Download version 0.1 of STP11_25Z4.pdf

Download version 0.1 of STP11_25Z4.pdf
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Soldier's Manual
and Trainer's Guide
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
No. 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Washington, DC, 29 January 2001
Skill Level 4
Table of Contents ...................................................................................................................... i
PREFACE .................................................................................................................................................... iii
Chapter 1. Introduction........................................................................................................................... 1-1
Chapter 2. Trainer's Guide ..................................................................................................................... 2-1
Chapter 3. MOS/Skill Level Tasks ......................................................................................................... 3-1
Skill Level 4
Subject Area 1: Administration
113-631-6002 Establish a Visual Information (VI) Security Program .............................................. 3-1
113-631-6007 Validate a VI Standing Operating Procedure (SOP) ................................................ 3-7
113-631-6005 Determine Dispositions of VI Products..................................................................... 3-9
Subject Area 2: Supervision
Direct Deployment of VI Assets to a Tactical Environment..................................3-12
Direct Sustainment of VI Assets in a Tactical Environment ...................................3-15
Direct Redeployment of VI Assets from a Tactical Environment ...........................3-16
Prepare a Master Broadcast Schedule ..................................................................3-18
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
This publication supersedes STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG, February 1992.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Subject Area 3: Plans, Designs, and Develops
Review VI Products ................................................................................................3-21
Validate a VI Maintenance Program.......................................................................3-22
Write a VI Annex to an Operation Order (OPORD)................................................3-24
Coordinate the VI Assets of a Multimedia Project..................................................3-27
APPENDIX A - VISUAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT TOOLS ........................................................ A-1
APPENDIX B - ELECTRONIC IMAGING COURSE ................................................................................ B-1
APPENDIX C - SAMPLE VI APPENDIX TO OPERATION ORDER ....................................................... C-1
APPENDIX D - STANDING OPERATING PROCEDURES ..................................................................... D-1
APPENDIX E - ELEMENTS OF A MULTIMEDIA PROJECT ...................................................................E-1
APPENDIX F - DA Form 5164-R (HANDS ON EVALUATION) ...............................................................F-1
APPENDIX G - MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS ......................................................................................... G-3
APPENDIX H - JOINT OPERATION PLANNING AND EXECUTION SYSTEM ..................................... H-1
APPENDIX I - TIME-PHASED FORCE AND DEPLOYMENT DATA (TPFDD) ........................................ I-1
Glossary ...................................................................................................................................... Glossary-1
References.............................................................................................................................. References-1
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
This publication is for skill level (SL) 4 soldiers holding military occupational specialty (MOS)
25Z and their trainers and first-line supervisors. It contains standardized training objectives, as
task summaries, and a MOS Training Plan (MTP) to assist the supervisors in training and
evaluating soldiers on critical tasks that support unit missions. When applicable, a chapter is
devoted to listing duty position specific tasks or those tasks and skills that are not common to all
soldiers in MOS 25Z SL4.
Soldiers holding the MOS 25Z SL4 should have access to this publication through their
assigned work areas, unit learning centers, unit libraries, and the General Dennis J. Reimer
Training and Doctrine Digital Library website (
Users of this publication are encouraged to report errors, recommend changes, and submit
comments for its improvement. Comments should be keyed to the specific page, paragraph,
and line of the text in which the change is recommended. Reasons will be provided for each
comment to ensure understanding and complete evaluation. Comments should be made on DA
Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) and forwarded directly
to Commander, US Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, ATTN: ATZH-DTM-I, Fort Gordon,
Georgia 30905-5074.
Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do
not refer exclusively to men.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
a. This manual identifies the individual MOS training requirement for soldiers in MOS 25Z.
This soldier’s manual (SM)/trainer’s guide (TG) is designed to support the Army Individual
Training Evaluation Program (ITEP). The ITEP was established to formalize the role of the
individual evaluation in units throughout the Army. The ITEP is described in detail in AR 35041.
b. The two primary methods used to evaluate soldier proficiency are commander’s
evaluations and the common task test (CTT).
(1) Commander's evaluations are local tests or assessments of soldier's performance of
MOS specific and common tasks critical to the unit's mission. They may be conducted yearround.
(2) The CTT is a hands-on test used to evaluate proficiency on common tasks. Alternate
written tests are provided if equipment is not available for hands-on testing.
c. This manual is the soldier's primary reference to prepare for the commander's evaluation
of MOS specific tasks and for the self-development and training of every 25Z soldier. It contains
task summaries for all the critical tasks specific to the soldier's MOS and SL. Commanders and
trainers will use this manual to plan and conduct training and commander's evaluations.
a. Task summaries outline the wartime performance of each critical task in the SM. They
provide the soldier proficiency on training. As a minimum, task summaries include information
you must know and the skills that you must perform to standards for each task. The format for
the task summaries included in this SM is as follows:
(1) Task Title. The task title identifies the action to be performed.
(2) Task Number. A 10-digit number identifies each task or skill. Include this task
number, along with the task title, in any correspondence relating to the task. To determine
which tasks are testable at each skill level, refer to Chapter 2, Part 2, Critical Tasks. The first
numbers of the last four of each task DO NOT indicate the skill levels testable for that particular
(3) Conditions. The task conditions identify all the equipment, tools, references, job aids,
and supporting personnel that the soldier needs to perform the task in wartime. This section
identifies any environmental conditions that can alter task performance, such as visibility,
temperature, and wind. This section also identifies any specific cues or events (a chemical
attack or identification of a threat vehicle) that trigger task performance.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(4) Standards. The task standards describe how well and to what level you must perform
a task under wartime conditions. Standards are typically described in terms of accuracy,
completeness, and speed.
(5) Training and Evaluation. This section may contain the training information outline
(performance steps in Automated Systems Approach to Training (ASAT)), evaluation
preparation, and evaluation guide (performance measures in ASAT). The training information
outline/performance steps include detailed training information. The evaluation preparation
subsection indicates necessary modification to task performance in order to train and evaluate a
task that cannot be trained to the wartime standard under wartime conditions. It may also
include special training and evaluation preparation instructions to accommodate these
modifications and any instructions that should be given to the soldier before evaluation. The
evaluation guide/performance measures identify the specific actions that the soldier must do to
successfully complete the task. These actions are listed in a Pass/Fail format for easy
evaluation. Each task contains a feedback statement (Evaluation Guidance in ASAT) that
indicates the requirements (for the number of performance measures passed) for receiving a
GO on the evaluations.
(6) References. This section identifies references that provide more detailed and thorough
explanations of task performance requirements than those given in the task summary
b. Additionally, some task summaries include safety statements and notes. Safety
statements (danger, warning, and caution) alert user to the possibility of immediate death,
personal injury, or damage to equipment. Notes provide a small, extra supportive explanation of
hint relative to the performance measures.
a. Each soldier must be able to perform every task required by his or her job and shares
the responsibility with the trainer to maintain those skills. The MTP indicates the tasks that
soldiers in different jobs and skill levels are required to perform. Soldiers are also responsible
for all common tasks, at their current Skill Level and below, listed in the Soldier's Manual of
Common Tasks (SMCT).
b. To assist the soldier in maintaining task proficiency, each task is written so that it states:
(1) Where and when the task should be performed and what equipment is needed
(Conditions statement).
(2) How well the task must be performed (Standards statement).
(3) Which references describe step by step how the task must be performed (References
c. In addition, each task contains an Evaluation Guide (in the Training Evaluation section)
that can be used to determine if a soldier can perform the task. Periodically, soldiers should ask
their supervisor or another soldier to check them out to ensure that they can perform the task. If
a soldier has a question about how to do a task or which tasks in this manual he or she must be
able to perform, it is the soldier's responsibility to ask the first-line supervisor for clarification.
The first-line supervisor knows how to perform each task or can direct the soldier to the
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
appropriate training materials. These include field manuals (FM), technical manuals (TM), and
Training Extension Course (TEC) lessons. It is the soldier’s responsibility to use these materials
to maintain performance.
d. Another important training resource is Army Correspondence Course Program (ACCP).
Soldiers should refer to DA Pamphlet 351-20, the Army Correspondence Course Program
Catalog, for information on enrolling in this program and a list of courses, or write to: Army
Institute for Professional Development, US Army Training Support Center, ATTN: ATIC-IPS,
Newport News, VA 23628-0001.
Each commander must ensure that his or her unit’s training plan prepares the unit for war
by enabling soldiers to develop and sustain proficiency in the tasks for their MOS and SL. The
commander should design the training program to provide individual training for all soldiers
assigned to the unit and routinely evaluate soldier proficiency as part of the ITEP. The program
should also integrate individual training with crew drills and other collective training. The MTP
provides information on which to base integration, cross, train-up, and sustainment training
programs and should be used by commanders when developing unit training plans. To properly
develop an effective training program, a six-step cycle is recommended:
(1) Set objectives.
(2) Plan resources (that is, personnel, time, funds, facilities, devices and training aids).
(3) Train the trainer.
(4) Provide resources.
(5) Conduct training.
(6) Evaluate soldier performance.
This manual includes the following appendixes and information that provide additional
training support information.
(1) Appendix A. Visual Information Management Tools.
(2) Appendix B. Electronic Imaging Course.
(3) Appendix C. Sample Visual Information (VI) Appendix to Operation Order.
(4) Appendix D. Standing Operating Procedures.
(5) Appendix E. Elements of a Multimedia Product.
(6) Appendix F. DA Form 5164-R (Hands-on Evaluation).
(7) Appendix G. Management Concepts.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(8) Appendix H. Joint Operation Planning and Execution System.
(9) Appendix I. Time-Phased Force and Deployment Data (TPFDD).
(10) Glossary. The Glossary is a single comprehensive list of acronyms, abbreviations,
definitions, and letter symbols.
(11) References. This section contains two lists of references, required and related, which
support training of all tasks in this SM. Required references are listed in the conditions
statement and are required for the soldier to do the task. Related references are materials that
provide ore detailed information and more thorough explanation of task performance.
a. All MOS 25Z NCOs should be acquainted with the Enlisted Personnel Management
System (EPMS), Career Management Field (CMF) structure, skill and training progression for
the Visual Information Chief, and training problems unique to MOS 25Z.
b. The Army's EPMS is a management system to improve professionalism of the enlisted
ranks. Successful soldiers perform assigned duties efficiently, take advantage of opportunities
for training and promotion, and establish career goals. EPMS provides a logical path of career
development by establishing a system of career-long training that prepares soldiers to take on
duties of the next higher grade. A training program has been designed for the skill levels of
each MOS. This publication is an outline of that training program for MOS 25Z.
c. The skill and progression chart for CMF 25 is shown in Figure 1-1. There are no
decision points for the 25Z soldier.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
25 M 30
SL 3
25 R 30
SL 3
Multimedia 25 M 20
25 R 20
SL 2
Multimedia 25 M 20
25 R 20
SL 1
SL 2
SL 1
Basic Training (BT)
Figure 1-1. Skill and Training Progression, CMF 25.
a. The activation of CMF 25 has produced a new alignment of MOSs and created a new
set of job responsibilities. The duties of a Visual Information Operations Chief require additional
skills and knowledge that were not previously demanded of a Sergeant First Class in the old
Audiovisual CMF. With the return to a combat support role for Visual Information soldiers, the
need for highly qualified, combat-oriented leaders is mandatory. An operational concept that
specifies requirements for a Combat Camera role along with additional guidance in AR 25-1,
and DA Pam 25-91, plus a completely new FM 24-40 (currently under development), we will
provide the basis for training and operations to support the Army for years to come.
b. In most cases, a unit or facility will have only one Visual Information Operations Chief,
MOS 25Z40 assigned. The three feeder MOSs: Multimedia Specialist (25M), Visual Information
Equipment Operator-Maintainer (25R), and Visual Information/Audio Documentation Systems
Specialist (25V), merge at the Sergeant First Class (SFC) level as MOS 25Z40. This means
that the Staff Sergeant promoted to MOS 25Z40 will be required to know the skills and
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
knowledge’s of three disciplines rather than one. Although Visual Information Basic
Noncommissioned Officer Course (BNCOC) and Advanced Noncommissioned Officer Course
(ANCOC) provide training in all three disciplines the noncommissioned officer (NCO) must seek
every opportunity to enhance his own training.
c. Career Management Field 25 is the smallest CMF in the Signal Corps inventory, with a
population of approximately 1600 soldiers. The number of NCOs at the Master Sergeant level
available as mentors is extremely small. Also, the concept of self-development requires that
each NCO provide his own essential training to enhance new skills in the Visual Information (VI)
field. For this reason, each NCO will have to work harder at self-development than has been
necessary in the past. In addition, most VI units have a day-today operational mission that
provides little time for training. Each NCO must be creative in preparing a training schedule for
himself and his soldiers. The requirements for Combat Camera mean that each visual
information soldier must receive quality training in preparation for this mission. You, the NCO,
must provide the time to carry out this training.
d. Comments or questions on material in this manual may be directed to the Branch Chief,
US Army, Signal Corps Regimental NCO Academy Detachment, ATTN: ATZH-SDT-T, (Senior
Training Developer), Fort George G. Meade, MD 20755-5605, telephone DSN 923-5805/5802
or commercial (301) 677-5805/5802.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Trainer's Guide
a. The TG identifies the essential components of a unit training plan for individual training.
Units have different training needs and requirements based on differences in environment,
location, equipment, dispersion (actual manning of graphic shops), and similar factors.
Therefore, the TG is a guide used for conducting unit training and not as a rigid standard.
b. The TG provides information necessary for planning training requirements for this MOS.
(1) Identifies subject areas in which to train soldiers.
(2) Identifies the critical tasks for each subject area.
(3) Specifies where soldiers are trained.
(4) Recommends how often each task should be trained to sustain proficiency.
(5) Recommends a strategy for training soldiers to perform higher level tasks.
As described in FM 25-100, Training the Force, and FM 25-101, Battle Focused Training,
the commander must first define the Mission Essential Task List (METL) as the basis for unit
training. Unit leaders use the METL to identify the collective, leader, and soldier tasks that
support accomplishment of the METL. Unit leaders then assess the status of training and lay
out the training objective and the plan for accomplishing needed training. After preparing the
long- and short-range plans, leaders then execute and evaluate training. Finally, the unit’s
training preparedness is reassessed and the training management cycle begins again. This
process ensures the unit has identified what is important for the wartime mission, the training
focus is applied to the necessary training, and training meets established objectives and
a. The two key components of enlisted STPs are the TG and SM. The TG and SM give
leaders important information to help in the battle focused training process. The TG relates
soldier and leader tasks in the MOS and SL to duty positions and equipment. It provides
information on where the task is trained, how often training should occur to sustain proficiency,
and who in the unit should be trained. As leaders go through the assessment and planning
stages, they should use the TG as an important tool in identifying what needs to be trained.
b. The execution and evaluation of soldier and leader training should rely on the Armywide
training objective and standards in the SM task summaries. The task summaries ensure that
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
soldiers in any unit or location have the same definition of task performance, and that trainers
evaluate the soldiers to the same standard.
c. The following diagram shows the relationship between battle-focused training and the
use of the TG and SM. The left-hand side of the diagram (taken from FM 25-101) shows the
soldier training process, while the right side of the diagram shows how the STP supports each
step of this process.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Training soldier and leader tasks to standard and relating this training to collective missionessential tasks is the NCO trainer’s responsibility. Trainers use the steps below to plan and
evaluate training.
(1) Identify soldier and leader training requirements. The NCO determines which tasks
soldiers need to train using the commander’s training strategy. The unit’s METL and Army
Training and Evaluation Program (ARTEP) and MOS Training Plan (MTP) in the TG are sources
for helping the trainer define the individual training needed.
(2) Plan the training. Training for specific tasks can usually be integrated or conducted
concurrently with other training or during slack periods. The unit’s ARTEP can assist in
identifying soldier and leader tasks that can be trained and evaluated concurrently with
collective task training and evaluation.
(3) Gather the training references and materials. The SM task summary list all
references which can assist the trainer in preparing for the training of that task.
(4) Determine risk assessment and identify safety concerns. Analyze the risk involved
in training a specific task under the current conditions at the time of scheduled training. Ensure
that your training preparation takes into account those cautions, warnings, and dangers
associated with each task.
(5) Train each soldier. Show the soldier how the task is done to standard and explain
step-by-step how to do the task. Give each soldier one chance to do the task step-by-step.
(6) Emphasize training at mission-oriented protection posture (MOPP) level 4.
Soldiers may have difficulty performing even the very simple tasks in a nuclear/chemical
environment. The combat effectiveness of the soldier and the unit can degrade quickly when
trying to perform in MOPP 4. Practice is the best way to improve and ensure performance.
(7) Check each soldier. Evaluate how well each soldier performs the tasks in this
manual. Conduct these evaluations during individual training sessions or while evaluating
soldier proficiency of unit collective tasks. Use the information in the MTP as a guide to
determine how often to train the soldier in each task and to ensure that soldiers sustain
(8) Record the results. The leader book referred to in FM 25-101, Appendix B, is used to
record task performance and gives the leader total flexibility on the method of recording training.
The trainer may use DA Forms 5164-R (Hands-On Evaluation) and 5165-R (Field Expedient
Squad Book) as part of the leader book. The forms are optional and locally reproducible. STP
21-24-SMCT contains a copy of the forms and instructions for their use.
(9) Retrain and evaluate. Work with each soldier until he can perform the task to specific
SM standards.
An evaluation guide exists for each task summary in the SM. Each evaluation guide
contains one or more performance measures that identify what the trainer needs to observe to
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
score a soldier’s performance. Each step is clearly identified by a P (pass) and F (fail), located
under the result column on each evaluation guide. Some tasks involve a process that the
trainer must evaluate an ”end product“ resulting from doing the task. The following are some
general points about using the evaluation guide to evaluate soldiers.
(1) Review the guide to become familiar with the information on which the soldier will be
(2) Ensure that the necessary safety equipment and clothing needed for proper
performance of the job are on hand at the training site.
(3) Prepare the test site according to the Conditions section of the task summary. Some
tasks contain special evaluation preparation instructions. These instructions tell the trainer what
modifications must be made to the job conditions to evaluate the task. Reestablish the test site
to the original requirements after evaluating each soldier to ensure that conditions are the same
for each soldier.
(4) Advise each soldier of the information in the Brief Soldier section of the task summary
before evaluating.
(5) Score each soldier according to the performance measures and Evaluation Guidance
section in the task summary.
(6) Record the date and task performance (GO or NO-GO) in the leader book.
a. Prepare yourself.
(1) Get training guidance from your chain of command on when to train, which soldiers to
train, availability of resources, and training site.
(2) Get the training objective (tasks, conditions, and standards) from the task summary in
this manual.
(3) Ensure you can do the task. Review the task summary and references in the
References section. Practice doing the task or, if necessary, have someone train you on the
(4) Choose a training method. Some tasks provide recommended training methods.
(5) Prepare a training outline consisting of informal notes on what you want to cover during
your training session.
(6) Practice your training presentation.
b. Prepare the resources.
(1) Obtain the required resources identified in the conditions statement for each task.
(2) Gather equipment and ensure it is operational.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(3) Coordinate the use of training aids and devices.
(4) Prepare the training site according to the conditions statement and Evaluation
Preparation section of the task summary, as appropriate.
c. Prepare the soldiers.
(1) Tell the soldier what task to do and how well it must be done. Refer to the standard
statement and Evaluation Preparation section for each task, as appropriate.
(2) Caution soldiers about safety, environment, and security.
(3) Provide any necessary training on basic skills that soldiers must have before they can
be trained on the task.
(4) Pretest each soldier to determine who needs training in what areas by having the soldier
perform the task. Use DA Form 5164-R and the evaluation guidance in each task summary to
make this determination.
d. Train the soldiers who failed the pretest.
(1) Demonstrate how to do the task or the specific performance steps to those soldiers who
could not perform to SM standards. Have soldiers study the appropriate materials.
(2) Have soldiers practice the task until they can perform to SM standards.
(3) Evaluate each soldier using the evaluation guide.
(4) Provide feedback to those soldiers who fail to perform to SM standards and have them
continue to practice until they can perform to SM standards.
e. Record results in the leader book.
One of the key components of the TG is the MOS Training Plan (MTP). The MTP has two
parts to assist the commander in preparing a unit training plan that satisfies integration, crosstrain, train-up, and sustainment training requirements for soldiers in this MOS.
(1) Part One of the MTP shows the relationship of an MOS SL between duty position and
critical tasks. The critical tasks are grouped by task commonality into subject areas.
(a) Section I list subject area numbers and titles used throughout the MTP. These subject
areas are used to define the training requirements for each duty position within an MOS and
relate duty positions to subject areas and cross-training and train-up/merger requirements.
Duty position column. This column lists the duty positions of the MOS, by skill level,
which have different training requirements.
Subject area column. This column lists, by numerical key (see Section I), the subject
areas a soldier must be proficient in to perform in that duty position.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Cross train column. This column lists the recommended duty position for which
soldiers should be cross-trained.
Train-up/merger column. This column lists the corresponding duty position for the
next higher skill level or MOSC the soldier will merge into on promotion.
(b) Section II identifies the total training requirements in terms of subject areas listed in
Section I for each duty position in an MOS.
(2) Part Two lists by subject areas, the critical tasks to be trained in an MOS, task number,
task title, location, sustainment training frequency, and training SL.
Subject area column. This column lists the subject area number and title in the same
order as Section I, Part One of the MTP.
Task number column. This column lists the task numbers for all tasks included in the
subject area.
Title column. This column lists the task title for each task in the subject area.
Training location column. This column identifies the training location where the task is
first trained to soldier training publications standards. If the task is first trained to
standard in the unit, the word “Unit” will be in this column. If the task is first trained to
standard in the training base, it will identify, by brevity code (ANCOC, BNCOC, and so
forth), the resident course where the task was taught. Figure 2-1 contains a list of
training locations and their corresponding brevity codes.
Advanced NCO Course
Figure 2-1. Training Locations.
Sustainment training frequency column. This column indicates the recommended
frequency at which the tasks should be trained to ensure soldiers maintain task
proficiency. Figure 2-2 identifies the frequency codes used in this column.
Figure 2-2. Sustainment Training Frequency Codes.
Sustainment training skill level column. This column lists the skill levels of the MOS
for which soldiers must receive sustainment training to ensure they maintain proficiency
to soldier’s manual standards.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Skill Level 4
Plans, Designs, and Develops
Visual Information Supervisor
Audio/TV Production Systems Supervisor
VI Documentation Supervisor
VI Staff NCO
1, 2, and 3
1, 2, and 3
1, 2, and 3
1, 2, and 3
VI Operations Chief
VI Operations Chief
VI Operations Chief
VI Operations Chief
MOS 25Z4
Skill Level 4
Subject Area
1. Administration
2. Supervision
3. Plans,
Designs, and
Task Number
Establish a Visual Information (VI) Security
Validate a VI Standing Operating Procedure
Determine Dispositions of VI Products
Direct Deployment of VI Assets to a Tactical
Direct Sustainment of VI Assets in a Tactical
Direct Redeployment of VI Assets from a
Tactical Environment
Prepare a Master Broadcast Schedule
Review VI Products
Validate a VI Maintenance Program
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Skill Level 4
Subject Area
Task Number
Write a VI Annex to an Operation Order
Coordinate the VI Assets of a Multimedia
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
MOS/Skill Level Tasks
Skill Level 4
Subject Area 1: Administration
Establish a Visual Information (VI) Security Program
Conditions: In a tactical or garrison environment, given VI equipment inventory, personnel assets list,
completed DA Forms 3903, site plan, unit SOP, AR 190-16, AR 380-5, DA Pamphlet 25-91, and DOD
Directive 5120.20.
Standards: Establish an effective security program in accordance with (IAW) unit standing operating
procedure (SOP), AR 190-16, AR 380-5, DA Pamphlet 25-91, and DOD Directive 5120.20.
Performance Steps
NOTE: The security manager represents the commander on matters pertaining to physical security,
personnel security, intelligence, and safeguarding of national security information. The security manager
knows specifically what these matters involve and the standard procedures necessary to implement the
1. Establish physical security.
a. Assess physical security program factor. To determine the type and extent of the commitment
of resources toward an installation physical security program, you must assess those factors
that will influence this program. The following should be taken into consideration:
(1) Mission assignment.
(2) Local threat assessment.
(3) Definition and analysis of the area to be protected to include:
( a) Nature and arrangement of activity.
( b) Number of personnel involved.
( c) Monetary, tactical, or strategic value of materiel.
( d) Storage of classified information and equipment.
( e) Existing natural or man-made hazards.
(4) Mission essential or vulnerable areas to include:
( a) Ammunition and explosive storage.
( b) Arms storage.
( c) Classified sites or location.
( d) Communications centers.
( e) Communication facilities.
( f) Supply and storage.
( g) Shipping and receiving terminals.
(5) Key Control.
b. Planning considerations.
(1) Peacetime.
( a) Ensure integration of physical security requirements into all plans to ensure
conservation of physical security resources and effective protection of army
personnel, facilities, and equipment.
( b) Ensure evaluation of peacetime planning considerations to permit adjustments in
physical security as the threat changes during mobilization and war.
(2) Tactical.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Performance Steps
( a) Ensure development of a tactical defense plan for each installation to include support
installation and key activities.
( b) Ensure establishment of control of all access roads normally open to civilians.
( c) Ensure restriction of movement within specified areas of the installation as required.
( d) Ensure inclusion of a physical security guard force and civilian police for present or
future mission.
( e) Ensure physical security training to include: (1) Use of nuclear, biological, and
chemical protective equipment and decontamination procedures. (2) Search seizure
and apprehension. (3) Map reading and use of compass. (4) Marksmanship with
individual and crew served weapons. (5) Patrolling. (6) Operation and use of security
communications equipment and system. (7) Identification and control of personnel.
(8) Materiel control. (9) Unarmed defense. (10) Vehicle control. (11) Use of force.
(12) Civil disturbance. (13) Countering terrorism.
c. Implement visual information security.
(1) Photographs. Ensure the marking of negatives and positives with the appropriate
classification and associated marking. Ensure negatives and positives are kept in
containers bearing conspicuous classification marking. Ensure marking of all prints with
appropriate classification on the face side of the print. (When using self-processing film or
paper to photograph or reproduce classified information, ensure all parts of the last
exposure are removed from camera and destroyed as classified waste, or ensure the
camera is classified).
(2) Transparencies and slides are marked with applicable classification on the image area of
each transparency or slide. On 35mm or similar size, ensure the classification markings
are marked on the border, holder, or frame.
(3) Motion picture films and videotapes. Ensure titles are marked at the beginning and end
and all markings are visible when projected. Ensure reels and cassettes are marked and
kept in containers bearing conspicuous classification and applicable associated marking.
(4) Recordings. Ensure sound, magnetic, or electronic recordings contain a clear statement of
the assigned classification at both the beginning and the end and are kept in a container
or reels that bear conspicuous classification.
2. Establish personnel security.
a. Determine military positions that require incumbent to have access to classified information.
b. Identify and designate all civilian positions which are critical and require access to classified
c. Process request for security clearance.
d. Monitor conduct of personnel who have security clearance or who are eligible for access to
classified information. Maintain and submit annual personnel security data report.
3. Establish intelligence security.
a. Brief all personnel on the Subversion and Espionage Directed Against the Army (SAEDA)
threat and reporting of incident.
b. Upon receipt of information from an individual concerning a possible approach, report promptly
to military intelligence.
c. Conduct security briefing to personnel prior to foreign travel.
4. Establish control of classified materiel.
a. Upon receiving an "Accountable" document, accountability should be immediately established.
(1) Inventory document to ensure it is complete and no pages are missing.
(2) Assign control number.
(3) Log document on DA Form 455. See Figure 3-1.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Performance Steps
DA FORM 455, JUL 62
DESCRIPTION (Type, File Reference, Unclassified Subject or
Short Title, No. of Pages, Copy Numbers, etc.)
REMARKS (Disposition, Dest'n Cert
No. and Date, Custodian Signature, etc)
For use of this form, see AR 380-5; the proponent agency
is Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence.
Figure 3-1. DA Form 455.
b. Store classified material.
(1) TOP SECRET. Ensure TOP SECRET material is stored in:
( a) A safe container having a three-position, dial-type combination lock.
( b) A class A vault.
( c) A container located in a building or room that is locked, guarded, or is equipped with
alarms during nonoperating hours.
(2) SECRET. Ensure SECRET material is stored in:
( a) A General Services Administration (GSA) approved safe.
( b) An area equipped with alarms.
( c) A vault.
( d) An area under constant surveillance.
(3) Ensure CONFIDENTLAL material is stored in any steel filing cabinet having a built-in
three-position, dial-type combination lock.
c. Complete required form.
(1) Ensure Security Container Information (SF 700), is posted on an emergency notification
list on the container.
(2) Record the combination and names of persons having access to container.
(3) File SF 700 in accordance with local security SOP.
(4) DA Form 672 (Safe or Cabinet Security Record). Ensure DA Form 672 is conspicuously
attached to the outsides of all containers used for the storage of classified material.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Performance Steps
(5) Emergency Evacuation/Destruction Plan. Ensure each installation or activity has an
Emergency Evacuation/Destruction Plan conspicuously posted on or near any classified
security container.
d. Destruction of classified material.
(1) Methods of destruction. Ensure classified documents and material are destroyed by
burning or, with the approval of the cognizant component head or designee, by melting,
chemical decomposition, pulping, pulverizing, shredding, or mutilation sufficient to
preclude recognition or reconstruction of the classified information.
(2) Records of destruction. Records of destruction are required for TOP SECRET and
SECRET information. Ensure the record is dated and signed at the time of destruction by
the person destroying, and two witnesses for TOP SECRET information and one witness
for SECRET. In the case of information placed in burn bags for central disposal, the
destruction record only need to be signed by the witnessing official or officials when the
information is so place. Completion of the "Custodian/Destruction Official" and the
"Witnessing Official" blocks of DA Form 3964 satisfy "witness" requirements for TOP
SECRET. See Figure 3-2.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Performance Steps
For use of this form, see AR 380-5; the proponent agency is the Office, Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence.
DESCRIPTION (Type, File Ref, Unclassified Subject
or Short Title and Number of Indorsements/Incls)
DA FORM 3964,JUL 79
Figure 3-2. DA Form 3964.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Performance Steps
(3) Classified waste. Ensure that waste materials, such as handwritten notes, carbon papers,
typewriter ribbons, working papers, and so forth, which contain classified information, are
protected in a manner to prevent unauthorized disclosure of the information. Ensure
classified waste is destroyed when no longer needed.
NOTE: Destruction records are not required.
Performance Measures
1. Ensure establishment of physical security.
a. Assess physical security program factor.
b. Planning considerations.
c. Implement visual information security.
2. Ensure establishment of personnel security.
a. Determine military positions that require incumbent to have access to
classified information.
b. Identify and designate all civilian positions that are critical and require access
to classified information.
c. Process request for security clearance.
d. Monitor conduct of personnel who have security clearance or who are
eligible for access to classified information. Maintain and submit annual
personnel security data report.
3. Ensure establishment of intelligence security.
a. Brief all personnel on the SAEDA threat and reporting of incident.
b. Upon receipt of information from an individual concerning a possible
approach, report promptly to military intelligence.
c. Conduct security briefing to personnel prior to foreign travels.
4. Ensure control of classified material.
a. Upon receiving an "Accountable" document, accountability should be
immediately established.
b. Store classified material.
c. Complete required form.
d. Destruction of classified material.
Evaluation Guidance: Score the soldier GO if all performance measures are passed (P). Score the
soldier NO-GO if any performance measure is failed (F). If any performance measure is failed, show the
soldier what was done wrong and how to it correctly.
AR 190-16
AR 380-5
DA PAM 25-91
DOD DIR 5120.20
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Validate a VI Standing Operating Procedure (SOP)
Conditions: Given the VI Organizational SOP, higher headquarters' SOP, and FM 101-5.
Standards: Validate the VI SOP IAW higher headquarters and FM 101-5.
Performance Steps
1. An SOP for a visual information (VI) unit contains instructions concerning everyday activities. A
particular unit may have an administrative SOP, a tactical or field SOP, an external SOP, or a
combination of all three. The purpose and function of a unit will determine what type of SOP should
be written.
2. A VI unit will list procedures unique to its mission and provide guidelines for personnel to follow. See
Appendix D for a sample SOP. The SOP will specify actions and specific duties that will result in
efficient operation and completion of the mission. Determine the amount of detail according to the
size of the unit and the readiness capability of the unit.
3. Base the SOP of a VI unit on those portions of higher headquarters publications that apply the
wishes of the commander, and procedures established through experience. As SOP can be
changed at a later time to adjust to new conditions or practices.
4. Planning is vital to a workable and effective SOP. The nine steps in the planning sequence include:
the forecasting of requirements, examining the requirements, studying the implications, analyzing
the mission, establishing guidance, preparing studies, selecting courses of action, preparing the
plans, and conducting rehearsals.
a. Forecasting requirements. The operations officer writing SOP must first have an idea as to what
will occur. Usually, this information will come from higher headquarters.
b. Examining requirements. Take the forecast information and determine priorities for further
planning and preparation.
c. Studying the implications. Review the priority list and decide on primary mission(s) and
supporting missions.
d. Analyzing the mission(s). With the mission(s) clearly in mind, select specific tasks to support
it/them. Decide how complex these tasks may be.
e. Establishing guidance. Set up directions for specific tasks. Write out or give directions orally,
incorporating planning directives from the commander and higher headquarters, and other
f. Preparing studies. Prepare planning studies to ensure just what are the key factors in the
mission, and the details of these factors. These studies help in deciding on the proper cause of
g. Selecting courses of action. With all reasonable happenings taken under consideration, select a
course of action. Decide on additional courses of action for alternate plans (usually attached as
annexes to the primary plan).
h. Preparing plans. With all the information gathered from the first seven steps, make a plan that
includes all details of actions required.
i. Conducting rehearsals. This step may or may not be taken, depending on the command level,
the time, and facilities available. If time, resources, and security permit, it is a good idea to hold
"a dry run" and see where revisions may be necessary.
5. Preparation, publication and distribution of the command SOP are responsibilities of the operation
officer. Other staff officers prepare appropriate portions of the SOP. The SOP is published in the
form most suitable for the command. There is no specified format for an SOP. See Appendix D, for
guidance and information on SOPs.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Performance Measures
1. Plan the SOP.
a. Review higher headquarters SOP.
b. Forecast to determine probable requirements.
c. Study probable requirements and establish priority.
d. Analyze mission to determine tasks.
e. Establish guidance.
f. Select course(s) of action.
g. Prepare complete plans.
2. Draft SOP.
a. Write title, date, and SOP number.
b. Write all sections necessary, (purpose, scope, definition).
c. Compare draft to references and modify as necessary.
d. Submit draft for approval.
3. Prepare the final SOP.
4. Reproduce and distribute.
Evaluation Guidance: Score the soldier GO if all performance measures are passed (P). Score the
soldier NO-GO if any performance measure is failed (F). If any performance measure is failed, show the
soldier what was done wrong and how to do it correctly.
FM 101-5
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Determine Dispositions of VI Products
Conditions: Given VI products, AR 25-1, AR 380-5, AR 380-13, DA Pamphlet 25-91, DOD Directive
4160.21-M, DOD Directive 5040.2, DD Forms 1149, DD Forms 2537, and FM 24-40.
Standards: Ensure proper disposition of VI products IAW AR 25-1, DA Pamphlet 25-91, DOD Directive
4160.21-M, DOD Directive 5040.2, and FM 24-40.
Performance Steps
NOTE: One of the most important responsibilities you will have as a broadcast supervisor is to review
materials for broadcast release. Once a product airs, it can't be retrieved. Local SOPs should provide
basic guidance when it comes to release of material for broadcast. The following information outline
pertains to both radio and television unless otherwise specified.
1. Make sure the product aired conforms to Security, Accuracy, Policy, and Propriety (SAPP). Security
measures for the Army are outlined in AR 380-5. Disclosure of classified information definitely
violates this regulation. This would include any visual of areas or equipment that is classified. Always
check first when in doubt on a shoot. Also, comments that are sensitive (but not classified) should
not air. An example of this would be a pilot who proudly announces that it only takes five minutes for
him and his fellow F-16 pilots to get into the air after the first warning. The comment is not classified
but would be helpful to an enemy or potential enemy.
2. Make sure the information is accurate. Check the spelling of names; make sure the ranks are correct
and unit designations are correct (for example, there are no companies in field artillery units, and so
forth). Even stories that are generated and released by the Public Affairs Officer (PAO) should be
checked for accuracy.
3. Be familiar with public affairs policy outlined in AR 360-5 (Army Public Affairs, Public Information)
and AR 360-81 (Command Information Program). The following regulations also contain policy
considerations that reviewing officials need to know. The broadcast supervisor must be familiar with
the content of these regulations in case they are needed for quick reference: AR 25-55 (The
Department of Army Freedom of Information Act Program), AR 340-21 (The Army Privacy Program),
AR 380-5 (Department of the Army Information Security Program), and DOD Directive 5122.10
(American Forces Information Service).
4. Most overseas stations maintain a local sensitivities file. Its purpose is to give guidance concerning
the broadcast of issues considered controversial by the host country government. There are also set
procedures for reviewing material for host country sensitivities.
5. The owners of copyrighted material have given their permission to the Armed Forces Radio and
Television Service (AFRTS) to broadcast their products. There are information and entertainment
programs. However, information contained in copyrighted material can be used for background
information IF IT IS PARAPHRASED. Paraphrased copyrighted material does not have to be
attributed. Be careful here. If the source of the information is identifiable with your information,
attribution of the source is required. If you quote directly, you must attribute this source of the
6. Because of the Privacy Act, broadcast material should not include certain information without
permission of the individual concerned. This includes: street addresses; social security numbers;
telephone numbers; information contained in medical and personnel files; and information pertaining
to ongoing disciplinary actions which would clearly be an unwarranted invasion of personal privacy.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Performance Steps
7. All libelous information must be deleted from any material intended for broadcast. Basically, you
must not say anything about persons, groups, organizations or business that exposes them to hatred
or contempt, lowers them in the esteem of others, causes them to be shunned, or injures their
business. Examples of some libelous word are: drunk, radical, dishonest, unethical, a cheat, criminal
(unless convicted), a traitor, and so forth.
8. Locally reproduced news analysis or commentary is another example of policy violation. They are
expressly forbidden. Only those analysis or commentary programs provided by AFRTS-BC may be
aired. This material must still be reviewed for broadcast. Certain comments may be fine in Panama
but not in Korea because of host country sensitivities. Again, local SOP should provide guidance in
this area, but if a news analysis or commentary program is aired, it must be aired in its entirety.
Radio news actualities and correspondents' reports may be excerpted from network newscast but
must be excerpted in their entirety. News sources/networks that authorize their television
programming to be excerpted are identified in AFRTS-PC DP-1.
NOTE: When it is necessary to remove host country sensitivities from entertainment material, AFRTS
outlets are authorized to reproduce (dub) the original program to facilitate removal.
9. Propriety is doing what is right and proper. Ensure the broadcast material is in good taste and does
not violate the sensitivities of the listening/viewing audience. There are several things that would
prevent broadcast material from being aired: vulgarity, obscenity, gore, perversion, excessive
violence, and information that will hold the service or its members up to ridicule.
10. A very important technical consideration for television is continuity. Continuity is accomplished when
different shots and scenes are combined to make smooth transitions in time and space. In other
words, the story is clear and concise without any distracting scenes that interfere with the message
you are trying to get across. Another technical consideration for radio and television is to ensure
audio and visual quality. You need to assume the role of the listener or viewer. You should be able
to understand the intended message by listening to or viewing the material. Check for consistent
audio/video levels, good color, and scenes with good composition. A scene with good composition
should have a main point of interest, balance and harmony, and an uncluttered background.
11. Make sure the material is correctly timed. Running time for television radio material covers first and
last audio. If there is a discrepancy, make sure the person responsible for programming is made
aware of its IAW local SOP.
Evaluation Preparation: Setup: Provide the soldier with the material to be reviewed. It is at the
Brief Soldier: Tell soldier that he will be evaluated IAW Evaluation Guide.
Performance Measures
NOTE: The following performance steps apply to both radio and television unless
indicated otherwise.
1. Ensure that the material does not violate security, accuracy, policy, or propriety
2. Demonstrate familiarity (to evaluator's satisfaction) with AR 360-5 and AR 360-81.
3. Demonstrate knowledge of the salient points (to evaluator's satisfaction) of
AFRTS-PC DP-1 and DOD Directive 5120.20, as they apply to broadcast
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Performance Measures
4. Demonstrate knowledge of the following regulations/directives as they apply to the
release of broadcast material; AR 25-55, AR 340-21, AR 380-5, and DOD
Directive 5122.10.
5. Ensure copyrighted material, if used, is paraphrased.
6. Provide proper attribution, when necessary.
7. Remove all libelous information from the material.
8. Ensure material does not violate the Privacy Act.
9. Ensure that only AFRTS-BC provides news analysis or commentary material is
used (aired).
10. Ensure that, if used, AFRTS-BC provided news analysis or commentary material
is aired in its entirety.
11. Ensure that local reports contain no commentary or editorials.
12. Excerpt radio news actualities and correspondents' reports in their entirety, when
13. Excerpt TV news programming only from sources authorized in AFRTS-PC DP-1.
14. When necessary, you may excerpt entertainment material by reproducing
(dubbing) the original material.
15. Check for visual continuity with television material.
16. Monitor audio and visual quality of the material.
17. Check running time of material.
18. If there are any changes to the running time, notify programming.
19. Turn in material to supervisor.
Evaluation Guidance: Score the soldier GO if all performance measures are passed (P). Score the
soldier NO-GO if any performance measure is failed (F). If the soldier fails any performance measure,
show what was done wrong and how to do it correctly.
AR 25-1
AR 380-13
AR 380-5
DA PAM 25-91
DOD DIR 4160.21-M
DOD DIR 5040.2
DOD DIR 5120.20
FM 24-40
AR 25-55
AR 340-21
AR 360-5
AR 360-81
DOD DIR 5122.10
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Subject Area 2: Supervision
Direct Deployment of VI Assets to a Tactical Environment
Conditions: Given FM 101-5, FM 24-40, DOD Dir 4500.9-R PT2, DA Pamphlet 25-1-1, unit SOP,
OPORD, and VI assets.
Standards: VI platoon deploys to the area of operations and establishes VI support for ground
commander in a tactical environment IAW OPORD and unit SOP.
Performance Steps
NOTE: Planning is a continuous process in preparation for future assigned tasks that involves a detailed
and systematic examination of all aspects of contemplated operations; adequate, practical planning is
essential to the success of any military undertaking. During the planning process, remember that out
ultimate objective is to win the battle. Good, detailed planning will assist us in doing that.
1. Receive the mission. A mission may be received in a warning order, operation order (OPORD), or a
fragmentary order (FRAGO).
2. Analyze the mission. As soon as you receive the order, analyze the mission by taking the following
into account.
a. Determine what the mission is by reviewing requirements.
b. Determine how the terrain will affect the operation.
c. Determine personnel required.
d. Determine how much time is available.
e. Determine equipment and supplies required.
f. Determine support required and available.
3. Issue order. Give enough information to your personnel to start preparing for the operation. Do not
NOTE: Unit SOP should prescribe actions to take when order is received.
4. Make a tentative plan. The plan should give you a start point from which to coordinate, organize, and
move. Thorough communications planning begins with a complete analysis of the variables of
mission, enemy, terrain, troops and time available (METT-T). This formula applies to
communications development for all levels, tactical and strategic. Of these components, mission
must be the cornerstone that establishes all planning. You should be familiar with the operations for
the force you are supporting. This will assist you in developing a detailed plan and, ultimately,
providing adequate communications-electronics (C-E) support.
a. Mission. This is what you must do to complete the objective.
b. Enemy.
c. Terrain and weather.
(1) The terrain and size of area will have a tremendous influence on the communication.
(2) Employment, type of system, and level of effectiveness will vary due to the variety of
terrain and weather.
d. Troops.
(1) Know personnel assets needed to complete the mission.
(2) Know when such asset will be available, for how long, and under what tasking
(3) Knowing the status of these soldiers is important, to include training level, previous
experience, morale, and leadership capabilities.
(4) Transportation. Know type of vehicle required to accomplish the mission.
(5) Equipment. Select gear.
( a) Camera.
( b) Videotape cameras.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Performance Steps
( c) Still cameras.
( d) Processing facilities.
(6) Communications.
( a) The types and amount of C-E equipment available will determine the type of
communication system that can be established. All C-E assets available must be
( b) Often a requirement cannot be met due to lack of equipment. This will require
equipment reconfiguration or use of field expedients. The ability to make do with
available assets comes from training, field experience, and the desire to get the job
e. Time available.
5. Coordinate support.
6. Start preparation for movement.
a. Check gear selected for deployment.
b. Pack gear for deployment.
c. Assemble personnel and equipment.
d. Review team/crew responsibilities and considerations.
e. Conduct pre-briefing.
7. Deploy assets.
a. Inspect personnel and equipment.
b. Load vehicles.
c. Provide security.
Performance Measures
1. Receive the mission.
2. Analyze the mission.
a. Determine what the mission is by reviewing requirements.
b. Determine how the terrain will affect the operation.
c. Determine personnel required.
d. Determine how much time is available.
e. Determine equipment and supplies required.
f. Determine support required and available.
3. Issue order. Give enough information to your personnel to start preparing for the
operation. Do not delay.
4. Make a tentative plan.
a. Mission.
b. Enemy.
c. Terrain and weather.
d. Troops.
e. Time available.
5. Coordinate support.
6. Start preparation for movement.
a. Check gear selected for deployment.
b. Pack gear for deployment.
c. Assemble personnel and equipment.
d. Review team/crew responsibilities and considerations.
e. Conduct pre-briefing.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Performance Measures
7. Deploy assets.
a. Inspect personnel and equipment.
b. Load vehicles.
Evaluation Guidance: Score the soldier GO if all performance measures are passed (P). Score the
soldier NO-GO if any performance measure is failed (F). If any performance measure is failed, show the
soldier what was done wrong and how to do it correctly.
DA PAM 25-1-1
DOD DIR 4500.9-R PT2
FM 101-5
FM 24-40
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Direct Sustainment of VI Assets in a Tactical Environment
Conditions: In a tactical environment, given: unit SOP, FM 100-5, FM 101-5, FM 100-20, FM 24-40, DA
Pamphlet 25-1-1, OPORD, and VI assets.
Standards: Supervise sustained operations of VI activities IAW OPORD, unit SOP, FM 100-5, FM 24-40,
and DA Pamphlet 25-1-1.
Performance Measures
1. Secure and defend communications site.
2. Provide personnel service support.
3. Maintain Logistics support.
4. Maintain electromagnetic spectrum (EMS) and communications support.
5. Perform individual camouflage.
6. Practice noise, light, and litter discipline.
7. Perform field sanitation measures.
8. Maintain nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) defense.
9. Operate night vision equipment.
10. Shoot and edit contingency assignments.
11. Disseminate audio, graphic, photographic, and audiovisual products.
12. Provide technical liaison support to the battlefield commander.
a. Product Development.
(1) Provide technical expertise on audio and video products throughout
development cycle.
(2) Ensure all scripts meet broadcast standards.
b. Quality Control. Ensure all finished products meet broadcast standards.
c. Transmitter Sites. Ensure site-setup allows signal to reach intended
13. Maintain continuous operations.
Evaluation Guidance: Score the soldier GO if all performance measures are passed (P). Score the
soldier NO-GO if any performance measure is failed (F). If any performance measure is failed, show the
soldier what was done wrong and how to do it correctly.
DA PAM 25-1-1
FM 100-20
FM 100-5
FM 101-5
FM 24-40
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Direct Redeployment of VI Assets from a Tactical Environment
Conditions: In a tactical environment, given, unit SOP, FM 101-5, FM 24-40, DOD Dir 4500.9-R PT2, DA
Pamphlet 25-1-1, OPORD, and VI assets.
Standards: Ensure all VI platoon assets are redeployed and all recovery operations are conducted IAW
the OPORD, unit SOP, FM 101-5, FM 24-40, DOD Dir 4500.9-R PT2, and DA Pamphlet 25-1-1.
Performance Steps
NOTE: Redeployment is the preparation for and movement of forces, manpower, equipment, and
materiel from an existing location to follow-on designated location. The objective of redeployment is to
maintain unit integrity off equipment, supplies, and personnel. Redeployment should not be considered as
retrograde movement, but as a new deployment.
1. Follow procedures for Direct Deployment of Visual Information Assets to a Tactical environment.
2. Coordinate with Unit Movement Officer (UMO).
a. Review unit movement documentation/plan.
b. Coordinate operational and logistical movement requirements.
3. Coordinate with UMO.
a. Secure classified or protect sensitive material and equipment.
b. Protect fragile components.
c. Properly place military shipment labels on equipment.
d. Stencil appropriate cargo.
4. Upon arrival at the final destination, the unit will perform the following:
a. Personnel are moved to demobilization station.
b. Equipment is off-loaded.
c. A 100 percent inventory is conducted.
d. All equipment is cleaned.
5. The ultimate success of the redeployment procedure is measured by the safe and timely return of all
equipment and personnel to a unit or home station.
Performance Measures
1. Receive the mission.
2. Analyze the mission.
3. Issue order. Give enough information to your personnel to start preparing for the
redeployment. Do not delay.
4. Make a tentative plan.
5. Start preparation for redeployment.
a. Inspect and inventory equipment.
b. Pack and label all containers.
c. Initiate load plan.
d. Review team/crew responsibilities and considerations.
6. Deploy assets.
7. Final destination.
a. Off-load equipment.
b. Conduct 100 percent inventory on all equipment and personnel.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Performance Measures
c. Clean all equipment.
d. Conduct PMCS and prepare appropriate maintenance forms for equipment.
e. Conduct mission debrief and after action review (AAR).
Evaluation Guidance: Score the soldier GO if all steps are passed. Score the soldier NO-GO if any step
is failed. If the soldier fails any step, show what was done wrong and how to do it correctly. Have the
soldier practice until he can correctly perform the task.
DA PAM 25-1-1
DOD DIR 4500.9-R PT2
FM 101-5
FM 24-40
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Prepare a Master Broadcast Schedule
Conditions: Given available program material, informational announcements, command policy guidance,
local SOP, and audience analysis.
Standards: Prepare a master schedule that meets the needs of audience analysis, local SOP, and
command policy guidance.
Performance Steps
1. As you get ready to draft the program schedule for your station, strategy is one of the first
considerations. You need to consider results from the latest audience survey, selection of
programming materials, and appropriate time slots for specific target audience. Schedule your show
to coincide with what people do throughout the day. The schedule should be compatible with the
cyclic nature of people's daily activities. Most people do not have time to be entertained in the
workday morning but are interested in the news. Programming your schedule to be compatible with
what people do during the day is called day parting.
NOTE: Schedule so that the audiences flow continues from one show to the next. Keep the audience
turned in to your station. An example of this would be to program for the adult female during the early
afternoon hours (soaps). As the family activity increases in the later afternoon hours, the adult female
audience declines and viewing by children increases. So keep the audience flow by scheduling children
shows after the soaps.
2. Before you can implement your strategies, you need to identify the target audience; determine the
Prime Time; and determine the available programming. To define the target audience, analyze the
results of the station's most recent survey. Prime Time is that part of the broadcast day a station can
reach the greatest number of people. You will find most Prime Time programming slots usually run
from 6:00 to 9:00 p.m. Other day parts would be the morning, midday, and late hours. During these
times the programming will reach very narrowly focused afternoon and evening audience segments.
It is your job to research the demographics of each day part to justify programming for a particular
audience segment.
a. The programs that are available for airing are provided in AFRTS-BC shipments and satellite
networks (SATNET). TELETIPS, which are provided in AFRTS-BC shipments, can aid you in
screening for host country sensitivities. It also describes the shows and lists running times and
break times for inserting local spot announcements. A restricted list also accompanies the
shipment. This list indicates which shows cannot be aired in certain countries.
b. SATNET provides its users with time-sensitive programming to help supplement AFRTS-BC
shipments (that is, evening newscasts, specials, sports specials, and so forth). AFRTS-BC
provides a SATNET program schedule for its users, but once a program is received, it is up to
the user as to when it will air.
c. Another consideration is that you are already working with a TV schedule in place. Evaluate its
strengths and weaknesses and make programming changes as needed.
3. Arranging the programs, based upon the considerations contained in paragraphs 1 and 2, is known
as Blocking. You can block the programs by using Horizontal, Vertical, or Free Form methods.
Programming the news at 6:00 p.m. each weekday evening is an example of horizontal blocking.
Any program that is placed in the same time slot for two or more days would show horizontal
blocking. Vertical blocking is arranging your programs for a one-day period in a top-to-bottom
fashion. Running a three-hour football game from 7:00 to 10:00 p.m. on Monday night would indicate
vertical blocking.
4. When preparing your schedule, make sure it is balanced. You should try to simulate stateside prime
time blocking with your schedule. Follow family viewing with adult prime time shows. Grouping all the
sitcoms on one night or all of the dramas on another night would quickly lead to boredom.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Performance Steps
5. Now that you have laid out the programs for the week, you must decide if you are going to Time
Schedule or Off-Time Schedule. When you start your shows on the hour or the half-hour, you are
time scheduled. Because AFRTS-BC removes all of the commercials, the programs are shorter than
30 or 60 minutes. Therefore, you must schedule fill material or spots if you decide to Time Schedule
the programs (some shows must be Time Scheduled, for example the 6:00 o'clock news). If you
decide to Off-Time Schedule the program, they would start at times other than the hour or half-hour.
If you Off-Time Schedule the programs, you must publicize the start time of the shows.
6. The completed Master program worksheet should contain the name, length, type, source, and day
and time of each program. Submit it for approval IAW local SOP. Copies of the approved Master
schedule should be distributed to the section that produces the daily program log (usually Traffic and
Continuity). The Weekly program schedule is the publicity aspect of the Master program schedule.
Local SOP will determine whose responsibility it is to prepare the weekly schedule. It should include
day and time of broadcast, program title, and as an option, a brief synopsis of the show.
It is then distributed IAW local SOP to various military and civilian publications. It is also made
available to the audience in high traffic areas such as the commissary, Post Exchange, and so forth.
Evaluation Preparation: Setup: Provide soldier with access to needed materials and references. Give
him a deadline.
Brief soldier: Tell soldier that he will be evaluated IAW Evaluation Guide.
Performance Measures
1. Formulate programming strategy.
2. Ensure programming is compatible with what people do during the day (day
3. Schedule so that the audience flow continues from one show to the next.
4. Identify target audience.
5. Determine prime time.
6. Determine the available programming.
7. Consult Teletips for show explanations and host country sensitivities.
8. Consult restricted list for shows that are restricted in the host country.
9. Utilize SATNET programming as supplemental programming to AFRTS-BC
shipments (if SATNET user).
10. Evaluate current master program schedule for strengths and weaknesses.
11. Utilize horizontal and vertical methods of blocking programs.
12. Ensure program schedule is balanced.
13. Time schedule programs.
14. Off time schedule programs.
15. Utilize fill material and spots if time scheduling is used (PM 13).
16. Publicize programming if Off-time scheduling is used (PM 14).
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Performance Measures
17. Ensure completed master program schedule contains name, length, type, source,
and day and time of each program.
18. Submit master program schedule for approval IAW local SOP.
19. Provide copies of the approval master program schedule to the department
responsible for constructing the daily program log.
Evaluation Guidance: Score the soldier GO if all performance measures are passed (P). Score the
soldier NO-GO if any performance measure is failed (F). If any performance measure is failed, show the
soldier what was done wrong and how to do it correctly.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Subject Area 3: Plans, Designs, and Develops
Review VI Products
Conditions: In a tactical or garrison environment, given VI products, AR 380-5, DA Pamphlet 25-91,
DOD Directive 5122.10, local SOP, command policy guidance, and completed work order.
Standards: Ensure the VI product is complete and accurate, and in compliance with AR 380-5, DA
Pamphlet 25-91, DOD Directive 5122.10, local SOP, command policy guidance, and completed work
Performance Measures
1. Review DA Form 3903 for accuracy and completeness.
a. Ensure requestor information is complete and correct.
b. Identify security classification.
c. Identify alternate point of contact.
d. Review product requirement date.
e. Ensure description of work to be done is clearly understood.
f. Review justification.
g. Recognize any special instructions.
h. Validate signature.
2. Ensure an in-house work order number or the appropriate VIRIN number identifies
each VI product.
3. Reference SOP for quality control (QC) procedures.
4. Review VI product to ensure it meets requirements of DA Form 3903.
5. Review final product with customer for final approval.
Evaluation Guidance: Score the soldier GO if all performance measures are passed (P). Score the
soldier NO-GO if any performance measure is failed (F). If any performance measure is failed, show the
soldier what was done wrong and how to do it correctly.
AR 380-5
DA PAM 25-91
DOD DIR 5122.10
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Validate a VI Maintenance Program
Conditions: In a tactical or garrison environment, given: assigned equipment and personnel, the
established VI program SOP, authorized parts and materials, technical manuals, DA Form 2404, current
DA Form 2405, DA Form 2407, DA Form 3161, DD Form 314, manufacturers' manuals, and warranty
Standards: Ensure that the VI maintenance program complies with the Maintenance Management
Update and unit SOP.
Performance Measures
1. Check the availability and usage of required supplies, equipment, and technical
a. Ensure hand receipt inventories are completed.
b. Spot-check bench stock.
c. Spot-check technical reference library.
2. Inspect the work place for safety and health violations.
a. Inspect the maintenance and completeness of safety boards and first aid
b. Inspect equipment safety hazard data on file.
c. Inspect workstation for frayed wires, faulty switches, shorted outlets, and
other hazards; follow-up and ensure that nonconformities are corrected.
d. Ensure safety and health rules and regulations are enforced.
(1) Adequate ventilation.
(2) Exits are not blocked with obstacles.
(3) Combustibles are stored away from high heat areas.
(4) Safety and emergency phone numbers are posted.
e. Ensure hazards reported or identified through accident investigation are
promptly evaluated and appropriate action is taken.
3. Ensure personnel are receiving relevant, comprehensive on the job training (OJT)
to improve individual proficiency and to develop teamwork.
a. Provide guidance in determining training tasks, equipment, and objectives.
b. Ensure training materials and resources that support OJT objectives are
made available.
c. Evaluate the trainer(s) and provide feedback.
d. Review certification of personnel qualification to standards and
4. Oversee assignment of tasks, projects, and work orders.
a. Ensure no conflict exists in the scheduling of personnel.
b. Ensure all areas of responsibility are covered.
c. Ensure correct unit level maintenance procedures are adhered to.
(1) Preventive maintenance is scheduled on DD Form 314.
(2) Performance of tasks are followed up, monitored, and inspected.
(3) Quality control or assurance of all maintenance work and signal levels
is performed.
(4) Engineering standards are set and enforced.
(5) Deadlines are met.
(6) Assist if necessary.
5. Monitor technical assistance.
a. Vehicle and generator equipment is requested from the Transportation Motor
Pool (TMP).
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Performance Measures
b. Test, Measurement, and Diagnostic Equipment (TMDE) are processed for
c. Directorate of Public Works (DPW) is contacted for facility maintenance.
6. Verify that equipment operators are trained to perform preventive maintenance
checks and services (PMCS) within their authorized level of maintenance as
outlined in applicable TMs.
a. Operator maintenance includes:
(1) Cleaning, dusting, and wiping equipment.
(2) Checking for loose or frayed cables.
(3) Checking that power is connected to the equipment.
(4) Maintaining proper operation and levels of equipment.
(5) Documenting uncorrected faults and inoperative operator controls
(lamps, meters, indicators, switches, and other noticeable damaged or
missing parts) on DA Form 2404.
(6) Submitting a DA Form 2407 for equipment requiring immediate
corrective maintenance.
b. Spot-check DA Form 2404 (refer to DA Pam 738-750, paragraph 3-4) for
inspection and services completed, outstanding faults, parts required, and
readiness status.
7. Review work orders (refer to DA Pam 738-750, paragraph 3-6); ensure necessary
corrections are made.
8. Report readiness status of all equipment through the chain of command.
9. Review the Maintenance SOP.
Evaluation Guidance: Score the soldier GO if all performance measures are passed (P). Score the
soldier NO-GO if any performance measure is failed (F). If any performance measure is failed, show the
soldier what was done wrong and how to do it correctly.
AR 750-1
DA PAM 738-750
AR 385-10
DA PAM 600-8
FM 101-5
FM 24-40
FM 25-101
TB 385-10
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Write a VI Annex to an Operation Order (OPORD)
Conditions: In a tactical or garrison environment, given: FM 101-5, unit SOP, message traffic, DOD
Instruction 5040.4, DOD Directive 5040.2, FM 24-40, DA Pamphlet 25-91, and DA Pamphlet 25-1-1.
Standards: VI annex to the OPORD is written IAW FM 101-5.
Performance Steps
1. An annex is an integral part of an order that deals with one aspect of an operation. Its purpose is to
keep the basic text of an order short. The number or type of annexes used is governed by the needs
of the particular order.
a. Annexes should increase the clarity and usefulness of the order while providing information and
direction to subordinate and supporting units of the command.
b. Additions that are necessary to amplify an annex are contained in appendixes numbered
serially with Arabic numerals, for example, Appendix 5 (Visual Documentation) to Annex H
(Communications Electronics).
2. Annexes are normally divided into five sections (paragraphs): the Situation, the Mission, the
Execution, Service Support, and Command and Signal (Figure 3-3). All operation plans, annexes,
and appendixes use the five-paragraph format.
a. Enemy Forces
b. Friendly Forces
c. Attachments and Detachments
d. Assumptions
a. Concept of Operation
b. Specific Tasks to be Accomplished by Each Element
of the command
a. Command
b. Signal
Figure 3-3. Operation Plan Outline.
a. The Situation is a general statement of administrative and logistic factors affecting support of
the operation. It includes information on the general overall situation essential to understand
the current situation as it influences combat service support. It always includes subparagraphs:
a. Enemy Forces, b. Friendly Forces, and c. Attachments and Detachments.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Performance Steps
(1) VI units attached to or detached from the issuing headquarters with the time that
attachments or detachments are effective, are noted in the Situation section,
subparagraph c.
NOTE: If VI units are already noted under Task Organization, record this fact also. In the case of a unit
that has been attached for sometime, the term remains attached is used.
(2) Sometimes a fourth subparagraph, d, Assumptions, is included in the Situation section. It
contains those situation or conditions that the commander believes will exist at the time
the operation plan becomes an operation order.
b. A Mission statement is a clear, concise paragraph of the task and its purpose that is to be
accomplished by the command. The mission statement is derived from the commander's
mission analysis and is stated in full, even if shown on the operation overlay. It never has
c. In the Execution paragraph, the concept of operation is a statement of how the selected course
of action is to be accomplished. It accurately provides subordinates the commander's intent in
order that mission accomplishment is possible in the time available in the absence of additional
communications or further instructions.
(1) The concept clarifies the purpose of the operation and is stated in sufficient detail to
ensure appropriate action by subordinates. Style is not emphasized at the expense of
substance, but clarity and conciseness must prevail. The amount and detail should be
sufficient to indicate what is to be accomplished by the force as a whole. The concept may
be a single paragraph, or divided into two or more subparagraphs. If an operation overlay
is used, it is referenced here.
NOTE: If the concept is unusually lengthy, it may be prepared as an annex.
(2) The concept of operation normally includes consideration of the close-in battle as well as
deep battle and aspects of rear area protection. When an operation involves two or more
distinct phases, the concept of operation may be prepared in subparagraphs describing in
each phase the specific tasks to be accomplished by each element of the command
changed with the execution of the tactical missions given.
(3) All information and instructions on personnel matters, including foreign civilian labor used
in direct military support functions is included in the concept of operation. When applicable
list the installation, location, and time of opening or closing; operating units; the units or
area served; rest, leave, and rotation criteria and quotas allocated to units; responsibility
for movement or administration of personnel; reports required; requisitions or plans
concerning personnel activities; and necessary references to previous order, instructions
or SOP.
(4) The miscellaneous section in the concept of operation covers any points of detail not
covered above or referenced to an appendix. If required, necessary items are listed that
are not covered above or in the SOPs, or that require action different from that detailed in
the SOPs.
d. The Service Support paragraph contains a statement of the instructions and arrangements
supporting the operation that are of primary interest to the units and formations being
(1) Include information about supply, transportation, maintenance, services, and allocation of
labor. It should contain a subparagraph for each class of supply, maps, water, special
supplies, excess materiel, salvage materiel, and captured enemy materiel.
(2) When applicable, each subparagraph contains: the location of the installations concerned
with the handling of supplies and materials for supported units; the time of opening and
closing; operating units; supported units; levels of supply; methods and schedules of
distribution; instructions for submission of routine reports concerning the particular
supplies listed; and any other pertinent instructions or information needed by supported
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Performance Steps
3. The Command and Signal Section contains instructions relative to command and to the operation of
C-E. It normally has two subparagraphs Command and Signal. Command instructions may include
command post (CP) locations and axis of CP displacement if not shown on an accompanying
overlay. Liaison requirements, designation of alternate CP, and succession of command will be
entered in this subparagraph if not adequately covered in the SOP. C-E instructions may include
rules concerning the use of communications and other electronic equipment (for example, radio
silence). As a minimum, it should list the current Communications-Electronic operation Instructions
(CEOI) index.
4. An example of an appendix to an annex of an operation order (FM 101-5) is located in Appendix C.
Performance Measures
1. Determine and write the Situation statement to include:
a. Attachments and detachments.
b. Estimate of conditions.
2. Determine the mission and write the statements.
3. Decide upon Execution and write the section, to include:
a. Concept of operation.
b. Specific tasks.
c. Coordinating instructions.
4. Decide on Service Support and write the statement, to include:
a. General.
b. Material and services.
c. Personnel.
d. Miscellaneous.
5. Determine and write the Command and Signal statement to include:
a. Command.
b. Signal.
Evaluation Guidance: Score the soldier GO if all performance measures are passed (P). Score the
soldier NO-GO if any performance measure is failed (F). If any performance measure is failed, show the
soldier what was done wrong and how to do it correctly.
DA PAM 25-1-1
DA PAM 25-91
DOD DIR 5040.2
FM 101-5
FM 24-40
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Coordinate the VI Assets of a Multimedia Project
Conditions: In a tactical or a garrison environment, given: VI assets, work order, command policy
guidance, unit SOP, DA Pamphlet 25-91, and DOD Directive 5120.20.
Standards: Multimedia project is completed IAW work order, unit SOP, command policy guidance, and
DA Pamphlet 25-91.
Performance Steps
1. After you have been given the assignment, research the topic or subject matter to obtain needed
background information. Information can be obtained from the post and public libraries. World Wide
Web (WWW), newspapers or magazine articles, individuals who are knowledgeable on the subject
matter or have personal experience. Review all information obtained through sources for
2. Determine the objective(s) of the multimedia project/special event program.
3. Identify the target audience and determine the intended effect on the audience (for example, inform,
entertain, instruct, and so forth).
4. Write a script or project plan, if necessary, focusing on one central theme of the project/program.
Make sure the "attention getter" attracts the listener's/viewer's attention. Use colorful language to
avoid just telling him what is happening. Language use should be a simple grammatical format
avoiding slang and jargon. Keep him involved in the program and maintain his interest.
5. Conduct a studio and/or site survey to determine needed personnel and equipment. If the
project/program is a remote production/broadcast, consider alternate sites from which to perform.
Conditions and event considerations may change or be altered. Select needed personnel and
equipment. Ensure that the equipment is in working order.
6. If necessary, contact the project/program event originator to coordinate coverage. Verify the date,
place and time of the production. Provide a list of names and equipment, if passes are required. If
the media is invited, obtain press credentials of those who will attend.
7. Determine and obtain the logistical support needed to execute the production, if necessary (for
example, transportation, housing, food, power, telephone lines, and so forth). The point of contact at
the event site may be able to help.
8. Make arrangements to publicize or promote the program (radio, television, newspapers, and so
9. Conduct meetings, as necessary, with all of the people involved in the program. Identify any
problems and work them out to your satisfaction. Delegate tasks and follow up to see that those
tasks are accomplished. Conduct rehearsals, if appropriate.
10. After the production, evaluate its effectiveness via telephone, written surveys, person-to-person
interviews, and so forth. Document post-production decisions, IAW local SOP.
Performance Measures
1. Research topic or subject matter.
2. Review information obtained during research for correctness (repeat performance
measure (PM) 1, if necessary).
3. Determine the objective(s) of the multimedia project/special event program.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Performance Measures
4. Identify the target audience.
5. Determine intended effect on the audience.
6. Write script or project plan.
7. Focus script on central theme.
8. Use a simple grammatical format (avoiding slang and jargon).
9. Conduct studio or site survey.
10. Select needed personnel and equipment.
11. Ensure equipment is in working order.
12. Contact event originator to coordinate coverage.
13. Determine and obtain logistical support, if necessary.
14. Ensure program is advertised or promoted.
15. Conduct meetings, as necessary, with program personnel.
16. Conduct project/program rehearsals.
17. Tape or document program for later broadcast, if appropriate.
18. Evaluate effectiveness of program.
19. Document post-production decisions, IAW local SOP.
Evaluation Guidance: Score the soldier GO if all steps are passed. Score the soldier NO-GO if any step
is failed. If the soldier fails any step, show what was done wrong and how to do it correctly. Have the
soldier practice until he can correctly perform the task.
DA PAM 25-91
DOD DIR 5120.20
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(Excerpts from the VIM Course)
a. Visual information. (VI). The visual information process no longer involves just
viewgraphs, photographs, and training videos. The VI delivers seamless, accurate, and ondemand information critical to Department of Defense (DOD) combat and combat-support
missions. VI management can be defined in many different ways, but it can be best described
as dynamic.
(1) A Visual Information Manager cannot simply pull out a daily schedule and expect to
follow what’s outlined in the events of that schedule. The day’s events are always changing,
things go wrong, the unexpected happens, and before you know it, the list of “Things-To-Do”
has gone out the window. VI managers' career progresses in the same manner. Just when you
think you’ve become the expert on a certain piece of equipment or mastered a technique, new
technology surfaces, and you’ve got to relearn everything all over again.
(2) The Visual Information Manager (VIM) has a multitude of responsibilities that range
form complex to minor, from an emergency situation to normal every day routine, and from
mission related to personal. Your role is to advocate, advise, consult, educate, train facilitate,
integrate, plan, acquire, and develop VI products and services. As a manager you must provide
the following:
Long-range vision, goals, and objectives for you VI program.
Input of VI requirements in strategic, tactical, operational, and implementation
plans throughout your unit and service.
Intellectual leadership for applying and managing your VI program.
Status information and data on VI production and customer satisfaction.
Guidance, planning, standards, procedures, methods, and training for VI
functions. Personnel and customers.
Planning, programming, and administration of your VI program.
Interaction with other VI organizations within and outside of your service.
Resource management to respond to customer needs.
(3) Each VIM is an individual and experience varies greatly in how to handle situations and
deal with problems. VIM can best be described as the creative, efficient, and effective use of all
resources to reach an objective in a dynamic, challenging environment.
b. Definition of visual information.
(1) Visual Information is defined as the use of one or more of the various visual media with
or without sound. VI includes but is not limited to, still photography, motion picture photography,
video recording with or without sound, graphic arts, visual aids, models, display, visual
presentation services, and various support processes.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(2) Within the Department of Defense, visual information is that aspect of information
resources dealing with facets of the communications process that use audio and visual
processes of photography, videography, graphics arts (conventional and digital) that support
DOD and other applications. The communication process is the exchange of ideas, data, and
information regardless of the form or technology used.
(3) The DOD VI process manages, consults, acquires, procures, generates, refines,
organizes, presents, duplicates, distributes, stores, and disposes of VI products and services
that are used efficiently and cost-effectively to satisfy customers’ visual communications
c. Mission of visual information.
(1) The general mission of VI is to provide audiovisual-based products and services to
support DOD organizations, missions, and functions. This is accomplished through the capture,
creation, configuration, reconfiguration, management, and distribution of audio visually based
information. This is achieved through the use of a variety of techniques and technologies to
capture and use visual images and audio sounds to meet customer communication and
information requirements. VI personnel are equipped with specialized knowledge and training
to effectively provide visual information support in the areas of videography, photography,
illustration and layout, and other information production techniques and technologies.
(2) All DOD missions and organizations are supported with various types of VI products
and services. VI is essential to gather, process, analyze, and assess effectively, the vast
information in the modern decision-making processes throughout the functional areas of the
d. Organization of visual information.
(1) No functional user has direct and complete responsibility for the entire VI program within
the Department of Defense. The individual Services are responsible for their own VI programs
and have offices that centrally manage these programs and establish VI policy. At the DOD
level, the American Forces Information Service (AFIS) is responsible for advising the Assistant
Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs) on development of policies, guidelines, and standards for
the management of DOD visual information activities and programs. While AFIS has
management responsibility for DOD VI assets, it does not have direct control of the VI assets of
each service. In that retard, AFIS acts mainly as an advisory body to each services’ VI manager.
The responsibilities of AFIS concerning VI include management oversight of the Joint Visual
Information Services (JVIS); development of common VI formats and standardization
guidelines; and management of the Defense Information School (DINFOS). See Figure A-1 and
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Secretary of
Joint Combat Camera
Center (JCCC)
Other DoD
Public Affairs
VI Management
American Forces
Information Service
Defense VI
Center (DVIC)
Defense Information
Figure A-1. DINFOS Organizational Chart.
(2) The Joint Visual Information Services are separately authorized and specially managed
VI activities that provide regional or DOD-wide support for VI. They include:
• The Defense VI Center (DVIC) – provides VI records center products and
services and maintains both the still and motion picture media depository for the DOD
and the specific services.
• Television-audio Support Activity (T-ASA) – provides DOD support to design,
engineer, and procure VI systems and equipment requirements.
• DOD Joint Combat Camera Center (JCCC) – provides a state of the art
electronic imaging environment at a central DOD point to expeditiously receive, process,
and distribute current Combat Camera imagery to and from worldwide sources and
• Joint Visual Information Services Distribution Activity (JVISDA) – operates and
maintains a DOD central visual information product and distribution activity. Serves as
the inventory control point for all DOD VI products assigned to them for accountability.
• Joint Visual Information Activity (JVIA) – provides contract services for
DOD visual information productions.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Figure A-2. JVIA Organizational Chart.
a. There are numerous guidelines, regulations and instructions that a VIM should become
familiar. They will help guide you in the daily accomplishment of your duties.
Department of Defense Directive (DODD) 5040.2 – Visual Information.
Implements OMB Circular A-130. Provides for rapid deployment Combat Camera
teams; general purpose VI support for documentation, production, distribution, records
centers, and installation-level support; and VI support of medical, intelligence, and
research, training capability and career progression for VI personnel. Assigns
responsibility for central VI management office for each component Service; Defense
Automated Visual Information Service (DAVIS); and central repositories. Establishes
procedures for production of annual reports.
Department of Defense Directive (DODD) 5040.4 – Joint Combat Camera
(COMCAM) Program. Defines the purpose of Combat Camera. Establishes policy,
assigns responsibilities, and procedures for employing COMCAM resources for joint
operations and for the origination, control, and disposition of COMCAM images.
Department of Defense Directive (DODD) 5040.5 – Alteration of Official DOD Imagery.
Establishes policy and assigns responsibilities to ensure the absolute credibility of official
DOD imagery in and outside the DOD. Specifies what can and cannot be done with
image alteration and enhancement.
OMB Circular A-130 – Management of Federal Information Resources.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Establishes policy for the management of Federal information resources (visual
information included). Provides procedures and analytic guidelines for implementing
specific aspects of policy. Requires that each federal agency designate an office with
responsibility for management oversight of agency audiovisual productions, along with
the proper management of audiovisual productions, facilities, and activities.
Army Regulation 25-1 – Army Information Resources Management Program.
Covers VI missions; VI activities; Army Combat Camera; Army JVIS; VI productions; VI
records management; Army VI documentation program (AVIDP); functions of graphic
arts, still photo, video teleconferencing, cable television; function of the Visual
Information Systems Program (VISP); DAVIS; VI operations; and required VI reports and
b. Deployment of VI assets.
(1) COMCAM is defined as VI documentation (VIDOC) covering air, sea, and ground
actions of Armed Forces in combat and combat support operations, and in related peacetime
training activities such as exercises, war games, and operations.
(2) COMCAM imagery, acquired using still photo, video, and motion picture cameras,
provides command, control, and management authorities, that may not be on the scene of
deployment, the ability to visualize the essence of ongoing activities. COMCAM records of DOD
activities are an important, and often the only, source of operational and technical imagery and
information for decision-making at all levels and for informing the public via public affairs (PA) or
press media pool requirements. While COMCAM imagery may eventually be used for PA
purposes, its primary use is as an operational decision-making tool. COMCAM personnel must
be allowed to photograph all aspects of an operation or event; decisions on classification,
sensitivity, or public release may be made afterward through intelligence, operations, and PA
staff coordination.
(3) COMCAM imagery requirements include, but are not limited to:
Key actions before, during, and after mobilization, deployment, force generation, and
force employment.
Assess the effectiveness of force preparations, support operations, and attainment of
objectives; problem identification; evaluating the effectiveness of weapons systems;
intelligence-related activities; medical support and intelligence; PA purposes; and
countering enemy propaganda.
Historical documentation.
Stock footage.
(4) The use of COMCAM imagery during a conflict shall be prioritized as follows:
On-scene commander.
JTF Commander.
Supported Unified or Specified Command.
NCA, JCS, Joint Staff, and Military Services.
PA, when appropriate.
After-action requirements, historical record, and training.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(5) In every situation, expeditious distribution of imagery to recipients is essential. All
original materials and captions should be forwarded to the JCCC; original materials should not
be given to anyone who is not in the JCCC distribution chain. Too often, original materials have
been lost because they were given to unauthorized individuals who subsequently lost them or
retained them for their own use.
(6) COMCAM resources are normally under the operational control of the supported
Unified Commander. Regardless of source or composition, COMCAM teams deployed in
response to tasking by the JCS, Joint Staff, or a Unified or Specified Command is considered a
joint COMCAM team. While COMCAM personnel normally document the activities of their own
Military Service, this may not always be practical or possible. However, forming joint multiService COMCAM teams must be done only when preparations and training of all team
members are adequate and suitable for the deployment environment and mission type. The
senior COMCAM officer or NCO serves as an ad hoc member of the J-3 staff. He must
coordinate COMCAM requirements and direct the activities of the joint COMCAM team.
c. Readiness requirements for COMCAM units.
(1) COMCAM team readiness should be equal to and consistent with the forces with which
they are tasked to deploy. COMCAM managers should obtain access to secure voice
communications, as needed, to support mission coordination.
(2) COMCAM teams should employ equipment with compatible technical formats or ensure
their ability to interface for interoperability while deployed in joint COMCAM operations.
(3) COMCAM teams should have field videotape editing and duplicating capability.
Besides providing the capability to support on-scene briefings presented in joint and or
combined operations centers, this will also facilitate approval of COMCAM imagery by hostnation officials when deployed outside the CONUS.
(4) Formats and film types shall be coordinated to ensure interoperability and to meet
mission requirements.
(5) Most COMCAM units have digital camera systems. Additionally, commercial
transportable satellite communications systems are available in CONUS for deployment. Digital
cameras used with these systems or commercial telephone, data, Digital Switch Network
(DSN); and so forth, systems, provide rapid point-to-point transmission of images from virtually
anywhere in the world. Before transmission, appropriate clearance officials must approve
transmission of images transmitted in this manner, via nonsecure means.
(6) To the maximum extent possible, TEMPEST consideration should be given to video
and communications equipment.
(7) COMCAM units and personnel assigned the mission of rapid response should have
sufficient organic field equipment to sustain themselves in hostile and austere environments and
to integrate themselves into the joint combat force environment.
(8) COMCAM personnel should maintain at least a SECRET security clearance.
(9) COMCAM personnel should maintain a current official passport that should be carried
with them during a deployment.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(10) COMCAM personnel who may be deployed in to a hostile fire environment should be
small arms qualified. COMCAM units should maintain mobility stocks of these weapons to
accompany teams deployed with combat forces. The COMCAM team must have a sufficient
capability to protect itself while integrated into a combat environment.
(11) Deployments in crisis situations or deployments to areas where a US presence is
politically sensitive present special challenges to COMCAM personnel – especially those
deployed first and especially if the environment is austere, there are airlift constraints within the
theater, and the COMCAM team size is limited. In these instances, COMCAM personnel must
be experienced in all aspects of their mission. COMCAM personnel must be sufficiently trained
to work with limited supervision, coordinate their own support, and make their products available
to the field commander. Maximum field training should be conducted to acquire and hone these
skills. COMCAM teams should train to operate in the type environment and with the operational
forces with which they are tasked to deploy.
(12) While hard quarters are desirable to support field video editing and maintenance for
COMCAM teams, in most deployments those quarters will not be available. Consequently,
COMCAM teams should maintain organic equipment to allow them to operate in austere
(13) In most crisis situations, it can be anticipated that contract or host-nation
transportation assets will not be available. Optimum transportation for COMCAM teams is a
four-wheel drive, camouflaged, six-passenger cargo vehicle (or similar suitable alternative) with
a covered cargo area. The vehicle should be equipped with a field radio. Lack of four-wheel
drive capability will severely limit the ability of the COMCAM team to document visually the
activities of deployed combat units.
d. Concept of employment.
(1) The primary mission of Combat Camera is to provide a Combatant Command/Joint
Task Force with the capability to acquire, process, and deliver still and motion imagery. This
capability is required to:
Communicate the mission (providing both an operational and strategic context).
Enhance situational awareness.
Provide mission documentation for planning, legal, training, and PA requirements.
Support information warfare.
(2) Combat Camera also provides the National Command Authorities, including the
Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, with a directed imagery capability in support of information
requirements during worldwide crisis, contingency, and wartime operations.
(3) The structure of a typical deployed Combat Camera unit includes a Headquarters
Electronic Imagery section and up to three image acquisition teams. The Service Combat
Camera forces are designed to provide for tailored unit type code (UTC) imagery acquisition
packages to meet smaller contingency requirements.
(4) Under the concept of employment, the J-3 establishes and assigns image acquisition
priorities. Combat Camera acquisition teams, equipped with digital still cameras and Hi-8 video
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
camcorders, will acquire the imagery and download it into imagery workstations. These laptop
stations provide for editing and storage, the embedding of textual data in the image file and for
image compression prior to transmission over tactical communication links or Combat Camera
Inmarsat systems. Advanced editing, printing, and storage capabilities are provided by the
Headquarters section.
(5) Imagery acquired by the Combat Camera teams is directly provided to the local
commander and electronically transmitted via the Combat Camera Inmarsat systems or over
theater/strategic communication assets to the Combatant Command and the JCCC in the
Pentagon. Current imagery transmitted to the JCCC is available electronically via a digital image
management system to the JCS, the military services, other DOD agencies, and interested joint
and service commands.
(6) A typical employment scenario would have the J-3 identify imagery of airfields, port
facilities, roads, bridges, and power stations as a priority requirement. The Combat Camera unit
would provide the imagery, with embedded textual data, to a Joint Task Force (JTF) staff in
either a digital or photographic format for initial operational, intelligence, and logistical planning.
To provide senior defense leadership with increased situational awareness, the JTF may
simultaneously transmit the same imagery to the Unified Commander and the JCCC. After
initial distribution by the Center, the imagery becomes a long-term information resource that is
electronically available across DOD in support of ongoing or future mission requirements.
e. Joint Combat Camera Center.
(1) The Joint Combat Camera Center, located at the Pentagon, receives all COMCAM
imagery from deployed COMCAM teams during joint operations. The JCCC ensures that the
imagery is processed, printed, edited, dubbed, and so forth, so the needs of the National
Command Authority (NCA), the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS), the Joint Staff,
Military Services, operations centers, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (OASD) PA,
and other authorized agencies are met.
(2) During a crisis situation, the OSD COMCAM Representative, prepares an immediate
precedence message for Joint Staff release advising that the JCCC is operating in an expanded
mode and that all COMCAM material shall be shipped and/or transmitted in accordance with
DOD Directive 5040.4. The JCCC ensures expeditious handling and distribution of all incoming
COMCAM material. It is staffed according to the needs of the operation, and its hours are
flexible enough to accommodate the requirements of all customers.
(3) After material has been processed/edited by the appropriate VI activity, the JCCC
ensures that the completed material is delivered to the following primary customers immediately
upon completion:
CJCS briefing team.
Military Services’ operations centers, as appropriate.
Supported Unified Command liaison officer.
OASD (PA) and Service PA offices, as appropriate.
Others, as required.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(4) When JCCC requirements have been met, the original COMCAM material is returned to
the originating Military Service for that Service’s further internal use and accessioning to the
DOD VI records centers.
(5) The senior person on duty in the JCCC is the liaison between the primary National
Capital Region customers and the COMCAM teams in the field. That person identifies imagery
and communicates this to the COMCAM team. He or she also provides feedback to the team
on subject matter, image quality, captions, and receipt and use of materials.
f. Visual Information Record Identification Number.
(1) The Visual Information Record Identification Number (VIRIN) is the life-cycle number of
each unit of media, used to identify all nonproduction media that will be accessioned and/or sent
to the JCCC. Completed AV productions are assigned and accessioned to the record centers
using PINs or PANs, which are discussed in another section.
(2) A DOD level review of the VIRIN system in 1995 indicated that the system was not
effective in supporting imagery acquired in a join operations environment. In addition, it
determined that the VIRIN was unnecessarily complex and didn’t meet combat camera
requirements for a simple numbering system that can be independently generated at the lowest
acquisition level be the originator (for example, camera operator, producer, graphic illustrator).
To overcome these shortfalls, a new VIRIN system has been developed and implemented in
1996. The new VIRIN applies to all selected imagery intended for submission to either Service
accessioning points, the JCCC, or the Defense Visual Information Center (DVIC). All other
significant photographic, video and graphic imagery, regardless of the medium in which it is
acquired, stored, or displayed, should have a VIRIN applied to support long term record
(a) The new VIRIN consists of 15 data elements in the format:
(b) The data elements of the new VIRIN consist of the following fields (with a dash between
each field):
• Field 1 (NNNNNN): Date (Year, Month, Day) image acquired or originated.
• Field 2 (A): Activity/Service affiliation of originator (A = Army, N = Navy, F = Air Force,
M= Marine Corps, G = Coast Guard, D = DOD Civilian Employee in joint or other nonService specific organization, o = all non-DOD civilians and coalition or allied forces).
• Field 3 (NNNNA): Originator personal identification (Last four numbers of the
originator’s social security number plus the first initial of their last name). NOTE:
Imagery acquired by coalition or allied forces should be assigned 9999 for individual’s
social security number plus the first initial of their last name.
• Field 4: Sequential number (three digit sequential number starting with 001 to
differentiate individual images and motion media footage that was acquired or originated
by the same individual on the same day).
(c) An example of the new VIRIN in use is: Army Sergeant John Doe, SSN 123-45-6789,
would identify his forth image or video segment taken on 2 January 1996 as: 960102-A-6789D004.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(3) Still Imagery Procedures. Each individual still image selected as record photography
will have its own VIRIN. All copies of an image, regardless of medium or format, will retain the
same VIRIN as the original. A compressed version of a still digital image will have the same
VIRIN as the uncompressed original. The file names of all digital images should be the same as
the VIRIN when the software platform allows (as in Macintosh, Unix, and Windows 95). VIRIN
data should be entered into the Image Perspective Transformation Caption (IPTC) field “Image
Number” if the originator has the ability to embed IPTC caption data in the image file.
(4) Motion Imagery Procedures. A VIRIN will be assigned to identify motion imagery used
to record a specific event or activity for record purposes. All copies of this imager, regardless of
medium or format, will retain the same VIRIN as the original with the exception of imagery used
in support of stand-alone productions of compilations. A VIRIN slate will precede the recording
of a specific event or activity. A VIRIN slate should also be used to reestablish identity when
there is a significant break in the continuity of the imagery. The consolidation of the motion
imagery of separate events on to a videotape, film reel, or digital storage device will include all
applicable VIRINs. The physical exterior of each individual videotape, film reel, or digital motion
storage device submitted to either a Service accession point, JCCC, or DVIC, will be marked
with the applicable subject matter VIRINs. Still and motion imagery intended as long-term
records will have a unique VIRIN assigned. The data element for the originator will reflect the
individual most responsible for producing the compilation. VIRIN procedures apply to graphic
images also that meet record criterion. The data element for the originator will reflect the
individual most responsible for creating the graphic.
(5) VIRIN Log. Consider your VIRIN log to be a management tool that keeps track of
submission to the depositories. You may use it as a work/job order log also. Entries include:
VIRIN, VI center work/job order number, security classification, format, media type, subject
matter, date originated, artist’s name, and final disposition of the product.
g. Imagery transmission. Significant COMCAM imagery from all Services should be sent
by the fastest possible means to the JCCC. Before shipping or transmitting COMCAM materials
to the JCCC, the senior COMCAM officer or NCO should ensure that field and Unified
Command requirements are satisfied and that the joint commander or Unified Command
approves the transmission of the imagery to the JCCC. There are numerous ways to ship
COMCAM materials. They include, but are not limited to, military air, commercial air counter-tocounter service, air express (FedEx, UPS, Emery Air Freight, and so forth), diplomatic pouch,
registered mail, and courier. When materials are shipped to the JCCC, the sender should notify
them via telephone or message of the mode of shipment, airport at which the material will arrive,
airline, flight number, arrival time, number of packages, and so forth. The sender should include
information addressees according to Service requirements.
(1) Electronic transmission. Those COMCAM units possessing electronic imaging
equipment have the capability to transmit still images directly to the JCCC or any other location
that has compatible equipment. This method should be used whenever possible; however,
security considerations are paramount. All transmitted images must be approved by
appropriate clearance officials before transmission if encryption equipment is not available,.
(2) Shipment or transmission of classified materials. The following is general guidance
including methods approved for transportation of classified material (up to and including
SECRET) to and from overseas locations:
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Armed Forces Courier Service.
Authorized DOD Component Courier Service.
Department of State Courier Service.
Diplomatic Pouch.
Cleared and designated US military personnel and Government civilian employees
travel on a conveyance owned, controlled, or chartered by the US Government or
DOD contractors to include the following:
Surface transportation.
Scheduled commercial passenger aircraft within and between the US, its territories, and
Scheduled commercial passenger aircraft on flights outside the US, its territories, and
Cryptologic system.
US Postal Service registered mail within and between the United States, its territories,
and the Army Post Office and/or Fleet Post Office system when outside the United
Canadian registered mail.
Carriers authorized to transport SECRET information by way of a protective security
The Logistics Aircraft System (items shall be receipted for on a terminal to terminal
Carriers under appropriate escort; that is, US Government and Government contract
vehicles, including aircraft, ships of the US Navy, civil service operated US Naval ships,
and ships of US registry.
For CONFIDENTIAL items only: US Postal Service first class mail when shipped
between DOD Component locations anywhere in the United States and its territories.
For CONFIDENTIAL items shipped within U.S. boundaries only: Transmission of
classified video must be done over National Security Agency (NSA) approved systems
(STU-III, KY-57, and so forth).
(3) Transmitting digital images.
(a) One of the biggest advantages of electronic imaging is time. After a photograph is
taken, it can be transmitted anywhere in the world in a matter of seconds. This makes images
available immediately. This immediacy is both critical and valuable to civilian media teams and
military organizations. With electronic imaging, there is no film processing or printing. What you
need to do is activate a transmitter and send it.
(b) Several methods of transmitting electronic images are used. A common method is by
use of the Kodak Digital Camera System. This unit can be hooked to a laptop computer, such
as a Macintosh PowerBook, which can be connected to a phone line or uplinked to a satellite.
(c) Companies such as Harris Corporation and PhotoTelesis Inc. have built rugged,
portable image processing workstations that are compatible with standard military
communication systems and encryption devices. These devices provide a secure means for
transmitting tactical intelligence images worldwide.
(d) One problem you may encounter when attempting to transmit images is locating a clear
phone line or an available satellite. A clear phone line is necessary to ensure that a good image
is transmitted.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(e) Another factor you must consider when transmitting image is the amount of time your
are tying the circuit. The larger the file size, the longer it takes to transmit the file. It is good
practice to compress files before transmission. When files are received at the other end, they
can be decompressed without losing quality. You can see the major advantages of electronic
imaging. Images that used to take days or even weeks to obtain, can now be obtained in
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(Excerpt From Electronic Imaging Course)
a. History of Desktop Publishing.
(1) No one knows exactly when humans first started communicating using the written word,
but we do know that the Phoenicians started using some form of a written alphabet at about
2000 BC. There were no printing presses or even paper, (the Chinese invented paper at about
100 AD), so the Phoenicians wrote on clay tablets or on the skins of animals.
(2) Before the printing press was invented, all books were hand written. They were either
orally transcribed or copied word for word out of other books. These books, called illuminated
manuscripts, were extremely detailed and ornate, and were very rare and costly. This all
changed in the 1440's.
(3) A goldsmith from Mainz, Germany, named Johannes Gutenberg, invented the first
modern printing press, called a moveable type press. Gutenberg's press used individual cast
lead pieces with raised letters that could be arranged into words and sentences. This new
invention made books much easier and faster to produce, and opened up the world to literature.
Using movable type was much faster than hand illuminating, but required skilled labor.
Typesetters, the people who picked the individual letters out and arranged them to print
correctly, were only so fast, and this method was time consuming.
(4) In the 1800's printing presses became much faster by replacing much of the manual
labor with horse, waterwheel and steam power. In the early 1800's the invention of roll paper,
called a web, made it much easier to print, and widely distributed newspapers were born.
(5) The line-casting machine of the late 1880's was the next major change in publishing.
This machine allowed an operator to type the lines into a keyboard and the machine then set
the type by pouring hot metal into the mold. This created an entire line of type at a time. The
metal line of type is called a slug, and this process is known as hot type.
(6) It also became easier to print photographs by using a process called halftoning.
Halftoning is a process where the grays in a photo are reproduced by variable sized dots of
black ink. The larger the black dot, the darker the area will appear on the printed page. In the
1920's this process was combined with color photography dyes and the four-color printing
process was born. In four-color printing, each page is printed four times. Each time it is printed
a different ink color is used. There are only four inks used, and all colors can be reproduced by
combining these colors. The colors are cyan, magenta, yellow, and black and are called CMYK
(7) The next step in printing is called cold type. In this process, different letters are stored
on transparency films and are projected onto a light sensitive emulsion. By using different
projection lenses, type could be printed at different sizes. In the 1950's this process quickly
replaced hot type.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(8) In the 1970's digital typesetting began to replace this cold type process. Using
computers and digital technology, type can be quickly written, set and printed.
b. Traditional publishing process.
(1) Traditionally, creating a document involved several distinct steps. Different people,
working separately to complete the project, accomplished these steps. Creating a document
usually involves bringing words, graphics and photos together into one cohesive, easy to look at
(2) First, the words. A writer writes the story, usually using a computer as a word
processor. After it is written, a hard copy or printed copy is given to the editor, who checks it for
accuracy and completeness. The editor returns it to the writer, who makes any necessary
(3) At the same time the writer is working on the story, a photographer and a graphic artist
are also at work. The photographer is taking pictures, developing the film and making prints to
accompany the story. A graphic artist is creating any graphics or illustrations that need to go
along with the text and photographs.
(4) Also, a designer is hard at work deciding how all of these elements will be combined
onto the page. The designer decides where each element, such as picture words or illustrations
will go, and decides what type of headlines, columns, graphic elements and other design
elements will be used.
(5) After each respective person has completed his or her part, all the work is sent to the
paste-up artist, who literally cuts and pastes the elements into one layout to be printed.
(6) After the pasted layout is approved it goes to the copy camera where films are made.
Then the films go to the printing press where the final pages are printed.
c. Desktop publishing process.
(1) Although the final product is similar, the process for creating a document electronically
is different, as well as much easier and faster. The writer still creates the story, but instead of
printing a copy for the editor, the writer electronically transmits the story to the editor. The editor
can then edit and make changes immediately. When the story is completed it is again
electronically transmitted, this time to the designer.
(2) The photographer and graphic artist also use computers. The photographer takes
pictures using a digital camera, and the images are instantly available for editing and
enhancement. There is no need to make prints. The final pictures are electronically transmitted
to the designer. The graphic artist uses his or her computer to create the illustrations. The
artist can use many of the traditional tools, but the tools are all electronic rather than manual.
When the illustrations are complete, they too are sent to the designer electronically. Nothing
has been printed out thus far.
(3) You will note that we keep saying that each element of the story is sent to the designer.
In electronic publishing, there is no paste-up artist. The designer does the layout on the
computer and integrates all the elements without the need for hard copies, cutting, or gluing.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(4) Once the designer is completed, films are made on a special high-resolution printer
called an image setter. These films are then sent to the printer who prints the final pages.
d. Desktop publishing tools.
(1) To create documents on a computer you must first have a computer! When buying a
computer with the intent to use it for desktop publishing, there are several things to consider.
First is speed. Different computers work at different speeds. For electronic publishing you need
a computer that is as fast as you can afford. You will be using files that are very large and a
slow computer may take quite a long time to accomplish normal tasks. Second, you should
consider memory. Electronic publishing files do get large, and more memory will make even a
slow computer seem as if it is running faster. Get as much as you can! To do any serious
electronic publishing you should consider 24 megabytes (MB) of memory to be a minimum.
(2) A computer monitor is a high-resolution television that displays your work. A monitor
may be one of the most important pieces of hardware that you use, because you spend all day
looking at it. When considering a monitor, one of the most important considerations is size. A
larger monitor makes it easy to see the entire page or layout at one view. A smaller monitor
forces you to scroll around to see the entire document which does not allow you to get the feel
of how all the elements of the page work together. Consider a 17" monitor to be the minimum
for electronic publishing, but most professionals use a 21".
(3) A scanner is a device to let you get photos, art, or text into the computer. Much like a
copier, a scanner copies whatever you put into it and presents it on the screen. There are two
types: flatbed and film.
(a) A flatbed scanner scans flat objects: pages, photos, and flat artwork. These are
extremely useful for placing existing art or pictures into a new layout.
(b) There are two types of film scanners: drum and transparency. Transparency scanners
are usually smaller and faster than drum scanners. Drum scanners are more expensive, but
much higher quality. Both types are used to take negatives or slides and scan them for use in
the computer.
(4) As we have said, electronic publishing files can get large. We also regularly move
these files from one computer to another, usually in different locations. What we use to
accomplish this are large, removable, portable storage devices. These can be external hard
disks that can be moved, or removable cartridge systems. These are good for backing up
information for future reference, as well as for storing files while moving from computer to
(5) Printers are used to produce proof prints and tests before outputting films in the image
setter. Any high quality printer can be used, although the best use Post Script, which is a type
of printing language that most electronic publishing software use. You would also want the
printer to be fast. Who wants to wait all day to see how a layout looks?
(6) Software is what makes the computer do all of its neat tricks. There are many different
types and brands of software, but only a few are really needed: word processing, page layout,
illustration, and image editing.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(a) Word processing is software that lets the computer act as an expensive fancy
typewriter. It allows you to enter words and then rearrange them however you want. You can
also spell and grammar checks. Most have a built-in dictionary and thesaurus. You can also do
advanced functions like finding a certain word or group of words and replacing them with
something else.
(b) Page Layout software is the heart of an electronic publishing system. You can create
document layouts and import words, graphics, and pictures from other programs. You can add
headlines, boxes, colors, and many other graphic devices. These applications make it very
easy to try new ideas and different layouts with just a push of a button.
(c) Graphics/illustration software turns the computer into a powerful artist's canvas. You
can use many tools to draw shapes and lines, and create complex illustrations. There are many
options for filling and colors. Images can be combined, altered, and saved.
(d) Image-editing software is used to integrate photographs into the computer. Using
image-editing software, you can easily get a picture from a digital camera or scanner and do all
the traditional darkroom effects. You can lighten, darken, crop, enlarge, dodge, burn, and color
correct. Image-editing software also allows the user to create composite photos by combining
two or more images into one new photo illustration.
e. Computer basics.
(1) The binary system is a system of codes that allows all computers to speak the same
language, the language of 1's and 0's. That's all the binary system is, a collection of 1's and 0's
arranged in a code to represent other information. Each 1 or 0 is called a bit, and it is the
smallest part of information that a computer uses. A 1 represents an "on bit" signal to the
computer, and a 0 is an "off bit." These 1's and 0's act as switches that tell the computer to do
(2) A 1 or a 0 represent all the letters, numbers and symbols that we use? Well, they can't.
Each bit is always part of a larger group called a byte. A byte is a grouping of eight bits, and
looks something like this: 01101001. There are 256 different possible combinations of these
1's and 0's (28= 256). It is in this format of eight bits that all the letters, numbers, punctuation,
and special characters of the English language can be created. Other languages, Japanese for
instance, require more bits in a byte, because they have more characters. Japanese binary
code is based on bytes with 16 bits.
(3) We also speak about memory size and disk capacity in terms of bytes. It would be
extremely inconvenient to say, "I have 32,000,000 bytes of memory." So abbreviations have
been formulated. First, 1,000 bytes are abbreviated as 1 Kilobyte or 1 K. Next, 1,000,000 bytes
are called 1 Megabyte or 1 Meg. Finally, 1,000,000,000 bytes are called 1 Gigabyte or 1 Gig.
There are higher levels, but these three will be enough most of the time. So in the example of
32,000,000 bytes, it would be much easier to say, "I have 32 Meg of memory."
(4) When we create a document or start up an application, where is it stored? How does
the computer remember it until the next time we are ready to access it? The computer has two
ways of recording information for future use: temporary and permanent storage.
(a) Temporary storage is memory that the computer uses to store information while the
power is on. Sometimes called volatile memory because it is not permanent. Random Access
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Memory (RAM) is one type of temporary memory. RAM is where the computer stores
applications and files that are currently being used. RAM is extremely fast for the computer to
access, making the computer run much faster than if it has to use other types of storage. RAM
chips come on little cards called single in-line memory modules or SIMM's. Users can buy and
install new SIMM's, which will make all of your computing faster. Remember, anything stored in
RAM is destroyed when the computer is shut down.
(b) Video Random Access Memory (VRAM) is special RAM memory that is dedicated to
running the video output. Adding more video RAM makes the screen re-draw faster, and allows
a higher color bit depth to be displayed.
(c) You will use permanent storage to store things that you want to use again. Permanent
storage allows you to keep documents and files, and to move them from one computer to
another. Floppy disks are one type of permanent storage. New disks hold about 1.4 MB of
data, but older disks with capacities of 800 K or 400 K are still around. New disks are called
High Density and can be identified by the "HD" letters on the top. They also have an extra hole
on the top left of the disk as you are facing it. Floppy disks are relatively slow, so it is not
practical to work from a floppy. Floppies are very convenient for moving and storing small files,
because they are small, cheap and reliable.
(d) Hard disks are another type of permanent storage. Hard disks are usually internally
installed in a computer, although external and portable units are available. While floppies are
designed mainly to store files and documents, hard disks are also used to store applications that
will be used regularly. Hard disks come in many different capacities, from 80 MB up to many
Gigabytes, but the most common are in the 250 to 750 MB range. Hard disks are much faster
than floppies, but not nearly as fast as RAM.
(e) Next we have removable media. Removable media are similar to floppies in that they
can be removed from the drive and taken to a different computer for use, although they have
much higher storage capacity. There are many different types and brands of removable media,
and capacities from 44 MB up to 500 MB are not uncommon. Common types of removable
media are: Magneto Optical that uses lasers and magnetic coding to store data, Syquest, that
uses magnets and platters similar to normal hard disks, Digital Tape, that uses magnetic tape
similar to that of audio tape, and many others. Most removable disks are not as fast as hard
disks but are much faster than floppies. These are all ideal for moving and storing large files
and for transporting large files to other computers. Additionally, these are good for backing up
important information and archiving, especially Digital Tape, which can hold very large amounts
of data. Some hold more than 8 gigabits (GB) but they are somewhat slow.
(f) Read Only Memory (ROM) is permanent memory installed in the computer. This
memory is similar to Random Access Memory (RAM), except RAM is erased when the
computer is turned off. ROM usually holds operating instructions and codes that tell the
computer to act a certain way. Although very important for the computer, the user does not
have to think much about ROM because we cannot really affect it.
(g) Compact Disk-Read Only Memory or CD-ROM uses a system of lasers and binary
information stored on a thin metal and plastic disk that holds about 650 MB of data. Much like a
record player needle, the laser tracks around the disk reading the small pits and lands that
represent the 1's and 0's of the binary code. Although hardware is now available to write your
own compact disks, most people do not have it so they rely on disks made by others. Compact
disks (CD) hold lots of information and are excellent for storing large databases and images.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Once recordable CDs become more economical, they will be ideal for storing huge amounts of
f. Central processing unit.
(1) The central processing unit or CPU is essentially the brain of the computer. Millions of
tiny switches, resistors, and wires are microscopically etched on a small piece of silicon that
replaces the vacuum tubes and wires of the first computers. All information that a computer
handles travels through the CPU. When you push a button on the keyboard a small chip in the
keyboard converts the letter into the binary code. The code then goes to the CPU, which
decides what to do with the information. The CPU decides whether it should display a letter on
the screen, or execute a command.
(2) The two main types of current CPUs are made either by Intel or Motorola. Typically,
Intel chips are used in IBM personal computers (PC) and compatible clones. Intel chips are
identified by a code name, the most recent being the Pentium and before that the 486, 386, and
others. The higher the number, the newer or faster the chip.
(3) Motorola makes chips that are used in Macintosh computers and are also identified by
code numbers. The 68040 models are the most recent with 68030 and 68020 being older
(4) Both of these chips were originally based on a system called Complex Instruction Set
Computing (CISC). This technology has been around for a while and is on the verge of being
replaced by a newer technology called Reduced Instruction Set Computing (RISC). Motorola
was the first to switch to the newer and faster CPU's. RISC processors are much faster at
certain operations, although they generally require more RAM and hard disk space. A new chip
that uses this RISC technology is the PowerPC chip, made by a joint venture between IBM,
Apple, and Motorola. Currently Apple uses it in their Power Macintosh line of computers;
however, IBM has recently introduced their version of the RISC processor and these new chips
will eventually replace the Intel and Motorola designs.
g. Monitors.
(1) As we have learned, a monitor is a high-resolution television that the computer uses to
display work. Both televisions and monitors work by displaying picture elements or pixels. A
pixel is the smallest individual unit of an image. Pixels are a combination of the three primary
colors: red, green, and blue. Depending on how bright each dot of red, green, and blue is
determines what color appears on the screen. Depending on how the pixels are arranged
determines what the screen looks like.
(2) Pixels are formed by three cathode ray emitters, in a cathode ray tube, one for each
color. These emitters are at the back of the monitor and point toward you as you face the
screen. As the emitters shoot beams of electrons toward you, they strike a phosphor coating on
the back of the glass picture tube. The charged energy caused the phosphor to glow briefly.
This glow forms the image you see.
(3) One concern with monitors is resolution. Resolution is the measurement of the number
of pixels on a screen at any one time. The more pixels on the screen at one time, the more
detail the image will have. Some monitor and computer configurations are able to change
resolutions. These monitors, called multisynch, are useful because you can have one resolution
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
set to allow you to see an entire image, and then change resolution to see just a single part of
an image.
(4) A second monitor concern is bit depth. Bit depth is the number of colors that the
monitor is capable of displaying at any one time. For example: 1 bit color has only two colors,
black or white. 4-bit color is 16 colors (or shades of gray). Common bit depths are 16 bit
(32,768 colors or shades) and 24 bit (16,777,210 colors or shades). It is important to have a
higher bit depth because the higher the bit depth, the more detail that will be visible. This is
especially useful in image editing and illustration software.
(5) A concern with bit depth is that it is dependent on the VRAM the computer has, so you
may be limited to lower bit depth if you do not have enough VRAM. Also, the higher the bit
depth you have set the more computations the computer takes to redraw the screen, so
everything may run slower. It is a good idea to set the bit depth as low as possible so as not to
waste speed.
(6) The third concern with monitors is the scanning frequency. The cathode ray tube draws
the screen starting at the top left (as you look at it) working to the right. When they get to the
end of the first line they move back to the beginning of the second line, just as we read. The
beams scan each line of the screen, one pixel at a time. The phosphor glows long enough to
make it seem as if the screen is lit continuously. When the entire screen has been drawn, the
beam moves back to the top and starts over. The screen is redrawn in this manner 60 to 75
times per second! This is called scanning frequency. If it were to redraw any slower than this
you would be able to see the screen "flicker." Scanning frequencies are represented by a
number of hertz (Hz), or cycles per second. Therefore, a monitor with a scanning frequency of
65 Hz redraws the screen 65 times per second.
h. Input devices.
(1) A keyboard is probably the most common type of input device. A keyboard is a
collection of switches and a small microchip that converts the keypunches into binary code.
Every time you push a key a circuit is completed, which sends a signal to the CPU and either
causes an action or displays a character on the screen. The keyboard that is most common
today is called the QWERTY keyboard and it is named for the keys in the top left row: Q, W, E,
R, T, Y. The keyboard layout is as it was in the early 1800's to slow typists down by forcing the
fingers to move a long distance between keystrokes. Early typists got to be faster than their
typewriters, causing many jams, so designers figured out this layout to slow them down. There
are other key layouts, most notably the Dvorak keypad, which put the most common letters
under the fingers. Although the Dvorak layout has proven to be a much faster way to type, old
habits die slow and it has not caught on yet.
(2) A mouse is a device that an operator uses to control the pointer. It is much easier
using a mouse than using arrow buttons to move to a specific spot on the screen. A mouse also
allows the user to be able to point at specific areas of the screen to do an action without having
to remember specific commands or codes. A mouse has at least one button on it that can be
used to select objects or perform a task. Some have buttons that can be programmed to
perform other functions. The only hard thing about a mouse is to remember that the cord points
away from the user. A mouse works by being moved; as the user moves the mouse, a ball in
the base of the mouse moves. This ball turns two spindles that rotate two small shutters. A
beam of light passes through the shutter. As the mouse moves the light pulses on and off and
the computer translates this into a movement.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(3) A graphics tablet resembles a large clipboard or notebook with a non-writing pen called
a stylus. The user moves the pointer around on the screen using the stylus. Once a person
gets used to a graphics tablet, they can work much more accurately than when drawing with a
mouse. Some tablets have a clear covering for placing artwork under while tracing. Tablets
work by detecting disruptions in a magnetic field created by the stylus. Stylus can be corded or
cordless, however, most have batteries.
(4) There are many other input devices available. The three listed above are the most
common for our purposes. Other common devices include, trackballs, touch-screens, and
(a) Trackballs resemble a large, upside down mouse. Instead of pushing the mouse
around, which rolls the ball, the user of a trackball actually moves the ball. Like the mouse,
trackballs have buttons, some of which can be programmed. Trackballs are generally not as
accurate as a mouse for fine detailed work, but require less motion for general everyday use.
(b) Touch screens are simple monitors that can sense where you touch them. These are
useful for demonstrations or displays where an entire keyboard would be distracting or
(c) Joysticks are exactly like the controls that many video games use. While great to use if
you are pretending to fly a fighter jet, these are not very convenient for work.
i. Operating Systems. An operating system is a piece of computer software that tells the
CPU how to act. All computers must have some type of operating system. There are many
types of operating systems on the market.
(1) Microsoft-Disk Operating System (MS-DOS) is the operating system that most IBM PC
and compatible computers use. MS-DOS, usually referred to as "DOS," is a command line
interface, meaning, when you use it, all you see is the screen prompt "C:\". At this prompt you
must enter coded commands to execute functions. Needless to say this is not a very userfriendly interface, so Microsoft developed an application called "Windows."
(2) "Windows," which is a copy of the Macintosh interface, is called a Graphical User
Interface or GUI (pronounced gooey). What Windows does is provide the user with graphical
buttons and menus and convert the operator's input into the appropriate DOS commands.
Although Windows is much easier to use than DOS, it has several problems. First, having to
run both DOS and Windows uses lots of RAM and hard disk space that is not available to other
applications. Second, Windows is not as intuitive, or easy to learn and use, as a Macintosh.
(3) While using Windows, you must have DOS also running. With the Macintosh Operating
System, all you have is a graphical interface. The operating system is designed from the
ground up to be both graphical and easy to use. This type of system runs faster and is much
easier to use because there is not that underlying DOS that can cause problems. Additionally,
there is currently only one manufacturer of Macintosh system hardware. This assures continuity
from machine to machine. Although most computer experts agree that Macs are faster and
easier to use, due to different marketing schemes, most companies, including the Federal
Government, use DOS based computers.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(4) UNIX is an operating system similar to MS-DOS. Although rare on personal computers,
UNIX is common on high-end graphics workstations (Sun and Silicon Graphics) as well as on
mainframe computers.
(5) The "Commodore PET" was one of the first true "home computers." The "PET" has
been long discontinued, and replaced by the Amiga line. While the Amiga never became
generally successful, it does have a large following of dedicated users that are attracted to its
powerful video and graphics capabilities. The Amiga runs on a proprietary operating system
similar to DOS, with a graphical interface.
a. Macintosh setup. A Macintosh is one of the easiest computers to set up and operate.
Macintosh hardware is based on a plug and play theory, which means all you should have to do
is plug in a piece of equipment for it to work. Other computers require you to change the
system software configuration to use a new device. With a Macintosh this is unnecessary.
There are, of course some basic rules and guidelines. When you get your new Macintosh, you
will understandably be excited and want to just rip right in and get started. You must, however,
control yourself and go step by step.
(1) Unpacking the equipment. While unpacking, you want to be careful to not damage
the box or any of the packing material. If it is necessary to return a computer, you must do it in
the original packing. You should keep all original packing material for at least a week to assure
that the equipment is working properly. If space allows, you should keep the packing material
forever, because this is the best way to ship equipment. While unpacking the boxes, you should
look for an inventory sheet in each box. This will tell you what should be in the box. Check to
be sure that you have all of the proper cords, manuals and warranty cards. Once you are sure
that you have all of the inventory items, clean up the work area and remove all of the packing
material and boxes.
(2) Connecting all of the equipment. Look in the owner's manual for exact instructions
on connections, but follow these general guidelines.
(a) The first step that Apple recommends is to plug the computer's power cord into the
computer and then into a three prong grounded power supply. This assures that the computer
is grounded and no static electricity damage will occur during the rest of the setup.
(b) Plug the monitor's power cord into the monitor first and then the computers power outlet
or another grounded outlet next, depending on what type of power cord your monitor comes
(c) Attach the monitor's cable to the monitor and the computer's monitor port. The type of
monitor you have and which Macintosh you use will determine which of the two monitor ports
you use, the standard or the audiovision.
(d) Attach the mouse and keyboard. First attach the Apple Desktop Bus (ADB) cable to the
ADB port on the back of the computer and then plug the other end into the keyboard. The
mouse attaches to the extra ADB port on the keyboard. You can customize this configuration if
you have other ADB devices (Trackballs, Graphics Tablets, and so forth) as long as one device
is plugged into the Mac and the others are chained together. You must never have the Mac
turned on when you plug or unplug ADB devices.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(e) Attach any external devices. Modems and printers attach to the icons marked for these
devices. Small Computer System Interface (SCSI, pronounced skuzzy) devices get attached
through a chain of cables.
A SCSI chain is several devices linked together that all connect to one port of the
computer. SCSI connections are the hardest part of setting up a Macintosh, but
remembering several rules makes things much easier. The first rule for chaining SCSI
devices is that each device must have a unique number, called a SCSI ID. You can
have a total of seven devices attached to a Macintosh in a SCSI chain. The CPU is
assigned SCSI ID 0 and the internal hard disk is usually SCSI ID 7. As long as every
other device has a different number everything should work. ID numbers are set on
each device with a wheel, DIP Switch or other mechanism. Consult your owner’s
manual of the specific piece of equipment for instruction on how to set the SCSI ID
A second concern with a SCSI chain is termination. SCSI works by sending a small
electrical current down the chain of devices that then lets the Mac know what devices
are attached. Terminators act as bumpers at the beginning and end of the chain,
absorbing extra electrical signals and preventing data error. The first and last device of
a SCSI chain must be terminated. There are two ways to terminate a device. The first is
external termination, which utilizes a small electrical device attached to the empty plug
on the last device. The second method is called internal termination, which utilizes a
built in switch to turn the built in terminator on or off. When creating a SCSI chain, you
should try to use the shortest cables possible. If unnecessarily long cables are used
errors may occur. More about SCSI chains will be discussed in the Troubleshooting
(3) Turn the power on. First, turn the power to the power strip or surge suppressor on,
next turn on the monitor. If you plugged the monitor into the computer, this will be the only time
you have to turn the monitor on. From now on, it will come on when the computer is turned on.
Next turn on each external device. Once all external devices are on, push the Power ON key on
the Mac's keyboard. If everything works correctly you should here a chord tone, and eventually
you will see the desktop.
b. Desktop components. When you first start up a Macintosh, the first screen you come
to is called the desktop or Finder. These two words, Finder and Desktop are interchangeable.
The Finder, or desktop is the heart of the Macintosh system software. What makes a Mac so
easy to use is that all there is to the user interface is the Finder. From here you can do just
about anything that the Mac is capable of.
(1) Across the top of the desktop screen is the Menu Bar. Each item here has functions
that can be accessed by pulling down menus. The menu bar provides access to all of the
commands and functions of the finder.
(2) At the right side of the menu bar is a balloon shaped icon with a question mark in it.
This is the Help Menu. By pulling down on this icon with the pointer you can turn on Balloon
Help. If Balloon Help is turned on when you use the mouse to point to things on the screen, the
Mac displays a balloon with information. This is helpful when using the Mac for the first time or
when using a new piece of software. Be aware however, that not all software applications are
programmed with Balloon Help, so if nothing appears, it is because the software is not
programmed for Balloon Help.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(3) At the top, far right of the finder window is the Application Menu. The Application
Menus icon looks like a small Macintosh computer. This is where you can change from
application to application. For example, if you had both Microsoft Word and Adobe PageMaker
running, only one of them would be active at any one time. To switch from one to the other, you
would pull down on the Application menu to the one that you wanted to use. Notice that the
application that is currently active has a check mark beside it. This menu is extremely useful
when you have several applications open and are switching back and forth often. Also in the
Application Menu are options to Hide (current application) and Hide Others. These options
allow you to clean up the screen by hiding any of the applications.
(4) On the desktop itself are several icons. At the top right corner, beneath the application
menu is the Startup Disk. This icon represents the disk that contains the system software that
started up the computer. If you have other disks attached to the computer, icons representing
them should appear beneath the startup disk icon.
(5) Just as the name implies, the Trash Can is where you put files and applications to be
thrown away, or deleted. One nice thing about a Mac is that it does not automatically remove
these files. When you put files into the trash can they stay in until you choose Empty Trash
from the Special Menu. This is good when you accidentally put a file into the trash that you do
not want to delete. It is good to get in the habit of emptying the trash at regular intervals, so that
the trash file does not get too large.
(6) The pointer is the little arrow that you control with the mouse.
c. Mouse techniques. Using a mouse is relatively easy. Just push the thing around and
push the button. There are, however, several special things to be learned.
(1) Pointing is basic mouse operation. Put the mouse on a flat surface; a mouse pad, or
special surface works best. Make sure that the cord faces away from you and move it around.
Notice that the on-screen pointer moves in conjunction with the mouse. The pointer will only
move when the mouse is touching the surface. This is handy when you get to the end of the
mouse pad. All you have to do is pick the mouse up, and move it back to the center of the pad.
The pointer will not move until you place the mouse back down and roll it.
(2) Clicking is used to select an object. First, move the mouse so that the pointer is on
what you want to select and push the mouse button in a rapid click. Do not hold the button in. If
you have done this properly, what you pointed at will now be selected.
(3) Double clicking is used to open folders, disk, or to launch an application. To double
click, point at the desired folder, disk, or application and push the mouse button two times in
quick succession. Click-click. If done correctly, the folder or disk will open or the application will
launch (start running).
(4) Click and Hold when you want to see the contents of a pull down menu. First you use
the mouse to point to the menu, then click and hold the mouse button in. The menu should
appear and stay until you release the mouse button.
(5) Dragging is used to reposition icons or to move things around on the screen. To drag,
you first select the object by single clicking on it. Next, you click and hold on the object, keeping
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
the mouse button pressed in, you move the mouse around to place the object. When you have
placed the object where you want it, release the mouse button to drop it.
(6) Modified clicking is a technique where you use regular clicking in conjunction with
pressing a keyboard button. For example, to select more than one icon, you can use shift-click.
To accomplish this you first single click on the first icon. Next you point to the second icon;
press and hold the shift key and click on the second icon. Both icons are now selected and you
can release the shift key. There are many different combinations of modified clicks that we will
d. Pull-Down menus. As mentioned, across the top of the Desktop is a Menu bar that
allows us to perform many functions and actions. The first menu is on the far left and is called
the Apple Menu.
(1) The Apple Menu is a list of available applications and Desk Accessories (DA)s. Users
can customize their Macintosh by adding things to the Apple Menu. To add an item you place
an alias (something like a bookmark) of the item in the Apple Menu Items folder in the System
Folder. By having an alias of commonly used applications or folders in the Apple Menu, you
can easily open a folder or application by pulling down the Apple Menu instead of having to
open many folders and disks and finally double clicking on the desired object.
(2) DA's are miniature programs that help out the user. A calculator, map, puzzle, CD
remote, and many other DA's are available.
(3) To the right of the Apple Menu is the File Menu. The File Menu has many different
functions, but only several are commonly used.
(a) First, it allows you to create new folders (use the New Folder option) used to file
(b) Second, it allows you to create aliases (use Make Alias) of folders, applications or files.
Aliases are bookmarks that can be placed anywhere to make it easy to locate deeply hidden or
often used items.
(c) Next, the File Menu has a Find command. This is used to search a disk for a particular
file name. Select Find and enter what you want to search for in the field. To narrow the search,
click More Choices to add more variables. This feature is extremely useful when you remember
the file name (or part of it) but forgot where on the disk the item is located. If the first search
does not locate the right file, choose Find Again to look for the next item that matches the
search data. Continue this until you locate the correct file.
(4) As you can see there are other options in the File Menu, but these are the most
important ones. Read in your owner's manual or other reference about the other options. Also,
notice the keyboard shortcuts beside most of the commands under the File Menu. These are
shortcuts that you can use instead of pulling down the menu and dragging to the desired
command. These commands all use a modifier key in conjunction with a regular key. For
example, to create a new folder you could select New Folder from the File Menu, or use the
keyboard shortcut: Command-N. The Apple key represents the Command or Apple key. The
Mac uses many different keyboard shortcuts, and most are universal from application to
application, so try to get in the habit of using them for repetitive tasks. Keyboard shortcuts can
save quite a bit of time.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(5) To the right of the File Menu is the Edit Menu. The Edit Menu contains basic editing
functions: Undo, Cut, Copy, Paste, Clear, Select All, and Show Clipboard.
(a) The undo command is used to reverse the last action done. If you make a mistake, you
can use the Undo command to return you to where you were before you made the mistake.
Some applications have multiple layers of undo. This means that you can undo many things a
layer at a time until you get back to your work at a previous point. This can be useful when you
want to try out several different versions of a document or file. If an application only has a
single undo, you must select undo immediately after making a mistake because you cannot go
back and undo the mistake later. The keyboard shortcut for Undo is Command-Z.
(b) The Cut command is used to remove the selected object. If used in a word processor
application, for example, Cut removes whatever text is selected. The Cut information is stored
in the Clipboard until something else is cut. The keyboard shortcut for cut is Command-X.
(c) The Copy command is used to copy selected objects. Whatever is selected will be
copied to the clipboard, without affecting the original. The keyboard shortcut for Copy is
(d) The Paste command is used to paste whatever is in the clipboard to where the insertion
point is located. Paste is used in conjunction with Cut and Copy to remove or copy information
from one area and place, or paste, it somewhere else. The keyboard shortcut for Paste is
(e) The Clear command is much like the Cut command, in that it removes selected items.
Unlike Cut, the Clear command removes the selection without pasting it to the clipboard. If you
clear something, it is gone. There is no keyboard shortcut for Clear.
(f) Select All is used to select everything in a window. When used in the Finder, it will
select all of the folders, files or applications in a window. When used in an application, it will
select all of the text, graphics, or images in the document. The keyboard shortcut for Select All
is Command-A.
(g) The clipboard is where items that have been cut or copied are stored until they are
needed. As we have learned, only one item can reside in the clipboard at any one time.
Whenever you cut or copy something it deletes the item currently in the clipboard and replaces
it with what you cut. To see what is in the clipboard, choose Show Clipboard from the Edit
Menu. There is no keyboard shortcut for this command.
(h) These are all of the commands that are in the Edit Menu in the Finder. As you learn
more applications, there will be more commands added to this menu, but the above commands
are common to most programs.
(6) The View Menu is used to control how items are displayed in the Finder. You may want
to control how the contents of windows are displayed, to do that you will use this menu.
(a) By Small Icon and By Icon are similar options. By Icon is the standard Macintosh view.
This displays all of the contents of a disk or folder by normal, large icons. By Small Icon uses
the same icons but reduces them to approximately one half size. This is convenient when you
want to display many icons in one small window.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(b) By Name, By Size, By Kind, By Label, and By Date are all options used to list contents
of folders or disks in the corresponding order. Depending on which option you have selected, it
rearranges the order. These lists use a small icon to represent folders and files. If an item is a
folder, it will have an arrow beside it. You can click on this arrow to collapse or expand the list.
Expand means to show the contents of the folder and collapse means to hide the contents.
(7) The Label Menu is used to color code files, folders or disks. This is extremely useful
when working on a project with many different files. You can assign one color to all of the files
and quickly locate or identify related files. To assign a Label, you first select the item or items,
and then pull down the Label Menu and drag to the color that you want to use. To change the
colors on the menu or to change the captions that go with these colors, use the Label Control
Panel found in the Control Panel Folder.
(8) The Special Menu contains several miscellaneous but important commands. The first
is Clean Up Window.
(a) Clean Up Window is used to reorganize all of the icons in a window. After you've been
moving icons around, the window may appear cluttered or messy. Use the Clean Up command
to rearrange all of the icons according to the settings found in the Views Control Panel. There
are many different combinations available in the Views Control Panel. You can choose to
stagger icons or not, to always "snap to grid," and many other options for the List View menu
(b) Empty Trash is used to permanently remove items that have been put in the Trash Can.
Remember, once you choose Empty Trash, these items are gone.
(c) Eject Disk is used to remove a disk. First select the disk and then choose Eject Disk
from the Special Menu, or use the keyboard shortcut Command-E. Another way to eject a disk
is to drag its icon to the Trash Can. This does NOT affect any of the files on the disk, all it does
it cause the disk to be ejected.
(d) Erase Disk is used to totally remove all of the contents of a disk. Use this with extreme
(e) Restart is used if you need to restart the computer. Remember, restarting will erase
any files not saved, so save all files before doing this.
(f) Shut Down is used to turn the computer off. Never turn a computer off by turning the
power off or using the emergency switch on the back. By properly using the Shut Down
command, you let the computer clear its memory and save system files for the next time you
use it.
e. Macintosh Windows. The Macintosh uses Windows to display information. A window
is simply a box that information appears in. To fully understand a Mac, you must be able to
identify parts of a window, and tell how to use them.
(1) Across the top of the window is the Title Bar. In this area you will see the title of the
window displayed. If the window represents a disk or folder you will see the name of the disk or
folder. If it is a file, you will see the filename.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(2) At the upper left corner, in the Title Bar, is a small box. This box is called the Close
Button, and the only thing it does it close the window. When you are done using a window you
should click on this box to get rid of the Window.
(3) Just below the Title Bar is the Information Bar. In this bar you will see the following
information: On the far left is the number of items in the disk or folder. In the middle is how
much information is stored on the disk that contains the window. On the right is how much
space is left on the disk.
(4) In the upper right corner of the window, in the Title Bar, is the Zoom Button. This button
can do two things. First, when clicked, it shrinks the window to as small as it can get while still
displaying all of the files. If the monitor is not big enough to show all of the files, it will fill the
screen. If clicked again, it will either expand or collapse the window to the last size set by the
(5) Vertically across the right side of the window is the Vertical Slider. If there are more
files than can be displayed in the window, this area will be medium gray and will have a Slider
Bar Button in it. Scroll Arrows at the top and bottom allow the user to scroll up or down to view
more items. You can also drag the Slider Bar Button up or down to quickly reposition the
contents. Additionally, you can click in the gray area, either above or below the button to quickly
move up or down one page at a time.
(6) In the lower right corner of the window is the Resize Button. This button can be
dragged around to change the size of the window. Whatever size is set with this button will be
the default size for the window, when the Zoom Button is clicked.
(7) Horizontally across the bottom of the window is the Horizontal Slider. It is just like the
Vertical slider except this slider works side to side to reposition the contents of a window.
f. Selection techniques. No matter what type of application you are using, you need to
know how to select objects. There are four basic techniques: clicking, shift-clicking, using
marquees, and selecting all.
(1) Clicking is done to select a single item. You just point at it and click once. Sometimes,
when you click on the name of an item, it will become selected. This is used to rename an
object. Just point at the name, click and after a moment the name will be selected and you can
type a new name.
(2) To select more than one item, you can click on the first item, and then shift-click on
other items to add to the selection. If you do not use the Shift key, the first item will become
deselected, so you must remember to use this key.
(3) To select a group of items that are close together, position the pointer outside the group
and drag a box, or marquee, around the group. Watch out not to select other unintended
objects when using this method.
(4) Select All command selects all of the items in a window.
g. Dialog boxes.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(1) A Dialog box is another type of window. Sometimes the Macintosh needs more
information to complete a command so it will present a Dialog Box. Dialog boxes come in many
different shapes and sizes, but there are common contents to all.
(2) Disk and Directory Indicators are either icons or windows that show where the specified
file is located. These usually have pull down menus that allow you to change the current disk or
(3) Radio buttons are round buttons that allow you to make only one selection. If there are
several options to choose from, but you are only allowed to choose one, you will be presented
with radio buttons.
(4) Check boxes are often used to allow the user to select options. You can check as
many of these small, square boxes as you wish.
(5) Buttons are oval and have text in them, and are used to execute commands. Examples
of buttons are Save, Print, and Open. Usually one of the buttons in a Dialog Box will have a
thick double oval around it. This is the default button, and you do not need to click the mouse
on it. With a default button, you can just push Return on the keyboard to execute this
(6) Dialog boxes that appear when you are saving a file usually have an area where you
can enter the name you wish to save the file as.
h. Alert boxes. Occasionally the Mac will warn you that what you are about to do may be
irreversible or the computer may display an error message. These boxes are called Alert
Boxes. One typical Alert Box is displayed when you select Empty Trash. The Mac warns you
how many items are in the trash and asks you if you are sure you want to permanently remove
these items. You will encounter many other Alert Boxes. Typical Alert Boxes are: System
Crashes, System Errors, Out of Memory and many others.
i. System folder. Located on the disk that the Macintosh started from is a folder called the
System Folder. This folder contains all of the Macintosh System Software, the software that
makes a Mac a Mac. Without this folder and its contents the computer would not be able to
start up or operate. Depending on which model Macintosh you use and what other software you
have you may have more or less in your System Folder, but below are some common items.
(1) Apple Menu Items folder stores items that you wish to appear in the Apple Menu.
Common items placed here are aliases to often used folders, files or applications. Desk
Accessories are also placed in the Apple Menu for quick access.
(2) Control Panels are mini programs that allow you to set options and functions of the
Macintosh. Control Panels must be placed in the Control Panel Folder to be active.
(3) Extensions are small programs that add features or functions to the Macintosh. When
you start up the Mac, you see the Extensions appear across the bottom of the screen as they
load. For an Extension to work it must be loaded at start up. To be loaded at start up an
Extension must be placed in the Extensions Folder in the System Folder.
(4) Preferences are small files that are created by applications, control panels and
extension. When you personalize an application or use a control panel or extension to set up
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
how the Mac will work, a Preferences file is created to save these settings. All of these
Preferences files are stored in the Preferences Folder in the System Folder.
(5) The Finder file in the System Folder is the actual program that creates the desktop and
makes the Mac work. This file must be in the System Folder.
(6) Items placed in the Start Up Items Folder will automatically be opened when the
computer is turned on. This is useful if you use the same applications everyday. You can
simply place an alias of these applications in the Start up Items Folder and when the Mac starts
up the files, folders or applications will open.
(7) The Clipboard is where items that have been cut or copied are stored until they are
needed. Remember, only one item can be stored in the Clipboard at a time. An item can be a
single word, groups of words, a graphic, a picture, or whatever.
(8) The Scrapbook File is similar to the clipboard except it can hold more than one item.
You can open this file and scroll through the contents. If you use a graphic, letterhead, or group
of text (name, address, and so forth) often, it may save time to copy these items to the
Scrapbook. When the item is needed, all you have to do is copy and then paste the item.
(9) The Notepad is just that, a notepad. It can be used just like a paper pad to store short
notes and messages. You can cut, copy and paste to and from the notepad.
(10) The System File is a folder that is used to store system resources. Resources can be
sounds, keyboard layouts, or other small bits of information that help the Mac work properly.
You must have this file for the Mac to work properly.
(11) Fonts are different styles of letters and characters. All fonts must be stored in the
Fonts Folder in order to be used. Once new fonts are added, you must restart the Mac to
access them.
(12) Simple Text is a rudimentary word processing program. It is usually found in the
System Folder. It can be used to open and view Read Me files, graphics, sounds, animation's
and Quick Time videos. While it's not necessary, it is a good idea to keep Simple Text around
to use to view these files.
j. Basic control panels. As you have learned, Control Panels are small programs that
allow you to adjust system related settings, such as the time and date settings of the Mac's
internal clock. There are many control panels available to you, but these are the basic ones that
come with the Mac system software. Remember, Control Panels must be in the Control Panels
Folder in the System Folder to be used.
(1) The General Controls control panel is used to set basic Finder options. You can
change the color and pattern of the desktop work area, the Rate of Insertion Point Blinking, Rate
of Menu Blinking, and the date and time.
(2) The Date/Time control panel can also be used to set the date and time of the Mac's
internal clock. Additionally you can change the format of the date and time. You can decide if
you would rather use a 24-hour clock, or use the names of months instead of numbers.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(3) The Keyboard control panel is used to set the keyboard layout if you have more than
one installed. You can also set the key repeat and delay rate. These are the rates that
characters appear at if you hold a key down.
(4) The Mouse control panel is used to customize the actions of the mouse. You can
change the speed of the mouse, as well as the double-click speed.
(5) The Color control panel is used to customize the color of windows and highlighted text.
(6) The Labels control panel is used to set the color and captions that go with the labels in
the Labels pull down menu.
(7) The Sound control panel controls all of the Mac's sound functions. There is a pull down
menu with several options.
(a) The first is Alert Sound. This is where you can set the sound and volume that will be
used as an alert. An alert is a sound that is played when the Mac wants to get your attention or
inform you of an error. You can use the Add and Remove commands to add or delete alert
(b) The second option on the pull-down menu is Sound In. This is where you designate
where sound input will come from. Use the Options button to select either Microphone, AV
connector or Internal CD.
(c) Next is the Sound Out option. This option is used to select how sound will be played
back. You can choose the speed (in kHz) for sound playback as well as sound bit depth and
stereo or mono sound.
(d) The last option is Volumes. This is where you set the volumes for the Macs sound.
You have two sliders. One controls the volume of the built in speaker, while the other sets the
volume of the headphone jack on the back of the Mac.
(8) The Numbers control panel is used to control how the Mac handles numbers. You can
set what character to use as the decimal separator (usually a "." ) as well as what to use to
separate the thousands place (usually a ","). Additionally, you can decide what symbol to use
with currency and where it will be placed.
(9) The Views control panel is used to set how information in windows will be displayed.
We have discussed the use of the Views Pull-Down Menu, the Views control panel is where you
set the preferences. You can select font and size of title information, as well as options for list
and icon views.
(10) The Start Up Disk control panel is used to select which disk to start from at the next
restart. The disk you select must have system software on it.
(11) The PC Exchange control panel is used when accessing files from an IBM PC system.
PC files have a code attached to the end of the file name called a suffix. Different suffixes
represent different types of files. For example ".txt" means that it is a text file. Using this control
panel you can set which application on the Mac will be used to open files with different suffixes.
You may have the control panel set so that MS Word open all files with the ".txt" suffix while
Photoshop opens all files with the ".gif" suffix.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(12) The Chooser is a desk accessory found in the Apple Menu that allows the user to
select which external device to use. When it is opened, the Chooser will show icons of all of the
printers that are installed in the Mac. There will also be icons for faxing and file sharing if these
items have been installed. The user then clicks on the icon that he wants to use. For example,
to print to the laser printer, you would open the Chooser, and select the "LaserWriter" icon. To
use the color printer you would select that icon.
k. Memory control. To set how the Mac uses memory, you use several different tools that
are part of the Mac's System Software.
(1) First, there is the Memory Control Panel.
(a) The Memory Control Panel is broken down into four items. The first is the control of the
Cache. A cache is a portion of RAM that is set aside for often used instructions. You can
purchase separate Cache Cards that add more memory to be totally devoted to this purpose, or
you can allot some of the internal RAM as a Cache. This makes the computer run faster,
because common instructions and functions are stored here instead of on the relatively slow
hard disk.
(b) The Modern Memory Manager is the portion of the Memory Control Panel is used to
control whether or not the Mac uses the modern memory functions. This should always be "On"
unless you are using old system software (System 6.0) on a new Mac.
(c) Virtual Memory (VM) is when the computer uses a portion of the hard disk as RAM. It
stores things that it would normally put in RAM on the hard disk, if it needs the space. While
using this may allow you to open more applications, it is much slower than real RAM, so should
not be used as primary memory.
(d) Using VM, you use the disk as RAM. With a RAM Disk, you use RAM as a disk. You
create a RAM Disk and it put files or applications in it just like another disk. It is extremely fast,
but also uses up a large part of critical RAM.
(e) To find memory information about a Mac you use the About This Mac item under the
Apple Menu. This window will provide you with the total amount of RAM installed in the Mac. It
will also show you other information about the Mac, such as the System Software version
number, and how much RAM each application is allocated and how much it is currently using.
(2) When you first turn the computer on the first thing to use RAM is the system software.
As you open applications, they too use RAM. As you close applications, not all of the RAM
goes back to the available pool. Eventually, there will not be enough RAM in one continuous
block to open anything. This is called Memory Fragmentation. Memory fragmentation is
graphed in what is called the System Heap. This is an imaginary graph of how the computer's
memory is being handled. To monitor memory usage, use the "About This Macintosh" window.
This will list all of the open applications, and how much RAM each one is using. The "Largest
Unused Block" section shows the largest block of RAM that is free. If the total amount of RAM
in use plus the Largest Unused Block is less than the "Total Memory" then you have Memory
Fragmentation. The only way to recover fragmented memory is to restart the computer. The
best way to avoid memory fragmentation is to launch often-used applications first. If you use a
word processor off and on throughout the day, it is best to launch it once, at startup and leave it
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
on in the background. Open other applications as needed, but try to close the last opened
application first. This will keep the largest unused block as big as possible.
(3) Each application is allotted a certain amount of memory to work with. The user can
change this allocation to suit his needs. To find out how much memory an application is
allotted, first make sure it is not running, then select it (single click) and choose Get Info from
the File menu. A window will appear that has information about the selected item. At the top of
this window is the name, icon, type of item, where it is located, when it was created and
modified and the version numbers. Then there is a comments box that you can type in. At the
bottom is the memory information. There are three amounts in the Memory Requirements.
(a) Suggested Size is the amount that the author of the application thinks is the best for
general-purpose use. This is just a suggestion, so we do not have to go by this.
(b) Minimum Size is the second amount. The minimum size is the size that you set to
define the minimum amount of memory an application will be given. Generally, you do not want
to set this much lower than the recommended amount. If you are having problems with an
application and keep getting a warning of a "Type 1 Error" or an "Out of Memory Error" then you
have the minimum set too low and should increase it.
(c) Preferred Size is the last amount. This is the amount of memory that you set as the
preferred amount. The computer will allocate this amount to the application (If this much is
available!). Usually at installation the software is set to amounts that work best, but if you have
problems, try setting the minimum to recommended amount and the preferred to twice the
l. Network control panels.
(1) One of the benefits of a Macintosh over a DOS based computer is networking.
Networking, or connecting two or more computers, is built in on the Macs, while on a DOS
machine it must be purchased separately. The Macintosh comes with a built in network
connection, called LocalTalk or AppleTalk. The printer or modem port is the connector for this.
You can easily connect two (or more) Macs together using this connection.
(2) Another type of network is Ethernet. Most new Macs come with a built in Ethernet
connection, or they can be purchased separately. Ethernet is MUCH faster than LocalTalk, and
is used for high-speed networks.
(3) To set up a Mac LocalTalk network just connect two computers at the printer or modem
ports. An Ethernet connection requires a Hub, which is a box that fits between the two
computers and then wires go from the hub to the computers. Once you have physically
connected the computers you must use the system software to tell them that they are
connected. To do this there are four Control Panels.
(a) The Network Control Panel is pretty much straightforward. All you have to do is select
which type of network you have connected. There will be icons for several different network
types, all you do is select which one you have set up.
(b) The Sharing Setup control panel is where you set the identity of the Macintosh you are
using, and assign an owner and a password for that owner. You should make sure that every
computer has a unique, easy to remember name, such as "David's Mac." This will make it easy
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
to see what computer you are connected to. When making up passwords, choose unique but
easy to remember passwords. Do not use names or other easy to guess passwords. Try using
two unrelated words separated by punctuation such as star!dog. This type is hard to guess, but
easy to remember if you are supposed to know it. There are two sections of this control panel
called File Sharing and Program Linking. These are used to allow you to let others access files
or applications or both.
(c) Once you have the Sharing Setup control panel configured, you use the Users and
Groups Control Panel to give access to individual users. You create a user folder for each
person that you are going to allow access to your computer. You can set different amounts of
access to each user. You can also allow Guest access. Guest access is allowing users, who
you have not set up access information for, to use your computer.
(d) The File Sharing Monitor is a control panel used to monitor who is connected to your
computer. On the left side of the control panel is an area that will show who is connected. On
the left are icons representing the shared items. On the bottom is a bar graph that represents
the file sharing activity. To kick a person off of your machine, double click on the icon of the
person that is connected and choose disconnect.
m. Monitors control panel.
(1) The Monitors control panel is used to set options that have to do with the video output.
When you first open this control panel, you can choose either color or grayscale. You also can
change the bit depth (number of colors displayed) of the monitor. Depending on how much
video RAM your computer has, you may have options all the way up to 24 bit or Millions of
(2) At the bottom of this control panel you have a window with an icon of your monitor in it.
If you have more than one monitor attached you will have more than one icon. You can drag
these icons around on the Virtual Desktop to position how information will flow across multiple
monitors. There is also a button labeled Identify that will display a number on each monitor
making it easier to identify which monitor is which.
(3) In a multiple monitor setup, one of the monitors will always be the Startup Monitor. In
the control panel one of the icons will have a small menu bar in it. The monitor with the menu
bar is the startup monitor. To change startup monitors, simply drag the mini menu bar to the
desired monitor icon.
(4) There is a button labeled Options that allows you to set the monitor resolution (number
of pixels on the screen) as well as allowing you to send the image to a TV if you have the proper
n. Software. So far we have only discussed the Macintosh hardware and System
Software. For a computer to be truly productive you must have other software applications that
instruct the computer how to do tasks. There are many different types of software and brand
names, but most fall in to the general categories below.
(1) Word Processing software is used to write letters, memos, and anything else that you
would need. A word processor turns the computer into a fancy typewriter, allowing you to enter
text and then easily edit and move entire sections around. Most good word processors have
spelling and grammar checkers and a thesaurus built in. Many also allow you to automatically
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
create outlines, glossaries and indexes. Typical word processors are Microsoft Word and Word
Perfect from Novell.
(2) Data Base software is used to keep track of large amounts of information. You can
track anything from recipes to parts inventories. You establish fields of data to track
(Ingredients, Part number, area code...) and then enter data for each item to track. The data
base software can then cross-reference, sort, and create reports about the information you have
entered. Typical data programs are FoxPro and Filemaker Pro.
(3) Page Layout. Page Layout software is designed to make it easy to incorporate text,
pictures, and graphics into a single document. This software can be used to design and layout
anything from simple newsletters to complete books. Page layout software allows you to create
text boxes that flow around graphics and have images and illustrations that compliment the
design. Common page layout applications are Quark Xpress and Adobe PageMaker.
(4) Image Editing software is used to enhance photographs with the computer. Images
can be acquired with a digital camera or scanned into this software. After images are in the
application, all normal photographic enhancements (dodging, burning, cropping, and so forth)
can be done as well as special effects. Adobe Photoshop and HSC's Live Picture are imageediting applications.
(5) Illustration software is used to create art on the computer. These software applications
have all of the functions of painting, drawing and other normal art techniques. They can also be
used to create layers and color gradients as well as other special effects. Adobe Illustrator and
Macromedia's Freehand are illustration programs.
(6) Like Illustration software, 3D-Drawing software is used to draw images. However, 3DDrawing programs allow the user to set up illustrations in three dimensions. Users can draw
two dimensional illustrations and the computer can add the third dimension. Users can create
shadows, textures, and lighting effects. Stratavision 3D is one example of a 3D drawing
(7) Fonts are different styles of letters and characters. Clip Art is a professionally drawn
picture of every imaginable style. You can get clip art borders, people, signs, backgrounds, and
so forth. Fonts and Clip Art can be purchased for use with all of the other types of software.
The Image Club is a catalog sales company specializing in fonts and clip art.
(8) Video editing software is used to edit digital video. Users first digitize the video and
then rearrange the sequences, add fades, dissolves, and other special effects and create titles.
Once the editing is done, the computer reorganizes all of the video into one continuous
sequence. Adobe Premiere is used for desktop video editing, while the Avid system is used for
professional broadcast quality video editing.
(9) Multimedia is combining text, graphics, video, animation, and sound into one
presentation. Many multimedia presentations include user interaction, which means that users
control how the presentation flows by clicking on screen buttons or by typing commands.
Macromedia Director and Macromedia Authorware are multimedia production software
(10) Communications software is a broad category of applications that allow one computer
to interact with other computers. Generally a terminal program turns the Mac into a terminal to
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
control or access other computers. There are also applications to allow a computer to access
the Internet, the global network of computers. White Knight, Apple Remote Access and
Timbuktu Remote are just a few examples of communication software applications.
(11) Optical Character Recognition (OCR) software is used to convert scanned pages of
text into editable text. When a document is scanned it is basically just a picture of the
document. With OCR software you can convert the picture into text that you can edit in a word
processor. While very useful, OCR software is not 100% accurate and must be carefully edited.
(12) Utilities software is general software that adds functions and accessories to the Mac.
There are many different types of utilities. Diagnostic software is used to diagnose and repair
software and hardware problems. Virus detection utilities are used to scan for computer viruses
and repair them if any are found.
a. Troubleshooting is the process that is used when trying to determine the cause of a
problem and what to do to fix it. It is important to understand the basics of how things work in
order to be able to efficiently repair a problem.
b. One of the most important aspects of troubleshooting is knowing what to do to prevent a
problem from arising. It is always better to avoid a problem, than to wait for something to
happen and then be forced to try and figure out what to do. With computers and other
electronic equipment there are a few things that we can do to prolong the life of the equipment
and prevent malfunctions.
(1) Preventive maintenance.
(a) Most electronic equipment comes with grounded plugs. It is important to never bypass
this ground and to always have a properly grounded outlet. Computers are extremely sensitive
to electrical impulses, and properly grounded plugs and outlets can prevent serious damage to
the computer hardware. It is absolutely necessary to be grounded when you are doing any
activity inside the opened case of a computer (that is, installing RAM, removing cards, and so
(b) One of the most important pieces of electronic equipment to use is the surge
suppressor. Electrical voltage can vary widely and often you will have surges of high voltage or
fluctuations. This is especially common with deployed units and ships where power is being
provided by portable generators. A surge suppressor is an inexpensive device that filters the
electricity before it goes into the computer. Suppressors control the actual outgoing voltage and
only let regulated amounts into your equipment. Additionally, they can convert one outlet into
several. This allows you to plug all of your equipment into one receptacle, providing the
receptacle has enough amperage. Most surge suppressors can only protect against minor
power surges and spikes. Only uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) can provide against
serious electrical problems, as well as providing short battery backup. UPS are strongly
recommended to prevent damage to expensive electronic imaging equipment.
(c) Computer equipment is extremely susceptible to shocks and vibrations, especially hard
disk drives. You must be extremely careful to never bump or jostle computers or external hard
drives while they are turned on. Bumping a hard drive can cause the read-write heads to gouge
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
the surface of the disk, ruining the drive and the data stored on it. If you must move equipment,
it is best to shut it down, and give it a minute to cool down before moving.
(d) When plugging in or unplugging equipment, the computer must always be shut down.
Never unplug a computer that is turned on. Also, ensure that the power switch is in the “OFF”
position before plugging equipment back in. Damaging power surges often occur when
equipment is plugged in while turned “on.”
(e) It should seem obvious, but you should never eat or drink around computers. Liquid or
crumbs spilled in a keyboard or on removable media can destroy the hardware or data. Also,
there is a danger of electric shock if liquid is spilled on an energized piece of equipment.
(f) It is a very good idea to purchase and use a utility program such as Norton Utilities or
MacTools Pro. These programs scan your disks and hardware for potential problems and can
fix them before they do any damage. They also provide other utilities to recover deleted data,
schedule backups, and optimize the disk speed.
(2) Start-up problems. One of the most common times for a problem to occur is at start
up. When you first switch the computer “on” it runs through several self tests and will report any
problems in a variety of ways. A very common start up error is the “flashing question mark”
icon. This indicates a SCSI error, usually with a hard disk drive. SCSI or Small Computer
Serial Interface is the system used to connect devices such as disk drives, scanners, and
printers to the computer. SCSI connections are both fast and reliable, but can sometimes be
problematic. There are several things to be concerned with when attaching SCSI devices or
troubleshooting SCSI problems.
(a) Each device connected to a SCSI chain must have its own unique ID number. These
numbers are usually set with a dial or push button on the unit. There can be a total of seven
devices attached, but ID number “0” is reserved for the internal start-up disk and number “7”
represents the CPU of the computer itself.
(b) SCSI chains work by sending a small electrical signal through all of the devices
attached to the chain. Each device receives the signal and sends a reply back to the computer.
When the signal gets to the last device on the SCSI chain this signal needs to be stopped. If it
is not stopped it will reflect back down the chain toward the computer, where it will cause errors
or malfunctions. To stop this signal we use a small device called a SCSI Terminator. This is
attached to the empty plug on the last device and absorbs the signal. Some devices have what
is called Internal Termination, which means they have a terminator built in. If your devices are
internally terminated, you must be sure to turn the terminator “off” (usually there is a switch on
the device to do this) on all of the devices except the last one.
(c) When purchasing cables to use with SCSI equipment you should buy the slightly more
expensive shielded cables. These cables have electrical shielding in the insulation to prevent
interference from other equipment. You must also be sure that you use the proper cables and
that all plugs are securely attached and locked in place. All equipment (including the computer)
must be turned “off” when attaching or removing SCSI cables. You should also use the shortest
cables possible, for the best performance.
(d) When starting up a computer with external SCSI devices it is necessary to power up the
external devices before starting up the computer. Failure to do this will prevent the computer
from recognizing the devices and will force you to restart to use the devices.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(3) Periodic software maintenance. There is some periodic maintenance to do that will
prevent problems from happening.
(a) Rebuild the desktop at least monthly.
(b) Keep only one copy of system software on the startup disk. Having more than one
system folder will cause crashes and hangs.
(c) Organize files into folders and hierarchies. Have one folder for applications and keep
all programs there. Have another folder for documents, pictures, and so forth. Do not have
many files just floating around in the system folder or loose in the disks main or root directory.
The better organized your files are, the faster the computer can access them, and the less likely
it is to crash.
(d) Use a disk utility to periodically defrag (optimize) the drive and run a background
diagnostic program that always watches for potential problems.
(e) Do not keep unnecessary System Extensions or Control Panels in the System Folder.
They have the potential to cause conflicts as well as to slow down computer operation.
(4) Hardware Maintenance. While there is no real maintenance to be done on the CPU
portion of the computer, there are a few things that can be done to prolong the life of the
(a) First, be sure to keep any air vents clean and clear. This means do not stack books or
papers on top of or closely beside the computer. You must allow air to flow in and around any
vents. This allows the internal fan to cool the circuits. Occasionally vacuum the area around
the vents to remove any dust that may have collected.
(b) Second, be sure to give any cables or connectors plenty of room. One of the leading
causes of computer malfunctions is a faulty cable. Cables can be damaged by being bent or
crimped, so allow them to attach to the computer and naturally curve away, without forcing them
into a small area. This is especially true with monitors that tilt and swivel. Allow the monitor
cable plenty of slack for free movement. Never place cables near heaters or radiators.
(c) Due to the static electricity nature of monitors, it is important to keep monitors free from
dust. Again, periodically vacuum any dust from the top and side vents. To clean the screen,
spray a small amount of a mild glass cleaner onto a soft cloth and wipe the screen. Never spray
the cleaner directly onto the screen, as it will drip down into the electronics.
(d) Never spill anything into the keyboard. If, however, a liquid is spilled into a keyboard,
immediately turn the computer “off” and turn the keyboard upside down to try to drain any
excess liquid. Next, spray the keyboard off with plain water, a bathtub and showerhead is the
best method. Lastly, dry the keyboard with a hairdryer set to medium/low heat. You may be
able to salvage the keyboard, but do not bet on it. You should also occasionally vacuum the
keyboard to remove any dust or crumbs that have accumulated.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(5) Manufacturer assistance.
(a) Most manufacturers have technical support or “help” lines that can prove to be infinitely
helpful when troubleshooting any problems. You should not immediately call them, however. If
you are experiencing problems, first use the owner's manual to try to diagnose the problem.
Always start at the beginning and ensure that all setup and startup procedures have been
properly accomplished. Usually the biggest cause of computer problems is “operator error.”
(b) If you have established that you do indeed need technical help, first prepare yourself.
Help lines are usually very busy and the representatives do not have time to wait for you.
Gather the following information about your problem and equipment before calling: make/model
of all equipment being used, serial numbers of any software/hardware, all technical information
about your computer, (amount of RAM, hard disk size, additional boards or devices installed,
system software and version number, list of extra extensions or control panels, and so forth).
Also have an emergency floppy or CD-ROM with System Software to start up from. Once you
call, quickly describe the problem with as much detail as possible.
(c) Usually the representative will try to walk you through several steps while on the phone.
For this reason, try to be at the computer when calling. When they tell you to do something,
remember that they cannot see your screen. Be sure to tell them what is happening each step
of the way.
a. Cameras. While it is common to scan regular film images and prints into the computer
for digital handling, the real advantages come when using a digital camera. The full potential of
digital photography, (including the speed, manipulation advantages and minimum of waste)
apply when creating images with a fully digital system. While digital cameras can be expensive
for high quality systems, in the long run, the savings earned pay for the start-up costs.
b. Digital vs. traditional photography.
(1) Traditional photography starts with a regular camera and silver or dye based film. After
the film is exposed, it is removed from the camera and processed in up to seven (for slides)
different chemical baths, washing, and then drying. Once the film is dry, prints can be made.
By projecting the negatives or slides on to photographic paper and again processing using
chemicals, prints are made.
(2) This traditional process has several distinct disadvantages. First is the amount of
waste. If only one image is needed when shooting roll film, an entire roll must be used. This
can become costly. Second, is the amount of time. The processing and printmaking steps take
a minimum of about 15 minutes, using expensive automated processing equipment. Slides take
at least an hour. Third are the hazardous chemicals involved in the process. While not
extremely dangerous, most photo chemicals are at least mildly caustic, and some are rather
hazardous. Last is storage of the chemicals. Not only do the bulky, unused chemicals require
storage, but the hazardous chemical waste also needs to be properly disposed of.
(3) Digital technology does away with many of these problems. Images are taken with a
standard camera that has a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) where the film normally would be
located. After images are taken, they can be immediately previewed on the computer. To
transfer an image to the computer, just double click on it. To print the image, just click on the
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
"Print" button. There is no waste when only a few images are needed. There are no chemicals
to store or dispose of. (Some digital printers use toner cartridges that are meant to be mailed
back to the manufacturer, but the storage and handling of these is negligible compared to
traditional chemicals). Not only are these disadvantages eliminated, the entire process is much
faster and you have the benefits of being able to electronically edit the photos before printing.
(4) There are, of course, advantages to silver-based images. While digital cameras and
associated equipment can produce outstanding images, they do not have anywhere near the
quality of medium and large format film. A second advantage to traditional cameras is
durability. Electronic cameras have yet to be developed that can handle extreme weather and
exposure conditions such as rain forests and arctic conditions.
c. Electronic cameras.
(1) There are two types of electronic cameras: still video and digital. A still video camera
is like a video camera without the tape storage drive. Still-video cameras take analog images in
two passes, first the even rows, then the odd ones. This process is called interlacing, and can
result in fuzzy images with fringing on high contrast scenes. To accommodate this interlacing,
the still video camera has smaller light sensitive cells rather than full-frame CCD used in digital
(2) Digital cameras are designed to provide a digital image from the group up. Since digital
cameras do not require the extra circuitry needed to interlace the image, the light-sensitive cells
can be larger and closer together resulting a higher quality image.
d. Charge coupled devices.
(1) Digital photography (as well as video technology) is based on CCD. A CCD is a
multilayered silicon chip. In one layer a grid of electrodes divides the surface into pixels. Each
electrode is connected to a lead that carries voltage. A color filter layer determines which
primary color (Red, Green or Blue) each pixel senses. The image is electronically formed on a
layer of silicon substrate.
(2) As a CCD is exposed to light an electromagnetic reaction occurs. Light particles pass
through the CCD, freeing electrons in the silicon substrate. A voltage applied to the electrodes
draws the freed electrons to gather in special areas (called photo sites) in the substrate. The
stronger the light, the greater the number of electrons drawn together at that site. The CCD
transfers captured electrons one by one to an analog-to-digital converter, which assigns each
site a digital value corresponding to the number of electrons that site holds. In this way the
image is saved to the disk. The number of electrons in a photo site determines how light or dark
each pixel in the image is.
(3) One consideration with CCD is size. Since most CCDs are smaller than the normal
size of film, the effective focal length of the lens is increased. For example; the Kodak digital
camera DCS 200 and DCS 420 have a CCD that is 9 x 14 mm. This is less than the normal film
size of the 35mm camera (24 x 36 mm) that the camera is based on. Because of this, the
effective focal length is increased by 2.5 times. So, a 50mm normal lens becomes the
equivalent of a 125mm telephoto lens. In the telephoto range this has advantages because a
normal 200mm telephoto becomes a long 500mm super telephoto. But a 20mm wide angle
also becomes a 50mm normal lens. Many photographers use a wide angle often, and this is a
disadvantage of a digital camera system.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(4) This disadvantage can be overcome by using a digital camera with a larger CCD, such
as the Kodak DCS 460. However, these large CCDs are much more expensive to manufacture,
so the cameras are very expensive.
e. Image storage.
(1) Another difference between a traditional film based camera and a digital camera is how
the image is stored once the photo is taken. With a film-based camera, the image is stored on
the film in the form of a latent image. Each roll can only hold a limited number of images, and
when they are all filled a new roll must be inserted. Digital cameras work on a slightly different
principle. After the image is exposed, the digital image is written to built-in memory devices.
(2) There are several different types of storage devices. The DCS 200 has a built in hard
disk drive that can store about 50 images. The drawback to a built in drive is that when the
drive is full, you must connect the camera to a computer to download or delete images to be
able to take more photos. The DC50 has a 1MB hard drive that will store 7-22 images
depending on the quality of the image. This camera can also use a PCMCIA card, similar to the
DCS 420. The DCS 420 uses a removable PCMCIA (or "PC") card. This card is about the size
of a small stack of credit cards, and has a mini hard disk inside. This hard disk can be various
sizes up to about 230 Mb, capable of taking about 60 images per disk. The benefit of using a
removable PC card is that once one card is full, another can be immediately inserted.
(3) Some of the less expensive digital cameras store images in battery powered internal
memory chips called Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EPROM). The disadvantage
to this memory option is that you must download the images when the memory is full. Also, if
the batteries die, you will lose the images.
a. Printers.
(1) While creating documents and images on the computer is fun and challenging, the real
reward comes from having printed output; called a "hardcopy," a paper or film print of your work
that can easily be displayed or reproduced. While it may sound easy to make a print, there are
many different facets to the outputting process. Color management, resolution, and line screen
are just a few of the complex aspects of printing.
(2) Printer Basics. Basically printers consist of: a paper transport system, a marking
engine and a controller. Paper transport is normally belt or roller driven. The marking engine
creates the marks on the page and is driven by a print controller.
(3) To create an image, most printers break the image down into small dots called
halftones. The dots in this halftone screen control how much ink is deposited at a specific
location. Varying the size of the dot creates the optical illusion of variations of gray or
continuous color in the image. In the case of a color printout, four halftone screens are used:
cyan, magenta, yellow, and black (C,M,Y,K); one for each of the four Process colors.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
b. Types of output.
(1) Line Art is just that, illustrations or pictures made from solid lines and shapes. Line art
is black and white only, with no grays, shadings, or colors. Sometimes line art is printed as a
single color, such as red or blue, but the art source is always black and white (or a single color
on white) lines only. The text you are reading is line art, it's fully black with no shades of gray or
(2) When you take a photo, the resulting image is continuous tone. To your eye, the
picture contains even transitions of color across its surface. Curved elements are smooth in
their transition from light to dark. In the case of a close-up photo of a young girl's face, there is
no noticeable jump in color between the top and bottom of her cheeks. This natural appearing
graduation is called continuous tone because the color transitions are even and smooth.
Photographs are actually made up of dots like a computer image, but these tiny particles are so
numerous, random, and small that they are undetectable without a strong magnifying glass.
(3) Unfortunately, the most popular printing technology today, the lithographic press, can
only print a solid ink dot or no ink at all. To print a continuous tone photograph, a solution had
to be devised that would allow continuous tones to be printed as a series of dots. The solution
is simple: to produce a gray, print only part of a dot and leave part of it white. That way, the
paper shows through next to each dot. To the eye, this mix of white paper and a black dot
appears as a gray. To create a darker gray, larger black dots let less white show through. To
make a lighter gray, smaller dots let more paper show through. This is called halftoning, a term
you will hear frequently in publishing.
c. Printer types.
(1) A dot matrix printer uses a set of pins or tiny wires that impact on an inked ribbon. Dot
matrix printers have as many as 25 to 30 pins. The number of pins a printer has, and the
number of passes the pin set makes for each line of type, determines the quality of the output.
A second type of impact printer is the daisy wheel printer. These printers have high quality (up
to 700 dpi), but don't offer graphics printing, because each character is on a separate wheel or
ball and must be loaded onto the print mechanism, whereas dot matrix printers can create any
pattern of dots.
(2) Ink jet printers are low-cost, moderate-quality printers that can print either black and
white or color output with medium resolution. They operate by squirting ink under pressure
through small holes in the print head. Ink jet printers are quite reliable, and a good low-cost
solution for desktop publishing and graphics. Using Adobe Type Manager's ability to scale
fonts, its print quality can be nearly indistinguishable from a laser printer. Ink used in ink jet
printers dries fast but not instantly, and care should be taken in handling fresh copy to avoid
smudges. A related technology called bubble jet printing uses heated bubbles to force ink
through the nozzles.
(3) Laser printers are based on the xerographic process developed for photocopy
machines. The printer gets its name from the computer-guided laser that writes the latent
image on a photosensitive drum. Electrostatic toner is then attracted by static attraction created
by a transfer corona, an electric field created by a very hot wire. Laser printers are graphics
page printers, meaning that whole pages are composed in RAM either in the printer itself or in
the computer, and then printed. Most laser printers are built with a CPU to speed up the
processing, and come with 1 to 2 Mb of RAM, often upgradeable. As driving the laser requires
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
considerable data, the instructions must be stored in the laser printer prior to the actual printing.
At 300 dpi, 8 million bits of data occupies about 1 Mb of RAM. Most laser printers can print from
5 to 10 pages per minute. Although they are a complex technology, laser printers have
excellent reliability and can print several hundred thousand pages or more before failure.
(4) Some of the most common types of color printers are called thermal transfer printers.
Most of the high-priced color printers in the $5,000 to $12,000 range are based on this
technology. These printers use dye, dyed ribbons, colored plastic or wax or some other
material that can be melted onto the page. Often the transfer mechanism in the print head is a
set of heated elements similar to those in impact printers. The paper makes three or four
passes through the printer to transfer the process colors. This may result in registration
problems, where the colors do not all line up properly. Most high quality thermal transfer
printers lay down all of the colors in a single pass.
(5) The second kind of color printing is called continuous tone, or "contone." These have
near photographic quality because the colors are blended together in a single pixel. One class
of thermal transfer printers, dye-sublimation printers, uses nearly the same mechanism as
thermal transfer printers to achieve high quality contone printing. These types of printers have
resolutions up to about 400 dpi.
(6) An image setter is a precision printer that uses a laser to expose photosensitive paper
or film. Imagesetters can produce either a piece of lithographic film that is used to make a
printing plate, or some newer imagesetters can print directly onto a printing plate.
(7) A film recorded prints directly to a piece of film (from 35mm up to 8x10). Because film
is a continuous tone medium, film recorders offer some of the best resolution output you can
achieve from computers. Low-cost film recorders in the $1,000 to $7,000 range employ
miniature monochrome cathode ray tubes (CRT) inside a sealed light box; less expensive
analog recorders use color CRTs inside a box but have the limitation of poor resolution.
(8) A Raster Image Processor (RIP) is a computer that converts the code from a desktop
publishing system into a format acceptable to the imager. It takes the lines and curves that
make up graphics, plus the bitmaps that make up halftones, and renders them as a series of
pixels matched to the resolution of the specific imager being used. The RIP begins by breaking
the file into individual objects, which it processes one by one until it has built a complete highresolution bitmap. The RIP then passes the bitmap to the printer, where the actual spots are
placed onto the paper. A major concern with RIP is the speed of the processor. Because the
overall speed of the RIP is dependent on the amount of RAM it contains, most of the newer
RIPs have increased memory so that it doesn't hold back the rest of the system.
d. Resolution and dots per inch (DPI).
(1) The main difference between an inexpensive ink jet printer and an expensive
imagesetter is resolution. Low quality dot matrix printers can create a dot size of around 7mm
(around 150 dpi) these are referred to as letter or near-letter quality printers. Laser printers
commonly have dot resolutions of 3.3 mm or 300 dpi. This moderate quality permits sharp type
down to around 6 point size, and mediocre digital images. Some newer laser printers can print
at higher quality, around 600 dpi.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(2) Imagesetters have dot resolutions of 0.4 mm or 2,450 dpi! This is high quality that
results in sharp type to around 3 point and medium quality digital images. Put another way,
desktop printers produce ragged dots, image setters produce clean dots.
(3) An understanding of resolution is central to effective printing and scanning. The
standard measurement of resolution is dots per inch, or DPI. This number specifies the number
of dots scanned, displayed or printed within one square inch. A Macintosh screen has a
resolution of 72 pixels per inch (ppi), which means that each square inch is composed of 72 by
72 dots (when discussing monitors, these dots are called pixels).
(a) When scanning, the input resolution is the precision at which an image is captured.
This resolution is set before the scan is made, although the resolution can be changed from
within image editing programs.
(b) The Mac's screen resolution is always 72 ppi. So, if you are looking at a color image
scanned at 300 dpi on screen and displayed at actual size, you aren't really seeing all of the
information, because the computer monitor can't display it.
(c) The output resolution is specified when the image is output to film on an image setter.
This resolution is specified in dpi. Different models of imaging equipment are capable of
different levels of resolution, starting at 1,270 dpi and going beyond 3,000 dpi. You can output a
scan at a higher resolution than it was scanned with, but the result looks flat because the
additional dots are created through interpolation, a mathematical guessing process.
e. Service bureaus. Service bureaus are companies that provide computer output in a
variety of forms: as film separations, slides, transparencies, and color proofs. They can take
Postscript files created on the desktop computer and from them, generate high-resolution film
ready to be reproduced by an offset press. Service bureaus can provide high-quality film and
image setter output because they have many customers and invest in expensive printers. It is
not economical for a small organization to purchase an image setter for only a few prints, when
a service bureau may already have the equipment.
f. Fonts/typefaces.
(1) When type was crafted out of lead, a printer's type collection could literally weigh a ton.
Each size and style of a typeface was a new font, and a type family consisted of many fonts in
different sizes and styles. Transporting a large type library from place to place was unthinkable.
Phototype, which succeeded metal type, was produced in only three sizes: small for captions,
medium for text, and large for displays. Intermediate sizes were obtained by varying the focal
length of the projection lens, but many shops used just one size to produce all other sizes of
(2) Phototype is fragile, and like metal type, can wear out with constant use. Today's
digital type is easily stored on floppy disks that are easily transported. Digital technology
redefined the term font. Now a single design is scaled to generate all sizes of type.
(3) Most current digital fonts use one of two core technologies: PostScript, developed by
Adobe, and TrueType, developed jointly by Apple Computer and Microsoft Corporation. To
understand these technologies, you need to know how monitors and printers display pictures.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(a) Computer displays are made up of a grid of tiny dots called pixels. Computers display
type and other images on the screen by turning pixels on or off. This display method is called a
bitmap; a bit (short for binary digit) is the smallest unit of information the computer can use,
representing one of two values: on or off.
(b) Instead of describing letters as a collection of dots, PostScript and TrueType fonts
describe each character as a set of mathematical outlines. A special piece of software called a
rasterizer uses this single outline description to create many different sizes of bitmaps at the
right resolution for the output device.
(c) The rasterizer may be built into a printer, as with PostScript printers, or it may be a
program that runs on the computer itself. Adobe Type Manager (ATM) is a program that
rasterizes PostScript fonts both for on-screen use and for printing to non-PostScript printers.
The TrueType rasterizer is built into the computer's operating systems, and is also included in
some recent PostScript printers. PostScript fonts consist of two separate files: a bitmapped
(screen) font and an outline (printer) font.
(4) All computer platforms use a character set based on American Standard Code for
Information Interchange (ASCII), which allows 256 characters. The first 128 characters are
taken up by the upper and lowercase alphabet, numerals, and standard punctuation. These
characters are defined the same way on all computer platforms. Each platform handles the
remaining 128 extended characters differently (accented characters, ligatures, special
punctuation, and so forth) so translation between platforms can be problematic when using
documents with extended characters.
g. Printing software.
(1) PostScript language.
(a) PostScript provides a consistent format for handling files on different computers.
PostScript is actually a programming language for defining pages.
(b) The power of PostScript is that it is capable of accommodating a wide variety of images
and is "device independent." This means that once a file is created in this format, it can be
output on any device with a PostScript interpreter, and the file will print correctly. The same
Postscript file that produces a page at 300 dpi on a laser printer can be produced on an
imagesetter at 2,400 dpi.
(c) Adobe has created a standard (called Type l) for describing PostScript fonts.
PostScript optimizes the placement and arrangement of the dots on the page so that each
character will look good printed or displayed at any size.
(2) QuickDraw. QuickDraw is the Macintosh's internal screen drawing language,
developed by Apple and used for representing type and graphics on Macintosh monitors.
QuickDraw's primary purpose is to represent information on screen, but it can also output
images to printers and other devices. QuickDraw translates this information into
representations compatible with a video display. QuickDraw can represent complicated images
on the screen, but is not as powerful or accurate for printing documents as PostScript.
QuickDraw does not create files that can be manipulated like PostScript files.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(3) Adobe type manager.
(a) ATM, the acronym for the Adobe Type Manager accurately renders PostScript
typefaces on a Macintosh monitor the same way they will print. QuickDraw without ATM cannot
render most typefaces smoothly or accurately. ATM is a system extension that replaces
QuickDraw's type rendering commands with its own. Without ATM, twelve-point type may look
fine inside word processing software, but larger sizes, italic faces, and characters with swirls
and flourishes may be barely readable. With ATM installed, all Type 1 fonts will become fully
readable in all sizes and formats.
(b) ATM is also important for printing on non-PostScript devices, because it can be used to
replace QuickDraw's font routines and produce smooth output for Adobe Type 1 fonts.
(4) Font handling software.
(a) When using a Macintosh, all of your fonts must go in a special folder in the system
folder. When you turn the computer on, or launch a program, the system software scans this
font folder and loads the fonts into the application. The more fonts you have installed, the more
system memory is used to manage them. While an average user probably does not have the
need for more than a dozen fonts, printing professionals may have hundreds of fonts.
(b) To free valued RAM space we may use font management software, such as Suitcase II
or Master Juggler. The programs allow you to store your fonts anywhere you like. You create
sets of fonts to load with each program or document. This is useful, because only needed fonts
are loaded, but all are accessible. Without these utilities, you have to manually move fonts in
and out of the font folder and then restart the computer, a time consuming process.
(c) Another handy font utility displays font listings in the actual typeface of the font. Without
this software, you must either print out sample sheets or change some text to see the actual
style of a font. One application that does this is called Menu Fonts.
h. Quality control/color management.
(1) Color calibration. As digital technology becomes more popular, it is even more
important to be sure that you are producing the best possible results. One of the most
challenging aspects of digital photography and graphic design is to make sure that your final
output looks as good as it does on the computer screen. There are several things that we can
do to help in this process.
(a) Keeping the light constant. An important aspect of the calibration process is to maintain
consistent lighting throughout your workspace. For example, working in a dimly lit room with
neutral colored walls minimizes interference from changing daylight and from color reflections
from clothing, both of which can interfere with perception of color on-screen.
(b) Accounting for the artists eye. Another aspect is calibrating for perception. Each
person sees color and tone differently. What may look good to one person looks bad to
another. The operator can compare an image file to several color proof prints of the same file.
With the proof in hand and the image on the calibrated monitor screen, you can choose the
printed version that, to your own eye, most closely matches the on-screen image.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(2) Device calibration.
(a) The first step in calibration is to display and output a test target, including a neutral gray
wedge, fleshtone, and RGB/CMYK color wedges. Output a test to as many devices as you
have (printers, film recorders, copiers, and so forth). Next, using the screen gamma software
supplied with your monitor calibrator, adjust the display to match the printed material as closely
as possible.
(b) If you are using a Macintosh, your monitor should be calibrated with a luminance
measuring device, like the ones available from display manufacturers. This helps to adjust the
monitor's CRT guns so that they reproduce the correct intensity relative to the input they receive
from the video card.
(c) Several adjustment tools found in Adobe Photoshop can be used to control the color,
brightness, and contrast of scanned images before they are turned into custom prints, halftones,
and color separations. Primarily found under the "Image" menu and the "Adjust" sub-menu,
they are "Levels," "Curves," "Brightness/Contrast," "Color Balance," and "Hue/Saturation"
a. Scanners.
(1) Digital photography has many possibilities and uses. We can store images for years
with no image loss. We can quickly and easily file, edit, and print these images. Special effects
are now easily within reach. What about all of the images taken before the advent of the
computer? What about the images that we are still taking with our current film based cameras?
(2) By learning to use scanners we can transfer the negatives, prints, and slides that we
already have into the computer and then have all of the digital benefits described above.
Scanners also allow us to use any art, image or text that we already have in out digital
b. Scanning basics.
(1) A scanner converts the analog images that we already have (negatives, slides, flat art,
and so forth) into digital signals that the computer can handle. There are two basic types of
scanners: film and flatbed.
(a) A film scanner can either be a small desktop accessory or a large professional prepress (called a drum scanner) model. Film scanners transmit a high intensity light through the
(positive or negative, B&W or Color) film. The light then passes through a series of color filters
and a lens onto a light detector, where electronics convert the analog image information to
digital data. Slide scanners are typically of a higher resolution and have better detail and focus
than flatbed scanners. These type of scanners come in many sizes and prices, and can handle
film from 35mm up to 4x5 or larger.
(b) A flatbed scanner resembles a photocopier: the lid is lifted and the original image is
placed, face down, on the glass. Beneath the glass, a motorized scan head travels the length of
the page on tiny rails, illuminating the original and measuring the intensity of the reflected light.
Many flatbed scanners now accept an optional transparency adapter, for scanning slides and
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
transparencies. These scanners can be used to scan any type of flat art: text, illustrations,
paintings, and so forth.
(2) There are other types of scanners, those based on video camera chips, that are
generally low-end and do not provide high quality images.
c. Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs). A CCD is an electronic chip that reads and
measures light and converts it to digital signals for the computer. There are two types of CCDs
used in scanning devices: linear and array.
(1) Linear CCD scanners.
(a) Scanners employ a linear CCD array, which consists of several thousand chargecoupled device elements arranged in a row on a single silicon chip. Reflective originals are lit
by a fluorescent or halogen light source. The light source moves the length of the original and
then a mirror directs consecutive lines of image data onto the stationary CCD array.
(b) The full width of an image is read line by line as the sensor and light move the length of
the scanning area. Light of a specific color and intensity falling on each CCD element creates a
proportional electrical charge within it. An "analog-to-digital converter" turns the voltages from
the CCD array into digital values that correspond to image pixels.
(c) Grayscale scanners take a single set of light intensity readings from originals. Color
scanners capture three sets of readings from color originals by using red, green, and blue filters.
Scanners that incorporate a single linear CCD array sometimes rotate an RGB color filter wheel
in the lens unit before each of the three separate passes of the original are made. Single-pass
scanners may use three linear CCD arrays, which are individually coated to filter red, green, and
blue. The same image data is focused onto each array simultaneously.
(2) Array CCDs. The other type of CCD is an array CCD. Where a linear CCD moves the
length of the image area, an array CCD is larger and physically covers the entire image. Most
scanners use linear CCDs, array CCD's are usually found in digital cameras. Array chips are
more expensive to manufacture, because instead of being a few thousand pixels long and one
pixel wide, they must be the same dimension as the image to be recorded; usually a few
thousand pixels in length and width.
d. Scanning terms. To most people the world of scanning is completely foreign, with
many new terms and concepts. Most of us have worked with computers and traditional
photography, so these areas are not totally foreign, but scanning is almost completely new to
us. There are several key terms that we must first understand to be able to effectively use a
(1) Final resolution.
(a) When we are preparing to scan, the first concern we have is how the image is going to
be printed (or displayed). It is important to scan with enough detail to get a good output. It is
also important to conserve disk space and image processing speed by not scanning too much
information into a file. If we scan at the maximum resolution and we are only going to be
displaying the image on a screen, we are wasting space and time. This is called over scanning.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(b) If we scan a 4x5 inch image at 72 dpi our file size will be about 365 Kb, if however, we
scanned the same image at 300 dpi the file would be about 6 Mb, requiring about 20 times more
storage space and processing time. You can see how important it is to determine the proper
scan resolution.
(c) Desktop printers have resolutions measured in dots-per-inch (DPI). By knowing the
DPI of our intended output device we can tailor the scanner settings to only provide enough
information to give us a good output. The general rule for determining scanning resolution is
two times the final output resolution. For example, if our images will be printed to a 400 dpi
color laser copier, we should set the final resolution to 800 dpi (400 x 2 = 800) before we scan.
(d) Printer resolution depends on the type and brand of printer you are using. Consult your
owners manual for your printers maximum dpi. However, most B&W laser printers have an
output of 300 or 600 dpi, while color laser copiers are around 400 dpi. The Kodak XLS-8600 PS
dye sublimation printer has a 300 dpi output capability.
(e) You may also hear the term pixel-per-inch or PPI. This number is sometimes used
interchangeably with DPI, however they are not exactly the same. PPI is the numbers of pixels
per inch, and this should be used when referring to a monitor. Macintosh monitors have a
display resolution of 72 PPI, although most people just say "72 dpi."
(f) Scanners are classified by their maximum resolution; for example one scanner may be a
300 dpi scanner while another is a 1200 dpi model. These numbers mean that that scanner can
scan up to the maximum indicated dpi value. Some scanners (as well as some printers) use
software technology to increase the stated maximums. This is called interpolation. By
analyzing the picture elements of an image, scanning software may increase the resolution by
adding pixels between other pixels. By "guessing" at what color the software thinks the new
pixel should be based on the surrounding pixels. This technology helps get better results, but
an interpolated 600 dpi scanner will not give as good results as a "true" 600 dpi device. Some
laser printers do the same thing, guess at intermediate pixels, to help increase resolution.
Interpolation doesn't add detail to a scan, it just helps smooth information that is there and
reduces "jaggies" often seen in computer output.
(2) Line screen. High-end outputting devices (image setters) produce images on four
different plates or pieces of film. Each plate represents the information of one of the CMYK
colors. To create the image, pictures are printed as a series of dots, called a halftone screen.
The larger the dot, the darker the color appears, if you are preparing scans that will be printed
by this process, you need to know the halftone screen frequency, expressed in lines-per-inch
(LPI). This number, expressed as 135-line screen is similar to the DPI value above.
e. Types of images to be scanned. We may come across many different types of images
that we want to scan: color, B&W, line art, and so forth. Knowing how the scanner handles
each type of image, we can be assured of getting the best quality with the smallest file size.
(1) Line art. Line art, drawings or illustrations that only contain black and white lines and
no gray tones are easy to scan. Set your scanner to the "Line" mode or "Black and White." The
only quality issue is proper density. Be sure that once scanned, the desired white areas are
(2) Grayscale. Black and white photos and shaded art can be scanned as grayscale
images. Select the proper DPI of your printer and choose how many gray levels you desire.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
You again must be sure that you have a true white. You can control this in either your scanning
software or image enhancement software but remember it is always better to fix problems in the
(3) Continuous tone color.
(a) The most complicated images (and most often scanned) are color images that have
many different tones. We need to be sure that we scan correctly to preserve all of the detail of
the original. Most scanning software has pre-set values for different film or image types, but we
must not rely on these automatic features.
(b) It is best to perform a pre-scan and then judge the quality. Use the scanning controls to
perfect the image before the actual scan. Although it is possible to correct a bad scan, it is best
to get it right the first time. Much like traditional photography, we can make an acceptable print
from a poorly exposed negative, but we will never get super quality.
(c) When scanning images that have previously been halftone printed (art or photos from
books and magazines) you will sometimes get an odd pattern called a moir pattern. This is
caused by the overlap of the halftone screen that the scanner uses and the halftone screen in
the printed material. To reduce this, you must unsharpen the image after scanning. Some
scanners attempt to reduce the moir pattern during the scanning process. Be aware of
copyright regulations, when scanning pre-printed materials.
f. Optical Character Recognition (OCR).
(1) Software that can read typed pages is called Optical Character Recognition, or OCR.
When we type a page of text into a computer, we enter the actual letters that we want displayed.
These letters are converted to binary code that the computer can understand. We can go back
at any time to change parts of the document. When we scan a page of text, all we have is a
picture of the page. The computer sees light and dark areas on a blank background, not words
and sentences. We are not able to change this text at all. If we use OCR software we may be
able to get some editable text.
(2) OCR software works by comparing the patterns of light and dark areas of the scan to
known shapes of letters. The software is programmed to identify lines and curves and compare
them to the shapes of letters in the alphabet. Generally, OCR is accurate, but we must always
proofread the result. There are several things that we can do to increase the accuracy of OCR
(a) First, we should use a mono-spaced font when we plan to OCR a scanned document.
These fonts keep each letter the same space from their neighboring letters. This helps the OCR
software determine where one letter stops and another starts.
(b) Last, make sure that you have a clean copy to scan. You may get better results if you
photocopy a fax before scanning in for OCR. Adjusting the density and contrast may also
produce better results. Remember, ALWAYS carefully proofread and spell check text that has
come from an OCR program.
g. Scanning with different scanners.
(1) Nikon Coolscan Film scanner.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(a) The Coolscan is a small, desktop scanner that is designed to scan 35mm slides or
negatives. The Coolscan has a Photoshop plug-in that we will use to acquire images. The
Coolscan is a SCSI device that plugs directly into the Macintosh.
(b) Film is inserted into the Coolscan emulsion up, either in a slide mount or in the provided
film strip holder. Gently push the film in as far as it will go without forcing it. Now, use the
Photoshop "Acquire" option found under the "File" menu to choose "Nikon Scanner." You will
get the Nikon Scanner plug-in dialog box.
(c) This dialog box provides many options for image type, resolution, cropping, and so
forth. Consult the Coolscan User's Guide for detailed instructions and Coolscan usage tips.
(2) Apple ColorOne, Microtec 600 ZS , Umax UC1260 Scanners. These scanners are
all high-resolution flatbed scanner that can scan in full color. They accept material up to 8.5 x
14 inches. They too are SCSI devices that can be chained to other devices attached to the
Macintosh. Like all flatbed scanners (and copiers) material to be scanned is placed face down,
flush with one corner on the glass beneath the cover. Operation of each of these scanners is
similar, but consult the appropriate users manual or software instructions for detailed guidance.
(3) Color calibration.
(a) As we have learned, getting consistent color from the original to the scanned image in
the computer and then out of the printer is the most challenging part of electronic imaging.
(b) Each device has a different procedure for calibration. Usually, you scan a calibration
target or image and then print it to your normal output devices. You next use a monitor
calibration program to visually change the output of your monitor to make it compare to the
original and to the print. You can either visually compare the two samples or use a
densitometer to check the actual color values. Some output devices (film recorders and highend printers) allow you to calibrate their output as well. Check the operator's manuals for your
outputting devices (as well as your scanners) for procedures on calibration and consistency.
a. Presentations. A computer and presentation software together can help you make
convincing presentations or speeches. The power of the computer to combine graphics,
images, text, sound, and video is unmatched. By following basic rules and guidelines, you can
make electronic presentations that will convey your point in a professional manner.
Presentation software also speeds up the process of preparing for a presentation. On the other
hand, improperly used, presentation software will make your work hard to understand and
unwieldy. There is a fine line between an effective presentation and a confusing display.
b. Preparation. The key to producing an effective presentation is organization. It is a
good idea to sit down and think about a few things before beginning to work:
(1) Why am I giving this presentation?
(a) This is perhaps the most important question to ask before creating a presentation.
Without a firm grasp of what the ultimate goal of the presentation is, the entire show will appear
unorganized and ineffective. You need to decide not only what the topic is, but also what you
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
want the audience to leave with. Try to create a firm concise statement that will be your goal,
for instance:
(b) At the end of my presentation, my audience will have a working knowledge of how a
black and white laser printer works. Including: how the image is placed on the paper and made
permanent, how the toner is handled in the printer, and how paper is transported through the
(c) As you can see by this example, we now have a clear goal for our presentation. We will
be able to refer back to this goal whenever we need to clarify our direction. Also, we will look at
this goal after we have finished creating the presentation to see if we did indeed obtain our goal.
(2) How much time do I have to give the show? We need to know our time limitations
before we start. It would be silly to try to produce an effective presentation using the above goal
if we knew that we only had fifteen minutes to give our showing. We may need to go back and
change our goal if we realize that we are restricted by time.
(3) What is my audience's knowledge level? It is important to know the audience you
will be presenting to before creating anything. We must have an idea what our audience's
knowledge level is, and then try to tailor our goal. Our presentation must be challenging, but not
too hard. We do not want our presentation to be too simple either, or the audience may feel as
if we are condescending to them.
(4) What will the presentation media be? The last thing we need to look at is how we
will be giving the presentation. Although a good presentation can be presented in a variety of
ways, it is best if we know what media will be used. If we are using a screen, videotape or video
projector we will be able to use more video and sound. If it is going to be printed and handed
out, then we will not use color, because color printing is probably cost prohibitive.
c. Arrangement. Once we have a basic knowledge of what our presentation goal is, it is
time to begin arranging and gathering information. It is important to gather a wide variety of
important related material.
(1) Information. The type of information that we will use depends on the topic of our
presentation. We can use equipment owner's manuals, magazine/newspaper articles, library
books, reports, and factual statistics. It is important to gather a wide variety of important related
material. The more material and research we have the more professional our presentation will
be. Also, if we present facts, data, numbers and figures, our presentations will have more
credibility than if we just give opinions or statements. It is also important to find graphics,
illustrations, and charts to incorporate into the show. These types of information are easier to
understand than long text descriptions or rows and columns of numbers. Remember, the easier
it is to understand a presentation, the more information the audience will retain.
(2) Outline. Now that we know the types of information that we have available to use we
need to create an outline. We should do this in a standard outline format; even better, we
should do it in Microsoft Word. Our presentation software, PowerPoint, allows us to import
Word outlines directly into a slide show for very easy presentation set-up.
(a) The outline should begin with some sort of introduction and end with a closing where
you restate your main points. Do not put too much information into the outline at this point.
Concentrate on getting a logical smooth flow. Try to include an entry for every major point that
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
you want to make, and then put more and more information into logical sequence under the
appropriate headings.
(b) Go through all of your references and data and make notes as to where you feel the
information fits best in the outline. Do not create any graphs or charts; just get an idea as to
where information should be placed.
(c) Now that we are reasonably well organized, it is time to start creating the presentation
using Microsoft PowerPoint. (Although we will learn PowerPoint, the same principles apply to
any presentation application.)
d. Microsoft PowerPoint. PowerPoint is an extremely easy to use and effective
presentation application. It is part of the Microsoft Office suite of applications that all work
together to blend text, graphs, and illustrations into one seamless show. The first step in
creating a presentation with PowerPoint is to choose a slide background (PowerPoint calls each
screen of information a "slide"). PowerPoint has an option called "Wizards" that automates
presentation production; we will not cover this option, because you have more control if you
create the show manually.
(1) When you first launch PowerPoint you are presented with the Startup dialog box. From
this box we will choose "Template" to create a new presentation, and choose the background
template. PowerPoint has many built-in colorful backgrounds and templates to choose from.
These templates not only are professionally colored and designed, they also have formats for
many different types of slides. Templates are helpful for creating both beginner and advanced
(2) When you choose "Template" you are presented with a dialog box to locate the
templates. They are in a folder called "Templates." Inside this folder there are several folders
of templates depending on which type of presentation you will be doing. Choose the
appropriate type of template (slide, screen, overhead) for the presentation you want to create.
(3) Once you have selected the presentation style, you next choose the slide layout for the
first slide. Using the pre-configured templates makes presentation production easy. There are
many different slide layouts to choose from. These layouts use different color schemes, design
elements, and organization to provide you with different "feels" for your presentations. All you
do is scroll through the layouts and double click on the one that you want to use for the first
slide. Generally a title slide is best for the first slide.
(4) Now you must decide on a title for the first slide. Usually the name of the presentation,
or something similar is best. To add text, simply click on the area that is labeled "Click to add
title". You now have a title slide! Let's take a look at the parts of the PowerPoint presentation
window. This is the window that we will use to create our presentations.
e. PowerPoint Presentation Window.
(1) On the left edge of the screen is the "Drawing Toolbar" this provides you with tools you
can use to create illustrations on your slides. Most of these tools are self-explanatory and the
best way to learn them is to just try them out.
(2) Like all Macintosh programs, there is a menu bar across the top of the screen. This
contains all of the normal commands found in a menu bar, such as options for saving, printing,
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
viewing, and so forth. We will not explain every feature of the menu bar here, but will refer to
commands here as needed.
(3) Beneath the menu bar is the Standard Toolbar. As we have said, PowerPoint is part of
the Microsoft Office, so the Standard Toolbar is similar to other Office applications. We find
icons here to save, print, cut, copy, paste, and so forth. There are also icons that represent
importing Excel graphs and Word tables. A zoom box also allows you to quickly change the
size of the on-screen image.
(4) Next is the Formatting Toolbar. This is located directly under the Standard Toolbar and
contains all of the standard text formatting options. There is a font and size window, as well as
other normal text handling functions.
(5) The main part of the screen is the presentation window. This is where the actual slides
will be shown while you are creating them. In addition to scroll bars, there are five buttons in the
lower left corner. These buttons control the on screen view of the presentation.
(a) The button on the far left is the slide view button. This button is used to view individual
slides. You also have editing controls to add/change text or graphics in this viewing mode.
(b) To the right of the Slide view button is the Outline view button. This is used to view the
presentation in outline mode. From here you can work on the title and body text of each slide.
You can also easily import outlines from Word into a presentation.
(c) The center button is used to view the presentation in slide sorter mode. This would be
similar to viewing a group of slides on a light table. You can move individual or groups of slides
around. This is a convenient way to polish a presentation after the text and graphics have been
(d) Notes Pages view: PowerPoint allows you to create and print a lecture notes page.
This is a page that has the actual slide printed on it, as well as an area for you to enter any
notes that you might want to add.
(e) The last button on the right is the Slide Show view. This button is used to view the slide
as it will appear on the computer screen during an electronic presentation. By clicking on this
screen, the slide is enlarged to fill the screen and all menu and tool bars are removed. Clicking
the mouse button will switch to the next slide in the show. This is a convenient way to preview
the actual presentation.
f. Creating a presentation. Now that we are familiar with the PowerPoint interface and we
have decided on the basics of the presentation setup, it is time to add information to the body of
the presentation. Perhaps the easiest and fastest way to get started is to either import or create
an outline in the Outline view. This will give you a basic list of slides that you can then add
information to.
(1) To create the outline, first click on the Outline view button. The information you entered
onto the first slide will be on the first line. This represents slide number one. To add a new
slide simply press "return," you can now add information to the title of the second slide.
(2) When presenting material, it is best to use bullet statements rather than long text
blocks. It is hard for an audience to read long passages on a screen. Ideally, you should have
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
simple bullets only a few words long that get your point across. When you give the
presentation, you will be able to expand on any points that need to be discussed. Remember,
the slides are designed to enhance your presentation, not replace the presentation.
(3) To create bullet statements, simply click on the arrow button on the far right side of the
Formatting toolbar. This button will demote the text on the line to the next lower level. To add a
bullet character on the line of text, click on the bullet icon, also on the Formatting toolbar. You
can handle text in all normal ways in the outline mode. You can change font, size, formatting,
and so forth.
(4) Now that you have all of your information entered into the outline format it is best to
switch to the "Slide View" mode to look through the slides. From this view of each slide you can
judge the basic flow of the presentation. You are also ready to format any of the text in any
special ways. Just use the arrow pointer to click and select the text. You can now change the
text size, color, justification, and so forth. Once you have created enough slides to cover all of
your material, you are ready to add graphics and illustrations.
g. Graphic slides.
(1) PowerPoint makes it easy to draw simple shapes and other objects that you can then
use in your presentation. Perhaps the easiest way to draw is to use the AutoShapes Toolbar.
Click on the icon in the Drawing Toolbar, to get the AutoShapes Toolbar. This box will give you
a selection of 24 commonly used shapes. Click on the desired shape and then simply drag on
the slide window to place and resize the shape.
(2) To draw freehand objects, simply use the "Freeform Tool." With this tool you can click
in different spots to draw straight lines, or drag to draw free curved lines. Once you have
completed your drawing, you can handle your drawing in the same manner as any of the
(3) Once we have the shape placed we can then edit its color, size, and position.
(a) To change its color, use the arrow icon from the Drawing Toolbar to select the items.
(Click near the border of the shape to select it.) Next, click on the "Fill (on/off)" button also on
the Drawing Toolbar. This will fill the item with the default color. To change the default color or
to add a pattern to the color choose "Colors and Lines..." from the "Format" menu.
(b) It is easy to change the size or dimensions of an object. Simply select the object (as
above) and then drag on any of the control handles (small dots that surround the selected
object). In this manner you can resize the object or change it proportionally. If you hold down
the "shift" key while dragging a corner, the dimensions will stay proportional.
(c) Position and rotation are two different ways to change the location of an object. To
reposition the object on the slide, select it and then move the cursor into the middle of the
object. Now just drag it around on the screen.
(d) To rotate it, again select it then click on the "Free Rotate Tool" in the Drawing Toolbar.
Now drag from any of the selected corner points. This will freely rotate the object to any desired
angle. You could also select the object and choose "Rotate/Flip" from the "Draw" menu. This
option allows you to flip or rotate in 90o increments.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(4) Professionally drawn clip art can make any presentation look better. PowerPoint allows
you to import art from either the Microsoft Clip art collection or from other art sources. To add
Microsoft art choose "Clip Art" under the "Insert" menu. Just scroll through the art and choose
the art to add. To add other art (or photographs) choose "Picture" from the "Insert" menu.
Navigate to the appropriate disk or folder and select the item to add. Images in the following
formats can be added: PICT, TIFF, EPS or MacPaint. Once Clip Art or photographs have been
added, they can be resized, moved or rotated just as other graphics.
h. Graphs/chart.
(1) Graphs and charts can be used to present data in easy to understand formats.
PowerPoint can be used to create graphs using the accompanying Microsoft Chart application.
(2) To add a graph/chart, create a new slide and click on the "Chart" button on the
Formatting toolbar. The application Microsoft Chart will launch.
(3) You will be presented with a standard example data sheet. The easiest way to create a
graph is to change the information in this data sheet to reflect your own needs. You will need to
change the actual data, along with the headings and labels. Clicking in the data field will allow
you to change each entry. If you are importing information done in Microsoft Excel, all you need
to use is the import Excel information button.
(4) There are many different types of charts available. Depending on your type of
information, you can create: Pie graphs, bar graphs (horizontal or vertical), scatter diagrams,
and several others. You can also create either two- or three-dimensional charts of each type.
To change the graph type, pull down on the "Chart Type" drop down menu. Drag to the desired
chart type to preview your data in different chart types.
(5) You can add Legends and labels to the chart using the "Add Legend" button on the
Standard Toolbar. You can also adjust the rotation, elevation and perspective of 3D graphs by
using the "3D View" option under the "Format" menu.
(6) PowerPoint picks the default color for graphs, if you desire to change these colors, click
on the graph color you want to change and then just pick a new color or pattern from the graph
(7) As you can see, PowerPoint has many options for charts and graphs. We have only
briefly covered the beginning options. As we have said before, the best way to learn all of the
functions is to just experiment.
i. Adding QuickTime ideas. QuickTime is Apple computer's standard digitized video
format. PowerPoint allows you to place these digital videos into a presentation. Adding video
and sound to a presentation greatly enhances the impact of a presentation. To add a
QuickTime video to a presentation, open a new slide and choose "Movie" from the "Insert"
menu. You set the play option in the "Play Settings" dialog box found under the "Tools" menu.
j. Adding organization charts.
(1) Organizational charts are used to graphically represent the flow or chain of command
within an organization. These types of charts are easy to understand, and provide a graphical
view of complex management or production flows that is easy to understand.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(2) To add an organizational chart in PowerPoint, create a blank slide and click on the
"Insert Org Chart" button on the Standard Toolbar. The application Microsoft Organization
Chart will launch and you will have a basic template of an organization chart.
(3) Fill in the boxes with the names and titles of people in the organization. To remove an
unneeded box, click on it to select it and then hit "delete." To add levels, choose what type of
box you wish to add and click on it in the menu bar. Then click on the box that you want to
attach the new box to.
(4) The types of new boxes to add are relatively self explanatory. Adding a "Subordinate"
attaches a box under the box you select. "CO-Worker" adds one to the same level. "Manager"
adds one above, and "Assistant" adds an assistant box to the level you click on.
(5) The menu bar provides options for colors, line styles, chart types, and other formatting
and display options.
k. Adding tables. As discussed in the Word chapter, tables can be used to line up rows
and columns of information. Creating a table in PowerPoint is exactly like creating one in Word.
As a matter of fact, when you choose the "Insert Table" button from the Standard Toolbar,
Microsoft Word will launch and you create the table in this application. You can use all of the
AutoFormats as well as any other Word functions. When you are satisfied with the look of the
table, simply close the window and you will be returned to PowerPoint. Now you can reposition
and resize the table. Also, you can add a shadow or change the line color.
l. Arranging slides, transitions and builds.
(1) Once you have created the bulk of your slides, it is time to rearrange them if necessary.
The best way to do this is to first change to slide sorter mode. In this mode you can see the
overall view of the slides. Look through them to see if there are any that obviously need to be
moved around. To move a slide (or group of slides), select the slide(s) to be moved and drag
until the large marker is where you want the slides to be placed. It is then a good idea to
change to "Slide Show" mode and watch the entire presentation to judge the flow and content.
Go back and add, remove or change any slides that are not easy to understand. When you are
satisfied with the flow of the presentation, you should add transitions and builds to polish it.
(2) Transition effects are used to change from one slide to the next. PowerPoint offers
many different transition effects. To choose which effect to use, select the slide (or group of
slides) and then use the "Transition" pull down menu to select from the list. There are many
different dissolves, fades, checkerboards, window shades and the like. There is an option for
random choice as well, where PowerPoint will randomly pick a transition effect. When using
transitions, it is best to pick one and use it throughout the entire show to add continuity. Some
of the options require a long time to change from slide to slide, so pick one that is fast enough
and does not keep you waiting. There is a timing option that you can use to rehearse your show
and record the times that you manually leave each slide on screen. PowerPoint will record
these times into your presentation, and can automatically advance slides at the correct time, if
you desire. To use this option, select the "Rehearse Timing" button on the Slide Sorter Toolbar.
To play back using these times select "Slide Show" from the "View" menu and then check the
"Use Slide Timings" option.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(3) Builds are similar to transitions, except builds are used to complete a transition between
lines of type on an individual slide. For example, you can have the slide title appear as soon as
the slide is on the screen, and then you can have the first line of text "fly" in when you click the
mouse button (or at a preset time). The next line will then "fly" onto the slide when you are
ready for it. Builds are effective when used with bullet text. They keep the audience interested
and anticipating the next bit of information that you can "feed" them. There are several ways to
set up a build. The first method is to select "Build" from the "Tools" menu, while in Slide View
mode. You will be presented with a dialog box with several options.
(a) The first line, "Build Body Text" turns the build on or off. Check this box to activate the
build. The second line, "Dim Previous Points" is used to change the color of previous lines of
text. Again, this is helpful in keeping the audience on the correct point. The last line allows you
to choose how the text will appear. Like transitions, there are many options to choose from, but
it is best to pick a simple one and stay with it.
(b) The second way to specify builds is to select the slide or group of slides in the sorter
mode and use the pull down menu to select the type of build. This is used to set a build for a
group of slides or an individual slide.
m. Lecture notes and handouts. Once you have completed the presentation, you may
want to make handouts for the audience to use during the presentation. Additionally, you may
desire Lecture Notes that can be used by you (or whoever is giving the presentation) during
your speech. PowerPoint makes it easy to create both of these.
(1) Lecture notes.
(a) Lecture notes are simply sheets of paper that have the slide on the top and space for
presenter notes on the bottom. To add notes or comments to the slides, click on the "Notes
Page" view button in the lower left of the slide window. You can now enter any information into
the Lecture Notes area. You can change the size, font and style of this text.
(b) To change the layout of the Lecture Notes page, choose "Notes Master" from the
"Master" pull out menu under the "View" menu. Using this function allows you to change the
size, shape and position of the picture of the slide. You can also add text to the master that will
appear on every slide. You can add or change text boxes or text attributes using this function.
(c) Lecture notes are often overlooked when creating a presentation. Properly prepared
lecture notes will greatly aid in the presentation. Notes help to keep the presenter on track, and
focused. They remind you of important things to say or stories to tell. It is important to have
some sort of notes to give a professional presentation.
(2) Handouts.
(a) Handouts can be used to give the audience something to take with them. When you
choose "Handouts" from the print dialog box, PowerPoint prints multiple slides on one piece of
paper. You can choose from 2, 3 or 6 slides per page. Handouts are recommended if you use
a lot of charts or graphs. It is best to give the handouts after the presentation, so that the
audience will focus on you during the show instead of digging around in the handout.
(b) To print handouts, choose "Print" from the "File" menu and then select the number of
slides to be printed per page in the "Print What" pull down menu. To change the format of the
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
handout or to add text to all of the pages, choose "Handout Master" from the "Master" pull out
menu under the "View" menu. Now you can add or change things, just as in the Lecture Notes
n. Output. The last step in creating a presentation is Output. As we have discussed, there
are several different ways to give a presentation. PowerPoint provides you with options for
outputting to practically any display type you desire. The most practical and easiest way to
output is to give a presentation on a computer monitor.
(1) Using a computer monitor is easy when only one or two people will see the
presentation at a time, but a large monitor or projection screen is required for a large class. To
display to a screen, go to the first slide and click on the "Slide Show" button in the lower left
corner of the slide window. The presentation will play, using the builds and transitions you have
specified. You can decide whether to have the show self running or to change slides or builds
at the click of the mouse button, by choosing "Slide Show" from the View menu.
(2) Printing a presentation is done by choosing "Print" from the File menu. You will be
presented with a dialog box asking you what you want to print. You have many choices: Slides
with builds, without builds, notes, outlines, and so forth. You will also have other print options
depending on what type of printer you are using. This is how you will make overhead
transparencies, if your printer is capable of it.
(3) To create 35mm slides that you can project requires a film recorder. The method for
recording to film depends on what type of recorder you have. Some film recorders are used
exactly like a printer, where you select the recorder from the Chooser, and then just "Print."
Other brands require special software and may connect to the SCSI port of the computer.
(4) By putting a presentation on videotape, you can easily and inexpensively transfer the
show to many others. To record to video, you must connect a VCR to the computer. Some
Macintoshes (the "AV" models) allow you to directly connect the VCR, while non-AV models
require a hardware adapter. To record to videotape, set up the hardware, press "record" on the
VCR, and show the presentation. If you connect a microphone, you can add narration and
sound. Be sure to use high quality videotape to get the best possible image.
a. As we have learned throughout this course, there are many different file formats and
types, each with their own uses and benefits. In this chapter we will explore the need for
standardized file formats that can compress the data. We need to compress these files to
conserve space on our storage devices and to reduce transmission and copy times. It is also
important to understand the best way to store images into image archives for quick and easy
access. An image or file that is stored but cannot be located is useless.
b. There are basically two different types of compression: lossy and loss-less. As their
names indicate, you may lose image quality with one and there will be no loss with the other.
There are benefits and disadvantages of each type.
(1) Lossy compression.
(a) Lossy compression schemes, such as Joint Photographers Experts Groups (JPEG),
squeeze the image data into a much smaller space, but may result in less image quality. As we
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
have said, the JPEG compression algorithm analyzes the color values of each pixel in the
image and performs an average on them. To compress an image JPEG divides the image into
many 8 pixel x 8 pixel blocks. It then analyzes each of the pixels in the block and if there are
similarly colored pixels it will average them into one color. This averaging process results in a
final image that has less detail than the original.
(b) JPEG compression format has a variable compression rate, meaning that you set the
amount of compression that you want. When you choose "Save As" in Photoshop and then
select the JPEG option you will get a dialog box that asks for the quality level you need, from
"Low Quality" to "Max Quality." These options change the amount of compression as well as
the final image quality. For example, a 400k TIFF image with maximum JPEG compression is
reduced to a 34k file size. The same image with minimum compression (for maximum quality)
compresses to about 85k.
(c) When you are using JPEG compression you must be willing to sacrifice a loss of image
quality. Usually this loss will be unnoticeable, but if you are printing a JPEG image on a highresolution printer you will notice the decrease in quality. Areas of the image that have a
gradation of color, such as the sky, will usually show banding. This is where there is not an
even, gradual color transition, but rather rows of colors that abruptly change to the next color.
JPEG should be avoided on these types of images. Whenever you use a lossy compression,
you must decide on the trade off of quality versus transmission speed.
(2) Loss-Less compression.
(a) There are other options that allow you to compress an image with no loss of image
quality. These compression algorithms, called loss-less, cannot compress the files as much as
a lossy method, but do not lose any image quality either.
(b) Huffman encoding is a variable word length encoder. This means that redundant data
is identified and grouped together as one code. For example, binary data such as a string of 15
"0's "can be grouped together into one code that represents the number fifteen, "101." This
saves 12 bits of storage or transmission. When the image is decoded the "101" is converted
back into the long string of 15 "O's." Huffman encoding is primarily used to compress binary
data, such as a Postscript file. Some programs do not recognize this type of file; PageMaker is
one of them. Usually Huffman encoding is transparent, meaning the user does not know that it
is even happening. There are no options or settings pertaining to the use of Huffman encoding.
Programs that use Huffman will compress and decompress at the appropriate time and you will
not even know it.
(c) Limpel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) Compression (named for the people who invented it) is very
similar to the Huffman method, except instead of substituting individual characters, LZW
searches and substitutes strings of similar data. Again, this is a loss-less compression so there
is no loss of data. LZW compression is most commonly associated with the TIFF file format.
When you save an image in TIFF using Photoshop you can choose with a check box whether or
not to use LZW compression. The only reason not to use LZW is that your file will take slightly
longer to open and save, since the computer must do the compression and decompression.
c. File compression programs such as Alladin's StuffIt Deluxe use run-length encoding
algorithms such as LZW and Huffman encoding to compress files. These programs are mainly
used to compress files that will be sent via modem, or for storing files not often used. These
programs are mainly used to compress documents such as word processors and presentations
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
or binary files for programs that will be transferred. Since images are usually already
compressed with either JPEG or one of the loss-less algorithms, using StuffIt will not further
reduce the file size.
(1) While not actually a way to compress a file, BinHexing a file allows it to be transmitted
through the Internet as a text file. Macintosh files contain two parts: the resource fork and the
data fork. If you try to send a Mac file through an email program it may not transmit properly.
By BinHexing the file, you convert both parts into plain text that can be easily sent through
email. Most email programs actually do all of the conversion for you so you do not need to
worry about it.
(2) Much like BinHex, Uuencode converts binary files into text files that can be sent
through email. Uuencoded files are much more common among non-Mac computers, but some
Mac programs and files come this way if they are stored on other types of machines. Again,
most email programs automatically decode these files, or StuffIt Expander can decode them for
d. There are applications such as Disk Doubler and Stacker that work on loss-less
compression schemes but are designed to compress and decompress the entire hard disk that
you use. Usually these programs double your hard drive capacity, but slow down performance
because of the transparent compression. Usually these programs work fine, but if your drive
crashes any information is totally lost because disk recovery programs like Norton Utilities are
incompatible and cannot recover driver level compressed files.
e. When you first take a picture you usually have a use planned for it. It may be
newsworthy or perhaps it is simply a photo of a reenlistment or cake cutting. We usually take
these pictures and print them to give out or publish. After the immediate uses are over, what
then do we do with the pictures? Sometimes they are thrown away or the negatives are filed
away (archived), for later use. When we use digital pictures we can easily store many images in
a very small space, and have instant access to them. Access is the key to archived images. If
we cannot easily locate and get to a picture what good is even keeping it?
(1) Archived images must be easy to find, and they must also be high quality. Kodak has
developed the PhotoCD format that is ideal for long term image storing. PhotoCD format saves
each image in several different resolutions on one CD-ROM that will last practically forever.
When creating PhotoCDs the user can decide which resolutions to save as. This determines
the number of images that can fit on each CD disk. The different resolution settings are called
the ImagePac format. This format allows the CD author to store in up to five different resolution
levels from small low-resolution "thumbnail" reference images to huge high-resolution pictures
that can be used for printing. Generally, you should store each image in both a low resolution
for fast cataloging and at least one high-resolution file for actual use.
(2) When cataloging with a program such as Adobe Fetch, you attach keywords, captions,
photographer data or other information to the image. This attached data is all automatically
cross-referenced and can be used to search for images based on any known information.
These search functions are the key to archiving images, because as we said unless it is easy to
retrieve an image is useless.
f. Adobe Fetch is a cataloging application that is used to catalog, search and retrieve all
types of files. Using Fetch you can catalog images, sounds, digital videos, text, presentation
files, and practically any other file. Fetch creates a catalog of files that has a thumbnail image
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
or icon of each cataloged item. A user can create an unlimited number of separate catalogs,
with up to 100,000 images per catalog. Each cataloged item can have an unlimited number of
keywords attached to it for fast searching and cross-referencing, as well as a 32,000 character
caption or description.
(1) A feature of Fetch that is invaluable for cataloging images from CD-ROM is that the
images in the catalog do not have to be on the computer that maintains the catalog. For
example, you catalog all of the images from a disk and then remove the disk. Fetch keeps
small file thumbnails on the hard disk allowing you to search and view the contents of the
removed CD. When you try to open a higher resolution copy of an image, Fetch will prompt you
to insert the needed CD. This allows you to keep all of your images on separate disks, safely
stored away, but still searchable and accessible.
(2) Fetch is one of the easiest programs to learn and use. To catalog a disk or folder of
files, just drag the folder onto the Fetch icon. The program will launch, scan the disk for files
that can be cataloged, create thumbnails of them and then save them all automatically. You
can now remove the disk of images.
(3) When first using Fetch you will have to create a catalog for images. It is a good idea to
decide on a cataloging scheme before starting. You should decide on how many or what type
of catalogs to use. Perhaps having one catalog for each year, or perhaps one for each type of
job (portraits, presentations, and so forty) would be good. However, do not make too many
catalogs. This will defeat the purpose of being able to quickly search for documents. The type
and amount of work that you do will control your cataloging, but a yearly catalog is a good
(4) Once Fetch has cataloged each item, you can view the thumbnails by choosing "Find..."
from the "Search" menu. Click "Find All" to display all of the items in the catalog. You will
notice icons for the items with the file type and location printed below. Some items such as
sounds and text files will just have a document icon, not a thumbnail.
(5) The most time consuming part of using Fetch is also the most important: key-wording.
In order to effectively search for a file or image it must be logically key-worded. This means you
must enter in words that Fetch will associate with the cataloged item. When Fetch adds items
to a catalog it creates keywords reflecting the item's file type, creation date, size, and so forth.
But this is not enough information to efficiently search. You must select the item and then
choose "Keywords" from the "Edit" menu. Fetch will display a dialog box that shows the
keywords already attached to the item, these cannot be edited. At the top of this dialog box is a
line for you to enter words into. Once you enter a keyword click "Add" to add it to the list of
searchable keywords.
(a) It is important to be consistent and thorough when adding keywords. The catalog is
only as good as its keywords. If more than one person is entering keywords, be sure that some
rules are made. For example, have everyone use the word "Airplane" for a picture of an
airplane. If one person uses "Aircraft" and another uses "Plane" the catalog will be hard to use.
You can however, attach more than one word to an item so that a search for "Plane" will also
find "Airplane" and "Aircraft" as well as "Helicopter," "Jet," "F-16", and "A-6" if "Plane" was
included with each of these other terms, as it should be. Remember, the more keywords used
the better the search will be. See the Adobe Fetch User Guide for in-depth information on keywording strategies.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(b) You do not need to enter the same information over and over. You can select many
items (by "Shift-Clicking") and then choose "Keywords" to add the same keywords to all
selected items. This is useful when you have several shots of the same subject from different
angles or at different exposures.
(6) There are two methods for searching a Fetch catalog (other than manually browsing
through all of the images). You can either do a simple search or a complex search.
(a) A simple search is done by selecting "Find" from the "Search" menu. Click on the box
below the "Find items whose" text to make the search area active and then enter a keyword in
the field. You can use the two pull down menus to alternate between searching options. When
you are satisfied with the searching setup click "Find." Fetch will search through all of the
images in the catalog and open a window displaying every image that meets the search criteria.
(b) The second search method is the complex search. This method is done the same way
as the simple method, but you click the "More Choices" button to enter more than one search
criteria. This allows you to refine the search for a specific image. This is useful if you have a
very specific image or desired image in mind. The simple search will find images that match
general criteria, while the complex search can narrow this down to a few specific images.
g. Being able to quickly search through large catalogs to find specific images is useful, but
integrating Fetch with other programs allows you to also directly copy Fetch images into page
layout, image editing or any other application. This is useful when you are creating documents
and do not want to manually search disk after disk of images. Below are some of the common
applications you may use Fetch with.
(1) PageMaker 5.0.
(a) To transfer images from Fetch into PageMaker, first select the desired images in Fetch.
Then choose "Copy Reference" from the Edit menu in Fetch. Be sure to choose the "Include
Thumbnails" option. Next, switch to PageMaker.
(b) In PageMaker, open the "Library Palette" from the "Window" menu. In the Library
palette "Options" menu choose "Import Fetch Items." There will now be a thumbnail image of
the placed item in the Library palette. To place the item into a document, click on it in the
Library and then click where you would like to place the object.
(2) Photoshop 3.0. To include a thumbnail image and to preview a Photoshop 3.0 file,
choose the "Preferences" option in Photoshop's "File" menu. Choose "General" preferences
and then click the "More" button. Move to the "Image Preview" section and click the "Always
Save" option.
(3) Illustrator 5.5. To include a thumbnail image and preview an Illustrator file, choose
"Save As" from Illustrator's "File" menu. Save the image as an EPS file.
(4) Microsoft Word. To preview and catalog Word documents they must be saved as
either "Text Only," "Text Only With Line Breaks" or "Text With Layout." Fetch will then be able
to include these items in catalogs and will allow you to preview the first 32, 000 characters.
Word documents will have a generic file icon in a Fetch catalog.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
a. History.
(1) Telegraph. The first time two machines talked to each other was in 1844 when Samuel
Morse sent a message from the US Capitol building in Washington DC to Baltimore, MD, 37
miles away. This was the first use of the telegraph, and it was the beginning of the modern area
of communication. With the invention of the telegraph, people hundreds of miles away could
now send and receive messages in very little time. Telegraphs allowed users to send a code
(Morse Code) of information back and forth across a single wire. While not a computer, a
telegraph was the precursor to modern communications, as we now know them.
(2) Telephone. The telegraph, which required the user to know Morse code and to have
special training, was certainly fast, but it did not bring communications to the individual. The
telephone brought communications to the people. The telephone opened up mass
communications. Introduced in 1876 by Alexander Graham Bell, the telephone immediately
become a success and is still a favored means of communication.
(3) Teletypewriter. Around the turn of the century, the teletypewriter became widely used
for the communication of non-voice messages. The teletypewriter was ideal to disseminate
large amounts of information to multiple stations. A user in New York could type in the
information (usually news stories) and at the press of a button, automated machines all along
the network would begin printing out the same story. Teletypewriters use the Baudot code
instead of Morse. This code is faster than Morse, and allows the machine to print out a
maximum of 62 different characters. Teletypewriters are still in use to some extent today, but
have been widely replaced by fax machines and modems.
b. Modern day communications.
(1) Modem.
(a) A modem is a device that allows computers to communicate across telephone lines.
Modem stands for modulator/demodulator, and what a modem does is modulate or change the
computers binary codes into tones that can travel across the phone lines. When these tones
get to the other computer another modem demodulates these tones back into the computers
binary language.
(b) Invented in the late 1950's, the Bell 103 was the first modem. This modem allowed two
computers to "talk" to each other at a rate of 300 bits per second (bps). Modern modems now
talk at more than 28,800 bits per second! While slow by today's standards, the Bell 103 was an
important invention because even 300 bits per second is faster than using the post office.
(c) As we have learned, a modem converts the digital 1's and 0's (on's and off's) into tones
or pulses. These pulses are then converted back into ones and zeros. An inherent problem
with this type of communication is the actual telephone lines. While voices may sound fine,
even the slightest static will disrupt data communication. Another problem is speed. Although
28,800 bps is much faster than 300 bps, it is still relatively slow.
(d) At 28,800 bps it will take about 5 minutes to transfer 1Mb of data (at 300 bps it would
take 8.6 hours to transfer the same 1 Mb). While this is a relatively little amount of time, it can
quickly become longer with large (more than 50 Mb) files. Also, the longer it takes to transfer a
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
file, the higher the chance of static error. In the future, to increase speed we will have to switch
to digital or fiber optic phone lines. These types of lines are already available, but still relatively
(2) Speed standardization.
(a) When any new technology develops everyone wants to jump on the bandwagon. This
happened when modems first began developing. Everyone was developing and making their
own modems, but problems started developing. Different modem makers were each making
their modems slightly different and these differences caused problems. Finally the CCITT, a
standards organization, got together and created some industry-wide standards.
(b) V.22bis (bis means "second" in French) was the first standard. The V.22bis standard
was the standard for 2400 bps communication. All modems that used this standard could finally
(c) The next standard was the V.32 standard for 9600 bps communication. This was
followed by V.32bis standard for 14,400 bps (sometimes called 14.4 pronounced "fourteen dot
four") and V.34 standard for 28,800 bps (28.8 or just "twenty eight eight"). Each of these
standards assures that modems from different manufacturers will be able to properly work with
each other. You may see a modem labeled "" these were produced before the V.34
standard was instituted and may not be able to properly communicate at 28,800 bps.
(3) Compression/error control standardization. In addition to creating standards that
control the rate of data transmission, the CCITT also created some standards for other
telecommunications issues.
(4) Error control/correction.
(a) Error control or error correction is a way to assure that the information that the sending
modem sends is properly received by the receiver. Modems that use Error correction
incorporate a code into the transmission. When the receiving modem decodes the message, it
will know if any data was lost in transmission. If it discovers missing data it sends a message to
the sender and asks for a rebroadcast of the missing area.
(b) The two modern CCITT standards for Error Control/Correction are MNP 5 and V.42.
Modems that are designed to use these standards will properly communicate with other
modems of these standards.
(5) Data compression. The CCITT also created a standard for Data Compression.
Compression is a way that the modems squash the data before sending it. They expand the
data when it is received. This helps to speed up the transfer of information. However, modems
must be able to use the same compression formulas. To assure compatibility, the CCITT
created the V.42bis standard for compression. Any two modems that conform to this standard
will be able to compress and decompress information properly.
c. Communication terms. Whenever you learn about a new technology or subject you
must learn a new vocabulary. Communications is certainly no different. Although it may sound
complicated, there are not that many new terms.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(1) Handshaking. When two modems first connect with each other, they know nothing
about each other. They must go through a procedure called handshaking. When this is
happening they exchange information such as their speed standard, Compression, Error
control, and so forth. This process of negotiations and familiarization is called handshaking.
(2) Data bit. When configuring your communication software one of the settings you
adjust is the number of Data Bits. When computers send information across telephone lines
they break the data down into bits. This makes it easier for the computers to manage the
information. Different modems use different numbers of Data Bits, usually either eight or nine.
To properly communicate, both computers must be set at the same number of Data Bits.
(3) Stop bit. While transferring these bits of data the computer adds a bit called a Stop Bit
on the end of the data bit. The Stop Bit tells the receiving computer that all of the information in
that bit has been received.
(4) Networks. A network is simply more than one computer connected together. It can be
both economical and time saving to network computers together. First, when you have a
network of computers you can keep one central printer and connect it to the network.
Whenever anyone prints something it will come out at the one printer. This eliminates the need
to have a printer at every station. A network can also save lots of time, because you can have
one central database or file area and everyone on the network can instantly access it without
leaving their desk. There are several different types of networks.
(a) Local Area Networks. A Local Area Network or (LAN) is the most common type of
network. This would be where all of the computers in one office or building are linked together.
The computers can all share a printer, databases, and operators can even access information
directly from their coworkers' computers. There are different types of LANs. Each type has its
pros and cons.
LocalTalk or AppleTalk is the built in networking that the Macintosh comes with. In a
LocalTalk network, individual computers directly link to each other. Although extremely
easy to set up and convenient when only two or three computers are networked,
LocalTalk networks are relatively slow (only about 28 K bits per second) and
unreasonable for large networks.
Ethernet is a common type of high-speed network. With an Ethernet network, each
computer is connected to a central hub that contains a microprocessor. This hub allows
extremely fast connections (up to about 10 Mbps). Ethernet networks are the most
common type used in LAN's.
Token-Ring is another common network. A Token-Ring network is similar to Ethernet,
but the language is slightly different.
TCP-IP is the type of network that the Internet uses. Ethernet and Token-Ring are
hardware and software networks, meaning that you must have the correct hardware
(connectors, wiring, circuit boards) and software language. Transmission Control
Protocol-Internet Protocol (TCP-IP) is a language that is common to all computers
connected to the Internet. TCP-IP can be used over Ethernet and Token-Ring, but is
usually just used on the Internet.
(b) Wide Area Networks (WAN). A WAN is nothing more than LANs connected together.
For example, a business that has offices in New York and Boston can be connected in a Wide
Are Network. Both of these offices will have LANs so that coworkers can share printers and
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
data. If the company decides to connect these two separate LANs using fiber optics, special
telephone lines, or microwaves, then they create a Wide Area Network. While you would not
necessarily use a WAN to share a printer, you certainly could set up one data base so that
offices all over the world could have access.
(c) Commercial networks. A commercial network is one that individuals or companies
pay to access. These networks are setup to make money and offer many different resources.
Users with access to a commercial network may be able to use on-line encyclopedias,
databases, mailing lists, software files, and many other types of resources. The largest group of
users of commercial on-line networks is home users. Several common commercial networks
are America Online, CompuServe, Delphi and Genie. Another type of commercial network is
the BBS or Bulletin Board System. A BBS is usually local to one city or area. A BBS is run by
a Sysop or System Operator. BBS offer services similar to the larger commercial services, but
on a much smaller scale.
(5) Internet.
(a) The Internet is a vast, mostly unorganized, global network of computers. In the 1950's
the US Government wanted a way to link all of its computers together, so that in the event of a
nuclear war, the military would always have access to data stored across the country. This
network became known as the ARPANET or Advanced Research Projects Agency Network.
Well, the nuclear war never came, so the ARPANET dissolved into what is the current Internet.
(b) In the 1980's the National Science Foundation or NSF, took over the ARPANET and
began linking college and university computers to the existing network, thus allowing students
and staff all over the world to access vast data bases and resources.
(c) In the late 1980's and early 1990's many commercial networks and BBS began
providing Internet access to home users. The Internet is now estimated to have about 2.5
million computers permanently connected. In addition to these 2.5 million permanent
computers, it is estimated that another 18 million computers are connected by either dial-up
accounts or through terminals at businesses and colleges.
(d) Presently the Internet is going through some dramatic changes that may seriously
affect its future. The NSF is turning their high-speed data backbone and supercomputers over
to private industry. This will allow increasing commercialization and profit making on the global
network. It is still unclear how these changes will affect the end user, but the general
consensus is that services will generally stay the same. There will most likely be an ever
increasing amount of data available and the Internet will continue to grow.
(e) Another major concern with the Internet today is censorship. Since its conception the
Internet has been unregulated and self-controlling. With all of the current advances and
increased popularity, there are concerns that there should be more control over what is on the
Internet. Because there are all types of explicit material on the global network, censorship
would effectively shut down the Internet. There are many questions that have no answers when
it comes to the censorship issue. Who would be in charge of deciding what material is deemed
offensive? Who would police the Internet? How do you handle a network of computers that
spans the globe and many different cultures? How would you locate and prosecute offenders?
When a society begins to pass laws that are unenforceable, as any Internet censorship law
would be, this only breeds contempt for other laws. The Internet should remain a free forum for
the open exchange of thoughts, ideas and information.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(f) Unlike the commercial on line services, the Internet is not set up as one organized unit.
There are several key areas of the Internet and software has been developed to make the
functions easier. You will need several different applications to accomplish all of the functions
(6) File transfer protocol (FTP).
(a) One of the most used Internet services is FTP. FTP is used to transfer files from one
computer to another. A file can be anything that is on the computer. Application programs,
photographic images, books, documents, video clips, and sounds are all examples of files that
can be transferred from one computer to another.
(b) There are many computer sites set up by various universities and organizations that
offer huge archives of files that can be downloaded. These sites are usually referred to as
anonymous FTP sites. What this means is that anyone can log into these computers and
access the files that are stored there. When you attempt to log in to these computers you will
be asked for a user ID and a password. Most computer systems that allow public access will
accept "anonymous" as a user ID and your email address as a password. When you remotely
connect to a computer and control its actions like this, it is called a Telnet session. So, a typical
Internet conversation may sound like this: "Why don't you Telnet to my computer and FTP that
file." What this means in plain English is "Why don't you connect your computer to mine through
the Internet and copy that file." Telnet and FTP work two ways.
You can log onto other user's computers but they may be able to attach to yours.
You can get files using FTP, you can send files to others using FTP.
(7) Gopher, Veronica, Archie. These weirdly named Internet functions are all used to
search for information. To use these, you use a program designed for these functions, log on to
a server computer, and enter what you are searching for. The computer then searches through
its databases and reports what information matches the search query. The program you use
will provide a report listing the number of matches, as well as how close of a match it is. For
example, if you search for "Apple Macintosh Computers" the search program looks for all
occurrences of these words. Therefore, anything with any of these words will be reported. An
item with all three words will be listed first, because it is a 100% match.
(8) Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS). The WAIS is similar to Gopher and
Veronica, but much more powerful. WAIS allows you to ask specific questions in plain English.
The WAIS program then searches vast indexes and reports any matches. WAIS is useful for
searching the global network for documents on specific topics. To do research on using a Mac
as a graphics workstation for example, you would enter "Tell me everything about using a
Macintosh computer as a Graphics Workstation." WAIS would then search all of its databases
and give you a list of items. You would read one or two of the items, and then you could modify
the search. You tell the WAIS program "Search for more like this one" or "Search again, but
ignore items that are similar to this." This makes the search more precise and helps you find
better information.
(9) World Wide Web (WWW).
(a) The WWW or just the Web, is the newest and perhaps the most functional Internet
feature. The WWW uses a graphical interface to present screens of pictures, text, sounds and
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
video. Using the WWW you can connect to remote machines and access information. Many
companies, libraries, and organizations have created homepages on the WWW. A homepage
is simply a table of contents for the information on the WWW. Each screen or document on the
WWW is linked together with hypertext. Hypertext means that specific keywords, called links,
are all joined together. When you come across a link, you can click on it with the mouse to
automatically move to another location and more information. For example, if you are at the
Apple Computer homepage (located on a computer in Cupertino California), and there is a link
to monitor resolution (for example), when you click on the text link, you automatically move to
the new computer. This new link may be on the same computer in California, or across the
globe in Europe and you would not even know it.
(b) This hypertext technology makes it quick and easy to find information and related
material. You may also find links to FTP sites and searchable databases. The WWW
incorporates most of the functions of the Internet into one, easy to use format and interface.
The future of global computer networks will probably be something like the World Wide Web.
(10) Electronic mail.
(a) Electronic mail or simply email, allows you to instantly send notes to anyone with an
email address. Much like regular letter mail (called snail mail by the techno-savvy) email can be
used for anything from personal letters to business mail.
(b) Email is basically instant. The time it takes to send a letter and for it to be received can
be as little as a few seconds to as much as an hour or two. This makes business run much
faster. Unlike regular mail, you can send more than just letters through email. You can attach
any file that you would like to an email. You can send pictures, programs or other documents,
without having to mess with sending disks or removable media through the mail. Because email
is much faster and easier then snail mail, people have a tendency to be short and to the point.
You must be careful not to mistake this for rudeness.
(c) Another concern with email is quoting. Since it is extremely easy and quick to send and
reply to email, people quote messages in replies. Quoting helps to refresh the memory of the
person who you send email to. It is easy to forget what you say, but if you selectively quote
parts of the message in a reply it can jog a memory.
(11) Newsgroups.
(a) Newsgroups, or Usenet News or Internet News as they are sometimes called, are
similar to electronic bulletin boards. There are thousands of different newsgroups, each one
devoted to a different topic. You subscribe to groups that interest you, and when you read the
news, you read all new messages. After the first time, every time you log onto the news server,
you only see messages that are new or you haven't read yet. You can post replies to messages
or just read other peoples postings.
(b) There are two types of newsgroups, moderated or unmoderated. Moderated news
groups are controlled by one person. When you post something to a moderated group, the
moderator first reviews the posting and decides if the entire group should see it. Unmoderated
groups have no control and everything that is posted is sent to everyone. This can lead to
problems of having the same questions or information posted over and over.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(c) Newsgroups are sorted using a hierarchy system. One typical newsgroup is
comp.mac.sys. The first part of the newsgroup name, comp, means that this group is under the
computer topic. It is next broken down into the Macintosh (mac) subdivision and finally the
system (sys) subtopic. There are many different major topics: Computers (comp), Alternate
(alt), Social (soc), Science (sci), Recreation (rec), and News (news) are the major topics. Each
one of these is broken down into many different very specific individual newsgroups.
(12) Mailing lists. Mailing lists are similar to newsgroups, but instead of logging on to a
central repository to read new messages, mailing lists are delivered through email. Mailing Lists
work much like traditional snail mail mailing lists. You sign up (or automatically get signed up)
on a list and every time someone sends something to the mailing list, it goes to everyone on the
list. There are many topics similar to those of the Internet News.
(13) Internet relay chat (IRC).
(a) The IRC is similar to a CB radio. You log on to an IRC computer server, and you can
automatically "talk" back and forth to anyone else logged on to the IRC around the world.
(b) When you log on, you are presented with a list of several hundred channels, each one
with a different topic. You can join a channel (or more than one) and see in real time what
people are typing back and forth. There are channels devoted to every imaginable topic. From
debates over which computer is best Mac or Windows, to cybersex channels where people from
around the world discuss explicit sexual matters! (Not for the faint hearted!)
(c) The IRC can be lots of fun to use to meet people from around the world, but it can also
be used to get quick advice to problems. For example, you can sign on to a channel devoted to
graphic arts and ask professionals how to accomplish certain tasks.
d. Other internet concerns.
(1) Addresses.
(a) The Internet and this type of communication is new to most people, so there are lots of
new terms and information to learn. The first thing we must understand is Internet addressing.
(b) Every computer or user on the Internet has a unique address to identify it. There are
several different types of addresses, and they must not be confused. The most common type of
address is an email address, which looks something like this: [email protected] The part
before the @ is the name of the specific user, Bob Jones in this example. Notice that there is
no capitalization or spaces. The "_" (underline) is commonly used instead of a space.
Additionally, most users choose something easy like "bjones" or "bobj". The @ symbol (shift 2)
means "at" and separates the username from the machine name.
(c) After the @ comes the domain name. This is the name of the machine that the user is
using. The first part is the name of the computer at the location. Some places, usually schools,
have more than one server computer, so the first name is the specific computer. Next,
separated by a ".", is the name of the institution, in this case "af" for Air Force. Finally is "mil"
meaning that this computer is in the military domain. Other domains are "edu" for education,
"gov" for government, "com" for commercial, "net" for network, and "org" for organization.
These domains only apply to United States computers, other countries use slightly different
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
systems. Most computers outside of the US have a two-digit code at the end, such as "fi" for
Finland. You can identify where the computer is located by the code.
(d) Another example, [email protected] would be said "Mary Jane at blue dot UT
(say "U" "T") dot EDU (rhymes with "met you") dot CA ("C" "A")." So, the address is for Mary
Jane at the University of Toronto (ut) in Canada (ca) on the computer named "Blue." In the
domain of education, that sounds pretty complicated, but it really isn't.
(e) Another type of address is called a URL or Universal Resource Locator. These are
common when referring to the location of a file and not a specific person. A common URL looks
something like this: "" This URL points to a
file called "" located on the World Wide Web.
(f) The "http://" part means that the document is part of a hypertext link. "www" means
World Wide Web, next is the machine name. In this case, the machine is "apple" in the
commercial domain. The next part is the specific directory that the file is located in. In the UNIX
world, instead of folders, files are stored in directories, which can be nested inside each other
just like folders. So in our example, the file "" is located in the PowerMac
(/PowerMac) directory that is inside the public (/pub) directory.
(g) Again this may seem complicated, but it is a standard used by all computers on the
Internet, so you only need to learn one standard.
(h) You may also see URL that look like this: "ftp://" these are like "http://" address, but
they point to files that can be downloaded, and not hypertext documents.
(2) Internet etiquette.
(a) As we have discussed, the Internet is a new place for most people so there are new
sets of common courtesies to learn. We have already discussed email, and the fact that since
email does not involve as much forethought as snail mail, we may have a tendency to be less
than cordial. Since you cannot see the writer or hear the tone of voice, it's easy to misconstrue
the meaning of things. Internet users have developed smileys to help convey emotions.
Smileys are simple pictures drawn with characters on the keyboard. When viewed from the
side, they look like little faces, for example: this is a regular smiley :-). There are many
variations of this smiley. Here is a winkey, or a winking smiley ;-). Now a smiley sticking his
tongue out :-p. Here is an unhappy smiley :-(.
(b) Smileys are used in email, newsgroups and on the IRC. They allow you to add a bit of
feeling to an otherwise unemotional medium. A well placed smiley can make the difference
between making someone happy or making an enemy.
(c) Another etiquette concern is flaming. Flaming is sending hate email or posting
derogatory messages on Newsgroups. Flaming usually results when two people disagree or
when someone posts something that angers people. While flaming (sometimes called Flame
Wars) can be fun to watch, it really wastes a lot of time and space on other people's computers
and should be avoided. If you do accidentally upset someone and find yourself being flamed, it
is best to either ignore it or send a nice apology.
(d) Next we have FAQ's. A FAQ is a list of "Frequently Asked Questions." These are
posted throughout the Internet, usually on Newsgroups. When you are using a new part of the
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Internet for the first time, it is best to look for the FAQ's, before asking questions. It can be time
consuming and tiring for everyone involved to have to answer the same questions over and over
to every new user. This brings us to "Lurking".
(e) Lurking is watching and reading before jumping into an on-line conversation. Whether
it be a Newsgroup discussion or a channel on the IRC, it is best to read what others are saying
before jumping in with your two cents. This allows you to monitor the discussion. Although
lurking is good for beginners, remember, the Internet is all about people, and to use the full
potential you must participate.
(3) File transfer.
(a) As we have already learned, file transfer or FTP is used to move files from one
computer to another. We will probably use this the most of all of the different uses of a
computer with a modem. We will want to quickly send and receive photos and other types of
images from distant locations to our home bases. There are two principal ways to transfer files.
(b) The first file transfer method involves using the Internet. To use this method, both
parties must have Internet access and they must agree on an FTP site. There are many FTP
sites that allow users to store files on their computers, and most Internet access providers allow
users to do this. So the originator would log onto the Internet, telnet to the agreed upon
computer, and FTP the files to it. Then at their convenience, the receivers can telnet to the
computer and FTP the file to their own computer.
(c) This method is convenient, because either party can do it at their leisure. The only
problem with this method is security. When the files are on a public computer, they are
available to anyone with Internet access. There are two ways to work around this. First the file
can be encrypted. There are many commercially available encryption programs that will encrypt
up to DES standards. This allows the sender to encrypt the file, and only the receiver, who has
the key code, can decode and use the file.
(d) Another way to ensure secure communications is to have a secure Internet computer to
FTP the file. Most large companies and government agencies have computers attached to the
Internet. If the receiver has access to a computer permanently attached to the Internet, they
can set up a password and user name for the sender. The sender simply Telnets to the secure
computer and FTP the file.
(e) The second way to transfer files through telephone lines is to set up a direct
connection. This method involves the sender calling the receivers computer directly (or the
other way around, it really doesn't matter who calls who). You can use regular terminal software
to do this, but then there has to be someone at the receiver's computer to initiate the receipt of
the file. Most people who transfer files this way use special software that allows you to control
the remote computer. When using this software, you can see a window of the desktop of the
remote computer, you can control it as if you were sitting in front of it. To transfer the files, you
simply drag them from your computer, to the remote window. Apple Remote Access and
Timbuktu Remote are two programs for the Macintosh that allow you to remotely control a
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(4) Compression.
(a) Many files, especially photographic images can be rather large. Imagine a picture that
is 8 Mb in size, at 28.8 Kbps, it would take almost 50 minutes to transfer the picture. This can
get rather expensive, if you pay by the hour, not to mention tying up phone lines. People have
developed compression programs that squash the file to a much smaller size. This smaller size
obviously takes less time to transfer and saves money. Compression programs compress
images by analyzing the binary information that makes up the colors or tones. Since there may
be large areas of the same color in a picture, the computer can bunch all of this information
together and save space.
(b) Compression programs are defined by their compression ratio, how much they can
squash a file. The higher the ratio, the more compression, and the smaller the compressed file.
There are two types of compression programs: Lossy and Loss-Less. Lossy yields the best
compression ratio, but may lose image quality.
(c) Lossy compression involves a loss of quality, meaning that the decompressed image
will not look as good as the original. A common lossy compression is called JPEG. JPEG
stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group, which is a bunch of professionals in the photo field
who created the compression type.
(d) When using JPEG, you are presented with several quality options. The options
correspond to the image quality. For example, if you choose the "Best Quality" option, you will
not loose as much quality as if you had chosen the "Fair Quality," but the file will not be as small
(e) JPEG compression works by sampling a small area of an image (usually a 64 x 64 pixel
square) and analyzing the contents of the area. JPEG uses mathematical formulas to average
the color in the sampled area. It then deletes the original color and replaces it with the average.
By doing this on the entire image it can greatly reduce the size of the file, but as we have said,
JPEG is a lossy compression, so the uncompressed file may not be as good a quality as the
(f) Loss-less compression does not degrade the image quality. Stuffit Deluxe is a program
that does loss-less compression. This application, and many similar programs, can be used for
any file, not just images. This is useful for transferring any file from computer to computer.
(g) While using the Internet and other on-line services you may encounter many different
file types. Most files have a three-letter extension on the end of the file that represents the type
of compression. Stuffit Deluxe is capable of expanding almost any of these files, so it, or the
shareware program Stuffit Expander, is a must for anyone who regularly uses on-line services.
a. Today’s electronic technology.
(1) The ethical and legal issues surrounding photography, retouching, and digital imaging
are issues of great debate. Being military photographers, you will have access to an abundance
of images and footage not available to the civilian media. It is the responsibility of the military to
make guidelines and rules for policy of manipulating military images.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(2) The importance of ethics in electronic imaging will grow extensively as computer image
processing technology expands. Already, desktop scanners and software packages have
become common in the Electronic Media world. Soon, so will digital cameras. Anyone with a
properly configured personal computer can extend the limits of a traditional camera.
b. The accompanying dilemma.
(1) It's apparent that digital photography has reached the masses at all levels of the civilian
and military sectors. This has created a dilemma: to retouch or not to retouch. As more people
edit photographs on computers, photographers are finding it difficult to maintain control over
their work. When the photographer's point of view as an eyewitness is lost, variance between
fact and fiction is easily misinterpreted. Possibilities are almost endless as to what
enhancements and manipulations can be made on the computer.
(2) Many photographers have reacted negatively to computer technology after years of
seeing their works reproduced without permission. Many of today's photographers are hesitant
to allow electronic copies of their images into a publishing world that has become unconcerned
about photographic copyrights and the ethics of retouching. Yet computer imaging also offers
great promise: new markets, wider and easier distribution of photographs, the ease of
transferring an image, and more effective storytelling through multimedia publishing on CDROM's.
c . The ethics of retouching. It used to be said that, "The camera never lies." That was
before digital photography. Now, we are in a new age of picture-perfect image processing.
With this new breed of computer imaging comes the tempting power of electronic retouching.
Some have called it disturbing and corrupt. Others argue that it is merely a more powerful
extension of the creative darkroom.
d. Photographs as accurate historical records.
(1) In the past, documentary photographs have been proclaimed as authentic, factual
pieces of information. Digital Imaging technology changed that understanding, but the basis for
a believable documentary photograph still remains.
(2) Photojournalists have been considered reporters with cameras, recording events as
eyewitness observers. They document powerful and unusual events capable of invoking strong
emotions. Regardless of branch of service, documentary photography will depict a factual
account, and in no way can these images or footage be altered.
e. The ethics of digital manipulation.
(1) As photographers we have the responsibility to document society and to preserve its
images as a matter of historical record. It is clear that the emerging electronic technologies
provide new challenges to the integrity of photographic images. This technology enables the
manipulation of the content of an image in such a way that the change is virtually undetectable.
The National Press Photographers Association (NPPA), a respected civilian news organization
has released the following statement:
“We believe photojournalist guidelines currently in use should be the criteria for judging
what may be done electronically to a photograph. Altering the content of a photograph,
in any degree, is a breach of the ethical standards recognized by the NPPA.”
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(2) Although, military photographers do not necessarily belong to organizations such as
this, the policies that they adhere to are good for us as well.
f. Photographs are not reality.
(1) A photograph is a three dimensional object that is placed on a two-dimensional plane
that is made up of bits of silver or dyes which communicate information about a moment in time.
There are properties used in photographing and printing these two-dimensional objects that with
common use and agreement have come to be accepted as reality. There are some extent
patterns of grain, light, cropping, of dodging and burning, and so forth, which have come to be
associated with the intention of truth and accuracy.
(2) These principles are not yet accepted as a whole by the media, television broadcasters,
or magazines. Tastes, ethical standards, social expectations, and perception of nature of truth
evolve. TV Guide can juxtapose various images to ridicule a point with minimum complaint, but
when a magazine with the stature of National Geographic, alters an image it damages its
(3) There have been numerous instances of editors choosing to spruce up a certain image,
like an image of the Challenger space shuttle mishap. The San Jose Register was mocked
when they inserted clouds into a photo of the Challenger explosion that they felt was not
dramatic enough. To sum it up: There can be no one set of standards applicable to all users of
photography at all times. Any set standards must be site specific.
(4) What is needed is a set standard that can be utilized world-wide. It has been
suggested that the use of a symbol (M) for electronically manipulated photos be used to identify
the images that have been altered in any way. But that can also be considered as prejudicial by
only identifying the electronically altered photographs and illustrations.
(5) There are several degrees of change. Major or "essential" changes being those that
change the nature of the image. Minor changes are usually just technical changes. For
example, spotting out dust and scan lines. Most technical changes will be considered ethical
while major changes will be considered unethical.
(6) To put George Bush into a picture from Yalta would be a major change. Whereas
moving the pyramids a little closer together, though massive in reality, is only a minor change
since it does not change the basic information of the picture. The pyramids picture is no longer
an accurate photograph but the essential information has not changed.
g. Electronically manipulation functions. The following is a list of specific electronic
manipulation functions and discussions of each in terms of electronic versus digital
manipulation. Photo labs, schools, newspapers, and magazines wishing to set ethical
standards for their publications need to look at these seven areas where abuse can occur and
then decide what is the appropriate response for their circumstances.
(1) Contrast control. We are used to controlling contrast and photographers know that
they can give an apparent sharpness by increasing contrast. Contrast control is a basic,
traditionally accepted form of darkroom manipulation. You will find it hard to dispute contrast
control, which is widely accepted in both traditional and electronic darkrooms.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(2) Dodging and burning-in. Dodging and burning-in are two of the most basic printing
skills of a good photographer. Too much burning-in is today considered unacceptable in the
traditional darkroom and will also be unacceptable in an electronic darkroom. One of the fears
of photographers is that untrained eyes in the production department will dodge and burn for
them and take the interpretive function from the photographer. This is a valid fear that only
becomes an ethical fear when the dodging and burning change the meaning of the photograph
or misrepresents reality.
(3) Cropping. Cropping is considered by most to be ethical. By convention, we allow the
photographer or editor to define the area we are allowed to view with four sides of his or her
choosing. These sides become the limits of the image and nothing else can be added or
eliminated from the defined scene. Cropping can, however, become unethical in both types of
darkrooms, if important parts of an image are removed and distort the actual events.
(4) Cut and paste.
(a) Cut and Paste, or cloning, is one of the greatest fears. For some reason, the concept
of a "Decisive Moment" does not seem to apply to computers. One of the most basic tenants
held by news photographers is the inviolate nature of the moment. If you miss the picture, you
miss the picture. You do not add a ball to a picture from a football game or move the ball
around in the frame. Some might say, National Geographic used this logic on the pyramids,
"just a few feet to the right and the photographer would have had the shot". We are not in the
business of making photographs from spare parts. To destroy the precise relationships within
an image at one certain point in time is to change the truth of a picture, or at least its accuracy.
To move a pyramid or to add a football or remove a Coke can is to change the nature of
photojournalism. The reading public expects photojournalists to adhere to this principle.
(b) Cutting and pasting images has always been with us, but is far easier to accomplish
using electronic means. The ethical concerns are the same but the seamlessness of the
changes make them more tempting. We need to remember that just because we have a new
tool does not make the act of cutting and pasting any more ethical than before.
(c) The cloning function has its use in allowing us to remove dust spots and scan lines. It
is considered ethical to use Spottone or a pencil to manually remove this sort of technical
imperfection and it should be allowed electronically. The key word being "technical."
(5) Color correction. Color correction done on a global scale is considered correct
procedure in all color printing. The eye adjusts to color temperature changes but film does not.
However, it is usually considered unethical to change one color or one part of the picture all by
itself since the eye does not work this way.
(6) Sharpen. Sharpening causes a new dilemma, as it is the only electronic manipulation
that has not been seen before. Sharpening does not bring into focus an out of focus picture.
Rather, it gives the appearance of sharpness by increasing the contrast between pixel groups.
To decide if it is ethical to sharpen, we have to ask two questions: does the sharpening change
the accuracy of the information in the image and, does the sharpening change the integrity of
the moment?
(7) Flopping.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(a) It has always been possible to put a negative in the enlarger backwards, but it is
considered unethical to do this in the darkroom by most papers and will continue to be unethical
at the electronic picture desk.
(b) This particular case leads to another vexing problem. Photographers generally will not
flop a negative. If someone without a photographer's background is given the ability to flop an
image, he or she might not have the background needed to know why it is wrong.
Photographers have developed an interest in ethics now because people outside their world are
gaining access to their work and they are afraid of the consequences. It is necessary for
photographers to learn all there is to learn about electronic photography and keep as much of
the creative function in their own hands as they can. To do this they must be able to follow the
process from camera to print and they have to start thinking of the printed final product, not the
photographic print itself.
(c) In the final analysis, credibility is the bottom line. If we are perceived as trying to
deceive the public, whatever we have done electronically to the photograph will be wrong. If we
are perceived as attempting to bring the most accurate representation of reality as we can
create to the reader or observer, we will have acted ethically on behalf of our profession. If we
produce accurate information, we will have succeeded.
B-11. Department of Defense Policy on Manipulation of Photographs
a. DOD Policy. On December 9, 1994 the Deputy Secretary of Defense signed a
memorandum that provides DOD policy on the alteration of official photographic and video
images. The following is the text of the policy memorandum:
Photographic and video imagery has become an essential tool of decision makers at every
level of command and in every theater of military operations. Mission success and
ultimately the lives of our men and women in uniform depend on this imagery being
complete, timely and above all, highly accurate. Anything that weakens or casts doubt on
the credibility of this imagery within or outside the Department of Defense will not be
tolerated. The emergence of digital technology has significantly increased the capability of
Defense imagery. Since current federal regulations and DOD directives do not specifically
address the deliberate alteration of official photographic records, I believe guidance is
required. I am providing the guidance by establishing the following as Department of
Defense policy on the alteration of Official Photographic and Video imagery.
(1) The alteration of official defense imagery by persons acting for or on behalf of the
Department of Defense is prohibited except as outlined below:
(a) Photographic techniques common to traditional darkrooms and digital imaging stations
such as dodging, burning, color balancing, spotting, and contrast adjustment that are used to
achieve the accurate recording of an event or object are not considered alterations.
(b) Photographic and video image enhancement, exploitation and simulation techniques
used in support of unique cartography, geodesy, intelligence, medical, RDT&E (Research,
Development, Test, and Evaluation), scientific, and training requirements are authorized if they
do not misrepresent the subject of the original image.
(c) The obvious masking of portions of a photographic image in support of specific security
and criminal investigation requirements is authorized.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(d) The use of cropping, editing, or enlargement to selectively isolate, link, or display a
portion of a photographic or video image is not considered alteration. However, cropping,
editing, or image enlargement, which has the effect of misrepresenting the facts or
circumstances of the event or object as originally recorded, constitutes a prohibited alteration.
(e) The digital conversion and compression of photographic and video imagery is
(f) Photographic and video post-production enhancement, including animation, digital
simulation, graphics, and special effects, used for dramatic or narrative effect in education,
recruiting, safety and training illustrations, publications, or productions is authorized under either
of the following conditions:
• The enhancement does not misrepresent the subject of the original image.
• It is clearly and readily apparent from the context or from the content of the image or
accompanying text that the enhanced image is not intended to be an accurate
representation of any actual event.
(2) Official Defense imagery includes all photographic and video images, regardless of the
medium in which they are acquired, stored or displayed, that are recorded or produced by
persons acting for or on behalf of Department of Defense activities, functions, or missions.
b. Copyright law.
(1) Laws seldom keep pace with changes in society. Those laws that govern the ethics of
enhancement and manipulation of images are no different.
(2) Copyright is a form of legal protection for "original works of authorship fixed in any
tangible medium of expression." The courts have interpreted the law to include computer
software, photographic, artistic, literary, dramatic, musical, and other intellectual works.
(3) Copyright law gives the owner of a copyright the exclusive right to reproduce the image,
arrange derivative (not original) works, distribute copies, or perform and display the work in
public. While there are legal exceptions such as "fair use" and "compulsory license" clauses,
original authors are extended considerable protection. The US Copyright Office, part of the
Library of Congress, oversees copyright law.
c. Works that are protected. Copyright protects "original works of authorship" that are fixed
in a tangible form of expression. Copyrightable works include the following categories:
Literary works
Musical works
Dramatic works, including any accompanying words
Pantomimes and choreographic works
Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works
Motion pictures, and other audiovisual works
Sound recordings
Architectural works
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
d. The law for works created in 1978 or later. A work created on or after January 1,
1978, is automatically protected from the moment of its creation, and is ordinarily given a term
enduring for the author's life, plus 50 years after the author's death. In the case of a "joint work
prepared by two or more authors who did not work for hire," the term lasts for 50 years after the
death of the last surviving author's death.
e. Key elements of the laws. Three basic factors must be present for US copyright laws
to protect a new work: fixation, originality, and expression. All three must be considered when
determining copyright ownership.
• Fixation is the creation of a work in a tangible, lasting form and occurs at the moment of
• Originality is the conception in the author's mind this is also essential.
• Expression is the final key. Expression of ideas can be copyrighted, but ideas
themselves cannot.
f. Permissible copying.
(1) The Copyright Act also defines permissible copying. A work can be copied for limited
private use in the quest for knowledge, if it is not distributed or displayed and if the owner is not
harmed. Works can be copied for fair use if the commercial value of the original is not exploited
or if the reproduction is necessary for scholarly discussion or analysis of the work.
(2) Copies of short published works or periodicals also may be made by a teacher for
educational use if specific criteria are met. In other instances, multiple copies can be made for
handouts in a classroom.
g. How to copyright a work. Whenever a work is created it is automatically covered by
these copyright laws. However, if you feel that you may need to go to court over a possible
infringement of your copyright, you must register the copyright with the Copyright Office in
Washington DC. This is simply a matter of filling in the appropriate forms and sending copies of
the work for their records. The only time you must do this is when you feel that there may be
illegal copying of your work. The courts have awarded higher damage payments to people who
have actually registered their works. The bottom line is that you do not need to do anything to
copyright a work, it is automatically protected when you create the work.
h. How does copyright affect DOD personnel.
(1) As a member of the Armed Forces or an employee of the Federal Government, any
images or works that you create on the job are property of the government. This means that
you have no rights to these images. Also, any work that you do on your own time using either
government film or equipment belongs to the government. You must be very careful to only use
personally owned equipment and supplies when freelancing or shooting images that you may
want to keep or eventually sell.
(2) Just as the copyright laws prevent you from using equipment for your own gain, they
also protect you from performing illegal copying. As we have said, it is against the law to copy
another person's work. For this reason, you cannot be ordered to do this illegal copying. We
must educate our superiors on copyright laws.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(3) When can we copy copyrighted works? As we have said, it is appropriate to copy (in
limited amounts) works for training purposes and presentations. It is also acceptable to copy
works for the quest for knowledge or research. Keep these limitations in mind and use your
best judgment when determining whether or not to copy something.
i. Software piracy.
(1) One last ethical consideration is software piracy. While most people feel that it is wrong
to steal a computer or other piece of hardware from their workplace, it is common for employees
to copy software taken from work onto their home computers. We must understand that this is
just as wrong.
(2) While software is not as tangible as hardware, it is just as valuable. Many hours of
labor, research, and development go into each software application. We must understand that
to copy an application to an unauthorized computer is stealing it from the manufacturer.
(3) Additionally, moving disks from computer to computer also increases the risks of
transporting computer viruses; small, hidden programs than can destroy data. Viruses are
written to hurt computers and are usually copied along with software. By not illegally copying
software, we also are reducing the chances of spreading computer viruses.
(4) The government has taken a firm stance on the illegal copying of software. There are
many laws covering the subject and heavy ($100,000 or more) fines and prison terms are the
penalty for software piracy.
j. Ethics policies.
(1) Some newspapers use written policies. While numerous branches of the US
government, including The White House, now rely on personal computers to process images,
few organizations queried in 1993 had devised formal ethics policies.
(2) Are written ethics policies necessary? Yes. Should there be room for interpretation?
Of course, but photographs, like words, should be edited with consistency. Is it necessary to
enforce policies? If necessary. One pre-press employee left the job to "pursue other interests"
shortly after retouching a news photograph.
(3) We all have differing perceptions about what is ethical and what is not, therefore,
organizations should not allow individual employees to impose varying values on the group.
Consistent policies should be the goal with individual artists and photographers having pivotal
roles in identifying ethical guidelines.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
18 August 19XX
( ) REFERENCE: List pertinent regulations, manuals, related plans, and other
relevant documents or government policies. Include appropriate
military department visual information regulations.
1. ( ) GENERAL. Include all information necessary to lead to a clear understanding of
documentation requirements, support, and known limitations.
2. ( ) MISSION. Clearly state the specific OPDOC and PA AV/VI objectives or purposes of visual
information documentation in support of the basic plan. Include a statement such as “Normally, the
initial AV/VI team will provide both COMDOC and PA support for operation.”
Appendix 12
to Annex C
To Appendix A
Figure C-1. Sample of Appendix 12 to Annex C of an Operations Order.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
CJTF – 140
Appendix 12 To Annex C to CINCUSACOM Exercise Agile Provider 94
Visual Information and Combat Documentation (U)
JSC PUB 5-03.1, “Joint Operation Planning
and Execution System”, Volume I, 4 August 1993
b. DOD Dir 5040.4 “Joint Combat Camera Operations”,
September 30, 1996
c. DODD 5040.2, VI, May1999
(U) GENERAL. This appendix provides guidance for Joint Combat Camera (COMCAM)
imaging documentation, management, and distribution of exercise activities for AGILE
PROVIDER 94 (AP-94).
(U) MISSION. To acquire, transmit, duplicate, and archive/manage imagery of the
participants and activities which occur during all phases of the AP-94 Exercise. COMCAM
imagery will comply with reference (a) and be used to support operational briefings,
intelligence activities, historical records, and in direct support to the JTF Commander.
a. COMCAM will have ability to work with imagery in the following formats: video (HI-MM),
still slides (35MM), and digital still imagery. COMCAM forces will provide support IAW
Reference b.
b. COMCAM will move imagery, from and source, in an expeditious manner through their
command and control structure to the Joint Combat Management Team (JCCMT).
COMCAM will emphasize imagery that demonstrates the combined nature of AP-94.
Imagery of joint activities is highly desired. Component only imagery is a secondary
consideration. Digital or video imagery will be transmitted from Joint Combat Camera
Management Team (JCCMT), JTF, J-3 HQS, by the fastest means possible to the Joint
Combat Camera Center (JCCC), Washington, DC.
c. Documentation will start with coverage of selected force deployment activities and
conclude with force redeployment activities which occur after AP-94 Closing
d. Documentation is required of the following:
Deployment activities including airlift, Airborne, and Sealift Operations.
Appendix 12 To Annex C to CINCUSACOM Exercise Agile Provider 94
Visual Information and Combat Documentation (U)
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
JTF Mission Planning and Briefings
Special Operations
Flight deck operations on all air-capable ships
NEO Operations
Amphibious Assault Operations
Air, Air Defense, Ground, and Naval Operations
Redeployment activities of AP-94
Air Drop Operations
a. Joint Combat Camera Management Team (JCCMT-140) will operate under the Joint
Task Force J3 Operations. The senior COMCAM Officer will serve on the J3 staff and
will exercise OPCON over Joint and component COMCAM processing and acquisition
b. Joint COMCAM operations will be executed in a two-tier structure. JCCMT will form the
first tier. Component COMCAM management teams will form the second tier and will
exercise operational control over their subordinate COMCAM and VI resources through
their senior COMCAM Officer and their operations directorates.
c. Joint and component COMCAM operations will be conducted to simulate a theater war.
a. AP-94/J-3 (COMCAM) will exercise OPCON over all deployed Joint and component
COMCAM forces in the Continental United States through the Senior COMCAM Officer
(US Army).
Appendix 12 To Annex C to CINCUSACOM Exercise Agile Provider 94
Visual Information and Combat Documentation (U)
US ARMY (US FORSCOM), Act as executive agent for Joint COMCAM operations
for AP-94. Provide the following (from 55 Signal Company) to the JCCMT; one
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
67A66 UTC (Modified) comprised of one COMCAM officer to serve as director for
the Joint COMCAM Team, one COMCAM NCO to serve as Operations NCO for the
JCCMT, two MOS 25V NCO. Provide COMCAM forces sufficient to cover US Army
and/or Joint aspects of the exercise and insure accomplishment of TPFDD.
US NAVY (CINCLANTFLT) will provide the following to the JCCMT: one N26HQ
(Modified) comprised of one COMCOM Officer, to serve as assistant JCCMT
director, and two NCOs; one N26VA UTC, Video Documentation Team; and one
a. AP-94 will be documented to the maximum extent possible IAW component regulation
and DODI 5040.4.
b. COMCAM forces are trained and equipped to operate in all conditions and security
classifications as other forces within their military service.
c. COMCAM forces are operational; they will not release imagery to the public or allied
military forces unless competent command, operations and/or Public Affairs authority
determines release is in the best interest of the US.
d. COMCAM is a visual information tool that can be used for operations decision making,
PSYOPS, Civic Affairs, visual SITREP, historical, medical, and Public Affairs purposes.
e. COMCAM forces can perform all activities within their designed operational capability
within the limits of resources deployed into area of responsibility (AOR).
US COMCAM forces are a national resource. Documentation activities must portray
working partnerships and joint activities between services.
a. All COMCAM forces will:
Demonstrate and evaluate their ability to deploy to AP-94 by using their UTCs
entered into the JOPES System and travel using line numbers.
Evaluate and document their ability to use the Atlantic INMARSAT satellite.
Appendix 12 To Annex C to CINCUSACOM Exercise Agile Provider 94
Visual Information and Combat Documentation (U)
Demonstrate the ability to operate in a joint environment coordinating with the
JCCMT and JTF HQS. Additionally, evaluate the potential to maximize imaging
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
support while minimizing manpower and transportation requirements by
interoperating to the fullest extent at the Joint Level.
Demonstrate the ability to provide command and control over their component
COMCAM and VI (when appropriate) resources.
Demonstrate the ability to document events to meet operational, psychological ops,
public affairs, and historical imaging requirements. The priority should be given to
meeting operational requirements for this exercise.
Write an after action report and forward to 55th Signal Company (COMCAM) NLT
30 days after index. HQ AMC/IG will forward a copy to the 55th COMCAM. 55th
COMCAM will consolidate the reports, provide an executive (joint) summary, and
b. AP-94 COMCAM JCCMT will:
Demonstrate the ability to provide command and control over their component
COMCAM resources. This includes deconflicting component teams to avoid
excessive documentation and shortfalls. Additionally, they will demonstrate the
ability to ensure short notice imaging requirements are met.
Demonstrate the ability to receive and properly handle classified imagery.
Reception of classified imagery will be simulated if there are no real world
Demonstrate and evaluate the capacity of their electronic imaging system by
supporting JTF and JCCC.
c. ARFOR (55th Signal Company (COMCAM)) will:
Test capability to act as executive agent.
Test Digital Still Image Transmission over Single Channel Tactical Satellite System.
Determine Team Requirements for coverage of Army Mission at Division and
Brigade Level.
d. AFFOR will:
Appendix 12 To Annex C to CINCUSACOM Exercise Agile Provider 94
Visual Information and Combat Documentation (U)
Test the XFMAD team’s to serve dual roles and perform the mission of a XFMED
team with capability to support and sustain JCCMT with standard editing mission.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Provide HQ AMC, USAF/SCMV, and AFIS/DAP with an evaluation on the operability
of this concept.
Demonstrate the ability to acquire imagery and ship/transmit in less than 24 hours or
IAW mission requirements.
Demonstrate the ability to handle and transmit classified imagery if there are no real
world opportunities that this capability will be simulated.
Demonstrate the ability to provide one jump qualified (static and HALO) still
photographer with DCS 200 camera for documentation of combat control teams
e. USMC will:
Test capability to provide imagery to the JCCMT for editing, digitizing and
transmission NLT 24 hours after acquiring the image in the field.
Test capability to expeditiously collect imagery from organic VI elements
participating in AP-94 and move original photography to the JCCMT. Provide an
evaluation on the feasibility and effectiveness of this concept to CG MCCDC/TE-35
NAVY will:
Deploy Combat Still Photographers to test movement of still imagery using
shipboard and organic (INMARSAT) communications assets.
Test incorporation of Still and Video Photographers with Marine Amphibious Units
(Ground/Air Operations).
Integrate Navy COMCAM into a Joint COMCAM Scenario.
Collect original imagery, video and still, from organic VI elements participating in
AP-94 and move original photography to the JCCMT. Provide an evaluation on the
feasibility and effectiveness of this concept to CNO/OP09C4 and AFIS/DAP.
a. The senior COMCAM Officer will assume control of the AP-94 COMCAM Center. This
officer will:
Appendix 12 To Annex C to CINCUSACOM Exercise Agile Provider 94
Visual Information and Combat Documentation (U)
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Report to and serve on the JTF/J-3 staff.
Exercise operational control over component COMCAM resources and has tasking
authority over these forces.
Consolidate all requests for imagery originating from sources outside the JTF chain
of command and program their accomplishments on an asset available basis with
the component COMCAM forces.
Develop and execute policies and procedures to move selected imagery to the Joint
Combat Camera Center.
JCCMT will coordinate on component COMCAM concept of operations and ensure
theater standardization where necessary.
Exercise operational control of COMCAM imagery to support the following:
(a) Commander, Joint Task Force
(b) Commander in Chief Atlantic Command
(c) NCA
(d) Public Affairs
(e) After action requirements, historical record, and training.
Significant COMCAM imagery will be sent by the fastest possible means to the
Before shipping or transmitting COMCAM material to the JCCC, the COMCAM
Director will ensure that CJTF and USACOM requirements are satisfied and that
COMCAM POC has approved the transmission of the imagery to the JCCC.
International, direct-dial telephone lines with priority DSN service must be available
for electronic imaging transmission. Class AA voice line is also required from the
JTF headquarters.
COMCAM forces will deploy with INMARSAT terminals, Macintosh computers, and
Kodak DCS 200 still digital cameras.
Appendix 12 To Annex C to CINCUSACOM Exercise Agile Provider 94
Visual Information and Combat Documentation (U)
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
COMCAM products will be transmitted via land telephone line or INMARSAT to
JCCC (Washington DC) and CINCUSACOM.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(This appendix includes an extract from FM 101-5 with information on a Standing
Operating Procedure (SOP) and a sample SOP outline for combat camera units.)
Standing operating procedures (SOP) detail how forces will execute unit-specific techniques
and procedures that commanders standardize to enhance effectiveness and flexibility.
Commanders use the SOP to standardize routine or recurring actions not needing their personal
involvement. They develop the SOP from doctrinal sources, applicable portions of the higher
headquarters’ published procedures, the commander’s guidance, and techniques and
procedures developed through experience. The SOP must be as complete as possible so that
new arrivals or newly attached units can quickly become familiar with the unit’s normal routine.
There is no specified format for SOPs. In general, an SOP applies until commanders change
them to meet altered conditions or practices. The benefits of an SOP include—
Simplified, brief combat orders.
Enhanced understanding and teamwork among commanders, staffs, and troops.
Established synchronized staff drills.
Established abbreviated or accelerated decision-making techniques.
The operations officer is responsible for preparing, coordinating, authenticating, publishing, and
distributing the commands tactical and administrative SOP, with input from other staff sections.
The following is an example of a Standing Operating Procedure outline for a Combat Camera
(Give the purpose and scope of the SOP)
(Use an organization chart to show the organizational command structure)
(Explain the major elements of the higher headquarters, their purpose, responsibilities, and
functions. List any specific responsibilities and functions of applicable staff divisions, sections, or
subordinate elements of the command.)
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(Outline the relationships, responsibilities, and procedures of each: higher headquarters, staff
divisions, staff sections, platoon sergeants, squad leaders, and individuals.)
(Use an outline format to explain each element.)
Personal Affairs
a. Will
b. Power of Attorney
c. Allotments
d. Medical
(1) Physical
(2) Immunizations
(3) AIDS Testing
e. Documents
(1) ID Card
(2) ID Tags
(3) Shot Record
(4) Passport
(5) Government Credit Cards
(6) DD Form 1610
(7) Insurance
f. Family Support
g. Personnel Records
h. Geographic Brief
i. Finance/Payments
Basic Equipment Loads
a. Personal Equipment
(1) “A” Bag Packing List
(2) “B” Bag Packing List
(3) Load Bearing Equipment (LBE)
(4) NBC Equipment
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(5) Weapons (if applicable)
b. Mission Related Equipment
(1) Equipment Packing List
(2) Operational Checks/Preventive Maintenance Checks and Services (PMCS)
(3) Maintenance Forms
c. Non-essential/Expendable Items
(1) Personal items
(2) Support
Alert Notification Procedures
Team Checklists Considerations
a. General
b. Cold Climate
c. Desert Climate
d. Jungle Climate
e. Airborne Deployment
Operation Checklist
a. Customer Support Checklist
b. Team Chief Briefing
c. Transportation
d. Finance
e. Billeting
f. Security
(1) Weapons
(2) Masks
(3) Cameras and equipment
g. Area Maps
h. Security Rosters
Supply and Maintenance
a. Resupply Procedures
b. Evacuation of Equipment
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
On-site OIC/NCOIC Checklist
COMCAM Activities
a. Contacts and POC
b. Expediting Visual Media to the Rear
Accountability Rosters
a. Personnel
b. Equipment
Personnel and Equipment Procedures
After Action Review (AAR)
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
E-1. Define Your Audience:
a. Audience Composition
(1) Educational Background
(2) Occupational Background
b. Technical Limitations/Capabilities
(1) Novice Users
(2) Experienced Users
(3) General/Discretionary Users
E-2. Plan the Project Layout:
a. Create a Project outline
b. Element Design
(1) Functionality
(2) Usability
c. Text Design
Hyper Text Mark-up Language (HTML)
Characters Per Line
Lines Per Page
d. Image Design
(1) Avoid Deeply Saturated Primary Colors (Red, Green, Blue)
(2) Avoid Very Low Luminance Colors
(3) Create Complimentary Background Colors
e. Image Size
(1) Image Size Not to Exceed 640 Pixels Wide by 480 Pixels High
(2) Number of Images on a Single Page
f. Image Alignment
(1) Top, Middle and Bottom
(2) Left and Right
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
g. Navigation Scheme
(1) Structure/Format
Image Maps
(2) Page Layout
User Control
h. Help/Feedback
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
The DA Form 5164-R allows the trainer to keep a record of the performance measures a
soldier passes or fails on each task. Instructions for using this form follows:
Prior to evaluating
Obtain a blank copy of DA Form 5164-R that you may locally reproduce on 8 ½-inch
by 11-inch paper.
Enter the task title and 10-digit number for the task from the evaluation guide of the
SM task summary.
In column (a), enter the number of each performance measure from the evaluation
In column (b), enter the performance measure corresponding to the performance
measure number in column (a). (You may abbreviate this information if necessary.)
Enter the feedback statement from the evaluation guide just below the last performance
Locally reproduce the partially completed form if you are evaluating more than one
soldier on the task or the same soldier on more than one task.
During the evaluation
• Enter the date just before evaluating the soldier’s task performance.
• Enter the evaluator’s name and the soldier’s name and unit.
• For each performance measure in column (b), enter a check in column (c) PASS or
column (d) FAIL as appropriate.
• Compare the number of performance measures the soldier passes (and if applicable,
which ones) against the task standard shown in the Evaluation Guidance statement. If
the standard is met or exceeded, check the GO block under STATUS; otherwise, check
the NO-GO block.
Figure F-1 is a sample of a completed DA Form 5164-R.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Figure F-1. DA Form 5164-R.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(Excerpts from the Supervisor Development Course)
G-1. Management Overview
a. There are many privileges, challenges, frustrations, and rewards that go along with the
title Manager. Your span of control increases; you become more involved in setting goals,
obtaining resources, and become more involved in the infrastructure of the organization by
coordinating with upper level management. You will communicate more with subordinates,
bosses, and customers.
b. Each manager brings a diverse background of education, training, and experience with
them to their jobs. You will use your technical skills less and your human skills more to lead
people and manage events.
c. Army Management Philosophy is driven by AR 5-1, and also supports the Total Army
Quality (TAQ) principles. We will discuss the following topics:
Becoming a manager.
Management defined.
Interpersonal relationships.
Systems approach to managing.
Total Army Quality (TAQ).
d. Becoming a Manager. Management pervades our lives. We use it to organize people
and events for a common purpose in an orderly way. All managers basically use the same
management functions, from the high school student council president to the CEO of General
Motors. For example, they each set objectives, list priorities, and make decisions. Effective
managers are competent in both the technical and managerial aspects of their work. They are
also competent in leading others to achieve which is their greatest responsibility.
(1) Personal Motivation. Managers possess a healthy desire to exercise power. They
influence other and gain personal satisfaction through their achievement. They want to make a
difference and are driven by “a will to manage.” Successful managers use power for the good
of the organization. They enjoy the responsibility and satisfaction of being in charge, but they
don’t abuse it.
(2) Personal Development. Training and experience are a few ways to become a good
manager, but probably one of the best ways to become a good manager is to watch a good
manager in action and follow their example. Good managers don’t become that way over night.
Learn from their valuable mentorship to enrich yourself and continue your experience with
training and challenging assignments.
e. Management has many definitions.
(1) Management is an art. The art of management is getting things done through the use of
people and resources. Managers are charged with creating order for disorder by way of vision,
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
craft, and communication. Vision helps define the purpose, set goals, and give direction; the
use of technical skills to practice their craft and to control events; and the use of human skills to
effectively communicate with people to achieve desired results. Management is the art of
getting things accomplished through the collective efforts of others.
(2) Management is a process. Management is the process of planning, organizing,
coordinating, directing, and controlling events to achieve an objective.
(a) Planning. Planning is deciding what needs to be accomplished, where and how is it
going to be done, when will it be completed, and who is responsible for getting it done or seeing
that it gets accomplished.
(b) Organizing. Organizing is providing structure to establish relationships between people
and resources to pursue a common goal.
(c) Coordinating. Coordinating is integrating all details and key personnel to accomplish the
(d) Directing. Directing is issuing orders or instructions in order to carry out decisions.
Directing also includes the process of leading and supervising.
(e) Controlling. Controlling is applying means to keep the plan of action on track and to
analyze the results.
f. Interpersonal Relationships. Managers spend lots of time in people interaction. They
must be astute communicators and students of human nature. Managers wear many hats; they
are the boss, the counselor, the peer, or the friend. A manager’s day-to-day interpersonal
relationship can span from:
Giving thanks to subordinates for a successful mission.
Providing customer service to a less than satisfied client.
Engaging in small talk with employees.
Sending motivational cards on occasions (happy birthday, get well, sympathy) to
• Relaying distressing news to higher management.
(1) Army managers function in a unique environment. Their interaction with both civilians
and military creates a diverse workforce. Though often harmonious, the diverse cultural
backgrounds sometimes leads to misunderstanding and can create an “us versus them” climate.
(2) Army managers will also encounter great diversity within the military service. The
workforce can be made of women, minorities, and soldiers of different ethnic groups. Managers
should develop initiatives to lower any cultural barriers and promote trust to build a cohesive
Total Army. The managers of the future must develop the perception and empathy needed to
meet the challenge of building teamwork out of such diversity.
g. Systems Approach to Managing. An organization is a group of interrelated parts with a
single purpose. Actions in one part lead to the affect of the other parts. Keeping this in mind
when making decisions will help you to identify causes of problems and not just their symptoms.
Figure G-1 reflects the dynamic processes of an organization. The organization exists in a
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
larger environment. The environment gives the organization inputs and takes its outputs. If the
organization functions effectively, the environment will accept its outputs. It will also continue to
provide inputs. This assumes the organization has these functions:
A worthy purpose.
A demand for products.
Access to resources.
Efficient processes.
Timely feedback to control its processes.
Product customers want.
INPUT (Resources)
Figure G-1. Systems Model.
If an organization meets these standards, it renews itself and grows. When it fails to meet the
standards, it stagnates and dies.
h. Subsystems. An organization consists of six mutually dependent subsystems. The
organization must interact harmoniously if the organization is to flourish and become stronger
than the sum of its parts. See Figure G-2.
(1) Mission. This includes purpose, vision, goals, objectives, task, and shared values.
Though leaders are responsible for maintaining this subsystem, they need everyone’s
(2) People. The organization functions with people interacting in formal and informal roles.
This subsystem reflects the values if its members. Events occurring throughout the system can
profoundly affect the cohesion of its people.
(3) Structure. This subsystem includes both formal and informal organizations. The formal
structure is shown in Figure G-1. The informal organization arises from the emotional ties of
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
people, no matter what official position they hold. Its members use influence, resources, and
information to gain power. People with little official authority may wield great power in the
informal organization.
(4) Technology. This subsystem includes equipment, skills, knowledge, training, facilities,
tools, and information. It enables the organization to function as an integrated system.
(5) Leadership. Leaders are the glue binding all subsystems together. They form the
organization’s vision, goals, and values. They set the example with competence, commitment,
and ethical behavior.
(6) Environment. This is the larger subsystem hosting the organization. It includes the
immediate environment linking the organization to a larger system, for example, Department of
the Army. It also includes a still larger environment linking the organization to other institutions,
for example, American society.
i. Total Army Quality (TAQ). TAQ is the Army’s version of Total Quality Management
(TQM) principles. TAQ is a management philosophy that seeks to continuously improve an
organization. It relies on commitment and teamwork from everyone. TAQ aims to produce
quality products customers want. To achieve this, TAQ focuses on improving work processes to
decrease costs and increase productivity. TAQ emphasizes:
Quality products, as the customer defines them.
Elimination of errors.
Elimination of unnecessary procedures.
Prevention of problems.
Continuous improvement.
Empowerment of subordinates.
TAQ is not simply another way of managing. It requires lasting commitment from everyone
involved. Preparing an organization for TAQ requires extensive training and willingness to
j. The systems approach and TAQ tell us that everything we do affects everything else.
When making major decisions or seeking change, managers must consider how they affect the
organization and its environment.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Figure G-2. Organization System.
G-2. Organizational Considerations
a. As a new leader or a leader in a new position, there is a period of assessment for you
and your followers. You will assess them and their capabilities and they will assess you and
your leadership style. You will also be assessing the organization and its climate and culture.
(1) Climate measures whether people’s expectations about working in an organization are
being met. Measurements of climate can be very helpful in pinpointing the causes of poor
employee motivation.
Unclear organizational goals.
Ambiguous roles.
Pay dissatisfaction.
Biased selection practices.
Actions to address these sources of dissatisfaction tend to improve motivation and improved
motivation results in improved performance.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(2) Culture is the underlying assumptions. Values, beliefs, attitudes and expectations
shared by the organization’s members. These produce norms that powerfully shape the
behavior of individuals and groups in the organization.
(3) While climate measures whether expectations are being met, culture focuses on the
nature of these expectations themselves. Climate is often transition, tactical, and manageable
over a relatively short term. Culture is usually long-term and strategic. Culture roots are deeply
held values and beliefs in which individuals hold a substantial investment resulting from
processed data about organizational life. These values and beliefs are manifestations of the
culture not the culture itself. They create situational norms observed from behavior.
(4) Behavior becomes the basis for the formation of values and beliefs from which the norm
may flow. This “closed loop” accounts for much of the persistence organizational culture exhibit.
In most groups, individuals who violate these cultural norms feel the pressure to conform.
Group banishment may occur if norms do not change to accommodate violators.
b. It is important to learn all you can about the organization and the way things are done in
the organization. Use the following as indicators to assess the organization culture.
(1) Task Support. Observe the degree of free information exchange, willingness to help,
the ability to work together towards objectives, and the ability to get necessary information from
other work groups.
(2) Task Innovation. Identify perceptions of openness to new ideas and approaches.
Check frequency of discussions of new ways of doing things and of development of ideas
presented to management for action.
(3) Social Relationships. Focus on freedom of employees to develop social relationships
and participate in social activities. Ask yourself this question, “Is there a good working
relationship between people?”
(4) Personal Freedom. Looks at the freedom employees have to do their job. Can they
express personal preferences on the job? How much freedom do they have to believe in their
personal values as opposed to the organization’s values?
(5) Communication. Note the perceptions of upward and downward flow of information.
Does management communicate with the organization about changes?
Is management knowledgeable about employee attitudes, problems, or ideas?
Do employees know expected results from work assignments?
Are employee communications free flowing, honest, and open?
(6) Supervisory Effectiveness. Analyze the perceptions of supervisory effectiveness. Do
you provide performance feedback? Is assistance given in solving work problems?
(7) Morale. Look at the general state of morale in your unit. How do people feel about their
work? Would they stay if offered a comparable job elsewhere?
(8) Physical Working Conditions. Survey and analyze the perceptions of the overall quality
of workspace, facilities, and equipment.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(9) Levels of Awareness. Direct your attention to basic assumptions held by people or the
organization and how they are patterned.
(10) Dynamic Consequences. Note how one indicator connects to and is affected by other
indicators. Everything affects everything else.
G-3. Time Management
a. Managing both your time and your subordinates, time may be your greatest challenge.
Begin with reflecting how you utilize your own time. Make a record of the date, time, activity,
and assessment of each activity for the next few days. You’ll be amazed how you spend time
and what you accomplish.
(1) Numerous tools are available to help assess your time such as the following Time
Management checklist:
I forfeit annual leave.
I work evenings and weekends.
The work doesn’t get done when I’m not there.
I know my subordinates’ jobs better than they do.
My subordinates quickly refer all problems to me.
I have difficulty in making demands.
I spend most of my time with my subordinates.
My boss micro manages and so do I.
My subordinates do as told and nothing more.
I often re-do or finish my subordinates work.
I routinely pitch-in to help my people with their work.
My motto “If you want it done right, do it yourself.”
I frequently search for items I’ve misplaced.
I give equal attention to all tasks.
I handle tasks on a “first come, first served” basis.
I maintain a very liberal open-door policy.
I read everything that comes across my desk.
I put off things I don’t like doing.
I frequently “manage by crisis.”
I tolerate no mistakes and want no surprises.
I have problems saying “no” to unreasonable requests.
I still like to keep my hand in my old job.
(2) A journal, telephone log, and the above checklist are simply tools to identify symptoms
of time management problems. To solve time management problems you must define the
underlying causes and commit to lasting life style changes.
b. Underlying Causes of Poor Time Management. Managers waste time for several
(1) Overworked and lack resources to control workload.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(2) Lack of experience or skill to manage efficiently and effectively.
(3) Leadership style is inappropriate for the situation.
c. Usually with training and experience, managers learn to use time more effectively.
d. Motivation. There are three motivational forces that influence a manager’s effectiveness,
the need for achievement, affiliation, and power. Effective managers recognize these needs as
powerful motivators and they channel their energies to satisfy them in constructive ways. They
also realize the drive to satisfy any one of them can be compelling. This can lead to obsession
and such dysfunctional behavior as managing time poorly.
(1) Achievement. A manager driven by the need for personal achievement is likely to
manage time poorly. Instead of getting results from others through delegation, he does the task
himself to gain feedback and visibility. He neglects his subordinates and squanders time to
achieve personal success.
(2) Affiliation. A manager obsessed with the need for affiliation wants to be liked, especially
by subordinates. He manages time poorly because he is reluctant to make demands and hold
subordinates accountable. To avoid rejection, he may even do his subordinates’ work.
(3) Power. A manager seized with the need for personal power spends time acquiring it,
usually at the expense of the organization. He bears insecure and jealous feelings towards
peers and subordinates by manipulating and scheming to gain more power.
e. Managers filled with anxiety and inhibitions may use defense mechanisms such as
avoidance behavior or rationalization to escape and seek comfort.
(1) Avoidance behavior. To avoid anxiety, some managers resort to negative coping
behavior such as procrastination, apathy, aggression, rashness, immersion in trivialities, or
micro managing.
(2) Rationalization. Some managers rationalize their unwillingness to prioritize, make
decisions, give orders, or confront others. They tend to be hard workers, but waste time by
doing the work of their subordinates’. They accept less than professional results and make
excuses for poor performance. They spend a lot of time complaining, denying, or justifying why
they can’t achieve satisfactory results.
(3) Well-adjusted managers know what motivates or inhibits them, and can control the
forces of anxiety that motivation and inhibitions produce while insecure managers are unable to
do the same as a result they cope by managing time poorly.
f. You can quickly gain time by concentrating on essential issues, making a daily schedule,
clustering telephone calls, and discouraging drop-in visitors. To make lasting improvements you
must confront those motivational forces and psychological barriers preventing you from using
time effectively. This requires self-disclosure, feedback, insight, acceptance, and effort.
Concentrate on improving your techniques in the areas of setting priorities, delegating authority,
and conducting meetings. If done well, these activities save lots of time.
g. Most “How To Manage” books prescribe the following formula for managing priorities:
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
• Make a list of things to accomplish.
• Place most important task at the top of the list and remaining tasks listed by priority.
• Work on first task until it has been completed and then continue with the next task on the
list in the same manner until the list is exhausted.
This is always easier said than done and you must realize that there is always more work than
time, energy, or resources to accomplish it. This does not factor in the unexpected—and the
unexpected is something you can depend on. As a rule, you’ll achieve more spending five
uninterrupted hours on one task than you will spend one hour per day for five days on the same
h. Delegating authority to subordinates to act on your behalf frees up precious time to
attend to more important issues. Failing to delegate or delegating poorly means spending an
inordinate amount of time either micromanaging subordinates or doing their work. By
delegating you’ll gain time for yourself and for meeting the demands of higher management and
the system. Managers must prepare subordinates for the challenges of delegated assignments.
You probably could accomplish the work yourself in the time it takes to train subordinates to
operate with increased freedom and responsibility. But the investment is worth the risk, for it will
eventually return great dividends of time to you.
i. Managers spend a great deal of time attending meetings. Before attending a meeting,
consider sending a subordinate, if appropriate. This will save you time and provides an
opportunity for the subordinate to gain experience.
(1) Before conducting a meeting, ask yourself: Could I achieve the same results by
telephone, electronic mail, fax or teleconferencing? How much is the meeting costing the
organization? Include in your calculations the length of the meeting, number of attendees,
hourly salary rates, travel expenses and preparation. You’ll be surprised how expensive
meetings can be.
(2) When meetings are necessary, keep to your agenda, set time limits for discussion, and
control the tempo of the meeting to make best use of time. Keep in mind that attendees must
be away from their work areas. Knowing the participants will also help you to control the
meeting. You must plan to neutralize the power of negative people, control dominators, keep
out hidden agendas, and encourage the silent ones. You must control, orchestrate, and plan
the meeting. Use the following as a guide:
Set agenda and follow it.
Set time limit.
Ensure everyone participates in the meeting.
Direct remarks to entire group.
Keep discussions on track.
Clarify risks. Sell benefits.
Discourage premature votes and decisions.
Control meeting dominators.
Let everyone share the glory.
j. It is of little value to be efficient at planning a calendar or making telephone calls if these
activities don’t support your key objectives. Likewise, it’s worthless to increase your output of
work through better time management if it’s work your subordinates should be doing in the first
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
place. As a manager you must recognize what is your work and what is the work of your
subordinates. Remember the key to achieving permanent improvement is controlling your
needs for achievement, affiliation and power and overcoming the psychological barriers to
managing time effectively. Figure G-3.
Rewrite goals once a month.
Post signs to remind you of your goals.
Know when to say "no!"
Know when to stop a task.
Don't involve unnecessary people.
Continually ask, "What is the best use of my
time right now?.
Set aside chunks of time for task requiring
uninterrupted concentration.
Relax and smile after making a decision.
Reward yourself after the important jobs.
Your Time
Organize Daily
Keep track of tasks to be done daily.
Work on things you "really must do."
Do your thinking on paper.
carry 3x5 cards or notepad to write things
Keep your desk cleared.
Put important things in the center of desk.
Get rid of busywork.
Throw away things you don't need.
Deal with things you hate to do first.
Have a purpose when you hold a meeting.
Schedule meetings just before lunch or
quitting time.
try stand-up meetings. They're brief.
Generate as little paperwork as possible.
Handle correspondence only once.
Write short letters and memos.
Use the telephone to reduce your writing.
Communicate ideas with simple charts or
Figure G-3. Time Management Tips.
G-4. Objectives and Plans
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
a. Objectives. Setting objectives and developing plans are also essential ingredients in the
Time Management process. Objectives demand specific results required to achieving goals and
accomplishing the mission. Objectives unify efforts and give meaning to work. The also
establish managerial imperatives needed to achieve success.
What is our business?
Who are our customers?
Core values
What beliefs are shared?
In what manner will business be conducted?
What will be considered important to achieve
with regards to the mission and core values?
What direction does does the organization
take to accomplish the mission?
What are the specific results required to achieve
set goals and accomplish the mission?
What does each team member contribute
towards meeting the objective?
What is the pertinent work to be done?
What are the expectations of the wok to be done?
What are the payoffs for successfully
accomplishing the mission?
Figure G-4. Managerial Imperatives.
(1) An organization lacking clear objectives is seldom a successful organization. Its
members may work hard, but achieve very little. They engage in useless activity for its own
sake--better known as busy-work. An organization that engages in lots of activity but produces
no output is a worthless organization.
(2) An organization having worthy objectives usually succeeds because the members work
hard but most of all they see the efforts of their work. Worthy objectives are key objectives that
produce quality outputs. Outputs are the goods and services that that organization produces
and the customers demand. Focusing on the output creates an effective organization.
(3) Objectives related to input and processes are also important but they exist primarily to
support outputs. Their purpose is to make the whole organization efficient.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(4) Good objectives should but be:
Committed to.
b. Plans. A good plan states a precise objective and a clear intent to act. A balanced plan
should not consist of too many details, restrict initiative, or lack enough direction. A good plan
integrates the four functions of management: organizing, coordinating, directing, and controlling.
(1) There are many benefits to planning. Planning creates time to react when things go
wrong. It makes actions easier to defend and reduces the need for direct supervision. Planning
builds teamwork through improved communications, better cohesion, enhanced motivation, a
clearer grasp of objectives, and increased commitment.
(2) Planning sequence. Planning is a logical series of steps used to achieve the objective.
Figure G-5 is an example of a planning sequence. Follow the steps in figure G-5 to build your
plan and remember that as with any plan, the sequence should be flexible. Figure G-6 is an
example of a planning flowchart. Use these examples as tools when devising your plan.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Step 1
Step 2
Develop assumption to fill voids.
Step 3
Set objectives.
Step 4
Establish standards for sucess.
Step 5
Derive tasks form objectives.
Step 6
Develop possible courses
of action.
Step 7
Select course of action
Step 8
Prepare the complete plan.
Step 9
Execute the plan.
Figure G-5. Planning Sequence.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
What is to be achieved?
State in qualifiable terms
Who is the involved and how?
Resource allocation
Who keeps who informed and about what?
Integration of details
Communications channels
Roles of outside players
What decisions are whose to make and why?
Who judges results and by what standard?
Before starting the task
During the course of the action
After completing the action
Figure G-6. Planning Flow Chart.
c. Responsibility Chart. This simple tool assists in the planning, organizing, and controlling
of prior and future events. See figure G-7. It offers the following advantages:
Displays visually who’s doing what.
Identifies overworked or under utilized individuals.
Reflects where main efforts are being applied.
Tells if you are doing the right thing.
Uncovers voids.
Reveals if you are wasting resources on the trivial.
Shows subordinates you care about what they’re doing.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(L) - Lead
(A )- Assist
TASK D not covered.
TASK C not fully covered
SPC White overworked
SGT Green not available (on special project).
PFC Black under utilized.
Figure G-7. Responsibility Chart.
d. Each organization should have a Standing Operating Procedure (SOP). If maintained
properly, the SOP is a valuable planning tool by outlining routine and recurring activities. SOPs
enhance teamwork, promote efficiency, and reduce confusion.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Joint operation planning is performed in accordance with policies and procedures established in
a formal DOD-directed, CJCS-selected system: JOPES.
a. JOPES is the approved system for conventional operation planning and execution.
JOPES includes policies, procedures, reporting structures, and personnel supported by C4
systems. JOPES supports and integrates joint operation planning activities at the national,
theater, and supporting command levels and interrelates with three other national systems: the
NSCS, JSPS, and PPBS. JOPES is the principal system within the Department of Defense for
translating policy decisions into OPLANs and OPORDs in support of national security
objectives. It also provides joint operation requirements to the PPBS for use in making national
resource decisions that affect the PPBS and the JSPS. JOPES is a dynamic system that is
evolving through the incremental integration and enhancement of two earlier systems: JOPS
and JDS. As JOPES evolves, JOPS and JDS will merge and disappear within the improved
capabilities of JOPES. JOPES will be the mechanism for providing movement requirements to
STRANSCOM for contingencies and all CINC or CJCS-sponsored exercises as directed by CM1427-92, CJCS approval of VCJCS 21 August 1992 memorandum, "Strengthening Department
of Defense Transportation Functions."
b. JOPES consists of seven interrelated functions that provide a framework for joint
military planning and execution. Figure H-1 depicts the five operational functions and the two
supporting functions. The operational functions are sequentially related, proceeding in a logical
order from identification of a threat, to determination of strategy that counters the threat, to COA
development, to detailed planning, and, finally, to actual implementation of military operations.
The supporting functions, on the other hand, relate to all of the operational functions and have
an impact on each.
(1) JOPES Operational Functions. Figure H-2 displays the operational functions and
identifies the major inputs and outputs of each.
(a) Threat Identification and Assessment. This function addresses procedures for
describing threats to national security, continuously monitoring the international political and
military environment so threats to national security can be detected and analyzed, alerting
decision makers, and determining the specific nature of the threat. Defining enemy capabilities
and intentions is emphasized using this function. All organizational levels are supported by this
function during crisis action planning and execution.
(b) Strategy Determination. Using this function, the NCA, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of
Staff, and Joint Staff formulate suitable and feasible military objectives to counter the threats.
This function is used in formulating politico-military assessments, developing and evaluating
military strategy and objectives, apportioning forces and other resources, formulating concepts
and military options, and developing planning guidance leading to the preparation of COAs,
OPLANs, and OPORDs. This process begins with an analysis of existing strategy guidance in
light of the intelligence estimate and ends with issuance of either the JSCP in peacetime or a
CJCS WARNING or PLANNING ORDER during crisis action planning situations.
(c) Course of Action Development. In COA development during peacetime, the
supported command develops the CINC’s Strategic Concept based on Joint Staff and Service
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
planning guidance and resource apportionment provided in the JSCP and Service documents.
In crisis situations, the supported command develops COAs based on CJCS planning guidance
and resource allocation from approved OPLANs and CJCS WARNING or ALERT ORDERs.
Using this JOPES function coupled with the JOPES support function simulation and analysis,
force, sustainment, and transportation feasibility are analyzed. The Services, through service
component commands, and supporting commands provide supportability estimates of the
CINC’s Strategic Concept or COAs to the supported command. Products from COA
development include CINC’s Strategic Concept; CJCS-approved CONOPS; the Commander’s
Estimate, including COAs; supportability estimates; and, time permitting, an integrated timephased data base of notional combat, combat support (CS), and combat service support (CSS)
force requirements, with an estimate of required sustainment.
(d) Detailed Planning. This function is used in developing a CONPLAN, OPLAN, or
OPORD with supporting annexes and in determining preliminary movement feasibility. This
function provides a detailed, fully integrated schedule of deployment, employment, mobilization,
and sustainment activities based on the CJCS-approved CONOPS or COA. Detailed planning
begins with CJCS guidance in the form of an approval for further planning in a peacetime
environment or a CJCS ALERT or PLANNING ORDER in a crisis action planning situation and
ends with a CJCS-approved OPLAN or NCA-approved OPORD.
(e) Implementation. This function provides decision-makers the tools to monitor, analyze,
and control events during the conduct of military operations. It encompasses the execution of
military operations and provides procedures to issue OPORDs; conduct mobilization,
deployment, employment, and sustainment activities; and adjust operations where required.
The ability to monitor and compare actual with scheduled events is crucial to assessing mission
accomplishment; controlling, directing, replanning, redirecting, or terminating operations; and
conducting redeployment. Planning is a cyclic process that continues throughout
implementation. Implementation begins with the CJCS EXECUTE ORDER and usually ends
with some type of replanning effort, such as redeployment or redirection of operations.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
and Assessment
Course of
Figure H-1. JOPES Functions.
(2) Supporting Functions. Two supporting functions identified in Figure H-1, monitoring
and simulation and analysis, complement the operational functions to complete the conceptual
framework of JOPES.
(a) Monitoring. This supporting function supports each of the other JOPES functions by
obtaining current accurate information concerning the status of friendly, enemy, and neutral
forces and resources in accomplishing mission tasks. Examples of information processed are
objective accomplishment; consumption data; and the status of deployment, procurement,
mobilization, forces, and facilities.
(b) Simulation and Analysis. This supporting function offers various automated
techniques that enhance each of the other JOPES functions. Examples of simulation and
analysis applications, when feasible, are force-on-force assessments (suitability); generation of
force requirements; comparison of requirements to capabilities, such as consumption data;
closure profiles (feasibility); and generation of mobilization and sustainment requirements based
on need.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Indications and Warnings
Identification and
Warning Order
Approved CONOPS
Alert Oder/Planning
Execute Order Status
Figure H-2. Functional Process Major Inputs and Outputs.
c. JOPES is a continuous, iterative process. It begins in response to perceived and
identified threats to US security interests; continues through military option selection and COA,
operation plan, and operation order development and implementation; and ends when the
requirement for the plan is canceled, the operation is terminated, or the crisis is satisfactorily
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
I-1. Time-phased force and deployment data is the list of units and sustainment requirements
needed to execute the operation plan (OPLAN). It phases them into the theater of operations at
the times and places required to support the concept of operations. Its development and
refinement are critical to achieving executable OPLANs and to developing executable operation
orders when using an approved TPFDD in crisis action planning. US Transportation Command
uses TPFDD to analyze the flow of forces and cargo from their points of origin to arrival in
theater. They distribute the apportioned strategic transportation resources. During this process,
Commander in Chief, US Transportation Command follows the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of
Staff guidance and coordinates all major decisions with the supported combatant commander.
I-2. A TPFDD is a computer database used to identify types of forces and actual units required
to support an OPLAN or OPORD. In addition, TPFDDs contain estimates of logistics support
and designate ports for loading (embarkation) and unloading (debarkation). Finally the TPFDD,
based on planner input, establishes the sequence for moving the forces and their support (time
phasing) into the Area of Operations. The time-phased forces, and their associated cargo and
passenger movement requirement, are used as the basis for actual transportation scheduling.
JOPES ADP depends on Service planning systems for these force and support requirements.
The JOPES database is distributed worldwide and provides a single information source for
movement status.
I-3. Developing a TPFDD involves these main processes:
Force planning.
Support Planning.
Transportation Planning.
Deployment/ Redeployment Execution.
a. Force planning begins when the combatant commander identifies the major apportioned
forces needed to support his concept of operations, and continues with the identification of
combat support and combat service support force requirements. Initially, for gross planning
estimates, notional (generic) units may be designated. As the process continues, however,
actual units must be identified.
b. TPFDD development then shifts to support planning. Various software programs use
the force list to estimate time-phased lift requirements for supplies, equipment, and replacement
personnel needed to sustain the forces specified during force planning. The quantities are
determined using planning models to derive gross quantities (weight and volume). Unique
computer programs provide support for specialized planning models such as civil engineering
and medical support.
c. During transportation planning, all of the forces are time-phased into the Area of
Operations. JOPES software compares apportioned transportation assets to the forces to be
moved, factors in their sustainment requirements and time phasing, and determines if the
planned forces can be moved to the Area of Operations to meet the CINC’s needs. The product
of this process is a capabilities-based, transportation-feasible database containing all the forces,
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
materiel, and personnel needed to execute the CINC’s concept of operations. This
transportation-feasible database is the TPFDD.
d. The process of developing the TPFRR with the current JOPES ADP software is
sequential. This figure depicts the development of a TPFDD based on three of the main
processes: force planning, support planning, and transportation planning. Each process must
be completed before proceeding to the next one. For example, force planning must be
completed before support planning begins, and support planning must be finished before
starting transportation planning. Also, it may be necessary to drop back to revisit previous
steps, or in the worst case start over. Each step is the responsibility of one or more separate
agencies or commands located around the world. This complex operation was acceptable for a
multi-year deployment-based deliberate planning cycle. Today, however, emphasis has shifted
to an execution-based crisis action planning procedure. A crisis action planning cycle and
deployment/redeployment execution require immediate data access and a response time
measured in hours, not days.
e. The TPFDD becomes the basis for actual transportation scheduling for force deployment
and redeployment. At execution, the TPFDD developed during deliberate planning is refined
and movement requirements are validated. This validated TPFDD becomes the basis for actual
transportation scheduling for force deployment and subsequent redeployment. Supply and
replacement personnel estimates developed during planning are used as a source for
establishing transportation channels for sustainment movement. In short, the JOPES database
is a single source for force deployment movement requirements and status.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
This document constitutes the LOI for use of JOPES during Operation BLUENOSE. The overall
classification of this document is ________.
Coordinating Instructions
Concept of Operations
TPFDD Concept
Unit Personnel and Equipment Movement
Nonunit Related Personnel and Equipment Movement
Classification of TPFDD Information
Planning Guidance
TPFDD Management
TPFDD Planning Instructions
Validation Procedures
Manifesting Procedures
Supporting CINCs and Providing Organizations
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
I. Introduction
1. This LOI provides time-phased force and deployment data (TPFDD)
procedures for deployment, replacement, and redeployment of Operation BLUENOSE forces.
This LOI provides instructions and direction to USCENTCOM components, supporting
CINCs, and JOPES planners.
2. This LOI will be retained in the USCENTCOM host
CAT/file string CENT JOPES/BLUENOSE/TPFDD LOI Updated versions of each appendix will
be retained in the CAT/file string listed in the table of contents. Appendixes will be updated to
reflect current information along with the change date. Periodically, USCENTCOM will list the
appendixes with the dates of their current versions in its daily validation message to
USTRANSCOM. Comparing the dates on the hard copy appendixes with those on the
validation message will ensure use of most current information.
1. USCENTCOM CCJ3 exercises office of primary responsibility (OPR) for
oversight, review, coordination, and administration of BLUENOSE deployment and
redeployment data in JOPES.
2. USCENTCOM J4/7 (CCJ4/7) is the OPR for validating movement
3. CCJ3 is the OPR for monitoring and coordinating all TPFDD movements.
4. CCJ3 and CCJ4/7 will coordinate the transportation issues affecting the
deployment and redeployment of BLUENOSE forces.
5. CCJ5 is the OPR for oversight, review, coordination, and administration of
force planning and associated movement dates.
Coordinating Instructions
1. USCENTCOM REAR CCJ3-PJ (JOPES) coordinates TPFDD requirements
and acts as the OPR for TPFDD issues. Requirements generated within the AOR for
deployment and redeployment will be coordinated through USCENTCOM JOPES FORWARD
(FWD). USCENTCOM JOPES FWD may interface directly with supporting CINCs and
components or through USCENTCOM REAR JOPES.
2. Coordination of requirements with supporting CINCs requires special
consideration. USCINCCENT components translate USCINCCENT direction into Service
requirements, establish Service ULN structure, and set movement priorities to match lift
allocation. Therefore, direct liaison between USCINCCENT components and supporting CINCs
is authorized to ensure immediate resolution of competing movement requirements and proper
TPFDD structure.
(a). For Deployment. In the case of joint requirements, supporting CINCs
will coordinate directly with USCENTCOM. USCENTCOM components will validate Service
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
requirements. Supporting CINCS will validate joint requirements and verify to USCINCCENT
and USCINCTRANS that tasked units and equipment are available for movement as indicated
in the TPFDD.
(b). For Redeployment. USCENTCOM components will prioritize and
validate Service requirements in accordance with USCINCCENT redeployment priorities and lift
allocations. Supporting CINCs and providing organizations will coordinate with appropriate
USCENTCOM Service components to manage redeployment movement requirements.
3. Providing organizations (e.g., AMC, ACC) will coordinate TPFDD requirements
directly with USCENTCOM components.
4. Component responsibility for deployment operations is as follows:
Air Force--CENTAF REAR//BSD//.
5. Component responsibility for redeployment operations is as follows:
Air Force--CENTAF FWD//XPX//.
6. The primary means of communication and coordination for TPFDD issues is
the 104BN (series) WIN Teleconference. GENSER message traffic should be held to a
1. Joint Pub 5-03.1, "Joint Operation Planning and Execution System (JOPES),
Volume I, 4 Aug 1993, (Planning Policies and Procedures),"
2. Joint Pub 5-00.2, "Joint Task Force Planning Guidance and Procedures," 13
January 1999.
3. Joint Pub 4-01.3, "Joint Techniques and Procedures (JTTP) for Movement
Control," December 1999.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
4. Joint Pub 4-01, " Joint Doctrine for the Defense Transportation System,"
March 2000.
II. Planning and Execution Instructions
Concept of Operations
TPFDD Concept
(a) The timeframe of the transition from deployment to unit or nonunit
personnel and equipment exchanges (replacements) to redeployment cannot be forecast. The
most difficult, and possibly most likely, scenario is for redeployment to occur simultaneously as
replacements and additional deployments are ongoing. To keep the process simple and direct,
deploying forces, including replacements to the AOR, will continue to be entered into one
TPFDD, presently PID 152BN. Redeploying forces, including replaced units leaving the AOR,
will be entered into a second TPFDD, presently designated 152RP. Because all units and
equipment (ULNs) must be prepared to eventually redeploy, all forces deployed to the AOR will
be entered into the redeployment TPFDD, 152RP. Redeploying forces (air and sea
movements) will be coded "DEP" by the components in the project code field of PID 152RP.
When they have departed the AOR, PID 152RP will then reflect the remaining deployed force.
(b) USCINCCENT components will create force modules in all
BLUENOSE TPFDDs files in order to identify the current status of all major units. "Major
combat units" for each component are defined as follows:
CENTAF--Squadron and above.
ARCENT--Brigade and above.
MARCENT--MEB, regiment, and aircraft group and above.
NAVCENT--Current ULN structure in 152BN is appropriate.
SOCCENT--One force module each for AFSOC, Army SF, and
NSWTG components. Supporting CINCS may create additional
force modules (e.g., regiments, battalions, squadrons); however,
force modules must exist for the designated units.
(c) The following ULN blocks are designated for indicated components
and commands:
Force ULNs
(1st character)
(2d character)
V--Air Force
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
The intent is to provide unit visibility showing parent or subordinate
relationships. Therefore, the ULN structure must remain the same for both
152BN and 152RP TPFDDs files. Force modules must be accurate and correct
as described in subparagraph IIa(1)(b) above.
(d) All requirements from the 152BN TPFDD that have actually deployed
to the AOR will be entered into the 152RP TPFDD immediately. These records will be updated
if necessary to reflect actual cargo and passenger (PAX) data. Level 2 detail is acceptable for
airlift. Level 4 details will be provided when available. However, a minimum of Level 3 detail is
required for sealift to obtain square foot data for sealift planning. The RLD, ALD, EAD, and
RDD fields of each ULN will be blanked and the LAD will be coded "9999" (on call) until
movement data are known and destination and origin locations (GEOCODEs) are reversed.
The providing organization code will not be changed to maintain visibility of the original
providing organization. Finally, a Critical Employment Indicator (CEI) code or "R" will be used to
distinguish redeployment requirements from other 152RP entries.
(e) ULNs in the redeployment TPFDD will be prioritized according to
mode and source as follows:
(1). ULNs redeploying (152RP) via air (AMC or supporting CINC)
will be prioritized from 1-999 by each component. No priority number will be repeated unless
the ULN is less than 400 passengers or 100 short tons. In this case ULNs can be assigned the
same priority number until a total of 400 passengers or 100 short tons is exceeded.
(2). ULNs in the redeployment TPFDD (152RP) requiring
movement by sea or MSC will be prioritized from 1-999 by each component. No priority number
will be repeated unless the ULN is less than 10,000 MTONs. In this case, ULNs can have the
same priority number until 10,000 MTONs is exceeded.
(f) ULNs in the deployment TPFDD, 152BN, will be coded to identify
forces deploying by deployment orders. To identify different phases of the deployment, the CEI
code for each ULN in the 152BN TPFDD will be coded as follows:
A--Indicates forces ordered deployed as directed by the initial
DEPLOYMENT ORDER and subsequent orders (Phase I).
B--Indicates forces ordered deployed as directed after 31 March
1990 and subsequent orders (Phase II).
C--Indicates forces in an on-call status that could be expected to
deploy as replacements.
R--Indicates forces in the 152RP TPFDD designated for
redeployment to home station. Used to distinguish forces
awaiting REDEPLOYMENT ORDER from other 152RP
2. Unit Personnel and Equipment Movement
(a) Air Large Units. Units moving by AMC will depart from an APOE
nearest their origin for deployments and an APOE nearest their AOR location for
redeployments. For redeployments, the APOD (APOD will be coordinated with
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
USTRANSCOM) will be directed by the Service component or the supporting CINC. Because
airlift will move more efficiently through established channels, components should make every
attempt to use channels. For each mission, units must provide, as a minimum, the airlift control
element (ALCE) and/or aerial port commander (APC) with the following information: ULN(s),
passengers, cargo (in short tons (STON)), and hazardous cargo documentation.
(b) Air Small Units. Units with less than 100 passengers and/or 10
STONs that have not been grouped at a major APOE will move to consolidated APOE when
moving to and from the AOR.
(c) Multiple Aerial Ports. Aircraft will not transit multiple aerial ports for
load or offload except in exceptional circumstances, specifically coordinated with USCENTCOM
and USTRANSCOM. TPFDD requirements must reflect appropriate APOE and APOD to
ensure in-transit visibility.
(d) Sea Movements. SPOE and SPOD for deploying and redeploying
requirements are listed in Appendix 1. USCENTCOM through USTRANSCOM will designate
an aggregation SPOE in the USCENTCOM AOR when required. Procedures for onward
movement from CONUS or OCONUS SPOD to destination will comply with Defense Traffic
Management Regulations (DTMR).
3. Nonunit Related Personnel and Equipment Movement. Nonunit related
personnel type movement are coded in compliance with Joint Pub 1-03, Appendix B, Table 18.
Movement of non-unit cargo will use the Defense Transportation System (DTS). The majority of
nonunit cargo moving to the AOR should move through published channels with Military
Standard Transportation and Movement Procedures (MILSTAMP) documentation.
4. Redeployment of Sustainment. Redeployment of sustainment and nonunit
equipment, under control of deployed units, are aggregated by Service (component)
representatives in the AOR.
b. Classification of TPFDD Information. Any Operation BLUENOSE TPFDD is classified
SECRET. However, TPFDD movement information such as ULN, UIC, origin, destination,
providing organization, EAD/LAD, and number of passengers is UNCLASSIFIED when not
associated with a unit name. When the unit name and UIC are used together with either
destination or actual deployment dates, the information is classified SECRET.
c. Planning Guidance
(1) Components’ airlift and sealift allocation for TPFDD building will be in
accordance with Appendix 2.
(2) The 104BNXX (Series) teleconference will continue to be used to coordinate
and resolve BLUENOSE TPFDD issues.
(3) C-day and L-hour will remain the same for all deployment and redeployment
TPFDD files.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
(4) The following ULN assignments will be used in all TPFDD files.
In accordance with Joint Pub 4-01.3, do not use the characters "I" and "O" in the
TPFDD ULN structure. Also, the characters "W," "X," and "Y" are reserved fourth position
characters for USAF weather and TACP in support of Army units.
(5) SOCCENT will coordinate the redeployment of JCSE forces in direct support
of SOCCENT and USCINCSOC forces provided to CENTAF and ARCENT. SOCCENT will use
its lift allocation to move these forces.
d. TPFDD Management
(1) Validation Procedures. Components, supporting CINC, and providing
organizations will validate, via teleconference, active PID to USCENTCOM daily by 2100Z.
USCENTCOM will validate to USTRANSCOM 4 hours later, 0100Z the following day, via
teleconference. Validation will be by EAD 6 days from the current C-day for airlift requirements
and 30 days from the current C-day for sealift requirements (see Glossary, for definition of
validation). USTRANSCOM and components will report the current status of validated ULN by
coding the project code field as instructed in Appendix 3.
(2) Aircraft Allocation and Manifesting
(a) For CONUS units the AMC requirements cell will contact the unit POC
to coordinate movement. For OCONUS units, the AMC requirement cell will contact the
organization specified by USCINCCENT to coordinate movement.
(b) AMC will initially allocate ULN to aircraft mission numbers and publish
the allocation information in the Global Decision Support System (GDSS). USTRANSCOM will
update JOPES to show ULN allocated to air missions. Neither components nor supporting
CINC or providing organizations are change or reassign ULN(s) or aircraft mission numbers
without first notifying USCENTCOM and informing USTRANSCOM via teleconference.
(c) Components, supporting CINC, and providing organizations will
ensure that units or shippers provide assigned ULN(s) to the airlift control element (ALCE) or
aerial port commander (APC) at the APOE along with passenger and cargo quantity. The ALCE
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
or APC will report the aircraft departure with the actual ULN(s), passengers, and cargo STON
hauled for each mission to the appropriate AMC command and control agency. Mission
manifesting will be accomplished using JOPES interface of GDSS and crosscheck procedures.
(d) Components, supporting CINC, and providing organizations with
requirements departing from locations without an ALCE or APC will manifest the carrier in
JOPES with ULN(s), passengers, and cargo STON actually hauled. Before the carrier departs,
it may be manifested in JOPES if passengers and cargo STON are known but not later than 12
hours after the aircraft’s departure.
III. Action
1. Coordinate with USTRANSCOM to ensure that Appendixes 1 and 2 are
current and correct.
2. Update Appendixes 3 and 4 as required.
3. Update CAT/file strings containing appendixes as required and report
periodically the dates of the current versions in the daily validation message to USTRANSCOM.
4. Conduct daily validations by EAD of active TPFDD files, 6 days from the
current C-day for airlift and 30 days for sealift. Report to USTRANSCOM the validation by
0100Z via TLCF.
5. Ensure that applicable milestones are met.
1. Coordinate with USCENTCOM to ensure that Appendixes 1 and 2 are current
and correct.
2. Report to USCENTCOM via TLCF any changes to POC.
3. Ensure Commander Airlift Forces (COMALF) provide a daily list of ALCE or
APC locations in the AOR by message to USCENTCOM REAR/JOPES. Also provide
USCENTCOM with a current list of CONUS, OCONUS ALCE, and APC locations and advise
when a change occurs to ensure that components, supporting CINC, and providing
organizations know from which APOE they are required to manifest aircraft.
4. Report the current status of validated ULN according to Appendix 3.
5. Conduct aircraft allocation and manifesting as indicated in Part II,
subparagraph II d(2) of this LOI.
6. Ensure applicable milestones are met.
c. Components
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
1. Report to USCENTCOM any changes or corrections to POC.
2. Conduct daily validations by EAD of active TPFDD files, 6 days from the
current C-day for airlift and 30 days for sealift, and report to USCENTCOM the validation by
2100Z via TLCF.
3. Report the current status of validated ULN according to Appendix 3.
4. Insert the proper CEI code for each ULN in the deployment TPFDD to identify
its deployment phase.
5. Build redeployment TPFDD of all forces currently deployed to the AOR
according to directions provided in this LOI and information contained in the appendixes. The
TPFDD must contain force modules showing major combat units and indicate priority of
redeployment by ULN according to the priority code field of the ULN record. Report the force
module structure of major units via TLCF to USCENTCOM.
6. Ensure the redeployment TPFDD is maintained to reflect forces currently in
the AOR that may require redeployment.
7. Manifest assigned carriers at APOE with ALCE and port commanders.
8. Review USCENTCOM’s daily validation message to USTRANSCOM to ensure
TPFDD planning information provided in the appendixes to this LOI is up to date. Later versions
of the appendixes can be obtained from the files listed with the appendixes.
9. Ensure applicable milestones are met.
10. Ensure there is a 24-hour POC for all ULN in the validated period (see
subparagraph d of Part II). POC for ULN can be disseminated a number of ways to include
established procedures or including the POC and phone number with the ULN data in
"nonbaseline" field.
d. Supporting CINC and Providing Organizations
1. Report to USCENTCOM any changes or corrections to POC.
2. Conduct daily validations by EAD of active TPFDD files, 6 days from the
current C-day for airlift and 30 days for sealift. Report to USCENTCOM these validations by
2100Z via TLCF.
3. Report the current status of validated ULN according to Appendix 3.
4. Insert the proper CEI code for each ULN in the deployment TPFDD to identify
its deployment phase.
5. Coordinate with appropriate USCENTCOM components on movement data for
those requirements intended for a particular service. Coordinate with USCINCCENT on
movement data for joint requirements.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
6. Manifest assigned carriers at APOE without ALCE or port commanders.
7. Review USCENTCOM’s daily validation message to USTRANSCOM to ensure
that TPFDD planning information provided in the appendixes to this LOI is up to date.
8. Ensure applicable milestones are met.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Section I
After-Action Review
automatic brightness limiter
alternating current/Active Component/assistant commandant
Army Correspondence Course/Automatic Color Control
Army Correspondence Course Program
automatic continuous tuning
archive device
Apple Desktop Bus
automatic degaussing
Automated Data Processing
Armywide Doctrinal and Training Literature
audio frequency/Air Force
automatic frequency control; Army functional course
American Forces Information Service
automatic frequency and phase control
Armed Forces Radio and Television Service
AFRTS Broadcasting Center
automatic fine-tuning
Adjutant General/Adjutant General Corps
automatic gain control
Area of Interest
address indicator group
Advanced Individual Training
angle line
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
airlift control element
amplitude modulation
amplitude modulation/frequency modulation
Army Materiel Command
annually (frequency code)
Advanced Noncommissioned Officer Course
area of responsibility
Arial Port Commander; armored personnel carrier
average picture level
Army Regulation/Army Reserve
Army National Guard
Advanced Research Project Agency: Agency of the US Department of
Defense; funded initial work on the Internet
Advanced Research Project Agency Network
Army Training and Evaluation Program
American Standards Association
Automated Systems Approach to Training
Adobe Type Manager
auto iris
automatic control of the lens diaphragm
Army VI Documentation Program
Army Visual Information Management Office
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
black burst
Bulletin Board System
Before Christ; Branch Code
Basic Issue Items
low battery/baseline
Basic Noncommissioned Officer Course
bits per inch; number of bits that can be recorded on one inch of track
on a floppy disk
bits per second
battle roster
basic training
civil affairs or Civil Affairs
Course Administrative Data; computer-aided design; computer-aided
Center of Army Leadership
Close Air Support; Crew Assignment Sheet
cable television
chemical, biological; common battery; citizens band; common base
transistor; color bars
Chemical Corps; Communication Central
charge-coupled device
Command, Control, and Intelligence Technical Test
circuit control officer
combat control teams
closed-circuit television
communications control unit; camera control unit
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
compact disk
compack disk-erasable; erasable CD-ROM drive
compact disk-recordable
Compact Disk-Read Only Memory
Captured Enemy Documents
Critical Employment Indicator
Communications-Electronics Operating Instructions
command information
Commander In Chief
Commander-In-Chief, US Atlantic Fleet
Commander-In-Chief US Atlantic Command
Complex Instruction Set Computing
Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff
career management field
configuration memory operating system
course of action
components of end item
Commander Airlift Forces
combat camera
Combat Documentation
Continental United States
cable orderwire unit
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Command Post
central processing unit
cathode-ray tube
combat services support/communications switching set
control terminal
Common Task Test
calendar year
Department of the Army; distribution amplifier
DA Form
Department of the Army Form
DA Pam
Department of the Army Pamphlet
Department of the Army Inspector General
digital audiotape
Defense Automated Visual Information System
Dental Corps; direct current; District of Columbia
Defense Communications Agency
Department of Defense
DD Form
Department of Defense Form
directed energy
dismount extension switch
Defense Intelligence Agency/diameter
Defense Information School
Distributed Interactive Simulation
Director of Information Systems for Command, Control,
Communications, and Computers
distribute; distribution
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
data level adjustment
Defense Mapping Agency
Delivery Order
Department of Defense
Department of Defense Directive
Dual Purpose
Defense Property Disposal Precious Metals Recovery Office
Defense Property Disposal Office
dots per inch
Directorate of Public Works
direct support
Defense Switched Network
Defense Traffic Management Regulations
Defense Transportation System
digital videodisk; revised format for CD-ROM disks that will increase the
capacity of CD-ROM size disks up to 4.7 gigabytes
Defense Visual Information Activity Number
Defense Visual Information Center
earliest arrival date; entered active duty
end item
electromagnetic spectrum
Enlisted Personnel Management System
Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
Encapsulated Post Script file
Fahrenheit; fail
frequently asked questions
A graphic representation of the sequence of a specific activity,
operation, or algorithm.
field manual; frequency modulation; file maintenance
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
focal point
center of interest.
United States Army Forces Command
Final Planning Conference - final opportunity to make changes, solidify
plans and verify all logistics and tasking
fragmentary order
File Transfer Protocol
Global Decision Support System
Global Positioning System
General Services Administration/General Support Agency
Graphical User Interface
high density; distilled mustard gas
Hyper Text Markup Language
In Accordance With
individual and collective training plan
International Maritime Satellite
Initial Planning Conference - first gathering of all players involved in a
specific exercise, used to set ground work and requirements for the
Image Perspective Transformation Caption
Internet Relay Chat
Information Systems Command
International Standards Organization
Internet Service Provider; company that has a permanent connection to
the Internet and offers access to the Internet as one of its services
Individual Training Evaluation Program
Individual Training Plan
Joint Combat Camera Center
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Joint Combat Camera Management Team
Joint Conference Planning Guide for Combat Camera Officers
Joint Chiefs of Staff
Joint Development System
Joint Mission Essential Tasking List - a compilation of critical mission
tasks a joint unit must be able to perform. The task must be measurable
Joint Operation Planning and Execution System
Joint Operations Planning System
Joint Photographic Expert Group
Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan
Joint Task Force
Joint Visual Information Activity
Joint Visual Information Service
Joint Visual Information Service Distribution Activity
kilobits per second
local area network
Load Bearing Equipment
logistical detail - list of equipment each UTC must have for deployment.
letter of instruction
major Army command
US Air Force Major Command - develops operational plans and policy
for its assigned forces.
mission essential task list
Mission, Enemy, Terrain, Troops, and Time
Military Standard Transportation and Movement Procedure
maintenance manual/millimeter
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
monthly (frequency code)
modulation/demodulation equipment
mission oriented protection/protective positive
Military Occupational Specialty
Microsoft Disk Operating System
nuclear, biological, chemical
National command authority
noncommissioned officer
Noncommissioned Officer In Charge
non-combat evacuation order
Non-secure Internet Protocol Roster Network - non-secure
communication line for transmitting unclassified data
National Press Photographers Association
National Security Agency
National Sigint Communication Standard
National Science Foundation
On or after Data Release; Originating Agency's Determination Required
Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense
optical character reader/optical character recognition
officer in charge
on-the-job training
operation manual
operations document
Opposing Force
Operations Plan
operation order
operate; office of primary responsibility
Office of Secretary of Defense
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
public affairs; power amplifier
Personnel Affairs Officer
programmable controller; personal computer
Plain Language Address for message traffic
Primary Leadership Development Course
performance measure
preventive maintenance checks and services
point of contact
Program of Instruction
Planning, Programming, and Budgeting System
call set-up procedures as it pertains to timing and synchronization
psychological operations
quality control
quarterly (frequency code)
random access memory
Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation
the measure of how detailed and fine an image is
red, green, blue
Raster Image Processor
Reduced Instruction Set Computing
read only memory
standing operating procedure
situational awareness; semiannually (frequency code)
Subversion and Espionage Directed Against the US Army
single agency manager; surface-to-air missile
Security, Accuracy, Policy, and Propriety
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
satellite network
small computer system interface
Standard Form
Sergeant First Class
signal intelligence
Situation Report
soldier's manual
Soldier's Manual of Common Tasks
Schedule of Events - a time limit of the exercise events.
Standing Operating Procedure
Special Text
soldier training publication
sustainment training skill level
tactical control
Total Army Quality Management
Television-Audio Support Activity
technical coordinator; training circular; thermocouple
technical control facility
Transmission Control Protocol Internet Protocol
Table of Distribution and Allowance
Training Extension Course
trainer's guide
technical manual
test, measurement, and diagnostic equipment
Terminal Message Processor: Transportation Motor Pool
tactical operations center
Table(s) of Organization and Equipment
Time-Phased Force and Deployment Data
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Time-Phased Line
Total Quality Management
Training and Doctrine Command
the art of type selection and arrangement
unit identification code
unit line number
Unit Movement Officer
universal power supply; uninterruptible power supply
Universal Resource Locator
United States
United States Army First Sergeants School
United States Army Reserve
United States Army, Europe
United States Army Sergeant Major Academy
US Army Visual Information Center
unit type code
views control panel
video cassette recorder
video graphic adapter
visual information
visual information documentation
Visual Information Manager
visual information record identification number
Visual Information Systems Program
Virtual memory
Visual Media Library
Video Random Access Memory
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Wide Area Information Servers
Wide Area Network
warning order
Weapons Control Status
Weapons of Mass Destruction
wild cues
World Wide Web
executive officer
Section II
the process of obtaining data from or placing data into storage
active video lines
all video not occurring in the vertical blanking interval
additive process
process by which white light can be produced by starting with darkness and combining colored lights until
white is obtained
advancing colors
colors which appear to come forward, such as red, orange, and yellow. See and compare receding colors
AGC (automatic gain control)
type of circuit used to maintain the output volume of a receiver constant, regardless of variations in the
signal strength applied to the receiver
the most widely used coding system to represent data, primarily on personal computers and many
unit of electrical current or rate of flow of electrons
device which draws power from a source other than the input signal and which produces as an output an
enlarged reproduction of the essential features of its input
the magnitude of variation in a changing quantity from its zero value
computers designed to process continuously variable data, such as electrical voltage
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
signal used in communications lines that consist of a continuous electrical wave
charts provided by spreadsheet software
free from water (as in ethyl alcohol)
an integral part of an order that deals with one aspect of an operation
the positive electrode such as the plate of a vacuum tube
Appendix 12 to Annex C - (VI Appendix to operations order)
to assist in running multimedia applications on the Web, small programs that can be downloaded and run
in browser window
programs that tell a computer how to produce information, and reside permanently in storage, such as a
FTP search tool that is used to find files on a particular subject
Army Training and Evaluation Program (ARTEP)
The US Army's Collective Training Program. ARTEP establishes unit training objectives critical to unit
survival and performance in combat. They combine the training and the evaluation processes into one
integrated function. The ARTEP is a training program and not a test. The sole purpose of external
evaluation under this program is to diagnose unit requirements for future training.
aspect ratio
1. The numerical ratio of picture width to height. 2. The proportions of the television screen and
therefore of all television pictures: three units high and four units wide, for HDTV 9 X 16.
the uneven foreground and background blur that is in the image
not symmetrical or formal in balance, also symmetry
in art, recurrences or repeated operations in unrelated patterns, not synchronous
reduction or loss of signal strength, measured in decibels; opposite of gain
audience flow
TV programming to ensure constant audience tune-in
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
web applications consisting of individual sound files that must be downloaded before they can be played
Consists of sound, including words and music, produced by the computer, audio output device on the
computer is a speaker.
automatic gain control
A type of circuit used to maintain the output volume of a receiver constant, regardless of variations in the
signal strength applied to the receiver
average picture level (APL)
The average picture level, with respect to the blanking level, during active picture scanning time
expressed as a percentage of difference between the blanking and reference white levels.
back focus
The distance between zoom lens and camera pickup device at which the picture is in focus at the
extreme wide-angle zoom position.
back light
illumination from behind the subject and opposite the camera
back porch
that portion of the composite video signal that lies between the trailing edge of the horizontal sync pulse
and the trailing edge of the horizontal blanking pulse
a pleasing arrangement of the different parts of the opposing elements. In informal balance these parts or
elements are not arranged symmetrically; In formal balance the arrangement is symmetrical
term used to define the frequency occupied by a signal and required for the effective transfer of
information to be carried by that signal
bar chart
graphics representation comparing numerical values by means of rectangles of equal width
bar generator
Generator of pulses or repeating waves that are equally separated in time. These pulses are
synchronized by the synchronizing pulses of a television system so that they produce a stationary bar
pattern on a television screen
Even, nondirectional (diffused) light necessary for the camera to operate optimally. Normal baselight
levels are about 2,000 lux (150 to 200 footcandles)
A variable unit of data transmission speed usually equal to one bit per second
Removable hard disk storage device that works by using a cushion of air to keep the flexible disk surface
from touching the read/write head
a numbering system using only the digits 0 and 1; also called base 2
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
basic input/output ; set of instructions that provide the interface between the operating system and the
hardware devices, stored on ROM chip.
bit per second
A measure of transmission speed to how many bits of binary data can be transmitted in one second.
An element of a byte that can represent one of two values, on or off. There are 8 bits in a byte.
The process of making a channel or device noneffective for the desired interval. A pulse that cuts off the
receiver picture tube during return traces.
A method of drawing or painting in which one color or tone merges into another. Also, the process of
mixing or incorporating one color or tone with another one.
block diagram
A circuit diagram showing the general configuration of a piece of electronic equipment without showing
the individual components. Lines or arrows may indicate the path of the signal or energy.
Carefully worked out movements and actions by the talent and of all mobile television equipment.
The portion of the back porch between the trailing edge of the sync pulse and the start of the color burst.
Areas of memory used to store data that has been read or is waiting to be sent to an output device.
A streak or recognizable image retained by the camera pickup tube. The burn-in is caused by the camera
focusing for to long on an extremely bright or high contrast object (studio light), and it renders the tube
A communications network that has all devices connected to and sharing a single data path.
A color difference signal obtained by subtracting the luminance signal from the blue camera signal.
A unit of measure equal to 8 bits of digital information (2). The standard unit of measure of file size. See
also megabyte and gigabyte.
A portion of RAM or disk space used to keep often-used data for quicker access.
Process of storing a copy of each web paper accessed in local storage by a proxy server.
The art of elegant writing or penmanship.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
camera control unit ( CCU)
Equipment, separate from the camera head, that contains various video controls, including registration,
color balance, contrast, and brightness. With the CCU the video operator can adjust the camera picture
during a show.
The ability of an object to store an electric charge. Capacitance is represented by the capital letter C in
equations and is measured in units called farads.
capacitor (C)
An electronic component capable of storing electrical energy when charged. A capacitor blocks the flow
of direct current.
In general, any heading or title; more precisely, a descriptive title for an illustration or table.
Representation of a person or thing that shows a deliberate exaggeration and distortion of features or
mannerisms. Caricatures may be good-humored or bitterly satirical.
The electron-emitting electrode in a vacuum tube. In an electron tube, the electrode through which a
primary source of electrons enter the interelectrode space. When a semiconductor diode is biased in the
forward direction, the terminal of the diode that is negative with respect to the other terminal.
cathode-ray tube (CRT)
Component for obtaining a graphic display of an electronic function such as a waveform or spectral
Storage device that uses a low powered laser light to read data from removable CD-ROMs.
central processing unit (CPU)
The CPU is the main part of a computer control system. Where arithmetic and logical operations are
performed. It also contains the main memory and instructions to carry out system control functions.
Any letter, number, punctuation mark, or space in printing matter. The average number of characters that
can be set in 1 pica (approximately 6 picas to 1 inch) is known as "characters per pica."
charge-coupled device (CCD)
Also called chip, a small, solid state imaging device used in cameras instead of a camera pickup tube.
Within the device, image sensing elements translate the optical image into a video signal.
chroma keying
The process of overlying one video signal over another, the overlay being defined by a specific range of
color, or chrominance, on one of the signals.
That property of light that produces a sensation of color in the human eye apart from any variation in
luminance that may be present.
In information resource sharing on a network process of the server completing some of the processing
first, and then transmitting data to the requesting computer.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Clip art
Previously created illustrations and pictures that are sold in collections, and inserted as graphics into work
processing documents.
Temporary storage location for text during cut and copy operations.
Two to eight track sectors on a floppy disk; the smallest unit of floppy disk space used to store data.
cyan, magenta, yellow and black
Coaxial cable
A high-quality communications line consisting of a copper wire conductor surrounded by a nonconducting insulator that is in turn surrounded by a woven metal outer conductor, and finally a plastic
outer coating.
The art of arranging and pasting pieces of cloth, newspaper, or other materials on a surface so that they
form a composition. Also, work made in this manner.
color bars
A test signal, typically containing eight basic colors: white, yellow, cyan, green, magenta, red, blue, and
black, which is used to check chrominance functions of color television systems.
color burst
The portion of the composite signal comprising a few cycles, a sine wave of the chrominance subcarrier
frequency that is used to establish a reference for demodulating the chrominance signal.
color dimensions
Hue, value, and intensity are the three ways of measuring any given color. (See Munsell color system.)
color harmony
A unified or aesthetically pleasing effect produced by a combination of colors that are similar in one or
more aspects.
color interval
The degree of visual difference between two colors, measured in steps of hue, value, and intensity.
color scale
A series of colors that exhibits a regular change or gradation in hue, value, or intensity.
color scheme
The particular group of colors that dominates a picture or creates a color unity within it.
color separation
Division of colors of a continuous-tone multicolored original or of line copy into basic portions, each of
which is to be reproduced by a separate printing plate carrying a color.
color symbolism
The use of color to signify or suggest an emotion, idea, or characteristic.
color wheel
A circular color diagram.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Combined doctrine
Fundamental principles that guide the employment of forces of two or more nations in coordinated action
toward a common objective. It is ratified by participating nations.
common task
A critical task for which all soldiers at a given skill level are accountable, regardless of their MOS.
Communications software
Programs that perform data communications tasks such as dialing, file transfer, terminal emulation, and
Internet access, allowing data to be transmitted from one computer to another.
Computer drawing programs
Graphics programs that allow an artistic user to create works of art.
The capability to connect a computer to other computers.
Couplers contained in ports, used to attach cables to peripheral devices.
Cross Training
The opportunity for an individual to train to additional jobs within his or her MOS.
A word, situation, or other signal for action. An initiating cue is a signal to begin performing a task or task
performance step. An internal cue is a signal to go from one element of a task to another. A terminating
cue indicates task completion.
The general term used to describe numbers, facts, letters, symbols, names, etc., that can be processed
by a computer.
Database server
Network server that provides selected information from files stored on the server, but does not run the
application software; contrast with application server.
Data compression
Method of storing data on a disk that reduces storage requirements by substituting codes for repeating
patterns of data.
A collection of files, or group of files, containing related data arranged for easy and speedy retrieval, by a
Day parting
programming a TV schedule to be compatible with what people do during the day
Digital audio tape (DAT)
Method of storing large amounts of data on tape using helical scan technology to write data at high
densities across the tape at an angle.
Digital cameras
Cameras that record photographs in the form of digital data that can be stored on a computer.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Digital computers
Computers that process data including text, sound, graphics, or video, into a digital (numeric) value;
describes most computers.
Digital signal
A type of signal for computer processing in which individual electrical pulses that represent bits are
grouped together in bytes.
Digital Signal Processor (DSP)
In voice input systems, a board that is added to the computer to convert the voice into digital form.
Converts points, lines, and curves from a sketch, drawing, or photograph to digital impulses and transmits
them to a computer.
Dot pitch
The distance between each pixel on the computer screen.
dots per inch (dpi)
A measure of the resolution of printers, image setters and other output devices.
A teletraining site that only receives training. The student can see the instructor, but the instructor cannot
see the students. The teletraining network is capable of only one-way video over satellite. See "Uplink".
Reproduce a video program.
Dye Diffusion
Process used by a special type of thermal printer; chemically treated paper is used to obtain color print
quality equal to glossy magazines.
Electronic mail
e-mail; electronic exchange of messages to and from other computer users.
Embedded object
Changes can be made to the embedded data in the destination document using tools from the application
that originally created the data; only the destination document is changed, while the source document is
not affected.
Embedded processors
Computers that are built into equipment such as radios, cellular telephones, microwave ovens, copiers,
automatic teller machines, and automobiles. These computers play a supporting role in the overall
function of the device of which they are a part.
Emergency and Special Program Code - an alpha-numeric budget code the Air Force uses to reimburse
units for exercise participation. This is not a guarantee the unit will be reimbursed.
Exercise Plan - description of what will occur in the exercise and the force that will participate.
facsimile (FAX)
A process of scanning fixed graphic material and converting that information into signals.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Fiber-optic cable
High-speed transmission media for communications channel that uses smooth, hair-thin strands of glass
or plastic to transmit data as pulses of light.
Generally, file is a collection of information stored as records. Files are stored on peripheral memory
devices, such as a disk memory or a tape memory.
File conversion
Utility program that covers file from one format to another so the file can be used by another application.
File transfer
Communications software that allows the user to move one or more files from one computer system to
another. The software generally has to be loaded on both the sending and receiving computers.
In information resource s haring on a network, method that uses a server to send an entire file at one time
to a requesting computer, and then the requesting computer performs the processing.
Fixed disk
Hard disks on monicomputers and mainframes; also called direct-access storage devices.
Flatbed plotter
Plotter that uses software to instruct the pens to move to the down position so the pens contact the flat
surface of the paper.
Floppy disk
Type of small, removable magnetic disk storage consisting of a circular piece of thin mylar plastic, which
is coated with an oxide material that is recorded on, storing data as magnetic areas. The plastic disk is
enclosed in a rigid plastic shell for protection from debris; most widely used portable storage medium.
Floppy disk that combines optical and magnetic technologies to achieve high storage rates (currently up
to 120 megabytes) on a disk similar to a 3 1/2 inch magnetic floppy disk.
footcandles (fc)
Unit of illuminance.
Operating forces color codes, red/blue/green/orange. White is neutral.
A unit of measure equal to 1,024 megabytes of data, or 1,048,576 bytes.
Menu-driven program that assists users in locating and retrieving files on the Internet.
All two-dimensional visuals prepared for the television screen, such as title cards, charts, and graphs.
(See camera graphics and generated graphics.) The use of written symbols and visual displays to obtain
information. Often the displays are on CRT's, a television-like display.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Graphics Tablet
Converts points, lines, and curves from a sketch, drawing, or photograph to digital impulse and transmit
them to a computer; also contains unique characters and commands.
The range of gray tones between black and white. A grayscale monitor is able to display distinct gray
pixels as well as black and white ones, but not color pixels.
A pleasing arrangement of picture elements, due to similarity of one or more of their qualities, such as
shape or size. Also, see color harmony.
Helical Scan Technology
Used by digital audiotape to record data at high densities across the tape at an angle.
hertz (Hz)
Standard unit of frequency.
High-Definition Television (HDTV)
Television sets designed for digital signals; may eventually replace computer screens.
High-Density Floppy Disk
Floppy disk that can store 1.44 megabytes on a 3 1/2 inch floppy disk.
(1) One of the three basic color attributes, hue is the color itself-red, green, blue, yellow, and so on.
The attribute of color perception that determines whether the color is red, green, blue, and so forth.
In web documents, built-in links to other related documents, allowing user to move quickly from one
document to another.
In a graphical user interface, on screen pictures that represent an application software program where
data is stored.
Image Processing Systems
In source data automation, systems that use scanners to capture and electronically file exact copies of
Image scanner
An input device that electronically captures an entire page of text or images such as photographs or art
work, converting the information on the original document into digital data that can be stored on a disk
and processed by the computer; also called page scanner.
Individual training
Training which the officer, NCO, or soldier receives in the training base, units, on the job, or by self-study.
This training prepares the individual to perform specified duties or tasks related to the assigned or next
higher specialty code of MOS skill level and duty position.
Individual Training Evaluation Program (ITEP)
a program which requires commanders to routinely evaluate soldier ability to perform non-specific tasks
critical to the unit mission
Informal balance
Elements are not arranged symmetrically.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Information System
Elements required for information processing, including software, hardware, data, users, procedures, and
information systems personnel; provides supports for the organization.
Ink-Jet Printer
Non-impact printer that forms characters by using a nozzle that shoots droplets of ink into the page,
producing high-quality print and graphics.
Input Devices
Hardware used to enter data into a computer, such as a keyboard and a mouse.
integrated circuit
A chip of silicon etched with electrical paths and components that permits the circuit to perform some
complex function.
Integrated software
Software that combined applications such as word processing, spreadsheet, database, and
communications into a single, easy-to-use package.
Internal modem
A circuit board containing a modem that is installed inside the computer or inserted into an expansion
Object-oriented scripting language used to develop multimedia on the web.
JPEG (Joint Photographers Experts Group)
A set of standards developed by this group for compressing and decompressing digitized images with
The placement of colors or forms side by side or close together to accentuate each other.
k (kilobyte)
Used to denote size of memory and can be expressed in bytes or words. Example: 2K = 2048 bytes.
Laser printer
Nonimpact page printer that converts data from the computer into a laser beam aimed at a positively
charged revolving drum. Each position on the drum touched by the beam becomes negatively charged
and attracts doner, which is transferred and fused to paper by heat and pressure to create the text or
Arrangement of a book, magazine, or other publication so that text and illustrations follow a desired
format. Layout includes directions for margin data, pagination, margin allowances, center headings and
sideheads, placement and size of display and body type, and placement of illustration.
liquid crystal diode; Type of flat panel display screen that has liquid crystal deposited between two sheets
of polarizing material. When an electrical current passes between crossing wires, the liquid crystals are
aligned so light cannot shine through, producing an image on the screen.
LCD projector
Self-contained data projection devices that have their own light source, and do not require a separate
overhead projector.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Light pen
Pen used as an input device by touching it on the display screen to create or modify graphic.
light ratio
The relative intensities of key, back, and fill. A 1:1 ratio between key and backlights means that both light
sources burn with equal intensities. A 1:1/2 ratio between key and fill lights means that the fill light burns
with the half intensity of the key light. Because light ratios depend on many production variables, they
cannot be fixed. A key: back: fill ratio of 1:1:1/2 is used for normal triangle lighting.
Linked object
With a linked object, a user can make changes to linked data using the source application. When the
object is selected in the destination application, the source application is opened and changes are
reflected in both the source document and destination document.
lines per inch
Standard unit for measuring light intensity. One lux is the amount of 1 lumen (one candle power of light)
that falls on a surface of a 1 square meter that is located I meter away from the light source: 10.75 lux = 1
footcandle. Most lighting people figure roughly 10 lux = 1 ft-c.
A sequence of commands and keystrokes that are recorded and saved, to be performed when the macro
is run.
Magnetic disk
A round piece of plastic or metal, the surface of which is covered with a magnetic material; data is written
to (recorded on) or read from the magnetic surface. The most widely used storage medium for all types of
computers, offering high storage capacity, reliability, and fast access to data, included floppy disks, hard
disks, and removable disk cartridges.
megabyte (Mb)
A unit of information equal to 1,048,576 bytes (usually rounded to 1,000,000 bytes).
megahertz (MHz)
A unit of frequency equal to 1 million hertz.
Merger Training
training that prepares an NCO to supervise one or more different MOS at lower skill levels when the
soldier advances in skill level in his career management field
Radio waves that can be used to provide high-speed transmission of both voice communications and
digital signals.
Musical Instrument Digital Interface - serial port interface designed to connect to a musical device such as
an electronic music keyboard.
Mission Training Plan (MTP)
A MTP provides comprehensive training and evaluation outlines, and exercise concepts and related
training management aids to assist field commanders in the planning and execution of effective unit
training. It provides units a clear description of "what" and "how" to train to achieve wartime mission
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
MOS training plan (MTP)
The MTP is a guide for the conduct of individual training in units. An MTP is developed for each MOS
and addresses all skill levels of an MOS and all duty positions. The MTP lists all MOS-specific and
shared critical tasks for which the MOS is responsible. It will not include common tasks.
Mid Planning Conference - conference used to solidify and verify all requirements for an exercise before it
has been assigned and acted upon.
More than one presentation medium. In training the use of more than one medium to convey the content
of instruction. Media available for use may include, but need not be limited to, text, programmed
instruction, audiotapes, videotapes, slides, films, television, and computers. Multimedia is also an
industry term used to define both presentation and training that is delivered via a multimedia
workstation/personal computer. It uses text, graphics, digital audio, animation, and up to full motion
digital video. Multimedia is delivered via hard disk, floppy disk, or CD-ROM.
Multimedia Presentation
An interactive computer presentation created using multimedia authoring software, in which the user can
choose what amount of material to cover and in what sequence it will be reviewed.
Nonimpact Printing
Printing that occurs without having a mechanism strike against a sheet of paper.
Noninterlaced monitors
Monitors that illuminate each line on screen sequentially so the entire screen is lighted in a single pass.
Type of memory (ROM) that retains its contents even when the computer is turned off.
Object linking and embedding
Describes ways to transfer and share information among software applications, by placing objects
created in one application into another application.
Operating Environment
A graphical user interface between the user and the operating system.
optical center
Point slightly above the geometric center of a regular plane. Objects placed at the optical center appear to
be at the geometric center.
optical spacing
Arrangement of spacing between letters for legibility and appearance, as opposed to mechanical spacing,
in which the same space is used between all characters. The spacing varies with the shape of the letters
to achieve optical equalization.
organization chart
Block chart or diagram showing the names, titles, departments, and responsibilities of personnel in an
Output device
Devices that convert the results of processing into a form that can be understood by users; most common
devices are printers, monitors, and speakers.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
parallel port
An input-output port that sends and receives information in (8-bit) groups. All of the group goes and
comes at once.
PC Cards
Small, credit card sized device that fits into PCMIA expansions slots; often used with portable computers
for storage, communications, and additional memory.
Pen Plotter
Plotter used to create images on a sheet of paper by moving one or more pens over the surface, or by
moving the paper under the top of the pens.
performance measures (PM )
Those behavior or product characteristics which the trainer observes/checks to determine if the soldier
has performed the task correctly.
Process in chip manufacturing, where an image of the chip design, called a mask, is used as a negative.
The photo resist is exposed to the mask using ultraviolet light.
Pie Chart
A graphic representation of proportions used for showing the relationship of parts to a whole, depicted as
slices of a pie.
1. Smallest single picture element with which an image is constructed. 2. The light sensitive elements on
a CCD that contain a charge.
Output device used to produce high-quality line drawings and diagrams.
A socket used to connect the system unit to a peripheral device such as a printer or a modem.
PPI (pixels per inch)
A measure of the density of scanned information in an image. The finer the optics of the scanner, the
higher the scan resolution.
Presentation graphics
Software that allows the user to create documents called slides that are used in making presentations
before a group.
Print spool
The reports stored on disk that is waiting to be printed.
Proxy server
A computer that is placed between two separate networks; used to implement a firewall that restricts
access to data.
The capability to retrieve database information in a report, based on criteria specified by the user.
Tasking coordinator for Air Force Combat Camera located at HQ Air Mobility Command.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Functional manager for Air Force Combat Camera located at HQ Air Mobility Command, Scott AFB.
serial port
A connection on the computer that can send and receive information bit-by-bit. Slow but steady and
simple interface.
Single in-line memory module
Secure Internet Protocol Roster Network - secure communication lines for transmitting classified data.
skill level (SL)
A number that denotes the level of qualification within the total MOS. Levels of qualification are identified
by characters 0 through 5 in the position of the MOS code.
Soldier Manual of Common Tasks (SMCT)
A document that contains the critical tasks which every soldier must be able to perform in order to fight
and win on the battlefield. It provides the conditions, standards, and performance measures for each
common soldier critical task.
Soldier training publication (STP)
Publications that contain critical tasks and other training information used to train soldiers and serve to
standardize individual training for the whole Army; provide information and guidance in conducting
individual training in the unit; and aid the soldier, officer, noncommissioned officer (NCO), and
commander in training critical tasks. They consist of Soldier's Manuals, Trainer's Guides, Military
Qualification Standards Manuals, and Officer Foundations Standards System manuals.
Sound board
Expansion board that enhances the sound-generating capacity of computer.
Sound card
Multimedia device containing electronics that captures sound data input and processes sound output;
installed in the computer.
short tons
subtractive color process
A process of forming colors by mixing pigments which absorb certain colors and reflect others. See
additive process.
Super Video Graphics Array
Standard for monitors and video adapter cards that display high resolutions. Typically 800 x 600 or 1,024
x 768 pixels, producing images that are almost equivalent to the quality of a photograph.
Set of special instructions in HTML that specify links to other documents and how the web page is
displayed; also called markups.
Technical manual (TM)
A publication that describes equipment, weapons, or weapons systems with instructions for effective use.
It may include sections for instructions covering initial preparation for use and operational maintenance
and overhaul.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Thermal printer
Printer that uses heat to transfer colored inks from ink sheets onto the printing surface; also called
thermal transfer printer.
TIFF (tagged image file format)
A file format used to represent black-and-white, gray-scale, color bit mapped images, particularly those
produced by scanners.
Training Circular (TC)
TCs are publications (paper or computer-based) that provide a means to distribute unit or individual
soldier training information that does not fit standard requirements for other established types of training
publications. TCs are part of the Armywide Doctrinal and Training Literature Program (ADTLP).
The process of increasing the skills and knowledge of an individual to a higher skill level in the
appropriate MOS. (It may involve certification.)
A specific set of characters that are designed the same, such as Helvetica or Times New Roman.
User interface
Combination of hardware and software that allows user to communicate with a computer system.
The lightness and darkness of a color. Also, relative lightness and darkness of a picture as represented in
tones, shading, line, balance, layout, and so forth.
vertical blocking
arranging the TV programming for a one-day period, such as a three-hour football game from 7 to 10 p.m.
on a Monday night
Video capture
Video input into the computer involving converting analog video signal into a digital format and then
compressing and storing the digital video.
Video output
Output consisting of visual images with a video input device, such as a VCR or camera, digitized, and
directed to an output device, such as a computer monitor.
Video conferencing
The use of computers, televisions cameras, and communications software and equipment to conduct
electronic meetings with participants at different locations.
Virtual reality (VR)
Creation of an artificial environment experienced by the user as 3-D images that can be explored and
manipulated interactively, using a pointing device.
Web Page
Hypertext or hypermedia document residing on an Internet computer that contains text, graphics, video,
or sound.
Welcome Page
The first page at a Web site; often serves as a table of contents for the other pages at the Web site.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Wireless Transmission
In communications systems, used to connect devices in the same general area such as an office or
business park, using one of three transmission techniques: infrared light beams, radio waves, or carrierconnect radio.
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Section I
Required Publications
Required publications are sources that users must read in order to understand or to comply with this
Army Regulations
AR 190-16
AR 25-1
AR 25-400-2
AR 25-50
AR 25-55
AR 360-5
AR 360-81
AR 380-13
AR 380-5
AR 385-10
AR 750-1
Physical Security. 1 May 1991
Army Information Management. 15 January 2000
The Modern Army Recordkeeping System (MARKS). 26 February 1993
Preparing and Managing Correspondence 21 November 1988
The Department of the Army Freedom of Information Act Program.
1 April 1997
Army Public Affairs, Public Information. 1 October 1989
Command Information Program. 1 October 1989
Acquisition and Storage of Information Concerning Nonaffiliated
Persons and Organizations. 30 September 1974
Department of the Army Information Security Program. 25 February
The Army Safety Program. 23 May 1988
Army Materiel Maintenance Policy And Retail Maintenance Operations.
1 August 1994
Department of Army Forms
DA FORM 2028
DA FORM 2062
DA FORM 2064
DA FORM 2404
DA FORM 2405
DA FORM 2407
DA FORM 2407-1
DA FORM 3161
DA FORM 3903
DA FORM 3964
DA FORM 5164-R
Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms. 1 February
Hand Receipt/Annex Number. 1 January 1982
Document Register for Supply Actions. 1 January 1982
Equipment Inspection and Maintenance Worksheet. 1 April 1979
Maintenance Request Register. 1 April 1962
Maintenance Request. 7 July 1994
Maintenance Request - Continuation Sheet. 1 July 1994
Request for Issue or Turn-In. 1 May 1983
Visual Information Work Order (LRA). 1 June 1999
Classified Document Accountability Record. 1 July 1979
Mail and Document Register. 1 July 1962
Hands-On Evaluation. 1 September 1985
Department of Army Pamphlets
DA PAM 25-1-1
DA PAM 25-30
DA PAM 25-33
DA PAM 25-40
Installation Information Services. 27 August 1991
Consolidated Index of Army Publications and Blank Forms. 1 July 2000
User's Guide for Army Publications and Forms. 15 September 1996
Administrative Publications: Action Officers Guide. 1 October 1997
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
DA PAM 25-91
DA PAM 351-20
DA PAM 600-8
DA PAM 738-750
Visual Information Procedures. 30 September 1991
Army Correspondence Course Program Catalog. 1 October 1999
Management and Administrative Procedures. 1 February 1986
Functional Users Manual for the Army Maintenance Management
System (TAMMS). 1 August 1994
Department of Defense Publications
DD FORM 1149
DD FORM 1610
DD FORM 2537
DOD DIR 4160.21-M
DOD DIR 4500.9-R PT2
DOD DIR 5040.2
DOD DIR 5040.4
DOD DIR 5040.5
DOD DIR 5120.20
DOD DIR 5122.10
Requisition and Invoice/Shipping Document. 1 January 1997
Request and Authorization for TDY Travel of DOD Personnel. 1 June
Visual Information Caption Sheet. 1 February 1994
Defense Materiel Disposition Manual. 1 August 1997
Department Transportation Regulation, Part 2, Cargo Movement. 1
April 1996
Visual Information (Change 2). 10 May 1999
Joint Combat Camera (COMCAM) Program. 1 September 1996
Alteration of Official DOD Imagery. 1 August 1995
Armed Forces Radio and Television Service (AFRTS). 1 December
Armed Forces Information Service (AFIS). 1 February 1995
Field Manuals
FM 100-20
FM 100-5
FM 101-5
FM 24-40
FM 25-100
FM 25-101
FM 25-5
FM 55-65
Military Operations in Low Intensity Conflict. 5 December 1990
Operations. 14 June 1993
Staff Organization and Operations. 31 May 1997
Tactical Visual Information Doctrine. 12 December 1991
Training The Force. 15 November 1988
Battle Focused Training. 30 September 1990
Training for Mobilization and War. 25 January 1985
Strategic Deployment. 3 October 1995
Other Product Types
SF 700
SF 702
Elements of a Multimedia Project.
NAB Engineering Handbook.
The National Electric Code (NEC).
National Television Standards Committee (NTSC) Studio Timing (Grass
Valley Group (GVG)).
Management of Federal Information Resource. 1 February 1996
Security Container Information. 1 August 1985
Security Container Check Sheet.
Soldier Training Publications
STP 21-24-SMCT
Soldier's Manual of Common Tasks Skill Level 1. 1 October 1994
Soldier's Manual of Common Tasks (SMCT) Skill Level 2-4. 1 October
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
Special Texts
Supervisor Development Course. 1 August 1994
Manager Development. 1 March 1999
Training Aids
Preventive Maintenance Schedule & Record. 1 December 1953
Section II
Related Publications
Related publications are sources of additional information. They are not required in order to understand
this publication.
Army Regulations
AR 25-30
AR 25-55
AR 340-21
AR 350-1
AR 350-41
AR 360-5
AR 360-81
AR 380-19
AR 385-10
AR 5-1
The Army Publishing and Printing Program. 21 June 1999
The Department of the Army Freedom of Information Act Program. 1
April 1997
The Army Privacy Program. 12 July 1985
Army Training. 1 August 1981
Training in Units. 19 March 1993
Army Public Affairs, Public Information. 1 October 1989
Command Information Program. 1 October 1989
Information Systems Security. 27 February 1998
The Army Safety Program. 23 May 1988
Army Management Philosophy. 1 June 1992
Department of Army Pamphlets
DA PAM 350-100
DA PAM 600-8
DA PAM 611-21
DA PAM 750-35
Extension Training Materials Consolidated MDS Catalog. 19 March
Management and Administrative Procedures. 1 February 1986
Military Occupational Classification and Structure. 1 March 1999
Guide for Motor Pool Operations. 1 August 1994
Department of Defense Publications
DOD DIR 5122.10
Armed Forces Information Service (AFIS). 1 February 1995
Field Manuals
FM 101-5
FM 24-40
FM 25-101
FM 25-4
Staff Organization and Operations. 31 May 1997
Tactical Visual Information Doctrine. 12 December 1991
Battle Focused Training. 30 September 1990
How to Conduct Training Exercises. 10 September 1984
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
FM 9-43-1
Maintenance Operations and Procedures. 21 February 1997
Joint Publications
JP 4-01
JP 4-01.3
JP 5-00.2
JP 5-03.1
Joint Doctrine for the Defense Transportation System 17. June 1997
Joint Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Movement Control.
21 June 1996
Joint Task Force (JTF) Planning Guidance and Procedures.
13 January 1999
Joint Operation Planning and Execution System, VOL I. 4 August 1993
Other Product Types
Standing Operating Procedures
Technical Bulletins
TB 385-10
TB 385-4
Safety Manual for Operating and Maintenance Personnel. 20
December 1973
Safety Requirements for Maintenance of Electrical and Electronic
Equipment. 1 August 1992
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG
29 JANUARY 2001
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
Active Army, Army National Guard, and U.S. Army Reserve. To be distributed
in accordance with the initial distribution number 114620, requirements for
STP 11-25Z4-SM-TG.
PIN: 069291-000
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF