Hot Water Driven Absorption Chillers

Hot Water Driven Absorption Chillers
Hot Water Driven
Vapor Absorption Machine
Cogenie
TM
ProChill
With you always,
in your quest to preserve nature.
Cogenie & ProChill
Hot Water Driven Vapor Absorption Machine
1/2
C o n t e n t s
0
Company Profile .............................................................3
0
Introduction .....................................................................5
0
Certificates ......................................................................7
0
Working Principle ..........................................................9
0
Refrigeration Cycles ..................................................... 11
0
Constructional Features and Mechanical
Design Considerations ................................................. 16
0
Supply List and Scope of Work ................................... 17
0
Thermax Nomenclature and Product Basket ............. 20
0
Utility Requirements .................................................... 21
0
Selection Criteria and Procedure ................................ 23
0
Dimensional Data ........................................................ 24
0
Performance Data ........................................................ 26
0
Piping & Instrumentation Diagram .............................. 28
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General Arrangement Drawing ................................... 29
0
Instrumentation and Safety Features .......................... 32
0
Machine Room Layout Considerations ....................... 35
0
Site Unloading and Installation ................................... 37
Company Profile
T
hermax is an engineering major providing energy-
environment solutions, systems and products in global
markets. The $ 550 million Thermax is featured in the
Forbes List of 'Best Under a Billion' Companies in the
Asia Pacific. It offers business - to - business solutions
to industrial and commercial establishments in the
areas of heating, cooling, captive power, water
treatment, air pollution control, waste management &
resource recovery, and chemicals. It supports a wide
spectrum of industry in over 50 countries of South East
Asia, Japan, Africa and Middle East, CIS countries,
USA, South America and Europe.
In the energy business, Thermax executes projects in
the areas of process heat, captive power and waste
heat recovery. The company also offers a range of
boilers and thermal oil heaters, energy efficient
machines and customized products such as waste
heat and exhaust gas boilers. Thermax's integrated
expertise in energy has helped it to offer its customers
Combined Heating Power and Cooling (CHPC)
projects.
Thermax offers industry its expertise over a hundred
fuels -- oil, gas and a wide variety of solid fuels
including biomass. Through diverse installations in
several countries, it has also developed reliable project
Cogenie & ProChill
Hot Water Driven Vapor Absorption Machine
3/4
management capabilities.
Leveraging its leadership
position in electricity saving
vapor absorption technology,
Thermax offers process
industries and commercial
establishments like hotels,
shopping malls and offices
vapor absorption machines
a boon in power-starved
areas. These eco-friendly,
energy efficient equipments
have found prestigious
customers such as BBC,
Mercedes Benz, Audi,
Bosch, Panasonic, Henry
Ford Museum.
In the environment area,
Thermax offers waste
management expertise for
solid, liquid and air pollution.
Thermax provides solutions
from pre-treatment to waste
water treatment and
chemical conditioning of
water for boiler and cooling
water systems. Water
recycling is a thrust area for
Thermax. Hi-grade ion
exchange resins from
Thermax have found niche
customers in US and
Japanese markets.
Thermax has an extensive
international marketing
network. Headquartered in Pune (Western India),
Thermax's 17 international offices are located in South
East Asia, Middle East, Africa, Russia, UK and the US. Its
overseas subsidiaries--Thermax Europe Ltd (UK) and
Thermax Inc (USA) play a significant role in business
development.
The Thermax group's manufacturing facilities spread over
14 plants, measuring a covered area of over 700,000 sq.
ft are ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001
accredited. Thermax manufactures to international
standards like ASME, BS, DIN, and GOST. Lloyds,
Bureau Veritas, SGS, and TUV have inspected the
facilities.
Thermax's business is inspired by the conviction that
'Improving your business is our business.'
Introduction
from 10 - 100 % of the design capacity, the 3-way
diverting valve automatically varies the hot water
flow to maintain a uniform temperature of the chilled
water leaving the chiller.
Refrigeration is a process of extracting heat from a
low temperature medium and transferring it to a high
temperature heat sink. Refrigeration maintains the
temperature of the heat source below that of its
surroundings while transferring the extracted heat to a
heat sink. This operation finds applications in many
industries ranging from process, engineering,
manufacturing, medical, dairy and confectionery, to
beverage, hospitality, education and commercial
establishments.
Absorption chillers, instead of using electricity (high
grade energy), use heat as energy source which is low
grade energy. The energy source may be steam or hot
water, or it may even be waste heat like in exhaust
gases from an engine (gas or oil based). Thermax
offers a wide range of solutions for each of these
sources of energy representing a major advance in the
Absorption Chilling Technology. Hot water absorption
chillers are eco-friendly and help in reducing CO2
emissions because these use heat input from low
grade sources like engine jacket cooling water or
water from solar heaters etc.
Cogenie and ProChill Vapor Absorption Chillers derive
energy from hot water to provide the desired chilling
effect. These Cogenie - Vapor Absorption Chillers are
available in 20 - 210 USRT and the ProChill (Twin
Design) - Vapor Absorption Machines are available in
240 - 1150 USRT. These chillers can achieve chilled
water temperature down to 38oF by making use of low
temperature hot water (158 - 230oF).
The Cogenie and ProChill Series' product range
represents a culmination of Thermax's global expertise
in energy and environment, continuous innovation
through focused Research and Development, worldclass manufacturing capabilities, efficient and
responsive service and a deep commitment to quality
and reliability. Testimony to this is provided by over
2500 installations in the last 15 years across 40
countries, appreciation from our customers and several
prestigious awards and honors.
Salient Features Of Cogenie
and ProChill
n
Part load performance: For loads ranging
n
Gravity feed system: Gravity feed of
refrigerant and absorbent enhances heat transfer
efficiency and overcomes the problems of wear and
tear and clogging of nozzles, which use pressurized
spraying techniques. Feed trays are of Stainless
Steel.
n
Machines are designed and supplied based on the
low temperature (158oF - 230oF) hot water.
n
Effective corrosion inhibitors: The
corrosion inhibitor minimizes the rate of copper and
ferrous metal corrosion on the solution side of the
unit. The corrosion inhibitor used - Lithium
Molybdate - is non-toxic and does not generate
ammonia, thus protecting the copper tubes in the
machine. Use of Lithium Molybdate is more effective
than conventionally used corrosion inhibitors.
n
The evaporator, condenser and absorber tubes are
made of Copper/ Cupronickel/ AISI-316L/
Titanium depending on the available water quality.
n
Factory mounted on-line purging system
maintains low vacuum in the shell and ensures
consistent performance. Any non-condensable gas,
generated inside the machine during operation, is
purged continuously into the storage tank, thus
eliminating the need for a replaceable palladium
cell.
n
PLC based control panel, user-friendly
interface and data-logging system ensure easy and
smooth operation. Branded PLC enhances the
reliability of the machine.
n
Cooling water flows first through the condenser and
then through the absorber.
n Use of Non-Welded Pumps: In Thermax Absorption
Chillers, the absorbent and refrigerant pumps are in
bod construction (except for 20 frame small chillers)
so that if required, bearing and filters can be
cleaned after few years of operation. In case of
welded pumps, replacement of the entire pump is
the only solution.
Cogenie & ProChill
Hot Water Driven Vapor Absorption Machine
n
5/6
Double protection, in terms of differential
pressure switch and flow switch, is provided for
freeze protection.
n
Optional Features include electrical control
valve, VFD control for part load conditions,
standby canned motor pumps, flameproof
construction, high pressure headers, online
bearing monitoring, special tube material for
Evaporator, Absorber, Condenser, multi-sectional
shipment and Factory Performance Test.
n
Isolation valves
Isolation valves are provided on the pumps of
higher models of Cogenie (LT 10C and LT 21C) and
for all ProChill models facilitating on-line pump
maintenance without loss of vacuum in the system due
to the exposure to air.
Bolted CANNED Motor Pump
Service: A global network, powered by over 100
highly trained service personnel, ensures quick
response and delivers the right solution to
customers. Also on offer are value-added services
such as 'e-reach' - remote access for chillers,
preventive maintenance contracts, operations and
manning and localized customer training
programs
Welded CANNED Motor Pump
What is a Canned Motor Pump?
CANNED motor pump is some times misinterpreted as a pump similar to hermetically sealed compressor of
a window air-conditioner.
CANNED motor pump is a single unit of a pump and a motor, and has no shaft seal. Shaft seal is a moving
joint and cannot pass through stringent helium leak test.
In the CANNED motor pump, the pumped liquid is used for cooling motor as well as lubrication of bearings.
Hence, the pumped liquid enters the motor section, and in order to keep the liquid away from the motor coil
and the rotor, the motor coil and the rotor are sealed with CANS, which are thin metal cylinders.
Bolted canned motor pump, bit costly though, offer advantage like replacement of parts, which may be
needed after many years of service. Only non-moving parts are bolted and hence they offer excellent leak
proof properties while offering maintainability simultaneously.
Certificates
Cogenie & ProChill
Hot Water Driven Vapor Absorption Machine
7/8
Working Principle
T
by the vapors during condensation is called the Latent
Heat of Condensation.
he boiling point of water is directly proportional to
pressure. At atmospheric pressure, water boils at
212°F. At a lower pressure, it boils at a lower
temperature. At 0.24 inch Hg absolute pressure, the
boiling point of water is 39 °F.
To change water from liquid to vapor it has to be
heated. The water absorbs the applied heat and its
temperature starts rising, until it reaches the boiling
point. At boiling point, the temperature remains
constant but liquid water vaporizes. The heat required
to change the phase of a liquid to vapor is called the
Latent heat of Vaporization. Similarly the heat rejected
For the LiBr-water system, the absorption varies directly
in proportion with the solution concentration and
inversely with the solution temperature. Lithium
Bromide (LiBr) is a water soluble chemical, and LiBr water solution (used as refrigerant) has an inherent
property to absorb water due to its chemical affinity.
Also, there is a large difference between vapor
pressure of LiBr and water. This means that when the
LiBr water solution is heated, the water will vaporize but
the LiBr will stay in the solution and become more
concentrated.
Absorption Cycle Overview:
1
Water (refrigerant)
Closed vessel
Water circulating in
the Heat Exchanger Tubes
Absorption systems use heat energy to produce a
refrigerating effect. In these systems the refrigerant,
i.e. water, absorbs heat at a low temperature and low
pressure during evaporation and releases heat at a
high temperature and high pressure during
condensation.
Chilled water
Vacuum
When maintained at high vacuum, water will boil and flash cool itself.
2
Refrigerant
Concentrated LiBr solution
Cooling water
Chilled water
Vaporized refrigerant
Absorption process
Concentrated Lthium Bromide solution has affinity towards water. The
solution absorbs vaporized refrigerant water.
LiBr solution, which acts as the absorbent, is used to
absorb the vaporized refrigerant. The evaporation of
the refrigerant takes place at a low pressure. The
diluted solution, which contains the absorbed
refrigerant vapor, is heated at a higher pressure.
Cogenie & ProChill
Hot Water Driven Vapor Absorption Machine
3
9 / 10
Refrigerant vapor
Concentrated LiBr solution
Water (refrigerant)
Driving heat source
Chilled water
This leads to the vaporization of the
refrigerant and thus the solution is restored
to its original concentration. The cycle
keeps repeating itself to give the desired
chilling effect.
Cooling water
Diluted solution
Absorption pump
As Lithium Bromide becomes dilute it loses its capacity to absorb water vapor. It thus
needs to be reconcentrated using a heat source.
4
Refrigerant Vapor
Cooling water
Condenser
Generator
Concentrated
Liquid
solution
refrigerant
Driving
heat
source
Absorber
Chilled water
Cooling water
In ProChill (twin design) absorption
machines, the hot water first passes
through high pressure generator and then
through low pressure generator to enhance
the efficiency of the cycle.
Evaporator
Absorbent pump
This heat causes the solution to release the absorbed refrigerant in vapor form.
This vapor is cooled in a separate chamber to become liquid refrigerant.
5
Refrigerant vapor
Condenser
Generator
Cooling
water
Chilled water
Driving
heat
Cooling water source
Absorbent pump
Evaporator
The basic operation cycle of the single effect vapor absorption chiller.
Absorber
The refrigerant goes through a series of
processes to complete the refrigerating
cycle. These are namely evaporation,
absorption, pressurization, vaporization,
condensation, throttling and expansion.
During this cycle, the refrigerant absorbs
heat from a low temperature heat source
and releases it to a high temperature sink.
Refrigeration Cycle
Cogenie
Evaporator
Generator and Condenser
The Evaporator consists of a tube bundle, an outer
shell, distribution trays, and a refrigerant pan.
The generator and condenser tube bundles are
enclosed in the upper shell. Hot water flows into the
generator tubes, heats the absorbent flowing outside
the tubes and, finally, condenses to drain out of the
unit. The refrigerant vaporized from the absorbent,
passes through the Eliminators to the Condenser.
Here, the cooling water, circulating inside the
condenser tubes cools it down. The refrigerant vapor
condenses on the outside of the condenser tubes and
collects at the bottom of the Condenser. The
condensed refrigerant, from the Condenser, flows into
the Evaporator. The absorbent, which has become
concentrated in the Generator, drains into the Absorber
through the Heat Exchanger, to begin a new absorbent
cycle.
A refrigerant pump is used to circulate the refrigerant
from the refrigerant pan into the distribution trays. From
these trays, the refrigerant falls on to the evaporator
tubes.
The evaporator shell pressure is maintained at a low
pressure. At this low pressure, the refrigerant
evaporates at a low temperature (~ 39 °F) (for its
evaporation the refrigerant extracts the required heat
from the water, being circulated through the evaporator
tubes.) As a result, the water in the tubes becomes
chilled.
Absorber
The Absorber consists of a tube bundle, outer shell
(common with the evaporator), distribution trays.
The Generator is housed in the upper shell, just above
the Absorber. From the Generator, a concentrated
absorbent solution is fed into the distribution trays,
which falls on to the absorber tubes.
On the other hand, the vaporized refrigerant from the
Evaporator is absorbed by the concentrated absorbent;
leading to its dilution. Due to this absorption, the
vacuum in the shell is maintained at a low pressure,
leading to the desired chilled water temperature. During
this process, the 'Heat of Dilution' is generated. The
cooling water circulating through the absorber tubes
removes this heat. As the absorbent solution loses its
heat to the cooling water, it is able to absorb more
refrigerant vapor, and gets further diluted. The diluted
absorbent collects at the bottom of the shell.
Heat Exchanger
The absorbent pump sends the diluted absorbent to
the Generator.
It passes through a Regenerative Heat Exchanger,
where it absorbs heat from the concentrated absorbent
before entering the Generator.
Because the heat exchanger heats up the cool
absorbent solution before it enters the Generator for
reheating, it reduces the heat input required in the
Generator and increases the efficiency of the cycle.
Cogenie & ProChill
Cycle diagram
Hot Water Driven Vapor Absorption Machine
11 / 12
Cogenie
*Valve
* 3 way hot water valve
The 3 way hot water valve is suggested as Thermax is concerned with Customers problems. For the chiller two way
valve is more than adequate. When the flow rate required is very low and if pump is dedicated to Absorption
machine closing of two way valve may lead to reduce flow lower than minimum recommended by the pump maker.
In such a case pump life will be in danger. We normally not only worry about our chiller, but we do consider the
problems faced by the customer, and hence, 3 way hot water valve is
Cycle diagram
ProChill
HIGH PRESSURE CONDENSER
LOW PRESSURE CONDENSER
COOLING WATER IN
HOT WATER OUT
HIGH PRESSURE GENERATOR
LOW PRESSURE GENERATOR
HOT WATER IN
HEAT EXCHANGER
HEAT EXCHANGER
CHILLIED WATER OUT
CHILLED WATER IN
HP
EVAP
HP LP
ABSO ABSO
LP
EVAP
DILUTE SOLUTION
REFRIGERANT PUMP
ABSORBENT PUMP
STRONG SOLUTION
REFRIGERANT LIQUID
HOT WATER FLOW
LP. ABSORBENT PUMP
COOLING WATER OUT
Cogenie & ProChill
ProChill (Twin Design)
High Pressure Evaporator
The High Pressure Evaporator consists of a tube
bundle, an outer shell, distribution trays, and a
refrigerant pan.
Hot Water Driven Vapor Absorption Machine
13 / 14
from the water being circulated through the Evaporator
tubes. As a result, heat is extracted from the water and
it becomes chilled to the required temperature.
Low Pressure Absorber
Chilled water flows inside the tubes. A refrigerant pump
is used to circulate the refrigerant from the refrigerant
pan into the distribution trays. From these trays, the
refrigerant falls on to the evaporator tubes.
The Low Pressure Absorber consists of a tube bundle,
an outer shell (common with the Low Pressure
Evaporator), distribution trays and an absorbent
collection sump.
Evaporator shell pressure is maintained at ~0.3 inches
Hg (a). At this low pressure, the refrigerant evaporates
at a low temperature and extracts latent heat of
evaporation from the water being circulated through the
evaporator tubes. As a result, water gets chilled and
then passes through the low pressure evaporator
tubes.
Concentrated absorbent solution from the High
Pressure Generator is fed into the distribution trays.
This solution falls on to the Low Pressure Absorber
tubes.
High Pressure Absorber
The High Pressure Absorber consists of a tube bundle,
an outer shell (common with the high pressure
evaporator), distribution trays and an absorbent
collection sump.
Concentrated absorbent solution from the Low
Pressure Generator is fed into the distribution trays.
This solution falls on the high pressure absorber tubes.
On the other hand, the vaporized refrigerant from the
Low Pressure Evaporator is absorbed by the
concentrated absorbent, leading to its dilution. Due to
this absorption, the vacuum in the shell is maintained
at a low pressure, leading to the desired chilled water
temperature. During this process, 'Heat of Dilution' is
generated. The cooling water, circulating through the
low pressure absorber tubes, removes this heat. As the
absorbent solution loses its heat to the cooling water, it
is able to absorb more refrigerant vapor and gets
further diluted. This dilute absorbent collects at the
bottom of the Low Pressure Absorber.
On the other hand, the vaporized refrigerant from the
High Pressure Evaporator is absorbed by the
concentrated absorbent, leading to its dilution. Due to
this absorption, the vacuum in the shell is maintained at
a low pressure, leading to the desired chilled water
temperature. During this process, 'Heat of Dilution' is
generated. The cooling water, circulating through the
high pressure absorber tubes, removes this heat. As
the absorbent solution loses its heat to the cooling
water, it is able to absorb more refrigerant vapor and
gets further diluted. This diluted absorbent collects at
the bottom of the shell.
An absorbent pump is used to send the diluted
absorbent to the High Pressure Generator through the
High Pressure Heat Exchanger. The High Pressure
Heat Exchanger heats up the absorbent solution
before its entry into the High Pressure Generator for
regeneration. The diluted absorbent gets heated up
due to the strong solution coming from the High
Pressure Generator. As a result the required heat input
in the High Temperature Generator is very low, thereby
increasing the efficiency of the cycle.
Low Pressure Evaporator
Low Pressure Heat Exchanger
The Low Pressure Evaporator consists of a tube
bundle, an outer shell, distribution trays and a
refrigerant pan.
An absorbent pump is used to send the diluted
absorbent to the Low Pressure Generator through the
Low Pressure Heat Exchanger. The Low Pressure Heat
Exchanger heats up the absorbent solution before its
entry into the Low Pressure Generator for regeneration.
The diluted absorbent gets heated due to the strong
solution coming from the Low Pressure Generator. As a
result, the heat input required in the Low Pressure
Generator is very low, thereby increasing the efficiency
of the cycle.
The heat source i.e. chilled water from High Pressure
Evaporator, flows inside the tubes. A refrigerant pump
is used to circulate the refrigerant from the refrigerant
pan into the distribution trays. From the trays, the
refrigerant falls on to the evaporator tubes.
The shell pressure is maintained at a low pressure. At
this low pressure, the refrigerant evaporates at a low
temperature and extracts latent heat of evaporation
High Pressure Heat Exchanger
High Pressure Generator and
Condenser
The High Pressure Generator and Condenser tube
bundles are enclosed in a shell and are separated by
an insulation plate.
The hot water, at rated inlet conditions, passes through
the tubes of the High Pressure Generator and boils the
diluted solution coming from the High Pressure
Absorber to form the refrigerant vapors. The cooling
water flowing through the tube side of Condenser cools
these vapors. The condensed refrigerant thus formed
gets collected at the bottom of the Condenser. The
absorbent, now concentrated in the Low Pressure
Generator, drains to the Low Pressure Absorber to
begin a new cycle.
Low Pressure Generator and
Condenser
The Low Pressure Generator and Condenser tube
bundles are enclosed in a shell and are separated by
an insulation plate.
The hot water, coming from the High Pressure
Generator, flows through the tubes of the Low Pressure
Generator and boils the dilute solution to form
refrigerant vapors. The cooling water flowing through
the tube side of Condenser cools these vapors. The
condensed refrigerant thus formed collects at the
bottom of the condenser. The absorbent, now
concentrated in the Low Pressure Generator, drains to
the high pressure absorber to begin a new cycle.
Cogenie & ProChill
Hot Water Driven Vapor Absorption Machine
15 / 16
Constructional Features And
Mechanical Design Considerations
C
ogenie and ProChill chillers can be designed to
conform to the codes and standards given below.
Whenever no specific standard is applicable, the
design is according to good and proven engineering
standards.
n
n
ISO 9001:2000 n ISO 14001 n ETL n CE n PED
TUV n DNV n ASME n OHSAS 18001
The lower shell houses two shell and tube heat
exchangers: the Absorber and Evaporator. This shell is
fabricated from formed carbon steel plates with fusion
welded seams. Carbon steel tube sheets are drilled
and reamed to accommodate absorber and
evaporator tubes, and the tube ends are expanded to
ensure no leakages between the shell and tube side.
The support plates inside the shell are also fabricated
from carbon steel plates. Enhanced copper tubes are
used in the Absorber and Evaporator. The maximum
allowable working pressure on the tube side is 114 psi
(g). Gravity feed spraying technology is applied to
spray the solution in the Absorber and Evaporator. The
solution in the spraying tubes sprays downward to
ensure good film thickness and better heat transfer.
The Absorber and Evaporator are separated by an
Eliminator that prevents the carryover of LiBr from
Absorber to Evaporator, while allowing the water vapor
from Evaporator to cross over to the Absorber. The
lower shell is mounted on the base frame.
tubes are used in Condensers and finned carbon steel
tubes in Generators. The lower shell houses the High
Pressure Absorber and Evaporator separated from the
Low Pressure Absorber and Evapoator by a partition
plate. Gravity feed spraying technology is applied to
spray the solution in the Absorber and Evaporator. An
Eliminator, that prevents the carryover of LiBr, separates
each Generator and Condenser and also each
Evaporator and Absorber. The upper shell rests on the
lower shell.
The Regenerative Heat Exchangers increase the
efficiency of the cycle by utilizing the heat within the
system.
For lower Cogenie models (LT-2 to LT-8), canned motor
pumps are in welded construction.
For higher models of Cogenie (LT-10C to LT-21C) and
for all ProChill models, canned motor pumps are in
bolted construction to facilitate maintenance. Isolation
valves are also provided to ensure that the machine
vacuum is not disturbed as it is not exposed to air
during maintenance.
Non condensable gases are removed from the chiller
by operating the vacuum pump and opening the
manual purge valves. Service valves are provided for
N2 charging, sampling and for connecting the
Manometer.
The upper shell comprises of the Generator and
Condenser. This shell is also fabricated from carbon
steel plates. Smooth copper tubes are used in the
Condenser and finned stainless steel tubes in the
Generator. Gravity feed spraying technology is applied
to spray the solution in the Absorber and Evaporator.
An Eliminator, that prevents the carryover of LiBr from
the Generator to Condenser, separates these two. Hot
water passes through the generator tubes.
In a twin design chiller, the upper shell comprises of the
High Pressure Generator and Condenser separated
from Low Pressure Generator and Condenser
separated by a partition plate. This shell is also
fabricated from carbon steel plates. Smooth copper
The Purge System
Supply List And Scope Of Work
n
Cogenie
Sr. No.
Description
Remarks
A
Lower Shell
1.
Evaporator
Common Shell and
2.
Absorber
Tube sheets, separate level boxes
3.
Base Frame
B
Upper Shell
4.
Generator
Common Shell and Tube sheets,
5.
Condenser
separate level boxes
C
Heat Exchangers
6.
Heat Exchanger
D
Pumps and Motors
7.
Absorbent Pump and Motor
Canned Motor Pump Set
8.
Refrigerant Pump and Motor
Canned Motor Pump Set
9.
Purge Pump and Motor
Vacuum Pump Set
E
Purge System
For Separation of Non-condensable
gases from Absorbent and its Storage
F
Piping
Interconnecting Piping
G
Instrumentation*
2/ 3-way Pneumatic Hot Water Flow Control Valve
Control Panel, Field Instruments, Cabling
H
Electricals
Starters, Circuit breakers, Wiring within
Battery Limits
I
Documents
Operation and Maintenance Manual,
Packing List
Note: * indicates that the scope of work is optional
Plate Heat Exchanger
Cogenie & ProChill
n
Prochill
Sr. No.
Description
Remarks
A
Lower Shell
1.
High Pressure Evaporator
Common Shell and Tube sheets,
2.
High Pressure Absorber
separate level boxes
3.
Low Pressure Evaporator
4.
Low Pressure Absorber
5.
Base Frame
B
Upper Shell
6.
High Pressure Generator
Common Shell and Tube sheets,
7.
High Pressure Condenser
separate level boxes
8.
Low Pressure Generator
9.
Low Pressure Condenser
C
Heat Exchangers
10.
High Pressure Heat Exchanger
Plate Heat Exchanger
11.
Low Pressure Heat Exchanger
Plate Heat Exchanger
D
Pumps and Motors
12.
Absorbent Pump and Motor
Canned Motor Pump Set
13.
Refrigerant Pump and Motor
Canned Motor Pump Set
14.
Purge Pump and Motor
Vacuum Pump Set
E
Purge System
For Separation of Non-condensable gases
from Absorbent and its Storage
F
Piping
Interconnecting piping
G
Instrumentation*
3-way Pneumatic Hot Water Flow Control
Valve, Control Panel, Field Instruments,
Cabling
H
Electricals
Starters, Circuit breakers, Wiring within
Battery Limits
I
Documents
Operation and Maintenance Manual, Packing List
Note: * indicates that the scope of work is optional
17 / 18
n Distribution of Scope of Work - Manufacturing, Transportation and Installation
Item / Activity
Thermax
Customer
Remarks
Chiller
Chiller Manufacture with
accessories
Refer to Supply List.
P
Testing
Factory Testing
P
On-site Erection
Supervision of Commissioning
P
Thermax Optional Feature.
P
P
Customer to assist, Thermax
Representative will supervise
the commissioning.
Transportation
Loading at Thermax
Factory
P
Factory to Port
P
P
P
P
P
Port in India to Port of Destination*
Port to Job-site
Unloading at Job-site
Storage at Job-site
Optional
If required.
Construction and Installation
Handling at Job-site
P
P
P
P
Civil Foundation
Piping outside Battery Limits
Butterfly valve in the cooling water
line
Chiller Insulation*
P
P
Piping Insulation outside Battery
Limits
Electrical Connections outside
Battery Limits
P
Assembly and On-site Connections
P
Rigging, Shifting to actual
location.
Refer to Supply List.
If required. (Refer to Safety
Functions under Instrumentation
and Safety Features.)
Refer to Supply List.
Refer to Supply List.
For Multi-Sectional Shipment
(Optional).
Operation and Maintenance
Training of Customer's Operators
during commissioning
(maximum period of 7 days)
Operation
P
P
NOTE: * Indicates that the scope of supply can also be included by Thermax, as an option.
Cogenie & ProChill
Hot Water Driven Vapor Absorption Machine
Thermax Nomenclature And
The Prochill B4k Product Basket
LT 21 C
LT
21
C
Machine type - Chiller
Frame Size and Model number
Primary heat input - Low temperature hot water
LT 72 T
LT
72
T
Machine type - Twin type design
Frame Size and Model number
Primary heat input - Low temperature hot water
19 / 20
Utility Requirements
Chilled Water: The chiller's design ensures in
delivering the desired cooling capacity. The chilled
water flow rate to the machine is kept constant. Hence
its capacity is proportional to the difference in the
temperatures of the inlet and the outlet chilled water.
Cooling Water: Cooling water is used to remove
heat of absorption and condensation. The chiller can
be designed to suit rated cooling water temperature of
75o - 97oF.
Energy Source: The chiller is designed according
to the available hot water temperature. The hot water
operating temperatures can be from 158 to 230oF.
Air: Compressed air is required for pneumatic
operation of the Hot Water Control valve. The Air
supplied should be moisture free and the required
pressure is 100 psi (g). Air is not be required if 2 way
electric valves (size: up to 6 inch) are provided.
Electricity: The power supply to the chiller shall be
strictly as per the voltage and frequency rating given on
chiller name plate.
To avoid scaling and corrosion, we recommend
maintaining water quality as given here. If the water
quality at the installation site is different, the chiller can
be designed to adjust to it.
Chilled Water and Cooling Water
Treatment
Treatment of the chilled and cooling water is important
to get desired chiller performance and for its long life.
If the water quality is bad, it shows a scaling and/or
corrosion tendency. Sludge and scale can adhere to
the inside of the tubes. This impedes heat transfer
between the chilled water and refrigerant and between
the cooling water and LiBr solution. Consequently,
there can be an increase in the respective
temperatures of the LiBr solution and the condensed
refrigerant, leading to an increase in the fuel
consumption and thus hampering the capacity and
efficiency of the chiller. In cases of prolonged corrosion,
the tubes will require maintenance or, in some cases,
they may even have to be replaced.
As the cooling water circuit is open, the salts get
concentrated due to evaporation taking place in the
cooling tower. This can be adjusted by controlling
cooling water blow-down and make-up. Moreover,
exposure to sunlight favors biological growth. Slime is
more detrimental to heat transfer than scale. Dosing
biocides during cooling water treatment can minimize
these adverse effects.
Unlike the cooling water circuit, which is always open,
the chilled water circuit may be open or closed. Due to
the lower temperature, chilled water circulating in an
open circuit does not have severe consequences. Soft
water is recommended for use in this circuit.
Cogenie & ProChill
n
21 / 22
JIS recommends the following water quality for copper tubes:
Description
Sr. No.
Specifications
Unit
Chilled Water
1
pH at 77oF
2
Electrical Conductivity (max.)
3
M Alkalinity (max.)
4
Total Hardness (max.)
5
Make-up Water
6.5 - 8.5
6.5 - 8.5
Fs/cm
500
200
ppm
100
50
mg CaCO3/lit
100
50
Chloride ion (max.)
mg Cl/lit
100
50
6
Sulphate ion (max.)
mg SO4/lit
100
50
7
Total Iron (max.)
mg Fe/lit
1
0.3
8
Sulphide ion
mg S/lit
9
Ammonium ion (max.)
mg NH4/lit
0.5
0.2
10
Silica ion (max.)
mg SiO2/lit
50
30
11
Free carbonic acid (max.)
mg CaCO3/lit
10
-
12
Turbidity
NTU
10
5
13
BOD / COD (max.)
mg/lit
160
160
Description
Sr. No.
Not detected
Specifications
Unit
Cooling Water
o
1
pH at 77 F
2
Electrical Conductivity (max.)
3
M Alkalinity (max.)
4
Total Hardness (max.)
5
Make-up Water
6.5 - 8.5
6.5 - 8.5
Fs/cm
800
200
ppm
100
50
mg CaCO3/lit
200
50
Chloride ion (max.)
mg Cl/lit
200
50
6
Sulphate ion (max.)
mg SO4/lit
200
50
7
Total Iron (max.)
mg Fe/lit
1
0.3
8
Sulphide ion
mg S/lit
9
Ammonium ion (max.)
mg NH4/lit
1
10
Silica ion (max.)
mg SiO2/lit
50
30
11
Suspended solids (max.)
mg/lit
20
5
12
Turbidity
NTU
20
5
13
BOD / COD (max.)
mg/lit
160
160
Not detected
0.2
Selection Criteria And Procedure
Selection Criteria
Selection Procedure
The following factors govern model selection
Absorption is a complex phenomenon involving heat
and mass transfer. The chiller consists of multiple
interlinked heat exchangers. In such a complex
mechanism, deration factors and two-dimensional
graphs can lead only to approximation. At Thermax,
every selection is done with the help of a computer
program that does detailed heat and mass transfer
calculations for each Heat Exchanger and accurately
determines performance of the chiller. When using
media other than water or for non-standard fouling
factors, the selection considers appropriate properties
to evaluate overall heat transfer coefficient. The
program optimizes the energy and the fuel
consumption, the chilled and the cooling water flow
rates and the pressure drops.
n
Hot water temperature: Capacity of the chiller
is sensitive to hot water temperature. If hot water
temperature is lower than the rated temperature,
capacity of the chiller tends to reduce and viceversa.
n
Chilled and cooling water temperature:
Capacity of the chiller varies based on chilled water
outlet temperature and cooling water inlet
temperature. The chiller is capable of delivering
higher than its rated capacity if chilled water
temperature is higher than the rated temperature or
cooling water temperature is lower than the rated
temperature. Conversely, the chiller capacity is likely
to be reduced if chilled water temperature is lower
and cooling water temperature is higher than their
respective rated temperatures. Thermax has
designed and installed chillers for chilled water
temperatures ranging from 38oF to 70oF and cooling
water temperatures varying from 50oF to 97oF.
n
Chilled and cooling water circuit
pressure: Thermax's standard product range is
designed for a maximum pressure of 114 psi (g) in
the chilled and cooling water circuits. Thermax also
offers special design for higher pressures.
n
Size: For ease of operation, Thermax design
ensures sufficient distance between various parts of
the chiller. However, on special requirement,
compact chiller can be manufactured to fit within the
available space at the existing site. Moreover, if the
openings available at site are smaller than the
machine size, the chiller can be transported in
multiple sections and assembled at site.
n
Optional features: These include tube material
of construction, frequency drive for double effect
absorbent pumps, flame proof construction, claded
tube sheets and special electronics and
instrumentation.
The following document provides performance data
and the dimensional data for all the standard models.
Cogenie & ProChill
Hot Water Driven Vapor Absorption Machine
Dimensional Data
Cogenie
Cogenie (LT 2 to LT 8 & LT 10 C to LT 21 C)
Overall Dimensions
Models
Shipping
Weight
Operating
Weight
Clearance
for tube
removal
Length
Width
Height
inch
inch
inch
x 103 lb
x 103 lb
inch
LT 2
70.9
55.1
86.6
4.9
5.5
59.1
LT 3
90.6
55.1
82.7
5.5
6.6
86.6
LT 5
94.5
59.1
98.4
7.7
8.8
86.6
LT 6
98.4
70.9
110.2
9.3
12.1
86.6
LT 8
98.4
70.9
110.2
9.9
12.8
86.6
LT 10 C
165
59
126
11.7
13.2
126.0
LT 12 C
165
59
126
12.1
13.8
126.0
LT 14 C
189
59
150
13.4
15.4
149.6
LT 16 C
189
59
150
13.8
15.9
149.6
LT 18 C
224
59
189
15.7
18.0
189.0
LT 21 C
224
59
189
16.1
18.7
189.0
NOTE: Based on transportation facilities, shipping weight shall be decided by shipping the machine in single / multi-sections.
23 / 24
TM
ProChill - (LT 24 T to LT 115 T)
ProChill
Overall Dimensions
Models
Shipping
Weight
Operating
Weight
Clearance
for tube
removal
Length
Width
Height
inch
inch
inch
x 103 lb
x 103 lb
inch
LT 24 T
205
87
126
23
26
177
LT 27 T
213
89
138
27
32
177
LT 31 T
213
89
138
25
29
177
LT 34 T
213
89
138
26
30
177
LT 38 T
222
94
142
35
41
177
LT 42 T
222
94
142
31
36
177
LT 47 T
272
96
142
44
52
209
LT 52 T
272
96
142
44
53
209
LT 60 T
315
96
142
42
60
258
LT 65 T
315
96
142
51
62
258
LT 72 T
323
114
177
67
78
258
LT 77 T
323
114
177
57
81
258
LT 85 T
333
126
197
86
102
258
LT 95 T
333
126
197
91
107
258
LT 105 T
381.9
126
197
100.8
117.9
311.4
LT 115 T
381.9
126
197
103.4
122.4
311.4
NOTE: Based on transportation facilities, shipping weight shall be decided by shipping the machine in single / multi-sections.
Cogenie & ProChill
Performance Data
Cogenie
Cogenie
Nominal
Cooling
Capacity
Hot Water
Flow
Chilled
Water
Flow
Cooling
Water
Flow
NTR
GPM
GPM
GPM
kVA
LT 2
20
69.1
48.4
88.0
2.2
LT 3
30
102.1
72.6
132.0
2.83
LT 5
50
175.1
121.0
220.0
2.83
LT 6
65
225.7
157.1
294.8
5.2
LT 8
80
277.6
193.6
374.0
5.2
LT 10 C
100
324
242
440
3.1
LT 12 C
120
388
290
528
3.1
LT 14 C
140
453
339
616
3.1
LT 16 C
160
516
387
704
3.1
LT 18 C
180
582
436
792
3.1
LT 21 C
210
678
508
924
4.6
Model
NOTE:
o
n Chilled water inlet/ outlet temperature = 54/ 44 F,
o
n Hot water inlet/ outlet temperature = 195.1/ 185 F,
o
n Cooling water inlet temperature = 84.9 F,
n Performance based on JIS B8622.
Electricity
requirement
25 / 26
TM
ProChill
ProChill
Nominal
Cooling
Capacity
Hot Water
Flow
Chilled
Water
Flow
Cooling
Water
Flow
NTR
GPM
GPM
GPM
kVA
LT 24 T
240
774.4
580.6
1056
3.82
LT 27 T
270
871.2
653.2
1188
3.82
LT 31 T
310
1000.2
750.0
1364
5.2
LT 34 T
340
1097.0
822.5
1496
5.2
LT 38 T
380
1226.1
919.3
1672
6.58
LT 42 T
425
1371.5
1028.2
1870
6.58
LT 47 T
470
1516.5
1137.0
2068
7.96
LT 52 T
525
1693.9
1270.1
2310
7.96
LT 60 T
600
1935.9
1451.5
2640
9.61
LT 65 T
650
2097.2
1572.5
2860
9.61
LT 72 T
720
2323.1
1741.8
3168
10.99
LT 77 T
770
2384.8
1862.8
3388
9.15
LT 85 T
850
2742.5
2056.3
3740
9.15
LT 95 T
950
3065.2
2298.2
4180
9.15
LT 105 T
1050
3335.2
2540.2
6072
12.37
LT 115 T
1150
3718.0
2782.1
6116
12.37
Model
NOTE:
o
n Chilled water inlet/ outlet temperature = 54/ 44 F,
o
n Hot water inlet/ outlet temperature = 195.1/ 185 F,
o
n Cooling water inlet temperature = 84.9 F,
n Performance based on JIS B8622.
Electricity
requirement
Cogenie & ProChill
Hot Water Driven Vapor Absorption Machine
Typical System P&I Diagram
27 / 28
Typical General Arrangement Drawings
Cogenie & ProChill
Hot Water Driven Vapor Absorption Machine
Foundation Drawings
29 / 30
TM
ProChill
ProChill
Nominal
Cooling
Capacity
Hot Water
Flow
Chilled
Water
Flow
Cooling
Water
Flow
NTR
GPM
GPM
GPM
kVA
LT 24 T
240
774.4
580.6
1056
3.82
LT 27 T
270
871.2
653.2
1188
3.82
LT 31 T
310
1000.2
750.0
1364
5.2
LT 34 T
340
1097.0
822.5
1496
5.2
LT 38 T
380
1226.1
919.3
1672
6.58
LT 42 T
425
1371.5
1028.2
1870
6.58
LT 47 T
470
1516.5
1137.0
2068
7.96
LT 52 T
525
1693.9
1270.1
2310
7.96
LT 60 T
600
1935.9
1451.5
2640
9.61
LT 65 T
650
2097.2
1572.5
2860
9.61
LT 72 T
720
2323.1
1741.8
3168
10.99
LT 77 T
770
2384.8
1862.8
3388
9.15
LT 85 T
850
2742.5
2056.3
3740
9.15
LT 95 T
950
3065.2
2298.2
4180
9.15
LT 105 T
1050
3335.2
2540.2
6072
12.37
LT 115 T
1150
3718.0
2782.1
6116
12.37
Model
NOTE:
o
n Chilled water inlet/ outlet temperature = 54/ 44 F,
o
n Hot water inlet/ outlet temperature = 195.1/ 185 F,
o
n Cooling water inlet temperature = 84.9 F,
n Performance based on JIS B8622.
Electricity
requirement
Cogenie & ProChill
Hot Water Driven Vapor Absorption Machine
Typical System P&I Diagram
27 / 28
Typical General Arrangement Drawings
Cogenie & ProChill
Hot Water Driven Vapor Absorption Machine
Foundation Drawings
29 / 30
Cogenie & ProChill
Hot Water Driven Vapor Absorption Machine
31 / 32
Instrumentation And Safety Features
Control Logic
The control panel includes the following components:
outlet chilled water.
! Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)
Load changes are reflected in the rise or fall of the
temperature of the inlet chilled water. The outlet chilled
water temperature varies with the inlet chilled water
temperature. An RTD sensor notes this change in
temperature. This temperature signal is fed to the PLC.
! Panel view operator interface
! Power circuit for pumps
! Panel mounted instruments
The total heat extracted
from the chilled water
defines the cooling
capacity of a machine.
The chilled water inlet
flow- rate is kept
constant. Hence the
cooling capacity is
proportional to the
difference in the
temperatures of the
chilled water at inlet and
An inbuilt software PID control loop processes this
signal with respect to the chilled water set point. A
control output signal of 4 to 20 mA is sent to the I/P
converter.
The I/P controller converts the 4 to 20 mA electrical
signal to a 2.8 to 14.5 psi (g) pneumatic signal, which
controls the position of the hot water control valve. As
the load increases, the hot water control valve also
opens, and vice-versa, thus regulating the quantity of
hot water entering the machine.
Safeties
Safety devices are provided to protect the machine
from reaching abnormal conditions, to safeguard it
from damage and to ensure continued availability.
n
n
Safety Functions
The safety functions of the machine protect it against
abnormal conditions. The various safety functions are:
n
Thermal shock protection: To protect the
machine from a thermal shock, the hot water control
valve is opened gradually for the first 10 minutes after
machine start up. At this moment, the generator
temperature is less than 158°F. After the slow
opening duration is over, the control automatically
switches over to the chilled water temperature.
n
Antifreeze protection: To prevent the chilled
Safety devices are:
l
Machine mounted safeties, located on the
machine
l
Panel mounted safeties, on the control panel and
l
Field Interlocks passing signals from the field to
the machine
Machine mounted
l
Chilled water flow switch
water from freezing in the evaporator tubes, there are
various safety functions to stop the machine like:
l
- Paddle type device mounted on the chilled water
outlet nozzle
l
the chilled water outlet temperature drops below
the L-cut set point, and the hot water control valve
closes fully. This safety prevents a further drop in
the chilled water temperature. The refrigerant pump
will restart after the chilled water outlet temperature
rises above the L-cut set point plus the hysterisis
set point.
Chilled water differential pressure (DP) switch
- Connected to the inlet and outlet chilled water
nozzles
l
Chilled water Antifreeze thermostat
- Capillary thermostat mounted on the chilled water
outlet nozzle
l
l
Refrigerant level electrodes
n
Panel Mounted
l
Refrigerant level controller
l
Absorbent pump overload relay/ AC Drive
l
Refrigerant pump overload relay
l
Purge pump overload relay
l
Chilled water pump interlock
l
Cooling water pump/ butterfly valve interlock
Chilled water pump interlock: Chilled water
flow is a prerequisite for machine operation. A
potential free contact is wired from the chilled water
pump motor starter to VAM/c panel to sense chilled
water pump ON/ OFF/ TRIP status. The machine
starts only when the chilled water pump is ON. If
the chilled water pump stops/ trips during
operation, the 'TOTAL SHUTDOWN' alarm
sequence is carried out.
Field interlocks
l
Antifreeze: If the chilled water outlet temperature
drops below the antifreeze set point, the machine
trips and the 'TOTAL SHUTDOWN' alarm sequence
is carried out. The alarm should be reset only after
the chilled water outlet temperature rises above the
antifreeze set point plus the hysterisis set point.
- Mounted in the refrigerant level box
n
L-cut: The refrigerant pump is switched off in case
l
Cooling water pump interlock: Cooling
water flow should be stopped immediately when
the chilled water flow stops in the machine. So, the
cooling water pump should be started through the
start permissive of cooling water pump.
l
Chilled water flow switch: If the chilled water
flow drops below 50% of the rated value, 'TOTAL
SHUTDOWN' alarm sequence is carried out.
l
Chilled water differential pressure switch:
If the chilled water flow drops below 50% of the
rated value, 'TOTAL SHUTDOWN' alarm sequence
Cogenie & ProChill
Hot Water Driven Vapor Absorption Machine
l
l
is carried out.
Butterfly control valve in cooling water
line: If all the cooling water pumps can be
stopped electrically when the differential pressure
switch or flow switch shows less or no flow,
automatically operated butterfly valve is not
required. However, when such arrangement can
not be ensured, auto butterfly valve needs to be
provided by the customer to stop the cooling water
based on differential pressure switch/ flow switch
signal.
n
Crystallization prevention: If the
concentrated absorbent solution, while returning to
the Absorber from the Generator is excessively
cooled, it crystallizes in the Heat Exchanger thus
affecting the operation of the machine. Crystallization
either occurs when the concentration of the
absorbent (related to its temperature) becomes too
high or its temperature drops excessively.
nThe
three electrodes are mounted in the refrigerant
level box assembly, on the lower shell (Evaporator
electrode of the smallest length, the pump starts. The
pump stops when the level goes below the electrode
of intermediate length. It will restart again only when
the level reaches the smallest electrode. When the
level goes below the intermediate electrode, a delay
of 20 seconds is provided before the pump can be
switched off.
n
Motor protection.
l
Generator high temperature safety: If the
generator temperature exceeds the generator high
temperature set point, the 'DILUTION CYCLE' alarm
sequence is carried out. The machine goes into the
dilution cycle. The generator high temperature
alarm can't be reset until the generator temperature
drops below the set point minus the hysterisis set
value.
l
Cooling water low temperature safety: If
the cooling water inlet temperature drops below the
cooling water low temperature set point, the
'DILUTION CYCLE' alarm sequence is carried out.
The machine goes into the dilution cycle
immediately. The alarm can't be reset until the
cooling water inlet temperature rises above the
cooling water low temperature set point plus the
hysterisis set value.
n
Cavitation protection of refrigerant pump:
The refrigerant pump starts to cavitate when the
refrigerant level in the evaporator pan falls below set
level. The level of the refrigerant is controlled to
ensure a minimum acceptable suction pressure. This
is done by means of three level electrodes, and a
level relay.
Absorbent pump overload relay: If the
absorbent-pump motor draws more than its rated
current, this overload relay trips. The 'DILUTION
CYCLE' alarm sequence is carried out. The alarm
can't be reset until the overload relay/ AC drive is
reset.
l
Refrigerant pump overload relay: If the
refrigerant-pump motor draws more than its rated
current, this overload relay trips. The 'DILUTION
CYCLE' alarm sequence is carried out. The alarm
can't be reset until the overload relay is reset.
l
Purge pump overload relay: If the purgepump motor draws more than its rated current, this
overload relay trips. The alarm can't be reset until
the overload relay is reset.
The following safety functions prevent the machine
from crystallizing:
l
33 / 34
Machine Room Layout Considerations
n
n
Room Size: The machine room size should be
decided according to the chiller's dimensions. A
minimum of 1m clearance space should be kept on
all sides of the machine. In addition, provision for
tube removal space should be made on either sides
of the machine. A clearance of 3.3 ft is recommended
on the panel side of the machine and a clearance of
0.7 ft is recommended on the top of the machine. For
more details, please refer to the Dimensional Data
given in this document.
n
n
Ambient Temperature: Temperature in the
machine room should be between 41 and 113oF.
Humidity: The humidity of the machine room
should be less than 85%. High humidity can result in
corrosion and failure of equipment failure. The
machine room should be adequately ventilated.
n
l
Hot water piping should be designed and installed
to meet the safety standards prescribed for the hot
water pressure. Pipe sizing should be as per the
required flow rates.
l
In the connecting lines, field instruments should be
installed adjacent to the chiller. Pipe design and its
routing should provide easy access to the field
instruments (for e.g. during maintenance).
l
The crossover piping from the Absorber to the
Condenser is a standard feature of Thermax
absorption chiller.
l
The piping should be adequately supported to
prevent any strain on the machine nozzles and
connecting flanges.
l
Check whether air-vent valves, drain valves and
pressure gauges are provided on the chilled water,
cooling water, hot water and drain piping. The drain
connections should be at the lowest point, whereas
the air-vents should be at the highest point on the
piping.
l
The inlet chilled, hot water line and inlet cooling
water line to the chiller should be flushed clean,
before connecting these to the chiller.
l
Check the connective direction of the chilled water,
cooling water and hot water piping.
l
Check the valve positions on the chilled water
piping, cooling water piping and hot water piping.
l
Make sure that strainers are provided in the water
circuits.
l
If cooling water pump is not dedicated to individual
chiller, auto-operated butterfly valve is necessary in
the cooling water circuit.
Location: Unlike conventional electric chillers,
absorption chillers are characterized by silent
operation and simpler foundation. Owing to this, they
can be located in basements or on terraces of
buildings; the location being ultimately decided by
space availability and ease of installation and
maintenance.
n
Piping Guidelines
Drainage: All discharge pipes and overflow pipes
should be routed to the drains. The drains should be
kept covered. In case the machine room is built in the
basement, a water tank and pump is required for
proper drainage.
n
Electrical Guidelines
l
All field wiring should be in accordance with
applicable codes.
l
Use Copper conductors only.
l
All wiring should be checked regularly for any
damage and all terminal connections tested for
tightness.
l
The power supply specifications should match with
those given on the unit nameplate. Voltage must be
.
Cogenie & ProChill
Hot Water Driven Vapor Absorption Machine
n
l
within 15% of the nameplate value.
l
For minimum circuit ampacity and maximum fuse
size, see the unit nameplate.
l
Wiring to chiller control panel should be proper.
l
Proper wiring should be provided from the chiller
control panel to the control valve.
l
Proper interlocking of chilled water and cooling
water with the chiller control panel should be
provided.
Insulation Guidelines
l
Use adhesive agents, iron wires and bounds to
mount insulation material. These should not be
fixed/ mounted using tapping screws or rivets.
l
Use non-combustible insulation material. This
could be wool or polystyrene foam in case of cold
surfaces, and glass wool in case of hot surfaces.
l
The insulation should not cover the cap of the
damper, sight glass, handle of the refrigerant blow
down valve, refrigerant pump motor, refrigerant
level electrode box cover, generator level electrode
level box cover and the service valves.
l
For effective in-tube cleaning, the evaporator
header should be removable.
l
To assist in-tube inspection, the insulation for high
temperature generator headers (known as
'Generator' in single effect chiller) should be
removable.
l
In addition, the following components should also
have removable insulation:
- Chilled water flow switch
- Chilled water freeze protection thermostat
- Chilled water temperature sensor
n
The chiller comes with a rust preventive paint.
35 / 36
Site Unloading And Installation
n
Unloading instructions
l
For unloading purposes, use lifting shackles
provided on the machine. Rigging from any other
point on the machine can damage the unit and
cause personal injury.
l
Use proper sized hooks/ slings and approved
methods for lifting the machine.
l
Lift the machine simultaneously from all four
corners, while keeping the unit leveled with the
ground.
l
Proper care should be taken while hooking up the
shackles near the pipes. (Refer figure)
l
Every care should be taken to prevent damage to
interconnecting pipes, control panel and machine
mounted panel.
R
ATE
TW
O
H
ED
FI R
MC
VA
Hanger Plate
n
Unloading & Installation of Machine
(Single piece): As a standard feature, the
machine is shipped in a single piece. All piping
should be adequately supported and fitted to prevent
any strain on nozzles and connecting flanges. During
installation, sizes of cooling and chilled water lines to
the chiller should match with those of the connecting
nozzles. Their inlet connections should be flushed
clean, and electrical wiring should be verified. The
sketch shown below, indicates the unloading of a
single piece machine.
n
Note: This is only a diagrammatic representation of
the general appearance of the machine. The actual
machine may be different than what has been shown
here.
n
Rigging and Shifting to the foundation
To avoid any damage, the machine should be rigged
with care to its ultimate location. A plate should be
placed beneath the saddles of the machine, and
castors or rollers placed below the plate. The
machine should be pulled gradually from one side
using a winch. The wire rope used for pulling should
be tied to the saddle.
n
Leveling of machine: Before hooking up the
machine to the external piping, it is very important to
level it based on the procedure given below. Proper
leveling of the machine is essential to achieve the
rated capacity of the unit. Allowable tolerance (both
Cogenie & ProChill
Hot Water Driven Vapor Absorption Machine
n
lengthwise and sidewise) is less than or equal to 1/16
inch per 5 ft.
n
There are four leveling checkpoints provided on the
chiller (Labeled as A, B, C and D in the figure below).
These check points are designated by the three punch
marks on the tube sheet or shell of the lower shell.
n
After making adjustments, confirm the leveling of the
chiller by taking a new set of readings.
n
A
n
VAPOR ABSORPTION
MACHINE
D
Storage of the unit
In case the unit is not to be installed immediately, it
should be kept covered until its installation. It is
recommended to keep the machine indoors during
this period to prevent any damage to. Nitrogen
should not be removed from the chiller unit. All the
accessories supplied along with the unit should be
kept in the same place.
B
C
Procedure for grouting
After the leveling of the chiller, it needs to be grouted
before the external piping can be connected to it.
This is done by fixing the anchor bolts, by welding
the washer to the chiller frame and by tightening the
bolts.
Procedure for leveling: Fill a clear vinyl hose
(diameter of the hose 3/8”) with water, ensuring that
there are no air bubbles in it. Using point 'A' as a
reference point, measure the difference in the water
level at the other points (i.e. B, C and D).
n
Optional Multi-sectional Shipment
The chiller can be shipped in two sections viz. the
lower shell assembly and the upper shell assembly.
This is done when there are indications that the
chiller's dimensions as a single piece may cause
rigging problems (particularly during retrofit jobs).
A
CLE
R
Y
VIN
E
OS
LH
Leveling calculations are as shown below:
A
B
inch
0inch
A-B
L
C-D
L
A-D
L
C
inch
B-C
L
D
inch
A-C
W
B-D
W
Where
L= Length of the heater
W= Width of the heater
In case the tolerance is not met, it can be achieved
by inserting a metal shim between the machine frame
and foundation. Metal shim size is approximately 2”
width X 3” length.
37/ 38
Sustainable Solutions in
Energy & Environment
COOLING & HEATING DIVISION
Thermax Ltd., India
D-13 MIDC Industrial Area, R.D. Aga Road,
Chinchwad, Pune 411 019, India.
Tel : 00-91-20-27475941, Fax : 00-91-20-27475907
www.thermaxindia.com
Thermax Inc, USA
Tel : 00-1-248-4743050, Fax : 00-1-248-4745790
Email: [email protected], [email protected]
www.thermax-usa.com
Thermax Europe Ltd., UK
Tel : 00-44-1908-378-914, Fax : 00-44-1908-379-487
Email: [email protected]
www.thermax-europe.com
Thermax (Zhejiang)
Cooling & Heating Engg. Co. Ltd., China
Tel : 00-86-21-64483996, Fax : 00-86-21-64483997
Email: [email protected]
www.thermax-china.com
Thermax do Brasil
Tel : 00-55-21-25169227, Fax : 00-55-21-25169226 Email:
[email protected]
www.thermaxdobrasil.com.br
Thermax Rus Ltd., Russia
Tel : 00-7-095-9350490 / 91, Fax : 00-7-095-1347410
Email: [email protected]
Thermax Ltd., UAE
Tel : 00-971-4-8816481, Fax : 00-971-4-8816039
Email: [email protected], [email protected]
Thermax Ltd., Saudi Arabia
Tel : 00-966-3-8575056, Fax : 00-966-3-8575068
Email: [email protected]
Thermax Ltd., Kenya
Tel: 00-254-204440233, Fax : 00-254-204451919
Email: [email protected]
Thermax Ltd, Nigeria
Tel: 00-234-8022908770, Fax : 00-234-14936187
Email: [email protected]
Thermax Ltd., Thailand
Tel : 00-66-2-6555790, Fax : 00-66-2-6555791
Email: [email protected]
Thermax Ltd., Malaysia
Tel : 00-60-3-21669801, Fax : 00-60-3-21669802
Email: [email protected]
Thermax Ltd., Indonesia
Tel : 00-62-21-83793259, Fax : 00-62-21-83793258
Email: [email protected]
Thermax Ltd., Philippines
Tel : 00-63-2-9296964, Fax : 00-63-2-9296982
Email: [email protected]
Thermax Ltd., Bangladesh
Telefax : 00-880-29885823, Mob : 00-880-1912008882
Email: [email protected]
Thermax Ltd., Srilanka
Tel: 00-94-777769126, Fax : 00-94-112533217
Email: [email protected]
www.thermaxindia.com
In view of our constant endeavour to improve the quality of our products, we reserve the
right to alter or change specifications without prior notice. All photographs shown in this
publication are representative in purpose, and to be used for reference only. For actual
details and specifications, please refer to Thermax offer document
December 2008/ Revision 1
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