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Training Manual
Powertrain
(NTOM)
CT-L1001.4
No part of this hardcopy may be reproduced in any form without prior permission of
Mazda Motor Europe GmbH.
The illustrations, technical information, data and descriptive text in this issue, to the best of our
knowledge, were correct at the time of going to print.
No liability can be accepted for any inaccuracies or omissions in this publication, although every
possible care has been taken to make it as complete and accurate as possible.
© 2007
Mazda Motor Europe GmbH
Training Services
Powertrain
Table of Contents
Introduction .......................................................................................00-1
Engines ..............................................................................................01-1
MESI for Engine Service and Repairs.......................................................................01-1
Petrol Engines ............................................................................................................01-5
L-type Engines............................................................................................................01-5
Mechanical (L8, LF, L3 Engine).............................................................................01-6
Features .........................................................................................................01-6
Overview.........................................................................................................01-6
Cylinder Block.................................................................................................01-7
Pistons............................................................................................................01-8
Crankshaft ......................................................................................................01-9
Balancer Shaft Unit.......................................................................................01-11
Cylinder Head...............................................................................................01-12
Camshafts ....................................................................................................01-13
Valve Actuation.............................................................................................01-14
Valve Train ...................................................................................................01-15
Timing Chain Tensioner ...............................................................................01-16
Variable Valve Timing System......................................................................01-18
Valve Timing.................................................................................................01-19
Accessory Drive Belt ....................................................................................01-21
Mechanical (L3-T Engine) ...................................................................................01-22
Features .......................................................................................................01-22
Overview.......................................................................................................01-22
Pistons..........................................................................................................01-23
Cylinder Head...............................................................................................01-23
Camshafts ....................................................................................................01-24
Valve Train ...................................................................................................01-25
Timing Chain Tensioner ...............................................................................01-25
Valve Timing.................................................................................................01-26
Lubrication ..........................................................................................................01-27
Features .......................................................................................................01-27
Parts Location...............................................................................................01-27
Cooling System ...................................................................................................01-28
Features .......................................................................................................01-28
Parts Location...............................................................................................01-28
Engine Coolant .............................................................................................01-29
Z-type Engines..........................................................................................................01-30
Mechanical ..........................................................................................................01-30
Features .......................................................................................................01-30
Curriculum Training
Table of Contents
Powertrain
Overview.......................................................................................................01-31
Cylinder Block...............................................................................................01-32
Pistons..........................................................................................................01-33
Crankshaft ....................................................................................................01-34
Camshafts ....................................................................................................01-35
Valve Train ...................................................................................................01-35
Valve Timing.................................................................................................01-36
Lubrication ...........................................................................................................01-37
Features .......................................................................................................01-37
Pats Location................................................................................................01-37
Cooling System ...................................................................................................01-38
Features .......................................................................................................01-38
Parts Location...............................................................................................01-38
Service Procedures .............................................................................................01-39
Adjusting the Idle Speed...............................................................................01-39
MZI-type Engines......................................................................................................01-40
Mechanical ..........................................................................................................01-40
Features .......................................................................................................01-40
Overview.......................................................................................................01-41
Cylinder Block...............................................................................................01-42
Valve Train ...................................................................................................01-43
Timing Belt Tensioner...................................................................................01-44
Accessory Drive Belts...................................................................................01-46
Lubrication ...........................................................................................................01-48
Features .......................................................................................................01-48
Cooling System ...................................................................................................01-48
Features .......................................................................................................01-48
13B-MSP Rotary Engine...........................................................................................01-49
Mechanical ..........................................................................................................01-49
Features .......................................................................................................01-49
Overview.......................................................................................................01-49
Construction .................................................................................................01-50
Operating Principle .......................................................................................01-52
Intake Stroke ................................................................................................01-53
Compression Stroke .....................................................................................01-53
Combustion Stroke .......................................................................................01-53
Exhaust Stroke .............................................................................................01-53
Lubrication ...........................................................................................................01-55
Features .......................................................................................................01-55
Parts Location...............................................................................................01-55
Engine Oil .....................................................................................................01-56
Cooling System ...................................................................................................01-57
Features .......................................................................................................01-57
Parts Location...............................................................................................01-57
Service Procedures .............................................................................................01-58
Compression Test ........................................................................................01-58
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Table of Contents
Diesel Engines ..........................................................................................................01-61
RF-T Engine ..............................................................................................................01-61
Mechanical ..........................................................................................................01-61
Features .......................................................................................................01-61
Overview.......................................................................................................01-62
Cylinder Block...............................................................................................01-63
Pistons..........................................................................................................01-63
Crankshaft ....................................................................................................01-64
Cylinder Head...............................................................................................01-65
Camshaft ......................................................................................................01-66
Valve Actuation.............................................................................................01-66
Valve Train ...................................................................................................01-67
Timing Belt Tensioner...................................................................................01-68
Valve Timing.................................................................................................01-70
Accessory Drive Belt ....................................................................................01-71
Lubrication ...........................................................................................................01-72
Features .......................................................................................................01-72
Parts Location...............................................................................................01-72
Engine Oil .....................................................................................................01-73
Oil Dipstick....................................................................................................01-73
Cooling System ...................................................................................................01-74
Features .......................................................................................................01-74
Parts Location...............................................................................................01-74
Diesel Particulate Filter System....................................................................01-75
Service Procedures .............................................................................................01-76
Replacing the Engine Oil ..............................................................................01-76
Injection Amount Learning Function .............................................................01-76
DPF Manual Regeneration ...........................................................................01-77
WL-C Engine .............................................................................................................01-78
Mechanical ..........................................................................................................01-78
Features .......................................................................................................01-78
Overview.......................................................................................................01-79
Balancer Shafts ............................................................................................01-80
Cylinder Head...............................................................................................01-81
Camshaft ......................................................................................................01-82
Valve Actuation.............................................................................................01-83
Valve Train ...................................................................................................01-84
Timing Belt Tensioner...................................................................................01-86
Valve Timing.................................................................................................01-87
Accessory Drive Belt ....................................................................................01-89
Lubrication ...........................................................................................................01-90
Features .......................................................................................................01-90
Parts Location...............................................................................................01-90
Cooling System ...................................................................................................01-91
Features .......................................................................................................01-91
Parts Location...............................................................................................01-91
Service Procedures .............................................................................................01-92
MAF Sensor Learning Function....................................................................01-92
Curriculum Training
Table of Contents
Powertrain
Y-type Engines..........................................................................................................01-93
Mechanical (Y4 Engine) ......................................................................................01-93
Features .......................................................................................................01-93
Overview.......................................................................................................01-94
Cylinder Block...............................................................................................01-95
Pistons..........................................................................................................01-96
Crankshaft ....................................................................................................01-97
Cylinder Head.............................................................................................01-100
Valve Actuation...........................................................................................01-101
Valve Train .................................................................................................01-102
Timing Belt Tensioner.................................................................................01-103
Valve Timing...............................................................................................01-104
Mechanical (Y6 Engine) ....................................................................................01-105
Features .....................................................................................................01-105
Overview.....................................................................................................01-105
Cylinder Head.............................................................................................01-106
Camshafts ..................................................................................................01-107
Valve Train .................................................................................................01-109
Lubrication .........................................................................................................01-110
Features .....................................................................................................01-110
Parts Location.............................................................................................01-110
Cooling System .................................................................................................01-111
Features .....................................................................................................01-111
Parts Location.............................................................................................01-111
Diesel Particulate Filter System.........................................................................01-112
Service Procedures ...........................................................................................01-113
Bleeding the Fuel System...........................................................................01-113
Refilling the Fuel Additive Tank ..................................................................01-114
Installing a New DPF ..................................................................................01-115
DPF Manual Regeneration .........................................................................01-115
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Table of Contents
Transmissions ...................................................................................02-1
Drive Train...................................................................................................................02-1
Transmission Code ....................................................................................................02-2
Manual Transmissions...............................................................................................02-3
F35M-R Transmission ...........................................................................................02-4
Overview.........................................................................................................02-4
Service Procedures ...............................................................................................02-5
Transmission Oil Inspection ...........................................................................02-5
A26M(X)-R Transmission ......................................................................................02-6
Overview.........................................................................................................02-6
S15M(X)-D Transmission ......................................................................................02-8
Overview.........................................................................................................02-8
Automated Shift Manual Transmission ..................................................................02-09
Overview..............................................................................................................02-09
Service Procedures .............................................................................................02-10
Bleeding the Clutch System .........................................................................02-10
Automatic Transmissions........................................................................................02-11
FS5A-EL Transmission........................................................................................02-12
Overview.......................................................................................................02-12
Limited Slip Differential ...........................................................................................02-13
Overview..............................................................................................................02-13
Service Procedures .............................................................................................02-14
Rear Differential Oil Inspection and Oil Replacement ..................................02-14
List of Abbreviations.........................................................................03-1
Curriculum Training
Table of Contents
Powertrain
Notes:
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Introduction
Introduction
•
The training course “Powertrain” introduces the various engines and transmissions of the
current Mazda models with the main focus on the mechanical system.
•
It is one part of the NTOM (New-To-Mazda) course, which is addressed to entry-level
Mazda technicians. Successful attendance of the NTOM course is a prerequisite for
participation in any technical courses of the Mazda Masters program.
•
Anyone associated with the diagnosis and repair of Mazda vehicles must have the
knowledge to deliver a “Fix it right first time” repair. Therefore, the Mazda Masters
development and qualification path provides the following training courses required for
servicing Mazda vehicles:
–
–
–
–
Introduction To Mazda (NTOM) CT-L1001.1
Mazda Modular Diagnostic System (NTOM) CT-L1001.2
Chassis and Body (NTOM) CT-L1001.3
Powertrain (NTOM) CT-L1001.4
•
The ranking of this course within the Mazda Masters educational system is Level 1 –
‘Mazda Technician’. It is intended for technicians without Mazda experience, who
already have started their new job at a Mazda dealer.
•
The training manual “Powertrain” is divided into the following main chapters:
–
–
Engines
Transmissions
Curriculum Training
00-1
Introduction
Powertrain
Notes:
00-2
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engine
MESI for Engine Service and Repairs
•
For engine service and repairs MESI provides two different types of information within
the Service Contents menu.
•
The chapter “Engine” of the workshop manual contains information about the various
engine systems such as cooling system, exhaust system etc. but also about certain
mechanical repairs on the engine.
•
The “Engine Workshop Manual” contains detailed information about mechanical
overhauling of the engine. It explains the disassembly, inspection, repair and reassembly
procedures on the engine. It also contains specifications (like tightening torques,
standard values and limit values) for the various overhaul and repair procedures.
•
The chapter “Engine” of the workshop manual can be found by choosing the “Workshop
Manual” from the Service Contents menu and then selecting “Engine”. If you have to
replace a cylinder head gasket for example, select “Mechanical” and then “Cylinder
Head Gasket Replacement” to get information about the procedure.
L1001.4_01149
1
Hyperlink
Curriculum Training
01-1
Engine
•
Powertrain
Clicking a Hyperlink (e.g. compression inspection) provides the technician with additional
information, which is essential for the repair in question.
L1001.4_01150
01-2
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
•
Engine
The Engine Workshop Manual can be found by choosing “Engine WM” of the Service
Contents menu and then selecting “Engine). See example below. If you have to inspect
a cylinder head for example, select “Mechanical” and then “Cylinder Head Inspection” to
get information about the procedure.
L1001.4_01151
Curriculum Training
01-3
Engine
Powertrain
Notes:
01-4
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Petrol Engines
•
The following petrol engine types are fitted in the current Mazda models:
Model / Engine
Mazda2 (DY)
1.25 MZI
1.4 MZI
1.6 MZI
X
X
X
Mazda3
ZJ
Z6
X
X
L8
LF
L3
L3-T
X
Mazda3 MPS
X
Mazda5
X
X
Mazda6
X
X
X
Mazda6 MPS
X
Mazda CX-7
X
Mazda MX-5
X
X
L1001.4_T01001a
L-type Engines
•
In the L-type engine line-up the following engines are available:
–
–
–
–
L8 engine with 1.8 L displacement (also termed as 1.8 L MZR engine)
LF engine with 2.0 L displacement (also termed as 2.0 L MZR engine)
L3 engine with 2.3 L displacement (also termed as 2.3 L MZR engine)
L3-T engine with 2.3 L displacement, direct injection and turbocharger (also termed
as 2.3 L MZR DISI (Direct Injection Spark Ignition) Turbo engine)
•
The L8 and the LF engine are fitted in the Mazda5, Mazda6 and Mazda MX-5 models. In
addition, the LF engine is available in the Mazda3 models. The L3 engine is fitted in the
Mazda6 models only. All engines are equipped with a multipoint manifold injection
system and a distributorless ignition system (direct ignition coils).
•
The L3-T engine is available in the Mazda3 MPS, Mazda6 MPS and Mazda CX-7
models. It is equipped with a direct injection system, a FGT (Fixed Geometry Turbine)
turbocharger and a distributorless ignition system (direct ignition coils).
Curriculum Training
01-5
Engines
Powertrain
Mechanical (L8, LF, L3 Engine)
Features
•
The mechanical system of the L8, LF and L3 engine has the following features:
–
–
–
–
–
Chain driven 16 valve DOHC (Double Overhead Camshaft) engine
Balancer shafts (only L3 engine)
Valve train with automatic timing chain tensioner and mechanical bucket tappets
Variable valve timing system for the intake camshaft (except L8 engine)
V-ribbed belt drive with automatic tensioner
Overview
L1001.4_01001
01-6
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Cylinder Block
•
The cylinder block features a bearing support frame, in which the main bearing caps are
integrated. Cylinder block and bearing support frame are matched to each other, i.e. they
cannot be replaced separately. If one of the components exceeds the specification, the
cylinder block must be replaced as a complete unit.
•
The main bearing cap bolts are torque-to-yield bolts, which must be tightened in several
stages (refer to the workshop manual for details).
L1001.4_01002
1
Cylinder block
Curriculum Training
2
Bearing support frame
01-7
Engines
Powertrain
Pistons
•
The piston skirt is coated to reduce friction between the piston and the cylinder.
•
Piston, piston pin and connecting rod are shrinkage fitted and cannot be disassembled. If
one of the components exceeds the specification, the piston/ connecting rod assembly
has to be replaced as a complete unit.
L1001.4_01003
1
2
01-8
Engine front side
Arrow indicating the installation direction
3
Valve recesses
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Crankshaft
•
The crankshaft for the L8 and LF engine has four counterweights, while the crankshaft
for the L3 engine has eight counterweights.
•
In addition, the crankshaft for the L3 engine is equipped with a drive gear for the
balancer shafts.
•
The crankshaft features no key for the installation of the crankshaft sprocket and the
crankshaft pulley, i.e. solely the clamping force of the lock bolt secures both components
on the crankshaft.
•
The crankshaft pulley has a pulse wheel for the CKP (Crankshaft Position) sensor
signals. For this reason, the crankshaft pulley must be fixed to the engine front cover
using a detent bolt (M6 x 1.0) before tightening the crankshaft pulley lock bolt.
•
The crankshaft pulley lock bolt is a torque-to-yield bolt, which must be tightened in
several stages (refer to the workshop manual for details).
NOTE: The crankshaft pulley lock bolt must not be re-used.
L1001.4_01004
1
Crankshaft (L8, LF engine)
Curriculum Training
2
Crankshaft (L3 engine)
01-9
Engines
•
Powertrain
There is no positioning tab for locating the upper and lower bearing in the main journal.
For installing the main bearing shells (upper and lower), they have to be measured and
attached so that they are positioned in the center of the main bearing cap (refer to the
workshop manual for details).
L1001.4_01005
1
2
3
4
Upper main bearing shell
Thrust bearing
Upper main bearing oil groove
Oil holes
01-10
5
6
7
8
Main bearing cap
Main bearing shell
Specified measurement
Lower main bearing shell
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Balancer Shaft Unit
•
The balancer shafts minimize the engine vibrations by rotating at twice the speed of the
crankshaft.
•
The balancer shaft unit features a two-piece housing, which is fixed to the cylinder block
by four bolts.
NOTE: The balancer shaft unit cannot be repaired due to its precise interior construction, i.e.
it must be replaced as a complete unit.
•
If the cylinder block, crankshaft, crankshaft main bearing, or balancer shaft unit have
been replaced, the backlash between the drive gear of the crankshaft and the driven
gear of the balancer shaft unit must be adjusted using shims (refer to the workshop
manual for details).
L1001.4_01006
1
2
3
4
5
Adjustment shim
Engraved identification mark
Drive gear
Balancer shaft no.2
Balancer shaft no.1 with driven gear
Curriculum Training
6
7
8
9
Counter weights
Balancer shaft unit housing
Engine front side
Crankshaft
01-11
Engines
Powertrain
Cylinder Head
•
The cylinder head is a conventional construction with separate camshaft bearing caps.
•
The cylinder head bolts are torque-to-yield bolts, which must be tightened in several
stages (refer to the workshop manual for details).
NOTE: The cylinder head bolts must not be re-used if their length exceeds the specification
(refer to the workshop manual for details).
L1001.4_01007
1
2
3
Exhaust side
Cylinder head bolt
Intake port
01-12
4
5
6
Exhaust port
Intake side
Engine front side
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Camshafts
•
The camshafts feature no key for the installation of the camshaft sprockets, i.e. solely
the clamping force of the lock bolt secures the sprocket on the camshaft.
•
The intake camshaft of the LF and L3 engine is equipped with an oil line supplying oil to
the camshaft actuator of the variable valve timing system.
•
The intake camshaft has a pulse wheel for the CMP (Camshaft Position) sensor signals.
L1001.4_01008
1
2
3
Exhaust camshaft
Thrust collar
Cam heel
5
6
7
4
Cam journal
8
Curriculum Training
Cam nose
Pulse wheel for CMP sensor
Intake camshaft
(with variable valve timing system)
Intake camshaft front end (without
variable valve timing system)
01-13
Engines
Powertrain
Valve Actuation
•
The camshafts actuate the valves via mechanical bucket tappets without adjustment
shims.
•
The valve clearance is adjusted by the different thickness of the bucket tappets. The
tappet thickness can be determined by the engraved number (e.g. number “402” means
a thickness of 3.402 mm). In order to replace the tappets the camshafts have to be
removed (refer to the workshop manual for details).
•
The valve clearance has to be audibly inspected (and if noisy adjusted) every 120,000
km.
L1001.4_01009
1
2
3
Camshaft
Tappet cross-sectional view
Cam lobe contact surface
01-14
4
5
6
Tappet thickness
Valve stem contact surface
Bucket tappet
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Valve Train
•
The camshafts are driven by a maintenance-free pinned link timing chain.
L1001.4_01010
1
2
3
4
5
6
Exhaust camshaft sprocket
Timing chain
Intake camshaft sprocket
L8, LF engine
Pitch size
Pin
Curriculum Training
7
8
9
10
11
L3 engine
Chain guide
Crankshaft sprocket
Chain tensioner
Chain tensioner arm
01-15
Engines
Powertrain
Timing Chain Tensioner
•
An automatic timing chain tensioner is fitted to ensure optimum chain tension over the
service life of the engine.
•
The timing chain tensioner operates using engine oil pressure. The ratchet and the rack
hold the piston in place when the engine is started.
L1001.4_01011
1
2
3
4
Hole for a ratchet lock
Ratchet spring
Ratchet
Rack
01-16
5
6
7
8
Plunger
Plunger spring
Check valve
Oil supply hole
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
•
Engines
The timing chain tension can be released as following (refer to the workshop manual for
details):
1. Using a suitable screwdriver or equivalent tool, unlock the chain tensioner ratchet.
2. Turn the exhaust camshaft clockwise using a suitable wrench on the cast hexagon,
and loosen the timing chain.
3. Placing a bolt (M6 x 1.0) in the engine front cover upper blind plug hole, secure the
chain tensioner arm in the position where the tension is released.
L1001.4_01012
1
2
Direction of rotation
Unlocking the chain tensioner ratchet
Curriculum Training
3
Detent bolt
01-17
Engines
Powertrain
Variable Valve Timing System
•
The variable valve timing system continuously varies the valve timing of the intake
valves, controlling the cylinder charge.
•
The camshaft actuator is attached to the camshaft sprocket and varies the position of the
intake camshaft in relation to the sprocket. The intake camshaft position is controlled by
the oil control valve using engine oil pressure.
NOTE: The camshaft actuator cannot be repaired due to its precise interior construction, i.e.
it must be replaced as a complete unit.
L1001.4_01140
1
2
Oil control valve
Intake camshaft
01-18
3
Camshaft actuator
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Valve Timing
•
For verifying or adjusting the valve timing a timing peg (SST) has to be installed in the
blind plug hole, which is located at the rear of the cylinder block. Then turn the
crankshaft clockwise until the crankshaft counterweight of cylinder no. 1 touches the
timing peg (refer to the workshop manual for details).
NOTE: To prevent damage to the timing peg do not use it to lock the crankshaft in position.
L1001.4_01013
1
2
3
Service hole
Crankshaft pulley
Detent bolt for crankshaft pulley
Curriculum Training
4
5
6
TDC position
Crankshaft counterweight of cylinder no.1
Timing peg (SST)
01-19
Engines
•
Powertrain
For verifying or adjusting the valve timing a timing plate (SST) has to be installed in the
camshafts.
NOTE: Never use the timing plate to hold the camshafts while loosening or tightening the
camshaft pulleys. Hold the camshafts using a wrench on the camshaft´s cast
hexagon.
NOTE: From a certain build date on specially coated washers are installed between the
camshaft sprockets and the camshaft to increase the friction. These washers must
be replaced (or installed if not equipped), if the camshaft sprockets have been
removed.
L1001.4_01014
1
Timing plate (SST)
01-20
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Accessory Drive Belt
•
A V-ribbed drive belt is fitted to drive the engine accessories.
•
An automatic tensioner provides constant drive belt tension.
L1001.4_01015
1
2
3
4
•
Generator pulley
Idler pulley
Drive belt
Power steering pump pulley
5
6
7
8
Water pump pulley
A/C compressor pulley
Crankshaft pulley
Drive belt tensioner pulley
In order to check the drive belt for wear, verify that the automatic tensioner indicator
mark does not exceed the specification.
L1001.4_01016
1
2
Indicator mark
Normal
Curriculum Training
3
Worn
01-21
Engines
Powertrain
Mechanical (L3-T Engine)
Features
•
The mechanical system of the L3-T engine has the following features:
–
–
–
–
–
Chain driven 16 valve DOHC engine
Balancer shaft unit
Valve train with automatic timing chain tensioner and mechanical bucket tappets
Variable valve timing system for the intake camshaft
V-ribbed belt drive with automatic tensioner
Overview
L1001.4_01017
NOTE: Some of the components of the L3-T engine are very similar in construction and
operation to those of the L3 engine. Therefore, this section only describes the
components which are new or differ from those of the L3 engine.
01-22
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Pistons
•
The shape of the pistons has been adapted to the requirements of the direct injection
system, i.e. the piston top is recessed to improve the mixture formation.
•
The piston skirt is redesigned due to the modified oil jet valves. In addition, it features a
coating to reduce friction between the piston and the cylinder.
•
Piston, piston pin and connecting rod are not shrinkage fitted, i.e. the components can
be replaced separately.
L1001.4_01018
1
Oil jet release width
Cylinder Head
•
Due to the adoption of the direct injection system the cylinder head is equipped with
installation holes for the fuel injectors.
L1001.4_01019
1
Fuel injector installation hole
Curriculum Training
2
Combustion chamber
01-23
Engines
Powertrain
Camshafts
•
The intake camshaft features a trochoid shaped cam, which drives the high-pressure
pump of the direct injection system.
L1001.4_01020
1
2
3
4
Exhaust camshaft
Thrust collar
Cam nose
Cam journal
01-24
5
6
7
8
Cam heel
High-pressure pump drive cam
Pulse wheel for CMP sensor
Intake camshaft
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Valve Train
•
The valve train is equipped with a roller chain and respective sprockets to improve
durability.
L1001.4_01021
1
2
3
4
Camshaft sprockets
Timing chain
Pitch size
Pin
5
6
7
8
Chain guide
Crankshaft sprocket
Chain tensioner
Chain tensioner arm
Timing Chain Tensioner
•
The L3-T engine features a modified automatic timing chain tensioner. However, the
operating principle is the same as on the L3 engine.
L1001.4_01022
1
2
3
Housing
Ratchet spring
Ratchet
Curriculum Training
4
5
6
Rack
Plunger
Plunger spring
01-25
Engines
Powertrain
Valve Timing
•
Due to the modified intake camshaft a different timing plate (SST) is required to verify or
adjust the valve timing.
L1001.4_01023
1
Timing plate (SST)
01-26
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Lubrication
Features
•
The lubrication system of the L-type engines has the following features:
–
–
–
–
Chain driven trochoid gear type oil pump
Water-cooled type oil cooler (L8 engine only if equipped)
Spin-on type or cartridge type oil filter
Oil jet valves
Parts Location
L1001.4_01024
Mazda6 GG/GY
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Oil pump chain tensioner
12
Oil jet valve
Oil cooler (L8, LF and L3 engine)
Oil cooler (L3-T engine)
Gasket
Oil pressure switch
Oil filter adapter
Oil filter
Oil filter cover
Oil filter drain plug
O-ring
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
Curriculum Training
Cartridge type oil filter without oil cooler
(only L8 engine)
Cartridge type oil filter with oil cooler
Spin-on type oil filter
Oil pan
Washer
Oil pan drain plug
Oil strainer
Oil pump
Oil pump sprocket
Oil pump chain
Oil pump chain guide
01-27
Engines
Powertrain
Cooling System
Features
•
The cooling system of the L-type engines has the following features:
–
–
–
–
Water pump driven by the accessory drive belt
Unpressurized or pressurized type coolant reserve tank (depending on model)
FL22 longlife engine coolant
Cooling fan controlled by relays or by a fan control module (depending on model)
Parts Location
L1001.4_01025
Mazda6 GG/GY
1
2
3
4
5
6
Cooling system cap
Radiator
Thermostat
Water pump
Coolant reserve tank
Cooling fan motor no.2
7
Cooling fan motor no.1
01-28
8
9
10
11
12
13
Radiator cowling
Cooling fan no.1
Cooling fan no.2
Fan control module
Cooling fan component (L3-T engine)
Cooling fan component (L8, LF, L3
engine)
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Engine Coolant
•
For all current Mazda vehicles except for Mazda2 (DY) Mazda has developed a special
engine coolant called ‘FL22’. This coolant has a significantly longer replacement interval
than conventional coolant. Whereas conventional coolant must replaced at first every
100,000 km or 4 years (whichever occurs first) and after that every 2 years, FL22 coolant
must be replaced every 200,000 km or 11 years (whichever occurs first). The only
exception are models with L3-T engine (Mazda3 MPS, Mazda6 MPS and Mazda CX-7),
which have a coolant replacement interval of 195,000 km or 11 years (whichever occurs
first).
•
FL22 coolant and conventional coolant are both ethylene glycol-based and can be
mixed. They are both green, making them impossible to distinguish visually. For this
reason, vehicles designated for use with FL22 coolant have a corresponding label on the
radiator cap itself or on the surrounding area.
L1001.4_01142
1
•
Radiator cap
2
Label
If the engine coolant on a vehicle designated for use with conventional coolant is
replaced by FL22 coolant, the replacement interval changes to 100,000 km or 5 years
(whichever occurs first). In order to indicate the new replacement interval, a sticker has
to be applied next to the coolant reserve tank (refer to the respective service information
for details).
NOTE: When replacing the coolant, the cooling system has to be flushed (refer to the
workshop manual for details).
Curriculum Training
01-29
Engines
Powertrain
Z-type Engines
•
In the Z-type engine line-up the following engines are available:
–
–
•
ZJ engine with 1.3 L displacement (also termed as 1.3 MZR engine)
Z6 engine with 1.6 L displacement (also termed as 1.6 MZR engine)
Both engines are fitted in the Mazda3 models. They are equipped with a multipoint
manifold injection system and a distributorless ignition system (direct ignition coils).
Mechanical
Features
•
The mechanical system of the Z-type engines has the following features:
–
–
–
–
01-30
Chain driven 16 valve DOHC engine
Valve train with automatic timing chain tensioner and mechanical bucket tappets
Variable valve timing system for the intake camshaft
V-ribbed belt drive with automatic tensioner
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Overview
L1001.4_01026
NOTE: Some of the components of the Z-type engine are very similar in construction and
operation to those of the L-type engines. Therefore, this section only describes the
components which are new or differ from those of the L-type engines.
Curriculum Training
01-31
Engines
Powertrain
Cylinder Block
•
The cylinder block is equipped with cylinder liners, the coolant jackets of which are open
towards the top.
•
The cylinder block is composed of an upper and a lower part, in which the main bearing
caps are integrated. Upper and lower cylinder block are matched to each other, i.e. they
cannot be replaced separately. If one of the components exceeds the specification, the
cylinder block must be replaced as a complete unit.
L1001.4_01027
1
Upper cylinder block
01-32
2
Lower cylinder block
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Pistons
•
The pistons of the ZJ engine only have valve recesses on the intake side, whereas the
pistons of the Z6 engine have valve recesses on the intake and exhaust side.
•
Piston, piston pin and connecting rod are not shrinkage fitted, i.e. the components can
be replaced separately.
L1001.4_01028
1
2
3
Engine front side
ZJ engine
Dot indicating the installation direction
Curriculum Training
4
5
6
Z6 engine
Valve recesses (exhaust side)
Valve recesses (intake side)
01-33
Engines
Powertrain
Crankshaft
•
The crankshaft is equipped with a key for the installation of the crankshaft sprocket and
the crankshaft pulley.
•
The installation procedure for the main bearing shells is the same as on the L-type
engines.
L1001.4_01029
1
2
3
4
5
Upper main bearing shell
Thrust bearing
Upper main bearing oil groove
Main bearing cap
Main bearing shell
01-34
6
7
8
9
10
Specified measurement
Oil bore
Crankshaft
Lower main bearing shell
Engine front side
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Camshafts
•
The camshafts are equipped with a pin for the installation of the camshaft pulleys.
•
The intake camshaft is equipped with an oil line supplying oil to the camshaft actuator of
the variable valve timing system.
•
The intake camshaft has a pulse wheel for the CMP sensor signals.
Valve Train
•
The valve train is similar to that of the L-type engines. In addition, the procedure for
releasing the timing chain tension is the same as on the L-type engines.
L1001.4_01032
1
2
3
4
5
Camshaft sprocket
Timing chain
Pin
Guide plate
Middle plate
Curriculum Training
6
7
8
9
10
Inner plate
Chain guide
Crankshaft sprocket
Chain tensioner
Chain tensioner arm
01-35
Engines
Powertrain
Valve Timing
•
For verifying or adjusting the valve timing, the crankshaft sprocket key has to be aligned
with the timing mark on the oil pump housing.
L1001.4_01034
1
•
Timing mark
2
Crankshaft sprocket key
For verifying or adjusting the valve timing, the timing marks on the camshaft sprockets
have to be aligned, so that they form a straight line with the upper horizontal surface of
the cylinder head.
L1001.4_01035
1
Timing marks
01-36
2
Cylinder head upper surface
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Lubrication
Features
•
The lubrication system of the Z-type engines has the following features:
–
–
–
–
Trochoid gear type oil pump, directly driven by the crankshaft
Water-cooled type oil cooler (depending on model)
Spin-on type oil filter
Oil jet valves
Parts Location
L1001.4_01038
1
2
3
4
5
6
Oil jet valve
With oil cooler
O-ring
Oil cooler
Oil filter
Oil pressure switch
Curriculum Training
7
8
9
10
11
12
Oil pan
Washer
Oil pan drain plug
Oil pump
Gasket
Oil strainer
01-37
Engines
Powertrain
Cooling System
Features
•
The cooling system of the Z-type engines has the following features:
–
–
–
–
Water pump driven by the accessory drive belt
Pressurized type coolant reserve tank
FL22 longlife engine coolant
Cooling fan with cooling fan motor and integrated fan control module
Parts Location
L1001.4_01039
1
2
Coolant reserve tank
Cooling system cap
5
6
3
4
Water pump
Thermostat
7
8
01-38
Radiator cowling
Cooling fan motor with fan control
module
Cooling fan
Radiator
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Service Procedures
Adjusting the Idle Speed
•
On the Mazda3 with ZJ and Z6 engine the idle speed must be adjusted at specified
service intervals using M-MDS. To perform the procedure select the PIDs RPM (Rpm)
and test# (Mode) in the M-MDS Datalogger, and set the PID test# to ON. Now the PCM
(Powertrain Control Module) uses a fixed value for the ignition timing control, so that the
idle speed can be adjusted on the air adjusting screw of the throttle body.
NOTE: The throttle body is equipped with a stop screw, which is used by the manufacturer
to adjust the fully closed throttle position. Any adjustment of the stop screw is
prohibited and can cause malfunctions such as sticking of the throttle valve.
L1001.4_01152
1
2
Air adjusting screw
Throttle valve
Curriculum Training
3
Throttle body
01-39
Engines
Powertrain
MZI-type Engines
•
In the MZI engine line-up the following engines are available:
–
–
–
•
1.25 MZI engine with 1.25 L displacement
1.4 MZI engine with 1.4 L displacement
1.6 MZI engine with 1.6 L displacement
The MZI-type engines are fitted in the Mazda2 (DY) models. They are equipped with a
multipoint manifold injection system and a distributorless ignition system (ignition coil
unit).
Mechanical
Features
•
The mechanical system of the MZI-type engines has the following features:
–
–
Belt driven 16 valve DOHC engine
–
–
No variable valve timing system
01-40
Valve train with manual or automatic timing belt tensioner, and mechanical bucket
tappets
V-ribbed belt drive with elastic belts
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Overview
L1001.4_01040
NOTE: Some of the components of the MZI-type engine are very similar in construction and
operation to those of the L-type engines. Therefore, this section only describes the
components which are new or differ from those of the L-type engines.
Curriculum Training
01-41
Engines
Powertrain
Cylinder Block
•
The cylinder block features a bearing support frame, in which the main bearing caps are
integrated. The bearing support frame is matched to the cylinder block and is not located
by means of guide sleeves, i.e. the components of the crank train (crankshaft,
connecting rod and piston) cannot be replaced separately. If one of the components
exceeds the specification, the cylinder block must be replaced as a complete unit.
•
For this reason, a remanufactured cylinder block is available for the MZI-type engines,
which is delivered completely with crankshaft, connecting rods, pistons, all oil passage
blanking plugs and water drain plugs.
NOTE: Thread repairs on the cylinder block using thread inserts are not permitted.
L1001.4_01041
1
2
Cylinder block
Main bearing shells
01-42
3
4
Crankshaft
Bearing support frame
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Valve Train
•
The camshafts are driven by a timing belt, which has to be replaced every 160,000 km or
10 years (whichever occurs first). In addition, the valve clearance must be inspected
(and if necessary adjusted) at the same service interval.
•
The procedure for verifying or adjusting the valve timing is the same as on the L-type
engines.
NOTE: In order to prevent damage to the plastic camshaft pulleys when loosening or
tightening the lock bolts, use the pulley holder (SST) with a suitable piece of hose
installed to the SST studs.
L1001.4_01043
1
2
Timing belt
Camshaft pulleys
Curriculum Training
3
4
Timing belt tensioner
Crankshaft pulley
01-43
Engines
Powertrain
Timing Belt Tensioner
•
Depending on the build date of the vehicle different manual or automatic timing belt
tensioners are fitted (refer to the workshop manual for details).
NOTE: On vehicles with automatic tensioner do not remove the locking pin (SST), until the
timing belt is correctly positioned. Failure to follow this instruction may result in
personal injury, or damage to the timing belt tensioner.
L1001.4_01044
Manual timing belt tensioner with eccentric cam
L1001.4_01045
Manual timing belt tensioner with slotted bracket
01-44
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
L1001.4_01046
Automatic timing belt tensioner (vehicles built from 09/2003 onwards)
1
Locking pin (SST)
L1001.4_01047
Automatic timing belt tensioner (vehicles built from 04/2005 onwards)
1
Locking pin (SST)
Curriculum Training
01-45
Engines
Powertrain
Accessory Drive Belts
•
A V-ribbed drive belt is fitted to drive the engine accessories. There are two variants of
the accessory belt drive:
–
–
•
Vehicles without A/C have one drive belt
Vehicles with A/C have two drive belts
Both variants have elastic drive belts (also termed as stretchy belt), i.e. they do not need
a tensioner. Since retensioning is not possible, the drive belt must not be re-used.
L1001.4_01050
A
B
1
2
Vehicles without A/C
Vehicles with A/C
Generator pulley
Water pump pulley
01-46
3
4
5
Power steering oil pump pulley
Crankshaft pulley
A/C compressor pulley
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
•
Engines
In order to remove the drive belt cut it through with a knife. New drive belts are supplied
in a service kit, which also contains the SSTs (installation tool and guide tool) required
for installation (refer to the workshop manual for details).
NOTE: The SSTs in the service kit are designed for single use only.
L1001.4_01051
1
Installation tool attached to the
crankshaft pulley
2
Guide tool attached to the generator
bracket
Curriculum Training
3
Installation tool attached to the
crankshaft pulley (for installing the power
steering oil pump drive belt on vehicles
with A/C)
01-47
Engines
Powertrain
Lubrication
Features
•
The lubrication system of the MZI-type engines has the following features:
–
–
–
G-rotor type oil pump, directly driven by the crankshaft
Spin-on type oil filter
No oil jet valves
Cooling System
Features
•
The cooling system of the MZI-type engines has the following features:
–
–
–
01-48
Water pump driven by the accessory drive belt
Pressurized type coolant reserve tank
Cooling fan controlled by relays
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
13B-MSP Rotary Engine
•
The 13B-MSP (Multi Side Port) rotary engine is fitted in the Mazda RX-8 models, and is
available as a standard and a high-power version. It is equipped with a manifold injection
system (two injectors per rotor on the standard power engine, and three injectors per
rotor on the high-power engine) and a distributorless ignition system (two direct ignition
coils per rotor).
Mechanical
Features
•
The mechanical system of the 13B-MSP engine has the following features:
–
–
–
Rotor housings with side intake and side exhaust ports
Rotors with bathtub shaped combustion chambers
V-ribbed belt drive with two belts and two manual tensioners
Overview
L1001.4_01114
Curriculum Training
01-49
Engines
Powertrain
Construction
•
The main components of the rotary engine are the rotors, the eccentric shaft, the rotor
housings, the front, rear and intermediate housings.
•
The rotor rotates within the rotor housing, which is sandwiched between the intermediate
housing on one side, and the front or rear housing on the other, forming a sealed
chamber.
•
The eccentric shaft transfers the rotational force of the rotors to the transmission.
•
The path of the rotor within the rotor housing is determined by the internal and stationary
gears, which are phased, so that for every rotation of the rotor, the eccentric shaft
rotates three times.
L1001.4_01115
1
2
3
4
5
6
Internal gear
Front rotor
Eccentric shaft
Rear rotor
Stationary gear
Rear housing
01-50
7
8
9
10
11
Spark plug bores
Rear rotor housing
Intermediate housing
Front rotor housing
Front housing
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
•
Engines
Due to the large bathub shaped combustion chambers the rotary engine is equipped with
two spark plugs per rotor housing, improving combustion efficiency and exhaust
emissions
NOTE: Two different spark plugs (leading and trailing) with different lengths are mounted in
each rotor housing. If a wrong spark plug is used the engine may be damaged (e.g. a
spark plug which is too long may contact the rotor).
•
The high tension leads for the trailing spark plugs are marked with blue and green tape
to prevent incorrect installation.
L1001.4_01137
1
2
Blue and green tape
Trailing spark plugs
Curriculum Training
3
Leading spark plugs
01-51
Engines
Powertrain
Operating Principle
•
In the rotary engine, each of the three faces of the rotor forms a chamber. These three
chambers are not interconnected and their combustion cycles vary as described below.
•
In much the same way as the four-stroke reciprocating engine, the air/fuel mixture in a
rotary engine is subjected to combustion and expansion within the engine, thus
converting heat energy to output power.
•
However, while the reciprocating engine uses the vertical movement of the pistons and a
complex valve mechanism to allow gas exchange, a rotary engine uses the rotation of
the rotor to open and close intake and exhaust ports on either side of it.
•
Because each rotor has three working chambers, this means that for every single
rotation of the rotor three full working cycles (intake, compression, combustion, exhaust)
are completed, resulting in three power pulses being delivered to the eccentric shaft for
one rotation of the rotor (see explanation on following pages).
L1001.4_01116
01-52
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Intake Stroke
•
The volume of the operating chamber in position 1 is at its minimum, thus corresponding
with intake TDC (Top Dead Center) of a reciprocating engine. As the rotor continues to
turn from 2 through to 4, the intake ports become increasingly larger and draw in the
air/fuel mixture as the intake stroke begins. At the same time, the intake operating
chamber increases in capacity, reaching its maximum at 5. At this time, the rotor position
corresponds with BDC (Bottom Dead Center) of the intake stroke on a reciprocating
engine.
Compression Stroke
•
After 5, the intake ports are covered by the rotor, ending the intake stroke. The operating
chamber’s capacity gradually becomes smaller, compressing the air/fuel mixture as the
compression stroke begins. As the rotor turns, the operating chamber capacity becomes
smaller and smaller from 6 through to 9, and at 10 when the compression is almost
complete, the mixture is ignited by the spark plugs. At 10, the operating chamber’s
capacity is at its minimum. This is TDC of the compression stroke.
Combustion Stroke
•
The mixture ignited at 10 is burnt, pressure and volume increase, and expansion in the
operating chamber continues from 11 through to 13. During this time, the combustion
energy of the air/fuel mixture is applied to the rotor’s surface, and via the eccentric shaft
it is converted to rotational energy and used as motive power. At 15, the operating
chamber’s capacity reaches its maximum as it approaches BDC of the combustion
stroke.
Exhaust Stroke
•
After completion of combustion, burnt gases are expelled from the exhaust ports as the
capacity of the operating chamber decreases from 15 through 18. This is the exhaust
stroke, and when this stroke ends there is a return to 1, from where the cycle starts
again.
Curriculum Training
01-53
Engines
Powertrain
•
The above is a description for only one chamber; the other two operate in exactly the
same way. As a result of these actions by only one chamber, the rotor makes one
rotation (during which the eccentric shaft turns three times), resulting in an intake of the
gas mixture followed by compression, combustion and exhaust. Also, because there are
three chambers on one rotor, there are three combustion (output) cycles for each
revolution of the rotor. In other words, one combustion cycle takes place for each
revolution of the eccentric shaft.
•
Concerning gas exchange, the cycles of the rotary engine are the same as those of a
four-stroke reciprocating engine, but combustion cycles per revolution of the output shaft
are the same as on a two-stroke reciprocating engine. Consequently, the rotary engine is
a special type of engine that neither falls into the four-stroke nor two-stroke category.
01-54
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Lubrication
Features
•
The lubrication system of the 13B-MSP engine has the following features:
–
–
–
–
–
Chain driven trochoid gear type oil pump
Air-cooled type oil cooler
Spin-on type oil filter
Metering oil pump with oil nozzles
Mazda Dexelia Ultra engine oil
Parts Location
L1001.4_01138
1
2
3
4
Oil filter
Oil strainer
Oil pan
Oil level switch
Curriculum Training
5
6
7
8
Oil cooler
Oil pump
Metering oil pump
Additional oil cooler (with twin oil cooler)
01-55
Engines
Powertrain
Engine Oil
•
For the rotary engine, Mazda specifies the use of mineral engine oil. If synthetic or semisynthetic engine oil is used for the rotary engine, carbon deposits may get accumulated
in the intake ports and in the combustion chamber. This can cause misfire, knocking
and/or power loss as a long-term effect.
•
The only semi-synthetic oil released by Mazda for use in rotary engines is ‘Mazda
Dexelia Ultra’ engine oil with the specification ACEA A5/B5 (refer to the respective
service information for details).
NOTE: Using other than the specified oil (especially synthetic or semi-synthetic oil) could
result in engine damage.
01-56
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Cooling System
Features
•
The cooling system of the 13B-MSP engine has the following features:
–
–
–
–
Water pump driven by the accessory drive belt
Pressurized type coolant reserve tank
FL22 longlife engine coolant
Cooling fan controlled by relays
Parts Location
L1001.4_01139
1
2
3
Cooling system cap
Thermostat
Water pump
Curriculum Training
4
5
6
Cooling fan component
Radiator
Coolant reserve tank
01-57
Engines
Powertrain
Service Procedures
Compression Test
•
Since the operation of the rotary engine is different to that of a reciprocating engine, a
compression test cannot be performed using a conventional compression tester. For this
reason, WDS (Worldwide Diagnostic System) or a special rotary engine compression
tester (SST) in conjunction with an adapter (SST) must be used (refer to the workshop
manual for details).
L1001.4_01136
1
2
WDS
Adapter hose (SST)
01-58
3
Adapter (SST)
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
L1001.4_01118
1
2
Vehicle battery
Rotary engine compression tester (SST)
3
Adapter (SST)
NOTE: If the cranking speed during the compression test differs from the specification, the
indicated pressure values must be evaluated using the diagram below.
L1001.4_01119
X
Cranking speed
Curriculum Training
Y
Compression pressure
01-59
Engines
Powertrain
Notes:
01-60
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Diesel Engines
•
The following diesel engine types are fitted in the current Mazda models:
Model / Engine
Mazda2 (DY)
Mazda3
Y4
Y6
RF-T
X
X
WL-C
X
Mazda5
X
Mazda6
X
Mazda BT-50
X
L1001.4_T01001b
RF-T Engine
•
The RF-T engine with 2.0 L displacement (also termed as 2.0 MZR-CD engine) is fitted
in the Mazda3 F/L, the Mazda5 and the Mazda6 models, and is available as a standard
and a high-power version. It is equipped with a common rail direct injection system and a
VGT (Variable Geometry Turbine) turbocharger.
Mechanical
Features
•
The mechanical system of the RF-T engine has the following features:
–
–
Belt driven 16 valve SOHC (Single Overhead Camshaft) engine
–
–
Vacuum pump and power steering oil pump driven by the camshaft
Valve train with automatic timing belt tensioner, and adjustable roller rocker arms
and rocker bridges
V-ribbed belt drive with automatic tensioner
Curriculum Training
01-61
Engines
Powertrain
Overview
L1001.4_01060
01-62
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Cylinder Block
•
The cylinder block is a conventional construction with separate main bearing caps.
L1001.4_01061
Pistons
•
The piston shape meets the requirements of the common rail direct injection system, i.e.
the combustion chamber is integrated in the piston head.
•
The piston skirt is coated to reduce friction between the piston and the cylinder.
L1001.4_01062
1
2
Anti-friction coating
Combustion chamber
Curriculum Training
3
F-mark (engine front)
01-63
Engines
Powertrain
Crankshaft
•
The crankshaft is equipped with a key for the installation of the crankshaft timing pulley
and the crankshaft pulley.
•
In addition, the crankshaft features a drive gear for the oil pump.
L1001.4_01063
1
2
3
Oil pump drive gear
Upper main bearing shells
Upper thrust bearing
01-64
4
5
6
Lower thrust bearing
Lower main bearing shell
Main bearing cap
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Cylinder Head
•
The cylinder head is a conventional construction with separate camshaft bearing caps.
•
The cylinder head bolts are torque-to-yield bolts, which must be tightened in several
stages (refer to the workshop manual for details).
NOTE: The cylinder head bolts must not be re-used if their length exceeds the specification
(refer to the workshop manual for details).
•
The leak-off lines for the fuel injectors are integrated in the cylinder head.
NOTE: Always replace the gaskets of the injector leak-off lines when removing them. As the
leak-off lines are located under the cylinder head cover, fuel leaking from the lines
can contaminate the engine oil. This results in oil dilution and hence in engine
damage.
L1001.4_01064
1
2
Exhaust side
Intake side
Curriculum Training
3
Engine front side
01-65
Engines
Powertrain
Camshaft
•
The camshaft is equipped with a key for the installation of the camshaft pulley.
•
The camshaft drives the vacuum pump directly, and the power steering oil pump via a
helical gear.
Valve Actuation
•
The camshaft actuates the valves via roller rocker arms and rocker bridges.
•
The valve clearance has to be measured between roller rocker arm and rocker bridge,
and is adjusted through the adjustment screws of roller rocker arm and rocker bridge
(refer to the workshop manual for details).
NOTE: In order to prevent damage to the rocker bridge an adjustment wrench set (SST) is
required to hold the rocker bridge while loosening or tightening the locknut.
•
The valve clearance has to be checked (and adjusted if necessary) for the first time after
20,000 km or 12 months (whichever occurs first). After that it has to be checked (and if
necessary adjusted) every 120,000 km or 6 years (whichever occurs first).
•
For checking and adjusting of the valve clearances refer to the workshop manual.
L1001.4_01065
1
2
3
4
5
6
SST (for loosening / tightening the
locknut)
SST (for adjusting)
SST (for holding the rocker bridge)
Adjusting screw (rocker bridge)
Measuring point for valve clearance
Locknut (rocker bridge)
01-66
7
8
9
10
11
12
Rocker bridge
Camshaft
Rocker arm shaft
Roller rocker arm
Locknut (rocker arm)
Adjusting screw (rocker arm)
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Valve Train
•
The camshaft is driven by a timing belt, which has to be replaced every 120,000 km.
L1001.4_01066
1
2
3
4
5
6
Camshaft pulley
Camshaft
Rocker arm
Rocker bridge
Fuel high-pressure pump pulley
Idler pulley
Curriculum Training
7
8
9
10
11
Crankshaft pulley
Timing belt tensioner
Tensioner pulley
Water pump pulley
Timing belt
01-67
Engines
Powertrain
Timing Belt Tensioner
•
An automatic timing belt tensioner is fitted to ensure optimum belt tension over the
service life of the engine.
•
The timing chain tensioner operates using a hydraulic mechanism, which also
compensates the increased belt tension due to heat expansion of the engine
components.
L1001.4_01120
1
2
3
4
5
Timing belt
Tensioner pulley
Plunger spring
Pressure chamber
Check valve
01-68
6
7
8
9
Plunger
Spring
Tensioner rod
Tensioner arm
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
•
Engines
When replacing the timing belt, the timing belt tensioner has to be checked as following
(refer to the workshop manual for details):
–
–
–
Measure the tensioner rod projection length.
Inspect the tensioner for oil leakage.
Verify the thrust/resistance of the tensioner.
NOTE: If the tensioner rod projection length and/or tensioner thrust/resistance exceeds the
specification and/or there is an oil leakage, replace the timing belt tensioner.
•
Before installing the timing belt tensioner, the tensioner rod has to be pushed down and
secured by inserting a locking pin with 1.5 mm diameter (refer to the workshop manual
for details).
NOTE: Placing the timing belt tensioner horizontally while pushing the tensioner rod can
cause oil leakage and damage the automatic tensioner.
NOTE: To prevent damage to the timing belt tensioner, the tensioner rod has to be pushed
slowly with a force not greater than the specified 235 N. The tensioner rod must not
touch the bottom.
L1001.4_01067
1
2
Tensioner rod
Tensioner rod projection length
Curriculum Training
3
Locking pin
01-69
Engines
Powertrain
Valve Timing
•
For verifying or adjusting the valve timing the timing marks have to be aligned as shown
below (refer to the workshop manual for details).
•
Before installing the timing belt the camshaft pulley must be fixed to the cylinder head
using a bolt (M8 x 1.25). In addition, the fuel high-pressure pump pulley has to be locked
against rotation with the aid of the FIP (Fuel Injection Pump) repair kit (part no. RFY1-13SMO).
NOTE: In order to prevent damage to the camshaft pulley, the detent bolts do not have to be
fully tightened.
L1001.4_01068
1
2
3
Timing mark (camshaft pulley)
Timing mark (fuel high-pressure pump
pulley)
FIP repair kit
01-70
4
5
Timing mark (crankshaft pulley)
Hole for detent bolt
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Accessory Drive Belt
•
A V-ribbed drive belt is fitted to drive the engine accessories.
•
An automatic tensioner provides constant drive belt tension.
L1001.4_01069
1
2
3
•
Generator pulley
Drive belt
Drive belt tensioner pulley
4
5
6
A/C compressor pulley
Idler pulley
Crankshaft pulley
In order to check the drive belt for wear, verify that the automatic tensioner indicator
mark does not exceed the specification.
L1001.4_01070
1
2
Worn
Normal
Curriculum Training
3
Indicator mark
01-71
Engines
Powertrain
Lubrication
Features
•
The lubrication system of the RF-T engine has the following features:
–
–
–
–
–
Trochoid gear type oil pump, directly driven by the crankshaft
Water-cooled type oil cooler
Spin-on type oil filter
Oil jet valves
Mazda Dexelia DPF engine oil
Parts Location
L1001.4_01071
1
2
3
4
5
6
O-ring
Oil filter
Oil cooler
Oil jet valve
Oil pan upper block
Oil pan drain plug
01-72
7
8
9
10
11
12
Washer
Oil pan
Oil strainer
Gasket
Oil pressure switch
Oil pump
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Engine Oil
•
For vehicles with RF-T engine and DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter), Mazda has developed
special engine oil called ‘Mazda Dexelia DPF’. This oil meets the specification ACEA C1,
and has a significantly lower ash formation than normal engine oil. As a result of its very
low ash formation in comparison to other engine oils, ‘Mazda Dexelia DPF’ guarantees
lifetime performance of the DPF.
NOTE: If other than the specified oil is used, the service life of the DPF will be shortened.
•
In general, the ash forming additives in the engine oil protect the valve train against
wear. Since oil with ACEA C1 specification has 62 % less ash forming additives than oil
with ACEA A3/B4 specification, the RF-T engines on vehicles with DPF feature a
modified valve train, ensuring durability of the engine.
NOTE: Engine oil with ACEA C1 specification must only be used for vehicles with RF-T
engine and DPF. Since other engines (diesel as well as petrol) do not feature a
modified valve train (even the Mazda6 pre-F/L and the Mazda MPV with RF-T
engine), excessive wear would occur when engine oil with ACEA C1 specification is
used, leading to severe engine damages (refer to the respective service information
for details).
Oil Dipstick
•
Since the multiple fuel injections required to regenerate the DPF can lead to an
excessively high engine oil dilution, an “X” mark has been added to the oil dipstick to
make the customer aware of this condition. If the oil level is close to or exceeds the “X”
mark, the engine oil must be replaced.
NOTE: Every time the engine oil is replaced, the parameter “Calculated oil dilution” in the
PCM must be reset (refer to the section “Service Procedures”).
L1001.4_01148
1
2
L mark (Low)
F mark (Full)
Curriculum Training
3
X mark (Excessive)
01-73
Engines
Powertrain
Cooling System
Features
•
The cooling system of the RF-T engine has the following features:
–
–
–
–
Timing belt driven water pump
Unpressurized or pressurized type coolant reserve tank (depending on model)
FL22 longlife engine coolant
Cooling fan controlled by relays or by a fan control module (depending on model)
Parts Location
L1001.4_01072
Mazda5
1
2
3
4
5
6
Coolant reserve tank
Radiator cowling
Fan control module
Cooling fan motor
Cooling fan
Cooling fan component
01-74
7
8
9
10
11
Cooling system cap
Cooling system filler neck
Radiator
Thermostat
Water pump
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Diesel Particulate Filter System
•
The DPF is a honeycomb structure with many channels closed off at alternate ends. The
soot particulates contained in the exhaust gas accumulate at the porous dividing walls,
while gaseous components such as CO and HC pass through the filter with no problem.
•
To prevent the filter becoming blocked with soot particulates, it must be ‘regenerated’ at
certain intervals, i.e. the collected soot particulates are burnt off. In order to facilitate the
regeneration process, the channels of the DPF feature a catalytic coating that lowers the
temperature required to burn off the soot particulates.
L1001.4_01147
1
•
Soot
2
Catalytic coating
Pressure and temperature sensors in the DPF detect when the soot accumulation
capacity of the filter is reached. Then the engine control system increases the exhaust
gas temperature by multiple fuel injections to burn off the particulates.
Curriculum Training
01-75
Engines
Powertrain
Service Procedures
Replacing the Engine Oil
•
Every time the engine oil is replaced, the parameter “Calculated oil dilution” in the PCM
must be reset with the aid of M-MDS (Mazda-Modular Diagnostic System). To perform
the procedure select the option ToolboxÆPowertrainÆData ResetÆEngine Oil and
follow the instructions of M-MDS.
Injection Amount Learning Function
•
The injection amount learning function is used to compensate the deviations in the
injection amount due to mechanical wear of the injectors, achieving a smooth engine
operation. The injection amount correction function is carried out by the PCM under
specific conditions. In addition, the injection amount learning function has to be carried
out at specified service intervals by means of M-MDS. To perform the procedure select
the option ToolboxÆPowertrainÆEngine ChecksÆLearningÆInjection Amount
Correction and follow the instructions of M-MDS.
NOTE: The injection amount learning function is performed several times at a pressure of
35 MPa, 65 MPa, 100 MPa and 140 MPa. As a result, slight changes in engine
sound are normal.
NOTE: The injection amount learning function will be aborted, if the idle fluctuations of the
engine are too high (e.g. due to a faulty injector).
01-76
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
DPF Manual Regeneration
•
If the DPF indicator light is illuminated and the DPF is blocked due to an excessive soot
amount accumulated, it must be manually regenerated with the aid of M-MDS. To
perform the procedure select the option ToolboxÆPowertrainÆDPFÆDPF
Regeneration and follow the instructions of M-MDS.
•
Depending on the amount of soot accumulated in the DPF the PCM automatically
selects normal regeneration mode (34 min) or long regeneration mode (60 min).
•
In order to cancel the manual regeneration process perform the following procedure:
1. Depress the clutch pedal, shift to 1st gear and verify that the engine speed
decreases to idle speed (manual regeneration is cancelled).
2. Shift to Neutral and increase the engine speed to 3000 min-1 for 1 min (DPF is
cooled).
3. If the manual regeneration must be performed again, wait for approx. 5 min before
re-starting the regeneration process.
NOTE: Always perform the manual regeneration in a well ventilated place and use an
appropriate exhaust-gas extraction system. The vehicle should also not be stationed
in front of any flammable or low heat resistant material, since high temperature
exhaust gas is emitted during this process. In addition, the hood should be opened to
prevent the engine from overheating. Do not apply electrical load (such as turning on
the headlights or rear window defroster) during manual regeneration, since the post
injection amount is changed and regeneration may not be performed correctly.
NOTE: If the exhaust gas temperature during manual regeneration exceeds a certain limit,
the PCM stops the regeneration process and increases the engine speed to
2500 min-1 to cool the DPF.
NOTE: Depending on the amount of soot accumulated the PCM performs normal and long
regeneration mode one after another, i.e. the regeneration process may take up to
94 min. If the DPF indicator light does not extinguish after the manual regeneration is
finished, perform the regeneration process again.
Curriculum Training
01-77
Engines
Powertrain
WL-C Engine
•
The WL-C engine with 2.5 L displacement (also termed as 2.5 MZR-CD engine) is fitted
in the BT-50 models. It is equipped with a common rail direct injection system and a VGT
turbocharger.
Mechanical
Features
•
The mechanical system of the WL-C engine has the following features:
–
–
–
–
–
01-78
Gear and belt driven 16 valve DOHC engine
Balancer shafts
Valve train with automatic timing belt tensioner and adjustable roller cam followers
Vacuum pump and power steering oil pump driven by the timing gears
V-belt drive with three belts and two manual tensioners
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Overview
L1001.4_01073
NOTE: Some of the components of the WL-C engine are very similar in construction and
operation to those of the RF-T engine. Therefore, this section only describes the
components which are new or differ from those of the RF-T engine.
Curriculum Training
01-79
Engines
Powertrain
Balancer Shafts
•
The balancer shafts are directly fitted into the cylinder block. The crankshaft drives the
balancer shafts via helical gears.
L1001.4_01135
1
Balancer shaft gears
01-80
2
Balancer shaft
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Cylinder Head
•
The cylinder head features a bolted on camshaft bearing frame, which can be replaced
separately.
•
The cylinder head gasket is available in three different thicknesses depending on the
piston protrusion. The gasket is marked respectively (refer to the workshop manual for
details).
•
The cylinder head bolts are torque-to-yield bolts, which must be tightened in several
stages (refer to the workshop manual for details).
NOTE: The cylinder head bolts must not be re-used if their length exceeds the specification
(refer to the workshop manual for details).
L1001.4_01076
1
2
3
Camshaft bearing caps
Camshafts
Injector sealing ring
Curriculum Training
4
5
6
Camshaft bearing frame
Cylinder head
Engine front side
01-81
Engines
Powertrain
Camshaft
•
The camshafts are equipped with a pin for the installation of the camshaft pulleys.
•
The camshaft pulleys for the intake and exhaust camshaft are identical. A letter (“I” for
intake and “E” for exhaust) on the camshaft pulleys indicates the installation position, i.e.
the letter on the camshaft pulley must be aligned with the pin on the camshaft.
L1001.4_01141
1
2
Intake camshaft pulley
Pin
01-82
3
Exhaust camshaft pulley
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Valve Actuation
•
The camshafts actuate the valves via roller cam followers.
•
The valve clearance has to be measured between the roller cam follower and the cam
lobe, and is adjusted through the adjusting screw of the roller cam follower (refer to the
workshop manual for details).
NOTE: In order to prevent damage to the claw of the roller cam follower when loosening the
locknut of the adjusting screw, the cam lobe must push down the roller cam follower
firmly (refer to the illustration below).
•
The valve clearance has to be checked (and if necessary adjusted) for the first time after
20,000 km or 12 months (whichever occurs first). After that it has to be checked (and if
necessary adjusted) every 120,000 km or 6 years (whichever occurs first).
L1001.4_01077
1
2
3
Cam lobe
Adjusting screw
Locknut
Curriculum Training
4
5
6
Roller cam follower
Claw
Roller
01-83
Engines
Powertrain
Valve Train
•
The camshafts are driven via a timing belt by the fuel high-pressure pump pulley/gear,
which in turn is driven via helical gears by the crankshaft.
•
The timing belt and the timing belt tensioner have to be replaced every 120,000 km.
L1001.4_01078
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Camshaft pulley
Intake camshaft
Exhaust camshaft
Roller cam follower
Balancer shaft
Balancer shaft gear
Idler gear no.3
01-84
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Crankshaft gear
Idler gear no.1
Idler gear no.2
Fuel high-pressure pump pulley/gear
Tensioner pulley
Timing belt
Idler pulley
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
•
Engines
The crankshaft gear and the fuel high-pressure pump gear are equipped with friction
gears. The spring-loaded friction gears eliminate the backlash between the meshing
gears, reducing gear noise.
NOTE: Before removing the fuel high-pressure pump gear, the friction gear must be fixed to
the fuel high-pressure pump gear using a detent bolt (M6 x 1.0, length approx. 16
mm) to prevent it from rotating due to the spring force.
L1001.4_01153
1
2
3
Hole for detent bolt
Fuel high-pressure pump gear
Spring
Curriculum Training
4
5
Friction gear
Helical gear
01-85
Engines
Powertrain
Timing Belt Tensioner
•
The WL-C engine features a modified automatic timing belt tensioner with integrated
tensioner pulley. However, the operating principle is the same as on the RF-T engine.
L1001.4_01080
1
2
3
•
Tensioner rod
Seal
Plunger
4
5
6
Plunger spring
Pressure chamber
Check valve
For releasing the belt tension the timing belt tensioner has to be turned counterclockwise
with an Allen key, and secured by inserting a locking pin with 6 mm diameter (refer to the
workshop manual for details)..
NOTE: When removing the timing belt tensioner, the tensioner pulley must not be separated
from the tensioner housing.
NOTE: In case air has entered the pressure chamber of the timing belt tensioner, it must be
bled using a certain procedure (refer to the workshop manual for details).
L1001.4_01079
1
2
Apply force (max. 39 Nm)
Mounting bolts
01-86
3
Hole for locking pin
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Valve Timing
•
For verifying or adjusting the valve timing of the gear drive the timing marks have to be
aligned as shown below (refer to the workshop manual for details).
•
All helical gears except for the fuel high-pressure pump gear have a punch mark as
timing mark. However, the punch marks on the crankshaft gear and on the fuel-highpressure pump gear can only be seen when the friction gears are removed.
NOTE: The timing mark of each gear can be aligned easily, if paint is applied to the punch
marks.
L1001.4_01082
1
2
3
4
Fuel high-pressure pump gear
View A
Timing mark
Idler gear no.3
Curriculum Training
5
6
7
8
Balancer shaft gear
Crankshaft gear
Idler gear no.1
Idler gear no.2
01-87
Engines
•
Powertrain
For verifying or adjusting the valve timing of the belt drive, the timing marks have to be
aligned as shown below (refer to the workshop manual for details).
L1001.4_01081
1
Timing marks (camshaft pulleys)
01-88
2
Timing mark (crankshaft pulley)
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Accessory Drive Belt
•
Three V-drive belts are fitted to drive the engine accessories, i.e. two belts drive the
generator and one belt drives the A/C compressor.
•
The drive belt tension can be adjusted via two manual tensioners (refer to the workshop
manual for details).
NOTE: The belt deflection has to be checked when the engine is cold, or at least 30 minutes
after the engine has been switched off.
L1001.4_01083
1
2
3
4
Measuring point
Locknut
Adjusting screw
Generator pulley
Curriculum Training
5
6
7
8
Drive belt(s)
Crankshaft pulley
Water pump pulley
A/C compressor pulley
01-89
Engines
Powertrain
Lubrication
Features
•
The lubrication system of the WL-C engine has the following features:
–
–
–
–
Gear type oil pump, directly driven by the crankshaft
Water-cooled type oil cooler
Spin-on type oil filter
Oil jet valves
Parts Location
L1001.4_01084
1
2
3
4
5
6
Oil pump
Oil jet valve
Oil pressure switch
Oil cooler
Oil filter body
Oil cooler and oil filter body component
01-90
7
8
9
10
11
12
Oil filter
Oil pan
Oil pan drain plug
Oil strainer
Oil outlet pipe
Oil dipstick
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Cooling System
Features
•
The cooling system of the WL-C engine has the following features:
–
–
–
–
Water pump driven by the accessory drive belts
Unpressurized type coolant reserve tank
FL22 longlife engine coolant
Thermo-modulation type cooling fan
Parts Location
L1001.4_01085
1
2
3
4
Cooling system cap
Radiator cowling
Water pump pulley
Thermostat
Curriculum Training
5
6
7
8
Water pump
Cooling fan
Coolant reserve tank
Radiator
01-91
Engines
Powertrain
Service Procedures
MAF Sensor Learning Function
•
The MAF learning function is used to compensate the deviations of the amount due to
measured intake air deterioration of the MAF sensor. It has to be carried out at specified
service intervals by means of M-MDS. During this procedure the MAF learning function is
performed at engine speeds of 750 min-1, 1850 min-1, and 2500 min-1. To perform the
procedure select the option ToolboxÆPowertrainÆEngine ChecksÆLearning and
follow the instructions of M-MDS.
01-92
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Y-type Engines
•
In the Y-type engine line-up the following engines are available:
–
–
Y4 type with 1.4 L displacement (also termed as 1.4 MZ-CD engine)
Y6 type with 1.6 L displacement (also termed as 1.6 MZ-CD engine)
•
The Y4 engine is fitted in the Mazda2 (DY) models. It is equipped with a common rail
direct injection system and a FGT turbocharger
•
The Y6 engine is fitted in the Mazda3 models, and is available as a standard and a highpower version. It is equipped with a common rail direct injection system and a
turbocharger (FGT turbocharger on the standard power engine, and VGT turbocharger
on the high-power engine).
Mechanical (Y4 Engine)
Features
•
The mechanical system of the Y4 engine has the following features:
–
–
Belt driven 8 valve SOHC engine
–
–
Vacuum pump driven by the camshaft
Valve train with automatic timing belt tensioner, roller cam followers and hydraulic
tappets
V-ribbed belt drive with automatic tensioner
Curriculum Training
01-93
Engines
Powertrain
Overview
L1001.4_01086
NOTE: Some of the components of the Y4 engine are very similar in construction and
operation to those of the RF-T engine. Therefore, this section only describes the
components which are new or differ from those of the RF-T engine.
01-94
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Cylinder Block
•
The cylinder block is equipped with cylinder liners, the coolant jackets of which are open
towards the top.
•
The cylinder block is composed of an upper and a lower cylinder block, in which the
main bearing caps are integrated. Upper and lower cylinder block are matched to each
other, i.e. they cannot be replaced separately. If one of the components exceeds the
specification, the cylinder block must be replaced as a complete unit.
NOTE: Bolt and stud repairs using thread inserts in the area of the cylinder head bolts and
main bearing bolts are not permitted.
•
The cylinder no.1 is located on the transmission side (French-style cylinder numbering).
L1001.4_01087
1
2
3
4
5
Cylinder no.1
Cylinder no.2
Cylinder no.3
Cylinder no.4
French style cylinder numbering
Curriculum Training
6
7
8
9
Transmission side
Lower cylinder block
Upper cylinder block
Coolant jackets
01-95
Engines
Powertrain
Pistons
•
The pistons have valve recesses for the intake and exhaust valves.
•
The piston skirt is coated to reduce friction between the piston and the cylinder.
•
The connecting rods are fracture-split on the big end to ensure a perfect fit between
connecting rod and connecting rod bearing cap. For this reason, the pairs of connecting
rods and connecting rod bearing caps must be kept together during removal.
L1001.4_01088
1
•
Valve recesses
2
Arrow indicating the installation direction
There is no positioning tab for locating the lower bearing in the connecting rod big end.
For installing the lower connecting rod bearing shell two alignment tools (SST) are
required (refer to the workshop manual for details).
L1001.4_01144
1
Alignment tools (SST)
01-96
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Crankshaft
•
The crankshaft is equipped with a key for the installation of the crankshaft timing pulley
and the crankshaft pulley.
•
The crankshaft timing pulley has a magnetic pulse wheel for the CKP sensor signals.
NOTE: When removing or installing the crankshaft timing pulley care must be taken, since
scratches or impacts can de-magnetize the magnetic pulse wheel.
•
To ensure optimum bearing clearance of the crankshaft, main bearing shells with
different thickness and hence different tolerance class are fitted in one engine. The
upper main bearing shells are only available in one tolerance class and feature a black
color coding on the edge.
•
The lower main bearing shells are available in three different tolerance classes (A, B and
C) and feature one of the following color codings on the edge:
–
–
–
Blue (tolerance class A)
Black (tolerance class B)
Green (tolerance class C)
•
To determine the tolerance class for the lower bearing shell of each main bearing, the
diameter classes of the main bearings and of the main journals have to be verified.
•
The diameter class of the main bearings can be verified by the engraved letters (A to Z)
on the cylinder block, whereas the first letter is equivalent to the diameter class of main
bearing no.5 (the symbol ^ locates the timing belt side).
•
The diameter class of the main journals can be verified by the printed letters (A to Z) on
the crankshaft, whereas the first letter is equivalent to the diameter class of main journal
no.5 (the symbol ^ locates the timing belt side).
Curriculum Training
01-97
Engines
Powertrain
L1001.4_01090
1
•
Diameter classes of the main journals
2
Diameter classes of the main bearings
The correct tolerance class for the lower bearing shell of each main bearing can be
determined by the diagram shown below.
L1001.4_01091
1
2
3
Diameter class of main journal
Diameter class of main bearing
Blue (tolerance class A)
01-98
4
5
Black (tolerance class B)
Green (tolerance class C)
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
•
Engines
There is no positioning tab for locating the lower bearings in the main journals. For
installing the lower main bearing shells a guide (SST) and two guide studs (SST) are
required (refer to the workshop manual for details).
L1001.4_01146
1
Guide (SST)
Curriculum Training
2
Guide studs (SST)
01-99
Engines
Powertrain
Cylinder Head
•
The cylinder head features a bolted on camshaft housing, which comprises an upper and
a lower part. Upper and lower camshaft housing as well as the cylinder head are
matched to each other, i.e. they cannot be replaced separately. If one of the components
exceeds the specification, the cylinder head must be replaced as a complete unit.
•
There are no guide sleeves for locating the camshaft housing on the cylinder head. For
this reason, two guide studs (SST) are required for the installation of the camshaft
housing (refer to the workshop manual for details).
•
The cylinder head gasket is available in five different thicknesses depending on the
piston protrusion. The gasket is marked respectively (refer to the workshop manual for
details).
•
The cylinder head bolts are torque-to-yield bolts, which must be tightened in several
stages (refer to the workshop manual for details).
NOTE: The cylinder head bolts must not be re-used.
L1001.4_01092
1
2
3
Engine front side
Upper camshaft housing
Camshaft
01-100
4
5
Lower camshaft housing
Cylinder head
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Valve Actuation
•
The camshaft actuates the valves via roller cam followers.
•
The adjustment of the valve clearance is performed via maintenance-free hydraulic
tappets.
L1001.4_01093
1
2
Camshaft
Hydraulic tappet
Curriculum Training
3
Roller cam follower
01-101
Engines
Powertrain
Valve Train
•
The camshaft is driven by a timing belt, which has to be replaced every 240,000 km or
10 years (whichever occurs first).
NOTE: The timing belt must not be re-used.
NOTE: The timing belt has to be installed with the arrows pointing in the direction of engine
rotation.
L1001.4_01094
1
2
3
4
5
Camshaft pulley
Hole for camshaft timing peg (SST)
Idler pulley
Timing belt
Crankshaft pulley
01-102
6
7
8
9
10
Hole for crankshaft timing peg (SST)
Water pump pulley
Tensioner pulley
Fuel high-pressure pump pulley
Hole for alignment of the fuel highpressure pump pulley
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Timing Belt Tensioner
•
An automatic timing belt tensioner is fitted to ensure optimum belt tension over the
service life of the engine.
•
For tensioning the timing belt, turn the tensioner with an Allen key until the pointer is
aligned with the corresponding mark on the housing, and tighten the bolt (refer to the
workshop manual for details).
L1001.4_01095
1
2
Housing with mark
Pointer
Curriculum Training
3
Hexagonal hole for Allen key
01-103
Engines
Powertrain
Valve Timing
•
For verifying or adjusting the valve timing, the crankshaft timing peg (SST) has to be
installed in the cylinder block, and the camshaft timing peg (SST) in the cylinder head.
•
Depending on whether or not there is a hole for the crankshaft timing peg (SST) in the
bracket of the fuel high-pressure pump, the fuel high-pressure pump pulley must be
aligned in either of the two ways shown below (refer to the workshop manual for details).
L1001.4_01096
1
Hole for camshaft timing peg (SST)
3
2
Hole for crankshaft timing peg (SST)
4
01-104
Fuel high-pressure pump pulley aligned
with SST
Fuel high-pressure pump aligned without
SST
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Mechanical (Y6 Engine)
Features
•
The mechanical system of the Y6 engine has the following features:
–
–
Belt and chain driven 16 valve DOHC engine
–
–
Vacuum pump driven by the exhaust camshaft
Valve train with automatic timing belt tensioner, roller cam followers and hydraulic
tappets
V-ribbed belt drive with automatic tensioner
Overview
L1001.4_01101
NOTE: Some of the components of the Y6 engine are very similar in construction and
operation to those of the Y4 engine. Therefore, this section only describes the
components which are new or differ from those of the Y4 engine.
Curriculum Training
01-105
Engines
Powertrain
Cylinder Head
•
The cylinder head is composed of an upper and a lower part. Upper and lower cylinder
head are matched to each other, i.e. they cannot be replaced separately. If one of the
components exceeds the specification, the cylinder head must be replaced as a
complete unit.
•
There are no guide sleeves for locating the cylinder head upper part on the lower part.
For this reason, two guide studs (SST) are required for the installation of the upper
cylinder head (refer to the workshop manual for details).
•
The cylinder head gasket is available in five different thicknesses depending on the
piston protrusion. The gasket is marked respectively (refer to the workshop manual for
details).
•
The cylinder head bolts are torque-to-yield bolts, which must be tightened in several
stages (refer to the workshop manual for details.
NOTE: The cylinder head bolts must not be re-used.
NOTE: When sealing the area between the upper and lower part of the cylinder head using
silicon sealant, care must be taken that the oil supply bores are not blocked.
L1001.4_01103
1
2
3
Engine front side
Upper cylinder head
Intake camshaft
01-106
4
5
Exhaust camshaft
Lower cylinder head
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Camshafts
•
The camshafts are mounted hanging in the upper part of the cylinder head.
•
The intake camshaft drives the exhaust camshaft by a timing chain.
•
The intake camshaft is equipped with a key for the installation of the camshaft pulley.
•
The exhaust camshaft drives the vacuum pump directly.
L1001.4_01104
1
2
3
4
Timing chain tensioner
Camshaft bearing cap
Exhaust camshaft
Upper cylinder head
Curriculum Training
5
6
7
Intake camshaft
Timing chain
Oil supply bores
01-107
Engines
Powertrain
•
An automatic timing chain tensioner is fitted to ensure optimum chain tension over the
service life of the engine.
•
The timing chain tensioner operates using engine oil pressure.
NOTE: The timing chain tensioner must be inserted together with the timing chain and the
camshafts into the cylinder head upper part, as it is impossible to fit it afterwards.
L1001.4_01108
1
•
Chain guides
For verifying or adjusting the valve timing the timing marks on the crankshaft sprockets
have to be aligned with the gold-colored plates on the timing chain links.
L1001.4_01107
1
Timing mark
01-108
2
Gold-colored plate
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Valve Train
•
The valve train is similar to that of the Y4 engine except for the additional chain drive of
the exhaust camshaft. For this reason, the procedure for verifying or adjusting the valve
timing is the same as on the Y4 engine.
L1001.4_01110
1
2
3
4
5
Hole for camshaft timing peg (SST)
Intake camshaft sprocket
Timing chain
Exhaust camshaft sprocket
Idler pulley
8
9
10
11
12
6
7
Timing belt
Crankshaft pulley
13
Curriculum Training
Hole for crankshaft timing peg (SST)
Water pump pulley
Tensioner pulley
Fuel high-pressure pump pulley
Hole for alignment of the fuel highpressure pump pulley
Intake camshaft pulley
01-109
Engines
Powertrain
Lubrication
Features
•
The lubrication system of the Y-type engines has the following features:
–
–
–
–
Trochoid gear type oil pump, directly driven by the crankshaft
Water-cooled type oil cooler
Cartridge type oil filter
Oil jet valves
Parts Location
L1001.4_01099
1
2
3
4
5
Oil pump
Gasket
Oil jet valve
O-ring
Oil filter with oil cooler
01-110
6
7
8
9
10
Oil pressure switch
Washer
Oil pan
Oil pan drain plug
Oil strainer
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Cooling System
Features
•
The cooling system of the Y-type engines has the following features:
–
–
–
–
Timing belt driven water pump
Pressurized type coolant reserve tank
FL22 longlife engine coolant (only Y6 engine)
Cooling fan controlled by relays or by a fan control module (depending on model)
Parts Location
L1001.4_01113
Mazda3
1
2
Coolant reserve tank
Cooling system cap
5
6
3
4
Water pump
Thermostat
7
8
Curriculum Training
Radiator cowling
Cooling fan motor with fan control
module
Cooling fan
Radiator
01-111
Engines
Powertrain
Diesel Particulate Filter System
•
The Mazda3 with Y6 high-power engine features a DPF with a honeycomb structure,
which must be regenerated at certain intervals. In order to facilitate the regeneration
process, the Mazda3 uses a special fuel additive that is automatically injected into the
fuel tank. During the combustion process the additive attaches itself to the soot
particulates, which then accumulate in the filter. As a result, the temperature to burn off
the particulates is lowered.
L1001.4_01145
1
Fuel additive
2
Soot
•
Pressure and temperature sensors in the DPF detect when the soot accumulation
capacity of the filter is reached. The engine control system then increases the exhaust
gas temperature by multiple fuel injections to burn off the particulates.
•
After regeneration ash residues that have formed from the fuel additive and the engine
oil remain in the DPF, clogging the filter pores. For this reason, the DPF must be
replaced every 120,000 km.
•
In addition, the fuel additive tank must be refilled every 60,000 km.
01-112
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Service Procedures
Bleeding the Fuel System
•
Since the Mazda3 with Y6 engine features no priming pump for the low-pressure fuel
system, a hand pump (SST) must be used to bleed the system when the fuel filter has
been replaced (refer to the workshop manual for details).
L1001.4_01133
1
Hand pump (SST)
Curriculum Training
01-113
Engines
Powertrain
Refilling the Fuel Additive Tank
•
The fuel additive tank must be refilled every 60,000 km. Due to its installation position at
the crossmember behind the fuel tank, a special fuel additive refill kit is available, which
consists of the fuel additive container, filler hose with valve, overflow hose and overflow
bottle (refer to the workshop manual for details).
•
After refilling the fuel additive tank the parameter “Calculated additive level” in the FACM
(Fuel Additive Control Module) must be reset with the aid of M-MDS. To perform the
procedure select the option ToolboxÆPowertrainÆService FunctionsÆFACMÆ
Refill FAT and follow the instructions of M-MDS.
NOTE: Do NOT use the option “System Prime” when refilling the fuel additive tank. This will
cause an excessive amount of fuel additive to be forced into the fuel tank, since the
fuel additive injection line is already full.
L1001.4_01134
1
2
3
Fuel additive container
Filler hose with valve
Overflow hose
01-114
4
5
6
Overflow bottle
Net with hook
Fuel additive tank
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Engines
Installing a New DPF
•
The DPF must be replaced every 120,000 km Thereafter, the parameters for the
regeneration control in the PCM and the parameter“ Total additive injection amount” in
the FACM must be reset with the aid of M-MDS. To perform the procedure select the
option ToolboxÆPowertrainÆService FunctionsÆDPF Component/Parameter
CommandsÆReset Particulate Filter Learned Values and follow the instructions of
M-MDS.
DPF Manual Regeneration
•
If the DPF is blocked due to an excessive soot amount accumulated, it must be manually
regenerated with the aid of M-MDS. To perform the procedure select the option
ToolboxÆPowertrainÆService FunctionsÆDPF Component/Parameter
CommandsÆStatic Regeneration and follow the instructions of M-MDS.
NOTE: Always perform the manual regeneration in a well ventilated place and use an
appropriate exhaust-gas extraction system. In addition, the vehicle should not be
stationed in front of any flammable or low heat resistant material, since high
temperature exhaust gas is emitted during this process.
Curriculum Training
01-115
Engines
Powertrain
Notes:
01-116
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Transmissions
Drive Train
•
The following drive train types are used on the current Mazda models:
–
–
–
FWD (Front Wheel Drive)
RWD (Rear Wheel Drive)
4WD (4 Wheel Drive)
Model / Drive train
FWD
Mazda2 (DY)
X
Mazda3
X
Mazda3 MPS
X
Mazda5
X
Mazda6
X
RWD
4WD
Mazda6 MPS
X
Mazda CX-7
X
Mazda MX-5
X
Mazda RX-8
X
Mazda BT-50
X
X
L1001.4_T02006
Curriculum Training
02-1
Transmissions
Powertrain
Transmission Code
•
The transmissions of the current Mazda models except for Mazda2 (DY) have a 5- or
6-digit alphanumerical code, which contains the information shown below.
A2
6 M X - R *
Additional information
Operation system
Drive train type
Transmission type
Number of forward gears
Transmission type
L = Torque converter clutch (AT or ATX)
D = Direct control
E = Electronic control
H = Hydraulic control
R = Remote control (Cable/Rod)
X = 4WD
A = Automatic transmission (AT or ATX)
M = Manual transmission (MT or MTX)
4 = Four speed
5 = Five speed
6 = Six speed
Transmission series
L1001.4_T02001
02-2
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Transmissions
Manual Transmissions
•
Depending on the installation position of the engine different types of manual
transmissions are used. Vehicles with transversally installed engine feature a MTX
(Manual Transaxle) and vehicles with longitudinally installed engine a MT (Manual
Transmission). The basic difference between MTX and MT is that the MTX has a
differential integrated in the transmission housing, while the MT has an external
differential at the rear axle.
•
The MTX and MT fitted in the current Mazda models have the following features:
–
–
–
–
–
–
•
Five or six speeds
Two shafts or three shafts (the latter ones in coaxial or non-coaxial arrangement)
Single-cone, double-cone or triple-cone synchronizer mechanism
Operated via cable or directly by shift lever
Hydraulic clutch actuation
Conventional or dual-mass flywheel
The following MTX are fitted in the current Mazda models:
Model / MTX
Mazda2 (DY)
Mazda3
Mazda3 MPS
Mazda5
Mazda6
Mazda6 MPS
Mazda CX-7
iB5
X
F35M-R
G35M-R
J65M-R
G66M-R
A26M-R
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
A26MX-R
X
X
L1001.4_T02002
•
The following MT are fitted in the current Mazda models:
Model / MT
Mazda MX-5
Mazda RX-8
Mazda BT-50
M15M-D
X
R15M-D
S15M-D
S15MX-D
X
X
X
P66M-D
X
Y16M-D
X
L1001.4_T02003
NOTE: All the manual transmissions are very similar in operation and servicing. Therefore,
this section only shows some samples of current manual transmissions.
Curriculum Training
02-3
Transmissions
Powertrain
F35M-R Transmission
•
The F35M-R transmission is a two-shaft five-speed MTX, which is operated via cables. It
is only fitted in the Mazda3 models with Z-type engine.
Overview
L1001.4_02020
1
2
02-4
Input shaft
Output shaft
3
Differential
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Transmissions
Service Procedures
Transmission Oil Inspection
•
For transmission oil inspection on the F35M-R transmission the distance between upper
edge of the hole in the transmission housing and oil level must be measured as shown
below (refer to the workshop manual for details).
NOTE: Since the oil inspection and oil replacement procedures may differ depending on the
transmission type or may be revised concerning the oil capacity and/or oil
specification, always refer to the respective workshop manual.
L1001.4_02022
1
2
Distance
Hole in the transmission housing
Curriculum Training
3
Vehicle front
02-5
Transmissions
Powertrain
A26M(X)-R Transmission
•
The A26M(X)-R transmission is a three-shaft (non-coaxial arranged) six-speed MTX,
which is operated via cables.
•
The A26M-R transmission is fitted in the Mazda3, Mazda5 and Mazda6 models with
RF-T engine, and in the Mazda3 MPS models. The A26MX-R transmission with boltedon transfer case is fitted in the Mazda6 MPS and Mazda CX-7 models.
NOTE: When replacing or refilling the transmission oil and/or the separate transfer oil only
use the specified type of oil (refer to the workshop manual for details).
Overview
L1001.4_02021
1
2
3
02-6
Output shaft no. 2
Input shaft
Transfer case (A26MX-R)
4
5
Differential
Output shaft no. 1
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Transmissions
•
The three shaft design with one input shaft and two output shafts allows for a more
compact construction, since each output shaft only carries three or four gears.
•
As a result of this construction there are two different final gear ratios available, i.e. one
for the first to fourth gear and another one for the fifth, sixth and reverse gear.
L1001.4_02003
1
2
Differential
Output shaft no. 1
Curriculum Training
3
4
Output shaft no. 2
Input shaft
02-7
Transmissions
Powertrain
S15M(X)-D Transmission
•
The S15M(X)-D is a three-shaft (coaxial arranged) five-speed MT, which is directly
operated by the shift lever.
•
The S15M-D transmission is fitted in the RWD version of the Mazda BT-50, while the
S15MX-D transmission with bolted-on transfer case is fitted in the 4WD version.
NOTE: When replacing or refilling the transmission oil and/or the separate transfer oil only
use the specified MTF (Manual Transmission Fluid) “Type A” (refer to the workshop
manual for details).
Overview
L1001.4_02006
1
2
3
02-8
Output shaft
Extension housing (S15M-D)
Transfer case (S15MX-D)
4
5
Counter shaft
Input shaft
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Transmissions
Automated Shift Manual Transmission
•
The automated shift manual transmission is based on the two-shaft five-speed MTX iB5.
Compared to the cable operated version of the iB5 transmission the automated shift
manual transmission features a bolted-on shift actuator, and a separate clutch actuator
with integrated TCM (Transmission Control Module). Depending on the signals from the
TCM the clutch actuator operates the clutch via the clutch slave cylinder, and the shift
actuator performs the gearshifts accordingly.
•
The automated shift manual transmission is only fitted in the Mazda2 (DY) models with
1.4 MZI engine.
Overview
L1001.4_02011
1
2
Clutch actuator with integrated TCM
Shift actuator
Curriculum Training
3
Clutch slave cylinder
02-9
Transmissions
Powertrain
Service Procedures
Bleeding the Clutch System
•
The hydraulic fluid of the clutch system should be replaced every two years, together
with the hydraulic fluid of the brake system. Since the clutch system can only be bled in
a certain position of the clutch master cylinder, the clutch actuator first needs to be
driven to this position with the aid of M-MDS. To perform the procedure select the option
ToolboxÆ PowertrainÆASM Service FunctionsÆShift Actuator Bleed and follow
the instructions of M-MDS.
02-10
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Transmissions
Automatic Transmissions
•
Depending on the installation position of the engine different types of automatic
transmissions are used. Vehicles with transversally installed engine feature an ATX
(Automatic Transaxle) and vehicles with longitudinally installed engine an AT (Automatic
Transmission). The basic difference between ATX and AT is that the ATX has a
differential integrated in the transmission housing, while the AT has an external
differential at the rear axle. For the current European Mazda models only ATX are
available.
•
The ATX fitted in the current Mazda models have the following features:
•
–
–
Four, five or six speeds
–
–
–
Hydraulically controlled clutches, brakes and brake bands
Two or three single type planetary gear sets, or a single type planetary gear set in
combination with a Ravigneaux planetary gear set
Torque converter with torque converter clutch
Electronic control system integrated in the PCM or in a separate TCM
The following ATX are fitted in the current Mazda models:
Model / ATX
Mazda3
Mazda6
Mazda CX-7
FN4A-EL
FS5A-EL
AW6AX-EL
X
X
X
L1001.4_T02005
NOTE: All the automatic transmissions are very similar in operation and servicing.
Therefore, this section only shows one sample of the current automatic
transmissions.
Curriculum Training
02-11
Transmissions
Powertrain
FS5A-EL Transmission
•
The FS5A-EL transmission is a five-speed ATX, which is controlled electronically by a
TCM. It is only fitted in the Mazda6 models with LF and L3 engine.
NOTE: When replacing or refilling the ATF (Automatic Transmission Fluid) and/or the
separate transfer oil only use the specified type of oil (refer to the workshop manual
for details).
Overview
L1001.4_02013
1
2
Torque converter
Torque converter clutch
02-12
3
Differential
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
Transmissions
Limited Slip Differential
•
For the current Mazda models a taper ring type LSD (Limited Slip Differential) is used
(also termed as “Super LSD”). It is fitted to the rear axle of the Mazda6 MPS, Mazda
MX-5, Mazda RX-8, Mazda BT-50, and to the MTX of the Mazda3 MPS.
Overview
L1001.4_02017
Mazda MX-5
1
2
3
Pinion gear
Side gear
Cone
Curriculum Training
4
5
6
Taper ring
Retainer
Spring
02-13
Transmissions
Powertrain
Service Procedures
Rear Differential Oil Inspection and Oil Replacement
•
There are two different rear differentials (type A and type B) for the Mazda BT-50. The
difference is the position of the oil filler hole due to a revised oil capacity. On the type A
rear differential the oil level is higher than the oil filler hole, i.e. special measures are
required for rear differential oil inspection and oil replacement. A caution label on the
rear differential informs about this condition (refer to the respective service information
for details).
•
On the type B rear differential the oil level is flush with the oil filler hole, i.e. rear
differential oil inspection and oil replacement can be performed as usual (refer to the
workshop manual for details).
L1001.4_02019
1
2
3
Type A rear differential
Type B rear differential
Oil filler plug
02-14
4
5
Oil drain plug
Caution label
Curriculum Training
Powertrain
List of Abbreviations
A/C
Air Conditioning
F/L
Facelift
ACEA
Association des Constructeurs
Européens d'Automobiles
FWD
Front Wheel Drive
HC
Hydro Carbon
API
American Petroleum Institute
LCD
Liquid Crystal Display
AT
Automatic Transmission
LF
Left Front
ATF
Automatic Transmission Fluid
LSD
Limited Slip Differential
ATX
Automatic Transaxle
MAF
Mass Air Flow
AWD
All Wheel Drive
MESI
BDC
Bottom Dead Center
Mazda Electronic Service
Information
CKP
Crankshaft Position
M-MDS
Mazda - Modular Diagnostic
System
CM
Control Module
MPS
Mazda Performance Series
MSP
Multi Side Port
MT
Manual Transmission
MTF
Manual Transmission Fluid
MTX
Manual Transaxle
Electronically Controlled
Coupling
PCM
Powertrain Control Module
FACM
Fuel Additive Control Module
RF
Right Front
FGT
Fixed Geometry Turbine
RWD
Rear Wheel Drive
FIP
Fuel Injection Pump
CMP
DISI
DOHC
DPF
ECC
Camshaft Position
Direct Injection Spark Ignition
Double Overhead Camshaft
Diesel Particulate Filter
Curriculum Training
03-1
List of Abbreviations
SAE
Society of Automotive
Engineers
SOHC
Single Overhead Camshaft
SST
Special Service Tool
TCM
Transmission Control Module
TEN
Test ENgine
TCM
Transmission Control Module
TDC
Top Dead Center
VGT
Variable Geometry
Turbocharger
WDS
Worldwide Diagnostic System
W/M
Workshop Manual
2WD
2 Wheel Drive
4WD
4 Wheel Drive
03-2
Powertrain
Curriculum Training
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