Agilent Technologies | 8590 L-Series | User`s guide | Agilent Technologies 8590 L-Series User`s guide

Errata
Title & Document Type: 8590 E-series and L-series
User's Guide
Manual Part Number: 08590-90301
Revision Date: July 1998
HP References in this Manual
This manual may contain references to HP or Hewlett-Packard. Please note that HewlettPackard's former test and measurement, semiconductor products and chemical analysis
businesses are now part of Agilent Technologies. We have made no changes to this
manual copy. The HP XXXX referred to in this document is now the Agilent XXXX.
For example, model number HP8648A is now model number Agilent 8648A.
About this Manual
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product. This manual provides the best information we could find. It may be incomplete
or contain dated information, and the scan quality may not be ideal. If we find a better
copy in the future, we will add it to the Agilent website.
Support for Your Product
Agilent no longer sells or supports this product. You will find any other available
product information on the Agilent Test & Measurement website:
www.tm.agilent.com
Search for the model number of this product, and the resulting product page will guide
you to any available information. Our service centers may be able to perform calibration
if no repair parts are needed, but no other support from Agilent is available.
User’s Guide
HP 8590 E-Series and
L-Series Spectrum Analyzers
c?ii
HEWLETT
PACKARD
HP Part No. 08590-90301 Supersedes: 08590-90234
Printed in USA July 1998
Notice.
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.
Hewlett-Packard makes no warranty of any kind with regard to this material, including
but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular
purpose. Hewlett-Packard shall not be liable for errors contained herein or for incidental or
consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance, or use of this material.
@Copyright 1994, 1995, 1998 Hewlett-Packard Company
Certification
Hewlett-Packard Company certifies that this product met its published specifications at the
time of shipment from the factory. Hewlett-Packard further certifies that its calibration
measurements are traceable to the United States National Institute of Standards and
Technology, to the extent allowed by the Institute’s calibration facility, and to the calibration
facilities of other International Standards Organization members.
Warranty
This Hewlett-Packard instrument product is warranted against defects in material and
workmanship for a period of one year from date of shipment. During the warranty period,
Hewlett-Packard Company will, at its option, either repair or replace products which prove to
be defective.
For warranty service or repair, this product must be returned to a service facility designated by
HP Buyer shall prepay shipping charges to HP and HP shall pay shipping charges to return the
product to Buyer. However, Buyer shall pay all shipping charges, duties, and taxes for products
returned to HP from another country.
HP warrants that its software and firmware designated by HP for use with an instrument will
execute its programming instructions when properly installed on that instrument. HP does not
warrant that the operation of the instrument, or software, or firmware will be uninterrupted or
error-free.
Limitation of Warranty
The foregoing warranty shall not apply to defects resulting from improper or inadequate
maintenance by Buyer, Buyer-supplied software or interfacing, unauthorized modification or
misuse, operation outside of the environmental specifications for the product, or improper
site preparation or maintenance.
NO OTHER WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. HP SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE.
Exclusive Remedies
THE REMEDIES PROVIDED HEREIN ARE BUYER’S SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE REMEDIES.
HP SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, WHETHER BASED ON CONTRACT, TORT, OR ANY OTHER
LEGAL THEORY.
Assistance
Product maintenance agreements and other customer assistance agreements are available for
Hewlett-Rxkard products.
Fbr any assistance, contact your nearest Hewlett-Rxckard Sales and Service Ojice.
...
III
Safety Symbols
The following safety symbols are used throughout this manual. Familiarize yourself with each
of the symbols and its meaning before operating this instrument.
Caution
Caution denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure that, if not
correctly performed or adhered to, would result in damage to or destruction
of the instrument. Do not proceed beyond a caution sign until the indicated
conditions are fully understood and met.
Warning
Warning denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure which, if not
correctly performed or adhered to, could result in injury or loss of life.
Do not proceed beyond a warning note until the indicated conditions are
fully understood and met.
A!
-
C6
@
I
w
0I
n
P
0
ISM
I-A
The instruction documentation symbol. The product is marked with this symbol
when it is necessary for the user to refer to the instructions in the documentation.
The CE mark is a registered trademark of the European Community.
(If accompanied by a year, it is when the design was proven.)
The CSA mark is a registered trademark of the Canadian Standards Association.
This symbol is used to mark the ON position of the power line switch.
This symbol indicates that the input power required is AC.
This symbol is used to mark the STANDBY position of the power line switch.
This symbol is used to mark the STANDBY/OFF position of the power line switch.
This symbol is used to mark the ON position of the power line switch.
This is a symbol of an Industrial Scientific and Medical Group 1 Class A product.
General Safety Considerations
Warning
This is a Safety Class I product (provided with a protective earthing
ground incorporated in the power cord). The mains plug shall only be
inserted in a socket outlet provided with a protective earth contact. Any
interruption of the protective conductor, inside or outside the instrument,
is likely to make the instrument dangerous. Intentional interruption is
prohibited.
Warning
No operator serviceable parts inside. Refer servicing to qualified
personnel. To prevent electrical shock, do not remove covers.
Warning
If this product is not used as specified, the protection provided by the
equipment could be impaired. This product must be used in a normal
condition (in which all means for protection are intact) only.
Warning
For continued protection against fire hazard, replace fuse only with same
type and ratings, (type 5A/250V). The use of other fuses or materials is
prohibited.
Warning
To prevent electrical shock, disconnect the BP 8590 Series equipment
from mains before cleaning. Use a dry cloth or one slightly dampened
with water to clean the external case parts. Do not attempt to clean
internally.
Warning
There are many points inside the instrument which can, if contacted,
cause personal injury. Be extremely careful. Any adjustments or service
procedures that require operation of the instrument with the protective
covers removed should be performed only by trained service personnel.
This product conforms to Enclosure Protection Standard IP 2 0 according
to IEC-529, and protects against finger access to hazardous parts within
the enclosure.
Warning
This product presents a signifiant risk of electrical shock if operated
when wet. This product conforms to Enclosure Protection Standard
IP 2 0 according to IEC-529, and therefore, it does not protect against the
admittance of water into the interior of the product.
Caution
Before switching on this instrument, make sure that the line voltage selector
switch is set to the voltage of the power supply and the correct fuse is
installed.
Caution
Always use the three-prong AC power cord supplied with this product. Failure
to ensure adequate earth grounding by not using this cord may cause product
damage.
V
Caution
VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS: When installing the product in a cabinet,
the convection into and out of the product must not be restricted. The ambient
temperature (outside the cabinet) must be less than the maximum operating
temperature of the product by 4°C for every 100 watts dissipated in the
cabinet. If the total power dissipated in the cabinet is greater then 800 watts,
then forced convection must be used.
Caution
This product is designed for use in Installation Catigory II and Pollution
Degree 2 per IEC-1010 and IEC-664 respectively.
Regulatory Information
Regulatory Information is in the Calibration Guide shipped with this product.
vi
HP 8590 Series Spectrum Analyzer Documentation Description
Manuals Shipped with Your Spectrum Analyzer
HP 8590 E-Series and L-Series Spectrum Analyzers User’s Guide
Describes how to prepare the analyzer for use.
Describes analyzer features.
Describes common applications.
Tells how to make measurements with your spectrum analyzer.
Includes error messages.
Calibration Guide
Provides analyzer specifications and characteristics.
Provides manual procedures to verify specifications.
Indicates the test equipment required for verification.
HP 8590 E-Series and L-Series Series Spectrum Analyzers Quick Reference Guide
Describes how to make a simple measurement with your spectrum analyzer.
Briefly describes the spectrum analyzer functions.
Lists all the programming commands.
Options
Option 910: Additional User’s Documentation
Provides an additional copy of the user’s guide, the calibration guide, and the quick
reference guide.
Option 915: Service Guide and Component-Level Information
Describes troubleshooting and repair of the spectrum analyzer.
Option 915 consists of two manuals:
HP 8590 E-Series and L-Series Spectrum Analyzers, and HP 8591 C Cable TV Analyzer;
Assembly-Level &pair Service Ouide describes adjustment and assembly level repair of
the analyzer.
HP 8590 E-Series and L-Series Spectrum Analyzers, and HP 8591C Cable TV Analyzer;
Component-Level &pair Service hide provides information for component-level repair
of the analyzer.
Options 041 and 043: HP 8590 E-Series and L-Series Spectrum Analyzer and HP 8591C
Cable TV Analyzer Programmer 3 Guide
The HP 8590 E-Series and L-Series Spectrum Analyzer and HP 8591C Cable TV Analyzer
Programmer’s Guide describes analyzer operation via a remote controller (computer)
for Options 041 and 043. This manual is provided when ordering either Option 041 or
Option 043.
How to Order Manuals
Each of the manuals listed above can be ordered individually. To order, contact your local
HP Sales and Service Office.
vii
Contents
1. Preparing For Use
What You’ll Find in This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introducing the HP 8590 Series Spectrum Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing Your Spectrum Analyzer for Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Initial Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Line Voltage Selector Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking the Fuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turning on the Analyzer for the First Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing the Tracking-Generator Self-Calibration Routine . . . . . . . . .
Performing the YTF Self-Calibration Routine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electrostatic Discharge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reducing Damage Caused by ESD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
l-l
l-l
1-2
l-3
1-4
1-4
1-5
1-6
l-8
1-9
l-10
l-11
1-12
2. Getting Started
What You’ll Learn in this Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Getting Acquainted with the Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Front-Panel Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear-Panel Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HoldKey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Knob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number/Units Keypad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
StepKeys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fine-Focus Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Screen Annotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Menu and Softkey Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Making a Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measurement Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Improving Accuracy with Self-Calibration Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Warm-Up Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing the Tracking Generator Self-Calibration Routine (Option 010 or 011
only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing the YTF Self-Calibration Routine (HP 8592L, HP 85933, HP 85953, or
HP 85963 Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
When Is Self-Calibration Needed? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Memory Card Insertion and Battery Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Memory Card Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure to Change the Memory Card Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analyzer Battery Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-l
2-l
2-l
2-5
2-8
2-8
2-8
2-8
2-9
2-9
2-10
2-12
2-13
2-15
2-16
2-16
2-17
2-18
2-18
2-19
2-20
2-21
2-22
Contents-l
3.
Making Basic Measurements
What You’ll Learn in This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resolving Signals of Equal Amplitude Using the Resolution Bandwidth Function .
Resolving Small Signals Hidden by Large Signals Using the Resolution Bandwidth
Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Increasing the Frequency Readout Resolution Using the Marker Counter . . . .
Decreasing the Frequency Span Using the Marker Track Function . . . . . . .
Peaking Signal Amplitude with Preselector Peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracking Unstable Signals Using Marker Track and the Maximum Hold and
Minimum Hold Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Comparing Signals Using Delta Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring Low-Level Signals Using Attenuation, Video Bandwidth, and Video
Averaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Identifying Distortion Products Using the RF Attenuator and Traces . . . . . _
Distortion from the Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Third-Order Intermodulation Distortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Analyzer As a Receiver in Zero Frequency Span . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring Signals Near Band Boundaries Using Harmonic Lock . . . . . . . . .
4. Making Measurements
What You’ll Learn in This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring Amplitude Modulation with the Fast Fourier Transform Function . . .
Stimulus-Response Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What Are Stimulus-Response Measurements? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Spectrum Analyzer with a Tracking Generator . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stepping through the Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracking Generator Unleveled Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Demodulating and Listening to an AM or FM Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Triggering on a Selected Line of a Video Picture Field . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Making Reflection Calibration Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reflection Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring the Return Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Gate Utility to Simplify Time-Gated Measurements (Option 105 only) .
Using the Time-Gated Spectrum Analyzer Capability Without the Gate Utility . .
Introducing the Time-Gated Spectrum Analyzer Capability . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Time-Gated Spectrum Analyzer Capability to View Pulsed RF . . . .
Example of a Time-Gated Pulsed RF Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Gate Delay and Gate Length Properly, When NOT Using the Gate
Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Self-Calibration Routines with Option 105 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing a Functional Check of Option 105 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the One Button Measurements to Measure N dB Bandwidth, Percent
Amplitude Modulation, and Third Order Intercept (TOI) . . . . . . . . . . .
N dB Bandwidth Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percent Amplitude Modulation Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Third Order Intermodulation Measurement (TOI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Power Measurement Functions to make Transmitter Measurements . .
Occupied Bandwidth and Transmitter Frequency Error . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjacent Channel Power Ratio (ACP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Channel Power Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contents-2
3-l
3-2
3-4
3-6
3-7
3-8
3-9
3-12
3-15
3-20
3-20
3-22
3-24
3-26
4-l
4-2
4-7
4-7
4-8
4-8
4-12
4-13
4-15
4-17
4-17
4-18
4-19
4-22
4-22
4-24
4-26
4-33
4-35
4-36
4-39
4-39
4-40
4-41
4-43
4-43
4-45
4-48
5. Using Analyzer Features
What You’ll Learn in this Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Use the Marker Table to List All the Active Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Use the Peak Table to List the Displayed Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving and Recalling Data from Analyzer Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ToSaveaState . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Recall a State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ToSaveaTrace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Recall a Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Save a Limit-Line Table or Amplitude Correction Factors . . . . . . . . .
To Recall Limit-Line Tables or Amplitude Correction Factors . . . . . . . . .
To Protect Data From Being Overwritten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving and Recalling Data from the Memory Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing the Memory Card for Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Enter a Prefix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ToSaveaState . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Recall a State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ToSaveaTrace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Recall a Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Save a Display Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Recall a Display Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Save Limit-Line Tables or Amplitude Correction Factors . . . . . . . . . .
To Recall Limit-Line Tables or Amplitude Correction Factors . . . . . . . . .
Saving and Recalling Programs with a Memory Card . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Save a Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Recall a Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Limit-Line Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure for Creating an Upper Limit Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Limit-Line Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing, Creating, or Viewing a Limit-Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the Type of Limit-Line Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the Limit-Line TPdble Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the Segment Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the Frequency or Time Coordinate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the Amplitude Coordinate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the Segment Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Completing ‘Ihble Entry and Activating Limit-Line Testing . . . . . . . . .
Saving or Recalling Limit-Line Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure for Creating an Upper and Lower Limit Line . . . . . . . . . . .
Learn About the Analog+ Display Mode (Option 101 only) . . . . . . . . . . .
Learn About the Windows Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Learn How to Enter Amplitude Correction Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure for Creating Amplitude-Correction Factors . . . . . . . . . . . .
Amplitude-Correction Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing or Viewing the Amplitude-Correction Tables . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the Amplitude-Correction Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the Frequency Coordinate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the Amplitude Coordinate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Completing Table Entry and Activating Amplitude Corrections . . . . . . .
Saving or Recalling Amplitude Correction lhbles . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
External Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the External Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
External Keyboard Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Enter a Screen Title . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Enter Programming Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-l
5-2
5-4
5-6
5-6
5-6
5-7
5-7
5-8
5-8
5-8
5-10
5-11
5-12
5-12
5-13
5-13
5-13
5-14
5-14
5-15
5-15
5-16
5-16
5-16
5-18
5-18
5-22
5-22
5-22
5-23
5-23
5-25
5-25
5-26
5-28
5-28
5-29
5-32
5-33
5-35
5-36
5-38
5-38
5-38
5-39
5-39
5-39
5-39
5-40
5-42
5-42
5-42
5-43
Contents-3
To Enter a Prefix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-43
6. Printing and Plotting
Printing or Plotting with HP-IB . . . . . . . . .
Printing Using an HP-IB Interface . . . . . . .
Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interconnection and Printing Instructions . . .
Plotting Using an HP-IB Interface . . . . . . .
Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interconnection and Plotting Instructions . . .
Printing or Plotting with RS-232 . . . . . . . .
Printing Using an RS-232 Interface . . . . . .
Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interconnection and Printing Instructions . . .
Plotting Using an RS-232 Interface . . . . . .
Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interconnection and Plotting Instructions . . .
Printing after Plotting or Plotting after Printing
To print after plotting, press: . . . . . . . .
To plot after printing, press: . . . . . . . .
Printing With a Parallel Interface . . . . . . . .
Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interconnection and Printing Instructions . . .
Plotting to an HP LaserJet Printer . . . . . . .
Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interconnection and Plotting Instructions . . .
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6-4
6-4
6-4
6-7
6-7
6-7
6-10
6-10
6-10
6-10
6-14
6-14
6-14
6-17
6-17
6-17
6-18
6-18
6-18
6-21
6-21
6-21
7. Key Descriptions
Service Functions .
Service Calibration
Service Diagnostic
Analyzer Functions
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7-2
7-2
7-2
7-4
. . . . .
Functions
Functions
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If You Have A Problem
What You’ll Find in This Chapter . . . .
Before You Call Hewlett-Packard . . . .
Check the Basics . . . . . . . . . . .
Read the Warranty . . . . . . . . . .
Service Options . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Call Hewlett-Packard . . . . .
How to Return Your Analyzer for Service
Service lag . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Original Packaging . . . . . . . . . .
Other Packaging . . . . . . . . . . .
Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . .
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6-1
8. Key Menus
9.
Contents-4
................
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9-1
9-2
9-2
9-4
9-4
9-4
9-6
9-6
9-6
9-6
9-7
10.
Measurement Personalities, Options, and Accessories
What You’ll Find In This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measurement Personalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Broadcast Measurements Personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CATV Measurements Personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CATV System Monitor Personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cable TV Measurements and System Monitor Personality . . . . . . . . . . .
CDMA Measurements Personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CT2-CA1 Measurements Personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DECT Measurements Personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Digital Radio Measurements Personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EM1 Diagnostics Measurements Personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GSMSOO and DCS1800 Transmitter Measurements Personalities . . . . . . . .
Link Measurement Personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NADC-TDMA Measurements Personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Noise Figure Measurements Personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PDC Measurements Personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PHS Measurements Personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scalar Measurements Personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
75Q Input Impedance (Option 001) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Memory Card Reader (Option 003) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Precision Frequency Reference (Option 004) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LO and Sweep+Tune Outputs on Rear Panel (Option 009) . . . . . . . . . .
Tracking Generator (Option 010 and Option 011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Protective ‘Ian Operating/Carrying Case with Shoulder Strap (Option 015) . . .
Protective Yellow Operating/Carrying Case with Shoulder Strap (Option 016) .
HP-IB and Parallel Interface (Option 041) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RS-232 and Parallel Interface (Option 043) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Frequency Extension to 26.5 GHz with APC-3.5 Connector (Option 026) . . . .
Frequency Extension to 26.5 GHz with N-Type Connector (Option 027) . . . .
Front Panel Protective Cover (Option 040) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Protective Soft Carrying Case/Back Pack (Option 042) . . . . . . . . . . . .
Improved Amplitude Accuracy for NADC bands (Option 050) . . . . . . . . .
Improved Amplitude Accuracy for PDC bands (Option 051) . . . . . . . . . .
Improved Amplitude Accuracy for PHS (Option 052) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Improved Amplitude Accuracy for CDMA (Option 053) . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fast Time Domain Sweeps (Option 101) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AM/FM Demodulator with Speaker and TV Sync Trigger Circuitry (Option 102)
Quasi-Peak Detector and AM/FM Demodulator With Speaker (Option 103) . . .
Time-Gated Spectrum Analysis (Option 105) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CT2 Demodulator (Option 110) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Group Delay and Amplitude Flatness (Option 111) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DECT Demodulator (Option 112) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Noise Figure (Option 119) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Narrow Resolution Bandwidths (Option 130) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Narrow Resolution Bandwidths and Precision Frequency Reference (Option 140)
DSP, Fast ADC and Digital Demodulator (Option 151) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PDUPHSNADCKDMA Firmware for Option 151 (Option 160) . . . . . . . .
GSM/DCS1800 Firmware for Option 151 (Option 163) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TV Picture Display (Option 180) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TV Sync Trigger Capability/Fast Time-Domain Sweeps and AM/FM Demodulator
(Option 301) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
500 to 75fl Matching Pad (Option 711) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reduced Frequency Accuracy (Option 713) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10-l
10-2
10-2
10-2
10-2
10-2
10-2
10-3
10-3
10-3
10-3
10-3
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
IO-5
10-5
10-5
10-5
10-5
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-6
10-7
10-7
10-7
10-7
10-7
10-8
10-8
10-8
10-8
10-8
10-9
10-9
10-9
1 o-9
10-9
10-10
10-10
10-10
10-10
10-10
10-11
10-l 1
10-11
10-12
10-12
10-12
Contents-5
Rack Mount Kit Without Handles (Option 908) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rack Mount Kit With Handles (Option 909) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IJser’s Guide and Calibration Guide (Option 910) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Service Documentation (Option 915)
BenchLink Spectrum Analyzer (Option ‘B70) 1 1 1 1 : 1 : : 1 : : : : : : 1 1
Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RF and Transient Limiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5OB Transmission/Reflection Test Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scalar 5OQ Transmission/Reflection Test Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5OQ2/75fl Minimum Loss Pad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
750 Matching Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RF Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AC Power Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ACProbe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Broadband Preamplifiers and Power Amplifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Burst Carrier Trigger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Close Field Probes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
External Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HP-IB Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Memory Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parallel Interface Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PC Interface and Report Generator software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plotter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rack Slide Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RS-232 Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transit Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IO-12
10-12
10-12
10-12
10-12
10-13
10-13
10-13
10-13
10-13
10-13
10-13
10-14
10-14
10-14
10-14
10-15
10-15
10-15
10-15
10-15
lo-16
lo-16
lo-16
lo-16
lo-16
lo-16
A. SRQ
Service Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Status Byte Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Service Request Activating Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-l
A-l
A-2
Glossary
Index
Contents-6
Figures
l-l. HP 8590 Series Spectrum Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-2. Setting the Line Voltage Selector Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
l-3. Checking the Line Fuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
l-4. Reference Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-5. Example of a Static-Safe Work Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-l. Front-Panel Feature Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-2. Rear-Panel Feature Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-3. Adjusting the Fine Focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-4. Screen Annotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-5. Relationship between Frequency and Amplitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-6. Reading the Amplitude and Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-7. Inserting the Memory Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-8. Memory Card Battery Date Code Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-9. Memory Card Battery Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-10. Rear-Panel Battery Information Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-l. Set-Up for Obtaining Two Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-2. Resolving Signals of Equal Amplitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-3. Resolution Bandwidth Requirements for Resolving Small Signals . . . . . . .
3-4. Signal Resolution with a 10 kHz Resolution Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-5. Signal Resolution with a 30 kHz Resolution Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-6. IJsing the Marker Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-7. After Zooming In on the Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-8. Peaking Signal Amplitude Using Preselector Peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-9. Using Marker Tracking to Track an Unstable Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-10. Viewing an Unstable Signal Using Max Hold A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-l 1. Viewing an Unstable Signal With Max Hold, Clear Write, and Min Hold . . . .
3-12. Placing a Marker on the CAL OUT Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-13. Using the Marker Delta Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-14. Using the Marker to Peak/Peak Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-15. Frequency and Amplitude Difference between Signals . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-16. Low-Level Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-17. Using 0 dB Attenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-18. Decreasing Resolution Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3- 19. Decreasing Video Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-20. Using the Video Averaging Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-2 1. Harmonic Distortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-22. RF Attenuation of 10 dB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-23. No Harmonic Distortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-24. Third-Order Intermodulation Equipment Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-25. Measuring the Distortion Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-26. Viewing an AM Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-27. Measuring Modulation in Zero Span . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-28. Using Harmonic Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-29. Harmonic Locking Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-l. FFT Annotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-2. Percent Amplitude Modulation Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
l-l
1-4
1-5
1-8
l-11
2-2
2-5
2-9
2-10
2-14
2-15
2-19
2-20
2-21
2-22
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-5
3-6
3-7
3-8
3-10
3-11
3-11
3-12
3-13
3-13
3-14
3-15
3-16
3-16
3-17
3-19
3-20
3-21
3-21
3-22
3-23
3-25
3-25
3-27
3-27
4-2
4-5
Contents-7
4-3. Block Diagram of a Spectrum Analyzer/Tracking-Generator Measurement System
4-4. Transmission Measurement Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-5. Tracking-Generator Output Power Activated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-6. Spectrum Analyzer Settings According to the Measurement Requirement . . .
4-7. Decrease the Resolution Bandwidth to Improve Sensitivity . . . . . . . . . .
4-8. Manual Tracking Adjustment Compensates for Tracking Error . . . . . . . .
4-9. Normalized Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-10. Measure the Rejection Range with Delta Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-l 1. Demodulation of an FM Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-12. Continuous Demodulation of an FM Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-13. Triggering on an Odd Field of a Video Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-14. Triggering on an Even Field of a Video Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-15. Reflection Measurement Short Calibration Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-16. Measuring the Return Loss of the Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4- 17. Time-Gate Utility Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-18. Viewing Time-Sharing of a Frequency with an Oscilloscope . . . . . . . . . .
4-19. Viewing Time-Sharing of a Frequency with a Spectrum Analyzer . . . . . . .
4-20. Pulse Repetition Interval and Pulse Width (with Two Signals Present) . . . . .
4-21. Test Setup for Option 105 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-22. Setting the Center Frequency, Span, and Reference Level . . . . . . . . . .
4-23. Setting the Sweep Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-24. Setting the Gate Delay and Gate Length Using an Oscilloscope . . . . . . . .
4-25. Using Time-Gating to View Signal 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-26. Placing the Gate Output During the Second Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-27. Viewing Both Signals with Time-Gating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-28. Gate Not Occurring During the Pulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-29. Gate is Occurring at the Beginning of the Pulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-30. Self-Calibration Data Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-31. Rear Panel Connections for Option 105 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-32. Gate On . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-33. Using the Level Gate Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-34. N dB Bandwidth Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-35. Percent Amplitude Modulation Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-36. Third-Order Intermodulation Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-37. Occupied Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-38. Adjacent Channel Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-39. Adjacent Channel Power Extended . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-40. Adjacent Channel Power Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-41. Channel Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-42. Channel Power Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-1. Marker ‘Ihble Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-2. Peak ‘Ihble Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-3. Inserting the Memory Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-4. Typical Limit-Line Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-5. The Completed Limit-Line Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-6. Limit-Line Segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-7. Segment Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-8. Upper and Lower Limit-Line Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-9. Analog+ Display Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-10. Windows Display Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5- 11. Amplitude-Correction Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5- 12. Completed Amplitude-Correction Iable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-13. Amplitude-Correction Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-1. Three Printouts Per Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-2. Plots Per Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contents-8
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-9
4-10
4-10
4-11
4-12
4-13
4-14
4-15
4-16
4-17
4-18
4-19
4-23
4-24
4-25
4-27
4-28
4-28
4-29
4-30
4-31
4-32
4-33
4-33
4-36
4-36
4-37
4-38
4-39
4-40
4-42
4-44
4-46
4-46
4-47
4-48
4-49
5-2
5-4
5-11
5-19
5-21
5-24
5-27
5-30
5-32
5-33
5-35
5-37
5-38
6-2
6-3
6-3. ThinkJet Printer Switch Settings . . . . . . .
6-4. HP-IB to Centronics Converter Setup . . . . .
6-5. Printer Configuration Menu Map . . . . . . .
6-6. HP 7475A Plotter Switch Settings . . . . . . .
6-7. Plot Configure Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-8. 9600 Baud Settings for Serial Printers . . . . .
6-9. Printer Configure Menu . . . . . . . . . . .
6-10. Connecting the HP 7550A/B Plotter . . . . . .
6-l 1. Baud Rate Menu Map . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-12. Plot Configure Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-13. Parallel Printer Switch Settings . . . . . . . .
6-14. Printer Configuration Menu Map . . . . . . .
6-15. Plot Configure Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-l. Memory Card Catalog Information . . . . . .
7-2. Analyzer Memory Catalog Information . . . .
7-3. CATALOG ON EVENT Display . . . . . . . .
7-4. Connecting a Printer to the Spectrum Analyzer
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6-4
6-5
6-5
6-7
6-8
6-11
6-12
6-15
6-15
6-16
6-18
6-19
6-22
7-17
7-18
7-20
7-29
Contents-9
lhbles
l-l. Accessories Supplied with the Spectrum Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-2. Power Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
l-3. AC Power Cables Available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-4. Static-Safe Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-l. RF Output Frequency Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-2. Screen Annotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-3. Screen Annotation for Trace, Trigger, and Sweep Modes . . . . . . . . . . .
4-1. Determining Spectrum Analyzer Settings for Viewing a Pulsed RF Signal . . .
4-2. Pulse Generator Test Setup Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-3. Signal Generator Test Setup Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-4. Gate Delay, Resolution Bandwidth, Gate Length, and Video Bandwidth Settings
4-5. Sweep Time Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-1. Summary of Save and Recall Operations, Analyzer Memory . . . . . . . . . .
5-2. Comparison of Analyzer Memory and Memory Card Operations . . . . . . . .
5-3. Save and Recall Functions Using Memory Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-8. External Keyboard Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-1. Commands Not Available with Analog+ Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-2. Center Frequency and Span Settings for Harmonic Bands . . . . . . . . . .
7-3. Memory Card Catalog Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-4. Analyzer Memory Catalog Information * . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-5. CATALOG ON EVENT Display Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-6. Default Configuration Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-7. Compatibility of FFT With Other Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-8. Commands Altered/Not Available within the Gate Utility . . . . . . . . . . .
7-9. Functions Which Exit The Windows Display Format . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-10. Model Specific Preset Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7- 11. Common Preset Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-12. Preset Spectrum Conditions for All Models
7-13. HP 85933, HP 8594E, HP 85953, and HP 8596E : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
9-1. Hewlett-Packard Sales and Service Offices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-l. Status Byte Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contents-l 0
1-3
1-4
1-7
1-12
2-4
2-11
2-12
4-26
4-27
4-28
4-34
4-35
5-9
5-10
5-17
5-40
7-9
7-12
7-17
7-19
7-20
7-32
7-43
7-47
7-61
7-66
7-67
7-68
7-71
9-5
A-2
1
Preparing For Use
What You’ll Find in This Chapter
This chapter describes the process of getting the spectrum analyzer ready to use when you
have just received it. See “Preparing Your Spectrum Analyzer For Use” for the process steps.
The process includes initial inspection, setting up the unit for the selected ac power source,
and performing automatic self-calibration routines. Information about static-safe handling
procedures is also included in this chapter.
Introducing the HP 8590 Series Spectrum Analyzers
Figure l-l. HP 8590 Series Spectrum Analyzer
The HP 8590 Series spectrum analyzers are small, lightweight test instruments that cover the
RF and microwave frequency ranges:
HP
HP
HP
HP
HP
HP
HP
HP
859OL,
85913,
8592L,
85933,
85943,
8594L,
85953,
85963,
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
kHz to 1.8 GHz
kHz to 1.8 GHz
kHz to 22 GHz
kHz to 22 GHz
kHz to 2.9 GHz
kHz to 2.9 GHz
kHz to 6.5 GHz
kHz to 12.8 GHz
Preparing For Use l-1
Preparing Your Spectrum Analyzer for Use
Detailed information for all of the steps in this process is included in this chapter.
1. Unpack the spectrum analyzer and inspect it.
2. Verify that all of the accessories and documentation has been shipped.
3. Check that the line voltage selector is set to the proper voltage.
4. Check that the correct fuse is in place.
Warning
Failure to ground the spectrum analyzer properly can result in personal
injury. Use an ac power outlet that has a protective earth contact. DO
NOT defeat the earth grounding protection by using an extension cable,
power cable, or autotransformer without a protective ground conductor.
Caution
Do not connect ac power until you have verified that the line voltage is correct,
the proper fuse is installed, and the line voltage selector switch is properly
positioned, as described in the following paragraphs. Damage to the equipment
could result.
5. Connect the power cable to the spectrum analyzer and turn it on.
Warning
Install the product so that the detachable power cord is readily
identifiable and easily reached by the operator. The detachable power
cord is the product disconnecting devise. It disconnects the mains
circuits from the mains supply before other parts of the product. The
front panel switch is only a standby switch and is not a LINE switch.
Alternatively, an externally installed switch or circuit breaker (which is
readily identifiable and is easily reached by the operator) may be used as a
disconnecting device.
6. Execute the self-calibration routines.
1-2 Preparing For Use
Initial Inspection
Inspect the shipping container for damage. If the shipping container or cushioning material is
damaged, keep it until you have verified that the contents are complete and you have tested
the spectrum analyzer mechanically and electrically.
Table l-l contains the accessories shipped with the spectrum analyzer. If the contents are
incomplete or if the spectrum analyzer does not pass the verification tests in the calibration
guide, notify the nearest Hewlett-Packard office. If the shipping container is damaged or the
cushioning material shows signs of stress, also notify the carrier. Keep the shipping materials
for the carrier’s inspection. The HP office will arrange for repair or replacement without
waiting for a claim settlement.
If the shipping materials are in good condition, retain them for possible future use. You may
wish to ship the spectrum analyzer to another location or to return it to Hewlett-Packard for
service. See “How to Return Your Analyzer for Service,” in Chapter 9 for more information
about shipping materials.
Note
If cleaning is necessary, use a damp cloth only.
lhble l-l. Accessories Supplied with the Spectrum Analyzer
Description
HP Part Number
Comments
32-kilobyte Memory Card
0950-1964
Shipped with analyzer. HP 859OL, HP 8592L,
and HP 8594L must include Option 003.
Memory Card Holder
9222-1545
Shipped with analyzer. HP 859OL, HP 8592L,
and HP8594L must include Option 003.
Adapter, Type N (m) to BNC (f)
1250-0780
Not shipped with Option 001. Two adapters
are shipped with Option 010.
Two Adapters, BNC (m) to BNC (f)
1250-0076
Shipped with Option 105 only. The adapters
can be used to connect cables to the
rear-panel connectors.
Adapter, BNC (m) to SMA (f)
HP 1250-1700
Shipped with Option 026 only.
Connector, APC-3.5 mm (f) to (f)
HP 5061-5311
Shipped with Option 026 only.
1250-1499
Shipped connected between the 10 MHz REF
OUT and the EXT REF IN on the rear panel of
the analyzer. Not shipped with HP 8590L
option 713.
Zable, 5OQ, BNC
8120-2682
Not shipped with Options 001, 011, or 026.
Zable, SMA (m) to type N (m)
8120-5148
Shipped with HP 8592L, HP 85933, and
HP 85963. Not shipped with Option 026.
5062-6452
Shipped with Options 001 or 011 only.
Reference
Connector
Zable, 750, BNC
Zable, SMA (m) to SMA (m)
08592-60061
Shipped with Option 026 only.
‘ower cable
See Table 1-3
Shipped with analyzer.
Preparing For Use 1-3
Power Requirements
The spectrum analyzer is a portable instrument and requires no physical installation other than
connection to a power source.
Warning
Failure to ground the spectrum analyzer properly can result in personal
injury. Use an ac power outlet that has a protective earth contact. DO
NOTdefeat the earth grounding protection by using an extension cable,
power cable, or autotransformer without a protective ground conductor.
Caution
Do not connect ac power until you have verified that the line voltage is correct,
the proper fuse is installed, and the line voltage selector switch is properly
positioned, as described in the following paragraphs. Damage to the equipment
could result.
‘Ihble 1-2. Power Requirements
Setting the Line Voltage Selector Switch
Caution
Before connecting the spectrum analyzer to the power source, you must set the
rear-panel voltage selector switch correctly to adapt the spectrum analyzer
to the power source. An improper selector switch setting can damage the
spectrum analyzer when it is turned on.
Set the instrument’s rear-panel voltage selector switch to the line voltage range
(115 V or 230 V) corresponding to the available ac voltage. See Figure l-2. Insert a small
screwdriver or similar tool in the slot and slide the switch so that the proper voltage label is
visible.
,,*-\,
‘I/
“\
Figure l-2. Setting the Line Voltage Selector Switch
1-4 Preparing For Use
Checking the Fuse
The recommended fuse is size 5 by 20 mm, rated F5A, 250 V (IEC approved). This fuse may be
used with input line voltages of 115 V or 230 V. Its HP part number is 2110-0709.
With an input line voltage of 115 V an alternate fuse can be used. In areas where the
recommended fuse is not available, a size 5 by 20 mm, rated fast blow, 5 A, 125 V (ULXSA
approved) fuse may be substituted. Its HP part number is 2110-0756.
The line fuse is housed in a small container beside the rear-panel power connector. See
Figure l-3. The container provides space for storing a spare fuse, as shown in the figure.
To check the fuse, insert the tip of a screwdriver in the slot at the middle of the container and
pry gently to extend the container.
Warning
For continued protection against fire hazard replace line fuse only with
same type and rating (5A/250V). The use of other fuses or material is
prohibited.
Note
The fuse container is attached to the line module; it cannot be removed.
The fuse closest to the spectrum analyzer is the fuse in use. If the fuse is defective or missing,
install a new fuse in the proper position and reinsert the fuse container.
Figure l-3. Checking the Line Fuse
Preparing For Use l-5
Power Cable
The spectrum analyzer is equipped with a three-wire power cable, in accordance with
international safety standards. When connected to an appropriate power line outlet, this cable
grounds the instrument cabinet.
Warning
Failure to ground the spectrum analyzer properly can result in personal
injury. Before turning on the spectrum analyzer, you must connect its
protective earth terminals to the protective conductor of the main power
cable. Insert the main power cable plug only into a socket outlet that has
a protective earth contact. DO NOT defeat the earth-grounding protection
by using an extension cable, power cable, or autotransformer without a
protective ground conductor.
If you are using an autotransformer, make sure its common terminal is
connected to the protective earth contact of the power source outlet
socket.
Various power cables are available to connect the spectrum analyzer to the types of ac power
outlets unique to specific geographic areas. The cable appropriate for the area to which the
spectrum analyzer is originally shipped is included with the unit. You can order additional ac
power cables for use in different areas. Table l-3 lists the available ac power cables, illustrates
the plug configurations, and identifies the geographic area in which each cable is appropriate.
1-6 Preparing For Use
lhble 1-3. AC Power Cables Available
CABLE
P L U G T Y P E * *
PLUG
DESCRIPTI’JN
HP PART
rIIJMl3ER
CABLE
COLOR
:M
25O’J
Strnight
A
BS1363A
9om
E
0
L
CABLE
L E rl G T H
F O R
IJSE
I II COUI‘JTR i
~INCHEC,)
2 2 9 ( 9 0 )
Mint
Gray
c;reot
2 2 9
Mint
Gray
/:yprus,
(90)
Brltuin.
I‘Nigerin.
<;ingnpore,
0
N
Zimbabwe
8120~1363
Strn,ght*
8 120-0696
NZSSlSB/ASCl 1 2
9o”
Argen t i ~10,
2 0 1
(79)
Grily
2 2 1
(87)
Gray
Auitrulla,
New Z e n
I anJ,
Mainland C h i n a
8120~1683
Stratght *
E120-1692
CEE7-II 1
9o”
2 0 1 ( 7 9 )
Ii4lnt G r a y
2 0 1
M i n t G r a y
(79j
E:ast and \Nest
E.urope, Centrnl
A fricon Replubl
ic
LInI t e d A r a b
F ‘epubl IC
( unpnlnrized I”
rnnny not 19ns)
125V
,A---,
i :
.\f\ ‘”
(:
25O’d
8 120- 1 3 4 8
Straight*
8 1 2 0 - 1 5 3 8
9o”
8120-1378
Straight*
8
S t r a i g h t
ii
#
E
2 0 3
NEMA5- 1 :P
iIn, t e d
C:anocla,
Blnck
Block
(80)
Jade G r a y
States
_J apon (100 $4 0,~
;‘ 0 0
V), eraz I,
8120-1521
go0
2 0 3
(80)
J a d e G r a y
8120-4754
9oa
~ 2 3 0
(9Oj
J a d e G r a y
1 -0iwan
8120-5182
stro1gt,t*
2 0 0
(78)
J a d e
8120-5181
30*
2 0 0
(78)
.Jade
NEMA5S15P
2 3 0 ( 9 0 )
J a d e G r a y
Grny
I s r a e l
Gray
-
P o r t
=
(80)
2 0 3 ( 8 0 )
Mexlcr
( ;olombia.
F‘hl I I spines,
‘<audio Arobin,
120-4753
ii Pnrt n u m b e r
H P
2 0 3
NEMA5S15P
Earth
f o r
rlurnber f o r
Lr~und:
pluq IS i n d u s t r y
complrie c a b l e ,
L
=
Line,
N
=
Identifier f o r
i n c l u d i n g
p l u g
orlly
N u m b e r s h o w n f o r cable I:;
pll~g
r>leutraI
Preparing For Use l-7
Turning on the Analyzer for the First Time
When you turn the spectrum analyzer on for the first time, you should perform frequency and
amplitude self-calibration routines to generate correction factors and indicate that the unit is
functioning correctly. The spectrum analyzer should be allowed to warm-up for 30 minutes
before performing the self-calibration routines. See “When Is Self-Calibration Needed?”
in Chapter 2 for helpful guidelines on how often the self-calibration routines should be
performed.
Perform the following steps:
1. Fbr an HP 85901, HP 8592L, HP 8591 E, HP 85933, HP 8594E, HP 8594L, HP 8595E, or
HP 85963 ensure the reference connector is connected between the 10 MHz OUTPUT and
EXT REF IN rear-panel connectors. See Figure l-4.
REFEPENCE
Figure 1-4. Reference Connector
If you wish to use an external 10 MHz source as the reference frequency, disconnect the
reference connector from the rear-panel and connect an external reference source to the
EXT REF IN connector on the rear panel.
2. Plug the power cord into the spectrum analyzer.
3. Press (LINE).
After a few seconds, the screen displays the firmware revision date in the YYMMDD format.
For example, 930522 indicates May 22, 1993. This is a change from previous revisions where
any firmware date used the DDMMYY format prior to 930506.
Note
Record the firmware date and keep it for reference. If you should ever need to
call Hewlett-Packard for service or with any questions regarding your spectrum
analyzer, it will be helpful to have the firmware date readily available.
If your spectrum analyzer is equipped with Option 021 (HP-IB interface), the appropriate
interface address (HP-IB ADRS : XX) also appears on the screen.
If your spectrum analyzer is equipped with Option 023 (RS-232 interface), the baud rate
(RS232 : XXXX) is displayed.
4. To meet spectrum analyzer specifications, allow a 30 minute warm-up before attempting to
make any calibrated measurements. Be sure to calibrate the spectrum analyzer only afler
the spectrum analyzer has met the operating temperature conditions.
5. Connect the type N (m) to BNC (f) connector (shipped with the spectrum analyzer) to the
INPUT 5OQ. Connect the 500 coaxial cable (also shipped with the instrument) between the
front-panel CAL OUT and the INPUT 500 connector. If the spectrum analyzer has Option
1-8 Preparing For Use
001 (7562 input), use the 750 calibration cable shipped with the analyzer. Use only 750
connectors to avoid damage to the RF input connector.
Note
Option 105 only: Remove all connections to the GATE TRIGGER INPUT
rear-panel connector before performing the self-calibration routines.
6. Perform the frequency and amplitude self-calibration routine by pressing (CAL) and
CAL FREQ & AMPTD . During the frequency routine, CAL: SWEEP, CAL: FREQ, and CAL: SPAN
are displayed as the sequence progresses. For an Option 102, CAL: FM GAIN + OFFSET is also
displayed.
During the amplitude routine, CAL; AMPTD, CAL: 3 dB BW, CAL: ATTEN, and CAL: LOGAMP are
displayed as the sequence progresses. CAL: DONE appears when the routine is completed.
Any failures or discrepancies produce a message on the screen; see Chapter 9.
7. When the frequency and amplitude self-calibration routines have been completed
successfully, store the correction factors by pressing CAL STORE.
The self-calibration routines calibrate the spectrum analyzer by generating correction factors.
The softkey CAL STORE stores the correction factors in the area of spectrum analyzer
memory that is saved when the spectrum analyzer is turned off; the spectrum analyzer will
automatically apply these factors in future measurements. If CAL STORE is not pressed, the
correction factors remain in effect until the spectrum analyzer is turned off.
Performing the Tracking-Generator Self-Calibration Routine
For spectrum analyzers with Option 010 or 011, the tracking-generator self-calibration routine
should be performed prior to using the tracking generator.
Note
Since the tracking generator calibration routine depends on the accuracy of
the absolute amplitude level of the spectrum analyzer, the spectrum analyzer
amplitude calibration should be done prior to using CAL TRK GEM .
1. To calibrate the tracking generator, connect the tracking generator output (RF OUT 5OR) to
the spectrum analyzer INPUT 500 connector, using an appropriate cable and BNC-to-Type
N adapters. If the spectrum analyzer has Option 001 (750 input), use the 75Q calibration
cable shipped with the analyzer. Use only 75fl connectors to avoid damage to the RF input
connector.
Note
A low-loss cable should be used for accurate calibration. Use the 509 cable
shipped with the spectrum analyzer. If the analyzer has Option 001 (75n input),
use the 75R cable shipped with the spectrum analyzer.
2. Press the following spectrum analyzer keys: m), More 1 of 4 , More 2 of 4 , then
CAL TRK GEN . TG SIGNAL NOT FOUND will be displayed if the tracking generator output is
not connected to the spectrum analyzer input.
3. To save this data in the area of spectrum analyzer memory that is saved when the spectrum
analyzer is turned off, press CAL STORE .
Preparing For Use 1-9
Performing the YTF Self-Calibration Routine
For preselected spectrum analyzers (HP 8592L, HP 85933, HP 8595E, and HP 85963) only, the
yig-tuned filter (YTF) self-calibration routine should be performed periodically. See “When Is
Self-Calibration Needed?” in Chapter 2 for helpful guidelines on how often the self-calibration
routines should be performed.
To perform the YTF self-calibration routine, use the following procedure:
1. Connect a low-loss cable (such as HP part number 8120-5148) from 100 MHz COMB OUT to
the spectrum analyzer input. For the HP 85953, use the CAL OUT, instead of the COMB
OUT, as the spectrum analyzer input.
2. Press (CAL) then CAL YTF . The YTF self-calibration routine completes in approximately:
Model Number YTF Cal Time
HP
HP
HP
HP
8592L
85933
85953
85963
7 minutes
7 minutes
3 minutes
5 minutes
3. Press (CAL) then CAL STORE _
When the self-calibration routines have been completed successfully, the spectrum analyzer is
ready for normal operation.
l-1 0
Preparing For Use
Electrostatic Discharge
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) can damage or destroy electronic components. All work on
electronic assemblies should be performed at a static-safe work station. Figure l-5 shows an
example of a static-safe work station using two types of ESD protection:
H Conductive table-mat and wrist-strap combination.
n
Conductive floor-mat and heel-strap combination.
Both types, when used together, provide a significant level of ESD protection. Of the two, only
the table-mat and wrist-strap combination provides adequate ESD protection when used alone.
To ensure user safety, the static-safe accessories must provide at least 1 MR of isolation from
ground. Refer to ‘fable l-4 for information on ordering static-safe accessories.
Warning
These techniques for a static-safe work station should not be used when
working on circuitry with a voltage potential greater than 500 volts.
BUI lding
Ground
1 MegOhm
Resistor
1 q&- - \Il
/./-xYD
k
-~I
mtiee I S t r a p
” - F l o o r
AU
M a t
-\
Figure 1-5. Example of a Static-Safe Work Station
Preparing For Use
l-l 1
Reducing Damage Caused by ESD
The following suggestions may help reduce ESD damage that occurs during testing and
servicing operations.
n
Before connecting any coaxial cable to an spectrum analyzer connector for the first time each
day, momentarily ground the center and outer conductors of the cable.
w Personnel should be grounded with a resistor-isolated wrist strap before touching the center
pin of any connector and before removing any assembly from the unit.
n
Be sure that all instruments are properly earth-grounded to prevent a buildup of static
charge.
Table l-4 lists static-safe accessories that can be obtained from Hewlett-Packard by using the
HP part numbers shown.
‘Ihble 1-4. Static-Safe Accessories
HP Part
Number
Description
9300-0797
Set includes: 3M static control mat 0.6 m x 1.2 m (2 ft x 4 ft) and 4.6 cm
(15 ft) ground wire. (The wrist-strap and wrist-strap cord are not included.
They must be ordered separately.)
9300-0980
Wrist-strap cord 1.5 m (5 ft)
9300-1383
Wrist-strap, color black, stainless steel, without cord, has four adjustable
links and a 7 mm post-type connection.
9300-l 169
ESD heel-strap (reusable 6 to 12 months).
1.12 Preparing For Use
2
Getting Started
What You’ll Learn in this Chapter
This chapter introduces the basic functions of the HP 8590 Series spectrum analyzers. In this
chapter you will:
w Get acquainted with the front-panel and rear-panel features.
n
Get acquainted with the menus and softkeys.
w Learn about screen annotation.
n
Make a basic measurement (the calibration signal).
n
Learn how to improve measurement accuracy by using self-calibration routines.
n
Learn how to insert the memory card and about the memory card battery.
n
Learn about the spectrum analyzer battery.
Note
Before using your spectrum analyzer, please read Chapter 1 “Preparing for
Use,” which describes how to set up your spectrum analyzer and how to verify
that it is operational. Chapter 1 describes many safety considerations that
should not be overlooked.
Getting Acquainted with the Analyzer
Front-Panel Features
The following section provides a brief description of front-panel features. Refer to Figure 2-l.
1
Active function block is the space on the screen that indicates the active function. Most
functions appearing in this block can be changed using the knob, step keys, or data keys.
2
Message block is the space on the screen where MEAS UNCAL and the asterisk (*) appear.
If one or more functions are manually set (uncoupled), and the amplitude or frequency
becomes uncalibrated, MEAS UNCAL appears. (Use [AUTO COUPLE] and AUTO ALL to
recouple functions.) The asterisk indicates that a function is in progress.
3
Softkey labels are the annotation on the screen next to the unlabeled keys. Most of the
labeled keys on the spectrum analyzer front panel (also called front-panel keys) access
menus of related softkeys.
4
Softkeys are the unlabeled keys next to the screen.
Getting Started 2-1
Figure 2-l. Front-Panel Feature Overview
5
[FREQUENCY],
6
INSTRUMENT STATE functions affect the state of the entire spectrum analyzer.
Self-calibration routines and special-function menus are accessed with these keys. The
green @‘EZi] key resets the spectrum analyzer to a known state. The m key
accesses the current operating mode of the spectrum analyzer and allows you to change
to any operating mode available for your spectrum analyzer. All spectrum analyzers
have the spectrum analyzer mode of operation (indicated by SPECTRUM ANALYZER ).
If an additional softkey label appears in the softkey label area, a program (also called
a downloadable program or personality) has been loaded into the spectrum analyzer
memory. This document covers the spectrum analyzer mode of operation only; consult
the documentation accompanying the specific measurement personality that you are
using for information about other modes of operation. (For example: the HP 857llA
Cable Television Measurements Personality, the HP 85713A Digital Radio Measurements
Personality, or the HP 85715A GSM Measurements Personality.)
ISPAN), and @Kii%ZE] are the three large dark-gray keys that activate the
primary spectrum analyzer functions and access menus of related functions.
m and [?EXE] keys save and recall traces, states, limit-line tables, amplitude
correction factors, and programs to or from a memory card. ISAVE) and [RECALL) keys also
save and recall traces, states, limit-line tables, and amplitude correction factors to or
from the spectrum analyzer memory.
2-2 Getting Started
Note
If you wish to reset the spectrum analyzer configuration to the state it was in
when it was originally shipped from the factory, use DEFAULT CONFIG . Refer
to the DEFAULT CONFIG softkey description in Chapter 7 for more information.
7
Icopv) prints or plots screen data. (This requires Option 041 or 043.) Use @ZiK$
Plot Conf ig or Print Conf kg, and COPY DEV PRMT PLT before using Icopv). See
Chapter 7 for more details.
8
CONTROL functions access menus that allow you to adjust the resolution bandwidth,
adjust the sweep time, store and manipulate trace data, and control the instrument
display.
9
MARKER functions control the markers, read out frequencies and amplitudes along the
spectrum-analyzer trace, automatically locate the signals of highest amplitude, and keep
a signal at the marker position in the center of the screen.
10
WINDOWS keys, turn on the windows display mode. They allow switching between
windows and control the zone span and location. Fbr the HP 859ZE, HP 8593E,
HP 8594E, HP 8595E, and HP 85963 only.
HOLD key. Fbr the HP 859OL, HP 8592L, and HP 8594L only. [HOLD] deactivates an
active function. For the HP 85913, HP 8593E, HP 85943, HP 8595E, and HP 8596E, the
“hold” function is available as the HOLD softkey under cm).
11
DATA keys, STEP keys, and knob allow you to change the numeric value of an active
function.
12
INPUT 500 is the signal input for the spectrum analyzer. (INPUT 75Q is the signal input
for an Option 001 spectrum analyzer.)
-
Caution
Excessive signal input will damage the spectrum analyzer input attenuator and
input mixer. Use extreme caution when using the spectrum analyzer around
high-power RF sources and transmitters. The maximum input power that the
spectrum analyzer can tolerate appears on the front panel and should not be
exceeded.
Excessive dc voltage can also damage the input attenuator. For your particular
instrument, note the maximum de voltage that should not be exceeded on the
spectrum analyzer front panel (beneath the INPUT 5OQ connector).
13
PROBE PWR provides power for high-impedance ac probes or other accessories.
14
CAL OUT provides a calibration signal of 300 MHz at -20 dBm (29 dBmV for Option 001
or 011).
15
VOL-INTEN or INTENSITY. For the HP 85913, HP 8593E, HP 85943, HP 85953, or
HP 8596E only. The VOL-INTEN knob changes the brightness of the display. If Option
102, 103, or 110 is installed, it can also adjust the volume of the internal speaker. If it
adjusts both, the inside part of the knob adjusts the intensity while the outside part
adjusts the volume.
The INTENSITY knob changes the brightness of the display. For the HP 859OL,
HP 8592L, and HP 8594L only.
Getting Started 2-3
16
100 MHz COMB OUT supplies a 100 MHz reference signal that has harmonics up to
22 GHz. Fbr the HP 85921, HP 8593E, or HP 8596E only.
17
Memory card reader reads from or writes to a memory card. The memory card reader is
standard with an HP 85913, HP 85933, HP 85943, HP 85953, and HP 85963. It is also
available for the HP 859OL, HP 8592L, and HP 8594L as Option 003.
18
RF OUT 5OD supplies a source output for the built-in tracking generator.
Fbr Option 010 only. See liable 2-l.
Caution
If the tracking generator output power is too high, it may damage the device
under test. Do not exceed the maximum power that the device under test can
tolerate.
RF OUT 750 supplies a source output for the built-in tracking generator.
For Option 011 only. See lbble 2-l.
‘able 2-l. RF Output Frequency Range
Model Number
19
Note
Option 011
Option 010
Frequency Range Frequency Range
HP 8590L
100 kHz to 1.8 GHz
1 MHz to 1.8 GHz
HP 85913
100 kHz to 1.8 GHz
1 MHz to 1.8 GHz
HP 85933
9 kHz to 2.9 GHz
not available
HP 85943
9 kHz to 2.9 GHz
not available
HP 85953
9 kHz to 2.9 GHz
not available
HP 85963
9 kHz to 2.9 GHz
not available
ILINE) turns the instrument on and off. The symbols to the left of the line switch
represent the up position of the switch when the instrument is off, and the down
position of the switch when the instrument is on. An instrument self-check is performed
every time the instrument is turned on. After applying power, allow the temperature of
the instrument to stabilize for best measurement results.
The instrument continues to draw power when it is plugged into the ac power
source even if the line power switch is off.
2-4 Getting Started
Rear-Panel Features
I
SWEEP
HIGH SWEEP
OUTPVT N / O U T CTTLj
\I I
Ill
cm
‘W
I
m
\vJ
EXJ TRlG I
EXT IN UT(TTLj
YBOARD
~
\ \:(3
SD
KY
OPTSEP
B
p ,“K,“ER
LO
OUT
i
-\1
In- FUSE
AUX
VIDEO
OUTPUT
63
w
WE P+
TU E
ye
I
I TA
._..
_
““TPUT
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,0/d- @
r--7
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OPTlOh 0 4 1
O P T I O N
\~~~~
0 4 3
Figure 2-2. Rear-Panel Feature Overview
1
EXT ALC INPUT allows the use of an external detector or power meter for automatic
leveling control of the tracking generator. Fbr an HP 8590L and HP 8591E Option 010 or
011 only. Allows the use of an external detector for an HP 85934 HP 859-b& HP 85953,
or HP 8596E O-ption 010 only.
2
TV TRIG OUTPUT (‘ITL) provides TV trigger output using TTL and negative-edge
triggering. Fbr Options 101 and 102 combhed, or Option 301 only.
3
FLATNESS EXT DET IN accepts a signal (16 V maximum) from an external crystal
detector. This signal is used to correct the spectrum analyzer response to the
detector’s flatness. Option E02 only. This input is used for digital radio testing in an
HP 11758T Digital Radio Test System.
Getting Started 2-5
4
GATE TRIGGER INPUT (‘ITL) accepts a TTL signal which acts as the gate trigger. In
edge mode, the trigger event (positive or negative edge) initiates a gate delay. In level
mode, the gate trigger input signal opens and closes the gate directly: TTL high sets the
gate on; TTL low sets the gate off. When this input is unconnected, TTL is set high. For
Option 105 only.
5
EVENT CNTR INPUT (‘ITL) accepts a TTL signal and counts the negative pulses (a
falling edge followed by a rising edge) that occur during the gate time interval. 0ption
E02 only. This input is used to test for digital radio signal errors when using the
HP 11758T Digital Radio Test System.
6
GATE OUTPUT (TI’L) provides a TTL signal which indicates gate status when the when
the gate is in edge trigger mode. A high TTL signal indicates the gate is on; a low TTL
signal indicates the gate is off. GATE OUTPUT is not active in level mode. For 0ption
105 only,
7
EARPHONE connector provides a connection for an earphone jack instead of using the
internal speaker. For Option 102, 103, or 110 only.
8
INTERVAL CNTR INPUT (‘ITL) accepts a TTL signal. It identifies negative pulses (a
falling edge followed by a rising edge) and measures the accumulated time that a pulse is
low during the gate time interval. Option E02 only. This input is used to test for digital
radio signal errors when using the HP 11758T Digital Radio Test System.
9
SWEEP + TUNE OUTPUT provides a voltage ramp that is proportional to the spectrum
analyzer span (0 to 10 V) plus the tuning voltage of the LO. For Option 009 only.
10
LO OUT provides the output of the first LO, which is proportional to the frequency that
the spectrum analyzer is tuned to. For Option 009 or 010 only.
11
EXT REF IN accepts an external frequency source to provide the 10 MHz, -2 to
+ 10 dBm frequency reference used by the spectrum analyzer. Not availablefor HP
8590L with Option 713 or HP 8592L with Option 713.
12
10 MHz REF OUTPUT provides a 10 MHz, 0 dBm minimum, time-based reference signal.
Not available for HP 8590L with Option 713 or HP 8592L with Option 713.
13
VOIJIAGE SELECTOR adapts the unit to the power source: 115 V or 230 V.
14
MONITOR OUTPUT drives an external monitor with a signal that has a 15.7 kHz
horizontal synchronizing rate. It can also be switched to provide an NTSC format output
which is compatible with VHS video recorders or a PAL format which is compatible with
PALSECAM video recorders.
15
Power input is the input for the line power source. Make sure that the line-power
source outlet has a protective ground contact.
16
AUX INTERFACE provides a nine-pin “D” subminiature connector for control of external
devices. Refer to specifications and characteristics in your calibration guide for a more
detailed description.
2-6 Getting Started
Caution
Turn off the spectrum analyzer before connecting the AUX INTERFACE
connector to a device. Failure to do so may result in loss of factory-correction
constants.
Do not exceed the current limits for the +5 V supply when using the AUX
INTERFACE connector. Exceeding the current limits may result in loss of
factory-correction constants.
Do not use the AUX INTERFACE as a video monitor interface. Damage to the
video monitor will result.
17
Interface connectors are optional interfaces for HP-IB and parallel (Option 041) and
RS-232 and parallel (Option 043) interface buses. They support remote instrument
operation, direct plotting or printing, and parallel printing of screen data.
18
AUX IF OUTPUT is a 500, 21.4 MHz IF output that is the down-converted signal of the
RF input of the spectrum analyzer. Amplitude-correction factors are not applied to this
signal.
19
AUX VIDEO OUTPUT provides detected video output (before the analog-to-digital
conversion) proportional to vertical deflection of the trace. Output is from 0 V to 1 V.
Amplitude-correction factors are not applied to this signal.
20
EXT TRIG INPUT (‘ITL) accepts the positive edge of an external voltage input that
triggers the spectrum analyzer internal sweep source.
21
HIGH SWEEP IN/OUT (‘ITL) indicates when the spectrum analyzer is sweeping or can
be grounded to stop sweeping.
22
EXT KEYBOARD connector is provided with the optional interface connector. The
external keyboard is not included with the spectrum analyzer. The external keyboard
can be used to enter screen titles, prefixes, remote commands, and writing simple DLP’s.
For Options 041 or 043 only.
Caution
23
Turn off the spectrum analyzer before connecting an external keyboard to the
spectrum analyzer.
SWEEP OUTPUT provides a voltage ramp proportional to the sweep and the spectrum
analyzer span (0 V to 10 V).
Getting Started 2-7
Data Controls
Data controls are used to change values for functions such as center frequency, start frequency,
resolution bandwidth, and marker position.
The data controls will change the active function in a manner prescribed by that function. For
example, you can change center frequency in fine steps with the knob, in discrete steps with
the step keys, or to an exact value with the number/units keypad. For example, resolution
bandwidth, which can be set to discrete values only, is changed to predetermined values with
any of the data controls.
Hold Key
Deactivate functions with HOLD which is found under the @iZKZ7] key. On the HP 859OL,
HP 8592L, and HP 8594L it is also available as a front panel key, (HOLD). The active function
readout is blanked, indicating that no entry will be made inadvertently by using the knob, step
keys, or keypad. (Pressing a function key re-enables the data controls.)
Knob
The knob allows continuous change of functions such as center frequency, reference level,
and marker position. It also changes the values of many functions that change in increments
only. Clockwise rotation of the knob increases values. For continuous changes, the extent of
alteration is determined by the size of the measurement range; the speed at which the knob is
turned does not affect the rate at which the values are changed.
The knob enables you to change the center frequency, start or stop frequency, or reference
level in smooth scrolling action. The smooth scrolling feature is designed to move the trace
display to the latest function value as the knob is turned. When either center frequency or
reference level is adjusted, the signal will shift right or left or up or down with the rotation of
the knob before a new sweep is actually taken. An asterisk is placed in the message block (the
upper right-hand corner of the spectrum analyzer display) to indicate that the data on-screen
does not reflect data at the current setting.
Note
When using the knob to change frequency or amplitude settings, the trace data
is shifted. Therefore, when using MAX HOLD A , MAX HOLD B , or MIN HOLD C ,
moving the center frequency with the knob will not simulate a drifting signal.
Number/Units Keypad
The number/units keypad allows entry of exact values for many of the spectrum analyzer
functions. You may include a decimal point in the number portion. If not, the decimal point is
placed at the end of the number.
Numeric entries must be terminated with a units key. The units keys change the active
function in a manner prescribed bv that function. For example, the units keys for frequency
span are (GHz), m), &KJ), and a, whereas the units for reference level are IfdBm), m,
a, and @J.
Note
If an entry from the number/units keypad does not coincide with an allowed
function value (for example, that of a 12 MHz bandwidth), the spectrum
analyzer defaults to the nearest allowable value.
2-8 Getting Started
Step Keys
The step keys allow discrete increases or decreases of the active function value. The step size
depends upon the spectrum analyzer measurement range or on a preset amount. Each press
results in a single step change. For those parameters with fixed values, the next value in a
sequence is selected each time a step key is pressed. Changes are predictable and can be set
for some functions. Out-of-range values or out-of-sequence values will not occur using these
keys.
Fine-Focus Control
The fine-focus control is located on the side of the spectrum analyzer. Use the following
procedure to adjust the fine-focus control:
1. Adjust the front-panel intensity control for a comfortable viewing intensity.
2. Use an adjustment tool or small screwdriver to access the fine-focus adjustment. See
Figure 2-3. Adjust for a focused display.
F I NE FOCUS ADJUSTMENT
Figure 2-3. Adjusting the Fine Focus
Getting Started 2-9
Screen Annotation
Figure 2-4 shows an example of the annotation that may appear on a spectrum analyzer screen.
The screen annotation is referenced by numbers and is listed in ‘Iable 2-2. The function key
column indicates which front-panel key or softkey activates the function related to the screen
annotation. Refer to Chapter 7 for more information on a specific function key.
1 9 8 9 E X T E 4 NAL
AT 2
I
MHz
MHz
0
dB PG1 0 . 0
KEYBOARD
dB
ENPUT
MIIR-TKK 3 9 9 . 9 MHz /
- 2
/
OFFST
VIYW
15
d
Figure 2-4. Screen Annotation
In Figure 2-4, item 21 refers to the trigger and sweep modes of the spectrum analyzer. The first
letter (“F”) indicates the spectrum analyzer is in free-run trigger mode. The second letter (“S”)
indicates the spectrum analyzer is in single-sweep mode.
Item 22 refers to the trace modes of the spectrum analyzer. The first letter (“W”) indicates that
the spectrum analyzer is in clear-write mode. The second letter is “A,” representing trace A.
The trace B trace mode is “SB”, indicating trace B (“B”) is in the store-blank mode (“S”). The
trace mode annotation for trace C is displayed under the trace mode annotation of trace A. In
Figure 2-4, the trace C trace mode is “SC”, indicating trace C (“C”) is in the store blank mode
(‘is’).
Refer to Table 2-3 for the screen annotation codes for trace, trigger, and sweep modes.
The WINDOWS display mode splits the screen into two separate displays. Only one of these
displays is active at a time. The currently active window will have a solid line around the
graticule rather than a broken line. The complete annotation is not available for each window
because of space limitations.
2-10 Getting Started
The display will be compressed slightly when using the PAL or NTSC format for the MONITOR
OUTPUT, instead of the normal format. The PAL and NTSC formats have less vertical
resolution than the spectrum analyzer display. The top and bottom of the spectrum analyzer
display are compressed slightly so that all of the information can be fit into the size required by
the MONITOR OUTPUT.
able 2-2. Screen Annotation
marker readout
Getting Started
2-l 1
‘Ihble 2-3. Screen Annotation for Trace, Trigger, and Sweep Modes
Trace Mode
W = clear write (traces A/B/C)
M = maximum hold (traces A/B)
V = view (traces A/B/C)
S = store blank (traces A/B/C)
M = minimum hold (trace C)
Trigger Mode
Sweep Mode
F = free run
C = continuous
L = line
S = single sweep
V = video
E = external
T = TV (Ootions 101 and 102 onlv)
Menu and Softkey Overview
The keys labeled FREQUENCY, CAL, and MKR are all examples of front-panel keys. Pressing
most front-panel keys accesses menus of functions that are displayed along the right side of the
display. These menus are called softkey menus.
Softkey menus list functions other than those accessed directly by the front-panel keys. To
activate a function on the softkey menu, press the unlabeled key immediately to the right of
the annotation on the screen. The unlabeled keys next to the annotation on the display screen
are called softkeys.
Front-panel keys are designated with a box around the key label, for example, C-1;
softkeys are designated by shading on the key label, for example, REF LVL . The softkeys that
are displayed depend on which front-panel key is pressed and which menu level is enabled.
If a softkey function’s value can be changed, it is called an active function. The function label
of the active function appears in inverse video. For example, press (AMPLITUDE]. This calls up
the softkey menu of related amplitude functions. Note the function labeled REF LVL appears
in inverse video. REF LVL also appears in the active function block, indicating that it is the
active amplitude function and can now be changed using any of the data entry controls.
A softkey with ON and OFF in its label can be used to turn the softkey’s function on or off. To
turn the function on, press the softkey so that ON is underlined. To turn the function off, press
the softkey so that OFF is underlined. The following example demonstrates how an ON or OFF
softkey function will be annotated: VID AVG ON OFF (ON).
A function with AUTO and MAN in the label can either be auto-coupled or have its value
manually changed. The function’s value can be changed manually by pressing the softkey
until MAN is underlined, and then changing its value with the numeric keypad, knob, or
step keys. To auto-couple a function, press the softkey so that AUTO is underlined. The
following example demonstrates how an AUTO or MAN softkey function will be annotated:
ATTEN AUTO MAN (AUTO).
A summary of all front-panel keys and their related softkeys can be found in Chapter 8, “Key
Menus”.
2-12 Getting Started
Making a Measurement
Caution
Do not exceed the maximum input power.
The maximum input power for the HP 8590L and HP 85913 is +30 dBm
(1 watt) continuous, 25 Vdc (with 10 dB or more attenuation).
The maximum input power for the HP 85921, and HP 85933 is +30 dBm
(1 watt) continuous, 0 Vdc (with input attenuation of 10 dB or more in
bands 1 through 4.)
The maximum input power for the HP 85943, HP 8594L, HP 85953, or
HP 85963 is +30 dBm (1 watt) continuous and 50 Vdc (ac-coupled) or 0 Vdc
(de-coupled). The input attenuation must be 10 dB or more.
Let’s begin using the spectrum analyzer by measuring an input signal. Since the 300 MHz
calibration signal (CAL OUT) is readily available, we will use it as our input signal.
You cannot hurt the spectrum analyzer by using the calibration signal and pressing any
of the keys described in this section. Don’t be afraid to play with the knob, step keys, or
number/units keypad. (If you have experimented with other keys and wish to return to a
known state, press the green CPREsET) key.)
1. First, turn the instrument on by pressing ILINE). Wait for the power-up process to complete.
2. Press the green [PRESET) key.
3. Connect the spectrum analyzer CAL OTJT to the INPUT 5OQ with an appropriate cable.
4. Set the frequency.
Press the [FREQUENCY) key. CENTER appears on the left side of the screen, indicating that
the center-frequency function is active. The CENTER FREQ softkey label appears in inverse
video to indicate that center frequency is the active function. The active function block is
the space on the screen within the graticule where the center frequency messages appear.
Functions appearing in this block are active: their values can be changed with the knob,
step keys, or number/units keypad. Set the center frequency to 300 MHz with the DATA
keys by pressing 300 (MHz. The knob and step keys can also be used to set the center
frequency.
5. Set the span.
Press (SPAN_). SPAN is now displayed in the active function block, and the SPAN softkey label
appears in inverse video to indicate it is the active function. Reduce the span to 20 MHz by
using the knob, pressing the down key (a), or pressing 20 m.
6. Set the amplitude.
When the peak of a signal does not appear on the screen, it may be necessary to adjust
the amplitude level on the screen. Press [AMPLITUDE). REF LEVEL .O dBm appears in the
active function block. The REF LVL softkey label appears in inverse video to indicate
that reference level is the active function. The reference level is the top graticule line on
the display and is set to 0.0 dBm. Changing the value of the reference level changes the
amplitude level of the top graticule line.
If desired, use the reference level function to place the signal peak on the screen using the
knob, step keys, or number/units keypad. (Marker functions determine the frequency and
amplitude of a signal.)
Getting Started 2-13
Figure 2-5 demonstrates the relationship between center frequency and reference level. The
box in the figure represents the spectrum analyzer screen. Changing the center frequency
changes the horizontal placement of the signal on the screen. Changing the reference level
changes the vertical placement of the signal on the screen. Increasing the span increases the
frequency range that appears horizontally on the screen.
Note
Spectrum analyzers with Option 001 or 011 display the amplitude values in
dBmV. Options 001 and 011 are available only for an HP 85901, or HP 8591E.
v
f-U
~FREWENC Y
REFERENCE
LEVEL
AMP1 I ii/DE
c
t
Figure 2-5. Relationship between Frequency and Amplitude
7. Set the marker.
You can place a diamond-shaped marker on the signal peak to find the signal’s frequency
and amplitude.
To activate a marker, press the m key (located in the MARKER section of the front
panel). The MARKER NORMAL label appears in inverse video to show that the marker is the
active function. Turn the knob to place the marker at the signal peak.
You can also use the
point on the trace.
[PEAK SEARCH]
key, which automatically places a marker at the highest
Readouts of marker amplitude and frequency appear in the active function block and in the
upper-right corner of the display. Look at the marker readout to determine the amplitude of
the signal.
If another function is activated, the frequency and amplitude can still be identified by
looking at the marker readout in the upper-right corner of the screen.
2-14 Getting Started
Measurement Summary
1. Connect the spectrum analyzer CAL OUT to the INPUT 5OQ and press the (PRESET_) key.
2. Set the center frequency by pressing the following keys:
[FREQUENCY),
300 CMHz).
3. Set the span by pressing the following keys: ISPAN), 20 m.
4. The calibration signal is 20 dB (two graticule divisions) below the top of the screen using
these spectrum analyzer settings. If desired, adjust the reference level: press [AMPLITUDE) to
activate the reference level, and use the knob or step keys to change the reference level.
5. Determine the amplitude and frequency of the signal. You can either press [PEAK SEARCH] or
press m and move the marker to the signal peak. Read the amplitude and frequency.
The display screen should look like the one in Figure 2-6. Frequency is displayed
horizontally, and amplitude (power) is displayed vertically.
‘tfE
H
F
ATTEIJ
.O d6m
10
MKR 3 0 0 . 0 1 0 M H z
--20. 1 7
dBm
dB
PEAK
LOG
IO
dB/
MARKER
3 0 0 010 MHz
- 2 0 1 7 dBm
C E N T E R 3 0 0 . 0 0 0 MHz
RES
BW 1
0
KHz
V B W 1 0 KHz
SPAll 2 0 0 0 MHz
5WP c
o nsec
r
Figure 2-6. Reading the Amplitude and Frequency
Note
Spectrum analyzers with Option 001 or 011 display the amplitude values in
dBmV. Options 001 and 011 are available only for an HP 859OL or HP 85913.
Getting Started 2-15
Improving Accuracy with Self-Calibration Routines
Data from the self-calibration routine is necessary for spectrum analyzer operation. Executing
the self-calibration routine regularly ensures that the spectrum analyzer is using current
calibration data that improves the spectrum analyzer frequency and amplitude accuracy. Press
the ICAL) key to view the self-calibration routine menus. The last softkey on this menu, labeled
More 1 of 4 , provides access to additional self-calibration functions. For more detailed
information on the self-calibration softkeys, refer to Chapter 7.
The self-calibration routines add correction factors to internal circuitry. The addition of the
correction factors is required to meet frequency and amplitude specifications.
When the correction factors are added to internal circuitry, CORR (corrected) appears on the left
side of the screen.
Warm-Up Time
In order for the spectrum analyzer to meet its specifications, allow the spectrum analyzer
to warm up for 30 minutes after being turned on before attempting to make any calibrated
measurements. Be sure to calibrate the spectrum analyzer only after it has met operating
temperature conditions.
The spectrum analyzer frequency and amplitude self-calibration routines are initiated by the
CAL FREQ L AMPTD softkey in the menu located under the ICAL] key.
1. To calibrate the instrument, connect the spectrum analyzer CAL OUT to the INPUT 5On
connector with an appropriate cable.
Note
A low-loss cable should be used for accurate calibration. Use the 500 cable
shipped with the spectrum analyzer. (Instruments equipped with Option 001 or
011 only: use the 750 cable shipped with the spectrum analyzer).
2. On the spectrum analyzer, press (CAL) and CAL FREQ & AMPTD . Cal signal not found will
be displayed if CAL OUT is not connected to the spectrum analyzer input. The frequency
and amplitude self-calibration functions take approximately 5 minutes to finish (9 minutes
with Option 130), at which time the internal adjustment data is in working RAM.
3. To save this data in the area of spectrum analyzer memory that is saved when the spectrum
analyzer is turned off, press CAL STORE .
Note
To interrupt the calibration routines started by CAL FREQ , CAL AMPTD , or
CAL FREQ & AMPTD , press (-1, (CAL), More 1 of 4 , and CAL FETCH.
CAL FETCH retrieves the previous correction factors. Improperly interrupting
the self-calibration routines may result in corrupt correction factors. (If this
occurs, press CAL FREQ t AMPTD to rerun the frequency and amplitude
self-calibration routines.)
The frequency and amplitude self-calibration functions can be done separately by using the
CAL FREQ or CAL AMPTD softkeys instead of CAL FREQ & AMPTD .
2-16 Getting Started
Note
If the frequency calibration CAL FREQ and the amplitude calibration
CAL AMPTD self-calibration routines are used, the frequency calibration should
be performed before the amplitude calibration, unless the frequency data is
known to be accurate.
The CAL FREQ softkey starts the frequency self-calibration routine. This routine adjusts the
frequency, sweep time, and span accuracy in approximately 2 minutes.
The CAL AMPTD softkey starts the amplitude calibration routine. This routine takes
approximately 3 minutes (7 minutes with Option 130) to adjust the bandwidths, log and linear
switching, IF gains, IF frequency centering, RF attenuation, and log amplifier. When the
amplitude calibration routine has finished, the preset display returns and CAL DONE is displayed.
Although the spectrum analyzer stores the correction factors in battery-backed RAM, the
data will not be saved when the spectrum analyzer power is turned off unless the data has
been stored with CAL STORE . Using CAL STURE stores the correction factors in an area
of spectrum analyzer memory that is accessed when the spectrum analyzer is turned on.
After the frequency and amplitude self-calibration routines are complete, CORR (corrected)
now appears on the left side of the screen, indicating that the spectrum analyzer is using its
frequency and amplitude correction factors. Correction factors can be turned off by pressing
CORRECT ON OFF . When OFF is underlined, most amplitude correction factors and some
frequency correction factors are not used.
If the self-calibration routines cannot be performed, see “Check the Basics” in Chapter 9.
Performing the Tracking Generator Self-Calibration Routine
(Option 010 or 011 only)
In order for the tracking generator to meet its specifications, allow the spectrum analyzer
to warm up for 30 minutes after being turned on before attempting to make any calibrated
measurements. Be sure to calibrate the spectrum analyzer and the tracking generator only
a&r the spectrum analyzer has met operating temperature conditions.
Note
Since the tracking-generator self-calibration routine uses the absolute
amplitude level of the spectrum analyzer, the spectrum analyzer amplitude
should be calibrated prior to using CAL TRK GEM .
1. To calibrate the tracking generator, connect the tracking generator output (RF OUT 500) to
the spectrum analyzer INPUT 5OQ connector, using an appropriate cable and adapters.
Note
A low-loss cable should be used for accurate calibration. Use the 5Ofl cable
shipped with the spectrum analyzer. (fir Option 001 or 012: use the 750 cable
shipped with the spectrum analyzer).
2. Press the following spectrum analyzer keys: m), More 1 of 4, More 2 of 4, and
CAL TRK GEN . TG SIGNAL NOT FOUND will be displayed if the tracking generator output is
not connected to the spectrum analyzer input.
3. To save this calibration data in the area of spectrum analyzer memory that is saved when
the spectrum analyzer is turned off, press (CAL) then CAL STORE.
Getting Started 2-17
Performing the YTF Self-Calibration Routine
(HP 8592L, HP 85933, HP 85953, or HP 85963 Only)
For HP 8592L, HP 85933, HP 85953, and HP 85963 spectrum analyzers only, the YTF
self-calibration routine should be performed periodically. See “When Is Self-Calibration
Needed?” in the following section for some helpful guidelines on how often the self-calibration
routines should be performed.
1. For the HP 8592L, HP 85933, and HP 85963 connect a low-loss cable (such as HP part
number 8120-5148) from 100 MHz COMB OUT to the spectrum analyzer input. For the
HP 8595E connect the cable from the CAL OUT to the spectrum analyzer input.
2. Press LCAL), then CAL YTF . The YTF self-calibration routine completes in approximately:
Model Number Calibration Time
HP
HP
HP
HP
8592L
85933
85953
85963
7
7
3
5
minutes
minutes
minutes
minutes
3. Press a), then CAL STORE to save the calibration factors in memory.
4. Press (PRESET) to return to normal operation.
When Is Self-Calibration Needed?
While it is difficult to provide general advice for your specific measurement needs, the
following suggestions may help you decide when to use the self-calibration features:
1. Perform the frequency and amplitude self-calibration routines whenever the instrument
experiences significant environmental changes such as temperature (f5 “C), humidity, shock,
or vibration (such as may occur during shipping or transport). This is especially important
if the frequency and amplitude self-calibration routines were performed last in a different
environment.
2. If the environment is relatively stable (for example, a lab environment), use
CAL FREQ & AMPTD monthly. After being turned off overnight, the spectrum analyzer will
need to warm up, but should not require self-calibration.
3. To achieve optimal amplitude accuracy for relative measurements:
a. Keep the spectrum analyzer in a stable environment.
b. Use CAL FREQ t AMPTD before beginning the first measurement.
c. Keep the spectrum analyzer turned on between measurements.
d. Do not use CAL FREQ & AMPTD before subsequent measurements (the amplitude drift is
normally smaller than the self-calibration uncertainty).
4. If you change the input signal for EXT REF IN, run the frequency and amplitude
self-calibration routines using CAL OUT. Amplitude calibration is required to improve IF
centering.
5. If preselector peaking (PRESEL PEAK ) has more than a 2 dB effect on the signal amplitude
when in BAND 1 or above, and in a single band sweep, then perform the YTF self-calibration
routine and store the data with CAL STORE . The YTF self-calibration routine improves the
preselector default values. (HP 8592L, HP 85933, HP 85956 or HP 859622 only.)
2-18 Getting Started
6. If accurate self-calibration is needed temporarily in a different environment, use
CAL FREQ t AMPTD , but do not press CAL STORE . The temporary correction factors will be
used until the spectrum analyzer is turned off or until CAL FETCH is pressed.
Memory Card Insertion and Battery Replacement
The memory card reader is available for the HP 859OL, HP 8592L, and HP 8594L as Option 003.
Use the following information to ensure that the memory card is inserted correctly. Improper
insertion causes error messages to occur, but generally does not damage the card or instrument.
Care must be taken, however, not to force the card into place. The cards are easy to insert
when installed properly.
1. Locate the arrow printed on the card’s label.
2. Insert the card with its arrow matching the raised arrow on the bezel around the
card-insertion slot. See Figure 2-7.
Figure 2-7. Inserting the Memory Card
3. Press the card into the slot. When correctly inserted, about 19 mm (0.75 in) of the card is
exposed from the slot.
Getting Started
2-l 9
Changing the Memory Card Battery
It is recommended that the memory card battery be changed every 2 years. The battery is a
lithium commercial CMOS type battery, part number CR 2016 or HP part number 1420-0383.
Note
The minimum lifetime of the battery (under ordinary conditions) is more
than 2 years.
The date that the memory card battery was installed is either engraved on the side of the
memory card or written on a label on the memory card.
If the memory card does not have a label with the date that the battery was installed, use
the date code engraved on side of the memory card. The date code engraved on the memory
card consists of numbers and letters engraved in the black plastic on the side of the memory
card. See Figure 2-8. The first number indicates the year, the following two characters indicate
the month, and the following number indicates the week in the month that the memory card
battery was installed. For example, 8OC3 indicates the battery was installed in the third week
in October in 1988.
Figure 2-8. Memory Card Battery Date Code Location
2-20 Getting Started
Procedure to Change the Memory Card Battery
The battery is located beside the card’s write-protect switch on the end opposite the connector.
Caution
The battery power enables the memory card’s memory to retain data. You can
lose the data when the battery is removed. Replace the battery while the card
is installed in a powered-up instrument.
1. Locate the groove along the edge of the battery clip. See Figure 2-9.
2. Gently pry the battery clip out of the card. The battery fits within this clip.
3. Replace the battery, making sure the plus (+) sign on the battery is on the same side as the
plus ( + ) sign on the clip.
HP Part Number: 1420-0383 or commercial Lithium CMOS type part number CR 2016.
.
DO NOT THROW BATTERIES AWAY BUT
COLLECT AS SMALL CHEMICAL WASTE.
0
I!!!!
sk78Oa
4. Insert the battery clip into the memory card, holding the clip as oriented in Figure 2-9.
(Face the “open” edge of the clip toward the write-protect switch on the memory card.)
5. Write the date that the battery was replaced on the memory card label. This will help you
to remember when the battery should be replaced.
.
=
INSERTION END
HEWLETT
m PACKAPD
a5700A
,?K BYTEHAM
WPITE
PRCJTECT
5WlTCH
B A T T E R Y SLOT
GPOOVE
BATTEP I’ ii P
Figure 2-9. Memory Card Battery Replacement
Getting Started 2-21
Analyzer Battery Information
The HP 8590 Series spectrum analyzers use a 3.6 V lithium battery to enable the spectrum
analyzer memory to retain data. The date when the battery was installed is on a label on the
rear panel of the spectrum analyzer. See Figure 2-10.
The minimum life expectancy of the battery is 8 years at 25 “C, or 1 year at 55 “C. If you
experience problems with the battery or the recommended time period for battery replacement
has elapsed, see “How to Return Your Analyzer for Service” in Chapter 9.
If you wish to replace the battery yourself, you can purchase the service documentation that
provides all necessary test and maintenance information. The battery is soldered onto the
spectrum analyzer processor board.
Warning
There is a danger of explosion if the battery is incorrectly replaced.
Replace only with the same or equivalent type recommended. Discard
used batteries according to manufacture’s instructions.
DO NOT THROW BATTERIES AWAY BUT
COLLECT AS SMALL CHEMICAL WASTE.
sk780a
You can order the service documentation for an HP 8590 Series spectrum analyzer through your
HP Sales and Service office. The documentation is described under “Service Documentation
(Option 915)” in Chapter 10 of this manual.
After replacing the spectrum analyzer battery, write the date of battery replacement on the
rear-panel label.
BATTERI
0
8 ‘YEARS A
1
r
EAP
LIFE
T
AT
‘75’C
55’C>
IdSTALLED
p I.1 1 3 2 e
Figure 2-10. Rear-Panel Battery Information Label
2.22 Getting Started
3
Making Basic Measurements
What You’ll Learn in This Chapter
This chapter demonstrates basic spectrum analyzer measurements with examples of typical
measurements; each measurement focuses on different functions. The measurement procedures
covered in this chapter are listed below.
n
Resolving signals of equal amplitude using the resolution bandwidth function.
n
Resolving small signals hidden by large signals using the resolution bandwidth function,
n
Increasing the frequency readout resolution using the marker counter.
w Decreasing the frequency span using the marker track function.
w Peaking signal amplitude using preselector peak (HP 8592L, HP 8593E, HP 85953, or
HP 85963 only).
n
n
Tracking unstable signals using marker track and the maximum hold and minimum hold
functions.
Comparing signals using delta markers.
w Measuring low-level signals using attenuation, video bandwidth, and video averaging.
w Identifying distortion products using the RF attenuator and traces.
w Using the spectrum analyzer as a receiver in zero frequency span.
w Measuring signals near band boundaries using harmonic lock (HP 8592L, HP 8593E,
HP 85953, or HP 8596E only).
To find descriptions of specific spectrum analyzer functions refer to Chapter 7 “Key
Descriptions”.
Making Basic Measurements 3-1
Resolving Signals of Equal Amplitude Using the Resolution
Bandwidth Function
In responding to a continuous-wave signal, a swept-tuned spectrum analyzer traces out the
shape of the spectrum analyzer intermediate frequency (IF) filters. As we change the filter
bandwidth, we change the width of the displayed response. If a wide filter is used and two
equal-amplitude input signals are close enough in frequency, then the two signals appear as
one. Thus, signal resolution is determined by the IF filters inside the spectrum analyzer.
The resolution bandwidth (RES SW) function selects an IF filter setting for a measurement.
Resolution bandwidth is defined as the 3 dB bandwidth of the filter. The 3 dB bandwidth tells
us how close together equal amplitude signals can be and still be distinguished from each other.
Generally, to resolve two signals of equal amplitude, the resolution bandwidth must be less
than or equal to the frequency separation of the two signals. If the bandwidth is equal to the
separation a dip of approximately 3 dB is seen between the peaks of the two equal signals, and
it is clear that more than one signal is present. See Figure 3-2.
In order to keep the spectrum analyzer calibrated, sweep time is automatically set to a
value that is inversely proportional to the square of the resolution bandwidth. So, if the
resolution bandwidth is reduced by a factor of 10, the sweep time is increased by a factor of
100 when sweep time and bandwidth settings are coupled. (Sweep time is proportional to
1/BW2.) For fastest measurement times, use the widest resolution bandwidth that still permits
discrimination of all desired signals. The spectrum analyzer allows you to select from 30 Hz to
3 MHz resolution bandwidth in a 1, 3, 10 sequence, plus 5 MHz, for maximum measurement
flexibility.
Example: Resolve two signals of equal amplitude with a frequency separation of 100 kHz.
1. To obtain two signals with a 100 kHz separation, connect the calibration signal and a signal
source to the spectrum analyzer input as shown in Figure 3-l. (If available, two sources can
be used.)
Figure 3-l. Set-Up for Obtaining Two Signals
2. If you are using the 300 MHz calibration signal, set the frequency of the source 100 kHz
greater than the calibration signal (that is, 300.1 MHz). The amplitude of both signals should
be approximately -20 dBm.
3. On the spectrum analyzer, press Cm]. Set the center frequency to 300 MHz, the span to
2 MHz, and the resolution bandwidth to 300 kHz by pressing (FREQUENCY] 300 [$iK), @Ei@
2 IFvlHz_), then Isw] 300 (kHz). A single signal peak is visible.
3-2 Making Basic Measurements
Note
When using an HP 8590L with Option 713 or an HP 8592L with Option 713,
and the signal peak cannot be found, increase the span to 20 MHz by pressing
ISPAN) 20 INIHz_). The signal should be visible. Press [PEAK SEARCH], (MKRJ,
MK TRACK ON OFF (ON), then ISPAN_) 2 INIHz) to bring the signal to center
screen. Then press MK TRACK Old OFF so that OFF is underlined to turn the
marker track function off.
4. Since the resolution bandwidth must be less than or equal to the frequency separation of
the two signals, a resolution bandwidth of 100 kHz must be used. Change the resolution
bandwidth to 100 kHz by pressing (swl 100 (kHz). Two signals are now visible as in
Figure 3-2. Use the knob or step keys to further reduce the resolution bandwidth and better
resolve the signals.
&
REF
0 dB”
ATTEN 1 0
d8
PEAK
LOG
10
dB/
C E N T E R 3 0 0 0 0 0 MHz
CRES BW 1 0 0 kHL
VBW 3 0
CHZ
S P A N 2 000 MHZ
SW 2 0 mset
Figure 3-2. Resolving Signals of Equal Amplitude
As the resolution bandwidth is decreased, resolution of the individual signals is improved and
the sweep time is increased. For fastest measurement times, use the widest possible resolution
bandwidth. Under preset conditions, the resolution bandwidth is “coupled” (or linked) to span.
Since the resolution bandwidth has been changed from the coupled value, a “#” mark appears
next to RES BW in the lower-left corner of the screen, indicating that the resolution bandwidth
is uncoupled. (Also see the CAUTO COUPLE) key description in Chapter 7.)
Note
To resolve two signals of equal amplitude with a frequency separation of
200 kHz, the resolution bandwidth must be less than the signal separation, and
resolution of 100 kHz must be used. The next larger filter, 300 kHz, would
exceed the 200 kHz separation and would not resolve the signals.
Making Basic Measurements 3-3
Resolving Small Signals Hidden by Large Signals Using the
Resolution Bandwidth Function
When dealing with resolution of signals that are not equal in amplitude, you must consider the
shape of the IF filter as well as its 3 dB bandwidth. The shape of the filter is defined by the
shape factor, which is the ratio of the 60 dB bandwidth to the 3 dB bandwidth. (Generally,
the IF filters in this spectrum analyzer have shape factors of 15:l or less.) If a small signal is
too close to a larger signal, the smaller signal can be hidden by the skirt of the larger signal. To
view the smaller signal, you must select a resolution bandwidth such that k is less than a.
See Figure 3-3.
k
<
a
Figure 3-3. Resolution Bandwidth Requirements for Resolving Small Signals
The separation between the two signals must be greater than half the filter width of the larger
signal at the amplitude level of the smaller signal.
Example: Resolve two input signals with a frequency separation of 200 kHz and an amplitude
separation of 60 dB.
1. To obtain two signals with a 200 kHz separation, connect the equipment as shown in the
previous section, “Resolving Signals of Equal Amplitude Using the Resolution Bandwidth
Function “.
2. Set the center frequency to 300 MHz and the span to 2 MHz: press k-1 300 m,
then ISPAN) 2 IIVIHz).
Note
When using an HP 8590L with Option 713 or an HP 8592L with Option 713,
and the signal peak cannot be found, increase the span to 20 MHz by pressing
ISPAN) 20 INIHz). The signal should be visible. Press [PEAK SEARCH], (rvlKR),
MK TRACK ON OFF so that ON is underlined. Then (SPAN) 2 INIHz) to bring the
signal to center screen. Then press MK TRACK ON OFF to OFF to turn the
marker track function off.
3-4 Making Basic Measurements
3. Set the source to 300.2 MHz, so that the signal is 200 kHz higher than the calibration signal.
Set the amplitude of the signal to -80 dBm (60 dB below the calibration signal).
4. Set the 300 MHz signal to the reference level by pressing
MARKER -+REF LVL .
[PEAK SEARCH),
[MKR), then
If a 10 kHz filter with a typical shape factor of 15: 1 is used, the filter will have a bandwidth
of 150 kHz at the 60 dB point. The half-bandwidth (75 kHz) is narrower than the frequency
separation, so the input signals will be resolved.
4-J
REF
-23 7 dBrn
AaTTEN
10 dB
MKR 3 0 0 . 0 1 0 MHz
- 2 3 8 6 dBm
0
PEAK
LOG
10
dB/
MARKER
3 0 0 . 0 1 0 MHz
-23.86 dBm
CENTER 300 000 MHZ
RES EW 10 kHZ
YBW
10
kHZ
SP,%hl 2 000 MHZ
SW 60 msec
Figure 3-4. Signal Resolution with a 10 kHz Resolution Bandwidth
If a 30 kHz filter is used, the 60 dB bandwidth will be 450 kHz. Since the half-bandwidth
(225 kHz) is wider than the frequency separation, the signals most likely will not be resolved.
See Figure 3-5. (To determine resolution capability for intermediate values of amplitude level
differences, consider the filter skirts between the 3 dB and 60 dB points to be approximately
straight. In this case, we simply used the 60 dB value.)
4
REF -23 7 dBm
ATTEN
1 0 dB
MKR 300 0 1 0 MHz
- 2 3 8 7 dBm
0
PEPK
LOG
In
IW
,1!
dB/
RES EW
30 kHZ
.-
I
i \
\
C E N T E R 3Ub3.000 MHz
#RES BW 38 kHL
“BW 30 kHL
S P A N 2 0 0 0 MHz
SW 2 0 msec
Figure 3-5. Signal Resolution with a 30 kHz Resolution Bandwidth
Making Basic Measurements 3-5
Increasing the Frequency Readout Resolution Using the Marker
Counter
Note
This application cannot be performed using an HP 8590L with Option 713 or an
HP 8592L with Option 713.
The marker counter increases the resolution and accuracy of frequency readout. When using
the marker count function, if the bandwidth to span ratio is too small (less than O.Ol), the
Reduce Span message appears on the display. If Widen RES BW is displayed, it indicates that the
resolution bandwidth is too narrow. Resolution bandwidths less than 300 Hz are not allowed if
you are using firmware with a revision date prior to 930506. If the signal being counted is the
largest signal within the 300 Hz bandwidth then the count will be correct. If there is another,
larger signal (even off the display), the count will be for the larger signal.
Example: Increase the resolution and accuracy of the frequency readout on the signal of
interest.
1. Place a marker on the signal of interest. (If you are using the CAL OUT signal, place the
marker on the 300 MHz calibration signal. Press [FREQUENCY] 300 IIVIHz), (SPAN] 100 m), and
(PEAK SEARCH].)
2. Press (mFCTN), then MK COUNT ON OFF (ON should be underlined) to turn the marker
counter on. COUNTER and the frequency and amplitude of the marker will appear in the
active function area.
3. Increase the counter resolution by pressing More 1 of 2 , CNT RES AUTO MAN and then
entering the desired resolution using the step keys or the number/units keypad. For
example, press 1 m. The marker counter readout is in the upper-right corner of the
screen. The resolution can be set from 10 Hz to 100 kHz.
4. The marker counter remains on until turned off. Turn off the marker counter by pressing
(FCTNJ then MK COUNT ON OFF (until OFF is underlined). (MARKER ALL OFF also turns
the marker counter off.)
43
REF 00 d&r
PEAK
LOG
10
rlB/
!iTTEld
10 dB
C N T R 330000 0 0 0 MHz
CNTR
- 2 0 05 dBrn
Figure 3-6. Using the Marker Counter
3-6 Making Basic Measurements
Decreasing the Frequency Span Using the Marker Track
Function
Using the spectrum analyzer marker track function, you can quickly decrease the span while
keeping the signal at center frequency.
Example: Examine a carrier signal in a 200 kHz span.
1. Press (PRESET], tune to a carrier signal, and place a marker at the peak. (If you are using the
CAL OUT signal, place the marker on the 300 MHz calibration signal. Press C-1,
300 m, ISPAN), 200 IMHz), and [PEAK SEARCH).)
Press @iGX%], MK TRACK ON OFF (ON) and the signal will move to the center of the
screen, if it is not already positioned there (note that the marker must be on the signal).
Because the marker track function automatically maintains the signal at the center of the
screen, you can reduce the span quickly for a closer look. If the signal drifts off of the
screen as you decrease the span, use a wider frequency span.
Press (SPAN), 200 IkHz). The span decreases in steps as automatic zoom is completed.
See Figure 3-7. You can also use the knob or step keys to decrease the span or use the
PEAK ZOOM function under ISPAN).
Press MK TRACK ON OFF again so that (OFF) is underlined to turn off the marker track
function.
Note
When you are finished with the example, turn off the marker tracking function.
b
REF
MkR-TRK
0
dB”
ATTEN 1 0
CINTER 300 0 0 1 5 MHZ
RE5 tlW 3 ~HL
dB
'VBW 3 kHz
300.0010 MHZ
-20 0 4
d0rn
S P A N 2 0 0 . 0 kHZ
CWP 100 msec
Figure 3-7. After Zooming In on the Signal
Making Basic Measurements 3-7
Peaking Signal Amplitude with Preselector Peak
Note
This application should only be performed using an HP 8592L, HP 8593E,
HP 8595E, or HP 85963.
PRESEL PEAK works above 2.9 GHz only (bands 1 through 4).
The preselector peak function automatically adjusts the preselector tracking to peak the
signal at the active marker. Using preselector peak prior to measuring a signal yields the most
accurate amplitude reading at the specified frequency. To maximize the peak response of
the preselector and adjust the tracking, tune the marker to a signal and press [AMPLITUDE),
PRESEL PEAK .
Note
PRESEL PEAK maximizes the peak response of the signal of interest, but may
degrade the frequency response at other frequencies. Use PRESEL DEFAULT or
[PRESET] to clear preselector-peak values before measuring a signal at another
frequency.
PRESEL DEFAULT provides the best flatness for a full single-band, for viewing
several signals simultaneously.
Example: Use the knob, step keys, or [PEAK SEARCH] to place the marker on your signal and
then press CAMPLITUDE) and PRESEL PEAK . The message CAL : PEAKING appears in the active
function block while the routine is working.
b
REF
PEAK
LOG
10
0
dBm
ATTEN 1 0
MKR 1 8
- 4 1
d0
005 GHT
R> dR
m
/
C E N T E R 18.000 GHz
H E 5 BW 3 MHz
VBW
1 MHz
S P A N 2 0 0 0 GH,
SWP 4 0 msec
Figure 3-8. Peaking Signal Amplitude Using Preselector Peak
3-8 Making Basic Measurements
Tracking Unstable Signals Using Marker Track and the
Maximum Hold and Minimum Hold Functions
The marker track function is useful for tracking unstable signals that drift with time. The
maximum hold and minimum hold functions are useful for displaying modulated signals which
appear unstable, but have an envelope that contains the information-bearing portion of the
signal.
MK TRACK ON OFF may be used to track these unstable signals. Use
[PEAK SEARCH]
to place a
marker on the highest signal on the display. Pressing MK TRACK ON OFF (ON) will bring that
signal to the center frequency of the graticule and adjust the center frequency every sweep
to bring the selected signal back to the center. SPAN ZOOM is a quick way to perform the
IPEAK SEARCH],
C-1, MK TRACK ON OFF , m key sequence.
Note that the primary function of the marker track function is to track unstable signals, not to
track a signal as the center frequency of the spectrum analyzer is changed. If you choose to
use the marker track function when changing center frequency, check to ensure that the signal
found by the tracking function is the correct signal.
Example: Use the marker track function to keep a drifting signal at the center of the display
and monitor its change.
This example requires a modulated signal. An acceptable signal can be easily found by
connecting an antenna to the spectrum analyzer input and tuning to the FM broadcast band
(88 to 108 MHz). Set the spectrum analyzer center frequency for 100 MHz with a span of
20 MHz, an attenuator setting of 0 dB, and reference level setting of approximately -40 dBm.
Your circumstances may be slightly different, depending on building shielding and proximity to
transmitters.
1. Connect an antenna to the spectrum analyzer input.
2. Press cm), [FREQUENCY], 100 IIVIHz), (SPAN], 20 INIHz_).
Note
Use a different signal frequency if no signal is available at 100 MHz in your
area.
3. Press (AMPLITUDE], 40 C-dBm), ATTEN AUTO MAN , 0 (+dBm].
4. Press (SPAN), SPAN ZOOM, 500 (kHz).
Notice that the signal has been held in the center of the display.
Note
If the signal you selected drifts too quickly for the spectrum analyzer to keep
up with, use a wider span.
Making Basic Measurements 3-9
5. The signal frequency drift can be read from the screen if both the marker track and marker
delta functions are active. Press INIKR), MARKER A , Cm), MK TRACK ON OFF ; the
marker readout indicates the change in frequency and amplitude as the signal drifts. See
Figure 3-9.
b
MKR A-TRII 28.8 ktiz
- 0 5 dB
REF - 4 0 0 dBm #ATTEN 0 dB
PEAK
LOG
10
dB/
C E N T E R 1 0 4 9 2 7 5 MHZ
RES ew 1 0 CHZ
I
0
d
1 k/Afi: I
“BW
10 kHZ
S P A N 5 0 0 . 0 I-Hz
SWP 3 0 m5ec
Figure 3-9. Using Marker Tracking to Track an Unstable Signal
The spectrum analyzer can measure the short- and long-term stability of a source. The
maximum amplitude level and the frequency drift of an input signal trace can be displayed and
held by using the maximum-hold function. The minimum amplitude level can be displayed by
using minimum hold (available for trace C only).
You can use the maximum-hold and minimum-hold functions if, for example, you want to
determine how much of the frequency spectrum an FM signal occupies.
Example: Using the maximum-hold and minimum hold functions, monitor the envelopes of a
signal.
1. Connect an antenna to the spectrum analyzer input.
2. Press CPRESET_), [FREQUENCY], 100 m, and m, 20 IMHz).
3. Press [AMPLITUDE_), 40 I-), ATTEN AUTO MAN , 0 (+dBm), m), SPAN ZOOM , 500 @.
Notice that the signal has been held in the center of the display.
4. Turn off the marker track function by pressing MK TRACK ON OFF (OFF).,
5. To measure the excursion of the signal, press [TRACE) then MAX HOLD A . As the signal
varies, maximum hold maintains the maximum responses of the input signal, as shown in
Figure 3- 10.
3.10 Making Basic Measurements
MKR 104.8813 MHz
C E N T E R 1 0 4 8813 MHz
RES BW 1 0
ktiz
VEW 1 0
kHZ
S P A N 5 0 0 . 0 kHz
SWP 3 0 msec
Figure 3-10. Viewing an Unstable Signal Using Max Hold A
Annotation on the left side of the screen indicates the trace mode. For example, MA SB SC
indicates trace A is in maximum-hold mode, trace B and trace C are in store-blank mode.
See “Screen Annotation” in Chapter 2.
6. Press (j%?Fj, TRACE A B C to select trace B. (Trace B is selected when B is underlined.)
Press CLEAR WRITE B to place trace B in clear-write mode, which displays the current
measurement results as it sweeps. Trace A remains in maximum-hold mode, showing the
frequency shift of the signal.
7. Press TRACE A B C to select trace C (C should be underlined). Press MIN HOLD C . Trace C
is in the minimum-hold mode and displays the minimum amplitude of the frequency drift of
the signal.
b
M K R 1 0 4 . 8 8 1 3 MHZ
- 4 7 04 dRm
REF -40 0 d&n XATTEN 0 dB
PE,4II
LOG
10
dE/
i
I
C E N T E R 1 0 4 8 8 1 3 MHz
fiES BW 1 0
CHZ
VOW 10 kHr
S P A N 5 0 0 . 0 kHr
SWP 3 0 msec
Figure 3-11. Viewing an Unstable Signal With Max Hold, Clear Write, and Min Hold
Making Basic Measurements
3-l 1
Comparing Signals Using Delta Markers
Using the spectrum analyzer, you can easily compare frequency and amplitude differences
between signals, such as radio or television signal spectra. The spectrum analyzer delta marker
function lets you compare two signals when both appear on the screen at one time or when
only one appears on the screen.
Example: Measure the differences between two signals on the same display screen.
1. Connect the spectrum analyzer CAL OUT to the INPUT 50R. Press @ZZY’). For the
HP 85933 only, set the center frequency to 900 MHz and the span to 1.8 GHz: press
[FREQUENCY], 900 ($iiC), (SPANS, 1.8 IGHz).
The calibration signal and its harmonics appear on the display.
2.
Press (PEAK SEARCH] to place a marker at the highest peak on the display. The
NEXT PK RIGHT and NEXT PK LEFT softkeys move the marker from peak to peak. Press
NEXT PK RIGHT to move the marker to the 300 MHz calibration signal. See Figure 3-12.
The signal that appears at the left edge of the screen is the spectrum analyzer local
oscillator (LO) and represents 0 Hz.
4
ATTEN
REF 0 dBm
PEAK
LOG
10
dB/
MKR 311 MHz
- 2 0 1 5 dBm
IB dB
n
u/-. J
CEFITER 900 MHZ
RES BW 3 MHZ
VBW 1 M H z
SPaN 1 A00 GHZ
SWP 2 0 msec
Figure 3-12. Placing a Marker on the CAL OUT Signal
3. Press MARKER A to activate a second marker at the position of the first marker. Move the
second marker to another signal peak using the NEXT PK RIGHT or NEXT PK LEFT softkeys
or the knob.
4. The amplitude and frequency difference between the markers is displayed in the active
function block and in the upper-right corner of the screen. See Figure 3-13.
Press (MKR), More 1 of 2 , then MARKER ALL OFF to turn the markers off.
3-12 Making Basic Measurements
4
MKA A 2!97
ATTEN 1 0
0 dEm
REF
MHz
- 1 3 . 4 3 dB
dB
PEaK
LOG
10
dB/
WA SB
SC FC
COAR
C E N T E R 900 MHz
RES EW 3 MHZ
VBW
1 MHZ
SPQN 1 600 GH.?
SWP 2 0 msec
Figure 3-13. Using the Marker Delta Function
5. The MARKER -+PK-PK softkey can be used to find and display the frequency and amplitude
difference between the highest- and lowest-amplitude signals. To use this automatic
function, press (MKR--t), More 1 of 2 , M&RKER -+PK-PK . See Figure 3-14.
16:21:03
12 MhR 1992
&
R E F .B dBm
RTTEN
18
NKR A 86 MHz
- 4 4 . 9 1 dB
dB
PEAK I
I
LOG
18
dB/
."'
:
'.
.'.
I
I'":&
d8
CENTER I.121 GHz
RES 8W 3.8 NHz
'I'
:
"
,,,.. 1 .,.,,,,,I..,,,; ,,,,,,..,,,,,,,...,,,.,......
1
UBW
1
NHz
1
SPAN 1.919 GHz
SWP
38.4
nts.ee
RT
Figure 3-14. Using the Marker to Peak/Peak Function
The frequency and amplitude differences between the signals appear in the active function
block. In addition, the softkeys accessed by (s) appear on the screen.
Example: Measure the frequency and amplitude difference between two signals that do not
appear on the screen at one time. (This technique is useful for harmonic distortion tests when
narrow span and narrow bandwidth are necessary to measure the low-level harmonics.)
1. Connect the spectrum analyzer CAL OUT to the INPUT 5OQ (if you have not already done
so). Press [PREsETI, (FREQUENCY), 300 m, (SPAN) and the step down key (a) to narrow
the frequency span until only one signal appears on the screen.
2. Press
(PEAK SEARCH)
to place a marker on the peak.
3. Press MARKER A to identify the position of the first marker.
Making Basic Measurements 3-13
4. Press CFREQUENCY] to activate center frequency. Turn the knob clockwise slowly to adjust
the center frequency until a second signal peak is placed at the position of the second
marker. It may be necessary to pause occasionally while turning the knob to allow a sweep
to update the trace. The first marker remains on the screen at the amplitude of the first
signal peak.
Note
Changing the reference level changes the marker delta amplitude readout.
The annotation in the upper-right corner of the screen indicates the amplitude and frequency
difference between the two markers. See Figure 3-15.
To turn the markers off, press IIVIKR), More 1 of 2 , then MARKER ALL OFF .
h
REF
0
dBm
MKR A 306.~
~ - ““7
,mn
-13 3 3 3dL
ATTEN 10 dB
PEAK
LOG
10
d8/
CEIlTER 5 9 7 5 MHz
RES EW 3 M H Z
VEW
1 MHZ
S P A N 5 0 0 . 0 MHz
SWP 28 msec
Figure 3-15. Frequency and Amplitude Difference between Signals
3-14 Making Basic Measurements
Measuring Low-Level Signals Using Attenuation, Video
Bandwidth, and Video Averaging
Spectrum analyzer sensitivity is the ability to measure low-level signals. It is limited by the
noise generated inside the spectrum analyzer. The spectrum analyzer input attenuator and
bandwidth settings affect the sensitivity by changing the signal-to-noise ratio. The attenuator
affects the level of a signal passing through the instrument, whereas the bandwidth affects the
level of internal noise without affecting the signal. In the first two examples in this section, the
attenuator and bandwidth settings are adjusted to view low-level signals.
If, after adjusting the attenuation and resolution bandwidth, a signal is still near the noise,
visibility can be improved by using the video-bandwidth and video-averaging functions, as
demonstrated in the third and fourth examples.
Example: If a signal is very close to the noise floor, reducing input attenuation brings the
signal out of the noise. Reducing the attenuation to 0 dB maximizes signal power in the
spectrum analyzer.
Note
The total power of all input signals at the spectrum analyzer input must not
exceed the maximum power level for the spectrum analyzer.
1. Connect an antenna to the spectrum analyzer input. Press Cm).
2. Reduce the frequency range to view a low-level signal of interest. For example, narrow the
frequency span from 88 MHz to 108 MHz by pressing [FREQUENCY], START FREQ , 88 (MHz),
STOP FREQ , 108 IRnHz).
3. Place a marker on the low-level signal of interest. Press (MKR) and use the knob to position
the marker at the signal’s peak.
4. Place the signal at center frequency by pressing (MKR] then MARKER -CF.
5. Reduce the span to 10 MHz. Press (SPAN), and then use the step-down key (m).
See Figure 3-16.
4
REF 0 dRrn
-PEAK
LOG
10
dB/
AT 10 ‘38
MKR 164 93 MHL
-57 12 d&r
-
SPAN
i n 00 MHZ
Figure 3-16. Low-Level Signal
Making Basic Measurements
3-l 5
6. Press (AMPLITUDE), ATTEN AUTO MAN . Press the step-up key (m) once to select 20 dB
attenuation. Increasing the attenuation moves the noise floor closer to the signal.
A “#” mark appears next to the AT annotation at the top of the display, indicating the
attenuation is no longer coupled to other spectrum analyzer settings.
7. To see the signal more clearly, press 0 m. Zero attenuation makes the signal more visible.
(As a precaution to protect the spectrum analyzer input mixer, 0 dB RF attenuation can be
selected only with the number/units keypad.)
hp
REF
PEAV
COG
10
dB/
MYR 104 9 3
MHZ
- 5 6 5 4 dBm
#AT 0 dB
0 0 dBm
I
-
L
ATTEN
0 idB
B
n
VA SE
SC FC
LOW
L
CEllTER 104 9 3
MHZ
RES BW 100 k.HL
“EW 30 CHL
5PAPl 10 n o M H Z
SWP 20 0 mse
Figure 3-17. Using 0 dB Attenuation
Before connecting other signals to the spectrum analyzer input, increase the RF attenuation to
protect the spectrum analyzer input mixer: press ATTEN AUTO MAN so that AUTO is underlined
or press
[AUTO COUPLE)
and AUTO ALL.
Example: The resolution bandwidth can be decreased to view low-level signals.
1. As in the previous example, connect an antenna to the spectrum analyzer input. Set the
spectrum analyzer to view a low-level signal.
2. Press Isw) then a. The low-level signal appears more clearly because the noise level is
reduced. See Figure 3-18.
_
.,
__
#RES BW 30 iHZ
vew 30 kHZ
CWP 33 3 m5tc
Figure 3-18. Decreasing Resolution Bandwidth
3-16 Making Basic Measurements
A “#I’ mark appears next to the RES BW annotation at the lower-left corner of the screen,
indicating that the resolution bandwidth is uncoupled.
As the resolution bandwidth is reduced, the sweep time is increased to maintain calibrated
data.
Example: The video-filter control is useful for noise measurements and observation of
low-level signals close to the noise floor. The video filter is a post-detection low-pass filter that
smoothes the displayed trace. When signal responses near the noise level of the spectrum
analyzer are visually masked by the noise, the video filter can be narrowed to smooth this noise
and improve the visibility of the signal. (Reducing video bandwidths requires slower sweep
times to keep the spectrum analyzer calibrated.)
Using the video bandwidth function, measure the amplitude of a low-level signal.
1. As in the first example, connect an antenna to the spectrum analyzer input. Set the
spectrum analyzer to view a low-level signal.
2. Narrow the video bandwidth by pressing Isw], VID BW AUTO MAN , and the step-down key
((7J-J). This clarifies the signal by smoothing the noise, which allows better measurement of
the signal amplitude.
A “#” mark appears next to the VBW annotation at the bottom of the screen, indicating that
the video bandwidth is not coupled to the resolution bandwidth.
Instrument preset conditions couple the video bandwidth to the resolution bandwidth
so that the video bandwidth is equal to or narrower than the resolution bandwidth. If
the bandwidths are uncoupled when video bandwidth is the active function, pressing
VID BW AUTO MAN (so that AUTO is underlined) recouples the bandwidths. See Figure 3-19.
Note
The video bandwidth must be set wider than the resolution bandwidth when
measuring impulse noise levels.
CEIJTEP 104 9 3 MH‘~
HE5 BW 100 YHL
#VW
I” lrtiz
5P4N 10 0” MHZ
SW 30.0 mse
Figure 3-19. Decreasing Video Bandwidth
Making Basic Measurements 3-17
Example: If a signal level is very close to the noise floor, video averaging is another way to
make the signal more visible.
Note
The time required to construct a full trace that is averaged to the desired
degree is approximately the same when using either the video-bandwidth or
the video-averaging technique. The video bandwidth technique completes the
averaging as a slow sweep is taken, whereas the video averaging technique
takes many sweeps to complete the average. Characteristics of the signal
being measured such as drift and duty cycle determine which technique is
appropriate.
Video averaging is a digital process in which each trace point is averaged with the previous
trace-point average. Selecting video averaging changes the detection mode from peak to
sample. The result is a sudden drop in the displayed noise level. The sample mode displays
the instantaneous value of the signal at the end of the time or frequency interval represented
by each display point, rather than the value of the peak during the interval. Sample mode is
not used to measure signal amplitudes accurately because it may not find the true peak of the
signal.
Video averaging clarifies low-level signals in wide bandwidths by averaging the signal and the
noise. As the spectrum analyzer takes sweeps, you can watch video averaging smooth the
trace.
1. Position a low-level signal on the spectrum analyzer screen.
2. Press (j%ZEJ More 1 of 3, then VID AVG ON OFF . When ON is underlined, the
video-averaging routine is initiated. As the averaging routine smoothes the trace, low-level
signals become more visible. VID AVG 100 appears in the active function block.
The number represents the number of samples (or sweeps) taken to complete the averaging
routine.
3. To set the number of samples, use the number/units keypad. For example, press
VID AVG ON OFF (so that ON is underlined), 25 IHz). Turn video averaging off and on again
by pressing VID AVG ON OFF (OFF), VID AVG ON OFF (ON).
The number of samples equals the number of sweeps in the averaging routine.
During averaging, the current sample appears at the left side of the graticule. Changes in
active functions settings, such as the center frequency or reference level, will restart the
sampling. The sampling will also restart if video averaging is turned off and then on again.
Once the set number of sweeps has been completed, the spectrum analyzer continues to
provide a running average based on this set number.
3-l 8
Making Basic Measurements
i ?7
REF
0
*Bn
MKR 1 8 1 . 7 3 MHz
- 6 0 2 9 dBm
*TEN 10 dR
SMPL -17
LOG
10
dB/
-
771
“ I D AVG
25
AVG
25
WA SB
SC FC
CURR
t
C E N T E R Irnl 7 3 MHZ
RES BW 1 0 0 CHz
VBW 3 0
kHr
SPAN 10.00 MHZ
SWP 2 0 rnsec
Figure 3-20. Using the Video Averaging Function
Making Basic Measurements 3.19
Identifying Distortion Products Using the RF Attenuator and
Traces
Distortion from the Analyzer
High-level input signals may cause spectrum analyzer distortion products that could mask the
real distortion measured on the input signal. Using trace B and the RF attenuator, you can
determine which signals, if any, are internally generated distortion products.
Example: Using a signal from a signal generator, determine whether the harmonic distortion
products are generated by the spectrum analyzer.
1. Connect a signal generator to the spectrum analyzer INPUT 500. Set the signal generator
frequency to 200 MHz and the amplitude to 0 dBm.
Set the center frequency of the spectrum analyzer to 400 MHz and the span to 500 MHz:
press (-1, 400 m, (SPAN) 500 m. The signal shown in Figure 3-21 produces
harmonic distortion products in the spectrum analyzer input mixer.
PEAK
LOG
10
dE/
c
WA SE
S C F(
CDRR
L
CENTER 400 0 M H Z
RE: SW 3 MHz
YBW 1 MHZ
5PAll 500 m MHZ
SWP 2 0 msec
Figure 3-2 1. Harmonic Distortion
2. Change the span to 200 MHz: press (SPAN), 200 INIHz).
3. Change the attenuation to 0 dB: press [AMPLITUDE], ATTEN AUTO MAN , 0 IdBm_l.
4. To determine whether the harmonic distortion products are generated by the spectrum
analyzer, first save the screen data in trace B.
Press (ml, TRACE A B C (until trace B is underlined), then CLEAR WRITE B . Allow the
trace to update (two sweeps) and press VIEW B , [PEAK SEARCH), MARKER A . The spectrum
analyzer display shows the stored data in trace B and the measured data in trace A.
5. Next, increase the RF attenuation by 10 dB: press C-1, ATTEN AUTO MAN , and the
step-up key (m) once. See Figure 3-22.
3-20 Making Basic Measurements
/
1
C E N T E R 400 0 MHZ
RES BW 1 0 MHZ
“BW 300 kHZ
I
/
1
SPAiN 200
200 .o
.o MHZ
SWP 20 0 nl5P
Figure 3-22. RF Attenuation of 10 dB
Figure
6. Compare the response in trace A to the response in trace B. If the distortion product
decreases as the attenuation increases, distortion products are caused by the spectrum
analyzer input mixer.
Note
When the source signal amplitude is changed between trace A and trace B and
there is a resulting change in the distortion product, this is shown by a change
in the marker amplitude (marker-delta value). An example of the marker-delta
value produced by a change in the distortion product is shown in Figure 3-22.
A change in the distortion product is indicative of high-level input signals
causing circuit overload conditions and producing distortion. This distortion is a
function of the internal hardware of the analyzer. The input signals must be
attenuated to eliminate the interference caused by the internal distortion.
However, if is no change in the distortion product with an increase in
attenuation, the distortion is not caused internally but is a result of distortion
that is present on the input signal as supplied from the signal source. An
example of this is shown in Figure 3-23, where the source signal is not high
enough to cause internal distortion in the spectrum analyzer, therefore, any
distortion that is displayed is present on the input signal.
hp
08 52: 39 APR 07.
HEF -10 0 dBm
PEAK
LOG
10
c1 B /
1943
MKR a 0 HZ
.c7 dB
iiAT 10 dR
C E N T E R a00 0 MHZ
RES BW 1.0 MHZ
VBW 300 kHL
SPA!4 200 0 MHZ
SW 20 0 nl5e
Figure 3-23. No Harmonic Distortion
Making Basic Measurements 3-21
Third-Order Intermodulation Distortion
Two-tone, third-order intermodulation distortion is a common problem in communication
systems. When two signals are present in a system, they can mix with the second harmonics
generated and create third-order intermodulation distortion products, which are located close
to the original signals. These distortion products are generated by system components such as
amplifiers and mixers.
Example: Test a device for third-order intermodulation. This example uses two sources, one
set to 300 MHz and the other to approximately 301 MHz. (Other source frequencies may be
substituted, but try to maintain a frequency separation of approximately 1 MHz.)
1. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 3-24.
Figure 3-24. Third-Order Intermodulation Equipment Setup
2. Set one source to 300 MHz and the other source to 301 MHz for a frequency separation of
1 MHz. Set the sources equal in amplitude (in this example, the sources are set to -5 dBm)
3. Tune both signals onto the screen by setting the center frequency between 300 and
301 MHz. Then, using the knob, center the two signals on the display. Reduce the frequency
span to 5 MHz for a span wide enough to include the distortion products on the screen. To
be sure the distortion products are resolved, reduce the resolution bandwidth until the
distortion products are visible. Press (BW), RES BW , and then use the step-down key ((J-J) to
reduce the resolution bandwidth until the distortion products are visible.
4. For best dynamic range, set the mixer input level to -40 dBm and move the signal to the
reference level: press C-1, More 1 of 3 , MAX MXR LEVEL , 40 m.
The spectrum analyzer automatically sets the attenuation so that a signal at the reference
level will be a maximum of -40 dBm at the input mixer.
5. To measure a distortion product, press [PEAK SEARCH) to place a marker on a source signal.
To activate the second marker, press MARKER A . Using the knob, adjust the second marker
to the peak of the distortion product that is beside the test tone. The difference between
the markers is displayed in the active function block.
3-22 Making Basic Measurements
To measure the other distortion product, press SPEAK SEARCH], NEXT PEAK . This places a
marker on the next highest peak, which, in this case, is the other source signal. To measure
the difference between this test tone and the second distortion product, press MARKER A
and use the knob to adjust the second marker to the peak of the second distortion product.
See Figure 3-25.
J@
REF
0
PEAK
LOG
10
dB/
dBm
MHz
MKR a I 025
- 5 4 . 0 4 dB
ATTEN 40 dB
t-
WA SE
S C FS
CORR
L
CENTER 300.650 MHz
XRFS RW 7 kH7
“RW -4 kH7
S P A N 5 0 0 0 MHZ
SWP 1 7 SPr
Figure 3-25. Measuring the Distortion Product
Making Basic Measurements 3-23
Using the Analyzer As a Receiver in Zero Frequency Span
The spectrum analyzer operates as a fixed-tuned receiver in zero span. The zero span mode can
be used to recover modulation on a carrier signal.
Center frequency in the swept-tuned mode becomes the tuned frequency in zero span. The
horizontal axis of the screen becomes calibrated in time, rather than frequency. Markers
display amplitude and time values.
The following functions establish a clear display of the video waveform:
w Trigger stabilizes the waveform trace on the display by triggering on the modulation
envelope. If the signal’s modulation is stable, video trigger synchronizes the sweep with the
demodulated waveform.
n
Linear mode should be used in amplitude modulation (AM) measurements to avoid distortion
caused by the logarithmic amplifier when demodulating signals.
n
Sweep time adjusts the full sweep time from 20 ms (20 ps in zero span with Option 101) to
100 s. The sweep time readout refers to the full lo-division graticule. Divide this value by 10
to determine sweep time per division.
w Resolution and video bandwidth are selected according to the signal bandwidth.
Each of the coupled function values remains at its current value when zero span is activated.
Video bandwidth is coupled to resolution bandwidth. Sweep time is not coupled to any other
function.
Note
Capability for measuring AM or FM demodulation is available if Option 102,
103, or 301 is installed in your spectrum analyzer. Refer to “Demodulating and
Listening to an AM or FM Signal” in Chapter 4 for more information.
Example: View the modulation waveform of an AM signal in the time domain.
1. To obtain an AM signal, you can either connect an antenna to the spectrum analyzer input
and tune to a commercial AM broadcast station or you can connect a source to the spectrum
analyzer input and set the percent modulation of the source. (If a headset is used with the
VIDEO OUT connector, the spectrum analyzer will operate as a radio.)
2. First, center and zoom in on the signal in the frequency domain (see “Decreasing the
Frequency Span Using the Marker Track Function”). Be sure to turn off the marker track
function, since the marker track function must be off for zero span. See Figure 3-26.
3.24 Making Basic Measurements
44
REF
0 dBm
ATTEN 1 0
dB
PEAK
LOG
10
dB/
I
C E N TT EERR 330000 0000 MHz
MHz
#RES BW 1 MHZ
VBW 33 0 00 kHz
kHz
I
S P A NN 2 0 . 00 00 MHz
MHz
SW 2 00 msec
msec
Figure 3-26. Viewing an AM Signal
3. To demodulate the AM, press [Bw). Increase the resolution bandwidth to include both
sidebands of the signal within the passband of the spectrum analyzer.
4. Next, position the signal peak near the reference level and select a linear voltage display.
Press [AMPLITUDE] and change the reference level, then press SCALE LOG LIN to underline
LIN.
5. To select zero span, either press (SPAN), 0 IHz) or press ZERO SPAN . See Figure 3-27. If
the modulation is a steady tone (for example, from a signal generator), use video trigger
to trigger on the waveform and stabilize the display. Adjust the sweep time to change the
horizontal scale.
Use markers and delta markers to measure time parameters of the waveform.
4
REF dd 6
1
mV ATTEN 10 dB
CENTER 300 000 MHZ
XRES BW i MHz
VBW 3 0 0 kHz
SPAN 0 HZ
SWP 2 0 msec
Figure 3-27. Measuring Modulation in Zero Span
Making Basic Measurements 3-25
Measuring Signals Near Band Boundaries Using Harmonic Lock
Note
This application should only be performed using an HP 8592L, HP 85933,
HP 85953, or HP 85963.
When measuring signals at or near a band crossing, use the lowest band having a specified
upper frequency limit that will include the signal of interest. See specifications and
characteristics in your calibration guide for your instrument for harmonic band specifications.
Using harmonic lock, and choosing the lowest possible band to analyze a signal, ensures the
best specified measurement accuracy.
To lock onto a specific harmonic, press C-1, Band Lock , BND LOCK ON OFF (so that
ON is underlined), or select a band (see specifications and characteristics in your calibration
guide for your instrument for band specifications). After setting the harmonic lock, only center
frequencies and spans within the frequency range of the harmonic band may be entered. The
span is automatically reduced to accommodate a center frequency specified near the end of the
band ‘range.
Example:
1. Connect 100 MHz COMB OUT to the spectrum analyzer input. The HP 85953 does not have
a 100 MHz COMB OUT signal, so it cannot be used for this measurement example. (An
external source must be substituted.)
2. Press [PRESET] and then the following keys:
(mCTRL_) COMB GEN ON OFF (ON)
ISPAN) 350 (MHz)
[FREQUENCY)3m
Band Lock BND LOCK ON OFF (ON)
3. Place a marker on the farthest peak to the left by using the
[PEAK SEARCH]
key.
4. Press MARKER A , NEXT PK RIGHT, NEXT PK RIGHT to show the frequency and amplitude
difference between the two comb teet,h.
You will see three comb teeth on your display. The spectrum analyzer is locked in band 1
and will not allow multiband sweeps. See Figure 3-28.
5. To see a multiband sweep, press the following keys:
(MKR) More 1 of 2 MARKER ALL OFF
(FREQUENCY]
Band Lock BND LOCK ON OFF (OFF)
6. Place a marker on the farthest peak to the left by pressing
[PEAK SEARCH].
‘7. Press MARKER A . Use NEXT PK RIGHT to place a marker on the farthest peak to the right.
The marker readout displays the frequency and amplitude difference between the two comb
teeth. See Figure 3-29.
3-26 Making Basic Measurements
4Q
REF
0 dBm
LOG
10
dE/
ATTEN
MKR a 2 0 0 . 4 M H z
-2 0 2 dB
1 0 dB
I
I
I
I
i
,
MARKER C
C E N T E R 1 2 . 9 0 0 0 GHr
RES BW 3 MHz
“BW 1 MHZ
S P A N 3 5 0 . 0 MHz
SWP 2 0 msec
Figure 3-28. Using Harmonic Lock
Note
The comb frequencies have a 100 MHz spacing.
b
REF
MKR A 2 0 1 . 3 M H z
dBm
ATTEN 1 0
dB
PEAK
LOG
10
dE/
MARKER C
C E N T E R 1 2 . 9 0 0 0 GHr
RES B’*I 3 MHz
S P A N 3 5 0 . 0 MHz
SW 4 0 msec
Figure 3-29. Harmonic Locking Off
Making Basic Measurements 3.27
Making Measurements
What You’ll Learn in This Chapter
This chapter demonstrates spectrum analyzer measurement techniques with examples
of typical applications; each application focuses on different features. The measurement
procedures covered in this chapter are listed below.
n
Measuring amplitude modulation using the fast Fourier transform function.
w Stimulus-response measurements using the built-in tracking generator (Option 010 or 011).
n
Demodulating and listening to an AM or FM signal (Option 102 or 103 only).
w Triggering on a selected line of a video picture field (Options 101 and 102, or Option 301
only).
n
Making a reflection calibration and measurements.
w Using the Gate Utility to simplify time-gated measurements (Option 105 only).
w Using the time-gated spectrum analyzer capability (Option 105 only).
n
Using the one-button measurements to measure N dB bandwidth, percent amplitude
modulation, and third order intercept (TOI).
w Using the power measurement functions to make transmitter measurements.
To find descriptions of specific spectrum analyzer functions refer to Chapter 7 “Key
Descriptions”.
‘Making Measurements 4-1
Measuring Amplitude Modulation with the Fast Fourier
Transform Function
A Fourier transform, transforms time domain data (zero span) into the frequency domain.
The fast Fourier transform (FFT) function of the spectrum analyzer allows measurements
of amplitude modulation (AM). It is commonly used to measure AM at rates that cannot be
measured in the normal frequency domain due to spectrum analyzer limitations on narrow
resolution bandwidths. For a given AM rate, the FFT function can generate a trace faster than
using the frequency domain for the equivalent spectrum analyzer measurement.
Note
The fast ADC Option 101 extends FFT operation. The standard spectrum
analyzer has sweep times (in zero span) up to 20 ms and allows FFT stop
frequencies from 20 Hz to 10 kHz. With Option 101, spans of 20 ps can be used
and FFT stop frequencies up to 10 MHz are available.
The FFT function calculates the magnitude of each frequency component from a block of
time-domain samples of the input signal. It uses a flat top filter response. This implementation
is a post-detection Fourier transform and it cannot be used to resolve continuous wave or
carrier signals.
When IjjJ FFT Menu , and SINGLE FFT are pressed, sample-detection mode is selected
and a sweep is taken to obtain a sample of the input signal. Then the spectrum analyzer
executes a series of computations on the time data to produce the frequency-domain results.
CONTINUS FFT can be used instead of SINGLE FFT and the spectrum analyzer will be put in
continuous sweep mode with an FFT being performed at the end of each sweep.
/;o
REF 15.83
SWPL
'.IN
mu
:
:
.;
/y3y
""""1'1"""
I
i
l FyR(bR
**ii: 3‘I- III
WKR 61 HZ
2.3825 mV
hTTEN 1B dB
/j
n”:
:
II
,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.,I.. 1
FFT START 0 Hz
RES BW 188 kHz
:
,:\
,
:
:
:
:
:
I,I.., i,,.~ ~ . . . . . . ..,,
:
UBW 38 kHz
:
:
FFT
STOP
XSWP
:.
:.
200
Hz
1.88
set
RT
Figure 4-l. FFT Annotation
Some of the screen annotation is altered when the FFT function is active. The left edge of
the graticule is relabeled FFT START and represents 0 Hz relative to the carrier. The right
edge of the graticule is relabeled FFT STOP and is the maximum FFT frequency used in the
transformation. The annotation LIN in the upper left corner refers to the scale of the incoming
data being transformed. The FFT results, which are being displayed, are always in LOG scale.
The carrier appears at the left edge of the graticule with the modulation sidebands and any
distortion appearing along the horizontal axis. The amplitude relationships of all the signals
are the same as they would be if the components were displayed with normal swept-tuned
operation in log mode, 10 dB per division.
4-2 Making Measurements
If the FFT stop frequency is less than the highest harmonic of the AM modulation, than the
FFT results may include aliased signals. That is, it will include some signals that are being
displayed at the wrong frequency. The sweep time affects the sample rate and must be
optimized to avoid aliasing.
The single and continuous FFT functions require a specific spectrum analyzer setup before they
can be activated. First, an AM signal is demodulated in the time domain. In order to do this,
the resolution bandwidth is widened to include the signal sidebands within the passband of
the spectrum analyzer. Next, zero span is selected so that the spectrum analyzer operates as a
fixed-tuned receiver. Tuning is centered around the AM carrier.
The MARKER+ AUTO FFT softkey activates the FFT function with very little preliminary setup
required. Two examples of using the FFT function are included in this section.
n
First example: uses the manual FFT functions.
n
Second example: uses the automatic FFT measurement.
Note
After the FFT function is used, the markers are still in FFT mode for use in
evaluating data. Turn off the FFT markers before attempting to use markers in
the normal fashion. Press FFT OFF in the FFT menu to turn off the markers
and exit the FFT measurement.
Example 1: Use the manual FFT measurement to look at 60 Hz AM modulation.
1. Connect a signal generator to the spectrum analyzer INPUT 500. Adjust the signal
generator to produce an AM signal with a 60 Hz modulation frequency.
2. Press [FREQUENCY_) and set the spectrum analyzer center frequency to the frequency of the
modulated input signal. Press m), 10 MHz. Press [FREQUENCY) again and center the
signal on the spectrum analyzer display.
3. Press LSPAN), 1 MHz. Press
display again.
[FREQUENCY)
and center the signal on the spectrum analyzer
4. Press m, 100 kHz. (Re-center the signal, if necessary.)
Press m 200 kHz, re-centering the signal again if it is necessary.
5. Press VID BW AUl’fl MAN , 1 kHz. The video bandwidth should be about ten times greater
than the highest modulation frequency of interest for the best amplitude accuracy.
6. Press REF LVL and turn the knob to change the reference level, placing the signal peak
within the top division of the screen. The signal peak must be below the reference level.
The signal amplitude moves up and down because the spectrum analyzer catches the signal
at different points of modulated amplitude each time it sweeps.
‘7. Change the amplitude scale to linear by pressing IjAMPL’TUDE] and SCALE LOG LIN so that
LIN is underlined. The FFT will give incorrect results when the spectrum analyzer is in Log
mode.
Press REF LVL and place the signal peak within the top division of the screen.
8. Press m, 0 Hz. The spectrum analyzer now operates as a fixed-tuned receiver.
9.
Press (MEAS~JSER], FFT Menu, and CONTINUS FFT . The spectrum analyzer will now be
taking FFTs continuously, updating the measurement at the end of every sweep.
Press FFT STOP FREQ , 250 Hz. This sets the spectrum analyzer to include the fourth
harmonic of the 60 Hz modulation signal on the screen.
Making Measurements 4-3
10. To confirm that the resolution bandwidth and video bandwidth are correct for measuring
the modulation amplitude, use the following procedure:
a. Press (MKRI and use the knob to move the marker to the desired modulation signal. In
this example, place the marker on the 60 Hz fundamental modulation signal.
Note
For HP 8590L with Option 713 or HP 8592L with Option 713 the resolution
bandwidth must be left at about 100 kHz to accommodate frequency drift of
the spectrum analyzer. If you are using an HP 8590L with Option 713, or an
HP 8592L with Option 713, do not do step b.
b. Press CBW) and decrease the resolution bandwidth using the @J key, until measured
signal amplitude drops. Then press a to increase the bandwidth until the signal
amplitude stops increasing and stays the same, or until the maximum resolution
bandwidth is reached. Use the narrowest bandwidth that does not cause a change in the
signal amplitude.
Note
As the resolution bandwidth is stepped down, the modulated signal must be
re-centered in the filter bandwidth. This is a zero span display. To center the
signal, select [FREQUENCY) and adjust the center frequency to maximize the
amplitude of the trace. If this is not done, the signal amplitude can decrease
due to off tuning of the spectrum analyzer and not because of the resolution
bandwidth chosen.
For the best amplitude accuracy, the resolution bandwidth should be about 10 times
greater than the highest modulation frequency of interest.
For the 60 Hz fundamental, a 1 kHz resolution bandwidth works well. (For the
HP 85913, HP 8593E, HP 85943, HP 85953, and HP 8596E, if harmonics are not a
concern, a 100 kHz resolution bandwidth can be used and it will provide a faster update
rate.)
C. Press IBW), VID BW AUTO MAN (MAN) and use the step keys to decrease the video
bandwidth until the amplitude of the measured signal drops. Then step the bandwidth
up until the signal amplitude stops increasing, or until the maximum video bandwidth is
reached. Use the narrowest video bandwidth that does not cause a change in the signal
amplitude.
For the best amplitude accuracy, the video bandwidth should be about 10 times greater
than the highest modulation frequency of interest.
For the 60 Hz fundamental, a 1 kHz video bandwidth works well.
11. Press [MEAS/USERJ and % AM ON OFF so that ON is underlined. The spectrum analyzer
reads out the percent AM of the largest modulation frequency. An arrow indicates the
signal being measured (see Figure 4-l). This measurement does not include all of the
harmonics of the modulating signal.
Note
The percent AM function will not run if the SIGNAL CLIPPED error message
is being displayed. Increase the reference level until the error message goes
away.
4-4 Making Measurements
Note
When the FFT measurement is active, pressing the CMEAS/USER) key will cycle
between the MEASUSER and FFT menus.
4.7
REF .B
SMPL
LOG
dBrn
RTTEH
MKR 1 . 8 1 7 LHZ
- 4 5 . 2 5 dBrn No u5er
Men”
i@ dB
2,
:
I
FFT S T A R T B HZ
RES BW 18 k”Z
.:
“BW 9.8 k”Z
I
FFT S T O P 6 . 6 6 7 k”Z
SWP 3 8 . 8 m5e.2
R
Figure 4-2. Percent Amplitude Modulation Measurement
Example 2: Use the automatic FFT measurement to look at 60 Hz AM modulation.
1. Connect a signal generator to the spectrum analyzer INPUT 509. Adjust the signal generator
to produce an AM signal with a 60 Hz modulation frequency.
2. Press [FREQUENCY) and set the spectrum analyzer center frequency to the frequency of the
modulated input signal. Press
spectrum analyzer display.
3.
m),
10
m.
Press
[FREQUENCY)
to keep the signal on the
Press [MEAS~USER), FFT Menu, and MARKER+ AUTO FFT . This initiates the FFT function and
activates a marker.
4. Use the knob to place the marker on the AM modulated signal and press
MARKER--+ AUTO FFT again. The spectrum analyzer will perform the following steps:
a.
b.
c.
d.
Save the present instrument state in state register 8.
Reduce the span to zoom in on the signal.
Set the detector mode to sample.
Set the scale to linear.
e. Change the span to zero span.
f. Start the continuous FFT function.
g. Set the FFT stop frequency to 10 kHz.
5. Press FFT STOP FREQ , 250 a). This sets the spectrum analyzer to include the fourth
harmonic of the 60 Hz modulation signal on the screen.
6. To confirm that the resolution bandwidth and video bandwidth are correct for measuring the
modulation amplitude, use the following procedure:
a. Press m and use the knob to move the marker to the desired modulation signal. In
this example, place the marker on the 60 Hz fundamental modulation signal.
Note
For HP 8590L with Option 713 or HP 8592L with Option 713 the resolution
bandwidth must be left at about 100 kHz to accommodate frequency drift of
the spectrum analyzer. If you are using an HP 8590L with Option 713, or an
HP 8592L with Option 713, do not do step b.
Making Measurements 4-5
b. Press (Bw) and decrease the resolution bandwidth using the Q) key, until measured signal
amplitude drops. Then press @) to increase the bandwidth until the signal amplitude
stops increasing and stays the same, or until the maximum resolution bandwidth is
reached. Use the narrowest bandwidth that does not cause a change in the signal
amplitude.
Note
As the resolution bandwidth is stepped down, the modulated signal must be
re-centered on the spectrum analyzer display. If this is not done, the signal
amplitude can decrease due to off tuning of the spectrum analyzer and not
because of the resolution bandwidth chosen.
For the best amplitude accuracy, the resolution bandwidth should be about 10 times
greater than the highest modulation frequency of interest.
For the 60 Hz fundamental, a 1 kHz resolution bandwidth works well. (For the HP 8591E,
HP 85933, HP 85943, HP 85953, and HP 85963, if harmonics are not a concern, a
100 kHz resolution bandwidth can be used and it will provide a faster update rate.)
c. Press Isw), VID BW AUTO MAN (MAN) and use the step keys to decrease the video
bandwidth until the amplitude of the measured signal drops. Then step the bandwidth
up until the signal amplitude stops increasing, or until the maximum video bandwidth is
reached. Use the narrowest video bandwidth that does not cause a change in the signal
amplitude.
For the best amplitude accuracy, the video bandwidth should be about 10 times greater
than the highest modulation frequency of interest.
For the 60 Hz fundamental, a 1 kHz video bandwidth works well.
‘7. Press [jJ and % AM ON OFF so that ON is underlined. The spectrum analyzer reads
out the percent AM of the largest modulation frequency. An arrow indicates the signal being
measured (see Figure 4-l). This measurement does not include all of the harmonics of the
modulating signal.
Note
The percent AM function will not run if the SIGNAL CLIPPED error message
is being displayed. Increase the reference level until the error message goes
away.
Note
To return to the spectrum analyzer state prior to running the FFT function,
press the FFT OFF softkey. This turns off the FFT function. Press [RECALL],
INTERNAL +STATE , and 8 to recall the state from state register 8.
Note
When the FFT measurement is active, pressing the
between the MEASUSER and FFT menus.
4-6 Making Measurements
[MEAS~USER]
key will cycle
Stimulus-Response Measurements
Note
This application should only be performed using an HP 8590L or HP 85913 with
Option 010 or 011, or using an HP 85933, HP 85943, HP 85953, or HP 85963
with Option 010.
What Are Stimulus-Response Measurements?
Stimulus-response measurements require a source to stimulate a device under test (DUT), a
receiver to analyze the frequency-response characteristics of the DUT, and, for return-loss
measurements, a directional coupler. Characterization of a DUT can be made in terms of its
transmission or reflection parameters. Examples of transmission measurements include flatness
and rejection. A reflection measurement is return loss.
A spectrum analyzer combined with a tracking generator forms a stimulus-response
measurement system. With the tracking generator as the swept source and the spectrum
analyzer as the receiver, operation is analogous to a single-channel scalar network analyzer.
A narrow-band system has a wide dynamic measurement range, but the tracking generator’s
output frequency must be made to precisely track the spectrum analyzer input frequency. This
wide dynamic range will be illustrated in the following example. Figure 4-3 shows the block
diagram of a spectrum analyzer and tracking-generator system.
S P E C T R U M AI‘JAL YZER
I
:‘---) ~-~~~2~~
I T\’ 2-+-gg
Ii
AMP
-i
I
L. _ _ 4v
- F- i\,;;~9-fgF. ;F
TRACK I r\iG GEI\IERATOR
Figure 4-3.
Block Diagram of a Spectrum Analyzer/Tracking-Generator Measurement System
Note
The HP 85630A Transmission/Reflection Test Set with the HP 85714A Scalar
Measurement Personality is recommended for making transmission and
reflection measurements with your spectrum analyzer. The scalar measurement
personality provides simple menu-driven functions to make fast, accurate
scalar network analysis measurements with your spectrum analyzer and test
set.
Making Measurements 4-7
Using a Spectrum Analyzer with a Tracking Generator
The procedure below describes how to use the built-in tracking generator system of the
HP 85913 Option 010 spectrum analyzer to measure the rejection of a low-pass filter which
is a type of transmission measurement. Illustrated in this example are the functions in the
tracking-generator menu, such as adjusting the tracking-generator output power, source
calibration, and normalization. Conducting a reflection measurement is similar and is covered
in “Making Reflection Calibration Measurements”. Refer to the HP Spectrum Analyzer Seminar,
or Application Note 150-7, for more information.
Stepping through the Measurement
There are four basic steps in performing a stimulus-response measurement, whether it be
a transmission or reflection measurement: set up the spectrum analyzer settings, calibrate,
normalize, and measure.
1. If necessary, perform the self-calibration routine for the tracking generator described in
“Performing the Tracking Generator Self-Calibration Routine” in Chapter 2.
2. To measure the rejection of a low-pass filter, connect the equipment as shown in Figure 4-4.
This example uses a filter with a cut-off frequency of 300 MHz as the DUT.
SPECTRUM ANALYZER
R F OlJi
I N P U T SOS7
Figure 4-4. Transmission Measurement Test Setup
3. Activate the tracking generator menu by pressing (%ZiK] and Track Gen . To activate
the tracking-generator power level, press SRC PWR ON OFF until ON is underlined
(see Figure 4-5).
Caution
Excessive signal input may damage the DUT. Do not exceed the maximum
power that the device under test can tolerate.
Note
To reduce ripples caused by source return loss, use 10 dB or greater tracking
generator output attenuation. Tracking generator output attenuation is
normally a function of the source power selected. However, the output
attenuation may be controlled by using SRC ATN AUTO MAN . (There is no
output attenuation in the HP 85901, with Option 010 or Option 011.) Refer to
specifications and characteristics in your calibration guide for more information
on the relationship between source power and source attenuation.
4-8 Making Measurements
&
REF
dBm
ATTEN
1 0 d8
PEAK
LOG
10
dB/
/
W A SB
S C FC
CORR
1
C
E N T E R 900
900 MHZ
MHZ
CENTER
RES BW 3 MHZ
“BW
1 MHZ
S PPAAN N1 800
1 800GHr
GHr
SWP 22 00 msec
msec
Figure 4-5. Tracking-Generator Output Power Activated
4. Put the sweep time of the analyzer into stimulus-response auto-coupled mode by pressing
More 1 of 2 , then SWP CPLG SR SA until SR (stimulus-response mode) is underlined.
Auto-coupled sweep times are usually much faster for swept-response measurements than
they are for spectrum analyzer measurements.
Note
In the stimulus-response mode, the Q (reactance versus resistance) of the
DUT can determine the fastest rate at which the spectrum analyzer can be
swept. To determine whether the analyzer is sweeping too fast, slow the
sweep time and note whether there is a frequency or amplitude shift of the
trace. Continue to slow the sweep time until there is no longer a frequency or
amplitude shift.
5. Since we are only interested in the rejection of the low-pass filter, tune the spectrum
analyzer center frequency so that the roll-off of the filter comprises the majority of the trace
on the display (see Figure 4-6).
ik
FIEF
0 dBm
ATTEN 1 0
dB
PEAK
LOG
18
dB/
CENTER 443 6 MHZ
FE5 BW 3 MHZ
vow 1 MHZ
S P A N 5 0 6 1 . 0 MHz
SWP 2 0 msec
Figure 4-6. Spectrum Analyzer Settings According to the Measurement Requirement
Making Measurements 4-9
6. Decrease the resolution bandwidth to increase sensitivity, and narrow the video bandwidth
to smooth the noise. In Figure 4-7, the resolution bandwidth has been decreased to 10 kHz.
40
REF
0
dBm
ATTEN 1 0
dB
PEAK
LOG
10
dB/
V P St
SC F!
CO!a
C E N T E R 4 4 3 6 MHZ
#RES EW 1 0 kHz
S P A N 5 0 0 . 0 MHz
SWP 5 0 msec
“BW 10 kHZ
Figure 4-7. Decrease the Resolution Bandwidth to Improve Sensitivity
Adjusting the resolution bandwidth may result in a decrease in amplitude of the signal.
This is known as a tracking error. Tracking errors occur when the tracking generator’s
output frequency is not exactly matched to the input frequency of the spectrum analyzer.
Tracking errors are most notable when using narrow resolution bandwidths. Tracking
error can be compensated manually or automatically. In narrow bandwidths, the manual
method of adjusting the tracking is usually faster than the automatic tracking adjustment.
To compensate for the tracking error manually, press (AUX], Track Gen , and
MAN TRK ADJUST , then use the knob to adjust the trace for the highest amplitude. To
compensate for the tracking error automatically, press (-1, Track Gen , then
TRACKING PEAK.
h
REF
0
dBm
ATTEN I0 dB
PEAK
LOG
10
dB/
:
/ ;W;RACK
\
ADJ\
CENlEn 4 4 3 6 MHz
XRES EW 1 0 CllZ
~
“BW 10 kHZ
(
1
j
~
S P A N 5 0 0 . 0 MH7
SWP 5 0 msec
Figure 4-8. Manual Tracking Adjustment Compensates for Tracking Error
4-10 Making Measurements
Note
If the automatic tracking routine is activated in a narrow resolution bandwidth,
it usually is not necessary to use the tracking adjust again when increasing the
resolution bandwidth.
7. To make a transmission measurement accurately, the frequency response of the test system
must be known. To measure the frequency response of the test system, connect the cable
(but not the DUT) from the tracking generator output to the spectrum analyzer input. Press
Cm], TRACE A B C (so B is underlined), CLEAR WRITE B , BLANK B . The frequency
response of the test system is now stored in trace B.
8. To normalize, reconnect the DUT to the spectrum analyzer. Press (TRACE], More 1 of 3 ,
NORMLIZE ON OFF until ON is underlined. Press NORMLIZE POSITION to activate the
display line. This display line marks the normalized reference position, or the position
where 0 dB insertion loss (transmission measurements) or 0 dB return loss (reflection
measurements) will normally reside. Using the knob results in a change in the position of
the normalized trace, within the range of the graticule.
Normalization eliminates the frequency response error of the test system. When
normalization is on, trace math is being performed on the active trace. The trace math
performed is trace A minus trace B plus the display line, with the result placed into trace
A. Remember that trace A contained the measurement trace, trace B contained the stored
calibration trace, and DL (display line) represents the normalized reference position. Note
that the units of the reference level, dB, reflect this relative measurement.
b
REF
PEAK
LOG
10
dB/
DL
-6 6
dB
e1
dBm
ATTEN 1 0
I
I
I
dB
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
i
DISPLAY LINE
-6 6 dB
C E N T E R 4 4 3 6 MHz
#RES BW 1 0 kHz
VQW 10 kHz
S P A N 500.0 MHz
SWP 5 0 nlsec
Figure 4-9. Normalized Trace
9. To measure the rejection of the filter at a given frequency, press Ir\nKRl, and enter the
frequency. For example, enter 350 MHz. The marker readout displays the rejection of the
filter at 350 MHz (see Figure 4-10).
Making Measurements 4-11
@
REF
0 darn
PEAK
LOG
10
dE/
DL
- 6
da
MKR 3 4 9 . 9 MHZ
-ia 6 4 dB
*TTEN 10 da
6
WA-SE
S C FC
COW
\
1.
----,.&-C E N T E R 4 4 3 6 MHz
XRES BW 1 0 CHZ
“BW
10 kHZ
S P A N 5 0 0 . 0 MHz
SWP 5 0 msec
Figure 4-10. Measure the Rejection Range with Delta Markers
Tracking Generator Unleveled Condition
When using the tracking generator, the message TG UNLVL may appear. The TG UNLVL message
indicates that the tracking generator source power (SRC PWR ON OFF ) could not be maintained
at the user-selected level during some portion of the sweep. If the unleveled condition exists
at the beginning of the sweep, the message will be displayed immediately. If the unleveled
condition occurs after the sweep begins, the message will be displayed after the sweep is
completed. A momentary unleveled condition may not be detected when the sweep time is
small. The message will be cleared after a sweep is completed with no unleveled conditions.
The unleveled condition may be caused by any of the following:
n
Start frequency is too low or the stop frequency is too high. The unleveled condition is likely
to occur if the true frequency range exceeds the tracking generator frequency specification
(especially the low frequency specification). The true frequency range being swept may be
significantly different than the start or stop frequency annotations indicate, depending on
other spectrum-analyzer settings, especially the span (see specifications and characteristics in
your calibration guide for your instrument). For better frequency accuracy, use a narrower
span.
. Tracking peak may be required (use TRACKING PEAK ).
’ Source attenuation may be set incorrectly (select SRC ATN MAN AUTO (AUTO) for optimum
setting).
n
n
The source power may be set too high or too low, use SRC PWR ON OFF to reset it.
The source power sweep may be set too high, resulting in an unleveled condition at the end
of the sweep. Use PWR SWP ON OFF to decrease the amplitude.
4-12 Making Measurements
Demodulating and Listening to an AM or FM Signal
Note
This application should only be performed using an HP 85913, HP 8593E,
HP 85943, HP 85953, or HP 85963 with Option 102 or 103.
The functions listed in the menu under Demod allow you to demodulate and hear signal
information displayed on the spectrum analyzer. Simply place a marker on a signal of interest,
activate AM or FM demodulation, and then listen.
Example:
1. Connect an antenna to the spectrum analyzer input.
2. Select a frequency range on the spectrum analyzer, such as the range for FM radio
broadcasts. For example, the frequency range for FM broadcasts in the United States is
88 MHz to 108 MHz. Press c-1, (m), START FREQ , 88 [MHz_), STOP FREQ ,
108 INIHz).
3. Place a marker on the signal of interest by using PEAK SEARCH) to place a marker on the
highest-amplitude signal, or by pressing [MKR) , MARKER NORMAL and moving the marker to a
signal of interest.
4. Press [AUXCTRL_), Demod, DEMOD ON OFF (so that ON is underlined), and DEMOD AM FM
(so that FM is underlined). SPEAKER ON OFF is set to ON by the preset function. Use the
front-panel volume control to control the speaker’s volume.
4
REF
0
dBm
BTTEN
MKR
10 dB
1 0 4 . 9 0 MHZ
-46 61 dEm
FM”
LOG
10
dE/
S T A R T 88 0 0 MHz
RES BW 100 kHz
“BW 30 kHr
STOP
100.00
MHZ
SWP 75 msec
Figure 4- 11. Demodulation of an FM Signal
5. The signal is demodulated at the marker’s position for the duration of the dwell time. llse
the step keys, knob, or number/units keypad to change the dwell time. For example, press
the step-up key (m) twice to increase the dwell time to 2 seconds.
6. The peak search functions can be used to move the marker to other signals of interest.
PIY?SS [PEAK SEARCH] t.0 XCeSS NEXT PEAK , NEXT PK RIGHT , OI- NEXT PK LEFT .
Making Measurements 4-13
Example: The signal can be continuously demodulated if the spectrum analyzer is in zero span.
1. Place the marker on a signal of interest as in steps 1 through 3 of the previous example.
2. If the signal of interest is the highest-amplitude on-screen signal, set the frequency of the
signal to center frequency by pressing (MKR-1 then MK TRACK ON OFF (ON). If it is not
the highest-amplitude on-screen signal, move the signal to center screen by pressing [ml
and MARKER -CF.
3. If marker track is on, press ISPAN) and 1 ~ to reduce the span to 1 MHz. If marker track
is not used, use the step-down key (@J) to reduce the span and use MARKER -CF to keep
the signal of interest at center screen.
4. Set the span to zero by pressing ZERO SPAN . ZERO SPAN turns off the marker track
function.
5. Change the resolution bandwidth to 100 kHz by pressing @ and entering 100 IkHz).
6. Set the signal in the top two divisions of the screen by changing the reference level. Press
(A-], and then the step-down key (m) until the signal is in the top two divisions.
7. Press C-1, Demod , DEMOD ON OFF (ON), then DEMOD AM FM (FM). SPEAKER ON OFF
is set to ON by the preset function. Use the front-panel volume control to control the
speaker’s volume.
For FM demodulation, use FM GAIN to adjust the top-to-bottom screen deviation of the
signal with center screen as the reference (0 deviation). The top is the positive deviation
and the bottom is the negative deviation. FM gain sensitivity is increased by decreasing the
FM gain value. As the FM gain sensitivity is increased, the volume is increased. Pressing
SQUELCH mutes the noise level.
b
F I E F - 3 0 0 darn CTTEN 1 0 dB
MKR 1 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 1 mscc
- 9 9 4 6 diim
FMV
LOG
10
dB/
VA SE
SC FC
CORR
III
CENTER 97.300 MHZ
XRES BW 1 0 0 kHr
1
I
vr
1
“SW 3 0 kWZ
I
1
1
SPAN 0 HZ
SWP 2 0 msec
Figure 4-12. Continuous Demodulation of an FM Signal
4-14 Making Measurements
Triggering on a Selected Line of a Video Picture Field
Note
This application should only be performed using an HP 85913, HP 85933,
HP 85943, HP 85953, or HP 85963 with Option 301 (Options 101 and 102
combined).
With Option 301, you can trigger on a TV picture carrier signal. This example enables you to
view a test signal transmitted during vertical retrace when the TV screen is blanked.
1. Press (j%KY).
2. Set the frequency of a picture carrier signal to center frequency.
3. Press (TRIG] and TV TRIG . If the spectrum analyzer is in a nonzero span, TV TRIG sets
the amplitude scale to linear, places a marker on the signal peak, moves the marker to the
reference level, changes the detector to sample, sets the sweep time to 100 ,US, sets the
resolution bandwidth to 1 MHz, and sets the span to 0 Hz. The TV line number is the active
function. The preset function sets the spectrum analyzer to trigger on an odd field of a
video format and TV line number 17.
The sweep time of 100 ps allows you to view two TV lines, line 17 and part of line 18. The
multiburst is on TV line number 17, and the composite is on TV line number 18.
b
REF 1 4 9 2
rn”
aTTE,v
M K R 85 0 0 0 psec
302 4 5 p”
I0 d8
SMPL
iIN
V A SE
S C TS
CORR
C E N T E R 67.250 M H Z
CAES BW 1 MHz
“BW 3 0 0
kHZ
SP/IN 0 HI
XSWP 1 0 0 LSBC
Figure 4-13. Triggering on an Odd Field of a Video Format
4. Press TV TRIG EVEN FLD to trigger on an even field of a video format.
Making
Measurements
4-l 5
b
REF 1 4 9 2 m”
SHPL
LIN
MKR a5 0 0 0 p&PC
283 02 u”
ATTEEJ 10 dB
V A SB
S C TS
CORR
C E N T E R 6 7 . 2 5 0 MHz
YRES BW 1 MHZ
VW 3 0 0 kHZ
SPAN 0 HZ
#SWP 1 0 0 met
Figure 4-14. Triggering on an Even Field of a Video Format
The default video format is NTSC. Press TV Standard, then PAL-M, PAL , or SECAM-L to
select a different video format. For non-interlaced video formats, press TV TRIG VERT INT
Note
The video format selection (NTSC , PAL-M, PAL , or SECAM-L ) automatically
selects the video modulation (negative or positive).
4-16 Making Measurements
Making Reflection Calibration Measurements
Typically, the calibration standard for reflection measurements is a short circuit connected at
the reference plane (the point at which the test device will be connected-see Figure 4-15).
A short circuit has a reflection coefficient of 1 (0 dB return loss); it thus reflects all incident
power and provides a convenient 0 dB reference.
TC O U T
HP 85630A
TEST SET
OR DIRECTIONAL
BRIDGE/COUPLER
OR
pu135e
Figure 4-15. Reflection Measurement Short Calibration Test Setup
Example: Measure the return loss of a filter.
The HP 85630A transmission/reflection test set is recommended for making reflection
measurements with your spectrum analyzer. It must be used with the HP 85714A scalar
measurement personality. The scalar measurement personality includes instructions on how
to make fast, accurate scalar network analysis measurements with your spectrum analyzer
and test set. The following procedure is written for making a reflection measurement using a
coupler or directional bridge, instead of the test set.
Reflection Calibration
Note
The spectrum analyzer center frequency and span for this measurement can
easily be set up using the transmission measurement setup. Tune the spectrum
analyzer so that the passband of the filter comprises a majority of the display,
then proceed with the steps outlined below.
1. Connect the DUT to the output port of a directional bridge or coupler. Terminate the
unconnected port of the DUT.
2. Connect the tracking generator output of the spectrum analyzer to the input port of a
directional bridge or coupler.
3. Connect the spectrum analyzer INPUT to the coupled port of a directional bridge or coupler.
Making Measurements 4-17
4. Adjust the spectrum analyzer for measurement conditions or settings. Turn on the tracking
generator and set the amplitude level by pressing (AUX], Track Gen , and setting
SRC PWR ON OFF to ON. Set center frequency, span, and other settings.
5. Replace the DUT with a short circuit
6. Normalize the trace by performing the following functions:
a. Press [ml, select B using TRACE A B C , then CLEAR WRITE B to display the
reference trace in B.
b. Press BLANK B to store the reference trace in B.
c. Press More 1 of 3 , then set NORMLIZE ON OFF to ON to activate the trace A minus
trace B function, and display the results in trace A for each sweep. The normalized trace
or flat line represents 0 dB return loss.
Measuring the Return Loss
Note
If possible, use a coupler or bridge with the correct test port connector for
both calibrating and measuring. Any adapter between the test port and DUT
degrades coupler/bridge directivity and system source match. Ideally, you
should use the same adapter for the calibration and the measurement. Be sure
to terminate the second port of a two-port device.
7. After calibrating the system with the above procedure, reconnect the filter in place of the
short circuit without changing any spectrum analyzer settings.
8. Use the marker to read return loss. Press m and position the marker with the knob to
read the return loss at that frequency (see Figure 4-16).
&
REF .B d8m
fsTTEN
MKR
10 dB
.;..
.,y'
324.27 IHz
-26.45 dB
"',
MARKER
DELTA
Y----L.
DL
MARKER
'1'4.27 MHz
'Iii.45
dB
;I:
Y,&ik"y
:
:
..........~........,,,~~,,,,,,,,,,,,,,...,,,..,,,
.
ON
.,.
MKNOISE
ON x
W*-SB
:
SC
FC . ..~~~~~~~~~....~.~~~~~~~~~~~.........~~~.,.,,,,,,,,.........~,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.,,,,,,,,,,,,,....,,,,,
CoRR
I:
:
I
I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ___. ___.. ___ I
CENTER 322.50 MHz
RES BW 308 kHz
E
UBW 1EE kHz
SPAN 37.24 MHz
SWP 28 M5eC
MARKERS
OFF
1 Y":
RT
Figure 4-16. Measuring the Return Loss of the Filter
4-18 Making Measurements
Using the Gate Utility to Simplify Time-Gated Measurements
(Option 105 only)
The time gate allows the user to control when a spectrum analyzer measurement begins and
the length of time during which the measurement is made. The time gate is an RF signal switch
that permits signal into the spectrum analyzer only while the switch, or gate, is closed. Since
the spectrum analyzer receives the signal only when passed through the gate, it will only
display the measurement results from the portion of the signal selected by the time position of
the gate closure. The time gate acts as a time filter, rejecting signals and spectra not occurring
at the desired time.
The time gate utility simplifies the use of the time gate. In the gate utility, the spectrum
analyzer can display the time domain and the frequency domain simultaneously, using two
separate windows. The user is able to adjust the time position of the gate closure relative to
the input signal, using interactive graphic tools in the gate utility. The gate position relative to
the signal is clearly shown in the time domain window. The spectral effects corresponding to
an adjustment of the gate time position are displayed in the frequency domain window. Tools
are provided to aid the user in determining the best gate position, and optimizing the spectrum
analyzer settings for the input signal.
CENTER 980.888 WHz
YRES BW 1.0 MHz
YUBW
1 MHz
YSWP
SPAN B HZ
18.8 rn5ec
REF
48.8 :
dBmV I/
PERK j
I __..................................................................................................
:
CENTER 900 MHz
RES BW 3.0 MHz
UBW
1
MHz
SPAN 1.800 GHz
#SWP 36.8 msec
Figure 4-17. Time-Gate Utility Display
Gate utility features include:
w Displays time and frequency domains simultaneously.
Measures continuously.
Interactively controls and displays the gate’s position in time.
n
n
Note
Option 105, time gate, is required. Option 101, fast ADC, is recommended
psec
(Sweep times down to 20 msec are available without Option 101.)
The gate utility provides tools to make pulsed RF measurements easy. If the user enters the
optimize the resolution bandwidth, sweep time, and video bandwidth for these pulse
parameters. Coupling the spectrum analyzer settings to pulse characteristics allows easy,
Making Measurements 4-l 9
The types of signals that can be measured using the time gate function include:
Pulsed RF signals
Time domain multiple access (TDMA) communication system signals
Interleaved or intermittent signals
Signals with transient spectra
n
n
n
n
Time critical signals are present in many different applications. A few of the applications are
listed below:
n
Digital cellular communication systems require measurements on pulse modulated TDMA
signals. Measurements must be accurately aligned with the time division multiple access
(TDMA) burst of the communication carrier. The time gate can position spectrum analyzer
measurement to assess TDMA burst timing and the quality of the burst modulation.
n
Rotating head devices, such as VCRs and hard disks, have time interleaved signals
multiplexed from alternate recording tracks on the storage media. The time gate can isolate
the spectrum due to a single recording track.
n
Tests required for mobile communication systems often require that the transient spectrum,
due to pulse modulation, be excluded from measurement results.
Example: Measure a Pulsed RF signal.
1. The rear panel GATE OUTPUT must be connected to EXT TRIG INPUT.
2. A TTL trigger signal must be connected to GATE TRIGGER INPUT on the rear panel. If no
trigger is present an error message is displayed and the gate utility will not be activated.
3. Press [PRESET]. Connect a pulsed RF signal to the spectrum analyzer INPUT 503.
4. Press (FREQUENCY) and enter the frequency of your input signal to place the signal at the
spectrum analyzer center frequency.
5.
Press @iEiTEFj, CPEAK
top of the display.
SEARCH),
[MKR--I) and MARKER -+REF LVL to bring the signal to the
6. Access the gate utility by pressing [SWEEP], Gate Control , and GATE UTILITY .
Note
If the gate menus are exited without turning the gate utility off (by pressing
another front panel key), press the (-1 key twice to return to the last gate
utility menu used.
7. Press Define Time to set up the time domain window (the upper window.) Change the
sweep time using the T WINDOW SWP TIME softkey so that the pulses are displayed. Press
SWEEP DELAY and use the knob to center the pulses in the upper window.
8. The trigger marker reads out the time from the rear panel gate trigger point to the current
marker position. Turn the trigger marker on by pressing TRIG MKR ON OFF (ON) and
use the knob to move the trigger marker to the edge of the pulse. The marker readout
indicates the position of the edge relative to the rear panel trigger. The trigger marker may
be used to perform “settling time” measurements on the rising or falling edges of a digital
communications signal. (Settling time is the time from the trigger to 90 percent of the
stable pulse on/off value.)
9. Press Main Menu to exit the define time menu.
4-20 Making Measurements
lo. Press Define Gate. Use the GATE DELAY and GATE LENGTH keys to position the gate.
Once gate delay or gate length are activated, use the knob and data entry keys can be used
to position the two vertical gate markers. Select a time interval within the last half of the
pulse is selected.
11. Turn the gate on by pressing GATE ON OFF so that ON is underlined. This activates the
frequency domain window, which is the lower window. The spectrum selected with
the current gate position can now be viewed in the frequency domain window. Press
Main Menu.
12. The resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth, and sweep time are not optimized, so the
frequency display may not look correct. There may be signal dropouts or poor frequency
resolution. This can be corrected by entering the pulse parameters and turning on the
coupling.
The gate utility can optimize the setting of resolution bandwidth if the user enters the
value of the pulse width and turns on the coupling. The video bandwidth will be optimized
if the gate length is entered and coupled. The sweep time is optimized when the pulse
repetition interval is entered and coupled.
Press Define Coupling . Then press Pulse Param to enter the pulse parameters. (This
activates the time domain window and turns off the time gate.) If pulse parameters have
previously been entered, the values will be displayed.
12. Use the ENTER REF EDGE, ENTER WIDTH, and ENTER PRI softkeys to enter the pulse
parameters. These parameter entry tools allow pulse parameters to be entered using a
marker or through the keypad. Press Previous Menu to return to the coupling menu.
14. Press CPL RBW ON OFF (ON) to turn on the resolution bandwidth coupling. Press
CPL VBW ON OFF (ON), and CPL SWP ON OFF (ON) to turn on the video bandwidth and
sweep time coupling.
15. Press Main Menu and look at the signal in the time domain window.
16. Press UPDATE TIMEFREIJ so that FREQ is underlined or press mEXT), to activate the
frequency window instead of the time domain window. (If the gate was not on when
the user left the frequency window, it may be necessary to press Define Gate and
GATE ON OFF (ON) to turn the gate on again.)
Note
another front panel key), press the
utility menu used.
key twice to return to the last gate
Making Measurements 4.21
Using the Time-Gated Spectrum Analyzer Capability Without
the Gate Utility
Note
Option 105 is required to perform this application.
Option 101, fast time domain sweep, is recommended in addition to Option 105,
because it significantly increases the resolution available in the time domain.
With Option 101, sweep times (in zero span) as fast as 20 ps can be used,
otherwise the maximum sweep time is limited to >20 ms.
The measurement procedures in this section explain how to use the time gate capability
without the convenience of the Gate Utility. The Gate Utility provides the user with
simultaneous displays of the frequency and time domain to assist in setting up and
manipulating the time gate. See “Using the Gate Utility To Simplify Time Gated Measurements”
for information about using the Gate Utility. All the Gate Utility keys are listed under the
(SWEEP] key in the key menu in Chapter 8. Descriptions of the different Gate Utility functions
are found in Chapter 7.
This section provides the following information:
n
Introduces the time-gated spectrum analyzer capability.
n
Explains how to use Option 105 to view a pulsed RF signal.
n
Explains how to use the self-calibration routines with Option 105.
n
Explains how to perform a functional check of Option 105.
Note
For more information about how to use Option 105 with other types of signals,
see Product Note 8590-2 that is shipped with Option 105. Also, see the
descriptions of individual functions in Chapter 7.
Introducing the Time-Gated Spectrum Analyzer Capability
As the spectrum analyzer takes a measurement sweep, it displays a specific frequency as
it sweeps across the frequency range of the spectrum analyzer. Since signals can vary in
time, the spectrum analyzer can miss an event at one frequency because it is sweeping at a
different frequency when the event occurs. With Option 105, the time-gated spectrum analyzer
capability, the spectrum analyzer can provide a “window” of what is going on with a signal at
any specific time, since a spectrum analyzer with Option 105 has the capability to selectively
acquire data based on an external trigger signal. The “window” represents a periodic timed
event during which data acquisition is enabled.
The following figures demonstrate how the time gate can be used to view a signal. For
example, you could have two signals at the same frequency in alternating time slots so they
can share a common system. You can use an oscilloscope to determine whether there are two
signals (see Figure 4-18). However, you could not use a standard spectrum analyzer since both
signals would contribute to the displayed frequency spectrum. By using the time-gate functions
of Option 105, you can use a spectrum analyzer to mask out one signal at a time and measure
each of the two signals separately (see Figure 4-19).
4-22 Making Measurements
Note
When Option 105 is enabled, it’interrupts the internal signal path of the
spectrum analyzer, so several spectrum analyzer functions may not be
available under all conditions. These conditions include: marker noise
(MK NOISE ON OFF ), sample detection while in the frequency span mode,
quasi-peak detection (Option 103), and AM/FM demodulation and TV sync
trigger (Option 102). The marker counter function (MK CDUNT ON OFF ) is not
directly affected by the operation of Option 105, but many signals that are
appropriate for time-gating (for example, pulsed RF signals) will not be counted
correctly by the marker counter function.
1
L
0
b
4
3
Figure 4-18. Viewing Time-Sharing of a Frequency with an Oscilloscope
Item
Description of Items in Figure 4-18
Item
Description of Items in Figure 4-18
1
First signal.
3
When the time gate will be actively viewing
the second signal.
2
Second signal.
4
When the time gate will be actively viewing
the first signal.
Making Measurements 4-23
hp E
P
F
GTPOS
LOG
10
dB/
V A VB
W C FC
CORP
I
I
C E N T E R 5 0 0 0 0 MHr
#RES B W 1 0 0 kH2
/
# V B W 3 0 0 hHr
S P A N 5 0 0 0 MHz
#SWP 1 0 set
Figure 4-19. Viewing Time-Sharing of a Frequency with a Spectrum Analyzer
Trace display of the first signal, with the time gate on.
Using the Time-Gated Spectrum Analyzer Capability to View Pulsed RF
This example demonstrates how to use Option 105 to view two different pulsed RF signals. The
signals are at the same frequency, but they interleave in time. (This example uses the time gate
function without using the gate utility.)
To use Option 105 to view the amplitude of a pulsed RF signal accurately, the spectrum
analyzer settings of the sweep time, resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth, gate delay, and
gate length must be set correctly. To set the spectrum analyzer settings correctly, you must
determine the pulse repetition interval, pulse width, and signal delay (if any) of the pulsed RF
signal. Figure 4-20 shows an example of two pulsed RF signals.
4-24 Making Measurements
Figure 4-20.
Pulse Repetition Interval and Pulse Width
(with Two Signals Present)
Item
Description of Items in Figure 4-20
1
Pulse repetition interval (PRI) of signal I. PRI is measured in time units. PRI is equivalent to l/PRF, where
PRF is the pulse repetition frequency.
2
Pulse repetition interval (PRI) of signal 2.
3
Pulse width (7) of signal 1. Pulse width is also referred to as 7 (tau).
4
Pulse width (T) of signal 2.
5
Signal delay of signal 2. Notice that the signal delay is zero for signal 1.
6
Gate trigger input for Option 105. The trigger input coincides with signal 1.
Making Measurements 4-25
Use the guidelines in Table 4-l when using Option 105 to view a pulsed RF signal. These are
only guidelines, and the spectrum analyzer settings can be changed if necessary.
‘Ihble 4-l.
Determining Spectrum Analyzer Settings
for Viewing a Pulsed RF Signal
Spectrum
Analyzer
Function
Sweep Time
Gate Delay
Spectrum Analyzer Setting
Set the sweep time to be 401 times
greater than the pulse repetition
interval (PRI):
Sweep time > 401 x PRI
The gate delay is equal to the signal
delay plus half of the pulse width:
Gate Delay = Signal Delay + r/2
Gate Length
The gate length is equal to
one-fourth the pulse width:
Gate Length = r/4
Video Bandwidth Set the video bandwidth to a value
greater than 1 divided by the gate
length:
Comments
Because the gate must be on at least
once per trace point, the sweep time
has to be set to the pulse repetition
interval times for every point of the
trace. (Each trace has 401 points.)
The gate delay must be set so that
the gating captures the pulse. If the
gate delay is too short or too long,
the gating can miss the pulse or
include resolution bandwidth
transient responses.
If the gate length is too long, the
signal display can include transients
caused by the spectrum analyzer
filters.
The video bandwidth must be wide
enough so that the rise times of the
video bandwidth do not attenuate
the signal.
Video Bandwidth > gate :ength
Resolution
Bandwidth
Set the resolution bandwidth to a
value greater than 2 divided by the
gate delay minus the signal delay:
Resolution Bandwidth >
2
The resolution bandwidth must be
wide enough so that the charging
time for the resolution bandwidth
Biters is less than the pulse width of
the signal.
Gate Delay - Signal Delay
Example of a Time-Gated Pulsed RF Signal
The measurement procedures in this section explain how to use the time gate capability
without the convenience of the Gate Utility functions. The Gate Utility provides the user
with simultaneous displays of the frequency and time domain to assist in setting up and
manipulating the time gate. An oscilloscope is not needed when using the Gate Utility. A list
of all the Gate Utility keys can be found under the [SWEEP] key in the key menus in Chapter 8.
Descriptions of the different Gate Utility functions are found in Chapter 7.
Note
This example only applies to using Option 105 with a pulsed RF signal. For
more information on using Option 105 to view other types of signals, see
product note 8590-2 for Option 105.
4-26 Making Measurements
The following example demonstrates the rules for setting up a time-gated measurement. In this
example, we are using two signal generators to generate two signals at the same frequency
(50 MHz). The pulse generators “space” (interleave) the signals in time as well as pulse
modulate the signals.
L
EYT
IPUT
1
R IG OUTPUl
MODULATION
PULSE
GENERATOR #2
Q
SIGNAL
GENERATOR #2
0
0
PULSE
MODULATION
1 NPUT
RF
OUTPUT
REFLECTED
OSCILLOSCOPE
CH
I,
1
CH
CH
2
3
J
CH 4
-
SOURCE
/
GATE
DIRECTIONAL
BRIDGE
;ATE
rRlGGER
NPUT
Figure 4-21. Test Setup for Option 105
Note
Be sure that the input impedance for the oscilloscope channels is set to 1 MO.
‘Ihble 4-2. Pulse Generator Test Setup Settings
Pulse
Generator #l
Pulse
Generator #2
Period
280 ps
280 /Is
Width
50 /a
50 us
Positive edge of square wave
Not applicable
Setting
Trigger
Voltage
(peak-to-peak)
Trigger delay
5v
5v
85 ps
None
Making Measurements 4-27
lttble 4-3. Signal Generator Test Setup Settings
Setting
Signal
Generator 1
Signal
Generator 2
Frequency
50 MHz
50 MHz
Amplitude
-1 dBm
-10 dBm
On
On
Pulse Modulation
1. Set the center frequency of the spectrum analyzer to the frequency of the modulated
signal. Decrease the frequency span of the spectrum analyzer. If necessary, adjust the
reference level of the spectrum analyzer so that the peak signal is displayed near the top
graticule.
&
REF
PEAK
LOG
18
dB/
.B dBm
ATTEN i!3 dB
,*,
,‘.
:.
S P A N
5.000 MHz
.I
:
...,,,,
SPAN
ZOOM
‘.
FULL
SPAN
,,,,,,I,
‘.
.’
ZERO
SPAN
‘.
VA S#
SC F
COR
CENT
LAST
SPAN
50.000 MHz
ES BW 30 kHz
UBW 38 kHz
BAND
LOCK
SPAN 5.000 MHz
SUP 2B m5ec
Figure 4-22. Setting the Center Frequency, Span, and Reference Level
Note
The Gate Utility can be used to simplify the following steps. See Chapter 7 for
descriptions of the gate utility softkeys.
2. Set the sweep time to be 401 times greater than the pulse repetition interval. For this
example, the pulse repetition interval is 280 ps, so the sweep time is set to greater
than 401 times 280 US. or 0.112 s. For this example, we are using a sweep time
of 120 milliseconds.’ Press @WEEP),
120 @.
&
REF .E dBm
ATTEN 10 dB
PEAK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . .
LOG
18
dB/
.I,
SWEEP
CONT SGL
0
SWEEPTINE
120 ul5ec
ON
GATE
E
GATE
MENU
I .____.._.: . . . ..__... . . . . . . .._. . . . .._....
CENTER 50.000 MHz
RES BW 30 kHz
1
. ..____... :.spik:.s’.+..I
38
msec
Figure 4-23. Setting the Sweep Time
4-28 Making Measurements
RT
3. Turn the gate on by pressing [SWEEP], GATE ON OFF (so that ON is underlined).
Using an oscilloscope makes it easier to ensure that the gate occurs during the pulsed RF
signal. With GATE OUTPUT connected to the oscilloscope, you can adjust the gate length
and gate delay so that the gate occurs near the end of the pulse (see Figure 4-24).
1
?.
4 00
o f f s e t 2
1 000~1
V/d, ”
062 V
dc
8 00 V,‘dtv
o f f s e t : 7 5 0 0 rn”
1.000 1
dc
200
mV/dlv
o f f s e t
I
.O.OOO V
dc
0OO:l
4.00
V/d I v
offsei:O 0 0 0 V
dc
1 000.1
50 0 PS/dlV
Figure 4-24. Setting the Gate Delay and Gate Length Using an Oscilloscope
Item
Description of Items in Figure 4-24
1
Output from pulse generator 1.
2
Output from pulse generator 2.
3
Pulsed RF signal input to the spectrum analyzer.
4
Gate output from Option 105. Notice that the gate output is directly below signal 1.
If you do not have an oscilloscope, it is very important to use the guidelines for
determining gate length and gate delay. See “Setting the Gate Delay and Gate Length
Properly” following this section.
4. The gate delay must be equal to the signal delay plus the pulse width (7) divided by 2. For
the first signal, there is no signal delay, so the gate delay needs to be set to 50 ~~12, or
25 ps. Press [ml, Gate Control , GATE DELAY 25 a.
5. Set the gate length to a value equal to the pulse width (r) divided by 4. For this example,
the gate length is set to 50 ,us/4, or 13 p.s. Press GATE LENGTH , 13 @.
6. Set the resolution bandwidth to a value that is greater than 2 divided by the gate delay
minus the signal delay. For this signal 1, there is no signal delay, so the resolution
bandwidth is set greater than 2/25 ps, or greater than 80 kI-Ix. Press m, 100 IkHz].
Making Measurements 4-29
7. Set the video bandwidth to a value that is greater than 1 divided by the gate length. For
this example, the video bandwidth must be greater than l/13 ~LS, or 80 kHz. Press Isw),
VID BW AUTO MAN, 100 (kHz.
The spectrum analyzer displays only signal 1, not Both signal 1 and signal 2 (see
Figure 4-25).
t
REF .0 dBm
ATTEN 10 dB
I ,............ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GTPOS
LOG
:
z/
'1
I
::,
GATE DELAY
25 psec
GATE
LENGTH
EDGE POL
pDs NEG
~~o~~~~~::::i_____,
CENTER 50.i00 "Ii;
RRES BW 100 kHz
Ami
lilamu
,*,
#UBW
100 kHz
9i;
SPAN 5.,000 ii;
#SWP
12~ MS~C
RT
Figure 4-25. Using Time-Gating to View Signal 1
8. To compare signal 1 to signal 2, we first place signal 1 (trace A) in the view mode. Press
(TRACE], VIEW A, TRACE A B C (so that B is underlined), CLEAR WRITE B .
9. To view the second signal, change the gate delay so that the gate output is under the
second signal. Since the second signal had a signal delay of approximately 85 ,q we set
the gate delay to 85 ,M plus the pulse width/2, or 110 p.s. Press CSWEEP], Gate Control ,
GATE DELAY 110 @ to set the gate delay to 110 ps. Using an oscilloscope can be helpful
in placing the gate output during the pulsed signal (see Figure 4-26).
4-30 Making Measurements
4 00
offset 2
V/d, 4
062 ‘/
1 Cj i) 0 1
dc
B no
V/d, L
‘; f f srj t 7’;L 6 rn‘/
1.000 1
d s-
200
mVjd,v
o f f s e t 0 000 ‘J
.I 000.1
dr
4
00
offset 0
1.000 1
50.0
V/d1 d
000
‘4
dc
us/‘div
Figure 4-26. Placing the Gate Output During the Second Signal
Item
Description of Items in Figure 4-26
1
Output from pulse generator 1.
2
Output from pulse generator 2.
3
Pulsed RF signal input to the spectrum analyzer.
4
Gate output from Option 105. Notice that the gate output is directly below signal 2.
10. Set the resolution bandwidth to a value that is greater than 2 divided by the gate delay
(110 ps) minus the signal delay (85 ps). The resolution bandwidth should be set to greater
than 2 divided by 25 ps, or greater than 80 kHz. Press m, RES BW , 100 (kHz).
11. Since the gate length was not changed, the video bandwidth is still 100 kHz.
Making Measurements 4-31
Figure 4-27 shows the first pulsed RF signal (contained in trace A), and the second pulsed
RF signal (contained in trace B).
&
REF .G dBm
fITTEN iG dB
GTpos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LOG
18
dG/
“I
.#.
,".
GATE
GATE
LENGTH
DELAY
110 psec
EDGE POL
poS NEG
GATE CTL
EDFE LUL
PREU
MENU
ItRES
BW 186 kHz
#UBW
1638 kHz
I~SWP
12~
fic.ec
RT
Figure 4-27. Viewing Both Signals with Time-Gating
4-32 Making Measurements
Setting the Gate Delay and Gate Length Properly, When NOT Using the
Gate Utility
If the gate delay and gate length are not set properly, you may not be viewing an accurate
representation of a signal. For example, If the gate does not occur during the RF pulsed signal,
the amplitude of the signal displayed on the spectrum analyzer is lower than the actual signal
(see Figure 4-28).
$7, 08;5d0B;21
OCT 18, 1998
ATTEN 10 dB
GTPOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LOG
CLEAR
WRITE A
,I:
g,
..
I
:
'.
:
',
flAX
HOLD A
.'
~~~.....,.~,......,,,,,,.....~~~~.,.,,,,,.....,,,~~~~~~.~..:
VIEW A
....................
..
:
,'
BLANK
:
A
~il;i *,‘i:i
lRES
iW
188 kHz
#UBW
100 kHz
RSWP
15~
msec
RT
Figure 4-28. Gate Not Occurring During the Pulse
The time gate is implemented after the resolution bandwidth filtering and before the video
filtering. The displayed signal is a result of the decay time for the resolution bandwidth filters
and is not an accurate representation of the input signal.
If the gate occurs at the beginning of the RF pulse signal or at the end of the RF pulse signal,
the signal displayed on the spectrum analyzer can be attenuated or contain transient signals
caused by the spectrum analyzer (see Figure 4-29). If this happens, decrease the gate length
and change the gate delay to place the gate output during the signal.
&
REF .0 dBm
RTTEN 10 dB
GTpo$ ....................................................................
LOG
10
dB/
:
"
SWEiPTIME
150 msec
:
:
B&W
PRINTER
.*.
"'
.'
..
PAINTJET
PRINTER
'....
,.........:
:
PRINTER
ADDRESS
:
PRT NENU
O N OFF
.'.'
:
SC FC
PRINTER
SETUP
,‘W
F”:
CENTER qCL.RCI
MU,
--.._ 111._
lRES BW 100 kHz
I
#UBW
108 kHz
SPAN 20.00 MHz
HSWP
150 msec
PREV
MENU
RT
Figure 4-29. Gate is Occurring at the Beginning of the Pulse
In Figure 4-29, the peak amplitude has not been reached, and the transient response of the
resolution bandwidth filters adds noise.
Table 4-4 and lhble 4-5 provide the recommended initial spectrum analyzer settings when
measuring a signal without signal delay.
Making Measurements 4.33
Note
Refer to the guidelines in Table 4-l when measuring a signal with signal delay.
To use Table 4-4 and Table 4-5:
n
Determine the pulse width of the signal you want to measure, then use Table 4-4 to
determine the gate delay, resolution bandwidth, gate length, and video bandwidth spectrum
analyzer settings.
n
Determine the pulse repetition rate of the signal, then use ‘fable 4-5 to determine the
spectrum analyzer sweep-time setting.
Note
The peak detection mode is recommended for making gated measurements.
‘able 4-4.
Gate Delay, Resolution Bandwidth, Gate Length, and Video Bandwidth
Settings
Pulse width (7)
Gate
Delay
10 ps
50 ps
63.5 ps
100 ps
Resolution
Bandwidth
Gate
Length
Video
Bandwidth
5 /As*
1 MHz
25 ps
32 /IS
100 kHz
3 /Is
13 &s
100 kHz
100 kHz
16 fis
100 kHz
50 ps
100 kHz
25 ps
100 kHz
125 ps
10 kHz
1 ms
250 ps
500 ps
10 kHz
10 kHz
250 ps
10 kHz
5 ms
2.5 ms
1 kHz
1.25 ms
1 kHz
10 ms
5 ms
1 kHz
2.5 ms
1 kHz
16.6 ms
8.3 ms
1 kHz
4 ms
1 kHz
33 ms
16.5 ms
1 kHz
8 ms
1 kHz
50 ms
25 ms
1 kHz
13 ms
1 kHz
100 ms
50 ms
1 kHz
25 ms
1 kHz
2130 ms
65 ms
1 kHz
33 ms
1 kHz
500 !.a
1 MHz
When using the short gate delays, you may notice the gate delay time jitter by fl ps. This jitter is due to the
pectrum analyzer 1 MHz gate clock, and it does not indicate a problem.
4-34 Making Measurements
Table 4-5. Sweep Time Settings
Pulse Repetition
Interval (PRI)
Pulse Repetition
Frequency (PRF)
550 ps
220 kHz
21 ms
100 ps
10 kHz
41 ms
500 ps
2 kHz
201 ms
1 ms
1 kHz
401 ms
5 ms
200 Hz
2.01 s
10 ms
100 Hz
4.01 s
16.7 ms
60 Hz
6.7 s
33.3 ms
30 Hz
13.4 s
I
Sweep Time (minimum)
50 ms
20 Hz
20.1 s
100 ms
10 Hz
40.1 s
200 ms
5 Hz
80.2 s
249 ms
4 Hz
100 s
>249 ms
Use the MAX HOLD trace function and take several measurement
Using the Self-Calibration Routines with Option 105
The spectrum analyzer self-calibration routines (initiated by pressing CAL AMPTD or
CAL FREQ & AMPTD ) should be performed prior to using the Option 105 functions. Use the
following procedure to perform the self-calibration routines and to check the results of the
self-calibration routines.
Note
Be sure that the GATE TRIGGER INPUT connector (on the spectrum analyzer
rear panel) is not connected to anything while performing the spectrum
analyzer self-calibration routines.
1. Remove the cable from the GATE TRIGGER INPUT connector.
2. Connect the CAL OUT connector to the spectrum analyzer input connector with the
calibration cable.
3. Press a. Press either CAL FREQ & AMPTD (to perform the frequency and amplitude
self-calibration routines) or CAL AMPTD (to perform the amplitude self-calibration routine).
4. When the self-calibration routines have successfully completed, press CAL STORE .
5. Press COAL), More 1 of 4 , More 2 of 4, Service Diag , DISPLAY CAL DATA, then
NEXT PAGE.
6. Verify that the number displayed for GATE, in the lower left corner, is between
0.98 and 1.0 (see Figure 4-30).
Making Measurements 4-35
TUNING
CAL
386866688
Sweepsens <10M 0.0EElGS303
ZERO
211996616
Sweepsens Wide 0.080002030
FAST
56503057
Main Coil Sens 0.098835200
ME0
1114621728
FM Co11sens Er 0.958118558
SLOW
22348669
Wide 01s~ Err 2.590917587
PkOfst
28
Wdsc sweeprenr 0.000502140
TCXO
-98
EYO A slope
5E-10
Last Cal Freq 18:18:33 NAR 84, 1992
Last Cal hmp 18:26:17 MAR 04, 1992
TRACKING
GEN
AOFST
3051
XOFST
3095
OCORR
-22372
ASLOP 0.617283940
FSLOP 0.00EEEE168
XSLOP 8.307900012
GATE
FM
DEMODULATION
0
ZERO
SLOPE
16893
Narrow BW
1756
Wide BW
1751
0.999294639
Figure 4-30. Self-Calibration Data Results
If the number is not between 0.98 and 1.0, check that the GATE TRIGGER INPUT connector
is not connected to anything, then repeat the previous steps of this procedure.
7. Press (jjj.
Performing a Functional Check of Option 105
To check that the time-gated spectrum analyzer capability is operational, perform the following
steps:
1. Connect the rear panel HIGH SWEEP IN/OUT connector to the GATE TRIGGER INPUT
connector with a short BNC calibration cable (see Figure 4-31).
Figure 4-31. Rear Panel Connections for Option 105
4.36 Making Measurements
2.
Press
(jj], [FREQUENCY],
GATE DELAY ,
60 ms,
0
Hz, (SPAN), ZERO SPAN, [SWEEP), 200
GATE LENGTH , 60
ms,
Gate Control ,
ms.
The GATE CTL EDGE LVL softkey should have EDGE underlined, and
should have POS underlined.
EDGE POL POS NEG
3. Press Previous Menu , GATE ON OFF (so that ON is underlined) (see Figure 4-32).
Note
This procedure offers a qualitative functional check only. Due to several
factors, the accuracy of the marker readout of the gate delay and gate length
can vary by several milliseconds. For more information about gate timing, see
the Characteristics in specifications and characteristics in your calibration guide
for your spectrum analyzer.
R E F
W A
-10 0
SBI
dBm
1
I
II
I
i
CENTER
0 Hz
PE’; BW
3
G
L,v,nL
I,
\JEW
1
MHz
iPAll ii
tiz
;WP 200 mi?c
Figure 4-32. Gate On
Item
Description of Items in Figure 4-32
1
Represents the gate delay. The gate is off during the gate delay.
2
Represents the gate length. The gate is on, and the HI SWEEP IN/OUT signal is displayed.
Making Measurements 4-37
4. To check the gate control function, press Cm], Gate Control, GATE CTL EDGE LVL so
that LVL (level) is underlined (see Figure 4-33).
&
REF .0 dBm
ATTEN 10 dB
GTpOS ,.........: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
;OG
,‘,
%L
,’
:
GATE OiLAY
60.000 Rlsec
,,,
~..~~.~.,,,,,,,,,,.,,,..,,,.,,.,,,......:
,,,,,,,,,
:
W,qSB
:
SC FC .........~......~~~~~~~.......~~~~~~~.~.~...................~...,,,,,,,,,....,.,,,,,,,,,.,..,..,,,,
CORR
.',",
CENTER 0 Hz
RES BW 3.0 MHz
GATE CTL
EDGE !&
..",
UBW 1 NHz
SPAN 0 Hz
XSWP
200 MS~C
PREV
MENU
RT
Figure 4-33. Using the Level Gate Control
When the GATE CTL EDGE LVL softkey function is set to edge, triggering occurs at the edge
of the trigger input. When the GATE CTL EDGE LVL softkey function is set to level, the
gate is on whenever the trigger input is high. Because the trigger input for this example
is the HI SWEEP IN/OUT signal, and HI SWEEP IN/OUT signal is high (+ 5 V) during every
sweep, the level of the signal on screen is high.
Notice that the GATE DELAY, GATE TIME, and EDGE POL NEG POS softkeys are blanked
when the gate control is set to level. When the gate control is set to level (LVL), the
functions of gate delay, gate length, and edge trigger polarity no longer apply.
4-38 Making Measurements
Using the One Button Measurements to Measure N dB
Bandwidth, Percent Amplitude Modulation, and Third Order
Intercept (TOI)
The spectrum analyzer includes one-button measurement functions. With one key press they
make accurate measurements of:
w N dB Bandwidth
n
Percent Amplitude Modulation
n
Third Order Intermodulation
The signal or signals being measured must be displayed before activating the measurement.
Measurements are made continuously, updating at the end of each sweep. This allows you to
make adjustments and see changes as they happen. The single sweep mode can also be used,
providing time to study or record the data. The individual measurements are described below.
N dB Bandwidth Measurement
It is often necessary to measure a signal response’s bandwidth, such as when testing a
band-pass filter. The signal to be measured must be centered on the display with a span
includes the full response. Activate the measurement by turning the N dB PTS ON OFF
(ON). The spectrum analyzer places arrow markers at the -3 dB points on either side of
response and reads the bandwidth. For other bandwidth responses enter the number of
down desired, from 1 dB to 80 dB.
that
key
the
dB
No other signal can appear on the display within N dB of the highest signal. The measured
signal cannot have more than one peak that is greater than or equal to N dB. A signal must
have a peak greater than the peak excursion to be identified. The default value for the peak
excursion is 6 dB.
The N dB bandwidth measurement error is typically:
n
n
about *2% of the span, for spans ~10 MHz
about f3% of the span, for spans >lO MHz
16:38:08 12
&
REF .0 dGm
rLRK
LOG
10
dG/
-6.0dG
MAR
1992
ATTEN i0 dG
POINTS:
.;
9
.
0
0
kHz
:
N
-6.00
dG
dB
CENTER 300.0000 MHz
#RES GW 9.6 kHz
""
-I
UGW 30 kHz
SPAN 100.0 kHz
SWP
33.3
lnsec
R
Figure 4-34. N dB Bandwidth Measurement
Making Measurements 4-39
Example: Measure the 6 dB bandwidth of the spectrum analyzer internal 9 kHz EM1
bandwidth.
1. On the spectrum analyzer, press CM),
(ON), ISPAN), and enter 200 kHz.
[PEAK SEARCH), C-j, MK TRACK ON OFF
2. Select the 9 kHz EM1 bandwidth by pressing Isw], EM1 BW Menu, and 9 kHz
EM1 BW .
3. Press [MEAS/USER) and N dB PTS ON OFF (ON) to activate the N dB bandwidth function.
4. Read the measurement results in the upper left corner of the screen.
5. The knob or the data entry keys can be used to change the N dB value from 3 dB to 6 dB.
6. Press N dB PTS ON OFF (OFF) to turn the measurement off.
Percent Amplitude Modulation Measurement
Percent amplitude modulation can be measured quickly and easily using the one-button % AM
function. The signal and both its sidebands must be on the display. The sidebands are assumed
to be entirely from amplitude modulation. The spectrum analyzer places arrow markers on
the three signals to be used to compute percent amplitude modulation, and displays the value.
If the sidebands are not in the frequency span or their frequency spacing is not equal, the
measurement stops and an error message is displayed.
Percent AM measurement accuracy for close signals:
n
n
typically about fO.1 %/%, for log mode
typically about *3%, for linear mode
FFT
START B HZ
RES BW 18 kHZ
“BW
18 kHZ
FFT
STOP 6.667 kHz
SWP
38.0
m5ec
R
Figure 4-35. Percent Amplitude Modulation Measurement
Example: Use the % AM function to make a measurement.
1. Press (KK?J Connect a signal with amplitude modulation, to the spectrum analyzer
INPUT 509.
2. Press (FREqUENCY) and enter the frequency of your input signal to place the signal at the
spectrum analyzer center frequency.
3. Press (SPAN_). Change the span until only the signal and its two sidebands appear on the
display.
4. Press c-1 and % AM ON OFF (ON) to activate the percent amplitude modulation
function.
4-40 Making Measurements
5. Read the measurement results in the upper left corner of the screen,
6. Press % AM ON OFF (OFF) to turn the measurement off.
Third Order Intermodulation Measurement (TOI)
Use the TO1 one-button measurement to make quick and easy intermodulation measurements
of microwave spectrum analyzers, mixers or converters. When the TO1 measurement is turned
on there must be four signals on the display, two test signals and their two associated distortion
products. All of the signals must have peaks greater than the peak excursion value. (The
default value for the peak excursion is 6 dB.) The two highest amplitude signals are assumed to
be the test signals for the third-order intercept measurement.
The spectrum analyzer computes and displays the third order intercept (TOI) of the displayed
signals, marking all four signals with arrows to confirm the correct signal selection. The
measurement updates at the end of every sweep, which enables real-time optimization of
devices or systems under test.
The third order intermodulation is calculated as follows:
TO1 =
2 X Amplsignal A - AWldistortion product A + Ampbignal
B
2
where the frequency of distortion product A is:
Freqdistortion product
A =
2
x Freqslenal A - Freqsignal B
Third Order Intercept:
Third order intercept is defined as the absolute power level at which the third-order distortion
products intercept the level of two equal level test signals. If the distortion products are due to
true third-order distortion, then the measurement result will be independent of the level of the
test signals.
The measurement algorithm used by TO1 ON OFF (see above equation) corrects for the two
test signals being different amplitudes. The result is a calculated value for the two test signals
being equal amplitude, and is independent of the absolute level of either test signal. In order
to minimize the measurement error, it is best to keep the test signals as close as possible to the
same level and to the top of the screen.
The TO1 measurement accuracy (assuming the measured signals are near the top of the display)
is typically about f 1.8 dB.
Making Measurements 4-41
&
REF
0
*m
AlTEN 4 0 dB
I
I
MKR a 1 025 MHz
- 5 4 04 dB
PEAK
LUG
10
dB/
W A 58
S C FS
CORR
1
I
I
CENTER 300.650 MHz
XRFS RW 3 kH7
I
I
“RW 3 kH7
I
I
S P A N 5 0 0 0 MHz
SW 1 7 CPT
Figure 4-36. Third-Order Intermodulation Measurement
Example: Use the TO1 function to make a measurement
1. Press ~%iSQ. Connect two equal amplitude signals with different frequencies, to the
spectrum analyzer INPUT 500.
2. Press @Z?jKK7] and enter the frequency of one of your input signals to place the signal at
the spectrum-analyzer center frequency.
3. Press (SPAN_). Change the span until only the two signals and their two distortion products
appear on the display.
4. Press (-1 and TO1 ON OFF (ON) to activate the third order intercept measurement
function.
5. Read the measurement results in the upper left corner of the screen.
6. Press TO1 ON OFF (OFF) to turn the measurement off,
It is important to verify that the TO1 being measured is coming from the device under test and
not from the spectrum analyzer. An easy way to do this is as follows:
1. Set up the TO1 measurement and turn it on.
2. Press (mj, ATTEN AUTO MAN (AUTO) and increase the attenuation + 10 dB by
pressing @).
3. If the displayed result of the TO1 measurement remains constant, then the value is the result
of the device under test.
4. If the displayed result of the TO1 measurement decreases, then the value is due to spectrum
analyzer distortion and not the device under test. In this case, continue to increase the
attenuator setting until the measurement result no longer changes as the attenuator is
changed. When the value remains constant, the result is from the device under test.
Increasing the attenuator setting of the spectrum analyzer decreases the level of the signal
internal to the spectrum analyzer and therefore decreases the distortion generated by the
analyzer. Refer to the characteristics information in specifications and characteristics in your
calibration guide for a graph of the typical distortion performance of the spectrum analyzer.
4-42 Making Measurements
Using the Power Measurement Functions to make Transmitter
Measurements
The power menu provides several powerful transmitter measurement functions that are easy to
use. The measurements include:
n
Occupied Bandwidth
n
Adjacent Channel Power Ratio
n
Channel Power
These transmitter power measurements can be used to measure analog and continuous carrier
digital radios. The transmitted signal can be tones, noise, or a combination of tones and noise,
without affecting the measurement accuracy. The power is measured in an rms way, so that
power and power ratio values are consistent with power meter results.
The signal or signals
The spectrum-analyzer
reference level should
may require the user
the function.
being measured should be displayed before activating the measurement.
center frequency should be set to the carrier frequency and the
be set so that the signal is near the top graticule. A power measurement
to enter the channel spacing and/or channel bandwidth before activating
The spectrum analyzer automatically selects all of the other settings for accurate and efficient
measurements. There is also a manual mode where the user selects all of the spectrum-analyzer
settings. The manual mode should be used carefully since it has limitations and requirements
that are necessary to ensure the measurement is accurate.
Power measurements are made continuously, updating at the end of each sweep. This allows
you to make adjustments and see changes as they happen. They can also be made on a single
sweep, providing time to study or record the data.
Note
Some spectrum-analyzer options may be required to make valid measurements,
particularly in narrow bandwidths.
The built-in frequency counter is standard in the HP 859OL, HP 85913,
HP 8592L, HP 85933, HP 85943, HP 8594L, HP 85953, and HP 85963. It is not
available with HP 8590L with Option 713.
The precision frequency reference is available as Option 004 for the HP 85913,
HP 85933, HP 85943, HP 85953, and HP 85963.
Occupied Bandwidth and Transmitter Frequency Error
You often need to confirm a channel’s 99% occupied bandwidth. The OCCUPIED BANDWDTH
function does this easily. The user enters the channel spacing and activates the occupied
bandwidth function. Markers show the power bandwidth edges, and the spectrum analyzer
calculates and displays:
n
n
n
The total power in dBm (other units selectable)
The occupied bandwidth (99% power bandwidth)
The transmitter frequency error
The transmitter frequency error is the frequency difference between the midpoint of the power
bandwidth and the spectrum analyzer center frequency.
For special applications you can change the percent power bandwidth from 1% to 99.99% using
the OCC BW % POWER key.
Example: Measure the 99% occupied bandwidth.
Making Measurements 4-43
1. Connect a signal to the spectrum analyzer INPUT 50%
2. Press Cm) and enter the frequency of your input signal to place the signal at the
spectrum-analyzer center frequency.
3. Press C-J and adjust the reference level to bring the signal near the top of the
display.
4. Press [MEAS/USER) and Power Menu to access the power measurement functions. Press
Setup and CHANNEL SPACING to enter the value for the channel spacing. The span is
automatically set to be three times the channel spacing value. The center frequency step
size is automatically set to be equal to the channel spacing. Press Previous Menu to return
to the main power menu.
5. Press OCCUPIED BANDWDTH to activate the function.
b
9FF
3n
I) ilBrn
_
LI.l
SINGLE
M-2
SMPL
LOG
30
CONT
MEA5
dB/
CbNTER
FRED
occ BW
z POWER
WA
SB
SC
FS
SetlJp
CORR
CEFITER 825 031)oo MHL
WRES BW 1 I) kHL
X”BW 10 kHZ
I
1
1
S P A N 90 o n kHL
SWP 300 11,sec
PI-ev,nu5
MC””
Figure 4-37. Occupied Bandwidth
6. If you want to change the percent power value press the OCC BW % POWER key and use the
knob or the data entry keys to change the calculated percent power.
Press Previous Menu . Press MEAS OFF to turn the measurement off and exit the power
menu, or press another measurement key to stop the current measurement and start a new
measurement.
Note
If the power menus have been exited without turning the power measurement
off (by pressing another front panel key), press the ljMEAS/USER) key twice to
return to the last power menu used.
4-44 Making Measurements
Adjacent Channel Power Ratio (ACP)
The leakage of a transmitter into adjacent channels can be measured quickly and easily.
Enter the channel spacing and channel bandwidth, and activate the adjacent channel power
measurement. The spectrum analyzer computes and displays the ACP ratio of both the lower
and upper adjacent channels, marking the higher of the two. The absolute carrier power is read
out and vertical lines on the display mark the channel bandwidth edges.
Selecting ACPGRAPH ON OFF (ON) computes a graph showing the adjacent channel power ratio
for the selected channel as a function of channel spacing, and disables the numerical adjacent
channel power display.
Normally, the spectrum analyzer measurement parameters are set automatically. Parameter
setting can be changed from automatic to manual control using PARAM AUTO MAN . The
following conditions must be maintained to make a valid rms measurement. If these conditions
are not met, errors of up to -2.5 dB can occur for noise-like signals.
n Video bandwidth is at least 10 times the resolution bandwidth.
1 Detector mode is sample (SP). (You can use DETECTOR PK SP NG to change the detector
mode.)
n Resolution bandwidth is less than or equal to 100 kHz.
n Video averaging is OFF.
n Neither MAX HOLD nor MIN HOLD trace mode is selected.
A wider dynamic range is available using the ADJ CHAN POWER extd function. This extended
range is measured by taking two different sweeps with different reference levels and
combining the trace data. The results are displayed in a 13 dB per division format. The
extended ACP function does not provide a continuous measurement mode.
Example: Measure the adjacent channel power of a signal.
1. Connect a signal to the spectrum analyzer INPUT 500.
2. Press [FREQUENCY) and enter the frequency of your input signal to place the signal at the
spectrum-analyzer center frequency.
3. Press [AMPLITUDEI] and adjust the reference level to bring the signal near the top of the
display.
4. Press (MEAS/USER]
and Power Menu to access the power measurement functions.
5. Press Setup and CHANNEL BANDWDTH . Enter the value for the channel bandwidth.
6. Press CHANNEL SPACING. Enter the value for the channel spacing. (The spectrum analyzer
will use the last entered values for channel bandwidth and spacing, if they are not
entered.)
‘7. Press Previous Menu to return to the main power menu.
8. Press ADJ CHAN POWER to activate the function.
Making Measurements 4-45
m
REF 20 0 OBrn
SMPL
LOG
IO
dB/
AT 30 dB
SINGLE
MEni
COllT
MEAS
CENTER
FREO
i’ iii i i i I ACPGRbPH
UP, OFF
Iii
WA 58
SC FS
CDRR
SFtlJO
PreY10115
Men”
CENTER 825 0300 MHZ
WRES BW 1 0 kHZ
X”BW
10 kHL
SPAN 116 B KHZ
SW 350 n,src
Figure 4-38. Adjacent Channel Power
9. To use the extended Adjacent Channel Power function, press Previous Menu , then press
ADJ CHAN POWER extd.
Figure 4-39. Adjacent Channel Power Extended
10. A graph of the adjacent channel power ratio as a function of channel spacing can be
calculated and displayed by pressing ACPGRAPH ON OFF so (ON) is underlined. The
numerical ACP results are not displayed. The top graticule line represents an ACP ratio of
0 dB, and the horizontal center represents a channel spacing of zero hertz.
4.46 Making Measurements
4
MKR a 90 0 kHL
REF 1
SMPL
LOG
13
dB/
SINGLE
MLA>
CONT
SWEEP
CENTER
FREO
ACPGRAPH
a> OFF
“A SB
“C FS
COW
II I I I I
M-r,’
I
CENTER 825 0300 MHZ
#MS BW 1 0 kHL
GRPH MCR
01 O F F
I I
#“BW
I
I I
10 ktiZ
I
I I I U’ II
SPAN 215 9 L.HL
SW 651 msec
Prevlo’Js
_ ._
Figure 4-40. Adjacent Channel Power Graph
11. To enable the graph marker, press GRPH MKR OH OFF so (ON) is underlined. Delta
frequency, delta amplitude, and absolute amplitude values are displayed for the marker
position. The marker position can be changed with the RPG knob, step keys, or data keys.
12. Press Previous Menu . Press MEAS OFF to turn the measurement off and exit the power
menu, or press another measurement key to stop the current measurement and start a new
measurement.
Note
If the power menus have been exited without turning the power measurement
off (by pressing another front panel key), press the I-) key twice to
return to the last power menu used.
Making Measurements 4-47
Channel Power Measurement
The channel power function measures the total power in the selected channel bandwidth. The
signal can be noise, tones, or a combination of noise and tones. The channel power function
measures the power using an rms method. Enter the channel bandwidth and activate the
channel power measurement. The spectrum analyzer calculates and displays:
n
n
The total power in dBm (other units selectable)
The power spectral density in dBm/Hz (other units selectable)
Example: Measure the total power in a signal.
1. Connect a signal to the spectrum analyzer INPUT 5062.
2. Press C-J and enter the frequency of your input signal to place the signal at the
spectrum-analyzer center frequency.
3. Press [AMPLITUDE] and adjust the reference level to bring the signal near the top of the
display.
4. Press (MEASIUSER] and Power Menu to access the power measurement functions. Press
Setup and CHANNEL BANDWDTH . Enter the value for the channel bandwidth. (The
spectrum analyzer will use the last entered value for channel bandwidth, if it is not
entered.)
5. Press CHANNEL SPACING and enter the value for channel spacing. (This is optional and is
only used to set the center frequency step size.)
6. Press Previous Menu to return to the main power menu.
7. Press CHANNEL POWER to activate the function.
&
REF 20 0 OBrn
:;;’
AT 30 OB
piqqiF----- [-ml
Prir
1
71 d&r
IO
dB/
“‘g;
T”NT
MEA5
CENTER
FRED
PWRGRAPH
OEl “E
WA 58
SC FS
COW
Setup
I
I
I
I
l~ltl’llu
II
CEllTEH B25 o3ono MHZ
bRES BW 1 0 kHL
X”BW
10
kHI
vrr
iPAN 60 no kHL
SW 300 msec
Figure 4-41. Channel Power
4-48 Making Measurements
Prevlnlls
Me”<,
8. A graph of the channel power as a function of frequency can be calculated and displayed
by pressing PWRGRAPH ON OFF so (ON) is underlined. The numerical channel power results
are not displayed.
The top graticule line represents the power as indicated by the reference level (REF)
displayed value.
b
REF 12 0 dBrn
MYR R25 0900 MHZ
-37 87 dB”l
AT 30 dB
SINGLE
MEni
SMPL
LOG
10
OB/
CDllT
ME&.5
CENTER
FRED
PWRGRePH
ON OFF
GRPH MYR
01 OFF
WA 5B
“C F5
CORR
Pre”lO”S
Men”
CENTER 825 0300 MHZ
XRES BW 1
0 iinz
#“SW
10
kHL
SPA,4 250 n rnz
SW 750 msec
Figure 4-42. Channel Power Graph
9. To enable the graph marker, press GRPH MKR ON OFF so (ON) is underlined. Absolute
frequency and amplitude are displayed.
IO. Press Previous Menu . Press MEAS OFF to turn the measurement off and exit the power
menu, or press another measurement key to stop the current measurement and start a new
measurement.
Note
If the power menus have been exited without turning the power measurement
off (by pressing another front panel key), press the (j-1 key twice to
return to the last power menu used.
Making Measurements 4-49
5
Using Analyzer Features
What You’ll Learn in this Chapter
This chapter introduces the features of the HP 8590 Series spectrum analyzers. These features
can be used to manipulate measurement data and to make measurements more easily. In this
chapter you will:
n
Use the marker table to list all the active markers.
n
Use the peak table to list the displayed signals.
w Save and recall data from analyzer memory.
w Save and recall data from the memory card.
n
Learn about creating limit lines.
n
Learn about the analog+ display mode (Option 101 only.)
w Learn about the windows display.
n
Learn how to enter amplitude correction factors.
w Use the external keyboard (Option 041 or 043 only).
Using Analyzer Features 5-1
Use the Marker ‘I);tble to List All the Active Markers
The marker table function can be used to display a list of all of the active markers. It is
sometimes necessary to keep track of several points on a signal trace. Multiple markers are
swept measurements. The multiple markers feature allows you to place up to four markers
on a trace. Using the marker table all the markers on the display are annotated in a window
is activated or updated. Each marker can be independently set to read frequency, (sweep)
time, inverse (sweep) time, or period (inverse frequency). This allows you to measure pulse
The marker information can be displayed in absolute amplitude and frequency or it can be in
delta amplitude and frequency using one marker as the reference. The marker table can also
available when using the marker table function.
16:35:40
4-
REF
12
.0 dBm
MAR
1992
MKR 1.808 GHz
-37.94 dBm
hTTEN 10 dB
I
I
CENTER 1.450 GHz
RES BW 3.0 MHz
UBW 1 NHz
I
SPAN 1.706 GHz
SWP
34.1
h5ec
Figure 5-l. Marker lhble Display
5-2 Using Analyzer Features
RL
Example: Use the marker table to measure the calibrator signal.
1. Connect the CAL OUT signal to the spectrum analyzer INPUT 5OQ. Press C-1,
[FREQUENCY), STOP FREQ , 2 GHz.
2. Press (PEAK SEARCH) and NEXT PK RIGHT to place the marker 1 on the 300 MHz cal signal.
3. Press [MKRFCTN), MK TABLE ON OFF (ON) to turn on the marker table function.
4. Press INIKR) SELECT 1 2 3 4 (2) to select marker 2. Press MARKER ON OFF (ON) to activate
marker 2. Use the NEXT PK RIGHT key, or move the marker using the key pad or knob to
place marker 2 on the next harmonic. Repeat the process for markers 3 and 4.
5. Make marker 2 readout time, rather than frequency, by pressing IIVIKR) and pressing
SELECT 1 2 3 4 until 2 is selected (underlined). Press More 1 of 2 , MK READ F T I P
(T) to select time for the marker readout.
6. The marker table can be set to display the marker amplitudes relative to the display line.
Press [MKRJ, More 1 of 2, and TABLE ADL NRM key to underline the ADL. This
accesses the delta display line format. The display line can be moved using the knob. The
delta display line format is only available when using the marker table function.
Note
The marker table data can be printed by pressing the m key.
The marker table cannot be saved or recalled.
Using Analyzer Features 5-3
Use the Peak %ble to List the Displayed Signals
The peak table function can be used to list the amplitude and frequency of up to 10 of the
signals being displayed. This is done by pressing a single key, without having to put a marker
on each signal. Multiple signals from components, such as oscillators and mixers, or from
surveillance are automatically identified and listed. The information is updated at the end of
each sweep. The peak table display can easily be copied to a printer.
It is often helpful to have the spectrum analyzer sort the signals. The peak table feature marks
and list the signals based on the criteria selected. The signals can be sorted by increasing
frequency or decreasing amplitude. The peak table function can be set to select all of the
displayed signals, or only those signals above or below a specified display line.
Note
A signal must have a peak of at least 6 dB to be recognized by the peak table
function. This value can be changed using the peak excursion function.
16:32:18 12
&
REF .B dBm
MAR
1992
RTTEN 18 dB
....,,,,,: ,.,....,, i ,,,,,,,,, i ,I,,.,,,,: ,,,,,,,,,: ,,,..,,,,: . . . . . . . . . .,,,,,....I ..,,I,,,,: ,,,,,,,,,
2,
:
'3
'1
n;
Iww,~~~www-y
.I.
,...,...:
.1.......,.,......,,..,,,,,,,:
,,,,,,,..:
.,,,,..,,:
..I..
CENTER 1.456 GHz
RES BW 3.8 MHz
VBW 1 MHz
SWP 58.8 M5ec
Figure 5-2. Peak ‘Ihble Display
5-4 Using Analyzer Features
RL
Example: Use the peak table function to measure the calibrator signal and its harmonics.
1. Connect the CAL OUT signal to the spectrum analyzer INPUT 500 and press [PRESET_).
2.
Press (PEAK
display.
SEARCH],
More 1 of 2 and PK TABLE ON OFF (ON) to turn on the peak table
3. The displayed peaks are listed by amplitude with the highest amplitude signal listed
first. The table can be sorted by frequency, instead of amplitude. In this mode the lowest
frequency peak is listed first, with the others listed in order of increasing frequency. Press
PK SORT FRq AMP to underline FRQ and list the signals by frequency.
4. The harmonics are numbered on the display in order of their listing in the peak table. The
table can be limited to list only the signals above a certain power level. Change the peak
table from the normal mode to the display line mode by pressing PK MODE <>DL NRM to
underline >DL. The knob can then be used to move the display line to identify only the
desired peaks above the display line.
5. Press PK MODE <>DL MRM again to underline < DL and move the display line to identify
only the peaks that fall below the display line.
Note
The peak table data can be printed by pressing the [Copv) key.
The peak table cannot be saved or recalled.
Using Analyzer Features 5-5
Saving and Recalling Data from Analyzer Memory
This section explains how to save and recall state, trace, limit line, and amplitude correction
factor data to and from spectrum analyzer memory. You can use STATE + INTRNL to store
up to eight states in analyzer memory, and Trace + Intrnl to store many traces, limit-line
tables, and amplitude-correction factors.
Saving state data saves the spectrum analyzer settings, but not the trace data. Saving trace
data saves the trace data and the state data. Limit-line data and amplitude correction factors
are stored in trace registers, but state and trace data are not recalled with the limit-line data
or the amplitude correction factors. States, traces, limit-line tables, and amplitude correction
factors are saved in spectrum analyzer memory even if the instrument is turned off or [PRESET]
is pressed.
Refer to the Catalog Internal softkey description in Chapter 7 for more information about
cataloging spectrum analyzer memory.
Refer to Table 5-1 at the end of this section for a summary of saving and recalling data to and
from spectrum analyzer memory.
To Save a State
1. Set up the spectrum analyzer settings to be saved.
2. Press (SAVE). If CARD is underlined, press INTERNAL CARD to select INTERNAL. Selecting
INTERNAL selects the spectrum analyzer memory as the mass storage device.
3. Press STATE -+ INTRNL . SAVE: REG is displayed on the spectrum analyzer display.
4. Enter a number from one to eight using the numeric keypad and the state is saved
automatically.
To Recall a State
l. Press @?XQ. If CARD is underlined, press INTERNAL CARD to select INTERNAL.
2. Press INTERNAL ---) STATE.
3. Enter the register number under which the state was saved and the state is recalled
automatically.
State data can also be recalled by using the catalog:
1. Press [RECALL]. If CARD is underlined, press INTERNAL CARD to select INTERNAL.
2. Press Catalog Internal and CATALOG REGISTER. Use the knob to highlight the number
of the state register to be retrieved. The state registers have a “ST” preceding the register
number.
3. Press LOAD FILE.
Note
Register 9 is a special register which can aid in recovering from inadvertent loss
of line power (power failure). Press (RECALL], INTERNAL -+ STATE, then 9 to
place the spectrum analyzer in the state that existed just prior to the loss of
power or set POWER ON LAST to do this automatically.
5-6 Using Analyzer Features
To Save a Trace
Saving trace data is very similar to saving state data. Saving trace data saves both the trace
data and the state data.
1. Enter a screen title, if desired, by using (j-1 and Change Title .
2. Set up the trace to be stored.
3. Press ISAVE). If CARD is underlined, press INTERNAL CARD to select INTERNAL.
4- Press Trace -+ Intrnl . This accesses a menu displaying TRACE A , TRACE B , and
TRACE C.
5. Press the softkey for the trace that you want to save: TRACE A , TRACE B , or TRACE C .
REGISTER # and MAX REG # = are displayed on the spectrum analyzer display. The number
after MAX REG # = indicates the maximum register number that can be entered for trace
storage in spectrum analyzer memory.
6. Use the numeric keypad to enter a number from 0 to the maximum register number and
then press (m).
To Recall a Trace
l. Press (m). If CARD is underlined, press INTERNAL CARD to select INTERNAL.
2. P r e s s I n t e r n a l + T r a c e . This accesses a menu displaying TRACE A , TRACE B , TRACE C ,
LIMIT LINES , and AMP COR .
3. Press TRACE A , TRACE B , or TRACE C to select the trace in which you want to place the
trace data.
4. Enter the register number under which the trace was stored.
5. Press (ENTER). The recalled trace is placed in the view mode and the spectrum analyzer state
is changed to the state that was saved.
Trace data can also be recalled by using the catalog:
1. Press (KKKiJ. If CARD is underlined, press INTERNAL CARD to select INTERNAL.
2. Press Catalog Internal , CATALOG REGISTER. Use the knob to highlight the number
of the trace register to be retrieved. The trace registers have a “TR” preceding the trace
register number.
3. Press LOAD FILE. The recalled trace is placed into trace B and the spectrum analyzer state
is changed to the state that was saved.
Using Analyzer Features 5-7
To Save a Limit-Line ‘lhble or Amplitude Correction Factors
The procedure for saving limit-line tables or amplitude correction factors is similar to saving
trace data. State and trace data is not recalled with limit-line tables or amplitude-correction
factors.
1. Enter a screen title, if desired, by using (DlspLAv_], Change Title . The screen title is
displayed when CATALOG REGISTER is used to catalog the trace registers. The screen title is
not recalled, however, with the limit-line tables or amplitude correction factors.
2. When saving limit-line tables, set up the limit-line table to be stored. See “Using the
Limit-Line Functions” in this chapter. When saving amplitude correction factors, enter the
data using the remote programming AMPCOR command or use the amplitude-correction
function softkeys. See “Using Amplitude Correction Functions” in this chapter for more
information about entering amplitude correction factors via the front-panel.
3. Press (SAVEI. If CARD is underlined, press INTERNAL CARD to select INTERNAL.
4. Press Trace -+ Intrnl . This accesses a menu with LIMIT LINES and AMP COR ,
5. Press LIMIT LINES to save limit-line tables. Press AMP COR to save amplitude-correction
factors. REGISTER # and MAX REG # = are displayed on the spectrum analyzer screen. The
number after MAX REG # = indicates the maximum register number that can be entered for
storage in spectrum analyzer memory.
6. Use the numeric keypad to enter a number from 0 to the maximum register number and
then press (ENTER).
To Recall Limit-Line ‘Jhbles or Amplitude Correction Factors
l. Press (RECALL_). If CARD is underlined, press INTERNAL CARD to select INTERNAL.
2. P r e s s I n t e r n a l -+ T r a c e . This accesses a menu with LIMIT LINES and AMP COR .
3. Press either LIMIT LINES to recall a limit-line table or, AMP COR to recall
amplitude-correction factors.
4. Enter the register number under which the data was stored.
5. Press (ENTER].
To Protect Data From Being Overwritten
If you want to protect all state, trace, limit line, and amplitude correction data from being
overwritten, press m, then SAV LOCK ON OFF so that ON is underlined. Table 5-l
summarizes the functions when saving and recalling data to and from spectrum analyzer
memory.
Note
This feature does not protect state, trace, limit line, and amplitude correction
data from [ERASE MEM ALL].
5-6 Using Analyzer Features
‘able 5-l. Summary of Save and Recall Operations, Analyzer Memory
Screen
Title
Available?
Register
Range
save state
No
1 to 8
m STATE -+ INTRNL (register
number)
recall state
No
1 to 8*
I-1 INTERNAL + STATE (register
number)t
save trace
Yes
0 to MAX REG # B Trace --+Intrnl (TRACE A ,
TRACE B , or TRACE C ) (register number
@GiTE]
recall trace
Yes
0 to MAX REG # (-1 Internal -+ Trace (TRACE A :
Operation
Key Sequence
TRACE B , or TRACE C ) (register number
@iEqt
save limit-line
table
Yes$
0 to MAX REG # m Trace -+ Intrnl LIMIT LINES
(register number) CENTER)
recall limit-line
table
No
0 to MAX REG # [RECALL) I n t e r n a l + T r a c e
LIMIT LINES (register number) IENTER_)t
save amplitude
correction factors
Yes:
0 to MAX REG # ISAVE) Trace -+ Intrnl AMP COR
(register number) CENTER)
recall amplitude
correction factors
No
0 to MAX REG # [RECALL) Internal + Trace AMP COR
(register number) l,ENTER)t
* Registers 1 through 8 are available for the user to save a state. State register 0 contains
the current state of the analyzer, state register 9 contains the previous state of the
spectrum analyzer.
t The alternate method for recalling data uses the key sequence: fjj),
C a t a l o g I n t e r n a l , CATALOG REGISTER , use the step keys or knob to highlight the item
to be recalled, LOAD FILE.
$ The screen title is displayed when cataloging the trace registers with
CATALOG REGISTER. The screen title is not recalled with the limit-line tables or
amplitude correction factors.
Using Analyzer Features 5-9
Saving and Recalling Data from the Memory Card
Note
Option 003 is required when using an HP 8590L or HP 8592L.
The memory card provides additional memory for saving instrument states, traces display
images, limit-line tables, amplitude correction factors, and programs. Each HP 857’00A
battery-backed RAM card provides 32 kilobytes of memory. Several different memory cards are
available with up to 512 kilobytes of memory. See “Accessories” in Chapter 10. Instrument
states, traces, display images, limit-line tables, amplitude-correction factors, and programs are
easily retrievable without the need for an external controller to transfer data.
The process of saving and recalling data from the memory card is similar to saving and
recalling data from the spectrum analyzer memory. Due to the expanded capabilities of the
memory card, there are some important differences. For example, data is stored in spectrum
analyzer memory as an item; on the memory card data is stored as a logical interchange file
(LIF). Memory card data can be stored and recalled using a prefix. A prefix is an optional
user-defined label for states, traces, and programs. The prefix becomes part of the file name. If
you do not specify a prefix, the file name will be created without it. tible 5-2 compares the
save and recall operations of spectrum analyzer memory and the memory card.
Refer to Table 5-3 at the end of this section for a summary of saving and recalling data to and
from spectrum analyzer memory.
‘Ihble 5-2.
Comparison of Analyzer Memory and Memory Card Operations
Mass
Storage
Device
4nalyzer
Kemory
Data
Stored
As
[tern
Stored
with a
Prefix?
Restriction
on Register
Nu&ber
No
1 to 8 for states,
3 to MAX REG #
for traces, limit
lines, amplitude
correction
factors
Types of Data
That Can
Be Stored*
States, traces,
limit-line tables,
amplitude correction
factors
T
Available
CATALOG ALL
CATALOG REGISTER
CATALOG VARIABLS
CATALOG ON EVENT
CATALOG PREFIX
CATALOG DLP
DELETE FILE
LOAD FILE t
Memory Card
File
Yes
Prefix t register States, traces,
B 5 8 characters limit-line tables,
amplitude correction
factors, display
images, and
downloadable
programs
CATALOG ALL
CATALOG STATES
CATALOG TRACES
CATALOG PREFIX
CATALOG DLP
CATALOG AMP COR
CATALOG LMT LINE
DELETE FILE LOAD FILE
Specifies types of data that can be stored by using normal front-panel operation.
1 When cataloging analyzer memory, LOAD FILE is available for CATALOG REGISTER only.
5-10 Using Analyzer Features
Preparing the Memory Card for Use
Note
Improper insertion causes error messages to occur, but generally does not
damage the card or instrument. Care must be taken, however, not to force the
card into place. The cards are easy to insert when installed properly.
1. Locate the arrow printed on the card’s label.
2. Insert the card with its arrow matching the raised arrow on the bezel around the
card-insertion slot (see Figure 5-3).
Figure 5-3. Inserting the Memory Card
3. Press the card into the slot. When correctly inserted, about 19 mm (0.75 in) of the card is
exposed.
4. If this is a new memory card, it must be formatted before use. Since formatting a card
deletes any data stored on the memory card, catalog the card before using the format card
function if you suspect the memory card might contain data.
Using Analyzer Features
5-l 1
To format a new card, press [CONFIG), More 1 of 3 , Card Conf ig , FORMAT CARD . The
message If you are sure, press key again to purge data appears on the spectrum
analyzer screen. Press FORMAT CARD again. (FORMAT CARD requires a double key press.)
To catalog a memory card, press Cm), More 1 of 3 , Card Conf ig , Catalog Card.
Catalog Card either displays any existing data that is on the memory card (if the memory
card has been formatted) or, displays INVALID CARD: DIRECTORY if the card has not been
formatted. Use BLANK CARD if you wish to delete the files from the memory card.
To Enter a Prefix
Memory card data can be stored and recalled using a prefix. To enter a prefix, press c-1 or
@ZFiZ), Change Prefix .
Pressing Change Prefix accesses a menu containing the letters of the alphabet, the
underscore symbol (-), the number symbol (#), a space, and the clear function. To select a
character, press the softkey that displays the group of characters that contains the desired
character. The softkey menu changes to allow you to select an individual character. If you
make a mistake, press [W] to space back over the incorrect character. Additional characters
are available by pressing More 1 of 2 . Numbers may be selected with the numeric keypad.
The prefix can be from one to seven characters long. The longer the prefix, the shorter the
register number must be. The total length of the prefix and register number cannot exceed
eight characters. The prefix can be any character; however, the underscore should not be the
first character of the prefix.
An existing prefix can be cleared with the clear function. Press (jj) or fjj),
Change Prefix, YZ-# Spc Clear , then Clear to clear the current prefix. To change a
prefix, clear the existing prefix and then enter a new prefix.
To Save a State
1. Press CDlspLAy) or C-1, Change Prefix . Use the softkeys to enter the prefix under
which you want the state saved. A prefix can be one to seven characters long.
If you do not specify a prefix, the state will be saved with a file name consisting of
s-(register number).
2. Press ISAVE). If INTERNAL is underlined, press INTERNAL CARD to select CARD. Selecting
CARD selects the memory card as the mass storage device.
3. Press STATE --+ CARD . REGISTER # and PREFIX= are displayed on the spectrum analyzer
display.
4. Use the numeric keypad to enter a register number and then press [ml.
5-12 Using Analyzer Features
To Recall a State
l. Press m or [RECALL]. If INTERNAL is underlined, press INTERNAL CARD to select CARD.
2. Press Catalog Card then CATALOG STATES . Use the knob to highlight the state data to be
retrieved.
3. Press LOAD FILE.
State data can also be recalled by specifying the prefix and the register number:
I. Use Change Prefix to enter the prefix, or use the existing prefix.
2. Press CRECALL]. If INTERNAL is underlined, press INTERNAL CARD to select CARD.
3. Press CARD + STATE.
4. Enter the register number that the state was saved under, and then press [ENTER].
To Save a Trace
Saving trace data saves the trace data and the state data.
I. Press c-1 or [CONFIG), and then Change Prefix to enter a new prefix or change the
existing prefix.
If you do not specify a prefix, the trace will be saved with a file name consisting of
Qregister number).
2. Enter a screen title, if desired, by using (jj] then Change Title .
3. Set up the trace to be stored.
4. Press (SAVE). If INTERNAL is underlined, press INTERNAL CARD to select CARD. Press
Trace + Card to access the menu that displays TRACE A , TRACE B , and TRACE C .
5. Press the softkey label of the trace that you want to save: TRACE A , TRACE B , or
TRACE C . REGISTER # and PREFIX= are displayed on the spectrum analyzer display.
6. Use the numeric keypad to enter a register number and then press [ml.
The trace data is saved with a file name consisting of a “t,” the current prefix, an
underscore (-), and the register number. The “t” denotes that the file contains trace data.
To Recall a Trace
l. Press ISAVE) or cm). If INTERNAL is underlined, press INTERNAL CARD to select CARD.
2. Press Catalog Card then CATALOG TRACES . Use the knob to highlight the trace data to be
retrieved.
3. Press LOAD FILE . The trace data is placed in trace B.
Trace data can also be recalled by specifying the prefix and the register number:
1. IJse Change Prefix to enter the prefix, or use the existing prefix.
2. Press CRECALL]. If INTERNAL is underlined, press INTERNAL CARD to select CARD.
Using Analyzer Features 5-13
3+ Press Card --f Trace to access the menu that displays TRACE A , TRACE B , and TRACE C .
4. Select the trace in which you want the trace data stored by pressing TRACE A , TRACE B , or
TRACE C.
5. Enter the register number that the trace was saved under and then press [ENTER]. The
recalled trace is placed in view mode.
To Save a Display Image
l. Press [DISPLAY_) or t-j, Change Prefix . Use the softkeys to enter a prefix under which
you want the state saved. A prefix can be one to seven characters long.
If you do not specify a prefix, the display image will be saved with a file name consisting of
i-(register number).
2. Press CSAVE). If INTERNAL is underlined, press INTERNAL CARD to select CARD. Selecting
CARD selects the memory card as the mass storage device.
3. Press DISPLAY + CARD . REGISTER # and PREFIX= are displayed on the spectrum analyzer
display.
4. Use the numeric keypad to enter a register number and then press [ENTER].
To Recall a Display Image
l. Use Change Prefix to enter the prefix, or use the existing prefix.
2. Press ISAVE) or [RECALL]. If INTERNAL is underlined, press INTERNAL CARD to select CARD.
3. Press Catalog Card then CATALOG ALL . Use the knob to highlight the display image data
to be retrieved.
4. Press LOAD FILE.
Note
The intensity of some screen items may differ if the window configuration of
the current spectrum analyzer state does not match the recalled display image.
This will not affect the ability to copy the screen.
Display image data can also be recalled by specifying the prefix and the register number:
1. Press [RECALL). If INTERNAL is underlined, press INTERNAL CARD to select CARD.
2. Press CARD +DISPLAY .
3. Enter the register number that the state was saved under, and then press (ENTER].
5-14 Using Analyzer Features
To Save Limit-Line Yhbles or Amplitude Correction Factors
The procedure for saving limit-line tables or amplitude correction factors is similar to saving
trace data. State and trace data is not recalled when the limit-line tables or amplitude
correction factors are recalled.
1. Press CD’SPLAY) or C-1, Change Prefix to enter a new prefix or change the existing
prefix.
If you do not specify a prefix, the limit-line table will be saved with a file name consisting of
I-(register number). A table of amplitude correction factors will be saved with a file name
consisting of a-(register number).
2. When saving tables, set up the table to be stored. See “Using the Limit-Line Functions” or
“Using Amplitude Correction Functions ” for more information about entering data.
2. Press (SAVE_). If INTERNAL is underlined, press INTERNAL CARD to select CARD. Press
Trace 4 Card to access the menu with LIMIT LIMES and AMP COR .
4. Press either LIMIT LINES , to save limit-line tables, or AMP COR , to save amplitudecorrection factors. REGISTER # and PREFIX= are displayed on the spectrum analyzer
display.
5. Use the numeric keypad to enter a register number and then press Cm).
The data is saved with a file name consisting of a “1” (for limit-line tables) or “a” (for
amplitude-correction factors), the prefix that was entered, an underscore (-), and the
register number.
To Recall Limit-Line Tables or Amplitude Correction Factors
l. Use Change Prefix to enter the prefix, or use the existing prefix.
2. press [RECALL). If INTERNAL is underlined, press INTERNAL CARD to select CARD.
3. Press Card + Trace to access the menu with LIMIT LINES and AMP COR
4. Press either LIMIT LINES , to recall a limit-line table, or AMP COR , to recall
amplitude-correction factors.
5. Enter the register number that the limit-line data or amplitude-correction factors was saved
under and then press (ENTER).
Note
If LOAD FILE is used to recall limit-line files or amplitude-correction factor
files, the traces are set to the store-blank mode. Press [TRACE), CLEAR WRITE A
to view trace A data, or press [PRESET).
Using Analyzer Features 5-15
Saving and Recalling Programs with a Memory Card
Programs (also called downloadable programs or DLPs) can be loaded into spectrum analyzer
memory either by loading a program from a memory card or by defining a function with
programming commands. (Remote programming ability is available with Option 041 or 043).
The process of saving and recalling programs from the memory card is similar to saving state
data. To save program information to the memory card use ALL DLP -+ CARD.
Note
ALL DLP -+ CARD saves an image of the spectrum analyzer memory. This
means a program cannot be saved selectively if several programs are present
in the spectrum analyzer memory at the time. Use Catalog Internal ,
DELETE FILE to delete the items in user memory that you do not wish to be
saved on the memory card. ALL DLP -+ CARD saves all programs and key
definitions that are in spectrum analyzer memory onto the memory card.
To Save a Program
1. Press C-1 or (j-1, then Change Prefix to enter a new prefix or change the
existing prefix.
If you do not specify a prefix, the program will be saved with a file name consisting of
d-(register number).
2. Press a. If INTERNAL is underlined, press INTERNAL CARD to select CARD.
3. Press ALL DLP -CARD . REGISTER # and PREFIX= are displayed on the spectrum analyzer
display.
4. Use the numeric keypad to enter a register number and then press CENTER].
The data is saved with a file name consisting of a “d,” the prefix that was entered,
an underscore (-), and the register number. The “d” denotes that the file contains
downloadable program data.
To Recall a Program
l. Press m or (j-1. If INTERNAL is underlined, press INTERNAL CARD to select CARD.
(CARD is underlined when the memory card is selected).
2. Press Catalog Card, More 1 of 2 , then CATALOG DLP . Use the knob to highlight the
data to be retrieved.
3. Press LOAD FILE.
Programs can also be recalled by specifying the prefix and the register number:
I. IJse Change Prefix to enter the prefix, or use the existing prefix.
2. Press (KKK]. If INTERNAL is underlined, press INTERNAL CARD to select CARD.
3. Press CARD --f DLP , enter the register number that the program was saved under, and then
press (ENTER_).
Table 5-3 summarizes the functions when saving and recalling data to and from the memory
card.
5-16 Using Analyzer Features
Bible 5-3. Save and Recall Functions Using Memory Card
Operation
save state
recall state
save trace
File Name
Key Sequence
Register
Screen
Title
Range
Available?
ISAVE_) STATE
CARD (register
No
s(current prefix) Prefix +
-(register #)
# I #) (ENTER_)
8 characters
Cm] CARD -+ STATE
s(current prefix) Prefix +
No
-(register #)
register # 5 (register #) [ENTER]*
8 characters
(SAVE) Trace --+ Card
t(current prefix) Prefix +
Yes
-(register #)
~@$~~~c~e~s (TRACE A , TRACE B , or
TRACE C ) (register #) (ENTER]
recall trace
Yes
@FZQ Card + Trace
t(current prefix) Prefix +
-(register #)
~~~~te~c~e~s (TRACE A , TRACE B , or
TRACE C ) (register #) Cm]*
save display
image
Yest
recall display
image
Yest
save limit-line
table
No
recall limit-line
table
No
save amplitude
correction
factors
recall
amplitude
correction
factors
save DLP
No
No
i(current prefix) Prefix +
-(register #)
register # I
8 characters
i(current prefix) Prefix +
-(register #)
register # L
8 characters
l(current prefix) Prefix +
register # 5
(register #)
8 characters
l(current prefix) Prefix +
register # 5
(register #)
8 characters
a(current prefix) Prefix +
register # 5
-(register #)
8 characters
a(current prefix) Prefix +
-(register #)
register # <
8 characters
ISAVE_) DISPLAY + CARD
(register #) [ENTER]
(jjj CARD +DISPLAY
(register #) (ENTER]*
m Trace --+ Card
LIMIT LINES (register #)
(ENTER)
ljj) Card + Trace
LIMIT LINES (register #)
(-ENTER-*
(SAVE) Trace -+ Card
AMP COR (register #) [ENTER]
ljj) Card + Trace
AMP COR (register #) [ENTER]*
(SAVE_) ALL DLP -+ CARD
d(current prefix) Prefix +
-(register #)
register # 5 (register #) [ENTER)
8 characters
(RECALL) CARD + DLP
d(current prefix) Prefix +
No
recall DLP
-(register #)
register # 5 (register #) [ENTER)*
8 characters
* An alternate method for recalling a file uses the key sequence: C-1,
Catalog Card , CATALOG ALL , use the knob to highlight the desired file, then
No
LOAD FILE.
t The screen title is part of the display image, but is an image only. It is not recalled as a
title.
Using Analyzer Features 5-17
Using Limit-Line Functions
Limit lines provide an easy way to compare trace data to a set of amplitude and frequency
parameters while the spectrum analyzer is sweeping the measurement range. An upper and/or
lower limit line can be displayed. Every measurement sweep of trace A is compared to the
limit lines. If trace A is at or within the bounds of the limit lines, LIMIT PASS is displayed. If
trace A is out of the limit-line boundaries, LIMIT FAIL is displayed. Figure 5-4 shows a sample
limit-line display.
Limit lines are constructed from a table of frequency and amplitude coordinate pairs. Limit
line segments are created by connecting these points. Everything except the segment length is
defined by the entry for its beginning point. There are several different ways of entering the
frequency/amplitude pairs. These are described in the following section.
Note
Limit lines can only by created and edited from the front panel in the
format of limit-line tables. Limit lines that are in a trace format can only be
created using remote commands or a down-loadable program. See HP 8590
E-Series and L-Series Spectrum Analyzer and HP 8591C Cable TV Analyzer
Programmer’s hide for more information.
Though coordinates of frequency and amplitude are used most often, limit line data can also be
entered in terms of time and amplitude. Use the LIMITS FRQ TIME softkey, to underline the
desired choice of either frequency or time parameters. Frequency is the default selection. If
TIME is selected SELECT TIME will replace SELECT FREQ in the Edit Limit menus.
This section provides an overview of limit lines, a procedure for creating a sample upper limit
line, and descriptions of the limit-line functions. A procedure for creating an upper and a lower
limit line is at the end of this section. Refer to Chapter 7 for more information on a specific
limit-line function.
Procedure for Creating an Upper Limit Line
This procedure demonstrates how to create a sample upper limit line for the CAL OUT signal
and activate testing. Detailed descriptions of the limit-line functions follow this procedure.
1. Press [PRESET].
2. Set the center frequency and span by pressing
(SPAN), 500 @KJ.
CFREQUENCY),
300 m, and
3. Connect the spectrum analyzer CAL OUT and INPUT 50 n on the spectrum analyzer
using an appropriate cable. (The calibration signal is used as the “test” signal for this
demonstration.)
Note
If the amplitude units are anything other than dBm at this time, change
the amplitude units to dBm for this demonstration. Press (AMPLITUDE),
More 1 of 2, Amptd Units, dBm.
4. Press [DISPLAY), Limit Lines to access the limit-line menus.
5-18 Using Analyzer Features
3
hp
?
1 0
REF
dB
\
Ml/R ‘1<,1 c1 ““Hz
“” -i?
_ - 91- Iii
‘“’
~iy?y$j
dB/
WA VB
VC FC
CORR
1
l\l
I
\I
I
I
I
I
\
C E N T E R 3 0 0 0 MHz
#RES BW 3 MHz
I
I
I
VBW 3 0 0
kHz
I
I
I
I
S P A N 2 0 0 . 0 MHz
SWP 20 m5eiI
Figure 5-4. Typical Limit-Line Display
5. Press Edit Limit then Edit Upper to create an upper limit line.
The table defaults to frequency parameters, the second column should be labeled
START-FREQ. If it is labeled START-TIME, press More 1 of 2, EDIT DONE, and
Edit Limit . Press LIMITS FRQ TIME so that FRQ is underlined. LIMITS FRQ TIME
specifies that the limit line parameters be entered in either frequency or time.
Note
To clear an existing limit-line table, press More 1 of 2 . Then press
PURGE LIMITS two times.
After pressing PURGE LIMITS the first time, the message If you are sure,
press key again to purge data will appear. Pressing PURGE LIMITS a second
time purges the limit-line table. fjj) turns limit-line testing off (if it is on),
but does not clear an existing limit-line table.
6. Press Edit Upper to edit or create an upper limit line.
Using Analyzer Features 5-19
7. The table defaults to fixed parameters, the upper right corner of the table should
be labeled FIXED. If it is labeled RELATIVE, press More 1 of 2 . Then press
LIMITS FIX REL so that FIX is underlined. LIMITS FIX REL specifies whether or not the
limit line is relative to the spectrum analyzer center frequency and reference-level settings.
When time parameters are used, the RELATIVE format only affects the amplitude part of
the coordinate pairs. The time parameters are always fixed beginning at the left edge of
the graticule.
8. Specify the first limit-line segment to begin at 50 MHz and have an amplitude of -60 dBm
by using the following key sequence:
SELECT FREQ 50 MHz 60 -dBm FLAT
Note
The coordinates for the second point must be entered before the first and
limit-line segment is displayed.
9. Enter the second limit-line segment by pressing the following keys: 250 MHz 60 -dBm
SLOPE.
Note
‘lhble entries can be edited if you make a mistake. To edit an existing
segment, use SELECT SEGMENT to specify the segment. Use SELECT FREQ ,
SELECT AMPLITUD , or SELECT TYPE to specify the column you wish to edit.
10. Specify the third limit-line segment by pressing the following keys: 400 MHz 15 -dBm
FLAT.
You may notice that the end coordinate of segment three is drawn to a point off the top of
the spectrum analyzer display. This assures that no trace data beyond the end of the limit
line will cause the test to fail.
11. Specify the fourth limit-line segment by pressing the following keys: 600 MHz 15 -dBm
POINT.
Since the limit line in this procedure has only four segments specified, the frequency
value of segment four (the last segment) is set to 600 MHz, which is greater than the stop
frequency of the display.
12. Press More 1 of 2, then EDIT DONE when all the segments have been entered.
13. Press LMT TEST ON OFF so that ON is underlined. This turns the limit testing on. For
example, LIMIT FAIL is displayed because the calibration signal exceeds the limit line.
14. Disconnect the CAL OUT from the spectrum analyzer INPUT 5052. LIMIT PASS is displayed
since no signal exceeds the limit line.
5-20 Using Analyzer Features
hr
R;F
REF
00 dBmdBm
ATTEN
10
dB
PEAK
LCJG
Ai,
50
0 00
0 M MHz
H z
S A V B
VC F C
COPR
C EE NNTTEER R 33 00 00 0 MM HH z
RES BW 3 MHz
V BBWW 1 1 MHz
MHz
S PP AANN 55 00 00 0 M H z
SWP 2 00 msec
msec
Figure 5-5. The Completed Limit-Line ‘Ihble
Using Analyzer Features 5-21
Limit-Line Functions
This section describes the limit-line functions in the order that they are usually used.
Editing, Creating, or Viewing a Limit-Line
Pressing (j-1, then Limit Lines accesses the softkey menus used for creating a limit line.
Press Edit Limit to edit an existing limit-line table or. If no limit-line table currently exists
this will allow you to create one.
If a limit line exists currently, and you would like to purge it and create a new one, press
Edit Upper, and More 1 of 2 . Then press PURGE LIMITS two times to clear the existing
limit-line table and access the limit-line editing menu.
Note
After pressing PURGE LIMITS the first time, the message If you are sure,
press key again to purge data will appear. Pressing PURGE LIMITS a second
time purges the limit-line table. (jZK7) turns limit-line testing off (if it is on),
but does not clear an existing limit-line table.
Selecting the Type of Limit-Line ‘lkble
The LIMITS FRq TIME key selects the type of limit line parameters. Parameters can
be entered as frequency/amplitude coordinates, or as time/amplitude coordinates. Use
the LIMITS FRq TIME key, to underline the desired choice of either frequency or time
parameters. Frequency is the default selection. If TIME is selected SELECT TIME will replace
SELECT FREq in the Edit Limit menus.
The second column of the limit-line table is labeled START-FREQ when frequency is selected.
It is labeled START-TIME when time is selected.
The LIMITS FIX REL key selects the type of limit line. There are two types of limit lines:
fixed and relative. Fixed limit lines contain only absolute amplitude and frequency (or time)
values. Relative limit lines consist of frequency values that are referenced to the spectrum
analyzer center frequency and amplitude values that are relative to the analyzer reference
level. The relative setting does not affect time values. They always begin at the left edge of
the graticule.
As an example fixed versus relative limit lines, if a limit line is specified as fixed, entering a
limit-line segment with a frequency coordinate of 300 MHz displays the limit-line segment at
300 MHz. If the same limit-line table is specified as relative, it is displayed relative to the
spectrum analyzer center frequency and reference level. If the center frequency is at 1.2 GHz,
a relative limit-line segment with a frequency coordinate of 300 MHz will display the limit-line
segment at 1.5 GHz. If the amplitude component of a relative limit-line segment is -10 dB and
the spectrum analyzer reference level is -15 dB, then -10 dB is added to the reference-level
value and the amplitude component of the limit line will be at -25 dB.
RELATIVE is displayed in the limit-line table when the limit-line type is relative; FIXED is
displayed when the limit-line type is fixed. A limit line entered as fixed may be changed to
relative, and one entered as relative may be changed to fixed. When the limit-line type is
changed, the frequency and amplitude values in the limit-line table are modified by the current
center frequency and reference level settings to keep the limit line in the same position on the
spectrum analyzer.
5-22 Using Analyzer Features
Selecting the Limit-Line ‘lhble Format
Press Edit Upper, Edit Lower, Edit Up/Low, or Edit Mid/Delt to editor createa
limit-line table. Each of the edit softkeys represents a different type of limit-line table format.
The choice of edit softkey depends upon whether you want an upper limit line only, a lower
limit line only, or both an upper and a lower limit line. If you want both lower limit lines, then
the characteristics of the limit lines being entered affect your choice of using the upper/lower
or mid/delta functions.
The four limit-line table formats are described below:
w The upper limit-line table format is accessed by Edit Upper . With the upper limit-line
table format, the coordinates of only the upper limit line are displayed for editing; lower
limit-line coordinates are not specified. Even if lower limit-line values exist or the values
had been entered as an upper and lower limit-line table, the upper limit-line values are
treated as a separate table from the lower limit-line values. Upper limit-line entries can have
independent frequency and amplitude coordinates from lower limit-line table entries.
n
The lower limit-line table format is accessed by Edit Lower . With the lower limit-line
table format, the coordinates of only the lower limit line are displayed for editing; upper
limit-line coordinates are not specified. Even if upper limit-line values exist or the values
had been entered as an upper and lower limit-line table, the lower limit-line values are
treated as a separate table from the upper limit-line values. Lower limit-line entries can have
independent frequency and amplitude coordinates from upper limit-line table entries.
H The upper and lower limit-line table format is accessed by Edit Up/Low . With the upper
and lower limit-line table format, the upper and lower limit-line coordinates can be entered
at the same time: the frequency (or time), upper amplitude, lower amplitude, and type
are specified. The frequency (or time) and upper amplitude comprise the coordinate point
for the upper limit line; the frequency (or time) and lower amplitude value comprise the
coordinate point for the lower limit line. It is not necessary to specify both an upper- and
lower-amplitude component for every frequency component. Three asterisks in the table
indicate that an amplitude value has not been entered for the segment.
n
The mid/delta limit-line table format is accessed by Edit Mid/Delt . Like the upper and
lower limit-line table format, the mid/delta limit-line table format provides a means of
specifying the upper and lower limit lines at the same time. Unlike the upper and lower
table format, the amplitude values are specified as a middle amplitude value with a delta:
the upper and lower limit lines are then drawn at an equal positive and negative distance
from the middle amplitude. With the mid/delta format, the frequency (or time) and the
mid-amplitude plus the delta comprise the upper limit line; the frequency (or time) and the
mid-amplitude minus the delta comprise the lower limit line. The difference between the
mid/delta format and the upper/lower format is the way the amplitude values are entered;
however, in both formats, the frequency coordinate begins a segment. The mid/delta format
can be used if the upper and lower limit lines are symmetrical with respect to the amplitude
axis.
Note
Editing a limit-line table can be done using a different format than the one that
was used for creating it.
Selecting the Segment Number
Pressing SELECT SEGMENT specifies the segment number to be entered or edited. Limit lines
are created by entering frequency or time values and amplitude values into a limit-line table.
The frequency/time and amplitude values specify a coordinate point from which a limit-line
segment is drawn. The coordinate point is the lowest frequency or time point of the line
Using Analyzer Features 5-23
segment. Limit lines are constructed from left to right. The segment is defined by its beginning
point (see Figure 5-6).
Note
Up to 20 segments can be specified for an upper or lower limit-line table.
When entering a limit-line segment, the frequency/time and amplitude values
will be listed as asterisks (***) until new values are entered. The new segment
will be listed last until both the frequency (or time) and the amplitude values
have been entered. Once the frequency/time and an amplitude value are
entered, the segment will be sorted into the limit-line table according to
frequency or time.
(-3
4
R E F
. O
CENTEP 3
#
yyyfppp
ATT&
dBm
0
0
B’N
lO\dB
I
I
MHz
V B W
1
MHz
I
I
p
I
S P A N
SWP
ZOO 0 MH7
: !O msec
Figure 5-6. Limit-Line Segments
Description of Items in Figure 5-6
Item
1
Frequency and amplitude coordinate that starts the first segment.
2
First segment.
3
Frequency and amplitude coordinate that starts the second segment.
4
Second segment.
5
Frequency and amplitude coordinate that starts the third segment.
6
Third segment.
7
Frequency and amplitude coordinate that starts the fourth segment.
8
Fourth segment.
9
Frequency and amplitude coordinate that starts the fifth segment.
10
Fifth segment.
11
Frequency and amplitude coordinate that starts the sixth segment.
5-24 Using Analyzer Features
y
I
Selecting the kequency or Time Coordinate
Press SELECT FREQ , then enter a frequency value, or press SELECT TIME and enter a time
value, for the segment. Regardless of the table format, a frequency/time coordinate must be
specified.
Note
Limit line coordinates may be entered in terms of either frequency and
amplitude, or time and amplitude. Press LIMITS FRQ TIME until the desired
choice of either frequency or time has be selected (underlined). If TIME
has been selected as the limit line parameter SELECT TIME will replace
SELECT FREQ in the Edit Limit menus.
Selecting the Amplitude Coordinate
In the previous procedure, pressing SELECT AMPLITUD and then entering an amplitude value,
specified the amplitude coordinate for the upper limit line. The limit-line table formats dictate
how the amplitude values are treated:
n
With the upper limit-line table format, one amplitude component (representing an upper
limit-line segment) is specified per frequency/time component. The amplitude value is
entered by pressing SELECT AMPLITUD , entering an amplitude value, and pressing a units
key.
n
With the lower limit-line table format, one amplitude component (representing a lower
limit-line segment) is specified per frequency/time component. The amplitude value is
entered by pressing SELECT AMPLITUD , entering an amplitude value, and pressing a units
key.
n
With the upper/lower limit-line table format, two amplitude components (one each for the
upper and lower limit-line segments) can be specified per frequency or time component.
It is not necessary to specify both an upper and a lower amplitude value. Specifying only
upper amplitude values results in an upper limit line, but not a lower limit line. Omitting
an amplitude point on one limit line does not affect the other limit line. The amplitude
of the upper limit line is entered by pressing SELECT UPR. AMPL , entering an amplitude
value, and pressing a units key. The amplitude of the lower limit line is entered by pressing
SELECT LWR AMPL , entering an amplitude value, and pressing a units key.
n
With the mid/delta limit-line table format, two amplitude components (one representing
a mid-amplitude value, one representing a deviation [positive and negative values]
from either side of this value) is specified per frequency component. If no deviation is
entered, the deviation defaults to zero. The middle amplitude value is entered by pressing
SELECT MID AMPL , entering an amplitude value, and pressing a units key. The deviation is
entered by pressing SELECT DLT AMPL , entering an amplitude value, and pressing a units
key.
Note
Frequency or amplitude values that are not within the limit-line range will
be modified. For example, a frequency value of 60 GHz will be modified to
30 GHz.
Using Analyzer Features 5-25
Selecting the Segment Type
Press SEGMENT TYPE , then FLAT, SLOPE, or POINT to specify the segment type. The segment
type determines how to connect the coordinate point of the current line segment with the
coordinate point of the next line segment. The segment type determines whether the line
segment is horizontal, vertical, sloped, or a single point. The three segment types are:
1. Flat draws a zero-slope line between the coordinate point of the current segment and the
coordinate point of the next segment, producing limit-line values equal in amplitude for all
frequencies or times between the two points. If the amplitude values of the two segments
differ, the limit-line will “step” to the value of the second segment (see Figure 5-7).
2. Slope draws a straight line between the coordinate point of the current segment and the
the two points.
3. Point specifies a limit value for the coordinate point. It specifies a limit at a single frequency
indicated by a line drawn from the coordinate point, vertically off the top of screen. For a
lower limit line, a point segment is indicated by a line drawn from the coordinate point,
segment in the limit-line table. However, if the last segment in the table is not specified as
the point segment type, an implicit point is automatically used. (If a visible point segment at
limit-line table that is higher in frequency than the stop frequency.)
Figure 5-7 demonstrates the different segment types.
526 Using Analyzer Features
f??
F.‘EF
PEAK
LOG
TYPE
I
2
3
I
I
2 0 0 0
3 00 00 00
350 0
FLAT
MHz
MHZ
MHz
SA V B
V C F C
CORR
I-10
0
dPm
SLOPE
POINT
- 4
I
I
h
I
1
CENTER 300.0 MHz
RES BW 1 MHz
b
5
\
0
4
Figure 5-7. Segment Types
Item
Segment Types
1
Flat (upper limit line)
2
Slope (upper limit line)
3
Point (upper limit line)
4
Point (lower limit line)
5
Slope (lower limit line)
6
Flat (lower limit line)
Using Analyzer Features
5-27
Completing ‘Ihble Entry and Activating Limit-Line Testing
Pressing EDIT DONE blanks the limit-line table from the screen and accesses the menu with
LMT TEST ON OFF and LMT DISP Y N AUTO softkeys.
Pressing LMT TEST UN OFF turns the limit-line testing on and off.
Pressing LMT DISP Y N AUTO (Y) turns the limit lines display on. Pressing
LMT DISP Y N AUTO (N) turns the limit lines display off. Pressing LMT DISP Y N AUTO
(AUTO) sets the limit line display to match the limit line test function. With AUTO underlined
the limit lines are only displayed when limit line testing is turned on.
Saving or Recalling Limit-Line ‘lhbles
Pressing [DISPLAY) then Limit Lines accesses SAVE LIMIT and RECALL LIMIT. These
softkey functions provide an easy way to save or recall current limit-line tables. SAVE LIMIT
saves the current limit-line tables in the current mass storage device (either spectrum analyzer
memory or a memory card). To determine the current mass storage device, press SAVE LIMIT .
If MAX REG # appears on the spectrum analyzer display, the current mass storage device is
analyzer memory. If PREFIX= is displayed, the memory card is the mass storage device. Enter
a register number, then press @Ki%i?j to save the current limit-line table in the current mass
storage location.
RECALL LIMIT recalls limit-line tables from the current mass storage device (either spectrum
analyzer memory or a memory card). To determine the current mass storage device, press
RECALL LIMIT . If MAX REG # appears on the spectrum analyzer display, the current mass
storage device is analyzer memory. If PREFIX= is displayed, the memory card is the mass
storage device. To recall a limit line, enter the register number that the limit-line table was
saved under, then press ~j%K@. When recalling a limit line from the memory card, it is
necessary that the current prefix matches the prefix that the limit line was stored with. Use
Change Prefix to change the current prefix.
5-28 Using Analyzer Features
Procedure for Creating an Upper and Lower Limit Line
This is a basic procedure for creating a sample of upper and lower limit lines. The CAL OUT
signal is used for the test signal.
1. Press @KY].
2. Since this procedure uses the calibration signal as the test signal, connect the spectrum
analyzer CAL OUT to the INPUT 50 D with an appropriate cable.
3. Set the spectrum analyzer controls as follows:
FREQUENCY) 300 MHz
h 50 MHz
m3MHz
4. Press (j%ZW) and Limit Lines to access the limit-line menus.
5. At this point you may need to do the following:
a. To save the current limit-line table, press SAVE LIMIT and enter the register number.
Then press [ml.
b. To clear an existing limit-line table, press Edit Limit , Edit Upper , and
More 1 of 2 . Then press PURGE LIMITS two times.
6. (If necessary, press Edit Limit to access the LIMITS FRQ TIME softkey.) Press
LIMITS FRQ TIME so that FRQ is underlined to select the frequency type of limit line, if it
is not already selected.)
7. Press Edit Up/Low to create upper and lower limit lines simultaneously.
8. Press More 1 of 2 , LIMITS FIX REL so that FIX is underlined to select the fixed type of
limit line (if it is not already selected.)
9. Specify the first limit-line segment by using the following key sequence:
SELECT FREQ 275 MHz
60 -dBm
75 -dBm
FLAT
10. Repeat the above step for the values listed in the following table to complete the limit-line
table. (It is not necessary to repeat the SELECT FREQ softkey for successive entries.)
Using Analyzer Features 5-29
Note
gegmenl
Number
Frequency
2
290 MHz
-60 dBm
- 7 5 dBm
Slope
3
295 MHz
-15 dBm
-75 dBm
Slope
4
297 MHz
-15 dBm
-75 dBm
Slope
5
300 MHz
- 15 dBm
-29 dBm
Slope
6
303 MHz
- 15 dBm
-75 dBm
Slope
7
305 MHz
-15 dBm
-75 dBm
Slope
8
310 MHz
-60 dBm
-75 dBm
Flat
9
400 MHz
-60 dBm
-75 dBm
Point
Upper
Amplitude
Lower
TYPC
Amplitude
When entering a limit-line segment, the frequency, and amplitude values will
be listed as asterisks (***) until new values are entered. The new segment will
be listed last until both the frequency and amplitude values have been entered.
Once the frequency and at least one amplitude value are entered, the segment
will be sorted into the limit-line table according to frequency.
To edit an existing segment, use SELECT SEGMENT to specify the segment. Then use
SELECT FREQ , SELECT AMPLITUD , or SELECT TYPE to specify the column that you wish
to edit.
11. Press More 1 of 2 , then EDIT DONE when all values have been entered into the
limit-line table.
12. Press LMT TEST ON OFF so that ON is underlined. LIMIT PASS is displayed on the
spectrum analyzer screen if the measurement sweep is within the limit lines. LIMIT FAIL is
displayed if the measurement sweep is not within the limit lines.
hr
Pt-F
0
ATlEhI
dBm
10
<dB
PEAK
LCIG
IO
dB/
WA VE
VL FC
COPE
c
-L
CEIJTIR 300 G
# RES EN
O
3
MHz
MHz
->PAII
VBW
1
MH;
56
S’WP
0 0
Figure 5-8. Upper and Lower Limit-Line Testing
5-30 Using Analyzer Features
MHz
2 0 nlsec
To turn the limit-line testing on and off, use LMT TEST ON OFF . Use PURGE LIMITS to clear
the limit-line tables. To remove the limit lines from the display, use LMT DISP Y N AUTO .
Underlining Y displays the limit lines, N turns them off, and AUTO displays them if the testing
is turned on or turns them off if testing is turned off.
Using Analyzer Features
5-3 1
Learn About the Analog+ Display Mode (Option 101 only)
The analog+ display mode combines traditional analog display performance with digital display
benefits. Analog+ display mode gives the spectrum analyzer the look and feel of older analog
displays, such as the HP 8558B, but it has the added benefit of features common to digital
displays. Display features include:
n
Hard-copy output directly to a printer
n
Complete marker functionality such as peak search and noise readout
w Screen annotation functions such as title, linear and log scales, and graticule
w Negative peak detector (included with Option 101)
The analog+ display mode is only available on spectrum analyzers with Option 101. (It is
also available with Option 301 which is a combination of ‘Options 101 and 102.) Option 101
also includes a negative peak detector, useful for video modulator balance adjustments and
intermodulation distortion measurements.
The analog+ display mode can be used to view interfering intermodulation products on a live
television channel. It can be used to set the residual carrier level and check the linearity
of a video modulator. Refer to Product Note 8590-3, HP part number 5091-2480, for more
information about these measurements.
16:39:52 12
&
REF .fi dBm
MAR
1992
ATTEN
18
dB
.',
:
CENTER 1.3950 GHz
RES BW 3.8 MHz
UBW 1 MHz
SPAN 500.0 MHz
SWP 28.0
msec
R
Figure 5-9. Analog + Display Mode
Example: Use the analog+ display mode to look at the calibrator signal.
1. Connect the CAL OUT signal to the spectrum analyzer INPUT 500. Press (MJ
[FREQUENCY), START FREQ 0 Itlz_), STOP FREQ 1.5 CGHz).
2.
@i$iXJ and ANALOG+ ON OFF (ON) to turn on the analog+ display mode. Use the
knob, step keys, or the data entry keys to change the DOT DENSITY.
3. Press
to activate a marker and use the knob to move it.
4+ Press (-J Then press ANALOG+ ON OFF to underline OFF to turn the analog+ display
Off.
Note
displayed.
5-32 Using Analyzer Features
Learn About the Windows Display
The windows display feature is only available on the HP 85913, HP 85933, HP 85943,
HP 85953, and HP 85963. Windows display mode splits the spectrum analyzer display into two
frequency or time displays.
When windows is first turned on, the top window will contain an inactive copy of the previous
display. The lower window will be active and will display a subset of the frequency span of the
upper window. The span of the lower window will be indicated on the upper window by two
vertical lines called zone markers. The zone markers can be moved using the zone center and
zone span softkeys to look at different portions of the upper window span.
The instrument state of the active window can be changed without affecting the state of the
inactive window. The state of the active window will be used as the state of the spectrum
analyzer for sweeping and updating trace data.
16:30:53 12 MAR 1992
&
REF
: ______.__~______.__ I ._._.....: . . .._..... . . . . . . . . . . .'l: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :..:;.:: i
" :
CENTER 1.450 GHz
RES GW 3.8 MHZ
CENTER 1.4000 GHz
RES BW 3.8 VHz
UBW 1 MHz
SPAN 500.0 MHz
SWP
28.8
msec
R'
Figure 5-10. Windows Display Mode
Example: Use the windows display format to view the calibrator signal.
1. Connect the CAL OUT signal to the spectrum analyzer INPUT 500. Press (M),
[ FREQUENCY ),
START FREQ O$J, STOP FREQ 2m.
2. Turn on the windows display by pressing the WINDOWS (ON) key. The active window is
indicated by a solid line around the display, rather than a broken line. Press ZONE CENTER
use the knob or step keys to move the zone to include one of the harmonics. Notice that
the span marked by the zone markers in the upper window is shown as a full display in the
lower window.
Note
The upper window is not active so the trace is not updated, though the
zone position is updated. The upper window must be activated by pressing
WINDOWS m to update the trace data.
3. Press ZONE PK RIGHT . The spectrum analyzer identifies the first signal to the right of the
zone and moves the zone so that it is centered around the new signal.
4. Press ZONE SPAN and use the knob, step keys, or the data entry keys to change the zone
span to include two signals. If the lower window is active you will notice that the span
changes corresponding to the changes in the zone marked on the upper window. (If the
lower window is not active press WINDOWS (NEXT) to make it active.)
Using Analyzer Features 5-33
5. Press ZONE PK RIGHT and ZONE PK LEFT and observe the movement of the
changes in the lower window.
zone and the
6. Press WINDOWS ~ZOOM]. Now a full-sized display of the lower window will be displayed.
Notice the increase in the displayed annotation.
7. Pressing WINDOWS INEXT) activates the upper window. A full- sized display of it will be
shown, and the inactive lower window will not be displayed. Press WINDOWS (NEXT) again
to activate the lower window and display it again. Notice that the zone markers can be
used to tell which window is active and being displayed while in the zoom state.
8. Press WINDOWS (ZooMj to return to the dual windows display. The lower window will still
be active.
9. Press WINDOWS OFF and the spectrum analyzer returns to normal operation with the active
window as the spectrum analyzer state.
10. Pressing WINDOWS ION) at this point turns the windows display format on again with the
current display as the new upper window. A new lower window will be generated based
on the zone in the upper window.
Note
Markers and limit lines can be used in both windows, but they must be turned
on independently in each window. The current limit lines will be common to
both windows.
5.34 Using Analyzer Features
Learn How to Enter Amplitude Correction Factors
This section provides an overview of amplitude correction, a procedure for creating
amplitude-correction data, and descriptions of the amplitude-correction functions. Refer
to “Key Descriptions” in Chapter 7 for more information on a specific amplitude-correction
function.
Amplitude corrections provide an easy way to adjust trace data with a set of amplitude and
frequency parameters while the spectrum analyzer is sweeping the measurement range. Every
measurement sweep of data is adjusted by the amplitude-correction values. When using the
amplitude-correction functions, an A is displayed at the left-hand side of the graticule edge.
fP
REF
0
ATTEN 1
dBm
0
dB
PEAK
LOG
10
da/
W A VB
SC FC
ACORR
/
CENTE
RES
BW
3
0
MHz
VEW 1 M H z
SWP 2
0
msec
Figure 5-l 1. Amplitude-Correction Display
Indicates amplitude-correction factors are on.
Using Analyzer Features 5-35
Procedure for Creating Amplitude-Correction Factors
This procedure demonstrates how to create and activate amplitude-correction data. Detailed
descriptions of the amplitude-correction functions follow this procedure.
1. Press (-1.
Note
A signal is not used in this procedure for demonstrating how to create
amplitude-correction data. Disconnect any cable on the spectrum analyzer
input.
2. Set the center frequency to 300 MHz and the span to 500 MHz by pressing:
CFRE4UENCY) 300 INIHz)
ISPAN) 500 IIVIHz)
3. Press (CAL), More 1 o f 4 , More 2 o f 4 , More 3 o f 4 , then Amp Cor to access the
amplitude-correction menus.
4. Press Edit Amp Cor to access the editing menus for amplitude-correction factors.
5. To clear any existing amplitude-correction data, press PURGE AMP COR two times
consecutively.
Note
After pressing PURGE AMP COR the first time, the message If you are sure,
press key again to purge data will appear. Pressing PURGE AMP COR a
second time erases the amplitude-correction data.
6. Specify the first amplitude-correction point by pressing the following keys:
SELECT FREQ
50 INIHz)
12 (+dBm)
7. Specify the second amplitude-correction point by pressing the following keys:
250 m
10 I+dBml
Note
‘lhble entries can be edited if you make a mistake. To edit an existing
point, use SELECT POINT to specify the point. Then use SELECT FREQ or
SELECT AMPLITUD to specify the entry that you wish to edit.
8. Specify the third and fourth amplitude-correction points by using the following key
sequence:
300@KJ 15(+dBm-j
350 INIHz) 22 (+dBm-
5-36 Using Analyzer Features
4
P E F
.O dBm
ATTEI‘I I
O
dB
PEAK
LOG
I
1
2
WA VB
4
5
2
3
3
0 00MHz
5 0 0 MHz
0 0 . 0 MHz
5 0 0 MHz
12
10
0
0
dB
dB
SC FC
C E N T E R 3 0 0 0 MHz
R E S B W 3 . 0 MHz
VBW
1
MHz
S P A N 500 0 MHz
SWP 20 msec
pu149a
Figure 5-12. Completed Amplitude-Correction ‘Ihble
9. Press EDIT DONE when all the points have been entered.
Use steps 10 and 11 to display corrected versus uncorrected amplitude trace data for trace
comparison.
10. Display the amplitude-corrected trace in trace A by pressing the following keys:
~~~
CLEAR WRITE A
VIEW A
11. Display the uncorrected amplitude trace in trace B by pressing the following keys:
TRACE A B C until B is selected
CLEAR WRITE B
ICAL), More 1 of 4, More 2 of 4, More 3 of 4, Amp Cor
AMP COR ON OFF until OFF is selected
Using Analyzer Features 5.37
Amplitude-Correction Functions
This section describes the amplitude-correction functions in the order they are usually used.
Editing or Viewing the Amplitude-Correction ‘lhbles
Pressing COAL), More 1 of 4 , More 2 of 4, More 3 of 4, Amp Cor accesses the softkey
menus for creating an amplitude-correction table.
Note
(PRESET) turns amplitude-correction factors off (if it is on), but does not clear an
existing amplitude-correction table. Use PURGE AMP COR to clear an existing
amplitude-correction table.
Press Edit Amp Cor to edit an existing amplitude-correction table or, if no amplitudecorrection table currently exists, to create an amplitude-correction table.
Pressing PURGE AMP COR two times consecutively clears an existing amplitude-correction table.
Selecting the Amplitude-Correction Point
Pressing SELECT POINT specifies the amplitude-correction point to be entered or edited.
Amplitude-correction data is constructed from left to right and is created by entering
frequency and amplitude values into an amplitude-correction table. The frequency and
amplitude values specify a coordinate point from which amplitude-corrections are interpolated
(see Figure 5-13). Up to 79 points can be specified for the amplitude-corrections table.
16:24:30 1.7 MAR 1992
&
REF .B dl3rn
ATTEN iE dB
PEAK
LOG
18
dB/
STOP
400.0
MHz
:
RES BW 3.0 MHz
I
UBW 1 MHz
STOP 400.0 MHz
SWP
20.6 msec
R
Figure 5-13. Amplitude-Correction Points
Item
Description of Items in Figure 5-13
1
Frequencies below first point use first amplitude level.
2
First segment interpolated with the 10 dB amplitude level.
3
Frequency and amplitude coordinate that starts the second segment.
4
Third segment interpolated with the - 10 dB amplitude level.
5
Frequency and amplitude coordinate that starts the fourth segment.
5-38 Using Analyzer Features
Selecting the kequency Coordinate
Press SELECT FREQ , then enter a frequency value for the point.
Note
Only two
frequency
amplitude
the same
Note
When entering amplitude-correction data, the frequency and amplitude
values will be listed as asterisks (***) until new values are entered. Once the
frequency value is entered, the segment is immediately sorted into the table
according to this value.
entries per frequency are used. If more points with the same
are entered, only the first and last entries are used. All other
values are ignored. See Figure 5-13 for an example of two entries at
frequency.
Selecting the Amplitude Coordinate
The amplitude value is entered by pressing SELECT AMPLITUD , entering an amplitude value,
and pressing a units key.
Note
Frequency or amplitude values that are not within range will be modified. For
example, a frequency value of 60 GHz will be modified to 30 GHz.
Completing I’dble Entry and Activating Amplitude Corrections
Pressing EDIT DONE blanks the amplitude-correction table from the screen and accesses the
menu with AMP COR ON OFF.
Pressing AMP COR ON OFF turns the amplitude corrections on and off.
Saving or Recalling Amplitude Correction ‘kbles
Pressing Amp Cor under the (display_) key accesses SAVE AMP COR and RECALL AMP COR .
These softkey functions provide an easy way to save or recall current amplitude-correction
tables. SAVE AMP COR saves the current amplitude-correction table in the current mass storage
device (spectrum analyzer memory or memory card). To determine the current mass storage
device, press SAVE AMP COR . If MAX REG # appears on the spectrum analyzer display, the
current mass storage device is analyzer memory. If PREFIX= is displayed, the memory card is
the mass storage device. (Press (SAVE) or [RECALL_), INTERNAL CARD to change the current mass
storage device.) Press SAVE AMP COR , enter a register number, then press [ENTER] to save the
current amplitude-correction table in spectrum analyzer memory or on the memory card.
RECALL AMP COR recalls amplitude-correction tables from the current mass storage device
(spectrum analyzer memory or memory card). To determine the current mass storage device,
press RECALL AMP COR . If MAX REG # appears on the spectrum analyzer display, the current
mass storage device is analyzer memory. If PREFIX= is displayed, the memory card is the
mass storage device. (Press IsAvE_) or [m), INTERNAL CARD to change the current mass
storage device.) When recalling an amplitude-correction table from the memory card, it is
necessary that the current prefix match the prefix that the table was originally stored with.
Use Change Prefix to change the current prefix. To recall an amplitude-correction table,
enter the register number that the table was saved under, then press [ENTER).
Using Analyzer Features 5-39
External Keyboard
The HP C1405B keyboard with an HP Cl40560015 Adapter, is an IBM AT compatible keyboard
that can be connected to the external keyboard connector on the rear panel of the spectrum
analyzer (Options 041 or 043 only). The external keyboard allows a convenient way to enter
screen titles and remote programming commands directly into the spectrum analyzer or to
access the softkey functions. Detailed information on using the external keyboard can be found
in the HP 8590 E-Series and L-Series Spectrum Analpzzr and HP 8591 C Cable TV Analyzer
Programmer 3 Guide.
Options 041 or 043 provide the capability to control your spectrum analyzer from a computer
that uses either an HP-IB (Option 041) or RS-232 (Option 043) interface bus.
The function keys of the external keyboard control the spectrum analyzer as follows:
‘able 5-8. External Keyboard Functions
Key
Description
Fl-F6
F7
Softkeys 1 through 6 (respectively) of the current analyzer menu.
I
Enter prefix mode.
F8
Enter remote commands mode.
F9
Accesses the (Wj menu.
FlO
Accesses the (SPAN) menu.
Fll
Accesses the (AMPLITUDE] menu.
F12
Retrieves the present screen title for editing.
(ESC)
Accesses the enter title mode.
CPRINT SCREEN)
Copies the analyzer screen display to the active copy device.
piEq
Accesses the DLP Editor and redefines F7-F12.
5-40 Using Analyzer Features
‘Ihble 5-8. External Keyboard Functions (continued)
The external keyboard operation with the spectrum analyzer is similar to its operation with a
computer except for the following:
SCROLL LOCK and NUM LOCK are fixed and cannot be changed. Pressing (NUM] displays
the keyboard mode on the spectrum analyzer screen. The analyzer will not recognize the
control characters or function keys.
The keyboard supports a 244 character recall buffer. The longest single item is limited to
243 characters; subsequent characters are ignored. Using the Ir) or II] keys of the external
keyboard to recall an item does not change the buffer contents. Recalling an item and then
pressing the (EEEQ key does not store a new copy of the item in the recall buffer. If an item is
recalled and then modified, a new copy will be made in the recall buffer. Adding new data into
the keyboard line deletes the oldest data automatically.
When in command mode, the active line will append a semicolon to the keyboard entry if the
line does not end with a semicolon and it is fewer than 243 characters long.
Using Analyzer Features 5-41
Using the External Keyboard
The following three example procedures demonstrate how to use an external keyboard to enter
a screen title, programming commands, and a prefix. However, a brief procedure on installing
your external keyboard is described first. More detailed information on using the external
keyboard is found in the HP 8590 E-Series and L-Series Spectrum Analyzer and HP 8591 C
Cable TV Analyzer Programmer’s Guide.
External Keyboard Installation
1. Turn off the spectrum analyzer.
Caution
The spectrum analyzer must be turned off before connecting an external
keyboard to the spectrum analyzer. Failure to do so may result in loss of
factory-installed correction constants.
2. Connect the HP C1405B keyboard cable to the spectrum-analyzer rear-panel connector EXT
KEYBOARD using the HP C1405-60015 adapter.
3. Press (LINE) to turn the spectrum analyzer on.
4. The external keyboard is now ready to use for entering a screen title, programming
commands, or a prefix.
To Enter a Screen Title
Refer to the HP 8590 E-Series and L-Series Spectrum Analyzer and HP 8591 C Cable TV
Analyzer Programmer’s Guide for more information.
1. Press (ESC) to enter the title mode.
2. Type in a screen title using the external keyboard. The entry appears at the top line of the
spectrum analyzer display as it is entered.
3. Press (ENTER_) on the external keyboard. Pressing [ENTER) moves the characters to the
position on the display for screen title annotation.
Note
To view more than 31 characters per line, turn off the time and date display by
pressing the following keys: Cm), TIMEDATE, TIMEDATE ON OFF (OFF).
5-42 Using Analyzer Features
To Enter Programming Commands
Refer to the HP 8590 E-Series and L-Series Spectrum Analyzer and HP 8591C Cable TV
Analyzer Programmer’s hide for more information.
1. Press cF8_1 on the external keyboard to enter the mode for executing remote commands.
2. Type in a programming command (for example, type IP).
3. Press [ENTER_) on the external keyboard to execute the command.
Note
Unlike entering a remote programming command using an external controller,
entering the remote programming commands with the external keyboard does
not require including the spectrum analyzer address. It is also not necessary to
terminate the programming line with a semicolon. However, semicolons are
necessary for separating the programming commands. For example, a program
line is entered via the external controller as: OUTPUT 718; "CF 300MHZ; SP
1MHZ; ‘I. The same program line is entered using the external keyboard as:
CF 300MHZ;SP lMHZ;[ENTERj.
After IF8) is pressed, the spectrum analyzer remains in command mode. To return to the title
entry mode, press m (on the external keyboard).
To Enter a Prefix
Refer to the HP 8590 E-Series and L-Series Spectrum Analyzer and HP 8591C Cable TV
Analyzer Programmer’s Guide for more information.
1. Press IF7] on the external keyboard to enter the mode for entering a prefix.
2. Type in the prefix.
3. Press [ENTER] on the external keyboard.
Using Analyzer Features 5.43
6
Printing and Plotting
You may obtain a permanent record of data displayed on the spectrum analyzer screen by using
the (copy) key of the spectrum analyzer, and a printer or plotter.
This chapter describes how to print or plot the results displayed on your spectrum analyzer
screen. There are three different interfaces used for this purpose:
HP-IB
RS-232
w Parallel
n
n
Printing or Plotting with HP-IB
More than one instrument can communicate on the same HP-IB. Therefore, each device must
have a unique HP-IB address. This means that both a printer and a plotter can be connected to
the spectrum analyzer at the same time (using two or more HP-IB cables).
The printer must be configured with an address which can be recognized by the spectrum
analyzer.
The spectrum analyzer will not print if it senses another controller on the HP-IB. Therefore,
other controllers, such as computers, must be disabled. In most cases, it is sufficient to simply
turn the other controllers OFF.
Printing and Plotting
6-l
PRINTER....
3
Per Page
pu121 el
Figure 6-l. Three Printouts Per Page
Selecting any Hewlett-Packard printer results in three printouts per page before form feeding
the page. One printout per page can be accomplished by manually form feeding each printout.
This is done by pressing either the ~FORM FEED] hard key on the printer or the PRINTER SETUP
soft key under the @CiFi’Cj hard key on the analyzer.
6-2 Printing and Plotting
PLOTS...
4
REF 0 dB”
P:Ac
LJb
,a
d3/
ATTEN ID 63
Per Page
1
‘li
B
-en
LT-:!,
J
IhI -II
~1L li
3s
1”.
8,
-I.,
oi
::
I
I
jl lF
.L I
,,L”
Xl E” xn w.
“~_ LS< J 48,
““l
bI
iP&, I 605 ;u_
_*I <J “SIC
‘;n-(m,
66 0 I
:en
I
2
~o e r p a g e
perpage ‘lJdijIi,iii~
‘/rl-j&#$#$
1
PulPOel
Figure 6-2. Plots Per Page
The PLTS/PG 1 2 4 softkey under [?%iFi’@, P l o t Conf ig , allows you to select 1, 2, or 4
plots per page.
Printing and Plotting
6-3
Printing Using an HP-IB Interface
Equipment
w HP 8590 Series spectrum analyzer equipped with Option 041.
n
HP 10833A (or equivalent) HP-IB cable.
w Printer with HP-IB Interface, choose one of the following:
q
HP 2225A ThinkJet
q
HP 3630A PaintJet
q
HP 500 Series* DeskJet (with HP-IB to Centronics converter) t
q
HP 310* Portable DeskJet (with HP-IB to Centronics converter) 1
q
HP LaserJet (with HP-IB to Centronics converter) t
q
MX-80 Epson (with HP-IB to Centronics converter) t
q
LQ-570 Epson (with HP-IB to Centronics converter) t
* Some models support color printing.
t Part number HP ITEL-45CHVU, US and Canada, and Part number HP ITEL-45CHVE,
international.
Interconnection and Printing Instructions
1. Turn off the printer and the spectrum analyzer.
2. Connect the printer to the spectrum analyzer using the HP-IB cable.
3. The printer usually resides at device address 1. See figure Figure 6-3 for a typical HP-IB
printer switch setup.
ADDRESS=1
Figure 6-3. ThinkJet Printer Switch Settings
6-4 Printing and Plotting
If using the HP-IB to centronics converter, connect it and set the switches as shown in
Figure 6-4. The HP-IB to centronics converter must be powered up after the switches are
set.
SPEr,TRIJM
AIIAImYZER
CONVERTER
PRINTER
&POSITION
SWITCH
Figure 6-4. HP-IB to Centronics Converter Setup
Figure 6-5. Printer Configuration Menu Map
4. Turn on the spectrum analyzer and printer. If using the HP-IB to centronics converter,
connect its power cable.
5. The printer usually resides at device address 1. To configure the spectrum analyzer to print
to address 1, press:
gciiiq
Press this key to access the configuration menu.
P r i n t Config
Press this key to access the print menu.
P m P o r t Config
Press this key to access the print configure menu.
PRN PORT HPIB PAR
(so that HPIB is underlined)
PRINTER ADDRESS
1
IHz)
6. Referring to Figure 6-5, select the printer configuration for your spectrum analyzer by
pressing the appropriate keys:
pGiq
Press this key to access the configuration menu.
P r i n t Config
Press this key to access the print configure menu.
Printing and Plotting
6-5
PRINTER SETUP
Press this key to send a PRINTER RESET command to the printer.
This will cause a form feed if any data has been sent to the printer
since the last form feed.
Set Colr Printer
Press if connected to a Hewlett-Packard compatible color printer,
then select the appropriate printer.
Selecting any Hewlett-Packard printer results in three printouts per
page. After three printouts the page will be in position to start again
at the top of the page if the printer’s perforation skip is OFF (see
Figure 6-l).
One printout per page can be achieved by manually formfitting each
printout.
Set B&W Printer
Press this key to print in black and white, then select appropriate
printer mode.
HP B&W PRINTER
Press this key if the spectrum analyzer is connected to a
Hewlett-Packard compatible printer.
Selecting any Hewlett-Packard printer results in three printouts per
page. After three printouts the page will be in position to start again
at the top of the page if the printer’s perforation skip is OFF (see
Figure 6-l).
One printout per page can be achieved by manually formfitting each
printout.
HP B&W DJ540
Press this key if the spectrum analyzer is connected to a
Hewlett-Packard DeskJet 540 printer.
EP MX80 SML LRG
Press this key if the spectrum analyzer is connected to a MX-80
Epson or other compatible g-pin print-head printer.
Pressing this key to underline SML will allow two printouts per page
and will print softkey labels if desired (see PRT MENU ON OFF ).
Pressing this key to underline LRG will allow only one printout per
page and will not print the softkey labels.
EP Lq570 SML LRG
Press this key if the spectrum analyzer is connected to a LQ-570
Epson or other compatible 24-pin print-head printer.
Pressing this key to underline SML will allow two printouts to a page
and will print softkey labels if desired (see PRT MENU ON OFF ).
Pressing this key to underline LRG will allow only one printout per
page and will not print the softkey labels.
PRT MENU ON OFF
Press this key so that ON is underlined to print the softkey labels
with the spectrum analyzer printout.
This function is operational for Epson compatible printers only when
SML is underlined.
COPY DEV PRNT PLT
Press this key so PRNT is underlined.
IcoPv]
Press this key to copy the spectrum analyzer display to the printer.
6-6 Printing and Plotting
Plotting Using an HP-IB Interface
Equipment
w HP 8590 Series spectrum analyzer with Option 041.
w HP 10833A (or equivalent) HP-IB cable.
n
Any of the following plotters:
q
HP 7440A ColorPro plotter with HP-IB
q
HP 7475A plotter with HP-IB
q
HP 7550A/B plotter with HP-IB
Interconnection and Plotting Instructions
More than one instrument can communicate on the same HP-IB. Therefore, each device must
have a unique HP-IB address. This means that both a printer and a plotter can be connected to
the spectrum analyzer at the same time (using two or more HP-IB cables).
The plotter must be configured with an address which can be recognized by the spectrum
analyzer.
The spectrum analyzer will not print if it senses another controller on the HP-IB. Therefore,
other controllers, such as computers, must be disabled. In most cases, it is sufficient to simply
turn the other controllers OFF.
1. Turn off the plotter and the spectrum analyzer.
2. Connect the plotter to the spectrum analyzer using the HP-IB cable.
3. Figure 6-6 shows an example of a typical plotter’s switch setting.
ADDRESS=5
2
2
ceA-7
Figure 6-6. HP 7475A Plotter Switch Settings
Printing and Plotting
6-7
Figure 6-7. Plot Configure Menu
4. Turn on the spectrum analyzer and the plotter.
5. The plotter usually resides at device address 5. To configure the plotter address to 5 on the
spectrum analyzer, press:
@Giq
Press this key to access the configuration menu.
P l o t Config
Press this key to access the plotter menu.
P l t P o r t Config
Press this key to access the plotter configuration menu.
PLT PORT RPIR PAR
( SO
that HPIB is underlined)
PLOTTER ADDRESS
5
IHz)
6. Referring to Figure 6-7 select the plotter configuration for your spectrum analyzer by
pressing the appropriate keys:
p5iFiq
Press this key to access the configuration menu.
P l o t Config
Press this key to access the plotter configuration menu,
PLTS/PG 1 2 4
Press this key to underline the number of plots per page desired.
Choose 1, 2, or 4 plots per page (see Figure 6-2).
PLT Cl
LOC _
If two plots per page are chosen, this function allows you to select
the location on the paper for the plotter output. The upper and
lower sections of the softkey label graphically represent where the
plotter output will be located.
PLOLCT -Cl--
Press the softkey until the rectangular marker is in the desired
section of the softkey label.
If four plots per page are chosen, this function allows you to select
the location on the paper for the plotter output. The quadrant of
the softkey label graphically represents where the plotter output will
b e l o c a t e d .
Press the softkey until the rectangular marker is in the desired
section of the softkey label.
COPY DEV PRNT PLT
Press this key so that PLT is underlined.
PLT->LJT ON OFF
Make sure that OFF is underlined unless you are plotting to a
laserjet.
Icopv)
Press this key to copy the spectrum analyzer display to the plotter.
6-8 Printing and Plotting
For a multi-pen plotter, the pens of the plotter draw the different components of the screen as
follows:
Description
Pen
Number
1
Draws the annotation and graticule.
2
Draws trace A.
3
Draws trace B.
4
Draws trace C and the display line.
5
Draws user-generated graphics and the lower-limit line.
6
Draws the upper-limit line.
r
Printin and Plottin
6-9
Printing or Plotting with RS-232
Printing Using an RS-232 Interface
This section describes how to print using an RS-232 interface. It is critical that the printer and
spectrum analyzer be configured to be compatible with each other. Particular attention should
be paid to:
Character Size
g-Bits
Parity
OFF
Baud Rate
9600 (typical)
Handshaking
DTR= YES, DUPLEX= FULL
Equipment
n
HP 8590 Series spectrum analyzer with Option 043 (RS-232 interface).
n
One of the following cables:
q
HP 24542G 9-25 pin RS-232 cable
•I HP C2932A 9-9 pin RS-232 cable (For use with LaserJet 4P and 4Plus)
n
Printer with RS-232 interface, choose one of the following:
q
HP 500 Series* DeskJet
q
HP 2225D ThinkJet
q
HP 3630A PaintJet
q
MX-80 Epson
q
LQ-570 Epson
q
HP LaserJet
q
HP QuietJet or QuietJet Plus
* Some models support color printing. Some models do not support the RS-232 interface.
Interconnection and Printing Instructions
The RS-232 interface allows only one device to be connected to the spectrum analyzer. Refer to
the programmer’s guide for more information on RS-232 protocol.
1. Turn off the spectrum analyzer and the printer.
2. Connect the printer using an RS-232 cable.
Figure 6-8 shows examples of some of the printers configuration switches set up for
9600 baud. See your printer’s documentation for more specific information.
6-10 Printing and Plotting
El
12345
‘m
P A I IIT J E T
DESKJET,
:m,m
500/550 S E R I E S
QUIETJET,
OUIET.JEI
PLIJS
TH I NV,JET
Figure 6-8. 9600 Baud Settings for Serial Printers
To set the spectrum analyzer baud rate to 9600, press:
g?iFiq
P r i n t Config
P m P o r t Config
PRN PORT SER PAR (so that SER is underlined)
BAUD RATE
9600
(Hz)
To set the spectrum analyzer baud rate to 1200, press:
(CONFIGP r i n t Config
P m P o r t Config
PRN PORT SER PAR (so that SER is underlined)
BAUD RATE
1200
IHz)
Printing and Plotting
6-l 1
Figure 6-9. Printer Configure Menu
3. Referring to Figure 6-9 select the printer configuration for your spectrum analyzer by
pressing the appropriate keys:
@xFiq
Press this key to access the configuration menu.
P r i n t Config
Press this key to access the printer configuration menu.
PRINTER SETUP
Press this key to send a PRINTER RESET command to the printer.
This will cause a form feed if any data has been sent to the printer
since the last form feed.
Set Colr Printer
Press this key to print in color if the spectrum analyzer is connected
to a Hewlett-Packard compatible color printer, then select the
appropriate printer.
Selecting any Hewlett-Packard printer results in three printouts
per page. After three printouts the page will be in position to start
again at the top of the page if the printer’s perforation skip is OFF
(see Figure 6-l).
One printout per page can be achieved by manually formfitting each
printout.
Set B&W Printer
Press this key to print in black and white, then select appropriate
printer mode.
HP B&W PRINTER
Press this key if the spectrum analyzer is connected to a
Hewlett-Packard compatible printer.
Selecting any Hewlett-Packard printer results in three printouts
per page. After three printouts the page will be in position to start
again at the top of the page if the printer’s perforation skip is OFF
(see Figure 6-l).
One printout per page can be achieved by manually formfitting each
printout.
HP B&W DJ540
Press this key if the spectrum analyzer is connected to a
Hewlett-Packard DeskJet 540 printer.
EP MX80 SML LRG
Press this key if the spectrum analyzer is connected to a MX-80
Epson or other compatible g-pin print-head printer.
Pressing this key to underline SML will allow two printouts per page
and will print softkey labels if desired (see PRT MENU ON OFF ).
Pressing this key to underline LRG will allow only one printout per
page and will not print the softkey labels.
6-12 Printing and Plotting
EP LQ570 SML LRG
Press this key if the spectrum analyzer is connected to an LQ-570
Epson or other compatible 24-pin print-head printer.
Pressing this key to underline SML will allow two printouts per page
and will print softkey labels if desired (see PRT MENU ON OFF ).
This function is operational for Epson compatible printers only when
SML is underlined.
PRT MENU ON OFF
Press this key so that ON is underlined to print the softkey labels
with the spectrum analyzer printout. This function is operational
only when SML is underlined for the Epson compatible printers.
COPY DEV PRNT PLT
Press this key so PRNT is underlined.
Icopv)
Press this key to copy the spectrum analyzer display to the printer.
Printing and Plotting 6-13
Plotting Using an RS-232 Interface
This section describes how to plot using an RS-232 interface. It is critical that the plotter and
the spectrum analyzer be configured to be compatible with each other. Particular attention
should be paid to:
Character Size
&Bits
Parity
OFF
Baud Rate
1200 (typical)
Handshaking
DTR=YES, DUPLEX=FULL
Equipment
n
HP 8590 Series spectrum analyzer with Option 043.
n
HP 24542G 9-25 pin RS-232 cable
n
HP C2932A 9-9 pin RS-232 cable (for use with LaserJet 4P and 4Plus.)
n
Any of the following Plotters:
q
HP 7440A ColorPro plotter with an RS-232 interface.
q
HP 7475A plotter with an RS-232 interface.
q
HP 7550A/B plotter with an RS-232 interface.
Interconnection and Plotting Instructions
The RS-232 interface allows only one device to be connected to the spectrum analyzer. Refer to
the programmer’s guide for more information on RS-232 protocol.
1. Turn off the spectrum analyzer and plotter.
2. Connect the plotter to the spectrum analyzer using an RS-232 cable.
6-14 Printing and Plotting
If you are connecting an HP 7550A/B plotter you will need to use the 92224F (f-f) gender
changer as shown in Figure 6-10.
COMPUTER/MODEM
Figure 6-10. Connecting the HP 7550A/B Plotter
3. Turn on the spectrum analyzer and the plotter.
4. Set the spectrum analyzer baud rate (see Figure 6-11). To set the spectrum analyzer baud
rate to 1200 baud, press:
(p5iFiq
P l o t Config
P l t P o r t Config
PLT PORT SER PAR (so that SER is underlined)
BAUD RATE
1200
CHz)
pu 134P /
Figure 6-l 1. Baud Rate Menu Map
Printing and Plotting
6-l 5
5. Set the baud rate on your plotter. Depending on the model, it may need to be OFF to set
the baud rate. Refer to your plotter’s documentation.
If you have an HP 7550A/B plotter, you need to configure it as follows:
MODE
STANDARD SERIAL (not ENHANCED)
DATA FLOW
REMOTE STANDALONE (not EAVESDROP)
BYPASS
ON or OFF (don’t care)
HANDSHAKE
HARDWIRE/DIRECT
PARITY
8-BITS/OFF
BAUD RATE
1200 (it will work at 9600)
DUPLEX
FULL
Figure 6-12. Plot Configure Menu
6. Referring to Figure 6-12 select the plotter configuration for your spectrum analyzer by
pressing the appropriate keys:
@EiEq
Press this key to access the configuration menu.
Plot Conf ig
Press this key to access the plotter configuration menu.
PLTS/PG 1 2 4
Press this key to underline the number of plots per page desired.
Choose 1, 2, or 4 plots per page (see Figure 6-2).
PLT [I
LOC _
If two plots per page are chosen, this function allows you to select
the location on the paper for the plotter output. The upper and
lower sections of the softkey label graphically represent where the
plotter output will be located.
Press the softkey until the rectangular marker is in the desired
section of the softkey label.
PLT ClLOC - -
If four plots per page are chosen, this function allows you to select
the location on the paper for the plotter output. The quadrant of
the softkey label graphically represents where the plotter output will
be located.
COPY DEV PRNT PLT
Press this key so that PLT is underlined.
PLT->LJT ON OFF
Make sure that OFF is underlined unless you are plotting to a
laserjet.
IcoPv]
Press this key to copy the spectrum analyzer display to the plotter.
6-16 Printing and Plotting
For a multi-pen plotter, the pens of the plotter draw the different components of the screen as
follows:
Description
Draws the annotation and graticule.
Draws trace A.
Draws trace B.
Draws trace C and the display line.
Draws user-generated graphics and the lower-limit line.
Draws the upper-limit line.
Printing after Plotting or Plotting after Printing
Pressing Icopv) without changing COPY DEV PRNT PLT produces the function last entered (a
print or a plot).
To print after plotting, press:
COPY DEV PRNT PLT (so that PRNT is underlined)
IcoPv]
To plot after printing, press:
@Gig
COPY DEV PRNT PLT (so that PLT is underlined)
IcoPv]
Printing and Plotting
6-17
Printing With a Parallel Interface
This section describes how to print using a parallel interface.
Equipment
w HP 8590 Series spectrum analyzer equipped with Options 041 or 043 (parallel interface),
w HP C2950A parallel printer cable.
Printer with parallel interface, choose one of the following:
n
q
HP 2225C ThinkJet
q
HP 310* Portable DeskJet
q
HP 3630A PaintJet
q
HP 500 Series* DeskJets
q
HP LaserJet
q
HP QuietJet or QuietJet Plus
q
LQ-570 Epson
q
MX-80 Epson
* Some models support color printing.
Interconnection and Printing Instructions
1. Turn off the printer and the spectrum analyzer.
2. Connect the printer to the spectrum analyzer using the parallel printer cable.
3. If your printer has configuration switches, now is the time to set them. See Figure 6-13
or refer to your printer’s documentation for more specific information on your printer’s
configuration.
4. Turn on the spectrum analyzer and printer.
iJLlIET.lET,
PAlI\IT.JET
C~JIETJE
r PLIJS
;m/
DESkJET,
500,'S:O
SEPIE-
THII‘IfJiT
Figure 6-13. Parallel Printer Switch Settings
6-l 8
Printing and Plotting
[CONF I Gh-
r
COPY DEV PRNT PLT
Plot Conf 14
r
Set B&W Printer
Set Colr Printer
_?
r
H P B & W Pk IIdTER
H P B & W 01540
r
PAINTJET PRIIJTER
DESYJET 310/55OC
DE;vJET 5 4 0
Figure 6-14. Printer Configuration Menu Map
5. To print with a parallel interface press the following keys:
piGiq
Press this key to access the configuration menu.
P r i n t Config
Press this key to access the printer menu.
Pm Port Conf ig
Press this key to access the printer configuration menu.
PRN PORT HPIB PAR
( for Option 041, so that PAR is underlined)
PRN PORT SER PAR
(for Option 043, so that PAR is underlined)
6. Select the printer configuration for your spectrum analyzer by pressing the appropriate keys:
p?iiFiq
Press this key to bring up the configuration menu.
P r i n t Config
Press this key to access the printer menu.
P m P o r t Config
Press this key to access the printer configuration menu.
PRINTER SETUP
Press this key to send a PRINTER RESET command to the printer.
This will cause a form feed if any data has been sent to the printer
since the last form feed.
Set Colr Printer
Press this key to print in color if the spectrum analyzer is connected
to a Hewlett-Packard color printer, then select the appropriate
printer.
Selecting any Hewlett-Packard printer results in three printouts
per page. After three printouts the page will be in position to start
again at the top of the page if the printer’s perforation skip is OFF
(see Figure 6-l).
One printout per page can be achieved by manually formfitting each
printout.
Set B&W Printer
Press this key to print in black and white, then select appropriate
printer mode.
HP B&W PRINTER
Press this key if the spectrum analyzer is connected to a
Hewlett-Packard compatible printer.
Selecting any Hewlett-Packard printer results in three printouts per
page. After three printouts the page will be in position to start again
at the top of the page if the printer’s perforation skip is OFF (see
Figure 6- 1).
One printout per page can be achieved by manually formfitting each
printout.
HP B&W DJ540
Press this key if the spectrum analyzer is connected to a
Hewlett-Packard DeskJet 540 printer.
Printing and Plotting
6-19
EP MX80 SML LRG
Press this key if the spectrum analyzer is connected to a MX-80
Epson or other compatible g-pin print-head printer.
Pressing this key to underline SML will allow two printouts per page
and will print softkey labels if desired (see PRT MENU ON OFF ).
Pressing this key to underline LRG will allow only one printout per
page and will not print the softkey labels.
EP LtJ570 SML LRG
Press this key if the spectrum analyzer is connected to an LQ-570
Epson or other compatible 24-pin print-head printer.
Pressing this key to underline SML will print two printouts Per page
and will print softkey labels if desired (see PRT MENU ON OFF ).
This function is operational for Epson compatible printers only when
SML is underlined.
PRT MENU ON OFF
Press this key so that ON is underlined to print the softkey labels
with the spectrum analyzer printout. This function is operational for
Epson compatible printers only when SML is underlined.
COPY DEV PRNT PLT
Press this key so PRNT is underlined.
lcopvl
Press this key to copy the spectrum analyzer display to the printer.
6-20 Printing and Plotting
Plotting to an HP LaserJet Printer
This section describes how to plot to a LaserJet printer using either an RS-232 or parallel
interface.
Equipment
n
HP 8590 Series spectrum analyzer with RS-232 or parallel interface
n
One of the following cables:
n
q
HP 24542G 9-25 pin RS-232 cable
q
HP C2932A 9-25 Pin RS-232 Cable (For use with LaserJet 4P and 4Plus)
q
HP C2950A parallel printer cable
Any of the following HP LaserJets:
q
HP LaserJet IIP Plus
q
HP LaserJet III
q
HP LaserJet IIIP
q
HP LaserJet 4
q
HP LaserJet 4L
q
HP LaserJet 4P
Interconnection and Plotting Instructions
The RS-232 or parallel interface allow only one device to be connected to the spectrum
analyzer. Refer to the programmer’s guide for more information on protocol and cable wiring.
1. Turn off the spectrum analyzer and LaserJet.
2. Connect the HP LaserJet to the analyzer.
3. Turn on the analyzer and the HP LaserJet printer.
Printing and Plotting 6-21
r
COf’Y U E V P R N T PLT
r
PLTS/Pc,
1 2 4
Figure 6-15. Plot Configure Menu
4. Referring to Figure 6-15 select the plotter configuration for your spectrum analyzer by
pressing the appropriate keys:
5. Configure your analyzer to plot to the LaserJet by pressing:
pmiq
Press this key to bring up the configuration menu.
COPY DEV PRNT PLT
so that PLT is underlined.
PLTS/PG 1 2 4
Press this key to underline the number of plots per page desired.
Choose 1, 2, or 4 plots per page (see Figure 6-2.
PLT Cl
If two plots per page are chosen, this function allows you to select
the location on the paper for the plotter output. The upper and
lower sections of the softkey label graphically represent where the
plotter output will be located.
LOC
_
PI.JLTc -Cl-
Press the softkey until the rectangular marker is in the desired
section of the softkey label.
If four plots per page are chosen, this function allows you to select
the location on the paper for the plotter output. The quadrant of
the softkey label graphically represents where the plotter output will
be located.
Press the softkey until the rectangular marker is in the desired
section of the softkey label.
PLT->LJT ON OFF
Press this key so that ON is underlined.
Icopv)
Press this key to plot the spectrum analyzer display to the LaserJet
printer.
6.22 Printing and Plotting
Key Descriptions
This chapter describes functions and controls of the spectrum analyzer. The front-panel keys
and softkey functions are listed alphabetically followed by a complete and detailed description.
Brief descriptions for service functions have also been included in this chapter. However,
for more detailed descriptions and information about the use of each function, refer to the
respective service guide for your instrument. A listing of all service calibration and service
diagnostic functions has been provided in the following “Service Functions” section.
All softkeys and their relationship to the front-panel keys are shown in Chapter 8, “Key
Menus. ”
Key Descriptions 7-l
Service Functions
Two types of functions are available for service use only:
w Service calibration functions.
n
Service diagnostic functions.
These service functions are designed for service use only. However, brief descriptions for each
function are provided in this chapter. For more detailed descriptions and information about the
use of each function, refer to the Service Guide for your instrument.
Service documentation can be obtained by ordering Option 915 through your HP Sales
and Service office. Option 915 is described in more detail under Chapter 10 “Measurement
Personalities, Options, and Accessories” in this manual.
Service Calibration Functions
Service Cal accesses the following service calibration softkeys:
CAL MXR
(HP 8592L, HP 85933, HP 85953, or HP 85963 only)
CAL TIMEBASE
EDIT FLATNESS
EXECUTE TITLE
EXIT
Flatness Data
IDNUM
INIT FLT
SET ATTN ERROR
STOR PWR ON UNITS
Service Diagnostic Functions
Service Diag accesses the following diagnostic softkeys:
c,f~ LOCK ON OFF
+lOV REF DETECTOR
-lOV REF DETECTOR
2v REF DETECTOR
ALC TEST
(HP 8590L or HP 85913 with Option 010 or 011 only)
ANALYZER GAINS
AUXB
(HP 8590L or HP 85913 only)
BINARY SPAN
(HP 8590L or HP 8591E only)
COARSE TUNE DAC
DACS
DISPLAY CAL DATA
DROOP
FINE TUNE DAC
FM COIL DRIVE
FM GAIN
(Option 102 or 103 only)
7-2 Key Descriptions
FM OFFST
(Option 102 or 103 only)
FM SPAN
FREQ DIAG
FRQ DISC NORM OFF
GND REF DETECTOR
MAIN COIL DR
MAIN SPAN
MIXER BIAS DAC
(HP 8592L, HP 85933, HP 85953, or HP 85963 only)
PRESEL DAC
(HP 8592L, HP 85933, HP 85953, or HP 85963 only)
QP DET ON OFF
(Option 103 only)
QP GAIN ON OFF
(Option 103 only)
QPD RST ON OFF
(Option 103 only)
QPD OFFSET
(Option 103 only)
STP GAIN ZERO
SWEEP RAMP
SWEEP TIME DAC
X FINE TUNE DAC
YTF DRIVER
(HP 8592L, HP 85933, HP 85953, or HP 85963 only)
YTF SPAN
(HP 8592L, HP 85933, HP 85953, or HP 85963 only)
YTF TUNE COARSE
(HP 8592L, HP 85933, HP 85953, or HP 8596E only)
YTF TUNE FINE
(HP 8592L, HP 85933, HP 85953, or HP 85963 only)
Key Descriptions 7-3
Analyzer Functions
% AM
ON OFF
determines the percent of amplitude modulation of the largest displayed
signal and its two sidebands. The sidebands are assumed to be entirely from
amplitude modulation. If there are differences in the sideband amplitude, the
larger value is used. The measurement runs continuously, re-executing at the
end of each sweep.
All three signal must be displayed. The frequency spacing of the sideband
signals must be the same within the span accuracy of the measurement.
All of the signals must be greater than the PEAK EXCURSION above the
THRESHOLD. The amplitude scale may be either linear or logarithmic.
Front-Panel Key Access: (j-1
Cp LOCK
ON OFF
turns off the spectrum analyzer phase locking. The counter is turned off so
frequency correction is no longer done at the start of each sweep. Turning the
phase locking off increases measurement speed, but it decreases frequency
accuracy. This is a service diagnostic function and is for service use.
Front-Panel Key Access: ICAL)
+lOV REF
displays the output of the + 10 V reference from the A7 Analog Interface
assembly as a horizontal line at the top graticule. This is a service diagnostic
function and is for service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: a
DETECTOR
-lOV REF
DETECTOR
displays the output of the -10 V reference from the A7 Analog Interface
assembly as a horizontal line at the bottom graticule. This is a service
diagnostic function and is for service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: ICAL)
2v REF
DETECTOR
displays the output of the 2 V reference produced on the Al6 Processor/Video
assembly as a horizontal line at the top graticule. This is a service diagnostic
function and is for service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: ICAL)
O-2.9 GHz
BAND 0
HP 859ZL, HP 8593E, HP 8595E, and HP 8596E only.
locks onto harmonic band 0. Harmonic band 0 uses low-pass filtering instead of
bandpass preselection. It has a specified tuning range of 0 to 2.9 GHz.
Front-Panel Key Access: [FREQUENCY]
2.75-6.5
BAND 1
HP 859ZL, HP 85934 HP 85.9iiE, and HP 8596E only.
locks onto harmonic band 1. Harmonic band 1 is preselected and has a
specified tuning range of 2.75 GHz to 6.5 GHz.
Front-Panel Key Access: [FREQUENCY)
6.0-12.8
BAND 2
HP 8592L, HP 8593E, and HP 8596E only.
locks onto harmonic band 2. Harmonic band 2 is preselected and has a
specified tuning range of 6.0 to 12.8 GHz.
Front-Panel Key Access: [FREQUENCY_)
12.4-19.
HP 85921, and HP 8593E only.
locks onto harmonic band 3. Harmonic band 3 is preselected and has a
specified tuning range of 12.4 to 19.4 GHz.
Front-Panel Key Access: [FREQUENCY_)
BAND 3
7-4 Key Descriptions
19.1-22
BAND 4
HP 8592L and HP 8593E only.
locks onto harmonic band 4. Harmonic band 4 is preselected and has a
specified tuning range of 19.1 to 22 GHz.
Front-Panel Key Access: [FREQUENCY)
9 kHz
EM1 BW
allows a 6 dB resolution bandwidth of 9 kHz. This bandwidth is useful when
performing electromagnetic interference (EMI) measurements.
Front-Panel Key Access: m
1 2 0 kHz
EM1 BW
allows a 6 dB resolution bandwidth of 120 kHz. This bandwidth is useful when
performing electromagnetic interference (EMI) measurements.
Front-Panel Key Access: (Bw
200 Hz
EM1 BW
fir Option 130 only.
allows a 6 dB resolution bandwidth of 200 Hz. This bandwidth is useful when
performing electromagnetic interference (EMI) measurements.
Front-Panel Key Access: m
A<-->B
exchanges the contents of the trace A register with the trace B register and
puts trace A in view mode.
Front-Panel Key Access: C-1
A-B -3 A
when ON is underlined, subtracts the data in trace B from the measured data
in trace A. A minus sign (-) appears between the trace A status and the trace
B status in the screen annotation while the function is active.
ON OFF
To deactivate this function, press A - B + A ON OFF so that OFF is
underlined. The A-B -+ A and B-DL + B functions are math functions.
Unlike operations on dBm units, math functions operate on measurement units.
Measurement units are used to format trace data for data within the graticule
limits. The displayed amplitude of each element falls on one of 8000 vertical
points with the value of 8000 being equal to the reference level. For log scale
data, each point is equal to 0.01 dB. The peak of a signal equal to -10 dBm,
or one division below the reference level, is equal to 7000 measurement
units (8000 - 1000 = 7000). In linear mode, each point has a resolution of
[reference level in volts/8000].
For example, if trace A contains amplitude values of -10 dBm and trace B
contains amplitude values of -40 dBm, the result of the A - B + A function
would be -10.004 dBm if dBm units were used. Since measurement units
are used for the A - B -+ A function, the result of A - B + A is -50 dBm
(- 10 dBm = 7000 measurement units, -40 dBm = 4000 measurement units;
the result is 3000 measurement units, which is equal to -50 dBm).
Front-Panel Key Access: (TRACE)
A - C
copies trace A into trace C.
Front-Panel Key Access: [TRACE)
ABCDEF
accesses the softkey menu for selecting screen title characters A through F.
Front-Panel Key Access: (CAL), t-1, fjj), [RECALL), or (SAVE_)
Key Descriptions 7-5
ACCEPT
QP DATA
For Option 103 only.
displays the quasi-peak amplitude value of the marker. See the HP 85913,
HP 8593E, HP 85943, HP 85953, or HP 8596E Option 103 supplement
documentation for more information.
Front-Panel Key Access: [AUXCTRL)
ACPGRAPH
ON OFF
turns the adjacent channel power graph ON or OFF. With ACPGRAPH ON
the ACP ratio graph is calculated and displayed and the numeric results are
not displayed. The value of the ACP ratio is displayed at the selected marker
frequency offset from the center frequency. This graph function is used after
doing an adjacent channel power measurement with the ADJ CHAN POWER or
ADJ CHAN PWR extd softkeys.
Front-Panel Key Access: [MEAS/USER)
ADJ CHAN
POWER
measures the power leakage into the adjacent channels and calculates the
adjacent channel power ratio of both the upper and lower channels, with
respect to the total power. The total power of the carrier is displayed. The
adjacent channel power ratios of both channels are also displayed and the
larger number is marked with a A. (Vertical lines on the display indicate the
bandwidth edges of the three different channels being measured.)
The measurement can be made on a single sweep or continuously updated at
the end of each sweep. See SINGLE MEAS and CONT MEAS . The measurement
stops and the spectrum analyzer is returned to its prior state when other
measurement functions are activated.
The center frequency must be set to the intended carrier frequency and the
reference level set to optimize the displayed signal. The channel bandwidth
and channel spacing must be entered by the user. If PARAM AUTO is selected
(so AUTO is underlined), other spectrum analyzer settings will then be coupled
and set automatically. The adjacent channel power measurement responds to
signals like an rms power measurement. This means that the measurement of
the total channel power and the adjacent channel power ratios are accurately
reported, whether the transmitted signal contains tones, noise, or both. If
PARAM AUTO is selected the parameters of the instrument state are set for a
valid measurement. When using PARAM MAN, the following conditions must
be maintained to make a valid rms measurement. If these conditions are not
met, errors of up to -2.5 dB can occur for noise-like signals.
Video bandwidth is at least 10 times the resolution bandwidth.
w Detector mode is sample (SMP). (You can use DETECTOR SMP PK to select the
detector mode.)
n Resolution bandwidth is less than or equal to 100 kHz.
n Video averaging is OFF
n Neither MAX HOLD nor MIN HOLD trace mode is selected.
n
Front-Panel Key Access: [MEAS/USER)
7-6 Key Descriptions
ADJ CHAN
PWR extd
measures the power leakage into the adjacent channels and calculates the
adjacent channel power ratio of both the upper and lower channels, with
respect to the reference channel. ADJ CHAN POWER extd has an extended
dynamic range compared with ADJ CHAN POWER. The extended range is
measured by taking two different sweeps with different reference levels and
combining the trace data. The displayed dynamic range is 104 dB and the log
scale is set to 13 dB/ division.
The total power of the channel is displayed. The adjacent channel power ratios
of both channels are also displayed and the larger number is marked with a A.
(Vertical lines on the display indicate the six edges of the upper, lower, and
reference channels being measured.)
The measurement stops and the spectrum analyzer is returned to its prior state
when other measurement functions are activated.
The center frequency must be set to the intended carrier frequency and the
reference level set to optimize the displayed signal. The channel bandwidth
and channel spacing must be entered by the user. If PARAM AUTO is selected
(so AUTO is underlined), other spectrum analyzer settings will then be coupled
and set automatically. The adjacent channel power measurement is an rms
measurement. This means that the measurement of the total channel power
and the adjacent channel power ratios are accurately reported, whether the
transmitted signal contains tones, noise, or both. IF PARAM AUTO is selected
the parameters of the instrument state are set for a valid measurement. When
using PARAM MAN, the following conditions must be maintained to make a
valid rms measurement:
n Video bandwidth is at least 10 times the resolution bandwidth.
w Detector mode is sample (SMP). (You can use DETECTOR SMP PK to select the
detector mode.)
n Resolution bandwidth is less than or equal to 100 kHz.
n Video averaging is OFF.
w Neither MAX HOLD nor MIN HOLD trace mode is selected.
Front-Panel Key Access: (j-1
ALC
INT EXT
HP 8593E, HP 8594E, HP 8595E, or HP 8596E with Option 010 only.
activates internal (INT) leveling or external (EXT) leveling.
Front-Panel Key Access: l$GGZQ
ALC MTR
INT XTAL
HP 85901, or HP 8591E with Option 010 or 011 only.
activates the automatic leveling control (ALC) function for internal (INT)
leveling or external (XTAL or MTR) leveling. The external leveling input
(located on the rear panel of the spectrum analyzer) can be used with a
power meter or crystal that has a positive or negative voltage output. See
specifications and characteristics in your calibration guide for the leveling
input characteristics. External leveling increases the amplitude accuracy by
improving the effective source match. The meter (MTR) position narrows ALC
loop bandwidth so an HP power meter can be used.
Front-Panel Key Access: (puxm]
Key Descriptions 7-7
ALC TEST
HP 8590L or HP 8591 E with Option 010 or 011 only.
breaks the leveling loop of the automatic leveling control in the tracking
generator. This is a service diagnostic function and is for service use only.
Refer to the service guide for more information.
Front-Panel Key Access: ICAL)
ALL DLP
- CARD
Requires Option 003 for an HP 859OL, HP 8592L, or HP 8594L.
saves all the downloadable programs and key definitions that are in spectrum
analyzer memory onto the memory card. If the downloadable program was
stored using a prefix, the file name for the downloadable program consists of
d(prefix)-(register number). If no prefix was specified, the data is stored with
the file name d-(register number).
Front-Panel Key Access: ISAVE_)
Amp Cor
accessed by ICAL). Amp Cor accesses the menus for entering and editing the
current amplitude-correction factors.
Front-Panel Key Access: a
AMP COR
when accessed by m, AMP COR stores the current amplitude-correction
factors table in spectrum analyzer memory or on the memory card.
When accessed by (j-j, AMP COR recalls the amplitude-correction
factors table from either spectrum analyzer memory or the memory card.
Amplitude-correction factors are saved with an “a” before the memory-card
file name. Screen titles are not recalled with the data. Refer to “To Save
a Limit-Line Table or Amplitude Correction Factors” in Chapter 5 for more
information.
Amplitude-correction-factor memory-card tiles can be catalogued using
CATALOG AMP COR.
Front-Panel Key Access: [RECALL) or B
AMP COR
ON OFF
turns the current amplitude-correction factors on or off.
Front-Panel Key Access: (CAL)
(AMPLITUDE)
activates the reference level function and accesses the amplitude menu. The
softkeys accessed when you press Cm) change reference level, input
attenuation, vertical scale, mixer level, amplitude units, input impedance,
and amplitude offset. For the HP 85933, HP 85943, HP 85953, or HP 8596E,
pressing cm) accesses the preselector peaking and preselector default
functions also.
Amptd
Units
accesses the softkeys that change the amplitude units. The amplitude units can
be changedby pressing dBm, dBmV, dBuV, Volts, or Watts.
Front-Panel Key Access: [AMPLITUDE)
7-8 Key Descriptions
ANALOG+
ON OFF
Fbr the HP 8591E, HP 8593E, HP 8594E, HP 8595E, or HP 8596E only.
Requires Q&ion 101 or 301.
turns on the analog+ display mode. This is a digital implementation of an
analog display, combining the advantages of both types of displays. The display
is made up of 401 horizontal points or trace elements. In the analog+ display
mode each trace element can display from 1 to 40 dots, or measurements.
Pressing ANALOG+ ON OFF makes dot density the active function. The dot
density function sets the desired number of measurements per trace element.
Each dot requires an additional analog-to-digital conversion for each trace
element, so the sweep time can limit the actual number of dots available.
Lengthening the sweep time can increase the actual dot density.
Markers and marker functions as well as the screen text and title capabilities
of a digital display are available along with the analog type trace information.
Some functions are not available with analog+ display mode. See Table 7-l for
a list of functions that are not available with analog+ displays. If a trace is
blanked while using an analog+ display, the data is permanently blanked and
cannot be recalled, even if you use the view function.
The copy function can be used to provide a printout of the display. It must be
configured to use a printer and not a plotter. After using other functions, press
ANALOG+ ON OFF to return to the dot density function.
Limit lines can be used to test data in an analog+ display, but they cannot be
displayed.
Front-Panel Key Access: (display)
‘able 7-l. Commands Not Available with Analog + Operation
Description
Command
A <--> B
exchanges trace A and trace B
A-B -+ A ON OFF
puts the difference between trace A and trace B into trace A
B-DL +B
puts the difference between trace B and the display line in trace B
CLEAR WRITE B
initially erases trace B and then displays it continuously
CLEAR WRITE C
initially erases trace C and then displays it continuously
DEMOD ON OFF
turns AM or FM demodulation on and off
FFT
changes zero span data to the frequency domain using an FFT
MKR CNT ON OFF
turns the marker counter on and off
MK PAUSE ON OFF
stops the analyzer sweep at the marker for the defined of the dwell time
MAX HOLD A
updates trace A with the maximum level at each point, each sweep
MAX HOLD B
updates trace B with the maximum level at each point, each sweep
MIN HOLD C
updates trace C with the minimum level at each point, each sweep
NORMLIZE ON OFF
the difference between A and B is added tothe display line and put into trace P
?lK TRACK ON OFF
moves the signal closest to the marker to center screen and keeps it centered
SPAN ZOOM
finds the highest signal peak, turns on marker track, and activates span
THRESHLD ON OFF
sets a lower boundary to the active trace
TRACKING PEAK
starts a routine which adjusts tracking to peak the tracking generator signal
YID AVG ON OFF
starts a routine which digitally averages display signals and noise
VIEW A
holds and displays the trace A data when used after blanking trace A
VIEW B
holds and displays the trace B data
VIEW C
holds and displays the trace C data
Key Descriptions 7-9
ANALYZER
ADDRESS
Option U41 only.
allows you to set the HP-IB address of the spectrum analyzer. The spectrum
analyzer address is set to 18 by pressing DEFAULT CONFIG .
Front-Panel Key Access: [??%i%7]
ANALYZER
GAINS
displays the current value of the gain for various functional blocks within
the spectrum analyzer. The gain values will vary depending on the current
spectrum analyzer settings. This is a service diagnostic function and is for
service use only. Refer to the service guide for more information.
Front-Panel Key Access: ICALl
ANNOTATN
ON OFF
turns the screen annotation on or off. However, softkey annotation will remain
on the screen. The screen annotation may not be required for prints or plots,
or during remote operation. Refer to the HOLD softkey description regarding
softkey annotation.
Front-Panel Key Access: (j-1
APND
CAT ITEM
Fbr 0ptions U41 and 043 only. Refer to Chapter 4 of the HP 8590 E-Series and
L-Series Spectrum Analyzer and HP 8591 C Cable TV Analyzer Programmer’s
Guide for wuwe information.
starts the DLP editor function and allows the
of spectrum analyzer memory to be appended
currently in the spectrum analyzer DLP editor
appended will not fit in the available memory
Front-Panel Key Access: (RECALL] or (SAVE_)
highlighted item from the catalog
to the end of the item that is
memory. If the item to be
space, it will not be appended.
ATTEN
AUTO MAN
sets the input attenuation in 10 dB increments. The spectrum analyzer input
attenuator, which is normally coupled (linked) to the reference level control,
reduces the power level of the spectrum analyzer input signal at the input
mixer. The attenuator is recoupled when AUTO is underlined.
Front-Panel Key Access: [AMPLITUDE] or (AUTO COUPLE]
Caution
To prevent damage to the input mixer, the power level at the input mixer must
not exceed +30 dBm. To prevent signal compression, power at the input to the
input mixer must be kept below -10 dBm.
Note
To protect the mixer from possible damage, 0 dB RF attenuation (no input
power reduction to the mixer) can be selected only from the number/units
keypad.
AUTO
ALL
couples the following functions: resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth,
attenuation, sweep time, center-frequency step, video bandwidth, and
video-bandwidth to resolution-bandwidth ratio.
Front-Panel Key Access: [AUTO COUPLE]
7-10 Key Descriptions
[AUTO COUPLE]
accesses the softkey menu of functions that can be coupled. (Coupled
functions are functions that are linked: if one function is changed, the other
function is changed.) The functions that can be auto-coupled are listed below:
w Resolution bandwidth couples to span.
n
Video bandwidth couples to resolution bandwidth when the spectrum
analyzer has a video-bandwidth to resolution-bandwidth ratio of 0.3.
n
Sweep time couples to span, resolution bandwidth, and video bandwidth.
n
RF attenuation couples to reference level.
w Center frequency step size couples to 10% of span.
During normal operation, the sweep time, resolution bandwidth, and video
bandwidth are coupled to yield optimum performance. If any of these
functions becomes uncoupled (that is, is manually set), a “#” will appear next
to the screen annotation representing the function on the screen.
If one or more functions are manually set so that the amplitude or frequency
becomes uncalibrated, MEAS UNCAL appears on the right side of the graticule.
Recouple a single function by pressing the function label (to activate the
function), and pressing the function again so that AUTO is underlined.
Pressing
CAUTO COUPLE),
AUTO ALL couples all coupled functions listed.
AUTO qP
AT MKR
Fbr Option 103 only.
executes a quasi-peak routine. See the HP 85913, HP 85933, HP 85943,
HP 85953, or HP 85963 Option 103 supplement documentation for more
information.
Front-Panel Key Access: t-1
Aux Conn
Control
accesses the softkey menu used to control the auxiliary outputs and input.
The auxiliary outputs are controlled by pressing CNTL A 0 1 , CNTL B 0 1 ,
CNTL C 0 1 , and CNTL D 0 1 . The status of the auxiliary input
(control line I), can be displayed on the spectrum analyzer screen with
DISPLAY CNTL I.
Front-Panel Key Access: (AUXJ
accesses the softkey menu used for control of the auxiliary interface
connector.
Fbr the HP 8592L, HP 8593E, and HP 8596E: @iXTTKj also accesses the comb
generator function. Fbr Option 102 or 103: [AUXj accesses demodulation
functions. For Option 010 or 011: it accesses tracking generator functions.
AUXB
HP 8590L or HP 8591 E on1 y.
displays the voltage level present at an unused input to the Test Point MUX
circuitry located on the A7 Analog Interface assembly. This is a service
diagnostic function and is for service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: (CAL)
B+C
copies trace B into trace C.
Front-Panel Key Access: [Wj
B <--> C
exchanges the contents of trace B with trace C and puts trace B in view mode.
Front-Panel Key Access: (mj
B-DL + B
subtracts the display line from trace B and places the result in trace B. The
B-DI, + B function is a math operation. See the A-B --+ A ON OFF softkey
description for information about math operations.
Front-Panel Key Access: [WI
Key Descriptions 7-11
HP 8592L, HP 8593E, HP 85954 and HP 8596E only.
accesses the harmonic band menu and the band lock function. Selecting
a harmonic band causes the spectrum analyzer to lock onto the specified
harmonic band and automatically select the settings shown in Table 7-2.
Band
Lock
‘able 7-2.
Center Frequency and Span Settings for Harmonic Bands
Center
Span
Description
O-2.9 Gz BAND 0
1.45 GHz
2.9 GHz
Low-pass filtered, first harmonic mixing.
2.75-6.5 BAND 1
4.638 GHz
3.6 GHz
Preselected, first harmonic mixing.
6.0-12.8 BAND 2 *
9.4 GHz
6.8 GHz
12.4-19.4 BAND 3 t
15.9 GHz
7 GHz
20.55 GHz
2.9 GHz
Softkey
Frequency
19.1-22 BAND 4 t
Preselected, second harmonic mixing.
Preselected, third harmonic mixing.
Preselected, fourth harmonic mixing.
* Not available with the HP 85953.
t Not available with the HP 85953 or HP 85963.
BND LOCK
ON OFF
locks the spectrum analyzer onto a selected frequency band (local
oscillator harmonic number). When only one frequency band is being swept
the corresponding softkey will be underlined, even if band lock is off.
Note
When using the spectrum analyzer in a band lock mode, the span is limited
to 3.6 GHz in band 0 and 1, and to 7 GHz in bands 2 through 4. To select the
maximum span in a given band, use the start frequency, stop frequency, or
span function.
Front-Panel Key Access:
(FREQUENCY)
BAUD
RATE
Q&ion 043 (AS-232 and parallel interface) only.
sets the data transmission speed. (Also see the description for the IcoPv] key.)
The baud rate is set to 1200 by pressing DEFAULT CONFIG .
Front-Panel Key Access: (E%iZj
BINARY
HP 85901, and HP 85913 only.
displays the output of the span DAC that is located on the A7 Analog Interface
assembly. This is a service diagnostic function and is for service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: (CAL)
SPAN
BLANK A
stores the amplitude data for trace A and removes it from the screen. The
trace A register will not be updated as the spectrum analyzer sweeps.
Front-Panel Key Access: @EXE]
BLANK B
stores the amplitude data for trace B and removes it from the screen. The
trace B register will not be updated as the spectrum analyzer sweeps.
Front-Panel Key Access: [TRACE)
BLANK C
stores the amplitude data for trace C and removes it from the screen. The
trace C register will not be updated as the spectrum analyzer sweeps.
Front-Panel Key Access: @EiiE]
7-l 2
Key Descriptions
BLANK
CARD
Requires Option 003 for an HP 859OL, HP 8592L, or HP 8594L.
deletes all the files from the memory card. Pressing BLANK CARD displays
the message: If you are sure, press key again to purge data. Press
BLANK CARD again if you want to delete all files from the memory card.
Front-Panel Key Access: (jj
BND LOCK
ON OFF
HP 8592L, HP 85933, HP 8595E, and HP 8596E only.
underlining ON locks the spectrum analyzer to the lowest frequency band
(local oscillator harmonic number) containing the correct center frequency.
Start and stop frequencies will be changed if necessary. Executing a band lock
limits the spectrum analyzer tuning range to the selected harmonic number.
Selecting the softkeys for band 0 through band 4 turns on the band lock
function automatically.
If the start frequency is well within a lower band, turning band lock off will
result, in a multiband sweep. If a specific band had been selected prior to
changing to a multiband sweep, the selected band’s softkey label will no longer
be underlined indicating that it is not selected. Sweep of a single band is
indicated by the selected band’s softkey label being underlined.
Note
Before changing the frequency range to another harmonic band, unlock the
band by pressing BND LOCK ON OFF so that OFF is underlined.
Front-Panel Key Access:
CFREQUENCY]
activates the resolution bandwidth function and accesses the softkeys that
control the bandwidth functions: RES BW AUTO MAN , VID BW AUTO MAN ,
VBW/RBW RATIO , VID AVG ON OFF , and the EM1 BW Menu. (Also see the
RES BW AUTO MAN softkey description.)
ICAL)
accesses the softkey menus used for the self-calibration, service-diagnostics,
and service-calibration functions. For more information about self-calibrating
the spectrum analyzer, see “Improving Accuracy with Self-Calibration
Routines” in Chapter 2.
CAL
AMPTD
initiates an amplitude self-calibration routine. Connect CAL OUT to the
spectrum analyzer input before pressing CAL AMPTD . If Option 105 is installed,
remove the cable from the rear panel GATE INPUT before starting the
self-calibration routine.
Note
If the frequency calibration and amplitude calibration self-calibration routines
are both used, the CAL FREQ softkey function should always be initiated
before the CAL AMPTD softkey function.
Front-Panel Key Access: ICAL)
CAL
FETCH
retrieves stored self-calibration correction factors from the last calibration
saved using CAL STORE .
Front-Panel Key Access: (CAL)
Key Descriptions
7-l 3
CAL
FREQ
initiates a frequency self-calibration routine. Connect CAL OUT to the
spectrum analyzer input before pressing CAL FREQ . If Option 105 is installed,
remove the cable from the rear panel GATE INPUT before starting the
self-calibration routine.
Front-Panel Key Access: m
CAL FREQ
& AMPTD
initiates both the frequency and amplitude self-calibration routines. Connect
CAL OUT to the spectrum analyzer input before pressing CAL FREQ & AMPTD .
If Option 105 is installed, remove the cable from the rear panel GATE INPUT
before starting the self-calibration routine.
Front-Panel Key Access: ICAL)
CAL MXR
HP 8592L, HP 85933, HP 8595E or HP 8596E only.
adjusts the bias-current DAC setting for the optimum displayed-signal
amplitude. The HP 8592L, HP 85933, and HP 85963 use the 100 MHz COMB
OUT signal for the test signal. The HP 85953 uses the 300 MHz CAL OUT
signal. This is a service calibration function and is for service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: a
CAL
STORE
stores the correction factors from the last calibration. The stored correction
factors are automatically retrieved when the spectrum analyzer is turned
on. If correction factors are not stored, they will be retained only until the
spectrum analyzer is turned off. See the description for the CAL FETCH
softkey.
Front-Panel Key Access: ICAL)
CAL
TIMEBASE
changes the setting of the 10 MHz reference (standard timebase) DAC that
is located on the A25 Counter Lock assembly. This is a service calibration
function and is for service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: (CAL)
CAL
TRK GEN
Option 010 or 011 only.
performs absolute amplitude, vernier, and tracking peak self-calibration
routines. (It only performs the tracking peak self-calibration for the HP 8590L
and HP 85913.) The spectrum analyzer should be amplitude calibrated by
pressing CAL AMPTD prior to using the CAL TRK GEN function. Connect the
tracking generator output to the spectrum analyzer input before pressing
CAL TRK GEN .
Front-Panel Key Access: ICAL)
CAL
YTF
HP 8592L, HP 8593E, HP 8595E, and HP 85963 only.
generates the best slope and offset adjustment to calibrate the YIG-tuned filter
(YTF) for each harmonic band. Connect COMB OUT to the spectrum analyzer
input before pressing CAL YTF on the HP 8592L, HP 85933, or HP 85963.
Connect the CAL OUT to the spectrum analyzer input for an HP 85953. The
frequency self-calibration routine should be performed before running the CAL
YTF routine.
Front-Panel Key Access: a
Card
Conf ig
Requires Option 003 for an HP 85901, HP 8592L, or HP 8594L.
accesses the softkey menu that allows you to catalog, format, and delete data
from a memory card.
Front-Panel Key Access: [CONFIG)
7-14 Key Descriptions
CARD -+
DISPLAY
Requires Option 003 for an HP 85901, HP 8592L, or HP 8594L.
recalls into spectrum analyzer memory a display image saved on the memory
card. It does not recall the associated instrument state, but the restored
display can be viewed and copied. Before recalling a display that was saved
under a prefix other than the current prefix, change the current prefix to the
prefix used when the display was saved.
The intensity of some screen items may differ if the current spectrum analyzer
state does not match the state of the recalled image. This will not affect the
spectrum analyzer ability to output a copy of the screen.
It is possible to have more functionality than just viewing and copying a
recalled display image. For example, you can set the spectrum analyzer to the
identical window configuration as when the display was saved. Then recall
the trace that corresponds to the display image. This will restore the trace
and state information. Finally, you can recall the display image. At this point,
markers and display line can be used to examine the data. If an attempt is
made to update the trace data, the display will be erased and redrawn to
reflect the current instrument state.
Pressing LOAD FILE is an alternate way to load display image from the
memory card into spectrum analyzer memory. See “Saving and Recalling Data
from the Memory Card” in Chapter 5 for more information.
Front-Panel Key Access: @ZiJ
CARD
-+ DLP
Requires 0ption 003 for an HP 85901, HP 85921, or HP 8594L.
recalls into the spectrum analyzer memory a downloadable program (DLP)
saved on the memory card. Before recalling data that was saved under a prefix
other than the current prefix, change the current prefix to the prefix used
when the data was saved. Pressing LOAD FILE is an alternate way to load
program data from the memory card into spectrum analyzer memory. See
“Saving and Recalling Data from the Memory Card” in Chapter 5 for more
information. See also the Change Prefix softkey description.
Front-Panel Key Access: L-1
CARD
+ STATE
Requires Option 003 for an HP 85901, HP 8592L, or HP 8594L.
recalls into spectrum analyzer memory a state saved on the memory card.
CARD 4 STATE also displays the time and date when the state data was
stored. Before recalling a state that was saved under a prefix other than the
current prefix, change the current prefix to the prefix used when the state was
saved.
If the windows display mode is being used, the instrument state can only be
recalled into the active window.
Pressing LOAD FILE is an alternate way to load state data from the memory
card into spectrum analyzer memory. See “Saving and Recalling Data from the
Memory Card” in Chapter 5 for more information.
Front-Panel Key Access: cm’
Card
+ Trace
Requires Option 003 for an HP 859OL, HP 8592L, or HP 8594L.
recalls into spectrum analyzer memory a trace saved on the memory
card. Limit lines and amplitude correction factors are recalled by pressing
Card + Trace, LIMIT LINES or AMP COR. If the screen title does not
exceed 34 characters, the time and date when the trace data was stored is
also displayed with the recalled trace data. The screen title and date are
not recalled with limit-line files or amplitude correction factor files. Before
recalling a trace, limit-line file, or amplitude correction factors file that was
Key Descriptions 7-15
saved under a prefix other than the current prefix, change the current prefix
to the prefix used when the data was saved. If windows are being used, only
the trace of the active window can be recalled.
Pressing LOAD FILE is an alternate way to load trace data (but not
recommended for recalling limit-line files or amplitude correction factor files)
from the memory card into spectrum analyzer memory. See “Saving and
Recalling Data from the Memory Card” in Chapter 5 for more information.
Front-Panel Key Access: [ml
CATALOG
ALL
catalogs all the programs and variables stored in spectrum analyzer memory
in bytes along with the remaining memory available in bytes. Press
CATALOG REGISTER to catalog states, traces, limit-line tables, and amplitude
correction factors saved in spectrum analyzer memory. Pressing CATALOG ALL
catalogs all traces, states, amplitude correction factors, programs, display
images, and limit-line tables stored on the memory card when cataloging the
memory card.
Front-Panel Key Access: (jj) or (SAVE_)
CATALOG
AMP COR
Requires 0ption 003 for an HP 859OL, HP 8592L, or HP 8594L.
catalogs the amplitude correction factor files that are on the memory card.
Use the CATALOG REGISTER softkey to catalog amplitude factors saved in
spectrum analyzer memory (amplitude correction factors saved in analyzer
memory are stored in trace registers). Amplitude correction factors are saved
with an “a” before the memory card file name. Amplitude factors can be saved
in spectrum analyzer memory by either loading in amplitude correction factors
from a memory card, defining amplitude correction factors using a remote
programming command (AMPCOR), or using EDIT AMP COR . See “Entering
Amplitude Correction Factors” in Chapter 5 for more information.
Front-Panel Key Access: (ZZiZQ or ISAVE)
Catalog
Card
Requires Option 003 for an HP 859OL, HP 85921, or HP 8594L.
accesses a menu with the cataloging functions for the memory card:
CATALOG ALL, CATALOG STATES, CATALOG TRACES, CATALOG PREFIX,
CATALOG DLP, CATALOG AMP COR, CATALOG LMT LINE, and
CATALOG DISPLAY . Each catalog function displays catalog information
and accesses a menu containing LOAD FILE and DELETE FILE. The
catalog contains information about the items stored on the memory card (
see Figure 7-1 and l%ble 7-3).
Use the step keys to view different sections of the directory, and the knob to
select a file. Press LOAD FILE to load the selected file into spectrum analyzer
memory. Press DELETE FILE to delete the selected file from the memory card.
Unlike saving to the internal memory, data is saved as a file on the memory
card. The files stored on the memory card are in the logical interchange format
(LIF).
Front-Panel Key Access: (recall) or (SAVE_)
7-16 Key Descriptions
ATTEN
PEAK
LOG
10
HP859X 1
s
t-40
2
LW-8
12
13
s AAAAA-21 S T A T E
18
1
dPPDG
dOOOm5
s-222
t
LW-22
dLW-222 D
dLW-20
S A
0
STATE
TRACE
.s-22
s-l
SB I
S C F C
1
15-56-45
0
MAR
MAR
l9E9
1389
21:39 2 8
MAR
19R9
19
2 0
1
1
0 0
25:16 28
00.25:39
2 8
MAP
MAP
1389
1989
DLP
DLP
STATE
21
2 2
2 3
1
1
1
08-45 5 7
07.45:40
06:41.00
2 9
0 5
0 7
MAR
APR
APP
198’3
13E9
1989
TRACE
0
2 3
2 7
STATE
STATE
2 4
5
06:45.42
0 7
APP
1389
2 9
3 0
1
1
0 6 4 9 . 3 4
06 : 50.54
0 7 APR
0 7 APR
1989
1989
LIMIT
31
1
09.1 1 30
10
I)CT
1989
P
3 2
1
07.30: 11
10
OCT
1989
L
P
DLP
M
LGm5
aTEMP-4 A
dB
8
CORR
C E N T E R 2 7 0 8 8 2 3 GHr
R E S BW 3 0 0 kHz
VBW
100
kHr
SPAh 60.74 MHz
SWP 2 0 msec
Figure 7-l. Memory Card Catalog Information
‘Ihble 7-3. Memory Card Catalog Information
Description
I
2
3
I
A label to identify the memory card. FORMAT CARD automatically
assigns the volume label “HP859X” to the card.
Number of kilobytes
Displays the size of the memory card. 128 is the number of 256.byte
blocks or records. 128 indicates that the card is a 32-Kbyte memory
card (128 blocks x 256 bytes per block).
Data Type
Indicates the type of data-trace, state, downloadable program (DLP),
limit line (LIMIT), amplitude factors (AMP), display image (DSPLY). The
data type is determined by the letter t, s, d, 1, a, or i preceding the
filename.
Indicates the physical record number of the start of the file.
Indicates number of records in the file.
Indicates the time and date of file creation.
7
CATALOG
CARD
File name
The letter preceding the file name indicates the type of data of the file:
t = trace data, s =. state data, d = program data (downloadable
program), 1 = limit line, a = amplitude factors, i = display image. If the
data was saved using a prefix, the prefix follows the first character in
the file name. An underscore and the register number follow the prefix.
Requires 0ption 003 for an HP 85901, HP 8592L, or HP 8594L.
displays a catalog of the items stored on the memory card, while accessing the
memory card configuration menu.
Front-Panel Key Access: (CONFIG]
Key Descriptions 7-17
CATALOG
DISPLAY
Requires Option 003 for an HP 859OL, HP 8592L, or HP 8594L.
catalogs all of the display images that are on the memory card. A display
image can be recalled to the spectrum analyzer by using the CARD+DISPLAY
softkey.
Front-Panel Key Access: @iZZiJ or m
CATALOG
DLP
catalogs all of the downloadable programs (DLPs) that are in spectrum analyzer
memory or on the memory card. Downloadable programs can be saved in
spectrum analyzer memory by either loading in a downloadable program from
the memory card or defining a function using remote programming commands
(FUNCDEF or ACTDEF).
Front-Panel Key Access: [jj or ISAVE)
Catalog
Internal
accesses a menu that has the cataloging functions for spectrum analyzer
memory: CATALOG ALL , CATALOG REGISTER, CATALOG VARIABLS ,
CATALOG PREFIX, CATALOG DLP , and CATALOG ON EVENT . Each catalog
function displays catalog information. The catalog contains information about
the data stored in internal memory (see Figure 7-2 and Table 7-4).
52'
Edltar
2
27
-_T-EST
R-ESULT
H-SPAN
V-ARE
V-fiRA
:z
DELETE
FILE
34
ii
SELECT
PREFIX
SA SE
SC FC
CORR
1
CENTER 1.456 GHz
RES
PreVhi z
Exit
Catalog
BW
3.8
MHz
UBW 1 MHz
SPAN 2.900 GHz
SWP
58.6
msec
pq124
Figure 7-2. Analyzer Memory Catalog Information
7-18 Key Descriptions
RL
‘Ihble 7-4. Analyzer Memory Catalog Information*
Callout Number
Description of Items in Figure 7-2
1
Name of the catalog source. (Internal)
2
Bytes of spectrum analyzer memory used. (5082)
3
Total bytes of spectrum analyzer memory available. (65534)
4
Bytes used by item. (52)
5
Name of item. (S-HIFT)
* This table is not applicable when using CATALOG REGISTER or CATALOG ON EVEWT
Unlike saving to the memory card, data is saved as an item in spectrum
analyzer memory.
Use the step keys to view different sections of the directory, and the knob to
select a file. The selected file is highlighted in inverse video.
Each of the catalog softkey functions access the menu that has the
DELETE FILE function. Use DELETE FILE to delete the item from spectrum
analyzer memory. (DELETE FILE will not delete a CATALOG ON EVENT item.)
Pressing CATALOG REGISTER accesses a menu that has the LOAD FILE
function. Use LOAD FILE to load a state or trace from spectrum analyzer
memory. Do not use LOAD FILE to load limit-line table and amplitude
correction factor items.
Also see the CATALOG ALL and CATALOG VARIA3LS softkey descriptions.
Front-Panel Key Access: [RECALL] or (SAVE)
CATALOG
LMT LINE
Requires Option 003 for an HP 859OL, HP 8592L, or HP 8594L.
catalogs the limit-lines on the memory card. Press CATALOG REGISTER to
catalog limit-line tables stored in spectrum analyzer memory (limit-line tables
saved in analyzer memory are stored in trace registers).
Front-Panel Key Access: @ZiiJJ or (SAVE)
CATALOG
ON EVENT
displays the “on event” programming commands and their status. The on event
programming commands are as follows:
ONEOS
ONSWP
TRMATH
ONCYCLE
ONDELAY
ONMKR
ONSRQ
ONTIME
ONPWRUP
Note
Performs
Performs
Performs
Performs
Performs
Performs
Performs
Performs
Performs
command list at end of every sweep.
command list at beginning of every sweep.
trace math.
command list periodically.
command list once after a time period.
command list at the marker.
command list on every service request.
command list at a specific time.
command list once at power up.
If you get into an infinite loop with ONPWRUP, press [PRESET) to abort the
command list, then press ERASE DLP MEM to clear all DLPs.
Key Descriptions
7-l 9
The on event programming commands can be set remotely; see the HP8590
E-Series and L-Series Spectrum Analyzer and HP 8591C Cable TV Analyzer
Programmer’s Guide for more information about setting the commands.
When the on event programming commands have not been set, or when an
instrument preset has been performed, pressing CATALOG ON EVENT displays
the status of the on event programming commands as UNDEFINED. If the
ONEOS, ONSWP, TRMATH, ONMKR, ONPWRUP, and ONSRQ commands have
been set, pressing CATALOG ON EVENT displays their status as ACTIVE. When
ONCYCLE, ONDELAY, or ONTIME have been set, pressing CATALOG ON EVENT
displays the information in Table 7-5 (see Figure 7-3).
‘Ihble 7-5. CATALOG ON EVENT Display Description
Programming
Command
Description of CATALOG ON EVENT Display
ONCYCLE
The number of seconds left until the event occurs, followed by the number
of seconds ONCYCLE was set for.
ONDELAY
CATALOG ON EVENT displays either a positive number or negative number
of seconds. A positive number indicates the number of seconds left until tht
event occurs. A negative number indicates the number of seconds that has
passed since the event occurred.
ONTIME
The date (in year, month, and day format) and the time (in 24 hour format)
that ONTIME is set for.
Front-Panel Key Access: [wj or m
&
‘dH..‘SVei’i’S.i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
w
REF .B dGm
PEAK
LOG
ATTEN IB dB
UNDEFINED
UNDEFINED
UNDEFINED
TRMATH
ONCYCLE
ONOELAY
ONMKR
ONSRQ
ONTINE
IN 86244 SEC ON CYCLE OF 86400
IN -125 SEC
ACTIVE
UNDEFINED
AT OATE 961881 AT TIME 89:ao:EE
“’
:
.'
'.
:
$8
:
DELETE
FILE
'.'
"
$,q
SCCORR
FC ,.,......; ..I.....~~~~~I~~~~~~.....~~~~~~~......~~~~~~~~.....,,,,,,.,..,........,,,,,..,,,,,,,,,,,
EXIT
CIITALOG
:
'.
"
SELECT
PREFX
:
CENTEd"l';ZB"GHr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SPAN"I.;80B"GH-z
.
RES GW 3.8 MHz
UBW 1 MHz
SWP 28 m5ec
PREU
MENU
RT
Figure 7-3. CATALOG ON EVENT Display
CATALOG
PREFIX
catalogs all of the saved data, that has the specified prefix, that is either on the
memory card or in spectrum analyzer memory. The entire prefix does not have
to be specified. For example, if you want to catalog all the files beginning with
the prefix S, specify S as the prefix and then use CATALOG PREFIX . Prefixed
items can be saved in spectrum analyzer memory by either loading in from a
memory card or using remote programming commands to define them.
Front-Panel Key Access: [ml or m
720 Key Descriptions
CATALOG
REGISTER
displays the status of state and trace registers in spectrum analyzer memory.
States 1 through 8 are displayed with the center frequency (denoted by CF)
and span (denoted by SP). The status of trace registers 0 to the maximum
number of traces is displayed also. If a trace, limit-line tables, or amplitude
correction factors have been saved in the trace register, the screen title
(denoted by “TL:“) is displayed, otherwise UNUSED is displayed. If the screen
title length allows, or if no title is saved with the trace, the time and date are
displayed. To load the contents of the state or trace register into spectrum
analyzer memory, use the knob or step keys to select the register and press
LOAD FILE . The DELETE FILE key can be used to delete a state or trace
register from spectrum analyzer memory.
Note
Do not use LOAD FILE to load the contents of a trace register containing
limit-line tables or amplitude correction factors.
Front-Panel Key Access: [RECALL] or (SAVE_)
CATALOG
STATES
Requires Option 003 for an HP 859OL, HP 8592L, or HP 8594L.
CATALOG
TRACES
Requires Option 003 for an HP 859OL, HP 85921, or HP 8594L.
catalogs all of the traces stored on the memory card.
Front-Panel Key Access: CRECALL) or ISAVE_)
CATALOG
VARIABLS
catalogs all of the variables saved in spectrum analyzer memory. Variables can
be saved in analyzer memory by loading in a downloadable program from the
memory card or defining a function using remote programming commands
(VARDEF or TRDEF).
Front-Panel Key Access: I-1 or B
CENTER
FREQ
activates the center-frequency function to allow the selection of frequency
that will be at the center of the screen.
Front-Panel Key Access: [AUXCTRL), (NIEAS/USER), or [FREQUENCY)
CF STEP
AUTO MAN
changes the step size for the center frequency function. Once a step size has
been selected and the center frequency function is activated, the step keys
change center frequency by the step-size value. The step size function is useful
for finding harmonics and sidebands beyond the spectrum analyzer current
frequency span. When auto-coupled, the center frequency step size is set to
one graticule (10 percent of the span).
Front-Panel Key Access: [AUTO COUPLE) or c-1
Change
Prefix
allows you to enter a prefix that can be used for saving and recalling data to
and from the memory card, and for cataloging by the prefix. The prefix can
be from one to seven characters long. The longer the prefix, the shorter the
register number must be. The total length of the prefix and register number
cannot exceed eight characters. The prefix can be any character; however,
the underscore should not be the first character of the prefix. Pressing
Change Prefix accesses a menu containing the letters of the alphabet, the
underscore symbol (-), the number symbol (#), a space, and the clear function.
To select a character, press the softkey that displays the group of characters
that contains the desired character. The softkey menu changes to allow you
to select an individual character. If you make a mistake, press [WSP) to space
back over the incorrect character. Additional characters are available by
pressing More 1 of 2 . Numbers may be selected with the numeric keypad.
catalogs all of the states stored on the memory card.
Front-Panel Key Access: [RECALL) or ISAVE_)
Key Descriptions 7-21
A prefix can be cleared with the clear function. Press (CONFIG] or (-1,
Change Prefix , YZ-# Spc Clear, Clear to clear the current prefix. The
current prefix is blanked by pressing DEFAULT CONFIG .
Front-Panel Key Access: C-1, I-j, (ml, or ISAVE)
Change
Title
allows you to write a 53-character screen title across the top of the screen.
The marker readout may interfere with the last 26 characters. The markers
can be turned off by pressing Ir\nKR), More 1 of 2 , and MARKER ALL OFF .
Pressing Change Title accesses the softkey menus that contain the available
characters and symbols. A programming command can be entered in the
screen title area. It can then be executed from the front panel by pressing
EXECUTE TITLE.
The screen title will remain on the screen until either Change Title is
pressed again or a trace is recalled that was saved with a screen title. A
screen title can also be cleared by using the clear function. Press (m),
Change Title, YZ-# S p c C l e a r , Clear to clear the current screen title.
Pressing Change Title accesses a menu containing the letters of the
alphabet, the underscore symbol (-), the number symbol (#), a space, and the
Clear softkey. To select a character, press the softkey that displays the group
of characters that contains the desired character. The softkey menu changes
to allow you to select an individual character. If you make a mistake, press
m to space back over the incorrect character. Additional characters are
available by pressing More 1 of 2 . Numbers may be selected by using the
numeric keypad.
Pressing RPG TITLE provides additional characters for the menu accessed
by pressing Change Title . Pressing RPG TITLE provides lowercase letters,
numbers, Greek letters, and punctuation symbols. To access additional
characters, press RPG TITLE . When RPG TITLE is pressed, a character
table appears on the screen. To select a character, turn the knob to position
the cursor under the desired character and press the (ENTER] key. The step
keys move the cursor between rows. When all desired characters have been
entered, press WINDOWS (NEXT] or for an HP 859OL or an HP 8592L press
IHOLD). All other spectrum analyzer functions are inoperative until the CNEXT)
or [El key is pressed.
Front-Panel Key Access: (CAL) or (-1
CHANNEL
BANDWDTH
allows the user to enter the channel bandwidth to set up the spectrum
analyzer when using the measurement functions under the Power Menu
softkey. When the power measurements are first accessed the initial value for
channel bandwidth is 16 kHz. If the value is changed, the new value will be
saved through an instrument preset or power on. An error message will occur
for invalid values of channel bandwidth and channel spacing.
If one of the power measurements is active and the channel bandwidth is
changed, with PARAM AUTO selected, then the coupled spectrum analyzer
settings are immediately updated. If CONT MEAS is also selected, then another
sweet is taken and the measured results are uodated.
From-Panel Key Access: (-1
7-22 Key Descriptions
CHANNEL
POWER
measures the power and power spectral density in the channel bandwidth
specified by the user. Two vertical lines on the display indicate the edges
of the channel bandwidth. The measurement can be made on a single
sweep or to continuously update at the end of each sweep. The center
frequency, reference level, and channel bandwidth must be set by the user.
If PARAM AUTO MAN is selected (AUTO is underlined), other settings will be
coupled and set automatically. PARAM AUTO MAN can be selected to manually
control all settings by underlining MAN. The measurement stops and the
spectrum analyzer is returned to its prior state when other functions are
activated. The channel power measurement responds like an rms power
measurement.
Front-Panel Key Access: I-1
CHANNEL
SPACING
allows the user to enter the channel spacing to set up the spectrum analyzer
when using the measurement functions under the Power Menu softkey. When
the power measurements are first accessed the initial value for channel spacing
is 25 kHz. Once the value is changed, the new value will be saved through an
instrument preset or power on. An error message will occur for invalid values
of channel spacing and channel bandwidth.
If one of the power measurements is active and the channel spacing is
changed, with PARAM AUTO selected, then the coupled spectrum analyzer
settings are immediately updated. If CONT MEAS is also selected, then another
sweep is taken and the measured results are updated.
Front-Panel Key Access: (j-1
Clear
clears the current screen title or prefix. This softkey is accessed under the
YZ,# Spc Clear softkey when using Change Title or
Change Prefix.
Front-Panel Key Access: a, CCONFIG], (jj), (RECALL), or m
CLEAR
PARAM
Option 105 only. Option 101 is recommended.
clears all of the pulse parameters in the gate utility. It sets the value of pulse
width, pulse repetition interval, and reference edge to zero and turns off
the coupling of the pulse parameters to the resolution bandwidth, video
bandwidth, and sweep time.
Front-Panel Key Access: [ml
CLEAR
QP DATA
fir Option 103 only.
clears the displayed quasi-peak amplitude and quasi-peak marker (represented
by a diode symbol) from the spectrum analyzer screen. See the HP 85913,
HP 85933, HP 8594E, HP 85953, or HP 8596E Option 103 supplement
documentation for more information.
Front-Panel Key Access: [AUX]
Key Descriptions 7-23
CLEAR
WRITE A
erases any data previously stored in trace A and continuously displays any
signals during the sweep of the spectrum analyzer. This function is activated at
power on and by pressing @ZZ7J.
Changing the trace mode of trace C to clear write or minimum hold can change
the trace mode of trace A. If trace A is in clear-write mode or maximum-hold
mode when trace C is changed to clear write or minimum hold, the trace mode
of trace A is changed to store blank. The following table shows the trace mode
of trace A before and after changing trace C to clear-write or minimum-hold
trace mode.
J
Trace Mode of Trace A Trace Mode of Trace A
Changing the trace mode of trace A to clear write or maximum hold can
change the trace mode of trace C. If trace C is in clear-write mode when trace
A is changed to clear write or minimum hold, the trace mode of trace C is
changed to minimum hold.
11
Trace Mode of Trace C Trace Mode of Trace C
Front-Panel Key Access: CTRACE)
7-24 Key Descriptions
CLEAR
WRITE B
erases any data previously stored in trace B and continuously displays any
signals detected during the sweep of the spectrum analyzer. This function is
activated at power on and by pressing (PRESET_).
Changing the trace mode of trace C to clear write or minimum hold can change
the trace mode of trace B. If trace B is in clear-write mode or maximum-hold
mode when trace C is changed to clear write or minimum hold, the trace mode
of trace B is changed to store blank.
The following table shows the trace mode of trace B before and after changing
trace C to clear-write or minimum-hold trace mode.
Trace Mode of Trace B Trace Mode of Trace B
Before
After
Clear write
Store blank
Maximum hold
Store blank
View
View
Changing the trace mode of trace B to clear write or maximum hold can
change the trace mode of trace C. If trace C is in clear-write mode when trace
B is changed to clear write or minimum hold, the trace mode of trace C is
changed to minimum hold.
Trace Mode of Trace C Trace Mode of Trace C
Before
After
Clear write
Minimum hold
Minimum hold
Minimum hold
View
View
Front-Panel Key Access: [m)
Key Descriptions 7.25
CLEAR
WRITE C
erases any data previously stored in trace C and continuously displays any
signals detected during the sweep of the spectrum analyzer. This function is
activated at power on and by pressing (jj].
Changing the trace mode of trace C to clear write or minimum hold can change
the trace mode of trace A and trace B. If trace A or trace B is in clear-write
mode or maximum-hold mode when trace C is changed to clear write or
minimum hold, the trace mode of trace A or trace B is changed to store blank.
The following table shows the trace mode of trace A or trace B before and
after changing trace C to clear-write or minimum-hold trace mode.
Ji
Trace Mode of Trace A or B Trace Mode of Trace A or B
If you want to use trace A or trace B in the clear-write or maximum-hold mode
and do not want trace C to blank it, use minimum-hold or view-trace mode for
trace C.
Front-Panel Key Access: [TRACE)
CNT RES
AUTO MAN
Does not apply to HP 859OL with 0ption 013.
allows the resolution of the marker counter to be selected manually or
auto-coupled. The marker counter has a resolution range of 10 Hz to 100 kHz.
The available resolution values are 1 Hz, 10 Hz, 100 Hz, 1 kHz, 10 kHz, and
100 kHz. The 1 Hz marker counter resolution is not specified. The resolution
can be changed by using the step keys or by entering the resolution using
the numeric keypad. The marker counter resolution can be auto coupled to
the span by pressing CNT RES AUTO MAN so that AUTO is underlined. The
CNT RES AUTO MAN softkey function is not affected by pressing AUTO ALL .
Front-Panel Key Access: (W]
CNTL A
0 1
makes the auxiliary-interface control line A output high or low (TTL).
Front-Panel Key Access: (-1
CNTL B
0 1
makes the auxiliary-interface control line B output high or low (TTL).
Front-Panel Key Access: [AUX]
CNTL C
0 1
makes the auxiliary-interface control line C output high or low (TTL).
Front-Panel Key Access: [AUXj
CNTL D
0 1
makes the auxiliary-interface control line D output high or low (TTL).
Front-Panel Key Access: @5??GiJ
7-26 Key Descriptions
COARSE
TUNE DAC
displays the analog output of the YTO coarse-tune DAC located on the A7
Analog Interface assembly. This is a service diagnostic function and is for
service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: ICAL)
COMB GEN
ON OFF
HP 859ZL, HP 8593E, and HP 8596E only.
turns the internal comb generator on or off. Connect a cable between 100 MHz
COMB OUT and the spectrum analyzer input.
Front-Panel Key Access: Cm)
CONF
TEST
initiates a variety of tests to check the major functions of the spectrum
analyzer. The confidence test function checks that the video bandwidths
change, the noise floor level decreases as the resolution bandwidth narrows,
the step gains switch, and the 3 dB bandwidths of the resolution bandwidths
are correctly set. CNF TEST PASS is displayed if the confidence test passes.
Front-Panel Key Access: a
(CONFIG)
accesses the softkey menu used for printer and plotter configurations, the
time and date display functions, changing the current prefix, memory card
configuration functions, disposing of user-defined variables and programs from
spectrum analyzer memory, changing the spectrum analyzer address or the
baud rate, displaying the installed options on screen, and changing the format
of the MONITOR output. Pressing [m) will clear an SRQ error message
from the screen. Pressing [CONFIG) after the spectrum analyzer has been
placed in the remote mode places the spectrum analyzer in the local mode and
enables front-panel control. During remote operation, an R appears in the
lower-right corner of the screen indicating remote mode. Pressing c-1
removes the R annotation from the lower-right corner.
CONT
MEAS
sets the functions in the Power Menu so that they make the measurement at
the end of every sweep. After a power measurement is activated, pressing
CONT MEAS or SWEEP CONT puts the spectrum analyzer into a continuous
sweep mode and recalculates the results at the end of each sweep.
Front-Panel Key Access: (MEAS/USER)
CONTINUS
FFT
initializes the fast Fourier transform (FFT) function, puts the spectrum
analyzer in continuous sweep and performs an FFT at the end of each
sweep. If the FFT function is already active, it puts the spectrum analyzer in
continuous sweep and performs FFT?s.
After using the FFT function, the display is in log mode. The markers are put
in the FFT mode for use in evaluating the data. The signal being transformed
is in trace A and the Fourier transform of the signal is in trace B. (Any
information that was in trace B and C will be lost.) Press FFT OFF to return
the spectrum analyzer to normal operation.
Refer to Chapter 4, “Measuring Amplitude Modulation Using the Fast Fourier
Transform Function,” for more information.
Front-Panel Key Access: I-)
Key Descriptions 7-27
(copvl
Option 041 or 043 only.
initiates an output of the screen data, without an external controller, to
a previously specified graphics printer or plotter. Refer to Chapter 6 of
this manual or the HP 8590 E-Series and L-Series Spectrum Analyzer and
HP 8591C Cable TV Analyzer Programmer’s Guide for detailed information
about printing and plotting.
The printer or plotter must have already been selected using (CONFIG) and
either Plot Conf ig (for a plotter) or Print Conf ig (for a printer). To obtain
a print, press C-1, COPY DEV PRNT PLT (so that PRNT is underlined), then
Print Conf ig , P m P o r t Config.
For Option 041, use PRINTER ADDRESS to change the HP-IB address of the
printer, if necessary. Press [CONFIG], Print Conf ig , Pm Port Conf ig ,
PRN PORT HPIB PAR (so that HPIB is underlined), then press
PRINTER ADDRESS.
For Option 043, use BAUD RATE to change the baud rate of the spectrum
analyzer, if necessary. Press [CONF’G], Print Conf ig , Pm Port Conf ig ,
PRN PORT SER PAR (so that SER is underlined), then press BAUD RATE.
If the spectrum analyzer is connected to an HP PaintJet printer and you want
a color printout, press Set Colr Printer and then PAINTJET PRINTER.
If the spectrum analyzer is connected to an HP PaintJet printer and you
want a black and white printout, press Set B&W Printer and then
HP B&W PRINTER . More printer information can be found in the HP 8590
E-Series and L-Series Spectrum Analyzer and HP 8591C Cable TV Analyzer
Programmer’s G&de and chapter 6 of this manual.
If you want the softkey labels to be printed with the spectrum analyzer display
printout when using Icopv), press PRT MENU ON OFF so that ON is underlined.
Press [m) and the process will begin. The screen remains frozen (no further
sweeps taken) until the data transfer to the printer is complete. The spectrum
analyzer works with many Hewlett-Packard printers.
The plotting process is similar to the printing process. On the spectrum
analyzer, press [CONFIG_), Plot Conf ig . To obtain a plot, press @5KiQ,
COPY DEV PRNT PLT (so that PLT is underlined), then Plot Conf ig ,
P l t P o r t Config.
For Option 041, use PLOTTER ADDRESS to change the HP-IB address for
the plotter, if necessary. Press [CONFIG), Plot Conf ig , Plt Port Conf ig ,
PLT PORT HPIB PAR (so that SER is underlined), then press
PLOTTER ADDRESS.
For Option 043, use BAUD RATE to change the baudrate of the spectrum
analyzer, if necessary Press @GFiQ, Plot Config, Plt Port Config,
PLT PORT SER PAR (so that SER is underlined), then press BAUD RATE .
7-28 Key Descriptions
With PLTS/PG 1 2 4 , you can choose a full-page, half-page, or quarter-page
plot. Press PLTS/PG 1 2 4 to underline the number of plots per page desired.
If two or four plots per page are chosen, a softkey function is displayed that
allows you to select the location of the plotter output on the paper. If two
plots per page are selected, PLT _ -LOC _ _ is displayed. If four plots per
page are selected, PLT _ ,LDC _ _ is displayed. Press the softkey until the
rectangular marker is in the desired section of the softkey label. The upper
and lower sections of the softkey label graphically represent the position of the
page where the plotter output will be located.
Note
The HP 7470A Plotter does not support two plots per page output. If you use
an HP 7470A Plotter with an HP 8590 Series Spectrum Analyzer, you can select
one or four plots per page, but not two plots per page.
For a multipen plotter, the pens of the plotter draw the different components
of the screen as follows:
Pen
Number
Description
1
Draws the annotation and graticule.
2
Draws trace A.
3
Draws trace B.
4
Draws trace C and the display line.
5
Draws user-generated graphics and the lower limit line.
6
Draws the upper limit line.
To plot, press Previous Menu, COPY DEV PRNT PLT (PLT should be
underlined), and [ml.
Printing is usually faster than plotting, but plotting provides higher resolution
output. The spectrum analyzer works with plotters such as the HP 7440A.
Figure 7-4 shows the rear view of a typical printer/spectrum-analyzer
configuration.
Figure 7-4. Connecting a Printer to the Spectrum Analyzer
Key Descriptions 7-29
Note
Printing and plotting require an optional interface. Generally, spectrum
analyzers with an HP-IB interface set the plotter address to 5 and the printer
address to 1. Spectrum analyzers with an RS-232 interface must have the baud
rate set to match the baud rate of the printer or plotter being used. The
HP 8590 E-Series and L-Series Spectrum Analyzer and HP 8591C Cable TV
Analyzer Programmer’s Guide that comes with the optional interfaces details
the different interfaces. Refer to Chapter 6 in this manual for more information
about printing and plotting.
COPY DEV
PRNT PLT
Option 041 or 043 only.
changes between a printer and plotter. For example, if you have been printing
and want to do a plot, press COPY DEV PRNT PLT to underline PLT before
pressing (Copy).
Front-Panel Key Access: (CONFIG)
CORRECT
ON OFF
controls use of some of the correction factors. When ON is underlined,
correction factors are used and CORR appears on the display. When OFF is
underlined, correction factors are not used. Turning the correction factors off
degrades amplitude accuracy.
Note
Correction factors must be on for the spectrum analyzer to meet its specified
performance.
Front-Panel Key Access: ICAL)
COUPLE
AC DC
HP 8594E, HP 85956 or HP 8596E only.
specifies alternating-current (AC) or direct-current (DC) coupling at the
spectrum analyzer input. Selecting ac coupling blocks any dc voltage at
the spectrum analyzer input; however, the ac coupling also decreases the
frequency range of the spectrum analyzer. The input coupling is set to ac by
an instrument preset.
Amplitude specifications apply only when coupling is set to DC.
Caution
Do not use dc coupling if there is any dc voltage at the spectrum analyzer
input.
Front-Panel Key Access: (AMPLITUDE)
CPL RBW
ON OFF
Option 105 only. Option 101 is recommended.
automatically selects the optimum resolution bandwidth for an unmodulated
pulse if the pulse width has been entered. If the pulse width has not been
determined, the resolution bandwidth will not be coupled to the pulse
parameters and a warning message will occur. If a resolution bandwidth is
entered manually, the coupling will be turned off.
Front-Panel Key Access: (SWEEP)
CPL SWP
ON OFF
Option 105 only. Option 101 is recommencled.
automatically selects the optimum sweep time if the
has been entered. If the pulse repetition interval has
sweep time will not be coupled and an error message
time is entered manually, the coupling will be turned
only applies to the frequency domain window.
Front-Panel Key Access: (SWEEP)
7-30 Key Descriptions
pulse repetition interval
not been determined, the
will occur. If a sweep
off. Sweep time coupling
CPL VBW
ON OFF
Option 105 only. Option 101 is recommended.
automatically selects the optimum video bandwidth if the gate length has been
entered. If the gate length has not been determined, the video bandwidth will
not be coupled to the gate length and an error message will occur. If a gate
length is entered manually, the coupling will be turned off.
Front-Panel Key Access: [SWEEP)
CRT HORZ
POSITION
changes the horizontal position of the signal on the spectrum analyzer display.
Press CAL STORE if you want the spectrum analyzer to use this position
permanently, so that it is not lost when the power is turned off.
Front-Panel Key Access: ICAL)
CRT VERT
POSITION
changes the vertical position of the signal on the spectrum analyzer display.
Press CAL STORE if you want the spectrum analyzer to use this position
permanently, so that it is not lost when the power is turned off.
Front-Panel Key Access: ICAL)
DACS
changes the DAC numbers of the span, DAC Y’l’O coarse-tune, DAC YTO
fine-tune, and YTO FM tune DAC located on the A7 Analog Interface assembly.
This is a service diagnostic function and is for service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: ICAL)
DATEMODE
MDY DMY
changes the display of the date from a month-day-year format to a
day-month-year format. It is set to a month-day-year format by pressing
DEFAULT CONFIG.
Front-Panel Key Access: [CONFIG)
&m
changes the amplitude units to dBm for the current setting (log or linear).
Front-Panel Key Access: [AMPLITUDE)
dBmV
changes the amplitude units to dBmV for the current setting (log or linear).
Front-Panel Key Access: [AMPLITUDE]
dBuv
changes the amplitude units to dBpV for the current setting (log or linear).
Front-Panel Key Access: c-1
DEFAULT
CAL DATA
accesses the factory-default correction factors. A special pass code is required
for use. If the message Self cal needed appears when DEFAULT CAL DATA is
pressed, the CAL FREQ and CAL AMPTD routines need to be run. The CAL
FREQ and CAL AMPTD must be run to ensure specifications. If the spectrum
analyzer maximum frequency is higher than 3 GHz, the CAL YTF routine
must also be run. The calibration results must then be saved by pressing
CAL STORE. See Chapter 9 for more information.
Front-Panel Key Access: (CAL)
DEFAULT
CONFIG
resets the spectrum analyzer configuration to the state it was in when it
was originally shipped from the factory and performs an instrument preset.
See Table 7-6 for the default user-configuration values set by pressing
DEFAULT CONFIG.
Key Descriptions
7-3 1
‘Ihble 7-6. Default Configuration Values
Front-Panel Key Access: @XX)
DEFAULT
SYNC
restores the factory default values of the horizontal and vertical
synchronization constants for the rear panel MONITOR output.
CRT SYNC DEFAULT can be used to exit from the NTSC or PAL modes to
return to the normal monitor output and use the default synchronization
constants.
Front-Panel Key Access: (-1
Define
Option 105 only. Option 101 is recommended.
accesses the time gate utility menu for coupling spectrum analyzer settings to
the input pulsed signal parameters. It also accesses the pulsed signal parameter
entry menus.
Front-Panel Key Access: Cm)
Coup1 ing
Define
Gate
O-ption 105 only. Option 101 is recommended.
accesses the menu for turning on and defining the gate, from within the time
gate utility. Gate delay and gate length settings determine when the gate turns
on and how long it remains on. The trigger marker can be activated from this
menu. This menu also includes a function which switches the active window
between the time domain window and the frequency domain window, allowing
the corresponding trace to be updated.
Front-Panel Key Access: (SWEEP)
Define
Option 105 only. Option 101 is recommended.
accesses the menu for manipulating the time domain window in the gate
utility. It will automatically make the time window active and turn off the
gate. The trigger marker can be activated from this menu.
Front-Panel Key Access: (SWEEP]
Time
7-32 Key Descriptions
DELETE
FILE
function allows you to delete an item from spectrum analyzer memory or a
file from the memory card. Use the step keys to view different sections of
the directory and use the knob to select the file or item to delete. Pressing
DELETE FILE causes a message to appear on the spectrum analyzer screen:
If
you are sure, press key again to purge data. Press DELETE FILE again if
you want to delete the memory item.
Note
Deleting items beginning with an underscore from spectrum analyzer memory is
not recommended and may have unexpected results. Items beginning with an
underscore are used by the spectrum analyzer.
Front-Panel Key Access: [RECALL) or (SAVE)
DELETE
POINT
deletes an amplitude-correction factor that was previously selected by
SELECT POINT.
Front-Panel Key Access: (CAL)
DELETE
SEGMENT
deletes the limit-line entry for the selected segment number. Press
SELECT SEGMENT then enter the segment number to select the limit-line entry
for deletion.
Front-Panel Key Access: c-1
Demod
@&ion 102 or 103 only.
accesses the softkeys controlling demodulation functions, speaker volume,
squelch level, FM gain, and dwell time.
Front-Panel Key Access: (AUXJ
DEMOD
AM FM
Option 102 or 103 only.
allows selection of amplitude (AM) or frequency (FM) demodulation.
Activating AM detection turns off FM demodulation (if it is on). When the
frequency span is greater than 0 Hz, a 30 kHz resolution bandwidth is used
during demodulation, regardless of the screen annotation. When the span is
equal to 0 Hz, the displayed bandwidth is used.
Turning FM demodulation on turns off AM demodulation (if it is on). When the
frequency span is greater than 0 Hz, a 100 kHz bandwidth is used during the
demodulation, regardless of the screen annotation. When the span is equal to
0 Hz, the displayed bandwidth is used.
Front-Panel Key Access: (AUX]
DEMOD
ON OFF
Option 102 or 103 only.
turns the AM or FM demodulation on and off. If the spectrum analyzer is in a
nonzero span, a marker is placed at center screen if an on-screen marker is not
already present. The marker pause is changed to equal the current dwell time
value. Demodulation takes place on any signal that is indicated by the marker
position during the marker pause. There is no change to the display during
marker pause, but the demodulation signal is present on the AUX VIDEO OUT.
Also see the SPEAKER ON OFF softkey description.
Pressing DEMOD ON OFF selects the sample peak detector for AM
demodulation, the FMV detector for FM demodulation. If the spectrum
analyzer is in zero span, demodulation is done continuously, with or without an
on-screen marker.
Front-Panel Key Access: CRUX]
Key Descriptions 7-33
DESKJET
310/55oc
selects the HP DeskJet 310 or 55OC for color printing. Use this function if you
have one of these color printers. This softkey can be accessed by pressing
(-1, t h e n S e t C o l r P r i n t e r .
Front-Panel Key Access: (@iGQ
DESKJET 540
selects the HP DeskJet 540 for color printing. Use this function if you have
this color printer. This softkey can be accessed by pressing (-1, then
Set Colr Printer.
Front-Panel Key Access: (wj
DETECTOR
PK SP NG
Option 101 only.
selects between positive peak, sample, and negative peak detection. Negative
peak detection is only available with option 101. When sample detection is
selected, SMPL appears in the upper-left corner of the screen. In sample mode,
the instantaneous signal value at the present display point is placed in memory.
Sample detection is activated automatically for noise level markers, during
video averaging, and for FFT measurements.
When positive peak detection is selected, PEAK appears in the upper-left
corner of the screen. Positive peak detection obtains the maximum video
signal between the last display point and the present display point and stores
this value in the trace memory address. Positive peak detection is selected at
power on and by pressing (PRESET].
Negative peak detection functions the same as positive peak detection but
selects the minimum video signal. The PEAK message does not appear in the
upper-left corner of the screen.
Front-Panel Key Access: (ml
DETECTOR
SMP PK
selects between positive peak detection and sample detection. When sample
detection is selected, SMPL appears in the upper-left corner of the screen. In
sample mode, the instantaneous signal value at the present display point is
placed in memory. Sample detection is activated automatically for noise level
markers, during video averaging, and for FFT measurements.
When positive peak detection is selected, PEAK appears in the upper-left
corner of the screen. Positive peak detection obtains the maximum video
signal between the last display point and the present display point and stores
this value in the trace memory address. Positive peak detection is selected at
power on and by pressing (PRESET].
Front-Panel Key Access: (TRACE]
piFiT-
DISPLAY
CAL DATA
accesses softkeys that include the HOLD key and limit line menus, and activate
the display line, threshold and analog+ display mode. They allow title and
prefix entry, and control the display of the graticule and screen annotation.
displays the current correction-factor data generated by the frequency and
amplitude self-calibration routines. This is a service diagnostic function and is
for service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: a
7-34 Key Descriptions
DISPLAY
-+ CARD
Requires Option 003 for the HP 85901, HP 8592L, and HP 8594L.
saves the current spectrum analyzer display image on the memory card for
viewing or copying later. It does not save the spectrum analyzer state or trace,
so it cannot be used to restore an instrument to the conditions at the time the
image was saved.
To save the current display image, press DISPLAY + CARD , use the numeric
keypad to enter a number, and press [ENTER). If you want the file name of the
stored data to contain a prefix, press Change Prefix to enter a prefix before
storing the data. If the display image was stored using a prefix, the file name
for the display image consists of i(prefix)-(register number). If no prefix was
specified, the file name is i_(register number).
Front-Panel Key Access: (SAVE_)
DISPLAY
CNTL I
displays the status of the auxiliary connector input (control line I) on the
spectrum analyzer screen (high = 1 or low = 0, in TTL).
Front-Panel Key Access: (AUXCTRL)
Dispose
User Mem
accesses the softkeys ERASE MEM CARD , ERASE DLP MEM , ERASE STATEALL,
Note
Use DELETE FILE to selectively delete stored programs or variables from
spectrum analyzer memory.
ERASE TRACEALL , and ERASE NEM ALL which are used to erase the user
programs and variables that are in spectrum analyzer memory.
Front-Panel Key Access: C-1
DONE
0ption 105 only. Option 101 is recommended.
exits the pulse parameter entry menus in the gate utility assigning the current
marker value to be the value of the parameter being entered. Pressing DONE
also restores the sweep delay and sweep time, of the time domain window, to
the values that existed prior to any adjustments made during pulse parameter
entry.
Front-Panel Key Access: C-1
DROOP
disables the reset of the peak detector on the Al6 Processor/Video assembly
after each analog-to-digital conversion. This is a service diagnostic function
and is for service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: LCAL)
DSP LINE
ON OFF
activates an adjustable horizontal line that is used as a visual reference line.
The line, which can be used for trace arithmetic, has amplitude values that
correspond to its vertical position when compared to the reference level. The
value of the display line appears in the active function block and on the left
side of the screen. The display line can be adjusted using the step keys, knob,
or numeric keypad. Pressing any digit, 0 through 9, on the numeric keypad
brings up the selected terminator menu. To deactivate the display line, press
DSP LINE ON OFF so that OFF is underlined. (Also see the VIDEO softkey
description.)
Front-Panel Key Access: (M), t-1, or (PEAK SEARCH]
Key Descriptions 7-35
DWELL
TIME
Option 102 or 103 only.
sets the dwell time for the marker pause, during which demodulation can take
place in nonzero span sweeps. The dwell time can be set from 2 milliseconds to
100 seconds.
Front-Panel Key Access: ljj)
EDGE POL
POS NEG
Option 105 only. 0ption 101 is recommended.
determines whether the gate triggers on the positive-going or negative-going
edge of the signal at the GATE TRIGGER INPUT connector (on the rear panel
of the spectrum analyzer).
If the gate utility is used and a pulse repetition interval has been entered, gate
trigger position markers will be shown in the time domain window. A “0”
indicates positive triggering. A “U” indicates negative triggering.
Front-Panel Key Access: [w)
Edit
Amp Cor
allows you to edit the current amplitude-correction factors table by accessing
the SELECT POINT, SELECT FREq , SELECT AMPLITUD , DELETE POINT,
Edit Done, and PURGE AMP COR softkeys.
Front-Panel Key Access: ICAL)
EDIT
CAT ITEM
fir options 021, 023, and 024 only. Refer to the HP 8590 E-Series and L-Series
Spectrum Analyzer and HP 8591 C Cable TV Analyzer Programmer’s Guide for
more information.
starts the DLP editor function and loads the highlighted item from the catalog
of spectrum analyzer user memory to be displayed and edited. It copies the
item into the spectrum analyzer DLP editor memory which is a 2500 byte
memory buffer. If an item is edited, the new edited version will not be
overwritten in the spectrum analyzer user memory until it is processed by the
SAVE EDIT softkey.
Front-Panel Key Access: (jj) or ISAVE_)
Edit
Done
can be accessed through both the amplitude-correction menu and the the
change prefix menu. When accessed from the amplitude-correction menu, the
amplitude-correction factors table is erased from the spectrum analyzer screen
and the amplitude-correction menu is restored on-screen. Use Edit Done
when all the amplitude-correction factors have been entered.
When accessed from the change prefix menu, Edit Done erases the prefix
from the spectrum analyzer screen and restores the previous menu. Use
Edit Done when prefix characters have all been entered.
Front-Panel Key Access: ICAL), @ZiZ), (jj], (jj), or m
EDIT
DONE
can be accessed through the limit-line menu. Pressing EDIT DONE erases the
limit-line table from the spectrum analyzer screen and restores the menu
accessed by the Limit Lines softkey. Use EDIT DONE when all the limit-line
values have been entered.
Front-Panel Key Access: [DISPLAY)
EDIT
FLATNESS
allows flatness-correction constants to be viewed or modified. This is a service
calibration function and is for service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: ICAL)
7-36 Key Descriptions
EDIT
LAST
mr options 021, 023, and 024 only. Refer to the HP 8590 E-Series and L-Series
Spectrum Analyzer and HP 8591 C Cable TV Analyzer Programmer’s Guide for
more information.
starts the DLP editor function and allows the most recent item that was being
edited, in the DLP editor buffer, to be accessed again. The item will not be in
the spectrum analyzer user memory until it is processed by the SAVE EDIT
softkey. The DLP editor memory remains intact when the instrument is preset
and when it is powered off.
Front-Panel Key Access: (RECALL] or m
Edit
Limit
allows you to edit the current limit-line tables by accessing Edit Upper ,
Edit
Lower
allows you to view or edit the lower limit-line table. Up to 20 entries are
allowed for the lower limit-line table. With the lower limit-line table format,
the coordinates for the lower limit-line are specified, but none are specified for
the upper limit line. Even if upper limit-line values exist or the values had
been entered as an upper and lower limit-line table, the lower limit-line values
are treated as a separate table from the upper limit-line values. The lower
limit-line entries can have independent frequency (or time) and amplitude
coordinates from upper limit-line table entries.
Front-Panel Key Access: (j-1
Edit
Mid/Delt
allows you to view or edit the upper and lower limit-line tables simultaneously.
These tables are edited by entering a middle amplitude value and an amplitude
deviation. Up to 20 entries are allowed for the upper and lower limit-line
tables. Like the upper and lower limit-line table format, the mid/delta
limit-line table format provides a means of specifying the upper and lower
limit lines at the same time. Unlike the upper and lower table format, the
amplitude values are specified as a middle amplitude value with a delta (the
upper and lower limit lines are drawn an equal positive and negative distance
from the middle amplitude).
Edit Lower, Edit Up/Low, and Edit Mid/Delt. Use PURGE LIMITS under
any of the above edit menus to dispose of the current limit-line table.
Front-Panel Key Access: [j?i!%Gr)
With the mid/delta format the frequency (or time), and the middle amplitude
plus the delta comprise the upper limit line; the frequency (or time), and the
middle amplitude minus the delta comprise the lower limit line. The difference
between the mid/delta and the upper/lower format is the way the amplitude
values are entered; the frequency (time) coordinate begins a segment
regardless of the format chosen. The mid/delta format can be used if the upper
and lower limit lines are symmetrical with respect to the amplitude axis. An
upper and lower amplitude component are specified for every frequency (or
time) component.
Front-Panel Key Access: (-1
Key Descriptions 7-37
Edit
Up/Low
UPPer
allows you to view or edit the upper and lower limit-line tables simultaneously.
Up to 20 entries are allowed for the upper and lower limit-line tables. With the
upper and lower limit-line table format, the upper and lower limit-lines can be
entered at the same time.
With the upper and lower limit-line format, the frequency (or time), upper
amplitude, and lower amplitude are specified. The frequency (or time) and
upper amplitude value comprise the coordinate point for the upper limit line,
the frequency (or time) and lower amplitude value comprise the coordinate
point for the lower limit line. It is not necessary to specify both an upper and
lower amplitude component for every frequency (or time) component.
Front-Panel Key Access: [DISPLAYI)
Edit
allows you to view or edit the upper limit-line table. Up to 20 entries are
allowed for the upper limit-line table. With the upper limit-line table format,
the coordinates of the upper limit line are specified, but none are specified for
the lower limit line. Even if lower limit-line values exist or the values had
been entered as an upper and lower limit-line table, the upper limit-line values
are treated as a separate table from the lower limit-line values. The upper
limit-line entries can have independent frequency (or time) and amplitude
coordinates from lower limit-line table entries.
Front-Panel Key Access: cm’
EDIT
UPR LWR
selects upper or lower limit-line tables. It switches to the limit-line table that is
not currently being edited.
Front-Panel Key Access: (j-1
Editor
For options 041 and 043 only. Refer to the HP 8590 E-Series and L-Series
Spectrum Analyzer and HP 8591C Cable TV Analyzer Programmer’s Guide for
ryu)re information.
accesses the menu of down loadable program (DLP) editor softkeys. With an
external keyboard programming commands can be used to write a program
to control the spectrum analyzer. The built-in DLP editor uses the spectrum
analyzer rather than an external computer to create, view, or edit programs.
These programs can then be sent to the spectrum analyzer command parser,
which is similar to outputting them to the spectrum analyzer from an external
computer.
Front-Panel Key Access: [jj or (SAVE)
EM1 BW
Menu
@EEij-)
accesses the functions that set the spectrum analyzer resolution bandwidth
to the values required for electromagnetic interference (EMI) testing.
(200 Hz EM1 BW is only available with Option 130.)
Front-Panel Key Access: @
Pressing (-1 which is also the ENTER key, terminates and enters into
the spectrum analyzer a numerical value that has been entered from the front
panel using the keypad, knob, or step up/down keys.
7-38 Key Descriptions
ENTER
PRI
Option 105 only. Option 101 is recommended.
accesses the menu for entering the value of the pulse repetition interval (PRI).
A delta marker can be activated by pressing MARKER ON . The other menu
functions can be used to manipulate the marker to indicate the pulse repetition
interval value. Pressing DONE returns to the previous menu and makes the
current value of the marker the pulse repetition interval. It also restores the
time domain window to the state prior to any adjustments made during entry
of the pulse repetition interval. When the pulse repetition interval is entered,
an arrow will appear on the display indicating the position of the gate trigger
(“fi” for positive triggering or “4” for negative triggering).
Front-Panel Key Access: CSWEEP]
ENTER
REF EDGE
Option 105 only. Option 101 is recommended.
accesses the menu used to define the edge of the pulse that will be used as the
time reference. Press MARKER ON to activate a trigger marker. The other menu
functions can be used to manipulate the marker to indicate the location of
the reference edge. Pressing DONE returns to the previous menu and makes
the current value of the marker the reference edge. It also restores the time
domain window to the state prior to any adjustments made during entry of the
reference edge.
Front-Panel Key Access: [SWEEP)
ENTER
WIDTH
Q&ion 105 only. Option 101 is recommended.
accesses the menu for entering the value of the pulse width. Press MARKER ON
to activate a delta marker. The other menu functions can be used to
manipulate the marker to indicate the pulse width value. Pressing DONE
returns to the previous menu and makes the current value of the marker the
pulse width. It also restores the time domain window to the state prior to any
adjustments made during entry of the pulse width.
Front-Panel Key Access:-t-1
ERASE
DLP MEM
allows you to dispose of the DLPs, all traces defined by TRDEF, and all VAREF
variables that are in spectrum analyzer memory. Pressing Dispose User Mem
and then pressing ERASE DLP
spectrum analyzer screen: If
Press ERASE DLP MEM again
Press any other softkey if you
Note
MEM causes a message to appear on the
you are sure, Press key againtopurge data.
if you want to dispose of the DLPs in memory.
do not want to dispose of the DLPs in memory.
Use DELETE FILE to selectively delete stored programs or variables from
spectrum analyzer memory.
Front-Panel Key Access: (-1
Key Descriptions 7-39
ERASE
MEM ALL
allows you to purge all user state registers, all user trace registers, all mode
registers, the editor buffer, Group delay normalization, all DLP memory, and
all microprocessor stack data. The stack pointer is set to its power-up value.
No system globals are erased and the calibration data is preserved. Pressing
ERASE MEM ALL causes a message to appear on the spectrum analyzer screen:
If youare sure,Press key againtopurgedata. Press ERASE MEM ALL
again if you want to dispose of all user memory. Press any other softkey if you
do not want to dispose of all user memory.
Note
ERASE MEN ALL ignores the state of the SAV LOCK. So, even if STATES and
TRACES are locked, they will still be erased by ERASE MEM ALL .
Front-Panel Key Access: C-1
ERASE
MEM CARD
allows you to dispose of any data or programs stored on the memory card by
formatting it. This is the same as FORMAT CARD . Pressing Dispose User Mem
and then pressing ERASE MEM CARD causes a message to appear on the
spectrum analyzer screen: If you are sure, Press key againtopurge data.
Press ERASE MEM CARD again if you want to dispose of the CARD’s memory.
Press any other softkey if you do not, want to dispose of the CARD’s memory.
Note
Use DELETE FILE to selectively delete stored programs or variables from
spectrum analyzer memory.
Front-Panel Key Access: (75i%iYY]
ERASE
STATEALL
Note
allows you to purge all the user state registers 1 through 9. Pressing
Dispose User Mem and then pressing ERASE STATEALL causes a message to
appear on the spectrum analyzer screen: If you are sure, Press key again
to purge data. Press ERASE STATEALL again if you want to dispose of the
user state registers. Press any other softkey if you do not want to dispose of
user state registers.
n
If SAVE LOCK ON OFF is set to (ON), this function is disabled.
’ Use DELETE FILE to selectively delete stored programs or variables from
spectrum analyzer memory.
Front-Panel Key Access: [m]
7-40 Key Descriptions
ERASE
TRACEALL
Note
allows you to purge all the user trace registers 0 through TRCMEM. Pressing
Dispose User Mem and then pressing ERASE TRACEALL causes a message to
appear on the spectrum analyzer screen: If you are sure, Press key again
to purge data. Press ERASE TRACEALL again if you want to dispose of the
user trace registers. Press any other softkey if you do not want to dispose of
user state registers.
n
If SAVE LOCK OM OFF is set to (ON), this function is disabled.
. Use DELETE FILE to selectively delete stored programs or variables from
spectrum analyzer memory.
Front-Panel Key Access: C-1
EP Lq570
SML LRG
sets the spectrum analyzer to be compatible with an Epson LQ-570 compatible
printer. Press Set B&W Printer then EP LlJ570 SML LRG until LRG is
underlined to set up the large screen printout. This will allow for one printout
per page. The large screen printout format will not allow for printing of the
menu keys. Press Set B&W Printer then EP Lq570 SML LRG until SML
is underlined to set up the small screen printout. This will allow for two
printouts per page.
Front-Panel Key Access: [CONFIG)
EP MX80
SML LRG
sets the spectrum analyzer to be compatible with an Epson MX80 compatible
printer. Press Set B&W Printer then EP MX80 SML LRG until LRG is
underlined to set up the large screen printout. This will allow for one printout
per page. The large screen printout format will not allow for printing of the
menu keys. Press Set B&W Printer then EP MX80 SML LRG until SML
is underlined to set up the small screen printout. This will allow for two
printouts per page.
Front-Panel Key Access: [CONFIG]
EXECUTE
TITLE
executes a programming command displayed in the screen title area of
the spectrum analyzer. The Change Title function can be used to print
programming commands in the screen title area of the display. The commands
can then be executed from the front panel of the spectrum analyzer, without
an external computer, by pressing the EXECUTE TITLE softkey.
Front-Panel Key Access: (CAL)
EXIT
exits the EDIT FLATNESS softkey menu. This is a service calibration function
and is designed for service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: ICALl
Exit
Cat alog
returns the spectrum analyzer to the state it was in before the current catalog
function was invoked. It clears the catalog display and returns to a normal
spectrum analyzer display.
Front-Panel Key Access: &ZZiJ or m
Key Descriptions 7-41
EXIT
SHOW
removes the screen annotation left after pressing SHOW OPTIONS .
Front-Panel Key Access: (j-1
EXIT
Option 105 only. Option 101 is recommended.
exits the gate utility returning to the gate control menu. The spectrum
analyzer is returned to normal operation. The state of the spectrum analyzer
becomes the state of the window that was active when exiting the gate utility.
Front-Panel Key Access: CSWEEP)
UTILITY
EXTERNAL
activates the trigger condition that allows the next sweep to start when an
external voltage (connected to EXT TRIG INPUT on the rear panel) passes
through approximately 1.5 volts. The external trigger signal must be a
0 V to + 5 V TTL signal.
Front-Panel Key Access: m
EXTERNAL
PREAMPG
adds a positive or negative preamplifier gain value, which is subtracted from
the displayed signal. The EXTERNAL PREAMPG function is similar to the REF
LVL OFFSET function; however, with the EXTERNAL PREAMPG function,
the attenuation may be changed depending on the preamplifier gain entered.
A preamplifier gain offset is used for measurements that require an external
preamplifier or long cables. The offset is subtracted from the amplitude
readout so that the displayed signal level represents the signal level at the
input of the preamplifier. The preamplifier gain offset is displayed at the top
of the screen and is removed by entering zero. The preamplifier gain offset
is entered using the numeric keypad. Press CAL STORE if you want the
spectrum analyzer to use the current preamplifier gain offset when power is
turned on. Preamplifier gain offset is set to zero when DEFAULT CONFIG is
pressed. The preamplifier gain value is not affected by an instrument preset.
Front-Panel Key Access: (AMPLITUDE]
FFT
MARKERS
if the FFT mode is already active, pressing FFT MARKERS only activates the
FFT markers. If the FFT mode is not active, then the FFT marker will be
activated and the FFT annotation will be displayed but an FFT will not be
performed. Pressing the % AM ON OFF key will give a valid value for the
signal in trace B. Press FFT OFF to return the spectrum analyzer to normal
operation.
An FFT trace can be saved and recalled. If a trace has been recalled,
FFT MARKERS can be used to activate the markers so that the trace can be
evaluated.
Front-Panel Key Access: [MEAS/USER]
7-42 Key Descriptions
FFT
Menu
accesses the menu of keys to initiate and evaluate a Fourier transform of
the spectrum analyzer displayed data. Activating other spectrum analyzer
functions will automatically exit the FFT function or will corrupt the display
(see Table 7-7).
‘Ihble 7-7. Compatibility of FFT With Other Functions
Function
Compatibility Info
Catalog functions
corrupts the display
DLP Editor
corrupts the display
Marker Table
exits FFT
N dB Points measurement
exits FFT
Peak Table
exits FFT
Power Menu measurements exits FFT
Show Options
corrupts the display
Time Gate functions
exits FFT
TO1 measurement
exits FFT
Windows
exits FFT
Front-Panel Key Access:
~MEAS/USER)
FFT OFF
exits the FFT mode and menus, returning the spectrum analyzer to normal
operation.
Front-Panel Key Access: (mj
FFT STOP
FREQ
allows the user to enter the stop frequency for the desired FFT span. This sets
the spectrum analyzer sweep time by the relationship:
FFT stop freq = 400 / (sweep time x 2)
Note
When using the FFT stop frequency function, the knob and step key
increments are not optimal for positioning the signal. To use the knob or step
keys to position the signal, select sweep time as the active function.
Front-Panel Key Access:
FINE
TUNE DAC
[MEAS~USER]
displays the output of the YTO fine-tune DAC, which is produced on the
A7 Analog Interface assembly. This is a service diagnostic function and is for
service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: a
FLAT
draws a zero-slope line between the coordinate point of the current segment
and the coordinate point of the next segment, producing limit-line values equal
in amplitude for all frequencies between the two points. If the amplitude
values of the two segments differ, the limit line “steps” to the frequency value
of the second segment.
Front-Panel Key Access: (Z?%Vj
Flatness
Data
provides access to the softkeys used for viewing or editing the flatnesscorrection constants. This is a service calibration function and is for service
use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: a
Key Descriptions 7-43
FM COIL
DRIVE
displays the output of the FM coil driver produced on the A7 Analog Interface
assembly. This is a service diagnostic function and is for service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: (CAL]
FM
GAIN
0ption 102 or 103 only.
adjusts the FM deviation display. The center graticule represents zero
deviation. The top graticule is the positive deviation set by FM GAIN. The
bottom graticule is the negative deviation set by FM GAIN. The range for FM
gain is from 10 kHz to 500 kHz. The default value is 100 kHz.
Front-Panel Key Access: (CTRLJ or ICAL)
FM
OFFSET
Option 102, 103, or 301 only.
adjusts the horizontal trace for center-screen with no modulation on the
carrier. This is a service diagnostic function and is for service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: (CAL]
FM SPAN
displays the FM-SPAN signal from the span dividers on the A7 Analog
Interface assembly. This is a service diagnostic function and is for service use
only.
Front-Panel Key Access: ICAL)
FORMAT
CARD
HP 859OL, HP 8592L, and HP 8594L must have Option 003.
formats a card in logical interchange format (LIF). This is the same as
ERASE MEM CARD . The memory card is formatted with the volume label
“HP859X.” Pressing FORMAT CARD causes a message to appear on the spectrum
analyzer screen: If you are sure,press key againtopurgedata. Press
FORMAT CARD again if you want to format the memory card. Pressing
FORMAT CARD deletes data stored on the memory card.
Front-Panel Key Access: @!Zi’Zj
FREE RUN
activates the trigger condition that allows the next sweep to start as soon as
possible after the last sweep.
Front-Panel Key Access: (TRIG)
FREQ
DIAG
All E-Series and L-Series spectrum analyzers except HP 85901, with
Option 713.
displays, in real-time, frequency diagnostic information for the LO section. This
is a service diagnostic function and is for service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: ICAL)
FREQ DISC
NORM OFF
All E-Series and L-Series spectrum analyzers except HP 8590L with
Option 713.
indicates the status of the frequency discriminator as a function of LO span.
This is a service diagnostic function and is for service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: a
7-44 Key Descriptions
FREQ
OFFSET
allows the user to input a frequency offset value that is added to the
frequency readout, to account for frequency conversions external to the
spectrum analyzer. Offset entries are added to all frequency readouts including
marker, start frequency, and stop frequency. Entering an offset does not affect
the trace. Offsets are not added to the span. Frequency offsets are entered
using the numeric keypad.
When a frequency offset is entered, its value is displayed on the bottom of the
screen (as opposed to reference level offsets, which are displayed on the left
side of the screen). To eliminate an offset, press FREQ OFFSET and 0 CENTER].
Pressing @iZY] also sets the offset to zero.
Front-Panel Key Access: C-1
CFREQUENW_)
activates the center-frequency or start-frequency function and accesses
the menu that has the frequency functions. The center frequency or start
frequency value appears below the graticule on the screen.
Although the spectrum analyzer allows entry of frequencies greater than the
specified frequency range, using frequencies greater than the frequency span
of the spectrum analyzer is not recommended.
Note
When changing both the center frequency and the span, change the frequency
first since the span can be limited by the frequency value.
FULL
changes the spectrum analyzer span to full span.
SPAN
Fix- an HP 8592L, HP 8593E, HP 85954 and HP 8596E only: span can be
limited if harmonic band lock (BND LOCK ON OFF ) is set to ON.
Full Span Frequency Range
Model
Frequency Range
HP 85SOL
9 kHz to 1.8 GHz
HP 85913
9 kHz to 1.8 GHz
HP 8592L
2.75 GHz to 22 GHz *
HP 85933
2.75 GHz to 22 GHz *
HP 85943
9 kHz to 2.9 GHz
HP 8594L
9 kHz to 2.9 GHz
HP 85953
9 kHz to 6.5 GHz *
HP 8596E
9 kHz to 12.8 GHz *
’ Harmonic band lock is set to OFF.
Front-Panel Key Access: IsPANl
Gate
Control
0ption 105 only. Option 101 is recommended.
accesses the menu of gate control functions and the entrance to the gate utility
menus. The gate can be controlled independently or from within the gate
utility. The gate utility makes it easier to set up and manipulate the gate.
When the gate control functions are accessed under the Gate Control menu,
outside of the gate utility, they do not interact with the gate utility. Values
that are changed using these keys will not affect the gate utility settings and
Key Descriptions 7-45
graphics unless the utility is entered with the new settings.
Front-Panel Key Access: f,sWEEP)
GATE CTL
EDGE LVL
Option 105 only. Option 101 is recommended.
determines if the gate is enabled on the edge of the trigger input or on a
threshold level of the input signal. If the gate control is set to EDGE, the edge
of the input signal triggers the timer for the gate delay. When the gate control
is set to LVL, the gate follows the positive level of the signal connected to
GATE TRIGGER INPUT.
When the gate control is set to level, the functions of gate delay and gate
length no longer apply and therefore, the GATE DELAY , GATE LENGTH , and
EDGE POL POS NEG softkeys are blanked. The gate utility does not allow level
triggering. The gate will automatically be set to edge trigger on entry to the
gate utility.
Front-Panel Key Access: [SWEEP]
GATE
DELAY
Option 105 only. Option 101 is recommended.
sets the duration of the delay after an edge trigger before the gate switch
closes. The gate delay can be set from 1 ps to 65.535 ms in 1 ps steps.
If the GATE DELAY softkey is accessed outside of the time gate utility, it turns
off the gate markers but does not affect the gate utility settings. When the
gate utility is entered, the current value of the gate delay will be used. The
GATE DELAY softkey can be accessed from within the gate utility under the
Define Gate menu.
Front-Panel Key Access: [m)
GATE
LENGTH
Option 105 only. Option 101 is recommended.
sets the duration of the gate. The gate length can be set from 1 ps to
65.535 ms in 1 ,M steps.
If the GATE LENGTH softkey is accessed outside of the time gate utility it turns
off the gate markers but does not affect the gate utility settings. When the
gate utility is entered, the current value of the gate length will be used. The
GATE LENGTH softkey can be accessed from within the gate utility under the
Define Gate menu.
Front-Panel Key Access: [SWEEP)
GATE
ON OFF
Option 105 only. Option 101 is recommended.
turns on or off the gate for Option 105, the time-gated spectrum analyzer
capability. The gate can be turned on outside, or from within, the gate utility.
The gate utility makes it easier to set up and manipulate the gate.
If GATE ON OFF is accessed under the [SWEEP) menu it turns the gate on and
off. If GATE ON OFF is accessed under the Define Gate softkey from within
the gate utility, the gate can only be turned on when the frequency domain
window is active. If the time domain window is made active the gate will be
turned off. Gate manipulation with the gate turned on in the time domain
window is difficult due to trace dropouts and triggering errors.
Front-Panel Key Access: [SWEEP)
7-46 Key Descriptions
GATE
UTILITY
Option 105 only. @Zion 101 is recommended.
accesses the softkey functions used for Option 105, the time-gated spectrum
analyzer capability. It creates related time domain and frequency domain
windows to set up the time gate and make measurements. The center
frequency and reference level must be set correctly before entering the gate
utility. There must be a TTL signal at the GATE TRIGGER INPUT on the rear
panel, and GATE OUTPUT must be connected to EXT TRIG INPUT. If no
trigger is present an error message is displayed. Connect a trigger input or
press instrument preset to exit the gate utility.
Note
If the gate utility menus are exited by pressing one of the front panel keys they
may be re-entered by pressing (SWEEP) twice.
Some spectrum analyzer functions are altered or are not available when
the gate utility is active (see Table 7-8). From within the gate utility press
EXIT UTILITY to return to normal spectrum analyzer operation. Press
@‘!iW] twice, and EXIT UTILITY to return to the gate utility and then exit it
properly.
‘Ihble 7-8.
Commands Altered/Not Available within the Gate Utility
Command
Description of Change
96 AM
Adjacent Channel Power
Calibration
Channel Power
FFT
N dB Points
Occupied Bandwidth
Peak Zoom
Res BW
Span
Sweep time
TO1
Video BW
measurement function is not available
measurement function is not available
no calibration functions can be accessed
measurement function is not available
measurement function is not available
measurement function is not available
measurement function is not available
routine is not available
turns off resolution BW coupling to pulse width
must be zero in the time domain window
turns off sweep time coupling to PRI
measurement function is not available
turns off video BW coupling to gate length
Front-Panel Key Access: CSWEEP)
GHIJKL
accesses the softkey menu used for selecting screen title or prefix characters
G through L.
Front-Panel Key Access: a, [CONFIG), [mj, (j-1, or m
GND REF
DETECTOR
displays the output of the analog-ground reference produced on the
Al6 Processor/Video assembly. This is a service diagnostic function and is for
service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: (CALI
GRAT
turns the screen graticule on and off. This is helpful when alternative graphics
are drawn on the screen through a remote controller and during plotting, when
a graticule is not reauired.
Front-Panel Key Aciess: [DISPLAY)
ON OFF
Key Descriptions 7-47
GRPH MKR
ON OFF
turns the graph marker ON or OFF. This softkey is available when ACPGRAPH
is ON (for ACP or ACP extended measurements), or when PWRGRAPH is ON
(for channel power measurements). For the ACPGRAPH, the delta frequency,
ACP ratio, and channel power are displayed at the marker position. For the
channel power graph, the frequency and channel power are displayed at the
marker position.
Front-Panel Access Key: fjMEAS/USER_J
IHOLD)
HP 859OL, HP 85921; and HP 8594L only.
deactivates the active function and blanks the active function text from the
display. No data can be accidentally entered using the knob, step keys, or
keypad. Activating another function will turn off the hold function. The HOLD
softkey can also be accessed by pressing the cm] key.
HOLD
deactivates the active function and blanks the active function text from the
display. No data can be accidentally entered using the knob, step keys, or
keypad. Activating another function will turn off the hold function.
Front-Panel Key Access: (m)
HP B&W
D 5540
Option 041 or 043 only.
selects a black and white printer. Use this function if you have a black and
white HP DeskJet 540 printer. Press Set B&W Printer and then select the
HP B&W PRINTER softkey. Start printing by pressing COPY DEV PRNT PLT
(PRNT) and Icopvl.
Front-Panel Key Access: @%iZ]
HP B&W
PRINTER
Option 041 or 043 only.
selects a black and white printer. Use this function if you have a black
and white HP printer, or if you are using a color printer, but want to have
a black and white print. Press Set B&W Printer and then select the
HP B&W PRINTER softkey. Start printing by pressing COPY DEV PRNT PLT
(PRNT) and Icopvl.
Front-Panel Key Access: (m]
IDNUM
is used when the instrument is powered on the first time. It inputs the
spectrum analyzer model number and option information. This is a service
calibration function and is for service use only. Refer to the service guide for
more information.
Front-Panel Key Access: ICAL)
INIT FLT
is used when the instrument is powered on the first time. It sets the defaults
for spectrum analyzer flatness including the start and stop frequencies and
the step size. All of the correction values are set to zero. This is a service
calibration function and is for service use only. Refer to the service guide for
more information.
Front-Panel Key Access: (CAL)
7-48 Key Descriptions
INPUT Z
500 75n
adjusts the voltage readout by 1.76 dB to correct for the difference between
voltage and power measurements in a 750 system versus a 500 system. The
impedance you select is for computational purposes only, since the actual
impedance of 5OQ (7562 for Option 001) is set by internal hardware. The preset
value can be changed by using a service function. Select the computational
input impedance by pressing INPUT Z 50R 75R or by entering 75 or 50 using
the numeric keypad. For example, when making measurements in a 750
system, an analyzer with either a 75Q input impedance (Option 001) or a 5OQ
input impedance, using a 7561 to 509 matching device, the INPUT Z should be
set to 750.
Front-Panel Key Access: C-1
INTERNAL
CARD
Requires Option 003 for an HP 859OL, HP 8592L, or HP 8594L.
selects between spectrum analyzer memory and the memory card for the save
and recall functions.
Front-Panel Key Access: CRECALL) or [SAVE_)
INTERNAL
recalls the saved spectrum analyzer state from the selected state register.
Recalling a state from the spectrum analyzer memory displays the
time and date when the state data was stored. To recall a state, press
INTERNAL --+ STATE and use the numeric keypad to enter a state register
number (valid state register numbers are 1 through 9). State register 9 contains
a previous state; state register 0 contains the current state. If windows are
being used, the instrument state can only be recalled into the active window.
Front-Panel Key Access: CRECALL)
+ STATE
Internal
-+ T r a c e
accesses a softkey menu that allows you to either select the trace in which the
trace data is to be recalled (trace A, trace B, or trace C), recall the current
limit-line tables, or recall amplitude correction factors. When recalling a trace,
select the trace in which the trace data is to be recalled, enter the trace
register number, and press @i=i%). If windows are being used, only the trace
of the active window can be recalled.
When recalling limit-line tables or amplitude correction factors, press
LIMIT LINES or AMP COR respectively, enter the trace register number,
and press [ENTER). Valid trace register numbers are 0 through the maximum
register number. The maximum register number is the number displayed after
MAX REG # = during a save or recall operation. If a screen title is present,
it is recalled with the trace data (but not with the limit-line table or the
amplitude-correction factors). If the screen title does not exceed 34 characters,
the time and date when the data was stored will also be displayed. INVALID
SAVEREG is displayed if data has not been stored in the trace register.
Front-Panel Key Access: [RECALL)
LAST
SPAN
changes the spectrum analyzer frequency span to the previous span setting.
Front-Panel Key Access: (SPAN)
Limit
Lines
accesses the limit-line menus.
Front-Panel Key Access: (DISPLAY)
Key Descriptions 7-49
LIMIT
LINES
When accessed by ISAVE), pressing LIMIT LINES stores the current limit-line
tables in spectrum analyzer memory or on the memory card. When accessed
by (m), pressing LIMIT LINES recalls limit-line tables from spectrum
analyzer memory or the memory card. See “To Save a Limit-Line Table or
Amplitude Correction Factors” or “To Recall Limit-Line Tables or Amplitude
Correction Factors” in Chapter 5 for more information.
Front-Panel Key Access: [mj or m
LIMITS
FIX REL
allows you to choose fixed or relative type of limit lines. The fixed (FIX) type
uses the current limit line as a reference with fixed frequency and amplitude
values. The relative (REL) setting causes the current limit-line value to be
relative to the displayed center frequency and reference-level amplitude
values. When limit lines are specified with time, rather than frequency, the
REL setting only affects the amplitude values. The current amplitude values
will be relative to the displayed reference-level amplitude, but the time values
will always start at the left edge of the graticule.
As an example, assume you have a frequency limit line. If the limit line is
specified as fixed, entering a limit-line segment with a frequency coordinate
of 300 MHz displays the limit-line segment at 300 MHz. If the same limit-line
table is specified as relative, it is displayed relative to the spectrum analyzer
center frequency and reference level. If the center frequency is at 1.2 GHz, a
relative limit-line segment with a frequency coordinate of 300 MHz will display
the limit-line segment at 1.5 GHz. If the amplitude component of the relative
limit-line segment is -10 dB, then -10 dB is added to the reference level
value to obtain the amplitude of the given component (reference level offset
included).
RELATIVE is displayed in the limit-line table when the limit-line type is
relative; FIXED is displayed when limit-line type is fixed.
A limit line entered as fixed may be changed to relative, and one entered as
relative may be changed to fixed. When changing between fixed and relative
limit-lines, the frequency and amplitude values in the limit-line table change so
that the limit line remains in the same position for the current frequency and
amplitude settings of the spectrum analyzer. If a time and amplitude limit line
is used, the amplitude values change but the time values remain the same.
Front-Panel Key Access: (jjj
LIMITS
FRQ TIME
selects whether limit lines will be entered using frequency or sweep time
to define the segments. Limit lines can be created by the user to test trace
data. They can be specified as a table of limit-line segments of amplitude
versus frequency, or of amplitude versus time. Time values are evaluated with
respect to the spectrum analyzer sweep time. A time value of zero corresponds
to the start of the sweep, which is the left edge of the graticule.
Switching the limit line definition between frequency and time will erase the
current limit line table. The message If you are sure, press key again to
purge data will appear. Press LIMITS FRQ TIME again to purge the limit line
table and switch between frequency and time.
Front-Panel Key Access: [DISPLAY_)
7-50 Key Descriptions
LINE
activates the trigger condition that allows the next sweep to be synchronized
with the next cycle of the line voltage.
Front-Panel Key Access: m
LMT DISP
Y N AUTO
displays any portion of the limit lines that are currently within the spectrum
analyzer display boundary. If Y (yes) is underlined the limit lines are displayed.
If N (no) is underlined they are not displayed. If AUTO is underlined, the
display of the limit lines is dependent on LMT TEST. The limit lines will be
displayed while the limit test function is turned on, otherwise they will be
turned off.
Limit lines cannot be displayed while using the analog+ display mode. Limit
testing can be done but the limit lines will not be displayed.
Front-Panel Key Access: (j-1
LMT TEST
ON OFF
turns the limit-line testing and (if LMT DISP AUTO is selected) turns the
display of the limit lines on and off. When limit-line testing is enabled, every
measurement sweep of trace A is compared to the limit lines. If trace A is at
or within the bounds of the limit lines, LIMIT PASS is displayed. If trace A is
out of the limit-line boundaries, LIMIT FAIL is displayed.
Front-Panel Key Access: ljjlsp
LOAD
FILE
loads a file from the memory card into spectrum analyzer memory. When the
memory card is selected, pressing any of the catalog softkeys (CATALOG ALL ,
CATALOG STATES, CATALOG TRACES, CATALOG PREFIX, CATALOG DLP,
CATALOG AMP COR, CATALOG LMT LINE), or CATALOG DISPLAY
accesses LOAD FILE . When cataloging spectrum analyzer memory using
CATALOG REGISTER, press LOAD FILE to recall the contents of a state or
trace register into spectrum analyzer memory. To use the LOAD FILE function,
use the step keys to view sections of the directory, use the knob to select a
file then press LOAD FILE. Trace data is loaded into trace B. See the softkey
descriptions for CATALOG CARD and CATALOG REGISTER.
Note
Use of the LOAD FILE softkey is not recommended for recalling limit-line
tables or amplitude-correction factors stored in spectrum analyzer memory.
Front-Panel Key Access: (RECALL) or IsAvE_)
Pressing c-1 ((LOCAL0 after the spectrum analyzer has been placed in the
remote mode places the spectrum analyzer in the local mode and enables
front-panel control. During remote operation, “R” appears in the lower-right
corner of the screen indicating remote and talk. A “T” or “L” may appear
during remote operation, indicating talk or listen. Pressing the (-1 key
removes the “R” symbol in the lower-right corner.
Front-Panel Key Access: (CONFIG_)
MAIN
COIL DR
displays the output produced by the main-coil driver on the A7 Analog
Interface assembly. This is a service diagnostic function and is for service use
only.
Front-Panel Key Access: a
Key Descriptions 7-51
Main
Menu
Uption 10.5 only. 0ption 101 is recommended.
returns to the main gate utility menu from within the gate utility. Pressing
Main Menu accessesthe Define Time, Define Gate, Define Coupling,
UPDATE TIMEFREQ , and EXIT UTILITY softkeys.
Front-Panel Key Access: Cm]
MAIN
SPAN
displays the main-coil-span signal, MC-SPAN, from the span dividers on the
A7 Analog Interface assembly. This is a service diagnostic function and is for
service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: a
MAN QP
AT MKR
Option 103 only.
performs a subset of the routine executed by pressing AUTO QP AT MKR and
then displays a menu of quasi-peak softkeys. See the HP 85913, HP 85933,
HP 85943, HP 85953, or HP 85963 Option 103 supplement documentation for
more information.
Front-Panel Key Access: [mj
MAN TRK
AD JUST
0ption 010 or 011 only.
allows the user to adjust the frequency of the tracking-generator oscillator
manually using the step keys or knob. The tracking adjust is tuned to maximize
the amplitude of the trace.
Tracking error occurs when the output frequency of the tracking generator is
not exactly matched to the input frequency of the spectrum analyzer. The
resulting mixing product from the spectrum analyzer input mixer is not at the
center of the IF bandwidth. Any tracking errors may be compensated for
through manual adjustments of the tracking generator’s oscillator, or through
an automatic tracking routine, which is initiated by pressing TRACKING PEAK .
Front-Panel Key Access: [AUX]
MARKER #
ON OFF
turns the selected marker on or off. One of the four markers must first be
selected by the SELECT 1 2 3 4 key, otherwise marker 1, or the last selected
marker, will be turned on or off. When a new marker is turned on by pressing
MARKER # ON OFF, the MK TRACE AUTO ABC function always switches to
AUTO and the marker is put on the trace that is selected by the AUTO mode.
Front-Panel Key Access: (MKR)
MARKER A
activates a second marker at the position of the first marker. (If no marker is
present, two markers appear at the center of the display.) The amplitude and
frequency of the first marker is fixed, and the second marker is under your
control. Annotation in the active function block and in the upper-right corner
of the screen indicates the frequency and amplitude differences between the
two markers. The display mode must not be changed between log and linear
while using a delta marker.
Note
If there are already four markers when MARKER A is pressed, a nonactive
marker disappears, the active marker becomes a reference marker, and the
delta marker becomes the active marker.
Front-Panel Key Access:
7-52 Key Descriptions
m
or
CPEAK SEARCH)
MARKER
A-SPAN
sets the start and stop frequencies to the values of the delta markers. The start
and stop frequencies will not be set if the delta marker is off.
Front-Panel Key Access: [YZGY]
MARKERAUTO FFT
functions exactly like the CONTINUS FFT softkey, if the spectrum analyzer is
already in zero span. If the spectrum analyzer is not in zero span it activates a
marker which must be placed on the signal that will have an FFT performed
on it and MARKER+ AUTO FFT must be pressed again. The resolution
bandwidth setting must be wide enough to include the displayed modulation
signals. Refer to Chapter 4 “Measuring Amplitude Modulation Using the Fast
Fourier Transform” for more information.
Press FFT OFF to return the spectrum analyzer to normal operation. The
spectrum analyzer state prior to pressing MARKER-+ AUTO FFT can be recalled
from register 8.
Front-Panel Key Access: [m)
MARKER
+CF
changes the spectrum analyzer settings so that the frequency at the marker
becomes the center frequency.
Front-Panel Key Access: (iGT] or (PEAK SEARCH]
MARKER
+CF STEP
changes the center-frequency step size to match the value of the active
marker. Press (FREQUENCY] then CF STEP AUTO MAN to view the step size. If
marker delta is active, the step size will be set to the frequency difference
between the markers.
Front-Panel Key Access: [?XYG]
MARKER-+
FFT STOP
changes the FFT stop frequency to whatever the current value of the FFT
marker frequency is, within the limitations of the available sweep times. This
puts the marker on the right side of the graticule.
Front-Panel Key Access: l’j’j]
MARKER-t
MID SCRN
changes the frequency at the middle of the FFT display to whatever the
current value of the FFT marker frequency is, within the limitations of the
available sweep times. This puts the marker in the middle of the graticule.
When using the FFT function the MARKER--+ MID SCRN softkey replaces the
MARKER + CF softkey in the PEAK
Front-Panel Key Access: (jMEAS/USER),
SEARCH
and [ml menus.
or (PEAK SEARCH]
(MKR-I_),
MARKER--+
MINIMUM
moves the active marker to the minimum detected amplitude value.
Front-Panel Key Access: @iiZGj
MARKER
+PK-PK
finds and displays the frequency and amplitude differences between the
highest and lowest trace points. Pressing MARKER -+PK-PK performs the
routine similar to pressing the following keys:
PEAK SEARCH],
MARKER A , and
MARKER-, MINIMUM.
Front-Panel Key Access: ljMKR-]
MARKER
--+REF LVL
changes the spectrum analyzer settings so that the amplitude at the active
marker becomes the reference level.
Front-Panel Key Access: ljj)
MARKER
--START
changes the start frequency so that it is equal to the frequency of the active
marker. This moves the active marker to the left edge of the display.
Front-Panel Key Access: @ZGY]
Key Descriptions 7-53
MARKER
--STOP
changes the stop frequency so that it is equal to the frequency of the active
marker. This moves the active marker to the right edge of the display.
Front-Panel Key Access: ljMKR--t]
MARKER
ALL OFF
turns off all of the markers, including markers used for marker track and
demodulation (demodulation is only available with Option 102 or 103). Marker
annotation is also removed.
Front-Panel Key Access: m
MARKER
AMPTD
keeps the active marker at the requested amplitude on the screen. Once
activated, the marker remains at the amplitude selected by the step keys,
knob, or numeric keypad, even if the signal frequency is changed. Pressing
any digit, 0 through 9, on the numeric keypad brings up the selected units
terminator menu. The marker will be placed on the signal furthest left at
that amplitude. If no signal exists at that amplitude, it will be placed above
the highest signal amplitude (or below the lowest trace element if it is below
all trace elements). When marker delta is active in addition to marker
amplitude, the behavior of the active marker is useful for measuring signal
bandwidths. For example, place a marker 20 dB below the peak of a signal,
press MARKER A , MARKER AMPTD . The marker readout shows the 20 dB
bandwidth.
Front-Panel Key Access: Il\nKR)
MARKER
NORM PK
Fbr Option 103 only.
provides a function similar to a normal marker when making quasi-peak
measurements. When NORM is selected, the marker can be moved anywhere
on the trace; when PK is selected, the marker is placed on the highest
on-screen signal peak after each sweep.
Front-Panel Key Access: [AUXCTRL)
MARKER
NORMAL
activates a single frequency marker at the center frequency on the active
trace if an on-screen marker is not already displayed. If there is an
on-screen marker before the MARKER NORMAL function is enabled, a
frequency marker is enabled at the position of the first marker. Use the
data controls to position the marker. Annotation in the active function
block and in the upper-right corner indicates the frequency and amplitude
of the marker. The marker stays on the trace at the horizontal screen
position where it was left unless MK TRACK ON OFF , MARKER AMPTD , or a
“marker to” softkey function (such as MARKER -4F , MARKER +REF LVL ,
MARKER +CF STEP, MARKER A +SPAN , or MARKER-+ MINIMUM ) is selected.
Pressing MARKER NORMAL turns off the marker-delta function.
Front-Panel Key Access: m
MARKER
ON
Option 105 only. Option 101 is recommended.
activates a marker in the gate utility. The MARKER ON key is accessed from
within the pulse parameter entry menus in the gate utility. If the reference
edge parameter is being entered MARKER ON turns on a trigger marker. For
pulse width and pulse repetition interval entry, it turns on a delta marker. The
delta marker will be activated at the defined reference edge, if one is available.
Otherwise, it will activate at mid screen.
Front-Panel Key Access: cswEEp_)
7-54 Key Descriptions
MAX
HOLD A
maintains the maximum level for each trace point of trace A. Updates each
trace point if a new maximum level is detected in successive sweeps.
Front-Panel Key Access: (ml
MAX
HOLD B
maintains the maximum level for each trace point of trace B. Updates each
trace point if a new maximum level is detected in successive sweeps.
Front-Panel Key Access: (iG%]
MAX MXR
LVL
lets you change the maximum input mixer level in 10 dB steps from -10 dBm
to -100 dBm. The mixer level is equal to the reference level minus the
attenuator setting. As the reference level changes, the input attenuator setting
is changed to keep the power levels less than the selected level at the input
mixer. Pressing (PRESET) resets the maximum input mixer level to - 10 dBm
Front-Panel Key Access: (AMPLITUDE)
MEAS OFF
turns off the measurement functions under the Power Menu softkey and
restores the spectrum analyzer to the state prior to initiating the power
measurement. If another front-panel key is pressed, exiting the power menus.
press the k-1
key twice to return to the power menu.
Front-Panel Key Access: (FV1EAS/USER)
(MEAS/USERI)
switches between the User Menu and the menu containing N dB PTS ON OFF ,
% AM ON OFF, TO1 ON OFF, Power Menu, and FFT Menu. If no keys have
been defined in the user menu, No User Menu is displayed. See the HP 8590
E-Series and L-Series Spectrum Analyzer and HP 8591C Cable TV Analyzer
Programmer’s Guide for more information about defining keys in the user
menu.
MEM LOCKED
indicates that the save lock function is on. It replaces the ERASE STATEALL
and ERASE TRACEALL softkeys under the k-1 key, and it replaces
STATE + INTERNAL and TRACE -+ INTERNAL under the (SAVE_) key when
SAV LOCK ON OFF is ON. Pressing SAV LOCK ON OFF returns the menu to its
unlocked state.
Front-Panel Key Access: m or (%iZG)
MIN
HOLD C
MIXER
BIAS DAC
maintains the minimum level for each trace point of trace C. Updates each
trace point if a new ‘minimum level is detected in successive sweeps.
Front-Panel Key Access: [WE)
HP 8592L, HP 8593E, HP 8595E, or HP 85963 only.
displays the output of the mixer-bias DAC from the first-converter driver on
the A7 Analog Interface assembly. This is a service diagnostic function and is
for service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: LCAL)
Key Descriptions 7-55
MK COUNT
ON OFF
All E-Series and L-Series spectrum analyzers except HP 85901; with
Q&ion 713.
turns on the marker counter when ON is underlined. If no marker is active
before MK COUNT ON OFF is pressed, a marker is activated at center screen.
Press MK COUNT ON OFF (so that OFF is underlined), to turn the marker
counter off. Press CNT RES AUTO MAN to change the marker counter
resolution to an uncoupled value.
An (*) may appear in the upper right of the display along with the message
Marker Count. The ratio of the resolution bandwidth to span must be
greater than 0.01 for the marker count function to work properly. Reduce
Span appears on screen if the bandwidth to span ratio is less than 0.01. If
Option 130, narrow resolution bandwidth, is not installed, the marker count
function is limited to resolution bandwidths 2300 Hz. Widen RES BW indicates
that the resolution bandwidth must be increased. The function will count the
largest signal is a 300 Hz bandwidth even if a narrower bandwidth setting is
used.
Front-Panel Key Access: [MKR]
MK NOISE
ON OFF
reads out the average noise level, referenced to a 1 Hz noise power bandwidth,
at the marker position. If no marker is present, a marker appears at the center
of the screen. The root-mean-square noise level, normalized to a 1 Hz noise
power bandwidth, is read out. The sample detector is activated.
Front-Panel Key Access: (jjj
MK PAUSE
ON OFF
stops the spectrum analyzer sweep at the marker position for the duration of
the dwell time. The dwell time can be set from 2 milliseconds to 100 seconds.
Front-Panel Key Access: ljZGG?%]
MK READ
F T I P
selects the marker readout to be displayed in signal frequency, sweep time, the
inverse of the sweep time, or the period which is the inverse of the frequency.
When the instrument is in zero span the frequency type readout cannot be
selected.
Front-Panel Key Access: m
MK TABLE
ON OFF
provides a list of the four available markers which is updated at the end of
each sweep or when a marker is used. The marker data can be displayed in
different formats. It can be in absolute or delta frequency and amplitude
formats. There is also a delta display line format, which can be accessed using
the TABLE ADL NRM softkey.
The marker table is not saved with the m and Cm] keys.
Front-Panel Key Access: (jj]
MK TRACE
AUTO ABC
assigns a marker to a trace. Pressing MK TRACE AUTO ABC will activate a
marker on trace A if there are no markers turned on. If a marker is currently
active, press MK TRACE AUTO ABC until A, B, or C are underlined. The active
marker will be moved to the selected trace.
Selecting the AUTO mode will move the marker to the trace that is
automatically selected. The selection order is to first look for a trace in the
clear-write mode, in the order of trace A, then trace B, then trace C. If no
traces are currently being written, it will select a trace in the view-store mode,
again in the order of trace A, B, then C.
Front-Panel Key Access: m
7-56 Key Descriptions
MK TRACK
ON OFF
moves the signal that is nearest to the active marker to the center of the
screen and keeps the signal there. MKR-TRK or CNTR-TRK appears in the
upper-right corner of the display. An (*) may appear in the upper-right corner
of the display while the spectrum analyzer is verifying that it has the correct
signal.
Pressing MK TRACK ON OFF , C-1, MARKER NORMAL, or MARKER ALL OFF
turns off the marker-track function.
When marker track is on and the span is reduced, an automatic zoom is
performed: the span is reduced in steps so that the signal remains at the
center of the screen. If the span is zero, marker track cannot be activated.
Front-Panel Key Access: [MKRFCTN)
accesses the marker control softkeys which select the type and number of
markers and turn them on and off. Markers are diamond-shaped characters
that identify points of traces and allow the traces to be manipulated and
controlled on the screen. During manual operation, four markers may appear
on the display simultaneously; only one can be controlled at a time. The
marker that is controlled is called the “active” marker. Pressing IIV1KR) activates
the MARKER NORMAL softkey.
(read “marker to”) accesses the softkeys used for the transfer of marker
information directly into other functions.
fjtKE=g
accesses the marker function softkeys. These softkeys can be used to access
the marker table and to turn on marker functions for tracking the signal and
counting its frequency. Noise markers and the marker pause function are also
accessed under C-1.
MNOPQR
accesses the softkey menu for selecting screen title or prefix characters
M through R.
Front-Panel Key Access: (CAL), [CONFIG), [DISPLAY), [RECALL), or (SAVE_)
(MODE)
changes the softkey menus for the spectrum-analyzer mode and other
modes of operation when SPECTRUM ANALYZER (located under [PRESET]) and
PRESET SPECTRUM are selected, respectively. Other modes are available using
the downloadable measurement personalities. The HP 8571 IA cable television
measurements personality, the HP 85712D EM1 diagnostics measurements
personality, and the HP 85713A digital radio measurements personality are
examples of some of these modes. Others are described in “Measurement
Personalities, Options, and Accessories.” Consult the documentation
accompanying each personality for information about these other modes of
operation.
Key Descriptions 7-57
N dl3 PTS
ON OFF
automatically places two markers at points N dB from the highest point on the
highest displayed signal, and determines the frequency difference between
the two markers. N dB is the active function and the value of N is set by
the user. The measurement defaults to 3 dB when it is first turned on. The
measurement runs continuously re-executing at the end of each sweep.
No other signal can appear on the display within N dB of the highest signal.
The measured signal cannot have more than one peak that is greater than or
equal to N dB. A signal must be greater than the peak excursion above the
threshold to be identified. The setting for peak excursion may be increased
from the 6 dB default value so that noise will not be identified as signals.
Increasing the value too much may cause a smaller signal to be missed or
misinterpreted as part of a larger signal. The amplitude scale may be either
linear or logarithmic.
Front-Panel Key Access: (j-1
NEW
EDIT
For Options Ml and 043 only. Refer to the HP 8590 E-Series and L-Series
Spectrum Analyzer and HP 8591C Cable TV Analyzer Programmer’s Guide for
more information.
starts the DLP editor function, clearing the DLP editor memory to create a
new item in the spectrum analyzer 2500 byte DLP editor memory. The item
will not be in the spectrum analyzer user memory until it is processed by the
SAVE EDIT softkey. The DLP editor memory buffer remains intact when the
instrument is preset and when it is powered off.
Front-Panel Key Access: [RECALL] or ISAVE_)
HP 8591 E, HP 8593E, HP 8594E, HP 85953, or HP 8596E only.
switches the active window between the two displayed windows, if the
windows display mode has been turned on. The active window is marked by
solid lines.
If the zoom function has been used to expand an active window to the full
screen, the II\IEXT) key still switches the active window between the two
windows. The windows remain zoomed (full screen) so the inactive window is
not displayed as the active window is switched.
NEXT
PEAK
places the marker on the next highest peak. The signal peak must exceed the
threshold value. (Also see the PEAK EXCURSN and THRESHLD ON OFF softkey
descriptions.)
Front-Panel Key Access: [PEAK SEARCH)
NEXT PK
moves the marker to the next peak to the left of the current marker.
The signal peak must exceed the threshold value. If there is no peak to
the left, the marker will not move. (Also see the PEAK EXCURSN and
LEFT
THRESHLD ON OFF softkey descriptions.)
Front-Panel Key Access: (PEAK SEARCH)
NEXT PK
RIGHT
moves the marker to the next peak to the right of the current marker.
The signal peak must exceed the threshold value. If there is no peak to
the right, the marker will not move. (Also see the PEAK EXCURSN and
THRESHLD ON OFF softkey descriptions.)
Front-Panel Key Access: CPEAK SEARCH]
7.58 Key Descriptions
No User
Menu
NORMLIZE
ON OFF
is displayed if key number 1 has not been defined by the user. Key number I
can be defined by remote programming commands (KEYCMD or KEYDEF).
Front-Panel Key Access: [MEAS/USER]
subtracts trace B from trace A and adds the result to the display line. The
result is displayed in trace A. The trace data is normalized with respect to the
display line even if the value of the display line is changed. This function
is executed on all subsequent sweeps until it is turned off. A minus sign
(-) appears between the trace A status and the trace B status in the screen
annotation while the function is active. To turn off the normalize function,
press NORMLIZE ON OFF so that OFF is underlined.
The normalize function is useful for applying correction data to a trace. For
example, store a measurement sweep of the response of a system in trace B.
Trace A can be used to measure the response of the system after a device is
added. Set NORMLIZE ON OFF to ON to subtract the system response from the
response of the device under test, to characterize the response of a device
under test.
Front-Panel Key Access: I=)
NORMLIZE
POSITION
displays the display line and makes the display line function active. The trace
data is normalized with respect to the display line even if the value of the
display line is changed.
Front-Panel Key Access: (-1
NTSC
0ptions 101 and 102, or Option 301 only.
allows you to trigger on the NTSC video format. Pressing NTSC alters the TV
line number that the spectrum analyzer triggers on internally; the line number
displayed when TV LINE # is pressed does not change. Pressing NTSC
changes the video modulation to negative; set TV SYNC NEG POS so that POS
is underlined if positive video modulation is required.
Front-Panel Key Access: ITRIG)
occ BW
% POWER
allows the user to enter the percent of the power desired when using the
occupied bandwidth measurement under the Power Menu softkey. When the
power measurements are first accessed the initial value for percent power is
99 percent. Once the value is changed, the new value will be saved through
an instrument preset or power-on. If the occupied bandwidth measurement
is active and the percent power is changed, another sweep is taken and
measured.
Front-Panel Key Access: (j-1
Key Descriptions 7-59
OCCUPIED
BANDWDTH
integrates the power of the displayed spectrum and puts markers at the
frequencies containing a selected percent of the power. The measurement
defaults to 99% of the occupied bandwidth power. The power-bandwidth
routine first computes the combined power of all signal responses contained
in the trace. For 99% occupied power bandwidth, it then puts markers at
the frequencies at which 0.5% of the power lies to the right of the right
marker and to the left of the left marker. Thus 99% of the power lies between
the markers. The difference of the marker frequencies is the 99% power
bandwidth and is the value displayed.
The OCC BW % POWER softkey can be used to change the measured power
value from 1% to 99.99% of the total displayed power. The occupied
bandwidth function also indicates the value of the measured power in the
occupied bandwidth, and the difference between the spectrum analyzer
center frequency and the center frequency of the occupied bandwidth. The
measurement can be made on a single sweep or to continuously update at the
end of each sweep. The center frequency, reference level, and channel spacing
must be set by the user. Press PARAM AUTO MAN so that AUTO is underlined
and other spectrum analyzer settings will be set automatically set to make
a valid measurement. Set PARAM AUTO MAN to (MAN) to manually control
all settings. The measurement function stops and the spectrum analyzer is
returned to its prior state when other functions are activated.
Front-Panel Key Access: (MEAS/USER)
WINDOWS (ON) HP 85913, HP 85933, HP 8594E, HP 85953, or HP 8596E only.
activates the windows display mode and accesses the menu of window zone
functions. The windows display function splits the screen into two separate
displays. Only one of these displays is active at a time. The currently active
window will have a solid line around the graticule rather than a broken
line. The WINDOWS (NEXT) key will switch the active display between the
upper and lower windows. The instrument state of the active window can
be changed without affecting the state of the inactive window. The complete
annotation is not displayed for each window because of space limitations.
When the windows display mode is first turned on, the top window will
contain an inactive copy of the previous full display. The lower window will
be active and will display a subset of the frequency span of the upper window.
The displayed span, or zone, of the lower window will be indicated on the
upper window by two vertical lines called zone markers. The zone can be
moved and changed using the zone keys which are accessed by pressing the
WINDOWS loN) key. Changing the span or center frequency of the lower
window will change the corresponding zone markers on the upper window.
Most functions can be used from within the windows display mode. Some
functions, like editing limit lines and showing the options, require a full-sized
display. They will temporarily exit the windows display format. When the
function is finished the instrument will return to a windows display. Other
functions will permanently exit the windows display and it will be necessary to
restart the windows display mode by pressing WINDOWS m (see Table 7-9).
Limit lines can be displayed and tested within the windows display mode.
Viewing and testing must be turned on independently in each window. The
current limit lines will be common to both windows.
7-60 Key Descriptions
m and [RECALL) do not save the windows display mode. If the windows
display mode is being used, the save state function saves the state of the
currently active window. The recall state function recalls the stored state into
the currently active window. See the DISPLAY --+ CARD and CARD ADISPLAY
softkeys for information about saving the display.
‘Ihble 7-9. Functions Which Exit The Windows Display Format
Description
Function
% AM
measures percent amplitude modulation
Adjacent Channel Power measures adjacent channel power
PAINT JET
PRINTER
PAL
Calibration Functions
self-calibration
Channel Power
measures channel power
routines
Confidence Test
built-in self test routine
Dispose User Memory
deletes user’s items from analyzer memory
FFT
initiates FFT on zero span input
Gate Utility
accesses time gate functionality
Instrument Preset
returns analyzer to preset state
Marker Table
lists all of the active markers
N dB Points
measures N dB bandwidth
Occupied Bandwidth
measures occupied bandwidth
Peak Table
lists displayed signal peaks
Peak Zoom
initiates the peak zoom routine
TOI
makes a third-order intercept measuremenl
0ption 041 or 043 only.
selects a color print (for use with an HP PaintJet printer only). The traces are
displayed in orange (trace A), blue (trace B), and red (trace C). The graticule,
screen annotation, and user information are displayed in black.
Front-Panel Key Access: CCONFIG]
Q&ions 101 and 102, or Option 301 only.
allows you to trigger on the PAL video format. Pressing PAL alters the TV
line number that the spectrum analyzer triggers on internally; the line number
displayed when TV LINE # is pressed does not change. Pressing PAL changes
the video modulation to negative; set TV SYNC MEG POS so that POS is
underlined if positive video modulation is reauired.
Front-Panel Key Access: ITRIG)
PAL-M
Options 101 and 102, or Option 301 only.
allows you to trigger on the PAL-M video format. PAL-M alters the TV line
number the spectrum analyzer triggers on internally; the line number displayed
by TV LINE # does not change. PAL-M changes the video modulation
to negative; use TV SYNC NEG POS (POS) if positive video modulation is
reauired.
Front-Panel Key Access: ITRIG)
Key Descriptions 7-61
PARAM
AUTO MAN
lets the user choose between automatically or manually setting the parameters
used for the measurement functions under the Power Menu softkey.
Parameters such as span, resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth, center
frequency step size, detector mode, and sweep time are coupled so that they
are automatically updated. With AUTO underlined when channel bandwidth
or channel spacing are changed, the coupled parameters will be updated and
another sweep will be taken and measured. If MAN is underlined the user
must set all of the parameters correctlv.
Front-Panel Key Access: (MEAS/USER) *
PEAK
EXCURSM
sets the minimum amplitude variation of signals that the marker can identify
as a peak. If a value of 10 dB is selected, the marker moves only to peaks that
rise and fall more than 10 dB above the threshold line (or the noise floor of the
display). Pressing Ii%‘?‘E) or turning on power resets the excursion to 6 dB,
and the threshold to 70 dB below the reference level.
Note
When a peak has a lump on its skirt that is the peak-excursion value above the
threshold, the lump is considered a peak in its own right only if it has a peak
excursion drop on both sides. Two peaks that are so close that only a valley
divides them are not differentiated if the valley is not the peak-excursion value
deep.
When the peak excursion value is less than 6 dB, the marker-peaking functions
may not recognize signals less than 6 dB above the noise floor. To correct
this, when measuring signals near the noise floor, the excursion value can be
reduced even further. To prevent the marker from identifying noise as signals,
reduce the noise floor variance to a value less than the peak-excursion value
by reducing the video bandwidth or by using video averaging.
Front-Panel Key Access: PEAK SEARCH)
Peak
Menu
(PEAK SEARCH]
accesses the same softkeys that are available when [PEAK SEARCH] is pressed.
See the key description for [PEAK SEARCH). Pressing Peak Menu instead of
(PEAK SEARCH) allows you to use the peak-search functions without initiating a
new peak search.
Front-Panel Key Access: CMKR-t]
automatically places a marker on the highest amplitude of a trace, displays the
marker’s amplitude and frequency. It also accesses the menus of marker peak
functions including the peak table functions.
7-62 Key Descriptions
PEAK
ZOOM
finds the highest displayed signal and narrows the span to a value selected
by the user. Pressing PEAK ZOOM the first time will make FINAL SPAN the
active function so the user can input the destination span. The current FINAL
SPAN value will be displayed. At that time the user can enter a span or press
PEAK ZOOM again to use the displayed span.
The peak zoom function sets the reference level to the signal amplitude and
sets the center frequency step size to the signal frequency. If the signal is in a
microwave band, a preselector peak is executed.
For a signal to be found it must have a peak of at least 6 dB. If no signal is
found, Signal not found will be displayed. (The routine will ignore the
spectrum analyzer local oscillator feedthrough signal which is at 0 Hz.)
Front-Panel Key Access: @YXJ
PK MODE
<>DL NRM
select which peaks will be listed in the peak table to include all peaks, or to
exclude the peaks that are either above or below the display line, see table
below. The display line is activated if it was not currently being displayed.
peaks above display line listed
peaks below display line listed
Front-Panel Key Access:
[PEAK SEARCH)
PK SORT
FRQ AMP
switches the peak table sorting routine between listing the peaks in order by
descending amplitude or by ascending frequency.
Front-Panel Key Access: [PEAK SEARCH]
PK TABLE
ON OFF
displays a list, of up to ten signal peaks, that is updated at the end of each
sweep. The peaks can be sorted in order by descending amplitude or by
ascending frequency. Peaks above or below the display line can be excluded
from the table. The peak table function works with trace A only. The peak
table is not saved with the m and (jj keys.
Front-Panel Key Access: [PEAK SEARCH)
Plot
Config
Option 041 or 043 only.
accesses the menu used to address the plotter and to select plotter options.
See the lcopvl key for more information.
Front-Panel Key Access: (CONFIG)
PLOTTER
ADDRESS
Option 041 only.
changes the HP-IB address of the plotter. The plotter address is set to 5 when
DEFAULT CONFIG is pressed.
Front-Panel Key Access: (-1
Key Descriptions 7-63
PLT _ _
LOC - -
Option 041 or 043 only.
selects the position of the plotter output. The highlighted portion of the
softkey label indicates where the plot is to be output on the page. This
softkey function appears only if two or four plots per page are selected when
PLTS/PG 1 2 4 is pressed.
Front-Panel Key Access: @Zi’@
PLT MENU
ON OFF
Option 041 or 043 only.
allows the softkey labels to be plotted along with the spectrum analyzer
display. This function operates when the IcoPv] key is used in a plot
configuration. The PLT MENU ON OFF function is set to OFF when
DEFAULT CONFIG is pressed.
Front-Panel Key Access: C-1
Pit P o r t
Conf ig
Option 041 or 043 only.
accesses the menus used by Option 041 (HP-IB and Parallel Interface) and
Option 043 (RS-232 and Parallel Interface) to select plotter options. See the
Icopvl key for more information.
Front-Panel Key Access: (CONFIG)
PLT PORT
HPIB PAR
Option 041 only.
allows you to select between HP-IB or parallel plotter ports.
PLT PORT
SER PAR
Option 043 only.
allows you to select between serial or parallel plotter ports. The BAUD RATE
softkey appears in this menu only when serial is selected.
PLTS/PG
1 2 4
Option 041 or 043 only.
allows you to plot a full-page, half-page, or quarter-page output. Selecting two
plots per page requires a plotter that has the rotate command (RO). The plotter
will be set to a full-page output when DEFAULT CONFIG is pressed.
Front-Panel Key Access: [CONFIG)
PLT->L JT
ON OFF
Option 041 or 043 only.
allows you to plot a full-page, half-page, or quarter-page output to an
HP LaserJet printer. This softkey can be accessed by pressing I-), then
Plot Conf ig .
Front-Panel Key Access: C-1
POINT
specifies a limit value for one coordinate point, so that a POINT segment
specifies a limit value for a single frequency or time. For an upper limit line,
a POINT segment is indicated by a line drawn vertically from the coordinate
point to a point off the top of screen. For a lower limit line, a POINT segment
is indicated by a line drawn vertically from the coordinate point to a point
off the bottom of screen. The POINT segment type is generally used as the
last segment in the limit-line table. However, if the last segment in the table
is not of the POINT segment type, an implicit point is automatically added at
the right-hand side of the screen. If a visible POINT segment at the right-hand
edge of the display is not desired, add an explicit last-point segment to the
limit-line table that is higher in frequency than the stop frequency.
Front-Panel Key Access: (-1
7.64 Key Descriptions
Power
Menu
accesses functions which make transmitter power measurements. The
measurements are designed for analog radio or continuous carrier digital radio
signals.
If another front-panel key is pressed, exiting the power menus, press the
(v) key twice to return to the last power menu that was being used.
Front-Panel Key Access: CMEAS/USER)
POWER ON
IP LAST
determines the state of the spectrum analyzer when the spectrum analyzer is
powered on. If the POWER ON function is set to IP, the state of the spectrum
analyzer is the same as it is after (PRESET) is pressed, when the spectrum
analyzer is powered on. If the POWER ON function is set to LAST, then
the state that the spectrum analyzer was left in when it was powered off is
recalled.
The setting (IP or LAST) of the POWER ON function is not changed by pressing
(JGG71. Use the POWER ON IP LAST softkey function to change the setting
of the spectrum analyzer state which is recalled at power on. Limit lines are
not recalled when the spectrum analyzer is powered up.
Note
If you have a downloadable program or “personality” installed in spectrum
analyzer memory, the following changes apply to the operation of the POWER
ON function: When using a downloadable program or personality, the last
state of the personality is not recalled. We recommend that if you are using
a downloadable program or personality, you set POWER ON IP LAST to IP. If
POWER ON IP LAST is set to LAST, you must press (PRESET) whenever you
power on the spectrum analyzer.
Front-Panel Key Access: (CONFIG)
PRESEL
DAC
HP 85921; HP 8593E, HP 8595E, or HP 8596E only.
peaks the YTF preselector by allowing the user to manually adjust the YTF
fine-tune DAC. This is a service diagnostic function and is for service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: (CAL)
PRESEL
DEFAULT
HP 8592L, HP 85933, HP 85953, and HP 8596E only.
enables default preselector data for bands 1 through 4, to allow maximum
frequency response without peaking the preselector. The CAL YTF routine
should be performed before pressing PRESEL DEFAULT .
Front-Panel Key Access: (AMPLITUDE)
PRESEL
PEAK
HP 8592L, HP 8593E, HP 8595E, or HP 8596E only.
optimally centers the preselector on a given signal for the most accurate
measurement of amplitude. The maximum response found for the frequency at
the marker determines the future adjustment values that will be provided to
the preselector.
Front-Panel Key Access: CAMPLITUDE]
Key Descriptions 7-65
provides a convenient starting point for making most measurements. Pressing
@Z%?i] displays softkeys used for accessing the operating modes available
for your spectrum analyzer. See Table 7-10 and Table 7-11 for the conditions
established by pressing (j-1.
The instrument preset function performs a processor test, but does not affect
CAL data. Pressing C-1 clears both the input and output buffers, but does
not clear trace B. The amplitude values of trace C are set to the reference
level. Amplitude-correction factors are turned off. Limit-line testing is turned
off, but the limit-line tables remain in spectrum analyzer memory. The status
byte is set to 0. Instrument preset affects all operating modes. See the key
description for (jj] for more information about other operating modes.
Pressing [m] erases all “on time” functions-ONCYCLE, ONDELAY,
ONEOS, ONMKR, ONSRQ, ONSWP, ONTIME, and TRMATH. These are remote
programming commands. See the HP 8590 E-Series and L-Series Spectrum
Analyzer and HP 8591C Cable TV Analyzr Programmer’s ciuide for more
information.
Note
Turning the spectrum analyzer on performs an instrument preset. Turning on
the spectrum analyzer also fetches CAL data; completes a processor test; clears
trace B, trace C, and both the input and output buffers; turns off amplitude
correction factors; turns off limit-line testing; and sets the status byte to 0.
The last state of the spectrum analyzer (before it was switched off) is recalled,
unless IP has been set by the POWER ON function.
‘Exble 7-10. Model Specific Preset Conditions
Model
Center
Frequency
HP 8590L 900 MHz
PRESET
SPECTRUM
Span
Start
kequency
stop
‘requency
Sweep
Time
1.8 GHz
0 Hz
1.8 GHz
20 ms (auto-coupled)
HP 8591E 900 MHz
1.8 GHz
0 Hz
1.8 GHz
20 ms (auto-coupled)
HP 8592L 12.38 GHz
19.25 GHz
2.75 GHz
22 GHz
385 ms, full span (auto-coupled)
HP 85933
12.38 GHz
19.25 GHz
2.75 GHz
22 GHz
385 ms, full span (auto-coupled)
HP 85943
1.450 GHz
2.9 GHz
0 Hz
2.9 GHz
58 ms (auto-coupled)
HP 85941,
1.450 GHz
2.9 GHz
0 Hz
2.9 GHz
58 ms (auto-coupled)
HP 85953
3.25 GHz
6.5 GHz
0 Hz
6.5 GHz
130 ms (auto-coupled)
HP 85963
6.4 GHz
12.8 GHz
0 Hz
12.8 GHz
256 ms (auto-coupled)
allows the spectrum-analyzer mode only to be preset. Table 7-12 lists the
conditions affected by the PRESET SPECTRUM function. Other operating
modes will not be affected. See the description of the CMODE) key.
In addition, pressing PRESET SPECTRUM erases user-generated graphics and
blanks the active-function block that is on the spectrum analyzer screen.
Pressing PRESET SPECTRUM disposes of ONEOS, ONSWP, and TRMATH. These
are remote programming commands; see the HP 8590 E-Series and L-Series
Spectrum Analyzer and HP 8591 C Cable TV Analyzer Programmer’s Guide for
more information.
Front-Panel Key Access: [ml or (j-1
7-66 Key Descriptions
‘Ihble 7-11. Common Preset Conditions
A - B - A
Amplitude correction factors
Off
Off
Amplitude units
default values
Annotation and graticule display
on
Attenuation
10 dB (auto-coupled)
Center frequency
Refer to Table 7-10.
CF step size
10% of span
Coupled functions
all set to AUTO
Coupling *
AC
Mass storage device (card or internal)
INTERNAL
Detector
positive peak
Display line level
2.5 graticule divisions below reference level, display off
Frequency offset
0 Hz
Limit-line testing
Off
LIMIHI and LIMILO
cleared
Log scale
10 d B/division
Marker counter t
Off
Marker counter resolution t
auto-coupled
Markers
Off
Mixer level
-10 dBm
Operating mode
spectrum analyzer
Preselector peak $
reset
Reference level
0 dBm in power-on units
Reference level offset
D dB
Reference level position
top (8th) graticule
Resolution bandwidth
3 MHz (auto-coupled)
Span
Refer to Table 7-10.
3RQ mask
actal 50
Start Frequency
Refer to Table 7-10.
Stop Frequency
Refer to Table 7-10.
State registers l-8
unaffected
Sweep
continuous
fhreshold level
lne graticule above baseline, display off
fitle
cleared
l’race A
clear-write
frace B
store-blank
frace C
store-blank, at reference level
rrace registers
maffected
ri-igger
‘ree run
VBWIRBW ratio
1.3
Video averaging
lff
Video bandwidth
1 MHz (auto-coupled)
L HP 85943, HP 85953, or HP 85963 only.
1 All E-Series and L-Series spectrum analyzers except HP 85901, with Option 713
: HP 8592L. HP 85933. HP 85953. or HP 85963 onlv.
Key Descriptions 7-67
‘Ihble 7-12. Preset Spectrum Conditions for All Models
A - B - A
Analog+ display mode
Off
Off
Annotation and graticule
on
Attenuation
coupled
Center frequency
Refer to Table 7-10.
Center frequency step size
10% of span
Coupled functions
all set to AUTO
Coupling *
AC
Detector
positive peak
Display line
Off
Frequency offset
0 Hz
Harmonic lock t
Off
Limit-line testing
off
Scale
log 10 dB/div
Marker counter $
3ff
Marker counter resolution $
2 kHz (auto-coupled)
Markers
Jff
Measure
SA (spectrum analyzer)
i3n end-of-sweep command (ONEOS)
t3n-sweep command (ONSWP)
cleared
1Reference level
I dBm in power-on units
1Reference level offset
I dB
1Reference level position
,op (8th) graticule
1Resolution bandwidth
‘3pan
3 MHz (coupled)
‘3tart frequency
‘Stop frequency
Refer to Table 7-10.
‘state registers l-8
< sweep
nraffected
fSweep time
rThreshold
Refer to Table 7-10. (coupled)
rTrace A
-leared
Refer to Table 7-10.
Refer to Table 7-10.
:ontinuous
)ff
:lear-write
7Trace B
itore-blank
1Trace C
itore-blank
1Trace math command (TRMATH)
:leared
1L-ace registers
uraffected
1rrigger
1vTideo averaging
7?ideo bandwidth
‘ree
I?ideo bandwidth to resolution bandwidth ratio
).3
)ff
MHz (coupled)
’ HP 85943, HP 85953, or HP 85963 only.
; HP 8592L, HP 85933, HP 85953, or HP 85963 only.
: All E-Series and L-Series spectrum analyzers except HP 8590L with Option 713.
7-68 Key Descriptions
Print
Config
Option 041 or 043 only.
accesses the softkey functions that are used to address the printer, select a
black and white print or a color print, and reset the printer. See the @?Z?] key
for more information.
Front-Panel Key Access: @ZiZj
PRINTER
ADDRESS
0ption 041 only.
allows you to change the HP-IB address of the printer. The printer address is
set to 1 by pressing DEFAULT COMFIG.
Front-Panel Key Access: I-1
PRINTER
SETUP
Q&ion 041 or 043 only.
resets the printer, sets the printer to 60 lines per page, and skips line
perforations. This function enables you to obtain up to three printouts per
page. The printer paper should be at the top of the form before using this
function. The PRINTER SETUP function may not work with printers that are
not recommended. See Chapter 10 for recommended printers.
Front-Panel Key Access: ~55iYZ$
Pm Port
Conf ig
Option 041 or 043 only.
accesses the menus used by Option 041 (HP-IB and Parallel Interface) and
Option 043 (RS-232 and Parallel Interface) to select printer options. See the
Icopv) key for more information.
Front-Panel Key Access: (-1
PRN PORT
HPIB PAR
Option 041 only.
allows you to select between HP-IB or parallel printer ports.
PRN PORT
SER PAR
0ption 043 only.
allows you to select between serial or parallel printer ports. The BAUD RATE
softkey appears in this menu only when serial is selected.
Key Descriptions 7-69
PRT MENU
ON OFF
Option 041 or 043 only.
allows the softkey labels to be printed along with the spectrum analyzer
display. This function operates when the (copy) key is used in a print
configuration. The PRT MENU function is set to ON when DEFAULT CONFIG
pressed.
Front-Panel Key Access: C-j
is
Pulse
Param
Option 105 only. Option 101 is recommended.
accesses the gate utility menus for entering the pulse parameters: reference
edge, pulse width, and pulse repetition interval. If pulse parameters have
previously been entered, pressing Pulse Param causes a list of the current
values to be displayed.
Front-Panel Key Access: (SWEEP’
PURGE
AMP COR
clears the current amplitude-correction factors table. Pressing PURGE AMP COR
displays the message: If you are sure, press key againtopurge data.
Pressing PURGE AMP COR a second time clears the amplitude-correction data.
Press SAVE AMP COR to save amplitude-correction factors, and then press
PURGE AMP COR to clear the current amplitude-correction factors table.
Front-Panel Key Access: (CAL)
PURGE
LIMITS
clears the current limit-line table from spectrum analyzer memory. Pressing
PURGE LIMITS displays the message: If you are sure, press key again
to purge data. Press PURGE LIMITS againifyou wish to clear the current
limit-line table. Press SAVE LIMIT to save the current limit-line table, and
then press PURGE LIMITS to clear the current limit-line table.
Front-Panel Key Access: (mj
PWRGRAPH
ON OFF
turns the channel power graph ON or OFF. With the PWRGRAPH ON, the
channel powergraph is calculated and displayed and the numeric results are
not displayed. The value of the channel power is displayed at the selected
marker frequency. This graph function is used after doing a channel power
measurement with the CHANNEL POWER softkey.
Front-Panel Key Access: (MEAS/USERJ
7-70 Key Descriptions
PWR SWP
ON OFF
HP 85901, and HP 8591 E with Option 010 or 011. HP 85933, HP 85944
HP 85954 and HP 8596E with 0ption 010.
activates (ON) or deactivates (OFF) the power-sweep function, which sweeps
the output power of the tracking generator over the selected power-sweep
range. The value of the power-sweep range is displayed in the active-function
block when PWR SWP ON OFF is turned on. The available power-sweep
range is a function of the source attenuator setting: For power sweeps, press
SRC ATN MAN AUTO until (MAN) is underlined so the spectrum analyzer source
attenuator is manually set (decoupled). For a given source attenuation setting,
the maximum specified power-sweep range is given by the following:
mwer Sweep Range for the HP 859OL and HP 8591 E is (- 15 dBm minus
the source attenuation setting) to (0 dBM minus the source attenuation
setting). For example, if the source attenuation setting is 20 dB, the maximum
power sweep range is from -35 dBm (-15 dBm - 20 dB) to -20 dBm
(0 dBm - 20 dB). The starting power level is the source power setting. The
ending power level is the sum of the source power setting plus the source
power sweep setting. Source power sweep may be set as high as 20 dB, but
performance is specified only up to 15 dB.
Ebwer Sweep Range for the HP 8593E, HP 8594E, HP 85953, and HP 85963 is
also related to the source attenuation setting. See Table 7-13.
‘able 7-13. HP 85933, HP 85943, HP 85953, and HP 85963
Attenuator Power Sweer
Range
-1 to -10
-10.1 to -18
-18.1 to -26
-26.1 to -34
-34.1 to -42
-42.1 to -50
-50.1 to -58
-58.1 to -66
The output power of the tracking generator is swept according to the sweep
rate of the spectrum analyzer. The output power is always swept from the
source power setting to a higher power setting (negative source power sweep
values are not allowed). Refer to the calibration guide for your instrument for
more information regarding source power and source attenuation relationships.
Power-sweep measurements are particularly useful in making gain compression
measurements or output power versus frequency measurements.
Front-Panel Key Access: [AUX]
Key Descriptions 7-71
qP x 1 0
ON OFF
Option 103 only.
amplifies the video signal ten times (20 dB) in order to make an accurate
measurement of a low quasi-peak signal. See the HP 85913, HP 85933
HP 85943, HP 85953, or HP 85963 Option 103 supplement documentaiion for
more information.
Front-Panel Key Access: @Y?Y%CTRL_)
qP DET
ON OFF
0ption 103 only.
turns the quasi-peak detector on and off. This is a service diagnostic function
and is for service use only. See either the service documentation or the
HP 85913, HP 8593E, HP 85943, HP 85953, or HP 85963 Option 103
supplement documentation for more information.
Front-Panel Key Access: @&ZYj or a
qP GAIN
ON OFF
Option 103 only.
amplifies the video signal ten times (20 dB). This is a service diagnostic
function and is for service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: ICAL)
QPD
Option 103 only.
sets the offset of the quasi-peak detector. This is a service diagnostic function
and is for service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: a
OFFSET
qPD RST
ON OFF
0ption 103 only.
discharges and resets the quasi-peak detector. This is a service diagnostic
function and is for service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: ICAL)
Quasi
Peak
Option 103 only.
accesses the menu of quasi-peak softkey functions and, if there is not an
on-screen marker, places a marker on the highest on-screen signal. See
the HP 85913, HP 85933, HP 85943, HP 85953, or HP 85963 Option 103
supplement documentation for more information.
Front-Panel Key Access: CAUXCTRL)
(FEii ]
accesses softkey menus that allow you to recall data from the memory card
or spectrum analyzer memory. When INTERNAL is selected, states, traces,
limit-line tables, amplitude-correction factors can be recalled from spectrum
analyzer memory. When CARD is selected, states, traces, limit-line tables, and
amplitude-correction factors, display images, and downloadable programs can
be recalled from the memory card. Option 003 is required to use a memory
card with the HP 859OL, HP 8592L, and HP 8594L only.
In addition, pressing [%GGJ accesses the cataloging functions used to catalog
the saved data that is in spectrum analyzer memory or on the memory card. It
also accesses the DLP editor utility.
7-72 Key Descriptions
RECALL
AMP COR
recalls an amplitude-correction factors table from the current mass-storage
device (spectrum analyzer memory or memory card). To verify the current
mass storage device, press RECALL AMP COR . If MAX REG # appears on the
spectrum analyzer display, the current mass storage device is spectrum
analyzer memory. If PREFIX= is displayed, the memory card is the mass storage
device. Press ISAVE) or (jj], then INTERNAL CARD to change the current
mass storage device. To recall an amplitude-correction factors table, enter the
register number that the table was previously saved under, then press CENTER].
When recalling an amplitude-correction factors table from the memory card,
it may be necessary to change the current prefix to the prefix with which the
table was stored. Press Change Prefix to change the current prefix. When
saved in spectrum analyzer memory, the register number is restricted to the
range between 0 and the number x indicated by MAX REG# = x. The screen title
is not recalled with the amplitude-correction factors table.
Front-Panel Key Access: a
RECALL
LIMIT
recalls limit-line tables from the current mass-storage device (spectrum
analyzer memory or memory card). To verify the current mass-storage device,
press RECALL LIMIT . If MAX REG # appears on the spectrum analyzer display,
the current mass-storage device is spectrum analyzer memory. If PREFIX= is
displayed, the memory card is the mass-storage device. Press (SAVE) or (jRECALLj,
then INTERNAL CARD to change the current mass-storage device. To recall a
limit line, enter the register number that the limit-line tables was saved under,
then press Cm]. When recalling a limit line from the memory card, it may
be necessary to change the current prefix to the prefix with which the limit
line was stored. Press Change Prefix to change the current prefix. When
saved in spectrum analyzer memory, the register number is restricted to the
range between 0 and the number x indicated by MAX REG# = x. The screen title
is not recalled with the limit-line tables.
Front-Panel Key Access: (-1
REF LVL
REF LVL
OFFSET
allows the reference level to be changed. This function is activated when
is pressed. The reference level is the amplitude power or voltage
represented by the top graticule line on the screen. Changing the value of
the reference level changes the absolute amplitude level (in dBm) of the top
graticule line. Pressing any digit, 0 through 9, on the numeric keypad brings
up the selected terminator menu.
Front-Panel Key Access: (-1
CAMPLITUDE]
adds an offset value to the displayed reference level. Offsets are entered by
using the number/units keypad. Entering an offset does not affect the trace
or the attenuation value. Reference-level offsets are used when gain or loss
occurs between a device under test and the spectrum-analyzer input. Thus,
the signal level measured by the spectrum analyzer is the level at the input of
an external amplitude-conversion device. When an amplitude offset is entered,
its value is displayed on the left side of the screen (as opposed to frequency
offsets which are displayed at the bottom of the screen). To eliminate an
offset, press REF LVL OFFSET , 0 [-dBm] or (+dBm). Pressing C-1 also
sets the offset to zero. Reference-level offsets are entered using the numeric
keypad. See also the EXTERNAL PREAMPG softkey description.
Front-Panel Key Access: C-1
Key Descriptions 7-73
RES BW
AUTO MAN
changes the spectrum analyzer 3 dB resolution bandwidth. As the resolution
bandwidth is decreased, the sweep time is increased to maintain amplitude
calibration. Resolution bandwidth is also related to span. As span is decreased,
the resolution bandwidth is decreased. A “#” mark appears next to RES BW
on the screen to indicate that it is not coupled. To recouple the resolution
bandwidth, press RES BW AUTO MAN so that AUTO is underlined. The
resolution bandwidth can be changed using the step keys, the knob, or the
numeric keypad.
Front-Panel Key Access: [AUTO COUPLE) or (BW)
RETURN
Option 103 only.
returns the spectrum analyzer to the settings that were present when
MAN QP AT MKR was pressed, displays the quasi-peak amplitude value and
the quasi-peak marker if ACCEPT QP DATA was pressed, and returns to the
previous quasi-peak softkey menu. See the HP 85913, HP 85933, HP 85943,
HP 85953, or HP 85963 Option 103 supplement documentation for more
information.
Front-Panel Key Access: [AUX]
RPG
TITLE
provides additional characters for the Change Title function. Pressing
RPG TITLE provides lowercase letters, numbers, Greek letters, and
punctuation symbols. When RPG TITLE is pressed, a character table appears
on the screen. To select a character, turn the knob to position the cursor
under the desired character and press the CENTER) key. The step keys move the
cursor between rows. When all characters have been entered, press WINDOWS
(ml, or for an HP 8590L or HP 8592L, press m. All other spectrum
analyzer functions are unaccessible until the (NEXT) or m key is pressed.
Front-Panel Key Access: (CAL) or (-1
SAV LOCK
ON OFF
locks all the current internal state and trace registers against further data
storage, when ON is underlined. With the state and trace memory locked,
the STATE -+ INTRNL and Trace +Intrnl softkey functions are no longer
accessible; the MEM LOCKED softkey function is displayed instead. Pressing
DEFAULT CONFIG or C-1 sets SAV LOCK ON OFF to OFF.
Note
When SAV LOCK ON OFF is set to ON, none of the state registers,
(l-B), can be overwritten. The spectrum analyzer automatically updates state
register nine with the last state.
ERASE MEM ALL ignores the state of the SAV LOCK . So, even if STATES and
TRACES are locked, they will still be erased by ERASE MEM ALL .
Front-Panel Key Access: (SAVE]
7-74 Key Descriptions
(SAVE_)
accesses softkey menus that allow you to store state data, trace data, limit-line
tables, and amplitude-correction factors on a memory card or in spectrum
analyzer memory. The SAVE function also allows you to save state data, trace
data, limit-line tables, amplitude-correction factors, and program data on the
memory card. In addition, pressing m accesses the softkey menus used to
catalog the saved data in spectrum analyzer memory or on the memory card.
To save to, or catalog from, spectrum analyzer memory press INTERNAL CARD
so that INTERNAL is underlined. To save to, or catalog from, the memory
card, press INTERNAL CARD so that CARD is underlined. The HP 859OL,
HP 8592L, and HP 8594L must have Option 003 for memory card operation.
Saving state data saves the spectrum analyzer settings, but not the trace data.
Saving trace data saves both the trace data and the state data. Display images
and programs (also called downloadable programs or DLPs), can only be saved
to or recalled from the memory card.
States and traces are saved in spectrum analyzer memory even if
the instrument is turned off or (-1 is pressed. Eight spectrum
analyzer-memory state registers and many trace registers are available for the
user. The Catalog Internal softkey is used to access the catalog functions.
It also accesses the DLP editor utility.
SAVE
AMP COR
saves the current amplitude-correction factors table to the current
mass-storage device (spectrum analyzer memory or memory card). To verify
the current mass storage device, press SAVE AMP COR . If MAX REG # appears
on the spectrum analyzer display, the current mass storage device is spectrum
analyzer memory. If PREFIX= is displayed, the memory card is the mass storage
device. Press (SAVE_) or cm), then INTERNAL CARD to change the current
mass storage device. Press SAVE AMP COR , enter a register number, then press
@YZj to save the current amplitude-correction factors table in spectrum
analyzer memory or on the memory card. When saved on the memory card,
amplitude-correction factors tables are stored with “a-“, the prefix, and the
register number entered. When saved in spectrum analyzer memory, the
register number is saved in a trace register. Trace register values are restricted
to a range between 0 and the number x indicated by MAX REG# = x.
Front-Panel Key Access: ICALl
SAVE
EDIT
Fbr Option 041 or 043 only. Refer to the HP 8590 E-Series and L-Series
Spectrum Analyzer and HP 8591 C Cable TV Analyzer Programmer’s Guide for
mare information.
passes the text from the DLP editor memory through the parser to execute as
spectrum analyzer commands. Pressing SAVE EDIT is similar to outputting
the text to the spectrum analyzer from an external controller. If the text
(commands) is a valid user-defined function, it passes through the parser and
into the spectrum analyzer user memory. It will replace an existing user
defined function of the same name.
The DLP editor memory buffer remains intact when the spectrum analyzer is
preset or powered off so the text being edited will not be lost.
Front-Panel Key Access: @i?ZiJ or LSAVE)
Key Descriptions 7-75
SAVE
LIMIT
saves the current limit-line tables in the current mass-storage device (spectrum
analyzer memory or memory card). To verify the current mass-storage device,
press SAVE LIMIT. If MAX REG # appears on the spectrum analyzer display,
the current mass-storage device is spectrum analyzer memory. If PREFIX= is
displayed, the memory card is the mass-storage device. Press ISAVE) or (RECALL),
then INTERNAL CARD to change the current mass-storage device. Press
SAVE LIMIT, enter a register number, then press [ENTER] to save the current
limit-line table in spectrum analyzer memory or on the memory card. When
saved on the memory card, limit-line tables are stored with “1-“, the prefix,
and the register number entered. When saved in spectrum analyzer memory,
the register number is saved in a trace register. Trace-register values are
restricted to a range between 0 and the number x indicated by MAX REG # = x.
Front-Panel Key Access: (-1
SCALE
LOG LIB
scales the vertical graticule divisions in logarithmic units when LOG is
underlined. When the SCALE LOG LIN function is the active function,
the logarithmic units per division can be changed. Values may range from
0.1 to 20 dB per division. When LIN is underlined, the vertical scale is in
linear mode which has a range of 1 kW to 1 pW. The reference-level value is
set to the top of the screen and the bottom graticule becomes zero volts. (Each
division of the graticule is one-eighth of the reference level in volts.)
Pressing SCALE LOG LIN always sets the units specified for the current
amplitude scale. Pressing [PRESETS) or powering on the spectrum analyzer sets
the default units.
Front-Panel Key Access: [AMPLITUDE]
SECAM-L
Requires 0ption 301, or both Options 101 and 102.
triggers on the SECAM-L video formats. Pressing SECAM-L alters the TV line
number that the spectrum analyzer triggers on internally; the line number
displayed when TV LINE # does not change. Pressing SECAM-L changes the
video modulation to positive; set TV SYNC NEG POS to NEG if negative video
modulation is required.
Front-Panel Key Access: m
SELECT
1 2 3 4
selects one of the four possible markers. A marker can be turned on once it is
selected. A marker that has already been turned on will become active when
it is selected. If a marker has already been turned on and assigned to a specific
trace it will become active on that trace and the MK TRACE AUTO ABC softkey
will have the appropriate trace letter underlined.
Front-Panel Key Access: m
SELECT
AMPLITUD
allows you to enter either the amplitude value for the displayed (upper
or lower) limit-line segment or the amplitude value for the current
amplitude-correction point. Enter the amplitude value for the selected
frequency or time by using the data keys. Change an amplitude value by using
the step keys or the knob. Press (SPJ to correct errors.
Front-Panel Key Access: m or (DISPLAY)
SELECT
DLT AMPL
allows you to enter the delta amplitude value. The middle amplitude value and
the delta amplitude value create an upper and lower limit-line segment. Enter
the delta amplitude value for the selected frequency or time by using the knob
or data keys. Press m to correct errors. The default value is 0.
Front-Panel Key Access: (j-1
7.76 Key Descriptions
SELECT
FREQ
allows you to enter the frequency value for a limit-line segment or for an
amplitude-correction point. Enter the frequency value for the frequency by
using the data keys. Change the frequency value by using the step keys or the
knob. Press [jSP) to correct errors.
A frequency coordinate must always be specified for either limit lines or
amplitude-correction factors.
Note
Limit-line data is sorted in frequency order in the limit-line table. The sorting
occurs after you have entered the frequency and at least one amplitude value.
For amplitude-correction factors, only two entries with the same frequency are
valid. Only the first and last points of a series with the same frequency values
are used; the middle points are ignored.
Amplitude-correction data is sorted in the table by frequency. The sorting
occurs immediately after you have entered the frequency value via the
front-panel.
Front-Panel Key Access: (CAL) or (jjj
SELECT
LWR AMPL
allows you to enter the amplitude value for the lower limit-line segment.
Enter the amplitude value for the selected frequency or time by using the
knob or data keys. Press c-1 to correct errors.
Front-Panel Key Access: CDISPLAY]
SELECT
MID AMPL
allows you to enter the middle amplitude value. The middle amplitude value
and the delta amplitude value create upper and lower limit-line segments.
Enter the amplitude value for the selected frequency or time by using the
knob or data keys. Press (ml to correct errors.
Front-Panel Key Access: c-1
SELECT
POINT
allows you to create or edit an amplitude-correction factor data point. Enter
the point number to be created or edited by using the data keys, then press
(ENTER]. Press [BKSP) to correct errors.
Front-Panel Key Access: (CAL)
SELECT
PREFIX
allows you to select an already existing prefix of a cataloged file and changes
the current prefix to this selected prefix. This provides a convenient method
for saving and recalling data to and from the memory card and for cataloging
by the prefix. Use either the knob or step keys to select the file.
Front-Panel Key Access: [RECALL] or ISAVE_)
SELECT
SEGMENT
allows you to create or edit a limit-line segment. Limit lines are created by
entering frequency (or time) and amplitude values into a limit-line table.
The frequency (or time) and amplitude values specify a coordinate point
from which a limit-line segment is drawn. The coordinate point is the lowest
frequency or time point of the line segment. Limit lines are constructed from
left to right. To select a segment, press SELECT SEGMENT, enter the segment
number you wish to specify, then press a units key.
Up to 20 segments can be specified per limit-line table.
Front-Panel Key Access: c-1
Key Descriptions 7-77
A
SELECT
TIME
allows you to enter the time value for a limit-line segment. The time value is
with respect to the spectrum analyzer sweep time.
time value of zero is the
start of the sweep, which is the left edge of the graticule. Enter the time value
by using the data keys. Change the time value by using the step keys or the
knob. Press [BKSPI) to correct errors.
Note
Limit-line data is sorted in time order in the limit-line table. The sorting occurs
after you have entered the time and at least one amplitude value.
Front-Panel Key Access: @i’GG%j
SELECT
TYPE
accesses the softkey menu used to select the limit-line type of line. Press FLAT
SELECT
UPR AMPL
allows you to enter the amplitude value for the upper limit-line segment.
Enter the amplitude value for the selected frequency or time by using the
knob or data keys. Press (BKm] to correct errors.
Front-Panel Key Access: (@iWX]
Service
accesses several service calibration functions. The service calibration functions
are designed for service use only. More detailed descriptions of the service
functions are available in the service documentation. Service documentation
can be obtained by ordering Option 915 through your HP Sales and Service
office. For a listing of all available service calibration functions, refer to
“Service Functions” at the beginning of this chapter.
Front-Panel Key Access: ICAL)
Cal
Service
Diag
to select a flat line, press SLOPE to select a sloped line, or press POINT to
select a point.
Front-Panel Key Access: (-1
accesses several service diagnostic functions. The service diagnostic functions
are designed for service use only. More detailed descriptions of the service
diagnostic functions are available in the service documentation. Service
documentation can be obtained by ordering Option 915 through your HP Sales
and Service office. For a listing of all available service diagnostic functions,
refer to “Service Functions” at the’beginning of this chapter.
Front-Panel Key Access: m
SET ATTN
ERROR
sets the calibration attenuator-error factors (this is not the same as the input
attenuator). This is a service calibration function and is for service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: a
Set B&W
Printer
accesses the softkeys for setting up black and white HP and Epson compatible
printers.
Front-Panel Key Access:(Wj
Set Colr
Printer
accesses the softkey for setting up the HP PaintJet and DeskJet printers.
Front-Panel Key Access:(Nj
7-78 Key Descriptions
SET
DATE
allows you to set the date of the real-time clock. Enter the date in the
YYMMDD format using the number keypad and press C-1. Valid year (YY)
values are 00 through 99. Valid month (MM) values are from 01 to 12, and
valid day values are from 01 to 31.
Front-Panel Key Access: @%iZ]
SET
TIME
allows you to set the time of the real-time clock. Enter the time in 24 hour,
HHMMSS format, using the number keypad and pressing [ENTER]. Valid hour
(HH) values are from 00 to 23. Valid minute (MM) and second (SS) values are
from 00 to 59.
Front-Panel Key Access: c-1
Setup
accesses the menu used to set up parameters specific to the power
measurements.
[SGLSWP_)
SHOW
OPTIONS
If another front-panel key is pressed, exiting the power menus, press the
key twice to return to the last power menu that was being used.
Front-Panel Key Access: [MEAS/USER]
CMEAS/USER)
changes the sweep control to single sweep if the spectrum analyzer is in the
continuous sweep mode. It executes a sweep after the trigger condition is met.
displays the number and description of the options installed in your spectrum
analyzer, the instrument model number of the spectrum analyzer, the last five
digits of the spectrum analyzer serial number, and the firmware revision.
Pressing SHOW OPTIONS changes the softkey label to EXIT SHOW . Press
EXIT SHOW to erase the SHOW OPTIONS function information.
Pressing SHOW OPTIONS displays the individual option numbers. It will not
show combination options such as Option 301, instead both options 101 and
102 will be displayed.
Front-Panel Key Access: CCONFIG]
SIGNAL
ID
activates an FFT marker that must be put on a signal to verify that it is not
being displayed at the wrong frequency due to aliasing. Once the marker is on
the signal press SIGNAL ID again to initiate the signal identification function.
The signal should move half of a division to the right for 2 seconds. A marker
will be put at the frequency that the signal should move to. If the marker
appears on the signal when it is shifted, then the frequency readout of the
signal is correct. Sweep time limitations may alter or stop the function from
executing.
If the marker or the signal is less than half of a division from the right side of
the display before SIGNAL ID is pressed, then the routine may not function
correctly and a warning message can be displayed.
Front-Panel Key Access: (-1
Key Descriptions 7-79
SINGLE
FFT
initializes the fast Fourier transform (FFT) function. If the spectrum analyzer
is in single sweep mode, an FFT is performed on trace A without taking a new
sweep. If the spectrum analyzer is in continuous sweep, it is put in single
sweep, a sweep is taken, and the FFT is performed. If the spectrum analyzer
is already in the FFT mode it is put in single sweep, a sweep is taken, and an
FFT is performed. Pressing SINGLE FFT again or pressing @‘5X@-] will take
another sweep and perform an FFT.
After using the FFT function, the display is in log mode. The markers are put
in the FFT mode for use in evaluating the data. The signal being transformed
is in trace A and the Fourier transform of the signal is in trace B. (Any
information that was in trace B and C will be lost.) Press FFT OFF to return
the spectrum analyzer to normal operation.
Refer to Chapter 4, “Measuring Amplitude Modulation With the Fast Fourier
Transform Function,” for more information.
Front-Panel Key Access: (-1
SINGLE
MEAS
sets the functions in the Power Menu so that they make the measurement on a
single sweep. After a power measurement is activated, pressing SINGLE MEAS
or [sGLSWP_) initiates a sweep and recalculates the measurement results.
Front-Panel Key Access: (-1
SLOPE
draws a straight line between the coordinate point of the current segment and
the coordinate point of the next segment, producing limit-line values for all
frequencies between the two points.
Front-Panel Key Access: (-1
CSPAN) or SPAN
activates the SPAN function and accesses the frequency-span functions.
Pressing SPAN allows the user to change the frequency range symmetrically
about the center frequency. The frequency-span readout describes the total
displayed frequency range; to determine frequency span per horizontal
graticule division, divide the frequency span by 10.
Front-Panel Key Access: ISPAN)
SPAN
ZOOM
finds the highest signal peak on-screen. If a marker is not already on the peak,
it places a marker on it, turns on the marker-track function, and activates the
span function. Pressing SPAN ZOOM performs the routine similar to pressing
the following keys: (PEAK SEARCH), (MKRJ MK TRACK ON OFF (ON), and
m).
Front-Panel Key Access: ISPAN)
SPEAKER
ON OFF
Option 102, 103, or 301 only.
turns the internal speaker on and off. The volume from the speaker is
controlled by the front-panel volume control knob and FM GAIN (when using
FM demodulation). There is no output from the speaker unless demodulation is
turned on. Pressing CPREsET] sets SPEAKER ON OFF to ON.
Front-Panel Key Access: [AUXCTRL)
SPECTRUM
ANALYZER
sets the spectrum analyzer to the spectrum analyzer operating mode and
accesses the PRESET SPECTRUM softkey function.
Front-Panel Key Access: (MODEI) or c-1
7-80 Key Descriptions
SQUELCH
Option 102, 103, or 301 only.
adjusts the squelch level. The squelch level mutes weak signals and passes
strong signals. The squelch level affects the audio output only. If the internal
speaker is on, audio signals are not output unless the signal strength exceeds
the squelch threshold. The squelch level does not affect the rear-panel AUX
VIDEO OUT signal. Squelch level is indicated on-screen by the unitless
numbers 0 to 100, with 0 being minimum squelch threshold (all signals are
passed), and 100 being maximum squelch threshold (no signals are passed).
The default squelch value is 0.
Front-Panel Key Access: CRUX]
SRC ATN
MAN AUTO
Option 010 or 011 only. (Not available with HP 8590L.)
allows you to select between automatic and manual adjustment of the tracking
generator’s switching attenuator. The HP 85913 can be manually adjusted
from 0 to 60 dB in 10 dB steps. The HP 85933, HP 85943, HP 85953, and
HP 85963 can be manually adjusted from 0 to 56 dB in 8 dB steps. When
auto-coupled, the SRC ATN function automatically adjusts the attenuator to
yield the source amplitude level specified by the SRC PWR ON OFF softkey
function. Set SRC ATM MAN AUTO so that MAN is underlined (decoupled) for
power sweeps greater than 10 dB for the HP 85913 (or greater than 8 dB for
the HP 85933, HP 85943, HP 85953, and HP 85963).
Front-Panel Key Access: [AUX]
SRC PWR
OFFSET
Option 010 or 011 only.
offsets the displayed power of the tracking generator (SRC). Offset values may
range from -100 dB to + 100 dB.
Using the source-power-offset capability of the tracking generator allows you
to take system losses or gains into account, thereby displaying the actual
power delivered to the device under test.
Front-Panel Key Access: C-1
SRC PWR
ON OFF
Qwtion 010 or 011 only.
activates (ON) or deactivates (OFF) the output power of the tracking generator
(SRC). The power level can then be adjusted using the data keys, step keys,
or knob. Pressing any digit, 0 through 9, on the numeric keypad brings up
the selected terminator menu. The available output power level varies for
different spectrum analyzer models. See specifications and characteristics in
your calibration guide for specific information for your spectrum analyzer.
Front-Panel Key Access: (AUX)
SRC PWR
STP SIZE
Option 010 or 011 only.
allows the user to set the step size of the source-power level, source-power
offset, and power-sweep range functions. The step size may be values from
-32.7 dB to 32.7 dB. The default setting is one vertical scale division.
Front-Panel Key Access: [AUX]
START
FREQ
sets the frequency at the left side of the graticule. The left and right sides
of the graticule correspond to the start and stop frequencies. When these
frequencies are activated, their values are displayed below the graticule in
place of center frequency and span.
Front-Panel Key Access: (FREQUENCY]
Key Descriptions 7-81
STATE
-+ CARD
Requires Option 003 for the HP 859OL, HP 8592L, and HP 8594L.
saves the current spectrum analyzer state on the memory card. To save
the current state, press STATE -+ CARD, use the numeric keypad to enter
a number, and press ENTER. If you want the file name of the stored data to
contain a prefix, press Change Prefix to enter a prefix before storing the
data. If the state data was stored using a prefix, the file name for the state
data consists of s(prefix)-(register number). If no prefix was specified, the file
name is s-(register number). If windows are being used, only the state of the
active window will be saved.
Front-Panel Key Access: m
STATE
+ INTRNL
saves the current spectrum analyzer state in the selected state register. To save
the current state, press STATE + INTRNL , and use the numeric keypad to
enter a state register number (valid state register numbers are 1 through 8). If
windows are being used, only the state of the active window will be saved.
Front-Panel Key Access: ISAVE]
STOP
FREQ
sets the frequency at the right side of the graticule. The left and right sides
of the graticule correspond to the start and stop frequencies. When these
frequencies are activated, their values are displayed below the graticule in
place of center frequency and span.
Front-Panel Key Access: CFREQUENCY)
STOR PWR
ON UNITS
sets the default settings for the units used in the linear and the logarithmic
modes when the instrument is powered on. The settings for the units can
be changed during normal instrument operation but they will return to the
default settings when the instrument is powered on again. This is a service
calibration function. Refer to the service guide for more information.
Front-Panel Key Access: (CAL)
STP GAIN
ZERO
disables the two 20 dB step-gain amplifiers on the Al2 Amplitude Control
assembly. This is a service diagnostic function and is for service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: a
sTuvwx
accesses the softkey menu used for selecting screen title or prefix characters
S through X.
Front-Panel Key Access: a), (w), (DISPLAY), [RECALL], or m
@iE@
accesses the sweep-time menu and accesses the sweep-time softkey functions
SWP TIME AUTO MAN and SWEEP CONT SGL.
Option 105 only
The [m] key also accesses the GATE ON OFF softkey which turns on the
gate function and the Gate Control softkey which accesses the gate menus.
SWEEP
CONT SGL
switches the spectrum analyzer between the continuous-sweep mode and
the single-sweep mode. If the spectrum analyzer is in single-sweep mode,
SGL is underlined. Press (SGL-] to enable a sweep when in single-sweep
mode. When continuous-sweep mode is in use, one sweep follows another as
soon as it is triggered. Pressing C-1, turning the power on, and pressing
PRESET SPECTRUM , all select continuous sweep.
Front-Panel Key Access: [SWEEP) or (TRIG)
7-82 Key Descriptions
SWEEP
DELAY
Option 105 only. Q&ion 101 is recommended.
delays the start of sweep with respect to the gate trigger edge in the time
domain window of the gate utility. The time segment being displayed can be
shifted up to 65 msec after the gate trigger edge in 1 psec increments.
Front-Panel Key Access: cm]
SWEEP
RAMP
displays the RAMP signal from the sweep-ramp generator that is located on the
A7 Analog Interface assembly. This is a service diagnostic function and is for
service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: (CAL)
SWEEP
TIME DAC
displays the output of the sweep-time DAC (SWP-DAC) from the sweep-ramp
generator that is on the A7 Analog Interface assembly. This is a service
diagnostic function and is for service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: (CAL)
SWP CPLG
SR SA
Q&ion 010 or 011 only.
selects stimulus-response (SR) or spectrum-analyzer (SA) auto-coupled sweep
time. In stimulus-response mode, auto-coupled sweep times are usually much
faster for swept-response measurements. Stimulus-response auto-coupled
sweep times are typically valid in stimulus-response measurements when the
system’s frequency span is less than 20 times the bandwidth of the device
under test.
Front-Panel Key Access: (jj)
SWP TIME
AUTO MAN
selects the length of time in which the spectrum analyzer sweeps the displayed
frequency span. In all non-zero frequency spans, the sweep time varies from
20 milliseconds to 100 seconds. In zero frequency span, the fastest sweep
time is 15 milliseconds. Reducing the sweep time increases the rate of sweeps.
The sweep time can be changed using the step keys, the knob, or the numeric
keypad.
Fbr Option 101 only: Option 101 provides sweep times from 20 ,US to 20 ms in
zero span.
Front-Panel Key Access: [AUTO COUPLE) or [SWEEP]
SYNC CRD
TV TRIG
Options 101 and 102, or Option 301 only.
provides sweep triggering on the selected line of a video picture field and
accesses the softkey menu used to select the line number of the video picture
field and the type of video picture frame.
When SYNC CRD TV TRIG is pressed, the trigger mode is changed to TV
trigger, TV LINE # becomes the active function, and the softkey menu for
changing the TV line numbers and video field trigger is accessed.
If the spectrum analyzer is in non-zero span, the resolution bandwidth is
changed to 1 MHz, the frequency span is set to 0 Hz, the detector mode is
changed to sample, the sweep time is changed to 100 ps, the amplitude scale is
changed to linear, a sweep is taken, and a marker is placed on the signal peak.
Front-Panel Key Access: (TRIG)
Key Descriptions 7-83
SYNC
NRM NTSC
changes the rear panel MONITOR output between normal internal monitor
horizontal and vertical synchronization constants or the NTSC video compatible
format. In the NTSC mode the monitor output is compatible with NTSC video
cassette recorders. In the normal mode the synchronization constants can be
changed from the factory default settings by using CRT HORZ POSITION and
CRT VERT POSITION softkeys. If the user has not changed the constants the
default settings will be used.
The display will be compressed slightly when using the NTSC format, instead
of the normal format. The NTSC format has less vertical resolution than the
spectrum analyzer display. The top and bottom of the spectrum analyzer
display are compressed slightly so that all of the information can be fit into the
vertical resolution available with the NTSC format.
Front-Panel Key Access: (j-j
SYNC
NRM PAL
changes the rear panel MONITOR output between normal internal monitor
horizontal and vertical synchronization constants or the PAL video compatible
format. In the PAL mode the monitor output is compatible with PAL video
cassette recorders. In the normal mode the synchronization constants can be
changed from the factory default settings by using CRT HORZ POSITION and
CRT VERT POSITION softkeys. If the user has not changed the constants the
default settings will be used.
The display will be compressed slightly when using the PAL format, instead
of the normal format. The PAL format has less vertical resolution than
the spectrum analyzer display. The top of the spectrum analyzer display is
compressed slightly so that all of the information can be fit into the vertical
resolution available with the PAL format.
Front-Panel Key Access: CCONFIG)
T WINDOW
RES BW
Option 105 only. 0ption 101 is recommended.
changes the resolution bandwidth in the time domain window of the gate
utility.
Front-Panel Key Access: C-1
T WINDOW
SWP TIME
Q&ion 105 only. Option 101 is recommended.
changes the sweep time in the time domain window of the gate utility and
re-scales the gate markers.
Front-Panel Key Access: Cm]
7-84 Key Descriptions
TABLE
ADL NRM
switches the marker table between the normal marker formats and the delta
display line format. The marker information can be displayed in absolute
amplitude and frequency. It can also be displayed in delta amplitude and
frequency using one marker as the reference. These are normal marker modes.
Press the TABLE ADL NRM softkey to underline the ADL. This accesses the
delta display line format, which is only available when using the marker table
function. This format displays the marker amplitudes relative to the display
line.
Front-Panel Key Access: @CGG?YQ
THRESHLD
ON OFF
sets a lower boundary to the active trace. The threshold line “clips” signals
that appear below the line when this function is on. The boundary is defined
in amplitude units that correspond to its vertical position when compared to
the reference level.
The value of the threshold appears in the active-function block and on the
lower-left side of the screen. The threshold level does not influence the trace
memory or marker position. The peaks found by the markers must be at least
the peak-excursion value above the threshold level. The value of the threshold
level can be changed using the step keys, the knob, or the numeric keypad.
Pressing any digit, 0 through 9, on the numeric keypad brings up the selected
terminator menu. If a threshold is active, press THRESHLD ON OFF until OFF
is selected to turn the threshold display off. The threshold value affects peak
searching even when the THRESHLD function is set to off.
Front-Panel Key Access: (DISPLAY_)
Time
Date
accesses the softkey menu used to set and display the real-time clock.
Front-Panel Key Access: @5Gi?7)
Key Descriptions 7-85
TIMEDATE
ON OFF
TO1
ON OFF
turns the display of the real-time clock on or off. Pressing DEFAULT CONFIG
sets TIMEDATE ON OFF to ON.
Front-Panel Key Access: C-j
finds the third-order intercept of the two highest amplitude signals and the two
associated distortion products. The effect of unequal test signal amplitude is
compensated for. The measurement runs continuously, re-executing at the end
of each sweep. The units for the displayed value can be selected by pressing
Amptd Units softkey. The two test signals and the two associated distortion
products must all be displayed for the measurement to function. The relative
amplitudes and frequencies of the displayed signals must fit the TO1 pattern.
All of the signals must be greater than the peak excursion above the threshold.
Front-Panel Key Access: (MEAS/USER)
accesses the trace softkeys that allow you to store and manipulate trace
information. Each trace is comprised of a series of data points that form a
register where amplitude information is stored. The spectrum analyzer updates
the information for any active trace with each sweep. If two traces are
being written to, they are updated on alternating sweeps. (Also see “Screen
Annotation” in Chapter 2.)
TRACE
ABC
selects the softkey menu used for trace A, trace B, or trace C functions. Press
TRACE A B C until the letter of the desired trace is underlined.
Front-Panel Key Access: (Wj
TRACE A
sets up trace A for recalling previously-saved trace data into trace A or saving
trace data from trace A.
Front-Panel Key Access: [ml or LEAVE_)
TRACE B
sets up trace B for recalling previously-saved trace data into trace B or saving
trace data from trace B.
Front-Panel Key Access: (j%Z.Q or ISAVE_)
TRACE C
sets up trace C for recalling previously-saved trace data into trace C or saving
trace data from trace C.
Front-Panel Key Access: (RECALL] or ISAVE_I
7-86 Key Descriptions
Trace
+ Card
begins the process used to save trace data, limit-line tables, or amplitudecorrection factors on the memory card. Pressing Trace + Card accesses
a softkey menu that allows you to select the trace to be saved (trace A,
trace B, or trace C) and accesses the LIMIT LINES and AMP COR softkeys.
To save a trace, press TRACE A , TRACE B , or TRACE C , use the numeric
keypad to enter a trace register number, and press @!iE]. To save limit-line
tables or amplitude-correction factors, press LIMIT LINES or AMP COR , use
the numeric keypad to enter a trace register number, and press @iEEQ If
windows are being used, only the trace of the active window will be saved.
If you want the file name of the stored data to contain a prefix, press
Change Prefix to enter a prefix before storing the data. If the trace data
was stored using a prefix, the file name is t(prefix)-(register number). If no
prefix was available, the data is stored under t-(register number). File names
for limit-line tables and amplitude-correction factors are treated the same way
as file names for trace data, except “1” or “a” is used instead of “t.” If a screen
title is present, it is saved with the trace data. The time and date that the data
was stored is appended to the screen title.
When comparing a trace displayed in view mode with a recalled trace, it is
possible to over-write the displayed trace by recalling the trace data. This can
happen because the instrument state is saved (and recalled) with the trace
data.
For example, if you save trace A when it is in clear-write mode, place trace A
in view mode, then recall the trace data into trace B, trace B will be placed
in view mode, but the trace mode of trace A is changed to clear-write mode
(since the trace mode of trace A was clear-write when it was saved). To avoid
this problem, we change the trace mode of the traces to view or blank mode
before saving the trace data.
Front-Panel Key Access: IsAvE_)
Key Descriptions 7-87
Trace
-+ I n t r n l
accesses a softkey menu that allows you to select the item to be stored in
spectrum analyzer memory: the trace to be saved (trace A, trace B, or trace
C), limit-line tables, or amplitude-correction factors. To save a trace, select the
trace to be saved, enter the trace-register number and press [ENTER]. To save
limit-line tables or amplitude-correction factors, press LIMIT LINES (to save
limit-line tables) or AMP COR (to save amplitude-correction factors), enter the
trace-register number and press CENTER). Valid trace-register numbers are 0
through the maximum register number. The maximum register number is the
number x displayed after MAX REG # = x during a save or recall operation. If
a screen title is present, it is saved with the trace data. The time and date
that the trace was stored is appended to the screen title. If windows are being
used, only the trace of the active window will be saved.
When comparing a trace displayed in view mode with a recalled trace, it is
possible to over-write the displayed trace by recalling the trace data. This can
happen because the instrument state is saved (and recalled) with the trace
data. For example, if you save trace A when it is in clear-write mode, place
trace A in view mode, then recall the trace data into trace B, trace B will be
placed in view mode, but the trace mode of trace A is changed to clear-write
mode (since the trace mode of trace A was clear-write when it was saved). To
avoid this problem, change the trace mode of the traces to view or blank mode
before saving the trace data.
Front-Panel Key Access: ISAVE)
Track
Gen
O-ption 010 or 011 only.
displays softkey menus for use with a built-in tracking generator.
Front-Panel Key Access: [AUXJ
TRACKING
PEAK
Option 010 or 011 only.
activates a routine that automatically adjusts the tracking adjustment to obtain
the peak response of the tracking generator on the spectrum-analyzer display.
Note
For tracking peak to function properly, the tracking generator must be
connected to the spectrum analyzer.
Before making a stimulus-response measurement, care must be taken to
maximize the tracking adjustment of the tracking generator to ensure
maximum available dynamic range.
Front-Panel Key Access: l$YZZJ
7-88 Key Descriptions
accesses softkeys that let you select the sweep mode and trigger mode. (Also
see “Screen Annotation” in Chapter 1.)
Note
With some delayed trigger functions (for example, external or TV triggering),
the softkey menu is not updated until after the trigger has occurred.
TRIG MKR
ON OFF
Option 105 only. Option 101 is recommended.
activates a marker which indicates the time from the gate trigger to the
current marker position. The trigger marker is in the time domain window of
the gate utility. It is turned off when the menu is exited or if another active
function is activated.
Front-Panel Key Access: [SWEEP]
TV
LINE #
Options 101 and 102, or Option 301 only.
selects the line number of the video picture field. The values allowed are 1 to
1012. (-1 sets the TV line number to 17.
Front-Panel Key Access: m
TV
O-ptions 101 and 102, or Option 301 only.
allows the spectrum analyzer to trigger on the standard video formats; NTSC,
PAL, PAL-M, or SECAM-L.
Front-Panel Key Access: m
Standard
TV SYNC
NEG POS
Options 101 and 102, or Option 301
selects the polarity of the modulation
negative or positive modulation video
negative modulation. SECAM-L uses
Front-Panel Key Access: (TRIG)
only.
of the video format. NTSC uses the
format. NTSC, PAL, and PAL-M use
positive modulation.
TV TRIG
EVEN FLD
Options 101 and 102, or Option 301 only.
selects an even video field of an interlaced video format to trigger on.
Front-Panel Key Access: (TRIG)
TV TRIG
ODD FLD
Options 101 and 102, or @ion 301 only.
selects an odd video field of an interlaced video format to trigger on.
Front-Panel Key Access: (TRIG)
TV TRIG
VERT INT
Options 101 and 102, or Option 301 only,
selects a vertical interval to trigger on. Triggering occurs on the next pulse
edge. If it triggers on an even field, triggering will not alternate between odd
and even fields. If it triggers on an odd field, triggering will alternate between
odd and even fields. The vertical interval is used for non-interlaced video
formats.
Front-Panel Key Access: m
UPDATE
TIMEFREQ
Option 105 only. 0ption 101 is recommended.
switches between the time domain and frequency domain windows in the gate
utility. The window is updated to reflect the current state when it is activated.
The WINDOWS INEXT) key will also switch between the windows.
Front-Panel Key Access: [SWEEP]
Key Descriptions 7-89
User
Menus
accesses a menu available for your use for user-defined programs and key
functions.
Front-Panel Key Access: (-3
V
changes the amplitude units to V for the current setting (log or linear).
Front-Panel Key Access: (AMPLITUDE]
VBW/RBW
RATIO
selects the ratio between the video and resolution bandwidths. If signal
responses near the noise level are visually masked by the noise, the ratio can
be set to less than 1 to smooth this noise. The knob and step keys change the
ratio in a 1, 3, 10 sequence. Pressing (PRESET] and AUTO ALL sets the ratio to
0.300 X. The ratio can be changed using the step keys or the knob.
Front-Panel Key Access: m
VERIFY
TIMEBASE
All E-Series and L-Series spectrum analyzers except HP 85901, with
0ption 713.
allows the time base digital-to-analog converter to be changed to verify that
the 10 Mhz reference time base performs to specification. Pressing (-1
resets the time base to its original value. A pass code is required to access this
function.
Note
The VERIFY TIMEBASE softkey function is not available for the HP 8592L or
spectrum analyzers with Option 004.
Front-Panel Key Access: ICAL)
VID AVG
ON OFF
initiates a digital averaging routine that averages displayed signals and noise.
This function does not affect the sweep time, bandwidth, or other analog
characteristics of the spectrum analyzer. Annotation on the left side of the
screen indicates the current number of sweeps averaged. The default number
of sweeps is 100. Increasing the number of sweeps smoothes the trace. To
turn off the video averaging function, press VID AVG ON OFF so that OFF is
underlined. The number of sweeps can be entered using the numeric keypad.
Front-Panel Key Access: Isw), (ml, or (j-1
VID BW
changes the spectrum analyzer post-detection filter from 30 Hz to 3 MHz in a 1,
3, 10 sequence. For Option 130 only. Option 130 provides additional narrow
resolution bandwidths of 30 Hz, 100 Hz, and 300 Hz.
AUTO MAN
As the video bandwidth is decreased, the sweep time is increased to maintain
amplitude calibration. A “#” mark appears next to VBW on the bottom of the
spectrum analyzer display to indicate that it is not coupled. To couple the
video bandwidth, press VID BW AUTO MAN so that AUTO is underlined.
The video bandwidth can be changed by using the step keys, the knob, or the
numeric keypad.
Note
Coupling the video bandwidth function also couples the video bandwidth to
resolution bandwidth ratio function. If you want to auto-couple the video
bandwidth to a nonstandard ratio, you must set the video bandwidth to
auto-couple before setting the video-bandwidth/resolution-bandwidth ratio.
Front-Panel Key Access:
7-90 Key Descriptions
[AUTO COUPLE]
or Isw)
VIDEO
activates the trigger condition that allows the next sweep to start if the
detected RF envelope voltage rises to a level set by the display line. When
VIDEO is pressed, the display line appears on the screen. For example, connect
the CAL OUT signal to the spectrum analyzer input, change the trigger mode
to video, and lower the display line. The spectrum analyzer triggers when the
display line reaches the noise floor.
Front-Panel Key Access: ITRIG)
VIEW A
holds and displays the amplitude data that is in the trace A register. The
trace A register is not updated as the spectrum analyzer sweeps. If trace A is
deactivated by pressing STORE BLANK A , the stored data can be retrieved by
pressing VIEW A .
Front-Panel Key Access: c-1
VIEW B
holds and displays the amplitude data that is in the trace B register. The
trace B register is not updated as the spectrum analyzer sweeps. If trace B is
deactivated by pressing STORE BLANK B , the stored data can be retrieved by
pressing VIEW B .
Front-Panel Key Access: Lmj
VIEW C
holds and displays the amplitude data that is in the trace C register. The
trace C register is not updated as the spectrum analyzer sweeps. If trace C is
deactivated by pressing STORE 3LANK C , the stored data can be retrieved by
pressing VIEW C .
Front-Panel Key Access: CTRACE)
Volts
changes the amplitude units to volts.
Front-Panel Key Access: (AMPLITUDE)
W
changes the amplitude units to W for the current setting (log or linear).
Front-Panel Key Access: (-1
Watts
changes the amplitude units to watts.
Front-Panel Key Access: (-1
WINDOWS
OFF
HP 8591 E, HP 8593E, HP 8594E, HP 8595E, or HP 8596E only.
turns off the windows display mode and returns to the normal full-sized
instrument display. The state of the last active window will become the
instrument state when the windows display is turned off.
Front-Panel Key Access: WINDOWS ION)
X FINE
TUNE DAC
displays the output of the YTO extra-fine-tune DAC (FM-TUNE) that is on the
A7 Analog Interface assembly. This is a service diagnostic function and is for
service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: ICAL)
YTF
DRIVER
HP 8592L, HP 8593E, HP 85953, or HP 8596E only.
displays the output of the sample-and-hold circuit in the YTF span divider and
driver located on the A7 Analog Interface assembly. This is a service diagnostic
function and is for service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: @
Key Descriptions 7-91
YTF SPAN
HP 8592L, HP 85933, HP 85954 or HP 8596E only.
displays a trace of the voltage driving the YTF as it sweeps through the
displayed span. This is a service diagnostic function and is for service use only,
Refer to the service guide for more information.
Front-Panel Key Access: (CAL)
YTF TUNE
COARSE
HP 8592L, HP 85933, HP 85953 or HP 8596E only.
displays the output produced by the YTF coarse-tune DAC located on the
A7 Analog Interface assembly. This is a service diagnostic function and is for
service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: @iiJ
YTF TUNE
FINE
HP 8592L, HP 85933, HP 85954 or HP 8596E only.
displays the output produced by the YTF fine-tune DAC located on the
A7 Analog Interface assembly. This is a service diagnostic function and is for
service use only.
Front-Panel Key Access: ICAL)
YZ-# s p c
Clear
accesses the softkey menu used for selecting the characters Y, Z, underscore
(-), #, space, or for clearing the screen title.
Front-Panel Key Access: a), (CONFIG), [DISPLAY], (?GXQ, or ISAVE)
ZERO
Option 105 only. Option 101 is recommended.
zeros the value of the delta marker to establish a new reference. The
ZERO MARKER softkey is in the pulse parameter entry menus of the gate
utility.
Front-Panel Key Access: [SWEEP)
MARKER
ZERO
SPAN
changes the frequency span to zero and turns off marker track if it is on.
Front-Panel Key Access: ISPAN)
ZONE
CENTER
HP 8591 E, HP 8593E, HP 8594E, HP 8595E, or HP 8596E only.
allows the zone markers to be moved in frequency without changing the zone
span. The zone markers are vertical lines marking the zone on the upper
window. They correspond with the frequency range displayed in the lower
window. As the zone markers are moved the center frequency of the lower
window is changed but the lower window will not be updated unless it is
active.
The zone can be moved beyond the frequency range that is being displayed
in the upper window. Its movement is limited to the frequency range of the
spectrum analyzer. The zone markers will be displayed at the edges of the
upper window when the zone is moved beyond the displayed frequency range.
Front-Panel Key Access: WINDOWS (ON)
7-92 Key Descriptions
ZONE
PK LEFT
HP 8591 E, HP 8593E, HP 8594E, HP 8595E, or HP 8596E only.
searches for the next frequency peak outside and to the left of the zone
markers on the upper window trace and then moves the zone so that it is
centered around the new peak. The zone span is not changed. The center
frequency of the lower window changes to reflect the new zone center
frequency. The lower window will not be updated until it is made active. If
no peak is found the zone will not be moved. A signal must have a 6 dB peak
excursion to be identified as a peak signal. The definition of a peak excursion
can be changed by selecting PEAK EXCURSN while the upper window is active.
Pressing ZONE PK LEFT will have no effect if the upper window is in zero
span.
Front-Panel Key Access: WINDOWS loN)
ZONE
PK RIGHT
HP 8591 E, HP 8593E, HP 8594E, HP 8595E, or HP 8596E only.
searches for the next frequency peak outside and to the right of the zone
markers on the upper window trace and then moves the zone so that it is
centered around the new peak. The zone span is not changed. The center
frequency of the lower window changes to reflect the new zone center
frequency. The lower window will not be updated until it is made active. If
no peak is found the zone will not be moved. A signal must have a 6 dB peak
excursion to be identified as a peak signal. The definition of a peak excursion
can be changing by selecting PEAK EXCURSN while the upper window is active.
Pressing ZONE PK RIGHT will have no effect if the upper window is in zero
*span.
Front-Panel Key Access: WINDOWS a
ZONE
SPAN
HP 8591E, HP 8593E, HP 85943, HP 8595E, or HP 8596E only.
allows the span of the zone markers to be changed without changing the
center frequency. The zone markers are vertical lines marking the zone on the
upper window. They correspond with the frequency range displayed in the
lower window. As the zone markers are moved the span of the lower window
is changed but the lower window will not be updated unless it is active.
The zone can be expanded beyond the frequency range that is being displayed
in the upper window. Its movement is limited to the frequency range of the
spectrum analyzer. The zone markers will be displayed at the edges of the
upper window when the zone is moved beyond the displayed frequency range.
Front-Panel Key Access: WINDOWS 10N)
@tmi--
HP 8591 E, HP 8593E, HP 8594E, HP 8595E, or HP 8596E only.
switches between the split-screen windows display and a full size display of
the window that is currently active. Once the ZOOM function is active the
LruEXT) key can be used to switch between the two windows while remaining
zoomed (full sized).
Key Descriptions 7-93
8
Key Menus
This chapter contains the key menu diagrams for the HP 8590 Series spectrum analyzers. The
menus are documented for the:
n
HP 8590L
I HP 85913
n
HP 85921,
n
HP 85933
n
HP 85943
n
HP 8594L
n
HP 85953
n
HP 85963
Each key menu diagram is arranged alphabetically according to the front-panel key name.
Note
Some of the softkeys in the key menus are model or option specific and may
not appear on your spectrum analyzer.
Key Menus 8-l
[AMPLITUDE]
R E F LVL34
ATTEI‘I A U T O M A N
S C A L E L O G LIN
;gg ;;;;u;‘Tz:,
More
1
of
I3 4
4mmv 34
MAX MXR LVL
_I dBuii 3 4
Amatd Unfts
‘/cd, t 5 34
EXTERNAL PREAMPG
watts34
I N P U T Z 5011 75R
pePrev i ous Men”
REF LVL OFFSET
More 2 of 3 -
3
25
.
-
1 HP 8595E only
21
H P 8594E. 8594L. 8595E. o r 8 5 9 6 E o n l y
2 5 H P R592L. 8593E. o r 8 5 9 6 E o n l y
3 4 A f t e r selecting this softkey,
presslnq any d,g,t. 0 t h r o u g h 9.
brings u p t h e a p p r o p r i a t e ompI etude
terminator menu
pqllel
O N E EXAMPLE OF H O W T O A C C E S S T H E T E R M INA TOR M E N U S
r
dBuV
- (J B u
,, THIS F O O T N O T E APF’EAkS
/N MLNlJ TREES JO EYPLA / l\i
\
iH I S P R O C E S S
Y 3 4 A f t e r s e l e c t i
prass~nq a n y
brIngi u
p
tude tPlmlr,aior
8-2 Key Menus
n g thts suitkey.
digat. 11 thrwgi-1 9 .
ihe oppropr,3te amp,/m e n u
AUTO ALL
R E S BW A U T O MAI,I
VID BW A U T O M A N
ATTEbI A U T O M A N
SWP TIME AUTO MAN
C F S T E P AlJTO M A N
Demod3
C O M B G E N O N O F F 25
Quasi
Peak57
PU12
c
D E M O D O N OFF3
DEMQD A M FM3
S P E A K E R O N OFF3
SQUELCH3
FM GAIN3
D W E L L TIME3
/r
S R C P W R O N O F F 2.34
1RACKlNG P E A K 2
MAN TRK ADJUST ;
PWR S’WP ON OFF
SRC ATN M A N A U T O 2
More 1 of 2
~
2
SRC PWR OFFSET 2
A L C INT E172.26
SW CPLG SR SA 2
L
More
2
of
CNTL B 0
CNTL C 0
CNTL D 0
1
DlSPLA/
2
2
1
1
1
CI‘ITL
A U T O QP A T M K R 5
1. HP 8595E only.
OptIon 0 1 0 o r 0 1 1 anty
1
o p t i o n 102 o r 103 o n l y
3
OptIn” 103 with the quasi-peak
5
d e t e c t o r drover ,nstalled o n l y
H P 8 5 9 2 1 , 8593E. o r 8596E o n l y
25
2 6 C h a n g e s t o A L C M T R INT X T A L f o r
a n H P 8 5 9 0 L o r H P 859IE.
A f t e r seIect!ng this softkey.
34
p r e s s i n g any d,glt, 0 t h r o u g h 9 .
brtngs u p t h e appropriate omplttud, t e r m i n a t o r m e n u .
CLEAP QP DATA
M A R K E R PIORM PK5
QP Y10 Otd OFF ’
OP DET Oh OFF 5
A C C E P T QP DATA’
RETURN 5
L
PUI 3 E L
0
BW
RES BW
M A N
V ID BW A U T O MAEi
VSW/RBW
“ I D A”G O N O F F
9 ktiz
EMI BW
E M BW M e n u
Pr’3-i,rJus
30.
Menu
Hequ,res OptIon 1 3 0
PIJ14
Key Menus 8-3
f
\
I CAL I
-
I I.OllF T E S T
“ervtce C
a
l
- STOR P W P
‘ill IUN I T S 6
CAL F P E ’ , ,L AMPTO
CAL FETCH
‘ierv~ce Diog ~
C A L FHEl,
EiECUTE T I T L E
ON
O
F
F
C
O
R
R
E
C
T
DEFAULT CAL DATA
Flatnejs Uatir --c
CAL AMPTD
CPT VERT POSITION
C A L T R K GEN2
C A L TIMEBASE
CAL iTF 17~22
C P T HiJPZ POSlTlON
V E R I F Y TIMEBASE
C A L MXK 1 7 . 2 2
CAL STORE
M o r e 2 o f 4 __L More 3 of 4
S E T A T T N EPPOR
More 1 o
f
4-
-!
1
MAIN SPAN
SWEEP RAMP
SWEEP TIME DAC
COARSE TUNE DAC
B I N A R Y S P A N 28
More 3
-
Amp Carr-
.
r
ifor H
F I N E TIJNE D A C
X F I NE TUbIE DAC
+lOV R E F DETECTOP
-1OV P E F D E T E C T O P
DROOP
4
of
4
-
r
PECALL I
,
l-
85920)
iTF T U N E C O A R S E ’ ” 22
YTF T U N E F I N E ‘7.22
YTF DRIVEP 17.22
MIXEP BIAS 0x17.22
P R E S E L DAC17.22
1 OFF
kMorr:
P
1 M
FM OFFSET
o r e sN’-.
Y T F T U N E C O A R S E ‘7,22
Y T F T U N E FINE”,22
iTF D R I V E R 1 7 . 2 2
M I X E R B I A S DAL’7’22
P R E S E L DAC’7.22
I r
S E L E C T POlNl
SELECT FREO
41 ;,‘:;F; ;;;I@;‘“”
Edit Done
PURGE AMP COR
2
6
17
22
27
2%
2’2.
riPD O F F S E T 4
TLE
of 2
M a r e 6 ( o r More
H P 8595E o n l y
O p t IOr. 0 1 0 o r 011 only
OptInn 103 o n l y
F o r
serv,ce use ~n,~.
H P 8592L qnd H P E593E only
H P 8 5 9 5 E nnd H P 8596E or, Iv,
H P 85?OL nnd H P 8 5 9 1 E w,,i-I
option 010 o r 0 1 1 o n l y
Changss io YTF S P A N f o r a n
H
P
8532L. 8593E. 8595E.
arid 8 5 9 6 E
H P 853OL or H P 8 5 9 1 E only
P?114EL
8-4 Key Menus
(OPTION 04 1)
P R N P O P T HP,B P A P
PLT POPT HPiB P A P
P R I N T E R AD”PESS
PLOTTEF ADDRESS
Prev,ous
Me””
(OPTION 043)
PI\ Port Configw
PLT MENU ON OFF
Print ConfIg
Time D o t e
PRN PORT SER PAR
PLT PORT SER PAR
BAUD RATE 36
Prev IO”S Menu
HP
HP
EP
EP
B&W P R I N T E R
B & W DJ540
MX80 SML LRG
LO570 S M L L R G
Previous Menu
PAINTJET P R I N T E R
D E S K J E T 310,‘5505
DESKJET 540
Previous
Menu
Prev,ous
Menu
GHIJKL
-
7 .
8
Optson 0 4 1
o r
D E F A U L T C O N F IG
FORMAT CARD
ERASE MEM CARD
ERASE DLP MEM
E R A S E S T A T E ALL12
E R A S E TPALE ALL”
043 only
OptIon 0 4 1 only Chnngei t o
B A U D R A T E f o r Optlor, D43
9. C h a n g e s t o E X I T S H O W wher,
S H O W O P T I O N S 1s p r e s s e d
12. C h a n g e s t o M E M L O C K E D w h e n
C A V L O C K 15 O N
19
KeqkrI res O p t ion 0 0 3 f a r t h e
H P 853OL. 85921. o r 8 5 9 4 L .
2 9 A p p e a r s o n l y w h e n PLTS,‘PG 2
or 4 19 selected
36
Appears only when SER 19 selected
S Y N C N R M HTSC
D E F A U L T S ii‘ll:
SYNC NPM PAL
COPY
Key Menus 8-5
SLOPE
FLAT
[DISPLAY]
I
c:>=
r+-/?\[I
J
H O L D
nCO
VJI
20
h,r r’l,
nrr
14
/,,,
“rr
L,,#I
-aELECT
SEGMEIil
F R E O (or TIME)
;::;;;
;“;‘;;““”
1
iSELECT
r
AECDEF
GHI J K L
Change T,i,e
4 EE
Llrll, L i n e s ~
RECALL LIMIT
SAVE LIMIT
C h a n g e Title
Limi
L
F
Ii
“E,:
:tLti 1 ‘.EGME,,
D E L E T E SEGMEI,IT
E D I T D’JI1E
PIJHGE L I M ! TS
‘I
I I
EdI t
f-i-&
EDIT Ui‘R L W R
M o r e 1 of 2
SELECT
SELECT
SELECT
SELECT
SELECT
M o r e 1
J-
Us/Low
M,d,‘Delt-Previous Menu
u-
PURGE LIMITS
S E L E C T M I D AtiPL
SELECT DLT AMPL
ANNOTATN ON OFF
T H R E S H L D O N QFF34
Prefix ~
uz-# spc C l e a r
f-<>=
L
/?\[I
co#mL*
Ed I t lion,-More 2 of
2
I
L I M I T S FIZ P E L
S E L E C T :>EGMENT
D E L E TF SEGMEIIT
ED I T DOI‘IE
PURGE LIMIT:
1 FREQUENCY 1
CUNTER FREQ
iTART FREQ
STOP FPEO
C F S T E P AUTO MAli
F R E Q QFFSET
B o n d Lock ‘.li,J4
2 75-6 5 BAND 1
6 o-12 8 B A N D 2” z4
12.4-19
BAND 317
B N D L O C K O N OFF’,24.17
PIJ17EL
8-6 Key Menus
/
\
I SINGLE MEA:
C”NT MEA’_
CENTER FPEO
OCL BW X F O W E P
setup
Prev,ous Menu
;ER I
% AM ON OFF
101 O N O F F
P o w e r Menu
FFT Menu
CHAN POWER
CHAN P W R extd
I
ISlhil., F h”F AC
1
A ;Oi;L;E;; rCh,TrD COCI?
bLI”IL,I
C E N T E R FREO
ACPGRAPH OId O F F
Previous
MARKER-> AUTO FFT
SINGLE FFT
CONTINUS F F T
F F T S T O P FREO
FFT OFF
M o r e 1 o f ? ~
/\LU
r
Msnu
S I N G L E MEAS
CONT MEAS
CENTER FREO
PWPGRAPH O N O F F
previous
Menu
C H A N N E L SPAC 1 N G
CHAINNEL BANDWDTH
PARAM AUTO M A N
VID A V G Oh O F F
OCC BW % P O W E R
Prewous Menu
33 Changes t o GRPH M K R
when GRAPH ON
FFT MARKERS
MARIER-> F F T S T O P
M A R K E R - i MID SCPN
S I G N A L ID
Op1 O F F
hre 2 of 2
/JU 16d,
\
p--J
MARKER NORMAL
MARKER a
M A R K E R A M P T D 34
SELECT 1 2 3 4
M A R K E R # Oh O F F
More 1 of 2
After s e l e c t i n g
M K T R A C E AIJlD PEC
MK READ F r / P
MARKER ALL OFF
h4ure 2 of 2
ihls softkey,
pul5de
I
Key Menus 8-7
M A P K E R m>CF o r M A R K E R m>M,D SCRN ‘6
MARKER ->REF L”L
MAPKEP ->CF S T E P
M A R K E R ->STAPT
MARkERG m>SPAN
M A R K E R ->STOP
M A R K E R m>MIEIIMLM
More 1 of 2
M
Ar R K E R ->PK-PY
I Peak Menu-
16
A l t e r n a t e iaftkey w h e n t h e
F F T funcilon 15 s e l e c t e d
PlJl 1 2
MK TRACK ON OFF
Mr( C O U N T 01‘1 OFFzo
MK TABLE O N O F F
MK N O I S E O N O F F
MC PAUSE ON OFF
Mnre I of 2
T A B L E nDL I‘IPM
CNT R E S A U T O MAI4 2o
DSP L NE Oil OFF
More 2 of 2
20 N o t OYOI Iable f o r
H P 8 5 9 O L w i t h O p t i o n 713
PUl8EL
SPECTRIJM A N A L Y Z E R
M A R K E R m>CF o
MARkFRA
NEXl P E A ! ‘
NEXT PK RIGHT
I1E)iT PV L E F T
Mole I c’f 2 ~
16
8-8 Key Menus
Alternate iaiikry w h e n t h e
F F T functlqn I : ;elPCted
PIJI 1 3
M A R K E R ->MID SCPI‘I I6
PI’ S O R T F R O A M P
P
K
MODE ‘,DL NPM
DSP LIPJE WI O F F
PEAK E?CIJRIII
More 2 of 2
PU114
IPRESETI
S P E C T R U M A N A L Y Z E R -& & T
S P E C T R U M
F O R R E C A L L I N G A N D SAVING TO ANALYZER MEMOR’I’:
(fhaf i s , w i t h iNTERNAL seiecfed)
(RECALL]
I N T E R N A L -> S T A T E
I n t e r n a l -> T r a c e
TRACE
TRACE
TRACE
LIMIT
A
B
C
LIINES
Catalog ,nterno,
INTERNAL CARD
1 1 C A T A L O G R E G I S T E R - 1
CATAI.OC P R E F I X
Change P r e f i x
*
DELETE FILE
SELECT PREFIX
Exit Catalog
Prewous M e n u
EDIT
EDIT
APND
SAVE
LAST
CAT ITEM
CAT ITEM
EDIT
DELETE FILE
SELECT PREFIX
En~t Catalog
Prewous M e n u
EDIT LAST
ECIT iAT I T E M
APllG LAT I T E M
S A V E FDIT
Key Menus 9-9
F O R R E C A L L / /\ii; A N D S A V I N G T O M E M O R Y C A R D :
is,
in/i f h C A R D seiec t e d )
(ihof
(RECALL]
r
-
TRACE A
TRACE 8
T R A C E c‘
C A R D -> iTATE
C a r d m> T r a c e _I L I M I T L I N E S
C A R D --> D, SPLA‘I
C A R D m> DLP
Catalog Cord
INTERNAL CARD
CATALOG ALL
CATALOG STATES
CATALOI: T R A C E S
CATALOG PREFIX ,
Change Prei,x More
1
of
27
I KE, Me””
i
L-
8-10 Key Menus
r
LOAD FILE
1
DELETE FILE
SELECT PREFIX
Exit C a t a l o g
Previous M e n u
FOR RECALLING AND SAVING TO ANALYZER MEMORY:
(thut i
s
,
with/NTEKNAL
seiected)
DELETE FILE
SELECT PREFIX
Exit C a t a l o g
Prev IOUS M e n u
S T A T E --> NT,,,;:
Trace -> Inirnl i
SAV L O C K Oi‘l O F F
Catalog lnternol
INTERNAL
CARD
1
I
EDIT LAST
EDIT CAT ITEM
A P N D CAT I T E M
SAVE E D I T
NEW EDIT
Pre”IO”5 Menu
LOAD F I LE
LIMIT LINES
Previous
ICATALOG
1 Change
L
Menu
ALL-
L
Preftx-
NEW EDIT
P r e v i o u s Men,)
YZ-#
Mnre
spc Clear
1 of 2
Edit Done
More 2 of 2
Exit C a t a l o g
More 2 of 2
L
SAV L O C K IC Oh
Edi b------a
DELETE FILE
SELECT PREFIX
Eut Cataiog
-r
L
EDIT LAST
E D I T CAT I T E M
APND CAT ITEM
SA’JE E D I T
I4EW E D I T
previous Menu
Key Menus
8-I 1
FOR R E C A L L i PIG A N D SAVi IVG T O MEMOR‘J C A R D :
( t ii (3 t i S , w i t h C A R D se/w t e d )
S T A T E -> C A R D
LIMIT LINES
A L L GLP m> C A R D
C a t a l o g Cord
INTERNAL CARD
1
Previous
Me””
CATALOG
CATALOG
CATALOG
CATALOG
ALL
STATES
TRACES
PREF IX
r
Lr
LOAU FILE
~
-
DELETE FILE
S E L E C T PREFIi(
Exit Catalog
Pfcviaus Men,,
ABCDEF
GHI JKL
Ed,, D o n e
More 2 of 2
C A T A L O G A M P COR
C A T A L O G LMT L INE
CATALOG DISPLAY
Eut Catalnr>
More 2 0‘ 2
cl
SGL
SWP
SPAFI
SPAN
FULL
ZERO
LAST
PEAK
8-12 Key Menus
ZOOM
SPAN
SPAN
SPAN
ZOOM
GELETE F I L E
S E L E C T PREFli
Exft Catoloq
Prtv1ous Men”
PU128
Pi1127
El
SWEEP
SWP T I M E AlJTD M A N
S W E E P CONT SGL
GATE ON OFF ’ 3
note control’i-
GATE
GATE
EDGE
GATE
GATE
Previ
r
mAY ’ 3
S W P TIME13
RES BW13
O N OFF13
L
U P D A T E TIMEFREQ’J
EXIT U T I L I T Y 13
-
S W E E P D E L A Y l3
T W I N D O W S W P TIMEI
U P D A T E T IMEFREQ l3
Main Menu13
ENTER
Pu / se Pilrarn’3+ * E N T E R
ENTER
CPL RBW O N O F F i3
CLEAR
CPL “ B W O N O F F l3
C P L SWP O N O F F l3
R E F EUC,E” WIDTHi
PRI’J
PARAM
only ,f GATE CTL edge
1 14.I3 iAppears
3Epdk:: 1P5s:::‘:,ed.
MARVER ON’ 3
DONE13
T W,NDOW :WP T I M E l3
ZERO MARKER ’ 3
Pull9
( w i t h Truce A s e l e c t e d )
0
TRACE
“ILW H
CLEAR WRITE A
MAX HOLD A ‘5
_.,
BLANK A
TRACE A B C
Llnra I ^i 3
I1 I’
15
Changez t o MIN H O L D C w h e n
tracs C I S s e l e c t e d .
23
C h a n g e s t o D E T E C T O R P K SP NG
f o r opt Ior. lOI
,
\/ID AVG O N O F F
D E T E C T O R S M P PK23
NORMLIZE O N O F F
.,^^,
-7 P O S I T I O N
H <--> d
Ll,.?.+ 7 A‘ 1 I
A-B -> A ON OFF
B-DL -> B
B -<---> 5
PUllO
Key Menus 8-13
S W E E P Cr)NT S G L
F R E E PIJN
VIDEO
L I NE
T V
TRIG ‘IiD FLD 3
EXTERNAL
T V TF:lG E V E N FLG3
3
SiP4C C P D T V T R I G T V
Stnndard 3 (Previous Menu 3
3 options
101 a n d
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9
If You Have A Problem
What You’ll Find in This Chapter
This chapter includes information on how to check for a problem with your HP 8590 Series
spectrum analyzer and how to return it for service. It also includes descriptions of all of the
spectrum analyzer built-in error messages.
Your spectrum analyzer is built to provide dependable service. However, if you experience a
problem, or if you desire additional information or wish to order parts, options, or accessories,
Hewlett-Packard’s worldwide sales and service organization is ready to provide the support you
need.
In general, a problem can be caused by a hardware failure, a software error, or a user error.
Follow these general steps to determine the cause and to resolve the problem:
1. Perform the quick checks listed in the “Check the Basics” section; these checks may
eliminate the problem altogether, or may give a clearer idea of its cause.
2. If the problem is a hardware problem, you have several options:
n
n
Repair it yourself; see the “Service Options” section.
Return the spectrum analyzer to Hewlett-Packard for repair; if the spectrum analyzer is
still under warranty or is covered by an HP maintenance contract, it will be repaired
under the terms of the warranty or plan (the warranty is at the front of this manual).
If the spectrum analyzer is no longer under warranty or is not covered by an HP
maintenance plan, Hewlett-Packard will notify you of the cost of the repair after
examining the unit. See “How to Call Hewlett-Packard” and “How to Return Your
Analyzer for Service” for more information.
If You Have A Problem
9-1
Before You Call Hewlett-Packard
Check the Basics
A problem often can be solved by rechecking what was being done when the problem
occurred. A few minutes spent in performing some simple checks may save waiting for your
instrument to be repaired. Before calling Hewlett-Packard or returning the spectrum analyzer
for service, please make the following checks:
1. Is the rear-panel voltage selector switch set correctly? Is the line fuse good?
2. Does the line socket have power?
3. Is the analyzer plugged in to the proper ac power source?
4. Is the analyzer turned on? Check that the green light above ILINE) is on, indicating that the
power supply is on.
5. If other equipment, cables, and connectors are being used with the HP 8590 Series
spectrum analyzer, are they connected properly and operating correctly?
6. Review the procedure for the test being performed when the problem appeared. Are all
the settings correct?
7. If the display is dark or dim, turn the intensity knob clockwise.
8. If the display focus is poor, reduce the brightness with the intensity knob, or adjust the
focus as described in Chapter 2 of this user’s guide.
9. If the display position is offset, press ICAL), More 1 of 4 , CRT VERT POSITION and
use the knob or step keys to adjust the vertical position. Press (CAL), More 1 of 4 ,
CRT HORZ POSITION to adjust the horizontal position. Press a), CAL STORE to save the
new vertical and horizontal display position.
10. If you wish to reset the spectrum analyzer configuration to the state it was in when it was
originally shipped from the factory, use DEFAULT CONFIG . To access DEFAULT CONFIG ,
press [CONFIG), More 1 of 3 , DEFAULT CONFIG, DEFAULT CONFIG. (DEFAULT CONFIG
requires a double key press.) See the softkey description for DEFAULT CONFIG
in Chapter 7.
11. Is the test being performed, and the results that are expected, within the specifications
and capabilities of the spectrum analyzer? See specifications and characteristics in your
calibration guide, for spectrum analyzer specifications.
12. Are the spectrum analyzer measurements obviously inaccurate? If so, the spectrum
analyzer correction factors may have been removed from the measurement results. If this
occurs, perform the frequency and amplitude self-calibration routines given in “Improving
Accuracy with Self-Calibration Routines” in Chapter 2. After running these routines, press
CAL STORE , then perform the confidence test. Perform the confidence test by pressing
(CAL), More 1 of 4 , CONF TEST. The spectrum analyzer performs a self-test by cycling
through its major functions. The confidence test is performed within 1 to 2 minutes. If the
unit does not function properly, messages appear on the screen. See “Error Messages” for
explanations of error messages. If error messages appear, record the messages and refer
to the spectrum analyzer service guide or contact the nearest Hewlett-Packard Sales and
Service Office listed in Table 9- 1.
9-2 If You Have A Problem
13. For a preselected spectrum analyzer (HP 8592L, HP 85933, HP 85953, and HP 85963) with
low signal amplitudes above 2.75 GHz, perform a YTF calibration. For the HP 8592L,
HP 85933, or HP 85963 connect a low-loss cable (such as HP part number 8120-5148) from
100 MHz COMB OUT to the spectrum analyzer input. For the HP 8595E connect a low-loss
cable from CAL OUT to the spectrum analyzer input. Press (CAL), CAL YTF . Press ICAL),
CAL STORE to save the correction values in memory. The YTF self-calibration routine
completes in approximately:
Model Number YTF Cal Time
HP
HP
HP
HP
8592L
85933
85953
85963
7
7
3
5
minutes
minutes
minutes
minutes
14. If the error message “FREQ UNCAL” stays on screen, run the frequency self-calibration
routine by pressing CAL FREq and then press CAL STORE .
15. Is the spectrum analyzer displaying an error message? If so, refer to “Error Messages”.
16. If the calibration routines cannot be performed or the calibration data is corrupt, use
CAL FETCH to retrieve the correction data that has previously been saved. If the fetched
correction data is corrupt, the procedure in step 18 can be used to set the correction data
back to factory default values.
17. If the display is scrambled or filled with snow, first try adjusting the horizontal position by
pressing ICAL), the bottom softkey, and then pressing the fifth softkey from the top. Turn
the knob counterclockwise. The vertical position will not cause this symptom.
18. If the display is still scrambled, use DEFAULT CAL DATA per the following procedure
to reinitialize the memory area for correction factors, instrument configuration, and
miscellaneous constants. This procedure will not erase factory-installed calibration factors.
a. Press
~FREQUENCY),
-37 (Hz), ICAL), the bottom softkey, the bottom softkey again, then
softkey
b.
Note
FRElJ
Be sure CAL OUT is connected to the spectrum analyzer input.
%
If the CAL OUT signal cannot be found, press [FREQUENCY), -37 IHz) before
performing the CAL FREq or CAL FREq & AMPTD .
c. For the HP 8592L, HP 85933, or HP 85963 connect a low-loss cable, such as HP part
number 8120-5148, from 100 MHz COMB OUT to the spectrum analyzer input. For the
HP 85953 connect a low-loss cable from CAL OUT to the spectrum analyzer input. Press
ICAL), CAL YTF . The YTF self-calibration routine completes in approximately:
Model Number YTF Cal Time
HP 8592L
HP 85933
HP 85953
HP 8596E
7 minutes
7 minutes
3 minutes
5 minutes
If You Have A Problem
9-3
d. Set the display position using (CAL), More 1 of 4 , CRT VERT POSITION and m,
More 1 of 4, CRT HORZ POSITION.
e. Press [CAL), CAL STORE.
Note
Some user configurations may need to be reset.
DEFAULT CAL DATA can only be accessed by entering a center frequency of -37 Hz. The
center frequency -37 Hz acts as a pass code for DEFAULT CAL DATA .
lg. If a program in user memory is suspected of causing problems, use @%i’ZJ More 1 of 3 ,
Dispose User Mem, ERASE DLP MEM . (ERASE DLP MEM requires a double key press.)
ERASE DLP MEM erases all user programs, variables, personalities (DLPs), and user-defined
traces in spectrum analyzer memory.
20. If the necessary test equipment is available, perform the performance verification tests
given in the Calibration Guide for your spectrum analyzer. Record all results on an
Performance Verification Test Record form which follows the tests.
Read the Warranty
The warranty for your spectrum analyzer is at the front of this manual. Please read it and
become familiar with its terms.
If your spectrum analyzer is covered by a separate maintenance agreement, please be familiar
with its terms.
Service Options
Hewlett-Packard offers several optional maintenance plans to service your spectrum analyzer
after the warranty has expired. Call your Hewlett-Packard Sales and Service office for full
details.
If you want to service the spectrum analyzer yourself after the warranty expires, you
can purchase the service documentation that provides all necessary test and maintenance
information.
You can order the service documentation, Option 915, through your Hewlett-Packard Sales
and Service office. Service documentation is described under “Service Documentation for the
HP 8590 Series (Option 915)” in Chapter 10 in this manual.
How to Call Hewlett-Packard
Hewlett-Packard has Sales and Service offices around the world to provide you with complete
support for your spectrum analyzer. To obtain servicing information or to order replacement
parts, contact the nearest Hewlett-Packard Sales and Service Office listed in Table 9-l. In any
correspondence or telephone conversations, refer to the instrument by its model number and
full serial number.
9-4
If You Have A Problem
lhble 9-l. Hewlett-Packard Sales and Service Offices
UNITED STATES
Instrument Support Center
Hewlett-Packard Company
(800) 403-0801
EUROPEAN FIELD OPERATIONS
Headquarters
Hewlett-Packard S.A.
150, Route du Nant-d’Avri1
1217 Meyrin 2/Geneva
Switzerland
(41 22) 780.8111
France
Hewlett-Packard France
1 Avenue Du Canada
Zone D’Activite De Courtaboeuf
F-91947 Les Ulis Cedex
France
(33 1) 69 82 60 60
Germany
Hewlett-Packard GmbH
Hewlett-Packard Strasse
61352 Bad Homburg v.d.H
Germany
(49 6172) 16-O
Great Britain
Hewlett-Packard Ltd.
Eskdale Road, Winnersh Triangle
Wokingham, Berkshire RG41 5DZ
England
(44 734) 696622
INTERCON FIELD OPERATIONS
Headquarters
Hewlett-Packard Company
3495 Deer Creek Road
Palo Alto, California, USA
94304-1316
(415) 857-5027
China
China Hewlett-Packard Company
38 Bei San Huan Xl Road
ShuangYuShu
Hai Dian District
Beijing, China
(86 1) 256-6888
Australia
Hewlett-Packard Australia Ltd.
31-41 Joseph Street
Blackburn, Victoria 3130
(61 3) 895-2895
Canada
Hewlett-Packard (Canada) Ltd.
17500 South Service Road
Trans-Canada Highway
Kirkland, Quebec H9J 2X8
Canada
(514) 697-4232
Japan
Hewlett-Packard Japan, Ltd.
9-1 Takakura-Cho, Hachioji
Tokyo 192, Japan
(81 426) 60-2111
Singapore
Hewlett-Packard Singapore (Pte.) Ltd.
150 Beach Road
#29-00 Gateway West
Singapore 07 18
(65) 291-9088
lbiwan
Hewlett-Packard Taiwan
8th Floor, H-P Building
337 Fu Hsing North Road
Taipei, Taiwan
(886 2) 712-0404
If You Have A Problem
9-5
How to Return Your Analyzer for Service
Service %.g
If you are returning the spectrum analyzer to Hewlett-Packard for servicing, fill in and attach
a blue service tag. Several service tags are supplied at the rear of this manual. Please be as
specific as possible about the nature of the problem. If you have recorded any error messages
that appeared on the screen, or have completed a Performance Test Record, or have any
other specific data on the performance of the spectrum analyzer, please send a copy of this
information with the unit.
Original Packaging
Before shipping, pack the unit in the original factory packaging materials if they are available.
If the original materials were not retained, see “Other Packaging.”
Other Packaging
Caution
Spectrum analyzer damage can result from using packaging materials other
than those specified. Never use styrene pellets in any shape as packaging
materials. They do not adequately cushion the equipment or prevent it from
shifting in the carton. They cause equipment damage by generating static
electricity and by lodging in the spectrum analyzer fan.
You can repackage the instrument with commercially available materials, as follows:
1. Attach a completed service tag to the instrument.
2. If you have a front-panel cover, install it on the instrument; if not, protect the control panel
with cardboard.
3. Wrap the instrument in antistatic plastic to reduce the possibility of damage caused by
electrostatic discharge.
4. Use the original packaging material or a strong shipping container. A double-walled,
corrugated cardboard carton with 159 kg (350 lb) bursting strength is adequate. The carton
must be both large enough and strong enough to accommodate the spectrum analyzer. Allow
at least 3 to 4 inches on all sides of the analyzer for packing material.
5. Surround the equipment with three to four inches of packing material and prevent the
equipment from moving in the carton. If packing foam is not available, the best alternative
is S.D.-240 Air CapTM from Sealed Air Corporation (Commerce, California, 90001). Air Cap
looks like a plastic sheet filled with l-1/4 inch air bubbles. Use the pink-colored Air Cap to
reduce static electricity. Wrapping the equipment several times in this material should both
protect the equipment and prevent it from moving in the carton.
6. Seal the shipping container securely with strong nylon adhesive tape.
7. Mark the shipping container “FRAGILE, HANDLE WITH CARE” to assure careful handling.
8. Retain copies of all shipping papers.
9-6
If You Have A Problem
Error Messages
The spectrum analyzer can generate various messages that appear on its screen during
operation to indicate a problem.
There are three types of messages: hardware error messages (H), user-created error messages
(U), and informational messages (M).
n
Hardware error messages indicate the spectrum analyzer hardware is probably broken.
w User-created error messages appear when the spectrum analyzer is used incorrectly. They are
usually generated during remote operation (entering programming commands using either a
controller or the external keyboard).
n
Informational messages provide information indicating the spectrum analyzer progress within
a specific procedure.
The messages are listed in alphabetical order on the following pages; each message is defined,
and its type is indicated by an (H), (U), or (M).
4 LOCK OFF
Indicates slow YTO tuning. This message may appear if the spectrum analyzer is using
default correction factors. If this message appears constantly, perform the CAL FREQ routine
to try to eliminate this message. 4 LOCK OFF appears briefly during the CAL FREQ routine,
during instrument preset, or when the frequency value is changed; this is normal and does
not indicate a problem. (U) and (H)
ADC-2V FAIL
ADC-GND FAIL
ADC-TIME FAIL
Cal harmonic > = 5.7 GIIz NOT found
Indicates that the CAL YTF routine for an HP 85953 cannot find a harmonic of the 300 MHz
calibration signal. If this happens, ensure that the CAL OUT connector is connected to the
spectrum analyzer input, perform the CAL FREQ & AMPTD routine, and then perform the
CAL YTF routine again. (U) and (H)
CAL:- - During the self-calibration routine, messages may appear on the display to indicate how the
calibration routines are progressing. For example, sweep, freq, span, MC delay, FM coil,
and atten can appear on the spectrum analyzer display. 4 LOCK OFF appears briefly during
the CAL FREQ self-calibration routine; this is normal and does not indicate a problem. (M)
CAL: DONE: Press CAL STORE to save
Indicates that the self-calibration routine is finished and that you should press CAL STORE .
(Ml
CAL: cannot execute CALAMP enter: 0 dB PREAMP GAIN
The preamplifier gain should be set to 0 dB before the CAL AMPTD routine is performed.
The preamplifier gain is set by using EXTERNAL PREAMPG . This message also sets SRQ 110.
w>
CAL: DATA NOT STORED CAL AMP NEEDED
The correction factors are corrupt and cannot be stored. You need to perform the
If You Have A Problem
9-7
CAL FREQ & AMPTD routine before trying to store the correction factors. This message also
sets SRQ 110. (U)
CAL: FM SPAN SENS FAIL
The spectrum analyzer could not set up span sensitivity of the FM coil. (H)
CAL: GAIN FAIL
Indicates the signal amplitude is too low during the CAL AMPTD routine. This message also
sets SRQ 110. (H)
CAL: MAIN COIL SENSE FAIL
The spectrum analyzer could not set up span sensitivity of the main coil. If this
message appears, press [FREQUENCY), -37, (Hz), (CAL], More 1 of 4 , More 2 of 4,
DEFAULT CAL DATA , and perform the CAL FREQ routine again. (H)
CAL: NBW 200 Hz notch amp failed
Indicates that the 200 Hz resolution bandwidth is not the correct shape for the calibration
routine. (H)
CAL: NBW 200 Hz notch failed
Indicates that the 200 Hz resolution bandwidth is not the correct shape for the calibration
routine. (H)
CAL: NBW 200 Hz width’failed
Indicates that the 200 Hz resolution bandwidth is not the correct bandwidth for the
calibration routine. (H)
CAL: NBW gain failed
Indicates that one of the resolution bandwidths is not the correct amplitude for the
calibration routine. (H)
CAL: NBW width failed
Indicates that one of the resolution bandwidths is not the correct width for the calibration
routine. (H)
CAL: PASSCODE NEEDED
Indicates that the function cannot be accessed without the pass code. For the DEFAULT CAL
DATA function, the pass code is setting the center frequency of the spectrum analyzer to
-37 Hz. (M)
CAL: RES BW AMPL FAIL
The relative insertion loss of the resolution bandwidth is incorrect. This message also sets
SRQ 110. (H)
CAL SIGNAL NOT FOUND
Indicates the calibration signal (CAL OUT) cannot be found. Check that the CAL OUT and
the spectrum analyzer input connectors are connected with an appropriate cable. If the
calibration signal is connected to the spectrum analyzer input but cannot be found, press
(FREQUENCY), -37, IHz), (CAL), More 1 of 4, More 2 of 4, DEFAULT CAL DATA . If the
calibration signal still cannot be found, press (j-1, -37, IHz) and perform the CAL
FREQ or CAL FREQ & AMPTD self-calibration routines. This message also sets SRQ 110. (U)
and (H)
CAL: SPAN SENS FAIL
The self-calibration span sensitivity routine failed. This message also sets SRQ 110. (H)
CAL: USING DEFAUIX DATA
Indicates that the calibration data is corrupt and the default correction factors are being
used. Interruption of the self-calibration routines or an error can cause this problem. (M)
9-8
If You Have A Problem
CAL: YTF FAILED
Indicates that the CAL YTF routine could not be successfully completed. If this message
appears, ensure that the CAL OUT connector (for the HP 85953) or 100 MHz COMB OUT
connector (for the HP 8592L, HP 85933, or HP 85963) is connected to the spectrum analyzer
input, perform the CAL FREQ & AMPTD routine, and then perform the CAL YTF routine
again. (U) and (H)
CAL: ZERO FAIL
The spectrum analyzer could not set up the tuning sensitivity of the main coil. If this
message appears, press (-1, -37, (Hz), a, More I of 4, More 2 of 4,
DEFAULT CAL DATA , and perform the CAL FREQ routine again. (H)
Cannot engage phase lock with current CAL FREQ data
Indicates that the CAL FREQ routine needs to be performed before phase locking can be
turned on. (U)
Cannot reach N dB points
Indicates that the number of dB specified for the N dB PTS function is greater than the
distance of the signal peak from the spectrum analyzer noise floor or peak threshold. (U)
Check trigger input
Indicates that the spectrum analyzer needs an external trigger signal to use the time-gating
functions. Before using the time-gating functions, you should ensure there is a trigger pulse
connected to the GATE TRIGGER INPUT connector on the rear panel of spectrum analyzer
and that the GATE OUTPUT is connected the EXT TRIG INPUT connector. (U)
Comb harmonic at - _ _ GHz NOT found
Indicates that the CAL YTF routine for the spectrum analyzer cannot find a harmonic of the
comb generator at frequency displayed. If this happens, ensure that the 100 MHz COMB OUT
connector (for an HP 8592L, HP 85933, or HP 8596E) or the CAL OUT connector (for an
HP 85953) is connected to the spectrum analyzer input with a low-loss, short cable before
the CAL YTF routine is performed. (U) and (H)
COMB SIGNAL NOT FOUND
The comb signal cannot be found. Check that 100 MHz COMB OUT is connected to the
spectrum analyzer input. The comb generator is available with the HP 8592L, HP 85933, or
HP 85963 only. (U) and (H)
CMD ERR:- - The specified programming command is not recognized by the spectrum analyzer. Press
ANNOTATN ON OFF to clear, (U)
CONF TEST FAIL
Indicates that the confidence test failed. If this happens, ensure that the CAL OUT connector
is connected to the spectrum analyzer input, perform the CAL FREQ & AMPTD routine, and
then perform the confidence test again. This message also sets SRQ 110. (H) and (U)
EMPTY DLP MEM
Indicates that the user-defined items (user-defined functions, user-defined variables,
user-defined traces, user-defined softkeys) and any personalities (for example, the HP 85716A
CATV System Monitor Personality) in the spectrum analyzer memory have been deleted. If
the message is continuously displayed at power up, it may indicate a hardware failure. See
the spectrum analyzer Service Guide for more information. (U)
Factory dlp, not editable
Indicates that the downloadable program or variable that you have selected is used by a
“personality” and cannot be edited. A personality is a program that is manufactured by
Hewlett Packard and is available for use with the HP 8590 Series spectrum analyzer. An
example of a personality is the HP 85716A CATV system monitor personality. (U)
If You Have A Problem
9-9
FAIL:- - An error was discovered during the power-up check. The 4-digit by lo-digit code indicates
the type of error. Error codes are described in the spectrum analyzer service guide. (H)
File type incompatible
Indicates that the selected file is not a display image file. The file name for a display image
file is always preceded by an “i.” (U)
FREQ UNCAL
If the FREQ UNCAL message appears constantly, it indicates a YTO-tuning error. If this
message appears constantly, perform the CAL FREQ routine. FREQ UNCAL appears briefly
during the CAL FREQ routine; this is normal and does not indicate a problem. (U) and (H)
WJ) and W
Function not available in current Mode
Indicates that the function that you have selected can only be used with the spectrum
analyzer mode. You can use the INIODE) key to select the spectrum analyzer mode. (U)
Function not available with analog display
Indicates that the function that you have selected is not compatible with the Analog+
display mode. To use the function, you must first turn off the Analog+ display mode with
ANALOG+ ON OFF. (U)
Gate card not calibrated
This message can indicate that either the CAL AMPTD routine need to be performed before
the time-gating functions can be used, or that something was connected to the GATE
TRIGGER INPUT connector during the CAL AMPTD or CAL FREQ & AMPTD routines. If
your spectrum analyzer has an Option 105 installed in it, you should ensure that nothing is
connected to the GATE TRIGGER INPUT connector when the CAL AMPTD or CAL FREQ &
AMPTD routines are performed. (U) and (H)
INTERNAL LOCKED
The spectrum analyzer internal trace and state registers have been locked. To unlock the
trace or state registers, press SAV LOCK ON OFF so that OFF is underlined. For remote
operation, use PSTATE OFF. (U)
INVALID ACTDEF: - - The specified ACTDEF name is not valid. See the ACTDEF programming command. (U)
INVALID AMPCOR: FREQ
For the AMPCOR command, the frequency data must be entered in increasing order. See the
description for the AMPCOR programming command for more information. (U)
INVALID BLOCK FORMAT: IF STATEMENT
An invalid block format appeared within the IF statement. See the description for the IF
THEN ELSE ENDIF programming command for more information. (U)
INVALID CARD
Indicates one of the following conditions: a card reader is not installed, the memory card is
write-protected (check the position of the switch on the memory card), the memory card is a
read-only memory (ROM) card, or a memory card has not been inserted. This message can
also occur if remote programming commands for the memory card capability are executed
with an HP 859OL, HP 8592L, or HP 85941, that does not have an Option 003. (U)
INVALID CARD: BAD MEDIA
Indicates the formatting routine (FORMAT CARD ) for the memory card could not be
completed. See the description for INVALID CARD above for more information about the
possible causes of this message. (U) and (H)
9-10
If You Have A Problem
INVALID CARD: DATA ERROR
Indicates the data could not be retrieved from the memory card. (U) and (H)
INVALID CARD: DIRECTORY
Indicates the memory card has not been formatted. (U)
INVALID CARD: NO CARD
Indicates a memory card has not been inserted. (U)
INVALID CARD: TYPE
Indicates one of the following conditions: a card reader is not installed, the memory card is
write-protected (check the position of the switch on the memory card), the memory card is a
read-only memory (ROM) card, or a memory card has not been inserted. This message can
also occur if remote programming commands for the memory card capability are executed
with an HP 859OL, HP 8592L, or HP 8594L that does not have an Option 003. (U)
INVALID CHECKSUM: USTATE
The user-defined state does not follow the expected format. (U)
INVALID COMPARE OPERATOR
An IF/THEN or REPEAT/UNTIL routine is improperly constructed. Specifically, the IF or
UNTIL operands are incorrect. (U)
INVALID DET: FM or TV option only
Indicates that the selected detector cannot be used until the appropriate option is installed in
the spectrum analyzer. (U)
INVALID ENTER FORMAT
The enter format is not valid. See the appropriate programming command description to
determine the correct format. (U)
INVALID <file name> NOT FOUND
Indicates that the specified file could not be loaded into spectrum analyzer memory or
purged from memory because the file name cannot be found. (U)
INVALID FILENAME - - Indicates the specified file name is invalid. A file name is invalid if there is no file name
specified, if the first letter of the file name is not alphabetic, or if the specified file type does
not match the type of file. See the description SAVRCLW or STOR programming command for
more information. (U)
INVALID FILE: NO ROOM
Indicates that there is insufficient space available on the memory card to store the data. (U)
INVALID HP-IB ADRWOPERATION
An HP-IB operation was aborted due to an incorrect address or invalid operation. Check that
there is only one controller (the spectrum analyzer) connected to the printer or plotter. (U)
INVALID HP-IB OPERATION REN TRUE
The HP-IB operation is not allowed. (This is usually caused by trying to print or plot when a
controller is on the interface bus with the spectrum analyzer.) To use the spectrum analyzer
print or plot functions, you must disconnect any other controllers on the HP-IB. If you are
using programming commands to print or plot, you can use an HP BASIC command instead of
disconnecting the controller. See the HP 8590 E-Series and L-Series Spectrum Analyzer and
HP 8591C Cable TV Analyzer Programmer’s ciuide for more information. (U)
INVALID ITEM:- - Indicates an invalid parameter has been used in a programming command. (U)
INVALID KEYLBL: - - Indicates that the specified key label contains too many characters. A key label is limited to
8 printable characters per label line. (U)
If You Have A Problem
9-11
INVALID KEYNAME:- - The specified key name is not allowed. (The key name may have conflicted with a spectrum
analyzer programming command.) To avoid this problem, use an underscore as the second
character in the key name, or avoid beginning the key name with the following pairs of
letters: LB, OA, OL, TA, TB, TR, MA, MF, TS, OT, and DR. (U)
INVALID OUTPUT FORMAT
The output format is not valid. See the appropriate programming command description to
determine the correct format. (U)
INVALID RANGE: Stop < Start
Indicates that the first trace element specified for a range of trace elements is larger that
ending trace element. When specifying a trace range the starting element must be less than
the ending element. For example, TRA[2,300] is legal but TRA[300,2] is not. (U)
INVALID REGISTER NUMBER
The specified trace register number is invalid. (U)
INVALID REPEAT MEM OVFL
Memory overflow occurred due to a REPEAT routine. This can occur if there is not enough
spectrum analyzer memory for the REPEAT UNTIL declaration, or if the REPEAT UNTIL
declaration exceeds 2047 characters. (U)
INVALID REPEAT NEST LEVEL
The nesting level in the REPEAT routine is improperly constructed. This can occur if too
many REPEAT routines are nested. When used within a downloadable program (DLP), the
maximum number of REPEAT UNTIL statements that can be nested is 20. (U)
INVALID RS-232 ADRS/OPERATION
An RS-232 operation was aborted due to an invalid operation. (U)
INVALID SAVE REG
Data has not been saved in the specified state or trace register, or the data is corrupt. (U)
INVALID SCRMOVE
Indicates the spectrum analyzer may have a hardware failure. See The spectrum analyzer
Service Guide for more information. (H)
INVALID START INDEX
Indicates that the first trace element specified for a range of trace elements is not within the
trace range of the specified trace. (U)
INVALID STOP INDEX
Indicates that the ending trace element specified for a range of trace elements is not within
the trace range of the specified trace. (U)
INVALID STORE DEST: - - The specified destination field is invalid. (U)
INVALID TRACE: - - _
The specified trace is invalid. (U)
INVALID TRACE NAME: - - _
The specified trace name is not allowed. Use an underscore as the second character in the
trace name, or avoid beginning the trace name with the following pairs of letters: LB, OA,
OL, TA, TB, TR, MA, MF, TS, OT, and DR. (U)
INVALID TRACENAME: _ _ _
Indicates the specified trace could not be saved because the trace name is not allowed. To
avoid this problem, use an underscore as the second character in the trace name, or avoid
beginning the trace name with the following pairs of letters: LB, OA, OL, TA, TB, TR, MA,
MF, TS, OT, and DR. (U)
9-l 2
If You Have A Problem
INVALID VALUE PARAMETER: - - The specified value parameter is invalid. (U)
INVALID VARDEF: - - The specified variable name is not allowed. To avoid this problem, use an underscore as
the second character in the variable label, or avoid beginning the variable label with the
following pairs of letters: LB, OA, OL, TA, TB, TR, MA, MF, TS, OT, and DR. (U)
INVALID WINDOW TYPE: _ _ _
The specified window is invalid. See the description for the TWNDOW programming
command. (U)
LOST SIGNAL
For the HP 8592L, HP 8593E, or HP 85963, this message indicates that the cable from the
100 MHz COMB OUT connector to the spectrum analyzer input is defective or has become
disconnected during the CAL YTF routine. For the HP 85953, this message indicates that the
cable from the CAL OUT connector is defective or has been disconnected during the CAL
YTF routine. Be sure to use a short, low-loss cable to connect the signal to the spectrum
analyzer input when performing the CAL YTF routine. (U)
LO UNLVL
Indicates that the spectrum analyzer local oscillator distribution amplifier is not functioning
properly. (H)
Marker Count Reduce SPAN
Indicates the resolution bandwidth to span ratio is too small to use the marker count
function. Check the span and resolution bandwidth settings. (U)
Marker Count Widen RES BW
Indicates that the current resolution bandwidth setting is too narrow to use with the marker
counter function. The marker counter function can be in narrow resolution bandwidths
(bandwidths that are less than 1 kHz) with the following procedure:
1. Place the marker on the desired signal.
2. Increase the resolution bandwidth to 1 kHz and verify the marker is on the signal peak.
3. If the marker in on the signal peak, the marker count function can be used in either the
1 kHz resolution bandwidth or the original narrow resolution bandwidth setting. If the
marker is not on the signal peak, it should be moved to the signal peak and the marker
counter function should not be used with a resolution bandwidth setting of less than
1 kHz.
MEAS UNCAL
The measurement is uncalibrated. Check the sweep time, span, and bandwidth settings, or
press [AUTO COUPLE], AUTO ALL. (U)
MEMORY OVERFLOWERASE DLP MEM and reload
This message indicates that too many user-defined items (functions, variables, key
definitions), or downloadable programs have been loaded into spectrum analyzer memory.
If this message appears, use ERASE DLP MEM and then load the user-defined item or
downloadable program into spectrum analyzer memory. (U)
No card found
Indicates that the memory card is not inserted. (U)
No points defined
Indicates the specified limit line or amplitude correction function cannot be performed
because no limit line segments or amplitude correction factors have been defined. (U)
If You Have A Problem
9-13
OVEN COLD
Indicates that the spectrum analyzer has been powered up for less than 5 minutes. (The
actual temperature of the precision frequency oven is not measured.) (Option 004 only.)
(M)
PARAMETER ERROR: - - The specified parameter is not recognized by the spectrum analyzer. See the appropriate
programming command description to determine the correct parameters. (U)
PASSCODE NEEDED
Indicates that the function cannot be accessed without the pass code. (U)
POS-PK FAIL
Indicates the positive-peak detector has failed. (H)
REF UNLOCK
Indicates that the frequency reference is not locked to the external reference input. Check
that the 10 MHz REF OUT connector is connected to the EXT REF IN connector, or, when
using an external reference, that an external 10 MHz reference source of sufficient amplitude
is connect to the EXT REF IN connector. (U) and (H)
Require 1 signal > PEAK EXCURSION above THRESHOLD
Indicates that the N dB PTS routine cannot locate a signal that is high enough to measure.
The signal must be greater than the peak excursion above the threshold level to measure. (U)
Require 3 signals > PEAK EXCURSION above THRESHOLD
Indicates that the % AM routine cannot locate three signals that are high enough to measure.
The signals must be greater than the peak excursion above the threshold level to measure.
UJ)
Require 4 signals > PEAK EXCURSION above THRESHOLD
Indicates that the TO1 routine cannot locate four signals that are high enough to measure.
The signals must be greater than the peak excursion above the threshold level to measure.
w
Required option not installed Some spectrum analyzer functions require that an option
be installed in the spectrum analyzer. See the description for the function in the HP 8590
E-Series and L-Series Spectrum Analyzers User’s Guide for more information about which
option is required. (U)
RES-BW NOISE FAIL
Indicates the noise floor level is incorrect at the indicated bandwidth. (H)
RES-BW SHAPE FAIL
Indicates the 3 dB bandwidth is not within specifications. (H)
RF PRESEL ERROR
Indicates that the preselector peak routine cannot be performed. (H)
RF PRESEL TIMEOUT
Indicates that the preselector peak routine cannot be performed. (H)
SAMPLE FAIL
Indicates the sample detector has failed. (H)
SETUP ERROR
Indicates that the span, channel bandwidth, or channel spacing are not set correctly for the
adjacent channel power or channel power measurement. (U)
SIGNAL NOT FOUND
Indicates the PEAK ZOOM routine did not find a valid signal. (U)
9-14
If You Have A Problem
SIGNAL CLIPPED
Indicates that the current FFT measurement sweep resulted in a trace that is above the top
graticule line on the spectrum analyzer display. If this happens, the input trace (trace A) has
been “clipped,” and the FFT data is not valid. (U)
Signals do not fit expected % AM pattern
Indicates that the 96 AM routine cannot perform the percent AM measurement because the
on-screen signals do not have the characteristics of a carrier with two sidebands. (U)
Signals do not fit expected TO1 pattern
Indicates that the TO1 routine cannot perform the third-order intermodulation measurement
because the on-screen signals do not have the characteristics of two signals and two
distortion products. (U)
SMPLR UNLCK
Indicates that the sampling oscillator circuitry is not functioning properly. If this message
appears, check that the external frequency reference is correctly connected to the EXT REF
INPUT. (U) and (H)
SOFTKEYOVFL
Softkey nesting exceeds the maximum number of levels. (U)
SRQ - - The specified service request is active. Service requests are a form of informational message
and are explained in Appendix A of the HP 8590 E-Series and L-Series Spectrum Analyzers
User’s Guide. (M)
STEP GAIN/ATTN FAIL
Indicates the step gain has failed. (H)
Stop at marker not available with negative detection
Indicates that the marker counter cannot be used when negative peak detection is selected.
To use the marker counter, turn off negative peak detection with DETECTOR PK SP NG . (U)
TABLE FULL
Indicates the upper or lower table of limit lines contains the maximum number of entries
allowed. Additional entries to the table are ignored. (U)
TG SIGNAL NOT FOUND
Indicates the tracking generator output signal cannot be found. Check that the tracking
generator output (RF OUT 500 or RF OUT 75Q) is connected to the spectrum analyzer input
connector with an appropriate cable. (U)
TG UNLVL
This message can indicate the following: that the source power is set higher or lower than
the spectrum analyzer can provide, that the frequency span extends beyond the specified
frequency range of the tracking generator, or that the calibration data for the tracking
generator is incorrect. See “Stimulus-Response Measurements” in Chapter 4 of the HP 8590
E-Series and L-Series Spectrum Analyzers User’s Chide for more information. (17)
Too many signal with valid N dB points
Indicates the N dB PTS function has located two or more signals that have amplitudes within
the specified dB from the signal peak. If this happens, you should decrease the span of the
spectrum analyzer so that only the signal that you want to measure is displayed. (U)
If You Have A Problem
9-15
Trace A is not available
Indicates that trace A is in the store-blank mode and cannot be used for limit-line testing.
Use CLEAR WRITE A or VIEW A to change trace A from the store-blank mode to the clear
write mode, and then turn on limit-line testing. (U)
UNDF KEY
The softkey number is not recognized by the spectrum analyzer. (U)
USING DEFAUEI’S self cal needed
Indicates that the current correction factors are the default correction factors and that
the CAL FREQ & AMPTD routine needs to be performed. For the HP 8592L, HP 85933,
HP 85953, or HP 85963, CAL YTF routine needs to be performed also. (U)
Verify gate trigger input is disconnected before CAL AMPTD
This message is meant to remind you that nothing should be connected to the GATE
TRIGGER INPUT connector on the spectrum analyzer rear panel during the CAL AMPTD
routine. (U)
VID-BW FAIL
Indicates the video bandwidths have failed. (H)
Waiting for gate input . . .
Indicates that the spectrum analyzer needs an external trigger signal to use the time-gating
functions. Before using the time-gating functions, you should ensure there is a trigger pulse
connected to the GATE TRIGGER INPUT connector on the rear panel of spectrum analyzer
and that the GATE OUTPUT is connected the EXT TRIG INPUT connector. If you do not
want to use the time-gating functions, press [PRESET_. (U)
YTF is not available
The YTF is only available for the HP 8592L, HP 85933, HP 85953, and HP 85963. (U)
9-16
If You Have A Problem
Measurement Personalities, Options, and
Accessories
10
What You’ll Find In This Chapter
Many measurement personalities, options, and accessories are available to enhance the
spectrum analyzer so that it will better meet the needs of your application. This chapter
contains a list of the available measurement personalities, options, and accessories for your
spectrum analyzer.
Measurement Personalities, Options, and Accessories
10-l
Measurement Personalities
Broadcast Measurements Personality
For use with the HP 85913, HP 8593E, HP 8594E, HP 85953, or HP 8596E. The HP 85724A
Broadcast Measurements Personality provides customized RF video measurements for testing
broadcast transmitters. The Broadcast Measurements Personality is a downloadable program on
a memory card. It allows simple selection of either PAL-I or PAL-B/G systems. The channel
bands CCIR VHF, CCIR UHF or CCIR CATV S can be selected. There are 14 measurements
including: carrier level, carrier to noise, intermodulation, and NICAM level.
CATV Measurements Personality
The HP 85901, HP 859ZL, and HP 8594L must have Option 003. The HP 85711B cable
television measurements personality provides a quick and easy way to adapt your spectrum
analyzer for making cable TV measurements while retaining spectrum analysis capability. The
CATV measurements personality is a downloadable program on a memory card that adds a set
of eight functions to simplify cable TV testing: channel selection, carrier level, carrier-to-noise,
power line hum, crossmodulation, composite triple beat, modulation depth, and system
frequency response.
CATV System Monitor Personality
The HP 859OL, HP 8592L, and HP 8594L must have Option 003. The HP 85716A CATV
system monitor personality provides automatic measurements for testing and monitoring your
cable TV system. It can continuously measure headend signal quality and simplify system
proof-of-performance testing. The CATV system monitor personality is a downloadable program
on a memory card. It has seven different channel tests and two system tests (for systems with
NTSC format), and can do performance testing without interrupting service.
Cable TV Measurements and System Monitor Personality
The HP 85.9OL, HP 8592L, and HP 85941, must have Option 003. The HP 85721A Cable TV
Measurements Personality provides one-button diagnostic measurements, automatic system test
and monitoring, and with Option 107, non-interfering RF and video measurements (including
FCC proof of performance) are available. This downloadable program on a memory card
additionally includes the functionality of both the HP 85711B and the HP 85716A Cable TV
Measurement Personalities.
The use of this personality is limited in the HP 8590L and the HP 85921, spectrum analyzers.
CDMA Measurements Personality
For use with the HP 8591E, HP 85933, HP 8594E, HP 8595E, or HP 8596E. The HP 85725B
CDMA measurements personality provides RF transmitter measurements for testing CDMA
cellular radio mobile stations and base stations. In addition, it provides channel plans for IS-95,
J-STD-008, Korean and ARIB-T53 (Japan) Standards. The measurements include: transmit
and receive RF channel power, in-band and out-of-band spurious emissions, standby output
power, occupied bandwidth, gated output power, time response to open loop power control,
and others.
The HP 85725B CDMA measurements personality is a downloadable program on a memory
card. (See Option 053 in this chapter.)
10-2
Measurement Personalities, Options, and Accessories
CT2-CA1 Measurements Personality
Fbr use with the HP 8591E, HP 85934 HP 85944 HP 8595E, or HP 8596E. The HP 85717A
CT2-CA1 measurements personality provides RF transmitter measurements for testing
CT2 cordless telephone handsets and bases. The measurements include: mean carrier
power, carrier-off power, adjacent channel power, out-of-band power, spurious emissions,
intermodulation attenuation, and frequency error deviation. The CT2-CA1 measurements
personality is a downloadable program on a memory card.
DECT Measurements Personality
Fbr use with the HP 8593E, HP 85944 HP 85954 and HP 85963 only. The HP 85723A
measurements personality provides RF transmitter measurements for testing DECT (Digital
European Cordless Telephone) handsets and base stations. The measurements include: mean
carrier power, adjacent channel power due to modulation, adjacent channel power due to
switching transients, spurious emissions, intermodulation attenuation, frequency error, and
frequency deviation. The DECT measurements personality is a downloadable program on a
memory card.
Digital Radio Measurements Personality
Fbr use with the HP 8592L, HP 8593E, HP 85944 HP 8594L, HP 8595E, or HP 8596E. The
HP 8592L and HP 8594L must have Option 003. The HP 85713A digital radio measurements
card provides an easy way to measure band occupancy and transmitter spurious outputs, as
well as determine the sources of interference including external broadcast or multipath effects.
The digital radio measurements personality is a downloadable program on a memory card. It
qualifies the occupied bandwidth of a modulated digital radio signal, the mean power level of
unmodulated carrier, and quantifies modulator alignment.
EM1 Diagnostics Measurements Personality
Use the HP 85712D EMI diagnostics measurements personality with the HP 85913, HP 85933,
HP 8594E, HP 8595E, or HP 8596E. The EM1 diagnostics measurements personality provides
an easy way to find EM1 “hot spots” in your new-product designs quickly and easily with the
HP 11940A or HP 11941A close-field probe. The EM1 diagnostics measurements personality is a
downloadable program on a memory card. The field strength is measured directly at the probe
tip in dBpA/m, and antenna factors for the probe are automatically applied. A special function
helps you to discriminate between narrowband and broadband signals.
GSMSOO and DCS1800 Transmitter Measurements Personalities
I%r use with the HP 8591E (GSMSOO only), HP 85933, HP 8594E, HP 8595E, or HP 85963. The
HP 85715B GSMSOO and HP 85722B DCS1800 measurements personalities provide customized
measurements for testing GSMSOO and DCS1800 transmitters respectively. These measurement
personalities are available as downloadable programs on memory cards. They provide real-time
displays of measurements like mean transmitted carrier power, power versus time, output RF
spectrum, spurious emissions, intermodulation attenuation, combiner tuning and phase and
frequency error.
Measurement Personalities, Options, and Accessories
10-3
Link Measurement Personality
Fbr use with the HP 85933, HP 8594E, HP 85953, and HP 8596E only. The spectrum analyzer
must be configured with options 010 and 111. The HP 11770A Link Measurement Personality is
a downloadable program on a memory card. It provides a way to adapt your spectrum analyzer
for making end-to-end and loop back measurements of group delay and amplitude flatness.
These are important test requirements for digital microwave radio, satellite, cable, and other
systems.
NADC-TDMA Measurements Personality
Fbr use with HP 8590 E-Series spectrum analyzers. The HP 85718B NADC-TDMA
measurements personality provides the capability for the spectrum analyzer to make 9
transmitter RF tests and 7 transmitter modulation accuracy tests based on IS-54, IS-55, IS-56,
IS-136, IS-137, and IS-138 standards. The HP 85913 is compatible with HP 85718B if no
modulation accuracy tests are needed. (See Option 050 in this chapter.)
Noise Figure Measurements Personality
Fbr use with HP 8590 E-Series spectrum analyzers with Option 119. The HP 85719A
noise-figure measurement personality along with the HP 8590 E-Series spectrum analyzer
provide displayed swept noise-figure and gain measurements form 10 MHz to 2.9 GHz. Features
include one-point measurement capability for quick results, noise-figure and spectrum analyzer
mode-switching for stray signal detection, selectable measurement bandwidths to directly
measure narrowband devices, and a repeatability calculator to determine measurement time
and repeatability.
PDC Measurements Personality
l%r use with HP 85933, HP 8594E, HP 85953, and HP 8596E spectrum analyzers. The
HP 85720C PDC measurements personality simplifies testing of personal digital cellular (PDC)
transmitters by providing power, frequency, timing, spurious emission, and modulation
accuracy measurements based on RCR STD-27C. The HP 85913 is compatible with HP 8572OC
if no modulation accuracy tests are needed. (See Option 051 in this chapter.)
PHS Measurements Personality
For use with HP 8593E, HP 8594E, HP 85953, and HP 8596E spectrum analyzers. The
HP 85726B PHS measurements personality simplifies testing of personal handy phone system
transmitters by providing power, frequency, timing, spurious emission, and modulation
accuracy measurements based on RCR STD-28. (See Option 052 in this chapter.)
Scalar Measurements Personality
Fbr use with the HP 85901, HP 8591E, HP 8593E, HP 8594E, HP 85953, or HP 85963 with
tracking generator Option 010. The HP 85901, must have Q&ion 003. The HP 85714A scalar
measurements personality uses the optional built-in tracking generator to make scalar network
analysis measurements with your spectrum analyzer. The scalar measurements personality is a
downloadable program on a memory card. It provides for high dynamic range measurements
and can make simultaneous transmission and reflection measurements using the HP 85630A
transmission/reflection test set. Marker measurements of frequency, power, return loss, VSWR,
and reflection/transmission coefficients are quick and easy. The scalar measurement personality
also includes simple one-button measurements for 3 dB or 6 dB bandwidth, Q factor, shape
factor, and insertion loss/gain.
10-4
Measurement Personalities, Options, and Accessories
Options
Options can be ordered by option number when you order the spectrum analyzer. Some of the
options are also available as kits that can be ordered and installed after you have received your
spectrum analyzer. The options are listed numerically by their option number.
750 Input Impedance (Option 001)
For HP 8590L and HP 85913 only. This option provides a 753 input impedance instead of the
standard 5061 impedance. Spectrum analyzers with this option use cables, circuit boards, and
front panels that are different from the standard units.
Memory Card Reader (Option 003)
For HP 859OL, HP 8592L, and HP 8594L only. This option provides a memory card reader to
save and recall data from a memory card. Spectrum analyzers with this option have an opening
on the front panel to insert the memory card. Option 003 includes a 32 Kbyte memory card
and a memory card holder. The memory card reader is standard for the HP 85913, HP 8593E,
HP 85943, HP 85953, and HP 85963.
Option 003 is also available as a retrofit kit (Option R03) after the purchase of your spectrum
analyzer, or as a kit HP part number 5062-6456.
Precision Frequency Reference (Option 004)
For HP 8591E, HP 8593E, HP 8594E, HP 8595E, and HP 85963 only. This option provides
increased absolute frequency-reference accuracy because the internal oscillators are
phase-locked to an internal precision-frequency reference.
Option 004 is also available as a retrofit kit (Option R04) after the purchase of your spectrum
analyzer, or as a kit HP part number 5062-6459.
LO and Sweep + Tune Outputs on Rear Panel (Option 009)
Fbr HP 8593E, HP 8594E, HP 85953, and HP 85963 only. Option 009 provides local oscillator
output and sweep + tune output at the rear panel for use with external tracking sources such
as HP 85644A and HP 85645A.
Measurement Personalities, Options, and Accessories
10-5
Tracking Generator (Option 010 and Option 011)
Rw HP 8593E, HP 8594E, HP 8595E, and HP 8596E only. Option 010 provides a 9 kHz to
2.9 GHz built-in tracking generator. This source-receiver combination makes insertion-loss,
frequency response, and return-loss measurements. The tracking generator has a wide
distortion-free dynamic range, plus good sensitivity and selectivity. Option 010 has the standard
509 output impedance.
HP 85933, HP 8594E, HP 8595E, and HP 85963: Option 010 is also available, with factory
installation (Option KlO) after the purchase of your spectrum analyzer.
For HP859OL and HP8591Eonly. Option 010 (100 kHz to 1.8 GHz) or 011 (1 MHz to 1.8 GHz)
provides a built-in tracking generator.
Option 010 has the standard 500 output impedance. Option 011 has 750 output impedance.
HP 8590L: Options 010 and 011 are also available as retrofit kits (Option RlO or Rll) after
the purchase of your spectrum analyzer, or as kits HP part number 5062-6463 and 5062-6479
respectively.
HP 8591E: Options 010 and 011 are also available as retrofit kits (Option RlO or Rll) after
the purchase of your spectrum analyzer, or as kits HP part numbers 5062-6460 and 5062-6480
respectively.
Protective ‘Em Operating/Carrying Case with Shoulder Strap (Option 015)
This option lowers the maximum ambient operating temperature specification by 5 “C. It allows
instrument operation while installed in the case.
It is a soft nylon operating and carrying case with a shoulder strap and a pouch for accessories.
It includes a CRT viewing hood for operation in direct sunlight. Option 015 can be used to
provide additional protection during travel.
Protective Yellow Operating/Carrying Case with Shoulder Strap
(Option 016)
This option lowers the maximum ambient operating temperature specification by 5 “C. It allows
instrument operation while installed in the case.
It is a soft nylon operating and carrying case with a shoulder strap and a pouch for accessories.
It includes a CRT viewing hood for operation in direct sunlight. Option 016 can be used to
provide additional protection during travel.
HP-IB and Parallel Interface (Option 041)
Option 041 allows you to control your spectrum analyzer from a computer that uses a
Hewlett-Packard interface bus (HP-IB). Such computers include the HP 9000 Series 300,
and the IIP Vectra PC. Option 041 includes a connector for an external keyboard, an HP-IB
connector, a parallel interface connector for printers, and the HP 8590 E-Series and L-Series
Spectrum Analyzer and HP 8591C Cable TV Analyzer Programmer’s Guide.
Option 041 allows the spectrum analyzer to copy its screen to a printer or plotter and includes
a separate connector that accepts programming commands from an external keyboard.
Option 041 is also available as a retrofit kit (Option R41) after the purchase of your spectrum
analyzer, or as a kit HP part number 08590-60380.
1 O-6
Measurement Personalities, Options, and Accessories
Note
Option 041 can be converted to an Option 043 by ordering the RS-232 and
parallel interface connector assembly HP part number 08590- 60369.
RS-232 and Parallel Interface (Option 043)
Option 043 allows you to control your spectrum analyzer from a computer that uses an RS-232
interface bus. Such computers include the HP Vectra PC, the IBM PC, the AT, and compatibles.
It includes a connector for an external keyboard, an RS-232 g-pin connector, a parallel interface
connector for printers, and the HP 8590 E-Series and L-Series Spectrum Analyzer and
HP 8591 C Cable TV Analyzer Programmer’s tide.
Option 043 allows the spectrum analyzer to copy its screen to a printer or plotter and includes
a separate connector that accepts programming commands from an external keyboard.
Option 043 is also available as a retrofit kit (Option R43) after the purchase of your spectrum
analyzer, or as a kit HP part number 08590-60381.
Note
Option 043 can be converted to an Option 041 by ordering the HP-IB and
parallel interface connector assembly HP part number 08590- 60368.
Frequency Extension to 26.5 GHz with APC-3.5 Connector (Option 026)
Ebr HP 8592L and HP 8593E only. The frequency range of the spectrum analyzer is extended
from 22 GHz to 26.5 GHz. Analyzers with this option use an APC-3.5 connector on the
RF INPUT, and circuit boards and front panels that are different from the standard units.
Frequency Extension to 26.5 GHz with N-Type Connector (Option 027)
Ebr HP 85921, and HP 8593E only. The frequency range of the spectrum analyzer is extended
from 22 GHz to 26.5 GHz. Analyzers with this option use an N-Type connector on the RF
INPUT, and circuit boards and front panels that are different from the standard units.
Note
The extended frequency specifications only apply when using the Type-N to
SMA adaptor that is supplied with the option.
Front Panel Protective Cover (Option 040)
The impact cover assembly snaps onto the front of your spectrum analyzer to protect the front
panel during travel and when the unit is not in use.
Option 040 is also available as a kit (Impact Cover Assembly, HP part number 5062-4805).
Protective Soft Carrying Case/Back Pack (Option 042)
Option 042 can be used to provide additional protection during travel. In addition, it provides a
pouch for accessories. (Cannot operate instrument while installed in case.)
Measurement Personalities, Options, and Accessories
1 O-7
Improved Amplitude Accuracy for NADC bands (Option 050)
For HP 8591E, HP 8593E, HP 8594E, HP 8595E, and HP 8596E only. This is an amplitude
calibration that improves specifications to l 0.6dB at 20-30” C for NADC frequency bands 824
to 849 MHz and 869 to 894 MHz. In addition, it improves specifications to 50.9dB at 20-30” C
in the frequency bands 1850 to 1910 MHz and 1930 to 1990 MHz
Option 050 is also available as a service center only retrofit kit (Option R50) after the purchase
of your spectrum analyzer.
Improved Amplitude Accuracy for PDC bands (Option 051)
For HP 8591E, HP 8593E, HP 8594E, HP 8595E, and HP 8596E only. This is an amplitude
calibration that improves specifications to f0.5 dB at 20-30” C for the PDC frequency bands in
the 810 to 956 MHz and 1429 to 1501 MHz frequency ranges.
Option 051 is also available as a service center only retrofit kit (Option R51) after the purchase
of your spectrum analyzer.
Improved Amplitude Accuracy for PHS (Option 052)
Fbr HP 8593E, HP 8594E, HP 8595E, and HP 8596E only. This is an amplitude calibration that
improves specifications to f0.5 dB at 20-30° C for the PHS frequency band in the 1895 to 1918
MHz frequency range.
Option 052 is also available as a service center only retrofit kit (Option R52) after the purchase
of your spectrum analyzer.
Improved Amplitude Accuracy for CDMA (Option 053)
For HP 8591E, HP 8593E, HP 8594E, HP 8595E, and HP 8596E only. This is an amplitude
calibration that improves specifications to *0.6 dB at 20-30” C for CDMA frequency bands 824
to 849 MHz and 869 to 894 MHz. In addition, it improves specifications to fO.SdB at 20-30” C
in the frequency bands 1850 to 1910 MHz and 1930 to 1990 MHz
Option 053 is also available as a service center only retrofit kit (Option R53) after the purchase
of your spectrum analyzer.
Fast Time Domain Sweeps (Option 101)
For HP 8591E, HP 8593E, HP 8594E, HP 8595E, and HP 85963 only. Option 101 allows sweep
times down to 20 ps in zero span. In fast sweep times (sweep times less than 20 ms), time
domain sweeps are digitized. All trace functions are available for these fast zero-span sweeps.
Also see Option 301 below.
Option 101 also adds the analog+ display mode and negative peak detection to the spectrum
analyzer. The analog+ display mode provides traditional analog display operation combined
with the advantages of digital display features like markers, screen titles, and hard copy
output. The negative peak detector capability is useful for video modulator balance
adjustments and intermodulation distortion measurements.
Option 101 is also available as a retrofit kit (Option ROl) after the purchase of your spectrum
analyzer, or as a kit HP part number 5062-6458.
10-8
Measurement Personalities, Options, and Accessories
AM/FM Demodulator with Speaker and TV Sync Trigger Circuitry
(Option 102)
Ftw HP 85913, HP 8593E, HP 8594E, HP 8595E, and HP 85963 only. Option 102 enables you
to use amplitude or frequency demodulation and to listen to a demodulated signal. Option
102 also allows you to TV trigger on the selected line of a TV video picture frame if both
Option 101 and 102 are installed. The sweep triggering works with interlaced or noninterlaced
displays for the NTSC, PAL, and SECAM formats. Also see Option 301 below.
Option 102 is also available as a retrofit kit (Option R02) after the purchase of your spectrum
analyzer, or as a kit HP part number 5062-6457.
Quasi-Peak Detector and AM/FM Demodulator With Speaker (Option 103)
Fbr HP 8591E, HP 8593E, HP 8594E, HP 85953, and HP 8596E only. Option 103 enables you to
make automatic or manual quasi-peak measurements, to listen to a demodulated signal, and to
use amplitude or frequency demodulation.
Option 103 is available as a kit, order HP 11946A.
Time-Gated Spectrum Analysis (Option 105)
Fbr HP 8591E, HP 85933, HP 8594E, HP 8595E, and HP 8596E only. Option 105 allows you to
selectively measure the spectrum of signals that may overlap in the frequency domain, but
be separated in the time domain. By adjusting a time gate based on a user-supplied trigger
signal, you can significantly increase the diagnostic capability of your spectrum analyzer for
time-interleaved signals.
Option 105 is also available as a retrofit kit (Option R15) after the purchase of your spectrum
analyzer, or as a kit 5062-8218.
Option 101 is recommended in addition to Option 105 since it significantly decreases sweep
time and therefore the resolution in the time domain.
CT2 Demodulator (Option 110)
Fbr HP 85913, HP 8593E, HP 8594E, HP 85953, and HP 8596E only. Option 110 provides
built-in demodulation capability for making CT2 transmitter measurements. It must be
used with the HP 85717A CT2-CA1 measurements personality to make frequency deviation
measurements on CT2 cordless telephone handsets and bases.
Option 110 is also available as a retrofit kit (Option R05) after the purchase of your spectrum
analyzer, or as a kit HP part number 5063-0244.
Group Delay and Amplitude Flatness (Option 111)
Fbr HP 85933, HP 8594E, HP 8595E, and HP 8596E only. Option 111 allows you to make
end-to-end and loop back measurements of group delay and amplitude flatness. It must be
used with HP 11770A Link Measurement Personality and the Option 010, Tracking Generator.
HP 11768A Group Delay and Amplitude Flatness Retrofit Kit contains both the Option 111 and
the HP 11770A Link Measurement Personality. This kit is factory retrofittable only.
Measurement Personalities, Options, and Accessories
1 O-9
DECT Demodulator (Option 112)
For HP 8593E, HP 85943, HP 8595E, and HP 8596E only. This option provides built-in
demodulation capability for making DECT (Digital European Cordless Telephone)
measurements. It must be used with HP 85723A measurements personality to make frequency
and deviation measurements on DECT handsets and base stations.
Option 112 is also available as a retrofit kit (Option R06) after the purchase of your spectrum
analyzer.
Noise Figure (Option 119)
fir HP 85933, HP 85943, HP 8595E, and HP 8596E only. This option along with the
HP 85719A Noise-Figure Measurement Personality provide displayed swept noise-figure and
gain measurements from 10 MHz to 2.9 GHz.
Option 119 is also available as a retrofit kit (Option R19) after the purchase of your spectrum
analyzer, or as a kit HP part number 5063-0247.
Narrow Resolution Bandwidths (Option 130)
Fbr HP 85913, HP 85933, HP 8594E, HP 85953, and HP 8596E only. This option provides
additional narrow resolution bandwidths of 30 Hz, 100 Hz, and 300 Hz. These bandwidths
improve the spectrum analyzer sensitivity and allow you to resolve closely spaced signals.
Option 130 is also available as a retrofit kit (Option R30) after the purchase of your spectrum
analyzer, or as a kit HP part number 5063-0246.
Narrow Resolution Bandwidths and Precision Frequency Reference
(Option 140)
For HP 8591E, HP 8593E, HP 85943, HP 85953, and HP 85963 only. This option is a
combination of Option 130 and Option 004. Option 140 provides additional narrow resolution
bandwidths of 30 Hz, 100 Hz, and 300 Hz. These bandwidths improve sensitivity and allow
you to resolve closely spaced signals. The option also includes an internal precision-frequency
reference that improves stability and provides increased absolute frequency accuracy. The
precision frequency reference makes the narrow resolution bandwidths more effective and
easier to use.
DSP, Fast ADC and Digital Demodulator (Option 151)
For HP 8593E, HP 8594E, HP 85953, and HP 85963 only. Option 151 supplies the hardware
required for fast time domain sweeps, digital demodulation measurements, and digital signal
processor-assisted (DSP) measurements.
Option 151 provides a subset of Option 101 fast time domain functions. Option 101 allows zero
span sweep times as low as 20 psec with a step resolution of 20 psec (20 psec, 40 psec, 60 psec,
and so forth.) Option 151 allows zero span sweep times as low as 40 psec with a sequence of
40 psec, 80 psec, 160 psec, 320 psec, and 160 psec step size thereafter. All trace functions are
available for these fast zero-span sweeps.
Since the sweep times offered by Option 151 are a subset of those offered by Option 101, the
analog+ display mode is not supported for Option 151.
lo-10
Measurement Personalities, Options, and Accessories
Option 101 or Option 151 support negative peak detection for an HP 85933, HP 85943,
HP 8595E, and HP 85963. The negative peak detector capability is useful for video modulator
balance adjustments and intermodulation distortion measurements. Option 101 allows negative
peak detection with sweep times as high as 200 ms. Option 151 allows negative peak detection
with sweep times as high as 800 ms.
Option 151 requires the installation of Option 160 or 163.
PDC/PHS/NADC/CDMA Firmware for Option 151 (Option 160)
fir HP 85933, HP 8594E, HP 85953, and HP 85963 with Option 151 only. Option 160 provides
the digital signal processing (DSP) firmware ROMs necessary to perform PDC, PHS, or NADC
digital demodulation-based measurements. It also includes DSP-assisted measurements for
CDMA.
Option 160 implements a coherent downconversion, and calculates the minimum RMS error
vector magnitude of a timeslot. Carrier frequency error and I-Q origin offset are also extracted
from sampled data.
Option 151 with Option 160 and the HP 85718B NADC-TDMA measurements personality
provide a complete NADC transmitter RF measurement solution including modulation metrics.
Option 151 with Option 160 and the HP 8572OC PDC measurements personality provide a
complete PDC transmitter RF measurement solution including modulation metrics.
Option 151 with Option 160 and the HP 85725B CDMA measurements personality provide a
CDMA transmitter measurement solution with fast DSP-assisted measurements.
Option 151 with Option 160 and the HP 85726B PHS measurements personality provide a
complete PHS transmitter RF measurement solution including modulation metrics.
GSM/DCS1800 Firmware for Option 151 (Option 163)
For HP 8593E, HP 8594E, HP 85953, and HP 85963 with Option 151 only. Option 163 provides
Option 151 Digital Demodulator hardware with a firmware algorithm that demodulates GSM
and DCS1800 radio carriers in order to make modulation quality measurements.
Option 163 is also available as a retrofit kit (Option R63) for spectrum analyzers that already
have Option 151 installed. For analyzers that do not have Option 151 installed, a retrofit kit
(Option R73) is available to provide both options 151 and 163.
TV Picture Display (Option 180)
For HP 8591C, HP 8591E, HP 85933, HP 8594E, HP 8595E, and HP 8596E only. Option 180
allows you to view an NTSC, PAL, or SECAM television picture on the spectrum analyzer
display.
Option 180 is also available as a retrofit kit (Option RSO) after the purchase of your spectrum
analyzer, or as a kit HP part number 08591-60089.
Measurement Personalities, Options, and Accessories
10-l 1
TV Sync Trigger Capability/Fast Time-Domain Sweeps and AM/FM
Demodulator (Option 301)
Fbr HP 85913, HP 85933, HP 8594E, HP 85953, and HP 85963 only. Option 301 is a combined
option made of Options 101 and 102, allowing sweep times down to 20 ,US in zero span,
enabling use of amplitude or frequency demodulation, and allowing a demodulated signal to be
listened to. See Options 101 and 102 above for more detailed descriptions.
508 to 75Q Matching Pad (Option 711)
Fbr E-Series and L-Series spectrum analyzers. This option provides a 5Ofl to 7562 matching pad
with dc block to be used on the spectrum analyzer input. The pad has a frequency range of
1 MHz to 1.8 GHz. It adapts your standard 500 spectrum analyzer to be compatible with a 753
system under test.
Option 711 is also available as HP part number 08590-60090.
Reduced Frequency Accuracy (Option 713)
For HP 85901, only. Option 713 removes the built-in frequency counter from your spectrum
analyzer. This reduces the frequency accuracy of your measurements.
Rack Mount Kit Without Handles (Option 908)
This option provides the parts necessary to mount the spectrum analyzer in an HP System II
cabinet or in a standard 19 inch (482.6 mm) equipment rack.
Option 908 is also available as a kit (HP part number 5062-4841).
Rack Mount Kit With Handles (Option 909)
Option 909 is the same as Option 908 but includes front handles for added convenience.
Option 909 is also available as a kit (HP part number 5062-4840).
User’s Guide and Calibration Guide (Option 910)
An additional copy of the HP 8590 E-Series and L-Series Spectrum Analyzers User’s Guide,
the HP 8590 E-Series and L-Series Series Spectrum Analyzers Quick Reference Guide, and the
Calibration Guide of the appropriate model number for your spectrum analyzer, are available
as a set under Option 910.
Service Documentation (Option 9 15)
Option 915 provides one copy of the assembly-level repair service guide and one copy of
the component-level repair service guide. The assembly-level repair service guide describes
assembly level troubleshooting procedures and adjustment procedures. The component-level
repair service guide includes parts lists, component-location diagrams, and schematic diagrams
for selected repairable assemblies. The manuals can be ordered separately.
BenchLink Spectrum Analyzer (Option B70)
Option B70 provides the BenchLink Spectrum Analyzer software that can be used to capture
screen images and trace data using a Personal Computer (PC). The captured information can
then be used in other PC applications, including word processing and spreadsheets.
lo-12
Measurement Personalities, Options, and Accessories
Accessories
A number of accessories are available from Hewlett-Packard to help you configure your
spectrum analyzer for your specific applications. They can be ordered through your local
HP Sales and Service Office.
RF and Transient Limiters
The HP 11867A and HP 11693A RF Limiters protect the spectrum analyzer input circuits from
damage due to high power levels. The HP 11867A operates over a frequency range of DC to
1800 MHz and begins reflecting signal levels over 1 milliwatt up to 10 watts average power and
100 watts peak power. The HP 11693A microwave limiter (0.1 to 12.4 GHz, usable to 18 GHz)
guards against input signals over 1 milliwatt up to 1 watt average power and 10 watts peak
power.
The 11947A Transient Limiter protects the spectrum analyzer input circuits from damage due
to signal transients. It specifically is needed for use with a line impedence stabilization network
(NISN). It operates over a frequency range of 9 kHz to 200 MHz, with 10 dB of insertion loss.
5OQ Transmission/Reflection Test Set
The HP 85044A Option HlO transmission/reflection test set provides the capability to
simultaneously measure the impedance and transmission characteristics of 5062 devices. It is
effective over a frequency range of 300 kHz to 3 GHz.
Scalar 503 Transmission/Reflection Test Set
The HP 85630A scalar transmission/reflection test set provides the capability to simultaneously
measure the impedance and transmission characteristics of devices. It is effective over
a frequency range of 300 kHz to 2.9 GHz and must be used with the HP 85714A scalar
measurements personality.
5OW753 Minimum Loss Pad
The HP 11852B is a low VSWR minimum loss pad that is required for measurements on 750
devices using an spectrum analyzer with a 5OR input. It is effective over a frequency range of
dc to 2 GHz. The minimum loss pad can be order as Option 004 at the time the instrument is
ordered.
753 Matching Transformer
The HP 11694A allows you to make measurements in 7562 systems using a spectrum analyzer
with a 500 input. It is effective over a frequency range of 3 to 500 MHz.
RF Bridges
The HP 86205A 500 RF bridge and HP 86207A 75Q RF bridge can be used to make reflection
measurements with the spectrum analyzer. These external directional bridges offer high
directivity and excellent port match. The HP 86205A operates over a frequency range of
300 kHz to 6 GHz. The HP 86207A operates over a frequency range of 300 kHz to 3 GHz.
Measurement Personalities, Options, and Accessories
1 O-13
AC Power Source
The HP 85901A provides 200 watts of continuous power for field and mobile application. The
self-contained ac power source has outputs for either 115 V or 230 V and runs on its own
internal battery, an external battery, or on another 12 V dc source. Typical operating time
exceeds 1 hour for 100 watt continuous use at room temperature.
AC Probe
The HP 85024A high frequency probe performs in-circuit measurements without adversely
loading the circuit under test. The probe has an input capacitance of 0.7 pF shunted by 1 MQ
of resistance and operates over a frequency range of 300 kHz to 3 GHz. High probe sensitivity
and low distortion levels allow measurements to be made while taking advantage of the full
dynamic range of the spectrum analyzer.
Caution
Do not use dc-coupled probes on HP 8592L and HP 85933 analyzers; they may
cause damage to the spectrum analyzer input circuit.
When using a dc-coupled probe with an HP 85943, HP 85953, or HP 85963,
the spectrum analyzer must be set to ac coupling. To set the analyzer to ac
coupling,press CAMPLITUDE~, More 1 of 3, More 2 of 3, COUPLE AC DC so
that AC is underlined.
Broadband Preamplifiers and Power Amplifiers
Preamplifiers and power amplifiers can be used with your spectrum analyzer to enhance
measurements of very low-level signals.
n
n
n
n
n
n
The HP 10855A preamplifier provides a minimum of 22 dB gain from 2 MHz to 1300 MHz.
The HP 8449B preamplifier provides a minimum of 30 dB gain from 1 GHz to 26.5 GHz.
The HP 8447D preamplifier provides a minimum of 25 dB gain from 100 kHz to 1.3 GHz.
The HP 84473 power amplifier provides a minimum of 22 dB gain from 0.1 GHz to 1.3 GHz.
The HP 87405A preamplifier provides a minimum of 22 dB gain from 10 MHz to 3 GHz.
The HP 85905A CATV 75 ohm preamplifier provides a minimum of 18 dB gain from 45 MHz
to 1 GHz.
Burst Carrier Trigger
For use with HP 8590 E-Series spectrum analyzers. The HP 85902A burst carrier trigger
detects the burst RF carrier of a digital communication system and provides a TTL output
trigger to synchronize a spectrum analyzer. The triggering function is especially useful when
performing time-dependent measurements used as power versus time and adjacent channel
power gated measurements. The HP 85902A is compatible with most digital communications
formats, including NADC-TDMA, E- TDMA, JDC, GSM, DCS-1800, CT2-CAI, DECT, PHP, and
CDMA.
lo-14
Measurement Personalities, Options, and Accessories
Close Field Probes
The HP 11945A close field probe set contains the HP 11940A and HP 11941A close-field probes.
These are small, hand-held, electromagnetic-field sensors that provide repeatable, absolute,
magnetic-field measurements over a wide frequency range. The HP 11941A operates from
9 kHz to 30 MHz. The HP 11940A from 30 MHz to 1 GHz. When attached to a source, the
probes generate a localized magnetic field for electromagnetic interference (EMI) susceptibility
testing.
The HP 11945A Option E51 also includes the HP 8447F Option H64 preamplifier and a
convenient carrying bag.
External Keyboard
Fbr use with Option 041 or m3. The HP C1405B keyboard is an IBM AT compatible keyboard
that can be connected to the external keyboard connector, using a C1405-60015 cable adapter,
of the rear panel of the spectrum analyzer. Any IBM AT compatible keyboard with a small DIN
connector will work. Screen titles and remote programming commands can be entered easily
with the external keyboard.
HP-IB Cable
Fbr use with Option @I. The HP 10833 HP-IB cables interconnect HP-IB devices and are
available in four different lengths. HP-IB cables are used to connect printers, plotters, and
controllers to a spectrum analyzer.
Memory Cards
The HP 85901; and HP 8592L must have Option 003. Blank memory cards are available for the
storage and transfer of data and programs. Several different sizes of cards are available for
use with the memory card reader, see table below. The memory card reader is standard for
the HP 85913, HP 85933, HP 85943, HP 85953, and HP 85963. The memory card reader is
Option 003 for the HP 8590L and HP 8592L.
Parallel Interface Cable
Fbr use with Option 041 and 043 The HP 92284A parallel interface cable is a 36-pin to 25-pin
male-to-male 2 meter cable used to connect supported printers and plotters to a spectrum
analyzer.
Measurement Personalities, Options, and Accessories
10-l 5
PC Interface and Report Generator software
For use with HP 8590 E-Series or L-Series spectrum analyzers with option 003 and HP 85716A
CATV system monitor personality. The HP 85916A PC Interface and Report Generator
software provides easy setup and scheduling screens for immediate and timed measurements.
This software allows you to create or edit test plans to suit your needs. You can download
CATV system monitor data to the HP 85916A’s database. The data can be reviewed on the
PC screen in tabular or W-Y graph format. This software allows you to control the spectrum
analyzer over telephone lines.
Plotter
For use with Option 041 or 043. If you have access to an HP 7440A, HP 7475A, or HP 7550A,
you can plot a permanent record of the display. Most HP LaserJet printers will support the
PLT->LJT mode. (See RS-232 Cable in this chapter for the required cable.)
Printer
Fbr use with Option 041 or 043. The DeskJet personal printers provide black and white or
color printing for another form of permanent records of your test results. The HP LaserJet
series printers are also compatible. The printers can be ordered with RS-232 or parallel
interfaces to correspond to the interface option installed on the spectrum analyzer.
Rack Slide Kit
This kit (HP part number 1494-0060) provides the hardware to adapt rack-mount kits
(Options 908 and 909) for mounting the spectrum analyzer on slides in an HP System II cabinet.
RS-232 Cable
For use with Option 043. The HP 245426 is a g-pin (f) to 25-pin (m) RS-232 cable. The
HP 24542G cable can be used with HP plotters, HP DeskJet printers, HP LaserJet Series and PC
printers with 25-pin (f) RS-232 connectors. The LaserJet 4P and 4Plus require an HP C2932A
g-pin (m) to g-pin (f) cable for RS-232 connection. The modem cable required is HP 24542M
g-pin (f) to 25.pin (m), and the PC cable is HP 24542U.
Transit Case
The transit case (HP part number 9211-5604) provides extra protection for your spectrum
analyzer for frequent travel situations. The HP transit case protects your instrument from
hostile environments, shock, vibration, moisture, and impact while providing a secure enclosure
for shipping.
10-l 6
Measurement Personalities, Options, and Accessories
SRQ
Service Requests
This appendix describes the spectrum analyzer service request (SRQ) capability. A service
request is a spectrum analyzer output that tells the operator or computer that a specific event
has taken place in the spectrum analyzer.
When writing programs, service requests can be used to interrupt the computer program
sequence, causing the program to branch to a subroutine. For example, by using service
requests, the computer can perform other operations while the spectrum analyzer is sweeping.
When the sweep is completed, the computer can service the spectrum analyzer by changing the
spectrum analyzer state or reading data from the memory.
Note
Service requests do not work with computers that have an RS-232 interface.
Not all service requests are available with some HP-IB computers. Refer to the
manuals supplied by your computer’s manufacturer.
When making a service request, the spectrum analyzer places the I/O interface SRQ line true
and the spectrum analyzer displays SRQ with an octal coded number. Setting the SRQ line true
announces to the computer that the spectrum analyzer requires attention. The computer can
then command the spectrum analyzer to send its “status byte.” The status byte indicates the
type of service request. The status byte is the binary equivalent of the octal SRQ number.
Note
If the spectrum analyzer display annotation has been blanked, the service
request notation will not appear.
A serial polling technique must be used by the computer to test for service
requests. The spectrum analyzer does not respond to parallel polling.
A service request can be cleared from the display by pressing C-1, doing an instrument
preset, or by executing a remote command query.
Status Byte Definition
The status byte sent by the spectrum analyzer determines the nature of the service request.
The meaning of each bit of the status byte is explained in Table A-l.
SRQ A-l
‘Ihble A-l. Status Byte Definition
Bit
Message
Display Message
1 (LSB) Unused
1
Unit Key Pressed
SRQ 102
2
End of sweep
SRQ 104
3
Hardware broken
SRQ 110
4
Command complete
SRQ 120
Illegal spectrum analyzer command
SRQ 140
Universal HP-IB service request HP-IB RQS bit
6
Unused
7
5!
The display message is an octal number based on the binary value of the status byte. This
octal number always begins with a “1” since this is translated from bit 6, the universal service
request bit. The status byte for an illegal spectrum analyzer command (SRQ 140) is as follows:
bit number 7 6
5 4 3
2 1 0
status byte 0 1
1 0 0
0 0 0
This displays the octal equivalent of the status byte binary number: SRQ 140
The octal equivalent is based on the whole binary number:
01100000 (binary) = 140 (octal) One simple way to determine the octal equivalent of the binary
number is to partition the binary number three bits at a time from the least significant bit, and
treat each part as a single binary nu nlber:
binary
octal
01
1 0 0
0 0 0
1
4
0
The decimal equivalent of the octal number is determined as follows:
140 (octal) = 1 x (8) + 4 x (8) + 0 x (8) = 96 (decimal)
More than one service request can be sent at the same time. For example, if an illegal spectrum
analyzer command (SRQ 140) and the end of a sweep (SRQ 104) occurred at the same time,
SRQ 144 appears on the spectrum analyzer display, because both bit 5 and bit 2 are set as
shown below:
10
2
bit number
7 6
5 4 3
status byte
octal value
0 1
1
1 0 0
1 0 0
4
4
= SRQ 144
Service Request Activating Commands
With the exceptions of SRQ 140 and SRQ 110, service requests can only be activated from a
computer. (SRQ 140 and SRQ 110 are always activated.) Your programmer’s guide describes
service request activating commands under RQS and SRQ.
A-2 SRQ
Glossary
absolute amplitude accuracy
The degree of correctness or uncertainty (expressed in either volts or dB power). It includes
relative uncertainties plus calibrator uncertainty. For improved accuracy, some spectrum
analyzers specify frequency response relative to the calibrator as well as relative to the
midpoint between peak-to-peak extremes. Refer also to relative amplitude accuracy.
active function readout
The area of a display screen where the active function and its state are displayed.
The active function is the one that was completed by the last key selection or
remote-programming command.
active marker
The marker on a trace that can be repositioned by front-panel controls or programming
commands.
active trace
The trace (commonly A, B, or C) that is being swept (updated) with incoming signal
information.
adjacent channel power
The measure of transmitter signal leakage into adjacent channels. The measured value is
usually expressed as the ratio of the power in the adjacent channel to the channel power.
amplitude accuracy
The general uncertainty of a spectrum analyzer amplitude measurement, whether relative
or absolute.
analog + display mode
A display mode of the HP 8590 Series Spectrum Analyzers that digitally simulates an analog
display. The spectrum analyzer takes several samples of the signal amplitude at each
horizontal point as it sweeps across the screen. The samples are displayed as individual dots
on the screen that are not connected. This analog-like trace data is available along with
the normal digital display features like hard copy output, screen annotation and titles, and
complete marker functions.
analog display
A display where the trace data is generated by deflecting the electron beam to match the
signal amplitude as it sweeps across the screen. The refresh rate of the trace data is equal
to the spectrum analyzer sweep rate. Refer also to CRT persistence.
ASCII
The acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. It is an eight-part
code (7 bits plus parity check) used for data (information) interchange. An ASCII value is
a specific combination of bits ranging from 0 to 255 that represent characters in machine
language that computers and controllers can understand.
Glossary-l
attenuation
A general term used to denote a decrease of signal magnitude in transmission from one
point to another. Attenuation may be expressed as a scalar ratio of the input to the output
magnitude in decibels.
bandwidth selectivity
This is a measure of the analyzer’s ability to resolve signals unequal in amplitude. It is
the ratio of the 60 dB bandwidth to the 3 dB bandwidth for a given resolution filter (IF).
Bandwidth selectivity tells us how steep the filter skirts are. Bandwidth selectivity is
sometimes called shape factor.
battery-backed RAM
Random access memory (RAM) data retained by a battery. RAM memory cards can contain
data that is maintained with a battery. Refer also to nonvolatile memory.
blank mode
This is an analyzer function that stores any active trace in the analyzer’s reserved memory,
and blanks the display. The stored trace may be either A, B, or C.
broadband response
A signal whose spectrum is wider than the resolution bandwidth of a spectrum analyzer,
and whose repetition frequency is lower than the bandwidth of the spectrum analyzer.
Notice that it is a combination of signal and receiver characteristics that determines when
a signal is classified as broadband. For refining incoming signal responses, select narrower
spans and bandwidths. Refer also to narrowband response.The following checks can help
verify whether or not the response is broadband:
n
Change the resolution bandwidth. The displayed amplitude should change.
w Change the sweep time. The spacing of the responses on the display should change as you
change the sweep time.
w Change the span. The spacing of the responses should not change. They should be
independent of frequency span.
w Change the video bandwidth. If the video bandwidth is made narrower than the
resolution bandwidth, the displayed amplitude of the responses should decrease.
card reader
See memory card.
channel power
A measure of the total mean power contained within a specified bandwidth. The measured
power is the combination of all discrete signals, modulation, and noise within the
bandwidth.
character set
The set of elementary symbols. These normally include both alpha and numeric codes,
plus punctuation or any other symbol which may be read, stored, or written and used for
organization, control, or representation of data.
CISPR
The acronym for the Comite International Special des Perturbations Radio-electriques
(International Special Committee on Radio Interference) or the International Commercial
EMC Advisory Committee.
Glossary-2
clear-write mode
This is an analyzer function that clears the specified trace (A, B, or C) from the display, then
sweeps (updates) the trace each time trigger conditions are met. When trigger conditions
are met, the new input-signal data is displayed, then cleared, and the process begins again.
conducted emissions
Unwanted signals coupled onto the power or signal lines by a particular device.
command
A set of instructions that are translated into instrument actions. The actions are usually
made up of individual steps that together can execute an operation. Generally, for
spectrum analyzers it is a sequence of code that controls some operation of a spectrum
analyzer. These codes can be keyed in via a controller, or computer. Refer also to function.
continuous sweep mode
The analyzer condition where traces are automatically updated each time trigger conditions
are met.
CORR
Annotation indicating a corrected measurement condition exists. It appears when correction
factors are being applied to measurement results. If the CORR message is not displayed, the
measurements may not meet specifications.
correction factor
The factor by which a measurement reading must be multiplied to correct for the effects
of errors due to spectrum analyzer circuitry. This factor is the product of the ratio and
phase-angle correction factors for the existing conditions of operation.
CRT persistence
An indication of the rate at which the image fades on the display. In analyzers that digitize
the trace information (video) before writing it to the screen, the refresh rate is high enough
to prevent any flicker in the display; therefore, short-persistence displays are used. Purely
analog analyzers typically use long-persistence or variable-persistence displays because the
refresh rate equals the sweep rate.
current probe
A magnetic field sensor that is clamped around power lines to sense conducted emissions.
It is the preferred transducer for most MIL-STD conducted emissions testing. The voltage
at the output of the probe is proportional to the power line current and affected by probe
characteristics. Probe characteristics are provided by the manufacturer in the form of
transfer impedance, Z, which varies as a function of frequency. The equation below
illustrates how probe characteristics may be stated:
Z(dBfl) = V(dBpV) - I(dBpA)
default
The preset conditions, options, or parameters of an instrument. The default state may
be changed by choosing key selections or writing programming commands to use other
conditions.
delta marker
An analyzer mode in which a fixed reference marker is established, then a second active
marker becomes available so it can be placed anywhere along the trace. A readout indicates
the relative frequency separation and amplitude difference between the reference and
active markers.
Glossary-3
detector mode
The manner in which analog, video information is processed prior to being digitized and
stored in memory. Refer also to negative peak, positive peak, quasi-peak detector,
rosenfell, and sample.
digital display
A display that uses vectors drawn between a series of data points (analog video) that are
first digitized and stored in memory, then displayed. The number of stored data points is a
function of the particular analyzer. The displayed information is refreshed (old data points
are replaced with new data points stored in memory) at a flicker-free rate. The data in
memory is updated at the sweep rate of the analyzer.
display dynamic range
The maximum dynamic range over which both the larger and smaller signal can be viewed
simultaneously on the display. For analyzers with a maximum logarithmic display of 10
dB/division, the actual dynamic range may be greater than the display dynamic range.
Refer also to dynamic range.
display fidelity
The measurement uncertainty of relative differences in amplitude on a spectrum analyzer.
On purely analog analyzers (those analyzers that display trace information immediately and
do not store, then recall the data to the screen), these differences are displayed on the
screen and the graticule is used to evaluate the measurement. Many analyzers with digital
displays (refer to digital display) have markers that can be used to measure the signal. As a
result, measurement differences are stored in memory, and the ambiguity of the display is
eliminated from the measurement.
display range
The calibrated range of the display for a particular display mode or scale factor. Refer also
to linear display, log display, and scale factor.
displayed average noise level
The noise level viewed on the analyzer’s display after narrowing the video
setting enough to reduce the peak-to-peak noise fluctuations. The resulting
is essentially a straight line. Usually this term refers to the analyzer’s own
generated noise as a measure of sensitivity. It is typically specified in dBm
of minimum resolution bandwidth and minimum input attenuation.
bandwidth
noise display
internally
under conditions
DLP
The abbreviation for downloadable program. A single programming command or a sequence
of programming commands used to perform specific operations. DLPs can be made up
of several functions, variables, and traces defined by the program creator. The DLP can
be downloaded from one electronic storage medium into another and executed without a
controller.
drift
The slow (relative to sweep time) change of signal position on the display as a result of a
change in local oscillator frequency versus sweep voltage. While analyzer drift may require
periodic retuning, it does not impair frequency resolution.
dynamic range
The power ratio (dB) between the smallest and largest signals simultaneously present at the
input of an analyzer that can be measured with some degree of accuracy. Dynamic range
generally refers to measurement of distortion or intermodulation products.
Glossary-4
EM1
The abbreviation for electromagnetic interference. An EM1 measurement determines
how much an undesired electromagnetic disturbance impairs the reception of a desired
electromagnetic signal.
envelope detector
A detector circuit whose output follows the envelope, but not the instantaneous variation
of its input signal. This detector is sometimes called a peak detector. In superheterodyne
spectrum analyzers, the input to the envelope detector comes from the final IF, and the
output is a video signal. When we put the spectrum analyzer in zero span, the envelope
detector demodulates the input signal, and we can observe the modulating signal as a
function of time on the display.
error message
A message displayed on the screen indicating missing or failed hardware, improper user
operation, or other conditions that require additional attention. Generally, the requested
action or operation cannot be completed until the condition is resolved.
external mixer
An independent mixer, usually having a waveguide input port, used to extend the
frequency range of those spectrum analyzers designed to use them. The analyzer provides
the local oscillator signal and mixer bias (if needed), then returns the mixing products to the
analyzer’s IF input.
FFT
The abbreviation for fast Fourier transform. It is a mathematical operation performed on a
time-domain signal to yield the individual spectral components that constitute the signal in
the frequency domain. Refer also to spectrum.
firmware
An assembly made up of hardware and instruction code that are integrated to form a
functional set which cannot be altered during normal operation. The instruction code,
permanently installed in the circuitry of the instrument, is classified as ROM (read-only
memory). The firmware determines the operating characteristics of the instrument or
equipment. Each firmware version is identified by a revision code number, or date code.
flatness
The displayed amplitude variation corresponding to the tuned frequency range of the
spectrum analyzer. Flatness of &l dB indicates that maximum and minimum values of the
analyzer’s frequency response are less than 2 dB apart.
Fourier transform
See FFT.
frequency accuracy
The uncertainty with which the frequency of a signal or spectral component is indicated,
either in an absolute sense or relative to some other signal or spectral component. Absolute
and relative frequency accuracies are specified independently.
frequency range
The range over of frequencies which the spectrum analyzer performance is specified.
The maximum frequency range of many microwave analyzers can be extended with the
application of external mixers.
Glossary-5
frequency resolution
The ability of a spectrum analyzer to separate closely spaced spectral components and
display them individually. Resolution of equal amplitude components is determined by
resolution bandwidth. Resolution of unequal amplitude signals is determined by resolution
bandwidth and bandwidth selectivity.
frequency response
The peak-to-peak variation in the displayed signal amplitude over a specified center
frequency range. Frequency response is typically specified in terms of &dB relative to the
value midway between the extremes. It also may be specified relative to the calibrator
signal.
frequency span
The magnitude of the displayed frequency component. Span is represented by the
horizontal axis of the display. Generally, frequency span is given as the total span across the
full display. Some analyzers represent frequency span (scan width) as a per-division value.
frequency stability
The stability of a frequency component to remain unchanged in frequency or amplitude
over short- and long-term periods of time. Stability refers to the local oscillator’s ability
to remain fixed at a particular frequency over time. The sweep ramp that tunes the local
oscillator influences where a signal appears on the display. Any long-term variation in
local oscillator frequency (drift) with respect to the sweep ramp causes a signal to shift its
horizontal position on the display slowly. Shorter-term local oscillator instability can appear
as random FM or phase noise on an otherwise stable signal.
front-panel key
Keys, typically labeled, and located on the front panel of an instrument. The key labels
identify the function the key activities. Numeric keys and step keys are two examples of
front- panel keys.
full span
A mode of operation in which the spectrum analyzer scans the entire frequency band of an
analyzer.
function
The action or purpose which a specific item is intended to perform or serve. The spectrum
analyzer contains functions that can be executed via front-panel key selections, or through
programming commands. The characteristics of these functions are determined by the
firmware in the instrument. In some cases, a DLP (downloadable program) execution of a
function allows you to execute the function from front-panel key selections.
gain compression
The signal level at the input mixer of a spectrum analyzer where the displayed amplitude of
the signal is a specific number of dB too low due just to mixer saturation. The signal level
is generally specified for 1 dB or 0.5 dB compression and is usually between -3 dBm and
-10 dBm.
gated measurement
See time-gate.
hard copy
Information or data printed onto paper as opposed to its being stored on disk or in the
instrument’s memory.
Glossary-6
harmonic distortion
Undesired frequency components added to signals as a result of nonlinear behavior of the
device (for example, a mixer or an amplifier) through which signals pass. These unwanted
components are harmonically related to the original signal.
harmonic mixing
The utilization of local oscillator harmonics generated in a mixer to extend the tuning
range of a spectrum analyzer beyond the range achievable using just the local oscillator
fundamental. The mathematical algorithm is:
I;iN = FLO + FIF
HP-IB
The abbreviation for Hewlett-Packard Interface Bus. It is a Hewlett-Packard proprietary
parallel interface that allows you to “daisy-chain” more than one device to a port on a
computer or instrument..
IF
The abbreviation for intermediate frequency. An IF frequency is a frequency to which
a signal wave is shifted locally as an intermediate step in transmission or reception. On
spectrum analyzers, this is the frequency resulting from conversion before demodulation.
IF gain/IF attenuation
A control that adjusts the vertical position of displayed signals without affecting the signal
level at the input mixer. When changed, the value of the reference level is changed
accordingly.
IF feedthrough
A condition that results in a rise in amplitude of the baseline trace. This occurs as a result
of an input signal at the intermediate frequency (IF) passing through the input mixer. This a
usually only a potential problem on nonpreselected spectrum analyzers. The entire baseline
trace rises because the signal is always at the IF. (Mixing with the local oscillator is not
required.)
image response
A displayed signal that is actually twice the intermediate frequency (IF) away from the
frequency indicated by the spectrum analyzer. For each harmonic of the local oscillator
there is an image pair. One is below the local oscillator frequency by the IF and the other is
above. Images usually only appear on nonpreselected spectrum analyzers.
impedance
The apparent opposition in an electrical path to the flow of current. The specified nominal
input impedance of a spectrum analyzer is stated for the input connector. The most
common impedance for RF and microwave spectrum analyzers is 500. However, 750 is
typically used for cable television (CATV) work.
impulse bandwidth
The width of a rectangular filter that has the same peak voltage output as the actual
analyzer filter. The impulse bandwidth of the synchronously-tuned, Gaussian-like resolution
filters in the Hewlett-Packard spectrum analyzers is approximately 1.5 times the 3 dB
bandwidth.
incidental FM
Undesired frequency modulation on the output of a device (for example a signal source or
an amplifier) caused by or, incidental to, some other form of modulation, such as amplitude
modulation.
Glossary-7
input attenuator
An attenuator between the input connector and the first mixer of a spectrum analyzer (also
called an RF attenuator). The input attenuator is used to adjust the signal level incident
to the first mixer, and to prevent gain compression due to high-level or broadband signals.
It is also used to set the dynamic range by controlling the degree of internally-generated
distortion. For some analyzers, changing the input attenuator settings changes the vertical
position of the signal on the display, which then changes the reference level accordingly. In
Hewlett-Packard microprocessor-controlled spectrum analyzers, the IF gain is changed to
compensate for changes in input attenuator settings. Because of this, the signals remain
stationary on the display, and the reference level is not changed.
input impedance
The terminating impedance that the analyzer presents to the signal source. The nominal
impedance for RF and microwave analyzers is usually 5061. For some systems, such as
cable TV, 75Q is standard. The degree of mismatch between the nominal and actual input
impedance is called the VSWR (voltage standing wave ratio).
interface
The point at which different parts of a system interact. Also, the point at which operators
and instruments interact.
intermodulation distortion
Undesired frequency components resulting from the interaction of two or more spectral
components passing through a device having nonlinear behavior, such as a mixer or an
amplifier. The undesired components are related to the fundamental components by sums
and differences of the fundamentals and various harmonics. The algorithm is:
fi~fi,2xfi~f2,2xfiffi,3xfirt2xfi,
andsoon
limit line
A test limit made up of a series of line segments, positioned according to frequency and
amplitude within the spectrum analyzer’s measurement range. Two defined limit lines
may be displayed simultaneously. One sets an upper test limit, the other sets a lower test
limit. Trace data can be compared with the limit lines as the spectrum analyzer sweeps. If
the trace data exceeds either the upper or lower limits, the spectrum analyzer displays a
message or sounds a warning, indicating that the trace failed the test limits.
limit,-line file
The user-memory file that contains the limit-line table entries. Limit lines are composed of
frequency and amplitude components that make up a trace array and this data is stored in
the file. The limit-line file feature is available on spectrum analyzers that are capable of
limit-line operation. Refer also to limit line.
limit-line table
The line segments of a limit line are stored in the limit-line table. The table can be recalled
to edit the line segments, then restored in the limit-line file. Refer also to limit line.
linear display
The display mode in which vertical deflection on the screen is directly proportional to the
voltage of the input signal. The bottom line of the graticule represents 0 V; the top line
represents the reference level. The reference level is a non-zero value characteristic to the
spectrum analyzer model. On the HP 140 series analyzers, select a specific scale factor in
volts per division. On newer models of spectrum analyzers, select the reference level. The
scale factor becomes the reference level value divided by the number of graticule divisions.
Although the display is linear, analyzers with microprocessors allow reference level and
marker values to be indicated in dBm, dBmV, dBpV, volts, and in some cases, watts.
Glossary-8
linear input. level
The maximum input-signal level where gain compression does not occur. Refer also to gain
compression.
LO
The abbreviation for local oscillator. The local oscillator output in a superheterodyne system
is mixed with the received signal to produce a sum or difference equal to the intermediate
frequency (IF) of the receiver. Refer also to IF.
LO feedthrough
The response that occurs on a spectrum analyzer’s display when the first local oscillator
frequency is equal to the first IF. The LO feedthrough is a 0 Hz marker with no error, so it
can be used to improve the frequency accuracy of spectrum analyzers with nonsynthesized
LO systems.
log display
The display mode in which vertical deflection is a logarithmic function of the input-signal
voltage. Log display is also referred to as logarithmic mode. The display calibration is
set by selecting the value of the top graticule line (reference level), and scale factor in
volts per division. On Hewlett-Packard analyzers, the bottom graticule line represents
zero volts for scale factors of 10 dB/division or more. The bottom division, therefore, is
not calibrated for those analyzers. Analyzers with microprocessors allow reference level
and marker values to be indicated in dBm, dBmV, dBpV, volts, and occasionally in watts.
Nonmicroprocessor-based analyzers usually offer only one kind of unit, typically dBm.
marker
A visual indicator we can place anywhere along the displayed trace. A marker readout
indicates the absolute value of the trace frequency and amplitude at the marked point. The
amplitude value is displayed with the currently selected units. Refer also to delta marker
and noise marker.
maximum input level
The maximum signal power that may be safely applied to the input of a spectrum analyzer.
Typically 1 W (-30 dBm) for Hewlett-Packard spectrum analyzers.
MEAS UNCAL
Annotation indicating an uncalibrated measurement condition exists. It appears when
instrument settings affect accuracy of measurement results to the extent that they no
longer meet specifications.
measurement bandwidth
The resolution bandwidth required for a specific EM1 measurement. For MIL-STD
measurements, the resolution bandwidth is often determined by the tester with the
approval of the contracting agency.
For commercial testing the measurement bandwidths required usually follow the
recommendations of CISPR:
Band A (10 kHz to 150 kHz): 200 Hz
Band B (150 kHz to 30 MHz): 9 kHz
Band C and D (30 MHz to 1 GHz): 120 kHz
measurement range
The ratio, expressed in dB, of the maximum signal level that can be measured (usually the
maximum safe input level) to the lowest achievable average noise level. This ratio is almost
always much greater than can be realized in a single measurement. Refer also to dynamic
range.
Glossary-9
measurement units
Trace information is stored in trace arrays made up of measurement units. The
measurement-unit range is restricted to integers between -32,768 and +32,767. In
a logarithmic scale, a measurement unit is one-hundredth of a dBm, or represented
mathematically as: (value in dBm) x 100 = measurement units. As an example,
-10.115 dBm x 100 = -1012 measurement units, not -1011.5. Measurement units for
linear-trace information are from zero, for the bottom of the display, to 10,000 for the top
of the display, or the reference level.
memory
A storage medium, device, or recording medium into which data can be stored and held
until some later time, and from which the entire original data may be retrieved.
memory card
A small, credit-card-shaped memory device that can store data or programs. The programs
are sometimes called personalities and give additional capabilities to your instrument.
Typically, there is only one personality per memory card. Refer also to personality.
menu
The spectrum analyzer functions that appear on the display and are selected by pressing
front-panel keys. These selections may evoke a series of other related functions that
establish groups called menus.
narrowband response
A response measured under conditions in which there is only one spectral component
at a time in the passband of a spectrum analyzer’s resolution filter. This condition occurs
for continuous wave signals and repetitive signals whose repetition rate is greater than
about twice the resolution bandwidth of the analyzer. Note that a signal can have a spread
spectrum and still be viewed in the narrowband mode on the spectrum analyzer. The same
checks that were listed under broadband response are used here but with different results:
n
Change the frequency span. The frequency separation of the components remains
unchanged.
n
Change the resolution bandwidth. The amplitude of the responses does not change with
resolution bandwidth changes (as long as the bandwidth remains narrow relative to the
separation of the responses).
n
Change the sweep time. The separation of the responses is independent of sweep time.
n
Change the video bandwidth. The amplitude of the responses is unaffected by changes in
video bandwidth.
negative peak
The minimum, instantaneous value of an incoming signal. On digital displays, each
displayed point of the signal indicates the minimum value of the signal for that part of the
frequency span or time interval represented by the point.
noise figure
The ratio, usually expressed in dB, of the signal-to-noise ratio at the input of a device
(mixer, amplifier, and so on) to the signal-to-noise ratio at the output of the device.
noise marker
A marker whose readout represents the noise level in a 1 Hz noise power bandwidth. When
the noise marker is selected, the sample display detection mode is activated, the values
of a number of consecutive trace points about the marker (the number depends on the
type of analyzer) are averaged, and this average value is normalized to an equivalent value
in a 1 Hz noise power bandwidth. The normalization process accounts for detection and
bandwidth plus the effect of the log amplifier when we select the log-display mode.
Glossary-l II
noise sidebands
Modulation sidebands that indicate the short-term instability of the local oscillator
(primarily the first local oscillator) system of a spectrum analyzer. The modulating signal
is noise, in the local oscillator circuit itself or in the local oscillator stabilizing circuit, and
the sidebands comprise a noise spectrum. The mixing process transfers any local oscillator
instability to the mixing products, so the noise sidebands appear on any spectral component
displayed on the analyzer far enough above the broadband noise floor. Because the
sidebands are noise, their level relative to a spectral component is a function of resolution
bandwidth. Noise sidebands are typically specified in terms of dBc/Hz (amplitude in a 1 Hz
bandwidth relative to the carrier) at a given offset from the carrier, the carrier being a
spectral component viewed on the display.
nonvolatile memory
Memory data that is retained in the absence of an ac power source. This memory is
typically retained with a battery. Refer also to battery-backed RAM.
occupied bandwidth
A measure of the frequency bandwidth occupied by the carrier of a transmitter. It is
usually the bandwidth that includes 99% of the total mean carrier power, and is equivalent
to “99% power bandwidth”. It is measured by determining the lower and upper frequency
limits; where 0.5% of the total mean carrier power is below the lower frequency limit and
0.5% is above the upper frequency limit. Occasionally percentages other than 99% are
specified.
parameter units
Standard units of measure, which include the following:
Measured
Parameter
frequency
power level
power ratio
voltage
time
electrical current
impedance (resistance)
Unit
Name
hertz
decibel relative to milliwats
decibel
volt
second
ampere
ohm
Unit
Abbreviation
Hz
dBm
dB
V
:
cl
peak detection mode
The analyzer state where circuits calculate the peak value of a displayed signal. This value
is determined by evaluating a series of measured values from an active trace.
peak detector
A detector that follows the peak or envelope of the signal applied to it. The standard
detector in a spectrum analyzer is typically a peak detector. MIL-STD EM1 measurements
usually call for peak detection. Refer also to quasi-peak detector and envelope detector.
percent amplitude modulation
A measure of the amount of amplitude modulation on a signal. The measurement value
is a comparison of the power in the modulation signal to the power in the signal being
modulated. Percent amplitude modulation can be calculated as follows, where dB is the
ratio of the power of the signal to the power of the amplitude modulation sidebands.
--dB
%AM = 2002107
Glossary-l 1
persistence
See CRT persistence.
personality
Applications available on a memory card or other electronic media that extends the
capability of an instrument for specific uses. Examples include digital radio personalities
and cable TV personalities.
phase noise
Refer to noise sidebands.
position units
The position unit describes the location of a point along the horizontal axis of a trace.
Position unit values of a trace begin on the left-hand side of the graticule and increase to
a predefined value (specific to the spectrum analyzer model) on the right-hand side of the
graticule.
positive peak
The maximum, instantaneous value of an incoming signal. On digital displays, each
displayed point of the signal indicates the maximum value of the signal for that part of the
frequency span or time interval represented by the point.
preamplifier
An external, low-noise-figure amplifier that improves system (preamplifier/spectrum
analyzer) sensitivity over that of the analyzer itself.
predefined trace
Trace A, B, or C of a spectrum analyzer. Refer also to trace.
preselector
A tunable bandpass filter placed ahead of a frequency converter, or mixer, of a spectrum
analyzer. It tracks the appropriate mixing mode and passes signals of a desired frequency
and reduces others. Preselectors are typically used only above 2 GHz. They essentially
eliminate multiple and image responses and, for certain signal conditions, improve dynamic
range.
quasi-peak detector
A detector circuit designed with time constants that give a weighted value to the amplitude
of a detected signal. The displayed signal output is an indication of the degree to which the
detected signal would impair the intelligibility of a desired signal. The time constants (rise,
fall, average) for EM1 purposes are based on the recommendations of CISPR that are in turn
based on subjective tests. Interference limits for commercial EM1 tests are often given in
quasi-peak values.
random-access memory
RAM (random-access memory) or read-write memory, is a storage area allowing access to
any of its storage locations. Data can be written to or retrieved from RAM, but data storage
is only temporary. When the power is removed, the information disappears. User-generated
information appearing on a display is RAM data.
raster display
A television-like display in which the image is formed by scanning the electron beam
rapidly across and slowly down the CRT face and gating the beam on as appropriate. The
scanning rates are fast enough to produce a flicker-free display. Refer also to vector
display and sweep time.
Glossary-l 2
read-only memory
ROM (read-only memory) that is encoded into the analyzer’s firmware. The data can be
accessed (read) only; it cannot be altered by the user.
reference level
The calibrated vertical position on the display used as a reference for amplitude
measurement in which the amplitude of one signal is compared with the amplitude of
another regardless of the absolute amplitude of either.
relative amplitude accuracy
The uncertainty of an amplitude measurement in which the amplitude of one signal is
compared with the amplitude of another, regardless of the absolute amplitude of either.
Distortion measurements are relative measurements. Contributors to uncertainty include
frequency response and display fidelity and changes of input attenuation, IF gain, scale
factor, and resolution bandwidth.
relative-marker mode
The active marker is positioned relative to the position of the reference marker. Marker
readout shows amplitude, frequency, or time differences between the two markers.
residual FM
The inherent short-term frequency instability of an oscillator in the absence of any other
modulation. In the case of spectrum analyzers, we usually expand the definition to include
the case where the local oscillator is swept. Residual FM is usually specified in peak-to-peak
values, because they are most easily measured on the display, if they are visible at all.
residual responses
These are discrete responses seen on a spectrum analyzer display although no input signal is
applied.
resolution
Refer to frequency resolution.
resolution bandwidth
The ability of a spectrum analyzer to display adjacent responses discretely (hertz, hertz
decibel down). This term is used to identify the width of the resolution bandwidth filter
of a spectrum analyzer at some level below the minimum insertion-loss point (maximum
deflection point on the display). The 3 dB resolution bandwidth is specified; for others, it is
the 6 dB resolution bandwidth.
rosenfell
For digital displays, this is the display detection mode in which the value displayed at each
point on a trace is based upon whether or not the video signal both rose and fell during the
frequency or time interval represented by the point. If the video signal only rose or only
fell, the maximum value is displayed. If the video signal both rose and fell, the maximum
value during the interval is displayed by odd-numbered points, and the minimum value by
even-numbered points. To prevent the loss of a signal occurring during an even-numbered
interval, the maximum value of the signal during this interval is preserved. At the next
(odd-numbered) interval, the value displayed is the greater value carried over, or the
maximum, that occurs during the current interval.
sample
The instantaneous value of an incoming signal. On digital displays, each displayed point of
the signal indicates the instantaneous value of the signal for that part of the frequency span
or time interval represented by the point.
Glossary-13
scale factor
The per-division calibration of the vertical axis of the display.
scan (frequency span) linearity
The measured accuracy of the horizontal axis of the analyzer display. When two horizontal
points are set with analyzer controls, then measured, the linearity is the calculated error
between the two points compared with the analyzer settings.
selectivity
See bandwidth selectivity.
sensitivity
The level of the smallest sinusoid that can be observed on a spectrum analyzer, usually
under optimized conditions of minimum resolution bandwidth, 0 dB input attenuation, and
minimum video bandwidth. Hewlett-Packard defines sensitivity as the displayed average
noise level. A sinusoid at that level appears to be about 2 dB above the noise.
serial prefix
Serial numbers that identify an instrument begin with a five-character prefix. The prefix in
this case represents the version of firmware that particular instrument was shipped with.
For HP 70000 Modular Measurement Systems, file numbers saved by the user in memory
are preceded with letters that define the file type. Refer to the HP 70000 system operation
manual for detailed information.
shape factor
Refer to bandwidth selectivity.
signal resolution
The ability of the spectrum analyzer to resolve two separate input signals. Closely spaced
signals are more difficult to resolve than signals spaced far apart. Refer also to resolution
bandwidth and shape factor.
signal identification
A routine that identifies whether or not a particular Fourier transform response on the
spectrum analyzer’s display is at the correct frequency. The displayed signal may be aliased
by the FFT calculation because of inadequate sample rate. The signal identification routine
indicates if the signal is being displayed at the wrong frequency.
single-sweep mode
The spectrum analyzer sweeps once when trigger conditions are met. Each sweep
is initiated by pressing an appropriate front-panel key, or by sending a programming
command.
sinusoid
A wave whose electric-field vector is proportional to the sine (or cosine) of an angle that is
a linear function of time, or distance or both.
softkey
Key labels displayed on a screen or monitor which are activated by mechanical keys
surrounding the display, or located on a keyboard. Softkey selections usually evoke menus
that are written into the program software. Front-panel key selections determine which
menu (set of softkeys) appears on the display.
span
Span equals the stop frequency minus the start frequency. The span setting determines the
horizontal-axis scale of the spectrum analyzer display.
Glossary-14
span accuracy
The uncertainty of the indicated frequency separation of any two signals on the display.
spectral purity
See noise sidebands.
spectral component
One of the sine waves comprising a spectrum.
spectrum
An array of sine waves differing in frequency and amplitude. They are properly related
with respect to phase and, taken as a whole, constitute a particular time-domain signal.
spectrum analyzer
A device that effectively performs a Fourier transform and displays the individual spectral
components (sine waves) that constitute a time-domain signal.
spurious response
The undesired responses that appear on a spectrum analyzer display as a result of the input
signal. Internally generated distortion products are spurious responses, as are image and
multiple responses. These can be either harmonic responses or nonharmonic responses.
Harmonic responses are second, third, fourth, and so on, harmonics of the input signal.
Nonharmonic responses are intermodulation and residual responses.
state-register
The area of user memory in the analyzer where measurement results and associated
analyzer settings are stored.
step
The increment of change that results when you press the front-panel step keys, @ and 0,
or by program commands.
stimulus-response mode
The operating state that allows a spectrum analyzer to make measurements similar to
those of a network-analysis measurement system. Spectrum analyzers with this ability
use tracking generator functions. The tracking generator may be an external instrument
(stand-alone tracking generators) or designed into the analyzer hardware. Measurement
results are displayed in a relative-amplitude scale resulting from a variation, plus or minus,
from a reference (normalized) value stored in a trace.
stop/start frequency
Terms used in association with the stop and start points of the frequency measurement
range. Together they determine the span of the measurement range.
Glossary-l 5
sweep time
The time it takes the local oscillator to tune across the selected span. Sweep time directly
affects how long it takes to complete a measurement. It does not include the dead time
between the completion of one sweep and the start of the next. It is usually a function
of frequency span, resolution bandwidth, and video bandwidth. Resolution affects sweep
time in that the IF filters are band-limited circuits requiring finite times to charge and
discharge. The amount of time the mixing product remains in the IF filter passband is
directly proportional to the bandwidth; inversely proportional to the sweep in Hz per unit
of time. The rise time of a filter is inversely proportional to its bandwidth, and if the
proportionality constant “k” is included, then we can make the rise time equal the “k”
divided by resolution bandwidth. Mathematically, this is represented as:
Time in Passband =
resolution bandwidth
(resolution bandwidth x sweep time)
(span /sweep time) =
Rise Time =
span
k
resolution bandwidth
Solving for sweep time:
sweep time =
k x span
resolution bandwidth2
time-gate
A time gate acts as a time filter, rejecting signals and spectra not corresponding to the
desired time. It is an RF signal switch that admits the signal to the spectrum analyzer only
while the switch, or gate, is closed. Since the spectrum analyzer receives the signal only
when passed through the gate, it will only display the measurement results from the portion
of the signal selected by the gate position in time.
title line
The area on a display where user-selected characters are displayed. These characters are
selected from the front-panel keys.
TO1
Third order intermodulation distortion occurs in a system where two signals are present.
The distortion products are a result of each signal mixing with the other’s second harmonic.
If the two main signals are of equal power, the two third order distortion products will also
be of equal power. As the power of the two main signals is increased by an equal amount,
the power of the distortion products will increase three times that amount. Theoretically,
there is a power level at which the power of each distortion product equals the power of
the two main signals. (Practically, it may not be possible to reach this power level because
of compression or limiting.) The Third Order Intercept (TOI) is defined as the power at
which the third order distortion products equals the power of two equal level test signals.
trace
A trace is made up of a series of data points containing frequency and amplitude
information. The series of data points is often referred to as an array. Traces A, B, and C
are the typical names of traces that analyzer displays. The number of traces is specific to
the instrument.
Glossary-l 6
units
Dimensions on the measured quantities. Units usually refer to amplitude quantities because
they can be changed. In spectrum analyzers with microprocessors, available units are dBm
(dB relative to 1 mW (milliwatt) dissipated in the nominal input impedance of the analyzer),
dBmV (dB relative to 1 mV (millivolt)), dBpV (dB relative to 1 pV>, volts, and in some
analyzers watts.
update
To make existing information current; to bring information up to date.
upgrade
To improve the quality or extend the capability of an instrument or product. Enhancements
to upgrade the product. These enhancements can then be documented in an update
package.
variable persistence
A property of the display that allows the adjustment of the trace-fade rate which is created
by the display’s electron beam. It is a capability of purely analog displays which provides
flicker-free trace display regardless of sweep time.
vector display
The display type where the electron beam is directed so the image (consisting of trace,
graticule, and annotation) is written directly onto the display face. It is not created from a
series of dots as with the raster display.
video
A term describing the output of a spectrum analyzer’s envelope detector. The frequency
range extends from 0 Hz to a frequency that is typically well beyond the widest resolution
bandwidth available in the analyzer. However, the ultimate bandwidth of the video chain is
determined by the setting of the video filter.
video amplifier
A post-detection, dc-coupled amplifier that drives the vertical deflection plates of the
display. Refer also to video bandwidth and video filter.
video average
The digital averaging of spectrum analyzer trace information. It is available only on
analyzers with digital displays. Each point on the display is averaged independently
and the average is computed based on the number of sweeps selected by the user. The
averaging algorithm applies a factor to the amplitude value of a given point on the current
sweep (l/n, where n is the number of the current sweep); applies another factor to the
previously stored average [(n - l/n)]; and combines the two for a current average. After
the designated number of sweeps are completed, the factors remain constant, and the
display becomes a running average.
video bandwidth
The cut-off frequency (3 dB point) of an adjustable low-pass filter in the video circuit.
When the video bandwidth is equal to or less than the resolution bandwidth, the video
circuit cannot fully respond to the more rapid fluctuations of the output of the envelope
detector. The result is a smoothing of the trace, or a reduction in the peak-to-peak
excursion, of broadband signals such as noise and pulsed RF when viewed in broadband
mode. The degree of averaging or smoothing is a function of the ratio of the video
bandwidth to the resolution bandwidth.
Glossary-l 7
video filter
A post-detection, low-pass filter that determines the bandwidth of the video amplifier. It is
used to average or smooth a trace. Refer also to video bandwidth.
windows display mode
A display mode of the HP 8590 Series Spectrum Analyzers where the screen area is
split into two separate displays. This allows two different frequency spans to be viewed
simultaneously. The analyzer state of the two displays can be set independently.
zero span
The case in which a spectrum analyzer’s local oscillator remains fixed at a given frequency
so that the analyzer becomes a fixed-tuned receiver. In this state, the bandwidth is equal
to the resolution bandwidth. Signal amplitude variations are displayed as a function of
time. To avoid loss of signal information, the resolution bandwidth must be as wide as the
signal bandwidth. To avoid any smoothing, the video bandwidth must be set wider than the
resolution bandwidth.
zoom
A term referring to the process of looking at something more closely. This may require
narrowing the resolution bandwidth or span to view a signal more closely. Or, it may mean
increasing the size of the spectrum analyzer display from a partial screen to the full screen.
Glossary-l 8
Index
0
O-2.9 GHz BAND 0, 7-4
O-2.9 Gz BAND 0, 7-12
1
100 MHz COMB OUT, 2-4
10 MHz reference DAC setting, 7-14
10 MHz REF OUTPUT, 2-6
+ 1OV REF DETECTOR, 7-2, 7-4
-lOV REF DETECTOR, 7-2, 7-4
120 kHz EM1 BW, 7-5
12.4-19. BAND 3, 7-4, 7-12
19.1-22 BAND 4, 7-5, 7-12
2
200 Hz EMI BW, 7-5
2.75-6.5 BAND 1, 7-4, 7-12
2v REF DETECTOR, 7-2, 7-4
3
3 dB bandwidth measurement, 7-58
5
5061/7562 minimum loss pad, lo-13
500 RF bridge, lo-13
500 to 7561 matching pad (Option 71 l), lo-12
500 transmission/reflection test set, lo-13
6
6.0-12.8 BAND 2, 7-4, 7-12
7
750 input impedance (Option OOl), 10-5
750 matching transformer, lo-13
75fl RF bridge, lo-13
9
9 kHz EM1 BW, 7-5
A
A <-> B, 7-5
A-B + A ON OFF, 7-5
A + C, 7-5
ABCDEF, 7-5
ACCEPT QP DATA, 7-6
accessories
500/750 minimum loss pad, lo-13
5062 transmission/reflection test set, lo-13
750 matching transformer, lo-13
AC power source, lo-14
AC probe, lo-14
broadband preamplifiers, lo-14
broadcast measurements personality, 10-2
burst carrier trigger, lo-14
cable TV measurements personality, 10-2
CATV measurements personality, 10-2
CATV system monitor personality, 10-2
CDMA measurements personality, 10-2
close-field probes, lo-15
CTB-CA1 measurements personality, 10-3
DCS1800 measurements personality, 10-3
DECT measurements personality, 10-3
digital radio measurements personality,
10-3
EM1 diagnostics measurements personality,
10-3
external keyboard, lo- 15
GSMSOO measurements personality, 10-3
HP-IB cable, lo-15
link measurement personality, 10-4
memory card, lo-15
NADC-TDMA measurements personality,
10-4
noise figure, 10-4
noise figure measurements personality,
10-4
parallel interface cable, lo-15
PC interface and report generator software,
lo-16
PC software, lo-16
PDC measurements personality, 10-4
PHS measurements personality, 10-4
plotter, lo-16
printer, lo-16
rack slide kit, lo-16
RF bridge, lo-13
RF limiters, lo-13
RS-232 cable, lo-16
scalar 5Ofi transmission/reflection test set,
10-13
scalar measurements personality, 10-4
transient limiters, lo-13
Index-l
transit case, lo-16
accessories shipped with the analyzer, 1-3
ac coupling, 7-30
ACPGRAPH , 7-6
AC power source, lo-14
AC probe, lo-14
active function, 2-12
active function block, 2-1
active function clearing, 7-48
addressing printer, 7-69
address of plotter, 7-63
address of spectrum analyzer, 7-10
adjacent channel power, 7-6
extended dynamic range, 7-7
using, 4-44-47
adjacent channel power graph, 7-6
adjacent channel power measurement, 4-43
adjacent channel power ratio, 7-6
ADJ CHAN POWER, 7-6
ADJ CHAN PWR extd, 7-7
ALC INT EXT, 7-7
ALC MTR INT XTAL, 7-7
ALC TEST, 7-2, 7-8
aliasing
FFT function, 4-3
signal identification, 7-79
ALL DLP --f CARD, 5-16, 7-8
alpha characters, 7-5, 7-47, 7-82, 7-92
AM/FM demodulation
use with Option 105, 4-23
AM/FM demodulator with speaker
and quasi-peak detector (Option 103), 10-9
and TV sync trigger circuitry (Option 102),
10-9
% AM ON OFF, 4-40, 7-4
Amp Cor, 5-38, 7-8
AMP COR, 7-8
AMP COR ON OFF, 5-37, 5-39, 7-8
amplifiers, lo-14
AMPLITUDE, 2-1, 2-13, 7-8
amplitude accuracy, 7-30
amplitude and frequency self-calibration
routine, 7-14
amplitude correction
amplitude coordinate, 5-39
frequency coordinate, 5-39
point, 5-38
testing, 5-39
using RECALL AMP COR, 5-39
using SAVE AMP COR, 5-39
amplitude-correction factors, 5-35-39
amplitude correction factors, 5-35
cataloging, 7- 16
delete point, 7-33
edit, 7-36
Index-2
edit done, 7-36
menus, 7-8
on or off, 7-8
purge, 7-70
recall table, 7-73
save table, 7-75
select amplitude, 7-76
select frequency, 7-77
select point, 7-77
select sweep time, 7-78
storing, 7-8
amplitude-correction functions, 5-38
amplitude-corrections
creating, 5-36
amplitude corrections
creating, 5-37
editing, 5-36
amplitude demodulation, 7-33
amplitude menus, 7-8
amplitude modulation, 7-4
amplitude modulation measurement, 4-39
amplitude scale, 7-76
amplitude self-calibration, 7-13
amplitude units, 7-8
dBm, 7-31
dBmV, 7-31
dBuV, 7-31
Volts, 7-9 1
Watts, 7-9 1
Amptd Units, 7-8
analog + display, 7-9
using, 5-31-32
ANALOG+ ON OFF, 7-9
ANALYZER ADDRESS, 7- 10
analyzer battery, 2-22
analyzer distortion products, 3-20
ANALYZER GAINS, 7-2, 7-10
analyzer memory
cataloging functions, 7-18
catalog variables, 7-2 1
delete file, 7-33
DLP cataloging, 7- 18
erase user programs and variables, 7-35
program and variable cataloging, 7-16
recalling amplitude-correction factors, 5-8
recalling a state, 5-6
recalling a trace, 5-7
recalling limit lines, 5-8
saving amplitude-correction factors, 5-8
saving and recalling data, 5-6
saving a state, 5-6
saving a trace, 5-7
saving limit lines, 5-8
saving to, 7-88
state and trace register status, 7-21
annotation, 2-10
ANNOTATN ON OFF, 7-10
APND CAT ITEM, 7-10
ATTEN AUTO MAN, 7-10
attenuation coupling, 7- 10
attenuator-error factors, 7-78
AUTO ALL, 7-10
AUTO COUPLE, 7-l 1
automatic FFT, 7-53
automatic leveling control, 7-7
automatic quasi-peak routine, 7- 1 I
AUTO QP AT MKR, 7-11
AUXB, 7-2, 7-11
Aux Conn Control, 7-11
AUX CTRL, 7-l 1
AUX IF OUTPUT, 2-7
auxiliary connector input, 7-35
auxiliary interface
connector, 7-l 1
control line A, 7-26
control line B, 7-26
control line C, 7-26
control line D, 7-26
AUX INTERFACE, 2-6
AUX VIDEO OUTPUT, 2-7
available memory, 7- 18
B
B --f C, 7-11
B <-> C, 7-11
B-DL + B, 7-11
band boundaries, measuring signals near,
3-26
band lock
band selection, 7-4, 7-5
Band Lock, 7-12
BAND LOCK, 3-26
band locking, 7-13
bandwidth
measurement, 4-39
bandwidth functions, 7-13
bandwidth measurement, 7-58
bandwidth ratio
video bandwidth to resolution bandwidth,
7-90
battery. See analyzer battery, memory card
changing the battery, 2-20
BAUD RATE, 7-12
benchlink spectrum analyzer
Option B70, lo-12
bias-current DAC adjustment, 7-14
binary, A-2
BINARY SPAN, 7-2, 7-12
black and white printing, 7-48
BLANK A, 7-12
BLANK B, 7-12
BLANK C, 7-12
BLANK CARD, 5-11, 7-13
BND LOCK ON OFF, 3-26, 7-13
broadband preamplifiers, lo-14
built-in tracking generator, 7-88
BW, 7-13
B&W PRINTER, 7-48
C
cable TV measurements personality, 10-2
CAL, 2-16, 7-13
CAL AMPTD, 1-8, 2-16, 7-13
CAL FETCH, 2-16, 7-13
CAL FREQ, l-8, 2-16, 7-14
CAL FREQ & AMPTD, 1-9, 2-16, 7-14
calibration, 7- 13
attenuator-error factors, 7-78
self-calibration routines, 2-16
CAL MXR, 7-2, 7-14
CAL OUT, 2-3
CAL STORE, l-9, 2-16, 7-14
CAL TIMEBASE, 7-2, 7-14
CAL TRK GEN, 1-9, 2-17, 7-14
CAL YTF, l-10, 2-18, 7-14
card
changing the battery, 2-20
inserting a memory card, 2-19
Card Config, 7-14
CARD *DISPLAY, 7-15
CARD + DLP, 7-15
CARD -+ STATE, 7-15
Card + Trace, 7-15
care
memory, lo-15
carrying case (Option 015), 10-6
carrying case (Option 016), 10-6
CATALOG ALL, 7-16
CATALOG AMP COR, 7-16
Catalog Card, 5-12, 7-16
CATALOG DISPLAY, 7- 18
CATALOG DLP, 7-18
Catalog Internal, 7-18
CATALOG LMT LINE, 7-19
CATALOG ON EVENT, 7-19
CATALOG PREFIX, 7-20
CATALOG REGISTER, 7-2 1
CATALOG STATES, 7-2 1
CATALOG TRACES, 7-2 1
CATALOG VARIABLS, 7-2 1
CATV measurements, 10-2
CATV system monitor, 10-2
CDMA firmware (Option 160), lo-11
CDMA measurements, 10-2
CENTER FREQ, 7-21
Index-3
center frequency, 7-21
window zone, 7-92
center-frequency step size, 7-2 1
CF STEP AUTO MAN, 7-21
change function values, 2-8
change prefix
edit done, 7-36
Change Prefix, 7-21
Change Title, 7-22
changing windows, 7-58
CHANNEL BANDWDTH, 7-22
channel power
using, 4-48-49
CHANNEL POWER, 7-23
channel power measurement, 4-43
CHANNEL SPACING, 7-23
characters, 7-5, 7-47, 7-82, 7-92
checking the fuse, l-5
check spectrum analyzer operation, 7-27
CISPR testing, 7-38
Clear, 7-23
clear display
active function area, 2-8
clearing a service request, A-l
clearing the active function, 7-48
CLEAR PARAM, 7-23
CLEAR QP DATA, 7-23
CLEAR WRITE A, 7-24
CLEAR WRITE B, 7-25
CLEAR WRITE C, 7-26
close-field probes, lo-15
CNTL A 0 1, 7-26
CNTL B 0 1, 7-26
CNTL C 0 1, 7-26
CNTL D 0 1, 7-26
CNT RES AUTO MAN, 3-6, 7-26
COARSE TUNE DAC, 7-2, 7-27
COMB GEN ON OFF, 3-26, 7-27
command complete, A-l
commands
dispose all , 7-39, 7-40, 7-41
front panel execution, 7-41
common measurements
stimulus-response, 4-7-12
common preset conditions, 7-66
comparing signals, 3- 12
confidence test, 7-27, 9-2
CONFIG, 7-27
configuration
plotter, 7-63, 7-64
printer, 7-69
CONF TEST, 7-27, 9-2
connecting your spectrum analyzer to a
printer, 6-5
connector
Index-4
100 MHz comb out, 2-4
10 MHz ref output, 2-6
AUXB, 7-11
aux IF output, 2-7
aux video output, 2-7
cal output, 2-3
earphone, 2-6
event counter input, 2-6
ext ale input, 2-5
external detector flatness input, 2-5
external keyboard, 2-7
ext ref in, 2-6
ext trig input, 2-7
gate output, 2-6
gate trigger input, 2-6
hi sweep in/out, 2-7
HP-IB interface, 2-7
interval counter input, 2-6
LO output, 2-6
monitor output, 2-6
sweep output, 2-7
sweep + tune output, 2-6
TV trig output, 2-5
connector, auxiliary interface, 7-l 1
continuous sweep, 7-82
CONTINUS FFT, 7-27
CONT MEAS, 7-27
control functions, 2-3
control line A
auxiliary interface, 7-26
control line B
auxiliary interface, 7-26
control line C
auxiliary interface, 7-26
control line D
auxiliary interface, 7-26
controlling the gate
GATE CTL EDGE LVL, 7-46
GATE ON OFF, 7-46
COPY, 2-3, 7-28
COPY DEV PRNT PLT, 7-30
correction factors, 2-16, 2-17, 7-30
data display, 7-34
default, 7-31
self-calibration, 7-13
storing, 7-14
CORRECT ON OFF, 2-17, 7-30
COUPLE AC DC, 7-30
coupled functions menu, 7-11
coupled sweep time, 7-83
coupling
ac or dc, 7-30
all functions, 7-10
time gate utility, 7-23, 7-30, 7-31, 7-32
coupling video bandwidth, 7-90
CPL RBW ON OFF, 7-30
CPL SWP ON OFF, 7-30
CPL VBW ON OFF, 7-31
creating amplitude-correction factors, 5-36
creating limit lines, 5-18
creating new programs, 7-58
CRT HORZ POSITION, 7-31
CRT VERT POSITION, 7-31
CTB-CA1 measurements, 10-3
CT2 demodulator (Option 1 lo), 10-9
D
DAC
bias current adjustment, 7-14
extra fine-tune, 7-91
fine tune, 7-43
mixer bias, 7-55
sweep time, 7-83
YTF coarse tune, 7-92
YTF fine-tune, 7-92
DACS, 7-2, 7-31
data controls, 2-8
data keys, 2-3, 2-8
data protection, 5-8
data recall, 7-72
data transmission speed, 7-12
DATEMODE MDY DMY, 7-31
dBm, 7-31
dBmV, 7-31
dBuV, 7-31
dc coupling, 7-30
DC probes
use of, lo-14
DCS1800 measurements, 10-3
deactivate function, 2-8
deactivating the active function, 7-48
DECT demodulator (Option 1 la), lo-10
DECT measurements, 10-3
DEFAULT CAL DATA, 7-31, 9-3
DEFAULT CONFIG, 7-3 1
DEFAULT SYNC, 7-32
Define Coupling, 7-32
Define Gate, 7-32
Define Time, 7-32
delay
GATE DELAY, 7-46
delaying sweep, time gate utility, 7-83 ’
DELETE FILE, 7-33
delete files from memory card, 7-13
delete frequency accuracy (Option 713),
10-12
DELETE POINT, 7-33
DELETE SEGMENT, 7-33
delta display-line markers, 7-85
delta marker, 3-12, 7-52
Demod, 4-13, 7-33
DEMOD AM FM, 4-13, 7-33
DEMOD ON OFF, 4-13, 7-33
demodulating an AM or FM signal, 4-13
demodulation, 7-33
AM, 7-33
continuous, 4-14
dwell time, 7-36
FM, 7-33
FM gain, 7-44
FM offset, 7-44
FM span, 7-44
on and off, 7-33
speaker on off, 7-80
squelch, 7-81
demodulator
optional, 10-9
demodulator, AM/FM (Option 102), 10-9
demodulator, AM/FM (Option 103), 10-9
deskjet , 7-34
DESKJET 310, 7-34
DESKJET 540, 7-34
DESKJET 55OC, 7-34
deskjet printer, 7-34
detection mode
negative peak, 7-34
positive peak, 7-34
sample, 7-34
detector
quasi peak, 7-72
DETECTOR PK SP NG, 7-34
DETECTOR SMP PK, 7-34
determining gate delay, 4-26
determining gate length, 4-26
digital demodulator
optional, lo-10
digital radio measurements, 10-3
disable peak detector reset, 7-35
display
analog + , 7-9
cataloging, 7-18
two windows, 7-60
using windows, 5-33
DISPLAY, 7-34
DISPLAY CAL DATA, 7-2, 7-34
DISPLAY CNTL I, 7-35
display compression
due to monitor output format, 2-10, 7-84
display image
saving and recalling, 5-18
display line, 7-35
DISPLAY --t CARD, 7-35
display zone
change span, 7-93
find left peak, 7-93
Index-5
find right peak, 7-93
move center, 7-92
Dispose User Mem, 7-35
distortion products, 3-20
DJ540, 7-48
DLP, 5-16
cataloging, 7- 18
editor, 7-38
DLP editor function
appending, 7- 10
display and edit item, 7-36
edit last item, 7-37
DONE, 7-35
double display, 7-60
downloadable programs, 5-16
DROOP, 7-2, 7-35
DSP LINE ON OFF, 7-35
DWELL TIME, 7-36
E
earphone connector, 2-6
EDGE POL POS NEG, 7-36
edge triggering
time gate utility, 7-36
edge triggering, gate control, 7-46
Edit Amp Cor, 5-38, 7-36
EDIT CAT ITEM, 7-36
Edit Done, 7-36
EDIT DONE, 5-20, 5-28, 5-37, 5-39, 7-36
EDIT FLATNESS, 7-2, 7-36
editing
DLPs, 7-38
editing amplitude corrections, 5-36
editing limit lines, 5-20
EDIT LAST, 7-37
Edit Limit, 5-22, 7-37
Edit Lower, 5-23, 7-37
Edit Lower limit line format, 5-25
Edit Mid/Delt, 5-23, 7-37
Edit Mid/Delt limit line format, 5-25
Editor, 7-38
Edit Up/Low, 5-23, 7-38
Edit IJp/Low limit line format, 5-25
Edit Upper, 5-19, 5-23, 7-38
Edit Upper limit line format, 5-25
EDIT UPR LWR, 7-38
electrostatic discharge, l-l 1
EM1 bandwidth
120 kHz, 7-5
200 Hz, 7-5
9 kHz, 7-5
EM1 BW Menu, 7-38
EM1 close-field probe, lo-15
EM1 diagnostics measurements, 10-3
end of sweep, A-l
Index-6
ENTER, 7-38
entering a prefix, 5-12
ENTER PRI, 7-39
ENTER REF EDGE, 7-39
ENTER WIDTH, 7-39
epson format, 7-41
EPSON LARGE, 7-78
epson lq570, 7-41
epson mx80 , 7-41
epson printer, 7-41
EPSON SMALL, 7-78
ERASE ALL, 7-40
ERASE CARD, 7-40
ERASE DLP, 7-39
ERASE DLP MEM, 7-39
ERASE MEM ALL, 7-40
ERASE MEM CARD, 7-40
ERASE STATE, 7-40
ERASE STATEALL, 7-40
ERASE TRACE, 7-41
ERASE TRACEALL, 7-41
erase user programs and variables, 7-35
ESD, l-11
reducing damage caused by ESD, 1-12
static-safe accessories, 1-12
static-safe work station, l-l 1
EVENT CNTR INPUT, 2-6
exchange trace A and B, 7-5
exchange trace B and C, 7-11
execute a command
front panel, 7-41
EXECIJTE TITLE, 7-2, 7-41
EXIT, 7-41
Exit Catalog, 7-41
EXIT SHOW, 7-42
EXIT UTILITY, 7-42
expanding a window, 7-93
EXT ALC INPUT, 2-5
EXTERNAL, 7-42
external/internal leveling, 7-7
external keyboard, 5-40, lo-15
prefix entry, 5-43
programming command entry, 5-43
screen title entry, 5-42
external keyboard connector, 2-7
external keyboard installation, 5-42
external keyboard operation, 5-42-43
EXTERNAL PREAMPG, 7-42
EXT KEYBOARD, 2-7
EXT REF INPUT, 2-6
EXT TRIG INPUT, 2-7
F
fast ADC
optional, lo-10
fast Fourier transform
stop frequency, 7-43
fast Fourier transform function, 4-2, 7-43
fast time domain sweeps (Option lOl), 10-8
features
front panel, 2-l
FFT
markers, 7-53
FFT compatibility, 7-43
FFT display annotation, 4-2
FFT marker frequency, 7-53
FFT MARKERS, 7-42
FFT measurement, 4-2, 7-27, 7-80
automatic, 4-5
manual, 4-3
setup, 4-3
FFT Menu, 7-43
FFT OFF, 7-43
FFT STOP FREQ, 7-43
fine-focus control, 2-9
FINE TUNE DAC, 7-2, 7-43
firmware
optional, 10-l 1
firmware date, l-8
fixed, limit line type, 7-50
fix-tuned receiver, 3-24
FLAT, 5-26, 7-43
flatness
factory defaults, 7-48
flatness correction constants, 7-36, 7-43
Flatness Data, 7-2, 7-43
FLATNESS EXT DET IN, 2-5
FM COIL DRIVE, 7-2, 7-44
FM GAIN, 4-14, 7-2, 7-44
FM OFFSET, 7-2, 7-44
FM SPAN, 7-3, 7-44
FORMAT CARD, 5-l 1, 7-44
format date, 7-31
Fourier transform
See also fast Fourier transform, 7-43
Fourier transform measurement, 7-43
FREE RUN, 7-44
FREQ DIAG, 7-3, 7-44
FREQ DISC NORM OFF, 7-44
FREQ OFFSET, 7-45
frequency
stop, 7-82
FREQUENCY, 2-1, 2-13, 7-45
frequency and amplitude self-calibration
routine, 1-8, 7-14
frequency demodulation, 7-33
frequency extension to 26.5 GHz (Option
026)
APC-3.5 connector, 10-7
frequency extension to 26.5 GHz (Option
027)
N-Type connector, 10-7
frequency offset, 7-45
frequency self-calibration, 7-14
frequency span, 7-80
changing to full span, 7-45
front panel execution of programming
commands, 7-41
front-panel features, 2-l-4
front panel protective cover (Option 040),
10-7
FRQ DISC NORM OFF, 7-3
FULL SPAN, 7-45
functional check of Option 105, 4-36
function coupling, 7-10
fuse, l-5
fuse holder, 2-6
G
gain
internal spectrum analyzer, 7-10
gate
coupling functions, 7-32
using the gate utility, 4-19
gate control, 7-32
edge or level triggering, 7-46
Option 105, 4-38
Gate Control, 7-45
GATE CTL EDGE LVL, 7-46
operation, 4-38
gate definition, 7-32
gate delay
determining the gate delay, 4-26
setting gate delay outside the Gate Utility,
4-33
GATE DELAY, 7-46
gate length
determining the gate length, 4-26
setting gate length outside the Gate Utility
4-33
GATE LENGTH, 7-46
GATE ON OFF, 7-46
GATE OUTPUT, 2-6
GATE TRIGGER INPUT, 2-6
gate utility
exit, 7-42
exiting, 7-47
use of, 4-19, 4-20
GATE UTILITY, 7-47
gate utility coupling, 7-32
resolution bandwidth, 7-30
Index-7
sweep time, 7-30
video bandwidth, 7-31
GHIJKL, 7-47
GND REF DETECTOR, 7-3, 7-47
graph markers, 7-48
GRAT ON OFF, 7-47
group delay and amplitude flatness (Option
ill), 10-9
GRPH MKR ON OFF, 7-48
GSMSOO measurements, 10-3
GSM/DCS-1800 firmware (Option 163), lo-11
guidelines for using Option 105, 4-26
H
hardware broken, A-l
hardware error messages, 9-7
hardware problems, 9- 1
harmonic band 0, 7-4
harmonic band 1, 7-4
harmonic band 2, 7-4
harmonic band 3, 7-4
harmonic band 4, 7-5
harmonic band menu, 7-12
harmonic band slope and offset adjust, 7-14
harmonic lock, 3-26, 7-13
highest peak
finding next, 7-58
highest signal peak, 7-80
HIGH SWEEP IN/OUT, 2-7
IIOLD, 2-8, 7-48
horizontal signal positioning, 7-31
how to call Hewlett-Packard, 9-4
how to return your analyzer for service, 9-6
HP 8590 Series key menus, 8-2-14
HP B&&W PRINTER, 7-78
HP-IB address, 7-10
HP-IB and Parallel (Option 041), 10-6
HP-IB cable, lo-15
HP-IB interface connector, 2-7
HP Paintjet, 7-61
I
identifying distortion products, 3-20
identify the signal
FFT, 7-79
IDNUM, 7-2, 7-48
illegal spectrum analyzer command, A-l
impact cover (Option 040), 10-7
improved amplitude accuracy (Option 050),
10-8
improved amplitude accuracy (Option 051),
10-8
improved amplitude accuracy (Option 052),
10-8
Index-8
improved amplitude accuracy (Option 053)
10-8
impulse noise
measurement, 3-17
increase frequency readout resolution, 3-6
informational messages, 9-7
INIT FLT, 7-2, 7-48
initial inspection, 1-3
INPUT 500, 2-3
INPUT 759, 2-3
input and output
auxiliary control, 7- 11
input attenuation control, 7-10
input impedance, 7-49
INPUT Z 509 750, 7-49
inserting a memory card, 2-19
installation, external keyboard, 5-42
installation manual
see User’s Guide, lo-12
instrument preset, 7-66
instrument state, 2-2
intensity control, 2-3
interface connectors, 2-7
intermodulation distortion, third order, 3-22
INTERNAL CARD, 7-49
internal comb generator, 7-27
internal/external leveling, 7-7
INTERNAL --+ STATE, 7-49
Internal --+ Trace, 7-49
INTERVAL CNTR INPUT, 2-6
K
keyboard
external keyboard functions, 5-40
keyboard, external, 5-40
keyboard operation, external, 5-42
key functions, external keyboard, 5-40
key menus, 8-l
knob, 2-3, 2-8
label, softkey, 2-1
laserjet plots, 7-64
LAST SPAN, 7-49
length
GATE LENGTH, 7-46
level triggering, gate control, 7-46
limiters
RF and transient, lo-13
LIMIT FAIL, 5-18
limit-line functions, 5-22-28
limit lines, 5-18
amplitude coordinate, 5-25
cataloging, 7- 19
creating, 5-18, 5-22
delete segment, 7-33
displaying, 5-28, 7-51
edit done, 7-36
editing, 5-20
edit lower table, 7-37
edit mid/delta amplitude, 7-37
edit table, 7-37
edit upper and lower tables, 7-38
edit upper table, 7-38
fixed, 5-22
fixed and relative, 7-50
flat type, 7-43
frequency or time, 5-22
frequency or time coordinate, 5-25
point, 7-64
purge, 7-70
recall table, 7-73
relative, 5-22
save table, 7-76
segment number, 5-23
SEGMENT TYPE, 5-26
select amplitude, 7-76
select delta amplitude, 7-76
select frequency, 7-77
select frequency or time, 7-50
select lower amplitude, 7-77
select middle amplitude, 7-77
select segment, 7-77
select time, 7-78
select type, 7-78
select upper amplitude, 7-78
slope type, 7-80
table format, 5-23
table type, 5-22
testing, 5-28, 7-51
upper and lower, 5-29
using RECALL LIMIT, 5-28
using SAVE LIMIT, 5-28
Limit Lines, 7-49
LIMIT LINES, 5-22, 7-50
LIMIT PASS, 5- 18
LIMITS FIX REL, 5-19, 5-20, 5-22, 7-50
LIMITS FRQ TIME, 5-19, 5-22, 7-50
LINE, 7-51
linear scale, 7-76
LINE front-panel key, 2-4
LINE switch, 2-4
line voltage selector switch, 1-4
link measurement personality, lo-4
list of markers, 7-56
marker table, 5-2
list of peaks, 7-63
peak table, 5-4
LMT DISP Y N AUTO, 5-28, 7-51
LMT TEST ON OFF, 5-20, 5-28, 7-51
LOAD FILE, 7-51
((LOCALS, 7-51
local operation, 7-27, 7-51
lock harmonic band,‘7-13
lock internal state and trace registers, 7-74
LO feedthrough, 3-12
log scale, 7-76
LO OUTPUT, 2-6
LO output (Option 009), 10-5
lower limit line, 5-23
editing, 7-37
low-level signals, 3-15
reducing attenuation, 3- 15
reducing resolution bandwidth, 3-16
reducing video bandwidth, 3-17
video averaging, 3- 17
M
MAIN COIL DR, 7-3, 7-51
Main Menu
time gate utility, 7-52
MAIN SPAN, 7-3, 7-52
making a measurement, 2-13-14
MAN QP AT MKR, 7-52
MAN TRK ADJUST, 4-10, 7-52
manuals
extra user’s and calibration guide (Option
910), 10-12
installation: see User’s Guide, lo-12
operation: see User’s Guide, lo-12
verification: see Calibration Guide, lo- 12
manual tracking adjustment, 7-52
marker
delta display-line, 7-85
FFT, 7-42
gate utility trigger, 7-89
list of, 7-56
menu of controls, 7-57
menu of functions, 7-57
quasi peak, 7-54
selection, 7-76
table, 7-56
time gate utility, 7-54
trace selection, 7-56
zeroing delta marker in the gate utility,
7-92
MARKER A, 3-12, 7-52
MARKER A-SPAN, 7-53
MARKER ALL OFF, 7-54
MARKER AMPTD, 7-54
marker counter, 3-6, 7-56
resolution, 7-26
use with Option 105, 4-23
marker delta, 3-12
marker functions, 2-3
Index-9
marker noise, 7-56
use with Option 105, 4-23
MARKER NORMAL, 2-14, 7-54
MARKER NORM PK, 7-54
MARKER ON, 7-54
marker pause, 7-56
dwell time, 7-36
marker readout modes, 7-56
MARKER- AUTO FFT, 7-53
MARKER -+CF, 7-53
MARKER -CF STEP, 7-53
MARKER- FFT STOP, 7-53
MARKER- MID SCRN, 7-53
MARKER +MINIMUM, 7-53
MARKER -+PK-PK, 3-13, 7-53
MARKER --+REF LVL, 7-53
MARKER -START, 7-53
MARKER -STOP, 7-54
markers
using multiple markers, 5-3
marker table
mode, 7-85
using, 5-2-3
marker to, 7-57
marker tracking, 3-7, 7-57, 7-63
mass storage device
analyzer memory, 7-49
memory card, 7-49
matching pad, 500 to 759 (Option 711), lo-12
MAX HOLD A, 3-10, 7-55
MAX HOLD B, 7-55
maximum hold, 3-9
maximum mixer level, 7-55
MAX MXR LVL, 7-55
MEAS OFF, 7-55
measuring amplitude modulation, 4-2
measuring low-level signals, 3-15
measuring return loss, 4-18
measuring signals near band boundaries,
3-26
MEASUSER, 7-55
MEM LOCKED, 7-55, 7-74
memory
amount available, 7-18
memory card
battery, 2-20
blank card, 5-l 1
card configuration, 7- 14
catalog display images, 7-18
catalog DLPs, 7-18
catalog functions, 7-16
cataloging, 5-12, 7-17
cataloging amplitude correction factor files,
7-16
catalog limit lines, 7-19
Index-1 0
catalog states, 7-2 1
catalog traces, 7-2 1
changing the battery, 2-20
delete file, 7-13, 7-33
display recall, 7- 15
formatting, 5- 11, 7-44
inserting a memory card, 2-19
preparation for use, 5-11
program and variable cataloging, 7-16
recalling a display image, 5-14
recalling a DLP, 7-15
recalling amplitude-correction factors,
5-15
recalling a program, 5-16
recalling a state, 5-13, 7-15
recalling a trace, 5-13, 7-15
recalling limit lines, 5-15
saving a display image, 5-14
saving amplitude-correction factors, 5-15
saving and recalling data, 5-10
saving and recalling programs, 5-16
saving a program, 5-16
saving a state, 5-12
saving a trace, 5-13
saving limit lines, 5-15
saving states, 7-82
saving to memory card, 7-87
write-protect switch, 2-21
memory card reader, 2-4
memory card reader (Option 003), 10-5
menu and softkey overview, 2-12
menus, 8-l
message block, 2-l
mid/delta limit line
editing amplitude, 7-37
mid/delta limit-line format, 5-23
MIN HOLD C, 3-l 1, 7-55
minimum hold, 3-9
minimum to marker, 7-53
MIXER BIAS DAC, 7-3, 7-55
mixer input level maximum, 7-55
MK COUNT ON OFF, 3-6, 7-56
MK NOISE ON OFF, 7-56
MK PAUSE ON OFF, 7-56
MKR, 2-14, 7-57
MK READ F T I P, 7-56
MKR FCTN, 7-57
MKR-, 7-57
MK TABLE ON OFF, 7-56
MK TRACE AUTO ABC, 7-56
MK TRACK ON OFF, 3-9, 7-57
MNOPQR, 7-57
MODE, 2-2, 7-57
model specific preset conditions, 7-66
MONITOR OUTPUT, 2-6
display compression, 2-10, 7-84
move trace A into C, 7-5
multipen plotter, 7-29
N
NADC firmware (Option 160), lo-11
NADC-TDMA measurements personality,
10-4
narrow resolution bandwidths and precision
frequency reference (Option 140), lo-10
narrow resolution bandwidths (Option 130),
10-10
N dB bandwidth measurement, 4-39
N dB PTS ON OFF, 4-39, 7-58
negative peak detection mode, 7-34
NEW EDIT, 7-58
NEXT, 7-58
NEXT PEAK, 7-58
NEXT PK LEFT, 7-58
NEXT PK RIGHT, 7-58
noise figure, lo-10
normalization, 4- 11
normal marker, 7-54
quasi peak, 7-54
NORMLIZE ON OFF, 4- 11, 7-59
NORMLIZE POSITION, 7-59
No User Menu, 7-59
NTSC, 7-59
NTSC video format, 7-84
number/units keypad, 2-8
0
OCC BW % POWER, 7-59
OCCUPIED BANDWDTH, 7-60
occupied bandwidth
using, 4-43-44
occupied power bandwidth measurement,
4-43
octal to binary, A-2
ON, 7-60
ONCYCLE command, 7- 19
ONDELAY command, 7-19
ONEOS command, 7-19
on event commands
ONCYCLE, 7-19
ONDELAY, 7-19
ONEOS, 7-19
ONMKR, 7-19
ONPWRUP, 7-19
ONSRQ, 7-19
ONSWP, 7-19
ONTIME, 7-19
TRMATH, 7-19
ONMKR command, 7-19
on/off switch, 2-4
ONPWRUP command, 7-19
on-screen signal positioning
horizontal, 7-31
vertical, 7-31
ONSRQ command, 7-19
ONSWP command, 7-19
ONTIME command, 7-19
operating Option 105, 4-22
operation
local, 7-5 1
operation manual
see User’s Guide, lo-12
Option 101
used time gate Option 105, 4-22
used with FFT measurements, 4-2
Option 105
example of using time-gating, 4-24
functional check, 4-36
operation, 4-22
self-calibration routines, 4-35
spectrum analyzer settings, 4-24, 4-26
table of spectrum analyzer settings, 4-34
options
5062 to 7561 matching pad (Option 711),
10-12
750 input impedance (Option OOl), 10-5
AM/FM demodulator w/speaker and TV
sync trigger circuitry (Option 102),
10-9
benchlink spectrum analyzer (Option B70),
10-12
carrying case (Option 015), 10-6
carrying case (Option 016), 10-6
CT2 demodulator (Option 1 lo), 10-9
digital demodulator (Option 151), lo-10
digital european cordless telephone(Option
112), 10-10
DSP (Option 151), lo-10
extra calibration guide (Option 910), lo-12
extra user’s guide (Option 910), lo-12
fast ADC (Option 151), lo-10
fast time domain sweeps (Option lOl),
10-8
frequency extension to 26.5 GHz: APC-3.5
connector (Option 026), 10-7
frequency extension to 26.5 GHz: N-Type
connector (Option 027), 10-7
front panel protective cover (Option 040),
10-7
group delay and amplitude flatness (Option
ill), 10-9
GSM/DCS-1800 firmware (Option 163),
10-11
HP-IB and Parallel (Option 041), 10-6
impact cover (Option 040), 10-7
Index-11
improved amplitude accuracy (Option 050),
10-8
improved amplitude accuracy (Option 051),
10-8
improved amplitude accuracy (Option 052),
10-8
improved amplitude accuracy (Option 053),
10-8
LO output (Option 009), 10-5
memory card reader kit, 10-5
memory card reader (Option 003), 10-5
narrow resolution bandwidths and precision
frequency reference (Option 140), lo-10
narrow resolution bandwidths (Option
130), 10-10
noise figure (Option 119), lo-10
PCD/PHS/NADC/CDMA firmware (Option
160), lo-11
precision frequency reference (Option 004),
10-5
protective soft carrying case (Option 042),
10-7
quasi-peak detector and AM/FM
demodulator with speaker (Option
103), 10-9
rack mount kit (Option 908), lo-12
rack mount kit with handles (Option 909),
10-12
reduced frequency accuracy (Option 713),
10-12
RS-232 and Parallel (Option 043), 10-7
service documentation (Option 915), lo-12
sweep+ tune output (Option 009), 10-5
time-gated spectrum analysis (Option 105),
10-9
tracking generator 500 (Option OlO), 10-6
tracking generator 75Q (Option 01 l), 10-6
TV Picture Display (Option ISO), lo-11
TV sync trigger capability/fast time-domain
sweeps/AM/FM demodulator (Option
301), 10-12
options displayed, 7-79
output power, 7-81
output screen data, 7-28
overview, menus and softkeys, 2-12
P
packaging, 9-6
paintjet printer, 7-78
PAINTJET PRINTER, 7-61
PAL, 7-61
PAL-M, 7-61
PAL video format, 7-84
parallel interface connector, 2-7
parallel, plotting
Index-12
laserjet, 6-21
parallel polling, A- 1
PARAM AUTO MAN, 7-62
pass code, 7-31
PCD firmware (Option 160), lo-11
PDC measurements personality, 10-4
PDC/PHS/NADC/CDMA Firmware for Option
151 (Option 160), lo-11
peak
next, 7-58
next left, 7-58
next right, 7-58
peak detection mode
positive/negative, 7-34
PEAK EXCURSN, 7-62
peaking signal amplitude, 3-8
Peak Menu, 7-62
peak response routine, 7-88
peak search
outside of the zone, 7-93
PEAK SEARCH, 2-14, 7-62
peak table, 7-63
mode, 7-63
sorting, 7-63
using, 5-4-5
peak to peak measurement, 7-53
PEAK ZOOM, 7-63
percent amplitude modulation, 7-4
measurement, 4-40
percent amplitude modulation measurement,
4-39
personal digital cellular, 10-l 1
phase lock on/off, 7-4
q3 LOCK ON OFF, 7-2, 7-4
PHS firmware (Option 160), 10-l 1
PHS measurements personality, 10-4
PK MODE <>DL NRM, 7-63
PK SORT FRQ AMP, 7-63
PK TABLE ON OFF, 7-63
Plot Config, 7-63
plot menu, 7-64
plotter, lo-16
PLOTTER ADDRESS, 7-63
plotter configuration, 7-27
plotter output, 7-64
plotting, 7-28, 7-30
HP-IB interface, 6-7
laserjet, 6-21
RS-232, 6-14
plotting, parallel
laserjet, 6-21
plotting, serial
laserjet, 6-21
plotting to laserjets, 7-64
PLT - - LOG _ -, 7-64
PLT MENU ON OFF, 7-64
Plt Port Config, 7-64
PLT PORT HPIB PAR, 7-64
PLT PORT SER PAR, 7-64
PLTS/PG 1 2 4, 7-64
POINT, 5-26, 7-64
point deletion, 7-33
positive peak detection mode, 7-34
power amplifiers, lo-14
power bandwidth, 7-60
power bandwidth measurement, 4-43
power cable, l-6
power input, 2-6
power measurement, 7-65
adjacent channel power, 7-6
adjacent channel power extended, 7-7
channel bandwidth, 7-22
channel power, 7-23
channel spacing, 7-23
continuous sweep mode, 7-27
occupied bandwidth, 7-60
power bandwidth, 7-59
turning off, 7-55
power measurement setup, 7-79
Power Menu, 7-65
POWER ON IP LAST, 7-65
power-on state of spectrum analyzer, 7-65
power requirements, 1-4
preamplifier gain, 7-42
preamplifiers, lo-14
precision frequency reference (Option 004),
10-5
predetermined correction factors, 7-31
prefix
catalog of, 7-20
clearing, 7-23
entry, 7-2 1
selection, 7-77
prefix entry, external keyboard, 5-43
preparing memory card for use, 5-11
preparing your spectrum analyzer for use,
1-2
PRESEL DAC, 7-3, 7-65
PRESEL DEFAULT, 3-8, 7-65
preselector default, 7-65
preselector peak, 3-8, 7-65
PRESEL PEAK, 3-8, 7-65
PRESET, 2-2, 7-66
preset conditions
common, 7-66
for all models, 7-68
model specific, 7-66
PRESET SPECTRUM, 7-66
print
black and white, 7-48
Print Config, 7-69
printer, lo-16
HP Paintjet, 7-28
PRINTER ADDRESS, 7-69
printer configuration, 7-27
PRINTER SETUP, 7-69
printing, 7-28, 7-30
HP PaintJet, 7-61
printing, HP-IB
address, 6-4
centronics converter, 6-4
deskjet, 6-4
epson, 6-4
laserjet, 6-4
paintjet, 6-4
thinkjet, 6-4
printing, parallel
deskjet, 6-18
epson, 6- 18
laserjet, 6-18
paintjet, 6-18
thinkjet, 6-18
printing, RS-232
baud rate , 6-10
deskjet, 6-10
epson , 6-10
handshaking , 6-10
laserjet , 6-10
paintjet , 6-10
parity , 6-10
thinkjet, 6-10
print menu, 7-70
Pm Port Config, 7-69
PRN PORT HPIB PAR, 7-69
PRN PORT SER PAR, 7-69
PROBE PWR, 2-3
probes
AC and DC, lo-14
program cataloging, 7- 16
program (DLP) editor, 7-38
program editing and creating, 7-38
programming command
dispose all , 7-39, 7-40, 7-41
front panel execution, 7-41
programming command entry, external
keyboard, 5-43
protect data, 5-8
PRT MENU ON OFF, 7-70
pulsed RF
using Option 105, 4-24
pulse edge definition, 7-39
Pulse Param, 7-70
pulse parameters
clearing, 7-23
gate length, 7-31
Index-13
PRI, 7-30, 7-39
pulse width, 7-30, 7-39
reference edge, 7-39
time gate utility, 7-70
pulse repetition interval, 4-25, 7-39
pulse width, 4-25, 7-39
PURGE AMP COR, 5-38, 7-70
PURGE LIMITS, 5-19, 5-22, 7-70
PWR SWP ON OFF, 7-71
Q
QP DET ON OFF, 7-3, 7-72
QPD OFFSET, 7-3, 7-72
QPD RST ON OFF, 7-3, 7-72
QP GAIN ON OFF, 7-3, 7-72
QP Xl0 ON OFF, 7-72
quasi-peak
clearing data, 7-23
detector, 7-72
marker amplitude value, 7-6
measurement routine, 7-52
normal marker, 7-54
signal amplification, 7-72
Quasi Peak, 7-72
quasi-peak detection
use with Option 105, 4-23
quasi-peak detector and AM/FM demodulator
with speaker (Option 103), 10-9
R
rack mount kit (Option 908), lo-12
rack mount kit with handles (Option 909),
10-12
rack slide kit, lo-16
ratio
video bandwidth to resolution bandwidth,
7-90
real-time clock, 7-85
set date, 7-79
set time, 7-79
time and date display, 7-85
rear-panel battery information label, 2-22
rear-panel features, 2-5-7
RECALL, 2-2, 7-72
RECALL AMP COR, 7-73
recalling a display image from the memory
card, 5-14, 7-15
recalling a DLP from the memory card, 7-15
recalling amplitude correction factors from
analyzer memory, 5-8-9
recalling amplitude correction factors from
the memory card, 5-15
recalling a program from the memory card,
5-16
recalling a state from analyzer memory, 5-6
Index-14
recalling a state from the memory card,
5-13, 7-15
recalling a trace from analyzer memory, 5-7,
7-49
recalling a trace from the memory card,
5-13-14, 7-15
recalling limit lines from analyzer memory,
5-8-9
recalling limit-line tables from the memory
card, 5-15
RECALL LIMIT, 7-73
reduced frequency accuracy (Option 713),
10-12
reference connector, l-8
reference detector
+ lOV, 7-4
-lOV, 7-4
2v, 7-4
ground, 7-47
reference level, 7-73
reference level offset, 7-73
reflection calibration measurements, 4- 17
REF LVL, 7-73
REF LVL OFFSET, 7-73
relative, limit line type, 7-50
remote command
dispose all, 7-39, 7-40, 7-41
front panel execution, 7-41
remote operation, 7-27
RES BW AUTO MAN, 7-74
resolution bandwidth, 7-74
resolving signals, 3-2-5
resolution bandwidth coupling, 7-10
gate utility, 7-30
resolution bandwidths
optional, lo-10
resolution of marker counter, 7-26
RETURN, 7-74
return loss, measuring, 4-18
RF bridge, lo-13
RF limiters, lo-13
RF OUT 500, 2-4
RF OUT 753, 2-4
RPG knob, 2-8
RPG TITLE, 7-74
RS-232 and Parallel (Option 043), 10-7
RS-232 cable, lo-16
RS-232 interface connector, 2-7
S
sales and service offices, 9-5
sample detection
use with Option 105, 4-23
sample detection mode, 7-34
SAVE, 2-2, 7-75
SAVE AMP COR, 7-75
save current display, 7-35
save current state
memory card, 7-82
state register, 7-82
saved analyzer state, 7-49
SAVE EDIT, 7-75
SAVE LIMIT, 7-76
save lock on
MEM LOCKED, 7-55
saving a display image on the memory card,
5-14
saving a limit-line table into analyzer memory,
5-8
saving amplitude correction factors into
analyzer memory, 5-8
saving amplitude correction factors on the
memory card, 5-15
saving and recalling data from analyzer
memory, 5-6-9
saving and recalling data from the memory
card, 5-10-18
saving and recalling programs with a memory
card, 5-16
saving a program on the memory card, 5-16
saving a state into analyzer memory, 5-6
saving a state on the memory card, 5-12
saving a trace into analyzer memory, 5-7
saving a trace on the memory card, 5-13
saving DLPs from analyzer memory to card,
7-8
saving key definitions from analyzer memory
to card, 7-8
saving limit-line tables on the memory card,
5-15
saving to a memory card, 7-87
saving to spectrum analyzer memory, 7-88
SAV LOCK ON OFF, 5-8, 7-74
scalar 5OtJ transmission/reflection test set,
10-13
scalar measurements, 10-4
SCALE LOG LIN, 7-76
screen annotation, 2-10-12
on or off, 7-10
screen characters, 7-47, 7-57, 7-82, 7-92
screen data output, 7-28
screen graticule, 7-47
screen title, 7-22
characters, 7-5
clearing, 7-23
RPG TITLE, 7-74
screen title, using an external keyboard,
5-42
SECAM-L, 7-76
segment deletion, 7-33
SELECT 1 2 3 4, 7-76
SELECT AMPLITUD, 5-25, 5-39, 7-76
SELECT DLT AMPL, 5-25, 7-76
SELECT FREQ, 5-25, 5-39, 7-77
SELECT LWR AMPL, 5-25, 7-77
SELECT MID AMPL, 5-25, 7-77
SELECT POINT, 5-38, 7-77
SELECT PREFIX, 7-77
SELECT SEGMENT, 5-23, 7-77
SELECT TIME, 7-78
SELECT TYPE, 7-78
SELECT UPR AMPL, 5-25, 7-78
self-calibration routine
CAL TRK GEN, 1-9
CAL YTF, l-10
self-calibration routines, l-8, 2-16-18
amplitude, 7-13
CAL, 7-13
correction factors, 7-13
frequency, 7-14
frequency and amplitude, 7-14
tracking generator, 7- 14
sensitivity
spectrum analyzer, 3- 15
serial polling, A-l
Service Cal, 7-2, 7-78
Service Diag, 7-2, 7-78
service documentation
Option 915, lo-12
service functions, 7-2
Service Cal, 7-2
Service Diag, 7-2
service options, 9-4
service request, A- 1
clearing, A-l
service tag, 9-6
SET ATTN ERROR, 7-2, 7-78
Set B&&W\Printer, 7-78
Set Color printer, 7-78
SET DATE, 7-79
SET TIME, 7-79
setting gate delay, 4-33
setting gate length, 4-33
setting the amplitude, 2-13
setting the center frequency, 2-13
setting the marker, 2-14
setting the span, 2-13
setup
power measurement functions, 7-79
printer, 7-69
SGL SWP, 7-79
SHOW OPTIONS, 7-79
signal comparison, 3- 12
SIGNAL ID, 7-79
signal peak
Index-l 5
highest, 7-80
signal tracking, 3-7, 7-63. See also marker
tracking
SINGLE FFT, 7-80
SINGLE MEAS, 7-80
single sweep, 7-79, 7-82
SLOPE, 5-26, 7-80
softkey label, 2-l
softkey locations, 8-l
softkey overview, 2-12
softkeys, 2-l
source power, 7-81
space
character, 7-92
span
0 Hz, 7-92
LAST SPAN, 7-49
window zone, 7-93
SPAN, 2-1, 2-13, 7-80
SPAN ZOOM, 3-9, 7-80
speaker, AM/FM demodulator
and quasi-peak detector (Option 103), 10-9
(Option 102), 10-9
SPEAKER ON OFF, 7-80
spectral density
channel power, 7-23
SPECTRUM ANALYZER, 7-80
spectrum analyzer attenuator, 7- 10
spectrum analyzer auto-coupled sweep time,
7-83
spectrum analyzer configuration
default, 7-31
spectrum analyzer error messages, 9-7
spectrum analyzer mode, 7-66
spectrum analyzer state recalled, 7-65
speed
data transmission, 7-12
split screen, 7-60
SQUELCH, 4-14, 7-81
SRC ATN MAN AUTO, 7-81
SRC PWR OFFSET, 7-81
SRC PWR ON OFF, 4-8, 7-81
SRC PWR STP SIZE, 7-81
SRQ, A-l
standard timebase, 7-14
start and stop frequencies, 7-53
START FREQ, 7-81
state of spectrum analyzer at power on, 7-65
state registers
locking, 7-74
STATE + CARD, 7-82
STATE + INTRNL, 7-82
status byte, A-l
status byte definition, A-l
step keys, 2-3, 2-9
Index-l 6
step size, center frequency, 7-21
step-size coupling, 7-10
stimulus-response measurements, 4-7
stimulus response mode, 7-83
STOP FREQ, 7-82
stop frequency, fft, 7-43
store correction factors, 7-14
storing
display, 7-35
storing the correction factors
CAL STORE, 1-9
STOR PWR ON UNITS, 7-2, 7-82
STP GAIN ZERO, 7-3, 7-82
STUVWX, 7-82
subtract display line from trace B, 7-11
subtract trace B from A, 7-5
SWEEP, 7-82
sweep control
continuous, 7-82
single, 7-79, 7-82
SWEEP CONT SGL, 7-82
SWEEP DELAY
gate utility, 7-83
sweep modes, 2-10, 2-11
SWEEP OUTPUT, 2-7
SWEEP RAMP, 7-3, 7-83
sweep time, 7-83
sweep time coupling, 7-10
gate utility, 7-30
SWEEP TIME DAC, 7-3, 7-83
SWEEP+TUNE OUTPUT, 2-6
sweep + tune output (Option 009), 10-5
switch trace A and B, 7-5
SWP CPLG SR SA, 4-9, 7-83
SWP TIME AUTO MAN, 7-83
SYNC CRD TV TRIG, 7-83
synchronization constants, 7-32
SYNC NRM NTSC, 7-84
SYNC NRM PAL, 7-84
T
table
of markers, 7-56
table of amplitude correction factors, 7-8
table of signal peaks, 7-63
TABLE ADL NRM, 7-85
temperature conditions, l-8
test set
500 transmission/reflection, lo-13
scalar 500 transmission/reflection, lo-13
TG UNLVL message, 4-12
third order intercept measurement, 4-39,
7-86
third-order intermodulation distortion, 3-22
third order intermodulation measurement,
4-41
verification of, 4-42
THRESHLD ON OFF, 7-85
threshold line, 7-85
timebase verification, 7-90
Time Date, 7-85
TIMEDATE ON OFF, 7-86
time domain window
definition, 7-32
gate utility, 7-32
time gate
definition of, 7-32
delay, 7-46
faster sweep times: Option 101, 4-22
gate on/off, 7-46
length, 7-46
triggering, 7-46
using the gate utility, 4-19
time-gated spectrum analysis (Option 105),
10-9
time-gated spectrum analyzer capability
operation, 4-22
time gate utility, 7-47
coupling, 7-32
delay sweep, 7-83
done, 7-35
entering, 7-45
exit, 7-42
marker on, 7-54
pulse parameters, 7-70
use of, 4-19
time window
resolution bandwidth, 7-84
sweep time, 7-84
TO1 ON OFF, 4-41, 7-86
trace
blank trace A, 7-12
blank trace B, 7-12
blank trace C, 7-12
clear write trace A, 7-24
clear write trace B, 7-25
clear write trace C, 7-26
move trace B into C, 7-l 1
A <--> B, 7-5
A-B --+ A, 7-5
A - C, 7-5
B-DL + B, 7-11
view mode, 7-91
TRACE, 7-86
trace A
maximum hold, 7-55
TRACE A, 7-86
TRACE A B C, 7-86
trace B
maximum hold, 7-55
TRACE B, 7-86
trace C
minimum hold, 7-55
TRACE C, 7-86
trace modes, 2-10, 2-l 1
trace registers
locking, 7-74
Trace + Card, 7-87
Trace + Intrnl, 7-88
Track Gen, 4-8, 7-88
tracking generator, 7-88
external leveling input, 2-5
frequency adjustment, 7-52
internal/external leveling, 7-7
normalization, 4- 11
operation, 4-7
output, 2-4
output power, 7-81
peak response, 7-88
power sweep, 7-71
power sweep range, 7-81
self-calibration, 7-14
self-calibration routine, 1-9, 2-17
source attenuator, 7-81
source power offset, 7-81
source power step size, 7-81
stimulus-response, 4-7
warm-up time, 2-17
tracking generator 500 (Option OlO), 10-6
tracking generator 7562 (Option 01 I), 10-6
tracking generator self-calibration routine,
l-9
tracking generator unleveled condition, 4-12
tracking peak
automatic adjustment, 4-10
manual adjustment, 4-10
TRACKING PEAK, 4-10, 7-88
tracking unstable signals, 3-9
transient limiter, lo-13
transit case, lo-16
TRIG, 7-89
trigger, 7-89
external, 7-42
free run, 7-44
line, 7-51
video, 7-91
triggering
EDGE POL POS NEG, 7-36
gate: edge or level, 7-46
gate utility, 7-36
triggering on a selected line, video picture
field, 4-15
trigger modes, 2-10, 2-11
TRIG MKR ON OFF, 7-89
Index-l 7
TRMATH command, 7- 19
turning off markers, 7-54
turning off the FFT function, 7-43
turning off windows display, 7-91
turning on the analyzer for the first time,
l-8
turn off active function, 2-8
TV LINE #, 7-89
TV measurements personality, 10-2
TV Picture Display (Option ISO), lo-11
TV Standard, 7-89
TVSTND, 4-16
TV SYNC NEG POS, 7-89
TV sync trigger capability/fast time-domain
sweeps/AM/FM demodulator (Option
301), 10-12
TV sync trigger circuitry (Option 102), 10-9
TV trig
even field, 7-89
NTSC video format, 7-59
odd field, 7-89
PAL-M video format, 7-61
PAL video format, 7-61
SECAM-L video format, 7-76
TV line number, 7-89
TV Standard, 7-89
TV sync, 7-89
vertical interval, 7-89
TV TRIG, 4-15
TV TRIG EVEN FLD, 4-15, 7-89
TV triggering, 4-15
TV TRIG ODD FLD, 7-89
TV TRIG OUTPUT, 2-5
TV TRIG VERT INT, 7-89
T WINDOW RES BW, 7-84
T WINDOW SWP TIME, 7-84
two display windows, 7-60
type of limit line, 7-78
U
underscore
character, 7-92
unit key pressed, A-l
units, amplitude, 7-8
universal HP-IB service request, A-l
unleveled condition, tracking generator,
4-12
UPDATE TIMEFREQ, 7-89
upper and lower limit line, 5-23
upper and lower limit lines, 5-29
editing, 7-38
upper limit line, 5-23
user-created error messages, 9-7
User Menus, 7-90
using limit-line functions, 5-18
Index-18
using the GATE CTL EDGE LVL, 4-38
using the level gate control, 4-38
using the self-calibration routines with Option
105, 4-35
V
v, 7-90
variable cataloging, 7-16
VBW/RBW RATIO, 7-90
verification manual
see Calibration Guide, lo-12
VERIFY TIMEBASE, 7-90
vertical signal positioning, 7-3 1
VHS video output, 7-84
VID AVG ON OFF, 7-90
VID BW AUTO MAN, 7-90
VIDEO, 7-91
video averaging, 3-17, 7-90
video bandwidth, 7-90
video bandwidth coupling, 7-10
gate utility, 7-31
video bandwidth to resolution bandwidth
ratio, 7-90
video picture field
triggering on a selected line, 4-15
VIEW A, 7-91
VIEW B, 7-91
VIEW C, 7-91
VOL-INTEN, 2-3
VOLTAGE SELECTOR, 2-6
voltage selector switch, 1-4
Volts, 7-91
volume control, 2-3
w
w, 7-91
warm-up, l-8
warm-up time, 2-16
warranty, 9-4
Watts, 7-91
when self-calibration is needed, 2-18
windows
NEXT, 7-58
ON, 7-60
switching between, 7-58
switching time and frequency windows,
7-89
using, 5-33-34
ZOOM, 7-93
windows keys, 2-3
WINDOWS OFF, 7-91
write-protect switch, 2-2 1
X
X FINE TUNE DAC, 7-3, 7-91
YZ-# Spc Clear, 7-92
Y
YTF DRIVER, 7-3, 7-91
YTF self-calibration routine, l-10, 2-18
YTF slope and offset adjustment, 7-14
YTF SPAN, 7-3, 7-92
YTF TUNE COARSE, 7-3, 7-92
YTF TUNE FINE, 7-3, 7-92
ZERO MARKER, 7-92
ZERO SPAN, 3-7, 7-92
ZONE CENTER, 7-92
ZONE PK LEFT, 7-93
ZONE PK RIGHT, 7-93
ZONE SPAN, 7-93
ZOOM, 7-93
zooming a window, 7-93
Z
Index-19
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