Steam Driven Absorption Chillers

Steam Driven Absorption Chillers
TM
ProChill
Steam Fired Vapor Absorption Chiller
ProChill B4k
Steam Fired Vapor Absorption Chiller
1/2
C o n t e n t s
0
Company Profile .......................................................... 3
0
Introduction .................................................................. 5
0
Certificates ................................................................... 9
0
Working Principle ......................................................... 11
0
Design Philosophy ....................................................... 13
0
Refrigeration Cycles ..................................................... 15
0
Constructional Features and Mechanical
Design Considerations .................................................19
0
Supply List and Scope of Work ................................... 21
0
Utility Requirements .................................................... 24
0
Selection Criteria and Procedure ................................ 26
0
Thermax Nomenclature and the Product
Basket .......................................................................... 27
0
Performance Data ........................................................ 28
0
Piping & Instrumentation Diagram
& General Arrangement Drawing .................................31
0
Instrumentation and Safety Features .......................... 33
0
Machine Room Layout Considerations ....................... 37
0
Site Unloading and Installation ................................... 39
Company Profile
T
hermax is an engineering major providing energyenvironment solutions, systems and products in
global markets. The US$ 490 million Thermax is
featured in the Forbes List of 'Best Under a Billion'
Companies in the Asia Pacific. It offers business - to business solutions to industrial and commercial
establishments in the areas of heating, cooling, captive
power, water treatment, air pollution control, waste
management & resource recovery, and chemicals. It
supports a wide spectrum of industry in over 50 countries
in South East Asia and Japan, Africa and Middle East,
CIS countries, South America, Europe and the USA.
In the energy business, Thermax executes projects in the
areas of process heat, captive power and waste heat
recovery. The company also offers a range of boilers and
thermal oil heaters, energy efficient chillers and
customized products such as waste heat and exhaust
gas boilers. Thermax's integrated expertise in energy has
helped it to offer its customers Combined Heating Power
and Cooling (CHPC) projects.
Thermax offers industry its expertise over a hundred fuels
- oil, gas and a wide variety of solid fuels including
biomass. Through diverse installations in several
countries, Thermax has also developed reliable project
ProChill B4k
Steam Fired Vapor Absorption Chiller
management capabilities.
Leveraging its leadership position in electricity saving
vapor absorption technology, Thermax offers process
industries and commercial establishments like hotels,
shopping malls and offices the vapor absorption chillers a boon in power-starved areas. These eco-friendly,
energy efficient equipments have found prestigious
customers such as BBC, Mercedes Benz, Audi, Bosch,
Panasonic and Henry Ford Museum.
In the environment area, Thermax offers waste
management expertise for solid, liquid and air pollution.
Thermax provides solutions from pre-treatment to waste
water treatment and chemical conditioning of water for
boiler and cooling water systems. Water recycling is a
thrust area for Thermax. Hi-grade ion exchange resins
from Thermax have found niche customers in the US and
Japanese markets.
Thermax has an extensive international marketing
network. Headquartered in Pune (Western India),
Thermax's 17 international offices are located in South
East Asia, Middle East, Africa, Russia, the UK and the
US. Its overseas subsidiaries - Thermax Europe Ltd.
3/4
(UK), Thermax Hongkong Ltd. and Thermax Inc. (USA)
play a significant role in business development.
The Thermax group's manufacturing facilities spread over
14 plants, measuring a covered area of over 700,000 sq.
ft., are ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001
accredited. Thermax manufactures to the international
standards like ASME, BS, DIN, and GOST. Lloyds,
Bureau Veritas, SGS, and TUV have inspected the
facilities.
Thermax's business is inspired by the conviction that
'Improving your business is our business.’
Introduction
These steam fired ProChill B4k Vapor Absorption Chillers
are available in Single Effect and Double Effect options,
from 100 - 2030 USRT, and can achieve chilled water
temperature right down to 38oF, using steam from 21 to
145 psi (g).
The ProChill B4k Series represents a culmination of
Thermax's global expertise in energy and environment,
continuous innovation through focused Research and
Development, world-class manufacturing capabilities,
efficient and responsive service and a deep commitment
to quality and reliability. Testimony to this is provided by
over 2500 installations in the last 15 years across 40
countries, appreciation from our customers and several
prestigious awards and honors.
Salient features of
n
R
efrigeration is a process of extracting heat from a
low temperature medium and transferring it to a
high temperature heat sink. Refrigeration
maintains the temperature of the heat source below that
of its surroundings while transferring the extracted heat to
a heat sink. This operation finds applications in many
industries ranging from process, engineering,
manufacturing, medical, dairy and confectionery, to
beverage, hospitality, education and commercial
establishments.
Absorption chillers, instead of using electricity (i.e. high
grade energy), use 'heat' as the energy source, a low
grade energy. The energy source may be steam or hot
water, or it may even be waste heat like in exhaust gases
from an engine (gas or oil based). Thermax offers a wide
range of solutions for each of these energy sources, all of
which represent a major advance in Absorption Chilling
Technology.
ProChill B4k Vapor Absorption Chillers derive their energy
from steam to provide the desired chilling-heating effect.
TM
ProChill
Series flow (for Double Effect): In series flow cycle,
maximum concentration and maximum temperature
do not occur simultaneously in any generator. In other
cycles, maximum concentration and maximum
temperature occur simultaneously in the High
Temperature Generator (HTG). Corrosion rates
depend on concentration and temperature. However,
when highest concentration and temperature occur
simultaneously, corrosion potential increases
exponentially. The table below gives approximate
values of concentration and temperature in High
Temperature Generator (HTG) and Low Temperature
Generator (LTG) for various cycles.
Cycle
High Temperature
Generator
Concentration
(%)
Series flow
61
Para flow
64 or more
Reverse flow 64 or more
Temperature
(0F)
< 320
> 320
> 320
Low Temperature
Generator
Concentration
(%)
64
61- 62
61- 62
Temperature
(0F)
< 212
< 212
< 212
Thus, due to series flow cycle, the corrosion rate is the
least in Thermax chillers.
n
Concentration display and measurement:
Concentration in absorption chiller is analogous to
current in electric motor. Motor meets higher load by
drawing more current. Similarly, absorption chiller
meets higher load by attaining higher concentration.
However, when motor draws current more than it's
rated limits, it may burn. Similarly, in an absorption
chiller, if concentration increases beyond rated value,
ProChill B4k
Steam Fired Vapor Absorption Chiller
the machine crystallizes. Hence, continuously knowing
the Lithium Bromide concentration is as important as
knowing the current drawn by motor. Thermax has
developed and offers a unique technology to
determine the concentration, which is
continuously displayed on the PLC.
n
n
Crystallization protection: Due to the unique
feature of determining concentration and knowing
temperature of Lithium Bromide coming out from Low
Temperature Heat Exchanger (LTHE), an intelligent
PLC constantly monitors the distance from
crystallization line. If this distance is reduced below
18 0F, the PLC proactively takes suitable measures to
restore it to 18 0F. In other machines, crystallization
prevention measures are taken after inception of
crystallization. However, due to advanced technology
and intelligent panel, Thermax chillers take suitable
measures before Lithium Bromide approaches
crystallization.
Low Cooling Water Supply Temperature
without crystallization: Due to sophisticated
crystallization protection, Thermax absorption chillers
can work at rated capacity even with cooling water
supply temperature of 500F while most of the other
manufacturers require cooling water supply
temperature of 680F or above.
n
B4k machines use SS430 Ti Ferritic Stainless Steel
tubes in the High Temperature Generator, for high
temperature environment and high stress corrosion
resistance. These tubes have a long life and, in case,
if any tube has to be changed, it can be individually
removed and replaced. In replacing/ plugging
conventional U-tube bundles or floating tube sheet
construction, the entire generator gets exposed to the
atmosphere for a long time, thereby reducing chiller's
life.
n
5/6
Long Life: For a capital equipment like Absorption
Chiller, life expectancy is 20 years. Thermax
Absorption Chillers are carefully designed for long
life. For example, for maintaining the required
pump NPSH, height of the chiller is never
compromised. If NPSH is not maintained, life of the
pump will be reduced. After many years of service,
some parts like heat exchangers, pumps may require
repair/replacement. During the repair/replacement,
minimum cutting should be required so that exposure
of the chiller internals to air will be limited thereby
arresting corrosion. Hence, all parts are deliberately
kept accessible for increased life of the chiller. If
chiller is made over compact, initially some space
advantage can be derived but such advantage will be
lost to life reduction later. The picture below (rear side
of chiller) shows easy access to Low Temperature
Heat Exchanger (LTHE), Drain Heat Exchanger (DHE),
High Temperature Heat Exchanger (HTHE), and
Pump.
NPSH (R) maintained
>0.5m
SS430 Ti
>0.5m
DHE
HTHE
LTHE
Easy access to all parts of the chiller
n
Isolation valves are provided on the pumps,
n
Gravity feed system: Gravity feed of refrigerant
facilitating on-line pump maintenance without any loss
and absorbent enhances heat transfer efficiency and
of vacuum in the system due to the exposure to air.
overcomes the problems of wear and tear and
clogging of nozzles, which use pressurized spraying
n
Double protection, in terms of differential
techniques.
pressure switch and flow switch, is provided for freeze
protection.
n
PLC based control panel, user-friendly interface
and data-logging system ensure easy and smooth
n
Part load operation: At constant cooling water
operations. Branded PLC enhances reliability of the
temperature, the machine can operate at 10 - 100 %
chiller.
of design capacity, in step-less modulation.
n
n
Effective corrosion inhibitors: The corrosion
Thermally efficient cycle: Efficient heat
inhibitor minimizes the rate of copper and ferrous
utilization within the system reduces energy
metal corrosion on the solution side of the unit. The
consumption and improves overall system efficiency.
corrosion inhibitor used - Lithium Molybdate - is non-
Specific steam consumption for Thermax's standard
toxic and does not generate ammonia, thus
double effect B4k chiller is 8.6 lb/TR/hr and that for
protecting the copper tubes in the chiller. Use of
standard single effect machine is 16.8 lb/TR/hr. High
Lithium Molybdate is more effective than
COP chiller with specific steam consumption as low
conventionally used corrosion inhibitors.
as 8.2 lb/TR/hr can also be offered on special
requests.
ProChill B4k
Steam Fired Vapor Absorption Chiller
n
Factory mounted on-line purging system maintains
n
7/8
Optional features include VFD control for part
low vacuum in the shell and ensures consistent
load conditions, standby canned motor pumps,
performance. Any non-condensable gas, generated
flameproof construction, high pressure headers,
inside the chiller during operation, is purged
online bearing monitoring, special tube material for
continuously into the storage tank, thus eliminating the
Evaporator, Absorber and Condenser, depending on
need for a replaceable palladium cell. Moreover, as
the available water quality, multi-sectional shipment
peak concentration and temperature do not occur
and ‘Factory Performance Test’.
simultaneously, corrosion rates are low, thereby
enabling a small purge tank.
n
Service: A global network, powered by over 100
highly trained service personnel, ensures quick
n
n
Rupture disc is provided for protection against
response and delivers the right solution to customers.
generation of high pressure inside the chiller.
Also on offer are value-added services such as 'e-
Constructional features, such as side exit
nozzles, provide ease of maintenance and ensure
lower downtime. Hinged absorber and condenser
headers provide easy access to the tube bundle,
eliminating the need for heavy lifting arrangements.
Crossover piping is factory installed, to avoid work at
site.
reach' - remote access for chillers, preventive
maintenance contracts, operations and manning and
localized customer training programs.
Certificates
ProChill B4k
Steam Fired Vapor Absorption Chiller
9 / 10
Working Principle
T
he boiling point of water is directly proportional to
pressure. At atmospheric pressure, water boils at
212°F. At a lower pressure, it boils at a lower
temperature. At 0.24 inch Hg absolute pressure, the
boiling point of water is 39°F.
To change water from liquid to vapor it has to be heated.
The water absorbs the applied heat and its temperature
starts rising, until it reaches the boiling point. At boiling
point, the temperature remains constant but liquid water
vaporizes. The heat required to change the phase of a
liquid to vapor is called the ‘Latent heat of Vaporization’.
Similarly the heat rejected by the vapors during
condensation is called the ‘Latent Heat of Condensation’.
For the LiBr - water system, the absorption varies directly
in proportion with the solution concentration and inversely
with the solution temperature. Lithium Bromide (LiBr) is a
water soluble chemical, and LiBr - water solution (used
as refrigerant) has an inherent property to absorb water
due to its chemical affinity.
Also, there is a huge difference between vapor pressure
of LiBr and water. This means that when the LiBr water
solution is heated, the water will vaporize but LiBr will stay
in the solution to become more concentrated.
Absorption Cycle Overview:
1
Water (refrigerant)
Closed vessel
Water circulating in
the Heat Exchanger Tubes
Chilled water
Vacuum
Absorption systems use heat energy to
produce the refrigerating effect. In these
systems the refrigerant, i.e. water, absorbs
heat at a low temperature and low pressure
during evaporation and releases heat at a
high temperature and high pressure during
condensation.
When maintained at high vacuum, water will boil and flash cool itself.
2
Refrigerant
Concentrated LiBr solution
Cooling water
Chilled water
Vaporized refrigerant
Absorption process
Concentrated Lthium Bromide solution has affinity towards water.
The solution absorbs vaporized refrigerant water.
LiBr solution, which acts as the absorbent, is
used to absorb the vaporized refrigerant.
The evaporation of the refrigerant takes
place at a low pressure.
ProChill B4k
Steam Fired Vapor Absorption Chiller
3
11 / 12
The dilute solution, which contains the
absorbed refrigerant vapor, is heated at a
higher pressure.
Refrigerant vapor
Concentrated LiBr solution
Water (refrigerant)
Driving heat source
Chilled water
Cooling water
Diluted solution
Absorption pump
As Lithium Bromide becomes dilute it loses its capacity to absorb water
vapor. It thus needs to be reconcentrated using a heat source.
4
Refrigerant Vapor
Cooling water
Condenser
Generator
Concentrated
Liquid
solution
refrigerant
Driving
heat
source
Absorber
Chilled water
Cooling water
This leads to the vaporization of the
refrigerant and thus the solution is restored
to its original concentration. The cycle keeps
repeating itself to give the desired chilling
effect. In a double effect absorption chiller,
the latent heat of condensation, contained in
the vaporized refrigerant, is used in a second
stage generator to enhance the efficiency of
the cycle.
Evaporator
Absorbent pump
This heat causes the solution to release the absorbed refrigerant in
vapor form. This vapor is cooled in a separate chamber to become
liquid refrigerant.
5
Refrigerant vapor
Condenser
Generator
Cooling
water
Chilled water
Driving
heat
Cooling water source
Absorbent pump
Evaporator
Absorber
The basic operation cycle of the single effect vapor absorption chiller.
The refrigerant goes through a series of
processes to complete the refrigerating
cycle. These are namely evaporation,
absorption, pressurization, vaporization,
condensation, throttling and expansion.
During this cycle, the refrigerant absorbs
heat from a low temperature heat source and
releases it to a high temperature sink.
Design Philosophy
Reliability: While designing absorption chillers, two
major problems have to be considered viz. corrosion and
crystallization. Since corrosion is caused by temperature,
concentration and leakages of Lithium Bromide, Thermax
has carefully selected the Series Flow Cycle (after
manufacturing Series Flow, Parallel Flow and Reverse
Flow Chillers) so that the highest temperature of Lithium
Bromide is limited to less than 3200F and maximum
concentration is limited to 64%. A detailed comparison as
tabulated on page 5 coupled with the features like
Crystallization Protection and Concentration
measurement and display, clearly shows that Thermax
Chillers are reliable compared to the other Chillers.
In the series flow cycle, crystallization can occur only in
the Low Temperature Heat Exchanger, whereas in other
cycles it can happen in both, the High Temperature and
Low Temperature Heat Exchangers. It was discovered
during the research, that the time taken to de-crystallize
High Temperature Heat Exchanger was 10 times more
than that taken to de-crystallize the Low Temperature
Heat Exchanger. To eliminate the possibility of
crystallization in the Low Temperature Heat Exchanger,
the distance of state point from crystallization curve is
continuously monitored, and if the distance is less than
the prescribed value, crystallization control takes over
and performs suitable actions to prevent crystallization.
The normal method of sensing the high concentration
from generator temperature has a flaw - it fails to work
when it is most required. It is a well-known fact that the
possibility of crystallization is more when the cooling
water temperatures are low. At low cooling water
temperatures, the generator pressure lowers and the
boiling point curve shifts down. Thus, when the cooling
water temperatures are low, the boiling temperature of
Lithium Bromide does not reach the high temperature set
point and becomes ineffective protection, even if high
concentration is reached. When cooling water
temperatures are normal, it works well but the possibility
of crystallization is far less. Monitoring the distance from
the crystallization line eliminates such flaws, enabling
Thermax to design chillers which can even work at 50oF
cooling water temperature.
Coefficient of Performance (COP): Today,
Thermax chillers offer one of the best COPs.
Ease of maintenance: This is an important aspect
of our design philosophy. Even after 5 years of use,
absorption chillers require some small maintenance. So,
if ease of maintenance is ignored in the design
philosophy, this small maintenance can turn into big
maintenance. In addition to the design features listed on
pages 5 and 6, illustrated below are some more design
features in Thermax chillers that play a role in making
maintenance easy.
n
Double sealed valves: All isolating valves and
service valves have a double seal. More importantly,
the outer seal has no moving parts.
n
Use of branded components: The Thermax
philosophy makes it mandatory to use branded
components. Some examples are PLC and Low
Temperature Heat Exchangers. This is because while
Thermax conducts exhaustive reliability tests on self
made components, it still cannot match the years of
research and experience put in by internationally
reputed PLC or Plate Heat Exchanger manufacturers.
O-RING FOR
MAIN SPINDLE
EXTERNAL CAP
INLET
MAIN SPINDLE
GASKET FOR
EXTERNAL CAP
A Double Sealed Valve
SEAT SEALING
OUTLET
T
he design philosophy of Thermax Absorption
Chillers is based on three important factors viz.
reliability, energy consumption and ease of
maintenance.
n
A Double Sealed Valve
CANNED Motor Pump: In Thermax Absorption
Chillers, these pumps are in bolted construction
(except for 20 frame, small chillers) so that if required,
bearing and filters can be cleaned after few years of
operation. In case of welded pumps, replacement of
the entire pump is the only solution.
ProChill B4k
Steam Fired Vapor Absorption Chiller
Bolted CANNED Motor Pump
13 / 14
Welded CANNED Motor Pump
What is a CANNED Motor Pump?
CANNED motor pump is some times misinterpreted as a pump similar to hermetically sealed
compressor of a window air-conditioner.
CANNED motor pump is a single unit of a pump and a motor, and has no shaft seal. Shaft seal is a
moving joint and cannot pass through stringent helium leak test.
In the CANNED motor pump, the pumped liquid is used for cooling motor as well as lubrication of
bearings. Hence, the pumped liquid enters the motor section, and in order to keep the liquid away from
the motor coil and the rotor, the motor coil and the rotor are sealed with CANS, which are thin metal
cylinders.
Bolted canned motor pump, bit costly though, offer advantage like replacement of parts, which may be
needed after many years of service. Only non-moving parts are bolted and hence they offer excellent
leak proof properties while offering maintainability simultaneously.
Refrigeration Cycle
he Steam Fired Vapor Absorption Chiller functions
in the Cooling mode. Depending on the available
steam pressure, the refrigeration cycle could be
either single or double effect.
T
Heat Exchanger heats up the cool absorbent solution
before it enters the Generator for reheating, it reduces the
heat input required in the Generator and increases the
efficiency of the cycle.
Single effect
Generator and Condenser
Evaporator
The Evaporator consists of a tube bundle, an outer shell,
distribution trays and a refrigerant pan.
A refrigerant pump is used to circulate the refrigerant
from the refrigerant pan to the distribution trays. From
these trays, the refrigerant falls on to the evaporator
tubes.
The evaporator shell pressure is maintained at ~ 0.24
inch Hg (a). At this low pressure, the refrigerant
evaporates at a low temperature of ~39°F (for its
evaporation, the refrigerant extracts the required heat
from the water which is circulated through the evaporator
tubes). As a result, the water in the tubes becomes
chilled.
Absorber
The Absorber consists of a tube bundle, an outer shell
(common with the Evaporator) and distribution trays.
The Generator is housed in the upper shell, just above
the Absorber. From the Generator, a concentrated
absorbent solution (~64%) is fed into the distribution
trays, which falls on to the absorber tubes.
On the other hand, the vaporized refrigerant from the
Evaporator is absorbed by the concentrated absorbent,
leading to its dilution. Due to this absorption the vacuum
in the shell is maintained at a low pressure, leading to the
desired chilled water temperature. During this process,
'Heat of Dilution' is generated. The cooling water
circulating through the absorber tubes removes this heat.
As the absorbent solution loses its heat to the cooling
water, it is able to absorb more refrigerant vapor and
gets further diluted. This diluted absorbent (~58%)
collects at the bottom of the shell.
Heat Exchanger
The absorbent pump sends the diluted absorbent to the
Generator. It passes through a Regenerative Heat
Exchanger, where it absorbs heat from the concentrated
absorbent, before entering the Generator. Because the
The Generator and Condenser tube bundles are
enclosed in a shell and are separated by an insulation
plate. Dry saturated steam flows into the Generator
tubes, heats the absorbent, flows outside the tubes and,
finally, condenses to drain out of the unit. Refrigerant,
vaporized from the absorbent, passes through the
Eliminators to the Condenser. Here, the cooling water,
circulating inside the condenser tubes, cools it down. The
refrigerant vapor condenses on the outside of the
condenser tubes and collects at the bottom of the
Condenser. The condensed refrigerant, from the
Condenser, flows into the Evaporator. The absorbent,
which has become concentrated in the Generator, drains
into the Absorber through the Heat Exchanger, to begin a
new absorbent cycle.
(ALL(ALL
FIGURES
AREARE
INDICATIVE)
FIGURES
INDICATIVE)
ABSORBENT
PUMP
ABSORBENT
PUMP
REFRIGERANT
PUMP
REFRIGERANT
PUMP
REFR
BLOW
REFR
BLOW
DOWN
VALVE
DOWN
VALVE
CHILLED
WATER
CHILLED
WATER
INLET
INLET
CHILLED
WATER
CHILLED
WATER
OUTLET
OUTLET
EVAP
EVAP
COOLING
WATER
OUTLET
COOLING
WATER
OUTLET
EVAP
EVAP
COOLING
COOLING
WATER
INLET
WATER
INLET
ABSORBER
ABSORBER
CONDENSER
CONDENSER
GENERATOR
GENERATOR
PURGE DEVICE
PURGE DEVICE
LOW
TEMP
HEAT
EXCHANGER
LOW
TEMP
HEAT
EXCHANGER
OVER
FLOW
PIPE
OVER
FLOW
PIPE
REFRIGERANT
REFRIGERANT
CONCENTRATED
ABSORBENT
CONCENTRATED
ABSORBENT
PURGE
PURGE
PUMP
PUMP
VAPORIZED
REFRIGERANT
VAPORIZED
REFRIGERANT
DILUTED
ABSORBENT
DILUTED
ABSORBENT
CONDENSATE
OUTOUT
CONDENSATE
DRYDRY
SATURATED
STEAM
SATURATED
STEAM
STEAM
INLET
STEAM
INLET
STEAM
CONTROL
VALVE
STEAM
CONTROL
VALVE
ProChill B4k
Steam Fired Vapor Absorption Chiller
Single Effect Cycle
15 / 16
Double Effect
Heat Exchangers
The HTG, LTG, Condenser
Evaporator
The Evaporator consists of a tube bundle, an outer shell,
distribution trays, and a refrigerant pan. A refrigerant
pump is used to circulate the refrigerant from the
refrigerant pan into the distribution trays. From these
trays, the refrigerant falls on the evaporator tubes.
The Evaporator shell pressure is maintained at ~0.24
inch Hg (a). At this low pressure, the refrigerant
evaporates at a low temperature of ~39°F (for its
evaporation, the refrigerant extracts the required heat
from the water which is circulated through the evaporator
tubes). As a result, the water in the tubes becomes
chilled.
Absorber
The Absorber consists of a tube bundle, an outer shell
(common with the Evaporator) and distribution trays.
The Generator is housed in the upper shell, just above
the Absorber. From the Generator, a concentrated
absorbent solution (~64%) is fed into the distribution
trays, which falls on to the absorber tubes.
On the other hand, the vaporized refrigerant from the
Evaporator is absorbed by the concentrated absorbent,
leading to its dilution. Due to this absorption, the vacuum
in the shell is maintained at a low pressure, leading to the
desired chilled water temperature. During this process,
'Heat of Dilution' is generated. The cooling water,
circulating through the absorber tubes, removes this
heat. As the absorbent solution loses its heat to the
cooling water, it is able to absorb more refrigerant vapor
and gets further diluted. This diluted absorbent (~58%)
collects at the bottom of the shell.
The absorbent pump sends the cool diluted absorbent to
the High Temperature Generator. A part of it first passes
through the Drain Heat Exchanger, where it absorbs heat
from the condensed refrigerant in the Low Temperature
Generator. It then flows through the Heat Reclaimer
where it absorbs heat from the steam condensate. The
other part of the absorbent solution passes through the
Low Temperature Heat Exchanger, where it absorbs heat
from the concentrated absorbent. It then flows through
the High Temperature Heat Exchanger, where it absorbs
heat from the intermediate concentration of absorbent
solution. Both the dilute solutions mix at the outlet of the
High Temperature Heat Exchanger. This solution then
enters the High Temperature Generator. The Heat
Exchangers serve to heat up the cool absorbent solution
before its entry into the High Temperature Generator for
regeneration. This reduces the heat input required in the
High Temperature Generator, thus increasing the
efficiency of the cycle.
High Temperature Generator (HTG)
The High Temperature Generator consists of a tube
bundle, an outer shell and a set of Eliminators. Steam is
passed through the tubes. The dilute absorbent flows
around these tubes and heats up. The temperature of the
solution increases until it reaches the boiling point. The
absorbed refrigerant boils out of the solution. The
solution concentration increases to ~61% and this
increased concentration is referred to as the intermediate
concentration. The vaporized refrigerant generated
passes through the eliminators and goes to the tube side
of the Low Temperature Generator.
Low Temperature Generator (LTG) and
Condenser
The Low Temperature Generator and condenser tube
bundle are enclosed in the upper shell, with an insulation
plate separating the two. The vaporized refrigerant flows
into the LTG tubes, where it heats the intermediate
absorbent outside and, in the process, gets condensed.
This condensed refrigerant flows to the condenser
through the drain heat exchanger.
On the other hand, the refrigerant vaporized in the Low
Temperature Generator, passes through the Eliminators
to the Condenser. Cooling water circulates inside the
condenser tubes. The refrigerant vapor condenses on the
outside of the condenser tubes and collects at the
bottom of the Condenser.
The condensed refrigerant from the LTG and from the
Condenser, mix and then flow into the Evaporator. The
absorbent, now concentrated in the LTG, flows to the
Absorber, to begin a new absorbent cycle.
ABSORBENT PUMP
REFRIGERANT PUMP
REFR. BLOW
DOWN VALVE
CHILLED WATER
INLET
CHILLED WATER
OUTLET
EVAP.
COOLING/ HOT WATER OUTLET
EVAP.
COOLING/ HOT
WATER INLET
ABSORBER
CONDENSER
VAPORIZED REFRIGERANT
INTERMEDIATE ABSORBENT
Steam Fired Vapor Absorption Chiller
DILUTED ABSORBENT
REFRIGERANT
HIGH TEMP.
HEAT EXCHANGER
HEAT
RECLAIMER
DRAIN OUTLET
STEAM
CONTROL VALVE
STEAM
INLET
HIGH TEMPERATURE
GENERATOR
CONCENTRATED ABSORBENT
LOW TEMP.
PURGE
PUMP HEAT EXCHANGER
OVER FLOW
PIPE
DRAIN HEAT
EXCHANGER
PURGE DEVICE
LOW TEMP. GENERATOR
ProChill B4k
17 / 18
Double Effect Cycle
Constructional Features And
Mechanical Design Considerations
P
Temperature Generator to Condenser, separates the Low
Temperature Generator and the Condenser. The upper
shell rests on the lower shell.
ISO 9001:2000 n ISO 14001 n ETL n CE n PED n TUV
n DNV n ASME n OHSAS 18001
The High Temperature Generator is a shell and a Tube
Heat Exchanger with carbon steel tubes. Dry, saturated
steam passes and condenses inside these tubes. The
shell is fabricated from carbon steel.
roChill B4k chillers can be designed to conform to
the codes and standards given below. Whenever
no specific standard is applicable, the design is
according to good and proven engineering standards.
n
The lower shell houses two shell and tube heat
exchangers viz. the Absorber and Evaporator. This shell
is fabricated from formed carbon steel plates with fusion
welded seams. Carbon steel tube sheets are drilled and
reamed to accommodate absorber and evaporator
tubes, and the tube ends are expanded to ensure no
leakages between the shell and tube side. The support
plates inside the shell are also fabricated from carbon
steel plates. Enhanced copper tubes are used in the
Absorber and Evaporator. The maximum allowable
working pressure on the tube side is 114 psi (g). Gravity
feed spraying technology is applied to spray the solution
in the Absorber and Evaporator. The solution in the
spraying tubes sprays downward to ensure good film
thickness and better heat transfer. The Absorber and
Evaporator are separated by an Eliminator that prevents
the carryover of LiBr from Absorber to Evaporator, while
allowing the water vapor from Evaporator to cross over to
the Absorber. The lower shell is mounted on the base
frame.
In a single effect chiller, the upper shell comprises of the
Generator and Condenser. This shell is also fabricated
from carbon steel plates. Smooth copper tubes are used
in the Condenser and finned stainless steel tubes in the
Generator. Gravity feed spraying technology is applied to
spray the solution in the Absorber and Evaporator. An
Eliminator, that prevents the carryover of LiBr from the
Generator to Condenser, separates these two. The upper
shell rests on the lower shell.
The Regenerative and Recuperative Heat Exchangers
increase the efficiency of the cycle by utilizing the heat
within the system.
Marine type Headers
Marine type water boxes are connected to the Absorber
and Condenser. These are provided with drain and vent
connections to remove cooling water hold-up when the
chiller is not in operation for a long time. These marine
water boxes enable easy tube cleaning and replacement.
Dry saturated steam passes through the tubes of the
Generator.
In a double effect chiller, the upper shell comprises of the
Low Temperature Generator and Condenser. This shell is
also fabricated from carbon steel plates. Smooth copper
tubes are used in the Condenser and finned carbon steel
tubes in the Low Temperature Generator. An Eliminator,
that pr events the carryover of LiBr from the Low
Canned Motor Pump
ProChill B4k
Steam Fired Vapor Absorption Chiller
19 / 20
The absorbent and refrigerant pumps are factory
mounted and are the canned motor type, where the
motor is directly coupled to the pump. For ease of
maintenance, the isolation valves are welded at the inlet
and the outlet. These valves facilitate on-line pump
maintenance without disturbing the vacuum. All valves
used for adjusting the solution are fully welded to prevent
leakage of air into the unit.
Non-condensable gases are removed from the chiller by
operating the vacuum pump and the manual purge
valves. Service valves are provided for N2 charging, for
sampling, and for connecting the Manometer.
Purge System
Supply List And Scope Of Work
Single Effect
Sr.No.
Description
Remarks
A
Lower Shell
1.
Evaporator
Common Shell and
2.
Absorber
Tube sheets, separate water boxes
3.
Base Frame
B
Upper Shell
4.
Generator
Common Shell and Tube sheets,
5.
Condenser
separate water boxes
C
Heat Exchangers
6.
Heat Exchanger
D
Pumps and Motors
7.
Absorbent Pump and Motor
Canned Motor Pump Set
8.
Refrigerant Pump and Motor
Canned Motor Pump Set
9.
Purge Pump and Motor
Vacuum Pump Set
E
Purge System
For Separation of Non-condensable
gases from Absorbent and its Storage.
F
Piping
Interconnecting Piping.
G
Instrumentation
Control Panel, Field Instruments, Cabling.
H
Electricals
Starters, Circuit breakers, Wiring within
Battery Limits.
I
Documents
Operation and Maintenance Manual,
Packing List.
Plate Heat Exchanger(s)
ProChill B4k
Steam Fired Vapor Absorption Chiller
Double Effect
Sr. No.
Description
Remarks
A
Lower Shell
1.
Evaporator
Common Shell and Tube sheets,
2.
Absorber
separate water boxes
3.
Base Frame
B
Upper Shell
4.
Low Temperature Generator
Common Shell and Tube sheets,
5.
Condenser
separate water boxes
C
High Temperature
High Temperature Generator with internals.
Generator
D
Heat Exchangers
6.
Low Temperature Heat
Plate Heat Exchanger
Exchanger
7.
High Temperature Heat
Plate Heat Exchanger
Exchanger
8.
Drain Heat Exchanger
Plate Heat Exchanger
9.
Heat Reclaimer
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
E
Pumps and Motors
10.
Absorbent Pump and Motor
Canned Motor Pump Set
11.
Refrigerant Pump and Motor
Canned Motor Pump Set
12.
Purge Pump and Motor
Vacuum Pump Set
F
Purge System
For Separation of Non-condensable gases
from Absorbent and its Storage.
G
Piping
Interconnecting Piping.
H
Instrumentation
Control Panel, Field Instruments, Cabling
I
Electricals
Starters, Circuit breakers, Wiring within
Battery Limits.
J
Documents
Operation and Maintenance Manual, Packing
List.
21 / 22
Distribution of Scope of Work - Manufacturing,
Transportation and Installation
Item / Activity
Thermax
Customer
Remarks
Chiller
Chiller Manufacture with
accessories
Refer to Supply List.
P
Testing
Factory Testing
P
On-site Erection
Supervision of Commissioning
P
Thermax Optional Feature.
P
P
Customer to assist, Thermax
Representative will supervise
the commissioning.
Transportation
Loading at Thermax
Factory
P
Factory to Port
P
P
P
P
P
Port in India to Port of Destination*
Port to Job-site
Unloading at Job-site
Storage at Job-site
Optional.
If required.
Construction and Installation
Handling at Job-site
P
Civil Foundation
Piping Insulation outside Battery
Limits
P
P
P
P
Electrical Connections outside
Battery Limits
P
Piping outside Battery Limits
Chiller Insulation*
Assembly and On-site Connections
Butterfly valve in the cooling water
line
Rigging, Shifting to actual
location.
Refer to Supply List.
Refer to Supply List.
Refer to Supply List.
P
For Multi-Sectional Shipment
(Optional).
P
If required. (Refer to Safety
Functions under Instrumentation
and Safety Features.)
Operation and Maintenance
Training of Customer's Operators
during commissioning
(maximum period of 7 days)
Operation
P
P
NOTE: * Indicates that the scope of supply can also be included by Thermax, as an option.
ProChill B4k
Steam Fired Vapor Absorption Chiller
23 / 24
Utility Requirements
Chilled Water: The chiller's design ensures the
delivery of desired cooling capacity. The chilled water
flow rate to the machine is kept constant. Hence its
capacity is proportional to the difference in the
temperatures of the inlet and the outlet chilled water.
Cooling Water: Cooling water is used to remove heat
of absorption and condensation. The chiller can be
designed to suit the rated cooling water temperature of
75 to 97o F.
Energy Source: The chiller is designed for steam at
different pressures. Single Effect chillers require steam at
a pressure of 56.9 psi (g), whereas Double Effect chillers
require steam at a pressure of above 56.9 psi (g), going
up to 142.2 psi (g).
Air: Compressed air is required for pneumatic operation
of the control valve. The supplied air should be moisture
free and the required pressure should be 100 psi (g).
Electricity: The power supply to the chiller shall be
strictly according to the voltage and frequency ratings
given on the chiller nameplate.
To avoid scaling and corrosion, we recommend
maintaining water quality as given here. If the water
quality at the installation site is different, the chiller can be
designed to adjust to it.
Chilled Water and Cooling
Water Treatment
Water treatment of the chilled and cooling water is
important to get desired chiller performance and for its
long life.
If the water quality is bad, it shows a scaling and/or
corrosion tendency. As a result, sludge and scale can
adhere to the inside of the tubes. This impedes heat
transfer between the chilled water and refrigerant and
between the cooling water and LiBr solution.
Consequently, there can be an increase in the respective
temperatures of the LiBr solution and the condensed
refrigerant, leading to an increase in the fuel consumption
and thus hampering the capacity and efficiency of the
chiller. In cases of prolonged corrosion, the tubes will
require maintenance or, in some cases, they may even
have to be replaced.
As the cooling water circuit is open, the salts get
concentrated due to evaporation taking place in the
cooling tower. This can be adjusted by controlling cooling
water blow-down and make-up. Moreover, exposure to
sunlight favors biological growth. Slime is more
detrimental to heat transfer than scale. Dosing bio-cides
during cooling water treatment can minimize these
adverse effects.
Unlike the cooling water circuit, which is always open, the
chilled water circuit may be open or closed. Due to the
lower temperature, chilled water circulating in an open
circuit does not have severe consequences. Soft water is
recommended for use in this circuit.
JIS recommends the following water quality for copper tubes:
Description
Sr. No.
Specifications
Unit
Chilled Water
1
pH at 77oF
2
Electrical Conductivity (max.)
3
M Alkalinity (max.)
4
Total Hardness (max.)
5
Make-up Water
6.5 - 8.5
6.5 - 8.5
Fs/cm
500
200
ppm
100
50
mg CaCO3/lit
100
50
Chloride ion (max.)
mg Cl/lit
100
50
6
Sulphate ion (max.)
mg SO4/lit
100
50
7
Total Iron (max.)
mg Fe/lit
1
0.3
8
Sulphide ion
mg S/lit
9
Ammonium ion (max.)
mg NH4/lit
0.5
0.2
10
Silica ion (max.)
mg SiO2/lit
50
30
11
Free carbonic acid (max.)
mg CaCO3/lit
10
-
12
Turbidity
NTU
10
5
13
BOD / COD (max.)
mg/lit
160
160
Description
Sr. No.
Not detected
Specifications
Unit
Cooling Water
1
pH at 77oF
2
Electrical Conductivity (max.)
3
M Alkalinity (max.)
4
Total Hardness (max.)
5
Make-up Water
6.5 - 8.5
6.5 - 8.5
Fs/cm
800
200
ppm
100
50
mg CaCO3/lit
200
50
Chloride ion (max.)
mg Cl/lit
200
50
6
Sulphate ion (max.)
mg SO4/lit
200
50
7
Total Iron (max.)
mg Fe/lit
1
0.3
8
Sulphide ion
mg S/lit
9
Ammonium ion (max.)
mg NH4/lit
1
10
Silica ion (max.)
mg SiO2/lit
50
30
11
Suspended solids (max.)
mg/lit
20
5
12
Turbidity
NTU
20
5
13
BOD / COD (max.)
mg/lit
160
160
Not detected
0.2
ProChill B4k
Steam Fired Vapor Absorption Chiller
25 / 26
Selection Criteria And Procedure
Selection Criteria
Selection Procedure
The following factors govern model selection:
Absorption is a complex phenomenon involving heat and
mass transfer. The chiller consists of multiple interlinked
heat exchangers. In such a complex mechanism, deration
factors and two-dimensional graphs can lead only to
approximation. At Thermax, every selection is done with the
help of a computer program that does detailed heat and
mass transfer calculations for each heat exchanger and
accurately determines performance of the chiller. When
using media other than water or for non-standard fouling
factors, the selection considers appropriate properties to
evaluate overall heat transfer coefficient. The program
optimizes the energy and the fuel consumption, the chilled
and the cooling water flow rates and the pressure drops.
Energy Source Parameters: Once the energy
source(s) is / are identified, parameters such as
pressure, temperature and flow play an important role in
the selection of the appropriate model. Single effect
chillers have lower COP than double effect chillers. Rated
steam pressure for single effect chiller is 21 psi (g).
However, single effect chillers can be offered from 7psi
(g) to 50 psi (g). While the capacity of the chiller is likely
to reduce when steam pressure available is less than
rated, the capacity will remain constant for higher steam
pressures. Rated steam pressure for double effect chiller
is 114 psi (g). However, double effect chillers can be
offered for pressure of 57 psi (g) and above. At lower
steam pressures, the chiller capacity is likely to reduce.
Chilled and cooling water temperature:
Capacity of the chiller varies based on chilled water outlet
temperature and cooling water inlet temperature. The
chiller is capable of delivering higher than its rated
capacity if chilled water temperature is higher than the
rated temperature or cooling water temperature is lower
than the rated temperature. Conversely, the chiller
capacity is likely to be reduced if chilled water
temperature is lower and cooling water temperature is
higher than their respective rated temperatures. Thermax
has designed and installed chillers for chilled water
temperatures ranging from 38oF to 70oF and cooling
water temperatures varying from 50oF to 97oF.
Chilled and cooling water circuit pressure:
Thermax's standard product range is designed for a
maximum pressure of 114 psi (g) in the chilled and
cooling water circuits. Thermax also offers special design
for higher pressures.
Size: For ease of operation, Thermax design ensures
sufficient distance between various parts of the chiller.
However, on special requirement, compact chiller can be
manufactured to fit within the available space at the
existing site. Moreover, if the openings available at site
are smaller than the chiller size, the chiller can be
transported in multiple sections and assembled at site.
Optional features: These include tube material of
construction, frequency drive for double effect absorbent
pumps, flame proof construction, claded tube sheets and
special electronics and instrumentation.
The following document furnishes performance data and
the dimensional data for all the standard models.
Thermax Nomenclature And
The ProChill B4k Product Basket
SS20DC
S
S
20
D
C
Machine type: Chiller
Machine size within the Frame
Frame Size
Cycle: Single effect
Primary heat input: Steam
SD50ACX
S
D
50
A
C
X
Efficiency: Efficient/ Extra
Efficient Series
Machine type: Chiller
Machine size within the Frame
Frame Size
Cycle: Double effect
Primary heat input: Steam
SS 60C C
SS 60B C
SS 60A C
SS 50B C
SS 50A C
SS 40C C
SS 40B C
SS 40A C
SS 30C C
SS 30B C
SS 30A C
SS 20D C
SS 20C C
SS 20B C
SS 20A C
Flow rate
850
1021
21.3
2
290
1154
6
23.6
2
327
8.5
1
435
8
10.2
1
493
11.5
1
538
8.5
1
611
8
9.5
1
671
1347 1497 1700 1845 2091 2281
14.1
1
385
12.1
2
849
2695 2994
11.2
2
765
3034
10
18.7
2
933
2
20.3
12
2
21.7
2
17.1
14
3381 3998 4262 5253
20.3
2
1036 1188 1311 1491
2
29.2
16
2
30.8
5781 6626 7150
18.7
2
1641 1881 2029
15.1
1
2
1
2
20.7
1
2
10
21.3
1
2
21.7
1
2
22.6
1
2
10
23.3
1
2
27.9
1
2
28.5
1
2
12
39.7
1
2
41.0
1
2
40.7
1
2
14
41.7
1
2
37.7
1
2
41.3
1
2
16
28.5
1
1
30.2
1
1
2
2
10
2.5
10
2.5
12
3
3
14
16
4
18
6544 7305 8290 9136 10298 11376 12897 14306 15763 17559 19965 21997 25014 27485 31729 34046
23.3
1
2
Notes:
- Chilled water inlet / outlet temperature = 54 / 44 °F
- Cooling water inlet temperature = 85°F
- Minimum Cooling water inlet temperature is 68°F
- Steam at Control Valve Inlet is at 21.335 psi(g)
pressure in dry saturated condition.
- Control panel Electric Input = 1 kVA
Power Supply
9.1
0.3 (1.4)
23.8
27.5
11.2
3.7 (11)
167.3
24.5
28.5
25.1
29.2
29.4
34.6
3.7 (11)
173.2
28.9
33.8
43.7
51.0
13.4
5.5 (14)
224.4
42.7
49.6
50.5
58.9
18.1
6.6 (17)
271.7
49.0
56.9
15.2
4.5 (13)
86.0
15.2
4.5 (13)
275.6
85.1
1.5 (5)
65.7
96.6
18.1
5.5 (17)
326.8
95.4
76.9 100.5 102.0 112.9 114.7
271.7
64.3
75.0
- Maximum Allowable pressure in chilled / cooling water system = 113.78 psi(g)
- Maximum Allowable pressure in steam system = 71.116 psi(g)
- Ambient condition shall be between 41 to 113°F
- All Water Nozzle connections to suit ASME B16.5 Class 150
- Technical specification is based on ARI 560 : 2000
460 V( ±10%), 60 Hz (±5%), 3 Phase+N
11.2
6.9
3 (8)
165.4
18.9
21.6
kVA
5.7
1.5 (5)
17.2
145.7
16.7
19.6
92.3 101.2 101.2 105.3 105.3 105.3 105.3 112.6 112.6 132.3 132.3 132.3 132.3
0.75 (1.8)
kW (A)
Refrigerant Pump Motor Rating
Electric
Purge
Pump Motor Rating
Supply
Total Electric Input
1.1 (3.4)
13.3
141.7
13.1
19.0
92.3
kW(A)
kW (A)
Absorbent Pump Motor Rating
11.0
102.4
15.0
92.3
10.8
inch
14.6
87.0
x 1000 lb
Max. Shipping Weight
Clearance for Tube Removal
12.3
87.0
12.0
87.0
x 1000 lb
74.0
Operating Weight
74.0
inch
74.0
74.0
111.4 111.4 111.4 111.4 115.9 115.9 115.9 130.5 130.5 130.5 134.1 134.1 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 165.0 165.0 184.8 184.8 184.8 184.8
inch
116.1 116.1 157.3 157.3 162.8 162.8 186.8 194.1 194.1 194.1 199.2 199.2 261.8 261.8 310.4 310.4 309.3 309.3 328.3 328.3 379.9 379.9
8
5531
8
15.7
1.5
4107 4888
18.7
1
2
inch
1.5
inchNB
3406
Connection Diameter (Drain)
2251 2727
6
lb/hr
inchNB
6
1
2
17.1
Connection Diameter (Steam)
Steam Consumption
2
2
19.0
#
ftWC
19.7
3
inchNB
709
28.9
2
241
Length
Overall
Width
Dimensions Height
Steam
Circuit
564
5
23.0
2
201
101.5 101.6 101.4 101.5 101.4 101.4 101.7 101.8 101.8 102.0 101.8 102.0 101.4 101.4 102.9 102.7 102.2 102.7 101.4 101.3 101.4 101.4
467
2
10.8
3
#
°F
GPM
Connection Diameter
Cooling
No. of passes (absorber)
Water
Circuit No. of passes (condensor)
Friction loss
Outlet Temp
inchNB
2
8.2
#
ftWC
159
Flow rate
Chilled No. of passes (Evaporator)
Water
Circuit Friction loss
Connection Diameter
SS 60D C
132
SS 70A C
318.8 383.9 485.2 581.8 700.1 789.4 929.4 1050.1 1190.1 1298.8 1475.0 1619.8 1846.6 2049.5 2252.1 2500.8 2867.9 3164.9 3599.3 3961.7 4540.7 4898.2
SS 70B C
TR
SS 80A C
GPM
SS 80A C
Cooling Capacity
SS 80C C
UNITS
SS 80D C
Model Number
ProChill B4k
Steam Fired Vapor Absorption Chiller
27/ 28
Performance Data
Single Effect Steam Fired
SD 60D CX
SD 60C CX
SD 60B CX
SD 60A CX
SD 50B CX
SD 50A CX
SD 40C CX
SD 40B CX
SD 40A CX
SD 30C CX
SD 30B CX
SD 30A CX
SD 20D CX
SD 20C CX
SD 20B CX
SD 20A CX
25.6
21.3
2
360
6
22.3
2
408
24.3
2
452
21.7
2
505
8
22.0
2
560
21.3
3
636
22.6
3
709
10
14.4
2
802
15.4
2
890
14.8
2
993
10
16.1
2
12.5
2
1107 1251
13.5
2
12
21.3
2
22.3
2
1372 1570 1685
14.8
1
2
94.5
1647 2049
15.4
1
2
94.5
1
2.5
2326
8
15.1
1
2
94.5
21.0
1
2
94.6
10
21.3
1
2
94.5
22.6
1
2
94.5
22.6
1
2
94.6
10
24.0
1
2
94.6
1.5
3
1.5
3
2737 3077 3488 3866 4321 4799
22.3
1
2
94.5
25.9
1
2
94.5
5415 6024
25.3
1
2
94.5
2
4
12
6873
17.7
1
1
94.5
36.4
1
2
95.4
14
19.7
1
1
94.4
34.8
1
2
94.8
36.4
1
2
95.0
16
23.6
1
1
94.5
23.3
1
1
95.0
2.5
5
2.5
5
7606 8484 9430 10645 11681 13396 14409
18.7
1
1
94.5
83.5
78.3
78.3
85.0
85.0
85.0
98.0
98.0
98.0 105.1 105.1 114.2 114.2 114.2 114.2 124.8 124.8 140.2 140.2 140.2 140.2
115.7 115.7 155.9 155.9 162.6 162.6 186.6 191.3 191.3 191.3 198.8 198.8 261.4 261.4 310.2 310.2 305.9 305.9 318.1 318.1 367.3 367.3
1388
14.8
1
2
94.5
12.3
12.8
11.6
15.2
15.9
14.2
20.9
21.6
7.6
2.2 (6)
161.4
19.2
23.6
28.9
25.5
0.3 (1.4)
21.0
30.0
9.1
3.0 (8)
177.4
26.3
31.3
27.5
35.5
36.8
32.2
3.7 (11)
161.8
31.2
55.3
58.0
13.4
63.7
67.9
81.1
20.3
7.5 (20)
311.4
93.7 102.3 105.0
- Maximum Allowable pressure in chilled / cooling water system = 113.78 psi(g)
- Maximum Allowable pressure in steam system = 149.35 psi(g)
- Ambient condition shall be between 41 to 113°F
- All Water Nozzle connections to suit ASME B16.5 Class 150
- Technical specification is based on ARI 560 : 2000
18.1
1.5 (5)
91.3
84.0 106.0 108.9 119.5 122.6
72.7
6.6 (17)
70.3
258.3
59.5
16.0
55.7
5.5 (14)
50.7
218.5
48.4
460 V( ±10%), 60 Hz (±5%), 3 Phase+N
11.2
18.6
0.75(1.8)
7.6
2.2 (6.0)
161.4
13.8
kVA
5.7
1.1 (3.4)
94.5
11.2
Notes:
- Chilled water inlet / outlet temperature = 54 / 44 °F
- Cooling water inlet temperature = 85°F
- Minimum Cooling water inlet temperature is 50°F
- Steam at Control Valve Inlet is at 113.78 psi(g) pressure
in dry saturated condition.
- Control panel Electric Input = 1kVA
Power Supply
6
16.7
2
320
kW(A)
kW (A)
Refrigerant Pump Motor Rating
Electric
Purge Pump Motor Rating
Supply
Total Electric Input
inch
kW (A)
Absorbent Pump Motor Rating
Clearance for Tube Removal
x 1000 lb
Max. Shipping Weight
15.1
2
272
100.8 100.8 100.8 100.8 106.3 106.3 106.3 114.2 114.2 114.2 125.2 125.2 132.3 132.3 132.7 132.7 147.2 147.2 160.2 160.2 160.2 160.2
inch
19.4
2
240
83.5
x 1000 lb
15.7
2
192
inch
Operating Weight
inch
1
Length
inchNB
6
Connection Diameter (Drain)
1114
2
953
12.5
1
3
94.5
inchNB
lb/hr
4
Connection Diameter (Steam)
inchNB
12.8
ftWC
Connection Diameter
3
1
#
#
94.5
Overall
Width
Dimensions Height
Steam
Circuit
15.4
13.1
2
162
488.7 572.4 713.3 845.4 1056.7 1197.6 1408.9 1563.0 1774.4 1990.1 2183.8 2426.0 2800.2 3121.6 3531.1 3918.6 3962.6 4887.2 5283.4 5723.7 6912.5 6956.5
3
130
3
°F
GPM
inchNB
ftWC
#
Steam Consumption
Outlet Temp
Cooling
No. of passes (absorber)
Water
Circuit No. of passes (condensor)
Friction loss
Flow rate
Chilled No. of passes (Evaporator)
Water
Circuit Friction loss
Connection Diameter
Flow rate
111
SD 70A CX
268.1 313.9 391.0 463.6 579.4 656.5 772.7 869.1 984.9 1091.0 1219.2 1351.7 1535.3 1711.4 1935.9 2148.6 2397.4 2672.5 3019.9 3312.3 3790.0 4067.8
SD 70B CX
TR
SD 80A CX
GPM
SD 80B CX
Cooling Capacity
SD 80C CX
UNITS
SD 80D CX
Model Number
Double Effect Steam Fired
HD 60C CX
HD 60B CX
HD 60A CX
HD 50B CX
HD 50A CX
HD 40C CX
HD 40B CX
HD 40A CX
HD 30C CX
HD 30B CX
HD 30A CX
HD 20D CX
HD 20C CX
HD 20B CX
HD 20A CX
Flow rate
1
7.5
ftWC
inchNB
Friction loss
Connection Diameter**
7.4
6
87
83.5
12.3
12.8
3
6
19.3
6
109
14.8
1
2
94.5
78.3
15.2
19.5
6
129
15.4
1
2
94.5
78.3
15.9
14.2
24.3
2
452
21.7
2
505
8
22.0
2
560
21.4
6
161
14.8
1
2
94.5
4
21.8
6
182
8
15.1
1
2
94.5
10.9
4
215
22.3
1
2
94.5
11.2
4
241
21.0
1
2
94.6
4
11.1
4
274
10
21.3
1
2
94.5
6
10.5
4
303
22.6
1
2
94.5
10.4
4
339
22.6
1
2
94.6
6
10
10.5
4
376
24.0
1
2
94.6
85.0
85.0
85.0
98.0
98.0
21.3
3
636
22.6
3
709
10
14.4
2
802
15.4
2
890
14.8
2
993
10
16.1
2
12.5
2
1107 1251
13.5
2
12
21.3
2
22.3
2
1372 1570 1685
14.4
4
425
25.3
1
2
94.5
14.6
4
472
25.9
1
2
94.5
6
12
12.2
3
539
17.7
1
1
94.5
12.4
3
597
18.7
1
1
94.5
6
12.5
3
665
36.4
1
2
95.4
14
8
12.4
3
740
19.7
1
1
94.4
12.3
3
835
34.8
1
2
94.8
13.2
3
916
36.4
1
2
95.0
8
16
23.3
1
1
95.0
21.6
3
22.4
3
1051 1130
23.6
1
1
94.5
98.0 105.1 105.1 114.2 114.2 114.2 114.2 124.8 124.8 140.2 140.2 140.2 140.2
20.9
21.6
23.6
28.9
25.5
0.3(1.4)
21.0
30.0
9.1
3.0(8)
177.4
26.3
31.3
27.5
35.5
36.8
32.2
3.7 (11)
161.8
31.2
55.3
58.0
13.4
63.7
67.9
81.1
20.3
7.5 (20)
311.4
93.7 102.3 105.0
- Maximum Allowable pressure in chilled / cooling water system = 113.78 psi(g)
- Maximum Allowable pressure in Hot water system = 149.35 psi(g)
- Ambient condition shall be between 41 to 113°F
- All Water Nozzle connections to suit ASME B16.5 Class 150
- Technical specification is based on ARI 560 : 2000
** Connection diameter can vary depending upon actual conditions
18.1
1.5 (5)
91.3
84.0 106.0 108.9 119.5 122.6
72.7
6.6 (17)
70.3
258.3
59.5
16.0
55.7
5.5 (14)
50.7
218.5
48.4
460 V( ±10%), 60 Hz (±5%), 3 Phase+N
11.2
7.6
2.2(6)
161.4
19.2
kVA
18.6
0.75(1.8)
7.6
2.2(6.0)
161.4
13.8
Notes:
- Chilled water inlet / outlet temperature = 54 / 44 °F
- Cooling water inlet temperature = 85°F
- Minimum Cooling water inlet temperature is 50°F
- Hot water inlet / outlet temperature = 350 / 325 °F
- Control panel Electric Input = 1kVA
Power Supply
6
22.3
2
408
kW(A)
5.7
1.1(3.4)
kW (A)
kW (A)
Absorbent Pump Motor Rating
11.6
Refrigerant Pump Motor Rating
11.2
94.5
Electric
Supply Purge Pump Motor Rating
Total Electric Input
21.3
2
360
83.5
inch
Clearance for Tube Removal
25.6
2
320
100.8 100.8 100.8 100.8 106.3 106.3 106.3 114.2 114.2 114.2 125.2 125.2 132.3 132.3 132.7 132.7 147.2 147.2 160.2 160.2 160.2 160.2
x 1000 lb
6
16.7
2
272
inch
x 1000 lb
15.1
2
240
inch
Max. Shipping Weight
Length
19.4
2
192
115.7 115.7 155.9 155.9 162.6 162.6 186.6 191.3 191.3 191.3 198.8 198.8 261.4 261.4 310.2 310.2 305.9 305.9 318.1 318.1 367.3 367.3
6
#
inch
75
GPM
12.5
1
12.8
#
94.5
ftWC
94.5
3
inchNB
4
15.7
2
162
488.7 572.4 713.3 845.4 1056.7 1197.6 1408.9 1563.0 1774.4 1990.1 2183.8 2426.0 2800.2 3121.6 3531.1 3918.6 3962.6 4887.2 5283.4 5723.7 6912.5 6956.5
No. of passes
Flow rate
3
15.4
3
#
°F
GPM
Overall
Width
Dimensions Height
Operating Weight
Hot
Water
Circuit
Connection Diameter
Cooling
No. of passes (absorber)
Water
Circuit No. of passes (condensor)
Friction loss
Outlet Temp
inchNB
3
13.1
#
ftWC
130
Flow rate
Chilled No. of passes (Evaporator)
Water
Circuit Friction loss
Connection Diameter
HD 60D CX
111
HD 70A CX
268.1 313.9 391.0 463.6 579.4 656.5 772.7 869.1 984.9 1091.0 1219.2 1351.7 1535.3 1711.4 1935.9 2148.6 2397.4 2672.5 3019.9 3312.3 3790.0 4067.8
HD 70B CX
TR
HD 80A CX
GPM
HD 80B CX
Cooling Capacity
HD 80C CX
UNITS
HD 80D CX
Model Number
ProChill B4k
Steam Fired Vapor Absorption Chiller
29 / 30
High Temperature Hot Water
Typical System P&I Diagram
Single Effect Steam Driven Absorption Chiller
GATE VALVE(OPEN)
GATE VALVE (OPEN)
AIR HEADER
GLOBE VALVE (OPEN)
STEAM DRY SATURATED
GLOBE VALVE (CLOSE)
E/P
COCK
CONTROL VALVE (OPEN)
COOLING WATER OUTLET
CONTROL VALVE (CLOSE)
HOT
INSULATION
TI
TC
PI
TI
TE
PI
TI
3 WAY VALVE
STEAM INLET
PI
TAPPING TO MEASURE
DRYNESS FRACTION
BLOW
DOWN
NON RETURN VALVE
PI
CONTROL VALVE
COOLING TOWER
BUTTERFLY VALVE (OPEN)
BUTTERFLY VALVE (CLOSE)
INVERTED BUCKET STEAM TRAP
THERMODYNAMIC STEAM TRAP
AIR FILTER REGULATOR
E/P
CHILLED WATER OUTLET
PI
PNEUMATIC CONVERTER
TI
COLD
INSULATION
PUMP
PI
TI
S
PI
PI
AIR SUPPLY FROM
COMMON HEADER
PI
THERMOSTAT
CONDENSATE
MEASUREMENT
PNEUMATIC LINE
"Y" STRAINER
TO CONDENSATE
TANK
PI
M
PI
COOLING WATER INLET
TI
TII
FM
PI
FM
PI
CHILLED WATER INLET
PI
S
COOLING WATER PUMPS
(1 WORKING + 1 STD BY)
M
PI
MOTOR
BALANCE VALVE
VAPOUR ABSORPTION
CHILLER
FM
M
M
HOT
INSULATION
S
PRESSURE INDICATOR
TEMPERATURE INDICATOR
FLOW METER
SWITCH
TE
TEMPERATURE ELEMENT
TC
TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER
S
STEAM TRAP
CLIENT
SCOPE
THERMAX
SCOPE
PI
M
COLD
INSULATION
CHILLED WATER PUMPS
(1 WORKING + 1 STD.BY)
For reference only
Typical General Arrangement Drawing
Single Effect Steam Driven Absorption Chiller
NOZZLE SCHEDULE
NOTES :
1) INDICATES THE POSITION OF ANCHOR BOLTS.
2) INDICATES THE POSITION OF THE POWER
SUPPLY CONNECTION ON CONTROL PANEL
3) MINIMUM INSTALLATION CLEARANCE.
CONTROL PANEL SIDE :1200
TOP : 200
OTHERS : 500
4) MACHINE TOLERANCES :
N8
N9
L (MTR)
0-3
3-5
5-7
7-10
OVER 10
TOL. (MM)
4
5
7
10
15
N7
N5
N4
N1
NOZZLE
SIZE
NOZZLE
FL. RATING
DESCRIPTION
N1
-
ASA 150
CHILLED WATER INLET
1
N2
-
ASA 150
CHILLED WATER OUTLET
1
N3
-
-
CHILLED WATER DRAIN PLUGGED
1
N4
-
ASA 150
COOLING WATER INLET
1
N5
-
ASA 150
COOLING WATER OUTLET
1
N6
-
-
COOLING WATER DRAIN PLUGGED
1
N7
-
ASA 150
STEAM INLET
1
N8
-
ASA 150
DRAIN OUTLET
1
N9
-
ASA 150
REPTURE DISK OUTLET
1
QTY
N2
(W)
(L)
N9
N9
N9
N5
N7
N8
N7
N8
N8
(H)
N2
N1
N4
N6
N3
For reference only
ProChill B4k
Steam Fired Vapor Absorption Chiller
31 / 32
Typical System P&I Diagram
Double Effect Steam Driven Absorption Chillers
AIR HEADER
GATE VALVE (OPEN)
GATE VALVE (CLOSE)
MAKE UP WATER
STEAM DRY SATURATED
GLOBE VALVE (CLOSE)
NON RETURN VALVE
*
COCK
CONTROL VALVE (OPEN)
PI
TC
PI
TI
TE
PI
TI
PI
CONTROL VALVE (CLOSE)
STEAM INLET.
TI
TAPPING TO MEASURE
DRYNESS FRACTION
BLOW
DOWN
PI
CONTROL VALVE
COOLING WATER OUTLET
COOLING TOWER
GLOBE VALVE (OPEN)
E/P
3 WAY VALVE
BUTTERFLY VALVE (OPEN)
BUTTERFLY VALVE (CLOSE)
INVERTED BUCKET STEAM TRAP
THERMODYNAMIC STEAM TRAP
TI
HOT INSULATION
AIR FILTER REGULATOR
CONDENSATE
CHILLED WATER OUTLET
PI
COLD INSULATION
E/P
OUTLET
TI
PNEUMATIC CONVERTER
PUMP
CONDENSATE
MEASUREMENT
FM
M
VAPOUR ABSORPTION
CHILLER
PI
MOTOR
TO CONDENSATE
TANK
TI
BALANCE VALVE
THERMOSTAT
PNEUMATIC LINE
PI
S
AIR SUPPLY FROM
COMMON HEADER.
PI
``Y'' STRAINER
CHILLED WATER INLET
PI
M
M
PI
PI
CHILLED WATER PUMPS
.
(1 WORKING + 1 STD. BY)
PI
M
COOLING
WATER INLET
M
PI
PRESSURE INDICATOR
TEMPERATURE INDICATOR
FM
FLOW METER
SWITCH
I
FM
COLD INSULATION
PI
TI
S
PI
INTERLOCK
LAL
LEVEL LOW ALARM
LAH
LEVEL HIGH ALARM
LS
LEVEL SWITCH WITH
TE
TEMPERATURE ELEMENT
TC
TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER
COOLING WATER PUMPS
(1 WORKING + 1 STD. BY)
FLOAT CHAMBER
CLIENT
SCOPE
THERMAX
SCOPE
For reference only
Typical General Arrangement Drawing
Double Effect Steam Driven Absorption Chillers
N7
NOZZLE
N8
N9
N4 N5
N1 N2
N9
N5
L
W
H
N4
N3
Clearance for tube removal(any one side)
For reference only
N1
N6
1.
2.
!
!
!
DESCRIPTION
QTY.
N1
ANSI # 150
CHILLED WATER INLET
N2
ANSI # 150
CHILLED WATER OUTLET
1
N3
BSP (F)
CHILLED WATER OUTLET
PLUGGED
1
1
N4
ANSI # 150
COOLING WATER INLET
1
N5
ANSI # 150
COOLING WATER OUTLET
1
N6
BSP (F)
CHILLED WATER OUTLET
PLUGGED
1
N7
ANSI # 150
STEAM INLET
1
N8
ANSI # 150
CONDENSATE OUTLET
1
N9
ANSI # 150
RUPTURE DISC
1
N2
N8
NOZZLE FL.
RATING
Indicates the position of anchor bolts
Minimum installation clearance
Control Panel side: 1200mm
Top: 200 mm
Other : 500 mm
Instrumentation And Safety Features
Control Logic
The control panel includes the following
components:
! Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)
! Panel view operator interface
! Power circuit for pumps
! Panel mounted instruments
The total heat extracted from the chilled water defines the
cooling capacity of a chiller. The chilled water inlet flowrate is kept constant. Hence the cooling capacity is
proportional to the difference in the temperatures of the
chilled water at inlet and outlet.
Load changes are reflected in the rise or fall of the
temperature of the inlet chilled water. The outlet chilled
water temperature varies with the inlet chilled water
temperature. An RTD sensor notes this change in
temperature. This temperature signal is fed to the PLC.
An inbuilt software PID control loop processes this signal
with respect to the chilled water set point. A control
output signal of 4 to 20 mA is sent to the I/P converter.
The I/P controller converts the 4 to 20 mA electrical signal
to a 2.8 to 14.5 psi (g) pneumatic signal, which controls
the position of the steam control valve. As the load
increases, the steam control valve also opens, and viceversa, thus regulating the quantity of steam entering the
chiller.
ProChill B4k
Steam Fired Vapor Absorption Chiller
33 / 34
Safeties
Safety Functions
Safety devices are provided to protect the chiller from
reaching abnormal conditions, to safeguard it from
damage and to ensure continued availability.
The safety functions of the chiller protect it against
abnormal conditions. The various functions are:
Safety devices are:
- Chiller mounted safeties, located on the chiller
- Panel mounted safeties, on the control panel and
- Field interlocks, passing signals from the field to the
chiller
Chiller mounted
l Chilled water flow switch
- Paddle type device mounted on the chilled water
outlet nozzle
l Chilled water Differential Pressure (DP) switch
- Connected to inlet and outlet chilled water nozzles
l Refrigerant level electrodes
- Mounted in the refrigerant level box
l Generator level electrodes
- Mounted in the high temperature generator level
box
l Absorber level electrodes
- Mounted in the absorbent level box
l Auto blow-down solenoid valve
- Mounted on refrigerant pump outlet tapping to
Absorber
l Solenoid valve on condensate drain
- Mounted on drain line from heat reclaimer outlet
l Temperature sensors mounted at various locations to
display temperatures.
Panel Mounted
l Generator level controller
l Refrigerant level controller
l Absorbent level controller
l Absorbent pump overload relay/ AC Drive (if
applicable)
l Refrigerant pump overload relay
l Purge pump overload relay
Thermal shock protection
To protect the chiller from a thermal shock, the steam
control valve is opened gradually for the first 10 minutes
after chiller start up. At this moment, the HTG
temperature is less than 212°F. After the slow opening
duration is over, the control automatically switches over to
the chilled water temperature.
Antifreeze protection
To prevent the chilled water from freezing in the
evaporator tubes, there are various safety functions to
stop the chiller like:
l
L-cut: The refrigerant pump is switched off in case the
chilled water outlet temperature drops below the L-cut
set point. The L-cut is set from the cool mode control
loop screen. This safety prevents a further drop in the
chilled water temperature. The refrigerant pump will
restart after the chilled water outlet temperature rises
above the L-cut set point plus the hysterisis set point.
l
Antifreeze: If the chilled water outlet temperature
drops below the antifreeze set point, the chiller trips
and the 'TOTAL SHUTDOWN' alarm sequence is
carried out. The alarm should be reset only after the
chilled water outlet temperature rises above the
antifreeze set point plus the hysterisis set point.
l
Chilled water pump interlock: Chilled water flow is a
prerequisite for chiller operation. A potential free
contact is wired from the chilled water pump motor
starter to chiller panel to sense chilled water pump ON/
OFF/ TRIP status. The chiller starts only when the
chilled water pump is ON. If the chilled water pump
stops/ trips during operation, the 'TOTAL SHUTDOWN'
alarm sequence is carried out.
l
Cooling water pump interlock: Cooling water flow
should be stopped immediately when the chilled water
flow stops in the chiller. So, the cooling water pump
should be started through the start permissive of
cooling water pump.
l
Chilled water flow switch: If the chilled water flow
drops below 50% of the rated value, 'TOTAL
SHUTDOWN' alarm sequence is carried out.
l
Chilled water differential pressure switch: If the
chilled water flow drops below 50 to 60% of the rated
value, the 'TOTAL SHUTDOWN' alarm sequence is
carried out. Electrical wiring should be done such that
Field interlocks
l Chilled water pump interlock
l Cooling water pump/ butterfly valve interlock
if the flow switch or differential pressure switch
operates, either all the cooling water pumps should
stop or the pneumatic butterfly valve in cooling water
circuit should close instantly.
l
Butterfly control valve in cooling water line: If all
the cooling water pumps can be stopped electrically
when the differential pressure switch or flow switch
shows less or no flow of chilled water, automatically
operated butterfly valve is not required. However, when
such arrangement cannot be ensured, auto butterfly
valve needs to be provided by the customer to stop the
cooling water based on the differential pressure switch/
flow switch signal.
cooling water low temperature set point, the 'DILUTION
CYCLE' alarm sequence is carried out. The chiller goes
into the dilution cycle immediately. The alarm can't be
reset until the cooling water inlet temperature rises
above the cooling water low temperature set point plus
the hysterisis set value. During initial start-up, this
safety is bypassed till the generator temperature
reaches 248°F. The safety is in operation, 30 minutes
after the chiller start-up, irrespective of the generator
temperature.
l
Valve control on HTG temperature: When the HTG
temperature exceeds the set point minus 3.6°F, the
steam control valve closes immediately. This prevents
further increase in the LiBr concentration. The valve
control is returned to the chilled water temperature
control loop when the HTG temperature drops below
set point minus 7.2°F.
l
HTG Vapor saturation temperature high: (Double
effect) If the HTG vapor saturation temperature
exceeds the HTG vapor temperature set point, the
'DILUTION CYCLE' alarm sequence is carried out. The
chiller goes into the dilution cycle. The alarm can't be
reset until the HTG vapor temperature goes below the
HTG vapor temperature trip set point minus the set
hysterisis value.
l
HTG high temperature safety: If the HTG
temperature exceeds the HTG high temperature set
point, the 'DILUTION CYCLE' alarm sequence is carried
out. The chiller goes into the dilution cycle. The HTG
high temperature alarm can't be reset until the HTG
temperature drops below the set point minus the
hysterisis set value 9°F. This set point may vary slightly
for non-standard chillers.
Crystallization prevention
(Double effect) If the concentrated absorbent solution,
while returning to the Absorber from the Low Temperature
Generator is excessively cooled, it crystallizes in the Low
Temperature Heat Exchanger, thus affecting the operation
of the chiller. Crystallization occurs either when the
concentration of the absorbent (related to its
temperature) becomes too high or its temperature drops
excessively.
The following safety functions prevent the chiller from
crystallizing:
l
l
l
Steam control valve modulation on crystallization
prevention safety: The strong solution concentration
and the crystallization temperature corresponding to
that concentration are calculated in the PLC. The PLC
always tries to maintain the pre-set safe distance
between the crystallization temperature and strong
solution temperature of low temperature heat
exchanger outlet. If the distance is less than the pre-set
safe distance, the PLC modulates the steam control
valve so that the strong solution will never reach
crystallization zone.
Absorber level safety: (Double effect) Crystallization
in the chiller can result in low absorber level. When the
absorber level falls below 25% of the sight glass, the
auto blow-down solenoid valve opens to transfer the
refrigerant to the Absorber thus building up the
absorber level again. If the absorber level goes further
below the safe zone, the steam control valve closes
fully. When the absorber level rises back to 50% of the
sight glass, the auto blow-down valve shuts, steam
control valve opens and the chiller starts operating
automatically. Adequate level ensures dilute solution
supply to the Generator thus preventing crystallization.
Cooling water low temperature safety: If the
cooling water inlet temperature drops below the
Cavitation protection of refrigerant pump
The refrigerant pump starts to cavitate, when the
refrigerant level in the evaporator pan falls below the set
level.
To ensure the minimum acceptable suction pressure, the
refrigerant level is not allowed to fall below a certain level
by means of three level electrodes and a level relay. The
three electrodes are mounted in the refrigerant level box
assembly present on the lower shell. The pump starts
when the level reaches the electrode that is smallest in
length. It stops when the level goes below the longest
electrode. When the level goes below the intermediate
electrode, a delay of 20 seconds is provided before the
pump can be switched off.
ProChill B4k
Steam Fired Vapor Absorption Chiller
Cavitation protection in the absorbent
pump
The absorbent pump starts to cavitate when the
absorbent level in the absorber sump falls below the set
level. The level of the absorbent is controlled to ensure a
minimum acceptable suction pressure. To prevent the
excess absorbent from being pumped out of the
absorber sump, the absorbent level in the HTG is not
allowed to rise above a certain level. This is done by
means of three level electrodes, and a level relay.
The three electrodes are mounted in the high
temperature generator level box. The absorbent level is to
be maintained below the smallest electrode. The longest
electrode acts as the reference electrode. When the level
reaches the smallest electrode, the pump stops after a
delay of 5 seconds. It restarts when the level goes below
the intermediate electrode.
Motor protection
l
Absorbent pump overload relay: If the absorbentpump motor draws more than its rated current, this
overload relay trips. The 'TOTAL SHUTDOWN' alarm
sequence is carried out. The alarm cannot be reset
until the absorbent pump overload relay (inside the
control panel) is reset manually.
l
Refrigerant pump overload relay: If the refrigerant
pump motor draws more than its rated current, this
overload relay trips. The 'DILUTION CYCLE' alarm
sequence is carried out. The alarm cannot be reset
until the refrigerant pump overload relay inside the
control panel is reset manually.
l
Purge pump overload relay: If the purge pump
motor draws more than its rated current, this overload
relay trips. The alarm cannot be reset until the purge
pump overload relay inside the control panel is reset
manually.
35 / 36
Machine Room Layout Considerations
Drainage
All discharge pipes and overflow pipes should be routed
to the drains. The drains should be kept covered. The
slope of the drainage system should be such that there is
no accumulation of water. In case the chiller room is built
in the basement, a water tank and pump is required for
proper drainage.
Piping Guidelines
l
Steam piping should be designed and installed to
meet the safety standards prescribed for the pressure
vessel. Pipe sizing should be as per the required flow
rates.
l
In the connecting lines, field instruments should be
installed adjacent to the chiller. Pipe design and its
routing should provide easy access to the field
instruments (for e.g. during maintenance).
l
The crossover piping from the Absorber to the
Condenser is a standard feature of Thermax
absorption chiller.
l
The piping should be adequately supported to prevent
any strain on the chiller nozzles and connecting
flanges.
l
Check whether air-vent valves, drain valves and
pressure gauges are provided on the chilled water,
cooling water, fuel and drain piping. The drain
connections should be at the lowest point, whereas the
air-vents should be at the highest point on the piping.
l
The inlet chilled water line and inlet cooling water line
to the chiller should be flushed clean, before
connecting these to the chiller.
l
Check the connective direction of the chilled water and
the cooling water piping.
l
Check the valve positions on the chilled water piping,
cooling water piping, steam and drain piping.
Ambient Temperature
l
Temperature in the chiller room should be between 4oF
and 113oF.
Make sure that strainers are provided in the water
circuits.
l
If cooling water pump is not dedicated to individual
chiller, auto-operated butterfly valve is necessary in the
cooling water circuit.
Location
Unlike conventional electric chillers, absorption chiller are
characterized by their silent operation and simpler
foundation. Owing to this, they can be located in
basements or on terraces of buildings; the location being
ultimately decided by space availability and ease of
installation and maintenance.
Room Size
The machine room size should be decided according to
dimensions of the chiller. A minimum of 3.3ft clearance
space should be kept on all sides of the chiller. In
addition, provision for tube removal space should be
made on either sides of the chiller. A clearance of 3.95 ft
is recommended on the panel side of the chiller and 0.7
ft is recommended on the top of the chiller. For more
details please refer to the dimensional data given in this
document.
Humidity
The humidity inside the chiller room should be less than
85%. High humidity can result in corrosion and failure of
electrical equipment. The chiller room should be
adequately ventilated.
ProChill B4k
Steam Fired Vapor Absorption Chiller
Electrical Guidelines
l
All field wiring should be in accordance with applicable
codes.
l
Use copper conductors only.
l
All wiring should be checked regularly for any damage
and all terminal connections tested for tightness.
l
The power supply specifications should match with
those given on the unit nameplate. Voltage must be
within 15% of nameplate value.
l
For minimum circuit ampacity and maximum fuse size,
see the unit nameplate.
l
Wiring to the control panel should be proper.
l
Proper wiring should be provided from the control
panel to control valve.
l
Proper interlocking of chilled water and cooling water
with the chiller control panel should be provided.
Insulation Guidelines
l
Use adhesive agents, iron wires and bounds to mount
insulation material. These should not be fixed/
mounted using tapping screws or rivets.
l
Use non-combustible insulation material. This could be
wool or polystyrene foam in case of cold surfaces, and
glass wool in case of hot surfaces.
l
The insulation should not cover the cap of the damper,
sight glass, handle of the refrigerant blow-down valve,
refrigerant pump motor, refrigerant level electrode box
cover, HTG level electrode level box cover and the
service valves.
l
For effective in-tube cleaning, the evaporator header
should be removable.
l
To assist in-tube inspection, the insulation for the high
temperature generator headers should be removable.
l
In addition, the following components should also have
removable insulation:
- Chilled water flow switch
- Chilled water freeze protection thermostat
- Chilled water temperature sensor
l
The chiller comes with rust preventive paint.
37 / 38
Site Unloading And Installation
Unloading instructions
l
For unloading purposes, use the lifting shackles
provided on the chiller. Rigging from any other point
on the chiller can damage the unit and cause
personal injury.
l
Use proper sized hooks/ slings and approved
methods for lifting the chiller.
l
Lift the chiller simultaneously from all four corners,
while keeping the unit level with the ground.
l
Proper care should be taken while hooking up the
shackles near the pipes. (Refer figure)
l
Every care should be taken to prevent damage to
interconnecting pipes, control panel and chiller
mounted panel.
PLACE THE HOOK AS SHOWN
TO AVOID DAMAGE TO PIPES
HANGER PLATE
Unloading & Installation of machine
(Single piece): As a standard feature, the chiller is
shipped as a single piece. All piping should be
adequately supported and fitted to prevent any strain
on nozzles and connecting flanges. During installation,
sizes of cooling and chilled water lines should match
with those of the connecting nozzles. Their inlet
connections should be flushed clean, and electrical
wiring should be verified. The sketch shown below,
indicates the unloading of a single piece chiller.
Note: This is only a diagrammatic representation of the
general appearance of the chiller. The actual chiller may
be different than what has been shown here.
Rigging and Shifting to the foundation: To
avoid any damage, the chiller should be rigged with care
to its ultimate location. A plate should be placed beneath
the saddles of the chiller, and castors or rollers placed
below the plate. The chiller should be pulled gradually
from one side using a winch. The wire rope used for
pulling should be tied to the saddle.
ProChill B4k
Steam Fired Vapor Absorption Chiller
Leveling of chiller: Before hooking up the chiller to
the external piping, it is very important to level it based on
the procedure given below. Proper leveling of the chiller is
essential to achieve the rated capacity of the unit.
Allowable tolerance (both lengthwise and side-wise) is
less than or equal to 1/16 inch per 5 ft.
There are four leveling checkpoints provided on the
heater. (Labeled as A, B, C and D in the figure below)
These check points are designated by three punch marks
on the tube sheet or shell of the lower shell of the chiller.
Procedure for leveling: Fill a clear vinyl hose
(diameter of the hose 3/8”) with water, ensuring that
there are no air bubbles in it. Using point 'A' as reference
point, measure the difference in the water level at the
other points (i.e. B, C and D).
A
B
39 / 40
In case the required tolerance is not met, it can be
achieved by inserting a metal shim between the chiller
frame and foundation. Metal shim size could be
approximately 2” width x 3” length, whereas the thickness
of the shims should be in the range of 0.024” to 0.354”.
After making adjustments, confirm the leveling of the
chiller by taking a new set of readings.
Procedure for grouting: After leveling the chiller, it
is required to be grouted before the external piping can
be connected to it. This is done by fixing the anchor
bolts, by welding the washer to the chiller frame and by
tightening the bolts.
Storage of the unit: In case the unit is not to be
installed immediately, it should be kept covered until its
installation. It is recommended to keep the chiller indoors
during this period to prevent any damage to it. Nitrogen
should not be removed from the chiller. All accessories
supplied with the unit should be kept in the same place.
Optional Multi-sectional Shipment: The chiller
VAPOR ABSORPTION
CHILLER
C
can be shipped in three sections viz. the lower shell
assembly, upper shell assembly and the HTG assembly.
This is done when there are indications that the chiller's
dimensions as a single piece may cause rigging
problems (particularly during retrofit jobs).
D
THREE-SECTION SHIPMENT
CL
R
EA
VIN
H
YL
E
OS
(1) Upper Shell
(2) High temp. generator
Leveling calculations are as shown below:
A
0inch
A-B
C-D
=
L
L
B
inch
C
inch
A-D
B-C
=
L
L
Where,
L= Length of the chiller
D
inch
A-C
B-D
=
W
W
W= Width of the chiller
(3) Lower Shell
Sustainable Solutions in
Energy & Environment
COOLING & HEATING DIVISION
Thermax Ltd., India
D-13 MIDC Industrial Area, R.D. Aga Road, Chinchwad, Pune 411 019
India., Tel: 00-91-20-27475941, Fax: 00-91-20-27475907
www.thermaxindia.com
Thermax Inc, USA
Tel: 00-1-248-4743050, Fax: 00-1-248-4745790
Email: [email protected], [email protected]
www.thermax-usa.com
Thermax Europe Ltd., UK
Tel: 00-44-1908-378-914, Fax: 00-44-1908-379-487
Email: [email protected]
www.thermax-europe.com
Thermax (Zhejiang)
Cooling & Heating Engg. Co. Ltd., China
Tel: 00-86-21-64483996, Fax: 00-86-21-64483997
Email: [email protected]
www.thermax-china.com
Thermax do Brasil
Tel: 00-55-21-25169227, Fax: 00-55-21-25169226
Email: rajesh.s[email protected]
www.thermaxdobrasil.com.br
Thermax Rus Ltd., Russia
Tel: 00-7-095-9350490/ 91, Fax: 00-7-095-1347410
Email: [email protected]
Thermax Ltd., UAE
Tel: 00-971-4-8816481, Fax: 00-971-4-8816039
Email: [email protected], [email protected]
Thermax Ltd., Saudi Arabia
Tel: 00-966-3-8575056, Fax: 00-966-3-8575068
Email: [email protected]
Thermax Ltd., Kenya
Tel: 00-254-204440233, Fax : 00-254-204451919
Email: [email protected]
Thermax Ltd, Nigeria
Tel: 00-234-8022908770, Fax: 00-234-14936187
Email: [email protected]
Thermax Ltd., Thailand
Tel: 00-66-2-6555790, Fax: 00-66-2-6555791
Email: [email protected]
Thermax Ltd., Malaysia
Tel: 00-60-3-21669801, Fax: 00-60-3-21669802
Email: [email protected]
Thermax Ltd., Indonesia
Tel: 00-62-21-83793259, Fax: 00-62-21-83793258
Email: [email protected]
Thermax Ltd., Philippines
Tel: 00-63-2-9296964, Fax: 00-63-2-9296982
Email: [email protected]
Thermax Ltd., Bangladesh
Telefax: 00-880-29885823, Mob: 00-880-1912008882
Email: [email protected]
Thermax Ltd., Srilanka
Tel: 00-94-777769126, Fax: 00-94-112533217
Email: [email protected]
www.thermaxindia.com
In view of our constant endeavour to improve the quality of our products, we reserve the
right to alter or change specifications without prior notice. All photographs shown in this
publication are representative in purpose, and to be used for reference only. For actual
details and specifications, please refer to Thermax offer document
December 2008/ Revision 1
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement