ADF4350

ADF4350
Wideband Synthesizer with Integrated VCO
ADF4350
FEATURES
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
Output frequency range: 137.5 MHz to 4400 MHz
Fractional-N synthesizer and integer-N synthesizer
Low phase noise VCO
Programmable divide-by-1/-2/-4/-8/-16 output
Typical rms jitter: 0.5 ps rms
Power supply: 3.0 V to 3.6 V
Logic compatibility: 1.8 V
Programmable dual-modulus prescaler of 4/5 or 8/9
Programmable output power level
RF output mute function
3-wire serial interface
Analog and digital lock detect
Switched bandwidth fast-lock mode
Cycle slip reduction
The ADF4350 allows implementation of fractional-N or
integer-N phase-locked loop (PLL) frequency synthesizers
if used with an external loop filter and external reference
frequency.
The ADF4350 has an integrated voltage controlled oscillator
(VCO) with a fundamental output frequency ranging from
2200 MHz to 4400 MHz. In addition, divide-by-1/2/4/8 or 16
circuits allow the user to generate RF output frequencies as low
as 137.5 MHz. For applications that require isolation, the RF
output stage can be muted. The mute function is both pin- and
software-controllable. An auxiliary RF output is also available,
which can be powered down if not in use.
Control of all the on-chip registers is through a simple 3-wire
interface. The device operates with a power supply ranging
from 3.0 V to 3.6 V and can be powered down when not in use.
APPLICATIONS
Wireless infrastructure (W-CDMA, TD-SCDMA, WiMAX,
GSM, PCS, DCS, DECT)
Test equipment
Wireless LANs, CATV equipment
Clock generation
FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
SDVDD
10-BIT R
COUNTER
×2
DOUBLER
DVDD
VP
RSET
VVCO
MULTIPLEXER
÷2
DIVIDER
MUXOUT
LOCK
DETECT
SW
FLO SWITCH
LD
CLK
DATA
LE
DATA REGISTER
FUNCTION
LATCH
CHARGE
PUMP
CPOUT
PHASE
COMPARATOR
INTEGER
REG
FRACTION
REG
VTUNE
VREF
VCOM
VCO
CORE
MODULUS
REG
THIRD-ORDER
FRACTIONAL
INTERPOLATOR
TEMP
MULTIPLEXER
N COUNTER
MULTIPLEXER
CE
AGND
OUTPUT
STAGE
÷1/2/4/8/16
DGND
SDGND
CPGND
RFOUTA–
PDBRF
OUTPUT
STAGE
ADF4350
AGNDVCO
RFOUTA+
RFOUTB+
RFOUTB–
07325-001
REFIN
AVDD
Figure 1.
Rev. 0
Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no
responsibility is assumed by Analog Devices for its use, nor for any infringements of patents or other
rights of third parties that may result from its use. Specifications subject to change without notice. No
license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Analog Devices.
Trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
One Technology Way, P.O. Box 9106, Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A.
Tel: 781.329.4700
www.analog.com
Fax: 781.461.3113
©2008 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved.
ADF4350
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Features .............................................................................................. 1 Register 1 ..................................................................................... 18 Applications ....................................................................................... 1 Register 2 ..................................................................................... 18 General Description ......................................................................... 1 Register 3 ..................................................................................... 20 Functional Block Diagram .............................................................. 1 Register 4 ..................................................................................... 20 Revision History ............................................................................... 2 Register 5 ..................................................................................... 20 Specifications..................................................................................... 3 Initialization Sequence .............................................................. 21 Timing Characteristics ................................................................ 5 RF Synthesizer—A Worked Example ...................................... 21 Absolute Maximum Ratings............................................................ 6 Modulus ....................................................................................... 21 Transistor Count ........................................................................... 6 Reference Doubler and Reference Divider ............................. 21 ESD Caution .................................................................................. 6 12-Bit Programmable Modulus ................................................ 21 Pin Configuration and Function Descriptions ............................. 7 Cycle Slip Reduction for Faster Lock Times ........................... 22 Typical Performance Characteristics ............................................. 9 Spurious Optimization and Fast lock ...................................... 22 Circuit Description ......................................................................... 11 Fast-Lock Timer and Register Sequences ............................... 22 Reference Input Section ............................................................. 11 Fast Lock—An Example ............................................................ 22 RF N Divider ............................................................................... 11 Fast Lock—Loop Filter Topology............................................. 23 INT, FRAC, MOD, and R Counter Relationship.................... 11 Spur Mechanisms ....................................................................... 23 INT N MODE ............................................................................. 11 Spur Consistency and Fractional Spur Optimization ........... 24 R Counter .................................................................................... 11 Phase Resync ............................................................................... 24 Phase Frequency Detector (PFD) and Charge Pump ............ 11 Applications Information .............................................................. 25 MUXOUT and LOCK Detect ................................................... 12 Direct Conversion Modulator .................................................. 25 Input Shift Registers ................................................................... 12 Interfacing ................................................................................... 26 Program Modes .......................................................................... 12 PCB Design Guidelines for a Chip Scale Package ................. 26 VCO.............................................................................................. 12 Output Matching ........................................................................ 27 Output Stage ................................................................................ 13 Outline Dimensions ....................................................................... 28 Register Maps .................................................................................. 14 Ordering Guide .......................................................................... 28 Register 0 ..................................................................................... 18 REVISION HISTORY
11/08—Revision 0: Initial Version
Rev. 0 | Page 2 of 28
ADF4350
SPECIFICATIONS
AVDD = DVDD = VVCO = SDVDD = VP = 3.3 V ± 10%; AGND = DGND = 0 V; TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. Operating
temperature range is −40°C to +85°C.
Table 1.
Parameter
REFIN CHARACTERISTICS
Input Frequency
Input Sensitivity
Input Capacitance
Input Current
PHASE DETECTOR
Phase Detector Frequency 2
CHARGE PUMP
ICP Sink/Source 3
High Value
Low Value
RSET Range
Sink and Source Current Matching
ICP vs. VCP
ICP vs. Temperature
LOGIC INPUTS
Input High Voltage, VINH
Input Low Voltage, VINL
Input Current, IINH/IINL
Input Capacitance, CIN
LOGIC OUTPUTS
Output High Voltage, VOH
Output High Current, IOH
Output Low Voltage, VOL
POWER SUPPLIES
AVDD
DVDD, VVCO, SDVDD, VP
DIDD + AIDD 4
Output Dividers
IVCO4
IRFOUT4
Low Power Sleep Mode
RF OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS
Maximum VCO Output Frequency
Minimum VCO Output Frequency
Minimum VCO Output Frequency
Using Dividers
VCO Sensitivity
Frequency Pushing (Open-Loop)
Frequency Pulling (Open-Loop)
Harmonic Content (Second)
Harmonic Content (Third)
Harmonic Content (Second)
Harmonic Content (Third)
Minimum RF Output Power 5
Maximum RF Output Power5
Output Power Variation
Minimum VCO Tuning Voltage
Maximum VCO Tuning Voltage
Min
B Version
Typ
10
0.7
Max
Unit
Conditions/Comments
105
AVDD
For f < 10 MHz ensure slew rate > 21 V/μs
Biased at AVDD/2 1
±60
MHz
V p-p
pF
μA
32
MHz
10
With RSET = 5.1 kΩ
5
0.312
2.7
10
2
1.5
2
1.5
0.6
±1
3.0
DVDD − 0.4
3.0
AVDD
21
6 to 24
70
21
7
33
1
90
−19
−13
−20
−10
−4
5
±1
0.5
2.5
0.5 V ≤ VCP ≤ 2.5 V
0.5 V ≤ VCP ≤ 2.5 V
VCP = 2.0 V
V
V
μA
pF
500
0.4
V
μA
V
3.6
V
27
mA
mA
mA
mA
μA
CMOS output chosen
IOL = 500 μA
These voltages must equal AVDD
80
26
1000
4400
2200
137.5
mA
mA
kΩ
%
%
%
MHz
MHz
MHz
MHz/V
MHz/V
kHz
dBc
dBc
dBc
dBc
dBm
dBm
dB
V
V
Rev. 0 | Page 3 of 28
Each output divide-by-2 consumes 6 mA
RF output stage is programmable
Fundamental VCO mode
2200 MHz fundamental output and divide by 16 selected
Into 2.00 VSWR load
Fundamental VCO output
Fundamental VCO output
Divided VCO output
Divided VCO output
Programmable in 3 dB steps
ADF4350
Parameter
NOISE CHARACTERISTICS
VCO Phase-Noise Performance 6
Normalized In-Band Phase Noise Floor 7
In-Band Phase Noise 8
Integrated RMS Jitter 9
Spurious Signals Due to PFD Frequency
Level of Signal With RF Mute Enabled
Min
B Version
Typ
−89
−114
−134
−148
−86
−111
−134
−145
−83
−110
−132
−145
−213
−97
0.5
−70
−40
Max
Unit
Conditions/Comments
dBc/Hz
dBc/Hz
dBc/Hz
dBc/Hz
dBc/Hz
dBc/Hz
dBc/Hz
dBc/Hz
dBc/Hz
dBc/Hz
dBc/Hz
dBc/Hz
dBc/Hz
dBc/Hz
ps
dBc
dBm
10 kHz offset from 2.2 GHz carrier
100 kHz offset from 2.2 GHz carrier
1 MHz offset from 2.2 GHz carrier
5 MHz offset from 2.2 GHz carrier
10 kHz offset from 3.3 GHz carrier
100 kHz offset from 3.3 GHz carrier
1 MHz offset from 3.3 GHz carrier
5 MHz offset from 3.3 GHz carrier
10 kHz offset from 4.4 GHz carrier
100 kHz offset from 4.4 GHz carrier
1 MHz offset from 4.4 GHz carrier
5 MHz offset from 4.4 GHz carrier
1
3 kHz offset from 2113.5 MHz carrier
AC coupling ensures AVDD/2 bias.
Guaranteed by design. Sample tested to ensure compliance.
ICP is internally modified to maintain constant loop gain over the frequency range.
4
TA = 25°C; AVDD = DVDD = VVCO = 3.3 V; prescaler = 8/9; fREFIN = 100 MHz; fPFD = 25 MHz; fRF = 4.4 GHz.
5
Using 50 Ω resistors to VVCO, into a 50 Ω load. Power measured with auxiliary RF output disabled. The current consumption of the auxiliary output is the same as for the
main output.
6
The noise of the VCO is measured in open-loop conditions.
7
This figure can be used to calculate phase noise for any application. To calculate in-band phase noise performance as seen at the VCO output use the following formula: −213 +
10log(fPFD) + 20logN . The value given is the lowest noise mode.
8
fREFIN = 100 MHz; fPFD = 25 MHz; offset frequency = 10 kHz; VCO frequency = 4227 MHz, output divide by two enabled. RFOUT = 2113.5 MHz; N = 169; loop BW = 40 kHz,
ICP = 313 μA; low noise mode. The noise was measured with an EVAL-ADF4350EB1Z and the Agilent E5052A signal source analyzer.
9
fREFIN = 100 MHz; fPFD = 25 MHz; VCO frequency = 4400 MHz, RFOUT = 4400 MHz; N = 176; loop BW = 40 kHz, ICP = 313 μA; low noise mode. The noise was measured with
an EVAL-ADF4350EB1Z and the Agilent E5052A signal source analyzer.
2
3
Rev. 0 | Page 4 of 28
ADF4350
TIMING CHARACTERISTICS
AVDD = DVDD = VVCO = SDVDD = VP = 3.3 V ± 10%; AGND = DGND = 0 V; 1.8 V and 3 V logic levels used; TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless
otherwise noted.
Table 2.
Parameter
t1
t2
t3
t4
t5
t6
t7
Limit (B Version)
20
10
10
25
25
10
20
Unit
ns min
ns min
ns min
ns min
ns min
ns min
ns min
t4
Test Conditions/Comments
LE setup time
DATA to CLK setup time
DATA to CLK hold time
CLK high duration
CLK low duration
CLK to LE setup time
LE pulse width
t5
CLK
t2
DATA
DB31 (MSB)
t3
DB30
DB2
(CONTROL BIT C3)
DB1
(CONTROL BIT C2)
DB0 (LSB)
(CONTROL BIT C1)
t7
LE
t1
07325-002
t6
LE
Figure 2. Timing Diagram
Rev. 0 | Page 5 of 28
ADF4350
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
TA = 25°C, unless otherwise noted.
Table 3.
Parameter
AVDD to GND1
AVDD to DVDD
VVCO to GND
VVCO to AVDD
Digital I/O Voltage to GND
Analog I/O Voltage to GND
REFIN to GND
Operating Temperature Range
Storage Temperature Range
Maximum Junction Temperature
LFCSP θJA Thermal Impedance
(Paddle-Soldered)
Reflow Soldering
Peak Temperature
Time at Peak Temperature
1
Rating
−0.3 V to +3.9 V
−0.3 V to +0.3 V
−0.3 V to +3.9 V
−0.3 V to +0.3 V
−0.3 V to VDD + 0.3 V
−0.3 V to VDD + 0.3 V
−0.3 V to VDD + 0.3 V
−40°C to +85°C
−65°C to +125°C
150°C
27.3°C/W
Stresses above those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings
may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress
rating only; functional operation of the device at these or any
other conditions above those indicated in the operational
section of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute
maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect
device reliability.
This device is a high-performance RF integrated circuit with an
ESD rating of <0.5 kV and is ESD sensitive. Proper precautions
should be taken for handling and assembly.
TRANSISTOR COUNT
24202 (CMOS) and 918 (bipolar)
ESD CAUTION
260°C
40 sec
GND = AGND = DGND = 0 V
Rev. 0 | Page 6 of 28
ADF4350
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
SDVDD
SDGND
MUXOUT
REFIN
DVDD
DGND
PDBRF
LD
PIN CONFIGURATION AND FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS
3
4
5
6
VREF
23 VCOM
22 RSET
24
PIN 1
INDICATOR
ADF4350
TOP VIEW
(Not to Scale)
7
21 AGNDVCO
20 VTUNE
19 TEMP
18 AGNDVCO
17 VVCO
AGND 9
AVDD 10
AGNDVCO 11
8
07325-003
1
2
RFOUTA+ 12
RFOUTA− 13
RFOUTB+ 14
RFOUTB− 15
VVCO 16
CLK
DATA
LE
CE
SW
VP
CPOUT
CPGND
NOTES
1. THE LFCSP HAS AN EXPOSED PADDLE THAT MUST BE CONNECTED TO GND.
Figure 3. Pin Configuration
Table 4. Pin Function Descriptions
Pin No.
1
Mnemonic
CLK
2
DATA
3
LE
4
CE
5
6
SW
VP
7
CPOUT
8
9
10
CPGND
AGND
AVDD
11, 18, 21
12
13
AGNDVCO
RFOUTA+
RFOUTA−
14
RFOUTB+
15
RFOUTB−
16, 17
VVCO
19
TEMP
20
VTUNE
Description
Serial Clock Input. Data is clocked into the 32-bit shift register on the CLK rising edge. This input is a high
impedance CMOS input.
Serial Data Input. The serial data is loaded MSB first with the three LSBs as the control bits. This input is a high
impedance CMOS input.
Load Enable, CMOS Input. When LE goes high, the data stored in the shift register is loaded into the register
that is selected by the three LSBs.
Chip Enable. A logic low on this pin powers down the device and puts the charge pump into three-state mode.
A logic high on this pin powers up the device depending on the status of the power-down bits.
Fast-Lock Switch. A connection should be made from the loop filter to this pin when using the fast-lock mode.
Charge Pump Power Supply. This pin is to be equal to AVDD. Decoupling capacitors to the ground plane are to
be placed as close as possible to this pin.
Charge Pump Output. When enabled, this provides ±ICP to the external loop filter. The output of the loop filter is
connected to VTUNE to drive the internal VCO.
Charge Pump Ground. This is the ground return pin for CPOUT.
Analog Ground. This is a ground return pin for AVDD.
Analog Power Supply. This pin ranges from 3.0 V to 3.6 V. Decoupling capacitors to the analog ground plane are
to be placed as close as possible to this pin. AVDD must have the same value as DVDD.
VCO Analog Ground. These are the ground return pins for the VCO.
VCO Output. The output level is programmable. The VCO fundamental output or a divided down version is available.
Complementary VCO Output. The output level is programmable. The VCO fundamental output or a divided
down version is available.
Auxilliary VCO Output. The output level is programmable. The VCO fundamental output or a divided down
version is available.
Complementary Auxilliary VCO Output. The output level is programmable. The VCO fundamental output or a
divided down version is available.
Power Supply for the VCO. This ranges from 3.0 V to 3.6 V. Decoupling capacitors to the analog ground plane
should be placed as close as possible to these pins. VVCO must have the same value as AVDD.
Temperature Compensation Output. Decoupling capacitors to the ground plane are to be placed as close as
possible to this pin.
Control Input to the VCO. This voltage determines the output frequency and is derived from filtering the CPOUT
output voltage.
Rev. 0 | Page 7 of 28
ADF4350
Pin No.
22
Mnemonic
RSET
Description
Connecting a resistor between this pin and GND sets the charge pump output current. The nominal voltage
bias at the RSET pin is 0.55 V. The relationship between ICP and RSET is
I CP =
23
VCOM
24
25
26
27
28
VREF
LD
PDBRF
DGND
DVDD
29
REFIN
30
MUXOUT
31
32
SDGND
SDVDD
33
EP
25.5
R SET
where:
RSET = 5.1 kΩ
ICP = 5 mA
Internal Compensation Node Biased at Half the Tuning Range. Decoupling capacitors to the ground plane
should be placed as close as possible to this pin.
Reference Voltage. Decoupling capacitors to the ground plane should be placed as close as possible to this pin.
Lock Detect Output Pin. This pin outputs a logic high to indicate PLL lock. A logic low output indicates loss of PLL lock.
RF Power-Down. A logic low on this pin mutes the RF outputs. This function is also software controllable.
Digital Ground. Ground return path for DVDD.
Digital Power Supply. This pin should be the same voltage as AVDD. Decoupling capacitors to the ground plane
should be placed as close as possible to this pin.
Reference Input. This is a CMOS input with a nominal threshold of VDD/2 and a dc equivalent input resistance of
100 kΩ. This input can be driven from a TTL or CMOS crystal oscillator, or it can be ac-coupled.
Multiplexer Output. This multiplexer output allows either the lock detect, the scaled RF, or the scaled reference
frequency to be accessed externally.
Digital Sigma-Delta (Σ-Δ) Modulator Ground. Ground return path for the Σ-Δ modulator.
Power Supply Pin for the Digital Σ-Δ Modulator. Should be the same voltage as AVDD. Decoupling capacitors to
the ground plane are to be placed as close as possible to this pin.
Exposed Pad.
Rev. 0 | Page 8 of 28
ADF4350
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
–40
–70
–50
–80
–90
–70
PHASE NOISE (dBc/Hz)
–80
–90
–100
–110
–120
–130
–130
–140
1M
10M
100M
–170
1k
100k
1M
10M
Figure 7. Closed-Loop Phase Noise, Fundamental VCO and Dividers,
VCO = 2.2 GHz, PFD = 25 MHz, Loop Bandwidth = 40 kHz
–40
–70
–50
–80
–60
FUND
DIV2
DIV4
DIV8
DIV16
–90
PHASE NOISE (dBc/Hz)
–70
–80
–90
–100
–110
–120
–130
–100
–110
–120
–130
–140
–150
–140
100k
1M
10M
100M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
–170
07325-029
10k
1k
10k
100k
1M
10M
100M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Figure 5. Open-Loop VCO Phase Noise, 3.3 GHz
07325-032
–160
–150
Figure 8. Closed-Loop Phase Noise, Fundamental VCO and Dividers,
VCO = 3.3 GHz, PFD = 25 MHz, Loop Bandwidth = 40 kHz
–40
–70
–50
–80
–60
FUND
DIV2
DIV4
DIV8
DIV16
–90
PHASE NOISE (dBc/Hz)
–70
–80
–90
–100
–110
–120
–130
–100
–110
–120
–130
–140
–150
–140
–160
10k
100k
1M
10M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
100M
07325-030
–150
–160
1k
100M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Figure 4. Open-Loop VCO Phase Noise, 2.2 GHz
–160
1k
10k
07325-031
100k
07325-028
10k
FREQUENCY (Hz)
PHASE NOISE (dBc/Hz)
–120
–160
–150
PHASE NOISE (dBc/Hz)
–110
–150
–140
–160
1k
–100
Figure 6. Open-Loop VCO Phase Noise, 4.4 GHz
–170
1k
10k
100k
1M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
10M
100M
07325-033
PHASE NOISE (dBc/Hz)
–60
FUND
DIV2
DIV4
DIV8
DIV16
Figure 9. Closed-Loop Phase Noise, Fundamental VCO and Dividers,
VCO = 4.4 GHz, PFD = 25 MHz, Loop Bandwidth = 40 kHz
Rev. 0 | Page 9 of 28
0
0
–20
–20
–40
–40
PHASE NOISE (dBc/Hz)
–60
–80
–100
–120
10k
100k
FREQUENCY (Hz)
1M
10M
–120
–160
07325-034
1k
Figure 10. Integer-N Phase Noise and Spur Performance. GSM900 Band,
RFOUT = 904 MHz, REFIN = 100 MHz, PFD = 800 kHz, Output Divide-by-4
Selected; Loop-Filter Bandwidth = 16 kHz, Channel Spacing = 200 kHz.
1k
0
0
–20
–20
–40
–40
–60
–80
–100
–120
10k
100k
FREQUENCY (Hz)
1M
10M
Figure 13. Fractional-N Spur Performance. Low Noise Mode, RFOUT =
2.591 GHz, REFIN = 105 MHz, PFD = 17.5 MHz, Output Divide-by-1 Selected;
Loop Filter Bandwidth = 20 kHz, Channel Spacing = 100 kHz.
PHASE NOISE (dBc/Hz)
–60
–80
–100
–120
–140
–140
1k
10k
100k
FREQUENCY (Hz)
1M
10M
–160
07325-035
–160
Figure 11. Fractional-N Spur Performance; Low Noise Mode. W-CDMA Band,
RFOUT = 2113.5 MHz, REFIN = 100 MHz, PFD = 25 MHz, Output Divide-by-2
Selected; Loop Filter Bandwidth = 40 kHz, Channel Spacing = 200 kHz.
1k
3.02
–20
3.01
FREQUENCY (GHz)
–40
–80
–100
100k
FREQUENCY (Hz)
1M
10M
Figure 14. Fractional-N Spur Performance. Low Spur Mode RFOUT =
2.591 GHz, REFIN = 105 MHz, PFD = 17.5 MHz, Output Divide-by-1 Selected.
Loop Filter Bandwidth = 20 kHz, Channel Spacing = 100 kHz (Note That
Fractional Spurs Are Removed and Only the Integer Boundary Spur Remains
in Low Spur Mode).
0
–60
10k
07325-038
PHASE NOISE (dBc/Hz)
–100
–140
–160
PHASE NOISE (dBc/Hz)
–80
07325-037
–140
–60
–120
CSR OFF
CSR ON
3.00
2.99
2.98
2.97
2.96
–140
1k
10k
100k
FREQUENCY (Hz)
1M
10M
2.95
07325-036
–160
Figure 12. Fractional-N Spur Performance. Low Spur Mode, W-CDMA Band
RFOUT = 2113.5 MHz, REFIN = 100 MHz, PFD = 25 MHz, Output Divide-by-2
Selected; Loop Filter Bandwidth = 40 kHz, Channel Spacing = 200 kHz
0
100
200
300
TIME (µs)
400
500
600
07325-039
PHASE NOISE (dBc/Hz)
ADF4350
Figure 15. Lock Time for 100 MHz Jump from 3070 MHz to 2970 MHz with
CSR On and Of f, PFD = 25 MHz, ICP = 313 μA, Loop Filter Bandwidth = 20 kHz
Rev. 0 | Page 10 of 28
ADF4350
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
RF N DIVIDER
REFERENCE INPUT SECTION
The reference input stage is shown in Figure 16. SW1 and SW2
are normally closed switches. SW3 is normally open. When
power-down is initiated, SW3 is closed, and SW1 and SW2 are
opened. This ensures that there is no loading of the REFIN pin
during power-down.
FROM
VCO OUTPUT/
OUTPUT DIVIDERS
THIRD-ORDER
FRACTIONAL
INTERPOLATOR
INT
REG
FRAC
VALUE
07325-006
MOD
REG
100kΩ
SW2
Figure 17. RF INT Divider
TO R COUNTER
BUFFER
SW3
NO
INT N MODE
If the FRAC = 0 and DB8 in Register 2 (LDF) is set to 1, the
synthesizer operates in integer-N mode. The DB8 in Register 2
(LDF) should be set to 1 to get integer-N digital lock detect.
Figure 16. Reference Input Stage
RF N DIVIDER
The RF N divider allows a division ratio in the PLL feedback
path. The division ratio is determined by INT, FRAC and MOD
values, which build up this divider.
INT, FRAC, MOD, AND R COUNTER RELATIONSHIP
The INT, FRAC, and MOD values, in conjunction with the
R counter, make it possible to generate output frequencies
that are spaced by fractions of the PFD frequency. See the RF
Synthesizer—A Worked Example section for more information.
The RF VCO frequency (RFOUT) equation is
RFOUT = fPFD × (INT + (FRAC/MOD))
(1)
where RFOUT is the output frequency of external voltage
controlled oscillator (VCO).
INT is the preset divide ratio of the binary 16-bit counter
(23 to 65535 for 4/5 prescaler, 75 to 65,535 for 8/9 prescaler).
MOD is the preset fractional modulus (2 to 4095).
FRAC is the numerator of the fractional division (0 to MOD − 1).
fPFD = REFIN × [(1 + D)/(R × (1 + T))]
(2)
R COUNTER
The 10–bit R counter allows the input reference frequency
(REFIN) to be divided down to produce the reference clock
to the PFD. Division ratios from 1 to 1023 are allowed.
PHASE FREQUENCY DETECTOR (PFD) AND
CHARGE PUMP
The phase frequency detector (PFD) takes inputs from the
R counter and N counter and produces an output proportional
to the phase and frequency difference between them. Figure 18
is a simplified schematic of the phase frequency detector. The
PFD includes a fixed delay element that sets the width of the
antibacklash pulse, which is typically 3 ns. This pulse ensures
there is no dead zone in the PFD transfer function, and gives a
consistent reference spur level.
HIGH
D1
Q1
UP
U1
+IN
where:
REFIN is the reference input frequency.
D is the REFIN doubler bit.
T is the REFIN divide-by-2 bit (0 or 1).
R is the preset divide ratio of the binary 10-bit programmable
reference counter (1 to 1023).
CLR1
DELAY
HIGH
U3
CHARGE
PUMP
CLR2
DOWN
D2
Q2
U2
–IN
Figure 18. PFD Simplified Schematic
Rev. 0 | Page 11 of 28
CP
07325-007
SW1
07325-005
REFIN NC
TO PFD
N COUNTER
POWER-DOWN
CONTROL
NC
N = INT + FRAC/MOD
ADF4350
(R0) must be written to, to ensure the modulus value is loaded
correctly. Divider select in Register 4 (R4) is also double buffered, but only if DB13 of Register 2 (R2) is high.
MUXOUT AND LOCK DETECT
The output multiplexer on the ADF4350 allows the user
to access various internal points on the chip. The state of
MUXOUT is controlled by M3, M2, and M1 (for details,
see Figure 26). Figure 19 shows the MUXOUT section in
block diagram form.
VCO
The VCO core in the ADF4350 consists of three separate VCOs
each of which uses 16 overlapping bands, as shown in Figure 20,
to allow a wide frequency range to be covered without a large
VCO sensitivity (KV) and resultant poor phase noise and spurious performance.
R COUNTER INPUT
DVDD
THREE-STATE-OUTPUT
The correct VCO and band are chosen automatically by the
VCO and band select logic at power-up or whenever Register 0
(R0) is updated.
DVDD
DGND
R COUNTER OUTPUT
MUX
CONTROL
MUXOUT
N COUNTER OUTPUT
ANALOG LOCK DETECT
DIGITAL LOCK DETECT
VCO and band selection take 10 PFD cycles × band select clock
divider value. The VCO VTUNE is disconnected from the output
of the loop filter and is connected to an internal reference voltage.
2.8
2.4
2.0
Table 5. C3, C2, and C1 Truth Table
C3
0
0
0
0
1
1
Control Bits
C2
0
0
1
1
0
0
C1
0
1
0
1
0
1
Register
Register 0 (R0)
Register 1 (R1)
Register 2 (R2)
Register 3 (R3)
Register 4 (R4)
Register 5 (R5)
PROGRAM MODES
Table 5 and Figure 23 through Figure 29 show how the program
modes are to be set up in the ADF4350.
1.6
1.2
0.8
FREQUENCY (MHz)
4600
4400
4200
4000
3800
3600
3400
3200
3000
2800
2600
2400
0
07325-009
0.4
2200
The ADF4350 digital section includes a 10–bit RF R counter,
a 16–bit RF N counter, a 12-bit FRAC counter, and a 12–bit
modulus counter. Data is clocked into the 32–bit shift register
on each rising edge of CLK. The data is clocked in MSB first.
Data is transferred from the shift register to one of six latches
on the rising edge of LE. The destination latch is determined by
the state of the three control bits (C3, C2, and C1) in the shift
register. These are the 3 LSBs, DB2, DB1, and DB0, as shown
in Figure 2. The truth table for these bits is shown in Table 5.
Figure 23 shows a summary of how the latches are programmed.
1800
INPUT SHIFT REGISTERS
VTUNE (V)
Figure 19. MUXOUT Schematic
2000
DGND
07325-008
RESERVED
Figure 20. VTUNE vs. Frequency
The R counter output is used as the clock for the band select
logic. A programmable divider is provided at the R counter
output to allow division by 1 to 255 and is controlled by
Bits [BS8:BS1] in Register 4 (R4). When the required PFD
frequency is higher than 125 kHz, the divide ratio should be
set to allow enough time for correct band selection.
After band select, normal PLL action resumes. The nominal
value of KV is 33 MHz/V when the N-divider is driven from the
VCO output or this value divided by D. D is the output divider
value if the N-divider is driven from the RF divider output
(chosen by programming Bits [D12:D10] in Register 4 (R4).
The ADF4350 contains linearization circuitry to minimize
any variation of the product of ICP and KV to keep the loop
bandwidth constant.
A number of settings in the ADF4350 are double buffered.
These include the modulus value, phase value, R counter value,
reference doubler, reference divide-by-2, and current setting.
This means that two events have to occur before the part uses
a new value of any of the double buffered settings. First, the
new value is latched into the device by writing to the appropriate
register. Second, a new write must be performed on Register R0.
For example, any time the modulus value is updated, Register 0
Rev. 0 | Page 12 of 28
ADF4350
The VCO shows variation of KV as the VTUNE varies within the
band and from band-to-band. It has been shown for wideband
applications covering a wide frequency range (and changing
output dividers) that a value of 33 MHz/V provides the most
accurate KV as this is closest to an average value. Figure 21
shows how KV varies with fundamental VCO frequency along
with an average value for the frequency band. Users may prefer
this figure when using narrowband designs.
80
60
50
40
An auxiliary output stage exists on Pins RFOUTB+ and RFOUTB−
providing a second set of differential outputs which can be
used to drive another circuit, or which can be powered down
if unused.
30
20
07325-133
10
The RFOUTA+ and RFOUTA− pins of the ADF4350 are connected
to the collectors of an NPN differential pair driven by buffered
outputs of the VCO, as shown in Figure 22. To allow the user to
optimize the power dissipation vs. the output power requirements,
the tail current of the differential pair is programmable by
Bits [D2:D1] in Register 4 (R4). Four current levels may be set.
These levels give output power levels of −4 dBm, −1 dBm, +2
dBm, and +5 dBm, respectively, using a 50 Ω resistor to AVDD
and ac coupling into a 50 Ω load. Alternatively, both outputs
can be combined in a 1 + 1:1 transformer or a 180° microstrip
coupler (see the Output Matching section). If the outputs are
used individually, the optimum output stage consists of a shunt
inductor to VVCO. The unused complementary output must
be terminated with a similar circuit to the used output.
Another feature of the ADF4350 is that the supply current to
the RF output stage can be shut down until the part achieves
lock as measured by the digital lock detect circuitry. This is
enabled by the mute till lock detect (MTLD) bit in Register 4 (R4).
0
2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.6
FREQUENCY (GHz)
Figure 21. KV vs. Frequency
In fixed frequency applications, the ADF4350 VTUNE may
vary with ambient temperature switching from hot to cold.
In extreme cases, the drift causes VTUNE to drop to a very low
level (<0.25 V) and can cause loss of lock. This becomes an
issue only at fundamental VCO frequencies less than 2.95 GHz
and at ambient temperatures below 0°C.
In cases such as these, if the ambient temperature decreases
below 0°C, the frequency needs to be reprogrammed (R0 updated)
to avoid VTUNE dropping to a level close to 0 V. Reprogramming
the part chooses a more suitable VCO band, and thus avoids
the low VTUNE issue. Any further temperature drops of more
than 20°C (below 0°C) also require further reprogramming.
Any increases in the ambient temperature do not require reprogramming.
Rev. 0 | Page 13 of 28
RFOUTA+
VCO
RFOUTA–
BUFFER/
DIVIDE-BY1/2/4/8/16
07325-010
VCO SENSITIVITY (MHz/V)
70
OUTPUT STAGE
Figure 22. Output Stage
ADF4350
REGISTER MAPS
RESERVED
REGISTER 0
16-BIT INTEGER VALUE (INT)
CONTROL
BITS
12-BIT FRACTIONAL VALUE (FRAC)
DB31 DB30 DB29 DB28 DB27 DB26 DB25 DB24 DB23 DB22 DB21 DB20 DB19 DB18 DB17 DB16 DB15 DB14 DB13 DB12 DB11 DB10 DB9 DB8 DB7 DB6 DB5 DB4 DB3
0
N16
N15
N14
N13
N12
N11
N10
N9
N8
N7
N6
N5
N4
N3
N2
N1
F12
F11
F10
F9
F8
F7
F6
F5
F4
F3
F2
F1
DB2
DB1
DB0
C3(0) C2(0) C1(0)
PRESCALER
REGISTER 1
RESERVED
DBR1
12-BIT PHASE VALUE (PHASE)
CONTROL
BITS
DBR 1
12-BIT MODULUS VALUE (MOD)
PR1
P12
P11
P10
P9
P8
P7
P6
P5
P4
P3
P2
P1
M12
M11
M10
M9
M8
M7
M6
M5
M4
DB2
DB1
DB0
M3
M2
M1
C3(0) C2(0) C1(1)
COUNTER
RESET
0
CP THREESTATE
0
PD
0
LDP
0
PD
POLARITY
DB31 DB30 DB29 DB28 DB27 DB26 DB25 DB24 DB23 DB22 DB21 DB20 DB19 DB18 DB17 DB16 DB15 DB14 DB13 DB12 DB11 DB10 DB9 DB8 DB7 DB6 DB5 DB4 DB3
CONTROL
BITS
DBR 1
CHARGE
PUMP
CURRENT
SETTING
LDF
DBR 1
10-BIT R COUNTER
DOUBLE BUFF
MUXOUT
RDIV2
LOW
NOISE AND
LOW SPUR
MODES
REFERENCE
DOUBLER DBR 1
RESERVED
REGISTER 2
DBR 1
DB31 DB30 DB29 DB28 DB27 DB26 DB25 DB24 DB23 DB22 DB21 DB20 DB19 DB18 DB17 DB16 DB15 DB14 DB13 DB12 DB11 DB10 DB9 DB8 DB7 DB6 DB5 DB4 DB3
0
L2
L1
M3
M2
M1
RD2
RD1
R10
R9
R8
R7
R6
R5
R4
R3
R2
R1
D1
CP4
CP3
CP2
CP1
U6
U5
U4
U3
U2
U1
DB2
DB1
DB0
C3(0) C2(1) C1(0)
RESERVED
RESERVED
RESERVED
CSR
REGISTER 3
CLK
DIV
MODE
CONTROL
BITS
12-BIT CLOCK DIVIDER VALUE
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
F1
0
C2
C1
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
D7
D6
AUX OUTPUT
ENABLE
0
MTLD
0
AUX OUTPUT
SELECT
DB31 DB30 DB29 DB28 DB27 DB26 DB25 DB24 DB23 DB22 DB21 DB20 DB19 DB18 DB17 DB16 DB15 DB14 DB13 DB12 DB11 DB10 DB9 DB8 DB7 DB6 DB5 DB4 DB3
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
DB2
DB1
DB0
C3(0) C2(1) C1(1)
DBB 2
DIVIDER
SELECT
8-BIT BAND SELECT CLOCK DIVIDER VALUE
AUX
OUTPUT
POWER
RF OUTPUT
ENABLE
RESERVED
VCO POWER
DOWN
FEEDBACK
SELECT
REGISTER 4
OUTPUT
POWER
DB31 DB30 DB29 DB28 DB27 DB26 DB25 DB24 DB23 DB22 DB21 DB20 DB19 DB18 DB17 DB16 DB15 DB14 DB13 DB12 DB11 DB10 DB9 DB8 DB7 DB6 DB5 DB4 DB3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
D13
D12
D11
D10
BS8
BS7
BS6
BS5
BS4
BS3
BS2
BS1
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
CONTROL
BITS
DB2
DB1
DB0
C3(1) C2(0) C1(0)
CONTROL
BITS
RESERVED
RESERVED
DB31 DB30 DB29 DB28 DB27 DB26 DB25 DB24 DB23 DB22 DB21 DB20 DB19 DB18 DB17 DB16 DB15 DB14 DB13 DB12 DB11 DB10 DB9 DB8 DB7 DB6 DB5 DB4 DB3
0
1 DBR
2 DBB
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
D15
D14
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
= DOUBLE BUFFERED REGISTER—BUFFERED BY THE WRITE TO REGISTER 0.
= DOUBLE BUFFERED BITS—BUFFERED BY THE WRITE TO REGISTER 0, IF AND ONLY IF DB13 OF REGISTER 2 IS HIGH.
Figure 23. Register Summary
Rev. 0 | Page 14 of 28
0
0
0
0
0
0
DB2
DB1
DB0
C3(1) C2(0) C1(1)
07325-011
LD PIN
MODE
RESERVED
RESERVED
REGISTER 5
RESERVED
ADF4350
16-BIT INTEGER VALUE (INT)
DB31 DB30 DB29 DB28 DB27 DB26 DB25 DB24 DB23 DB22 DB21 DB20 DB19 DB18 DB17 DB16 DB15 DB14 DB13 DB12 DB11 DB10 DB9 DB8
N16
N15
N14
N13
N12
N11
N10
N9
N8
N7
N6
N5
N4
N3
N2
N1
F12
F11
F10
F9
F8
F7
F6
DB7 DB6
F5
F4
DB5 DB4
F3
F2
DB3
F1
DB2
DB1
DB0
C3(0) C2(0) C1(0)
N16
N15
...
N5
N4
N3
N2
N1
INTEGER VALUE (INT)
F12
F11
..........
F2
F1
FRACTIONAL VALUE (FRAC)
0
0
...
0
0
0
0
0
NOT ALLOWED
0
0
..........
0
0
0
0
0
...
0
0
0
0
1
NOT ALLOWED
0
0
..........
0
1
1
0
0
...
0
0
0
1
0
NOT ALLOWED
0
0
..........
1
0
2
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
...
0
0
..........
1
1
3
0
0
...
1
0
1
1
0
NOT ALLOWED
.
.
..........
.
.
.
0
0
...
1
0
1
1
1
23
.
.
..........
.
.
.
0
0
...
1
1
0
0
0
24
.
.
..........
.
.
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
...
1
1
..........
0
0
4092
1
1
...
1
1
1
0
1
65533
1
1
..........
0
1
4093
1
1
...
1
1
1
1
0
65534
1
1
..........
1
0
4094
1
1
...
1
1
1
1
1
65535
1
1
.........
1
1
4095
07325-012
0
CONTROL
BITS
12-BIT FRACTIONAL VALUE (FRAC)
INTmin = 75 with prescaler = 8/9
PRESCALER
Figure 24. Register 0 (R0)
RESERVED
DBR
12-BIT PHASE VALUE (PHASE)
DB31 DB30 DB29 DB28 DB27 DB26 DB25 DB24 DB23 DB22 DB21 DB20 DB19 DB18 DB17 DB16 DB15 DB14 DB13 DB12 DB11 DB10 DB9 DB8
0
0
0
PR1
P12
P11
P10
P9
P8
P7
P6
P5
P4
P3
P2
P1
M12
M11
M10
M9
M8
M7
M6
DB7 DB6 DB5 DB4
M5
M4
P1
PRESCALER
P12
P11
..........
P2
P1
PHASE VALUE (PHASE)
M12
M11
..........
M2
M1
0
4/5
0
0
..........
0
0
0
0
0
..........
1
0
2
1
8/9
0
0
..........
0
1
1 (RECOMMENDED)
0
0
..........
1
1
3
0
0
..........
1
0
2
.
.
..........
.
.
.
0
0
..........
1
1
3
.
.
..........
.
.
.
.
.
..........
.
.
.
.
.
..........
.
.
.
1
1
..........
0
0
4092
.
.
..........
.
.
.
1
1
..........
0
1
4093
.
.
..........
.
.
.
1
1
..........
1
0
4094
1
1
..........
0
0
4092
1
1
..........
1
1
4095
1
1
..........
0
1
4093
1
1
..........
1
0
4094
1
1
..........
1
1
4095
M3
M2
DB3
M1
DB2
DB1
DB0
C3(0) C2(0) C1(1)
INTERPOLATOR MODULUS (MOD)
07325-013
0
CONTROL
BITS
DBR
12-BIT MODULUS VALUE (MOD)
Figure 25. Register 1 (R1)
Rev. 0 | Page 15 of 28
COUNTER
RESET
CP THREESTATE
POWER-DOWN
PD
POLARITY
DBR
LDF
10-BIT R COUNTER
CHARGE
PUMP
CURRENT
SETTING
LDP
DBR
DOUBLE BUFF
MUXOUT
RDIV2
LOW
NOISE AND
LOW SPUR
MODES
REFERENCE
DOUBLER DBR
RESERVED
ADF4350
DB31 DB30 DB29 DB28 DB27 DB26 DB25 DB24 DB23 DB22 DB21 DB20 DB19 DB18 DB17 DB16 DB15 DB14 DB13 DB12 DB11 DB10 DB9 DB8 DB7 DB6 DB5 DB4 DB3
0
L2
L1
M3
M2
M1
RD2
RD1
R10
L1
L2
NOISE MODE
RD2
REFERENCE
DOUBLER
0
0
LOW NOISE MODE
0
DISABLED
0
1
RESERVED
1
ENABLED
1
0
RESERVED
1
1
LOW SPUR MODE
R8
R7
REFERENCE DIVIDE BY 2
0
DISABLED
..........
R2
R1
0
0
..........
0
1
1
0
0
..........
1
0
2
.
.
..........
.
.
.
.
.
..........
.
.
.
.
.
..........
.
.
.
1
1
..........
0
0
1020
1
1
..........
0
1
1021
1
1
..........
1
0
1022
1
1
..........
1
1
1023
M1
OUTPUT
0
0
THREE-STATE OUTPUT
0
0
1
DVDD
0
1
0
DGND
0
1
1
R DIVIDER OUTPUT
1
0
0
N DIVIDER OUTPUT
1
0
1
ANALOG LOCK DETECT
1
1
0
DIGITAL LOCK DETECT
1
1
1
RESERVED
R4
R3
R2
R DIVIDER (R)
R1
D1
CP4
CP3
CP2
DOUBLEBUFFER
R4 DB22-20
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0.31
0.63
0.94
1.25
1.56
1.88
2.19
2.50
2.81
3.13
3.44
3.75
4.06
4.38
4.69
5.00
U1
C3(0) C2(1) C1(0)
COUNTER
RESET
0
DISABLED
1
ENABLED
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
U2
INT-N
DISABLED
ICP (mA)
5.1kΩ
U3
U1
ENABLED
CP1
U4
FRAC-N
1
CP2
U5
DB0
LDF
0
CP3
U6
DB1
U6
0
CP4
CP1
DB2
U5
LDP
U2
CP
THREE-STATE
0
10ns
0
DISABLED
1
6ns
1
ENABLED
U4
PD POLARITY
U3
POWER DOWN
0
NEGATIVE
0
DISABLED
1
POSITIVE
1
ENABLED
07325-014
M2
0
R5
ENABLED
R9
M3
R6
D1
RD1
1
R10
R9
CONTROL
BITS
CLK
DIV
MODE
DB31 DB30 DB29 DB28 DB27 DB26 DB25 DB24 DB23 DB22 DB21 DB20 DB19 DB18 DB17 DB16 DB15 DB14 DB13 DB12 DB11 DB10 DB9 DB8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
F1
0
C2
C1
CONTROL
BITS
12-BIT CLOCK DIVIDER VALUE
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
D7
D6
DB7 DB6 DB5 DB4
D5
D4
D3
D2
DB3
D1
F1
CYCLE SLIP
REDUCTION
D12
D11
..........
D2
D1
CLOCK DIVIDER VALUE
0
0
..........
0
0
0
0
DISABLED
0
0
..........
0
1
1
1
ENABLED
0
0
..........
1
0
2
0
0
..........
1
1
3
.
.
..........
.
.
.
.
.
..........
.
.
.
.
.
..........
.
.
.
C2
C1
CLOCK DIVIDER MODE
0
0
CLOCK DIVIDER OFF
1
1
..........
0
0
4092
0
1
FAST-LOCK ENABLE
1
1
..........
0
1
4093
1
0
RESYNC ENABLE
1
1
..........
1
0
4094
1
1
RESERVED
1
1
..........
1
1
4095
Figure 27. Register 3 (R3)
Rev. 0 | Page 16 of 28
DB2
DB1
DB0
C3(0) C2(1) C1(1)
07325-015
CSR
RESERVED
RESERVED
RESERVED
Figure 26. Register 2 (R2)
AUX
OUTPUT
POWER
RF OUTPUT
ENABLE
AUX OUTPUT
ENABLE
8-BIT BAND SELECT CLOCK DIVIDER VALUE
AUX OUTPUT
SELECT
DIVIDER
SELECT DBB
MTLD
RESERVED
VCO POWERDOWN
FEEDBACK
SELECT
ADF4350
CONTROL
BITS
OUTPUT
POWER
DB31 DB30 DB29 DB28 DB27 DB26 DB25 DB24 DB23 DB22 DB21 DB20 DB19 DB18 DB17 DB16 DB15 DB14 DB13 DB12 DB11 DB10 DB9 DB8 DB7 DB6 DB5 DB4 DB3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
D13
D12
D11
D10
BS8
BS7
BS6
BS5
BS4
FEEDBACK
D13 SELECT
0
D12
D11
D10
0
0
0
BS2
0
1
÷2
1
0
÷4
0
1
1
÷8
1
0
0
÷16
D8
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
DB2
DB1
DB0
C3(1) C2(0) C1(0)
D2
D1
OUTPUT POWER
0
0
-4
1
VCO POWERED DOWN
0
1
-1
1
0
+2
1
1
+5
D8
MUTE TILL
LOCK DETECT
0
MUTE DISABLED
D3
1
MUTE ENABLED
0
DISABLED
1
ENABLED
AUX OUTPUT
SELECT
0
DIVIDED OUTPUT
1
FUNDAMENTAL
RF OUT
D5
D4
AUX OUTPUT POWER
0
0
-4
0
1
-1
AUX OUT
1
0
+2
0
DISABLED
1
1
+5
1
ENABLED
..........
BS2
BS1
0
0
..........
0
1
1
0
0
..........
1
0
2
D6
.
.
..........
.
.
.
.
.
..........
.
.
.
.
.
..........
.
.
.
1
1
..........
0
0
252
1
1
..........
0
1
253
1
1
..........
1
0
254
1
1
..........
1
1
255
07325-016
BAND SELECT CLOCK DIVIDER (R)
D7
BS7
BS8
D7
VCO POWERED UP
÷1
0
D9
0
RF DIVIDER SELECT
0
BS1
VCO
POWER-DOWN
D9
DIVIDED
FUNDAMENTAL
1
BS3
LD PIN
MODE
RESERVED
RESERVED
Figure 28. Register 4 (R4)
RESERVED
CONTROL
BITS
RESERVED
DB31 DB30 DB29 DB28 DB27 DB26 DB25 DB24 DB23 DB22 DB21 DB20 DB19 DB18 DB17 DB16 DB15 DB14 DB13 DB12 DB11 DB10 DB9 DB8 DB7 DB6 DB5 DB4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
D15
D14
0
0
D1 5
D1 4
LOCK DETECT PIN OPERATION
0
0
LOW
0
1
DIGITAL LOCK DETECT
1
0
LOW
1
1
HIGH
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DB2
DB1
DB0
C3(1) C2(0) C1(1)
07325-017
0
DB3
Figure 29. Register 5 (R5)
Rev. 0 | Page 17 of 28
ADF4350
If neither the phase resync nor the spurious optimization
functions are being used, it is recommended the PHASE
word be set to 1.
REGISTER 0
Control Bits
With Bits [C3:C1] set to 0, 0, 0, Register 0 is programmed.
Figure 24 shows the input data format for programming this
register.
12-Bit Interpolator MOD Value
16-Bit INT Value
These sixteen bits set the INT value, which determines the
integer part of the feedback division factor. It is used in
Equation 1 (see the INT, FRAC, MOD, and R Counter
Relationship section). All integer values from 23 to 65,535
are allowed for 4/5 prescaler. For 8/9 prescaler, the minimum
integer value is 75.
12-Bit FRAC Value
The 12 FRAC bits set the numerator of the fraction that is input
to the Σ-Δ modulator. This, along with INT, specifies the new
frequency channel that the synthesizer locks to, as shown in the
RF Synthesizer—A Worked Example section. FRAC values from
0 to MOD − 1 cover channels over a frequency range equal to
the PFD reference frequency.
REGISTER 1
Control Bits
With Bits [C3:C1] set to 0, 0, 1, Register 1 is programmed.
Figure 25 shows the input data format for programming
this register.
Prescaler Value
The dual modulus prescaler (P/P + 1), along with the INT,
FRAC, and MOD counters, determines the overall division
ratio from the VCO output to the PFD input.
This programmable register sets the fractional modulus. This
is the ratio of the PFD frequency to the channel step resolution
on the RF output. See the RF Synthesizer—A Worked Example
section for more information.
REGISTER 2
Control Bits
With Bits [C3:C1] set to 0, 1, 0, Register 2 is programmed.
Figure 26 shows the input data format for programming this
register.
Low Noise and Low Spur Modes
The noise modes on the ADF4350 are controlled by DB30 and
DB29 in Register 2 (see Figure 26). The noise modes allow the
user to optimize a design either for improved spurious performance or for improved phase noise performance.
When the lowest spur setting is chosen, dither is enabled. This
randomizes the fractional quantization noise so it resembles
white noise rather than spurious noise. As a result, the part is
optimized for improved spurious performance. This operation
would normally be used when the PLL closed-loop bandwidth
is wide, for fast-locking applications. Wide loop bandwidth is
seen as a loop bandwidth greater than 1/10 of the RFOUT channel
step resolution (fRES). A wide loop filter does not attenuate the
spurs to the same level as a narrow loop bandwidth.
Operating at CML levels, the prescaler takes the clock from the
VCO output and divides it down for the counters. It is based on
a synchronous 4/5 core. When set to 4/5, the maximum RF
frequency allowed is 3 GHz. Therefore, when operating the
ADF4350 above 3 GHz, this must be set to 8/9. The prescaler
limits the INT value, where P is 4/5, NMIN is 23 and P is 8/9,
NMIN is 75.
For best noise performance, use the lowest noise setting option.
As well as disabling the dither, this setting also ensures that the
charge pump is operating in an optimum region for noise
performance. This setting is extremely useful where a narrow
loop filter bandwidth is available. The synthesizer ensures
extremely low noise and the filter attenuates the spurs. The
typical performance characteristics give the user an idea of
the trade-off in a typical W-CDMA setup for the different
noise and spur settings.
In the ADF4350, PR1 in Register 1 sets the prescaler values.
MUXOUT
12-Bit Phase Value
The on-chip multiplexer is controlled by Bits [DB28:DB26] (see
Figure 26).
These bits control what is loaded as the phase word. The word
must be less than the MOD value programmed in Register 1.
The word is used to program the RF output phase from 0° to
360° with a resolution of 360°/MOD. See the Phase Resync
section for more information. In most applications, the phase
relationship between the RF signal and the reference is not
important. In such applications, the phase value can be used
to optimize the fractional and subfractional spur levels. See the
Spur Consistency and Fractional Spur Optimization section for
more information.
Reference Doubler
Setting DB25 to 0 feeds the REFIN signal directly to the 10–bit
R counter, disabling the doubler. Setting this bit to 1 multiplies
the REFIN frequency by a factor of 2 before feeding into the
10-bit R counter. When the doubler is disabled, the REFIN
falling edge is the active edge at the PFD input to the fractional
synthesizer. When the doubler is enabled, both the rising and
falling edges of REFIN become active edges at the PFD input.
Rev. 0 | Page 18 of 28
ADF4350
When the doubler is enabled and the lowest spur mode is
chosen, the in-band phase noise performance is sensitive to
the REFIN duty cycle. The phase noise degradation can be as
much as 5 dB for the REFIN duty cycles outside a 45% to 55%
range. The phase noise is insensitive to the REFIN duty cycle
in the lowest noise mode and when the doubler is disabled.
The maximum allowable REFIN frequency when the doubler
is enabled is 30 MHz.
RDIV2
Lock Detect Precision (LDP)
When DB7 is set to 0, 40 consecutive PFD cycles of 10 ns must
occur before digital lock detect is set. When this bit is programmed
to 1, 40 consecutive reference cycles of 6 ns must occur before
digital lock detect is set. This refers to fractional-N digital lock
detect (set DB8 to 0). With integer–N digital lock detect activated
(set DB8 to 1), and DB7 set to 0, then five consecutive cycles of
6 ns need to occur before digital lock detect is set. When DB7 is
set to 1, five consecutive cycles of 10 ns must occur.
Setting the DB24 bit to 1 inserts a divide-by-2 toggle flip-flop
between the R counter and PFD, which extends the maximum
REFIN input rate. This function allows a 50% duty cycle signal
to appear at the PFD input, which is necessary for cycle slip
reduction.
Phase Detector Polarity
10–Bit R Counter
Power-Down
The 10–bit R counter allows the input reference frequency
(REFIN) to be divided down to produce the reference clock
to the PFD. Division ratios from 1 to 1023 are allowed.
DB5 provides the programmable power-down mode. Setting this
bit to 1 performs a power-down. Setting this bit to 0 returns the
synthesizer to normal operation. When in software power-down
mode, the part retains all information in its registers. Only if the
supply voltages are removed are the register contents lost.
Double Buffer
DB13 enables or disables double buffering of Bits [DB22:DB20]
in Register 4. The Divider Select section explains how double
buffering works.
DB6 sets the phase detector polarity. When a passive loop filter,
or noninverting active loop filter is used, this should be set to 1.
If an active filter with an inverting characteristic is used, it
should be set to 0.
When a power-down is activated, the following events occur:
•
Charge Pump Current Setting
Bits [DB12:DB09] set the charge pump current setting. This
should be set to the charge pump current that the loop filter
is designed with (see Figure 26).
LDF
Setting DB8 to 1 enables integer–N digital lock detect,
when the FRAC part of the divider is 0; setting DB8 to 0
enables fractional–N digital lock detect.
•
•
•
•
•
The synthesizer counters are forced to their load state
conditions.
The VCO is powered down.
The charge pump is forced into three-state mode.
The digital lock detect circuitry is reset.
The RFOUT buffers are disabled.
The input register remains active and capable of loading
and latching data.
Charge Pump Three-State
DB4 puts the charge pump into three-state mode when
programmed to 1. It should be set to 0 for normal operation.
Counter Reset
DB3 is the R counter and N counter reset bit for the ADF4350.
When this is 1, the RF synthesizer N counter and R counter are
held in reset. For normal operation, this bit should be set to 0.
Rev. 0 | Page 19 of 28
ADF4350
REGISTER 3
Band Select Clock Divider Value
Control Bits
Bits [DB19:DB12] set a divider for the band select logic
clock input. The output of the R counter, is by default, the
value used to clock the band select logic, but, if this value is
too high (>125 kHz), a divider can be switched on to divide
the R counter output to a smaller value (see Figure 28).
With Bits [C3:C1] set to 0, 1, 1, Register 3 is programmed.
Figure 27 shows the input data format for programming this
register.
CSR Enable
Setting DB18 to 1 enables cycle slip reduction. This is a method
for improving lock times. Note that the signal at the phase frequency detector (PFD) must have a 50% duty cycle for cycle slip
reduction to work. The charge pump current setting must also
be set to a minimum. See the Cycle Slip Reduction for Faster
Lock Times section for more information.
VCO Power-Down
DB11 powers the VCO down or up depending on the chosen value.
Mute Till Lock Detect
If DB10 is set to 1, the supply current to the RF output stage is shut
down until the part achieves lock as measured by the digital lock
detect circuitry.
Clock Divider Mode
AUX Output Select
Bits [DB16:DB15] must be set to 1, 0 to activate PHASE resync
or 0, 1 to activate fast lock. Setting Bits [DB16:DB15] to 0, 0
disables the clock divider. See Figure 27.
DB9 sets the auxiliary RF output. The selection can be either
the output of the RF dividers or fundamental VCO frequency.
12-Bit Clock Divider Value
The 12-bit clock divider value sets the timeout counter for
activation of PHASE resync. See the Phase Resync section for
more information. It also sets the timeout counter for fast lock.
See the Fast-Lock Timer and Register Sequences section for
more information.
AUX Output Enable
DB8 enables or disables auxiliary RF output, depending on the
chosen value.
AUX Output Power
Bits [DB7:DB6] set the value of the auxiliary RF output power
level (see Figure 28).
REGISTER 4
RF Output Enable
Control Bits
DB5 enables or disables primary RF output, depending on the
chosen value.
With Bits [C3:C1] set to 1, 0, 0, Register 4 is programmed.
Figure 28 shows the input data format for programming this
register.
Output Power
Bits [DB4:DB3] set the value of the primary RF output power
level (see Figure 28).
Feedback Select
DB23 selects the feedback from the VCO output to the
N counter. When set to 1, the signal is taken from the VCO
directly. When set to 0, it is taken from the output of the output
dividers. The dividers enable covering of the wide frequency band
(137.5 MHz to 4.4 GHz). When the divider is enabled and the
feedback signal is taken from the output, the RF output signals
of two separately configured PLLs are in phase. This is useful in
some applications where the positive interference of signals is
required to increase the power.
REGISTER 5
Control Bits
With Bits [C3:C1] set to 1, 0, 1, Register 5 is programmed.
Figure 29 shows the input data form for programming this
register.
Lock Detect Pin Operation
Bits [DB23:DB22] set the operation of the lock detect pin (see
Figure 29).
Divider Select
Bits [DB22:DB20] select the value of the output divider (see
Figure 28).
Rev. 0 | Page 20 of 28
ADF4350
INITIALIZATION SEQUENCE
The following sequence of registers is the correct sequence for
initial power-up of the ADF4350 after the correct application of
voltages to the supply pins:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Register 5
Register 4
Register 3
Register 2
Register 1
Register 0
Channel resolution (fRESOUT) or 200 kHz is required at the output
of the RF divider. Therefore, channel resolution at the output of
the VCO (fRES) is to be twice the fRESOUT, that is 400 kHz.
MOD = REFIN/fRES
MOD = 10 MHz/400 kHz = 25
From Equation 4,
The following is an example how to program the ADF4350
synthesizer:
(3)
where:
RFOUT is the RF frequency output.
INT is the integer division factor.
FRAC is the fractionality.
MOD is the modulus.
RF divider is the output divider that divides down the VCO
frequency.
(4)
where:
REFIN is the reference frequency input.
D is the RF REFIN doubler bit.
T is the reference divide-by-2 bit (0 or 1).
R is the RF reference division factor.
For example, in a UMTS system, where 2112.6 MHz RF
frequency output (RFOUT) is required, a 10 MHz reference
frequency input (REFIN) is available, and a 200 kHz channel
resolution (fRESOUT) is required on the RF output. Note that
the ADF4350 operates in the frequency range of 2.2 GHz to
4.4 GHz. Therefore, the RF divider of 2 should be used (VCO
frequency = 4225.2 MHz, RFOUT = VCO frequency/RF divider =
4225.2 MHz/2 = 2112.6 MHz).
It is also important where the loop is closed. In this example,
the loop is closed (see Figure 30).
RFOUT
N
DIVIDER
Figure 30. Loop Closed Before Output Divider
07325-027
÷2
(6)
The choice of modulus (MOD) depends on the reference signal
(REFIN) available and the channel resolution (fRES) required at
the RF output. For example, a GSM system with 13 MHz REFIN
sets the modulus to 65. This means the RF output resolution (fRES)
is the 200 kHz (13 MHz/65) necessary for GSM. With dither off,
the fractional spur interval depends on the modulus values chosen
(see Table 6).
REFERENCE DOUBLER AND REFERENCE DIVIDER
fPFD = REFIN × [(1 + D)/(R × (1+T))]
VCO
2112.6 MHz = 10 MHz × (INT + FRAC/25)/2
MODULUS
RFOUT = [INT + (FRAC/MOD)] × [fPFD]/RF divider
PFD
(5)
where:
INT = 422
FRAC = 13
RF SYNTHESIZER—A WORKED EXAMPLE
fPFD
fPFD = [10 MHz × (1 + 0)/1] = 10 MHz
The reference doubler on-chip allows the input reference signal
to be doubled. This is useful for increasing the PFD comparison
frequency. Making the PFD frequency higher improves the
noise performance of the system. Doubling the PFD frequency
usually improves noise performance by 3 dB. It is important to
note that the PFD cannot operate above 32 MHz due to a limitation in the speed of the Σ-Δ circuit of the N-divider.
The reference divide-by-2 divides the reference signal by 2,
resulting in a 50% duty cycle PFD frequency. This is necessary
for the correct operation of the cycle slip reduction (CSR)
function. See the Cycle Slip Reduction for Faster Lock Times
section for more information.
12-BIT PROGRAMMABLE MODULUS
Unlike most other fractional-N PLLs, the ADF4350 allows the
user to program the modulus over a 12–bit range. This means
the user can set up the part in many different configurations for
the application, when combined with the reference doubler and
the 10-bit R counter.
For example, consider an application that requires 1.75 GHz RF
and 200 kHz channel step resolution. The system has a 13 MHz
reference signal.
One possible setup is feeding the 13 MHz directly to the PFD
and programming the modulus to divide by 65. This results in
the required 200 kHz resolution.
Another possible setup is using the reference doubler to create
26 MHz from the 13 MHz input signal. This 26 MHz is then fed
into the PFD programming the modulus to divide by 130. This
also results in 200 kHz resolution and offers superior phase
noise performance over the previous setup.
Rev. 0 | Page 21 of 28
ADF4350
The programmable modulus is also very useful for multistandard applications. If a dual-mode phone requires PDC
and GSM 1800 standards, the programmable modulus is a
great benefit. PDC requires 25 kHz channel step resolution,
whereas GSM 1800 requires 200 kHz channel step resolution.
A 13 MHz reference signal can be fed directly to the PFD, and
the modulus can be programmed to 520 when in PDC mode
(13 MHz/520 = 25 kHz).
The modulus needs to be reprogrammed to 65 for GSM 1800
operation (13 MHz/65 = 200 kHz).
Up to seven extra charge pump cells can be turned on. In most
applications, it is enough to eliminate cycle slips altogether,
giving much faster lock times.
Setting Bit DB18 in the Register 3 to 1 enables cycle slip
reduction. Note that the PFD requires a 45% to 55% duty cycle
for CSR to operate correctly. If the REFIN frequency does not
have a suitable duty cycle, the RDIV2 mode ensures that the
input to the PFD has a 50% duty cycle.
SPURIOUS OPTIMIZATION AND FAST LOCK
It is important that the PFD frequency remain constant (13 MHz).
This allows the user to design one loop filter for both setups
without running into stability issues. It is important to remember that the ratio of the RF frequency to the PFD frequency
principally affects the loop filter design, not the actual channel
spacing.
Narrow loop bandwidths can filter unwanted spurious signals,
but these usually have a long lock time. A wider loop bandwidth
will achieve faster lock times, but a wider loop bandwidth may
lead to increased spurious signals inside the loop bandwidth.
The fast lock feature can achieve the same fast lock time as the
wider bandwidth, but with the advantage of a narrow final loop
bandwidth to keep spurs low.
CYCLE SLIP REDUCTION FOR FASTER LOCK TIMES
FAST-LOCK TIMER AND REGISTER SEQUENCES
As outlined in the Low Noise and Low Spur Mode section, the
ADF4350 contains a number of features that allow optimization
for noise performance. However, in fast locking applications,
the loop bandwidth generally needs to be wide, and therefore,
the filter does not provide much attenuation of the spurs. If
the cycle slip reduction feature is enabled, the narrow loop
bandwidth is maintained for spur attenuation but faster lock
times are still possible.
If the fast-lock mode is used, a timer value is to be loaded into
the PLL to determine the duration of the wide bandwidth mode.
Cycle Slips
Cycle slips occur in integer-N/fractional-N synthesizers when
the loop bandwidth is narrow compared to the PFD frequency.
The phase error at the PFD inputs accumulates too fast for the
PLL to correct, and the charge pump temporarily pumps in the
wrong direction. This slows down the lock time dramatically.
The ADF4350 contains a cycle slip reduction feature that extends
the linear range of the PFD, allowing faster lock times without
modifications to the loop filter circuitry.
When the circuitry detects that a cycle slip is about to occur,
it turns on an extra charge pump current cell. This outputs a
constant current to the loop filter, or removes a constant
current from the loop filter (depending on whether the VCO
tuning voltage needs to increase or decrease to acquire the new
frequency). The effect is that the linear range of the PFD is
increased. Loop stability is maintained because the current
is constant and is not a pulsed current.
When Bits [DB16:DB15] in Register 3 are set to 0, 1 (fast-lock
enable), the timer value is loaded by the 12–bit clock divider
value. The following sequence must be programmed to use
fast lock:
1.
2.
Initialization sequence (see the Initialization Sequence
section) occurs only once after powering up the part.
Load Register 3 by setting Bits [DB16:DB15] to 0, 1 and
the chosen fast-lock timer value [DB14:DB3]. Note that
the duration the PLL remains in wide bandwidth is equal
to the fast-lock timer/fPFD.
FAST LOCK—AN EXAMPLE
If a PLL has reference frequencies of 13 MHz and fPFD = 13 MHz
and a required lock time of 50 μs, the PLL is set to wide bandwidth
for 40 μs. This example assumes a modulus of 65 for channel
spacing of 200 kHz.
If the time period set for the wide bandwidth is 40 μs, then
Fast-Lock Timer Value = Time in Wide Bandwidth × fPFD/MOD
Fast-Lock Timer Value = 40 μs × 13 MHz/65 = 8
Therefore, a value of 8 must be loaded into the clock divider
value in Register 3 in Step 1 of the sequence described in the
Fast-Lock Timer and Register Sequences section.
If the phase error increases again to a point where another cycle
slip is likely, the ADF4350 turns on another charge pump cell.
This continues until the ADF4350 detects the VCO frequency
has gone past the desired frequency. The extra charge pump
cells are turned off one by one until all the extra charge pump
cells have been disabled and the frequency is settled with the
original loop filter bandwidth.
Rev. 0 | Page 22 of 28
ADF4350
FAST LOCK—LOOP FILTER TOPOLOGY
To use fast-lock mode, the damping resistor in the loop filter
is reduced to ¼ of its value while in wide bandwidth mode. To
achieve the wider loop filter bandwidth, the charge pump
current increases by a factor of 16 and to maintain loop stability the damping resistor must be reduced a factor of ¼.
To enable fast lock, the SW pin is shorted to the GND pin by
settings Bits [DB16:DB15] in Register 3 to 0, 1. The following
two topologies are available:
•
The damping resistor (R1) is divided into two values (R1
and R1A) that have a ratio of 1:3 (see Figure 31).
•
An extra resistor (R1A) is connected directly from SW, as
shown in Figure 32. The extra resistor is calculated such
that the parallel combination of an extra resistor and the
damping resistor (R1) is reduced to ¼ of the original value
of R1 (see Figure 32).
ADF4350
R2
CP
C1
C2
VCO
C3
R1
In low noise mode (dither disabled) the quantization noise from
the Σ-Δ modulator appears as fractional spurs. The interval
between spurs is fPFD/L, where L is the repeat length of the code
sequence in the digital Σ-Δ modulator. For the third-order
modulator used in the ADF4350, the repeat length depends on
the value of MOD, as listed in Table 6.
Table 6. Fractional Spurs with Dither Disabled
Condition (Dither Disabled)
If MOD is divisible by 2, but not 3
If MOD is divisible by 3, but not 2
If MOD is divisible by 6
Otherwise
Repeat
Length
2 × MOD
3 × MOD
6 × MOD
MOD
Spur Interval
Channel step/2
Channel step/3
Channel step/6
Channel step
In low spur mode (dither enabled), the repeat length is extended to 221 cycles, regardless of the value of MOD, which makes
the quantization error spectrum look like broadband noise.
This may degrade the in-band phase noise at the PLL output
by as much as 10 dB. For lowest noise, dither disabled is a better
choice, particularly when the final loop bandwidth is low
enough to attenuate even the lowest frequency fractional spur.
Integer Boundary Spurs
SW
Another mechanism for fractional spur creation is the interactions between the RF VCO frequency and the reference
frequency. When these frequencies are not integer related (the
point of a fractional-N synthesizer) spur sidebands appear on
the VCO output spectrum at an offset frequency that corresponds to the beat note or difference frequency between an
integer multiple of the reference and the VCO frequency. These
spurs are attenuated by the loop filter and are more noticeable
on channels close to integer multiples of the reference where the
difference frequency can be inside the loop bandwidth, therefore, the name integer boundary spurs.
07325-018
R1A
Figure 31. Fast-Lock Loop Filter Topology—Topology 1
ADF4350
R2
CP
C1
C2
R1A
R1
VCO
C3
SW
07325-019
Reference Spurs
Figure 32. Fast-Lock Loop Filter Topology—Topology 2
SPUR MECHANISMS
This section describes the three different spur mechanisms that
arise with a fractional-N synthesizer and how to minimize them
in the ADF4350.
Fractional Spurs
The fractional interpolator in the ADF4350 is a third-order
Σ-Δ modulator (SDM) with a modulus (MOD) that is programmable to any integer value from 2 to 4095. In low spur mode
(dither enabled) the minimum allowable value of MOD is 50.
The SDM is clocked at the PFD reference rate (fPFD) that allows
PLL output frequencies to be synthesized at a channel step
resolution of fPFD/MOD.
Reference spurs are generally not a problem in fractional-N
synthesizers because the reference offset is far outside the loop
bandwidth. However, any reference feed-through mechanism
that bypasses the loop may cause a problem. Feed through of
low levels of on-chip reference switching noise, through the
RFIN pin back to the VCO, can result in reference spur levels as
high as –90 dBc. PCB layout needs to ensure adequate isolation
between VCO traces and the input reference to avoid a possible
feed through path on the board.
Rev. 0 | Page 23 of 28
ADF4350
SPUR CONSISTENCY AND FRACTIONAL SPUR
OPTIMIZATION
With dither off, the fractional spur pattern due to the quantization noise of the SDM also depends on the particular phase
word with which the modulator is seeded.
The phase word can be varied to optimize the fractional and
subfractional spur levels on any particular frequency. Thus, a
look-up table of phase values corresponding to each frequency
can be constructed for use when programming the ADF4350.
When a new frequency is programmed, the second sync pulse
after the LE rising edge is used to resynchronize the output
phase to the reference. The tSYNC time is to be programmed to
a value that is as least as long as the worst-case lock time. This
guarantees the phase resync occurs after the last cycle slip in the
PLL settling transient.
In the example shown in Figure 33, the PFD reference is 25 MHz
and MOD = 125 for a 200 kHz channel spacing. tSYNC is set to
400 μs by programming CLK_DIV_VALUE = 80.
If a look-up table is not used, keep the phase word at a constant
value to ensure consistent spur levels on any particular frequency.
LE
SYNC
(INTERNAL)
The output of a fractional-N PLL can settle to any one of the
MOD phase offsets with respect to the input reference, where
MOD is the fractional modulus. The phase resync feature in the
ADF4350 produces a consistent output phase offset with respect
to the input reference. This is necessary in applications where the
output phase and frequency are important, such as digital beam
forming. See the Phase Programmability section to program a
specific RF output phase when using phase resync.
FREQUENCY
PLL SETTLES TO
INCORRECT PHASE
PLL SETTLES TO
CORRECT PHASE
AFTER RESYNC
PHASE
–100
Phase resync is enabled by setting Bits [DB16:DB15] in
Register 3 to 1, 0. When phase resync is enabled, an internal
timer generates sync signals at intervals of tSYNC given by the
following formula:
LAST CYCLE SLIP
07325-020
PHASE RESYNC
tSYNC
0
100
200 300
400 500 600
TIME (µs)
700
800
900 1000
Figure 33. Phase Resync Example
Phase Programmability
tSYNC = CLK_DIV_VALUE × MOD × tPFD
where:
tPFD is the PFD reference period.
CLK_DIV_VALUE is the decimal value programmed in
Bits [DB14:DB3] of Register 3 and can be any integer in the
range of 1 to 4095.
MOD is the modulus value programmed in Bits [DB14:DB3] of
Register 1 (R1).
The phase word in Register 1 controls the RF output phase. As
this word is swept from 0 to MOD, the RF output phase sweeps
over a 360° range in steps of 360°/MOD.
Rev. 0 | Page 24 of 28
ADF4350
APPLICATIONS INFORMATION
The LO ports of the ADL5375 can be driven differentially from
the complementary RFOUTA and RFOUTB outputs of the ADF4350.
This gives better performance than a single-ended LO driver
and eliminates the use of a balun to convert from a single-ended
LO input to the more desirable differential LO input for the
ADL5375. The typical rms phase noise (100 Hz to 5 MHz)
of the LO in this configuration is 0.61°rms.
DIRECT CONVERSION MODULATOR
Direct conversion architectures are increasingly being used to
implement base station transmitters. Figure 34 shows how Analog
Devices, Inc., parts can be used to implement such a system.
The circuit block diagram shows the AD9761 TxDAC® being
used with the ADL5375. The use of dual integrated DACs, such
as the AD9788 with its specified ±0.02 dB and ±0.001 dB gain
and offset matching characteristics, ensures minimum error
contribution (over temperature) from this portion of the
signal chain.
The AD8349 accepts LO drive levels from −10 dBm to 0 dBm.
The optimum LO power can be software programmed on the
ADF4350, which allows levels from −4 dBm to +5 dBm from
each output.
The local oscillator (LO) is implemented using the ADF4350.
The low-pass filter was designed using ADIsimPLL™ for a channel
spacing of 200 kHz and a closed-loop bandwidth of 35 kHz.
51Ω
REFIO
51Ω
IOUTA
MODULATED
DIGITAL
DATA
LOW-PASS
FILTER
IOUTB
AD9761
The RF output is designed to drive a 50 Ω load, but must be
ac-coupled, as shown in Figure 34. If the I and Q inputs are
driven in quadrature by 2 V p-p signals, the resulting output
power from the modulator is approximately 2 dBm.
TxDAC
QOUTA
LOW-PASS
FILTER
QOUTB
FSADJ
51Ω
51Ω
2kΩ
VVCO
17
VVCO
28
10
DVDD AVDD
30
26
25
4
6
32
CE PDB RF VP SDVDD MUXOUT LD
1nF 1nF
FREF IN
RFOUTB+ 14
VVCO
IBBN
RFOUTB– 15
1 CLK
2 DATA
3.9nH
3.9nH
3 LE
SPI-COMPATIBLE SERIAL BUS
ADL5375
IBBP
29 REF IN
51Ω
1nF
ADF4350
RFOUTA+ 12
22 RSET
QBBN
RFOUTA– 13
4.7kΩ
QBBP
DSOP
680Ω
LOIP
CPOUT 7
39nF
CPGND SDGND AGND AGNDVCO
8
31
9
11 18
21
DGND
27
10pF
RFO
1nF
VTUNE 20
SW 5
QUADRATURE
PHASE
SPLITTER
2700pF
1200pF
LOIN
360Ω
TEMP VCOM VREF
19
23
0.1µF 10pF
24
0.1µF 10pF
0.1µF
Figure 34. Direct Conversion Modulator
Rev. 0 | Page 25 of 28
07325-021
16
LOCK
DETECT
VDD
ADF4350
INTERFACING
ADSP-21xx Interface
The ADF4350 has a simple SPI-compatible serial interface for
writing to the device. CLK, DATA, and LE control the data
transfer. When LE goes high, the 32 bits that have been clocked
into the appropriate register on each rising edge of CLK are
transferred to the appropriate latch. See Figure 2 for the timing
diagram and Table 5 for the register address table.
Figure 36 shows the interface between the ADF4350 and the
ADSP-21xx digital signal processor. The ADF4350 needs a
32-bit serial word for each latch write. The easiest way to
accomplish this using the ADSP-21xx family is to use the
autobuffered transmit mode of operation with alternate
framing. This provides a means for transmitting an entire
block of serial data before an interrupt is generated.
Figure 35 shows the interface between the ADF4350 and the
ADuC812 MicroConverter®. Because the ADuC812 is based on
an 8051 core, this interface can be used with any 8051-based
microcontroller. The MicroConverter is set up for SPI master
mode with CPHA = 0. To initiate the operation, the I/O port
driving LE is brought low. Each latch of the ADF4350 needs a
32-bit word, which is accomplished by writing four 8-bit bytes
from the MicroConverter to the device. When the fourth byte
has been written, the LE input should be brought high to
complete the transfer.
MOSI
ADuC812
I/O PORTS
CLK
SDATA
LE
ADF4350
MUXOUT
(LOCK DETECT)
CLK
MOSI
SDATA
TFS
ADSP-21xx
I/O PORTS
LE
ADF4350
CE
MUXOUT
(LOCK DETECT)
Figure 36. ADSP-21xx to ADF4350 Interface
Set up the word length for 8 bits and use four memory locations
for each 32-bit word. To program each 32-bit latch, store the 8-bit
bytes, enable the autobuffered mode, and write to the transmit
register of the DSP. This last operation initiates the autobuffer
transfer.
PCB DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR A CHIP SCALE
PACKAGE
CE
07325-022
SCLOCK
SCLK
07325-023
ADuC812 Interface
Figure 35. ADuC812 to ADF4350 Interface
I/O port lines on the ADuC812 are also used to control powerdown input (CE) and lock detect (MUXOUT configured as lock
detect and polled by the port input). When operating in the
described mode, the maximum SCLOCK rate of the ADuC812
is 4 MHz. This means that the maximum rate at which the
output frequency can be changed is 125 kHz.
The lands on the chip scale package (CP-32-2) are rectangular.
The PCB pad for these is to be 0.1 mm longer than the package
land length and 0.05 mm wider than the package land width.
The land is to be centered on the pad. This ensures the solder
joint size is maximized. The bottom of the chip scale package
has a central thermal pad.
The thermal pad on the PCB is to be at least as large as the
exposed pad. On the PCB, there is to be a minimum clearance
of 0.25 mm between the thermal pad and the inner edges of the
pad pattern. This ensures that shorting is avoided.
Thermal vias can be used on the PCB thermal pad to improve
the thermal performance of the package. If vias are used, they
are to be incorporated in the thermal pad at 1.2 mm pitch grid.
The via diameter is to be between 0.3 mm and 0.33 mm, and the
via barrel is to be plated with 1 oz. of copper to plug the via.
Rev. 0 | Page 26 of 28
ADF4350
VVCO
OUTPUT MATCHING
There are a number of ways to match the output of the ADF4350
for optimum operation; the most basic is to use a 50 Ω resistor to
VVCO. A dc bypass capacitor of 100 pF is connected in series as
shown in Figure 37. Because the resistor is not frequency
dependent, this provides a good broadband match. Placing
the output power in this circuit into a 50 Ω load typically
gives values chosen by Bit D2 and Bit D1 in Register 4 (R4).
3.9nH
50Ω
07325-025
1nF
RFOUT
Figure 38.Optimum ADF4350 Output Stage
VVCO
If differential outputs are not needed, the unused output can be
terminated or combined with both outputs using a balun.
50Ω
VVCO
L2
RFOUTA+
Figure 37. Simple ADF4350 Output Stage
A better solution is to use a shunt inductor (acting as an RF
choke) to VVCO. This gives a better match and, therefore, more
output power.
Experiments have shown the circuit shown in Figure 38
provides an excellent match to 50 Ω for the W-CDMA UMTS
Band 1 (2110 MHz to 2170 MHz). The maximum output power
in that case is about 5 dBm. Both single-ended architectures can
be examined using the EVAL-ADF4350EB1Z evaluation board.
L1
C1
C2
50Ω
L1
RFOUTA–
07325-132
50Ω
07325-021
100pF
RFOUT
C1
Figure 39. ADF4350 LC Balun
A balun using discrete inductors and capacitors may be
implemented with the architecture in Figure 39.
Component L1 and Component C1 comprise the LC balun, L2
provides a dc path for RFOUTA−, and Capacitor C2 is used for dc
blocking.
Table 7. LC Balun Components
Frequency
Range (MHz)
137 to 300
300 to 460
400 to 600
600 to 900
860 to 1240
1200 to 1600
1600 to 3600
2800 to 3800
Inductor L1 (nH)
100
51
30
18
12
5.6
3.3
2.2
Capacitor C1 (pF)
10
5.6
5.6
4
2.2
1.2
0.7
0.5
RF Choke
Inductor (nH)
390
180
120
68
39
15
10
10
Rev. 0 | Page 27 of 28
DC Blocking
Capacitor (pF)
1000
120
120
120
10
10
10
10
Measured Output
Power (dBm)
9
10
10
10
9
9
8
8
ADF4350
OUTLINE DIMENSIONS
0.60 MAX
5.00
BSC SQ
0.60 MAX
PIN 1
INDICATOR
TOP
VIEW
0.50
BSC
4.75
BSC SQ
0.50
0.40
0.30
3.25
3.10 SQ
2.95
EXPOSED
PAD
(BOTTOM VIEW)
17
16
0.80 MAX
0.65 TYP
9
8
0.25 MIN
3.50 REF
0.05 MAX
0.02 NOM
SEATING
PLANE
1
0.30
0.23
0.18
0.20 REF
COPLANARITY
0.08
FOR PROPER CONNECTION OF
THE EXPOSED PAD, REFER TO
THE PIN CONFIGURATION AND
FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS
SECTION OF THIS DATA SHEET.
COMPLIANT TO JEDEC STANDARDS MO-220-VHHD-2
011708-A
12° MAX
1.00
0.85
0.80
PIN 1
INDICATOR
32
25
24
Figure 40. 32-Lead Lead Frame Chip Scale Package [LFCSP_VQ]
5 mm × 5 mm Body, Very Thin Quad
(CP-32-2)
Dimensions shown in millimeters
ORDERING GUIDE
Model
ADF4350BCPZ 1
ADF4350BCPZ-RL1
ADF4350BCPZ-RL71
EVAL-ADF4350EB1Z1
1
Temperature Range
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
Package Description
32-Lead Lead Frame Chip Scale Package [LFCSP_VQ]
32-Lead Lead Frame Chip Scale Package [LFCSP_VQ]
32-Lead Lead Frame Chip Scale Package [LFCSP_VQ]
Evaluation Board
Z = RoHS Compliant Part.
©2008 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Trademarks and
registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
D07325-0-11/08(0)
Rev. 0 | Page 28 of 28
Package Option
CP-32-2
CP-32-2
CP-32-2
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