TLK2501

TLK2501
SLLS427D − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED JULY 2003
D Hot-Plug Protection
D 1.5 to 2.5 Gigabits Per Second (Gbps)
Serializer/Deserializer
D High-Performance 64-Pin VQFP Thermally
D
D
D
D
Enhanced Package (PowerPAD)
2.5-V Power Supply for Low Power
Operation
Programmable Voltage Output Swing on
Serial Output
Interfaces to Backplane, Copper Cables, or
Optical Converters
Rated for Industrial Temperature Range
D On-Chip 8-Bit/10-Bit (8B/10B)
D
D
D
D
D
Encoding/Decoding, Comma Alignment,
and Link Synchronization
On-Chip PLL Provides Clock Synthesis
From Low-Speed Reference
Receiver Differential Input Thresholds
200 mV Minimum
Typical Power: 360 mW
Loss of Signal (LOS) Detection
Ideal for High-Speed Backplane
Interconnect and Point-to-Point Data Link
description
The TLK2501 is a member of the transceiver family of multigigabit transceivers used in ultrahigh-speed
bidirectional point-to-point data transmission systems. The TLK2501 supports an effective serial interface
speed of 1.5 Gbps to 2.5 Gbps, providing up to 2 Gbps of data bandwidth. The TLK2501 is pin-for-pin compatible
with the TLK2500. The TLK2501 is both pin-for-pin compatible with and functionally identical to the TLK1501,
a 0.6 to 1.5 Gbps transceiver, and the TLK3101, a 2.5 to 3.125 Gbps transceiver, providing a wide range of
performance solutions with no required board layout changes.
The primary application of this chip is to provide very high-speed I/O data channels for point-to-point baseband
data transmission over controlled impedance media of approximately 50 Ω. The transmission media can be
printed-circuit board, copper cables, or fiber-optic cable. The maximum rate and distance of data transfer is
dependent upon the attenuation characteristics of the media and the noise coupling to the environment.
This device can also be used to replace parallel data transmission architectures by providing a reduction in the
number of traces, connector terminals, and transmit/receive terminals. Parallel data loaded into the transmitter
is delivered to the receiver over a serial channel, which can be a coaxial copper cable, a controlled impedance
backplane, or an optical link. It is then reconstructed into its original parallel format. It offers significant power
and cost savings over current solutions, as well as scalability for higher data rate in the future.
The TLK2501 performs data conversion parallel-to-serial and serial-to-parallel. The clock extraction functions
as a physical layer interface device. The serial transceiver interface operates at a maximum speed of 2.5 Gbps.
The transmitter latches 16-bit parallel data at a rate based on the supplied reference clock (GTX_CLK). The
16-bit parallel data is internally encoded into 20 bits using an 8-bit/10-bit (8B/10B) encoding format. The
resulting 20-bit word is then transmitted differentially at 20 times the reference clock (GTX_CLK) rate. The
receiver section performs the serial-to-parallel conversion on the input data, synchronizing the resulting 20-bit
wide parallel data to the extracted reference clock (RX_CLK). It then decodes the 20 bit wide data using
8-bit/10-bit decoding format resulting in 16 bits of parallel data at the receive data terminals (RXD0-15). The
outcome is an effective data payload of 1.20 Gbps to 2.0 Gbps (16 bits data x the GTX_CLK frequency).
The TLK2501 is housed in a high performance, thermally enhanced, 64-pin VQFP PowerPAD package. Use
of the PowerPAD package does not require any special considerations except to note that the PowerPAD, which
has an exposed die pad on the bottom of the device, is a metallic thermal and electrical conductor. It is
recommended that the TLK2501 PowerPAD is soldered to the thermal land on the board. All ac performance
specifications in this data sheet are measured with the PowerPAD soldered to the test board.
Please be aware that an important notice concerning availability, standard warranty, and use in critical applications of
Texas Instruments semiconductor products and disclaimers thereto appears at the end of this data sheet.
PowerPAD is a trademark of Texas Instruments.
Copyright  2000 − 2003, Texas Instruments Incorporated
!"# $"%&! '#
'"! ! $#!! $# (# # #) "#
'' *+ '"! $!#, '# #!#&+ !&"'#
#, && $##
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
1
SLLS427D − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED JULY 2003
description (continued)
The TLK2501 provides an internal loopback capability for self-test purposes. Serial data from the serializer is
passed directly to the deserializer, allowing the protocol device a functional self-check of the physical interface.
The TLK2501 is designed to be hot plug capable. An on-chip power-on reset circuit holds the RX_CLK low
during power up. This circuit also holds the parallel side output signal terminals as well as DOUTTXP and
DOUTTXN in a high-impedance state during power up.
The TLK2501 has a loss of signal detection circuit for conditions where the incoming signal no longer has a
sufficient voltage amplitude to keep the clock recovery circuit in lock.
To prevent a data bit error from causing a data packet from being interpreted as a comma and thus causing the
erroneous word alignment by the comma detection circuit, the comma word alignment circuit is turned off after
the link is properly established in TLK2501.
The TLK2501 allows users to implement redundant ports by connecting receive data bus terminals from two
TLK2501 devices together. Asserting the LCKREFN to go to a low state causes the receive data bus terminals,
RXD[0:15], RX_CLK and RX_ER, RX_DV/LOS to go to a high-impedance state. This places the device in a
transmit-only mode since the receiver is not tracking the data.
The TLK2501 uses a 2.5-V supply. The I/O section is 3 V compatible. With the 2.5-V supply the chipset is very
power-efficient, consuming less than 360 mW typically. The TLK2501 is characterized for operation from −40°C
to 85°C.
AVAILABLE OPTIONS
PACKAGE
TA
PowerPAD QUAD FLATPACK
(VQFP)
TLK2501IRCP
−40°C to 85°C
2
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
TLK2501IRCPR
• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
SLLS427D − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED JULY 2003
1
64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49
48
2
47
3
46
4
45
5
44
6
43
7
42
8
41
9
40
10
39
11
38
12
37
13
36
14
35
15
34
33
16
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
VDD
RXD3
RXD4
RXD5
RXD6
GND
RXD7
RX_CLK
RXD8
RXD9
VDD
RXD10
RXD11
RXD12
RXD13
GND
TXD14
GND
TXD15
TX_EN
LOOPEN
TX_ER
V DD
ENABLE
LCKREFN
PRBSEN
TESTEN
GND
RX_ER/PRBS_PASS
RX_DV/LOS
RXD15
RXD14
VDD
TXD3
TXD4
TXD5
GND
TXD6
TXD7
GTX_CLK
VDD
TXD8
TXD9
TXD10
GND
TXD11
TXD12
TXD13
RXD1
RXD2
TXD2
TXD1
TXD0
GNDA
DOUTTXP
DOUTTXN
GNDA
VDDA
RREF
VDDA
DINRXP
DINRXN
GNDA
RXD0
RCP PACKAGE
(TOP VIEW)
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
3
SLLS427D − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED JULY 2003
block diagram
LOOPEN
PRBSEN
PRBSEN
TX_EN
TX_ER
PRBS
Generator
DOUTTXP
10
DOUTTXN
10
Parallel to
Serial
BIAS
10
MUX
8
8B/10B
Encoder
TD(0−15)
16 Bit
Register
8
8B/10B
Encoder
2:1
10
MUX
RREF
Bit
Clock
10
Multiplying
Clock
Synthesizer
GTX_CLK
TESTEN
Controls:
PLL,Bias,Rx,
Tx
ENABLE
Bit
Clock
PRBSEN
Interpolator and
Clock Recovery
2:1
MUX
RX_ER
PRBS_PASS
PRBS
Verification
PRBSEN
RX_CLK
RX_DV/LOS
RD(0−15)
16 Bit
Register
8
8
Comma
Detect
and 8B/10B
Decoding
Comma
Detect
and 8B/10B
Decoding
Recovered
Clock
10
1:2
MUX
10
Serial to
Parallel
2:1 Data
MUX
DINRXP
DINRXN
10
Signal Detect
(LOS)
Figure 1. TLK2501 Block Diagram
4
2:1
MUX
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
SLLS427D − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED JULY 2003
Terminal Functions
TERMINAL
NAME
NO.
TYPE
DESCRIPTION
DINRXN
DINRXP
53
54
I
Serial receive inputs. DINRXP and DINRXN together are the differential serial input interface from a
copper or an optical I/F module.
DOUTTXN
DOUTTXP
59
60
O†
Serial transmit outputs. DOUTTXP and DOUTTXN are differential serial outputs that interface to copper
or an optical I/F module. These terminals transmit NRZ data at a rate of 20 times the GTX_CLK value.
DOUTTXP and DOUTTXN are put in a high-impedance state when LOOPEN is high and are active when
LOOPEN is low. During power-on reset these terminals are high impedance.
ENABLE
24
I
Device enable. When this terminal is held low, the device is placed in power-down mode. Only the signal
detect circuit on the serial receive pair is active. When asserted high while the device is in power-down
mode, the transceiver goes into power-on reset before beginning normal operation.
GND
5, 13,
18, 28,
33, 43
Digital logic ground. Provides a ground for the logic circuits and digital I/O buffers.
GNDA
52, 58,
61
Analog ground. GNDA provides a ground reference for the high-speed analog circuits, RX and TX.
GTX_CLK
8
I‡
Reference clock. GTX_CLK is a continuous external input clock that synchronizes the transmitter interface
signals TX_EN, TX_ER and TXD. The frequency range of GTX_CLK is 75 MHz to 125 MHz. The
transmitter uses the rising edge of this clock to register the 16-bit input data (TXD) for serialization.
LCKREFN
25
I‡
Lock to reference. When LCKREFN is low, the receiver clock is frequency locked to GTX_CLK. This
places the device in a transmit only mode since the receiver is not tracking the data. When LCKREFN is
asserted low, the receive data bus terminals, RXD[0:15], RX_CLK and RX_ER, RX_DV/LOS are in a
high-impedance state.
When LCKREFN is deasserted high, the receiver is locked to the received data stream and must receive
valid codes from the synchronization state machine before the transmitter is enabled.
LOOPEN
21
I§
Loop enable. When LOOPEN is active high, the internal loopback path is activated. The transmitted serial
data is directly routed internally to the inputs of the receiver. This provides a self-test capability in
conjunction with the protocol device. The DOUTTXP and DOUTTXN outputs are held in a high-impedance
state during the loopback test. LOOPEN is held low during standard operational state with external serial
outputs and inputs active.
PRBSEN
26
I
PRBS test enable. When asserted high results of pseudorandom bit stream (PRBS) tests can be
monitored on the RX_ER/PRBS_PASS terminal. A high on PRBS_PASS indicates that valid PRBS is
being received.
RREF
56
I
Reference resistor. The RREF terminal is used to connect to an external reference resistor. The other side
of the resistor is connected to analog VDD. The resistor is used to provide an accurate current reference
to the transmitter circuitry.
RXD0
51
O†
Receive data bus. These outputs carry 16-bit parallel data output from the transceiver to the protocol
device, synchronized to RX_CLK. The data is valid on the rising edge of RX_CLK as shown in Figure 11.
RXD1
50
These terminals are in high-impedance state during power-on reset.
RXD2
49
RXD3
47
RXD4
46
RXD5
45
RXD6
44
RXD7
42
RXD8
40
RXD9
39
RXD10
37
RXD11
36
RXD12
35
RXD13
34
RXD14
32
RXD15
31
† High-impedance during power on reset
‡ Internal pullup
§ Internal pulldown
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
5
SLLS427D − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED JULY 2003
Terminal Functions (Continued)
TERMINAL
NAME
NO.
TYPE
DESCRIPTION
RX_CLK
41
O†
Recovered clock. Output clock that is synchronized to RXD, RX_ER, RX_DV/LOS. RX_CLK is
the recovered serial data rate clock divided by 20. RX_CLK is held low during power-on reset.
RX_ER/
PRBS_PASS
29
O‡
Receive error. When RX_ER and RX_DV/LOS are asserted, indicates that an error was
detected somewhere in the frame presently being output on the receive data bus. When RX_ER
is asserted and RX_DV/LOS is deasserted, indicates that carrier extension data is being
presented (see Table 2). The RX_ER is in high-impedance state during power-on reset.
When PRBSEN= low (deasserted), this terminal is used to indicate receive error (RX_ER).
When PRBSEN = high (asserted), this terminal indicates status of the PRBS test results
(High=pass).
RX_DV/
LOS
30
O‡
Receive data valid. RX_DV/LOS is output by the transceiver to indicate that valid recovered and
decoded data is being output on the receive data bus. RX_DV/LOS is asserted high continuously
from the first recovered word of the frame through the final recovered word and is negated prior
to the first rising edge of RX_CLK that follows the final word (see Table 2). The RX_DV/LOS is
in high-impedance state during power-on reset.
If, during normal operation, the differential signal amplitude on the serial receive terminals is
below 200 mV, RX_DV/LOS is asserted high along with RX_ER and the receive data bus to
indicate a loss of signal condition. If the device is in power-down mode, RX_DV/LOS is the output
of the signal detect circuit and is asserted low when a loss of signal condition is detected.
TESTEN
27
I
I§
Test mode enable. This terminal should be left unconnected or tied low.
TXD0
TXD1
TXD2
TXD3
TXD4
TXD5
TXD6
TXD7
TXD8
TXD9
TXD10
TXD11
TXD12
TXD13
TXD14
TXD15
62
63
64
2
3
4
6
7
10
11
12
14
15
16
17
19
TX_EN
20
I§
Transmit enable. TX_EN in combination with TX_ER indicates the protocol device is presenting
data on the transmit data bus for transmission. TX_EN must be high with the first word of the
preamble and remains asserted while all words to be transmitted are presented on the receive
data bus. TX_EN must be negated prior to the first rising edge of GTX_CLK following the final
word of a frame.
TX_ER
22
I§
Transmit error coding. When TX_ER and TX_EN are high, indicates that the transceiver
generates an error somewhere in the frame presently being transferred. When TX_ER is
asserted and TX_EN is deasserted, indicates the protocol device is presenting carrier extension
data. When TX_ER is deasserted with TX_EN asserted, indicates that normal data is being
presented.
Transmit data bus. These inputs carry the 16-bit parallel data output from a protocol device to
the transceiver for encoding, serialization, and transmission. This 16-bit parallel data is clocked
into the transceiver on the rising edge of GTX_CLK as shown in Figure 10.
VDD
1, 9,
23, 38,
48
Digital logic power. Provides power for all digital circuitry and digital I/O buffers.
VDDA
55, 57
Analog power. VDDA provides a supply reference for the high-speed analog circuits, receiver and
transmitter
† Low during power-on reset.
‡ High-impedance during power-on reset
§ Internal pulldown
6
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
SLLS427D − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED JULY 2003
detailed description
transmit interface
The transmitter portion registers valid incoming 16-bit wide data (TXD[0:15]) on the rising edge of the GTX_CLK.
The data is then 8-bit/10-bit encoded, serialized, and transmitted sequentially over the differential high-speed
I/O channel. The clock multiplier multiplies the reference clock (GTX_CLK) by a factor of 10 times, creating a
bit clock. This internal bit clock is fed to the parallel-to-serial shift register which transmits data on both the rising
and falling edges of the bit clock, providing a serial data rate that is 20 times the reference clock. Data is
transmitted LSB (TXD0) first. The transmitter also inserts commas at the beginning of the transmission for byte
synchronization.
transmit data bus
The transmit bus interface accepts 16-bit single-ended TTL parallel data at the TXD[0:15] terminals. Data is
valid on the rising edge of the GTX_CLK when the TX_EN is asserted high and the TX_ER is deasserted low.
The GTX_CLK is used as the word clock. The data, enable, and clock signals must be properly aligned as shown
in Figure 2. Detailed timing information can be found in the electrical characteristics table.
GTX_CLK
TXDn, TX_EN, TX_ER
tsu
th
Figure 2. Transmit Timing Waveform
transmission latency
The data transmission latency of the TLK2501 is defined as the delay from the initial 16-bit word load to the serial
transmission of bit 0. The transmit latency is fixed once the link is established. However, due to silicon process
variations and implementation variables such as supply voltage and temperature, the exact delay varies slightly.
The minimum transmit latency (Tlatency ) is 34 bit times; the maximum is 38 bit times. Figure 3 illustrates the
timing relationship between the transmit data bus, the GTX_CLK and serial transmit terminals.
Transmitted 20 Bit Word
DOUTTXP,
DOUTTXN
td(Tx latency)
TXD(0−15)
16-Bit Word to Transmit
GTX_CLK
Figure 3. Transmitter Latency
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
7
SLLS427D − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED JULY 2003
detailed description (continued)
8-bit/10-bit encoder
All true serial interfaces require a method of encoding to insure minimum transition density so that the receiving
PLL has a minimal number of transitions to stay locked on. The encoding scheme maintains the signal dc
balance by keeping the number of ones and zeros the same. This provides good transition density for clock
recovery and improves error checking. The TLK2501 uses the 8-bit/10-bit encoding algorithm that is used by
the fibre channel and the gigabit ethernet. This is transparent to the user, as the TLK2501 internally encodes
and decodes the data such that the user reads and writes actual 16-bit data.
The 8-bit/10-bit encoder converts 8-bit wide data to a 10-bit wide encoded data character to improve its
transmission characteristics. Since the TLK2501 is a 16-bit wide interface, the data is split into two 8-bit wide
bytes for encoding. Each byte is fed into a separate encoder. The encoding is dependant upon two additional
input signals, the TX_EN and TX_ER. When the TX_EN is asserted and the TX_ER deasserted, then the data
bits TXD[0:15] are encoded and transmitted normally. When the TX_EN is deasserted, and TX_ER is asserted,
then the encoder generates a carrier extend consisting of two K23.7 (F7F7) codes. If the TX_EN and the TX_ER
are both asserted, then the encoder generates a K30.7 (FEFE) code. Table 1 provides the transmit data control
decoding. Since the data is transmitted in 20-bit serial words, K codes indicating carrier extend and transmit
error propagation are transmitted as two 10-bit K-codes.
Table 1. Transmit Data Controls
TX_EN
TX_ER
0
0
IDLE (< K28.5, D5.6 > or < K28.5, D16.2 >)
ENCODED 20 BIT OUTPUT
0
1
Carrier extend (K23.7, K23.7)
1
0
Normal data character
1
1
Transmit error propagation (K30.7, K30.7)
IDLE insertion
The encoder inserts the IDLE character set when no payload data is available to be sent. IDLE consists of a
K28.5 (BC) code and either a D5.6 (C5) or a D16.2 (50) character. The K28.5 character is defined by IEEE802.3z
as a pattern consisting of 0011111010 ( a negative number beginning disparity) with the 7 MSBs (0011111)
referred to as the comma character. Since data is latched into the TLK2501 16 bits at a time, this in turn is
converted into two 10-bit codes that are transmitted sequentially. This means IDLE consists of a 20 bits wide
code sequence, that is transmitted during a single GTX_CLK cycle.
PRBS generator
The TLK2501 has a built-in 27-1 PRBS (pseudorandom bit stream) function. When the PRBSEN terminal is
forced high, the PRBS test is enabled. A PRBS is generated and fed into the 10-bit parallel-to-serial converter
input register. Data from the normal input source is ignored during the PRBS mode. The PRBS pattern is then
fed through the transmit circuitry as if it were normal data and sent out to the transmitter. The output can be sent
to a BERT (bit error rate tester), the receiver of another TLK2501, or can be looped back to the receive input.
Since the PRBS is not really random but a predetermined sequence of ones and zeroes, the data can be
captured and checked for errors by a BERT.
parallel-to-serial
The parallel-to-serial shift register takes in the 20-bit wide data word multiplexed from the two parallel 8-bit/10-bit
encoders and converts it to a serial stream. The shift register is clocked on both the rising and falling edge of
the internally generated bit clock, which is 10 times the GTX_CLK input frequency. The LSB (TXD0) is
transmitted first.
8
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
SLLS427D − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED JULY 2003
detailed description (continued)
high-speed data output
The high-speed data output driver consists of a current-mode logic (CML) differential pair that can be optimized
for a particular transmission line impedance and length. The line can be directly-coupled or ac-coupled. Refer
to Figure 15 and Figure 16 for termination details.
receive interface
The receiver portion of the TLK2501 accepts 8-bit/10-bit encoded differential serial data. The interpolator and
clock recovery circuit locks to the data stream and extract the bit rate clock. This recovered clock is used to
retime the input data stream. The serial data is then aligned to two separate 10-bit word boundaries, 8-bit/10-bit
decoded, and output on a 16-bit wide parallel bus synchronized to the extracted receive clock.
receive data bus
The receive bus interface drives 16-bit wide single-ended TTL parallel data at the RXD[0:15] terminals. Data
is valid on the rising edge of the RX_CLK when the RX_DV/LOS is asserted high and the RX_ER is deasserted
low. The RX_CLK is used as the recovered word clock. The data, enable, and clock signals are aligned as shown
in Figure 4. Detailed timing information can be found in the switching characteristics table.
RX_CLK
RXDn, RX_DV, RX_ER
tsu
th
Figure 4. Receive Timing Waveform
data reception latency
The serial-to-parallel data receive latency is the time from when the first bit arrives at the receiver until it is output
in the aligned parallel word with RXD0 received as first bit. The receive latency is fixed once the link is
established. However, due to silicon process variations and implementation variables such as supply voltage
and temperature, the exact delay varies slightly. The minimum receive latency (Rlatency) is 76 bit times; the
maximum is 107 bit times. Figure 5 illustrates the timing relationship between the serial receive terminals, the
recovered word clock (RX_CLK), and the receive data bus.
20-Bit Encoded Word
DINTXP,
DINTXN
td(Rx latency)
RXD(0−15)
16-Bit Decoded Word
RX_CLK
Figure 5. Receiver Latency
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
9
SLLS427D − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED JULY 2003
detailed description (continued)
serial-to-parallel
Serial data is received on the DINRXP and DINRXN terminals. The interpolator and clock recovery circuit locks
to the data stream if the clock to be recovered is within 200 PPM of the internally generated bit rate clock. The
recovered clock is used to retime the input data stream. The serial data is then clocked into the serial-to-parallel
shift registers. The 10-bit wide parallel data is then multiplexed and fed into two separate 8-bit/10-bit decoders
where the data is then synchronized to the incoming data stream word boundary by detection of the K28.5
synchronization pattern.
comma detect and 8-bit/10-bit decoding
The TLK2501 has two parallel 8-bit/10-bit decode circuits. Each 8-bit/10-bit decoder converts 10 bit encoded
data (half of the 20 bit received word) back into 8-bits. The comma detect circuit is designed to provide for byte
synchronization to an 8-bit/10-bit transmission code. When parallel data is clocked into a parallel to serial
converter, the byte boundary that was associated with the parallel data is now lost in the serialization of the data.
When the serial data is received and converted to parallel format again, a way is needed to recognize the byte
boundary. Generally this is accomplished through the use of a synchronization pattern. This is generally a
unique pattern of 1s and 0s that either cannot occur as part of valid data or is a pattern that repeats at defined
intervals. 8-bit/10-bit encoding contains a character called the comma (b0011111 or b1100000), which is used
by the comma detect circuit on the TLK2501 to align the received serial data back to its original byte boundary.
The decoder detects the K28.5 comma, generating a synchronization signal aligning the data to their 10-bit
boundaries for decoding. It then converts the data back into 8-bit data, removing the control words. The output
from the two decoders is latched into the 16-bit register synchronized to the recovered parallel data clock
(RX_CLK) and output valid on the rising edge of the RX_CLK.
It is possible for a single bit error in a data pattern to be interpreted as a comma on an erroneous boundary. If
the erroneous comma is taken as the new byte boundary, all subsequent data is improperly decoded until a
properly aligned comma is detected. To prevent a data bit error in a data packet from being interpreted as a
comma, the comma word alignment circuit is turned off after receiving a properly aligned comma after the link
is established. The link is established after three idle patterns or one valid data pattern is properly received. The
comma alignment circuit is re-enabled when the synchronization state machine detects a loss of
synchronization condition (see synchronization and initialization). Loss of synchronization occurs when four or
more invalid words are received in a short period of time.
Two output signals, RX_DV/LOS and RX_ER, are generated along with the decoded 16-bit data output on the
RXD[0:15] terminals. The output status signals are asserted as shown in Table 2. When the TLK2501 decodes
normal data and outputs the data on RXD[0:15], RX_DV/LOS is asserted (logic high) and RX_ER is deasserted
(logic low). When the TLK2501 decodes a K23.7 code (F7F7) indicating carrier extend, RX_DV/LOS is
deasserted and RX_ER is asserted. If the decoded data is not a valid 8-bit/10-bit code, an error is reported by
the assertion of both RX_DV/LOS and RX_ER. If the error was due to an error propagation code, the RXD bits
outputs hex FEFE. If the error was due to an invalid pattern, the data output on RXD is undefined. When the
TLK2501 decodes an IDLE code, both RX_DV/LOS and RX_ER are deasserted and a K28.5 (BC) code followed
by either a D5.6 (C5) or D16.2 (50) code are output on the RXD terminals.
Table 2. Receive Status Signals
RECEIVED 20 BIT DATA
10
RX_DV/LOS
RX_ER
IDLE (< K28.5, D5.6 >, < K28.5, D16.2 >)
0
0
Carrier extend (K23.7, K23.7)
0
1
Normal data character (DX.Y)
1
0
Receive error propagation (K30.7, K30.7)
1
1
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
SLLS427D − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED JULY 2003
detailed description (continued)
loss of signal detection
The TLK2501 has a loss of signal detection circuit for conditions where the incoming signal no longer has a
sufficient voltage level to keep the clock recovery circuit in lock. The signal detection circuit is intended to be
an indication of gross signal error conditions, such as a detached cable or no signal being transmitted, and not
an indication of signal coding health. The TLK2501 reports this condition by asserting, the RX_DV/LOS, RX_ER
and RXD[0:15] all to a high state. As long as the signal is above 200 mV in differential magnitude, the LOS circuit
does not signal an error condition.
power down mode
When the ENABLE pin is deasserted low, the TLK2501 will go into a power down mode. In the power down
mode, the serial transmit pins (DOUTTXP, DOUTTXN), the receive data bus pins (RXD[0:15]), and RX_ER will
go into a high-impedance state. In the power-down mode the RX_DV/LOS pin acts as an output of the signal
detection circuit which remains active. If the signal detection circuit detects a valid differential signal amplitude
of >200 mV on each of the serial receive pins (DINRXP, DINRXN), RX_DV/LOS is driven high. If no signal of
sufficient amplitude is detected, the signal detection circuit will indicate a loss of signal by driving RX_DV/LOS
low. In the power-down condition, the signal detection circuit draws less than 5 mW.
synchronization and initialization
The TLK2501 has a synchronization-state machine which is responsible for handling link initialization and
synchronization. Upon power up or reset, the state machine enters the acquisition (ACQ) state and searches
for IDLE. Upon receiving three consecutive IDLEs or carrier extends, the state machine enters the
synchronization (SYNC) state. If, during the acquisition process, the state machine receives valid data or an
error propagation code, it immediately transitions to the SYNC state. The SYNC state is the state for normal
device transmission and reception. The initialization and synchronization state diagram is provided in Figure 6.
Invalid Code
Word Received
ACQ
(Link Acquisition)
Power-Up/Reset
3 Consecutive Valid IDLEs or Carrier Extends,
or
1 Valid Data or Error Propagation
3 Invalid Code
Words Received
Loss of Link
Link Established
Valid Code
Word Received
CHECK
(Look for Valid Code)
1 Invalid Code
Word Received
Link in Question
SYNC
(Normal Operation)
Link Re-established
4 Consecutive Valid Code Words Received
Figure 6. Initialization and Synchronization State Diagram
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
11
SLLS427D − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED JULY 2003
synchronization and initialization (continued)
If during normal transmission and reception, an invalid code is received, the TLK2501 notifies the attached
system or protocol device as described in comma detect and 8-bit/10-bit decoding. The synchronization state
machine transitions to the CHECK state. The CHECK state determines whether the invalid code received was
caused by a spurious event or a loss of the link. If, in the CHECK state, the decoder sees 4 consecutive valid
codes, the state machine determines the link is good and transitions back to the SYNC state for normal
operation. If, in the CHECK state, the decoder sees 3 invalid codes (not required to be consecutive), the
TLK2501 determines a loss of the link has occurred and transition the synchronization-state machine back to
the link-acquisition state (ACQ).
The state of the transmit data bus, control terminals, and serial outputs during the link acquisition process is
illustrated in Figure 7.
ACQ
SYNC
TX_EN
xx
xx
xx
xx
TX_ER
xx
xx
xx
xx xx
TXD(0−15)
xx
xx
xx
xx xx
xx
xx
xx
xx
xx xx
DOUTTXP,
DOUTTXN
xx
xx
D0−D15
D0−D15
IDLE
Ca. Ext.
Error
Figure 7. Transmit Side Timing Diagram
The state of the receive data bus, status terminals, and serial inputs during the link acquisition process is
illustrated in Figure 8 and Figure 9.
ACQ
DINRXP,
DINRXN
RXD(0−15)
IDLE or Carrier
Extend
SYNC
IDLE or Carrier
Extend
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
IDLE or Carrier
Extend
IDLE or Carrier
Extend
D0−D15
IDLE or Carrier
Extend
RX_ER
RX_DV,
RESET
(Internal Signal)
Figure 8. Receive Side Timing Diagram (Idle or Carrier Extend)
12
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
D0−D15
SLLS427D − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED JULY 2003
synchronization and initialization (continued)
ACQ
DINRXP,
DINRXN
RXD(0−15)
IDLE
SYNC
Valid Data or
Error Prop
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
D0−D15
Valid Data or
Error Prop
D0−D15
D0−D15
D0−D15
RX_ER
ÉÉÉÉ
ÉÉÉÉ
RX_DV
RESET
(Internal Signal)
Figure 9. Receive Side Timing Diagram (Valid Data or Error Propagation)
redundant port operation
The TLK2501 allows users to design a redundant port by connecting receive data bus terminals from two
TLK2501 devices together. Asserting the LCKREFN to a low state causes the receive data bus terminals, the
RXD[0:15], RX_CLK and RX_ER, and RX_DV/LOS to go to a high-impedance state.
PRBS verification
The TLK2501 also has a built-in BERT function in the receiver side that is enabled by the PRBSEN. It can check
for errors and report the errors by forcing the RX_ER/PRBSPASS terminal low.
reference clock input
The reference clock (GTX_CLK) is an external input clock that synchronizes the transmitter interface. The
reference clock is then multiplied in frequency 10 times to produce the internal serialization bit clock. The internal
serialization bit clock is frequency-locked to the reference clock and used to clock out the serial transmit data
on both its rising and falling edges, providing a serial data rate that is 20 times the reference clock.
operating frequency range
The TLK2501 is optimized for operation at a serial data rate of 2.5 Gbps. The TLK2501 may operate at a serial
data rate between 1.5 Gbps to 2.5 Gbps. The GTX_CLK must be within ±100 PPM of the desired parallel data
rate clock.
testability
The TLK2501 has a comprehensive suite of built-in self-tests. The loopback function provides for at-speed
testing of the transmit/receive portions of the circuitry. The enable terminal allows for all circuitry to be disabled
so that a quiescent current test can be performed. The PRBS function allows for a BIST (built-in self-test).
loopback testing
The transceiver can provide a self-test function by enabling (LOOPEN) the internal loopback path. Enabling this
terminal causes serial-transmitted data to be routed internally to the receiver. The parallel data output can be
compared to the parallel input data for functional verification. (The external differential output is held in a
high-impedance state during the loopback testing.)
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
13
SLLS427D − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED JULY 2003
built-in self-test (BIST)
The TLK2501 has a BIST function. By combining PRBS with loopback, an effective self-test of all the circuitry
running at full speed can be realized. The successful completion of the BIST is reported on the
RX_ER/PRBS_PASS terminal.
power-on reset
Upon application of minimum valid power, the TLK2501 generates a power-on reset. During the power-on reset
the RXD, RX_ER, and RX_DV/LOS signal terminals go to a high-impedance state. The RX_CLK is held low.
The length of the power-on reset cycle is dependent upon the REFCLK frequency, but is less than 1 ms.
absolute maximum ratings over operating free-air temperature (unless otherwise noted)†
Supply voltage, VDD (see Note 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . −0.3 to 3 V
Voltage range at TXD, ENABLE, GTX_CLK, TX_EN, TX_ER, LOOPEN, PRBSEN, LCKREFN . . . −0.3 to 4 V
Voltage range at any other terminal except above . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . −0.3 to VDD+0.3 V
Package power dissipation, PD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See Dissipation Rating Table
Storage temperature, Tstg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . −65°C to 150°C
Electrostatic discharge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HBM:3 KV, CDM:1.5 KV
Characterized free-air operating temperature range, TA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . −40°C to 85°C
Lead temperature 1,6 mm (1/16 inch) from case for 10 seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260°C
† Stresses beyond those listed under “absolute maximum ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and
functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated under “recommended operating conditions” is not
implied. Exposure to absolute-maximum-rated conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
NOTE 1: All voltage values, except differential I/O bus voltages, are with respect to network ground.
DISSIPATION RATING TABLE
RCP64§
RCP64¶
5.25 W
DERATING FACTOR‡
ABOVE TA = 25_C
46.58 mW/_C
3.17 W
23.70 mW/_C
1.74 W
RCP64#
2.01 W
13.19 mW/_C
1.11 W
PACKAGE
TA ≤ 2 5_C
POWER RATING
TA = 70_C
POWER RATING
2.89 W
‡ This is the inverse of the traditional junction-to-ambient thermal resistance (RθJA).
§ 2 oz. Trace and copper pad with solder.
¶ 2 oz. Trace and copper pad without solder.
# Standard JEDEC High-K board.
For more information, refer to TI application note PowerPAD Thermally Enhanced Package, TI literature
number SLMA002.
electrical characteristics over recommended operating conditions
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
Supply voltage, VDD
MIN
2.3
NOM
MAX
2.5
2.7
VDD = 2.5 V, Frequency = 1.5 Gbps, PRBS pattern
VDD = 2.5 V, Frequency = 2.5 Gbps, PRBS pattern
105
VDD = 2.5 V, Frequency = 1.5 Gbps, PRBS pattern
VDD = 2.5 V, Frequency = 2.5 Gbps, PRBS pattern
262
Power dissipation, PD
Shutdown current
VDD = 2.7 V, Frequency = 2.5 Gbps, worst case pattern||
Enable = 0, VDDA + VDD terminals = max
PLL startup lock time
VDD,VDDA = 2.3V, EN ↑ to PLL acquire
Supply current, ICC
mW
500
20
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
−40
mW
mA
0.4
1024
Operating free-air temperature, TA
|| Worst case pattern is a pattern that creates a maximum transition density on the serial transceiver.
14
mW
362
0.1
V
mA
145
Data acquisition time
UNIT
ms
bits
85
°C
SLLS427D − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED JULY 2003
reference clock (GTX_CLK) timing requirements over recommended operating conditions (unless
otherwise noted)
MAX
UNIT
Frequency
PARAMETER
Minimum data rate
TEST CONDITIONS
Typ −0.01%
MIN
75
Typ+0.01%
MHz
Frequency
Maximum data rate
Typ −0.01%
125
Typ+0.01%
MHz
50%
60%
%
40
ps
Frequency tolerance
−100
Duty cycle
40%
Jitter
TYP
ppm
Peak-to-peak
TTL input electrical characteristics over recommended operating conditions (unless otherwise
noted), TTL signals: TXDO−TXD15, GTX_CLK, LOOPEN, LCKREFN, PRBSEN
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
NOM
1.7
MAX
UNIT
VIH
VIL
High-level input voltage
See Figure 10
3.6
V
Low-level input voltage
See Figure 10
IIH
IIL
Input high current
Input low current
VDD = MAX, VIN = 2 V
VDD = MAX, VIN = 0.4 V
CI
tr
Input capacitance
0.8 V to 2 V
Rise time, GTX_CLK, TX_EN, TX_ER, TXD
0.8 V to 2 V, C = 5 pF,
See Figure 10
1
ns
tf
Fall time, GTX_CLK, TX_EN, TX_ER, TXD
2 V to 0.8 V, C = 5 pF,
See Figure 10
1
ns
tsu
TXD, TX_EN, TX_ER setup to ↑ GTX_CLK
See Figure 10
1.5
ns
th
TXD, TX_EN, TX_ER hold to ↑ GTX_CLK
See Figure 10
0.4
ns
0.80
V
40
µA
µA
−40
4
pF
3.6 V
2.0 V
GTX_CLK
0.8 V
0V
tr
tf
3.6 V
2.0 V
TX_ER, TX_EN,
TXD(0−15)
0.8 V
0V
tr
tsu
tf
th
Figure 10. TTL Data Input Valid Levels for AC Measurements
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
15
SLLS427D − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED JULY 2003
TTL output switching characteristics over recommended operating conditions (unless otherwise
noted)
PARAMETER
VOH
VOL
TEST CONDITIONS
High-level output voltage
MIN
NOM
2.10
2.3
GND
0.25
MAX
UNIT
IOH = −1 mA,
IOL = 1 mA,
VDD = MIN
VDD = MIN
tr(slew)
Slew rate (rising), magnitude of
RX_CLK, RX_ER, RX_DV/LOS, RXD
0.8 V to 2 V,
C = 5 pF, See Figure 11
0.5
V/ns
tf(slew)
Slew rate (falling), magnitude of
RX_CLK, RX_ER, RX_DV/LOS, RXD
0.8 V to 2 V,
C = 5 pF, See Figure 11
0.5
V/ns
tsu
RXD, RX_DV/LOS, RX_ER
setup to ↑ RX_CLK
50% voltage swing,
See Figure 11
RXD, RX_DV/LOS, RX_ER
hold to ↑ RX_CLK
50% voltage swing,
See Figure 11
Low-level output voltage
GTX_CLK = 125 MHz
3
GTX_CLK = 100 MHz
4
GTX_CLK = 75 MHz
GTX_CLK = 125 MHz
th
GTX_CLK = 100 MHz
GTX_CLK = 75 MHz
V
0.5
V
ns
5.4
3
4
ns
5.4
2.7 V
2.0 V
RX_CLK
0.8 V
0V
tr(slew)
tf(slew)
2.7 V
2.0 V
RX_DV, RX_ER,
RXD(0−15)
0.8 V
0V
tr(slew)
tsu
tf(slew)
th
Figure 11. TTL Data Output Valid Levels for AC Measurements
16
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
SLLS427D − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED JULY 2003
transmitter/receiver characteristics
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
V(ODp)
Vodp = |VTXP−VTXN|,
preemphasis VOD, direct
VOD(pp_P)
Differential, peak-to-peak output voltage
with preemphasis
VOD(pp_d)
Vodd = |VTXP−VTXN|,
deemphasis VOD, direct
Differential, peak-to-peak output voltage
with deemphasis
V(term)
Transmit termination voltage range
VID
Differential receiver input voltage
requirement, VID=|VRXP − V RXN|
V(cmr)
Receiver common mode voltage range,
(VRXP + VRXN)/2
VOD(d)
Ilkg(R)
CI
NOM
MAX
UNIT
840
1050
1260
mV
1680
2100
2520
mVp-p
760
950
1140
mV
1520
1900
2280
mVp-p
Rt = 50 Ω, dc coupled, See Figure 15
Rt = 50 Ω, ac coupled, See Figure 16
VDD
VDD−VID/2
1500
200
Receiver input leakage current
mV
1500
VDD−VID/2
mV
−10
10
µA
2
pF
Differential output jitter at 2.5 Gbps,
random + deterministic, PRBS pattern
0.15
UI†
Differential output jitter at 1.5 Gbps,
random + deterministic, PRBS pattern
0.15
UI†
150
ps
Differential output signal rise, fall time
(20% to 80%)
RL = 50 Ω, CL = 5 pF, See Figure 12
100
Jitter tolerance
Differential input jitter, random +
determinisitc, PRBS pattern at zero
crossing
0.60
td(Tx latency) Tx latency
td(Rx latency) Rx latency
† UI is the time interval of one serialized bit.
mV
mV
Receiver input capacitance
Serial data total jitter (peak-to-peak)
tr, tf
Rt = 50 Ω, RREF = 200 Ω, dc-coupled,
See Figure 12
MIN
UI†
See Figure 3
34
38
bits
See Figure 5
76
107
bits
V(ODp)
V(ODd)
V(term)
VOD(pp_d)
VOD(pp_p)
tf
tr
V(ODd)
Bit
Time
Bit
Time
V(ODp)
Figure 12. Differential and Common-Mode Output Voltage Definitions
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
17
SLLS427D − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED JULY 2003
thermal characteristics
PARAMETER
RθJA
RθJC
Junction-to-free-air
thermal resistance
Junction-to-case thermal
resistance
TEST CONDITION
TYP
21.47
Board-mounted, no air flow, high conductivity TI recommended test
board with thermal land but no solder or grease thermal connection to
thermal land
42.20
Board-mounted, no air flow, JEDEC test board
75.83
Board-mounted, no air flow, high conductivity TI recommended test
board, chip soldered or greased to thermal land
0.38
Board-mounted, no air flow, high conductivity TI recommended test
board with thermal land but no solder or grease thermal connection to
thermal land
0.38
Board-mounted, no air flow, JEDEC test board
18
MIN
Board-mounted, no air flow, high conductivity TI recommended test
board, chip soldered or greased to thermal land
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
7.8
MAX
UNIT
°C/W
°C/W
SLLS427D − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED JULY 2003
APPLICATION INFORMATION
VDDA
Vt
1 nF − 10 nF
1 nF − 10 nF
1 nF − 10 nF
Rt
Recommended use of 0.01 µF
Capacitor per VDD terminal
Rt
0.01 µF
5 Ω at 100 MHz
RXD0
RREF
TXD0
TXD2
TXD1
Vt
810 Ω
RXD1
RXD2
0.01 µF
200 Ω
45
GND
5
44
RXD6
TXD6
6
43
GND
TXD7
7
42
RXD7
GTX_CLK
8
41
RX_CLK
VDD
TXD8
9
40
RXD8
10
39
RXD9
TXD9
11
38
VDD
TXD10
12
37
RXD10
GND
13
36
RXD11
TXD11
14
35
RXD12
TXD12
15
34
RXD13
TXD13
33
16
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
GND
RXD14
RXD15
46
RX_DV/LOS
RX_ER/PRBS_PASS
GND
TESTEN
LCKREFN
TX_ER
V DD
ENABLE
LOOPEN
GND
TXD15
TX_EN
GNDA
4
DINRXP
3
TXD5
DINRXN
TXD4
VDD
RXD3
RXD4
RXD5
RREF
V DDA
47
GNDA
V DDA
2
DOUTTXP
64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49
48
DOUTTXN
1
GNDA
VDD
TXD3
TXD14
0.01 µF 0.01 µF 0.01 µF
Rt
1 nF − 10 nF
PRBSEN
VDD
Rt
Figure 13. External Component Interconnection
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
19
SLLS427D − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED JULY 2003
APPLICATION INFORMATION
recommended values of external resistors (1% tolerance)
PARAMETER
R(t), Termination resistor
R(REF), Reference resistor
TEST CONDITIONS
RECOMMENDED
50 Ω environment
50
75 Ω environment
75
50 Ω environment
200
75 Ω environment
300
UNIT
Ω
Ω
VOLTAGE
vs
RESISTOR REFERENCE
2.0
VODP or VODD − Voltage − V
1.8
VODD at 75 Ω
1.6
VODP at 75 Ω
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
100
VODD at 50 Ω
VODP at 50 Ω
150
200
250
300
RREF − Resistor Reference − Ω
Figure 14. Differential Transmitter Voltage
choosing RREF resistor values
TLK2501 offers the flexibility to customize the voltage swing and transmission line termination by adjusting the
reference resistor, RREF, and termination resistor, Rt. By choosing particular resistor values, the system can
be optimized for a particular transmission line impedance, length, and controlling the output swing for EMI and
attenuation concerns. Refer to Figure 14 to determine the nominal voltage swing and driver current as a function
of resistor values. It is recommended that 1% tolerance resistors be used. Refer to Figure 15 for high-speed
I/O directly coupled mode and Figure 16 for high-speed I/O ac-coupled mode.
20
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
SLLS427D − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED JULY 2003
APPLICATION INFORMATION
V(term)
Rt
TXP
RXP
+
_
Transmission Line
TXN
RXN
Transmission Line
Rt
Data
Data
V(term)
V(term) = VDD
Preemphasis = 21 mA
(See Note A)
De-Emphasis = 19 mA
TRANSMITTER
MEDIA
RECEIVER
NOTE A: This assumes RREF = 200 Ω and termination resistance = 50 Ω. See Figure 14 and section choosing RREF resistor values for more
information.
Figure 15. High-Speed I/O Directly-Coupled Mode
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
21
SLLS427D − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED JULY 2003
APPLICATION INFORMATION
VDD
V(term)
Rt
Rt
RXP
TXP
VDD
Transmission
Line
TXN
Rt
0.01 µF
0.01 µF
+
_
V(term)
RXN
Rt
Transmission
Data
Line
Data
VDD
200 Ω
V(term)
820 Ω
Preemphasis = 21 mA
(See Note A)
De-Emphasis = 19 mA
TRANSMITTER
MEDIA
RECEIVER
NOTE A: This assumes RREF = 200 Ω and termination resistance = 50 Ω. See Figure 14 and section choosing RREF resistor values for more
information.
Figure 16. High-Speed I/O AC-Coupled Mode
22
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
SLLS427D − AUGUST 2000 − REVISED JULY 2003
APPLICATION INFORMATION
designing with PowerPAD
The TLK2501 is housed in a high-performance, thermally enhanced, 64-pin VQFP (RCP64) PowerPAD
package. Use of the PowerPAD package does not require any special considerations except to note that the
PowerPAD, which is an exposed die pad on the bottom of the device, is a metallic thermal and electrical
conductor. Therefore, if not implementing PowerPAD PCB features, the use of solder masks (or other assembly
techniques) may be required to prevent any inadvertent shorting by the exposed PowerPAD to connection
etches or vias under the package. It is strongly recommended that the PowerPAD be soldered to the thermal
land. The recommended convention, however, is to not run any etches or signal vias under the device, but to
have only a grounded thermal land as explained below. Although the actual size of the exposed die pad may
vary, the minimum size required for the keep-out area for the 64-pin PFP PowerPAD package is 8 mm X 8 mm.
It is recommended that there be a thermal land, which is an area of solder-tinned-copper, underneath the
PowerPAD package. The thermal land varies in size depending on the PowerPAD package being used, the PCB
construction, and the amount of heat that needs to be removed. In addition, the thermal land may or may not
contain numerous thermal vias depending on PCB construction.
Other requirements for thermal lands and thermal vias are detailed in the TI application note PowerPAD
Thermally Enhanced Package Application Report, TI literature number SLMA002, available via the TI Web
pages beginning at URL: http://www.ti.com.
Figure 17. Example of a Thermal Land
For the TLK2501, this thermal land should be grounded to the low-impedance ground plane of the device. This
improves not only thermal performance but also the electrical grounding of the device. It is also recommended
that the device ground terminal landing pads be connected directly to the grounded thermal land. The land size
should be as large as possible without shorting device signal terminals. The thermal land may be soldered to
the exposed PowerPAD using standard reflow soldering techniques.
While the thermal land may be electrically floated and configured to remove heat to an external heat sink, it is
recommended that the thermal land be connected to the low impedance ground plane for the device. More
information may be obtained from the TI application note PHY Layout, TI literature number SLLA020.
POST OFFICE BOX 655303
• DALLAS, TEXAS 75265
23
PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
www.ti.com
18-Jul-2006
PACKAGING INFORMATION
Orderable Device
Status (1)
Package
Type
Package
Drawing
Pins Package Eco Plan (2)
Qty
TLK2501IRCP
ACTIVE
HVQFP
RCP
64
160
Green (RoHS &
no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-3-260C-168 HR
TLK2501IRCPG4
ACTIVE
HVQFP
RCP
64
160
Green (RoHS &
no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-3-260C-168 HR
TLK2501IRCPR
ACTIVE
HVQFP
RCP
64
1000 Green (RoHS &
no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-3-260C-168 HR
TLK2501IRCPRG4
ACTIVE
HVQFP
RCP
64
1000 Green (RoHS &
no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-3-260C-168 HR
Lead/Ball Finish
MSL Peak Temp (3)
(1)
The marketing status values are defined as follows:
ACTIVE: Product device recommended for new designs.
LIFEBUY: TI has announced that the device will be discontinued, and a lifetime-buy period is in effect.
NRND: Not recommended for new designs. Device is in production to support existing customers, but TI does not recommend using this part in
a new design.
PREVIEW: Device has been announced but is not in production. Samples may or may not be available.
OBSOLETE: TI has discontinued the production of the device.
(2)
Eco Plan - The planned eco-friendly classification: Pb-Free (RoHS), Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt), or Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) - please check
http://www.ti.com/productcontent for the latest availability information and additional product content details.
TBD: The Pb-Free/Green conversion plan has not been defined.
Pb-Free (RoHS): TI's terms "Lead-Free" or "Pb-Free" mean semiconductor products that are compatible with the current RoHS requirements
for all 6 substances, including the requirement that lead not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous materials. Where designed to be soldered
at high temperatures, TI Pb-Free products are suitable for use in specified lead-free processes.
Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt): This component has a RoHS exemption for either 1) lead-based flip-chip solder bumps used between the die and
package, or 2) lead-based die adhesive used between the die and leadframe. The component is otherwise considered Pb-Free (RoHS
compatible) as defined above.
Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br): TI defines "Green" to mean Pb-Free (RoHS compatible), and free of Bromine (Br) and Antimony (Sb) based flame
retardants (Br or Sb do not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous material)
(3)
MSL, Peak Temp. -- The Moisture Sensitivity Level rating according to the JEDEC industry standard classifications, and peak solder
temperature.
Important Information and Disclaimer:The information provided on this page represents TI's knowledge and belief as of the date that it is
provided. TI bases its knowledge and belief on information provided by third parties, and makes no representation or warranty as to the
accuracy of such information. Efforts are underway to better integrate information from third parties. TI has taken and continues to take
reasonable steps to provide representative and accurate information but may not have conducted destructive testing or chemical analysis on
incoming materials and chemicals. TI and TI suppliers consider certain information to be proprietary, and thus CAS numbers and other limited
information may not be available for release.
In no event shall TI's liability arising out of such information exceed the total purchase price of the TI part(s) at issue in this document sold by TI
to Customer on an annual basis.
Addendum-Page 1
PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION
www.ti.com
19-Mar-2008
TAPE AND REEL INFORMATION
*All dimensions are nominal
Device
TLK2501IRCPR
Package Package Pins
Type Drawing
HVQFP
RCP
64
SPQ
Reel
Reel
Diameter Width
(mm) W1 (mm)
1000
330.0
24.4
Pack Materials-Page 1
A0 (mm)
B0 (mm)
K0 (mm)
P1
(mm)
W
Pin1
(mm) Quadrant
13.0
13.0
1.4
16.0
24.0
Q2
PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION
www.ti.com
19-Mar-2008
*All dimensions are nominal
Device
Package Type
Package Drawing
Pins
SPQ
Length (mm)
Width (mm)
Height (mm)
TLK2501IRCPR
HVQFP
RCP
64
1000
346.0
346.0
41.0
Pack Materials-Page 2
IMPORTANT NOTICE
Texas Instruments Incorporated and its subsidiaries (TI) reserve the right to make corrections, modifications, enhancements, improvements,
and other changes to its products and services at any time and to discontinue any product or service without notice. Customers should
obtain the latest relevant information before placing orders and should verify that such information is current and complete. All products are
sold subject to TI’s terms and conditions of sale supplied at the time of order acknowledgment.
TI warrants performance of its hardware products to the specifications applicable at the time of sale in accordance with TI’s standard
warranty. Testing and other quality control techniques are used to the extent TI deems necessary to support this warranty. Except where
mandated by government requirements, testing of all parameters of each product is not necessarily performed.
TI assumes no liability for applications assistance or customer product design. Customers are responsible for their products and
applications using TI components. To minimize the risks associated with customer products and applications, customers should provide
adequate design and operating safeguards.
TI does not warrant or represent that any license, either express or implied, is granted under any TI patent right, copyright, mask work right,
or other TI intellectual property right relating to any combination, machine, or process in which TI products or services are used. Information
published by TI regarding third-party products or services does not constitute a license from TI to use such products or services or a
warranty or endorsement thereof. Use of such information may require a license from a third party under the patents or other intellectual
property of the third party, or a license from TI under the patents or other intellectual property of TI.
Reproduction of TI information in TI data books or data sheets is permissible only if reproduction is without alteration and is accompanied
by all associated warranties, conditions, limitations, and notices. Reproduction of this information with alteration is an unfair and deceptive
business practice. TI is not responsible or liable for such altered documentation. Information of third parties may be subject to additional
restrictions.
Resale of TI products or services with statements different from or beyond the parameters stated by TI for that product or service voids all
express and any implied warranties for the associated TI product or service and is an unfair and deceptive business practice. TI is not
responsible or liable for any such statements.
TI products are not authorized for use in safety-critical applications (such as life support) where a failure of the TI product would reasonably
be expected to cause severe personal injury or death, unless officers of the parties have executed an agreement specifically governing
such use. Buyers represent that they have all necessary expertise in the safety and regulatory ramifications of their applications, and
acknowledge and agree that they are solely responsible for all legal, regulatory and safety-related requirements concerning their products
and any use of TI products in such safety-critical applications, notwithstanding any applications-related information or support that may be
provided by TI. Further, Buyers must fully indemnify TI and its representatives against any damages arising out of the use of TI products in
such safety-critical applications.
TI products are neither designed nor intended for use in military/aerospace applications or environments unless the TI products are
specifically designated by TI as military-grade or "enhanced plastic." Only products designated by TI as military-grade meet military
specifications. Buyers acknowledge and agree that any such use of TI products which TI has not designated as military-grade is solely at
the Buyer's risk, and that they are solely responsible for compliance with all legal and regulatory requirements in connection with such use.
TI products are neither designed nor intended for use in automotive applications or environments unless the specific TI products are
designated by TI as compliant with ISO/TS 16949 requirements. Buyers acknowledge and agree that, if they use any non-designated
products in automotive applications, TI will not be responsible for any failure to meet such requirements.
Following are URLs where you can obtain information on other Texas Instruments products and application solutions:
Products
Amplifiers
Data Converters
DSP
Clocks and Timers
Interface
Logic
Power Mgmt
Microcontrollers
RFID
RF/IF and ZigBee® Solutions
amplifier.ti.com
dataconverter.ti.com
dsp.ti.com
www.ti.com/clocks
interface.ti.com
logic.ti.com
power.ti.com
microcontroller.ti.com
www.ti-rfid.com
www.ti.com/lprf
Applications
Audio
Automotive
Broadband
Digital Control
Medical
Military
Optical Networking
Security
Telephony
Video & Imaging
Wireless
www.ti.com/audio
www.ti.com/automotive
www.ti.com/broadband
www.ti.com/digitalcontrol
www.ti.com/medical
www.ti.com/military
www.ti.com/opticalnetwork
www.ti.com/security
www.ti.com/telephony
www.ti.com/video
www.ti.com/wireless
Mailing Address: Texas Instruments, Post Office Box 655303, Dallas, Texas 75265
Copyright © 2008, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement