person or material being traced through
the process, and the places or times that
the process begins and ends.
List each detail of the process in brief narrative form in the left column (details of
method) on the chart. This listing is developed from the flow, and details should be
plotted in the sequence plotted therein.
In the column of symbols, trace the process
by connecting, with a penciled line, the symbols which are appropriate to each step.
Enter in the distance column, where appropriate, how far the item will be moved.
In the quantity column, show the number
of items being processed during each particular detail.
Opposite each detail in the time column, enter how long each step should take; the
time factor should be stated under the
notes column.
Enter the total number of actions included
by each type of activity in the summary box
in the upper right corner of the form.
NOTE: Use the flow process chart to detail
either the movement of materials or the
movement of workers through a process system. Do not detail the movements of both
on the same form because it will confuse
the user.
Analysis. Other columns are for analysis
when reviewing the process. Study each
step in detail. Is it possible to eliminate or
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combine certain details? Can distances and
times be further reduced? Should sequences be changed? Can some operations
be simplified? Who does the work? Who
could do it better? Can changes be made
to permit a person with less training and
skill or more efficient machines to do the
work? Where is the work done? Could it
be done somewhere else more economically?
When is the work to be done? Would it be
better to do it at some other time? How is
the work to be done? This suggests alternate possible machine methods or the use
of machines instead of hand labor.
Inefficient methods. Such an analysis will
show any unnecessary handling, excessive
movements of materials, duplication of effort, excessive number of steps taken, number and kind of delays, labor inefficiencies,
and so on. These are only part of the possible questions to ask about each recorded
step in the operation in order to try to reduce the steps to a minimum and arrive at
the simplest “paper picture” of the method.
The more questions asked, the more a questioning and critical attitude toward work
methods is developed.
Solutions. As the manager develops the
best method of processing each member of
the truss, site layout requirements may be
analyzed in greater detail. The location of
material stacks, equipment, parts storage,
and assembly areas must be plotted and distances computed at the same time the manager develops the process charts.
Control factor. The end result of process
charting is the calculation of the production
rate for the given process. In general, the
steps which cannot be accomplished concurrently control the time it takes to perform a
process. In other words, they establish the
control factor.
Establishment. To determine the control factor, first list all operations and the time required for each. Second, determine those
which are performed concurrently. The remaining operations (those which cannot be
accomplished concurrently) establish the
control factor.
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Example. In Figure 4-5 there are eight operations (details 1, 3 through 6, 8, 9, and 11) requiring a total of 18 seconds. Four operations (details 1, 8, 9, and 11) can be accomplished concurrently. Hence, details 3
through 6 are the only operations which cannot be accomplished concurrently. The analyst circles the time required for these operations on the flow process chart and establishes the control factor as 8 seconds per
unit. This data is entered in the column under notes, and the production rate is calculated as shown. In addition to Figure 4-5,
Figures 4-6 through 4-10, pages 4-12
through 4-16, show the plotting of the control
factor and the resulting calculations of the
production rate for each member of the truss
(Figure 4-3, page 4-7).
NOTE: In some flow process charts, more
than one series of operations may be taken
as the control factor. For example, in Figure 4-6, steps 3 and 4 could be used as the
control factor instead of steps 6 and 7 (encircled). None of the steps selected as the
control factor can be those taking place concurrently, regardless of the sequence selected.
In the flow process charts (sample work
sheets in Figures 4-5 through 4-10), except
for webs and hangers, the cutting rate
(based on a 50-minute hour) varies for each
member unit. To achieve balanced production of the several parts making up the final product (the truss), analyze the production rate of each part and establish the proportionate cutting time which, when allotted
to each member, will result in a balanced
Production rate analysis. Table 4-2, page
4-17, shows such an analysis for balanced
production of the member units required for
4,000 trusses. Since the cutting rates are
based on the flow process charts for each
member unit, the numbers in the cutting
rate column (column C) remain constant.
Likewise, the cutting ratios (column E) will
remain constant for each member, no matter how many truss units are to be built.
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Balanced production. Balanced production for any period of time can be determined from Table 4-2 as follows:
Example 1. How many rafter units should
be produced to balance production for truss
units in six 50-minute hours?
Step 1. Determine the number of production hours to be allotted for cutting rafters.
The cutting period ratio (column E, Table 42) is 0.352. Therefore-0.352 X 6 = 2.112
Step 2. Determine the number of rafters to
be cut. The cutting rate per 50-minute period (column C, Table 4-2) = 131.
131 x 2.112 = 277 rafter units
Check -6 x 46.1 = 277 truss units
0.6 x 461 = 277 truss units
Example 2. With a crew of nine workers,
how many man-hours are required for cutting the 277 rafter units computed in
example 1 ?
Once the components of the plant have
been at least tentatively selected, prepare a
layout to show the location of the various
construction aids.
Principles. While each job has its own
characteristic problems and plant requirements, principles which apply to all jobs include the following:
Ensure that the layout of the site is balanced. Select equipment which can be
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used at its maximum capacity at all
Place stockpiles of materials as close as
possible to the place of final use.
Where storage space is limited, place
the heaviest or most unwieldy materials
closest to the point of use to reduce handling.
Design the material delivery schedule to
eliminate as much on-the-job storage as
possible. On-the-job storage diverts
considerable effort from the main job, increases the job area, and necessitates
Locate general utility equipment, such
as cranes and air compressors, to serve
as large an area as possible to keep
movement of such equipment to a minimum.
Locate mixers, hatchers, power saws,
crushing and screening plates, and similar facilities to keep materials handling
to a minimum.
Maintain supplies of petroleum, oil and
lubricants; water; hand tools; and equipment repair parts at realistic levels.
Avoid traffic congestion by using oneway roads or turnarounds.
Arrange material flow so that it may be
helped by gravity, where possible.
Provide medical facilities. They may
range from single first-aid kits on a
small job to a complete aid station with
trained aid personnel available at all
times on a large project.
Provide safety measures for the prevention of injuries when planning the layout. These may include dust alleviation
and such items as protective equipment
and lighting for night work.
Provide fire prevention and protection,
particularly during dry or cold weather.
Preparation. In the development of an efficient system for processing materials
through the plant, it is very unlikely that
the first layout will meet all requirements.
Several layouts may be prepared at this
stage, only to be discarded as new complications become apparent. The use of graph
paper will permit rapid freehand sketching
roughly to scale so that time spent in this
effort will be held to a minimum. Time conscientiously expended in layout preparation
will prevent the loss of valuable man-hours
later at the job site.
Trial layouts. When making a site layout,
plan the whole and then work at the details. When planning the processes, keep
in mind the available equipment. Once the
processes are established, make trial site
layouts on scaled paper to determine how
to perform the processes most efficiently.
Many typical layouts may be found in references dealing with particular operations
such as rock crushing and central mixing.
These serve as excellent starting points for
a detailed analysis of a specific project.
Sample layouts of this type are shown in
Appendix D.
First layout. Layout sketch number 1 in
Figure 4-11, the first attempt in this particular problem, does have possibilities.
However, it is apparent that either all cutting operations must be completed before
starting assembly of trusses, or the trailermounted saws will have to be moved frequently in order to maintain a balance of
cut parts available for assembly.
Second layout. A second layout, given in
Figure 4-12, is more feasible. The location
of materials and the distances coincide with
cutting operations as outlined in the process charts (Figures 4-5 through 4-10, pages
4-10 through 4-16). Up to this point, the
layout seems satisfactory. However, in developing a process of assembling the
trusses to be approximately equal to the cutting rate, you will see that parts storage
and assembly facilities are not realistic.
Third layout. Layout number 3 (Figure 413, page 4-20) now appears to be a workable
Efficient Site Layout
Efficient Site Layout
FM 5-412
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layout because it reflects the flow process
charts (Figures 4-5 through 4-10, pages 410 through 4- 16). From the planner’s viewpoint, there is both a layout and a processing system which will produce roof trusses
according to the estimate. Of equal importance is the fact that no time will be lost in
setting up the fabrication yard. Supervisory personnel in the field will know exactly
what is intended. Every detail developed by
the planner is on paper in legible form for
them to execute.
Assembly phase. An analysis similar to
the one presented here may be conducted
for the assembly phase of the truss fabrication. One analysis using a crew of 12 workers yields a unit assembly rate of 46.64.
This means that 4,000/46.64 = 85.8 hours
(or 8.58 days of 10-hour days) will be required for assembly with the specified 12worker crew. This yields a total of 1,030
If this method of analyzing site layout requirements appears to be too detailed and
time-consuming, consider the usual method
and then compare the merits of each.
Usual method. In the detailed planning
stage, the estimators develop figures that
show the rates of production that should be
accomplished as well as the overall time required to perform each item of work. However, even though such an estimate contains the backup calculations that result in
the final figures, rarely can anyone other
than the estimator who compiled it determine the factors upon which the figures are
based. Needless to say, when the site is to
be laid out and the production process set
up, no plan exists. The individual charged
with supervision is expected to set up the
site and accomplish the task with the rates
of production derived by the estimator.
Efficient Site Layout
FM 5-412
However, without knowing the determining
factors for the figures, the supervisor can
rely only on technical knowledge and experience. The inevitable result is confusion
when the job is getting under way and a
double-shift operation in the latter stages in
an effort to meet deadlines.
Flow process chart method. Use of the
flow process chart establishes a definite sequence of operations that reduces the overall process to a minimum number of operations, movements, and delays. On the flow
process chart we determine what takes
Established critera. The flow process
charts provide a means of analyzing each
operation and movement of materials to determine how, where, and when each operation is performed. Criteria are established
for simultaneous development of the layout
Visible data. All data is visible, easily interpreted, and available for viewing by others
to see whether, based on experience, further improvements can be developed before
placing the plan into operation. When
ready to execute, orders can be issued with
confidence because the supervisor knows
that operations will be set up exactly as
visualized by the estimator.
Future referernce. Furthermore, the data provides a basis for developing and recording
further improvements once the job is under
way. After the job is completed, there is
factual recorded data to be filed for reference in planning future jobs of a similar nature.
Problem. In this chapter the location of
the fabrication yard is considered to have
Efficient Site Layout
been fixed. There is a requirement for
4,000 20-foot trusses for standard TO buildings (Figure 4-3, page 4-7). The problem is
to determine the following
Layout of fabrication yard.
Size of labor crew required.
Distribution of labor to ensure efficient
Man-hours required to produce each
truss unit.
Total production time required.
The layout of the fabrication yard is
given in the layout sketch shown in Figure 4-13. The assembly phase paragraph explains that it is a workable layout because it includes all operations
outlined in the flow process charts (Figures 4-5 through 4-10, pages 4-10
through 4-16).
The layout sketch also shows the size of
the labor crew required: one cutting
crew of nine workers, four assembly
crews of three workers each.
Layout sketch number 3 (Figure 4- 13)
shows a distribution of labor for effective cutting and assembling.
Man-hours required to produce each
truss are 0.195 for cutting and 0.258
for assembly.
The total time required is 9.08 days.
FM 5-412
Supervision is the direction and control of
subordinates; that is, telling people what to
do, then making sure they do it. There are
three steps in the supervision process.
Step 1. Set objective standards. The key
word in this step is “objective.” The standard which is set must mean the same to
both subordinates and supervisor, In construction, standards of percentage completion are often vague. For example, if a unit
was directed to have the construction of six
concrete slabs 50 percent complete by a certain date, should it have three slabs complete or forms set for all six? This problem
can be avoided by directing the unit to complete specific activities in a detailed CPM
Step 2. Measure performance. Performance can be measured either by inspection
or by report. These control devices will be
further discussed,
Step 3. Make adjustments. If performance does not meet standards, adjustments
can be made in two ways: either improve
performance or lower standards. Generally,
improving performance is appropriate. At
times, however, the supervisor may face a
situation where the standard becomes unrealistic; for example, a schedule is based on
poor estimates or fails to reflect delays. In
these cases, the supervisor must be able to
adjust the schedule or be given additional
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The essence of good supervision is good
communications. Objective standards cannot be set when orders are not communicated clearly. Performance cannot be measured when the communications system does
not allow for timely reports. Adjustments
cannot be made unless there is provision in
communications for feedback. Communications may be oral or written. Each method
has inherent advantages and disadvantages.
Written communications. Written communications for supervision include communications devices designed for a downward
flow of orders from supervisor to subordinate, such as regulations, SOPS, directives,
and policy memoranda, and a communications device for upward flow of information
from subordinate to supervisor in the form
of reports. The downward communications
devices used for supervision do not have as
their purpose the dissemination of information. Regulations, SOPS, directives, and policy memoranda are designed to tell people
what to do, not to inform. Any information
contained in these directive communications should be necessary for the clarification of the order. Information of a general
nature can be transmitted through other
communications devices such as manuals,
circulars, or bulletins. Thus, regulations,
SOPs, directives, and policy memoranda
should be written to accomplish the first
step in the supervision process, the setting
of objective standards. Similarly, the upward-flow communications device, the supervisory report, has as its function the accomplishment of the second supervision step,
FM 5-412
measuring performance against standards.
The supervisory report, then, must correspond with an order. Performance cannot
be measured against a standard which has
not been set; nor should a standard be set
if there is no mechanism to verify enforcement.
Advantages. Written communications provide a record of both standards and performance. This record is useful for both
continuity and later reference. Some advantages of written communication are-A high level of accuracy, uniformity,
and completeness. Written directives
can be prepared meticulously so that all
details are spelled out. Even if extreme
care is taken in the preparation of a
briefing, the subordinate does not have
the briefing to refer to as he does a written directive. Plans and specifications
are examples of standards which must
be transmitted to paper to ensure accuracy. Reports which must be consolidated at higher headquarters are often
written to ensure uniformity.
Time savings. When a directive applies
to many subordinates, often time can be
saved by sending a written directive
rather than by attempting to reach each
subordinate individually or in special
Disadvantages. When a regulation, SOP, directive, or policy memorandum is sent down
through several levels of command, there is
a time lag in implementation, a time lag in
performance measurement, and a further
time lag in performance-standard adjustments. This may result in inappropriate
standards being established and maintained
by higher headquarters. Some disadvantages of written communication are-A large amount of administrative effort.
Written communications must be
drafted, reviewed, printed, distributed,
and filed. All of this requires a great
deal of clerical support.
Inflexibility. It is difficult to change a
regulation, SOP, directive, or policy
memorandum in the face of changing
circumstances. This is particularly true
if the order has come from several command levels above the working unit.
Oral communications. Oral communications include inspections, conferences, and
briefings. These are two-way communications devices because with face-to-face contact there is always the opportunity to exchange information, Just as with written
communications, oral communications for
supervision should accomplish the three supervision steps listed on page 5-1.
Immediate feedback. The third step in the
supervision process is to make adjustments
when performance does not meet standards. This step is greatly simplified by oral
communications. Often, through questions
or discussion, either the performance or the
standards can be adjusted immediately.
Little administration effort. Oral transmission of information on standards and performance saves clerical effort. A supervisor
may stress oral communications in cases
where administrative support is not available.
Flexibility. In an inspection, conference, or
briefing, the face-to-face contact between
the supervisor and subordinate makes possible a quick response to changing circumstances. Further, with oral communications, no long process is needed to change
a previous decision.
Written versus oral communications.
Generally, written communications are overused. Too many regulations are written
with limited applicability. SOPs are written
for procedures which should be left to the
discretion of subordinates. Reports may be
submitted long after their usefulness has
ended. At each level of command, written
supervisory communications should be examined at least every six months to determine which regulations, SOPs, directives,
policy memoranda, and reports are obsolete
and which would be better suited for oral
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FM 5-412
The inspection is a control device which
gives the commander first-hand knowledge
of a situation and provides immediate feedback. An Army proverb states that “a unit
does well what the commander inspects. ”
The most effective way of ensuring that vital functions are not neglected is through a
system of inspections. Because they are
time-consuming and time is the supervisor’s
most precious resource, inspections should
be carefully planned to accomplish a definite purpose.
Types. Announced inspections are used to
bring the unit up to a specified performance level by the inspection date. Unannounced inspections are used to measure
the unit’s normal performance. Announced
inspections are best suited for control of
one-time-only activities, such as the inspection of a building before turnover or the inspection of a new property book. Unannounced inspections are best suited for control of continual tasks or procedures such
as maintenance or the utilization of workers
on a job.
Uses. Both types of inspections are important to the construction supervisor. For example, if a unit is responsible for construction of a fixed bridge, the commander might
announce an inspection to check placement
of the piers and abutments, while inspections to ensure that safety procedures are
being followed would not be announced in
Inspection is intended to keep the commander informed and to teach, guide, and
compel things to happen as planned.
Where someone other than the commander
is delegated the task of inspecting, instructions must be issued by the commander as
to the authority of the inspecting party.
These instructions must define if the inspecting party can require work to be done
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according to specifications and plans
and/or if they can issue stop orders.
Although no formal inspection organization
is found in an engineer company, the commander must select personnel for training
as inspectors. The work force in the company is usually spread thinly, and trained
inspectors are not usually available. Since
a thinly spread force is very difficult to control, a commander who spends most of the
time making personal inspections will not
be able to devote enough time to other functions of command. For these reasons, training of inspectors should be a priority item.
At the construction site, the supervisor
should inspect performance in the following
categories (see Figure 5-1, page 5-4):
Progress (as scheduled). Compare construction progress with the CPM schedule. Are
critical activities on schedule? Are delays
in noncritical activities likely to cause a project delay?
Conformance (as specfied). Does construction conform to the plans and specifications? Has drainage been provided for? Is
there evidence of substandard workmanship?
Utilization of resources.
Personnel. Does the commander or platoon
leader know who is on the site? Are absentees accounted for? Does the commander
know what each person is doing? Is everyone working or on authorized break? (In order to decide this, the inspector must know
the authorized break times.) Are the skills
of the workers being utilized to the maximum extent? Are the on-the-job trainees
being adequately supervised?
Equipment. Is the equipment on-site necessary for transportation or construction? Are
there qualified equipment operators on-site
and are they using equipment efficiently?
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Is the equipment placed efficiently for construction? Is sufficient equipment on-site
ready for work? (Appendix E lists equipment and tools needed for the various tasks
in the construction process).
Materials. Are materials on-site for the
day’s work? (Appendix F lists consumption
factors for expendable supplies. ) Have deliveries of material been arranged for future
work? Is materials handling being minimized? Are materials being stored properly
to prevent damage or loss? Does the scrap
pile indicate excess waste?
Equipment. Does each equipment logbook
have the necessary maintenance forms current and properly filled out? Perform one
or two operator maintenance checks as outlined in the appropriate TM.
Tools. Has the noncommissioned officer in
charge (NCOIC) assigned responsibility for
the security, care, and maintenance of all
tools? Are the tools damaged or rusty?
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FM 5-412
Does the NCOIC know the procedures for replacing broken tools? Are tools being used
as intended? (Pliers are not hammers or
wrenches; ripsaws should not be used for
crosscuts.) Are all tools under proper, consistent accountability?
Health and welfare.
Safety. In vertical construction, has the
NCOIC designated a hard-hat area? Are
hard-hat rules being enforced? Are men
who work on poles, elevated trusses, or
frames wearing safety lines? Is electrical
circuitry properly insulated and grounded?
Are earplugs used around compressors and
other noisy equipment? Are backing guides
used to block vehicles? Is there a first-aid
kit on site? Are other safety SOPS being enforced? Are safety shoes used in appropriate work areas?
Tactical situation. Do all personnel know
their actions in case of enemy indirect fire
or ground attack?
Transportation. Is emergency transportation
from the site immediately available? Is
FM 5-412
there adequate transportation to and from
the site? Is this transportation suitable for
inclement weather?
Dining facilities. Is a warm, clean, sheltered dining area provided? Do the officers
and NCOs on the job eat there? Is the quality and quantity of food as good as or better than the food in the base camp dining
facilities? (To answer this question, you
must eat there.)
Latrines. Are latrines clean, adequate in
number and design, and away from the din ing area?
Area Police. Is the site maintained orderly
and policed in a manner that helps rather
than hinders efficient work progress?
The commander has limited time and can not make all the inspections needed to ensure effective control, Therefore, reports
must be used to supplement personal inspections. The advantage of supplementing
inspections with reports is the time saved.
The disadvantage is that the commander
must see the situation through another’s
Reporting system. A good reporting system provides a continuous flow of valuable
information to the commander at considerable time savings. A bad reporting system
supplies the commander with excess information or misinformation and wastes everyone’s time. The following are guidelines for
achieving a good reporting system:
Design. Design the reporting system
around the commander’s needs. Different
levels of command have different needs.
The same commander has different reporting needs at different times. Since needs
change with time and from one command to
another, reports also must change.
Frequency. The frequency of reports must
correspond to the frequency of meaningful
changes in the situation. A daily report is
meaningless on a situation which changes
only monthly or yearly. Reports which contain the same information day after day or
week after week are wasted reports. On the
other hand, reports must be timely so that
the commander can act in time. A meaningful change should be reported promptly
whether a report is due or not.
Purpose. Reports are a control device, a
system of measurement, not a means of setting standards or policy. Many supervisors
think they can force things to happen by
forcing their subordinates to report on
them. A quarterly report on maintenance
does not compel good maintenance; a daily
safety report does not guarantee safety. A
report which is used to generate “awareness” is a poor substitute for leadership.
Specificity. Since the commander must see
the situation through another’s eyes, this
disadvantage can be largely overcome by a
carefully designed, factual, report format.
Allowing a subordinate to report percentage
completion may give the subordinate wide
latitude for interpretation. Making the subordinate report detailed tasks which are
completed narrows this latitude considerably. Reports of equipment and man-hour
utilization should have specific guidelines
so that the subordinate knows how to record each man-hour or equipment hour.
Verification. The commander must make inspections to verify reports. Although the
amount of bias in reports can be greatly
reduced by setting up an objective reporting
system, even the most objective system
leaves room for interpretation or even misrepresentation of the facts. A good reporting system may supplement inspection, but
reports cannot replace inspections. There
is no substitute for direct control.
Report types. Reports can be designed to
control a wide range of performance. Production reports control plant operations
such as quarries, asphalt plants, or prefabrication yards. These reports list production
inputs (materials, personnel, and equipment
hours) and quantities of output over a
specific time period. Project costs are controlled by budget reports. Budget reports
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FM 5-412
compare actual to planned expenditures.
The most common report in construction is
the schedule, which compares actual con-
struction time and resource commitments
to planned progress.
Almost all units, from logistics commands
to combat units, can be aided by the utilization of indigenous (local) personnel. The engineer construction unit especially can benefit from the help of local labor. Skilled local tradesmen have experience that the construction unit may not have in working
with the area’s available materials. Local
personnel can also help the engineers with
such less skilled tasks as materials transport and apprentice work.
The use of local supervisors as first-line
managers is important to the successful accomplishment of projects employing local labor. Using capable local personnel as supervisors facilitates control, but great care
must be taken in the selection of these supervisors. A poor choice can negate the usefulness of a civic-action project or make further construction operations with local personnel impossible. In any project using local labor, Army managers should remain as
inconspicuous as possible.
Construction projects involving local personnel must be coordinated with the local government and with other US agencies. Wage
rates must be set high enough to attract
the workers but not so high that the local
economy will be thrown into turmoil. If the
construction is part of a civic-action program, the engineer unit must ensure that
the project will fit in with local and US
agency planning.
Commitment of US labor and equipment.
The availability of US labor and equipment
to support the project must be examined in
the light of changing operational requireControlling Functions
ments. Often, commitments of US resources are not “necessities. ” Local supervisors can often find alternative ways of accomplishing tasks without the commitment
of US equipment or skills.
Capabilities of local labor. The materials
and technology of the project must be
matched to the capabilities of the local
force. Failure to consider this in project
planning will lead either to projects that are
too simple or projects that do not correspond to the construction and maintenance
abilities of the population. Maximum use
should be made of local materials and
Length of projects. If possible, large projects should be constructed by breaking
them down into smaller, usable subelements, even if this method of construction
results in greater overall effort being expended. Short-duration projects also provide a degree of protection against unforeseen operational requirements. In civic action, the early completion of a project provides visible proof to the citizenry that joint
efforts with US units can produce improvements in local living conditions.
Civic-action projects should be designed for
maximum community involvement. The
need for the projects should be determined
by the local leadership. The design should
be produced by the community when possible and should always be approved by the
community. The construction should be accomplished by local laborers. The role of
the engineer unit should be one of technical
assistance, materials support, and the occasional commitment of engineer equipment.
A civic-action project should have the following characteristics:
FM 5-412
Maintenance. With any civic-action project, a system should beset up during the
project planning stage for the maintenance
of the project when it is completed. This is
particularly important for horizontal construction projects or for equipment
Development of local skills. The ultimate
goal of civic-action projects should be to increase the skill and self-reliance of the civil-
ian population. Although individual projects should be within local capabilities,
they should also teach additional skills.
Stimulation of additional projects. In
keeping with the building-block aspect of
skill development, civic-action projects
should stimulate further projects. A construction materials plant (brick, lumber) is
one example of a base project upon which
other projects can be built.
Construction quality control in the TO is
the responsibility of the project supervisor.
Quality control includes planning, designing, and monitoring the construction process to achieve a desired end result. During
the planning phase, control is achieved by
the proper application of network analysis
(CPM), scheduling, and estimating. Designing a project for quality involves choosing
the proper configuration, material, equipment, and personnel to achieve the construction. The construction monitoring
steps require adherence to standard construction procedures, established supervision practices, and accepted testing methods. Quality control in military construction is needed for many reasons. The basic
objective of quality control, however, is to
provide a safe, functional, and enduring project with an acceptable appearance.
The supervisor must know and apply standard practices to provide guidance to adequately control the various operations involved. Since military construction operations are varied and detailed, this manual
describes only general quality control measures. The following paragraphs provide supervisors with examples for developing and
using control measures on specific construction projects.
Different types of timber have varying construction and carpentry characteristics.
One type is often better suited for a particular job than another. Lumber type and size
are usually stated in the construction plan.
For more detailed information, consult the
appropriate carpentry manual.
Joints. Scan all connections at angles for
proper and smooth fit. Check right-angle
joints for accuracy with a carpenter’s
square. End-grain sections are critical and
should be examined for splits. Generally,
eightpenny or tenpenny nails are used for
all types of joints.
Splices. Lumber construction with splices
must be as strong as a single timber of
equivalent length. To ensure adequate
strength, analyze the types of stress on
linear connections (Figure 5-2). Compression stress may be neutralized by butt and
halved splices. Square and plain splices
benefit members in tension. Connections
subject to bending moments are controlled
with combinations of tensile and compressional splices. Check splices to be sure
that stresses are counteracted by correct
splice type.
Fasteners. There are six different classes
of fasteners in timber construction— nails,
screws, bolts, driftpins, corrugated fasteners, and timber connectors. Nails should
be driven at a slight angle for utmost
strength. As a rule, the nail should be
Controlling Functions
embedded two-thirds of its length through
the piece to be fastened and one-third
through the anchoring member. Check construction for adequate nail usage. All
screws should be emplaced using starter
holes that are less than the diameter of the
screw and approximately two-thirds its
length. Washers should be used in construction with bolts because without protective washers, overtightened bolts can damage the lumber’s surface.
Foundations. Wooden piers or columns
should be treated with a protective coating
to guard against decay. Check piers for 6to 10-foot spacing. When the piers extend
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FM 5-412
3 feet above the ground, use bracing (Figure 5-3).
Framing. Pier connections should have sill
reinforcement consisting of single heavy timbers or of two or more timbers. The
strength of the girders relates directly to
the square of the span length. If two spans
are used, one twice the length of the other,
the girder for the longer span should be
four times stronger than the other. Nail
sizes for two-member girders are sixteenpenny; for four-member girders, twentypenny or thirty-penny. Nails are driven
1/2 inch from the top and bottom with
spacing of 24 inches. Girders should be
tested (for trueness) with a straightedge.
FM 5-412
All girder joints should be staggered for
strength and durability (Figure 5-4).
Floor joists. Floor spans over 10 feet require joists of 2 inches by 8 inches or
greater. Usually, joists are 2 or 3 inches
thick. Joist depth is restricted by load conditions. Check the spacing interval to be
sure it is no greater than 24 inches centerto-center. In connecting floor joists to girders or sills, use ledger plates with pier- or
column-type foundations. The joist must
not be notched more than one-third of its
depth in the plate-sill connection (Figure
Floor Bridging. For every 8 feet of span
length, one line of bridging must be constructed (Figure 5-6). The bridging is toenailed to the joists with at least two tenpenny nails. The bottom of the bridging is
not nailed until the rough floor is laid, to facilitate joists adjusting to final position.
The bridging is generally 1- by 3-inch material.
Walls. Corner posts are built up with two
or three layers (Figure 5-7). When a partition meets an outside wall, T-posts are
used to provide an area for nailing the inside finish (Figure 5-8, page 5- 12). Studs
are spaced 12, 16, and 24 inches center-tocenter, depending on building and finish
type, although TO construction standards
for temperate climates permit spacing of up
to 5 feet. The studs are fastened by two sixteen-penny or twenty-penny nails through
the top plate. Girts are the same width as
the studs so they will be flush. Girts parallel the plates with spacing of about 4 feet.
The top plates are the same size as the
stud with sixteen-penny or twenty-penny
nails at all studs and corner posts. The
sole plate is at least 2- by 4-inch timber or
the same size as the wall thickness. Two
sixteen-penny or twenty-penny nails are
driven at each joist the sole crosses. If the
sole runs parallel to the joist, there should
be two nails every two linear feet. When
horizontally placed, the bridging is about
one- half the distance between sole and
plate. Posts and walls should be plumbed
and straightened, using a carpenter’s level
or plumb bob and a chalk line (Figures 5-9
and 5-10, pages 5-12 and 5-13).
Ceilings. Ceiling joists are the same size
as floor joists. Joists are usually spaced
about 16 inches center-to-center. Nailed to
the plate and rafter whenever possible, the
ceiling joists are lapped and spiked over
bearing partitions. The joists are cut flush
with rafters.
Rafters. Spacing of 16 to 48 inches is necessary in rafter construction. Measure rafter rise and run with tape to check the
specified pitch. The rafters are fastened
with sixteen-penny or twenty-penny nails
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FM 5-412
FM 5-412
and are braced when long spans are necessary.
Openings. Openings (floor, door, roof, and
window) are framed by headers and trimmers (Figures 5-11 and 5-12). Door openings should allow at least 1/2 inch between
jamb and framing members in order to allow plumbing and leveling of jamb. Window
openings require studding to be cut away
and its equivalent strength replaced by
redoubling the studs on each side of the
opening to form trimmers and inserting a
header at top. Wide openings need two
headers with trusses added.
Steps and stairs. Step material must be
measured to ensure that it is 2 or 3 inches
thick and 6 or 8 inches wide. Stringers are
at least 2- by 4-inch material, and stairways usually contain three sets. The ideal
pitch of the stringers is obtained with a rise
of 7 inches and a run of 10 inches. For
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FM 5-412
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adequate headroom, clearance should be a
minimum of 6 feet 8 inches.
Floors. The subfloor, when used, is laid diagonally and connected with eightpenny or
tenpenny nails. Subflooring 8 inches wide
or greater requires three or more nails per
joist. Subflooring more than 1 inch thick
should be fastened with larger nails. Finish flooring is generally 3/4 inch thick and
3 1/4 to 7 1/4 inches wide with square or
grooved edges. Nails are driven in every
joist and are eightpenny size, if the flooring
is to support heavy loads and the
material is 2 inches thick and 4 to 12
inches wide with only square edges.
Stronger flooring is connected with sixteenpenny or twenty-penny nails.
Exterior walls. Sheathing should have no
lengthwise gaps, and end joints should be
placed over studs. Fastening is accomplished with three eightpenny nails if pieces
are more than 6 inches wide. Sheathing
size is 3/16 inch thick by 6, 8, 10 or 12
inches wide. Vertical siding cracks are covered by wood strips called battens which
are attached by eightpenny or tenpenny
nails. Horizontal siding of the beveled type
needs a 1-inch overlap at the narrow end
and a 2-inch overlap at the wide end. The
nail is driven at the butt through the narrow portion. Drop horizontal siding, when
used as combined sheathing and siding, requires tongue-and-groove lumber with the
tongue up and nailed directly into the
studs. If sheathing is not used, drop horizontal siding is applied after any opening
casings are set. If sheathing is used, building paper and drop siding are applied after
opening casings are set.
Concrete form construction. Field Manual (FM) 5-742 contains adequate designs
for all types of required forms. Since forms
tend to lose their shape after the concrete
has been placed, measures must be taken
to restrict spreading of forms. Generally,
construction sheathing of 1-inch thick material is required for footing forms. It should
be nailed to vertical cleats of 2-inch material spaced on 2-foot centers. All footing
panels are tied together from opposite sides
with Number 8 or 9, soft, black, annealed
iron wrapped around center cleats. All
nails are driven halfway for easy removal.
Forms greater than 4 feet square require 1by 6-inch boards nailed across the top to
prevent spreading. Wall footings should
have spreaders nailed at intervals to maintain the desired footing width. Check for
adequate spreaders and ties around forms
to eliminate spreading. Ensure that provision is made for removal of spreaders after
concrete is placed.
Take care to provide dry storage areas for
cement. Before use, check cement for hard
lumps that indicate partial hydration which
causes reduced quality. Laboratory tests
should be made on the mixing water to deter mine impurities, such as sulfates, that
detract from concrete properties. If laboratory facilities are not available, water that
is suitable for drinking is generally suitable
for concrete production.
Structures. Portland cement is manufactured to meet several different qualities established by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). To assure the
structural soundness of concrete structures, follow guidance in FM 5-742 for
matching cement type with a particular
Inspection of aggregate. Aggregate should
be visually inspected for contamination by
dirt, clay, or other organic matter, and
weaknesses such as cracks. Practical aggregate shape calls for particles that are more
rounded or cube-shaped than rough or
sharp. Experience shows that either extremely fine or coarse sands (determined by
visual inspection) are objectionable. Stockpiles of aggregate should be examined for
segregation and contaminating features.
Tests. When portland cement admixtures
are specified, tests are per formed to ensure
desirable mixes. There are three such
tests-pressure, volumetric, and gravimetric. Discussions of these tests and other
Controlling Functions
cement component checks are contained in
FM 5-742.
Portioning of concrete mixtures. Three
procedures are available to determine the
amounts of each component of a concrete
mixture. These are known as the book,
trial-batch, and absolute-volume methods.
All are adequate, although the book method
may require adjustment in the field. Initial
mixes should be sampled for appearance to
determine whether proper proportions are
present. Periodic checks to maintain quality should continue through the mix cycle.
A concrete mixture which contains the correct amount of cement and sand will fill all
spaces between coarse aggregate particles
with mortar when troweled lightly. If voids
between coarse particles are not filled after
light troweling, the concrete mixture is deficient in cement-sand mortar. Spot inspection of all scales and measuring devices
should take place every shift to assure accurate proportions. Check weights and volumes should be utilized regularly. Concrete consistency is generally measured by
a slump test and checked against specifications. Proper methods for completing the
slump test are outlined in FM 5-34 and FM
Concrete construction joints. Check the
effects of planes created by work from different days. Joints should be strategically
placed in zones that will cause a minimum
amount of weakness in the structure.
These zones are located where shearing
stresses and bending moments are small.
The joints may also be reinforced by support from other members. Proper inspections should be made to check for suitable
measures of reinforcing joints with keyways, V-joints, or steel bars.
Expansion and contraction joints. Check
for location of expansion and contraction
joints where there is a change in thickness,
at offsets, and where the concrete will tend
to crack if shrinkage and deformations due
to temperature are restrained. Expansion
joints should be observed for adequate filler
of cork or premolded mastic. Generally,
there should be expansion joints every 200
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T e x t
feet. Contraction joints are at 30-foot intervals or less. Dummy contraction joints are
joints with no filler or with a thin paint
coat of asphalt, paraffin, or other material
to break the bond. These joints are to be
at a depth of one-third to one-fourth the
thickness of the structure.
Handling, transporting, and placement.
Poor handling and transporting techniques
can cause segregation of concrete. Mixes
should be observed at regular intervals for
mix separation resulting from poor delivery
methods. Avoid placement drops of greater
than 3 to 5 feet by using chutes, baffles, or
pipes. Individual pourings of concrete layers should never exceed 20 inches thick (except in columns or piers). Check consolidation of concrete by observing the surface of
the structure after forms are removed. A
smooth finish indicates that proper vibration is being accomplished. Inspect finish
quality by viewing surface characteristics.
Small tears in the surface indicate screeding (smoothing) was too fast or performed
without a bottom metal edge on the screed
tool. If a smoother surface is desired, floating should be checked. Excessive floating
is indicated by the appearance of excess
water and mortar on surfaces. Further evidence is revealed when this fine material
scales and tears. If the concrete surface is
not as dense as specified, troweling may be
tried. To check the efficiency of troweling,
observe the surface. If the trowel leaves
the concrete skin free of all marks and ripples, the process is satisfactory.
Curing. Take steps to ensure that curing
is proceeding properly and that a standard
curing method is being followed. All of the
standard methods must be used to achieve
specified strength during the concrete curing period (see FM 5-742).
Reinforced concrete construction. If concrete will have to withstand tension as well
as compression, slender steel reinforcing
bars are necessary. Reinforcing steel has
been specified by ASTM with a minimum
yield strength of 40,000, 50,000, 60,000,
and 75,000 pounds per square inch (psi).
The grade mark of the steel is stamped on
FM 5-412
the standard bars. For example, a "40" will
be located on a bar that has a yield
strength of at least 40,000 psi. Plans will
call for the minimum yield strength desired
for particular structures. Hooks to reinforce areas are labeled by type in structure
construction drawings. Care should be
taken to check hook placement and type.
All splices of bars are overlapped and tied,
and should be staggered. Before placing
concrete, check reinforcing pads for anchor age and correct if required. Bar intersections in flooring reinforcement should be
tied with one turn of wire at frequent intervals to create a steady network.
Clear distances between parallel bars in columns should be measured and should be
at least one and one-half times the bar diameter. Reinforcements are usually kept a
minimum distance from outside concrete
surfaces. Check for conformance.
The strength of all masonry lies in the mor tar that bonds the structure. Specific jobs
require designated types of mortar mixes,
and steps must be taken to provide the designated category. A guide to favorable
mixes is found in FM 5-742. Mixing time
can affect quality and should be reviewed to
guarantee the standard limits of at least 3
minutes of machine mixing are met. As in
concrete mixing, mortar mixing requires accurate batching. An examination of the
measuring processes should reveal any poor
techniques, faculty equipment, and improper methods.
Materials. Concrete block, brick, and tile
used in masonry construction are specified
in plans to meet strength and size requirements. Details of block types and sizes are
in FM 5-742. Rubblestone is an expedient
raw material. Size has no bearing, although roughly squared stones are better.
Rocks chosen should be strong and durable, such as limestone, sandstone, or granite.
Construction. The line, level, and plumb
of all construction must be true and mess.
ured regularly with a straightedge, plumb
line, and level. All joints should be filled
with mortar and adequately compacted. Masonry joints should be a uniform thickness
and approximately 3/8 inch thick. The
first levels of all masonry work should be
constructed with extreme caution to assure
alignment, level, and plumb throughout the
Methods. Rubblestone wall quality depends on stone placement. Each stone
should be placed on its broadest face; the
larger stones should be at the base of the
structure. Care should be taken that all
voids between stones are filled with mortar.
Bond stones that horizontally pass all the
way through a cross section of the wall
should occur at least once in every 10
square feet of wall. Usually, stone walls
are aligned by sight. However, if exactly
plumb and level stone walls are required,
checks with a plumb line and level must be
Inspect material for bent or twisted pieces.
If the strength of a member is questioned, a
bent piece of steel should not be straightened but should be used as stock to be cut
for shorter lengths. Material with short
kinks or buckles or material that shows surface cracks at the point of deformation
should not be used.
Type and size. Fabrication of steel structures is restricted to the certain type and
size of members that are noted on construction plans. The designated members
should be identified by measuring the
length and cross-sectional dimensions. The
appropriate length and size will be given in
the plans so that a cross check of all material can be made. To assure proper placement, each member can be marked with
paint or chalk.
Connection. There are four different ways
to connect steel structural members - bolts,
rivets, pins, and welds.
Bolts. To determine if bolts of the proper
length are being used, check the length of
Controlling Functions
thread that extends beyond the nut after
tightening. This length should be about
1/4 inch. Bolts should be tightened with a
structural offset wrench, first tightening the
nut and then applying one last twist on the
wrench. To avoid overstressing the bolt, do
not use pieces of pipe or other extensions
to wrench handles. If the structure is permanent, check to be sure the threads beyond the nut are hammered down. (All
bolts should be coupled with at least one
lock washer under the nut). If a pneumatic
impact wrench is used, check adjustment of
the wrench for proper tightening of bolts by
measuring performance with a torque
wrench. (Torque specifications are in the
plans.) Inspect the connecting process to
ensure that parts being fastened are aligned
with driftpins before bolts are installed.
Rivets. Examine rivet connections for inadequate lengths, indicated by either capped
heads when too long or undeformed heads
when too shot. A table of recommended
lengths of rivets is given in TM 5-744.
Pieces to be fitted with rivets must be set
up with bolts and tightened before riveting.
Inadequate fastening by rivets is usually an
indication of improper setup. Proper heating of the rivets is indicated by a light
cherry-red color. To test for loose rivets,
touch a finger or a small piece of metal to
one side of the finished rivet. Tap the
other side lightly with a hammer. An adequate joint will not transfer the vibration to
the finger or to metal. To inspect for burning of the rivets, inspect the rivet head for
pitted surfaces.
Pins. Inspect pin connections for holding
mechanisms such as cotter pins or
threaded recessed nuts. Great care must
be exercised in boring pinholes, and they
must be examined for smoothness, straightness, and perpendicular alignment to the
member axis.
Welds. Weld joints must be continuously
checked by a qualified inspector. Finish
welds are examined for undercut, overlap,
surface checks, cracks, and other defects.
To become better qualified on criteria that
separate a good weld from a bad one, com-
Controlling Functions
FM 5-412
pare the actual weld products to variations
of welds. A procedure for training inspectors and welders involves varying the three
welding parameters one at a time. These
parameters are: current, voltage, and
speed. Comparing the welds produced with
varied parameters provides a basis for determining when faulty welding practices have
been used. TM 5-744 illustrates the surface appearance of welds made under varying operating conditions. Properly welded
joints should be uniform in appearance
with evenly deposited weld metal. Fusion
of the base metal at the point of contact of
the weld is important and should be complete in a good joint.
Military plumbing supplies are divided into
five categories: cast iron, iron and steel,
copper tubing, bituminized fiber, and asbestos cement. The plumber has little choice
in the kind of material used since it is ordered by someone else. However, a few basic criteria dictate the acceptable grade of
the plumbing supplies. Since cast iron,
iron, and steel pipe are subject to corrosion, they should be checked for rust upon
receipt and stored in a dry place. Also,
cast iron is extremely brittle and should be
checked for splits and cracks. Copper tubing is the most desirable material for water
distribution systems. However, it has a tendency to split and should be checked.
Cutting. The steel-pipe cutting wheel
should be visually checked for nicks or
burrs. After the steel pipe is cut, following
standard procedure, it must be reamed to
remove the inside burr and filed to remove
the outside burr. Cast-iron pipe is usually
cut with a machinist’s cold chisel and hammer. Inspection of the cut cast-iron pipe
should show an even break around the circumference. If the break is not even, check
to see that the cast-iron soil pipe is not being cut too fast. Copper tubing is cut with
a pipe cutter or hacksaw. If a pipe cutter
is used, check the cutting wheel for nicks
or burrs. If a hacksaw is used, see that
the blade is fine-toothed (24 teeth per inch).
Also, cutting with a hacksaw should only
FM 5-412
be accomplished with a miter box or a jig(a
board with a V-groove for holding the tubing). Make a final visual inspection of the
finish cut to ensure that no burrs remain
and that the tubing is not out of round. Fiber pipe is cut with either a crosscut or a
rip handsaw. Inspection of the cut should
reveal a square and shred-free cut. To ensure a quality cut in fiber pipe, a miter box
should be used.
Joining. Steel pipe must be threaded before joining. Before threading, check to ensure that the die and guide are the same
size and correspond to the size of the pipe
being threaded. Always inspect the
threader to ensure that it has sharp dies
free from nicks and wear. A quick check of
a pipe joint is made by examining the num ber of threads. If the pipe was threaded to
the correct length, two or three threads will
show on the pipe beyond the face of the fitting. Cast-iron joints are made by caulking
with lead or oakum. Inspect the quality of
cast-iron joints for poor coverage and
cracked pipe. To make sure that a coppertubing joint has been properly soldered,
check the connection for a complete line of
solder around the joint. Asbestos-cementpipe joints may be checked for quality by a
special feeler gage. The gage is inserted between the sleeve and the pipe. The proper
spacing of the rubber rings and any kinks
are indicated by the gage.
Bending. In special cases, bending iron
pipe may be more advisable than placing additional fittings. Check to determine which
method is more practical or less difficult.
Two criteria control bending— configuration
and radius. It is desirable to leave a
straight section between bends rather than
to make a direct reverse bend.
Knowledge of soil characteristics is vital to
the quality construction of military roads
and airfields. To determine properties, several identification procedures known as classification tests have been designed.
Classification. Classification is an engineering tool that provides the construction
supervisor with information such as proper
soils for base course and subgrade. Procedures for these tests (field identification,
California bearing ratio, dry density, and
such) are discussed in FM 5-430-00-1/Air
Force Pamphlet (AFPAM) 32-8013, Vol 1
and FM 5-410. Once the soil has been classified (verified by laboratory tests when practical), FM 5-430-00-1/AFPAM 32-8013,
Vol 1 and FM 5-410 may be used to arrive
at the pertinent factors of that particular
Construction control. The construction sequence for military roads and airfields may
be listed as layout, clearing and grubbing,
stripping, drainage, earthwork, subgrade
preparation, base-course preparation, and
wearing-surface preparation.
Layout. During the layout phase, a survey
crew will place construction stakes along
the proposed roadway or airfield. The construction stakes indicate alignment, cut,
and fill. Before any other construction occurs, the supervisor must double-check the
survey work with the design. The information on the stakes, such as elevation, slope
ratios, and cut-fill amounts, may be compared to specifications on the design for accuracy.
Clearing, grubbing, and stripping. The control of clearing, grubbing, and stripping
stages of construction assures that all
stumps, boulders, vegetation, and material
above the surface are removed so that construction will not be hindered.
Drainage. Probably the most important aspect of road and airfield construction is
drainage. A supervisor must be aware of
and prepare for adequate drainage throughout all the construction process. Soils may
be divided into three groups of different
drainage characteristics. Well-draining soils
are sands and gravel such as those classified as GW, GP, SW, or SP. Open ditches
may be used in these soils to achieve effective drainage. Poorly draining soils are silts
and clays such as ML, OH, MH, GM, and
Controlling Functions
SM categories. Subsurface drainage systems should be utilized in these poorly
draining soils. The final class is impervious
soils such as GC, SC, CL, CH, and OH
groups. This type of soils requires overdesign of subsurface drainage to be effective.
Generally, a supervisor may expect poorer
drainage on a site with coarse-grained soils
than with fine-grained soils. A good rule
when considering construction drainage is
to maintain at least 5 feet between the construction and the top of groundwater. This
distance may be obtained by either raising
the work level or lowering the groundwater
table, Natural drainage should be used,
whenever possible.
Earthwork. In construction, earthwork involves cuts and fills. The standard cut for
highway or airfield construction is 1 1/2:1
which is suitable for favorable soils (Figure
5-13). Favorable soils are cohesive, sandy
or gravelly soil or dry, cohesionless soils.
However, if the depth of the cut exceeds 20
feet, the slope should be based on experience in that particular area, stability analysis (described in FM 5-430-00-1/AFPAM 328013, Vol 1), or excavation of trial slopes.
Generally, if the cut exceeds 20 feet, the
slope ratio may have to be reduced. Because of their erosion characteristics, sandy
or loamy soil cuts should never be greater
than 2:1. Slopes steeper than the standard
cut can only be planned in rocky areas; in
dense, sandy soil interspersed with boulders; or in loess. When construction is to
occur in loose, saturated sand, soft clays,
or weathered rock areas, caution must be
used in making standard cuts. Usually the
slopes will have to be flattened, drainage improved, or retaining walls constructed. The
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FM 5-412
standard slopes for a fill in military construction vary from 1 1/2:1 to 3:1. The
slope selected is based on the soil embankment characteristics given in FM 5-430-001/AFPAM 32-8013, Vol 1. Soils used in
construction fills generally should be coarsegrained. Care should be taken during stripping to ensure that all organic material
(usually 1 foot of top soil) is removed. Organic material is not suitable for construction material because it cannot be compacted to achieve the design specifications
for strength and stability. Control generally
takes the form of field checks of moisture
and density to determine whether the specified density is being attained (see FM 5-43000-1/AFPAM 32-8013, Vol 1). Adjustments
in the rolling process and moisture additions to achieve the specifications must follow the density measurements if out of limits.
Subgrade preparation. Soil materials such
as expansive clays, silts, and strength-losing clays cannot be compacted to design
densities, and proper procedures for handling such material must be used. Acceptable subgrade material preparation is controlled to a minimum modified American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) requirement by ensuring that dry density and moisture content are adequate.
Base-course preparation. Information relative to subbase and base construction for
specific construction materials is contained
in FM 5-430-00-l/AFPAM 32-8013, Vol 1.
Wearing-surface preparation. Wearing surfaces of military roads and airfields are classified in three groups— rigid, bituminous,
and natural. The design and the requirements of construction determine which material will be used.
FM 5-412
Earth moving may include site preparation,
excavation and backfill, dredging, and preparing base and subbase. The type of
equipment used can have a great effect on
the man-hours and machine-hours required
to complete a given amount of work. Before estimates can be prepared, a decision
must be reached on the best method of operation and the type of equipment to be
used. Equipment selection should be based
on efficient operation and availability of
equipment. It is best to use any available
equipment that can reduce the amount of
manual labor required. Since most earthmoving operations can be performed by machines with operators, manual labor should
be avoided.
Site preparation includes clearing and grubbing operations such as removing, piling,
and burning trees and brush; removing
stumps; and loading and hauling cut trees
and brush. Site preparation also includes
cut-and-fill earth-moving operations, removing existing asphalt and concrete structures
(paving, walks, and curbs), excavating and
hauling from cut areas, as well as spreading and compacting into fill areas.
Excavation and backfill includes trenching
and ditching, digging bell holes, excavating
for footings and foundations, general excavation, and removing excess earth. It also includes trimming and grading, water re-
moval, shoring and bracing, backfilling and
compacting, excavating and hauling fill,
spreading and compacting fill, and general
Included in dredging operations is preparation of a spoil area for dredged material as
well as construction of dikes when required,
setting and connecting discharge lines from
dredge, dredge operations, barge operations,
Earth-Moving Operations
and disconnecting and removing discharge
lines. It also includes underwater excavation with a dragline or clamshell, hauling
dredged material by truck or barge, and disposal of material.
FM 5-412
Base and subbase preparation includes
grading and smoothing, excavating, loading,
hauling, spreading, rolling, sprinkling, and
fine-grading selected material to form the
base or subbase. A factor for compaction
(see Table 6-1 ) should be added to the computed compacted quantity to obtain the
quantity of loose material that must be handied.
Graphic aids are useful for estimating production rates for any repetitious construction operation that has several definable
The variables may be arranged in graphic
form as shown in Figure 6-1. The graphic
form uses the direct reading capability of
the nomogram or nomograph to show the
relative effect of the variables on production.
Seven variables are incorporated into one
graphic representation in the earth-moving
nomogram (Figure 6-1 ). Two variables were
fixed: capacity at 5 cubic yards per truck
and time at 10 hours per day. The time delay per trip, distance, speed, number of
trucks, and total volume hauled per day
were then progressively locked into the nomograph to form this unique estimating tool.
Find the volume of earth in cubic yards
hauled per 10-hour day in 20 trucks, each
averaging 5 cubic yards per trip, and with
an average time delay of 30 minutes, average speed of 25 miles per hour (mph), and
an average haul distance of 7.5 miles.
Using the nomograph (Figure 6-1) to find
the volume, follow the broken line 30 - A B-C-D-E-F.
Average time delay per truck per trip for
loading, dumping, maintenance, and
contingency during a 10-hour workday
is 30 minutes. Enter nomograph at average time delay of 30.
Average speed is 25 mph. Project average delay time of 30 to 25 mph - A.
Earth-Moving Operations
Earth-Moving Operations
FM 5-412
FM 5-412
Read across to distance equivalent 12.5 miles - B.
Average haul distance is 7.5 miles. Double for round trip. Combined distance,
D, is 27.5 miles - C.
Project to 25 mph (speed) - D.
Twenty 5-yard trucks are used - E.
Read across to production line, V - cubic
yards hauled is 910 cubic yards per day
- F.
Check by computation:
t = time delay/trip, minutes = 30 minutes
S = speed
= 25 mph
d = distance one way
= 7.5 miles
N = number of trucks
= 20 trucks
= 5 cu yd
Q= quantity per truckload
H = hours/day haulage
= 10 hrs/day
V = volume hauled/day, cubic yards =
(To be determined)
S(t/60) + 2d
25 mph
25 mph (30 min/60 min per hour) + (2 x 7.5 miles)
x 20 trucks x 5 cubic yards per truck x 10 hrs per day
25 mph
V= 27.5 miles 1,000 cubic yards per day
V= 909.09 cubic yards per day or 910 cubic yards per day
Tables 6-2 through 6-7, pages 6-5 through
6-10, may be used in preparing machine
and man-hour estimates for earth moving.
These tables are off-site estimating data,
not exact figures. Since the variables affecting earth moving are many, much consideration should be given to situations and conditions varying from the nor8s these tables
are based upon. A table on soil variation
conversion factors (Table 6-8, page 6- 10)
and a table on boom swing angle conver-
sion factors (Table 6-9, page 6-11) should
be used when necessary. These are only
two variables of many that must be considered. The prevailing conditions and situations will always govern earth-moving estimates. Other conversion factors are listed
in Tables 6-10 through 6-14, on pages 6-12
through 6-15.
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This chapter covers the construction of
asphalt and concrete paving, curbs, and
The selection of equipment affects the number of workers required for paving operations. The use of transit-mixer trucks
rather than paving mixers will usually increase the man-hours required to construct
paving. Placing, spreading, and finishing
equipment should be sized, whenever possible, to the plant equipment. If the paving
equipment cannot handle the plant output,
the plant will be idle part of the time wait-
ing for the paving crew. If the plant output
is less than the paving equipment can handle, the paving crew will be idle part of the
time waiting for the plant. With some
equipment, it is possible to cut the crew
size and slow the paving operation to the
plant capacity. However, this is not always
possible and certainly is not efficient. The
estimator should know what equipment will
be used in order to consider all factors.
Construction of asphalt paving includes
heating asphalt, marking pavement edges,
brooming, priming, spreading and finishing
asphaltic concrete, rolling asphaltic com crete, applying seal coat, applying tack
coat, loading and hauling chips or gravel,
spreading and rolling chips or gravel, and
brooming chips or gravel. The time required to spread asphalt concrete with an
asphalt finisher and to roll this material is
important in only a few cases. Assuming
normal operations, an asphalt finisher with
the required rollers can spread and compact material faster than an asphalt plant
can produce asphalt concrete. Therefore, in
this chapter, only the plant output capacity
will affect the paving time required for a
given job.
Construction of concrete paving includes
placing forms, reinforcements, and dowels;
mixing, placing, finishing, and curing con-
Paving Operations
crete; removing and cleaning forms; cutting
or forming joints; pouring joint sealer; and
installing expansion joints.
FM 5-412
Either concrete or asphaltic concrete may
be used in the construction of curbs and
walks. This construction includes placing
forms, expansion joints, reinforcement,
concrete, or asphaltic concrete. It also ineludes finishing and curing concrete and finishing, priming, and rolling asphaltic concrete.
Use Tables 7-1 through 7-3, pages 7-3
through 7-5, to prepare man-hour estimates
for paving, curbs, and walks. These tables
do not include the delivery of materials to
the jobsite.
Four miles of 2-inch thick asphaltic concrete (hot-plant mix) 12 feet wide are to be
placed on an existing road surface. The
plant supporting this operation averages
only 80 tons per hour. Assuming there are
enough dump trucks to haul the plant mix,
estimate the number of hours required for
this paving operation.
Solution. Area to be paved = 4 miles x 12
feet x 5,280 feet/mile x 1 square yard/9
square feet = 28,160 square yards.
From Table 7-2 we find that for a thickness
of 2 inches and a plant output of 80 tons
per hour under adverse conditions, we require 13 hours/ 10,000 square yards.
Then 28,160 square yards x 13
hours/10,000 square yards = 36.6 hours.
Thus, approximately 37 hours are required.
A prime coat of 0.3 gallon/square yard is to
be applied to 3 miles of 18-foot-wide roadway. An 800-gallon, truck-mounted distributor with an 18-foot spray bar and a
1/8-inch nozzle will be used. The average
distance to the supply point is 12 miles,
and it takes 20 minutes to refill the truck.
Estimate the number of hours required for
this operation.
Solution. From Table 7-2 we find that at
an application rate of 0.3 gallon /square
yard, the vehicle moves at a speed of 300
feet per minute and the truck empties in 5
Thus, 300 feet per minute x 5 minutes =
1,500 linear feet/truck. 3 miles x 5,280
feet/mile = 15,840 feet/ 1,500 = 10 1/2 (approximately 11 truckloads). This results in
55 minutes of actual spray time. However,
travel time to and from the supply point
and the time to fill the truck must also be
calculated. Assuming an average speed to
and from the supply point of 30 miles per
Travel time = 12 miles/30 miles per hour x
= 48 minutes
2 (round trip)
Load time given as
Unload time
Average cycle time
20 minutes
5 minutes
= 73 minutes
Must make 11 trips x 73 minutes =
803 minutes/60 = 13.4 hours
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Concrete construction usually requires forming; reinforcing mixing, placing, and finishing concrete; stripping forms; and curing
concrete. In addition, some concrete con-
struction requires fine grading, vapor barriers, expansion joints, cold- weather protection, and placement of embedded anchors
in the concrete.
Labor required for forming includes fabrication, handling into place, erection, and oiling; installing form ties, tie wire, struts,
chamfer strips, screed guides, bracing, and
shoring, erecting runways and scaffolds;
and checking forms during placement of
concrete. Stripping includes removing,
cleaning, and reconditioning forms. Forming is usually computed in square feet of
contact surface, which is the area of concrete in direct contact with forms or in linear feet of form length required. Screed
guides should be computed as the equivalent form length of an edge form.
Concrete is reinforced with steel bars or
with welded steel wire mesh which is used
for reinforcing slabs, gunite, and precast
concrete. In some applications, wire mesh
and bars are used in combination for reinforcing. Some tables show both bars and
mesh, so that the appropriate man-hours
per unit may be used. Reinforcing steel is
computed in tons of bars. Reinforcing
mesh is computed in square feet of the
Labor for reinforcing steel includes handling
into place, tying, supporting, and any cutting which becomes necessary at the site
such as cutting around embedded materials
or cutting stock lengths of straight bars to
fit slab dimensions. Labor for wire mesh reinforcing includes handling into place, cut ting to fit, tying at overlaps, and pulling up
into position during placement of concrete.
Sometimes concrete must be mixed at the
job site rather than being delivered in transit mix trucks. Labor for mixing concrete
at the jobsite includes loading, measuring,
wheeling, and dumping aggregates and ce-
Concrete Construction
ment into the mixer; bringing water to the
mixer by truck, hose, pipe, or pump; and
operating the mixer.
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Handling from the mixer or transit mixer
truck to the final position is included in
placing concrete. This includes hoisting,
spreading, vibrating, and screeding the concrete to grade.
Concrete finishing includes floating, troweling, and tooling slabs: and filling voids and
honeycombs. Pointing and patching includes patching tie holes and removing fins.
The term curing includes covering surfaces
with curing compound, sand, paper, tarpau-
lins, burlap, or straw, and keeping as wet
as required.
The process of fine grading includes bringing in fill or removing excess earth, spread-
ing, leveling, compacting, and sprinkling
when necessary.
The process of placing vapor barrier includes handling and placement, cutting to
fit, smoothing as necessary, and sealing the
Placing premolded expansion joints includes
handling into place, cutting to fit, placing,
and fastening to hold in position until concrete is placed. Labor for placing poured ex-
pansion joints includes cleaning the joints
of foreign matter, handling material to the
melting pot, melting, handling to the joints,
pouring the joints, and dusting.
Several methods are available to provide
cold-weather protection for concrete. These
include covering the concrete with sand,
straw, or paper; heating the mixing water
and aggregate; and building enclosures and
operating heaters.
Work rates in Tables 8-1 through 8-8,
pages 8-3 through 8-6, are based on the
use of untrained troops. If crews of different makeup are employed, the work rates
must be adjusted accordingly. The tables
do not include loading and hauling materials to the jobsite. Table 8-9, page 8-7, contains conversion and waste factors.
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This chapter covers rough carpentry work
and installation of flooring finish carpentry,
windows, doors, and insulation.
The term rough carpentry includes measuring, cutting, and installing wood framing,
floor joists and sills, cross bridging, wall
framing and plates, roof framing and raf-
ters, and rough door bucks. It also includes the installation of wall and roof
sheathing and siding.
Flooring includes measuring, cutting, and
installing subflooring, finish flooring, and
soft tile (asphalt, cork, rubber, and vinyl).
It also covers installing building paper un-
der finish floors and adhesive under tile
floors. In addition, flooring includes installing building paper under soft tile laid over
wood floors.
The work of finish carpentry includes installing baseboard, molding, door and window
frames, trim, kitchen cabinets, wooden
stairs, closet units, and finish walls. Finish
carpentry also includes installation of fas-
tening devices such as plugs, expansion
shields, and toggle bolts; blocking for leveling and plumbing and scribing fillers and
trim to walls and adjacent pieces.
The tables in this chapter cover the installation of double-hung and casement windows,
jalousies, skylights, wood doors of all types,
louvers, screens, and venetian blinds, as
well as caulking and weather-stripping.
Installation includes drilling for fasteners
and installing plugs, expansion shields, toggle bolts, blocking, hinges, locks, and other
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The installation of insulation includes scaffolding when required, fastening insulation
into place, and making cutouts in insulation as required.
Tables 9-1 through 9-9, pages 9-3 through
9-8, may be used to prepare detailed manhour estimates for carpentry. These tables
do not include provisions for loading and
hauling materials to the job. All tables as-
sume average working conditions in terms
of weather, skill, motivation, crew size, accessibility, and the availability of equipment. Tables 9-10 and 9-11, pages 9-8
and 9-9, contain conversion factors.
Problem. A 24- by 40-foot frame storage
shed is to be built as part of a training program. Its interior partitions will be covered
on both sides with plasterboard. Ceiling
joists will also be covered with plasterboard. Exterior walls will be covered with 4by 8-foot treated fiberboard and 1 -inch by 8foot shiplap siding. There will be four interior doors, four exterior doors, and eight double-hung windows, all with plain trim.
The estimates show the following quantities:
Floor joists and sills
1,300 bd ft
Wall framing and plates —— 2,120 bd ft
785 bd ft
Ceiling joists
288 pr
Cross bridging
Roof framing and rafters — 2,089 bd ft
Sheathing 4- by 8-foot fiberboard 1,280 sq ft
Roof sheathing 1 inch by 8 foot- 1,410 sq ft
Siding l-inch by 8-foot shiplap – 1,280 sq ft
Subflooring 4- by 8-foot plywood – 960 sq ft
Finish flooring softwood
960 sq ft
Door frame and trim
Window frame and trim
Finish walls - plasterboard — 2,240 sq ft
Windows - double hung
4 ea
Doors - single interior
Doors - single exterior
Determine the man-hours needed for this project.
Solution. Using Tables 9-1 through 9-11, the following computations are made:
Floor joists and sills, 1.300 thousand-bd-ft measure x 32 man-hours . . . . . =
Wall framing and plates, 2.120 thousand-bd-ft measure x 56 man-hours . . . . . . = 118.7
Ceiling joists, 0.785 thousand-bd-ft measure x 32 man-hours . . . . . .. . . . . . . . =
Cross bridging, 2.88 hundred pr x 5 man-hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =
Roof framing and rafters, 2.089 thousand-bd-ft measure x 48 man-hours. . . . . . = 100.3
Sheathing 4- x 8-ft fiberboard, 1.280 thousand sq ft x 24 man-hours . . . . . . . . =
Roof sheathing 1 in x 8 ft, 1.410 thousand sq ft x 24 man-hours . . . . . . . . =
Siding l in x 8ft, l.280 thousand sq ft x 48 man-hours . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . =
Subflooring 4- x 8-ft plywood, 0.96 thousand sq ft x 16 man-hours. . . . . . . . . =
Finish flooring softwood, 0.96 thousand sq ft x 24 man-hours . . . . . . . . =
Door frame and trim, 8 x 2.5 man-hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =
Window frame and trim, 8 x 3 man-hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =
Finish walls - plasterboard, 2.24 thousand sq ft x 48 man-hours . . . . . . . . . . . = 107,5
Windows - double hung, 8 x 2.5 man-hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =
Doors - single interior, 4 x l.5 man-hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =
Doors - single exterior, 4 x 2 man-hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =
Total man-hours required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = + 649.9
Use 650 man-hours
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Masonry covers installing brick, concrete
block, mortar-bound rubble, ceramic tile,
quarry tile, structural tile (glazed or face),
and also lathing and plastering.
Labor for the installation of brick and concrete block includes mixing mortar, carrying
materials to the mason, hoisting materials,
and laying brick and block. It also includes tooling joints, erecting and disman-
tling scaffold, sawing block, and culling
brick and block. Labor for this type of masonry includes cleaning brick and block in
The installation of mortar-bound rubble includes labor for mixing mortar, rough-cutting stone, carrying mortar and rubble to
the mason, hoisting materials, and laying
rubble. Tooling and pointing joints, erecting and dismantling scaffold, and cleaning
rubble in place are also part of the installation.
The installation of ceramic and quarry tile
includes mixing mortar for bed coat and
joints, carrying mortar and tile to the tile
setter, spreading bed coat, cutting tile, and
setting tile. Labor estimates should also include slushing and finishing joints, cleaning
tile in place, and erecting and dismantling
The installation of structural face tile and
glazed structural tile units includes mixng
mortar, carrying mortar and tile to the ma-
son, hoisting materials, laying tile, tooling
joints, erecting and dismantling scaffold,
cutting tile, and cleaning tile in place.
Labor for lathing and plastering includes
handling material into place; hoisting mateMasonry
rials; cutting and installing hanging wires
and straps; cutting and fastening lathing
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channels, angles, beads, and moldings; and
installing furring strips, metal lath, and gypsum lath. Labor also includes mixing plas-
ter, installing and finishing plaster, erecting
and dismantling scaffold, and curing and
drying plaster.
Unit masonry Tables 10-1 through 10-3 include inking mortar, carrying materials,
culling, cutting, hoisting, laying masonry,
tooling joints, and cleaning work in place.
For lathing (Table 10-4, page 10-4), labor ineludes installing required metal fastenings
and furring. Estimates for plastering (Table
10-5, page 10-4) include mixing, hoisting,
finishing, and curing. Allowances are made
for erecting and dismantling scaffolds in all
cases. Estimates do not provide for loading
and hauling material to the jobsite. Tables
10-6 and 10-7, pages 10-5 and 10-6, contain conversion actors.
Problem. Twenty housing units are to be
built in Germany when weather is generally
favorable for construction. Estimate the
number of working days it will take to com plete the project. Material estimates are as
8-inch concrete block —
Acid cleaning block
6-inch quarry tile
Tile base (6-inch)
20,000 sq ft
20,000 sq ft
1,000 sq ft
500 lin ft
Acid cleaning tile
1,250 sq ft
Glass block
1,000 sq ft
Metal lath - walls (metal studs) 25,000 sq ft
Metal lath - ceiling (wood joists) 10,000 sq ft
2,500 lin ft
Metal lath - base
Corner bead
2,500 lin ft
Lath at openings
4,000 lin ft
Plastering walls (2 coats) —
25,000 sq ft
Plastering walls (plain finish) – 10,000 sq ft
1 story - 8 crews
Solution. Labor is mostly inexperienced, so the man-hours/unit are figured at 30 percent
above tables.
Units x Man-hours/unit = Subtotal
Laying block . . . . . . . . . 20. 0
Cleaning block . . . . . . . 20. 0
Laying tile: Floor . . . . . . 1.0
Base . . . . . . 0.5
Cleaning tile . . . . . . . 1.25
Glass block . . . . . . . . . 1.0
Metal lath: Walls . . . . . . 25.0
Ceiling . . . . . . 10.0
Base . . . . . . 2.5
Openings . . . . . . 4.0
Plastering: Walls . . . . . . 25.0
Ceilings . . . . . . . 10.0
Scaffold . . . . . . . 8.0
Total man-hours:
Assuming an 8-hour workday, work requires 972 man-days. An engineer company
consisting of 60 laborers, using organic equipment, could complete the project in 16.2
(972 /60) working days.
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The types of roofing included in this chapter are built-up, roll, shingle, metal, asbestos-cement, and tile. Table 11-1, page 112, includes melting asphalt, laying felt, mopping, and laying gravel for built-up roofing.
Table 11-2, page 11-2, includes cleaning
deck, applying prime coat, and laying rolls
for roll roofing. Table 11-3, page 11-3, includes placing and nailing shingle roofing.
Table 11-4, page 11-3, includes placing,
caulking, drilling, and fastening materials
for metal, asbestos-cement, and tile roofing.
Tables 11-1 through 11-5, pages 11-2
through 11-4, may be used in preparing- detailed-man-hour estimates for roofing.
These tables include allowances for unload-
ing, hoisting, and storing materials at the
construction site. They do not include
hours needed for loading and hauling materials to the job site.
Problem. A warehouse is to be built in a
tropical area. Heavy rains require a 4-ply
built-up roof to be applied during the dry
season. Estimate the number of man-hours
needed to build the roof, based on the following material estimate:
Roof, 4-ply built-up
Roof insulation
5,000 Sq ft
5,000 Sq ft
300 lin ft
Solution. Because crews are inexperienced, the man-hours/unit are increased
30 percent over the figures given in Table 11-1.
Roof, 4-ply built-up . . 5
Insulation . . . . . . . 5
Flashing . . . . . . . . 0.3
Total man-hours
Man-hours/unit = Subtotal
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Electrical work discussed in this chapter includes construction of electrical distribution
lines, outdoor lighting, and underground
power systems. It also includes installation
of interior electrical services, transformers,
and substation equipment.
Labor includes unloading- materials, excavating, installing crossarms and insulators, setting poles, backfilling, and stringing and
sagging wire. It also includes installing
and connecting transformers, switches,
breakers, capacitors, and regulators.
Street lights, security lights, airfield lights,
and athletic-field lights are types of outdoor
lighting. Labor for installation includes digging foundations, setting poles, backfilling,
installing standards and light fixtures,
stringing wire, laying buried cable, installing duct, encasing duct in concrete, and
pulling cable. It also includes installing
control devices, lamps, control vaults, and
Construction of underground power systems
includes excavating, installing ducts, encasing ducts with concrete, backfilling, and
compacting. It also includes pulling cable,
constructing transformer vaults, installing
transformers, and constructing manholes
and handholes. Construction time depends
on soil and weather conditions.
Roughing-in interior electric includes installing service mains, switches, panels, conduits, fittings, outlet boxes, nonmetallic cable, armored cable, transformers, and mo-
Electrical Work
tor control centers. It also includes pulling
cable through conduit and splicing in electrical boxes.
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Finishing and trimming interior electric includes installing and connecting receptacles, switches, light fixtures, light-duty de-
vices, heavy-duty utility devices, controls,
and appliances. It also includes circuit testing.
Installation of transformers and substation
equipment includes unloading the equipment, moving it into position, leveling,
plumbing, fastening, trimming, and connecting the equipment.
Tables 12-1 through 12-9, pages 12-3
through 12-10, may be used in preparing
detailed man-hour estimates for electrical
construction. The tables do not include provisions for loading and hauling equipment
and materials to the jobsite. Man-hours
units are given in these tables for average
working conditions. To apply these tables
to a particular situation, the weather condition, skill and experience of the workers,
time allotted for completion, size of crew,
types of material used, and types of equipment must be considered.
To make an estimate of man-hours for electrical work using the tables in this chapter,
follow the procedure in the example below.
Problem. Interior electrical work is to be
performed in a two-family housing unit.
The work element estimate shows the following quantities of work to be performed:
Electrical service main, 100 amperes
Electric panels, 8-circuit
1 ea
2 ea
Conduit and boxes, 1 1/4 inches
and smaller
1,100 lin ft
Pull and splice wire, No. 10
2,200 lin ft
and smaller
Pull and splice wire, No. 8
160 lin ft
and larger
Receptacles and switches — 30 ea
14 ea
Incandescent fixtures
2 ea
Attic exhaust fans
2 ea
Water heater
Solution. Because the project is located in an area of moderate rainfall and most of the
crew members are experienced workers, subtract 15 percent from the man-hour estimates.
Referring to Tables 12-5, 12-6, and 12-7, compute the man-hours per unit at 85 percent as
Electric service main, 100 amperes . . . . . . . . 12.0 x 0.85 = 10.2 ea
Electric panels, 8-circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.0 x 0.85 = 7.65 ea
Conduit and boxes, 1 1/4 inches and smaller . .250.0 x 0.85 = 212.5/1,000 lin ft
Pull and splice wire, No. 10 and smaller . . . . . 18.0 x 0.85 =
15.3/1,000 lin ft
Pull and splice wire, No. 8 and larger . . . . . . 56.0 x 0.85 =
47.6/ 1,000 lin ft
Receptacles and switches . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.2 x 0.85 =
0.17 ea
Incandescent fixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.5 x 0.85 =
0.43 ea
Attic exhaust fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.0 x 0.85 =
1.7 ea
Water heater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 x 0.85 =
1.28 ea
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Using the preceding units, compute man-hours for electrical work.
Rough in:
Service main:
1 ea x 10.20 man-hours ea
2 ea x 7.65 man-hours ea
1.1 x 1,000 lin ft x 212.5 man-hours/ l,000 lin ft
Wire, No. 10: 2.2 x 1,000 lin ft x 15.3 man-hours/ 1,000 lin ft
Wire, No. 8: 0.16 x 1,000 lin ft x 47.6 man-hours/ 1,000 lin ft
Total man-hours for rough-in
= 0.2
= 15.3
= 233.8
= 33.7
= 7.6
= 300.6
= 5.1
Receptacles and switches: 30 ea x 0.17 man-hours/ea
= 6.0
Fixtures: 14 ea x 0.43 man-hours/ea
= 3.4
Fans: 2 ea x 1.7 man-hours/ea
= 2.6
Water heater: 2 ea x 1.28 man-hours/ea
Total man-hours for finish and trim
= 17.1
Total electrical work in one two-family housing unit: 300.6 + 17.1 = 318 man-hours
Finish and trim:
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Plumbing consists of installing cast-iron
and steel pipe, valves and fittings, fire hydrants, thrust blocks, concrete pipe, vitri-
fied-clay pipe, and asbestos-cement pipe;
roughing-in plumbing; and installing fixtures.
The installation of cast-iron and steel pipe
includes unloading, placing, joint makeup,
and testing. The installation of concrete
and vitrified-clay pipe includes unloading,
placing, caulking, grouting, installing gas-
kets, and testing. The installation of asbestos-cement pipe includes unloading, placing, installing gaskets, soaping, pulling
sleeve over joint, and testing.
The installation of valves and fittings includes unloading, placing, caulking and
leading, welding, and bolting flanges. It
also includes installing gaskets, packing,
handwheels, and trim.
The installation of fire hydrants and post indicator valves includes unloading, placing,
caulking, bolting, clamping, adjusting to
grade, and plumbing stems. The installa-
tion of thrust blocks includes bracing, forming, reinforcing, placing concrete, and stripping forms.
The roughing-in of plumbing includes unloading and installing sewer and drain pipe,
installing water pipe, and testing. The installation of cast-iron drains includes caulking and leading joints, plumbing and grading pipe, installing pipe hangers and straps,
cutting pipe, and installing fittings. The installation of galvanized-steel pipe vents and
drains includes cutting and threading pipe,
making joints and applying joint compound,
plumbing and grading pipe, installing pipe
hangers and straps, and installing fittings.
The installation of copper and galvanizedsteel water pipe includes cutting, threading,
and making steel pipe joints; cleaning and
soldering copper pipe joints; plumbing and
grading pipe; and installing pipe hangers
and straps.
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The installation of plastic water pipe (polyvinyl chloride pipe) includes cutting, clean-
ing, and cementing; plumbing and grading
pipe; and installing pipe hangers and straps.
The installation of finish plumbing includes
setting and connecting all plumbing fixtures
(such as bathtubs, lavatories, water closets,
urinals, showers, and sinks).
Tables 13-1 through 13-7, pages 13-3
through 13-9, may be used in preparing detailed man-hour estimates for plumbing installations. The tables do not include provision for loading and hauling equipment and
materials to the jobsite. The installation of
PVC pipe includes cleaning, applying solvent, drying time, and installation of hangers and supports. Table 13-8, pages 13-10,
gives information on needed quantities of
Problem. Twenty housing units are to be
constructed. Estimate the number of manhours needed for rough in. Activity estimates show the following quantities:
Rough in sanitary lines (4-inch
cast-iron and smaller)
145 joints
Rough in water lines (3/4-inch and
smaller threaded pipe)
185 joints
Rough in fixtures:
Bathtub with shower
Water closet
Kitchen sink
20 ea
20 ea
20 ea
20 ea
Solution: Using Tables 13-1 through 13-8, the following computations are made:
4-inch and smaller cast-iron drain line . . 145 joints x 0.85 man-hours
3/4-inch and smaller water line . . . . . 185 joints x 0.5 man-hours
Rough in fixtures:
Bathtub with shower . . . . . . . . . . 20 ea x 4 man-hours
Lavatory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 ea x 3 man-hours
Water closet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 ea x 3 man-hours
Kitchen sink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 ea x 3 man-hours
Total man-hours for rough in
= 123
= 93
= 476
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Equipment installation includes unloading,
moving into location, uncrating, cleaning,
assembling, positioning, aligning, supporting, and anchoring if required.
The task of unloading and moving in includes lifting or skidding from the truck,
transporting with equipment, or rolling or
skidding into approximate position. The
typical crew for this work is one crew
leader and two to five workers, depending
on the weight and size of the equipment.
Mechanical lifting equipment is normally
used to unload and move the heavier pieces.
The task of cleaning and assembling includes uncrating, removing protective paper
and coating, removing grease and oils, removing rust, assembling and attaching any
parts shipped loose, and flushing oil reservoirs and filling with the proper lubricant.
The typical crew for this work is one crew
leader and one to four workers.
The task of positioning and aligning ineludes moving into position, bringing to
grade, leveling, aligning, and connecting
drives. The typical crew for this work is
one crew leader and two to four workers.
The task of supporting and anchoring ineludes installing shims and plates; grouting, drilling for expansion shields; installing
expansion shields; drilling and tapping base-
Equipment Installation
plates; and installing bolts, washers, and
nuts. The typical crew for this work is one
crew leader and two to four workers.
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The task of connecting equipment includes
initial wiring, piping, or duct connection. It
does not include installing breakers,
switches, controls, dampers, or valves. The
typical crew for this work is one crew
leader and one to four workers.
Tables 14-1 through 14-8, pages 14-2
through 14-8, may be used in preparing detailed man-hour estimates for equipment installation. The tables do not include provi-
sions for loading and hauling equipment to
the jobsite or for piping, wiring, or ductwork other than the initial connection to
the equipment.
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Metal work includes erection of structural
and miscellaneous steel fabrications and
erection of sheet metal and fencing.
The labor for erection of structural steel includes unloading, erecting temporary bolting, plumbing, leveling, high-strength bolting, and/or welding. Miscellaneous steel
erection includes unloading, setting in
place, plumbing, leveling, and fastening
(usually by bolting or welding).
This includes the fabrication and erection of
gutters, downspouts, ridges, valleys, flashings, and ducts. Fabrication is usually
done in the sheet metal shop and includes
making patterns, cutting, forming, seaming,
soldering, attaching stiffeners, and hauling
to the site. Erection includes unloading,
storing on site, handling into place, hanging, fastening, and soldering.
The installation of fencing includes digging
holes; unloading and distributing materials;
setting, plumbing, aligning, and concreting
posts; installing braces; setting, stretching,
and fastening fence fabric; installing caps
and/or brackets on posts; installing gates,
including hardware; and stringing lone and
barbed wire.
Tables 15-1 through 15-3, pages 15-2 and
15-3, may be used in preparing detailed
man-hour estimates for metal work.
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Waterfront construction includes pile driving, pile bracing, pile capping, pier framing,
installation of deck hardware, and pile extraction.
The type of driving and extracting equipment used can have a considerable effect
on the time required for this work. A
steam, diesel, or drop hammer may be used
to drive piling. A steam or air extractor or
a pulling beam with blocks and cables may
be used for pile extraction. The equipment
used affects the time required for a given
unit of work. The estimator should know
what equipment is to be used.
The task of pile driving includes assembling
leads and hammer, preparing equipment for
driving, sharpening pile tips, installing steel
tips on wood piles, squaring and trimming
pile butts, cutting holes in steel piles to facilitate handling, moving driver into place,
placing pile-in leads, driving pile, and cutting pile to the required grade.
The installation of pile bracing includes cutting, drilling, handling into place, and fastening.
Wood or steel pile capping includes cutting,
drilling, handling into place, and fastening.
Concrete pile capping includes forming, rein-
forcing, placing and curing concrete, and
stripping forms.
The installation of sheet piling includes
preparation of leads and equipment for driving, preparation of pile for driving, placing
Waterfront Construction
pile-in leads, driving pile, cutting and bracing pile, and installing deadman and tiebacks.
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The installation of pier framing includes the
cutting, drilling, handling, and fastening of
stringers, bridging, all decking, rails, and
The installation of deck hardware includes
required drilling, handling, and fastening of
bits, bollards, chocks, cleats, and pad eyes.
The task of pile extraction includes rigging
the equipment and extracting and handling
piling. It also includes cutting piles below
water level and carrying pieces to stockpiles.
Tables 16-1 through 16-8, pages 16-3
through 16-6, may be used in preparing detailed man-hour estimates for waterfront
construction. The tables do not include delivery of materials to the jobsite.
The example below illustrates the use of Tables 16-1 through 16-8 for making a manhour estimate for waterfront construction.
Problem. A pier to be enlarged will required 200 50-foot wood-bearing piles. Because the pier is located between several
buildings, the piles cannot be prepared adjacent to the pile-driving area. In this case,
increase the time for placing and driving by
15 percent because an additional crane will
be needed to transport the prepared piles to
the driving area (see note on Table 16-1).
Work requirements are as follows:
50-foot wood-bearing piles
horizontal pile braces
diagonal pile braces
linear feet of wood pile caps
linear feet of stringers
square feet of decking
square feet of wearing surface
feet of bull rail
Waterfront Construction
FM 5-412
Preparing piles
Driving piles
Rigging equipment
Cutting pile at level
Dismantling equipment
Horizontal braces
Diagonal braces
Pile caps
Wearing surface
Bull rail
Waterfront Construction
Total man-hours
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Waterfront Construction
Waterfront Construction
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Waterfront Construction
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Only relatively simple procedures are currently used by the Army engineers to wreck
structures. Far less effort is made to salvage construction materials than once was,
since labor costs have increased more than
material costs. The salvage of marine vessels is a separate subject and is covered in
TM 55-503.
Table 17-1, page 17-2, may be used to prepare preliminary man-hour estimates for
wrecking and salvaging land structures. Because of the great variance in capacity of
wrecking equipment, only the roughest labor estimates are included here. The table
does not provide for moving to the site or
hauling salvaged materials.
Problem. Sixteen wooden barracks are to
be demolished. Salvageable material is
minimal, but includes parts of furnaces. Labor is largely unskilled, but four crews can
work simultaneously. Tractors are available. Each barracks contain 36,000 cubic
feet (60 x 30 x 20) or 36 units. Using average man-hour estimates in Table 17-1, find
the total man-hours required to perform the
Solution. Since each unit requires 12 manhours, the total work estimate is 36 x 12 x
16 = 6,912 man-hours. Thus, approximately 6,900 man-hours are needed to complete this task.
Snow removal includes the salting or sanding of roads and airfields, the plowing of
roads and airfields by a 5-ton dump truck
with a plow or grader, snow blowing, and
shoveling of sidewalks by workers or with a
garden tractor. Hauling of snow is not included because this activity is similar to
earth moving with front loaders and dump
trucks (see Chapter 6).
Other Estimating Requirements
Table 17-2, page 17-2, divides snowfalls
into three types: light (under 2 inches), medium (2 to 6 inches), and heavy (over 6
inches). For light snowfalls, use salt to
melt ice or sand to provide traction on the
roads. A salt truck spreads salt or sand
most efficiently, although spreading can be
done by shovelers spreading salt or sand
from the backs of dump trucks. For a medium snowfall, graders (which are able to
clear wide paths at relatively high speeds)
are the most efficient snow removal equip17-1
FM 5-412
ment for main roads. Snowplows mounted
on 5-ton dump trucks are used for secondary roads. For heavy snowfalls and large
accumulations, snowblowers are necessary
to discharge the snow over the high snow
banks which build up on both sides of the
road. Plows are used to move snow to the
sides of the road. While graders alone can-
not handle heavy snow loads, they are used
continuously during a heavy snowstorm to
keep main roads open.
Table 17-2 may be used to prepare preliminary man-hour estimates for snow removal.
Other Estimating Requirements
FM 5-412
Remove existing structures
Clearing and grubbing
Fill, place, and compact
Landscaping, seeding, and sodding
Excavation and backfill
Relocate existing utilities
Concrete foundations and footings
Pipe sleeves
Underfloor conduit and plumbing
Transformer vault
Grade beams
Ground floor slab
Jet anchor bolts or plates
Concrete columns, beams, and girders
Concrete floor and roof slabs
Precast wall and roof panels
Precast structural members
Precast sills and lintels
Concrete canopy and entrances
Tread and nosings
Pipe sleeves and openings
Structural steel
Masonry - concrete block, brick, and
structural tile
Framing floors, walls, roofs, stairs
Sheathing walls and roof
Door bucks and frames - wood
Door bucks and frames - metal
Overhead doors
Window frames
Conduit in slabs and walls
Piping in walls
Electrical roughing-in
Plumbing roughing-in
Work-Element Checklist
Siding - wood
Metal siding and roofing
Hoods and ventilators
Insulation, roof
Asphalt or wood shingles
Intercom system
Telephone switchboard equipment
Alarm systems, burglar and fire
Electric service
Telephone service
Metal studs and partitions
Insulation, walls and ceilings
Downspouts and gutters
Fire escape
Platforms and catwalks
Roof scuttles
Exterior doors
Screen doors
Window screens
Exterior trim
Closet units
Mirrors and medicine cabinets
Interior doors
Metal doors
Metal toilet partitions
FM 5-412
Security grills
Ceramic tile
Electric fixtures
Plumbing fixtures
Finish flooring
Tile flooring, asphalt,
rubber, vinyl, cork
Acoustical tile
Interior trim
Curbs and walks
Parking areas
Air conditioning
Compressed air systems
Dry cleaning equipment
Exhaust fan
Fire protection systems
Heating system
Laundry equipment
Shop equipment
Ventilation equipment
Mess equipment
Water coolers
Hospital equipment
Culvert head and wing walls
Sewage treatment plants
Telephone cable
Underground duct
Conduit risers
Manholes and handholds
Street lights
Security lights
Control devices
Capacitors and voltage regulators
Clearing and grubbing
Trenching and ditching
Backfill and compact
Erosion control
Water mains
Water service lines
Sanitary sewer service lines
Valve boxes
Water storage tanks
Water pumps
Sewage pumps
Storm sewers and manholes
Catch basins
Stripping quarry
Drilling and blasting
Handling and loading quarried material
Hauling to crusher or job
Setting up crusher plant
Operating crusher
Stockpiling crushed material
Hauling crushed material to plants or job
Setting up asphalt plant
Operating asphalt plant
Hauling asphalt to job
Setting up concrete batch plant
Hauling concrete to job
Manufacturing concrete block - all sizes
Manufacturing precast concrete units - all
Hauling precast units to job
Reinforcing steel fabrications
Prefabricating doors, windows, jalousies,
louvers, frames
Prefabricating stairs, cabinets, closet units
Prefabricating concrete pipe
Work-Element Checklist
FM 5-412
Clearing and grubbing
Cut and fill
Trenching and ditching
Move and change interfering utilities
Head and wingwalls
Catch basins
Storm drainage
Prepare subgrade, subbase, base
Fine grading
Erosion control
Asphalt tack coat
Spread and roll asphaltic concrete
Spread and roll chip and gravel coats
Concrete paving forms
Reinforcing steel and dowels
Expansion and contraction joints
Finishing and curing
Concrete curbs complete
Concrete walks complete
Asphalt curbs complete
Asphalt erosion protection
Asphalt walks complete
Precast curbs installed
Sheet piling
Pile dolphins
Pier piling
Pile capping
Pier framing
Pier decking
Work-Element Checklist
Pier deck hardware
Pile extraction
Tiebacks and deadman
FM 5-412
When daily equipment and personnel requirements exceed what is available to the manager for a project, he must resource constrain
the project to have as little effect as possible
on the project duration. Often resources can
be shifted in such a way to avoid delaying
the overall project duration; however, shifting
resources may result In more critical activities and certainly less available float of some
activities within the ES schedule.
Resource constraining a project consists of
three parts: 1) resource constrain the ES
schedule, 2) update the logic network, and 3)
update the ES schedule.
Step 1. Find the first time period where
resource requirements exceed the resources allocated. ES schedule resource manipulation must be done chronologically, one
time period at a time, working from left to
right within the ES schedule.
Step 2. Choose an activity(ies) to delay.
In order to solve the problem of too many
scheduled resources on a given day, you
must delay an activity from being done and
consuming resources on that day. To select
which activity would be the best to delay, consider the following five priorities.
The first priority choosing which activity to delay is to choose an activity that
starts on the time period resources are exceeded. By choosing to delay an activity
Resource Constraining
that has already started and is on-going, you are leaving that job undone,
pulling out the resources, and planning
to come back to finish it later. Choosing an activity that is just scheduled to
start saves start-up and shut-down
time, as well as unnecessary transportation requirements and extra on-site material-delivery coordination and security. If more than one activity is scheduled to start on the time period resources are exceeded, then consider the
next priority for determining which activity to choose to delay.
The second priority for choosing which activity to delay is to choose an activity
that, when delayed, provides sufficient resources to solve the constraint problem.
For example, if you have 15 trucks scheduled for a particular day but have only 12
trucks available to use, delaying an activity that uses just 2 trucks does not solve
your problem; you now have only 13
trucks scheduled for that day, but you
need to constrain it down to the 12
trucks (or less) that you have available.
Choosing to delay an activity that uses,
for example, 5 trucks on that day will
bring your scheduled total down to 10,
which solves the problem on that day. If
no single activity provides sufficient resources to lower the amount to or below
what you have available, then choose a
combination of activities to delay to meet
the constraint requirement. If, however,
more than one activity provides sufficient
resources to solve the problem, then
FM 5-412
consider the next priority for determining which activity to delay.
The third priority for choosing which activity to delay is to choose an activity
with the most total float. This will prevent the manager from selecting critical
or nearly critical activities to delay, unless absolutely necessary. If more than
one activity has the most total float, (for
example, three activities each have six
days total float), then consider the next
priority for determining which activity
to delay.
The fourth priority for choosing which
activity to delay is to choose an activity
with the most free float. Activities with
more free float are less likely to impact
follow-on activities in the schedule. If
more than one activity has the most free
float for example, two activities each
have four days free float of the six days
total float), then consider the next priority for determining which activity to delay.
The fifth priority for choosing which activity to delay is to choose the activity
with the shortest activity duration.
Shorter activity duration estimates are
less likely to be incorrect and to extend
the project’s overall duration.
Step 3. Delay that activity one time period and follow the delay through the
schedule. If an activity is delayed into interfering float or past its right bracket (LF),
follow the results of the delay through the
rest of the schedule. (An activity delayed
into interfering float will delay another activity but will not delay the project duration. )
Identify all activities that logically follow
the delayed activity. The numbers of
the follow-on activities are shown in parentheses behind the number of the delayed activity (those activities that cannot begin until the delayed, dependent
activity is complete). For example, activity 25(40,55) indicates that activities 40
and 55 logically follow activity 25, and
they may or may not be affected by the
delay of activity 25. Check each of
these follow-on activities to see if its ES
time precedes the new EF time of the recently delayed activity. If so, delay that
follow-on activity's ES until the first
time period after the EF of the activity
which had been delayed for resources.
Subsequently, check activities 40 and
55 and the follow-on activities of 40 and
55 for possible effects. This pattern continues until all conflicting follow-on activities are delayed into free float.
Step 4. Sum the resources. After following
the delay through the schedule, determine
the new total resource requirement for each
time period.
Step 5. Proceed to the next time period.
Move to the next time period where required
resources exceed the resources available. Repeat steps 2 through 4 above until the entire
schedule has been adjusted to meet the resource limitations.
Step 6. Identity the cause of the delay. If
an activity was delayed for resources at any
time, place an "R" to the right of its LF
bracket (see Figure B-1 ). If an activity was
delayed because of logic only (because it logically follows a previously delayed activity),
place an "L" to the right of its LF bracket. If
an activity was delayed for both resources
and logic (for example, an activity which was
logically delayed because of a resource-delayed activity and then later further delayed
because, of resources), mark the activity as a
resource delay.
Step 7. Draw the resouree flow arrow(s).
Each resource-delayed activity is immediately
preceded by an activity(ies) that uses the
same resource and has an EF time that is
one time period before the resource-delayed
activity begins. This activity(ies), when coupled with "mothballed" resources, will often
provide sufficient resources to start the work
the next time period. "Mothballed" resources
are resources that were not put to work in
the previous time period. (For example, 2
trucks were "mothballed" the day that 12
trucks are available and only 10 trucks were
scheduled for work. ) If two or more activities
that use the same resource are scheduled to
finish (EF) during the preceding time period,
Resource Constraining
choose the one which, when coupled with
"mothballed" resources from the previous
time period, will provide the least suffient resource; in other words, avoid resource overkill. Draw a resource flow arrow(s) from the
end of the activity providing the resources to
the beginning of the resource-delayed activity. If no one activity can provide sufficient
resources, even when coupled with "mothballed" resources that were not in use during
the previous day, draw flow arrows from two
or more ending activities to the start of the resource-delayed activity.
Figure B-1 is resource constrained down to
18 carpenters. Now activity 15(50) is resourcedelayed and will begin on time period 5.
Resource Constraining
FM 5-412
Look at the preceding time period (4) for activities that end there and that use the
same type of resource. Both activities
5(60,65) and 10(70) end at time period 4,
but only activity 10(70) provides sufficient
resources for activity 15(50) to begin.
Therefore, activity 10(70) must be completed before activity 15(50) can begin. In
this example, draw a resource flow arrow
from the scheduled end (EF) of activity
10(70) to the new beginning (ES) of activity
An activity may require assets from two or
more activities, or one activity may provide assets for two or more activities. Figure B-2 is resource constrained down to 14 scoop loaders.
FM 5-412
Activities 25(35) and 30(55 ) are both necessary to provide sufficient resources for activity 40 when coupled with two of the three
unscheduled "mothball" resources not used
in time period 7.
Step 8. Draw the resource dummy arrow.
A resource dummy arrow must be added to
the logic network for every resource flow arrow on the ES schedule. Draw the resource
dummy arrow from the activity(ies) that provide the resources to the activity(ies) that receive the resources. In Figure B-3, activity
20 provides resources for activity 30. It is
not necessary to maintain the activity numbering rules (lower to higher) when adding
resource dummy arrows.
Step 9. Conduct a new time analysis.
Treat the added resource dummy arrow as a
logic arrow, and conduct new forward and
backward passes. The resource dummy arrow will change some of the early and late
starts and finishes of the nodes in the network, and it may cause a change or addition to the critical path(s).
Step 10. List activities. Activities that
provided resources will gain new follow-on
activity numbers (in parentheses).
Step 11. Mark time frames. Check the
ES and LF times in the network for all activities. If an activity’s ES or LF changed,
remark the left and right brackets accordingly.
Step 12. Identify float. Recalculate interfering float for each activity based on the
new ES and LF times. Update the interfering float ("Xs") on the ES schedule.
This step-by-step procedure will provide a
solution to the problem of insufficient numbers of resources. If this technique results
in project delays that are unacceptable,
there are variations the manager can use to
select activities to delay.
The first variation is to delay an activity
that has already started by splitting the activity. This option requires that you essentially make two activities out of one and redefine the logic network. You must remember to add the new activity to the ES schedule.
The second variation often provides the better solution to the resource problem. It is
to delay an activity that is scheduled to begin before the time period in question. The
delay procedure used is the same, except
that the activity delay will be greater than
one time period; therefore, plenty of float is
required for that activity’s delay.
Resource Constraining
FM 5-412
The third variation is a deviation from the
second priority of step 2 in the resourceconstraining process. If a combination of
activities provides sufficient resources to
meet the constraint and each has plenty of
float, delay each of these activities rather
than one activity that is critical or nearly
A project manager can use these techniques
after he fully understands the basic techniques of resource constraining. For any
project with insufficient resources, the project manager must ultimately decide which
activities to delay. An understanding of the
intricate interaction between each activity
will enable the manager to make informed
decisions and successfully complete the project.
As a project supervisor, you developed the
logic diagram and ES schedule shown in
Figure B-4, page B-6. During your initial
planning, the number of available squads
(14) was the only critical resource. Later
you were tasked to provide three squads to
support post cleanup during the same time
period. This has reduced the number of
squads available for the project to 11. You
must resource constrain the project to 11
squads by completing the following tasks:
Resource constrain the ES schedule
(Part 1).
Update the logic network (Part 2).
Update the ES schedule (Part 3).
Determine if the reduced number of
squads will affect the project duration.
After constraining the ES schedule, you
find that there are two resource delays (R)
and one logic delay (L), as shown in Figure
B-5, page B-7. Activity 15 cannot start until the resource from activity 20 becomes
available. When delayed, activity 15 moves
into interfering float. This causes a logic delay of three days for activities 35 and 40.
(Activity 45 is unaffected. ) When time
period 6 is constrained, you find that activity 40 must be delayed one additional day
for insufficient resources. Although activity
40 was initially delayed due to logic, it will
Resource Constraining
receive an "R" delay. The resource needed
for activity 40 must come from activity 30.
The two resource flow arrows are incorporated into the logic network by drawing
dashed arrows and a superimposed "R", as
shown in Figure B-6, page B-7. This establishes two new paths in the network and
changes the time analysis. Whereas the old
critical path consisted of nodes 25 and 55,
there is now an additional critical path consisting of nodes 20, 15, 35, and 55.
A new ES schedule must incorporate the
changes which were made in the logic network. After updating the activity numbers
(step 10), time frames (step 11), and float
calculations (step 12), you prepared an ES
schedule as shown in Figure B-7, page B-8.
Activities 20 and 30 changed follow-on activities. Time frames (ES and/or LF)
changed for activities 15, 20, 35, and 40.
Interfering float calculations, however, did
not change for the activities with float (activities 10, 30, 40, 45, and 55).
You have now constrained the resources for
this project. Three additional activities (15,
20, and 35) have become critical. None of
the changes resulted in any activity being
delayed beyond its LF (right bracket).
Therefore, the project duration will not
FM 5-412
Resource Constraining
Resource Constraining
FM 5-412
FM 5-412
Off-the-shelf project management software
is available which will automatically constrain or cross-level resources. However, in
order to market this software to a broad
spectrum of users, the programs generally
use criteria to resource constrain that is
not acceptable for military construction
where the highest priority is usually to
avoid extending the overall project duration.
It is highly recommended that military managers manually use the 12-step constraining process listed above, even when using a
computer program.
Resource Constraining
FM 5-412
Conversion Factors
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Conversion Factors
Conversion Factors
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Conversion Factors
Conversion Factors
FM 5-412
Typical Plant Layouts
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Typical Plant Layouts
Typical Plant Layouts
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Typical Plant Layouts
Typical Plant Layouts
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Typical Plant Layouts
FM 5-412
Cement finishing towels
Wooden or metal floats
Concrete mixer
Transmit mix trucks
Batch plant
Weighing devices
Hoisting equipment
Belt conveyor
Heating equipment (cold weather)
Transportation equipment
Curing equipment required
Boots and gloves, kneepads
Vibrator (air-gas-elect)
Hand tools for forming
Sledge hammers
Trenching equipment
Hand levels (4-foot, 2-foot, and so forth)
Rules (6-foot)
Aggregate production equipment
Cement storage requirements
Pumps (keep excavations free from water)
Mechanical finishing trowels
Concrete pump
Gunite machine
Water hose
Subbase compaction equipment
Wrecking bars
Pry bars
Concrete paving machine
Pointing or cleaning requirements
Power tools for formwork
Grinding tools
Field office requirements
Brick towels
Line and line holders
Brick hammers
Pointing trowels
Mason's levels (4-foot)
Block saw and replacement blade
Joint finishing tools
Mixing bins or boxes
Mortar hoes
Equipment and Tool Checklist
Mortar mixer
Pliers or side cutters
Squares (framing)
Rules (6-foot)
Tapes (50- or 100-foot)
Water hose or barrels
Transportation equipment
FM 5-412
Folding rules (6-foot)
Leather gloves and jackknife
Side-cutting pliers (7-inch)
Tape measure (50-foot)
Bolt cutter (24-inch)
Hoisting equipment as required
Claw hammer
Oxyacetylene cutting equipment
Arc-welding equipment
Portable bender
Set of blocks 3/4-inch manila line
Snatch block (for hand hoisting)
Transportation equipment
Sand screens
Curing or drying equipment
Electric blowers, fan, and so forth
Hoisting equipment
Scaffolding requirements
Mixing machine
Pliers, shears, bolt cutters, and so forth for
metal lath
Hand tools for wood lath
Mechanical plastering machine
Material storage requirements
Transportation equipment
Safety equipment such as gloves and
Water hose or pails
Transportation equipment
Expansion bit
Field-office requirements
Storage-area requirements
Spray gun
Hoses (air-paint)
Drop cloths
Safety equipment
Face mask
Safety mask
Transportation equipment
Hoisting equipment
Putty knives
Paint scrapers
Wire brushes
Dusting brushes
Sanders (hand power)
Storage requirements (tarps and so forth)
Field-office requirements
Spare parts for spray equipment
Hose fittings
Paint gun extension
Paint mixer
Equipment and Tool Checklist
FM 5-412
Hammers and handles
Saws, crosscut, rip, keyhole,
and compass
Ripping chisels
Wood chisels
Brace and bits
Squares, framing, “T,” and combination
Plumb bob
Hand levels
Sharpening stones
Wrecking bars
Pliers . . . . .
Rules (6-foot)
Tapes (50- and 100-foot)
Nail aprons
Power equipment
Radial arms saw
Table saw
Drill press
Chain saws
Portable electrical hand saws
Sledge hammers
Hoisting equipment
At least one brake, 16-gage capacity
1 slip roll for cylindrical work
1 shear, 16-gage capacity
1 sheet-metal forming machine
1 drill press
1 electrial hand shear
Hand electrical drill with twist drills
Hand tools per worker
Toolbox with:
Combination square (12-inch)
Steel tape (6-foot)
Chisel, cold
Punch center
Rivet sets (set)
Hand groover (set)
Scratch awl
Edge scribe
Pliers, combination
Punch set (hand)
Wood mallet
Ball peen hammer
Setting hammer
Soldering iron
Vise grip pliers
Transportation equipment (crew materials)
Arc welding machines
(such as-accessories with hand tools)
Welder for shop can be permanent
(electrical drive)
Oxyacetylene welding and cutting ouffits
Grinding wheel (stationary)
Drill press with complete set drill bits
Equipment and Tool Checklist
Electric hand drill with complete set drill
Protective equipment
Gloves (leather gauntlet)
Leather jackets
Leather aprons
Arc welding hoods (with clear and color lens)
Acetylene welding goggles
(with clear and color lens)
Face shields (clear for grinding)
FM 5-412
Dump trucks
Power shovels
Rollers (grid-sheepsfoot, wobble wheel)
Quarry equipment
Rock drills
Rock dumps
Lubrication truck (field)
Water truck
Earth auger
Fuel truck
Light standards and generators
Spare parts and tires
Spare cables
Air and water hose
Low-bed trailers and tractors
Stake trucks
High-bed trailers and tractors
Field-office equipment
Storage-area materials
Transportation equipment:
Operator’s manuals
Repair parts manuals
Asphalt plant
Dump trucks
Asphalt paver
Steel-wheel roller
Concrete paver
Concrete spreader
Concrete finisher
Transit mix trucks
Concrete mixers
Quarry equipment
Rock drills
Stake trucks
Front-end loader
Rollers for compaction
Repair parts
Field-office requirements
Transportation equipment
Storage requirements
Sweeper, street
Water truck
Water and air hose
Hand levels
Miscellaneous hand tools for stake setting
Aggregate drying plant
Aggregate washing facilities
Operator’s manuals
Repair parts manuals
Climbing gear
Brace bits
Lineman’s bag (tool)
Center punches
Pliers, long-nose
Pliers, lineman’s
Fire pot
Lineman’s gloves
Safety strap
Rubber gloves
Equipment and Tool Checklist
Plier, diagonal
Equipment requirements
Storage requirements
Lighting equipment
Saws, electrical, hand
FM 5-412
Chain saws
Line truck
Pole spikes
Auger truck
Rules (6-foot)
Tapes (50-foot, 100-foot)
Plier’s diagonal
Plier’s lineman’s
Pliers, long-nose
Rules (6-foot)
Lineman’s tool bag
Claw hammers
Brace and bits
Auger bits
Keyhole and compass saw
Soldering irons
Electrician’s knives
Wire tapes
Circuit hickeys
Fire pot
Testing equipment
Crosscut saw
Scaffolding materials
Storage requirements
Safety gear
Transportation requirements
Tool belts
Oil can
Cold chisels
Round-nose chisels
Hacksaw blade
Half-round file, bastard, 10-inch
Handle, file
Hacksaw frame, adjustable
Saw net, keyhole and compass
Pliers, slip (8-inch)
Hammer, claw
Hammer, ball (1 1/2 pound)
Hammer handle (14-inch)
Wrench pipe (18-inch)
Wrench pipe (10-inch)
Wrench pipe (14-inch)
Handle, hammer, machine
Mechanic’s toolbox
Level, 2-plumb adjustment (28-inch)
Rule, wood folding (72-inch)
Wire brush
Shear, type “D”
Reamer, pipe burring
Cutter, pipe (4 x 6)
Cutter, pipe (1/8- to 2-inch)
Star drills, 1 set
Igniters (acetylene torch)
Marking crayon (soapstone)
Wire brush
Chipping hammer
Files of various types and sizes
Hacksaw with blades
Square, combination
Equipment and Tool Checklist
Square, framing
Square, tri
Cold chisels
Center punch
Crescent wrenches
"C" clamps (various sizes)
Chain hoist
FM 5-412
8-penny common
1O-penny common
16-penny common
Sheathing (8-penny common)
Flooring (8-penny common)
Roofing (8-penny common)
Wallboard (6-penny common)
4-penny finish
6-penny finish
8-penny finish
Block (8 X 16) - 3/8 joint
4-inch wall
8-inch wall
12-inch wall
Brick (2 1/4 x 8) - 3/8 joint
4-inch wall
8-inch wall
12-inch wall
Structure tile (12 X 12) - 3/8 joint
4-inch wall
8-inch wall
12-inch wall
5 lb/thousand bd ft measure
15 lb/thousand bd ft measure
10 lb/thousand bd ft measure
30 lb/thousand bd ft measure
30 lb/thousand bd ft measure
30 lb/thousand bd ft measure
15 lb/1,000 sq ft trim
3 lb/1,000 lin ft
7 lb/1,000 lin ft
14 lb/1,000 lin ft
0.1 cu yd/100 blocks
0.2 cu yd/100 blocks
0.3 cu yd/100 blocks
0.3 cu yd/1,000 brick
0.4 cu yd/1,000 brick
0.4 cu yd/1,000 brick
0.2 cu yd/100 tile
0.3 cu yd/100 tile
0.5 cu yd/100 tile
Putty for Glass
10 X 16
12 x 20
14 X 24
16 X 28
0.6 lb/pane
0.8 lb/pane
0.9 lb/pane
1.1 lb/pane
1.4 lb/pane
Compound ( 1/2 x 1 /2)
2 gal/1,000 lin ft
13 gal/1,000 lin ft
Zinc white
White lead
0.2 gal/100 sq ft
0.2 gal/100 sq ft
0.2 gal/100 sq ft
Consumption Factors for Expendable Supplies
FM 5-412
Zinc White
White lead
0.2 gal/100 sq ft
0.2 gal/100 sq ft
0.3 gal/l00 sq ft
0.2 gal/100 sq ft
0.2 gal/100 sq ft
0.3 gal/100 sq ft
Brick, Concrete, Plaster
Zinc White
White lead
0.2 gal/l00 sq ft
0.3 gal/l00 sq ft
0.4 gal/100 sq ft
0.2 gal/100 sq ft
0.3 gal/100 sq ft
0.4 gal/l00 sq ft
0.3 gal/100 sq ft
0.3 gal/100 sq ft
0.4 gal/l00 sq ft
Consumption Factors for Expendable Supplies
FM 5-412
equipment hours
5-ton truck
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
Army Facilities Components System
Air Force Pamphlet
Army regulation
American Society of Military Engineers
American Society for Testing and Materials
black iron
manufacturer’s model identification
bill of materials
British thermal unit
clays, high compressibility (LL > 50)
clay, low compressibility (LL < 50)
critical path method
Department of the Army
Department of Defense
effort, efficient
early finish
Productive hours of an item of equipment; not the hours shown on the
equipment’s hour meter.
early start
free float
field manual
clayey gravel
silty gravel
poorly graded gravel
scp ldrs
FM 5-412
well-graded gravel
interfering float
logic delay
late finish
liquid limit
lines of communication
late start
Manpower Requirements Criteria
silt, high compressibility (LL > 50)
silt, low compressibility (LL < 50)
miles per hour
noncommissioned officer
noncommissioned officer in charge
on center
organic soil, high compressibility (LL > 50)
on-the-job training
organic soil, low compressibility (LL < 50)
packaged expendable contingency supply
proceeded immediately by
pounds per square inch
pounds per square inch gauge
polyvinyl chloride
resource delay
reinforced steel tie
Operations and Training Officer (US Army)
slow curing
scoop loaders
small emplacement excavator
scoop loader
silty sands and poorly graded sand-silt mixture
standing operating procedure
poorly graded sand
well-graded sand
Theatre Construction Management System
FM 5-412
total float
technical manual
theater of operations
table(s) of organization and equipment
tons per hour
United States
United States Army Engineer School
FM 5-412
Sources Used
These are the sources quoted or paraphrased in this publication.
Military Publications
AR 570-2, Manpower Requirements Criteria (MARC) - Tables of Organization and Equipment,
15 May 1992.
FM 5-34. Engineer Field Data. 14 September 1987.
FM 5-410. Military Soils Engineering. 23 December 1992.
FM 5-430-00-1/AFPAM 32-8013, Vol 1. Planning and Design of Roads, Airfields, and Hellports in the Theater of Operations: Volume 1, Roads. To be published within six months.
FM 5-742. Concrete and Masonry. 14 March 1985.
TM 5-301-1. Army Facilities Components System - Planning (Temperate). 27 June 1986.
TM 5-301-2. Army Facilities Components Sysstem - Planing (Tropical). 27 June 1986.
TM 5-301-3. Army Facilities Components System - Planning (Frigid). 27 June 1986.
TM 5-301-4. Army Facilities Components System - Planning (Desert). 27 June 1986.
TM 5-302-1. Army Facilities Components System: Design, Volume 1. 28 September 1973.
TM 5-302-2. Army Facilities Components System: Design, Volume 2. 28 September 1973.
TM 5-302-3. Army Facilities Components System: Design, Volume 3, 28 September 1973.
TM 5-302-4. Army Facilities Components System: Design, Volume 4. 28 September 1973.
TM 5-302-5. Army Facilities Components System: Design, Volume 5. 28 September 1973.
TM 5-303. Army Facilities Components System - Logistic Data and Bill of Materiel. 01 June
TM 5-304. Army Facilities Components System User Guide. 1 October 1991.
TM 5-331D. Utilization of Engineer Construction Equipment Volume D-1 Asphalt and Concrete
Equipment. April 1969.
TM 5-337-1. Asphalt Plant Layout 100 to 150-TPH. 29 March 1971.
TM 5-744. Structural Steelwork. 10 October 1968.
TM 55-503. Marine Salvage and Hull Repair 13 July 1966.
Nonmilitary Publications
Covey, Stephen R. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. Simon and Schuster, 1989,
Covey Leadership Center, 1-800-331-7716.
Documents Needed
These documents must be available to the intended users of this publication.
DA Form 2028. Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms. February 1974.
DD Form 1723. Flow Process Chart. September 1976.
References- 1
FM 5-412
Index- 1
FM 5-412
FM 5-412
FM 5-412
FM 5-412
FM 5-412
FM 5-412
FM 5-412
FM 5-412
FM 5-412
FM 5-412
13 JUNE 1994
By Order of the Secretary of the Army
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
Active Army, USAR, and ARNG: To be published in accordance with DA Form 12-11-E,
requirements for FM 5-412, Project Management (Qty rqr block no. 0015).
★ U. S. G. P. 0.:1994-528-C127:80134
PIN: 072614-000
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