AD9879

AD9879
Mixed-Signal Front End
Set-Top Box, Cable Modem
AD9879
FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
FEATURES
I
TX Q ⇑16
TX DATA
12
TX
DAC
DDS
Σ-∆
Σ-∆_OUT
CA_PORT
4
SPORT
CONTROL REGISTERS
MCLK
PLL
XM/N
2
RXIQ[3:0]
8
MUX
RXI
ADC
MUX
2
RXQ
10
RXIF[11:0]
ADC
RX10
MUX
12
APPLICATIONS
Cable modem and satellite systems
Set-top boxes
Power line modem
PC multimedia
Digital communications
Data and video modems
QAM, OFDM, FSK modulation
SINC–1
ADC
RX12
MUX
CLAMP
VIDEO
AD9879
02773-001
Low cost 3.3 V MxFE™ for
DOCSIS-, EURO-DOCSIS-, DVB-, DAVIC-compliant
set-top box and cable modem applications
232 MHz quadrature digital upconverter
12-bit direct IF DAC (TxDAC+™)
Up to 65 MHz carrier frequency DDS
Programmable sampling clock rates
16× upsampling interpolation LPF
Single-tone frequency synthesis
Analog Tx output level adjust
Direct cable amp interface
12-bit, 33 MSPS direct IF ADC
with optional video clamping input
10-bit, 33 MSPS direct IF ADC
Dual 7-bit, 16.5 MSPS sampling I/Q ADC
12-bit Σ-∆ auxiliary DAC
Figure 1.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The AD9879 is a single-supply set-top box and cable modem
mixed-signal front end. The device contains a transmit path
interpolation filter, complete quadrature digital upconverter,
and transmit DAC. The receive path contains a 12-bit ADC, a
10-bit ADC, and dual 7-bit ADCs. All internally required clocks
and an output system clock are generated by the phase-locked
loop (PLL) from a single crystal or clock input.
The transmit path interpolation filter provides an upsampling
factor of 16× with an output signal bandwidth as high as
8.3 MHz. Carrier frequencies up to 65 MHz with 26 bits of
frequency tuning resolution can be generated by the direct
digital synthesizer (DDS). The transmit DAC resolution is
12 bits and can run at sampling rates as high as 232 MSPS.
Analog output scaling from 0.0 dB to 7.5 dB in 0.5 dB steps is
available to preserve SNR when reduced output levels are
required.
The 12-bit and 10-bit IF ADCs can convert direct IF inputs up
to 70 MHz and run at sample rates up to 33 MSPS. A video
input with an adjustable signal clamping level, along with the
10-bit ADC, allow the AD9879 to process an NTSC and a QAM
channel simultaneously.
The programmable Σ-Δ DAC can be used to control external
components, such as variable gain amplifiers (VGAs) or voltage
controlled tuners. The CA port provides an interface to the
AD8321/AD8323 or AD8322/AD8327 programmable gain
amplifier (PGA) cable drivers, enabling host processor control
via the MxFE SPORT.
The AD9879 is available in a 100-lead MQFP. It offers enhanced
receive path undersampling performance and lower cost when
compared with the pin-compatible AD9873. The AD9879 is
specified over the commercial (−40°C to +85°C) temperature
range.
Rev. A
Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable.
However, no responsibility is assumed by Analog Devices for its use, nor for any
infringements of patents or other rights of third parties that may result from its use.
Specifications subject to change without notice. No license is granted by implication
or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Analog Devices. Trademarks and
registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
One Technology Way, P.O. Box 9106, Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A.
Tel: 781.329.4700
www.analog.com
Fax: 781.461.3113
© 2005 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved.
AD9879
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Specifications..................................................................................... 4
Serial Interface for Register Control ............................................ 20
Absolute Maximum Ratings............................................................ 7
General Operation of the Serial Interface............................... 20
Explanation of Test Levels ........................................................... 7
Instruction Byte .......................................................................... 20
Thermal Characteristics .............................................................. 7
Serial Interface Port Pin Description....................................... 20
ESD Caution.................................................................................. 7
MSB/LSB Transfers .................................................................... 20
Pin Configuration and Function Descriptions............................. 8
Notes on Serial Port Operation ................................................ 21
Terminology .................................................................................... 10
Transmit Path (Tx) ......................................................................... 22
Theory of Operation ...................................................................... 11
Transmit Timing......................................................................... 22
Transmit Path.............................................................................. 11
Data Assembler........................................................................... 22
Data Assembler........................................................................... 11
Half-Band Filters (HBFs) .......................................................... 22
Interpolation Filter ..................................................................... 12
Cascaded Integrator-Comb (CIC) Filter................................. 22
Digital Upconverter.................................................................... 12
Combined Filter Response........................................................ 22
DPLL-A Clock Distribution...................................................... 12
Tx Signal Level Considerations ................................................ 24
Clock and Oscillator Circuitry ................................................. 12
Tx Throughput and Latency ..................................................... 24
Programmable Clock Output REFCLK................................... 13
Digital-to-Analog Converter .................................................... 25
Reset and Transmit Power-Down ............................................ 14
Programming the AD8321/AD8323 or AD8322/AD8327 Cable
Driver Amplifier Gain Control..................................................... 26
Σ-Δ Outputs ................................................................................ 15
Register Map and Bit Definitions ................................................. 16
Register 0x00—Initialization .................................................... 17
Register 0x01—Clock Configuration....................................... 17
Register 0x02—Power-Down.................................................... 17
Registers 0x03–0x04—Σ-Δ and Flag Control......................... 17
Register 0x07—Video Input Configuration............................ 17
Register 0x08—ADC Clock Configuration ............................ 18
Register 0x0C—Die Revision.................................................... 18
Register 0x0D—Tx Frequency Tuning Words LSBs.............. 18
Register 0x0E—DAC Gain Control ......................................... 18
Register 0x0F—Tx Path Configuration ................................... 18
Receive Path (Rx) ........................................................................... 27
IF10 and IF12 ADC Operation ................................................ 27
Input Signal Range and Digital Output Codes....................... 27
Driving the Inputs ...................................................................... 27
PCB Design Considerations.......................................................... 28
Component Placement .............................................................. 28
Power Planes and Decoupling .................................................. 28
Ground Planes ............................................................................ 29
Signal Routing............................................................................. 29
Outline Dimensions ....................................................................... 30
Ordering Guide .......................................................................... 30
Registers 0x10–0x17—Carrier Frequency Tuning................. 19
Rev. A | Page 2 of 32
AD9879
REVISION HISTORY
6/05—Rev. 0 to Rev. A
Updated Format.................................................................. Universal
Changed OSCOUT to REFCLK....................................... Universal
Changed REF CLK to REFCLK........................................ Universal
Changes to Specifications Section................................................... 4
Changes to Figure 13 ...................................................................... 21
Changes to Equation 18.................................................................. 24
Changes to Equation 21.................................................................. 24
Changes to Outline Dimensions ................................................... 30
Changes to Ordering Guide........................................................... 30
8/02—Revision 0: Initial Version
Rev. A | Page 3 of 32
AD9879
SPECIFICATIONS
VAS = 3.3 V ± 5%, VDS = 3.3 V ± 10%, fOSCIN = 27 MHz, fSYSCLK = 216 MHz, fMCLK = 54 MHz (M = 8), ADC clock from OSCIN,
RSET = 4.02 kΩ, 75 Ω DAC load, unless otherwise noted.
Table 1.
Parameter
OSCIN AND XTAL CHARACTERISTICS
Frequency Range
Duty Cycle
Input Impedance
MCLK Cycle to Cycle Jitter
Tx DAC CHARACTERISTICS
Resolution
Maximum Sample Rate
Full-Scale Output Current
Gain Error (Using Internal Reference)
Offset Error
Reference Voltage (REFIO Level)
Differential Nonlinearity (DNL)
Integral Nonlinearity (INL)
Output Capacitance
Phase Noise @ 1 kHz Offset, 42 MHz
Crystal and OSCIN Multiplier Enabled at 16×
Output Voltage Compliance Range
Wideband SFDR
5 MHz Analog Out, IOUT = 10 mA
65 MHz Analog Out, IOUT = 10 mA
Narrow-band SFDR (±1 MHz Window)
5 MHz Analog Out, IOUT = 10 mA
Tx MODULATOR CHARACTERISTICS
I/Q Offset
Pass-Band Amplitude Ripple (f < fIQCLK/8)
Pass-Band Amplitude Ripple (f < fIQCLK/4)
Stop-Band Response (f > fIQCLK × 3/4)
Tx GAIN CONTROL
Gain Step Size
Gain Step Error
Settling Time to 1% (Full-Scale Step)
IQ ADC CHARACTERISTICS
Resolution1
Maximum Conversion Rate
Pipeline Delay
Offset Matching Between I and Q ADCs
Gain Matching Between I and Q ADCs
Analog Input
Input Voltage Range1
Input Capacitance
Differential Input Resistance
AC Performance (AIN = 0.5 dBFS, fIN = 5 MHz)
Effective Number of Bits (ENOB)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
Spurious-Free Dynamic Range (SFDR)
Temp
Test Level
Min
Typ
Full
Full
25°C
25°C
II
II
III
III
3
35
N/A
Full
Full
25°C
25°C
25°C
25°C
25°C
25°C
N/A
II
II
I
I
I
III
III
III
25°C
Full
III
II
−0.5
Full
Full
III
III
60.8
44.0
66.9
46.2
dBc
dBc
Full
III
65.4
72.3
dBc
Full
Full
Full
Full
II
II
II
II
50
55
25°C
25°C
25°C
III
III
III
N/A
Full
N/A
Full
Full
N/A
II
N/A
III
III
Full
25°C
25°C
III
III
III
25°C
25°C
25°C
25°C
I
I
I
I
50
100||3
6
Max
Unit
29
65
MHz
%
MΩ||pF
ps rms
12
232
4
−2.0
1.18
10
−1.0
±1.0
1.23
±2.5
±8
5
20
+2.0
1.28
−110
+1.5
±0.1
±0.5
−63
41.3
Rev. A | Page 4 of 32
dBc/Hz
V
dB
dB
dB
dB
0.5
<0.05
1.8
dB
dB
µs
6
3.5
±4.0
±2.0
Bits
MHz
ADC cycles
LSBs
LSBs
1
2.0
4
Vppd
pF
kΩ
5.8
36.5
−50
51
Bits
dB
dB
dB
14.5
5.00
34.7
Bits
MHz
mA
% FS
% FS
V
LSB
LSB
pF
−36.2
AD9879
Parameter
10-BIT ADC CHARACTERISTICS
Resolution
Maximum Conversion Rate
Pipeline Delay
Analog Input
Input Voltage Range
Input Capacitance
Differential Input Resistance
Reference Voltage Error
(REFT10–REFB10) –1 V
AC Performance (AIN = –0.5 dBFS, fIN = 5 MHz)
ADC Sample Clock Source = OSCIN
Signal-to-Noise and Distortion (SINAD)
Effective Number of Bits (ENOB)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
Spurious-Free Dynamic Range (SFDR)
AC Performance (AIN = −0.5 dBFS, fIN = 50 MHz)
ADC Sample Clock Source = OSCIN
Signal-to-Noise and Distortion (SINAD)
Effective Number of Bits (ENOB)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
Spurious-Free Dynamic Range (SFDR)
12-BIT ADC CHARACTERISTICS
Resolution
Maximum Conversion Rate
Pipeline Delay
Analog Input
Input Voltage Range
Input Capacitance
Differential Input Resistance
Reference Voltage Error
(REFT12–REFB12) −1 V
AC Performance (AIN = −0.5 dBFS, fIN = 5 MHz)
ADC Sample Clock Source = OSCIN
Signal-to-Noise and Distortion (SINAD)
Effective Number of Bits (ENOB)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
Spurious-Free Dynamic Range (SFDR)
AC Performance (AIN = −0.5 dBFS, fIN = 50 MHz)
ADC Sample Clock Source = OSCIN
Signal-to-Noise and Distortion (SINAD)
Effective Number of Bits (ENOB)
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
Spurious-Free Dynamic Range (SFDR)
VIDEO CLAMP PERFORMANCE
(AIN = −0.5 dBFS, f = 5 MHz)
ADC Sample Clock = OSCIN
Signal-to-Noise and Distortion (SINAD)
Effective Number of Bits (ENOB)
Temp
Test Level
Min
N/A
Full
N/A
N/A
II
N/A
29
Full
25°C
25°C
Typ
Max
10
Unit
4.5
Bits
MHz
ADC cycles
III
III
II
2.0
2
4
Vppd
pF
kΩ
Full
I
±4
Full
Full
Full
Full
Full
II
II
II
II
II
58.3
9.4
58.6
65.7
59.9
9.65
60
−73
76
Full
Full
Full
Full
Full
II
II
II
II
II
57.7
9.29
57.8
−61.4
64
59.0
9.51
59.1
−75
78
dB
Bits
dB
dB
dB
N/A
Full
N/A
N/A
II
N/A
12
29
5.5
Bits
MHz
ADC cycles
Full
25°C
25°C
III
III
III
2
2
4
Vppd
pF
kΩ
Full
I
±16
Full
Full
Full
Full
Full
II
II
II
II
II
60.0
9.67
60.3
Full
Full
Full
Full
Full
II
II
II
II
II
59.5
9.59
59.7
63.8
62.7
10.1
63.0
−75.5
79
Full
Full
II
II
43.9
7.0
50.6
8.1
64.7
Rev. A | Page 5 of 32
65.2
10.53
65.6
−76.6
79
±200
−62
±200
−58.7
−60.5
mV
dB
Bits
dB
dB
dB
mV
dB
Bits
dB
dB
dB
dB
Bits
dB
dB
dB
dB
Bits
AD9879
Parameter
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
Spurious-Free Dynamic Range (SFDR)
CHANNEL-TO-CHANNEL ISOLATION
Tx DAC-to-ADC Isolation (AOUT = 5 MHz)
Isolation Between Tx and IQ ADCs
Isolation Between Tx and 10-Bit ADC
Isolation Between Tx and 12-Bit ADC
ADC-to-ADC (AIN = –0.5 dBFS, f = 5 MHz)
Isolation Between IF10 and IF12 ADCs
Isolation Between Q and I Inputs
TIMING CHARACTERISTICS (10 pF Load)
Minimum RESET Pulse Width Low (tRL)
Digital Output Rise/Fall Time
Tx/Rx Interface
MCLK Frequency (fMCLK)
TxSYNC/TxIQ Setup Time (tSU)
TxSYNC/TxIQ Hold Time (tHD)
MCLK Rising Edge to
RxSYNC/RxIQ/IF Valid Delay (tMD)
REFCLK Rising or Falling Edge to
RxSYNC/RxIQ/IF Valid Delay (tOD)
REFCLK Edge to MCLK Falling Edge (tEE)
Serial Control Bus
Maximum SCLK Frequency (fSCLK)
Minimum Clock Pulse Width High (tPWH)
Minimum Clock Pulse Width Low (tPWL)
Maximum Clock Rise/Fall Time
Minimum Data/Chip-Select Setup Time (tDS)
Minimum Data Hold Time (tDH)
Maximum Data Valid Time (tDV)
CMOS LOGIC INPUTS
Logic 1 Voltage
Logic 0 Voltage
Logic 1 Current
Logic 0 Current
Input Capacitance
CMOS LOGIC OUTPUTS (1 mA Load)
Logic 1 Voltage
Logic 0 Voltage
POWER SUPPLY
Supply Current, IS (Full Operation)
Analog Supply Current, IAS
Digital Supply Current, IDS
Supply Current, IS
Standby (PWRDN Pin Active)
Full Power-Down (Register 0x02 = 0xF9)
Power-Down Tx Path (Register 0x02 = 0x60)
Power-Down Rx Path (Register 0x02 = 0x19)
1
Temp
Full
Full
Full
Test Level
II
II
II
Min
46.2
25°C
25°C
25°C
III
III
III
>60
>80
>80
dB
dB
dB
25°C
25°C
III
III
>85
>50
dB
dB
N/A
Full
N/A
II
5
2.8
Full
Full
Full
II
II
II
3
3
Full
II
Full
Full
II
II
Full
Full
Full
Full
Full
Full
Full
II
II
II
II
II
II
II
25°C
25°C
25°C
25°C
25°C
II
II
II
II
II
VDRVDD – 0.7
25°C
25°C
II
II
VDRVDD – 0.6
25°C
25°C
25°C
II
III
III
163
95
68
184
mA
mA
mA
25°C
25°C
25°C
25°C
II
III
III
III
119
16
113
110
126
mA
mA
mA
mA
44.9
Typ
57.2
−50.1
53.4
Max
−44.5
4
Unit
Bits
dB
dB
tMCLK cycles
ns
66
MHz
ns
ns
0
1.0
ns
TOSC/4 – 2.0
−1.0
TOSC/4 + 3.0
+1.0
ns
ns
15
MHz
ns
ns
ms
ns
ns
ns
30
30
1
25
0
30
0.4
12
12
3
IQ ADC in default mode. ADC Clock Select Register 8, Bit 3 set to 0.
Rev. A | Page 6 of 32
0.4
V
V
µA
µA
pF
V
V
AD9879
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Table 2.
Parameter
Power Supply (VAVDD,VDVDD,VDRVDD)
Digital Output Current
Digital Inputs
Analog Inputs
Operating Temperature
Maximum Junction Temperature
Storage Temperature
Lead Temperature (Soldering, 10 sec)
Rating
3.9 V
5 mA
−0.3 V to VDRVDD + 0.3 V
−0.3 V to VAVDD + 0.3 V
−40°C to +85°C
150°C
−65°C to +150°C
300°C
Stresses above those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings
may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress
rating only and functional operation of the device at these or
any other conditions above those indicated in the operational
section of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute
maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect
device reliability.
EXPLANATION OF TEST LEVELS
I
Devices are 100% production tested at +25°C and
guaranteed by design and characterization testing for
commercial operating temperature range (−40ºC to
+85°C).
II
Parameter is guaranteed by design and/or
characterization testing.
III
Parameter is a typical value only.
N/A
Test level definition is not applicable.
THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS
Thermal Resistance
100-Lead MQFP
θJA = 40.5°C/W
ESD CAUTION
ESD (electrostatic discharge) sensitive device. Electrostatic charges as high as 4000 V readily accumulate on the
human body and test equipment and can discharge without detection. Although this product features
proprietary ESD protection circuitry, permanent damage may occur on devices subjected to high energy
electrostatic discharges. Therefore, proper ESD precautions are recommended to avoid performance
degradation or loss of functionality.
Rev. A | Page 7 of 32
AD9879
REFB10
AGND
Q+
Q–
83
82
81
86
AVDD
REFT10
87
84
AVDD
88
85
IF10–
AGND
89
AGND
AVDD
IF10+
REFB12
92
90
REFT12
94
93
91
AGND
AVDD
IF12–
98
97
95
IF12+
99
96
VIDEO IN
AGND
100
PIN CONFIGURATION AND FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS
DNC
1
DRGND
2
DRVDD
3
78
I–
IF(11)
4
77
DNC
DNC
PIN 1
80
DNC
79
I+
IF(10)
5
76
IF(9)
6
75
DNC
IF(8)
7
74
AGNDIQ
AVDDIQ
IF(7)
8
73
IF(6)
9
72
DRVDD
IF(5)
10
71
REFCLK
70
DRGND
69
DGND Σ-∆
IF(4)
11
IF(3)
12
IF(2)
13
IF(1)
14
67
IF(0)
15
66
DVDD Σ-∆
RXIQ(3)
16
65
CA_EN
CA_DATA
AD9879
TOP VIEW
(Pins Down)
68
Σ-∆_OUT
FLAG1
RXIQ(2)
17
64
RXIQ(1)
18
63
CA_CLK
RXIQ(0)
19
62
DVDDOSC
RXSYNC
20
61
OSCIN
DRGND
21
60
XTAL
DRVDD
22
59
DGNDOSC
MCLK
23
58
AGNDPLL
DVDD
24
57
PLLFILT
DGND
25
56
AVDDPLL
50
AGNDTX
Figure 2. Pin Configuration
Table 3. Pin Function Descriptions
Pin No.
1, 35, 75 to 77, 80
2, 21, 70
3, 22, 72
4 to 15
16 to 19
20
23
24, 33, 38
25, 34, 39, 40
26
27 to 32
36
37
Mnemonic
DNC
DRGND
DRVDD
IF[11:0]
RXIQ[3:0]
RXSYNC
MCLK
DVDD
DGND
TXSYNC
TXIQ[5:0]
PROFILE
RESET
Description
Do Not Connect. Pins are not bonded to die.
Pin Driver Digital Ground.
Pin Driver Digital 3.3 V Supply.
12-Bit ADC Digital Output.
Muxed I and Q ADCs Output.
Sync Output, IF, I and Q ADCs.
Master Clock Output.
Digital 3.3 V Supply.
Digital Ground.
Sync Input for Transmit Port.
Digital Input for Transmit Port.
Profile Selection Inputs.
Chip Reset Input (Active Low).
Rev. A | Page 8 of 32
02773-002
48
49
REFIO
47
PWRDN
FSADJ
46
43
DVDDTX
42
CS
SDIO
44
41
SCLK
45
40
DGND
SDO
39
DGND
DGNDTX
38
37
RESET
DVDD
TX–
36
51
PROFILE
30
35
TX+
TXIQ(2)
DNC
AVDDTX
52
34
53
29
33
28
TXIQ(3)
DVDD
TXIQ(4)
DGND
DGNDPLL
32
DVDDPLL
54
31
55
27
TXIQ(1)
26
TXIQ(5)
TXIQ(0)
TXSYNC
AD9879
Pin No.
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51, 52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
71
73
74
78, 79
81, 82
83, 88, 91, 96, 99
84, 87, 92, 95
85
86
89, 90
93
94
97, 98
100
Mnemonic
SCLK
CS
SDIO
SDO
DGNDTX
DVDDTX
PWRDN
REFIO
FSADJ
AGNDTX
TX−, TX+
AVDDTX
DGNDPLL
DVDDPLL
AVDDPLL
PLLFILT
AGNDPLL
DGNDOSC
XTAL
OSCIN
DVDDOSC
CA_CLK
CA_DATA
CA_EN
DVDD Σ-∆
FLAG1
Σ-∆_OUT
DGND Σ-∆
REFCLK
AVDDIQ
AGNDIQ
I−, I+
Q−, Q+
AGND
AVDD
REFB10
REFT10
IF10−, IF10+
REFB12
REFT12
IF12−, IF12+
VIDEO IN
Description
SPORT Clock.
SPORT Chip Select.
SPORT Data I/O.
SPORT Data Output.
Tx Path Digital Ground.
Tx Path Digital 3.3 V Supply.
Power-Down Transmit Path.
TxDAC Decoupling (to AGND).
DAC Output Adjust (External Resistor).
Tx Path Analog Ground.
Tx Path Complementary Outputs.
Tx Path Analog 3.3 V Supply.
PLL Digital Ground.
PLL Digital 3.3 V Supply.
PLL Analog 3.3 V Supply.
PLL Loop Filter Connection.
PLL Analog Ground.
Oscillator Digital Ground.
Crystal Oscillator Inverted Output.
Oscillator Clock Input.
Oscillator Digital 3.3 V Supply.
Serial Clock to Cable Driver.
Serial Data to Cable Driver.
Serial Enable to Cable Drive.
Σ-∆ Digital 3.3 V Supply.
Digital Output Flag 1.
Σ-∆ DAC Output.
Σ-∆ Digital Ground.
Programmable Reference Clock Output.
7-Bit ADCs Analog 3.3 V Supply.
7-Bit ADCs Analog Ground.
Differential Input to I ADC.
Differential Input to Q ADC.
12-Bit ADC Analog Ground.
12-Bit ADC Analog 3.3 V Supply.
10-Bit ADC Decoupling Node.
10-Bit ADC Decoupling Node.
Differential Input to 10-Bit ADC.
12-Bit ADC Decoupling Node.
12-Bit ADC Decoupling Node.
Differential Input to IF ADC.
Video Clamp Input, 12-Bit ADC.
Rev. A | Page 9 of 32
AD9879
TERMINOLOGY
Aperture Delay
The aperture delay is a measure of the sample-and-hold
amplifier (SHA) performance. It specifies the time delay
between the rising edge of the sampling clock input and when
the input signal is held for conversion.
Aperture Uncertainty (Jitter)
Aperture jitter is the variation in aperture delay for successive
samples. It is manifested as noise on the input to the ADC.
Channel-to-Channel Isolation (Crosstalk)
In an ideal multichannel system, the signal in one channel does
not influence the signal level of another channel. The channelto-channel isolation specification is a measure of the change
that occurs to a grounded channel as a full-scale signal is
applied to another channel.
Differential Nonlinearity Error (DNL, No Missing Codes)
An ideal converter exhibits code transitions that are exactly 1 LSB
apart. DNL is the deviation from this ideal value. Guaranteed
no missing codes to 10-bit resolution indicates that all 1,024
codes, respectively, must be present over all operating ranges.
Effective Number of Bits (ENOB)
For a sine wave, SINAD can be expressed in terms of the
number of bits. Using the formula
Offset Error
First transition should occur for an analog value 1/2 LSB
above −FS. Offset error is defined as the deviation of the actual
transition from that point.
Output Compliance Range
The range of allowable voltage at the output of a current-output
DAC. Operation beyond the maximum compliance limits can
cause either output stage saturation or break down, resulting in
nonlinear performance.
Phase Noise
Single-sideband phase noise power is specified relative to the
carrier (dBc/Hz) at a given frequency offset (1 kHz) from the
carrier. Phase noise can be measured directly in single-tone
transmit mode with a spectrum analyzer that supports noise
marker measurements. It detects the relative power between the
carrier and the offset (1 kHz) sideband noise and takes the
resolution bandwidth (RBW) into account by subtracting
10 log(RBW). It also adds a correction factor that compensates
for the implementation of the resolution bandwidth, log display,
and detector characteristic.
Pipeline Delay (Latency)
Pipeline delay is the number of clock cycles between conversion
initiation and the availability of the associated output data.
N = (SINAD − 1.76 dB∕6.02)
it is possible to determine a measure of performance expressed
as N, the effective number of bits. Thus, the effective number of
bits for a device’s sine wave inputs at a given input frequency
can be calculated directly from its measured SINAD.
Gain Error
The first code transition should occur at an analog value
1/2 LSB above full scale. The last transition should occur for an
analog value 1 1/2 LSB below the nominal full scale. Gain error
is the deviation of the actual difference between the first and
last code transitions and the ideal difference between the first
and last code transitions.
Input Referred Noise
The rms output noise is measured using histogram techniques.
The standard deviation of the ADC output code is calculated in
LSB and converted to an equivalent voltage. This results in a
noise figure that can be directly referred to the input of the MxFE.
Integral Nonlinearity Error (INL)
Linearity error refers to the deviation of each individual code
from a line drawn from negative full scale through the positive
full scale. The point used as the negative full scale occurs
1/2 LSB before the first code transition. Positive full scale is
defined as a level 1 1/2 LSB beyond the last code transition. The
deviation is measured from the middle of each code to the true
straight line.
Power Supply Rejection
Power supply rejection specifies the converter’s maximum fullscale change when the supplies are varied from nominal to
minimum and maximum specified voltages.
Signal-to-Noise and Distortion (SINAD) Ratio
SINAD is the ratio of the rms value of the measured input
signal to the rms sum of all other spectral components below
the Nyquist frequency, including harmonics but excluding dc.
The value for SINAD is expressed in decibels.
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
SNR is the ratio of the rms value of the measured input signal to
the rms sum of all other spectral components below the Nyquist
frequency, excluding harmonics and dc. The value for SNR is
expressed in decibels.
Spurious-Free Dynamic Range (SFDR)
SFDR is the difference, in dB, between the rms amplitude of the
DAC output signal (or the ADC input signal) and the peak
spurious signal over the specified bandwidth (Nyquist
bandwidth, unless otherwise noted).
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
THD is the ratio of the rms sum of the first six harmonic
components to the rms value of the measured input signal, and
is expressed as a percentage or in decibels.
Rev. A | Page 10 of 32
AD9879
THEORY OF OPERATION
To gain a general understanding of the AD9879, refer to the
block diagram of the device architecture in Figure 3. The
device consists of a transmit path, receive path, and auxiliary
functions, such as a DPLL, a Σ-Δ DAC, a serial control port,
and a cable amplifier interface.
The transmit DAC resolution is 12 bits and can run at sampling
rates as high as 232 MSPS. Analog output scaling from 0.0 dB
to 7.5 dB in 0.5 dB steps is available to preserve SNR when
reduced output levels are required.
DATA ASSEMBLER
TRANSMIT PATH
The AD9879 data path operates on two 12-bit words, the I and
Q components, which compose a complex symbol. The data
assembler builds the 24-bit complex symbols from four
consecutive 6-bit nibbles read over the TxIQ[5:0] bus. The
nibbles are strobed synchronous to the master clock, MCLK,
into the data assembler. A high level on TxSYNC signals the
start of a transmit symbol. The first two nibbles of the symbol
form the I component, and the second two nibbles form the Q
component. Symbol components are assumed to be in twos
complement format. The timing of the interface is fully
described in the Transmit Timing section of this data sheet.
The transmit path contains an interpolation filter, a complete
quadrature digital upconverter, an inverse sinc filter, and a
12-bit current output DAC. The maximum output current of
the DAC is set by an external resistor. The Tx output PGA
provides additional transmit signal level control.
The transmit path interpolation filter provides an upsampling
factor of 16 with an output signal bandwidth as high as
5.8 MHz. Carrier frequencies up to 65 MHz with 26 bits of
frequency tuning resolution can be generated by the direct
digital synthesizer (DDS).
AD9879
DATA
ASSEMBLER
TXIQ
6
I
12
QUADRATURE
MODULATOR
DAC GAIN CONTROL
CIC LPF
FIR LPF
12
4
4
MUX
Q
12
12
4
12
TX
DAC
SINC–1
—
TXSYNC
FSADJ
SINC–1
BYPASS
COS
4
(fSYSCLK)
SIN
(fOSCIN)
DDS
(fIQCLK)
PLL
OSCIN × M
÷4
XTAL
MCLK
÷R
REFCLK
CA_PORT
3
4
÷4
OSCIN
RXIQ[3:0]
Σ-∆_OUT
FLAG1
÷2
÷2
SERIAL
INTERFACE
IQ
Σ-∆
÷8
(fOSCIN)
4
12
Σ-∆ INPUT REGISTER
CA
INTERFACE
PROFILE
SELECT
PROFILE
SPORT
(fMCLK)
7
ADC
I INPUT
ADC
Q INPUT
ADC
IF10 INPUT
MUX
7
RXPORT
÷2
(fOSCIN)
IF[11:0]
12
IF
10
MUX
12
IF12 INPUT
ADC
MUX
VIDEO INPUT
+
–
—
CLAMP LEVEL
Figure 3. Block Diagram
Rev. A | Page 11 of 32
DAC
02773-003
RXSYNC
AD9879
INTERPOLATION FILTER
Once through the data assembler, the IQ data streams are fed
through a 4× FIR low-pass filter and a 4× cascaded integratorcomb (CIC) low-pass filter. The combination of these two filters
results in the sample rate increasing by a factor of 16.
In addition to the sample rate increase, the half-band filters
provide the low-pass filtering characteristic necessary to
suppress the spectral images between the original sampling
frequency and the new (16× higher) sampling frequency.
DIGITAL UPCONVERTER
The digital quadrature modulator stage following the CIC filters
is used to frequency shift (upconvert) the baseband spectrum of
the incoming data stream up to the desired carrier frequency.
The carrier frequency is controlled numerically by a direct
digital synthesizer (DDS). The DDS uses the internal system
clock (fSYSCLK) to generate the desired carrier frequency with a
high degree of precision. The carrier is applied to the I and Q
multipliers in quadrature fashion (90° phase offset) and
summed to yield a data stream that is the modulated carrier.
The modulated carrier becomes the 12-bit sample sent to the DAC.
The receive path contains a 12-bit ADC, a 10-bit ADC, and a
dual 7-bit ADC. All internally required clocks and an output
system clock are generated by the PLL from a single crystal or
clock input.
External loop filter components consisting of a series resistor
(1.3 kΩ) and capacitor (0.01 µF) provide the compensation zero
for the OSCIN multiplier PLL loop. The overall loop
performance has been optimized for these component values.
DPLL-A CLOCK DISTRIBUTION
Figure 3 shows the clock signals used in the transmit path. The
DAC sampling clock, fDAC, is generated by DPLL-A. FDAC has a
frequency equal to L × fOSCIN, where fOSCIN is the internal signal
generated by either the crystal oscillator when a crystal is
connected between the OSCIN and XTAL pins or the clock that
is fed into the OSCIN pin, and L is the multiplier programmed
through the serial port. L can have the values of 1, 2, 3, or 8.
The transmit path expects a new half word of data at the rate of
fCLK-A. When the Tx multiplexer is enabled, the frequency of
Tx Port is
fCLK−A = 2 × fDA/K = 2 × L × fOSCIN/K
(1)
where K is the interpolation factor.
The interpolation factor can be programmed to be 1, 2, or 4.
When the Tx multiplexer is disabled, the frequency of the
Tx Port is
fCLK−A = fDAC/K = L × fOSCIN/K
(2)
Receive Section
The 12-bit and 10-bit IF ADCs can convert direct IF inputs up
to 70 MHz and run at sample rates up to 33 MSPS. A video
input with an adjustable signal clamping level along with the
10-bit ADC allow the AD9879 to process an NTSC and a QAM
channel simultaneously.
The AD9879 includes two high speed, high performance ADCs.
The 10-bit and 12-bit direct IF ADCs deliver excellent undersampling performance with input frequencies as high as 70 MHz.
The sampling rate can be as high as 33 MSPS.
The programmable Σ-Δ DAC can be used to control external
components, such as variable gain amplifiers (VGAs) or voltage
controlled tuners. The CA_PORT provides an interface to the
AD8321/AD8323 or AD8322/AD8327 programmable gain
amplifier (PGA) cable drivers, enabling host processor control
via the MxFE SPORT.
The ADC sampling frequency can be derived directly from the
OSCIN signal or from the on-chip OSCIN multiplier. For
highest dynamic performance, it is advisable to choose an
OSCIN frequency that can be directly used as the ADC
sampling clock. Digital IQ ADC outputs are multiplexed to one
4-bit bus, clocked by a frequency (fMCLK) of four times the
sampling rate. The IF ADCs use a multiplexed 12-bit interface
with an output word rate of fMCLK.
OSCIN Clock Multiplier
The AD9879 can accept either an input clock into the OSCIN
pin or a fundamental mode XTAL across the OSCIN pin and
XTAL pins as the device’s main clock source. The internal PLL
then generates the fSYSCLK signal from which all other internal
signals are derived.
The DAC uses fSYSCLK as its sampling clock. For DDS
applications, the carrier is typically limited to about 30% of
fSYSCLK. For a 65 MHz carrier, the system clock required is above
216 MHz.
CLOCK AND OSCILLATOR CIRCUITRY
The internal oscillator of the AD9879 generates all sampling
clocks from a simple, low cost, parallel resonance, fundamental
frequency quartz crystal. Figure 4 shows how the quartz crystal
is connected between OSCIN (Pin 61) and XTAL (Pin 60) with
parallel resonant load capacitors as specified by the crystal
manufacturer. The internal oscillator circuitry can also be
overdriven by a TTL-level clock applied to OSCIN with XTAL
left unconnected.
The OSCIN multiplier function maintains clock integrity, as
evidenced by the excellent phase noise characteristics and low
clock-related spur in the output spectrum of the AD9879’s systems.
Rev. A | Page 12 of 32
fOSCIN = fMCLK × M
(3)
AD9879
An internal PLL generates the DAC sampling frequency, fSYSCLK,
by multiplying OSCIN frequency M times. The MCLK signal
(Pin 23), fMCLK, is derived by dividing fSYSCLK by 4.
fSYSCLK = fOSCIN × M
(4)
fMCLK = fOSCIN × M/4
(5)
Figure 3 shows that ADCs are either sampled directly by a low
jitter clock at OSCIN or by a clock that is derived from the PLL
output. Operating modes can be selected in Register 0x08.
Sampling the ADCs directly with the OSCIN clock requires
MCLK to be programmed to be twice the OSCIN frequency.
PROGRAMMABLE CLOCK OUTPUT REFCLK
An external PLL loop filter (Pin 57) consisting of a series
resistor and ceramic capacitor (Figure 18, R1 = 1.3 kΩ,
C12 = 0.01 µF) is required for stability of the PLL. Also, a shield
surrounding these components is recommended to minimize
external noise coupling into the PLL’s voltage controlled
oscillator input (guard trace connected to AVDDPLL).
The AD9879 provides an auxiliary output clock on Pin 71,
REFCLK. The value of the MCLK divider bit field, R,
determines its output frequency as shown:
fREFCLK = fMCLK/R, for R = 2 − 3
(6)
fREFCLK = fOSCIN/R, for R = 0
(7)
In its default setting (0x00 in Register 0x01), the REFCLK pin
provides a buffered output of fOSCIN.
CP2
10µF
REFB10
AVDD
AGND
Q+
Q–
83
82
81
REFT10
84
AVDD
87
86
C6
0.1µF
85
IF10–
AGND
89
88
AGND
AVDD
IF10+
REFB12
92
90
REFT12
94
93
91
AGND
AVDD
IF12–
95
IF12+
97
C4
C5
0.1µF 0.1µF
C3
0.1µF
96
AGND
99
98
100 VIDEO IN
C1
C2
0.1µF 0.1µF
DNC
1
DRGND
2
DRVDD
3
78
I–
(MSB) IF(11)
4
77
DNC
DNC
PIN 1
80
DNC
79
I+
IF(10)
5
76
IF(9)
6
75
DNC
IF(8)
7
74
AGNDIQ
AVDDIQ
IF(7)
8
73
IF(6)
9
72
DRVDD
IF(5)
10
71
REFCLK
70
DRGND
69
DGND Σ-∆
IF(4)
11
IF(3)
12
IF(2)
13
IF(1)
14
67
IF(0)
15
66
DVDD Σ-∆
(MSB) RXIQ(3)
16
65
CA_EN
AD9879
TOP VIEW
(Pins Down)
68
Σ-∆_OUT
FLAG1
RXIQ(2)
17
64
CA_DATA
RXIQ(1)
18
63
CA_CLK
RXIQ(0)
19
62
DVDDOSC
RXSYNC
20
61
OSCIN
DRGND
21
60
XTAL
DRVDD
22
59
DGNDOSC
MCLK
23
58
AGNDPLL
DVDD
24
57
PLLFILT
DGND
25
56
AVDDPLL
TXSYNC
26
55
DVDDPLL
(MSB) TXIQ(5)
27
54
DGNDPLL
TXIQ(4)
28
53
AVDDTX
GUARD TRACE
C12
R1
1.3kΩ 0.01µF
AGNDTX
RSET
4.02kΩ
Figure 4. Basic Connection Diagram
Rev. A | Page 13 of 32
C11
20pF
50
48
43
49
42
CS
SDIO
REFIO
41
SCLK
C13
0.1µF
FSADJ
40
DGND
47
39
DGND
PWRDN
38
DVDD
46
37
RESET
DVDDTX
36
PROFILE
44
35
DNC
45
34
DGND
SDO
33
DVDD
DGNDTX
31
TX+
TX–
32
52
51
TXIQ(1)
29
30
TXIQ(0)
TXIQ(3)
TXIQ(2)
C10
20pF
02773-004
CP1
10µF
AD9879
A software reset (writing a 1 into Bit 5 of Register 0x00) is
functionally equivalent to the hardware reset but does not force
Register 0x00 to its default value.
Power-Up Sequence
On initial power-up, the RESET pin should be held low until
the power supply is stable.
Once RESET is deasserted, the AD9879 can be programmed
over the serial port. The on-chip PLL requires a maximum of
1 millisecond after the rising edge of RESET or a change of the
multiplier factor (M) to completely settle. It is recommended
that the PWRDN pin be held low during the reset and PLL
settling time. Changes to ADC Clock Select (Register 0x08) or
SYS Clock Divider N (Register 0x01) should be programmed
before the rising edge of PWRDN.
Once the PLL is frequency locked and after the PWRDN pin is
brought high, transmit data can be sent reliably.
If the PWRDN pin cannot be held low throughout the reset and
PLL settling time period, the power-down digital Tx bit or the
PWRDN pin should be pulsed after the PLL has settled. This
will ensure correct transmit filter initialization.
RESET
To initiate a hardware reset, the RESET pin should be held low
for at least 100 nanoseconds. All internally generated clocks
stop during reset. The rising edge of RESET resets the PLL clock
multiplier and reinitializes the programmable registers to their
default values. The same sequence as described in the Power-Up
Sequence section should be followed after a reset or change in M.
PWRDN
RESET
1msMIN
5 MCLKMIN
PWRDN
Figure 5. Power-Up Sequence for Tx Data Path
Transmit Power-Down
A low level on the PWRDN pin stops all clocks linked to the
digital transmit data path and resets the CIC filter. Deasserting
PWRDN reactivates all clocks. The CIC filter is held in a reset
state for 80 MCLK cycles after the rising edge of PWRDN to
allow for flushing of the half-band filters with new input data.
Transmit data bursts should be padded with at least 20 symbols
of null data directly before the PWRDN pin is deasserted.
Immediately after the PWRDN pin is deasserted, the transmit
burst should start with a minimum of 20 null data symbols.
This avoids unintended DAC output samples caused by the
transmit path latency and filter settling time.
Software Power-Down Digital Tx (Bit 5 in Register 02x00) is
functionally equivalent to the hardware PWRDN pin and takes
effect immediately after the last register bit has been written
over the serial port.
5MCLKMIN
DATA SYMBOLS
20 NULL SYMBOLS
0
0
0
0
20 NULL SYMBOLS
0
0
0
0
02773-006
TXIQ
VS
02773-005
RESET AND TRANSMIT POWER-DOWN
TXSYNC
Figure 6. Timing Sequence to Flush Tx Data Path
Rev. A | Page 14 of 32
AD9879
Σ-∆ OUTPUTS
The AD9879 contains an on-chip Σ-Δ output that provides a
digital logic bit stream with an average duty cycle that varies
between 0% and (4095/4096)%, depending on the programmed
code, as shown in Figure 7.
In set-top box and cable modem applications, the output can be
used to control external variable gain amplifiers or RF tuners. A
simple single-pole RC low-pass filter provides sufficient
filtering (see Figure 8).
This bit stream can be low-pass filtered to generate a
programmable dc voltage of
In more demanding applications where additional gain, level
shift, or drive capability is required, a first or second order
active filter might be considered for each Σ-Δ output (see Figure 9).
VDC = (Σ-Δ Code/4096)(VH) + VL
(8)
where:
VH = VDRVDD − 0.6 V
VL = 0.4 V
8 tMCLK
4096 × 8 tMCLK
0x000
0x001
AD9879
12
CONTROL
WORD
0x002
DAC
Σ-∆
R
DC (VL TO VH)
C
MCLK
÷8
0xFFF
4096 × 8 tMCLK
TYPICAL:
02773-007
Figure 7. Σ-∆ Output Signals
R = 50kΩ
C = 0.1µF
f–3dB = 1/(2πRC) = 318Hz
Figure 8. Σ-∆ RC Filter
C
R1
AD9879
R
VOUT
R
Σ-∆
SIGMA-DELTA
VSD
OP250
C
R
VOUT = (VSD + VOFFSET) (1 + R/R1)/2
VOFFSET
TYPICAL:
R = 50kΩ
C = 0.1µF
f–3dB = 1/(2πRC) = 318Hz
Figure 9. Σ-∆ Active Filter with Gain and Offset
Rev. A | Page 15 of 32
02773-009
8 tMCLK
02773-008
0x800
AD9879
REGISTER MAP AND BIT DEFINITIONS
Table 4. Register Map1
Address
(hex)
0x00
0x01
0x02
Bit 7
SDIO
Bidirectional
PLL Lock
Detect
PowerDown PLL
Bit 6
SPI Bytes
LSB First
Bit 5
RESET
PowerDown
DAC Tx
PowerDown
Digital
Tx
Σ-∆ Output Control Word [3:0]
0x04
0x05
0x06
0x07
Flag 0
0
0
Video Input
Enable
ADCs
Clocked
Direct from
OSCIN
0x09
0x0A
0x0B
0x0C
0x0D
0x0E
0x0F
0x10
0x11
0x12
0x13
0x14
0x15
0x16
0x17
1
0
0
0
0
0
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
OSCIN Multiplier M[4:0]
Default
(hex)
0x08
Type
Read/Write
0x00
Read/Write
PowerDown IQ
ADC
0x00
Read/Write
Flag 0
Enable
0x00
Read/Write
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
Read/Write
Read/Write
Read Only
Read/Write
Bit 0
MCLK/REFCLK Ratio R[5:0]
0x03
0x08
Bit 4
PowerDown
IF12
ADC
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Rx Port
Fast
Edge
Rate
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PowerDown
RxSYNC
and IQ
ADC
Clocks
0
0
0
0
0
Power-Down
Reference
IF12 ADC
PowerDown
IF10 ADC
PowerDown
Reference
IQ and
IF10 ADC
Flag 1
Σ-∆ Output Control Word [11:4]
0
0
0
0
0
0
Clamp Level for Video Input [6:0]
Enable 7-Bits
IQ ADC
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Version [3:0]
Tx Frequency Tuning Word
Profile 1 LSBs [1:0]
0
0
Send
12-Bit
ADC Data
Only
Send
10-Bit
ADC
Data
Only
0x80
Read/Write
0
0
0
0
0
0
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x05
0x00
Read/Write
Read/Write
Read/Write
Read/Write
Read/Write
0x00
0x00
Read/Write
Read/Write
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x00
Read/Write
Read/Write
Read/Write
Read/Write
Read/Write
Read/Write
Read/Write
Read/Write
Tx Frequency Tuning
Word Profile 0 LSBs
[1:0]
0
0
0
0
DAC Fine Gain Control [3:0]
0
0
0
Tx Path
Tx Path
Tx Path
Tx Path
Tx Path
Spectral
Transmit
Select
AD8322/
Bypass
Inversion
Single
Profile 1
AD8327 Gain
Sinc-1
Tone
Control Mode Filter
Tx Path Frequency Tuning Word Profile 0 [9:2]
Tx Path Frequency Tuning Word Profile 0 [17:10]
Tx Path Frequency Tuning Word Profile 0 [25:18]
Cable Driver Amplifier Coarse Gain Control Profile 0 [7:4]
Fine Gain Control Profile 0 [3:0]
Tx Path Frequency Tuning Word Profile 1 [9:2]
Tx Path Frequency Tuning Word Profile 1 [17:10]
Tx Path Frequency Tuning Word Profile 1 [25:18]
Cable Driver Amplifier Coarse Gain Control Profile 1 [7:4]
Fine Gain Control Profile 1 [3:0]
Register bits denoted with 0 must be programmed with a 0 each time that register is written.
Rev. A | Page 16 of 32
AD9879
REGISTER 0x00—INITIALIZATION
REGISTER 0x02—POWER-DOWN
Bits 0–4: OSCIN Multiplier
Sections of the chip that are not used can be powered down
when the corresponding bits are set high. This register has a
default value of 0x00, with all sections active.
This register field is used to program the on-chip multiplier
(PLL) that generates the chip’s high frequency system clock
fSYSCLK. The value of M depends on the ADC clocking mode
selected, as shown in Table 5.
Bit 0: Power-Down IQ ADC
Active high powers down the IQ ADC.
Table 5.
ADC Clock Select
1, fOSCIN
0, fMCLK (PLL Derived)
Bit 1: Power-Down IQ and IF10 ADC Reference
M
8
16
Active high powers down the IQ and IF10 ADC reference.
Bit 2: Power-Down IF10 ADC
When using the AD9879 in systems where the Tx path and Rx
path do not operate simultaneously, the value of M can be
programmed from 1 to 31. The maximum fSYSCLK rate of
236 MHz must be observed, whatever value is chosen for M.
When M is set to 1, the internal PLL is disabled and all internal
clocks are derived directly from OSCIN.
Active high powers down the IF10 ADC.
Bit 3: Power-Down IF12 ADC Reference
Active high powers down the 12-bit ADC reference.
Bit 4: Power-Down IF12 ADC
Active high powers down the IF12 ADC.
Bit 5: RESET
Writing a 1 to this bit resets the registers to their default values
and restarts the chip. The RESET bit always reads back 0. The
bits in Register 0x00 are not affected by this software reset. A
low level at the RESET pin, however, would force all registers,
including all bits in Register 0x00, to their default state.
Bit 5: Power-Down Digital TX
Active high powers down the digital transmit section of the
chip, similar to the function of the PWRDN pin.
Bit 6: Power-Down DAC TX
Active high powers down the DAC.
Bit 6: SPI Bytes LSB First
Active high indicates SPI serial port access of instruction byte
and data registers are least significant bit (LSB) first. Default low
indicates most significant bit (MSB) first format.
Bit 7: Power-Down PLL
Bit 7: SDIO Bidirectional
The Σ-Δ control word is 12 bits wide and split into MSB bits
[11:4] and LSB bits [3:0]. Changes to the Σ-Δ control words take
effect immediately for every MSB or LSB register write. Σ-Δ
output control words have a default value of 0. The control
words are in straight binary format with 0x000 corresponding
to the bottom of the scale and 0xFFF corresponding to the top
of the scale. See Figure 8 for details.
Active high configures the serial port as a three-signal port with
the SDIO pin used as a bidirectional input/output pin. Default
low indicates the serial port uses four signals with SDIO
configured as an input and SDO configured as an output.
REGISTER 0x01—CLOCK CONFIGURATION
Bits 0–5: MCLK/REFCLK Ratio
This bit field defines R, the ratio between the auxiliary clock
output, REFCLK and MCLK. R can be any integer number
between 2 and 63. At default zero (R = 0), REFCLK provides a
buffered version of the OSCIN clock signal.
Bit 7: PLL Lock Detect
When this bit is set low, the REFCLK pin functions in its default
mode and provides an output clock with frequency fMCLK/R, as
described above.
If this bit is set to 1, the REFCLK pin is configured to indicate
whether the PLL is locked to fOSCIN. In this mode, the REFCLK
pin should be low-pass filtered with an RC filter of 1.0 kΩ and
0.1 µF. A low output on REFCLK indicates the PLL has achieved
lock with fOSCIN.
Active high powers down the OSCIN multiplier.
REGISTERS 0x03–0x04—Σ-∆ AND FLAG CONTROL
If the flag enable (Register 0x03, Bit 0) is set high, the
Σ-Δ_OUT pin maintains a fixed logic level determined
directly by the MSB of the Σ-Δ control word.
The FLAG1 pin assumes the logic level programmed into the
FLAG1 bit (Register 0x03, Bit 1).
REGISTER 0x07—VIDEO INPUT CONFIGURATION
Bits 0–6: Clamp Level Control Value
The 7-bit clamp level control value is used to set an offset to the
automatic clamp level control loop. The actual ADC output has
a clamp level offset equal to 16 times the clamp level control
value as shown:
Rev. A | Page 17 of 32
Clamp Level Offset = Clamp Level Control Value × 16
(9)
AD9879
The default value for the clamp level control value is 0x20. This
results in an ADC output clamp level offset of 512 LSBs. The
valid programming range for the clamp level control value is
from 0x16 to 0x127.
REGISTER 0x08—ADC CLOCK CONFIGURATION
Bit 0: Send 10-Bit ADC Data Only
When this bit is set high, the device enters a nonmultiplexed
mode and only the data from the 10-bit ADC is sent to the IF
[11:0] digital output port.
Bit 1: Send 12-Bit ADC Data Only
When this bit is set high, the device enters a nonmultiplexed
mode and only data from the 12-bit ADC is sent to the IF [11:0]
digital output port.
Bit 3: Enable 7-Bits, IQ ADC
When this bit is active, the IQ ADC is put into 7-bit mode. In
this mode, the full-scale input range is 2 Vppd. When this bit is
set inactive, the IQ ADC is put into 6-bit mode and the fullscale input voltage range is 1 Vppd.
Bit 4: Power-Down RXSYNC and IQ ADC Clocks
Setting this bit to 1 powers down the IQ ADC’s sampling clock
and stops the RXSYNC output pin. It can be used for additional
power saving on top of the power-down selections in Register 0x02.
Bit 5: Rx Port Fast Edge Rate
REGISTER 0x0E—DAC GAIN CONTROL
Bits 0–3: DAC Fine Gain Control
This bit field sets the DAC gain if the Tx Path AD8321/AD8323
gain control select bit (Register F, Bit 3) is set to 0. The DAC
gain can be set from 0.0 dB to 7.5 dB in increments of 0.5 dB.
Table 6 details the programming.
Table 6. DAC Gain Control
Bits [3:0]
0000
0001
0010
0011
....
1110
1111
DAC Gain
0.0 dB (default)
0.5 dB
1.0 dB
1.5 dB
....
7.0 dB
7.5 dB
REGISTER 0x0F—Tx PATH CONFIGURATION
Bit 0: Single-Tone Tx Mode
Active high configures the AD9879 for single-tone applications
such as FSK. The AD9879 supplies a single frequency output as
determined by the frequency tuning word selected by the active
profile. In this mode, the TXIQ input data pins are ignored but
should be tied to a valid logic voltage level. The default value is
0 (inactive).
Bit 1: Spectral Inversion Tx
When set to 1, inverted modulation is performed.
Setting this bit to 1 increases the output drive strength of all
digital output pins, except MCLK, REFCLK, Σ-Δ_OUT, and
FLAG1. These pins always have high output drive capability.
MODULATOR_OUT = [I cos(ωt) + Q sin(ωt)]
The default is logic low, noninverted modulation.
Bit 7: ADC Clocked Direct from OSCIN
MODULATOR_OUT = [I cos(ωt) + Q sin(ωt)]
When set high, the input clock at OSCIN is used directly as the
ADC sampling clock. When set low, the internally generated
master clock, MCLK, is divided by two and used as the ADC
sampling clock. Best ADC performance is achieved when the
ADCs are sampled directly from fOSCIN using an external crystal
or low jitter crystal oscillator.
REGISTER 0x0C—DIE REVISION
Bits 0–3: Version
The die version of the chip can be read from this register.
REGISTER 0x0D—Tx FREQUENCY TUNING WORDS
LSBs
(10)
(11)
Bit 2: Tx Path Bypass Sinc–1 Filter
Setting this bit high bypasses the digital inverse sinc filter of the
Tx path.
Bit 3: Tx Path AD8322/AD8327 Gain Control Mode
This bit changes the manner in which transmit gain control is
performed. Typically either AD8321/AD8323 (default 0) or
AD8222/AD8327 (default 1) variable gain cable drivers are
programmed over the chip’s 3-wire CA interface. The Tx gain
control select changes the interpretation of the bits in
Registers 0x13 and 0x17. See the Cable Driver Gain Control
section.
This register accommodates two LSBs for both frequency
tuning words. For more information, see the description in the
Registers 0X10–0X17—Carrier Frequency Tuning section.
Rev. A | Page 18 of 32
AD9879
Table 7. Cable Driver Gain Control
Bit 5: Tx Path Select Profile 1
The AD9879 quadrature digital upconverter is capable of
storing two preconfigured modulation modes called profiles.
Each profile defines a transmit frequency tuning word and cable
driver amplifier gain (DAC gain) setting. The profile select bit
or PROFILE pin programs the current register profile to be
used. The profile select bit should always be 0 if the PROFILE
pin is to be used to switch between profiles. Using the profile
select bit as a means of switching between different profiles
requires the PROFILE pin to be tied low.
Tx Path Frequency Tuning Words
The frequency tuning word (FTW) determines the DDSgenerated carrier frequency (fC) and is formed via a
concatenation of register addresses.
The 26-bit FTW is spread over four register addresses. Bit 25 is
the MSB and Bit 0 is the LSB.
The carrier frequency equation is given as
(12)
CA Interface Transmit Word
0000 0000 (default)
0000 0001
...
0100 0000
1000 0000
In this mode, the lower bits determine the fine gain setting of
the DAC output.
Table 8. DAC Output Fine Gain Setting
Bits [3:0]
0000
0001
...
1110
1111
REGISTERS 0x10–0x17—CARRIER FREQUENCY
TUNING
fc = [FTW × fSYSCLK]/226
Bits [7:4]
0000
0001
...
0111
1000
DAC Fine Gain
0.0 dB (default)
0.5 dB
...
7.0 dB
7.5 dB
New data is automatically sent over the 3-wire CA interface
(and DAC gain adjust) whenever the value of the active gain
control register changes or a new profile is selected. The default
value is 0x00 (lowest gain).
The formula for the combined output level calculation of the
AD9879 fine gain and AD8327 or AD8322 coarse gain is
where:
V8327 = V9879(0) + (fine)/2 + 6(coarse) − 19
(13)
fSYSCLK = M × fOSCIN.
FTW < 0 × 2000000.
V8322 = V9879(0) + (fine)/2 + 6(coarse) − 14
(14)
where:
Changes to FTW bytes take effect immediately.
Cable Driver Gain Control
The AD9879 has a 3-pin interface to the AD832x family of
programmable gain cable driver amplifiers. This allows direct
control of the cable driver’s gain through the AD9879.
fine is the decimal value of Bits [3:0].
coarse is the decimal value of Bits [7:8].
V9879(0) is level at AD9879 output in dBmV for fine = 0.
V8327 is level at output of AD8327 in dBmV.
V8322 is level at output of AD8322 in dBmV.
In its default mode, the complete 8-bit register value is
transmitted over the 3-wire cable amplifier (CA) interface.
If Bit 3 of Register 0x0F is set high, Bits [7:4] determine the
8-bit word sent over the CA interface according to Table 7.
Rev. A | Page 19 of 32
AD9879
SERIAL INTERFACE FOR REGISTER CONTROL
The AD9879 serial port is a flexible, synchronous serial
communication port that allows easy interface to many
industry-standard microcontrollers and microprocessors. The
interface allows read/write access to all registers that configure
the AD9879. Single or multiple byte transfers are supported.
Also, the interface can be programmed to read words either
MSB first or LSB first. The serial interface port of the AD9879
I/O can be configured to have one bidirectional I/O (SDIO) pin
or two unidirectional I/O (SDIO/SDO) pins.
GENERAL OPERATION OF THE SERIAL INTERFACE
There are two phases to a communication cycle with the
AD9879. Phase 1 is the instruction cycle, which is the writing of
an instruction byte into the AD9879 that is coincident with the
first eight SCLK rising edges. The instruction byte provides the
AD9879 serial port controller with information regarding the
data transfer cycle, which is Phase 2 of the communication
cycle. The Phase 1 instruction byte defines whether the
upcoming data transfer is a read or write, the number of bytes
in the data transfer, and the starting register address for the first
byte of the data transfer. The first eight SCLK rising edges of
each communication cycle are used to write the instruction byte
into the AD9879.
The eight remaining SCLK edges are for Phase 2 of the
communication cycle. Phase 2 is the actual data transfer
between the AD9879 and the system controller. Phase 2 of the
communication cycle is a transfer of 1 to 4 data bytes as determined by the instruction byte. Normally, using one multibyte
transfer is the preferred method. However, single byte data
transfers are useful to reduce CPU overhead when register
access requires one byte only. Registers change immediately
upon writing to the last bit of each transfer byte.
Table 9 illustrates the information contained in the instruction byte.
Table 9. Instruction Byte Information
I6
N1
I5
N0
N0
0
1
0
1
Description
Transfer 1 byte
Transfer 2 bytes
Transfer 3 bytes
Transfer 4 bytes
The Bits A4:A0 determine which register is accessed during the
data transfer portion of the communication cycle. For multibyte
transfers, this address is the starting byte address. The
remaining register addresses are generated by the AD9879.
SERIAL INTERFACE PORT PIN DESCRIPTION
SCLK—Serial Clock
The serial clock pin is used to synchronize data transfers from
the AD9879 and to run the serial port state machine. The
maximum SCLK frequency is 15 MHz. Input data to the
AD9879 is sampled upon the rising edge of SCLK. Output data
changes upon the falling edge of SCLK.
CS—Chip Select
Active low input starts and gates a communication cycle. It
allows multiple devices to share a common serial port bus. The
SDO and SDIO pins go to a high impedance state when CS is
high. Chip select should stay low during the entire communication cycle.
SDIO—Serial Data I/O
Data is always written into the AD9879 on this pin. However,
this pin can be used as a bidirectional data line. The configuration of this pin is controlled by Bit 7 of Register 0x00. The
default is Logic 0, which configures the SDIO pin as unidirectional.
SDO—Serial Data Out
INSTRUCTION BYTE
MSB
I7
R/W
Table 10. Bit Decodes
N1
0
0
1
1
I4
A4
I3
A3
I2
A2
I1
A1
LSB
I0
A0
The R/W bit of the instruction byte determines whether a read
or a write data transfer will occur after the instruction byte
write. Logic high indicates a read operation. Logic low indicates
a write operation. The N1:N0 bits determine the number of
bytes to be transferred during the data transfer cycle. The bit
decodes are shown in Table 10.
Data is read from this pin for protocols that use separate lines
for transmitting and receiving data. When the AD9879 operates
in a single bidirectional I/O mode, this pin does not output data
and is set to a high impedance state.
MSB/LSB TRANSFERS
The AD9879 serial port can support both MSB first or LSB first
data formats. This functionality is controlled by the LSB-first bit
in Register 0x00. The default is MSB first.
When this bit is set active high, the AD9879 serial port is in
LSB-first format. In LSB-first mode, the instruction byte and
data bytes must be written from the LSB to the MSB. In LSBfirst mode, the serial port internal byte address generator
increments for each byte of the multibyte communication cycle.
Rev. A | Page 20 of 32
AD9879
When this bit is set default low, the AD9879 serial port is in
MSB-first format. In MSB-first mode, the instruction byte and
data bytes must be written from the MSB to the LSB. In MSBfirst mode, the serial port internal byte address generator
decrements for each byte of the multibyte communication cycle.
When incrementing from 0x1F, the address generator changes
to 0x00. When decrementing from 0x00, the address generator
changes to 0x1F.
NOTES ON SERIAL PORT OPERATION
The AD9879 serial port configuration bits reside in Bits 6 and 7
of Register 0x00. It is important to note that the configuration
changes immediately upon writing to the last bit of the register.
For multibyte transfers, writing to this register may occur
during the middle of the communication cycle. Care must be
taken to compensate for this new configuration for the
remaining bytes of the current communication cycle.
The same considerations apply to setting the reset bit in
Register 0x00. All other registers are set to their default values,
but the software reset does not affect the bits in Register 0x00.
It is recommended to use only single-byte transfers when
changing serial port configurations or initiating a software
reset.
A write to Bits 1, 2, and 3 of Register 0x00 with the same logic
levels as Bits 7, 6, and 5 (bit pattern: XY1001YX binary) allows
the user to reprogram a lost serial port configuration and to
reset the registers to their default values.
A second write to Register 0x00 with the reset bit low and the
serial port configuration as specified above (XY) reprograms
the OSCIN multiplier setting. A changed fSYSCLK frequency is
stable after a maximum of 200 fMCLK cycles (wake-up time).
tDS
INSTRUCTION CYCLE
CS
tSCLK
CS
DATA TRANSFER CYCLE
tPWH
SCLK
tPWL
N0
A4
A3
A2
A1
SDO
A0 D7n D6n
D20 D10 D00
D7n D6n
D20 D10 D00
tDS
SDIO
INSTRUCTION CYCLE
DATA TRANSFER CYCLE
SCLK
A0
A1
A2
A3
A4
N0
N1 R/W D00 D10 D20
D00 D10 D20
D6n D7n
D6n D7n
02773-011
SDO
INSTRUCTION BIT 6
CS
SCLK
SDIO
INSTRUCTION BIT 7
Figure 12. Timing Diagram for Register Write to AD9879
Figure 10. Serial Register Interface Timing MSB First
CS
tDH
02773-012
R/W N1
tDV
SDIO
SDO
Figure 11. Serial Register Interface Timing LSB First
DATA BIT N
DATA BIT N – 1
Figure 13. Timing Diagram for Register Read
Rev. A | Page 21 of 32
02773-013
SDIO
02773-010
SCLK
AD9879
TRANSMIT PATH (TX)
tSU
MCLK
tHD
TXIQ
TXI[11:6]
TXI[5:0]
TXQ[11:6]
TXQ[5:0]
TXI[11:6]
TXI[5:0]
TXQ[11:6]
TXQ[5:0]
TXI[11:6]
TXI[5:0]
02773-014
TXSYNC
Figure 14. Transmit Path Timing
TRANSMIT TIMING
CASCADED INTEGRATOR-COMB (CIC) FILTER
The AD9879 provides a master clock, MCLK, and expects 6-bit
multiplexed TxIQ data upon each rising edge. Transmit
symbols are framed with the TxSYNC input. TxSYNC high
indicates the start of a transmit symbol. Four consecutive 6-bit
data packages form a symbol (I MSB, I LSB, Q MSB, and Q LSB).
The CIC filter is configured as a programmable interpolator
and provides a sample rate increase by a factor of 4. The
frequency response of the CIC filter is given by
⎡ 1 1 − e − j (2πf ( 4 ) ) ⎤ ⎡⎛ 1 ⎞ sin(4πf ) ⎤
H(f) = ⎢⎛⎜ ⎞⎟
= ⎢⎜ ⎟
⎥
j( 2πf) ⎥
⎣⎝ 4 ⎠ 1 − e
⎦ ⎣⎝ 4 ⎠ sin(πf ) ⎦
3
DATA ASSEMBLER
3
(15)
The input data stream is representative complex data. Two 6-bit
words form a 12-bit symbol component (in twos complement
format). Four input samples are required to produce one I/Q
data pair. The I/Q sample rate, fIQCLK, at the input to the first
half-band filter is a quarter of the input data rate, fMCLK.
The frequency response in this form has f scaled to the output
sample rate of the CIC filter. That is, f = 1 corresponds to the
frequency of the output sample rate of the CIC filter. H(f/R)
yields the frequency response with respect to the input sample
of the CIC filter.
The I/Q sample rate, fIQCLK, puts a bandwidth limit on the
maximum transmit spectrum. This is the familiar Nyquist limit
and is equal to one-half fIQCLK, hereafter referred to as fNYQ.
COMBINED FILTER RESPONSE
HALF-BAND FILTERS (HBFs)
HBF 1 and HBF 2 are both interpolating filters, each of which
doubles the sampling rate. Together, HBF 1 and HBF 2 have
26 taps and provide a factor-of-four increase in the sampling
rate (4 × fIQCLK or 8 × fNYQ).
In relation to phase response, both HBFs are linear phase filters.
As such, virtually no phase distortion is introduced within the
pass band of the filters. This is an important feature, because
phase distortion is generally intolerable in a data transmission
system.
The combined frequency response of HBF 1, HBF 2, and
CIC puts a limit on the input signal bandwidth that can be
propagated through the AD9879.
The usable bandwidth of the filter chain puts a limit on the
maximum data rate that can be propagated through the
AD9879. A look at the pass-band detail of the combined filter
response (Figure 15 and Figure 16) indicates that to maintain an
amplitude error of no more than 1 dB, signals are restricted to a
bandwidth of no more than approximately 60% of fNYQ.
Rev. A | Page 22 of 32
1
0
0
–1
–1
–2
–3
–2
–3
–4
–4
–5
–5
–6
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6 0.7
0.8
0.9
FREQUENCY RELATIVE TO I/Q NYQUIST BW
02773-016
MAGNITUDE (dB)
1
02773-015
MAGNITUDE (dB)
AD9879
–6
1.0
0
Figure 15. Cascaded Filter Pass-Band Detail (N = 4)
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6 0.7
0.8
0.9
FREQUENCY RELATIVE TO I/Q NYQUIST BW
1.0
Figure 16. Cascaded Filter Pass-Band Detail (N = 3)
To keep the bandwidth of the data in the flat portion of the filter
pass band, the user must oversample the baseband data by at
least a factor of two prior to representing it to the AD9879.
Without oversampling, the Nyquist bandwidth of the baseband
data corresponds to the fNYQ. Consequently, the upper end of the
data bandwidth suffers 6 dB or more of attenuation due to the
frequency response of the digital filters.
There is an additional concern if the baseband data applied to
the AD9879 has been pulse shaped. Typically, pulse shaping is
applied to the baseband data via a filter having a raised cosine
response. In such cases, an α value is used to modify the
bandwidth of the data where the value of α is such that 0 < α <
1. A value of 0 causes the data bandwidth to correspond to the
Nyquist bandwidth. A value of 1 causes the data bandwidth to
be extended to twice the Nyquist bandwidth.
Thus, with 2× oversampling of the baseband data and α =1,
the Nyquist bandwidth of the data corresponds with the I/Q
Nyquist bandwidth.
As stated earlier, this results in problems near the upper edge of
the data bandwidth due to the frequency response of the filters.
The maximum value of α that can be implemented is 0.45. This
is because the data bandwidth becomes:
1
(1 + α ) f NYQ = 0.725 f NYQ
2
(16)
which puts the data bandwidth at the extreme edge of the flat
portion of the filter response.
If a particular application requires an α value between 0.45 and
1, then the user must oversample the baseband data by at least a
factor of four. The combined HBF1, HBF2, and CIC filter
introduces a worst-case droop of less than 0.2 dB over the
frequency range of the data to be transmitted.
Rev. A | Page 23 of 32
AD9879
The following example assumes a PK/rms level of 10 dB:
Tx SIGNAL LEVEL CONSIDERATIONS
The quadrature modulator introduces a maximum gain of 3 dB
in signal level. To visualize this, assume that both the I data and
Q data are fixed at the maximum possible digital value, x. The
output of the modulator, z is then:
z = [x cos(ωt) – x sin(ωt)]
(17)
X
02773-017
I
(21)
Tx THROUGHPUT AND LATENCY
Figure 17. 16-Quadrature Modulation
It can be shown that |z| assumes a maximum value of
(x 2 + x 2 ) = x 2 (a gain of + 3 dB)
(18)
However, if the same number of bits are used to represent the |z|
values, as is used to represent the x values, an overflow occurs.
To prevent this possibility, an effective −3 dB attenuation is
internally implemented on the I and Q data path.
(1/ 2 + 1/ 2 ) = x )
(19)
AD9879
Data inputs impact the output fairly quickly but remain
effective due to the filter characteristics of the AD9879. Data
transmit latency through the AD9879 is easiest to describe in
terms of fSYSCLK clock cycles (4 fMCLK). The numbers quoted are
when an effect is first seen after an input value changes.
Latency of I/Q data entering the data assembler (AD9879 input)
to the DAC output is 119 fSYSCLK clock cycles (29.75 fMCLK cycles).
DC values applied to the data assembler input takes up to 176
fSYSCLK clock cycles (44 fMCLK cycles) to propagate and settle at the
DAC output.
Frequency hopping is accomplished via changing the PROFILE
input pin. The time required to switch from one frequency to
another is less than 232 fSYSCLK cycles (58.5 fMCLK cycles).
AD832x
CA
LOW-PASS
FILTER
75Ω
3
CA_EN
CA_DATA
CA_CLK
VARIABLE GAIN
CABLE DRIVER
AMPLIFIER
02773-018
TX
DAC
Maximum Complex Input RMS Value =
2,000 LSBs + 6 dB − Pk/rms (dB) = 1,265 LSBs rms
Table 11 shows typical I-Q input test signals with amplitude
levels related to 12-bit full scale (FS).
Z
X
(z =
(20)
The maximum complex input rms value calculation uses both
I and Q symbol components that add a factor of 2 (6 dB) to the
formula.
O
z =
Maximum Symbol Component Input Value =
±(2,047 LSBs − 0.2 dB) = ±2,000 LSBs
Figure 18. 16-Quadrature Modulation
Table 11. I–Q Input Test Signals
Analog Output
Single Tone (fC – f)
Single Tone (fC + f)
Dual Tone (fC ± f)
Digital Input
I = cos(f)
Q = cos(f + 90°) = −sin(f)
I = cos(f)
Q = cos(f + 270°) = +sin(f)
I = cos(f)
Q = cos(f + 180°) = −cos(f) or Q = +cos(f)
Rev. A | Page 24 of 32
Input Level
FS – 0.2 dB
FS – 0.2 dB
FS – 0.2 dB
FS – 0.2 dB
FS – 0.2 dB
FS – 0.2 dB
Modulator Output Level
FS – 3.0 dB
FS – 3.0 dB
FS
AD9879
DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG CONVERTER
A 12-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC) is used to convert
the digitally processed waveform into an analog signal. The
worst-case spurious signals due to the DAC are the harmonics
of the fundamental signal and their aliases. The conversion
process produces aliased components of the fundamental signal
at n × fSYSCLK ± fCARRIER (n = 1, 2, 3). These are typically filtered
with an external RLC filter at the DAC output. It is important
for this analog filter to have a sufficiently flat gain and linear
phase response across the bandwidth of interest to avoid
modulation impairments. A relatively inexpensive seventhorder elliptical low-pass filter is sufficient to suppress the
aliased components for HFC network applications.
The AD9879 provides true and complement current outputs.
The full-scale output current is set by the RSET resistor at Pin 49
and the DAC gain register. Assuming maximum DAC gain, the
value of RSET for a particular full-scale IOUT is determined using
the following equation:
RSET = 32 VDACRSET/IOUT = 39.4/IOUT
(22)
For example, if a full-scale output current of 20 mA is desired,
then RSET = (39.4/0.02) Ω, or approximately 2 kΩ.
The following equation calculates the full-scale output current
including the programmable DAC gain control.
IOUT = [39.4/RSET] × 10(−7.5 + 0.5 NGAIN)/20
(23)
where NGAIN is the value of DAC fine gain control [3:0].
The full-scale output current range of the AD9879 is 4 mA to
20 mA. Full-scale output currents outside of this range degrade
SFDR performance. SFDR is also slightly affected by output
matching; the two outputs should be terminated equally for best
SFDR performance. The output load should be located as close
as possible to the AD9879 package to minimize stray capacitance and inductance.
AD9879
Driving an LC filter without a transformer requires the filter to
be doubly terminated for best performance. The filter input and
output should both be resistively terminated with the appropriate values. The parallel combination of the two terminations
determines the load the AD9879 sees for signals within the
filter pass band. For example, a 50 Ω terminated input/output
low-pass filter looks like a 25 Ω load to the AD9879. The
output compliance voltage of the AD9879 is −0.5 V to +1.5 V.
To avoid signal distortion, any signal developed at the DAC
output should not exceed +1.5 V. Furthermore, the signal may
extend below ground as much as 0.5 V without damage or
signal distortion.
The AD9879 true and complement outputs can be differentially
combined for common-mode rejection using a broadband 1:1
transformer. Using a grounded center tap results in signals at
the AD9879 DAC output pins that are symmetrical about
ground. As previously mentioned, by differentially combining
the two signals, the user can provide some degree of commonmode signal rejection. A differential combiner might consist of
a transformer or an operational amplifier. The object is to
combine or amplify only the difference between two signals and
to reject any common, usually undesirable, characteristic, such
as 60 Hz hum or clock feedthrough that is equally present on
both individual signals.
Connecting the AD9879 true and complement outputs to the
differential inputs of the gain programmable cable drivers
AD8321/AD8323 or AD8322/AD8327 provides an optimized
solution for the standard compliant cable modem upstream
channel. The cable driver’s gain can be programmed through a
direct 3-wire interface using the profile registers of the AD9879.
AD832x
CA
LOW-PASS
FILTER
8 tMCLK
75Ω
CA_EN
CA_DATA
CA_CLK
8 tMCLK
CA_EN
3
VARIABLE GAIN
CABLE DRIVER
AMPLIFIER
4 tMCLK
8 tMCLK
4 tMCLK
CA_CLK
CA_DATA
MSB
LSB
Figure 20. Cable Amplifier Interface Timing
Figure 19. Cable Amplifier Connection
Rev. A | Page 25 of 32
02773-020
TX
02773-019
DAC
The load can be a simple resistor to ground, an op amp currentto-voltage converter, or a transformer-coupled circuit. It is best
not to attempt to directly drive highly reactive loads (such as an
LC filter).
AD9879
PROGRAMMING THE AD8321/AD8323 OR AD8322/AD8327 CABLE DRIVER AMPLIFIER
GAIN CONTROL
Programming the gain of the AD832x family of cable driver
amplifiers can be accomplished via the AD9879 cable amplifier
control interface. Four 8-bit registers within the AD9879 (one
per profile) store the gain value to be written to the serial 3-wire
port. Typically, either the AD8321/AD8323 or AD8322/AD8327
variable gain cable amplifiers are connected to the chip’s 3-wire
cable amplifier interface. The Tx gain control select bit in
Register 0x0F changes the interpretation of the bits in Registers
0x13, 0x17, 0x1B, and 0x1F. See the Cable Driver Gain Control
section register description.
Data transfers to the gain programmable cable driver amplifier
are initiated by the following four conditions.
1.
Power-Up and Hardware Reset—Upon initial power-up
and every hardware reset, the AD9879 clears the contents
of the gain control registers to 0, which defines the lowest
gain setting of the AD832x. Thus, the AD9879 writes all 0s
out of the 3-wire cable amplifier control interface.
2.
Software Reset—Writing a 1 to Bit 5 of Address 0x00
initiates a software reset. Upon a software reset, the
AD9879 clears the contents of the gain control registers to
0 for the lowest gain and sets the profile select to 0. The
AD9879 writes all 0s out of the 3-wire cable amplifier
control interface if the gain was previously on a different
setting (other than 0).
3.
Change in Profile Selection—The AD9879 samples the
PROFILE input pin together with the two profile select bits
and writes to the AD832x gain control registers when a
change in profile and gain is determined. The data written
to the cable driver amplifier comes from the AD9879 gain
control register associated with the current profile.
4.
Write to AD9879 Cable Driver Amplifier Control
Registers—The AD9879 writes gain control data associated
with the current profile to the AD832x whenever the
selected AD9879 cable driver amplifier gain setting is
changed.
Once a new stable gain value is detected (48 MCLK to
64 MCLK cycles after initiation), a data write starts with
CA_EN going low. The AD9879 always finishes a write
sequence to the cable driver amplifier once it is started. The
logic controlling data transfers to the cable driver amplifier uses
up to 200 MCLK cycles and is designed to prevent erroneous
write cycles from occurring.
Rev. A | Page 26 of 32
AD9879
RECEIVE PATH (Rx)
IF10 AND IF12 ADC OPERATION
The IF10 and IF12 ADCs have a common architecture and
share many of the same characteristics from an applications
standpoint. Most of the information in this section is applicable
to both IF ADCs. Differences, where they exist, are highlighted.
INPUT SIGNAL RANGE AND DIGITAL OUTPUT
CODES
The IF ADCs have differential analog inputs labeled IF+ and
IF−. The signal input, VAIN, is the voltage difference between the
two input pins, VAIN = VIF+ – VIF−. The full-scale input voltage
range is determined by the internal reference voltages, REFT
and REFB, which define the top and bottom of the scale. The
peak input voltage to the ADC is the difference between REFT
and REFB, which is 1 Vppd. This results in the ADC full-scale
input voltage range of 2 Vppd. The digital output code is
straight binary and is illustrated in Table 12.
Figure 23 illustrates a recommended circuit that eases the
burden on the signal source by isolating its output from the
ADC input. The 33 Ω series termination resistors isolate the
amplifier outputs from any capacitive load, which typically
improves settling time. The series capacitors provide ac signal
coupling which ensures the ADC inputs operate at the optimal
dc bias voltage. The shunt capacitor sources the dynamic
currents required to charge the SHA input capacitors, removing
this requirement from the ADC buffer. The values of CC and
CS should be calculated to get the correct HPF and LPF corner
frequencies.
tEE
M=8
REFCLK
Table 12. Digital Output Codes
tOD
Input Signal Voltage
VAIN ≥ +1.0 V
VAIN = +1.0 – 1 LSB V
VAIN = +1.0 – 2 LSB V
tMD
MCLK
RXIQ
DATA
VAIN = +1 LSB V
VAIN = 0.0 V
VAIN = −1 LSB V
I[7:4]
I[3:0]
Q[7:4]
Q[3:0]
I[7:4]
I[3:0]
IF10
IF12
IF10
IF12
IF10
IF12
RXSYNC
IF DATA
VAIN = −1.0 + 2 LSB V
VAIN = −1.0 V
VAIN < −1.0 V
02773-021
IF[11:0]
111...111
111...111
111...110
...
100...001
100...000
011...111
...
000...001
000...000
000...000
signal should be biased to a dc level equal to the midpoint of the
ADC reference voltages, REFT12 and REFB12. Nominally, this
level is 1.2 V. When ac-coupled, the ADC inputs self bias to this
voltage and require no additional input circuitry.
Figure 21. Rx Port Timing (Default Mode: Multiplexed IF ADC Data)
tEE
The IF10 ADC digital output code occupies the 10 MSBs of the
Rx digital output port (IF[11:2]). The output codes clamp to the
top or the bottom of the scale when the inputs are overdriven.
M=8
REFCLK
tOD
tMD
MCLK
DRIVING THE INPUTS
RXIQ
DATA
I[7:4]
I[3:0]
Q[7:4]
Q[3:0]
I[7:4]
I[3:0]
IF DATA
Another consideration for getting the best performance from
the ADC inputs is the dc biasing of the input signal. Ideally, the
Rev. A | Page 27 of 32
IF10 OR IF12
IF10 OR IF12
IF10 OR IF12
Figure 22. Rx Port Timing (Nonmultiplexed Data)
33Ω
VS
33Ω
CC
AINP
CC
CS
AINN
Figure 23. Simple ADC Drive Configuration
02773-022
RXSYNC
02773-023
The IF ADCs have differential switched capacitor sample-andhold amplifier (SHA) inputs. The nominal differential input
impedance is 4.0 kΩ||3 pF. This impedance can be used as the
effective termination impedance when calculating filter transfer
characteristics and voltage signal attenuation from non-zero
source impedances. It should be noted, however, that for best
performance, additional requirements must be met by the
signal source. The SHA has input capacitors that must be
recharged each time the input is sampled. This results in a
dynamic input current at the device input. This demands that
the source has low (<50 V) output impedance at frequencies up
to the ADC sampling frequency. Also, the source must have
settling to better than 0.1% in <1/2 ADC CLK period.
AD9879
PCB DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Although the AD9879 is a mixed-signal device, the part should
be treated as an analog component. The on-chip digital
circuitry is specially designed to minimize the impact the digital
switching noise has on the operation of the analog circuits. The
power, grounding, and layout recommendations in this section
will help provide the best performance from the MxFE.
COMPONENT PLACEMENT
Chances for obtaining the best performance from the MxFE are
greatly increased if the three following guidelines of component
placement are followed.
•
Manage the path of return currents flowing into the
ground plane so that high frequency switching currents
from the digital circuits do not flow onto the ground plane
under the MxFE or analog circuits.
•
Keep noisy digital signal paths and sensitive receive signal
paths as short as possible.
•
Keep digital (noise generating) and analog (noise
susceptible) circuits as far away from each other as
possible.
To best manage the return currents, pure digital circuits that
generate high switching currents should be closest to the power
supply entry. This keeps the highest frequency return current
paths short and prevents them from traveling over the sensitive
MxFE and analog portions of the ground plane. Also, these
circuits should be generously bypassed at each device, further
reducing the high frequency ground currents. The MxFE
should be placed adjacent to the digital circuits, such that the
ground return currents from the digital sections do not flow
into the ground plane under the MxFE. The analog circuits
should be placed furthest from the power supply.
The AD9879 has several pins which are used to decouple
sensitive internal nodes. These pins are REFIO, REFB10,
REFT10, REFB12, and REFT12. The decoupling capacitors
connected to these points should have low ESR and ESL. These
capacitors should be placed as close as possible to the MxFE
and be connected directly to the analog ground plane.
POWER PLANES AND DECOUPLING
The AD9879 evaluation board demonstrates a good power
supply distribution and decoupling strategy. The board has four
layers: two signal layers, one ground plane, and one power
plane.
The power plane is split into a 3 VDD section which is used for
the 3 V digital logic circuits, a DVDD section that is used to
supply the digital supply pins of the AD9879, an AVDD section
that is used to supply the analog supply pins of the AD9879, and
a VANLG section that supplies the higher voltage analog
components on the board. The 3 VDD section typically has the
highest frequency currents on the power plane and should be
kept the furthest from the MxFE and analog sections of the
board.
The DVDD portion of the plane brings the current used to
power the digital portion of the MxFE to the device. This
should be treated similarly to the 3VDD power plane and be
kept from going underneath the MxFE or analog components.
The MxFE should sit above the AVDD portion of the power
plane.
The AVDD and DVDD power planes can be fed from the same
low noise voltage source. They should be decoupled from each
other, however, to prevent the noise generated in the DVDD
portion of the MxFE from corrupting the AVDD supply. This
can be done by using ferrite beads between the voltage source
and DVDD and between the source and AVDD. Both DVDD
and AVDD should have a low ESR, bulk decoupling capacitor
on the MxFE side of the ferrite as well as low ESR, low ESL decoupling capacitors on each supply pin (for example, the
AD9879 requires 17 power supply decoupling caps). The
decoupling caps should be placed as close as possible to the
MxFE supply pins. An example of the proper decoupling is
shown in the AD9875 evaluation board schematic.
The resistor connected to the FSADJ pin and the RC network
connected to the PLLFILT pin should also be placed close to the
device and connected directly to the analog ground plane.
Rev. A | Page 28 of 32
AD9879
GROUND PLANES
SIGNAL ROUTING
In general, if the component placing guidelines discussed in the
Component Placement section can be implemented, it is best to
have at least one continuous ground plane for the entire board.
All ground connections should be made as short as possible.
This results in the lowest impedance return paths and the
quietest ground connections.
The digital Rx and Tx signal paths should be kept as short as
possible. Also, these traces should have a controlled impedance
of about 50 Ω. This prevents poor signal integrity and the high
currents that can occur during undershoot or overshoot caused
by ringing. If the signal traces cannot be kept shorter than
approximately 1.5 inches, then series termination resistors
(33 Ω to 47 Ω) should be placed close to all signal sources. It is
advisable to series terminate all clock signals at their source
regardless of trace length.
If the components cannot be placed in a manner that keeps the
high frequency ground currents from traversing under the
MxFE and analog components, it may be necessary to put
current steering channels into the ground plane to route the
high frequency currents around these sensitive areas. These
current steering channels should be made only when and where
necessary.
The receive (I IN, Q IN, and RF IN) signals are the most
sensitive signals on the entire board. Careful routing of these
signals is essential for good receive path performance. The Rx±
signals form a differential pair and should be routed together as
a pair. By keeping the traces adjacent to each other, noise
coupled onto the signals appears as common-mode and is
largely rejected by the MxFE receive input. Keeping the driving
point impedance of the receive signal low and placing any lowpass filtering of the signals close to the MxFE further reduces
the possibility of noise corrupting these signals.
Rev. A | Page 29 of 32
AD9879
OUTLINE DIMENSIONS
23.20 BSC
1.03
0.88
0.73
20.00 BSC
3.40
MAX
18.85 REF
80
51
81
50
SEATING
PLANE
14.00
BSC
TOP VIEW
(PINS DOWN)
12.35
REF
VIEW A
17.20
BSC
PIN 1
2.90
2.70
2.50
0.23
0.11
7°
0°
0.50
0.25
100
31
30
1
0.65 BSC
LEAD PITCH
0.10
COPLANARITY
0.40
0.22
LEAD WIDTH
VIEW A
ROTATED 90° CCW
COMPLIANT TO JEDEC STANDARDS MS-022-GC-1
Figure 24. 100-Lead Metric Quad Flat Package [MQFP]
(S-100-3)
Dimensions shown in millimeters
ORDERING GUIDE
Model
AD9879BS
AD9879BSZ1
AD9879-EB
1
Temperature Range
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
Package Description
100-Lead MQFP
100-Lead MQFP
Evaluation Board
Z = Pb-free part.
Rev. A | Page 30 of 32
Package Option
S-100-3
S-100-3
AD9879
NOTES
Rev. A | Page 31 of 32
AD9879
NOTES
© 2005 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Trademarks and
registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
C02773-0-6/05(A)
Rev. A | Page 32 of 32
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