Download version 0.1 of EM 1110-1-4000 Monitoring Well Design Installation and Documentation at Hazardous Toxic and Radioactive Waste Sites.pdf

Download version 0.1 of EM 1110-1-4000 Monitoring Well Design Installation and Documentation at Hazardous Toxic and Radioactive Waste Sites.pdf
CEMP-RT/
CECW-EG
Department of the Army
EM 1110-1-4000
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Washington, DC 20314-1000
Engineer Manual
1110-1-4000
Engineering and Design
MONITORING WELL DESIGN,
INSTALLATION, AND DOCUMENTATION
AT HAZARDOUS TOXIC, AND
RADIOACTIVE WASTE SITES
Distribution Restriction Statement
Approved for public release; distribution is
unlimited.
1 November 1998
_________________________________________________________________
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
US Army Corps
of Engineers
ENGINEERING AND DESIGN
Monitoring Well Design,
Installation, and
Documentation at
Hazardous, Toxic,
and Radioactive
Waste Sites
This manual is approved for public release, distribution is unlimited.
ENGINEER MANUAL
AVAILABILITY
Electronic copies of this and other U.S. Army Corps of Engineers publications are
available on the Internet at http://www.usace.army.mil/inet/usace-docs/. This site is
the only repository for all official USACE engineer regulations, circulars, manuals,
and other documents originating from HQUSACE. Publications are provided in
portable document format (PDF).
CEMP-RT
CECW-EG
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Washington, DC 20314-1000
Manual
No. 1110-1-4000
EM 1110-1-4000
1 November 1998
Engineering and Design
MONITORING WELL DESIGN, INSTALLATION, AND DOCUMENTATION
AT HAZARDOUS TOXIC, AND RADIOACTIVE WASTE SITES
1. Purpose. This Engineer Manual (EM) provides the minimum elements for consideration in the
design, installation, and documentation of monitoring well placement (and other geotechnical activities)
at projects known or suspected to contain chemically hazardous, toxic, and/or radioactive waste.
2. Applicability. This EM applies to all U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) commands having
hazardous, toxic, and radioactive waste (HTRW) project responsibilities. For special considerations of
radioactive, biological, or mixed (chemical and radioactive) waste components, contact the USACE
Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste (HTRW) Center of Expertise (CX) in Omaha, Nebraska.
3. References. References are provided in Appendix A.
4. Distribution Statement. Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited.
5. Discussion. The technical understanding and evaluation of HTRW studies involves an appreciation of the interactions between geology, hydrology, geotechnical engineering, and chemistry. This
scenario is complicated by the trace (low parts per billion) levels of regulated chemical species that are
detectable in the environment and when detected or suspected may trigger intricate and costly response
actions. Slight deviations from prescribed drilling, well installation, sampling, or analytical procedures
may bias or invalidate both the reported concentrations of these regulated species and the technical basis
upon which the Corps makes decisions. These relationships are further complicated by the heterogeneous, anisotropic character of the natural environment itself. This situation requires environmental
characterization based upon procedures that are standardized, documented, understood, and followed.
This manual outlines that effort.
FOR THE COMMANDER:
2 Appendices
App A - References
App B - Abbreviations
ALBERT J. GENETI, J R .
Major General, USA
Chief of Staff
This manual supersedes EM 1110-1-4000, dated 31 August 1994.
CEMP-RT
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Washington, DC 20314-1000
Manual
No. 1110-1-4000
EM 1110-1-4000
1 November 1998
Engineering and Design
MONITORING WELL DESIGN, INSTALLATION, AND DOCUMENTATION AT
HAZARDOUS, TOXIC, AND RADIOACTIVE WASTE SITES
Table of Contents
Subject
Paragraph
Chapter 1
Introduction
Purpose ......................................................1-1
Applicability..............................................1-2
References .................................................1-3
Terminology..............................................1-4
Background ...............................................1-5
Chapter 2
Boreholes and Wells: Site
Reconnaissance, Locations,
Quantities, and Designations
Site Reconnaissance..................................2-1
Locations and Quantities ..........................2-2
Designations..............................................2-3
Chapter 3
Drilling Operations
Physical Security.......................................3-1
Drilling Safety and Underground
Utility Detection .....................................3-2
Permits, Licenses, Professional Registration,
and Rights-of-Entry ................................3-3
Site Geologist ............................................3-4
Equipment .................................................3-5
Drilling Methods.......................................3-6
Recirculation Tanks and Sumps...............3-7
Materials ....................................................3-8
Surface Runoff ..........................................3-9
Drilling Through Contaminated
Zones .......................................................3-10
Page
1-1
1-1
1-1
1-1
1-2
2-1
2-1
2-1
3-1
3-1
3-1
3-1
3-1
3-2
3-8
3-8
3-14
Subject..............................................................
Soil Sampling............................................3-11
Rock Coring ..............................................3-12
Abandonment/Decommissioning.............3-13
Work Area Restoration and Disposal of
Drilling and Cleaning Residue...............3-14
3-14
3-17
3-18
3-19
Chapter 4
Borehole Logging
General ......................................................4-1
Format........................................................4-2
Submittal ...................................................4-3
Original Logs and Diagrams ....................4-4
Time of Recording ....................................4-5
Routine Entries..........................................4-6
4-1
4-1
4-1
4-1
4-1
4-1
Chapter 5
Monitoring Well Installation
General ......................................................5-1
Well Clusters.............................................5-2
Well Screen Usage....................................5-3
Beginning Well Installation .....................5-4
Screens, Casings, and Fittings ................5-5
Granular Filter Pack..................................5-6
Bentonite Seals..........................................5-7
Grouting.....................................................5-8
Well Protection .........................................5-9
Shallow Wells ...........................................5-10
Drilling Fluid Removal.............................5-11
Drilling Fluid Losses in Bedrock.............5-12
Well Construction Diagrams....................5-13
5-1
5-1
5-1
5-1
5-5
5-5
5-6
5-6
5-7
5-8
5-11
5-11
5-11
3-14
i
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
Subject
Paragraph
Chapter 6
Well Development
General ...................................................... 6-1
Timing and Record Submittal.................. 6-2
Development Methods ............................. 6-3
Development Criteria ............................... 6-4
Development-Sampling Break ................ 6-5
Development Water Sample .................... 6-6
Well Washing ........................................... 6-7
Well Development Record ...................... 6-8
Potential Difficulties ................................ 6-9
Chapter 7
Well and Boring Acceptance Criteria
Well Criteria ............................................. 7-1
Abandoned/Decommissioned
Borings and Wells .................................. 7-2
Well and Boring Rejection ...................... 7-3
Page
6-1
6-1
6-1
6-3
6-4
6-4
6-4
6-4
6-5
Subject ..............................................................
Para
Vertical Control ........................................ 9-3
Field Data.................................................. 9-4
Geospatial Data Systems ......................... 9-5
9-1
9-1
9-1
Chapter 10
Borehole Geophysics
Usage and Reporting ................................ 10-1
Methods..................................................... 10-2
10-1
10-1
Chapter 11
Vadose Zone Monitoring
Usage and Reporting ................................ 11-1
Methods..................................................... 11-2
11-1
11-1
Chapter 12
Data Management System
Benefits ..................................................... 12-1
Assistance Sources ................................... 12-2
Geospatial Data Systems ......................... 12-3
12-1
12-1
12-1
7-1
7-1
7-1
Chapter 8
Water Levels
Measurement Frequency
and Coverage .......................................... 8-1
Vertical Control ........................................ 8-2
Reporting and Usage ................................ 8-3
Methods..................................................... 8-4
8-1
8-1
8-1
8-1
Chapter 9
Topographic Survey
Licensing................................................... 9-1
Horizontal Control.................................... 9-2
9-1
9-1
Appendix A
References
Appendix B
Abbreviations
List of Figures
Figure
3-1.
3-2.
3-3.
4-1
4-2.
5-1.
5-2.
5-3.
5-4.
5-5.
5-6.
ii
Page
Suggested format for use in obtaining water approval ......... ............ .............
Suggested format for obtaining approval for filter pack....... ............ .............
Example materials summary ............. ............ ............. ............. ............ .............
Boring log fomat.................. ............. ............ ............. ............. ............ .............
HTRW Drilling Log................. ............. ............ ............. ............. ............ .............
Schematic construction of single-cased well with gravel blanket ... .............
Schematic construction of multi-cased well with concrete pad ...... .............
Schematic construction diagram of monitoring well............. ............ .............
Post placement and gravel blanket layout around wells ...... ............ .............
Schematic construction of flush-to-ground completion ....... ............ .............
Well design parameters to minimize frost heave ..... ............. ............ .............
3-11
3-13
3-16
4-2
4-5
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-9
5-10
5-11
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
List of Tables
Tables
3-1.
4-1.
4-2.
Page
Drilling Methods......... ....... ..... ............. ............ ............. .......................... .............3-3
Soil Parameters for Logging.. ............. ............ ............. .......................... .............4-7
Rock Core Parameters for Logging.... ............ ............. .......................... .............4-8
iii
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
Chapter 1
Introduction
1-1. Purpose
This Engineer Manual (EM) provides geotechnical and
chemical guidelines for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
(USACE) elements in the planning, installing, and reporting
of soil and/or bedrock borings, monitoring wells, and other
geotechnical and geochemical devices at hazardous, toxic,
and radioactive waste (HTRW) sites. These guidelines are a
compilation of those procedures necessary for the
acquisition of environmentally representative geotechnical
data and samples, using conservative methods documented
in a comprehensive manner.
1-2. Applicability
a. This EM applies to all USACE commands, elements
and their contractors (including architect-engineers, [AE's])
having military and/or civil works hazardous, toxic and
radioactive waste (HTRW) site responsibilities and/or
engaged in programs within the Comprehensive
Environmental Resource, Compensation, and Liability Act
(CERCLA); the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
(RCRA); the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization
Act (SARA); the Defense Environmental Restoration
Program (DERP); non-mission HTRW work for other (nonCorps) offices; work within host nation agreements; or any
other Corps-managed HTRW activities.
b. Only HTRW work involving chemical issues are
covered within this manual. Biological waste components of
HTRW are not addressed. Supplemental instructions will be
provided as appropriate procedures are identified. In the
interim, any requests for assistance in those areas should be
directed to the Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste
(HTRW) Center of Expertise (CX) within the U.S. Army
Engineer District, Omaha (CENWO), Attention: HTRW Center of Expertise, Geoenvironmental & Process
Engineering Branch (CENWO-HX-G); or Headquarters,
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (HQUSACE), Attention:
Directorate of Military Programs, Policy and Technology
Branch (CEMP-RT).
c. The specific application of and adherence to these
guidelines must be tailored to each project as a function of
the contaminants of concern; local geohydrologic
setting; geotechnical judgment; available resources;
applicable regulatory requirements; policy and guidance;
public concerns; and project mission.
1-3. References
Appendix A contains a list of those publications referenced
by and relevant to this manual.
1-4. Terminology
a. General. As in any relatively new field using the
principles, terminology, and personnel of several other
fields, there is a certain lack of communication over the
language used to express data and mechanisms within this
new field. The situation is further compounded by alternative methods, both traditional and innovative, to complete
actual projects. The additional requirements for permits,
licenses, and other federal and state regulatory procedures,
and the potential for litigation, add to the HTRW site
complexities.
b. Corps situation.
(1) Within USACE, a given HTRW project may be
performed totally in-house, partially in-house, or by one or
more contractors/AE's (either independently reporting to the
Corps or through a system of prime- and subcontracting).
One Corps office may broker the work of another who in
turn contracts the effort. In some cases, one Corps district
may design a project and award the contract while a second
district supervises construction.
(2) Providing program level technical guidance in this
administrative situation requires the guidance to be specific,
while allowing any field activity to adapt the guidance to its
needs. The intent is to foster the defense of variances, not
the defense of recommended methods and procedures. This
approach is warranted to provide the Corps with
compatibility and continuity of HTRW investigations while
allowing functional flexibility. With this in mind, the
following three terms are introduced: the field activity (FA);
the field drilling organization (FDO); and the drilling and
well installation plan. These terms are defined in paragraphs
1-4c(2), (3), and (1), respectively. Generically, these terms
refer to a client-contractor-contract relationship. This
relationship can be applied to both in-house and contracted
efforts, thereby providing consistency for the geotechnical
portion of the Corps HTRW involvements.
1-1
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
c. Definitions (alphabetically arranged). These definitions are intended to guide the reader through the use of
this manual. While other terms with equivalent definitions
may be familiar to some readers, the terminology as defined
here provides a common basis for the CONSISTENT
understanding by ALL readers.
(1) Field Sampling Plan (FSP). The FSP is contained
within the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP), and describes
the drilling and well installation plan. The SAP and FSP
requirements are outlined in EM 200-1-3. The FSP is
approved by the FA or FDO before field activities begin.
The plan specifies the particulars of the field effort; for
example: borehole/well/sample locations, depths, equipment,
materials, procedures and alternatives, quality control
measures, and other topics required by the responsible FA.
Implementation is by the FDO.
(2) Field activity (FA). That Corps element minimally
headed by a Commander or Director; e.g., district, laboratory, or agency, assigned or otherwise acquiring the
responsibility to administer a contract, agreement, or
in-house Corps procedure to research, investigate, design,
and/or construct a project involving hazardous and/or toxic
wastes.
(3) Field drilling organization (FDO). That office
within the Corps or contracted by the Corps responsible for
execution of the drilling plan. In a contracted arrangement,
the prime contractor is regarded as the FDO. Subcontractors, even though they may physically perform the
field work, are the responsibility of the prime contractor,
whom the Corps holds contractually accountable.
(4) Geotechnical data quality management (GDQM).
The development and application of those policies and
procedures required to obtain and utilize accurate and
representative geotechnical information throughout the
entire HTRW project cycle, from predesign investigations to
postconstruction monitoring.
(5) Hazardous, toxic, and radioactive waste (HTRW). A
USACE idiom referring to substances which because of their
properties, occurrence, or concentration, may potentially
pose a threat to human health and welfare, or to the
environment. This includes materials defined by federal
regulations as hazardous waste, hazardous substances, and
pollutants.
(6) Monitoring well. A monitoring well is a device
designed and constructed for the acquisition of groundwater
samples that are representative of the chemical quality of the
aquifer adjacent to the screened interval, unbiased by the
1-2
well materials and installation process; and which, if so
designed, provides access to measure potentiometric head
across the screened interval.
(7) Redevelopment/well rehabilitation. A procedure
which restores the original or near original pumping capacity
to an existing well by the removal of sediment, precipitation,
flocculent, surface run-in, or other built-up materials from
within that well.
(8) Screened interval. That portion of a well which is
directly open to the host environment/aquifer by way of
openings in the well screen.
(9) Site safety and health plan (SSHP). A projectunique document approved by the responsible FA for FDO
compliance. The plan includes the identification of hazardous
substances present, recommended action upon encountering
those substances, project/site safety requirements,
organizational safety responsibilities, and the identification
of supporting health and safety activities.
(10) Well development. A procedure which locally
improves or restores the aquifer's hydraulic conductivity,
well capacity, and removes well drilling fluids, muds,
cuttings, mobile particulates, and entrapped gases from
within and adjacent to a newly installed well.
d. Acronyms. Appendix B contains a list of the
abbreviations used in this manual.
1-5. Background
a. EM 1110-1-4000. As a GDQM mechanism, this
manual provides guidance for collection and documentation
of geotechnical information. Site-specific deviations should
be described and supported in the drilling and well
installation plan.
(1) Technical understanding and evaluation of HTRW
studies involve an appreciation of the interactions among
many fields including geology, hydrology, geotechnical
engineering, and chemistry. This scenario is complicated by
the trace (low parts per billion) levels of regulated chemical
species that are detectable in the environment and which,
when detected or suspected, trigger intricate and costly
response actions. Slight deviations from prescribed drilling,
well installation, sampling, or analytical procedures may
bias or invalidate the reported concentrations.
This
sensitivity requires that procedures be relevant, standardized,
documented, understood, and followed. Despite these
procedures, the normal heterogeneity and anisotropy of
natural field occurrences are, in themselves, frequently
sufficient to confuse the appropriate interpretation of the
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
gathered field data.
(2) The specific content of this manual will be periodically updated based upon reader suggestions, lessons
learned, technological advances, and Corps needs. Issues of
significant concern will be disseminated Corpswide in a
more expeditious manner.
(3) Not all geotechnical personnel will agree on every
practice advocated herein. Any such variations should be
over a matter of degree, not substance. If the reader
perceives a technical difficulty in any of this manual's
contents, the reader is requested to contact the proponent.
b. Proponency. The technical proponents for this manual
are the Policy and Technology Branch, Environmental
Division, Directorate of Military Programs (CEMP-R), and
the Geotechnical and Materials Branch, Engineering
Division, Directorate of Civil Works (CECW-EG),
Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. All comments
and suggestions should be directed to HQUSACE, CEMP-R,
20 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 203141000.
1-3
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
Chapter 2
Boreholes and Wells:
Site Reconnaissance, Locations,
Quantities, and Designations
2-1. Site Reconnaissance
Site visits are suggested for project geotechnical personnel as
early as practical in the planning for any subsurface
exploration. The purpose of this reconnaissance is to evaluate
physical site conditions and logistical support availability.
Particular items of interest would include geologic and
geographic settings, site access, proximal utilities, service
areas, sample shipment facilities, and potential hazards.
Application of this knowledge will contribute to enhancing
the technical approach and cost realism for subsequent project
development.
2-3. Designations
Borehole and well designations (identification numbers)
should not be unilaterally changed in the field or in a centralized computer database without prior approval of the
installing Corps organization or non-Corps agency. After
receiving approval, the requesting FA should physically renumber those sites where a designation is posted in the field.
Temporary conversions not involving the alteration of either
field markings or a centralized database may be done for
reporting purposes without approval of the installing organization or agency. Such temporary changes may be necessary,
for instance, if the data entry format of a given computer
system is not compatible with the characters in the existing
well designation. A conversion table should be included in the
final report to document any permanent or temporary
boring/well designation changes.
2-2. Locations and Quantities
The locations and quantities of boreholes and wells should be
selected to effectively ascertain desired geologic, hydrologic,
and/or chemical parameters. The number of borings or wells
specified in the drilling plan should not be altered without
coordination with the FA. The drilling and well installation
plan should permit relocations when necessitated by proximal
utilities or drilling difficulties. The criteria for selection of the
new location(s) should be included as a portion of the drilling
plan and should indicate when coordination would be required
with the FA.
2-1
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
Chapter 3
Drilling Operations
3-1. Physical Security
The FDO should comply with all security policies at the project
site. The FDO is responsible for securing its own equipment.
The FDO should address any special situations in the drilling
plan.
3-2. Drilling Safety and Underground
Utility Detection
When drilling in areas of known or suspected hazardous
materials, appropriate health and safety precautions should be
implemented. Guidance adaptable for drilling activities is
available in Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) documents (particularly, 29 CFR 1910.120 and 29
CFR 1926), ER 385-1-92, and EM 385-1-1. The FDO should
determine all applicable regulations, requirements, and permits
with regard to drilling safety and underground utility detection.
These items should be included in the safety plan. The safety
plan should be approved by the FA prior to any drilling.
3-3. Permits, Licenses, Professional
Registration, and Rights-of-Entry
The FA should be responsible for identifying all applicable
permits, licenses, professional registration, rights-of-entry, and
applicable state and local regulatory procedures for drilling,
well installation, well decommissioning/ abandonment, and
topographic surveying (to include any requirements for the
submission of well logs, samples, etc.). Acquisition and
submission of these items to state or local authorities should be
coordinated between the FA and FDO, with the responsibilities
of each specified in the drilling plan. The need for any rightsof-entry should be specified in the drilling plan along with the
organization(s) responsible for their acquisition.
3-4. Site Geologist
A “site geologist” (defined as an earth science or engineering
professional with a college degree in geology, civil engineering,
or related field; experienced in HTRW projects, soil and rock
logging, and monitoring well installation), should be present at
each operating drill rig. This geologist should be responsible
for logging; acquisitioning (and possibly shipment) of samples;
monitoring of drilling operations; recording of water
losses/gains and groundwater data; preparing the boring logs
and well diagrams; and recording the well installation and
decommissioning procedures conducted with that rig. Each site
geologist should be responsible for only one operating rig. The
geologist should have onsite sufficient tools, forms, and
professional equipment in operable condition to efficiently
perform the duties as outlined in this manual and other
relevant project documents. Items in the possession of each
site geologist should include, as a minimum, a copy of this
manual, a copy of the approved drilling and well installation
plan, log forms, the approved safety plan, a 10-power
(minimum) hand lens, and a measuring tape (weighted with
stainless steel or chemically stable, nonmetallic material)
long enough to measure the deepest boring/well within the
project, heavy enough to reach that depth, and small enough
to readily fit within the appropriate annulus or opening.
Each site geologist should also have onsite a water-level
measuring device (preferably electrical), pH and electric
conductivity meters, a turbidimeter, a thermometer, an
instrument for measuring dissolved oxygen, and materials
necessary to prepare the samples for storage or shipment. At
some sites, the geologist may be also responsible for
monitoring gases during drilling. If so, the geologist should
have the necessary instruments and be proficient in their use
and calibration.
3-5. Equipment
a. Condition. All drilling, sampling, and supporting
equipment brought to a site should be in operable condition
and free of leaks in the hydraulic, lubrication, fuel, and other
fluid systems where fluid leakage would or could be
detrimental to the project effort. All switches (to include
safety switches), gages, and other electrical, mechanical,
pneumatic, and hydraulic systems should be in a safe and
operable condition prior to arrival onsite.
b. Cleaning. All drilling equipment should be cleaned
with steam or pressurized hot water before arriving at the
project installation/site. After arrival but prior to project
commencement, all drilling equipment including rigs,
support vehicles, water tanks (inside and out), augers, drill
casings, rods, samplers, tools, recirculation tanks, etc.,
should be cleaned with steam or pressurized hot water using
approved water (see paragraph 3-9b) at the installation
decontamination point. Guidance for decontamination of
field equipment may be found in ASTM D 5088. Samplers
and other equipment, such as water level indicators,
oil/water interface probes, etc. may require additional
decontamination steps. A similar cleaning should also occur
between each boring/well site. After the onsite cleaning,
only the equipment used or soiled at a particular boring or
well should need to be recleaned between sites. Unless
circumstances require otherwise, water tank interiors may
not need to be cleaned between each boring/well at a given
project. Prior to use, all casings, augers, recirculation and
water tanks, etc., should be devoid both inside and out of
any asphaltic, bituminous, or other encrusting or coating
materials, grease, grout, soil, etc. Paint, applied by the
equipment manufacturer, may not have to be removed from
3-1
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
drilling equipment, depending upon the paint composition and
its contact with the environment and contaminants of concern.
All equipment should be decontaminated before it is removed
from the project site. If drilling requires telescoping casing
because of differing levels of contamination in subsurface
strata, then decontamination may be necessary before setting
each string of smaller casing and before drilling beyond any
casing. To the extent practical, all cleaning should be
performed in a single remote area that is surficially
crossgradient or downgradient from any site to be sampled.
Waste solids and water from the cleaning/decontamination
process should be properly collected and disposed. This may
require that cleaning be conducted on a concrete pad or other
surface from which the waste materials may be collected.
Guidance for decontamination of field equipment used at low
level radioactive waste sites may be found in ASTM D 5608.
3-6. Drilling Methods
a. Objective. The objective of selecting a drilling
method for monitor well installation is to use that technique
which
(1) Provides representative data and samples.
(2) Eliminates or minimizes the potential for subsurface
contamination and/or cross-contamination.
(3) Minimizes drilling costs.
b. Methods. Table 3-1 presents types of drilling
methods. Detailed descriptions of different drilling methods
may be found in EPA/600/4-89/034, EPA/625/R-93/003a,
USGS WRI Report 96-4233, USGS TWRI Book 2 Chapter F1,
ASTM D 6286, Driscoll (1986), and U.S. Army FM 5-484.
Where possible, ASTM drilling method-specific guides are
referenced with the drilling methods listed below.
(1) Hollow stem augers. Method references: ASTM D 5784
and EPA/600/4-89/034.
(2) Cable tool/churn drill. Method reference: ASTM D
5875.
(3) Water/mud rotary. Method references: ASTM D
5781, D 5783, and D 5876.
(4) Air/pneumatic rotary methods. Method reference: D
5782.
(5) Sonic/vibratory. Method reference: EPA/625/R-94/003.
(6) Direct Push. Method references: ASTM Standard
Guides D 6001 and D 6282, and EPA/510/B-97/001.
3-2
c. Special concerns.
(1) Dry methods.
(a) Hollow stem augers are technically advantageous in
most situations because of their “dry” method of drilling. A
dry drilling method is preferred for HTRW work. Dry
methods advance a boring using purely mechanical means
without the aid of an aqueous or pneumatic drilling “fluid”
for cuttings removal, bit cooling, or borehole stabilization.
In this way, the chemical interface with the subsurface is
minimized, though not eliminated. Local aeration of the
borehole wall, for example, may occur simply by the
removal of compacted or confining soil or rock.
(b) Vibratory, or sonic drilling, employs the use of highfrequency mechanical vibration to take continuous core
samples of overburden soils and most hard rock. A sonic
drill rig uses an oscillator, or head, with eccentric weights
driven by hydraulic motors, to generate high sinusoidal
force in a rotating drill pipe. The frequency of vibration of
the drill bit or core barrel can be varied to allow optimum
penetration of subsurface materials.
Sonic drilling
penetrates a formation by displacement, shearing, or
fracturing. Displacement occurs by fluidizing the soil
particles (sands and light gravels) and causing them to move
either into the formation or into the center of the drill pipe.
Shearing occurs in dense silts, clays, and shales, if the axial
oscillations of the drill pipe overcomes the elastic nature of
the material. The penetration of cobbles, boulders, and rock
is caused by fracturing of the material by the inertial moment
of the drill bit. Although, rock drilling and sampling requires
the addition of water or air to remove drill cuttings, the
volume of drill cuttings generated during sonic drilling is
usually much less than those generated from some other
drilling methods. Drilling through unconsolidated material
can be done in the dry, without the use of drilling fluids
such as air or water-based fluids and additivies. Overall, the
sonic drilling method can also offer the advantages of
obtaining relatively undisturbed soil and rock samples at
higher drilling rates than conventional methods, with high
percentage of core recovery,
and produces less
investigation-derived waste.
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
TABLE 3-1
DRILLING METHODS
Method
Direct-Push
Drilling Principle
Advancing a sampling device
into the subsurface by applying
static pressure, impacts, or
vibration or any combination
thereof to the above ground
portion of the sampler
extensions until the sampler
has been advanced its full
length into the desired soil
strata.
Depth
Limitation
m (Ft.)
30 (100)
Advantages
Disadvantages
Avoids use of drilling fluids and lubricants
during drilling.
Limited to fairly soft materials such as clay, silt, sand, and gravel.
Compact, gravelly materials may be hard to penetrate.
Equipment highly mobile.
Small diameter well screen may be hard to develop. Screen may
become clogged if thick clays are penetrated.
Disturbance of geochemical conditions
during installation is minimized.
Drilling and well screen installation is fast,
considerably less labor intensive.
The small diameter drive pipe generally precludes conventional
borehole geophysical logging.
The drive points yield relatively low rates of water.
Does not produce drill cuttings, reduction of
IDW.
Auger, Hollow- and
Solid-Stem
Successive 1.5m (5-ft) flights
of spiral-shaped drill stem are
rotated into the ground to
create a hole. Cuttings are
brought to the surface by the
turning action of the auger.
45 (150)
Jetting
Washing action of water
forced out of the bottom of the
drill rod clears hole to allow
penetration. Cuttings brought
to surface by water flowing up
the outside of the drill rod.
15 (50)
Fairly inexpensive. Fairly simple and
moderately fast operation.
Depth of penetration limited, especially in cavey materials.
Cannot be used in rock or well-cemented formations. Difficult to drill
Small rigs can get to difficult-to-reach areas. in cobbles or boulders.
Quick setup time.
Log of well is difficult to interpret without collection of split spoons
due to the lag time for cuttings to reach ground surface.
Can quickly construct shallow wells in firm, Soil samples returned by auger flight are disturbed making it difficult
noncavey materials.
to determine the precise depth from which the sample came.
Vertical leakage of water through borehole during drilling is likely to
No drilling fluid or lubricants required.
occur. Solid-stem limited to fine-grained, unconsolidated materials
that will not collapse when unsupported. Borehole wall can be
Use of hollow-stem augers greatly facilitates smeared by previosly-drilled clay.
collection of split-spoon samples, continuous
sampling possible.
With hollow-stem flights, heaving sand can present a problem. May
need to add water down-auger to control heaving or wash materials
Small-diameter wells can be built inside
from auger before completing well.
hollow-stem flights when geologic materials
are cavey.
Relatively fast and inexpensive. Driller often Somewhat slow with increasing depth. Limited to drilling relatively
not needed for shallow holes.
shallow depth, small diameter boreholes. Extremely difficult to use in
very coarse materials, i.e., cobbles and boulders. Large quantities of
water required during drilling process. A water supply is needed that
In firm, noncavey deposits where hole will
stand open, well construction fairly simple. is under enough pressure to penetrate the geologic materials present.
Use of water can affect groundwater quality in aquifer. Difficult-toMinimul equipment required.
interpret sequence of geologic materials from cuttings. Presence of
gravel or larger materials can limit drilling. Borehole can collapse
Equipment highly mobile.
before setting monitoring well if borehole uncased.
3-3
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
TABLE 3-1
DRILLING METHODS
Method
Cable-tool
(percussion)
Drilling Principle
Hole created by dropping a
heavy "string" of drill tools
into well bore, crushing
materials at bottom.
Cuttings are removed
occasionally by bailer.
Generally, casing is driven just
ahead of the bottom of the
hole; a hole greater than 6
inches in diameter is usually
made.
Mud Rotary
Rotating bit breaks formation;
cuttings are brought to the
surface by a circulating fluid
(mud). Mud is forced down
the interior of the drill stem,
out the bit, and up the annulus
between the drill stem and
hole wall.
Cuttings are removed by
settling in a "mud pit" at the
ground surface and the mud is
circulated back down the drill
stem.
3-4
Depth
Limitation
m (Ft.)
Advantages
300+
Can be used in rock formations as well as
(1,000 +) unconsolidated formations. Can drill through
cobbles and boulders and highly cavernous
or fractured rock. Fairly accurate logs can be
prepared from cuttings if collected often
enough. Driving a casing ahead of hole
minimizes cross-contamination by vertical
leakage of formation waters and maintains
borehole stability.
Recovery of borehole fluid samples excellent
throughout the entire depth of the borehole.
Excellent method for detecting thin waterbearing zones. Excellent method for
estimating yield of water-bearing zones.
Excellent method for drilling in soil and rock
where lost circulation of drilling fluid is
possible.
Core samples can be easily obtained.
Excellent for development of a well.
Disadvantages
The potential for cross-contaminated samples is very high.
Decontamination can be difficult.
Heavy steel drive pipe used to keep hole open and drilling "tools" can
limit accessibility.
Cannot run some geophysical logs due to presence of drive pipe.
Relatively slow drilling method.
Heavier wall, larger diameter casing than that used for other drilling
methods normally used.
Temporary casing can cause problems with emplacement of effective
filter pack and grout seal.
Heaving of unconsolidated sediment into bottom of casing can be a
problem.
1,500+ Drilling is fairly quick in all types of geologic Expensive, requires experienced driller and fair amount of peripheral
equipment.
(5,000 +) materials, hard and soft.
Completed well may be difficult to develop, especially small diameter
Borehole will stay open from formation of a wells, because of mud or filter-cake on wall of borehole.
Lubricants used during drilling can contaminate the borehole fluid
mud wall on sides of borehole by the
circulating drilling mud. Eases geophysical and soil/rock samples.
Geologic logging by visual inspection of cuttings is fair due to
logging and well construction.
Geologic cores can be collected.
presence of drilling mud. Beds of sand, gravel, or clay may be missed.
Location of water-bearing zones during drilling can be difficult to
detect. Drilling fluid circulation is often lost or difficult to maintain in
Can use casing-advancement drilling
fractured rock, root zones, or in gravels and cobbles.
method.
Difficult drilling in boulders and cobbles.
Presence of drilling mud can contaminate water samples, especially
Borehole can readily be gravel packed and
the organic, biodegradable muds.
grouted.
Overburden casing usually required.
Circulation of drilling fluid through a contaminated zone can create a
Virtually unlimited depths possible.
hazard at the ground surface with the mud pit and cross-contaminate
clean zones during circulation.
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
TABLE 3-1
DRILLING METHODS
Method
Drilling Principle
Depth
Limitation
m (Ft.)
Advantages
Disadvantages
Reverse Rotary
Similar to hydraulic rotary
1,500+
method except the drilling
(5,000 +)
fluid is circulated down the
borehole outside the drill stem
and is pumped up the inside,
just the reverse of the normal
rotary method. Water is used
as the drilling fluid, rather than
a mud, and the hole is kept
open by the hydrostatic
pressure of the water standing
in the borehole.
Air Rotary
Very similar to hydraulic
rotary, the main difference is
that air is used as the primary
drilling fluid as opposed to
mud or water.
1,500+ Can be used in all geologic formations; most
(5,000 +) successful in highly fractured environments.
Useful at most any depth.
Drilling in rock and soil is relatively fast.
Can use casing-advancement method.
Drilling mud or water not required.
Borehole is accessible for geophysical
logging prior to monitoring well installation.
Well development relatively easy.
Relatively expensive.
Cross-contamination from vertical communication possible.
Air will be mixed with the water in the hole and blown from the hole,
potentially creating unwanted reactions with contaminants; may affect
"representative" samples.
Air, cuttings and water blown from the hole can pose a hazard to crew
and surrounding environment if toxic compounds encountered.
Compressor discharge air may contain hydrocarbons.
Organic foam additives to aid cuttings removal may contaminate
samples.
Overburden casing usually required.
Sonic
(vibratory)
Employs the use of highfrequency mechanical
vibration to take continuous
core samples of overburden
soils and most hard rock.
150 (500) Can obtain large diameter, continuous and
relatively undisturbed cores of almost any
soil material without the use of drilling fluids.
Can drill through boulders, wood, concrete
and other construction debris.
Can drill and sample most softer rock with
high percentage of core recovery.
Drilling is faster than most other methods.
Reduction of IDW.
Rock drilling requires the addition of water or air or both to remove
drill cuttings.
Drilling readily accomplished in soils and
most hard rock.
Drilling is relatively fast and for drilling large
diameter boreholes.
Borehole is accessible for geophysical
logging prior to installation of well.
Creates a very "clean" hole, not dirtied with
drilling mud.
Large diameter of borehole permits relatively
easy installation of monitoring well.
Can be used in all geologic formations.
Very deep penetrations possible.
Split-spoon sampling possible.
Drilling through cobbles and boulders may be difficult.
Use of drilling fluids, polymeric additives, and lubricants can affect
the borehole chemistry.
A large water supply is needed to maintain hydrostatic pressure in
deep holes and when highly conductive formations are encountered.
Expensive--experienced driller and much peripheral equipment
required. Hole diameters are usually large, commonly 18 inches or
greater.
Cross-contamination from circulating water likely.
Geologic samples brought to surface are generally poor; circulating
water will "wash" finer materials from sample.
Extraction of casing can cause smearing of borehole wall with silt or
clay.
Extraction of casing can damage well screen.
Equipment is not readily available and is expensive.
3-5
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
TABLE 3-1
DRILLING METHODS
Method
Air-Percussion
Rotary or
Down-the-Hole
(DTH) Hammer
3-6
Drilling Principle
Air rotary with a
reciprocating hammer
connected to the bit to
fracture rock.
Depth
Limitation
m (Ft.)
600
(2,000)
Advantages
Very fast penetrations. Useful in all
geologic formations.
Only small amounts of water needed for
dust and bit temperature control.
Cross-contamination potential can be
reduced by driving casing.
Can use casing-advancement method.
Well development relatively easy.
Disadvantages
Relatively expensive.
As with most hydraulic rotary methods, the rig is fairly heavy,
limiting accessibility.
Overburden casing usually required.
Vertical mixing of water and air creates cross-contamination
potential.
Hazard posed to surface environment if toxic compounds
encountered.
DTH hammer drilling can cause hydraulic fracturing of borehole
wall.
The DTH hammer requires lubrication during drilling.
Organic foam additives for cuttings removal may contaminate
samples.
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
(c) Another dry method, known as the direct push
method, involves sampling devices that are directly
inserted into the soil to be sampled without drilling or
borehole excavation. Direct push sampling also includes
the use of the Site Characterization and Analysis
Penetrometer System (SCAPS) which has contaminant
screening capability in addition to indirect soil
stratigraphy information (ASTM D 5778 and D 6067).
Direct push sampling consists of advancing a sampling
device into the subsurface by applying static pressure,
impacts, or vibration or any combination thereof to the
above ground portion of the sampler extensions until the
sampler has been advanced its full length into the desired
soil strata. Direct push methods may be used to collect
both soil (ASTM D 6282) and water samples (ASTM D
6001). In some cases the method may combine water
sampling and/or vapor sampling with soil sampling in the
same investigation. The direct push sampling method is
widely used as a preliminary site characterization tool for
the initial field activity of a site investigation. Direct push
sampling is an economical and efficient method for
obtaining descrete soil and water samples without the
expense of drilling and its related decontamination and
waste cuttings disposal costs. This method may be
especially advantageous at a radioactive site, where the
reduction of IDW is of special importance. The equipment
generally used in direct push sampling is small and
relatively compact allowing for better mobility around the
site and access to confined areas. The rapid sample
gathering provided by direct push methods can be used to
determine the chemical composition of the soils and
ground water in the field in certain circumtances. This
method may offer an immediate determination of the need
for further monitoring points. It must be cautioned,
however, that certain temporary well points installed by
this method may not be allowed as permanent monitoring
wells by some state and local regulations.
(2) Pneumatic methods. When air is used it
should be detailed in the drilling plan, to include the
following items:
(a) Situation favoring air usage.
(b) Air drilling method to be used.
(c) Expected subsurface contaminants, and how
field personnel will be protected from any adverse effects
caused by these contaminants in the returned air and
particles blown from the borehole or well.
volatile species) and the mitigation procedures to negate
the detrimental aspects of these effects.
(e) The potential effects of air usage upon the
physical, hydrological, and structural character of the
surrounding soil and/or rock and the mitigation to address
the negative aspects of these effects.
(f) Measures to be taken to reduce oil usage and to
limit aquifer aeration.
(g) Specify the type of air compressor and
compressor lubricating oil and require that sufficient
samples of the initial reservoir (and any refill) oil be
retained by the FDO, along with a record of oil loss
(recorded on the boring log), for evaluation in the event of
future problems. The oil sample(s) may be disposed of
upon project completion.
(h) Require an air line oil filter and that the filter
be changed per manufacturer's recommendation during
operation with a record kept (on the boring log) of this
maintenance. More frequent changes should be made if
oil is visibly detected in the filtered air, as by an oil stain
on clean, writing paper after directing the filtered
air from a hose onto the paper “300 mm” (“a foot”) away
for “15 seconds.” (While these numbers are arbitrary,
they are provided as examples for FDO guidance and
intra/interproject consistency.)
(i) Prohibit the use of any additive except
approved water for dust control and cuttings removal.
(j) Detail the use of any downhole hammer/bit
with emphasis upon those procedures to be taken to
preclude residual groundwater sample contamination
caused by the lubrication of the downhole equipment.
(k) Discuss the volume of air and pressure rating
required for drilling and whether a downhole hammer,
rotary bit, or both can be used. The air volume and pressure required should be adequate for the hole diameter,
boring depth, available equipment, and site conditions.
(l) Detail the use of any bottled gas with emphasis
on air composition, quality, quantity, method of bottling,
and anticipated use.
(d) The potential effects of air usage upon the
chemical analyses of groundwater and soil (especially for
3-7
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
(m) Air usage should be fully described in the
boring log to include equipment description(s), manufacturer(s), model(s), air pressures used, frequency of oil
filter change, and evaluation of the system performance,
both design and actual.
polymer. The use of any bentonite should be discussed in the
drilling plan and approved by the FA. Bentonite should only be
used if absolutely necessary to ensure that the borehole will not
collapse or to improve cuttings removal. The following data
should be included in the drilling plan and submitted along with
a sample of the material for approval:
(3) Aqueous methods.
(1) Brand name(s).
(a) Aqueous drilling methods use a fluid, usually
water, or a water and bentonite mix, for cuttings removal,
bit cooling, and hole stabilization. For HTRW work, the
use of these materials increases the potential to add a new
contaminant or suite of contaminants to the subsurface
environment adjacent to the boring. Even the removal of
one or more volumes of water equal to that which was lost
during drilling will not remove all of the lost fluid. In
addition, the level of effort to be expended upon well
development is directly tied to the amount of water loss
during drilling: a minimum of three times the volume lost
to be removed during development. Therefore, the less
fluid loss, the less the development effort (time and cost).
(b) The situation is further complicated when
bentonite is used. While bentonite tends to reduce the
amount of drilling fluid loss, the residual bentonite
remaining around the boring after development may provide sufficient sorptive material to modify local groundwater chemistry for some parameters (for example,
metals).
3-7. Recirculation Tanks and Sumps
(2) Manufacturer(s).
(3) Manufacturer's address and telephone number(s).
(4)
Product description(s) from package label(s) or
manufacturer's brochure(s), to include any polymer or other
additives.
(5)
(6)
samples.
Intended use(s) for this product.
Potential effects on chemical analyses of subsequent
b. Water.
(1) To the extent practical, the use of drilling water
should be held to a minimum at HTRW sites. When water usage
is deemed necessary, the source of any water used in drilling,
grouting, sealing, filter placement, well installation, well
decommissioning/abandonment, equipment washing, etc. should
be approved by the FA prior to arrival of the drilling equipment
onsite and specified in the drilling plan. Desirable characteristics
for the source include:
(a) An uncontaminated aquifer origin;
If possible, only portable recirculation tanks should be
used for mud/water rotary operations and similar
functions. The use of dug sumps or pits (lined) should be
used only if necessary, as when the volume necessary to
handle problem holes that encounter running sand or
gravel is greater than can be handled by a portable tank.
This is important in order
to minimize crosscontamination and to enhance both personal safety and
work area restoration.
(b)
sources;
Wellhead upgradient of potential contaminant
(c) Be free of survey-related contaminants by virtue of
pretesting (sampling and analysis) by the FDO using a laboratory
validated by USACE for those contaminants using methods
within that validation, and knowledge of the water-chemistry is
the most important factor in water approval;
(d) The water is untreated and unfiltered;
3-8.
Materials
a. Bentonite. Bentonite is the only drilling fluid
additive that is typically allowed under normal circumstances. This includes any form of bentonite (powders,
granules, or pellets) intended for drilling mud, grout,
seals, etc. Organic additives should not be used. Exception might be made for some high yield bentonites, to
which the manufacturer has added a small quantity of
3-8
(e) The tap has accessibility and capacity compatible with
project schedules and equipment; and
(f) Only one designated tap for access.
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
(2) Surface water bodies should not be used, if at
all practical.
(3) If a suitable source exists onsite, that source
should be used. If no onsite water is available, the FDO
should both locate a potential source and submit the following data in writing to the FA for approval prior to the
arrival of any drilling equipment onsite. A suggested
format is given in Figure 3-1.
allowed here varies from the 10 percent allowable in ASTM D
5092. The amount of water per sack of cement required for a
pumpable mix will vary with the amount of bentonite used.
The amount of water used should be kept to a minimum.
When a sulfate resistant grout is needed, Types II or V cement
should be used instead of Type I. Neither additives nor
borehole cuttings should be mixed with the grout. The use of
air-entrained cement should be avoided to negate potential
analytical interference in groundwater samples by the
entraining additives.
(a) Owner/address/telephone number.
(b) Location of tap/address.
(c) Type of source (well, pond, river, etc.). If a
well, specify static water level (depth), date measured,
well depth, and aquifer description.
(d) Type of any treatment and filtration prior to
tap (e.g., none, chlorination, fluoridation, softening, etc.).
(e) Time of access (e.g., 24 hours per day, 7 days
per week, etc.).
(f)
Cost
owner/operator.
per
liter
(gallon)
charged
(2) Bentonite. Bentonite grout is a specially designed
product, which is differentiated from a drilling fluid by its high
solids content, absence of cement and its pumpability. A
typical high solids bentonite grout will have a solids content
between 20 and 30 percent by weight of water and remain
pumpable. By contrast, a typical low solids bentonite, as used
in a drilling fluid, contains a solids content between 3 and 6
percent by weight of water. The advantages of using bentonite
grout include (Oliver 1997) :
C
Bentonite grouts, when hydrated, exert constant
pressure against the walls of the annulus, leaving no
room for contaminants to travel in the well.
C
Bentonite grouts are more flexible and do not shrink
and crack when hydrated, creating a low permeability
seal.
C
Placement using bentonite grouts is much easier
because more time is allowed for setting.
C
Bentonite high solids grouts require less material
handling than cement.
C
Bentonite grouts are chemically inert, which protects
personal safety, equipment, and water quality.
C
Bentonite grouts have no heat of hydration making
them compatible with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) casing.
C
Wells constructed with bentonite grouts can be easily
reconstructed if necessary.
C
Cleanup of bentonite grouts is much easier than with
cement grouts.
by
(g) Results and dates of all available chemical
analyses over past 2 years. Include the name(s) and
addresses of the analytical laboratory(s).
(h) Results and date(s) of chemical analysis for
project contaminants by a laboratory validated by USACE
for those contaminants.
(4) The FDO should have the responsibility to
procure, transport, and store the water required for project
needs in a manner to avoid the chemical contamination or
degradation of the water once obtained. The FDO also
should be responsible for any heating, thermal insulation,
or agitation of the water to maintain the water as a fluid
for its intended uses.
c. Grout.
(1) Cement.
Cement grout, when used in
monitoring well construction or borehole/well decommissioning, should be composed of Type I Portland
cement (ASTM C 150), bentonite (2-5% dry bentonite per
42.6 kg (94 lb) sack of dry cement) and a maximum of 23
to 26 L (6-7 gal) of approved noncontaminated-water per
sack of cement. The addition of bentonite to the cement
admixture will aid in reducing shrinkage and provide
plasticity. Note that the maximum amount of dry bentonite
Situations where bentonite grout should not be used are when
additional structural strength is needed or when excessive
chlorides or other contaminants such as alcohols or ketones are
present. Under artesian conditions the bentonite does not have
the solids content found in a cement-bentonite grout and will
not settle where a strong uplift is present. Where structural
support is needed, bentonite grout does not set up and harden
3-9
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
like a cement and will not supply the support a cementbentonite grout will provide (Colangelo 1988).
(3) Equipment. All grout materials should be
combined in an aboveground rigid container or mixer and
mechanically (not manually) blended onsite to produce a
thick, lump-free mixture throughout the mixing vessel.
The mixed grout should be recirculated through the grout
pump prior to placement. Grout should be placed using a
grout pump and pipe/tremie. The grout pipe should be of
rigid construction for vertical control of pipe placement.
Drill rods, rigid polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or metal pipes
are suggested stock for tremies. If hoses or flexible plastics must be used, they may have to be fitted with a length
of steel pipe at the downhole end to keep the flexible
material from curling and embedding itself into the borehole wall. This is especially true in cold weather when the
coiled material resists straightening. Grout pipes should
have SIDE discharge holes, NOT end discharge. The
side discharge will help to maintain the integrity of the
underlying material (especially the bentonite seal).
d. Granular filter pack.
(1) Proper design of hydraulically efficient
monitoring wells can be accomplished by designing the
well in such a way that either the natural coarse-grained
formation materials or artificially introduced coarsegrained materials, in conjunction with appropriately sized
intake openings, retain the fine materials outside the well
while permitting water to enter. Thus, there are two types
of wells and well intake designs for wells installed in
unconsolidated or poorly-consolidated geologic materials:
natural developed wells and wells with an artificially
introduced filter pack. In both types of wells, the objective
of a filter pack is to increase the effective diameter of the
well and to surround the well intake with an envelope of
relatively coarse material of greater permeability than the
natural formation material (EPA/600/4-89/034). The
decision to design the well using the natural formation as
the filter pack should include consideration that the
natural formation material may slough in high enough
above the top of the well screen to leave insufficient room
for the bentonite seal. All granular filters should be
approved by the FA prior to drilling and should be
discussed in the drilling plan. Discussions should include
composition, source (natural formation or artificial),
placement, and gradation. The FDO should either
prescribe the gradation of the filter pack in the field
sampling plan (FSP) or detail that it will be determined
after a sieve analysis of the stratum in which the screen is
to be set has been performed. If the actual gradation is to
be determined during drilling, more than one filter pack
gradation should be on hand so that well installation will
3-10
not be unnecessarily delayed. A 0.5 L (one-pint) representative sample for visual familiarization of each proposed
granular filter pack, accompanied by the data below, should be
submitted by the FDO to the FA for approval prior to drilling.
Each sample should be described, in writing (see Figure 3-2
for submittal format), in terms of:
(a) Lithology;
(b) Grain size distribution;
(c) Brand name, if any;
(d) Source, both manufacturing company and location
of pit or quarry of origin for artificial filter packs;
(e) Processing method for artificial filter packs, e.g., pit
run, screened and unwashed, screened and washed with water
from well/river/pond, etc.; and
(f) Slot size of intended screen.
(2) Granular filter packs should be visually clean (as
seen through a 10-power hand lens), free of material that
would pass through a No. 200 (75 µm [0.0029 in.]) sieve,
inert, siliceous, composed of rounded grains, and of
appropriate size for the well screen and host environment.
Organic matter, soft, friable, thin, or enlongated particles are
not permissible. A chemical analysis, including analytes of
project concern, may be advisable in some circumstances.
However, the reproducibility of that result should be evaluated
against the spatial and temporal variability of the aggregate
source and processing methods. The filter material should be
packaged in bags by the supplier and therein delivered to the
site.
e. Well screens, casings, and fittings.
(1) Typically, only PVC, polytetrafluoroethylene
(PTFE), and/or stainless steel should be used. All PVC
screens, casings, and fittings should conform to National
Sanitation Foundation (NSF) Standard 14 for potable water
usage or ASTM Standard Specification F 480 and bear the
appropriate rating logo. If the FDO uses a screen and/or casing
manufacturer or supplier who removes or does not apply this
logo, the FDO should
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
WATER APPROVAL
Project for Intended Use:
1. Water source:
Owner:
Address:
Telephone Number:
2. Water tap location:
Operator:
Address:
3. Type of source:
Aquifer:
Well depth:
Static water level from ground surface:
Date measured;
4. Type of treatment prior to tap:
5. Type of access:
6. Cost per liter (gallon) charged by Owner/Operator:
7. Attach results and dates of chemical analyses for past 2 years. Include name(s) and address(s) of
analytical laboratory(s).
8. Attach results and dates of chemical analyses for project analytes by the laboratory certified by,
or in the process of being certified.
SUBMITTED BY:
Company:
Person:
Telephone Number:
Date:
FOA APPROVAL (A)/DISAPPROVAL (D)
(Check one)
Project Officer:
A
D
Project Geologist/Date:
A
D
Figure 3-1. Suggested format for use in obtaining water approval
3-11
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
include in the drilling plan a written statement from the
manufacturer/supplier (and endorsed by the FDO) that the
screens and/or casing have been appropriately rated by NSF or
ASTM. Specific materials should be specified in the drilling
plan approved by the FA. All materials should be as
chemically inert as technically practical with respect to the site
environment.
(2)
All well screens should be commercially
fabricated, slotted or continuously wound, and have an inside
diameter (ID) equal to or greater than the ID of the well casing.
An exception may be needed in the case of continuously
wound screens because their supporting rods may reduce the
full ID. If the monitoring well is to be subject to aquifer testing
(slug test or pump test), a continuous wound screen should be
used. Stainless steel screens may be used with PVC or PTFE
well casing. No fitting should restrict the ID of the joined
casing and/or screen. All screens, casings, and fittings should
be new.
(3) Couplings within the casing and between the
casing and screen should be compatibly threaded. Thermal or
solvent welded couplings on plastic pipe should not be used.
This caution also applies to threaded or slip-joint couplings
thermally welded to the casing by the manufacturer or in the
field. Several thermally welded joints have been known to
break during well installation on a single project. The
avoidance should remain until the functional integrity of
thermal welds has been substantiated.
(4) Pop rivets, or screws should not be used on
monitor wells. Particular problems with their use include
anomalous analytical results, restriction of the well ID, and a
loss of well integrity at the point of application.
f.
Well caps and centralizers.
(1) The tops of all well casings should be telescopically covered with a slip-joint-type cap. Each cap should be
composed of PVC, PTFE, or stainless steel. Each cap should
be constructed to preclude binding to the well casing due to
tightness of fit, unclean surface, or frost, and secure enough to
preclude debris and insects from entering the well. Caps and
risers may be threaded. However, sufficient annular space
should be allowed between the well and protective casing to
enable one to thaw any frosted shut caps. Caps should be
vented, or loose enough to allow equilibration between hydrostatic and atmospheric pressures. Special cap (and riser)
designs should be provided by the FA or FDO for wells in
floodplains and those instances where the top of the well may
be below grade, e.g., in roadways and parking lots.
(2) The use of well centralizers should be considered
for wells deeper than 6 m (20 ft). When used, they should be
3-12
of PVC, PTFE, or stainless steel and attached to the casing at
regular intervals by means of stainless steel fasteners or
strapping. Centralizers should not be attached to any portion
of the well screen or bentonite seal. Centralizers should be
oriented to allow for the unrestricted passage of the tremie
pipe(s) used for filter pack and grout placement.
g. Well protection materials. Elements of well protection are intended to protect the monitoring well from
physical damage, to prevent erosion and/or ponding in the
immediate vicinity of the monitoring well, and to enhance the
validity of the water samples.
(1) The potential for physical damage is lessened by
the installation of padlocked, protective iron/steel casing over
the monitoring well and iron/steel posts around the well. The
casing and posts should be new. The protective casing
diameter or minimum dimension should be 100 mm (4 in.)
greater than the nominal diameter of the monitor well, and the
nominal length should be 1.5 m (5 ft). The protective posts
should be at least 80 mm (3 in.) in diameter and the top
modified to preclude the entry of water. If extra protection is
necessary, the protective posts can be filled with concrete.
Nominal length of the posts should be 1.8 m (6 ft). Special circumstances necessitating different materials should be
addressed in the drilling plan.
(2) Erosion and/or ponding in the immediate vicinity
of the monitoring well may be prevented by assuring that the
ground surface slopes away from the monitoring well protective casing and by the spreading of a 150 mm (6-in.) thick, 2.4
m (8-ft) diameter blanket of 19- to -75-mm (3/4- to 3-in.)
gravel around the monitoring well.
(3) The validity of the water samples is enhanced by a
locking cover on the protective casing. The cover should be
hinged or telescoped but not threaded. Lubricants on protective
covers should be avoided. Threaded covers tend to rust and/or
freeze shut. Lubricants applied to the threads to reduce this
closure tend to adhere to sampling personnel and their
equipment. All locks on these covers should be opened by a
single key and, if possible, should match any locks previously
installed at the site(s), and be made of noncorrosive matrial,
such as brass.
h. Glues and solvents. The use of glues and solvents
in monitoring well installation should be prohibited.
i. Tracers. Tracers or dyes should not be used or
otherwise introduced into borings, wells, grout, backfill,
groundwater, or surface water unless specifically approved in
the drilling plan. The drilling plan should describe any
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
GRANULAR FILTER PACK APPROVAL
Project for Intended Use:
1.
Filter Material Brand Name:
2.
Lithology:
3.
Grain Size Distribution:
4.
Source:
Company that made product:
Location of pit/quarry of origin:
5.
Processing Method:
6.
Slot Size of Intended Screen:
Submitted by:
Company:
Person:
Telephone:
Date:
FOA APPROVAL (A)/DISAPPROVAL (D)
(Check one)
Project Officer Name/Date:
A
D
Project Geologist Name/Date:
A
D
Figure 3-2. Suggested format for obtaining approval for filter pack
approved usage; chemical, radiological, and/or biological
composition of the substances; and potential effects upon
subsequent chemical, radiological, or biological analyses of
the injected media. Discussion should also be provided of
the expected, post-injection visual appearance of the media
into which the substances are to be introduced. The
discussion should also include relevant Federal and state
regulations and those agencies' opinions relative to the
approved usage.
j. Lubricants. If lubrication is needed on the
threads or couplings of downhole drilling equipment, it
should be biodegradable and nontoxic. Vegetable
oil/shortening or PTFE tape may be used. Additives
containing lead or copper should not be used. The only
lubricant recommended for monitoring well joints is PTFE
tape. The use and type of lubricants should be included in
the drilling plan and boring logs/well construction diagrams.
3-13
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
k. Hydraulic fluids. Any hydraulic or other fluids
in the drilling rig, pumps, transmissions, or other field equipment/vehicles should NOT contain any polychlorinated
biphenyls (PCBs).
l. Antifreeze. The use of any antifreeze (either a
commercially available automotive variety or a local
derivation) to prevent overnight water line freezing should
require FA approval. If antifreeze is added to any pump,
hose, etc., where contact with drilling fluid is possible, this
antifreeze should be completely purged with approved water
prior to the equipment's use in drilling, mud mixing, or any
other part of the overall drilling operation. A sample of the
clean (approved) water that has been circulated through the
equipment after antifreeze removal should be retained for
laboratory analysis. Only antifreeze without rust inhibitors
and/or sealants should be considered. Antifreeze usage
should be noted on the boring log, including the dates,
reasons, quantities, composition, and brand names of
antifreeze used. Antifreeze usage should be a last resort
option. No antifreeze should be used in the drilling
operation. Overnight storage in a heated garage may be a
better option than spending time purging antifreeze and
getting frozen equipment ready to operate.
m. Agents and additives. The use of any materials
or substances other than those recommended herein for drilling, well installation, or development should be prohibited.
Included in this suggested prohibition are lead shot, lead
wool, burlap, dispersing agents (e.g., phosphates), acids,
explosives, disinfectants, organic based drilling additives,
metallic based lubricants, chlorinated and petroleum based
solvents, adhesives, etc.
n. Summary. A materials usage summary, or
MSDS should be provided of any drilling/well construction
materials which potentially could have a bearing on
subsequent interpretation of the analytical results. An
example summary is provided at Figure 3-3.
3-9. Surface Runoff
Surface runoff, e.g., precipitation, wasted or spilled drilling
fluid, and miscellaneous spills and leaks, should not enter
any boring or well either during or after construction. To
help avoid such entry, the use of starter casing, recirculation
tanks, berms around the borehole, surficial bentonite packs,
etc., is recommended.
3-10. Drilling Through Contaminated Zones
a. Many borings and wells are drilled in areas that are
clean relative to the deeper zones of interest. However,
circumstances do arise that require drilling where the overlying soils or shallow aquifer may be contaminated relative to
the underlying environment. This situation may be
3-14
addressed by the placement of, at least, double casing: an outer
permanent (or temporary) casing sealed in place and cleared of all
previous drill fluids prior to proceeding into the deeper, “cleaner”
environment. In this procedure, the outer drill casing is set and
sealed within an “impermeable” layer or at a level below which
the underlying environment is thought to be cleaner than the
overlying environment. The drilling fluids used to reach this point
are appropriately discarded, replaced by a new or fresh supply.
This system can be repeated, resulting in telescopic drill casing
through which the final well casing is placed. These situations
should be addressed on a case-by-case basis in the drilling plan.
b. Caution should be exercised to prevent further migration of
contaminants via boreholes, especially dense non-aqueous phase
liquid (DNAPL) migration. A recommended investigation strategy
is to drill in expected DNAPL zones only after subsurface
conditions have been characterized by drilling in surrounding
DNAPL-free areas (the “outside-in” strategy). In DNAPL zones,
drilling should generally be minimized and should be suspended
when a potential trapping layer is first encountered. Drilling
through DNAPL zones into deeper strategraphic units should be
avoided. Also non-invasive methods, such as geophysical or
geochemical surveys, can be useful at some sites to roughly define
subsurface geologic or contaminant conditions (USEPA OSWER
Directive 9283.1-06).
3-11. Soil Sampling
a. Intact samples. Unless otherwise specified in the
drilling plan, intact soil samples for physical descriptions,
retention, and physical analyses should be taken continuously and
retained for the first 3 m (10 ft) and every 1.5 m (5 ft) or at each
change of material, whichever occurs first, thereafter. Soil samples
should be collected at intervals that are consistent with the goals of
the project. These samples should be representative of their host
environment. Borehole cuttings do not usually provide the
desired information and, therefore, are not usually satisfactory.
Sampling procedures should be detailed in the drilling plan.
Additional guidance on soil sampling can be found in EM 200-13, EM 1110-1-1906 and ASTM Standard Guide D 6169.
b. Odors. At the detection of any anomalous odors (or
vapor readings) from the boring or intact samples, drilling should
cease for an evaluation of the odors and to determine the crew's
safety. After the field safety representative completes this
evaluation and implements any appropriate safety precautions as
may be required in the site safety and health plan (SSHP), drilling
may only then resume. If the odors or vapor readings are judged
by the field personnel to be contaminant-related, intact soil
samples should be continuously taken until the odors/readings are
within background ranges. These samples should be retained and
preserved in appropriate screw-capped sample jars for possible
chemical analysis. With the resumption of background readings,
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
routine sampling should resume. Specific procedures should
be detailed in the FSP and SSHP.
c.
Volume.
Representative soil samples of
sufficient volume for physical testing from each sampled
interval should be retained for future reference or
appropriate analysis. Upon boring completion, the number
of samples retained from that boring may be reduced,
retaining at least representative samples of major units, key
samples, and those for testing requirements. Minimum
information on each sample container should include the
project, depth below surface, and boring and sample
number. All samples known or suspected to contain
contaminants of concern should be so marked on both the
sample container and boring log. No geotechnical data
should appear on the container that is not specified on the
boring log. Containers should be kept from becoming
frozen. Soil samples known or suspected of being
contaminated may have to be handled, stored, tested, and/or
disposed of as hazardous waste. Storage, packaging, and
shiping instructions for soil samples for physical testing
should be prescribed in the drilling plan. USEPA has
published additional guidance concerning the management
of investigation-derived wastes (IDW) for Superfund
projects (USEPA, EPA/540/G-91/009 and USEPA, OSWER
Publication 9345.3-03FS) that should be incorporated into
the drilling plan, as appropriate.
d. Physical testing. Physical soil testing is a
function of the project. The drilling plan should detail
specific testing guidance and requirements. The appropriate
number of field samples selected for physical soil testing as
well as sample retrieval locations should be determined by
the project geotechnical personnel. Procedures and
equipment for soil testing are described in the current
EM 1110-2-1906 (or ASTM Standard Test Method D
2487). Downhole geophysical logging may reduce the need
for sampling. Tested samples should be representative of
the range and frequency of soil types encountered in the
project area and should specifically include the screened
interval of each completed well. In addition, samples should
be obtained from borings that cover the geographic and
geologic range within the project area. The FDO should
select the particular samples. Samples selected for physical
testing that are suspected to be contaminated should be
labeled as such. Tests should include moisture content and
those tests necessary to determine the soil classification as
described in D 2487. Laboratory and summary sheets
should be submitted to the FA after final test completion.
The drilling and safety plans should address any
contaminant-related safety precautions for the physical
analysis of these samples. The FDO is responsible for
communicating these concerns to the laboratory performing
the soil testing. The testing laboratory is responsible for
taking all the necessary health and safety precautions
adequate to protect the laboratory personnel. Samples for physical
analysis which are known or suspected to be contaminated should
be tested only in a soils laboratory equipped and managed to process contaminated samples.
e. Soil samples for chemical analysis.
(1) Samples should be extracted from an as intact,
minimally disturbed condition as technically practical. Once at the
surface, the sampler should be opened, sample extracted, and
bottled in as short a time as possible. Samples for volatile analysis
should be bottled, and capped within a VERY short time (about
15 seconds from the time of opening the sampler). Each soil
sample for volatile analysis should have minimal head space for
representative analytical results.
(2) All sampling equipment that will contact the sample
should be thoroughly decontaminated between samples. This can
be accomplished by the use of a hot-water pressure washer or as
follows:
(a) Scrub equipment with a low-sudsing, nonphosphate
detergent in approved water.
(b) Rinse with approved water.
(c) When sampling for metals, rinse with 0.1 N nitric acid (4.2
mL of concentrated nitric acid added to 1,000 mL (33 fl oz) of
water). (CAUTION: Add acid to water, never add water to
concentrated acid.) Continue rinsing the sampling equipment now
with distilled or deionized water. If the sampling equipment being
used is made of stainless steel, the use of 0.1 N hydrochloric acid
(rather than 0.1 N nitric acid) is preferred to avoid oxidation
(rusting) of the
stainless steel. The 0.1 N hydrochloric acid is prepared by adding
3.1 mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid to 1,000 mL (33 fl oz)
of water. The same CAUTION applies: add the concentrated
acid to the water, not the water to the acid.
(d) When sampling for organic volatiles, semivolatiles,
or pesticides/PCBs, rinse with pesticide grade isopropanol
followed by rinsing with distilled or deionized water. When using
isopropanol to decontaminate a sampler, the sampler must be
allowed to completely air dry prior to reassembly.
3-15
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
MATERIALS SUMMARY
PROJECT: GENERAL AAP
Date: Oct-Nov 1987
Brand/Description
(Example Entries)
PVC casing
Material
Source/Supplier
(Example Entries*)
(Example Entries*)
4.0" ID, Schedule 40, flush threaded;
ABC Mfg; Aville, Minnesota
2" ID, Schedule 40, flush
0.05" slot, 4.0" ID; Schedule 40,
ABC Mfg; Aville, Minnesota
flush threaded, 0.02" slot, 2" ID;
Schedule 40, flush threaded
Tru-gel
A. O. Bentonite; Bville,
threaded
PVC screen
Bentonite (drilling
fluid and grout)
Wyoming
Granular bentonite (seal) Gran-Bent
White Mud, Cville, Montana
Bentonite pellets (seal)
(No brand name available)
PELBENT, Dville, Utah
Sand (filter pack)
8-12 silica sand
State Sand, Mville,
Cement (grout)
Portland Type II
A. Lumber Co., Eville, Utah
Drilling water
St. Peter Sandstone
Production Well #1, Tap at
Slick Turn
Oil Products Co., Fville,
Oil #40
Oil Products Co., Fville,
Colorado; supplier:
EFG Co., Eville, Utah
well house
Drilling rod lubricant
Texas
Air compressor oil
Figure 3-3. Example materials summary
3-16
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
(3) Additional acquisition, preservation, and handling
criteria for the chemical analysis of soils are found in EM
200-1-3.
f. Liners. If sample liners are used, the following
should apply:
(1) Use clear liners or take extra samples to ensure
that the sample is of sufficient quantity and quality for the
intended analyses;
(2) Liner seams and ends should be “airtight,” i.e.,
“moisture impermeable”;
(3) Borehole/drilling fluids should not be trapped
within the liner;
(4) Liner or sealant interaction with the sample
should not alter the sample's chemical composition; and
(5) Liners must be free of contamination and be
decontaminated prior to use. Decontamination may not be
necessary if the liners have been packaged by the
manufacturer and has intact packaging up to the time of use.
g. Location. All soil samples, except those for
physical and/or chemical analysis and reference should
remain onsite, neatly stored at an FA-designated location.
The disposition of these samples should be arranged by the
FA. Samples from HTRW sites may have to be stored, and
later disposed of, off site. Depending on the site and its
accessibility to the public, it may be permissible (depending
on state regulations) to stage the drums neatly on pallets
immediately adjacent to the boring/monitoring well location.
If the option exists to dispose of IDW by spreading it on the
ground at the sampling location, it may not be cost-effective
to stage the drums in a central location and then move them
back to the boring/monitoring well location for disposal.
Sample retention and disposal should be given detailed
attention in the SAP.
3-12. Rock Coring
Bedrock should be cored unless the drilling plan specifies
otherwise. Coring, using a diamond- or carbide-studded bit
(ASTM D 2113) , produces a generally intact sample of the
bedrock lithology, structure, and physical condition. The
use of a gear-bit, tricone, etc., to penetrate bedrock should
only be considered for the confirmation of the “top of rock”
(where penetration is limited to a few meters [feet]), the
enlargement of a previously cored hole, or the drilling of
highly fractured intervals. Except as noted below, guidance
for preserving, storing, photographing, marking, cataloging,
and handling of rock core samples may be found in ASTM D 5079.
a. The coring of bedrock or any firm stratigraphic
unit should be conducted in a manner to obtain maximum intact
recovery. The physical character of the bedrock (i.e., fractures,
poor cementation, weathering, or solution cavities) may lessen
recovery, even with the best of drillers and equipment.
b. The minimum core size should be an “N” series, 50
mm (2 [plus]-in.) diameter. Larger bit (hence, core) diameters
may be needed to enhance core recovery.
c. While drilling in bedrock, and especially while
coring, drilling fluid pressures should be adjusted to minimize
drilling fluid losses and hydraulic fracturing. All pumping
pressures should be recorded.
d. Rock cores should be stored in covered core boxes
to preserve their relative position by depth. Intervals of lost core
should be noted in the core sequence. Boxes should be marked
on the cover (both inside and outside) and on the ends to provide
project name, boring number, cored interval, and box number in
cases of multiple boxes. Any core box known or suspected to
contain contaminated core should be appropriately marked on the
log and on the box cover (inside and out), and on both ends. The
weight of each fully loaded box should not exceed 34 kg (75 lb).
No geotechnical or contaminant data should appear on or within
the box that is not specified on the boring log. As a minimum,
the estimated number of boxes required for a given boring
should be on hand prior to coring that site.
e. The core within each completed box should be
photographed after the core surface has been cleaned or peeled,
as appropriate, and wetted. Each photo should be in sharp focus
and contain a legible scale in centimeters (feet and tenths of feet).
The core should be oriented so that the top of the core is at the
top of the photo. Each photo should be annotated on the back
with the project name, bore/well designation, box number, cored
depths pictured, and date photographed. One set of glossy color
prints should be sent to the FA after the last coring. In addition,
all negatives should be delivered to the FA after the FA has
received the prints. (See ER 1110-1-1803 for additional guidance on core management.)
f. All rock core, except that for analysis and reference, should be neatly stored at an FA-designated location. The
disposition of these samples should be arranged by the FDO.
Specific instructions for the storage or required packaging and
method of shipment to the laboratory should be provided in the
drilling plan.
3-17
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
g. Bedrock cores known or suspected of being
contaminated may have to be handled, stored, tested, and/or
disposed of as hazardous waste. Such a consideration and
determination should be made prior to drilling plan
approval. This determination may alter drilling methods,
coring frequency, data quality, costs, etc. Geophysical
downhole logging or borehole camera techniques could be
considered as alternatives in some cases. The drilling plan
should reflect the final decision and possible alternatives that
retain viability.
3-13. Abandonment/Decommissioning
Abandonment (also termed decommissioning) is that
procedure by which any boring or well is permanently
closed. Abandonment/decommissioning procedures should
preclude any current or subsequent fluid media from
entering or migrating within the subsurface environment
along the axis or from the endpoints of any boring or well
penetrating that environment.
d. After 24 hours, the FDO should check the
abandoned site for grout settlement. That day, any settlement
depression should be filled with grout and rechecked 24 hours
later. Additional grout should be added using a tremie pipe
inserted to the top of the firm grout, unless the depth of the
unfilled portion of the hole is less than 4.5 m (15 ft) and this
portion is dry. This process should be repeated until firm grout
remains at ground surface.
e. An abandoned well may be grouted with the well
screen and casing in place. However, local regulations or a lack
of data concerning well construction, condition, or other factors
may require the removal of the well materials and a partial or
total hole redrilling prior to sealing the well site. See ASTM
Standard Guide D 5299 for a discussion of other
decommissioning procedures.
f. For each abandoned boring/well, a record should
be prepared to include the following as applicable.
(1) Project and boring/well designation.
a. Planned abandonment requirements and procedures should be described in the FSP plan and incorporate
USACE guidance and applicable state and/or Federal
regulatory abandonment requirements.
b. The closure of any borings or wells not
scheduled for abandonment per drilling plan should be
approved by the FA prior to any casing removal, sealing, or
back-filling. Abandonment requests should be submitted by
the FDO to the FA with the following data, plus
recommendation:
(2) Location with respect to the replacement boring or
well (if any); e.g., 6 m (20 ft) north and 6 m (20 ft) west of Well
14.
(3)
Open depth of well/annulus/boring prior to
grouting.
(4) Casing or items left in hole by depth, description,
composition, and size.
(5) Copy of the boring log.
(1) Designation of boring/well in question;
(6) Copy of construction diagram for abandoned well.
(2)
Current status (depth, contents of hole,
stratigraphy, water level, etc.);
(7) Reason for abandonment.
(8)
(3) Reason for closure; and
Description and total quantity of grout used
initially.
(4) Action taken, to include any replacement
boring or well.
c. Each
boring
or
well
to
be
abandoned/decommissioned should be sealed by grouting
from the bottom of the boring/well to the ground surface.
This should be done by placing a tremie pipe to the bottom
of the boring/well (i.e., to the maximum depth drilled/bottom
of well screen) and pumping grout through this pipe until
undiluted grout flows from the boring/well at ground
surface. Any open or ungrouted portion of the annular
space(s) between the innermost well casing and borehole (to
include any casings in between) should be grouted in the
same manner.
3-18
(9) Description and daily quantities of grout used to
compensate for settlement.
(10) Dates of grouting.
(11) Disposition of materials removed/displaced from
decommissioned boring/well; e.g., objects, soil, and
groundwater.
(12) Water or mud level (specify) prior to grouting
and date measured.
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
(13) Remaining casing above ground surface:
type (well, drill, protective), height above ground, size, and
composition of each.
(14) Report all depths/heights from ground surface.
(15) The original record should be submitted to
the FA.
g. Replacement well/borings (if any) should be
offset at least 6 m (20 ft) from any abandoned site in a presumed up- or cross-gradient groundwater direction.
3-14. Work Area Restoration and Disposal of
Drilling and Cleaning Residue
All work areas around the wells and/or borings should be
restored to a condition essentially equivalent to that of
preinstallation. This includes the disposal of borehole
cuttings and rut removal. Borehole cuttings, discarded samples, drilling fluids, equipment cleaning residue, and water
removed from a well during installation, development, and
aquifer testing should be disposed of in a manner approved
by the FA, host installation, and consistent with applicable state
and federal regulations. These types of materials are considered
investigation-derived wastes (IDW). (See USEPA EPA/540/G91/009 for USEPA guidance on the management of these
materials.) Whatever procedures are followed, the leaving of
barrels containing drill cuttings, excess samples, and water at
various unsecured locations around the site at the completion of
well installation is not appropriate. All drums/barrels filled onsite
should be permanently labeled (in a waterproof manner and
resistant to fading) and inventoried as to their contents and source.
Restoration and disposal procedures (to include disposal location(s)) should be discussed in the FSP. Depending on the site and
its accessibility to the public, it may be permissible (depending on
state regulations) to stage the drums neatly on pallets immediately
adjacent to the boring/monitoring well location. If the option exists
to dispose of IDW by spreading it on the ground at the sampling
location, it may not be cost-effective to stage the drums in a central
location and then move them back to the boring/monitoring well
location for disposal.
3-19
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
Chapter 4
Borehole Logging
4-1. General
Each boring log should fully describe the subsurface
environment and the procedures used to gain that description.
Guidance on field logging of subsurface explorations of soil
and rock may be found in ASTM Standard Guide D 5434.
4-2. Format
All borings should be recorded in the field on Engineer (ENG)
Form 1836 and 1836-A, per EM 1110-1-1804 (Figure 4-1) or
on ENG Form 5056-R and 5056A-R, developed for HTRW
work (see Figure 4-2). This guidance applies to in-house and
contracted activities. Suggested data for recording are
discussed throughout this manual. Because of the large
quantity of information routinely required on logs at HTRW
sites, a scale of 25 mm (1 in.) on the log equaling 300 mm (1
ft) of boring is usually adequate.
4-3. Submittal
Each original boring log should be submitted directly from the
field to the FA after each boring is completed. In those cases
where a monitoring well or other instrument is to be inserted
into the boring, both the log for that boring and the installation
diagram may be submitted together.
4-4. Original Logs and Diagrams
Only the “original” boring log (and diagram) should be
submitted from the field to the FA. Carbon, typed, or
reproduced copies are not considered “original.” The original
should be of sufficient legibility and contrast to provide
comparable quality in reproduction.
4-5. Time of Recording
Logs should be recorded directly in the field without
transcribing from a field book or other document. This
technique lessens the chance for errors of manual copying and
allows the completed document to be field-reviewed closer to
the time of drilling.
4-6. Routine Entries
In addition to the data desired by the FDO and uniquely
required by the drilling plan, the information should include
those items listed in ASTM Standard Guide D 5434, except
items under section 6.1.4 in D 5434. The other exceptions
would be weather conditions, and certain items concerning
sample handling procedures in sections 6.1.6 and 6.1.7 in D
5434. Sample handling procedures are required to be entered
in the field logbook that is described in EM 200-1-3. The
following information should also be routinely entered on the
boring log.
a. Each boring and well (active and abandoned) should
be uniquely numbered and located on a sketch map as part of
the log.
b. Depths/heights should be recorded in meters (feet) and
decimal fractions thereof (millimeters or tenths of feet).
English units are acceptable if typically used by the site
geologist.
c. Field estimates of soil classifications shall be in
accordance with ASTM Standard Practice D 2488 and shall
be prepared in the field at the time of sampling by the
geologist. Guidance on soil and rock classification may also
be found in EM 1110-1-1906, Spigolon 1993, Murphy 1985
and U.S. Army FM 5-410.
d. Each soil sample taken should be fully described on
the log. The descriptions of intact samples should include the
parameters shown in Table 4-1.
e. In the field, visual numeric estimates should be made
of secondary soil constituents; e.g., “silty sand with 20 percent
fines” or “sandy gravel with 40 percent sand.” If such terms
as “trace,” “some,” “several,” etc., are used, their quantitative
meaning should be defined on each log.
f. When used to supplement other sampling techniques,
disturbed samples (e.g., wash samples, cuttings, and auger
flight samples) should be described in terms of the appropriate
soil/rock parameters to the extent practical. “Classification”
should be minimally described for these samples along with
a description of drill action and water losses/gains for the
corresponding depth. Notations should be made on the log
that these descriptions are based on observations of disturbed
material rather than intact samples.
g. Rock core should be fully described on the boring log.
Typical rock core parameters are shown in Table 4-2.
h. For rock core, a scaled graphic sketch of the core
should be provided on or with the log, denoting by depth,
location, orientation, and nature (natural or coring-induced) of
all core breaks. Also mark the breaks purposely made to fit
the core into the core boxes. If fractures are too numerous to
be individually shown, their location may be drawn as a zone
and described on the log. Also note, by
4-1
EM 1110-1-4000
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Figure 4-1. Boring log format
4-2
(Sheet 1 of 3)
EM 1110-1-4000
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Figure 4-1. (Continued)
(Sheet 2 of 3)
4-3
EM 1110-1-4000
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Figure 4-1. (Concluded)
4-4
(Sheet 3 of 3)
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
Figure 4-2. HTRW Drilling Log
4-5
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Figure 4-2 (Concluded)
4-6
EM 1110-1-4000
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Table 4-1
SOIL PARAMETERS FOR LOGGING
PARAMETER
EXAMPLE
Classification
Sandy clay
Depositional environment and formation, if known
Glacial till, Twin Cities Formation
ASTM D 2488 Group Symbol
CL (field estimate)
Secondary components and estimated percentages
Sand: 25 percent
Fine sand 5 percent
Coarse sand 20 percent
Color (Soil color charts such as Munsell Soil or the Geological
Society of America (GSA) Rock Color Chart are helpful for
describing the color of soil samples. If a color chart is used, give
both narrative and numerical description and note which chart
was used. Suggested standard colors can be found in Spigolon
1993)
Gray: (Gr)
(7.5 YR 5.0 (Munsell))
Plasticity
Low plasticity
Consistency (cohesive soil)
Very soft, soft, medium stiff, very stiff, hard
Density (noncohesive soil)
Loose, medium loose, dense, very dense
Moisture content
Use a relative term.
Avoid a percentage unless a value has been measured.
Dry, moist, wet, saturated
Structure and orientation
No apparent bedding:
numerous vertical, iron-stained, tight fractures
Grain angularity
Rounded
loss;
depth, the intervals of all lost core and hydrologically
significant details. This sketch should be prepared at the time
of core logging, concurrent with drilling.
(6) Drove 1-3/8-in. ID X 2-in. OD sampler to 31.5 ft;
(7) Hole heaved to 20 ft; and
i. A record of the brand name and amount of any bentonite
used for each boring should be made on the log, along with
the reason for and start (by depth) of this use. If measured,
record mud viscosities and weight.
j. The drilling equipment used should be generally
described on each log. Include such information as rod size,
bit type, pump type, rig manufacturer, and model.
k. Each log should record the drilling sequence; e.g.:
(1) Opened hole with 8-in. auger to 9 ft;
(2) Set 8-in. casing to 10 ft;
(3) Cleaned out and advanced hole with 8-in. roller bit to
15 ft (clean water, no water loss);
(8) Mixed 25 lb of ABC bentonite in 100 gal of water for
hole stabilization and advanced with 8-in. roller bit to 45 ft,
etc.
l. All special problems and their resolution should be
recorded on the log; e.g., hole squeezing, recurring problems
at a particular depth, sudden tool drops, excessive grout takes,
drilling fluid losses, unrecovered tools in hole, lost casings,
etc.
m. The dates and times for the start and completion of
borings should be recorded on the log along with notation by
depth for drill crew shifts and individual days.
n. Each sequential boundary between the various soils
and individual lithologies should be noted on the log by depth.
When depths are estimated, the estimated range
(4) Drove 1-3/8-in. ID X 2-in. outside diameter (OD)
sampler to 16.5 ft;
(5) Advanced with 8-in. roller bit to 30 ft, 15-gal water
4-7
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Table 4-2
ROCK CORE PARAMETERS FOR LOGGING
PARAMETER
EXAMPLE
Rock type
Limestone, sandstone, granite
Formation
Anytown Formation
Modifier denoting variety
Shaly, calcareous, siliceous, micaceous
Bedding/banding characteristics
Laminated, thin bedded, massive, cross bedded, foliated
Color (Color charts such as Munsell or the GSA Rock Color
Chart are helpful for describing the color of rock samples. If a
color chart is used give both narrative and numerical
description
and note which chart was used. Suggested
standard colors can be found in Spigolon 1993).
Light brown: (lBr)
Hardness
Soft, very hard
Degree of cementation
Poorly cemented, well cemented
Texture
Dense, fine-, medium-, coarse-grained, glassy, porphyritic,
crystalline
Structure
and orientation
Horizontal bedding, dipping beds at 30 degrees, highly fractured,
open vertical joints, healed fractures, slickensides at 45 degrees,
fissile
Degree of weathering
Unweathered, slightly weathered, highly weathered
Solution or void conditions
Solid, cavernous, vuggy with partial infilling by clay
Primary and secondary permeability,
include estimates and rationale
Low primary; well cemented
High secondary: several open joints
Lost core interval and reason for loss
50-51 ft, noncemented sandstone likely
should be noted along the boundary.
o. The depth of first encountered free water should be
indicated along with the method of determination; e.g., “37.6
ft from direct measurement after drilling to 40.0 ft”; “40.1 ft
from direct measurement in 60-ft hole when boring left
overnight, hole dry at end of previous shift”; or “25.0 ft based
on saturated soil sample while sampling 24-26 ft.” Any other
distinct water level(s) found below the first should also be
described.
p. The interval by depth for each sample taken, classified,
and/or retained should be noted on the log. Record the length
of sampled interval, length of sample recovery, and the
sampler type and size (diameter and length).
q. A record of the blow counts, hammer type and weight,
and length of hammer fall for driven samplers
4-8
should be made. For thin wall samplers, indicate whether the
sampler was pushed or driven and the pressure/blow count per
drive. Blow counts should be recorded in 150 mm (0.5 ft)
foot increments when standard penetration (ASTM D 1586)
samplers ( 35 mm [1-3/8 in.] ID X 50 mm [2 in.] OD) are
used. For penetration less than a half foot, annotate the count
with the distance over which the count was taken. Blow
counts, in addition to their engineering significance, may be
useful for stratigraphic correlation. (See Hsai-Wong Fang
(1991) for interpretation of blow counts when 75-mm (3-in.)
samplers are used).
r. When drilling fluid is used, a quantitative record should
be maintained of fluid losses and/or gains and the interval
over which they occur. Adjustment should be made for fluid
losses due to spillage and intentional wasting (e.g.,
recirculation tank cleaning) to more closely estimate the
amount of fluid lost to the subsurface environment.
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
s. Record the drilling fluid pressures typically used
during all drilling operations (aqueous and pneumatic) and the
driller's comments on drillability, drill speed, down pressure,
rotation speed, etc.
t.
log.
Note the total depth of drilling and sampling on the
u. Record significant color changes in the drilling fluid
return, even when intact soil samples or rock core are being
obtained. Include the color change (from and to), depth at
which change occurred, and a lithologic description of the
cuttings before and after the change.
v. Soil gas readings, if taken, should be recorded on the
log. Each notation should include interval sampled and
reading. A general note on the log should indicate meter
manufacturer, model, serial number, and calibration material.
If several meters are used, key the individual readings to the
specific meter.
w. Special abbreviations used on a log and/or well
diagram should be defined in the log/diagram where used.
4-9
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Chapter 5
Monitoring Well Installation
5-1. General
A monitoring well is a device designed for the acquisition
of groundwater samples that represent the chemical quality
of the aquifer adjacent to the screened interval, unbiased by
the well materials and installation process, and which
provides access to measure the potentiometric surface for
that screened interval. The screened interval consists of
that portion of the device that is directly open (e.g.,
horizontally adjacent) to the host aquifer by way of
openings in the well casing (hereafter called the “screen”)
AND indirectly open (e.g., vertically adjacent) to the
aquifer by way of the filter pack (or other permeable
material) extending below and/or above the screen. While
the maximum length of the screened interval is fixed for a
given well (by the length of the filter pack), the effective or
functional length may vary with water table fluctuations or
sampling techniques. Additional guidance on monitoring
well installation may be found in ASTM D 5092.
5-2. Well Clusters
Each monitoring well is a mechanism through which to
obtain a representative sample of groundwater and, to
measure the potentiometric surface in that well. To help
ensure this representation in the case of well clusters, each
well of a cluster should be installed in a separate boring.
Multiple well placements in a single boring are too difficult
for effective execution and evaluation to warrant single
hole usage.
5-3. Well Screen Usage
Each overburden well should have a screen, as per Figure
5-1, 5-2, or 5-3 (or of a technically equivalent construction
as in ASTM D 5092). Under normal conditions, the extra
effort for screen installation in bedrock wells can be more
than offset by the assurance of an unobstructed opening to
the required depth during repeated usage. When conditions
permit, and when allowed by state or local law, an open,
unscreened well may be constructed in firm stable bedrock.
However, well integrity and consistent access to the
original sampled interval during prolonged monitoring
must be maintained.
5-4. Beginning Well Installation
a. The installation of each monitoring well should
begin within 12 hours of boring completion for holes
uncased or partially cased with temporary drill casing.
Installation should begin within 48 hours in holes fully
cased with temporary drill casing. Once installation has
begun, no breaks in the installation process should be made
until the well has been grouted and drill casing removed.
Anticipated exceptions should be requested in writing by
the FDO to the FA prior to drilling. Data to include in this
request are:
(1) Well(s) in question;
(2) Circumstances; and
(3) Recommendations and alternatives.
b. In cases of unscheduled delay such as personal
injury, equipment breakdowns, or sudden inclement
weather or scheduled delays such as borehole geophysics,
no advance approval of delayed well installation should be
needed. In those cases, resume installation as soon as
practicable. However, partially completed borings should
be properly secured during periods of drilling inactivity to
preclude the entry of foreign materials or unauthorized
personnel to the boring. In cases where a partially cased
hole into bedrock is to be partially developed prior to well
insertion, the well installation should begin within 12 hours
after this initial development.
c. Temporary casing and hollow stem augers may be
withdrawn from the boring prior to well installation if the
potential for cross-contamination is not likely and if the
borehole walls will not slough during the time required for
well installation. This procedure is usually successful in
firm clays and in bedrock that is not intensely fractured or
highly weathered.
d. If the borehole will not remain stable long enough
to complete placement of all necessary well materials in
their proper position, it may be necessary to install some or
all of the well materials prior to removal of the casing or
hollow stem augers. In this situation, the hollow stem
augers or casing should have an inside diameter sufficient
to allow the installation of the prescribed diameter screen
and casing plus annular space for a pipe through which to
place the filter pack and grout.
e. Any materials, especially soils, blocking the
bottom of the drill casing or hollow stem auger should be
dislodged and removed from the casing prior to well
insertion. This action both reduces the potential for cross-contamination and makes well installation easier.
5-l
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CENTRALIZERS (As Necessary)
WELL SCREEN
CAP or PLUG
Figure 5-1. Schematic construction of single-cased well with gravel blanket
5-2
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1 Nov 98
FILTER PACK
(As Necessary)
Figure 5-2. Schematic construction of multi-cased well with concrete pad
5-3
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1 Nov 98
Figure 5-3. Schematic construction diagram of monitoring well
5-4
EM 111 0-1-4000
1 Nov 98
f. Once begun, well installation should not be interrupted due to the end of the driller’s work shift, darkness,
weekend, or holiday.
g. If possible, the FDO should ensure that all
materials and equipment for drilling and installing a given
well are available and onsite prior to drilling that well.
The FDO should have all equipment and materials onsite
prior to drilling and installing any well if the total well
drilling and installation effort is scheduled to take 14 days
or less. For longer schedules, the FDO should ensure that
the above-mentioned materials needed for at least 14 days
of operation are onsite prior to well drilling. The balance
of materials should be in transit prior to well drilling.
Any site-specific factors that preclude the availability of
needed secure storage areas should be identified and
resolved in the drilling plan.
d. Silt or sediment traps (also called cellars, tail pipes,
or sumps) should NOT be used. A silt trap is a blank
length of casing attached to and below the screen. Trap
usage fosters a stagnant, turbid environment which could
influence analytical results for trace concentrations.
e. The top of each well should be level such that the
difference in elevation between the highest and lowest
points on the top of the well casing or riser should be less
than or equal to 6 mm (0.02 ft).
f. The borehole should be of sufficient diameter to
permit at least 50 mm (2 in.) of annular space between the
borehole wall and all sides of the well (centered riser and
screen). When telescoping casings (one casing within
another), the full 50 mm (2-in.) annulus may not be practical or functional. In this case, a smaller spacing may be
acceptable, depending on site specifics.
5-5. Screens, Casings, and Fittings
a. All well screens and well casings should be free of
foreign matter (e.g., adhesive tape, labels, soil, grease, etc.)
and washed with approved water prior to use. Prewashing
may not be necessary if the materials have been packaged
by the manufacturer and have their packaging intact up to
the time of installation. Pipe nomenclature stamped or
stenciled directly on the well screen and/or blank casing
within and below the bentonite seal should be removed by
means of SANDING, unless removable in approved water.
Solvents, except approved water, should NOT be used for
removal of marking. Washed screens and casings should
be stored in plastic sheeting until immediately prior to
insertion into the borehole.
b. Bottoms of well screens should be placed no more
than 1 m (3 ft) above the bottom of the drilled borehole. If
significant overdrilling is required (as for determining
stratigraphy), a pilot boring should be used. The intent here
is to narrow the interval of aquifer being sampled, limit the
potential for stagnant or no-flow areas near the screen, and
preclude unwanted backfill materials (e.g., grout or
bentonite) from entering or passing through the interval to
be screened and sampled. The casing/screen should be
suspended from the surface and should not rest on the
bottom of the borehole during installation of the filter pack
and annular seal.
c. All screen bottoms should be securely fitted with a
threaded cap or plug of the same composition as the screen.
This cap/plug should be within 150 mm (0.5 ft) of the open
portion of the screen. No solvents or glues should be
permitted for attachment.
g. Well screen lengths may be a function of hydrostratigraphy, temporal considerations, environmental setting, analytes of concern, and/or regulatory mandate.
Screen lengths should be specified in the drilling plan.
h. The actual inside diameter of a nominally sized
well is a function of screen construction and the wall
thickness/schedule of both the screen and casing. In the
case of continuously wound screens, their interior supporting rods may reduce the full inside diameter. This consideration is critical when planning the sizes for pumps,
bailers, surge devices, etc.
i. When physical or biological screen clogging is
anticipated, the larger open-area per unit length of continuously wound screens has an advantage over the slotted
variety.
5-6. Granular Filter Pack
a. When artificial filter packs are used, a tremie pipe
for filter pack placement is recommended, especially when
the boring contains drilling fluid or mud. A record should
be maintained of the amount of water used to place the
filter pack, which should be added to the volume of water
to be removed during well development.
b. The filter pack should extend from the bottom of
the boring to 1 to 1.5 m (3 to 5 ft) above the top of the
screen unless otherwise specified in the drilling plan. This
extra filter allows for settlement (from infiltration and
compaction) of the filter pack during development and
repeated sampling events. The additional filter helps to
5-5
EM 1110-l-4000
1 Nov 98
maintain a separation between the bentonite seal and well
screen.
c. Sometimes, depending on the gradation of the
primary filter pack and the potential for grout intrusion into
the primary filter pack, a secondary filter pack may be
installed above the primary filter pack to prevent the
intrusion of the bentonite grout seal into the primary filter
pack. To be effective, the secondary filter should extend 0.3
to 0.6 m (1 to 2 ft) above the primary filter pack.
d. The final depth to the top of the granular filter
should be directly measured (by tape or rod) and recorded.
Final depths should not be estimated, for example, as based
on volumetric measurements of placed filter.
5-7. Bentonite Seals
a. Bentonite seals, especially those set in water,
should typically be composed of commercially available
pellets. Pellet seals should be 1 to 1.5 m (3 to 5 ft) thick as
measured immediately after placement without allowance
for swelling. Granular bentonite may be an alternate if the
seal is set in a dry condition. Tremie pipes are not
recommended.
6. Slurry seals can be used when the seal location is
too far below water to allow for pellet or containerizedbentonite placement or within a narrow well-borehole
annulus. Typically, the specific gravity of cement grout
placed atop the slurry seal will be greater than that of the
slurry. Therefore, the intent to use a slurry seal should be
detailed in the drilling plan, and details should include a
discussion of how the grout will be precluded from
migrating through the slurry. Slurry seals should have a
thick, batter-like (high viscosity) consistency with a
placement thickness of 1 to 1.5 m (3 to 5 ft). Typically,
only high-solids bentonite grouts are used that consist of a
blend of powdered bentonite and fresh water mixed to a
minimum 20 percent solids by weight of pumpable slurry
with a density of 9.4 pounds per gallon or greater.
c. In wells designed to monitor possible contamination
in firm bedrock, the bottom of the bentonite seal should be
located at least 1 m (3 ft) below the top of firm bedrock, as
determined by drilling. “Firm bedrock” refers to that
portion of solid or relatively solid, moderately to
unweathered bedrock where the frequency of loose and
fractured rock is markedly less than in the overlying, highly
weathered bedrock. Special designs will be needed to
monitor contamination in fractured bedrock. Guidance on
design of ground-water monitoring systems in karst and
fractured-rock aquifers may be found in ASTM D 5717.
5-6
d. The final depth to the top of the bentonite seal
should be directly measured (by tape or rod) and recorded.
Final depths should not be estimated, as, for example,
based on volumetric measurements of placed bentonite.
e. Numerous opinions have been expressed regarding
bentonite hydration time, bentonite placement procedures
under water versus in a dry condition, and the potential
installation delays and other consequences caused by these
factors. By not allowing sufficient time for the bentonite
seal to hydrate and form a low permeable seal, grout
material could infiltrate into the bentonite seal and possibly
into the filter pack. It is recommended waiting a minimum
of 3 to 4 hours for hydration of bentonite pellets, or tablets
when cement grout is used above the bentonite seal. If
bentonite chips are used, the minimum hydration time
could be twice as long. Normally chips should only be used
if it is necessary to install a seal in a deep water column.
Because of their high moisture content and slow swelling
tendencies, chips can be dropped through a water column
more readily than a material with a low moisture content,
such as pellets or tablets. Bentonite chips should not be
placed in the vadose zone. A 1 m (3 ft) minimum bentonite
pellet seal must be constructed to protect the screen and
filter pack from downhole grout migration. When installing
a bentonite seal in the vadose zone (the zone above the
water table), water should be added to the bentonite for it to
properly hydrate. The amount of water required is
dependent on the formation. It is recommended that the
bentonite seal be placed in 0.15 to 0.3 m (6 in to 1 ft) lifts,
with each lift hydrated for a period of 30 minutes. This
method will assure that the bentonite seal is well hydrated
and accomplish its intended purpose. A 0.15 to 0.3 m (6 in.
to 1 ft) layer of fine to medium sand (secondary filter pack)
placed atop the bentonite seal may further enhance barrier
resistance to downward grout migration.
5-8. Grouting
All prescribed portions of grout material should be combined in an aboveground rigid container and mechanically
(not manually) blended to produce a thick, lump-free
mixture throughout the mixing vessel. The mixed grout
should be placed around the monitoring well as follows.
a. The grout should be placed from within a rigid side
discharge grout pipe located just over the top of the seal.
The grout or tremie pipe should be decontaminated prior to
use.
b. Prior to exposing any portion of the borehole above
the seal by removal of any drill casing (to include hollowstem augers), the annulus between the drill casing and well
EM 1110-l -4000
1 Nov 98
casing should be filled with sufficient grout to allow for
planned drill casing removal. The grout should not
penetrate the well screen or granular filter pack.
Disturbance of the bentonite seal should be minimal.
(1) If all drill casing is to be removed in one operation,
the grout should be pumped through the grout pipe until
undiluted grout flows from the annulus at ground surface,
forming a continuous grout column from the seal to ground
surface. The drill casing should then be removed, making
certain that borehole exposure to the atmosphere is
minimal. During the removal of hollow stem augers, the
grout pipe may have to be periodically reinserted for
additional grouting to compensate for the larger annular
space created by the augers’ helical coil.
and add more grout to fill any depression that day. Repeat
this process until firm grout remains at ground surface.
This process should be completed within 24 hours of the
initial grout placement. Incremental quantities of grout
added in this manner should be recorded on the well
completion diagram to be submitted to the FA.
h. For grout placement in a dry and open hole less
than 4.5 m (15 ft) deep, the grout may be manually mixed
and poured in from the surface as long as seal integrity is
maintained.
i. No grout should be placed or allowed to migrate
below the bentonite seal and into the well screen.
5-9. Well Protection
(2) If drill casing is to be incrementally removed with
intermittent grout addition, the grout should be pumped
through the grout pipe until it reaches a level that will
permit at least 3 m (10 ft) of grout to remain in the
well/drill casing annulus AFTER removing the selected
length of drill casing. Using this method, at least 6 m (20
ft) of grout should be within the drill casing before
removing 3 m (10 ft) of driven casing or considerably more
than 6 m (20 ft) of grout for the removal of 3 m (10 ft) of
hollow stem auger. With this method, the grout pipe needs
only to be reinserted to the base of the casing yet to be
removed before repeating the grout insertion process.
c. If the ungrouted portion of the hole is less than
4.5 m (15 ft) deep and without fluids after casing removal,
the ungrouted portion may be filled by pouring grout from
the surface without a pipe.
d. If drill casing (to include hollow-stem auger) was
not used, grouting should proceed to surface in one
continuous operation. Care should be taken, however, in
deep wells when using cement grout around PVC casing.
Extreme heat, commonly known as heat of hydration, can
be generated by the cement during hydration and curing.
The heat generated can be sufficient enough to soften or
weaken PVC casing, resulting in collapse of the casing.
Grouting in multiple lifts may be necessary in this situation.
e. Once begun, the grouting process should be continuous until all the drill casing has been removed and all
annular spaces are grouted to the ground surface.
f. Protective casing should be installed on the same
day as grouting begins.
g. The FDO should check the site for grout settlement
a. Protective casing should be installed around each
monitoring well the same day as initial grout placement.
The annulus formed between the outside of the protective
casing and borehole should be filled to the ground surface
with grout. The annulus between the monitoring well and
protective casing should be filled to a minimum of 150 mm
(0.5 ft) above the ground surface with cement or bentonite
as part of the overall grouting procedure. Specific details
of well protection should be approved by the FA. These
details and specific elements to be included in the well
construction diagrams should be described in the drilling
and well installation plan.
b. All protective casing should be steam or hot-waterpressure cleaned prior to placement; free of extraneous
openings; and devoid of any asphaltic, bituminous,
encrusting, and/or coating materials, except the black paint
or primer applied by the manufacturer.
c. Recommended minimum elements of protection
design include the following list.
(1) A 1.5 m (5-ft) minimum length new, black
iron/steel pipe (protective casing) extending about 0.75 m
(2.5 ft) above ground surface and set in grout (see Figures
5-1, 5-2, and 5-4). The bottom of the protective casing
should extend below the frost line to preclude damage from
frost heave.
(2) A protective casing inside diameter at least
100 mm (4 in.) greater than the nominal diameter of the
well riser.
(3) A hinged cover or loose-fitting telescopic slipjoint cap to keep direct precipitation and cap runoff out of
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EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
the casing. Threaded covers should be avoided because of
the tendency to rust or freeze shut.
(4) All protective casing covers/caps secured to the
casing by means of a noncorrosive padlock from the date of
protective casing installation. All manhole covers should
also be lockable.
(5) If practical, have all padlocks at a given site opened
by the same key. The FDO should provide four of these
keys to an FA-designated representative at the project.
(6) No more than 60 mm (0.2 ft) from the top of the
protective casing to the top of the well casing. This, or a
smaller spacing, is needed for subsequent water-level
determinations by some acoustical equipment which must
rest upon the well casing in order to function.
(7) All painting of the protective casing must be done
offsite, prior to installation. Only the outside of the casing
should be painted. Each well should be identified by a
number placed on the outside of the well casing. Various
methods of identification have been successfully used such
as painting the number on the protective casing with the
help of a painting stencil, attaching a metal imprinted
noncorrosive metal tag, or imprinting the number directly
on the steel protective casing. The color of the casing, the
well number and method of application should be specified
by the design FA in the drilling and well installation plan,
and should be in accordance with the requirements
prescribed by the owner and state and local technical
regulations. Painting should be completed and dry prior to
initially sampling the well.
(8) The erection of protective posts should be
considered when physical damage resulting from
construction equipment or vehicles is likely. When
necessary, steel posts should be erected with a minimum
diameter of 80 mm (3 in.). Each post should be radially
located a minimum of 1 m (3 ft) from the well and placed
0.6 to 1 m (2 to 3 ft) below ground surface, having 1 m (3
ft) minimally above ground surface. Posts are typically
filled with concrete and set in post holes which are
backfilled with concrete. The post should be painted orange
using a brush. Installation should be completed prior to
sampling the well. Flags or barrier markers in areas of high
vegetation may be helpful.
(9) When posts are used in conjunction with concrete
pads, the posts should be located OUTSIDE of the pad.
Posts inside of a pad (especially near a comer or edge) may
cause the pad to crack, either by normal stress relief or if
severely struck as by a vehicle.
5-8
(10) The above-mentioned posts should be supplemented with three-strand barbed wire in livestock grazing
areas. Post and wire installation should be installed prior to
sampling.
(11) Place a 6 mm (l/4 in.) diameter hole (drainage
port) in the protective casing centered, no more than 3 mm
(l/8 in.) above the grout filled annulus between the
monitoring well riser and the protective casing.
(12) The application of at least a 150 mm (0.5 ft) thick
coarse gravel 19- to 75-mm (3/4- to 3-in.) particle size pad
extending 1 m (3 ft) radially from the protective casing (see
Figure 5-4 for layout and dimensions). Prior to placement
of this gravel pad, any depression around the well should
be backfilled to slightly above the level of the surrounding
ground surface with uncontaminated cohesive soil. This
will prevent a “bathtub” effect of water collecting in the
gravel pad around the well casing. Construction of the
gravel pad is suggested prior to development. Some longterm, heavy traffic, or high visibility locations may warrant
a concrete pad specially designed for site conditions. Any
concrete pad usage, especially in cold climates, should be
designed to withstand frost heaving. Frost uplift may
adversely affect well and pad integrity. A concrete pad
should be at least 100 mm (4 in.) thick and 1 m (3 ft.)
square. Round concrete pads are also acceptable.
(13) All elements of well protection should be detailed
in the drilling plan. In addition, unique well protection
requirements for floodplains, frost heaving, heavy traffic
areas, parking lots, as well as wells finished at or below
grade, and other special circumstances should also be
covered on a case-by-case basis, in the drilling plan. As an
example, a suggested well design to minimize the effects of
frost heaving is shown in Figure 5-6. An example of a
flush-to-ground completion is shown in Figure 5-5.
Additional guidance on monitoring well protection may be
found in ASTM Standard Practice D 5787.
5-10. Shallow Wells
Shallow, less than 4.5 m (15 ft), well construction may be
more problematic than deep. Sufficient depth may not be
available to utilize the full lengths of typical well
components when the aquifer to be monitored is near the
surface. The FA should tailor design criteria to the actual
environment and project objectives for appropriate shallow
well construction.
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POST PLACEMENT AROUND WELLS
COARSE GRAVEL BLANKET LAYOUT
PLAN VIEW
PLAN VIEW
COARSE G
GROUND SURFACE
PROFILE VIEW
PROFILE VIEW
Figure 5-4. Post placement and gravel blanket layout around wells. (Adapted from a figure provided
by International Technology Corporation)
5-9
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Clearance
as needed
for Cap and
Accessories
Frost
Depth
Figure 5-5.
Schalla)
5-10
Schematic construction of flush-to-ground completion. (Figure provided by Ronald
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1 Nov 98
5-13. Well Construction Diagrams
Well Casing
a. Each installed well should be depicted in a
well diagram. An example of a well diagram is shown
in Figure 5-3. This diagram should be attached to the
original bore log for that installation and graphically
denote, by depth from ground surface.
(1) The bottom of the boring (that part of the
boring most deeply penetrated by drilling and/or
sampling) and boring diameter(s).
(2) Screen location.
(3) Joint locations.
(4) Granular filter pack.
Well design parameters to
Figure 5-6.
minimize frost heave
(5) Seal.
(6) Grout.
5-11. Drilling Fluid Removal
(7) Cave-in.
When a borehole, made with or without the use of
drilling fluid, contains an excessively thick, particulateladen fluid that would preclude or hinder the specified
well installation, the borehole fluid should be removed
or displaced with approved water. This removal is
intended to remove or dilute the thick fluid and thus
facilitate the proper placement of casing, screen,
granular filter, and seal. Fluid losses in this operation
should be recorded on the well diagram or boring log
and later on the well development record. Any fluid
removal prior to well placement should be contingent
upon the driller’s and the geologist’s evaluation of hole
stability, e.g., long enough for the desired well and seal
placement.
(8) Centralizers,
(9) Height of riser (stickup) without cap/plug
above ground surface.
(10) Protective casing detail.
(a) Height of protective casing without cap/cover,
above ground surface.
(b) Bottom of protective casing below ground
surface.
(c) Drainage port location and size.
(d) Gravel pad height and extent.
5-12. Drilling Fluid Losses in Bedrock
(e) Protective post configuration.
If large drilling fluid losses occur in bedrock and if the
hole is cased to bedrock, the FDO should remove at
least three times this volumetric loss prior to well
insertion. The intent is to allow the placement of a
larger pump in the borehole than otherwise possible in
the well casing, thereby reducing subsequent
development time and removing the lost water closer to
the time of loss. Development of the completed well
could then be reduced by a volume equal to that which
was removed through the above procedure.
(11) Water level (ASTM D 4750) 24 hours after
completion with date and time of measurement.
(12) Estimated maximum depth of frost
penetration.
b. Describe the following on the diagram.
(1) The actual quantity and composition of the
5-11
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grout, bentonite seals, and granular filter pack used for
each well.
(10) The dates and times for the start and completion of well installation.
(2) The screen slot size in millimeters (inches), slot
configuration, total open area per meter (foot) of
screen, outside diameter, nominal inside diameter,
schedule/thickness, composition, and manufacturer.
c. Each diagram should be attached to the
original boring log and submitted from the field to the
FA.
(3) The material between the bottom of the boring
and the bottom of the screen.
(4) The outside diameter, nominal inside diameter,
schedule/thickness, composition, and manufacturer of
the well casing.
(5) The joint design and composition.
(6) The centralizer design and composition.
(7) The depth and description of any permanent
pump or sampling device. For pumps include the
voltage, phase requirements, and electrical plug
configuration.
(8) The protective casing composition and nominal
inside diameter.
(9) Special problems and their resolutions; e.g.,
grout in wells, lost casing and/or screens, bridging,
casing repairs or adjustments, etc.
5-12
d. Only the original well diagram and boring log
should be submitted to the FA. Carbon, typed, or
reproduced copies should be retained by the FDO. A
legible copy of the well diagram may be used as a base
for the supplemental protection diagram.
e. Special abbreviations used on the well
completion diagram should be defined on the diagram.
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Chapter 6
Well Development
6-1. General
Well development is the procedure that locally improves or
restores the aquifer's hydraulic conductivity and removes
well drilling fluids, muds, cuttings, mobile particulates, and
entrapped gases from within and adjacent to a newly
installed well. The resulting inflow should be physically and
chemically representative of that portion of the aquifer
adjacent to the screened interval. The appropriate
development method/procedure to use will vary according to
the hydrologic characteristics of the aquifer, the geologic
composition of the screened interval, the drilling method,
and the type of well completion. Of the various methods
available for use in developing wells in general, mechanical
surging, pumping, backwashing, and bailing are best
suited. Additional guidance on the development of groundwater monitoring wells may be found in ASTM Standard
Guide D 5521.
6-2. Timing and Record Submittal
The final development of monitoring wells should be
initiated no sooner than 48 hours after or more than 7 days
beyond the final grouting of the well. Predevelopment, or
preliminary development may be initiated before this
minimum 48 hour period. Preliminary development takes
place after the screen, casing and filter pack have been
installed, but before the annular seal is installed. Preliminary
development is done in order to remove any mud cake that
may be on the side of the borehole in a timely manner.
Predevelopment is also recommended if the well is installed
with the intent of using the natural formation material as the
filter pack. Because this type of well design is based on the
assumption that well development will remove a significant
fraction of the formation materials adjacent to the well
screen (therefore causing some sloughing in the borehole),
developing the well after installing the annular seal may
result in portions of the annular seal collapsing into the
vicinity of the well screen. It is not good practice to wait and
develop all the monitoring wells on a project after the last
one is complete. The record of well development should be
submitted to the FA.
6-3. Development Methods
A thorough discussion of monitoring well development
methods can be found in ASTM Standard Guide D 5521.
a. Mechanical Surging. Operation of a piston-like device
termed a surge block affixed to the end of a length of drill
rod, or drill stem, is a very effective development method
that can be effective in all diameter of wells, even in
stratified formations having variable permeability. The upand-down plunging action alternately forces water to flow
into and out of the well, similar to a piston in a cylinder. The
use of a surge block can agitate and mobilize particulates
around the well screen. Periods of surging should be
alternated with periods of water extraction from the well so
that sediment, brought into the well, is removed. Surging
should initially be gentle to assure that water can come into
the well and that the surge block is not so tight as to damage
the well pipe or screen. For short well screens (1.6 m (5 ft)
or less) set in a homogeneous formation, the surge block
does not have to be operated within the screen interval.
However, if the screened interval includes materials of high
and low permeabilities, the block may have to be operated
gently within the screen.
b. Pumping. A commonly used development method
consists of pumping a well at a higher rate than water will be
extracted during purging or sampling events. This
overpumping, however, is usually only successful in
relatively non-stratified, clean-sand formations.
By
pumping the well at a higher rate than expected during
sampling, the mobilized particulates may be removed,
thereby providing a cleaner well for sampling.
Overpumping should be supplemented with the use of a
bottom discharge/filling bailer, (for sediment removal).
During development, water should be removed throughout
the entire water column in the well by periodically lowering
and raising the pump intake. A disadvantage of only
pumping the well is that the smaller soil grains of the filter
pack may be bridged in the screen or in the filter pack, as the
direction of flow is only towards the screen. To overcome
this, overpumping is often used in conjunction with
backwashing or surging.
c. Backwashing. Backwashing is the reversal of water
flow in a well, causing soil particles to dislodge that may
have become wedged in or bridged around the screen due to
overpumping of the well. Backwashing when supplemented
with overpumping, facilitates the removal of fine-grained
materials from the formation surrounding the borehole. A
commonly used backwashing procedure called “rawhiding”
consists of starting and stopping the pump intermittently to
allow the rising water in the well pipe to fall back into the
well. This backwashing procedure produces rapid changes
in the pressure head within the well. If rawhiding is to be
used, there cannot be a backflow prevention valve in the
pump or eductor line. Another method of backwashing is to
pump water into the well in sufficient volume to maintain a
6-1
EM 1110-1-4000
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head greater than that in the formation. This method of
backwashing should only be done when the water pumped
into the well is of known and acceptable chemistry. The
impact of added water on in situ water quality should be
evaluated and, this water should be removed by pumping
after
development is complete.
This method of
backwashing, not withstanding the quality of water pumped
into the well, may not be allowed by local, state, or federal
agencies. Do not use this method in cases where the water
pumped into the well is potentially contaminated.
d. Bailing. The use of bailers is an effective way of
manually developing small diameter wells that have a high
static water table or are relatively shallow in depth (<4.5 m
(15 ft)). As the diameter of the bailer is commonly close to
the same diameter as the well screen, the bailer agitates the
water in the well in much the same manner as a surge block,
but to a lesser extent. It is good practice to surge the well
using the bailer for 10 to 20 minutes prior to beginning
bailing. To have its most effective surging action, the bailer
should be operated throughout the screened interval.
Bottom loading bailers can extract sediment that has settled
to the bottom of the well by rapid short upward/down
motions of the bailer at the bottom of the well which stir up
the sediment and take it into the bailer. Pumps may be
replaced by bottom filling bailers where well size or slow
recharge rates restrict pump usage. Bailers should not be left
inside the wells after development is completed. Such
storage promotes accidental bailer release or loss down the
well and inhibits convenient and accurate water-level
measurements.
e. High-velocity hydraulic jetting. Another effective
method available for use in developing some monitoring
wells, is high-velocity hydraulic jetting. This method
employs several horizontal jets of water operated from
inside the well screen so that high-velocity streams of water
exit through the screen and loosen fine-grained material and
drilling mud residue from the formation. The loosened
material moves inside the well screen and can be removed
from the well by concurrent pumping or by bailing. Because
of the size of the equipment required, this method is more
easily applied to wells of 100 mm (4 in.) or greater
diameter. Jetting is particularly successful in developing
highly stratified unconsolidated formations, consolidated
bedrock wells, large-diameter wells, and natural formation
wells. Jetting is generally simple to use, effectively
rearranges and breaks down bridging in the filter pack, and
effectively removes mud cakes around screen.
The
disadvantage of using jetting even in ideal conditions is the
introduction of foreign water and possible contaminants into
the aquifer. Jetting is not effective in cases where slotted
pipe is used for the screen. Jetting is much more effective
6-2
where continuous-wrap v-wire screens, having a greater
open area, are used.
f. Special Concerns.
(1) Where monitoring well installations are made in
formations that have low hydraulic conductivity, none of the
preceeding well development methods may be found to be
completely satisfactory. In this situation clean water can be
circulated down the well casing, out through the well intake
and gravel pack, and up the open borehole prior to
placement of the grout or seal in the annulus. Relatively high
water velocities can be maintained, and the mud cake from
the borehole wall will be broken down effectively and
removed. Flow rates should be controlled to prevent floating
the gravel pack out of the borehole. Because of the
relatively low hydraulic conductivity of geologic materials
outside the well, a negligible amount of water will penetrate
the formation being monitored. However, immediately
following the procedure, the well sealant should be installed
and the well pumped to remove as much of the water used in
the development process as possible (Barcelona et al. 1985).
Adding water to the well for flushing should only be done,
however, when no better options are available. In some fine
grained deposits vigorous development can be detrimental to
the well. If vigorous development is attempted in such wells,
the turbidity of water removed from the well may actually
increase many times over. In some fine-grained formation
materials, no amount of development will measurably
improve formation hydraulic conductivity or the hydraulic
efficiency of the well. Alternative sampling methods, such as
lysimeters (ASTM D 4696), should be considered in low
conductivity formations.
(2) Drilling methods. The drilling process influences not
only development procedures but also the intensity with
which these procedures must be applied. Typical problems
associated with special drilling technologies that must be
anticipated and overcome are: 1) When drilling an air rotary
borehole in rock formations, fine particulate matter typically
builds up on the borehole walls and plugs fissures, pore
spaces, bedding planes and other permeable zones. The
matter must be removed and the openings restored by the
development process; 2) If casing has been driven or if
augers have been used, the interface between the natural
formation and the casing or the auger flights are “smeared”
with fine particulate matter that must subsequently be
removed in the development process; 3) If a mud rotary
technique is used, a mud cake builds up on the borehole wall
that must be removed during the development process; and
4) If there have been any additives, as may be necessary in
mud rotary, cable tool or augering procedures, the
EM 1110-1-4000
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development process must attempt to remove all of the fluids
that have infiltrated into the natural formation (EPA/600/489/034). A comparison of the advantages and disadvantages
of various drilling methods is in Table 3-1.
6-4. Development Criteria
a. Development should proceed
criteria are met:
until the following
(1) Satisfaction of applicable federal, state, and local
regulatory requirements. Some of these requirements may
specify that development continue until the readings for
some indicator parameters like pH,
conductivity,
temperature, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), dissolved
oxygen (DO), or turbidity have stabilized; e.g., vary within a
specified range. Stabilization is commonly considered to
have been achieved after all parameters have stabilized for
three successive readings. Generally three successive
readings should be within ±0.2 for pH, ±3% for
conductivity, ±10 mV for oxidation-reduction potential
(ORP), ±1 degree Celsius for temperature, and ±10% for
turbidity and DO. In general the order of stabilization is pH,
temperature, and conductivity, followed by ORP, DO and
turbidity (Puls and Barcelona 1996).
(2) The well water is clear to the unaided eye and the
turbidity of the water removed is at some specified level.
Some regulators may require that the turbidity, as measured
in nephlometric turbidity units (NTUs), be less than 5 NTUs.
It should be noted that natural turbidity levels in ground
water may exceed 10 NTUs. Turbidity is always the last
indicator parameter to stabilize. There are instances where
minimizing turbidity will result in a sample that is not
representative of the water that is moving through the
formation. If the ground water moving through the
formation is, in fact, turbid, or if there is free product
moving through the formation, then some criteria may cause
a well to be constructed such that the actual contaminant that
the well was installed to monitor will be filtered out of the
water. Therefore, it is imperative that the design,
construction and development of the monitoring well be
consistent with the objective of obtaining a sample that is
representative of conditions in the ground.
(3) The sediment thickness remaining within the well is
less than 1 percent of the screen length or less than 30 mm
(0.1 ft) for screens equal to or less than 3 m (10 ft) long.
casing plus saturated annulus, assuming 30 percent annular
porosity). IN ADDITION to the “three times the standing
water volume” criteria, further volumetric removal should
be considered as follows:
(a) For those wells where the boring was made without
the use of drilling fluid (mud and/or water), but water was
added to the well during well installation, then three times
the amount of any water unrecovered from the well during
installation should be removed (in addition to three times the
standing volume).
(b) For those wells where the boring was made or
enlarged (totally or partially) with the use of drilling fluid
(mud and/or water), remove three times the measured (or
estimated) amount of total fluids lost while drilling, plus
three times that used for well installation (in addition to three
times the standing volume).
(5) If the primary purpose of development is to rectify
damage done during drilling to the borehole wall and the
adjacent formation, the time for development may be based
on the response of the well to pumping (ASTM D 4050). An
improvement in recovery rate of the well indicates that the
localized reduction in hydraulic conductivity has been
effectively rectified by development. A commonly used
method for determining hydraulic conductivity is the
instantaneous change in head, or slug test. The slug test
method involves causing a sudden change in head in the well
and measuring the water level response within the well.
Head change can be induced by suddenly injecting or
removing a known quantity or “slug” of water into the well.
However, instead of injecting a “slug” of water, a solid or
mechanical slug of known volume should be used. The
mechanical slug may be constructed of a section of weighted
pipe, of known volume, capped on both ends. Water level
and elapsed-time data can be recorded with a data logger and
pressure transducer. Both “rising heads” and “falling heads”
are recorded. Guidance on conducting slug tests may be
found in ASTM Standard D 4044.
b. Prior to placement of the seal, if the borehole contains
an excessively thick, particulate-laden fluid which would
hinder proper well installation, this fluid should be diluted
and/or flushed with clean water and purged from the well.
Water should not be added to a well as part of development
once the initial bentonite seal atop the filter pack is placed. It
is essential that any water added to the well is of known and
acceptable chemistry. The impact of added water on in situ
water quality should be evaluated and removed after
development is complete.
(4) A minimum removal of three times the standing
water volume in the well (to include the well screen and
6-3
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c. The use of air to develop a well SHOULD NOT be
allowed. The introduction of air into a well enhances the
occurrence of chemical, physical, and biological changes to
the local aquifer system monitored by the well. Furthermore,
procedures involving compressed air at HTW sites increase
potential exposure/health risks to site personnel from the
volatilization and misting of the aerated water. If air
development is deemed the most appropriate method for a
site, the above factors should be evaluated and mitigation
procedures documented in the drilling plan.
d. If any of the following circumstances occur, the FA
should be contacted for guidance:
(1) Well recharge so slow that the required volume of
water cannot be removed during 48 consecutive hours of
development;
6-6. Development Water Sample
For each well, a 0.5 L (1-pint) sample of the last water to be
removed during development should be placed in a clear
glass jar and labeled with well number and date. No
preservation of these samples is required. Each sample
should be individually agitated and immediately photographed close-up by the FDO with a 35-mm camera and
color print film, using a back-lit setup to show water clarity.
These photos, minimally 125 mm x 175 mm (5 in. x 7 in.),
individually identified with project name, well number, and
photo date, should be provided to the FA after all wells are
developed. The film negatives should be provided to the FA
after the FA has received the prints. The FDO should
dispose of these water samples in the same manner as the
rest of the water removed during development.
6-7. Well Washing
(2) Persistent water discoloration after the required
volumetric development; and
(3) Excessive sediment remaining after the required
volumteric removal.
6-5. Development-Sampling Break
Time should be allowed for equilibration of the well with the
formation after development before sampling of the well is
undertaken. Well development should be completed at least
14 days before well sampling. The intent of this hiatus is to
provide time for the newly installed well and backfill
materials to surficially equilibrate to their new environment
and for that environment to re-stabilize after the disturbance
of drilling. Though a significant volume of water may be
pulled through the well during development, the well and
granular backfill surfaces over which this water passes are
not likely to be at chemical equilibrium with the aquifer.
Intuitively, the hiatus allows time for that equilibrium to be
created, thereby enhancing the probability of the resulting
sample to be more representative of the local aquifer. The
14-day hiatus is a “rule-of-thumb,” unsubstantiated by
rigorous scientific analysis. If a different value is proposed
based upon technical data or overall project considerations,
such a change should be evaluated and, if deemed
appropriate, implemented. Generally, high permeability
formations require less time (e.g., several days) to equilibrate
than low permeability formations (e.g., several weeks). The
FSP should state the amount of time that will be required to
permit the equilibration of the monitoring well following
development and prior to sampling and the justification for
selection of that time interval.
Part of well development should include the washing of the
entire well cap and the interior of the well casing above the
water table using only water from that well. The result of
this operation will be a well casing free of extraneous
materials (grout, bentonite, sand, etc.) inside the well cap
and blank casing, between the top of the well and the water
table. This washing should be conducted before and/or
during development, not after development.
6-8. Well Development Record
The following data should be recorded as part of development and submitted to the FA:
a. Project name, location.
b. Well designation, location.
c. Date(s) and time(s) of well installation.
d. Date(s) and time(s) of well development.
e. Static water level from top of well casing before and
24 hours after development.
f. Quantity of mud/water:
(1) Lost during drilling.
(2) Removed prior to well insertion.
(3) Lost during thick fluid displacement.
6-4
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1 Nov 98
(4) Added during granular filter placement.
6-9. Potential Difficulties
g. Quantity of fluid in well prior to development:
Many difficulties may arise during development and
presample purging. Some are readily apparent but troublesome to resolve; e.g., a well that is easily pumped dry but
slow to recharge or one that will not produce clear,
particulate-free water. Other difficulties are not easily
observed but may bias the analytical results, e.g., pulling-in
distant parts of the aquifer in an effort to achieve a
repetitively consistent field reading or aerating the aquifer
adjacent to the well in a hurried attempt at well development.
In addition, the unanticipated presence of dense (or light)
nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPL) in the screened interval
would affect the chemical homogeneity of that interval and
hydrologic parameters derived from that well.
The
anticipation, evaluation, and tentative solution for these
problems should begin early in the formulation of each
drilling plan.
(1) Standing in well.
(2) Contained in saturated annulus (assume 30 percent
porosity).
h. Field measurement of pH (ASTMs D1293 and
D5464), conductivity (ASTM D1125), oxidation-reduction
(redox) potential (ASTM D1498), dissolved oxygen
(ASTMs D888 and D5462), turbidity (ASTM D1889), and
temperature (EPA Method 170.1) before, twice during, and
after development using an appropriate device and method.
Field methods for these parameters can also be found in
EPA 600/4-79/020, and Standard Methods.
i. Depth from top of well casing to bottom of well.
j. Screen length.
k. Depth from top of well casing to top of sediment
inside well, before and after development (from actual
measurements at time of development).
l. Physical character of removed water, to include
changes during development in clarity, color, particulates,
and any noted odor.
m. Type and size/capacity of pump and/or bailer used.
n. Description of surge technique, if used.
o. Height of well casing above ground surface (from
actual measurement at time of development).
p. Typical pumping rate.
q. Estimated recharge rate.
r. Quantity of fluid/water removed and time for removal
(present both incremental and total values).
6-5
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Chapter 7
Well and Boring Acceptance Criteria
g. Completed wells should be free of extraneous objects
or materials; e.g., tools, pumps, bailers, packers, excessive
sediment thickness, grout, etc. This prohibition should not
apply to intentionally installed equipment per drilling plan.
7-1. Well Criteria
h. For those monitoring wells where the screen depth was
determined by the FDO, the well should have sufficient free
water at the time of the water-level measurement to obtain a
representative groundwater level for that well. These same
wells should have sufficient free water at the time of initial
sampling, which is representative of the desired portion of the
aquifer for the intended chemical analyses.
Wells should be acceptable to the FA. Well acceptance
should be on a case-by-case basis. The following criteria
should be used along with individual circumstances in the
evaluation process.
a. The well and material placement should meet the
construction and placement specifications of the drilling and
well installation plan unless modified by amendments.
b. Wells should not contain portions of drill casing or
augers unless they are specified in the drilling plan as permanent casing.
c. All well casing and screen materials should be free of
any unsecured couplings, ruptures, or other physical breakage/defects before and after installation.
d. The annular material (filter pack, bentonite, and grout)
of the installed well should form a continuous and uniform
structure, free of any detectable fractures, cracks, or voids.
e. Any casing or screen deformation or bending should
be minimal to allow the insertion and retrieval of the pump
and/or bailer optimally designed for that size casing, e.g., a 75
mm (3-in.) pump in a 100 mm (4-in.) schedule 80, PVC
casing is optimal; a 50 mm (2-in.) pump in a 100 mm (4-in.)
casing is not optimal.
i. All boring logs, well diagrams, development records,
topographic survey data, and related photographs and
negatives should have been completed per the drilling plan
and received by the FA.
j. Keys to the padlocks securing the well covers should
be in the possession of the FA and the FA project representative prior to well acceptance.
7-2. Abandoned/Decommissioned Borings and
Wells
Borings not completed as wells should be abandoned/ decommissioned per paragraph 3-14 of this manual.
7-3. Well and Boring Rejection
Wells and borings not meeting drilling plan criteria are subject to rejection by the FA.
f. All joints should be constructed to provide a straight,
nonconstricting, and watertight fit.
7-1
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
Chapter 8
Water Levels
8-1. Measurement Frequency and Coverage
The frequency of water-level measurement is project related.
At a minimum, for those projects involving the installation of
any monitoring wells, at least one complete set of static
water-level measurements should be made over a single,
consecutive 10-to-12-hour period for all project-related wells,
both newly installed and specified existing wells. These measurements should be taken at least 24 hours after development
or sampling. Static levels in borings not converted to wells
should be included if practical and technically appropriate.
This set of measurements should include a notation for the
presence of any streams, lakes, and/or open water bodies
(natural and man-made) within proximity, e.g., about 90 m
(300 ft) of these wells. Elevation measurements of any
surface water bodies should be a consideration within the
drilling and well installation plan.
8-2. Vertical Control
The depth to groundwater should be measured and reported to
the nearest 3 mm (0.01 ft). Measurement should be made
from the highest point on the rim of the well casing or riser
(not protective casing). This same point on the well casing
should be surveyed for vertical control. The surveyed mark on
the top of the casing should be permanently marked with a
notch cut in the casing to ensure that depth to water is always
measured from the same elevation. Surface water levels
should be measured at least to the nearest 30 mm (0.1 ft)
using an adjacent temporary or permanent survey marker as
a datum for current and future reference.
8-3. Reporting and Usage
All water level data should be presented as elevations in tabular form. Where sufficient data points exist, the elevations
should be contoured to denote flow directions, gradients, and
any hydrological interconnections between aquifers and
surface water bodies.
8-4. Methods
Guidance on determining liquid levels in a borehole or monitoring well may be found in ASTM D 4750.
8-1
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
Chapter 9
Topographic Survey
Specifications for Geodetic Control Networks. If the project
is in an area remote from NGVD benchmarks and such
vertical control is not warranted, then elevations measured
from a project datum may suffice, at least on a temporary
basis.
9-1. Licensing
9-4. Field Data
All topographic survey efforts conducted under contract
should be certified by a surveyor with a current surveyor's
license in the project state. Any licensing requirements within
the project state for contract or Corps of Engineers surveyors
should be determined by the FA.
9-2. Horizontal Control
Each boring and/or well installation should be topographically
surveyed to determine its map coordinates referenced to either
a Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid or the State
Plane Coordinate System (SPCS). These surveys should be
connected to the UTM or SPCS by third order, Class II
control surveys in accordance with the Standards and
Specifications for Geodetic Control Networks (Federal
Geodetic Control Committee 1984). If the project is in an
area remote from UTM or SPCS benchmarks and such
horizontal control is not warranted, then locations measured
from an alternate system depicted on project plans may
suffice, at least on a temporary basis. All borings, wells,
temporary and/or permanent markers should have an accuracy
of "300 mm ("1 ft) within the chosen system.
9-3. Vertical Control
Elevations for the natural ground surface (not the top of the
coarse gravel blanket) and a designated point on the rim of the
uncapped well casing (not protective casing) for each
bore/well site should be surveyed to within 3 mm ("0.01 ft)
and referenced to the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of
1929 (NGVD of 1929) or the North American Vertical
Datum, 1988 Adjustment (NAVD 88). These surveys should
be connected by third order leveling to the NGVD of 1929 or
NAVD 1988 in accordance with the Standards and
The topographic survey should be completed as near to the
time of last well completion as possible. Survey field data (as
corrected), to include loop closures and other statistical data
in accordance with the Standards and Specifications
referenced above, should be provided to the FA. Closure
should be within the horizontal and vertical limits given
above. These data should clearly be listed in tabular form
including the coordinates (and system) and elevation (ground
surface and top of well) as appropriate, for all borings, wells,
and reference marks. All permanent and semipermanent
reference marks used for horizontal and vertical control,
benchmarks, caps, plates, chiseled cuts, rail spikes, etc.,
should be described in terms of their name, character, physical
location, and reference value. These field data should become
part of the project records maintained by the FA.
9-5. Geospatial Data Systems
Geospatial data is non-tactical data referenced either directly
or indirectly to a location on the earth. Geospatial data
identifies the geographic location and characteristics of
natural or constructed features and boundries on the earth.
Monitoring wells and the data generated from them meet
these definitions and therefore must be documented according
to the metadata standards cited in ER 1110-1-8156. ER 11101-8156 requires geospatial data to be documented using the
Federal Geographic Data Committee Content Standards for
Digital Geospatial Metadata. Guidance on geospatial data
systems (GDS) may also be found in EM 1110-1-2909 and
ASTM Standard Specification D 5714.
9-1
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
Chapter 10
Borehole Geophysics
10-1. Usage and Reporting
The use of geophysical techniques, if required, should be
specified in the drilling plan. In the absence of this specification, the FDO should consider these techniques for sitespecific applicability to enhance the technical acuity and costeffectiveness of its efforts. Special applications may be useful
in unexploded ordnance detection, disturbed area delineation,
contaminant detection, depth to bedrock determination, buried
drum detection, borehole and well logging, etc. When
approved for use, geophysical techniques should
be discussed in the drilling plan to include the purpose; particular method(s) and equipment; selection rationale; physical and procedural assumptions; limitations (theoretical and
site specific); resolution; accuracy; and quality control.
Safety aspects of geophysical applications should be included
in the safety plan, especially for those areas where induced
electrical currents or seismic waves could detonate unexploded ordnance or other explosive materials.
10-2. Methods
General geophysical methodology is covered in EM 1110-11802. Geophysical techniques applied to HTRW studies are
found in USEPA 625/R-92/007, 600/2-87/078, 600/7-84/064,
and in Benson, Glaccum, and Noel (1982). Additional
guidance on planning and conducting borehole geophysical
logging can be found in ASTM Standard Guide D 5753.
10-1
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
Chapter 11
Vadose Zone Monitoring
11-1. Usage and Reporting
Data acquisition from the vadose (unsaturated) zone should be
addressed on a case-by-case basis. The use of lysimeters in a
silica flour matrix, soil-gas monitors, and analysis of bulk soil
samples are mechanisms which may be employed.
When vadose zone monitoring is proposed,the drilling plan
should include the purpose; particular method(s) and equipment; selection rationale; physical and procedural assumptions; limitations (theoretical and site-specific); quality control; and any analytical variances from the current USACE
protocol.
11-2. Methods
Guidance on vadose zone monitoring may be found in
ASTM Standard Guides D 4696 and D 5126. A general discussion of vadose monitoring can be found in Everett, Wilson,
and Hoylman (1984).
11-1
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
Chapter 12
Data Management System
12-1. Benefits
The use of a computerized system will enhance reporting
procedures by means of intra-report consistency, reduction of
editorial review, broadening of graphical capabilities, and
ease of data retrieval for project review and inter-project
comparisons.
Each FA is encouraged to utilize a
computerized data management system for technical data.
12-3. Geospatial Data Systems
Geospatial data is non-tactical data referenced either directly
or indirectly to a location on the earth. Geospatial data
identifies the geographic location and characteristics of
natural or constructed features and boundries on the earth.
Monitoring wells, and the data generated from them, meet
these definitions and therefore must be documented according
to the metadata standards cited in ER 1110-1-8156. ER 11101-8156 requires geospatial data to be documented using the
Federal Geographic Data Committee Content Standards for
Digital Geospatial Metadata. Guidance on geospatial data
systems (GDS) may also be found in EM 1110-1-2909 and
ASTM D 5714.
12-2. Assistance Sources
Several existing systems are available for utilization by
individual FAs. New systems are also being developed at the
DOD level to combine existing systems and reduce
redundancy in data reporting systems. Guidance on boring
log data management may be found in the USACE
Waterways Experiment Station contract report GL-93-1.
Assistance can be obtained from the HTRW CX, at CENWOHX-G.
12-1
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
Appendix A
References
EM 1110-1-1804
Geotechnical Investigations.
EM 1110-1-1906
Soil Sampling.
A-1. Required Publications
29 CFR 1910.120
Code of Federal Regulations, 29 CFR 1910.120,
Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response.
29 CFR 1926
Code of Federal Regulations, 29 CFR 1926, Safety and
Health Regulations for Construction.
ER 385-1-92
Safety and Occupational Health Document Requirements
for Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste (HTRW)
and Ordnance and Explosive Waste (OEW) Activities.
ER 1110-1-263
Chemical Data Quality Management for Hazardous Waste
Remedial Activities.
ER 1110-1-1803
Care, Storage, Retention, and Ultimate Disposal of
Exploratory and Other Cores.
ER 1110-1-8156
Policies, Guidance, and Requirements For Geospatial Data
and Systems.
ER 1110-2-1807
Use of Air Drilling in Embankments and Their
Foundations.
ER 1165-2-132
Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste (HTRW)
Guidance for Civil Works Projects.
EM 1110-1-2909
Geospatial Data and Systems.
EM 1110-2-1906
Laboratory Soils Testing.
EM 1110-2-3506
Grouting Technology.
FM 5-410
U.S. Army Field Manual, “ Military Soils Engineering.”
FM 5-430
U.S. Army Field Manual, “Planning and Design of Roads,
Airbases, and Heliports in the Theater of Operations.”
FM 5-484
U.S. Army Field Manual, “Multiservice Procedures For
Well-Drilling Operations.”
TM 5-818-2
U.S. Army Technical Manual, “Pavement Design For Seasonal Frost Conditions.”
TM 5-818-3
U.S. Army Technical Manual, “Pavement Evaluation For
Frost Conditions.”
TM 5-852-6
U.S. Army Technical Manual, “Arctic and Subarctic
Construction: Calculation Methods For Determination of
Depth of Freeze and Thaw In Soils.”
EM 200-1-2
Technical Project Planning (TPP) Process.
CEGS 02522
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Guide Specification,
“Ground-Water Monitoring Wells.”
EM 200-1-3
Requirements for the Preparation of Sampling and Analysis Plans.
CWGS 02010
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Guide Specification,
“Subsurface Drilling, Sampling, and Testing.”
EM 385-1-1
Safety and Health Requirements Manual.
GL-93-1
U.S.Army Corps of Engineers, Contract Report GL-93-1
(July 93), User’s Guide for the Boring Log Data Manager,
Version 2.0, Computer Applications in Geotechnical
Engineering (CAGE) Project, Geotechnical Laboratory,
Waterways Experiment Station, 3909 Halls Ferry Road,
EM 1110-1-1802
Geophysical Exploration.
A-1
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199.
Research Center, Ada, OK.
Benson, Glaccum, and Noel 1982
Benson, R.C., Glaccum, R.A., and Noel, M.R. 1982.
“Geophysical Techniques for Sensing Buried Wastes and
Waste Migration,” Environmental Monitoring Systems
Laboratory, U.S. EPA, Las Vegas, NV, EPA/600/7-84/064.
Spigolon 1993
Spigolon, S. Joseph. 1993. “Geotechnical Factors in the
Dredgeability of Sediments: Report 1, Geotechnical
Descriptors For Sediments To Be Dredged,” Contract Report
DRP-93-3, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.
Colangelo 1988
Colangelo, Robert V. 1988. “Inert Annular Space Materials, the Acid Test,” Ground Water Monitoring Review,
Spring 1988.
Standard Methods
“Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and
Wastewater,” American Public Health Assoc. (APHA),
American Water Works Assoc. (AWWA), and the Water
Pollution Control Federation (WPCF), 19th Edition, 1995.
Driscoll 1986
Driscoll, Fletcher G. 1986. “Groundwater and Wells,”
Johnson Filtration Systems Inc., St Paul, MN.
Federal Geodetic Control Committee 1984
“Standards and Specifications for Geodetic Control Networks,” National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Rockville, MD.
Federal Geographic Data Committee 1994
“Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata,”
1994, FGDC Secretariat, USGS, 590 National Center,
12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, Reston, VA, 20192.
Hsai-Wong Fang 1991
Hsai-Wong Fang. 1991. “Foundation Engineering Handbook.”
USEPA, EPA/510/B-97/001
“Expedited Site Assessment Tools For Underground Storage
Tank Sites,” U.S. EPA, Office of Solid Waste, 401 M St.,
SW, Washington, DC 20460.
USEPA, EPA/530/SW-86/055, OSWER Directive
9950.1
“RCRA Ground-Water Monitoring Technical Enforcement
Guidance Document (TEGD),” U.S. EPA, Office of Solid
Waste, 401 M St., SW, Washington, DC 20460.
USEPA, EPA/540/G-88/003, OSWER Directive
9283.1-2
“Guidance on Remedial Actions for Contaminated Ground
Water at Superfund Sites,” U.S.EPA, Office of Emergency
and Remedial Response, 401 M St., SW, Washington, DC
20460.
Murhpy 1985
Murphy, William L. 1985. “Geotechnical Descriptions Of
Rock and Rock Masses,” Technical Report GL-85-3,
U.S.Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment
Station, Vicksburg, MS.
USEPA, EPA/540/G-91/009
“Management of Investigation-Derived Wastes During Site
Inspections,” U.S. EPA, Office of Research and
Development, 401 M St., SW, Washington, DC 20460.
National Sanitation Foundation
National Sanitation Foundation, NSF Standard 14:
“Plastics Piping System Components and Related Materials,” 3475 Plymouth Rd., P.O. Box 130140, Ann Arbor,
MI 48105.
USEPA, EPA/540/S-95/503
“Nonaqueous Phase Liquids Compatibility with Materials
Used in Well Construction, Sampling, and Remediation,”
Ground Water Issue, July 1995, U.S. EPA, Robert S. Kerr
Environmental Laboratory, Ada, OK.
Oliver 1997
Oliver, Bob 1997. “Bentonite Grouts vs. Cement Grouts,”
National Drillers Buyers Guide, May 1997.
USEPA, EPA/600/2-87/078
“Nondestructive Testing Techniques to Detect Contained
Subsurface Hazardous Waste,” U.S. EPA, 401 M St., SW,
Washington, DC 20460.
Puls and Barcelona 1996
Puls, Robert W., and Barcelona, Michael J. 1996. “LowFlow (Minimal Drawdown) Ground-Water Sampling
Procedures,” U.S. EPA, Ground Water Issue, April 1996,
EPA/540/S-95/504, Robert S. Kerr Environmetal
A-2
USEPA, EPA/600/4-79/020
“Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes,”
U.S.EPA, 401 M St., SW, Washington, DC 20460.
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
USEPA, EPA/600/4-89/034
“Handbook of Suggested Practices for the Design and
Installation of Ground-Water Monitoring Wells,” U.S.
EPA, Office of Research and Development, 401 M St.,
SW, Washington, DC 20460.
USEPA, EPA/600/7-84/064
“Geophysical Techniques for Sensing Buried Wastes and
Waste Migration,” U.S. EPA, Environmental Monitoring
Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV 89114.
USEPA, EPA/625/6-87/016
“Handbook: Ground Water,” U.S.EPA, Robert S. Kerr
Environmental Reseach Laboratory, Ada, OK 74820.
USEPA, EPA/625/12-91/002
“Description and Sampling of Contaminated Soils: A
Field Pocket Guide,” U.S. EPA, Center for Environmental
Research Information, 26 W. MLK Dr., Cincinati, OH
45268.
USEPA, EPA/625/R-92/007
“Use of Airborne, Surface, and Borehole Geophysical
Techniques at Contaminated Sites,” U.S. EPA, Office of
Research and Development, Washington, DC 20460.
USEPA, SW-846
“Test
Methods
for
Evaluating
Solid
Waste,
Physical/Chemical Methods,” U.S.EPA, Office of Solid
Waste, 401 M St., SW, Washington, DC 20460.
USGS, WRI Report 96-4233
“Guidelines and Standard Procedures for Studies of GroundWater Quality: Selection and Installation of Wells, and
Supporting Documentation,” U.S. Geological Survey,
Water-Resources Investigations (WRI) Report 96-4233
(1997), Reston, VA.
USGS, TWRI Book 2 Chapter F1
“Application of Drilling, Coring, and Sampling Techniques
To Test Holes and Wells,” U.S. Geological Survey,
Techniques of Water-Resource Investigations (TWRI) of the
USGS, Book 2, Chapter F1 (1989).
ASTM
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, copyright American
Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor
Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, to include the
following within this series:
C 150 Specification for Portland Cement
USEPA, EPA/625/R-93/003a
“Subsurface Characterization and Monitoring Techniques:
A Desk Reference Guide, Volume I: Solids and Ground
Water,” U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development,
Washington, DC 20460.
USEPA, EPA/625/R-94/003
“Alternative Methods for Fluid Delivery and Recovery,”
U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC 20460.
USEPA, EPA/813/B-92/002
“Definitions for the Minimum Set of Data Elements for
Ground Water Quality,” U.S. EPA, Office of Ground
Water and Drinking Water, Washington, DC
USEPA, OSWER Directive 9283.1-06
“Considerations in Ground-Water Remediation at
Superfund Sites and RCRA Facilities--Update,” 1992,
U.S. EPA, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency
Response, Washington, DC 20460.
USEPA, OSWER Directive 9345.3-03FS
“Guide to Management of Investigation-Derived Wastes,”
U.S.EPA, Office of Solid Waste, 401 M St., SW,
Washington, DC 20460.
D 888 Test Method for Dissolved Oxygen in Water
D 1125 Test Method for Electrical Conductivity and
Resistivity of Water
D 1293 Test Method for pH in Water
D 1498 Practice for Oxidation-Reduction Potential of
Water
D 1586 Test Method for Penetration Test and SplitBarrel Sampling of Soils
D 1785 Specification for Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
Plastic Pipe Schedules 40, 80 and 120
D 1889 Test Method for Turbidity in Water
D 2113 Practice for Rock Core Drilling and Sampling
of Rock for Site Investigation
D 2487 Test Method for Classification of Soils for
Engineering Purposes.
D 2488 Practice for Description and Indentification of
Soils (Visual-Manual Procedures).
A-3
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
D 4044 Test Method (Field Procedure) for Instantaneous
Change in Head (Slug Tests) for Determining Hydraulic
Properties of Aquifers
D 4050 Test Method (Field Porcedure) for Withdrawal
and Injection Well Tests for Determining Hydraulic Properties of Aquifer Systems
D 4220 Practice for Preserving and Transporting Soil
Samples
D 4448 Guide for Sampling Groundwater Monitoring
Wells.
D 4696 Guide for Pore-Liquid Sampling from the
Vadose Zone
D 4750 Test Method for Determining Subsurface Liquid
Levels in a Borehole or Monitoring Well (Observation
Well)
D 5079 Practice for Preserving and Transporting Rock
Core Samples
D 5088 Practice for Decontamination of Field Equipment Used at Nonradioactive Waste Sites.
D 5092 Practice for Design and Installation of Ground
Water Monitoring Wells in Aquifers.
D 5126 Guide for Comparison of Field Methods for
Determining Hydraulic Conductivity in the Vadose Zone
D 5299 Guide for the Decommissioning of Ground
Water Wells, Vadose Zone Monitoring Devices,
Boreholes, and Other Devices for Environmental Activities.
D 5434 Guide for Field Logging of Subsurface
Explorations of Soil and Rock.
D 5462 Test Method for On-Line Measurement of Low
Level Dissolved Oxygen in Water
D 5464 Test Methods for pH Measurement of Water of
Low Conductivity
D 5521 Guide for Development of Ground-Water
Monitoring Wells in Granular Aquifers.
D 5608
Practice for the Decontamination of Field
Equipment Used at Low Level Radioactive Waste Sites
D 5714 Specification for Content of Digital Geospatial
Metadata
D 5717 Guide for Design of Ground-Water Monitoring Systems in Karst and Fractured-Rock Aquifers.
D 5737 Guide for Methods for Measuring Well
Discharge
D 5753 Guide for Planning and Conducting Borehole
Geophysical Logging
D 5778 Test Method for Performing Electronic Friction
Cone and Piezocone Penetration Testing of Soils
D 5781 Guide for the Use of Dual Wall Reverse-Circulation Drilling for Geoenvironmental Exploration and the
Installation of Subsurface Water Quality Monitoring Devices
D 5782 Guide for the Use of Direct Air Rotary Drilling
for Geonvironmental Exploration and the Installation of
Subsurface Water Quality Montoring Devices
D 5783 Guide for the Use of Direct Rotary Drilling
With Water-Based Drilling Fluid for Geoenvironmental
Exploration and the Installation of Subsurface Water Quality
Monitoring Devices
D 5784 Guide for the Use of Hollow-Stem Augers for
Geoenvironmental Exploration and the Installation of
Subsurface Water Quality Monitoring Devices
D 5787 Practice for Monitoring Well Protection.
D 5872 Guide for Use of Casing Advancement Drilling
Methods For Geoenvironmental Exploration and Installation
of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices
D 5875 Guide for Use of Cable-Tool Drilling and
Sampling Methods for Geoenvironmental Exploration and
Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices
D 5876 Guide for Use of Direct Rotary Wireline
Casing
Advancement
Drilling
Methods
for
Geoenvironmental
Exploration and Installation of
Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices
D 5978 Guide for Maintenance and Rehabilitation of
Ground Water Monitoring Wells
D 6001 Guide for Direct Push Water Sampling for
A-4
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
Geoenvironmental Investigations
D 6067 Test Method for Using the Electronic Cone
Penetrometer for Environmental Site Characterization
D 6169 Guide for Selection of Soil and Rock Sampling
Devices Used With Drill Rigs for Environmental
Investigations.
D 6282 Guide for Direct Push Soil Sampling for
Environmental Site Characterizations.
D 6286 Guide for Selection of Drilling Methods for
Environmental Site Characterization
F 480 Specifications for Thermoplastic Water Well Casing Pipe and Couplings Made in Standard Dimension
Ratios (SDR), SCH 40 and SCH 80.
Geological Society of America
Geological Society of America, GSA Rock Color Chart,
RCC001, 1969. Geological Society of America, 3300
Penrose Place,Boulder, CO 80301.
Hales 1995
Hales, Lyndell Z. 1995. “Descriptors For Bottom Sediments
To Be Dredged: Summary Report For Work Unit No.
32471,” Techncial Report (T.R.) DRP-95-5, U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station,
Dredging Research Program (DRP).
MacBeth
MacBeth, a Division of Kollmorgen Instruments Corp,
The Munsell Soil Color Chart, MacBeth, 405 Little Britain
Rd., New Windsor, NY 12553.
A-2. Related Publications
Barcelona et al. 1985
Barcelona, Michael J., Gibbs, James P., Helfrich, John A.
And Garske, Edward E. 1985. “Practical Guide For
Ground-Water Sampling,” Illinois State Water Survey,
Champaign, IL, ISWS Contract Report 374, and the U.S.
EPA EPA/600/2-85/104.
Everett, Wilson, and Hoylman 1984
Everett, L.G., Wilson, L.G., and Hoylman, E. W. 1984.
“Vadose Zone Monitoring for Hazardous Waste Sites,”
Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, NJ.
A-5
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
Appendix B
Abbreviations
IDW
Investigation-Derived Waste
CX
HTRW Center of Expertise
AE
Architect-Engineer
DNAPL Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquid
ASTM
American Society for Testing and
Materials
DO
Dissolved oxygen
DTH
Down-the-Hole (Hammer)
MRR
Missouri River Region
N
Normal
CECW-EG Geotechnical and Materials Branch,
Engineering Division, Directorate of
Civil Works, Headquarters, U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers
CEMP-RT Policy and Technology
Branch, Environmental
Division, Directorate of Military
Programs, Headquarters, U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers
NAPL Nonaqueous Phase Liquid
CENWO- Geoenvironmental and Process Engineering
HX-G
Branch, HTRW Center of Expertise,
Omaha District, Missouri River Region
NSF
National Sanitation Foundation
NTU
Nephelometric Turbidity Unit
CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Resource,
Compensation, and Liability Act
OD
Outside Diameter
ORP
Oxidation-Reduction Potential
NAVD North American Vertical Datum
NGVD National Geodetic Vertical Datum
CFR
Code of Federal Regulations
DERP
Defense Environmental Restoration
Program
EM
Engineer Manual
ENG
Engineer
FA
Field Activity
pH
The negative logarithm of the effective
hydrogen ion concentration in gram
equivalents per liter
FDO
Field Drilling Organization
PCB
Polychlorinated Biphenyl
FGDC
Federal Geographic Data Committee
PTFE
Polytetrafluoroethylene
FSP
Field Sampling Plan
PVC
Polyvinyl Chloride
GDQM
Geotechnical Data Quality Management
RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
GSA
Geological Society of America
SAP
HQUSACE Headquarters, United States Army Corps
of Engineers
HTRW
Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste
ID
Inside Diameter
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health
Administration
OSWER Office of Solid Waste and Emergency
Response (EPA)
Sampling and Analysis Plan
SARA Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization
Act
SCAPS Site Characterization and Analysis
B-1
EM 1110-1-4000
1 Nov 98
Penetrometer System
SPCS
State Plane Coordinate System
SSHP
Site Safety and Health Plan
TSCA
Toxic Substance Control Act
TTIA
Technology Transfer Improvements Act
USACE
United States Army Corps of Engineers
USEPA
United States Environmental Protection
Agency
UTM
Universal Transverse Mercator
B-2
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