BLIND SOURCE SEPARATION IN REAL TIME USING SECOND ORDER STATISTICS Silva Ruwan Lakmal Bo Zhu This thesis is presented as part of Degree of Master of Science in Electrical Engineering Blekinge Institute of Technology September 2007 Blekinge Institute of Technology School of Engineering Department of Applied Signal Processing Supervisor: Dr. Nedelko Grbić Examiner: Dr. Nedelko Grbić -1- Abstract A multi stage approach to speech enhancement methods improves the quality of separation over standard techniques such as spectral subtraction and beamforming. Two algorithms are implemented for convolutive mixtures in two of the important stages of a speech enhancement system, the source separation stage and the background denoising stage. For source separation, a blind source separation method based on second order statistics has been adopted whereas for background denoising, a method based on minimum statistics of subband power, has been used. An efficient real time algorithm for convolutive blind source separation of broad band signals has been realized, by exploiting the second order statistics and non-stationarity of the signals. The real time system is capable of separating sources in a two microphone setup. Keywords: Blind source separation, convolutive mixtures, second order statistics, Adaptive decorrelation -2- Acknowledgment Firstly, we would like express our sincere gratitude to our research supervisor Dr. Nedelko for providing us with an interesting thesis topic to work with, and accepting us for supervision. We thank you for guiding us throughout this thesis work, enlightening us with advises and knowledge, and encouraging us all the time with your innovative work. We would like to thank BTH for giving us the opportunity to study at a well established scientific environment and providing the background knowledge to work on the thesis. Last, but not least, we thank our parents for encouraging us for higher studies and assisting us by all means during our study period in Sweden. Thank you all!! Lakmal Bo -3- Contents 1. Introduction 06 1.1 Scope 06 1.2 Organization of the Thesis 07 2. Background and Related work 2.1 Background 09 09 2.1.1. Instantaneous mixing model 10 2.1.2. Convolutive mixing model 11 2.2 Solution approaches for convolutive BSS 13 2 2.1 Extending ICA in time domain 14 2.2.2 Frequency domain BSS 14 2.2.3 Time-Frequency domain BSS 15 2.3 Related work on second order statistics 15 3. Foundations 17 3.1 Second order Statistics 17 3.2 Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) 17 3.3 Steepest Decent Algorithm 18 3.4 Convolutive BSS 19 3.5 Cross-Correlation, circular and linear convolution 20 4. Offline BSS 22 4.1 Problem formulation 22 4.2 Derivation of Offline Algorithm 23 4.2.1 Cross-Correlation 24 4.2.2 Backward Model 25 4.2.3 Power normalization 27 4.3 Offline Algorithm 28 -45. Online BSS 30 5.1 Introduction 30 5.2 Derivation in time domain 31 5.3 Frequency domain conversion 33 5.4 Power Normalization 34 6. Spectral Subtraction based on minimum statistics 37 6.1 Components 37 6.2 Algorithm 38 6.3 Subtraction Rule 40 7. Real Time Implementation 42 7.1 Requirements 42 7.2 Matlab implementation 42 7.3 Experiment Setup and algorithm 43 7.4 Simulation result 45 8. Evaluation and Results 46 8.1 Introduction 46 8.2 BSS evaluation method 46 8.3 Experiment and Results 47 8.4 Evaluation of Spectral subtraction method 51 9. Conclusion 53 References 54 -5- List of Figures 2.1 Block diagram for an instantaneous mixing model 10 2.2 Multi-path problem in convolutive mixing 12 4.1 BSS system 23 4.1 Pictorial view of the calculation of Rx 28 4.2 Flow chat for the offline algorithm 29 5.1 Flow chart for the online algorithm 35 6.1 Block diagram of the spectral calculation process 38 6.2 Structure of the noise subband power estimation algorithm 40 7.1 Experiment equipment 44 7.2 Software routines 45 8.1 Time signals of a convolutive input signals and output signals 51 8.2 Time domain signals of the input noisy signal and the output signal after denoising 52 8.3 Frequency domain plots of the input noisy signal and the output signal 52 -6- Chapter 1 Introduction In today's technological society, human computer interactions are ever increasing. In many new systems, voice recognition platforms are implemented to give users more convenient ways of operating equipment and systems. For instance, dictating into your favorite word processing application is more convenient and efficient than typing. Vehicle manufactures have recently given thought of implementing systems which are handled by human voice commands such as activating dash board buttons. On the other hand, the increased use of personal communication devices, personal computers and wireless cellular telephones, has given rise to new innovative systems based on voice recognition systems. Such examples are checking bank balance, finding paths in big cities and checking transportation time table information using cellular phones. However, the performance of such systems degrades substantially in real life systems due to surrounding noise and other acoustic signals such as music, vehicular noise, and speech of other humans, being picked up by the microphones of mobile phones. Hence, it is crucial for the success of these innovative systems, that unwanted signals are separated, and only the required user's speech signal is fed into the voice recognition system. In this thesis, we try to contribute to solve this problem by verifying a BSS method based on second order statistics and making suggestions to improve the technique in real time systems. 1.1 Scope In mobile environments, speech enhancement can be conducted using two main building blocks. First, a blind source separation stage is adopted, followed by a background denoising process, to remove further noise included in the separated signal. There exist several methods to perform these two operations, such as conventional beamforming and single channel denoising techniques. The two methods we considered are the BSS based on second order statistics and background denoising based on minimum statistics. These chosen methods have been the basis for several successful implementations that exist today and are considered as benchmarks in each category. -7The work of this thesis involves a general case of recovering convolutive mixtures of wide band signals with at least as many sensors as sources. More emphasis is given on the practical type of signals which are quite often non-stationary, and explicitly use the non-stationarity in the development of the methods. An efficient solution to the permutation problem of the frequency domain algorithm is introduced, which are dealt with in more depth in other proposals. The two main processing blocks are evaluated, the BSS process and the background denoising process. However, more emphasis is given to the BSS process, since carefully implemented, the background denoising can also be incorporated within the BSS process. Experiments are carried out separately for BSS and background denoising methods using a two microphone setup. 1.2 Organization of the Thesis The remainder of the report is structured as follows. Chapter 2 provides information about the problem formulation. It further discusses the solution approaches available today and related research carried out by other researchers in the field. The basic foundations to acoustic signal processing and particularly the theory behind second order statistics are discussed in Chapter 3. It gives further insight into the Multiple Adaptive Decorrelation (MAD) algorithm. The derivation of the offline version of the MAD algorithm is introduced in Chapter 4, based on the so called “backward model”. Detailed flow chart for the implementation of the said algorithm is provided. In chapter 5, the online version of the MAD algorithm is introduced. The direct time domain derivation is presented. Practical implementation details such as techniques for power normalization and block processing approach are discussed further. -8Chapter 6 introduces the background denoising method based on minimum statistics, namely the Martin's Algorithm. This method is briefly discussed, since background denoising can even be implemented within the BSS process. The realtime implementation and experiments are discussed in chapter 7. This chapter also includes the improvements that are used to make the algorithm work in realtime. Chapter 8 provides an evaluation of the performance of the algorithms. A recently proposed standard method is used to evaluate the quality of separation and the distortion measure of the BSS algorithms. A qualitative measure is used to evaluate the background denoising method. Finally, Chapter 9 concludes the work of this thesis. -9- Chapter 2 Background and Related work It is the aim of this chapter to provide an overview of the origin and solution approaches to the source separation problem in general. 2.1 Background A number of single or multiple microphone based signal processing algorithms have become popular when performing speech enhancement in real world applications. They often use a combination of a probabilistic frame work with statistical models of desired speech signal and spatial information about signal mixtures, by using an array of microphones with a know geometry to suppress interfering signals, which is also known as beamforming [12]. In recent years, much attention has turned towards blind source separation. When referring to “blind”, the meaning is that both the sources and the mixtures are unknown and only the recordings of the mixture are available. The art of separating source signals by observing only the mixed signals is known as Blind Source Separation. Blind source separation can be considered as an alternative to beamforming. Source separation aims to separate a set of signals from a set of mixed signals. The signal mixing process can be modeled in two different ways, i.e. instantaneous mixing model and convolutive mixing model, which are described below. - 10 2.1.1. Instantaneous mixing model When a signal mixture is represented as a linear combination of the original sources at every time instant, it is defined as an instantaneous mixing model. Suppose that the observed mixture at sensors is = [ , … , ] of source signals = [ , … , ] where is a discrete time index. Then an instantaneous mixture can be represented mathematically as follows: = + (1) where is a mixing matrix, and is the additive noise. A pictorial view of the instantaneous model is shown in figure 2.1. . . . . . . . . . . ̂ Separation Algorithm Figure 2.1: Block diagram for an instantaneous mixing model . ̂ . . . . ̂ - 11 This is the simplest form of modeling a mixture of signals. Practically, when the signals are recorded in an ideal environment, i.e., no reverberation, the mixture of the signals recorded by the mixing system can be considered as an instantaneous mixture. In fact, other applications such as signals found in biomedical contexts and images are examples of close to instantaneous mixture problems. 2.1.2. Convolutive mixing model Although instantaneous mixing models are extensively studied, where many algorithms are proposed with promising results for separation, it fails to model real life situations, for instance recording in a real room. In such a situation the microphones in the environment picks up not only the signals of the sources, but also the delayed and attenuated versions of the same signals due to reverberation. Hence, this can be viewed as microphones receiving a filtered version of different signals, and can be modeled as follows. = − + !"# 2 Where is the multipath multi-channel filter. The source mixtures are called convolved mixtures since acoustic signals recorded simultaneously in a reverberant environment can be described as the sums of differently convolved sources. The following figure depicts an example of a convolutive mixing system. - 12 - . . . . . . . . . . ̂ Separation Algorithm . ̂ . . . . ̂ Figure 2.2: Multi-path problem in convolutive mixing There are many instances where it is necessary to separate signals from a mixture to obtain the original sources, by observing only the mixture i.e. without prior knowledge of the original sources. This is a typical requirement especially in acoustic signal processing and speech enhancement applications. BSS is one way of solving this kind of problems and recently significant research has been conducted. One such problem is described by the so called “cocktail party” problem. Suppose you are at a cocktail party. It is not a big problem for human beings to concentrate on listening to one voice in the room, even when there are lots of other sound sources, such as other conversations, music, background noise, etc. present in the room. The "cocktail party" problem can be described as the ability to focus one's listening attention on a single talker among a cacophony of conversation and background noise; also known as "cocktail party effect". For a long time, it has been recognized as an interesting and a challenging problem. It is not known exactly how humans are able to separate the different sound sources [11]. - 13 From a technical perspective, the "cocktail party problem" is called the "multichannel blind deconvolution” problem. It is aimed at separating a set of mixtures of convolved signals, detected by an array of microphones. This is performed extremely well by the human brain, and over the years attempts have been made to capture this functionality by using assemblies of abstracted neurons or adaptive processing units. In recent research, blind source separation is considered as a common usage when dealing with the “cocktail party” problem. Some of the other interesting application areas of BSS include speech enhancement in multiple microphones, cross talk removal in multi-channel communication, Direction of Arrival (DOA) estimation in sensor arrays and improvement over beamforming microphones for audio and passive sonar. 2.2 Solution approaches for convolutive BSS Many of the natural signals are convolutive mixtures. Hence methods to process convolutive mixtures to separate source signals are vital. The solution to the problem of instantaneous mixtures is quite well known and can be easily addressed by means of applying an ICA algorithm. In the time domain, convolutive mixtures can be modeled as multiple instantaneous mixtures in the frequency domain. The BSS problem of convolutive mixtures can be solved by simply employing ICA on each frequency bin. However the main problem of this simple approach is solving the so called "permutation problem". The following section briefly describes ways [10] of extending ICA to solve the convolutive mixtures as well as merits and demerits associated with each of the techniques. - 14 2 2.1 Extending ICA in time domain This is the simplest way to separate signals from a convolutive mixture, although it has several drawbacks. In the time domain, it is possible to extend the ICA directly for convolutive mixtures and one would obtain good separation, provided that the algorithm converges. However, extending the ICA algorithm for a convolutive mixture is more complex than for a instantaneous mixture, and is computationally more expensive when dealing with longer FIR filters, due to many convolution operations. 2.2.2 Frequency domain BSS In the frequency domain, for each frequency bin, complex valued ICA for instantaneous mixtures is employed. The advantage of this approach is that the ICA algorithm remains simple and performed separately at each frequency bin. Compared to convolutions in the time domain techniques, the frequency domain multiplications are computationally more efficient. Consequently the frequency domain BSS approach is more efficient than its time domain counterpart. Further improvements could be achieved by adopting fast algorithms such as FastICA [13][14], and / or by parallel computation of multiple frequency bins. However, a serious problem in the frequency domain techniques is the “permutation ambiguity”, which refers to the aligning of permutations in each frequency bins so that separated signal in the time domain contains frequency components from the same source. This is the so called “permutation problem” of the frequency domain BSS techniques. The other issue in such implementations is the circularity effect of discrete frequency representation. These major problems are solved in the method proposed by Parra [1], which is the basis of this thesis, and is described in detail, in the chapters to follow. - 15 2.2.3 Time-Frequency domain BSS In some time domain BSS methods, convolution in the time domain is speed up by the overlap-save / overlap-add methods in the frequency domain, whereas some other methods uses filter coefficients updated in the frequency domain, and non linear functions for evaluating independence are applied in the time domain. The permutation problem is avoided due to the independence of separated signals being evaluated in the time domain. By choosing an appropriate window function, circularity problem can be minimized. 2.3 Related work on Second Order statistics The types of signals that are dealt with in this thesis are acoustic speech signals, which can be considered as broadband signals. There are mainly three [2] general types of algorithms known in the field of blind source separation for convolutive mixtures of broad-band signals. • Algorithms that diagonalize a single estimate of the second order statistics. • Algorithms that simultaneously diagonalize second order statistics at multiple times exploiting non-stationarity of the signals • Algorithms that identify statistically independent signals by considering higher order statistics. In the first type of algorithms, decorrelated signals are generated by diagonalizing second order statistics, which is described in the next section, and involves a simple structure which can be implemented efficiently, as pointed out in [5]. However the main problem with such implementations is the convergence to the correct solution is not always guaranteed, as single decorrelation is not a sufficient condition for achieving independent model sources. Hence, to achieve independent source models for stationary signals, higher order statistics need to be considered, which can be obtained by either direct measurement and optimization of higher order statistics [6] or indirectly by assuming a model of the shape of the cumulative density function (cdf) for the signals [7]. Most of these methods are fairly complex and difficult to implement whereas other methods fail when it is not possible to assume the cdf accurately. - 16 There have been a handful of online algorithms proposed for methods based on the single decorrelation and indirect higher order methods [8][9] corresponding to their offline counterparts described above. However they also suffer from the issues discussed earlier. In an online BSS algorithm as data may change properties quickly, an essential criterion is the fast convergence for non-static filter. The method we are verifying is based on proposals by Parra in [1] and [2], which proves to be efficiently and accurately performing the convolutive signal decorrelation and both the offline method and the online version are discussed and implemented within this thesis. This technique falls under the second category out of the three mentioned above. The second process, which is the background deniosing, is considered next. Especially in modern hands free speech communication environments, most of the time it occurs that the speech signal is corrupted by background noise. The aim of introducing this process after the BSS process is to suppress any additional background noise that is included in the separated signal, to make it even clearer. For this purpose we have chosen Martin's algorithm [3], since it is an efficient algorithm and suitable for real time applications. - 17 - Chapter 3 Foundations In this section, some fundamental concepts in BSS are introduced, which forms the foundation for the discussions in the remaining chapters. 3.1 Second order Statistics In second order and higher order statistical separation criteria, the basic assumption made is the statistical independence of the source signals. In general, to capture statistical independence, higher order statistics are required, which suggests that second order statistics alone is not sufficient to analyze the statistical independence. For instance, if the source signals are identically and independently distributed samples of a stationary distribution, second and fourth order statistics are not sufficient for separation [1]. However the natural signals (voice, images) are often not stationary nor independently distributed, hence it is possible to use either second order statistics, or both second and fourth order statistics as a measure of independence. In many cases signals with temporally correlated sources, separation can be performed entirely based on second order statistics. It is also known that non-stationary signals can be separated by means of decorrelation. The more difficult ‘convolutive separation’ i.e. the separation of both correlated and nonstationary signals, can be solved using only second order statistics. 3.2 Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) Generally in the analysis using DFT, it is assumed that frequency components do not change with time. Hence, the length of the window does not affect the DFT results, and signal properties remain the same from the beginning to the end of the window. However, in the signals that we deal with in practice, for instance non-stationary signals such as radar, sonar and speech and data communication signals, properties such as amplitude, frequency and phase changes over time. For such signals a single DFT - 18 estimation is not sufficient as it does not give any information on the time at which a frequency component occurs. To deal with such signals, STFT or Time Dependent Fourier Transform (TDFT) concept has been introduced. STFT is a commonly used concept in speech processing applications. STFT is a simple concept where a moving window is applied to the signal and the Fourier transform is taken on the signal within the window as the window is moved. Mathematically, STFT of a signal can be defined as follows. , , $ = % − &' ()*+ +"(, 3 where % is a window sequence. The single discrete variable of the one dimensional signal is converted into a two dimensional function of discrete time variable and continuous frequency variable $, as a result of the STFT process. The STFT is periodic with in $ with period 2.. 3.3 Steepest Decent Algorithm In many ICA and BSS algorithms it is common to use the steepest decent or gradient decent approach to obtain the optimized weights for a particular solution. This method provides good tradeoffs between computational complexity and convergence performance. Suppose a starting point # is known for a given function to be optimized. Then in a steepest decent algorithm an iteration is performed as follows, to update the current value of x. /0 = / − 1∇3 45 / 6 (4) Here, 1 is the step size which needs to be chosen carefully depending on the application. The last term is pointing in the negative gradient direction. The iteration is continued until no further change occurs in the x, i.e. , should converged to the minimum point of the error function 4. - 19 3.4 Convolutive BSS In this section, background theory is formulated for the BSS method considered in this thesis. Most of this theory is adapted from the work published by Parra [17]. For real environments, instantaneous mixture model is not a sufficient descriptor. Signals arrive at different times and delays towards the sensors in real environments. Some signals are reflected at boundaries and obstacles of the system under consideration, and results in multiple delays. Such phenomenon is known as a multipath environment and can be modeled as a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) convolutive mixture, = − !"# 5 Given the above model, the problem then is identifying 8 coefficients of the channel , where 8 is the channel length, and thereby, to estimate 9, the source signals. This is rather a complex process since matrix is a matrix of filters, rather than a matrix of scalars, which is the case for instantaneous mixture model. Even when the channel is identified, inverting it to obtain the inverse matrix is hard, since the inverse may be recursive and may result in an unstable Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter. An alternative approach would be to formulate an FIR inverse model :, < 9 = : − !"# 6 and estimate : such that model sources 9 = [̂ , … , ̂ ] are statistically independent. - 20 3.5 Cross-Correlation, circular and linear convolution The cross correlation of a discrete signal can be expressed as = , + > = 4[ + > ] (7) The 4[. ] operator indicates the Expectation operator. For stationary signals, the correlations depend on the relative time and not that of the absolute time i.e., = , + > = = > (8) Now consider taking the z-transform of = >. Practically when performing the z-transform, a limited number of sample points of z are taken (i.e. the DFT). Then, = @ = @AB zDzH (9) where AB z are the z-transform of the autocorrelations of the sources, @ is the matrix of z- transformed FIR filters. It should be noted that due to the assumption of independence, AB z is diagonal. Suppose T equidistant sampling points on the unit circle are considered. Then it is possible to replace the z-transform with the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). For periodic signals, DFT can be expressed as the circular convolution. In (5) and (6), it was assumed that they are linearly convolved. Linear convolution can be approximated by circular convolution, provided the frame length T is chosen much larger than the channel filer length, i.e. 8 ≪ G. Then the STFT of , , $ can be expressed as follows. , $ ≈ $, $, IJK 8 ≪ G (10) where , $ is the DFT of frame size T starting at discrete time . Similarly , $ and $ can be expressed in the same way. - 21 But for non-stationary signals, cross-correlations are time dependent. Estimation of the cross-power spectrum with a resolution of 1/T can be difficult if the stationarity of the source signal is in the order of T or less. However, any cross-power spectrum average that diagonalizes the source signals may be sufficient [1]. Parra and Spence in [1] considered the simple sample average, P( 1 L . $ = O + G, $ OQ + G, $ = N !"# 11 which yields the following in matrix form. L , $ = $AB , $Q $ = (12) Due to the independence assumption, and if N is considered to be sufficiently large, A , $ can be modeled as a diagonal matrix. It is important that the signals are non-stationary for (12) to be linearly independent for different time . - 22 - Chapter 4 Offline algorithm 4.1 Problem formulation The method of performing blind source separation of convolutive signals by simultaneously diagonalizing second order statistics at multiple time periods in the frequency domain is considered, which have a simple structure and can be implemented efficiently. If = , and given we are interested in finding and . This is a simple problem if priory information about either or s is known. The solution can then be determined explicitly, provided that the inverse of exists or can be approximated using a pseudo inverse. The main problem we are dealing with in this thesis is the situation where we don't have any information about either or and our task is to determine (R and purely based on some set of basic assumptions made on and , and with only having knowledge about . This process of finding solutions is known as Blind source/signal separation. - 23 SJTKU' VWXY Z['K\' VWXY (n) A11 S'XKX]' VWXY ̂ ̂ W11 A21 W21 A12 W12 Source A A22 Source B Mixing System A • Delay • Attenuation • Reverbaration ̂ W22 Demixing System W Estimation of ̂ and ̂ using only and Figure 4.1: BSS system 4.2 Derivation of the Offline Algorithm Two approaches can be found in the literature to solve the convolutive separation based on second order statistics, the so called “forward model” and the “backward model” [1]. Given a forward model, finding a stable inverse is not always guaranteed. Hence our implementation is based on the latter approach, since it's more robust. In addition to source separation, these techniques can be used for additive noise power estimation. The source separation problem is described here. Assume the statistical non-stationary independent signals are denoted , = [ , … , ] (13) These sources are convolved and mixed in a linear medium and observed in a multi-path environment leading to sensor signals , - 24 = [ , … , ] (14) It is further assumed that ≤ , which means at least as many sensors as sources. The sensor signals with additional noise is presented in discrete time domain by the equation: = D − > + _"# 15 Source separation techniques are used to identify the 8 coefficients of the channel (p) and find an estimate 9 for the unknown source signals. Alternatively, to estimate the source signal there exist a finite impulse response (FIR) multi-path filter of :>, < 9 = :> − > _"# 16 This is known as the backward model. 4.2.1 Cross-Correlation For non-stationary signals, the cross-correlation is time dependent and varies from one estimate segment to another. The cross correlation estimates are computed as follows: P( 1 ` , $/ = O + G, $/ Oa + G, $/ = N Where ： $/ = c/ d !"# 17 , k = 1, 2, … , K O + G, $/ = ggG[ + G] (18) = [, … , + G − 1] (19) - 25 - We can also write for each average, L , $ = $AB n, ωDH ω = (20) If N is sufficiently large, we can model AB n, ω as diagonal due to the independence assumption. For (20) to be linearly independent for different times , it is necessary that AB n, ω changes over time for a given frequency, i.e., the signals are non-stationary. 4.2.2 Backward Model Using the cross correlation estimate of equation (17), we can find the source signals with the crosspower-spectra satisfying the following equation: L , $:Q $ A , $ = :$= (21) L / , $, i.e. / = jNG It’s important to make sure we have non overlapping averaging time for = (where G is the window length, N is the number of intervals used to estimate each cross-power-matrix and j is the number of matrices to be diagonalized) because we need to fulfill the independence condition for every time instant. If the signals vary sufficiently fast, overlapping times need to been chosen. The windows maybe overlap one after another, which means each DFT value is derived from the signal information that is also contained in the previous window. In an audio signal processing system, the specific value G is selected based on the acoustics of the room in which the signals are recorded. For example, if the signal is recorded in a large room with strong reverberation effect, in order to achieve good quality of separation, a sufficiently long window size G should be chosen, such to include the reverberation effect. - 26 The multipath model : that should simultaneously satisfy these equations for j time estimations can be found using a least squares estimation procedure as follows, k, À = argmin : Where: $x = cx :,q̀ :_"#,_r< :ss *" ∑x" ∑d /" ||vw, $x || (22) , t = 1, 2, … , T ` w, $:Q $ − A w, $ vw, $ = :$= (23) To compute the filter coefficients :, a gradient decent algorithm is applied which minimizes the value of : as function K ∂| ` w, $ = 2 k, ω}ω = ∂} ∗ ω " ∂| ∂À∗B k, $ = −diagk, $ 24 25 The value of : are updated as : = : − ∇ v, where ∇ v is the gradient step value and is a weighting constant that controls the size of the update. The optimal solution for given :$ and at every gradient step can be computed explicitly, which yields: L 3 k, $} T $] ÀB k, $ = diag[}$ (26) In order to achieve an accurate solution, the gradient descent process is constrained in time domain for the filter coefficient in : to attain certain values. Effectively T filter coefficients in :$ are - 27 parameterized with parameters in :>. Selecting arbitrary permutations will not satisfy this condition on the length of the filter, : $ = 0 for > > ≪ G. This, requires zero coefficients for elements with > > , to restrict the solutions to be continuous or “smooth” in the frequency domain. The filter size constraint can be enforced by projecting the unconstrained gradients in (24) to the subspace of permissible solutions. This projection is implemented by transforming the gradient into the time domain, by zeroing all components with > > , and transforming back to the frequency domain. The unit gain constraint on diagonal filters is simply enforced by keeping the filter coefficient constant to $ = 1 [1]. In this manner, the “permutation problem” is solved and a unique solution for the FIR filter coefficients is computed such that these filter coefficients are used to process the received signals which will efficiently separate the source signals. 4.2.3 Power normalization Experimentally it has been shown [2] that convergence of the gradient algorithm can be substantially improved when different adaptation constants are used for every frequency. According to (24) the gradient terms are scaled with the square of = , resulting in considerably varying signal powers across frequencies. Consequently gradient terms at different frequencies results in considerably different magnitudes. To obtain comparable update steps for different frequencies, the gradients are scaled by a power normalization process. This amounts to an introduction of a weighting factor for the cost function. d = &$vw, $ *" /" 27 It has been shown in [2] that good results can be achieved when &$ is a straight forward power normalization defined as: L w, $ ( &$ = ∑//" = (28) - 28 4.3 Offline algorithm The basic offline algorithm flows as follows. Blocks (segment) of input signal that comprises mixed signals are accumulated. Then the algorithm divides the length of the input signal into a plurality of Tlength periods (window) and performs a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) on the mixed signal over each T-length period. The K cross-correlation power spectra that are each averaged over N of the Tlength periods is computed. Using the cross-correlation power values, a gradient descent process computes the coefficients of an FIR filter that will effectively separate the source signals from the input signal by simultaneously decorrelating the K cross-correlation power spectra. Figure 4.1: Pictorial view of the calculation of Rx - 29 The flow chart for the implementation of the offline algorithm is shown in figure 4.2. Figure 4.2: Flow chart for the offline algorithm - 30 - Chapter 5 Online BSS Non-stationary signals in a static path environment can be recovered using simultaneously decorrelating varying second order statistics as discussed previously. However, when the sources are moving, which is the more practical and realistic scenario, the assumption of “static multi path” is no longer a valid assumption. In an online algorithm, the data cannot be saved and they need to be processed as they arrive, to produce the output. Although there exist many online algorithms, we have chosen [2] since it is considered as a benchmark in this type of algorithms and also it has proven to be efficient in real time environments. One way to deal with online scenario is to convert the offline algorithm to an online version directly. When doing so, it is required to find non-stationary signal statistics for convergence, which is practically difficult. The algorithm proposed by Parra in [2] is an efficient online gradient algorithm with adaptive step size in the frequency domain, based on second order statistics, namely, the Multiple Adaptive Decorrelation (MAD) which we have implemented in this thesis. 5.1 Introduction The main objective of the MAD algorithm is to converge quickly in changing environments. The algorithm attempts to optimize the decorrelation of the cross correlation along time. Similar to the offline counterpart, the online version is a gradient decent algorithm. The general idea of a gradient decent algorithm is to optimize a cost function, which in this case is defined in terms of separation filters. The derivation of the cost function is illustrated in section 5.2. - 31 The on-line algorithm is directly derived in the time domain and later transformed into the frequency domain for efficiency and faster convergence of on-line updates. 5.2 Derivation in time domain Consider again = [ , … , ] , the non-stationary independent source signals. When these signals are observed in a multi path environment, = [ , … , ] can be modeled as follows. the = > − > + _"# observed / measured signal 29 Where > is the time domain mixing filter of order 8 , and ] is the background noise. For effective separation of sources it is necessary to assume that there exist more sensors than sources, ie ≤ . It has been shown in [23], that under certain conditions on the coefficients of >, the sources can be recovered by finding a sequence of optimal filter coefficients for the unmixing filter matrices :>, of suitably chosen length such that, < 9 = :> − > _"# 30 Similar to the offline algorithm, ≪ G, in order to prevent the permutation effect. The estimated sources would have diagonal second order statistics at different times. ie. ∀, > ∶ 4[99Q − >] = À , > (31) ÀB n, τ = diag5λ n, τ, … , λ n, τ6, are the autocorrelations of the sources at times , which should be estimated from the measured data. Unlike previous work, this online algorithm is derived in the time domain and is later converted into the frequency domain to improve efficiency and provide faster convergence of the online update rule. - 32 When the sampling average starting time is , the expectation of a sequence I can be written as: 45I6 = I + > , 32 _, Then a separation criterion for simultaneous diagonalization using (32) can be defined as follows. % = , % = , % = 4[99Q − >] − ̀ , > ,_ 33 ¡ 9 + > , 9Q − > + > , − ̀ , >¡ ,_ , 34 35 where ||.|| is the Frobenius norm. The cost function to be minimized for the algorithm is %, and the algorithm is developed to search for separation filters by minimizing the cost function % with a gradient decent algorithm. For a given : , the optimal estimates of the autocorrelation A , > are the diagonal elements of E[£9n£9H n − τ]. Hence the gradient only needs to be calculated with respect to W. The stochastic gradient is now calculated for the online algorithm with a gradient step for every . The following relation can be derived with this information. ¤,: ¤: = ∑¦∑¦¥ £9n + τ¥ £9H n + τ¥ − τ − AB n, τ ∗ ∑¦¥¥ £9n + τ¥¥ − τ§ H n + τ¥¥ − l + ∑¦∑¦¥ £9n + τ¥ − τ£9H n + τ¥ − AB n, τ ∗ ∑¦¥¥ £9n + τ¥¥ § H n + τ¥¥ − τ − l (36) - 33 This can be simplified as follows. Δ}lª = −2μ ∑¦∑¦¥ £9n + τ¥ £9H n + τ¥ − τ − AB n, τx ∑¦¥¥ £9n + τ¥¥ − τ§ H n + τ¥¥ − l (37) The sums over >′ and >′′ are the averaging operations and sum over > is from (34). If it is assumed that estimated cross-correlations don't change significantly within the time scale, Where ` , > = 4[ ® ®Q − >] = (38) ` ¯: = −2:= (39) ` :Q − = := (40) 5.3 Frequency domain conversion Since the convolution process is more computationally expensive, the time domain gradient is transformed into Frequency domain with G frequency bins. Due to the assumption, Q<<T, (39) can be approximated in frequency domain as follows. where: ` , $ ∆x :$ = 2, $:$= (41) ` , $:Q $ − A , $ , $ = :$= (42) - 34 5.4 Power Normalization An adaptive power normalization factor is introduced to improve the convergence of the algorithm, similar to the offline counterpart. To perform a proper Newton-Raphson update, the inverse of the Hessian is required. However, computing such Hessian inverse is difficult in our case. One way to overcome this is to neglect the off-diagonal terms of the Hessian. This would result in efficient gradient updates when coefficients are not strongly coupled. According to (41), the approximate frequency domain gradient updates depend on :$ . Therefore parameters are decoupled for different frequencies. On the other hand if several elements of :$ at a single frequency are strongly dependent, then the diagonal approximation is quite poor. This would result in poor performance when powers of different channels are quite different to each other. Hence the gradient direction of the matrix elements :$) for a given frequency should not be modified. Instead, the original gradient is used with an adaptive step size with a normalization factor ℎ, $ for different frequencies. Ie, ¤,* ¯:$ = −ℎ( , $ ¤:∗* (43) To calculate ℎ, $, the sum over is considered and we obtain the following. ℎ, $ = ) ² , $ ` , $ = :$= ∗ $² ²) ) $ 44 This is an adaptive power normalization and the resulting updates are stable and leads to faster convergence. - 35 - Figure 5.1: Flow chart for the online algorithm - 36 The online algorithm is implemented as a block processing procedure in practice. The signals are windowed with a length of G, and the block of G elements are then transformed into frequency domain. In signal processing terms we calculate the Short time Fourier Transform (STFT) of the signal. These frequency bins are then used to calculate the frequency domain estimated cross-correlations. It is typical in online algorithms to implement the expectation operation as an exponentially windowed average of the past values. This can be expressed as ` , $ = 1 − ³= ` , $ + ³, $Q , $ = (45) where γ is a forgetting factor which should be determined based on the stationarity of the signal. Finally when : is converged, these weights are used to filter out the original signal to obtain the separated estimated sources. - 37 - Chapter 6 Spectral Subtraction based on minimum statistics The second building block we consider is the background denoising process. Spectral subtraction based algorithms are generally used to enhance noisy speech signals. One approach is to use a speech activity detector to detect the speech pause, which requires additional procedures and equipment. In this thesis we will be using an approach based on minimum statistics of sub bands, proposed by Martin [3]. This algorithm is capable of tracking non-stationary noise signals and eliminates the problem of speech activity detection. We selected this algorithm due to its computational simplicity and hence its suitability for real time applications. 6.1 Components Let be the sum of a zero mean speech signal and a zero mean noise signal , where n is the discrete time index. = + (46) If and are assume to be statistically independent, then taking expectation on both sides gives: 4´ µ = 4´ µ + 4´ µ (47) The spectral processing is based on a DFT filter bank with ¶ sub bands and with a decimation / interpolation ratio of · [5]. A pictorial view of the algorithm is depicted in figure 6.1. As it is demonstrated, only the magnitudes of the DFT of sub bands of the signal are changed and the phase components are preserved. Typically ¶ is chosen to be of length 256 and · to be 64. - 38 - Figure 6.1: Block diagram of the spectral calculation process The main components of this algorithm comprises of two main procedures. 1. A Noise Power Estimator 2. Subtraction rule which translates sub band Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) into a spectral weighting factor The basic idea is to attenuate sub bands with lower SNR (with the Spectral Weighting factor) and to keep the sub bands of higher SNR intact. The above two factors have a significant impact on audible residual noise [4] 6.2 Noise Estimation Two approaches can be identified for noise estimation. The simpler of the two is the analysis during speech pauses. There are two disadvantages in this approach. (a) Changes in the noise spectrum during speech periods cannot be detected, i.e. the noise has to be stationary over long time periods. (b) A voice activity detection (VAD) must be introduced to interrupt noise estimation between speech activity. One major difficulty in this case is the recognition of unvoiced phonemes. - 39 We use the second approach, which is a minimum statistics algorithm proposed by Martin [7]. The first step in Estimating the noise power is to calculate the short time subband signal power 8 , $. This is performed using a recursively smoothed periodogram. The periodogram updates are given by the following formula. 8 , $ = 18 , $ − 1 + 1 − 1|, $| (48) Typically, 1 is set to values between 0.9-0.95. By calculating a weighted minimum of the short time power estimate 8 , $ within a window of ¸ subband power samples, the noise power estimate 8 , $ is obtained as follows. 8 , $ = U 8+ , $ (49) where 8+ , $ is the estimated minimum noise power and U is a compensation factor for the bias of the minimum estimate and depends only on known algorithmic parameters. To improve computational efficiency, the delay in the data window of length ¸ is decomposed into ¹ windows of length , where ¹ ∗ = ¸. The minimum noise power estimate 8+ , $ of a subband is obtained by frame- wise comparison of smoothed signal power estimate 8 , $ and preceding PSD values 8 − &, $, where & = 1, 2, . . . , ¹ − 1, which are stored in a FIFO register. The depth of the FIFO is given by ¹. The process of determining the minimum of ¹ consecutive subband power samples is depicted in figure 6.2. It can be seen that in case of decreasing noise power, faster update of the minimum power estimate can be achieved whereas in case of increasing noise power the update of noise estimates is delayed by ¹ samples [19]. - 40 , $ [. ] 1−1 , $ 8 , $ T 8 , $ 8 − 1, $ 8 − 2, $ 8+ , $ min … … …. 8 , $ o 8 − ¹ − 1, $ 1 Figure 6.2: Structure of the noise subband power estimation algorithm 6.3 Subtraction rule We calculate the short time signal power ºººººººººººº |, $| by smoothing the subsequent magnitude squared input spectra with a first order recursive network. ººººººººººººº ºººººººººººººººººº |, $| = ³|, $ − 1| + 1 − ³|, $| (50) where ³ ≤ 0.9. As proposed by Berouti in [17], spectral magnitudes with an oversubtraction factor J», is subtracted and a limitation of the maximum subtraction by a spectral floor constant 0.01 ≤ ≤ 0.05, the output magnitude then becomes, |¼, $| = ½ ¾ 8 , $ VI |, $|, $ ≤ ¾ 8 , $¿ |, $| , $ 'Y' (51) - 41 Where, ,* Â , $ = À1 − ÁJ, $ ººººººººººººº Å |Ã,*|Ä (52) Large oversubtraction factor JÆ, w would eliminate residual spectral peaks ('musical noise') which also effects the quality of speech at the same time, resulting in low energy phonemes being suppressed. - 42 - Chapter 7 Computer simulation This section introduces the implementation of the BSS algorithms discussed in the earlier chapters in a real time system. The basic platform used to implement the online algorithm was originally developed by Dr. Nedelko Grbić and his research group at the department of Applied Signal Processing, Blekinge Institute of Technology. This includes an extension to MATLAB, which interacts with a stereo sound card to sample the incoming voice data and to make the output data available in real time, after processing with an algorithm of one’s choice. This is a very cost effective and a convenient way to test real time scenarios, hence suitable for rapid application development due to its ability to perform simulations on MATLAB, before being implemented on an actual real time system. Once favorable results are obtained with this setup, it's a matter of converting the MATLAB code to C/C++ code suitable for an embedded application. 7.1 Requirements The main requirements in a real time system are the efficiency of the algorithm and low latency in capturing and producing the output. Even though MAD algorithm is efficient, it still needs to be implemented in an efficient manner to work in real time implementation in matlab. The incoming data need to be processed without iteration of the same data, since input data is available in realtime and the output should be produced in realtime with small delay. 7.2 MATLAB implementation It is well known that in MATLAB, the introduction of nested “for” loops tend to degrade the efficiency of a program due to the access of array elements. Hence the MAD algorithm was implemented in a block processing fashion using vectors. The block processing rule ensures faster data processing. A significant improvement in the algorithm was achieved in this way. - 43 For instance, using n = 11; x = rand(n); y = rand(n) z = x(1:2:n) + y(1:2:n) is more efficient than using for i=1:2:n z(i) = x(i) + y(i); end. There are certain restrictions imposed by the sound card. Basically the sampling rate and the block size is fixed by the manufacturer. The available sampling rates are 48 kHz and 44.1 kHz with a block size of 512 samples. Hence we need to work within these fixed constraints and ensure the algorithm works properly under this given sampling rate and the block size. 7.3 Experiment Setup and algorithm The basic hardware included in this phase are : • A laptop (1.73-GHz Intel Pentium M 740) • A stereo sound card (Echo Indigo) manufactured by Echo Indigo Inc (frequency sample rate 48/44.1 kHZ, data block 512, one i/o channel) • A flexible 2 microphone set • A loud speaker Figure 7.1 shows the equipment that is being used in this experiment. - 44 - Figure 7.1: Experiment equipment The figure 7.2 depicts a block diagram of the real time setup and figure 7.2 shows the block diagram of the software routine. - 45 - Figure 7.2: Software routines 7.4 Simulation results The experiments were carried out in a room of 9& with background music. The distance between the speaker and the microphones is 30 cm in a square ordering. Sample frequency 44.1kHZ Block size 512 Filter length 128 Microphone used 2 Table 7.1: Experiment setup values for real time testing - 46 - Chapter 8 Evaluation 8.1 Introduction Speech enhancement refers to the improvement of the value or quality of the speech. The improvements are made in intelligibility and / or quality of the degraded speech signal. The measurement of such improvements is a difficult problem due to the fact that the nature and characteristics of noise signals can change dramatically in time and from application to application, hence it is hard to find a robust measure. Another reason is that performance measurements can also be defined differently by each researcher. Two popular criteria for performance measurement are: (1) Quality: This is a subjective measurement and depends on the individual preferences. (2) Intelligibility: This is an objective measurement, for instance considering the percentage of words identified by users. A main issue which concerns this type of measurement is listener fatigue, which refers to the user's ear tunes out unwanted noises and focuses on the wanted ones. 8.2 BSS evaluation method Having a standard measurement technique is important to measure the separation quality in BSS algorithms, since many researchers use their own methods to evaluate their results, which does not reflect a true picture of the separation quality and makes it hard to compare different algorithms. To overcome these problems and to compare different types of BSS techniques, a standard evaluation method is needed. We use a technique proposed by Schobben, Torkkola and Smaragdis in [15] to evaluate our results. - 47 The separation quality of the Æ th separated output is defined as ÈÉ̂Ê,Ê Ä Ë S) = 10YJW Ç Í (53) ÈÉ∑sÌÊ̂ Ê, Ä Ë s Where ̂),s is the Æ-th output when only the V th source is active. With this equation, the power ratio between the desired separated output source and all the other disturbing source is calculated. The distortion of the j th separated output is defined as ÈÉÊ,Ê (ÎÊ ,̂Ê Ä Ë ¸) = 10YJW Ç ÈÉÊ, Ä Ë Ê Í (54) Where ),Ê is the contribution to the Æ- th sensor of the Æ - th source alone, and 1) = 4 É),Ê Ë /4Ð̂) Ñ is a scale invariant measure. 4´. µ is the expectation operator. 8.3 Experiment and Results Following settings are kept fixed throughout the experiment. • The mixing is a two source, two sensor setup in a real room recording setup as well as some simulated scenarios • Input speech sequences are from music and male voice, recorded for 8 seconds • Signals are sampled with a sampling rate of 8 kHz in the recordings • The block size of the algorithm is 512 samples • Filter lengths were varied from 64 samples to 512 samples - 48 Separation quality (S1 | S2) dB MAD Offline MAD Online Filter length 64 20.4621|31.5317 21.9559|34.4566 Filter length 128 16.3620|21.6626 20.9290|31.4024 Filter length 256 16.6603|22.0382 20.0148|33.1949 Filter length 512 12.6127|27.4357 13.1895|11.4447 Table 8.1: Separation Quality Measures for an Instantaneous Mixture Separation distortion (D1|D2)dB MAD Offline MAD Online Filter length 64 -15.9390| -13.3931 -13.1940| -9.0089 Filter length 128 -12.0912| -7.8137 -9.9158| -10.0921 Filter length 256 -14.2202| -7.9876 -7.7516| -4.2034 Filter length 512 -10.1250| -8.5993 -4.8297| 12.6678 Table 8.2: Separation Distortion Measures for an Instantaneous mixture Separation quality (S1 | S2) dB MAD Offline MAD Online Filter length 64 0.7391|18.8786 1.6904|10.9569 Filter length 128 5.3014|17.0672 0.4649|15.0045 Filter length 256 3.5759|18.0015 2.1190|13.3240 Filter length 512 1.2806|18.2095 -5.2883|12.4346 Table 8.3: Separation Quality Measures for a Static Mixture Separation distortion (D1|D2)dB MAD Offline MAD Online Filter length 64 -6.9282| 4.6183 -7.1653| -11.5754 Filter length 128 1.0028| 7.6093 -10.3319| -14.9425 Filter length 256 1.8191| 9.4782 -12.6137| -16.7639 Filter length 512 1.4328| 3.0287 -9.7559| -10.1933 Table 8.4: Separation Distortion Measures for a Static mixture - 49 Separation quality (S1 | S2) dB MAD Offline MAD Online Filter length 64 3.3408 | 3.1798 4.7635 | -1.8335 Filter length 128 7.7058 | 4.0183 7.3421 | -1.3522 Filter length 256 7.4332 | 6.6986 2.8662 | 3.6885 Filter length 512 4.7900 | 6.4837 -1.7124 | 9.0720 Table 8.5: Separation Quality Measures for a Head Mixture Separation distortion (D1|D2)dB MAD Offline MAD Online Filter length 64 -0.2479 | -5.0346 0.1738 | -1.0855 Filter length 128 -1.0609 | -3.9216 -0.2862 | -0.8946 Filter length 256 -0.5360 | -3.0300 -0.6044 | -0.7258 Filter length 512 -1.0753 | -4.6627 -0.1054 | -4.7607 Table 8.6: Separation Distortion Measures for a Head mixture Separation quality (S1 | S2) dB MAD Offline MAD Online Filter length 64 3.4720 | 3.4264 0.5001 |-0.5227 Filter length 128 1.7252 | 2.1411 -5.3413 | 8.8600 Filter length 256 5.6180 | 6.2060 8.1500 | 7.1554 Filter length 512 3.2465 | 6.9594 5.6853 | 10.2311 Table 8.7: Separation Quality Measures for a simulated real room Separation distortion (D1|D2)dB MAD Offline MAD Online Filter length 64 -3.5196 | -4.4073 -3.5004 | -4.5466 Filter length 128 -3.8052 | -4.0388 -3.4879 | -2.6749 Filter length 256 -2.9301 | -3.1329 -2.7426 | -3.0561 Filter length 512 -2.7404 | -2.9757 -2.4048 | -3.1939 Table 8.8: Separation Distortion Measures for a simulated real room - 50 Table 8.1 to Table 8.8 summarizes the performance of the quality of separation and the separation distortion as described in equations (53) and (54) respectively, for different signal mixtures. In this experiment the evaluation of the offline and online MAD algorithm was tested against instantaneous mixtures, static mixtures, head mixtures and in a simulated real room based on the tools provided in [15] for varying filter lengths, Q. The static mixture makes a 2x2 FIR mixing matrix with filters generated from various kinds of random filters. The Head mixture performs a 2 by 2 mixing, using the Head Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs) of a dummy head. This generates sounds in a similar manner in which the signals reach each of ears, by performing filtering based on the shape of a human shaped head [16]. As can be seen from the results, the online algorithm performs as much as the offline counterpart. Hence online algorithm described in [2] is a very efficient algorithm which can be used in real time systems for signal separation of convolutive mixtures. However, as expected, the quality of separation is higher in the instantaneous mixture compared to the other mixtures where it also gives a low distortion. In the instantaneous mixture, the separation quality goes down when increasing the filter length. In the simulated reverberant room, the separation quality measure is not as high as for the instantaneous case, but the perceived quality of separation by users is subjectively satisfactory. An issue with the setup used in the implementation was a “clicking” effect which can be heard in the separated signals. This is due to the block processing. This can be reduced if one would implement the STFT in a filer bank structure. The following figures displays the time domain input signals and the corresponding outputs of a more difficult convolutive mixture which comprises of a human voice signal mixed with a music signal. - 51 - (a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 8.1: Time signals of a convolutive input signals (a), (b) and output signals (c), (d) 8.4 Evaluation of Spectral subtraction method We use plots of the input and output signals in the time domain and in the frequency domain (PSD) to show a qualitative evaluation of Martin’s Algorithm. Figure 8.2 shows the time domain plot of a signal, where a female voice is recorded with background noise of a car. It can be seen that most of the noise is suppressed in the output signal. However, unlike in BSS algorithms, the “musical noise” is present in the output. Hence, care should be taken when selecting the parameters for the Martin’s algorithm, specially the value of ³. In many occasions, reasonably good results could be achieved by setting ³ = 0.85. - 52 - (a) (b) Figure 8.2: Time domain signals of the noisy input signal (a) and the output signal after denoising(b) (a) (b) Figure 8.3: Frequency domain plots of the noisy input signal (a) and the output signal (b) - 53 - Chapter 9 Conclusion We verified two methods which can be used as building blocks in mobile environments for speech enhancement. Two frequency domain algorithms, The Multiple Adaptive Decorrelation method for speech separation and Martin’s algorithm for background denoising were implemented. The implementations were successfully tested on a two microphone setup in real room recordings and in a real time realization. More emphasis was given to the BSS algorithm since background denoising can be implemented with BSS. The MAD algorithm was implemented both as an offline algorithm as well as an online algorithm. This produced promising results. Improved hearing quality can probably be achieved by realizing the STFT in a filter bank. The online version of the MAD algorithm was implemented in a block processing manner, and successful real time separation of signals in a two microphone setup was achieved in real room environments. Martin’s algorithm was implemented and tested for background denoising. Applications which require noise suppression alone, could adopt this method, since it’s less complex and computationally efficient than BSS algorithms. However, the “musical noise”, which is typical to spectral subtraction methods is an issue that need to be addressed. The performance of the implementation was evaluated using a standard technique proposed by Schobben, Torkkola and Smaragdis. The results show on average, a separation of 15-20 dB in instantaneous mixtures and 3dB in simulated real room environments. However in real time recordings a good separation was achieved as perceived by the user, but this was not included in the standard measures. - 54 - References [1] Parra, L., Spence, C., “Convolutive Blind Separation of Non-Stationary Sources”, IEEE Trans. on Speech and Audio Proc., vol 8., pp. 320-327, May 2000. [2] Parra L., Spence C., “On-line convolutive source separation of non stationary signals”, Journal of VLSI Signal Processing, 26(1/2):39{46, Aug. 2000. [3] Martin R., “Spectral Subtraction Based on Minimum Statistics”, Proc. EUSPICO’94, pp. 11811185, 1994. [4] Vary P., “Noise Suppression by Spectral Magnitude Estimation - Mechanism and Theoretical Limits -”, Signal Processing, Vol. 8, pp. 387-400, Elsevier, 1985. [5] Weinstein E., Feder M., and Oppenheim A. V. “Multi-Channel Signal Separation by Decorrelation”, IEEE Trans. Speech Audio Processing, vol 1, no.4, pp. 405-413, April 1993. 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