ESA 10th Conference Abstract Book Geneva, 7-10 September 2011

ESA 10th Conference Abstract Book Geneva, 7-10 September 2011
Geneva, 7-10 September 2011
ESA 10th Conference
Social Relations in Turbulent Times
Abstract Book
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Geneva,'7)10'September'2011'
ESA'10th'Conference'
Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
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Abstract!Book!
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European'Sociological'Association'(ESA)'
University'of'Geneva'&'Swiss'Sociological'Association'
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Abstract'Book'
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Geneva,'7)10'September'2011'
ESA'10th'Conference'
Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
Abstract'Book'
Organisers:'University'of'Geneva'&'Swiss'Sociological'Association'
ISBN'2)940386)18)8978)2)940386)18)5'
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www.esa10thconference.com'
www.europeansociology.org'
www.unige.ch/ses/socio'
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Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
Abstract'Book'
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Contents'
RN'01'Ageing'in'Europe'
5!
RN'02'Sociology'of'The'Arts'
44!
RN'03'Biographical'Perspectives'on'European'Societies'
69!
RN'04'Sociology'of'Children'and'Childhood'
82!
RN'05'Sociology'of'Consumption'
100!
RN'06'Critical'Political'Economy'
133!
RN'07'Sociology'of'Culture'
144!
RN'08'Disaster'and'Social'Crisis'
177!
RN'09'Economic'Sociology'
189!
RN'10'Sociology'of'Education'
208!
RN'11'Sociology'of'Emotions'
236!
RN'12'Environment'and'Society'
261!
RN'13'Sociology'of'Families'and'Intimates'Lives'
298!
RN'14'Gender'Relations'in'The'Labour'Market'and'the'Welfare'State'
333!
RN'16'Sociology'of'Health'and'Illness'
351!
RN'17'Industrial'Relations,'Labour'Market'Institutions'and'Employment'
378!
RN'18'Sociology'of'Communications'and'Media'Research'
403!
RN'19'Sociology'of'Profession'
413!
RN'20'Qualitative'Methods'
441!
RN'22'Sociology'of'Risk'and'Uncertainty'
472!
RN'23'Sexuality'
492!
RN'24'Science'and'Technology'
508!
RN'25'Social'Movements'
531!
RN'26'Sociology'of'Social'Policy'and'Social'Welfare'
551!
RN'27'Southern'European'Societies'
565!
RN'28'Society'and'Sports'
575!
RN'29'Social'Theory'
588!
RN'30'Youth'and'Generation'
604!
RN'31'Ethnic'Relations,'Racism,'Antisemitism'
636!
RN'32'Political'Sociology'
659!
RN'33'Women's'and'Gender'Studies'
685!
RN'34'Sociology'of'Religions'
704!
RN'35'Sociology'of'Migration'
723!
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
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Abstract'Book'
RS'01'Sociology'of'Disability'
755!
RS'02'Dynamics'and'Complexity'of'Minority'Statuses'in'Plural'Societies'
763!
RS'03'East'and'West'in'Europe:'Two'Decades'of'Transformations'
767!
RS'06'Maritime'Sociology'
779!
RS'07'Arts'Culture'and'Public'Memory'
781!
RS'10'Socio)Anthropological'Approaches'To'Transnational'Migrations'
788!
RS'14'Regional'Conflicts'
799!
RS'15'Rethinking'Inheritance'of'Inequalities'
801!
RS'17'Sociology'of'Celebration'
805!
RS'18'Economic'Elites'in'Turbulent'Times'
808!
RS'19'The'Tacit)Knowing'Approach'
811!
RS'20'Culture,'Politics'and'Conflict'
817!
RS'21'RENCORE:'Methods'for'Comparative'Research'on'Europe'
824!
RS'22'European'National'and'Regional'Identities'
828!
RS'23'Bringing'Lefebvre'Sociology'Back'in'Urban'Studies'
840!
RS'24'The'Sustainable'City'and'the'Arts'
843!
RS'25'Evolution'and'Sociology'
850!
RS'26'Global'and'Transnational'Sociology'
852!
RS'27'Russian'Sociology'in'Time,'Social'Space'and'Transition'
859!
RS'28'The'Relevance'Of'Karl'Marx’s'Theory'Today:'Does'It'Exist?'
868!
RS'29'Arts'And'Cultural'Management'
869!
Index'
874!
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Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
Abstract'Book'
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RN'01'Ageing'in'Europe'
AGEING!IN!RUSSIA:!QUALITY!OF!LIFE!AND!SOCIAL!
POLICIES!REGARDING!SENIOR!CITIZENS!
Irina'Khiznyakova
1'
1
Public' Policy' Department,' National' Research' University' Higher'
School'of'Economics,'Moscow,'Russian'Federation'
Abstract:'For'Russia'it'is'important'to'develop'efficient'social'poli)
cies'regarding'senior'citizens'because'even'now'21,6%[1]'of'Russian'
citizens' are' pensioners' and' this' number' is' growing.' But' do' they'
have'real'opportunities'for'self)actualization'and'quality'life?!
This'paper'discusses'the'data'of'the'research'aimed'to'explore'so)
cial'policies'regarding'pensioners'and'quality'of'life'of'Russian'sen)
ior' citizens.' Several' Russian' cities[2]' different' in' size,' economical'
and' social' level' have' been' chosen' for' research.' In' each' of' these'
cities' several' employees' of' different' governmental' and' non)
governmental'organizations'working'with'older'people'were'inter)
viewed[3].'About'a'hundred'of'pensioners'in'each'city'were'inter)
viewed,'too[4].'
Research' discovers' that' governmental' organizations' provide' just'
basic' needs:' basic' medical' services' and' small' retirement' benefits.'
However,'pensions'provided'by'the'government'(which'is'the'only'
source'of'income'for'most'pensioners)'are'reported'to'be'too'low'
by' about' 90%' of' respondents.' Non)governmental' organizations'
help' in' those' cases' where' government' is' weak.' But' non)
governmental'organizations'do'not'have'enough'resources'to'help'
everyone.'Some'of'interviewed'nonprofit'organizations'even'avoid'
publicity'and'are'not'widely'known.'
Another'problem'is'lack'of'communications'between'organizations.'
For' example,' there' are' several' gerontology' centers' in' Russia' but'
they' do' not' use' best' practices' of' each' other' because' they' do' not'
share' their' experience.' Of' course' it' slows' down' development' of'
gerontology.'
Communications' with' society,' leisure' activities' and' opportunities'
for'self)actualization'are'aspects'of'life'quality.'But'there'is'lack'of'
dialogue' between' pensioners' and' society' in' Russia.' Most' of' pen)
sioners' don’t' know' how' to' use' Internet' or' have' no' access' to' it;'
there' are' few' TV)programs,' newspapers' and' entertainments' for'
pensioners.'Pensioners'are'often'left'alone.'
Government' has' no' efficient' policy' regarding' senior' citizens.' Pen)
sioners' should' have' information' about' their' rights' and' opportuni)
ties.'
[1]'http://www.gks.ru'
[2]' Moscow,' Saint' Petersburg,' Orel,' Tuimazy,' Novokuznetsk,' Ufa,'
Kazan,'Prokopevsk,'Naberezhnye'Chelny.'
[3]'About'5)10'interview'in'each'city'
[4]'About'100)200'feedback'forms'in'each'city'
CONSUMPTION,!PRACTICES!AND!SOCIABILITY!IN!THE!
LIFE!COURSE.!LEAVE!THE!LABOUR!MARKET!AS!A!
TURNING!POINT?!
Hélène'Eraly
1'
1
Laboratoire' d'anthropologie' prospective,' UNIVERSITÉ' CATHO)
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LIQUE'DE'LOUVAIN,'Louvain)la)Neuve,'Belgium
Abstract:' This' communication' aims' to' understand' the' relationship'
between' retirement' and' consumption' patterns.' More' specifically'
we'analyse'the'consumption'practices'across'three'items:'yoga,'car'
and' gifts.' These' three' items' refer' respectively' to' the' body' aging,'
spatiality'and'sociability.'Older'age'is'considered'in'this'paper,'not'
in' terms' of' active' retirement,' but' as' a' step' in' the' life' course' (Ab)
bott,' Sewell,' Caradec,' Membrado).' Consumption' is' analysed' in'
terms'of'practices'rather'than'economic'exchange'(Warde).'
This'communication'is'based'on'qualitative'and'inductive'approach.'
Semi' structured' interviews' are' conducted' with' people' aged' 55' to'
67' years,' having' left' the' labour' market' (retirees,' pre)retirees,' dis)
ease,'older'unemployed).'
INDIVIDUALS’!VIEWS!ON!PENSIONS!AND!PENSION!
REFORMS!IN!AN!AGEING!SOCIETY.!NEW!EVIDENCE!
FROM!FOCUS!GROUPS!AND!INGDEPTH!INTERVIEWS!
Katrin'Prinzen
1
1'
Institute'for'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'COLOGNE,'Koeln,'Germany
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Abstract:' Whereas' there' is' a' huge' public' discourse' on' pension' re)
forms'in'an'ageing'society,'we'know'little'about'individuals’'views'
on'this'topic.'I'conduct'an'analysis'of'what'people'think'about'the'
pension'system'and'pension'reforms'in'an'ageing'society.'I'analyze'
qualitative'data'of'12'focus'groups'and'12'in)depth'interviews'con)
ducted' in' Germany' (2009)2011)' that' were' stratified' by' education'
and'age.'Both'characteristics'matter'as'they'are'standard'explana)
tory'factors'for'welfare'state'attitudes'and'I'thus'expect'to'capture'
a'wide'heterogeneity'of'attitudes.'Additionally,'age'is'important'as'
it' determines' the' membership' to' a' certain' generation' that' gains'
similar' experiences' with' regard' to' the' pension' system' in' certain'
demographic' settings.' The' thematic' analysis' of' verbal' statements'
gives'a'good'picture'of'how'individuals'perceive'the'pension'system'
and'its'current'reforms'in'the'context'of'an'ageing'society.'
In' contrast' to' the' meagre' findings' from' quantitative' survey' re)
search,' the' qualitative' study' yields' a' multitude' of' highly' relevant'
opinions'that'occupy'individuals.'The'data'analysis'yields'for'exam)
ple' the' following:' (1)' Individuals' regard' their' contributions' to' the'
German' public' pay)as)you)go' pension' system' as' personal' savings.'
As' a' result,' they' uttered' expectations' of' pension' entitlement' and'
judged'pension'cutbacks'as'hurting'the'norm'of'equity.'This'could'
cause'problems'in'case'of'pension'retrenchment'in'a'society'with'a'
shrinking'size'of'the'contributors’'group'size.'(2)'Young'individuals,'
though'being'well'informed'about'the'importance'of'a'private'pen)
sion' insurance' for' their' generation,' perseveringly' ignored' to' con)
clude'such'an'insurance'themselves'due'to'their'general'perceived'
insecurity' resulting' from' welfare' state' reforms,' rising' public' debt'
and' societal' changes.' (3)' Individuals' perceived' a' new' conflict' be)
tween'future'pensioners,'namely'between'those'who'could'afford'
private'pensions'insurance'and'those'who'could'not'afford'such'a'
private' provision' life' phase' of' work.' (4)' Young' and' middle)aged'
individuals' that' could' not' afford' a' private' pension' insurance' ut)
tered'feelings'of'disappointment'and'frustration.'In'their'view,'the'
state' abdicates' from' its' responsibility' for' the' poor' in' society.' The'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
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Abstract'Book'
paper' discusses' the' implications' of' the' qualitative' findings' for' the'
German'pension'system'and'its'legitimacy.'It'concludes'by'present)
ing'inductive'theses'that'can'be'tested'in'quantitative'studies.'
THE!POLITICAL!PARTICIPATION!OF!THE!ELDERLY!
PEOPLE!IN!THE!CZECH!REPUBLIC!
'1*
'2
Marcela'Petrová'Kafková ,'Lucie'Vidovićová '
1
2
Fakulty' of' Social' Studies,' IVRIS' FSS,' MASARYK' UNIVERSITY,' Brno,'
Czech'Republic'
Abstract:'The'stereotyped'view'of'elderly'people'as'politically'pas)
sive'persons'not'participating'in'the'public'sphere'has'been'rebut)
ted'by'many'researches'in'post)industrial'countries.'On'the'contra)
ry,'it'is'becoming'apparent'that'elderly'people'are'highly'politically'
active,'especially'in'those'forms'which'do'not'require'any'high'ac)
tivity.'Classical'examples'are'high'election'turnout'and'party'mem)
bership.'The'high'election'turnout'of'elderly'people'is'visible'in'the'
Czech'Republic'nowadays.'This'could'not'be'seen'at'the'beginning'
of' the' 90s' because' the' launching' of' country' transformation' to)
wards' the' democratic' system' was' accompanied' by' exceptionally'
high' public' interest' in' political' affairs.' The' election' turnout' in' the'
first' free' parliamentary' election' in' 1990' was' 97%.' The' next' devel)
opment'has'brought'phenomena'known'from'west'European'coun)
tries' –' decline' of' election' turnout' in' the' political' field' and' the' se)
cond' demographic' transition' with' extensive' population' ageing' in'
the'demographic'field.'Elderly'people'have'become'a'group'that'is'
highly'interested'in'political'affairs'and'is'watching'political'issues'in'
mass'media'most'intensively.'
My' paper' is' based' on' a' data' analysis' from' European/ Values/ Study/
(EVS)'which'surveyed'data'in'the'Czech'Republic'in'1991,'1999'and'
2008.' Due' to' the' longitudinal' nature'of' the' data' not' only' the' cur)
rent' political' participation' of' elderly' people' has' been' researched'
but'mainly'their'development'and'changes'in'the'past'two'decades.'
I' focused' not' only' on' differences' between' elderly' people’s' and'
young' people’s' participation' but' also' the' disputability' of' the' gen)
eral'image'of'elderly'people'as'a'source'of'votes'for'left)wing'par)
ties.'
2.'To'see'what'can'be'useful'in'foreign'experience,'and'how'it'can'
be'applied'in'Russia.'
According'to'these'objectives'there'are'three'aims'of'the'research:'
a)How'is'the'inclusion'of'senior'citizens'realized'in'the'discussion'of'
political,'social'programs?'
c)' How' are' the' older' people' involved' in' self)government' at' the'
local'level?'
Older'people'in'Russia'connect'most'of'their'problems'not'with'the'
material' well)being' (45%),' but' with' the' psychological' moments'
(55%)[2].' About' 40%' of' interviewed' older' Russian' people' have' a'
proactive' stance' and' participate' in' several' organizations.[3]' Not'
only' NGO’s' but' also' state' authorities' declare' that' the' Western'
(mostly' Scandinavian)' system' of' working' with' the' elderly' is' the'
best.'
1.'Civic'participation'of'the'elderly'in'Russia'is'at'a'low'level.'
2.' There' is' a' potential' for' the' development' of' the' civic' participa)
tion,' which' is' incorporated' in' the' pensioners' themselves,' because'
they'become'more'active.'
3.' Some' useful' experience' is' accumulated' in' Western' countries,'
which' can' be' successfully' adapted' in' Russia' (volunteering,' older'
people'as'consultants'and'other)'
[1]The' project' «Creating' the' conditions' of' realizing' the' social' po)
tential'of'senior'citizens'at'the'municipal'level»'HSE.'
[2]The'results'of'the'interviews'with'the'representatives'of'organi)
zations'specializing'in'working'with'older'people.'
[3]Based' on' the' depth' interviews' with' the' older' people' in' several'
Russian'countries.'
INTERGENERATIONAL!RELATIONSHIPS!OF!ELDERLY!
RUSSIANGSPEAKING!MIGRANTS!–!AN!ISRAELIG
GERMAN!COMPARISON!
'1
1
CIVIC!ENGAGEMENT!OF!OLDER!PEOPLE!IN!RUSSIA!
Timur'Zulkarnaev
1'
1
HIGHER' SCHOOL' OF' ECONOMICS' MOSCOW,' Moscow,' Russian'
'
Federation
Abstract:' The' number' of' older' people' is' growing' very' fast.' The'
number'of'Russians'aged'60)64'increased'in'2040'by'60%'and'over'
80'years')'more'than'120%[1].'Today'we'can'see,'that'the'role'and'
participation' of' older' people' in' various' organizations' and' social'
movements'through'which'they'can'convey'to'the'public'their'posi)
tions'are'increasing.'But'this'situation'is'typical'only'for'West'coun)
tries,'but'not'for'Russia.'The'image'of'ageing'in'Russia'is'negative.'It'
is'believed'that'when'a'person'reaches'old'age'(or'having'retired)'
he'lives'out'his'years,'not'realizing'that'life'can'start'in'this'period.'
So'older'people'are'below'the'public'life.'That'is'why'the'problem'
of'civic'engagement'of'older'people'requires'extensive'research.'
There'are'two'main'purposes:'
1.' To' study' how' the' civic' engagement' is' developed' in' Russia' and'
abroad.'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
'2*
Sharon'Shiovitz)Ezra ,'Claudia'Vogel '
2
The'Hebrew'University'of'Jerusalem,'Jerusalem,'Israel,' University'
'
of'Vechta,'Vechta,'Germany
Abstract:' In' modern' ageing' societies,' families' face' new' challenges'
regarding'care'for'the'growing'elderly'population'and'exchange'of'
support' between' generations.' Although' migrant' families' in' ageing'
societies'generally'face'the'same'challenges'regarding'the'provision'
for'old'age,'very'little'is'known'about'their'ageing'and'familial'ex)
change'processes'in'the'countries'of'destination.'
We'study'the'familial'exchange'of'resources'and'the'development'
of' intergenerational' relationships' in' migrant' families.' Specifically'
we' investigate' the' structure' and' the' development' of' the' social'
networks' that' are' available' to' them' in' case' of' need' and' the' ex)
change'of'help'within'their'families.'
We' focus' on' one' country' of' origin' and' two' destinations,' because'
Russian)speaking'migrants'are'one'of'the'largest'immigrant'popula)
tion' groups' in' both' German' and' Israeli' societies.' In' Germany' not'
much'is'known'about'the'life'of'these'migrant'families,'their'family'
structures,'employment'history,'housing'and'health'situation'–'and'
least' is' known' about' the' ageing' and' the' elderly' among' them.' In'
Israel,'on'the'contrary,'migration'has'been'in'the'focus'of'geronto)
th
logical'research'already'at'the'edge'of'the'21 'century.'
Abstract'Book'
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With'the'Israeli'data'from'2010'of'the'Survey'of'Health,'Ageing'and'
Retirement' in' Europe' (SHARE)' –' a' representative' analysis' of' the'
intergenerational' relations' within' families' of' Russian)speaking' mi)
grants' is' possible.' A' different' research' strategy' however' is' neces)
sary' for' the' analysis' of' intergenerational' exchange' among' elderly'
migrants'in'Germany.'Consequently'we'will'conduct'a'supplemen)
tary'survey'among'Russian'migrant'families'in'selected'counties'of'
Lower'Saxony'based'on'about'500'telephone'interviews.'
We'expect'to'find'some'similarities'among'Russian'migrants'in'both'
countries'of'destination'with'some'differences'that'are'mainly'due'
to'cultural'norms'and'welfare'arrangements.'
OLDER!IMMIGRANTS!AND!SOCIAL!INEQUALITIES:!
STATE!OF!THE!ART,!ARISING!QUESTIONS!AND!
METHODOLOGICAL!CHALLENGES!
'1
'1
'1
Claudio'Bolzman ,'Etienne'Christe ,'Laure'Kaeser ,'Ülkü'Dagli
1'
The' study' is' based' on' qualitative' data' (texts' and' interviews)' and'
quantitative' data' (a' questionnaire' survey)' of' Finnish' older' adults'
residing' in,' during' the' winter' season' or' otherwise,' or' frequently'
visiting' the' Spanish' Costa' del' Sol.' The' Finnish' pensioners' in' Spain'
form'an'interesting'winterbird'community,'with'a'great'geograph)
ical' distance' but' mental' proximity' to' the' country' of' provenance,'
and'with'religious'organizations'at'the'hub'of'social'life.'A'specific'
feature' is' also' the' abundance' of' engagement' with' religious' activi)
ties'among'persons'considering'themselves'none'too'religious.'
The'data'demonstrates'that'spirituality,'religious'activities'and'reli)
gious'communities'play'various'roles'in'the'social'and'personal'lives'
of' older' adults,' and' that' religion' in' its' multiple' forms' can' support'
well)being'in'older'age'via'various'dimensions'of'good'ageing.'This'
paper' aims' to' point' out' the' factors' contributing' to' this' phenome)
non,' to' identify' the' processes' where' these' factors' promote' good'
ageing' and' to' suggest' ways' to' support' these' processes' in' other'
communities.'Also'the'future'of'religion'as'an'element'of'well)being'
for'the'older'adults'is'discussed.'
1
GRADUATE' SCHOOL' OF' SOCIAL' WORK,' UNIVERSITY' OF' APPLIED'
'
SCIENCES'WESTERN'SWITZERLAND,'Geneva,'Switzerland
Abstract:'Various'papers'published'in'Switzerland'and'elsewhere'in'
Europe'have'highlighted'an'improvement'in'the'living'conditions'of'
new'cohorts'reaching'retirement'age.'However,'these'findings'con)
cerning' an' improvement' in' the' living' conditions' of' older' people'
were' not,' for' reasons' of' cost' and' language' difficulties,' based' on'
samples'that'were'sufficiently'large'or'representative'of'the'popu)
lation'of'former'immigrant'workers!who'reach'retirement'age'and!
have' to' face' up' to' the' problems' of' ageing.' These' people,' who'
mostly'came'from'countries'of'southern'and'eastern'Europe'as'well'
as'countries'of'the'developing'world,'nevertheless'make'up'a'signif)
icant' fraction' of' the' working' class' in' the' countries' of' central' and'
northern'Europe,'having'been'recruited'for'the'most'part'between'
the' 1950s' and' the' early' 1970s' to' do' low)skilled' jobs.' The' result' is'
that' studies' on' ageing' in' European' societies' largely' fail' to' reflect'
the'situation'of'a'significant'part'of'the'older'working)class'popula)
tion.'
On'the'other'hand,'there'are'already'some'specific'studies'on'the'
relationship' between' age' and' migration.' These' local' studies' show'
that' older' migrants' have' specific' life' trajectories,' conditions' and'
level' of' well' being' compared' to' the' general' population.' This' sug)
gests' that' they' may' have' special' needs' and' will' have' to' require'
particular' resources' to' face' old' age.' This' paper' will' underline' the'
main'results'that'arise'from'an'overview'of'the'international'scien)
tific'literature'and'will'present'a'methodological'strategy'elaborat)
ed' to' compare' the' situation' of' older' immigrants' and' Swiss' born'
within' the' framework' of' a' Sinergia' project' financed' by' the' Swiss'
National'Scientific'Foundation.'
RELIGION!AND!WELLGBEING!OF!FINNISH!OLDER!
ADULTS!IN!COSTA!DEL!SOL,!SPAIN!
'1
Jenni'Anna)Liisa'Spännäri ,'Antti'Karisto
1
'1
'1
'1
'2
Orla'Gough ,'Anita'Sharma ,'Roberta'Adami ,'Andrea'Carosi '
1
WESTMINSTER' BUSINESS' SCHOOL,' London,' United' Kingdom,'
'
University'of'Bologna,'Bologna,'Italy
2
Abstract:' The' research' provides' an' overview' of' the' variation' in'
employment' patterns,' pension' participation' and' poverty' levels' at'
retirement'between'the'white'majority'and'ethnic'minorities'in'the'
UK' and' highlights' differences' between' the' various' ethnic' minority'
groups.' Using' data' from' the' Family' Resources' Survey' (FRS)' from'
1997' to' 2007' we' show' the' differences' that' still' exist' in' terms' of'
employment' status,' income,' pension' contributions' and' pension'
benefits'between'ethnic'minorities'and'the'white'majority.'We'use'
socio)economic' and' demographic' variables' such' as' age,' gender,'
income,' education' and' family' background' as' indicators' of' an' indi)
vidual’s'future'retirement'income.'Our'analysis'spans'across'differ)
ent'age'groups'including'those'in'the'early'stages'of'their'working'
life' as' well' as' those' aged' 65+' who' are' already' in' retirement.' We'
show' how' disadvantage' in' the' labour' market' affects' retirement'
prospects'of'ethnic'minorities'and'often'leads'to'poverty'in'old'age.'
By'comparing'the'first'generation'of'immigrants'to'Britain'with'the'
younger' second' generation' in' terms' of' employment,' income' and'
pension' contributions,' we' provide' an' insight' into' the' current' and'
future' attitudes' to' retirement' planning' among' ethnic' minority'
groups.'
TRANSBORDER!IDEALS!OF!CARE:!ELDERLY!TURKISHG
BORN!MIGRANTS!IN!SWEDEN!
Öncel'Naldemirci
1'
1
1'
UNIVERSITY'OF'HELSINKI,'Helsinki,'Finland
THE!SIGNIFICANCE!OF!ETHNICITY!IN!PENSIONS:!A!
QUANTITATIVE!OVERVIEW!
'
Abstract:' The' debate' on' “ageing' well”' has' in' the' recent' years' ex)
tended' it’s' scope' towards' values,' morality' and' spirituality' –' ele)
ments'traditionally'sustained'by'and'interlocked'with'religion.'This'
paper'takes'a'multi)dimensional'approach'both'to'ageing'well'and'
religion'in'the'lives'of'older'adults.'
Department' of' Sociology,' UNIVERSITY' OF' GOTHENBURG,' Göte)
'
borg,'Sweden
Abstract:' The' number' of' elderly' migrants' in' Europe' is' increasing.'
Many'early)in)life'immigrants'prefer'staying'in'the'host'country'due'
to' the' social' and' economic' rights' that' they' gained' and' for' family'
and' kinship' networks,' some' shuttle' between' the' host' and' origin'
country.' Care' facilities' and' networks' in' both' countries' are' signifi)
cant' in' this' mobility.' On' the' other' hand,' care' for' old' migrants' in'
their'frail'age'is'considered'to'embody'the'paradox'of'multicultural'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
8'
Abstract'Book'
policies'and'the'tension'between'universal'right'to'receive'care'and'
culturally' informed' ideals,' norms' and' practices.' In' the' example' of'
elderly' care,' certain' cultural' patterns' are' demanded' as' an' im)
portant' component' of' care' giving' and' receiving.' Nevertheless,'
there'are'also'significant'divergences'from'cultural'norms,'depend)
ing'on'different'biographies'and'contexts'in'which'care'encounters'
happen.' In' this' paper' I' argue' that' transborder' citizens' live' also'
across'the'borders'of'countries'in'terms'of'their'imagination,'aspi)
ration' and' deployment' of' care' relations' and' resources.' They' con)
coct' their' imagination' about' care' through' different' identifications'
and'encountering'different'ideals'and'practices.'Following'an'ongo)
ing'ethnographic'research'with'Turkish)born'elderly'in'Sweden,'this'
paper'aims'to'describe'and'discuss'particular'stories'of'frail'old'age'
which'are'anchored'in'the'context'of'migration'and'to'add'another'
significant'layer'into'the'complexity'of'care.'
AGING!AND!THE!OLD!AGE!IN!THE!CONTEXT!OF!
CHANGING!CITIES!
Dana'Sykorova
1'
1
Department' of' Social' Sciences,' FACULTY' OF' SOCIAL' STUDIES,'
'
UNIVERSITY'OF'OSTRAVA,'Ostrava,'Czech'Republic
Abstract:' The' paper' aims' at' opening' debate' about' the' specific' as)
pects'of'aging'and'old'age,'especially'focusing'on'the'examination'
of' the' relationship' between' old' age,' resp.' seniors' and' the' urban'
environment.'It'covers'the'issues'that'are'currently'not'at'the'cen)
ter'of'attention'of'the'(Czech)'gerontosociology'research.'
The' author' tries' to' dispute' the' generally' persisting' tendency' to'
characterize' the' cities' as' areas' that' are' unsuitable' and' hazardous'
for'the'´aging'in'place´'as'well'as'the'tendency'to'interpret'the'con)
sequences' of' the' urban' development' processes' in' terms' of' social'
exclusion.' Therefore' she' brings' the' question' whether' the' actual'
lived' experience' of' aging' and' old' age' in' the' city' corresponds' with'
the'generally'accepted'notion.'
The'research'has'been'carried'out'as'a'part'of'the'project'´Ageing'in'
the'Environment:'Regeneration,'Gentrification'and'Social'Exclusion'
as' New' Issues' in' Environmental' Gerontology´' supported' by' the'
Grant'Agency'of'the'Czech'Republic'(No.'P404/10/1555).'The'rele)
vant' data' have' been' collected' by' the' methods' of' focused' groups'
and'semi)structured'interviews.'
The'presented'results'of'the'qualitative'data'analysis'are'indicating'
that'the'picture'of'everyday'life'of'the'elderly'inhabitants'in'urban'
areas'as'well'as'their'strategies'of'coping'with'the'possible'negative'
impacts' of' the' urban' changes' on' their' quality' of' life' seem' to' be'
rather'plastic'and'multidimensional.'
AGEING!SINGLE!MEN!IN!RURAL!AREAS!
Magnus'Nilsson
1
1'
KARLSTAD'UNIVERSITY,'Karlstad,'Sweden
'
Abstract:' The' rural' context' has' consequences' for' the' ways' that'
gender' structures' the' lives' of' people' throughout' the' life' course,'
both'materially'and'socially.'Norms'of'masculinity'remains'strong'in'
rural'areas'and'there'is'less'room'for'deviations'than'in'urban'are)
as.'This'is'not'least'connected'to'the'scarcity'of'meeting'places,'and'
above'all'to'that'of'alternative'spaces.'Men'in'rural'areas'who'have'
remained'unmarried'throughout'their'lives'and'live'without'a'part)
ner'tend'to'live'in'the'areas'where'they'were'born.'The'identity'and'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
ways' of' living' of' unmarried' men' is' often' tied' to' the' places' where'
they'live,'but'it'is'also'connected'to'notions'of'heterosexuality'and'
couplehood.' In' this' paper' I' will' explore' the' ways' that' unmarried'
and'childless'older'men'talk'about'relationships'and'childlessness'in'
relation' to' norms' of' masculinity' and' heterosexuality,' notions' of'
ageing,'growing'old'and'approaching'death.'
NATIVE!MINORITY!LANGUAGE!AS!RESOURCE!OF!
EVERY!DAY!LIFE!IN!OLD!AGE!IN!TORNE!VALLEY,!NORTH!
SWEDEN!
Tarja'Tellervo'Tapio
1'
1
Health' care' and' social' services,' UNIVERSITY' OF' APPLIED' SCIENCE'
'
OF'KEMI)TORNIO,'Kemi,'Finland
Abstract:' Only' the' members' of' the' oldest' generations' are' still'
speaking'the'native'Meänkieli,'a'recognised'minority'language'spo)
ken' in' villages' in' Torne' Valley,' North' Sweden.' Using' their' native'
language'separates'them'from'wider'Swedish)speaking'society'and'
members'of'the'younger'generations'that'speak'only'Swedish.'Ad)
ditionally' Meänkieli' is' a' spoken' language' and' people' cannot' write'
or'read'in'it,'even'though'they'speak'it'on'a'daily'basis.'Despite'this,'
it'is'a'crucial'resource'for'the'everyday'life'of'the'oldest'Meänkieli)
speaking'generations.'The'importance'of'using'the'native'language'
is'not'only'a'question'of'communication'and'speaking:'it'also'rein)
forces' agency' and' provides' continuity.' In' my' paper' I' will' focus' on'
the'way'native'language'in'Torne'Valley'emerges'as'a'resource'for'
the'oldest'generation'belonging'to'an'ethnic'and'national'minority,'
tornionlaaksolaiset.The'research'took'place'in'a'small,'rural'village'
of'less'than'140'residents'in'Torne'Valley,'near'the'Arctic'Circle.'A'
group' of' seven' native' speakers,' aged' between' 65' and' 75,' partici)
pated' in' the' research' process.' Storytelling' was' used' as' a' research'
method'and'the'stories'were'recorded'in'the'village'in'2005.Telling'
stories' in' Meänkieli' is' a' way' of' articulating' ethnic' identity' and'
knowledge'based'on'the'traditional'way'of'life'in'Torne'Valley.'I'will'
illustrate'the'way'native'language'forms'a'resource'for'the'daily'life'
of' the' oldest' local' generation.' I' will' also' explain' the' research' pro)
cess' in' which' native)language' storytelling' was' used' as' a' research'
method.' The' paper' is' based' on' my' doctoral' thesis,' published' re)
cently'at'the'University'of'Jyväskylä,'Finland.'
RETIREMENT!–!NOT!NECESSARILY!A!FAREWELL!TO!
YOUR!WORKPLACE!
'1
Anne'Inga'Hilsen ,'Robert'Salomon
1
1'
WORK'RESEARCH'INSTITUTE,'Oslo,'Norway
'
Abstract:' Due' to' financial' and' demographic' reasons,' many' coun)
tries' are' trying' to' increase' the' actual' retirement' age.' Pension' re)
forms' are' taking' place' in' countries' as' France,' Greece' and' the' UK.'
Norway' has' recently' introduced' a' new' pension' reform' from' Janu)
ary' 1st' 2011' to' encourage' longer' work' life' careers.' The' reform' is'
flexible'in'the'sense'that'people'can'retire'at'the'age'of'62'with'a'
modest' pension.' Their' pension' rights' will' then' improve' for' every'
year'they'work'beyond'62'years'to'75'years.'
These'reforms'may'lead'to'a'variety'of'options'on'life/work'balance'
choices'at'the'later'stages'of'working'life.'Based'on'earlier'studies'
by'Walker'and'Taylor'and'our'own'studies'we'have'identified'three'
overlapping' phases' of' good' managerial' practices' and' worker' re)
sponses'affecting'the'employment'of'older'workers.'We'developed'
an'analytical'model'(“a'three'phase'perspective'on'senior'policies”)'
Abstract'Book'
9'
'
of' organisational' orientations' towards' older' workers.' This' paper'
will'focus'on'a'possible'fourth'phase'at'the'end'of'the'working'ca)
reer' as' well' as' the' transition' from' work' to' retirement.' The' fourth'
phase'consists'of'both'an'economic'and'a'social'link'between'em)
ployer'and'employee.'
Our'contribution'will'be'based'on'empirical'data'from'a'Norwegian'
case'study'of'nine'separate'workplaces.'The'nine'cases'include'the'
state'sector,'municipalities'and'private'companies.'The'researchers'
interviewed' managers,' employees,' and' pensioners' from' the' case'
enterprises' as' well' as' the' unions' in' each' of' the' cases,' using' both'
individual'qualitative'interviews'and'focus'groups.'
The' paper' will' present' a' comparative' study' of' the' economic' link,'
demonstrating'how'pensioners'and'management'enter'into'certain'
flexible' and' (often)' short' term' paid' assignments' in' the' cases.' Fur)
thermore,' the' paper' will' examine' some' cases' of' social' links' be)
tween' pensioners' and' their' previous' workplaces,' and' how' they'
function'and'are'assessed'by'the'pensioners'and'management.'We'
will' also' discuss' how' established' links' may' be' threatened' by' mer)
gers' and' restructuring' processes.' Finally,' we' will' analyze' how' the'
economic'and'social'links'are'functioning'together,'especially'illus)
trated'by'observations'on'flexible'symbiosis'between'a'hotel,'local'
workers'and'the'whole'community.'
The'paper'will'contribute'to'further'development'of'action'theories'
concerning'policies'for'older'workers.'
WISDOM!AND!SOCIAL!UNCERTAINTY:!LEARNING!
FROM!OLDER!PEOPLE!
Ricca'Edmondson
1'
1
School' of' Political' Science' and' Sociology,' NATIONAL' UNIVERSITY'
'
OF'IRELAND'GALWAY,'Galway,'Ireland
Abstract:' From' the' earliest' discussions' of' wisdom' onwards,' this'
trait' (or' set' of' practices' or' abilities)' has' been' associated' with' the'
capacity' to' tolerate' the' uncertainty' and' contingency' of' human'
circumstances,' both' personal' and' public' or' political.' The' paper'
begins'by'interrogating'some'standard'debates'on'wisdom'as'well'
as' examples' of' ‘wise’' older' people' in' historical' and' contemporary'
literature,'in'an'attempt'to'become'clearer'about'what'this'capacity'
is'thought'to'entail.'It'uses'these'debates'and'examples'to'contrast'
the' structure' of' wise' arguing,' which' characteristically' begins' from'
premises'which'acknowledge'uncertainty'in'a'number'of'ways,'with'
personal'and'public'interactions'which'attempt'to'respond'to'con)
ditions' of' uncertainty.' There' are,' it' suggests,' a' range' of' ways' in'
which' ‘wisdom’' classically' promises' to' offer' resources' here.' It' ex)
plores'some'interrelations'between'them'and'shows'how'they'are'
reflected'in'contemporary'ethnographic'evidence.'
The' paper' distinguishes' between' conditions' of' uncertainty' which'
characteristically'hold'sway'in'different'ways'in'different'life'stages,'
and'conditions'of'uncertainty'which'are'perceived'as'holding'sway'
across'entire'societies'and'generations'(though'the'equality'of'their'
distribution'is'disputed).'Can'we'acquire'evidence,'from'documen)
tary' sources' or' from' ethnographic' interviews,' that' casts' light' on'
how' the' development' of' wisdom' or' wise' practices' supports' indi)
viduals,'families'or'other'groups'in'dealing'with'the'potentially'un)
dermining'effects'of'different'sources'of'social'uncertainty?'
Lastly,' older' age' itself,' in' most' contemporary' versions' of' its' social'
construction,' poses' specific' challenges' to' the' imaginative' negotia)
tion'of'human'lifetime.'The'paper'therefore'tries'to'become'clearer'
about' whether' responses' to' uncertainty' associated' with' ‘wisdom’'
offer'support'in'predicaments'related'to'these'challenges'in'partic)
ular.'
A!TASTE!OF!WHAT’S!TO!COME:!CHANGES!IN!
INDIVIDUAL!EXPECTATIONS!ON!AGEING!AND!LATER!
LIFE!IN!TIMES!OF!WELFARE!STATE!REFORMS!AND!
ECONOMIC!CRISES!
'1
Andreas'Motel)Klingebiel ,'Julia'Simonson
1'
1
'
GERMAN'CENTRE'OF'GERONTOLOGY,'Berlin,'Germany
Abstract:'Resources,'needs'and'evaluations'are'dimensions'of'qual)
ity'of'life'and'pre)conditions'for'autonomy'and'life'planning.'Projec)
tions' of' older' people’s' future' living' standards' in' Europe' predict'
declining' levels' and' increasing' inequality' due' to' pension' reforms'
and' changing' employment' patterns.' Effects' of' ongoing' economic'
crises' need' also' to' be' considered' as' well' as' changing' needs,' ex)
penditures'and'values'of'older'people.'
Recent' data' from' the' German' Ageing' Survey' (DEAS)' demonstrate'
stable'socio)economic'resources'and'increasing'inequalities'among'
retirees.' The' most' important' trend' over' time' is' a' remarkable' in)
crease'in'concerns'about'future'living'standards'which'is'very'signif)
icant'from'a'social'policy'as'well'as'from'a'gerontological'perspec)
tive.' Based' on' this' data,' the' presentation' calls' for' its' sources' and'
conclusions' to' be' drawn.' It' presents' descriptive' information' and'
results' from' multi)level' modelling.' It' heightens' awareness' of'
changes'in'later'life'due'to'reforms'and'crises'and'will'contribute'to'
a'wider'understanding'of'multi)level'interactions'between'individu)
al'resources,'evaluations'and'societal'development.'
The'DEAS'is'an'enduring'representative'cross)sectional'and'longitu)
dinal' survey' of' those' aged' over' 40' (n=8.200' in' 2008)' in' Germany,'
funded' by' the' Federal' Ministry' for' Family' Affairs,' Senior' Citizens,'
Women'and'Youth'(BMFSFJ).'
Three'hypotheses'–'a)'hypothesis'of'social'structure'effects,'b)'hy)
pothesis'of'cohort'change'of'later'life,'c)'hypothesis'of'differentia)
tion'of'inequality'patterns'–'are'tested'and'mostly'supported'by'the'
study.' Analyses' show' that' increasing' concerns' influence' the' indi)
viduals'' demands' for' welfare' state' intervention.' Concerns' interact'
with'income'and'portfolio'structures'but'are'partly'independent'of'
education' and' gender.' Moreover,' differences' between' regions'
mirror'context'effects.'
EXTENDING!THE!EMPIRICAL!BASIS!FOR!WEALTH!
INEQUALITY!RESEARCH!USING!STATISTICAL!
MATCHING!OF!ADMINISTRATIVE!AND!SURVEY!DATA!
'1
'1
Anika'Rasner ,'Joachim'R.'Frick ,'Markus'M.'Grabka
1
Socio)Economic'Panel,'DIW'Berlin,'Berlin,'Germany
1'
'
Abstract:' Social' security' entitlements' are' a' substantial' source' of'
wealth' that' grows' in' importance' over' the' individual’s' lifecycle.'
Despite' its' quantitative' relevance,' social' security' wealth' has' been'
thus'far'omitted'from'wealth'inequality'analyses.'In'Germany,'it'is'
the'lack'of'adequate'micro'data'that'accounts'for'this'shortcoming.'
Using' population' representative' survey' data' from' the' German' So)
cio)Economic' Panel' and' administrative' pension' records' from' the'
Statutory' Pension' Insurance,' the' authors' compare' four' statistical'
matching' and' imputation' techniques' to' complement' survey' infor)
mation'on'net'worth'with'social'security'wealth'(SSW)'information'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
10'
Abstract'Book'
from' the' administrative' records.' The' unique' properties' of' the'
linked' data' allow' for' a' straight' control' of' the' quality' of' matches'
under' each' technique.' Based' on' three' evaluation' criteria,' Ma=
halanobis/ distance/ matching/ performs' best.' Exploiting' the' ad)
vantages'of'the'newly'assembled'data,'the'authors'include'SSW'in'a'
wealth' inequality' analysis.' The' analysis' shows' to' what' extent' the'
inclusion'of'social'security'wealth'affects'the'level'and'the'distribu)
tion' of' individual' net' worth' as' well' as' overall' inequality.' The' pre)
sent'value'of'pension'entitlements'(including'entitlements'from'the'
statutory' pension' system' as' well' as' from' the' separate' system' for'
civil' servants)' amounts' to' 5.6' trillion' Euros,' which' corresponds' to'
an'average'of'78,500'Euros'per'person'–'thus'almost'doubling'the'
level' of' net' worth.' Compared' to' results' based' on' net' worth' only,'
inequality'of'our'amended'wealth'measure'is'about'25'percent'less.'
Moreover,' we' present' significant' differences' in' pension' entitle)
ments' across' occupational' groups' with' civil' servants' gaining' most'
from'the'inclusion'of'public'pension'wealth'in'the'extended'wealth'
measure'and'self)employed'benefiting'the'least.'Overall,'our'results'
provide'clear'indication'for'the'relevance'of'including'the'notional'
wealth'held'in'pension'entitlements'providing'a'less'biased'picture'
of'the'level'and'the'socio)economic'structure'of'wealth'in'Germa)
ny.' Above' and' beyond' such' within)country' variation,' our' findings'
may'also'be'most'relevant'for'comparative'analyses'across'welfare)
regimes.'
INFLUENCING!POLICY!DEVELOPMENT!FOR!OLDER!
PEOPLE!IN!IRELAND:!IMPACT!OF!THE!RECESSION!
'1*
Aine'Ni'Leime '
1
Irish' Centre' for' Social' Gerontology,' NATIONAL' UNIVERSITY' OF'
'
IRELAND,'GALWAY,'Galway,'Ireland
Abstract:' This' paper' considers' the' strategies' used' by' civil' society'
organisations'(CSO’s)'representing'older'people'who'are'engaged'in'
social' partnership' in' Ireland' in' achieving' their' goal' of' developing'
policy' to' enhance' the' lives' of' older' people.' It' explores' the' impact'
that' the' recession' has' had' on' their' level' and' manner' of' engage)
ment' with' social' partnership' and' with' the' wider' political' system.'
Ireland' has' introduced' the' concept' of' the' Developmental' Welfare'
State'and'the'Life'Cycle'approach'to'social'policy'development'and'
service'provision.'This'approach'places'the'individual'at'the'heart'of'
policy' provision' and' development' and' acknowledges' that' people'
may'encounter'particular'vulnerabilities'based'on'their'stage'of'the'
life' cycle.' Certain' civil' society' organisations' have' been' given' an'
opportunity'to'influence'policy'development'and'service'delivery'in'
Ireland'as'part'of'the'Community'and'Voluntary'Pillar'(CVP)'in'social'
partnership.'The'CVP'is'one'of'five'pillars'(employers,'trade'unions,'
farmers'and'the'environmental'grouping)'that'are'directly'consult)
ed' regarding' policy' development' in' Ireland.' This' paper' considers'
the' specific' institutional' environment' in' which' civil' society' organi)
sations' representing' older' people' operate' and' the' level' of' re)
sources' they' have' to' draw' upon;' it' draws' some' comparisons' be)
tween'the'operation'of'civil'society'organisations'in'the'older'peo)
ples’' stage' and' those' in' other' life' cycle' stages' (Children,' People'
with'Disabilities'and'People'of'Working'Age).'
The'paper'is'based'on'a'study'that'consulted'all'seventeen'organi)
sations'involved'in'the'Community'and'Voluntary'Pillar'using'a'Par)
ticipatory'Action'Research'(PAR)'methodology.'The'advantages'and'
challenges'of'using'this'methodology'will'be'discussed.'
The' paper' concludes' that' CSO’s' representing' older' people' in' Ire)
land'are'potentially'significant'agents'for'policy'transformation'and'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
for' the' protection' of' existing' rights' for' older' people.' However' as'
might' be' predicted' by' a' political' economy' approach' to' ageing,' a'
global'crisis'such'as'the'current'recession'can'have'severe'impacts'
on' their' efficacy' and' highlights' the' need' for' strategic' adaptability'
on'theiir'part.'
NORDIC!SOCIAL!SERVICE!STATES!IN!ELDER!CARE!
'1
'2
Minna'Zechner ,'Lina'Van'Aerschot '
1
School'of'Health'Care'and'Social'Work,'SEINÄJOKI'UNIVERSITY'OF'
2
APPLIED' SCIENCES,' Seinäjoki,' School' of' Social' Sciences' and' Hu)
'
manities,'University'of'Tampere,'Tampere,'Finland
Abstract:'Nordic'welfare'states'have'been'referred'to'as'social'ser)
vice' states,' meaning' that' a' great' part' of' the' public' support' is' of)
fered'to'citizens'as'services'instead'of'insurance)based'social'secu)
rity'systems'(Anttonen'1990).'This'paper'looks'firstly'at'the'idea'of'
a' social' service' state' and,' secondly,' examines' with' the' help' of' in)
ternational' and' national' statistics' whether' the' Nordic' countries' of'
Denmark,' Finland,' Norway' and' Sweden' can' be' defined' as' social'
service'states'in'elder'care.'
Our' starting' point' is' that' the' core' values' of' the' Nordic' welfare'
model' are' universalism,' solidarity' and' decommodification' (Esping)
Andersen'1990)'and'on'the'operational'level'social'services'are'the'
key'element'of'the'Nordic'welfare'states'(Abrahamson'1997;'Sipilä'
1997;' Cox' 2004).' Thus' we' are' examining' the' social' services' and'
especially'care'of'older'people'as'ageing'of'the'population'has'been'
named'as'one'of'the'main'challenges'to'the'Nordic'welfare'states'
(Greve'2007;'Normann'et'al.'2009).'The'central'features'of'a'social'
service'state'in'the'context'of'elder'care'are:'social'rights'attached'
to'services,'all'social'classes'use'public'services,'services'are'offered'
rather' than' cash' benefits,' low' service' fees,' little' private' spending'
on'services,'majority'of'elder'care'is'formal'instead'of'informal'and'
service'sector'is'an'important'employer'for'women.'Most'of'these'
features'will'be'analyzed'in'our'conference'paper'by'using'statisti)
cal'data'mainly'from'the'European'Union'(EU),'Nordic'Council'(NC)'
and'the'Organisation'for'Economic'Co)operation'and'Development'
(OECD).'
REVISITING!THE!ROLE!OF!INFORMAL!CARERS!IN!
FAMILIALISM:!A!DISCUSSION!ON!RECENT!REFORMS!IN!
LONGGTERM!CARE!IN!PORTUGAL!
Alexandra'Lopes
1
1'
Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'PORTO,'Porto,'Portugal
'
Abstract:'The'recognition'of'the'importance'of'informal'care'but,'at'
the' same' time,' of' the' present' and' future' challenges' that' it' faces,'
has' led' many' countries' across' Europe' to' put' in' place' policies' to'
support' informal' carers.' Recent' developments' in' long)term' care'
reforms' have' been' reflecting' precisely' the' recognition' of' informal'
carers' as' crucial' agents' in' the' global' picture' of' care' provision' to'
older'people.'This'has'been'taking'place'under'different'forms:'by'
providing'cash'benefits'to'carers,'by'recognizing'them'as'carers'or'
by'providing'specific'services'to'assist'them'in'their'caring'tasks.'It'
is' a' trend' that' has' been' taking' place' in' different' countries,' with'
different' traditions' in' welfare' provision' mechanisms.' In' Portugal,'
however,' that' has' not' been' the' dominant' element' in' recent' re)
forms'in'the'long)term'care'system.'
Abstract'Book'
11'
'
The' paper' will' discuss' recent' developments' in' long)term' care' re)
forms'in'Portugal'and'show'how'those'remain'strongly'entrenched'
in' the' core' principles' of' familialism,' with' a' particular' emphasis' on'
the' relative' position' informal' carers' are' given' in' the' system.' Two'
main'domains'of'policy'reforms'will'be'discussed:'the'implementa)
tion'of'cash'benefits'to'improve'the'living'conditions'of'the'elderly;'
the'implementation'of'a'national'long)term'care'network.'It'will'be'
shown' that' policy' instruments' remain' biased' towards' the' elderly'
themselves'and'do'not'acknowledge'informal'carers'as'an'object'of'
social'policy.'This'characteristic'remains'truly'faithful'to'the'princi)
ples' of' familialism' and' more' specifically' to' the' taken' for' granted'
willingness'of'families,'and'women'in'particular'to'perform'the'role'
the' system' assumes' they' should' perform.' The' paper' will' continue'
showing' that' the' conditions' for' that' role' to' be' effectively' per)
formed' are' changing' quite' rapidly' which' suggests' that' the' pres)
sures'on'the'formal'care'system'will'increase.'
STRETCHED,!SQUEEZED!AND!OVERWHELMED:!USING!
PHOTOVOICE!TO!EXPLORE!THE!EXPERIENCES!OF!
FEMALE!MULTIGGENERATIONAL!CAREGIVERS!
Caroline'Julie'Moore
1'
1
Health' and' Social' Care,' THE' OPEN' UNIVERSITY,' Milton' Keynes,'
'
United'Kingdom
Abstract:' Demographic' trends' in' the' United' Kingdom' include' an'
increasing' ageing' population,' changes' in' family' structures,' an' in)
crease'in'women'in'paid'employment'and'an'increase'in'the'num)
ber'of'young'adults'who'live'with'their'parents'(O.N.S.,'2008).'The)
se' changes' mean' that' more' women' are' simultaneously' occupying'
multiple' demanding' roles.' These' may' include' the' roles' of' wife,'
partner,' mother,' grandmother,' employee' and' carer.' The' challeng)
ing' demands' of' these' roles' may' not' only' affect' women’s' lifestyle,'
personal'time,'career'development'and'financial'stability,'but'may'
also'impact'on'their'health.'
Literature'concerning'the'experiences'of'female'multi)generational'
carers' and' of' how' they' cope' with' their' situation' appears' to' be'
sparse.'
Twenty' multi)generational' caregivers' were' recruited' for' interview'
and'were'asked'to'take'photographs'of'images'which'they'felt'rep)
resented' their' everyday' care)giving.' During' a' second' interview,'
photographs' which' they' had' selected' were' used' as' discussion'
prompts' (photovoice)' to' enable' them' to' reflect' and' discuss' their'
experiences.' By' using' the' photovoice' method' these' multi)
generational' caregivers' identified' situations,' places' and' objects'
which'they'felt'were'significant'to'them'and'enriched'the'quality'of'
their'every'day'care)giving'experiences.'
A' grounded' methodology' was' used' and' Maintaining/ Caregiver/
Equilibrium' emerged' as' the' core' category.' Related' concepts' that'
underpinned'the'participants’'ability'to'cope'with'their'care)giving'
situation' were' Intergenerational/ Ambivalence,/ Multi=generational/
Caregiver/ Satisfaction/ and' Health/ Effects./ Work/ and/ Faith/ were'
found'to'be'key'coping'strategies'used'by'these'caregivers.'
This' research' may' inform' policy' makers' about' how' to' support' fe)
male'multi)generational'caregivers'in'the'future,'providing'effective'
relief'to'projected'care'burdens'in'these'situations.'
'1
Stefania'Giada'Meda ,'Donatella'Bramanti
1'
1
Department' of' Sociology,' CATHOLIC' UNIVERSITY' OF' MILAN,' Mila)
'
no,'Italy
Abstract:'The'study'analyses'best'practices'for'frail'elderly'and'their'
families,'able'to'provide'qualified'answers'to'the'complex'needs'of'
the'last'stage'of'life.'
The' recent' explosion' in' population' ageing' is' one' of' the' most' re)
markable'demographic'changes'with'implications'for'governments,'
economic'and'welfare'systems,'and'individuals.'Concern'over'con)
sequences' of' ageing' on' family' relations' is' gaining' consent,' high)
lighting'macro'morphogenetic'trends'such'as'generational'inequali)
ties'and'vertical'deprivation;'the'onset'of'multigenerational'families'
and'a'sandwich'generation.'
To'prevent'psycho)social'risks,'families'of'and'with'elder'frail'peo)
ple'must'be'helped'to'face'stressful'events'of'the'family'life'cycle.'
Hence,'it'becomes'crucial'designing'and'implementing'policies'and'
interventions' aiming' at' caring' for' elderly' in' a' family' friendly' per)
spective.'
The'concept'of'best'practice'identifies'services'of'excellence'as'for'
efficiency' and' efficacy' and' indicate,' according' to' a' relational' per)
spective,'programs'promoting'the'we=relation'at'family'level,'which'
is' the' family’s' capability' to' keep' on' generate' relational' goods.' In)
deed,'each'stressful'event,'as'the'impairment'of'one'family'mem)
ber,'defies'family'life'and'compels'the'subjects'to'act'some'reflexiv)
ity'on'their'modus/vivendi.'
Best'practices'are'thus'measures'where'elders'and'families'partici)
pate' in' the' process' of' coping' with' ageing)related' issues,' in' a' per)
spective'supportive'of'the'kinship'networks’'coping'skills.'
The'paper'illustrates'findings'of'a'comparative'analysis'of'best'prac)
tices' to' support' families' with' elderly' in' three' different' Italian' Re)
gions:'Liguria'(North)West),'Lombardia'(North),'Sicilia'(South).'
Researchers'have'selected'8'best'practices'and'carried'out'in)depth'
case'studies.'
The'study'highlighted'some'major'findings:'
•'Focus'is'on'the'elder,'his/her'family'and/or'other'caregivers;'
•' Localisation' in' the' community,' perceived' as' a' place' rich' in' re)
sources' to' use' in' a' perspective' likely' to' trigger' community' devel)
opment;'
•' Presence' of' social' partnerships' between' State' and' Third' Sector'
organisations;'
•' Direct' involvement' of' families' as' beneficiaries,' and' suppliers' of'
help;'
•'Sustainability,'both'at'cost'level'and'human'resources;'
•'High'satisfaction'expressed'by'all'the'involved'stakeholders.'
The' research' gives' indications' to' professionals' working' alongside'
families'and'policy'makers.'
THE!IMPORTANCE!OF!A!STRONG!SOCIAL!NETWORK!
AND!OF!SATISFACTION!WITH!CARE!FOR!THE!
EMOTIONAL!WELLGBEING!OF!OLDER!PERSONS!LIVING!
AT!HOME!
'1
'1
Jonathan'Bennett ,'Matthias'Riedel ,'Robert'Fluder
SUPPORTING!FRAIL!ELDERLY!AND!THEIR!FAMILIES:!
BEST!PRACTICES!IN!ITALY!
1'
1
Social' Work,' BERN' UNIVERSITY' OF' APPLIED' SCIENCES,' Bern,' Swit)
'
zerland
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
12'
Abstract'Book'
Abstract:'From'September'2009'to'January'2010,'712'persons'aged'
64)98'years'(M=81.9;'SD=6.2),'living'in'the'Swiss'cantons'of'Aargau,'
Bern' and' Zurich' were' interviewed' face)to)face' at' home' with' a'
standardized'questionnaire.'The'sample'was'randomly'drawn'from'
the' customers' of' a' Swiss' health' insurance' company.' Among' the'
topics'covered'in'the'interview'were'the'following:'
•!perceived'need'and'use'of'formal'and'informal'home'care,'
•'perceived'lack'of'care,'
•'the'strength'of'respondents’'social'network'(number'of'relatives,'
friends' and' neighbors' with' whom' they' related' regularly,' whom'
they' could' ask' for' help' and' easily' discuss' private' matters;' Lubben'
et'al.,'2006)'
•'general'as'well'as'psychological'well)being.'
Logistic'regression'analysis'revealed'that'the'strength'of'the'social'
network' (OR=1.44;' p<.01)' and' non)satisfaction' with' received' care'
(OR=0.5;'p<.01)'were'the'most'important'predictors'of'general'life'
satisfaction.'On'the'other'hand,'the'degree'of'dependence'in'activi)
ties'of'daily'living,'the'amount'of'received'formal'and'informal'care'
and'the'number'of'illnesses'treated'by'a'medical'doctor'in'the'past'
12'months'did'not'prove'to'have'any'significant'predictive'value.'
Results' were' largely' similar' concerning' psychological' well)being'
(Bullinger'&'Kirchberger,'1998).'However,'other'than'in'the'case'of'
general'life)satisfaction,'the'number'of'illnesses'being'treated'by'a'
medical' doctor' during' the' last' 12' months' did' have' a' significant'
predictive'value'for'psychological'well)being.'
Our' findings' demonstrate' that' emotional' well)being' in' persons'
living'at'home'is'possible'even'amid'strong'dependence'on'care.'An'
important' prerequisite' is' the' existence' of' a' strong' social' network'
allowing'for'the'seeking'of'help'and'the'discussion'of'private'mat)
ters.'In'addition,'in'order'to'sustain'emotional'well)being,'persons'
must' be' satisfied' with' the' care' they' receive.' Our' data' also' show'
that'satisfaction'with'care'is'related'to'the'quality'of'relationships'
to'important'informal'caregivers.'This'is'in'line'with'other'research'
stressing'the'importance'for'emotional'well)being'of'the'quality'of'
relationships' to' informal' caregivers' (Katz,' 2009;' Merz' &' Huxhold,'
2010).'
INFORMAL!ELDER!CARE!IN!THE!MODERNISATION!
PROCESS:!IMPACT!OF!SOCIAL!MILIEUS!IN!RUSSIA’S!
AND!GERMANY’S!WELFARE!REGIMES!
Irina'Siegel
1'
1
Institute'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'FREIBURG,'Freiburg,'Germa)
'
ny
Abstract:' This' paper' builds' on' the' theoretical' framework' of' the'
bilateral' pilot' project' studying' social' distributions' of' different' soli)
darity' types' in' Russia' and' Germany' and' addresses' how' informal'
elderly'care'is'anchored'in'the'social'structure'and'affected'by'wel)
fare'regime.'
In' micro)sociological' perspective' we' believe' that' sociostructural'
and' )cultural' resources' impact' decisions' of' intergenerational' soli)
darity.' It' is' assumed' that' structure' of' actions' and' situations' of' in)
formal' care' are' of' little' compatibility' with' preferences' typical' for'
"modern'concepts'of'life"'(Blinkert,'Klie'2004).'The'latter'are'meas)
ured' as' attitudes' to' women’s' role.' At' the' macro)level' the' welfare'
state’s'distributive'justice'and'elderly'care'policy'shape'intergener)
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
ational'solidarity,'wheres'at'the'meso)level'availability'and'usage'of'
local'care'infrastructure'are'crucial.'
Demographic' change' paradigm' tackles' though' future' availability'
and' ability' of' informal' carers' (Uhlenberg,' Cheuk' 2008;' Johnson'
2008)' but' not' their' motivations.' The' way' informal' care' changes'
under' the' sociocultural' change' affecting' motivations' and' prefer)
ences' is' in' the' focus' of' Freiburger’s' approach.' Informal' care' is'
found'mainly'in'the'milieus'that'have'become'less'important'("mi)
lieu' of' tradition)conscious' unprivileged' class")' and' is' particularly'
seldom'observed'in'the'milieus'gaining'on'meaning'in'the'moderni)
sation'process'("milieu'of'liberal'middle'class")'(Blinkert,'Klie'2004).'
Socioeconomic'status'was'found'to'be'decisive'for'filial'help'in'con)
servative)corporatist' and' familistic' but' not' in' social)democratic'
welfare' regimes' (Sarasa,' Billingsley' 2008).' Neither' differentiated'
social' stratification' concepts' or' theoretical' explanations' were' ap)
plied' to' studying' familial' caregiving' nor' was' Russian’s' welfare' re)
gime'of'the'former)USSR'type'(Fenger'2007)'in'the'focus'of'previ)
ous'cross)cultural'research'(Sundström,'et'al.'2008).'
We' utilise' data' of' two' samples' with' 200)240' F2F' interviews' being'
currently' collected' in' the' Russian' city' of' Samara' and' the' German'
city'of'Freiburg.'Though'both'samples'are'not'representative'of'the'
whole' Germany' or' Russia' they' allow' us' to' make' descriptive' be)
tween)group' comparisons' in' each' country' and,' in' a' restricted'
sense,'between'countries'and'thus'to'reveal'important'trends.'The'
study'relies'on'the'well)proven'questionnaire'used'in'German'stud)
ies' adopted' for' Russian' sociocultural' conditions' and' for' compara)
tive'needs'by'harmonising'socioeconomic'variables.'
WHAT!IS!THE!BEST!CARE!FOR!DEPENDENT!ADULTS?!
NOT!COVERED!NEEDS!BY!TYPE!OF!CARE!IN!SPAIN!
'1
'2
Jesús'Rogero)García ,'Karim'Ahmed)Mohamed '
1
Department'of'Sociology,'AUTONOMOUS'UNIVERSITY'OF'MADRID,'
'
Spanish'Sociological'Research'Center,'Madrid,'Spain
2
Abstract:' In' this' study' for' Spain,' not' covered' needs' of' dependent'
adults' are' analyzed.' Four' types' of' dependent' adult' care' can' be'
established' according' to' caregiver' identity:' unpaid' care,' private'
care' (fully' funded' by' the' dependent' person' or/and' the' family),'
public'care'and'care'from'non)profit'organizations.'Both'in'academ)
ic' and' policy' making' spheres' there' is' a' burning' debate' about' the'
most' appropriate' measures' to' promote' dependent' people' auton)
omy'and'the'satisfaction'of'their'needs.'In'spite'of'its'importance,'
there' are' few' studies' examining' to' what' extent' each' type' of' care'
covers'the'needs'of'dependent'people.'The'aims'of'this'work'are:'
(1)' To' identify' what' type' of' care' achieves' the' highest' coverage' of'
adult'dependent'needs,'and'(2)'to'identify'factors'influencing'high)
er'coverage'of'needs'within'each'type'of'care.'This'study'is'based'
on' a' sample' of' 4.782' dependent' adults' (>17' years' old)' whom' re)
ported'receiving'care'in'the'Survey'on'Disability,'Personal'Autono)
my'and'Dependency'Situations'2008'(National'Statistical'Institute).'
Statistical' analysis' included' characteristics' of' the' dependent' per)
sons'and'households.'Logistic'regression'models'were'used'to'iden)
tify' factors' related' to' the' non)coverage' of' needs.' Adults' receiving'
only' private' care' had' a' higher' probability' of' having' their' needs'
covered,' in' comparison' to' those' receiving' any' other' type' of' care.'
People' in' public' care' had' the' lowest' probability' of' having' their'
needs'covered,'even'when'it'was'combined'with'family'care.'Cov)
erage' probability' was' higher' among' dependent' adults' living' with'
their'caregiver,'as'well'as'when'the'family'caregiver'did'not'have'a'
paid' job.' These' data' highlight' significant' differences' in' terms' of'
Abstract'Book'
13'
'
coverage'of'dependents'adult'needs,'and'provide'relevant'findings'
for'policy'making.'
CARING!FOR!CARERS!OF!THE!ELDERLY!IN!SPAIN:!
CURRENT!FRAME!AND!EVALUATION!OF!
PROGRAMMES!
'1
'1
Alberto'Veira)Ramos ,'Maria'Silveria'Agulló)Tomás ,'Maria'Teresa'
'1
'2
'2
Martín)Palomo ,'Rosana'Saiz)Villar ,'Esteban'Auglló ,'Jesús'Javier'
1'
Sanchez)Barricarte
1
2
ple.' The' study' shows' that' the' intergenerationality' is' seen' as' an'
important' issue' for' old' people' in' the' sense' that' the' relations' are'
promoters'of'active'aging'who'provide'a'mutual'aid'and'a'mutual'
learning.'
DYADIC!RELATIONSHIP!BETWEEN!THIRD!AND!FOURTH!
AGE!AND!THE!DISCIPLINARY!PRACTICES!
SURROUNDING!AGEING!BODIES!
Jaroslava'Hasmanova'Marhankova
1'
Sociology,' Universidad' Carlos' III' de' Madrid,' Getafe,' Psicology,'
'
Univeridad'de'Oviedo,'Oviedo,'Spain
1
Abstract:' Over' the' oncoming' decades' European' societies' will' be'
facing'various'challenges'derived'from'demographic'ageing.'One'of'
the'most'important'will'be'the'growth'of'the'number'of'dependent'
people,' and' with' it,' the' increase' of' the' number' of' persons' who'
devote' part' of' their' time' to' look' after' them' in' a' non)professional'
fashion.'The'first'part'of'this'presentation'addresses'the'profile'of'
Spanish' informal' carers' contrasting' it' with' the' profiles' of' carers'
from'other'European'countries,'describing'some'of'their'problems'
around' this' experience.' This' was' done' by' using' information' from'
the' 8' waves' of' the' European' Community' Household' Panel' data.'
The' second' part' describes' the' main' features' of' the' programmes'
offered' in' Spain' by' public' institutions' and' from' NGO's' to' try' to'
solve' some' of' these' problems' that' informal' caregivers' face.' They'
are' training' programmes,' psychosocial' support,' therapies' and' so'
on.'The'pathway'should'be'a'move'towards'the'quality'of'care'for'
dependent'elderly'and'their'caregivers,'both'support'professionals'
and'the'families.'Different'objectives'of'this'evaluation'research'are'
achieved'from'a'combined'approach:'quantitative'techniques'(data'
mining' and' electronic' survey)' and' qualitative' (in)depth' interviews'
and' focus' groups' to' carers).' All' this' forms' the' basis' of' current' re)
search' entitled' "Caregivers' of' older' people:' situation' before' the'
Dependency' Act' and' evaluation' of' programmes' for' carers”' (2009)
2012),'funded'by'the'Ministry'of'Science'and'Innovation'(CSO2009)
10290,'under'the'Sixth'National'Research'Plan'R+D+i).'
Abstract:'In'the'1990s'the'World'Health'Organization'adopted'the'
term' active' ageing,' which' currently' represents' a' key' vision' of' old'
age'in'the'western'societies'that'face'the'situation'of'demograph)
ical' ageing.' The' imperative' of' activity' penetrates' gerontological'
knowledge,'social'policy'and'social'work'and'is'a'crucial'component'
of'the'disciplinary'discourse'surrounding'elderly'people.'The'paper'
is' based' on' three)years' ethnographic' study' (participant' observa)
tion,' 47' in)depth' interviews' with' clients' and' employees)' of' two'
centres' in' the' Czech' Republic' that' offer' leisure' time' activities' for'
seniors.'This'segment'of'seniors)oriented'social'services'represents'
an' institutional' context' for' the' manifestation' of' the' discourse' of'
active'ageing'and'strongly'refers'to'the'idea'of'third'age.'The'paper'
highlights' the' role' of' third)fourth' age' distinction' for' the' construc)
tion'of'social'position'in'the'centres.'The'clients'and'employees'of'
the' centres' use' the' participation' in' the' activities' as' an' important'
mechanism' of' group' identity' construction.' This' identity' is' at' the'
same' time' constructed' in' strict' opposition' to' “other”' seniors' who'
are' not' active.' The' active' lifestyle' embodied' in' the' idea' of' active'
ageing'offers'a'positive'representation'of'ageing'that'has'become'a'
significant'resource'of'self)esteem'for'the'clients'of'the'centres.'In'
that' respect,' the' idea' of' active' ageing' represents' a' welcomed'
change' in' the' ways' old' age' was' traditionally' constructed.' On' the'
other' hand,' the' closed' connection' between' activity' and' old' age'
epitomized' in' the' discourse' of' active' ageing' represented' by' the'
centres' pose' a' new' set' of' demands' on' ageing' subjectivities' and'
bodies.' Although' the' representations' of' fourth' age' are' missing' in'
the' centres,' the' distinction' between' third' and' fourth' age' repre)
sents'a'key'dimension'that'is'constantly'present'in'the'daily'running'
of'the'centres.'The'boundary'between'superior'third'age'and'stig)
matized'fourth'age'functions'as'a'form'of'disciplinary'practice'mo)
bilized'contextually'by'various'agents.'This'paper'analyze'the'daily'
practices' of' the' management' of' ageing' bodies' by' means' of' pene)
trable'thin'boundary'between'third'and'fourth'age.'
ACTIVE!AGEING!AND!INTERGENERATION!
Maria'Ester'Vaz
1'
1
Industrial' Studies' and' Management' Higher' School,' OPORTO'
'
POLYTECHNICAL'INSTITUTE,'Vila'do'Conde,'Portugal
Abstract:'This'work'reflects'about'the'current'notion'of'active'aging'
and' the' perspective' of' older' people' himself.' This' topic' has' been'
discussed'worldwide,'namely'by'the'World'Health'Organization'and'
the'United'Nations.'In'the'late'XX'century'there'was'a'commitment'
to' defining' political' strategies' and' the' implementation' of' social'
intervention'measures.'This'concern'sought'to'convey'a'new'image'
of' old' age,' considering' it' as' a' social' category' and' culturally' con)
structed.'
The' deepening' of' the' theme' in' this' study' followed' a' qualitative'
methodological' approach' withinterviews,' highlighting' the' images'
and'representations'that'older'people'have'regarding'old'age.'The'
data'presented'were'collected'to'24'persons'with'the'age'fifty)five'
years'old'or'more.'
The' respondents' experience' indicated' that' there' was' a' different'
ways' in' the' process' of' aging.' The' evidence' is' the' extreme' im)
portance'of'convivial'ways'in'old'age'especially'with'younger'peo)
Department' of' Sociology,' UNIVERSITY' OF' WEST' BOHEMIA,' Plzen,'
'
Czech'Republic
IMAGINES!OF!THE!FUTURE!ABOUT!AGING,!WELLBEING!
AND!SOCIAL!AND!HEALTH!CARE!SERVICES!IN!2030!BY!
NORTHERN!FINLANDS!BABY!BOOMERS!
'1
'1
'2
Maire'Hannele'Vuoti ,'Arja'Isola ,'Petri'Kinnunen '
1
Institute' of' Health' Sciences' Department' of' Nursing,' UNIVERSITY'
2
OF' OULU,' Oulu,' Faculty' of' Social' Sciences,' University' of' Lapland,'
'
Rovaniemi,'Finland
Abstract:'In'the'future'there'are'more'people'who'live'into'old'age'
than' at' any' time' in' past.' Population' ageing' is' seen' as' major' force'
transforming'at'various'level'like'in'health'and'social'care'services'
and'in'society'as'a'whole.'In'this'research,'respondents'are'Finnish'
Baby' Boomers' (BB)' who' were' born' between' 1945' and' 1950.' This'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
14'
Abstract'Book'
generation' was' exceptionally' large' and' that' kind' of' phenomenon'
has'not'been'seen'before'or'after'in'Finnish'history.'This'generation'
is'elderly'people'in'future'and'the'aim'of'this'research'is'to'describe'
their'imagines'of'the'future'about'aging,'wellbeing'and'social)'and'
healthcare'services.The'method'used'in'this'research'is'qualitative)
ly' driven' mixed' methods.' Qualitatively' driven' approaches' mixed'
methods' offer' great' potential' for' generating' new' ways' of' under)
standing'the'visions'and'imagines'of'the'future'that'is'in'contexts'of'
social'experience.'Qualitative'method'in'this'research'was'Method'
of'Empathy)Based'Stories'(MEBS).'MEBS'in'this'research'produced'
stories'about'the'future.'The'respondents'received'orientation'and'
a'script'to'assist'them'in'writing'essays'or'stories'about'their'aging,'
wellbeing'productive'factors'and'social'and'health'care'services'in'
future.' Instructions' had' the' temporal' perspective' for' the' stories'
focused' till' the' year' the' 2030.' The' stories' were' analyzed' qualita)
tively'by'categorizing'the'responses'in'into'the'following'themes:'1.'
aging' as' subjective' and' social' experience,' 2.' wellbeing' productive'
factors'from'the'perspective'of'lifecontrol'and'environment,'and'3.'
social'and'health'care'services'from'the'perspective'of'operational'
environments'and'resources.Based'on'these'themes'questionnaire'
was' build.' The' aim' was' to' investigate' BB´s' attitudes,' beliefs' and'
feelings'toward'aging,'wellbeing'and'social'and'health'care'services'
in' the' future.' Data' was' collected' from' Northern' Finland’s' 405' BB'
and' analyzed' by' Principal' Component' Analysis,' K)Means' Cluster'
Analyze' and' Correspondence' Analyze.Findings' from' this' study' will'
give' insights' on' BB' expectations' and' responses' to' societal' aging'
and' contribute' to' the' new' vision' of' aging' and' wellbeing' and' BB'
social'and'health'service'expenditures.'It'is'important'that'we'know'
about' elderly' people’s' possibilities' and' limitations' as' it' appears' to'
them'in'relation'to'their'own'agendas,'expectations'and'emotions'
about'their'future.'Final'results'will'be'published'in'the'autumn'of'
2011.'
'THEY!PREFER!TO!STAY!AT!HOME':!THE!PORTRAYAL!OF!
ELDERLY!PEOPLE!IN!THE!DISCOURSE!ON!CARE!
Bernhard'Weicht
1
1'
University'of'Utrecht,'Utrecht,'Netherlands
'
Abstract:'Care'at'the'beginning'of'the'21st'century'can'be'charac)
terised'by'a'discourse'on'the'difficulties'related'to'ageing'societies'
in' combination' with' a' decline' of' traditional' family' structures.' The'
Austrian'arrangement'for'the'provision'of'care'for'elderly'people'is'
largely'based'on'informal'settings,'usually'within'the'care'receiver’s'
family.'The'traditional'dependence'on'the'nuclear'family'and'other'
informal' bonds' correlates' with' a' construction' of' care' work' being'
based' on' emotional' attributes' such' as' proximity,' closeness,' love'
and'intimacy.'These'values'and'virtues'can'be'found'in'both'public'
and'private'discourse'and'can'thus'be'summarised'as'a'moral'con)
sensus'in'society.'Similarly'‘staying'at'home’'is'described'as'every)
one’s' wish' in' old' age' and' living' ‘independently’' is' constructed' as'
the'main'aim'of'social'policy'in'relation'to'elderly'people'and'peo)
ple'in'need'of'care'and'support.'
In' this' paper' I' analyse' the' portrayal' of' elderly' people' in' the' dis)
courses'on'care'in'Austria.'Data'collected'in'the'context'of'research'
on' the' moral' construction' of' care,' consisting' of' newspapers' and'
focus'group'discussions'will'be're)analysed'using'Critical'Discourse'
Analysis' to' identify' how' elderly' people' are' talked' about' and' con)
structed.'Why'is'there'an'almost'total'absence'of'elderly'people'in'
the'public'discourse?'To'what'extent'are'elderly'people'constructed'
as'passive'and'dependent?'To'what'extent'are'‘wishes’'and'‘ideals’'
of' elderly' people' constructions' of' the' public' discourse?' The' main'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
aim'of'this'research'is'to'highlight'the'significance'of'the'way'elder)
ly'people'are'portrayed'in'relation'to'their'absence'as'actors'in'the'
discourse.'Theoretically,'I'will'draw'on'the'writings'of'the'disability'
movement' and' their' argumentation' for' support' and' empower)
ment,'as'well'as'on'the'ethics'of'care'approach'and'their'focus'on'
interdependencies.'An'understanding'of'the'public'construction'of'
elderly'people'in'the'context'of'care'enables'to'question'both'pub)
lic' constructions' of' elderly' people' and' social' policies' which' are'
related' to' the' public' construction' of' care.' The' way' society' speaks'
about'the'elderly'impacts'significantly'on'people’s'life'chances'and'
their' quality' of' life.' The' way' elderly' people’s' lives' are' described'
also' influences' political' decision' making' processes.' Both' aspects'
need'to'be'analysed'and'challenged'in'order'to'deal'with'questions'
of'ageing'and'care'in'a'fair'and'just'way.'
DETERMINANTS!OF!HEALTHGFUNCTIONING!
CONDITIONS!AND!THE!RESIDENTIAL!ENVIRONMENT!
ON!THE!QUALITY!OF!LATER!LIFE!IN!SPAIN!
' 1
' 1
Fermina' Rojo)Perez ,' Gloria' Fernandez)Mayoralas ,' Maria)Joao'
'2
'3
Forjaz ,'Pablo'Martinez)Martin '
1
Institute' of' Economics,' Geography' and' Demography;' Centre' for'
Human' and' Social' Sciences,' Spanish' National' Research' Council'
2
(IEGD,'CCHS,'CSIC),' National'School'of'Public'Health'and'Consorti)
um' for' Biomedical' Research' in' Neurodegenerative' Diseases'
3
(CIBERNED),' Research'Unit,'Alzheimer'Centre'Reina'Sofia'Founda)
tion'and'Consortium'for'Biomedical'Research'in'Neurodegenerative'
'
Diseases'(CIBERNED),'Carlos'III'Institute'of'Health,'Madrid,'Spain
Abstract:' Objective.' This' paper' aimed' at' examining' the' relation)
ships' between' health)functioning' conditions' and' residential' envi)
ronment' (both' measured' by' means' of' objective' and' subjective'
indicators),' and' their' effects' on' Quality' of' Life' (QoL)' among' com)
munity)dwelling'older)adults'in'Spain.'The'assumption'is'that'better'
personal'and'living'conditions'are'associated'with'a'better'QoL.'
Methods.' The' data' come' from' a' nationally' representative' sample'
of'1,106'people'aged'60'years'and'over'(CadeViMa)Spain).'To'ana)
lyse' the' structure' of' the' data' set' (living' arrangements' and' house)
hold' features,' residential' characteristics,' health' and' functioning'
conditions,' satisfaction' with' life' as' a' whole' as' QoL' indicator),' re)
duce'its'dimensionality'and'find'out'the'effects'of'the'selected'vari)
ables' in' quality' of' later' life,' bivariate' and' multivariate' statistical'
techniques'are'applied'(factor'analysis,'optimal'scaling'method'and'
multivariate'linear'regression'analysis).'
Results.' Thirty' percent' of' the' variance' of' the' QoL' is' explained' by'
the' regressions' predictors' (household' perceived' socioeconomic'
status'and'satisfaction'with'living'arrangements;'objective'and'sub)
jective'health'vs.'depression'and'morbidity;'and'residential'satisfac)
tion'related'to'housing,'neighbourhood'and'neighbours).'The'high)
er' the' satisfaction' with' household,' health' and' residential' environ)
ments'as'well'as'the'lower'morbidity'and'depression,'the'better'the'
Quality'in'Later'Life'will'be.'
Conclusions.' The' results' indicate' the' high' predictive' power' of' the'
perceptual' or' subjective' information,' in' line' with' others' results' in'
Quality' in' Later' Life' (Rojo)Pérez' et/ al.,' 2001).' Future' research' will'
deepen'on'a'global'QoL'model'that'takes'into'consideration'other'
important' dimensions' (family' and' social' networks,' participation'
and'leisure'activities,'economic'resources)'according'to'the'mean)
ing'of'QoL'in'old'age'(Fernandez)Mayoralas'et/al.,'2007).'
Abstract'Book'
15'
'
(*)'Authorship'On'behalf'of'the'Spanish'Research'Group'on'Quality'
of' Life' and' Ageing:' F.' Rojo)Perez;' G.' Fernandez)Mayoralas;' K.' Ah)
med)Mohamed;'R.'Lardies)Bosque;'P.'Martinez)Martin;'M.'J.'Forjaz;'
M.' E.' Prieto)Flores;' C.' Rodriguez)Blazquez;' B.' Frades)Payo;' C.' Del)
gado)Sanz;'A.'Ayala)García.'
HEALTHY!AGING:!DO!SOCIAL!NETWORKS!PROMOTE!
DAILY!PHYSICAL!ACTIVITY?!
'1
'2
Florian'Herbolsheimer ,'Thorsten'Nikolaus ,'Richard'Peter
1
1'
2
Institute' of' Epidemiology' and' Medical' Biometry,' Geriatric' Medi)
'
cine,'ULM'UNIVERSITY,'Ulm,'Germany
Abstract:'Background:'There'is'a'need'for'describing'the'impact'of'
social' networks' on' promoting' daily' physical' activity' (PA)' in' older'
adults.' The' aim' of' the' study' is' to' determine' if' different' network'
sizes'and'ties'are'related'to'physical'activity'levels.'
Design' and' Methods:' The' ActiFE)Ulm' baseline' screening' is' a' Ger)
man'cross)sectional'study'of'1321'community'dwelling'older'adults'
aged' 65' years' and' over' (mean' age' of' 76.6' years)' recruited' from'
both' urban' and' rural' neighborhoods' surrounding' Ulm.' The' risk' of'
social'isolation'was'screened'by'the'short'form'of'the'Lubben'Social'
Network' Scale' (LSNS)6)' that' was' conducted' by' an' interview)
administered' questionnaire.' PA' was' objectively' measured' by' an'
advanced' accelerometer' over' a' period' of' one' week.' This' devise,'
which'was'attached'to'the'leg,'considerably'improves'conventional'
estimates' of' physical' activity' and' even' allows' further' differentia)
tions' according' to' activity' patterns' (sitting,' standing' and' walking).'
Multivariate' regression' models' that' were' adjusted' for' age,' Activi)
ties'of'Daily'Living,'morbidities'and'other'confounders'were'calcu)
lated.'
Results:' The' rotated' factor' structure' of' the' LSNS)6' clearly' distin)
guished' between' three' items' dealing' with' family' and' three' items'
on' the' non)kin' networks' according' to' the' literature.' The' two' sub)
scales'(family'and'friends)'differently'influenced'higher'levels'of'PA.'
Whereas' the' relation' of' family' networks' on' PA' disappeared' after'
full' adjustment,' larger' friendship' networks' showed' a' significant'
increased' in' PA' levels.' Beside' the' friendship' subscale,' separate'
analysis'based'exclusively'on'the'friendship'network'size'appeared'
to'show'even'stronger'effects'(p'<'.01)'on'promoting'PA.'
Implication:' Information' on' friendship' ties' based' on' the' LSNS)6' is'
beneficial' for' the' assessment' of' the' personal' risk' of' inactivity' and'
planning'of'targeted'interventions'enhancing'daily'physical'activity'
in' an' older' population.' A' lack' of' friendship' networks' is' an' im)
portant' determinant' for' the' level' of' physical' activity' among' older'
adults.'
LIVE!EVERYDAY!!TARGETED!ACTIVITIES!FOR!YOUNG!
PEOPLE!WITH!DEMENTIA!G!AN!INTERVENTION!
PROJECT!
Petra'Ahnlund
1
1'
Social'work,'UMEÅ'UNIVERSITY,'Umeå,'Sweden
'
Abstract:'Younger'persons'with'dementia'(that'is'persons'under'65'
years' of' age)' is' a' group' of' which' knowledge' about' their' needs' in'
social'services'and'health'care'are'limited.'In'the'new'guidelines'for'
health' care' services' for' people' with' dementia' it' is' recognised' as'
important,'that'the'care'provided'to'young'persons'with'dementia'
should' be' based' on' a' team)based' work' in' which' different' profes)
sions' are' included.' In' order' to' have' a' meaningful' life,' the' work'
should'also'be'based'in'a'person)centered'approach.'
The'study'is'an'intervention'project'in'one'nursing'home'in'Umeå,'
Sweden.' Six' younger' persons' with' dementia' living' in' a' nursing'
home' for' elderly' have' during' eight' months,' once' a' week' been' on'
targeted' activities,' together' with' personnel' from' the' care' setting.'
The' targeted' activities' is' based' on' what' the' persons' themselves'
want'to'do'and'what'their'relatives'have'told'the'personnel'about'
the'persons'interests.'
The' aim' of' the' study' is' two' folded,' the' fist' aim' is' to' improve' the'
quality'of'life'for'younger'persons'with'dementia,'living'in'a'nursing'
home'for'elderly.'The'second'aim'is'to'study'if'the'project'have'had'
any' positive' effect' on' the' working' environment' in' the' nursing'
home.'
Method:'After'each'of'the'targeted'activates,'personnel'have'filled'
in'a'survey'about'the'activity;'what'they'did,'how'the'elderly'liked'it'
and' what' the' personnel' experienced' about' the' activity' in' relation'
to' the' elderly.' Interviews' with' the' personnel' about' the' activities'
and'the'process'are'to'be'conducted.'
Results:'The'results'are'not'yet'fully'analysed'but'the'initial'analyse'
show'that'the'personnel'is'experience'the'activities'as'a'good'way'
of'making'the'elderly'more'active'in'the'every'day'life.'The'way'of'
gathering' a' small' group' of' persons' once' a' week' and' to' do' new'
things'together,'is'having'a'positive'effect'on'the'persons'involved.'
The' personnel' have' come' to' realise' that' it' is' not' necessary' to' do'
“big' and' complex' activities”' such' as' long' trips;' the' elderly' seems'
happy'to'be'together,'with'people'that'understands'them'and'to'do'
things' that' are' familiar' to' them.' For' the' personnel' it' has' been'
meaningful'to'work'with'colleagues'from'other'parts'of'the'nursing'
home'and'they'experience'that'they'learned'a'lot'about'the'work'
from'each'other'about'young'persons'with'dementia.'
TOWARDS!A!GENERAL!MODEL!OF!WELLBEING!
Björn'Halleröd
1'
1
Dept.' of' Sociology,' UNIVERSITY' OF' GOTHENBURG,' Gothenburg,'
'
Sweden
Abstract:!Social'scientists'need'to'better'understand'how'different'
aspects'of'peoples’'wellbeing'are'tied'together'and'how'these'ties'
differs'between'individuals'at'one'point'of'time'and'within'individ)
uals'over'time.'Our'aim'is'to'theoretically'outline'a'general'model'
that' considers' the' multi)factorial' structure' of' peoples’' wellbeing.'
We' will' utilize' the' potential' of' latent' variable' modeling' to' find'
strategies' and' procedures' for' statistical' design' and' analysis' of' a'
unique'Swedish'database,'the'Panel/Survey/of/Ageing/and/the/Elder=
ly(/PSAE).'
The' approach' demands' the' development' of' an' inclusive' and' flexi)
ble'theoretical'model'that'considers'the'interactions'between'semi)
autonomous' domains' (material' resources,' social' position,' psycho)
social' factors,' lifestyle,' etc.).' Our' empirical' study' is' at' this' stage'
based'on'cross'sectional'PSAE/data'and'focus'on'people'that'are'55'
years' old' or' older' (N=5,374).' The' analysis' goes' beyond' traditional'
structural' equation' modeling' (SEM)' and' utilizes' recent' develop)
ments'in'statistical'theory'and'software'in'the'field'of'latent'varia)
ble' modeling' to' bring' about' a' more' realistic,' dynamic' and' theory'
confirming' analysis' of' a' multifaceted' and' stratified' phenomenon'
such'as'wellbeing.'One'of'the'contributions'is'that'the'latent'varia)
ble' framework' allows' the' specification' of' nested' measurement'
models' that' takes' advantage' of' non)random' residual' information,'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
16'
Abstract'Book'
important' information' that' in' most' analyses' is' left' unconsidered.'
We'will'also'test'to'what'degree'it'is'necessary'to'differentiate'the'
measure' of' wellbeing' between' different' age' groups' and' between'
men'and'women.'
The' research' process' includes' the' following' stages:' A)' Choosing'
domains'and'variables.'B)'Formulating'a'tentative'general'model.'C)'
Testing'the'relevance'of'the'theoretical'model.'D)'Validate'the'con)
firmative'model.'E)'Analysing'the'outcomes'of'the'model'in'relation'
to'predictors'such'as'socioeconomic'status,'gender,'and'age.'
SOCIAL!RESOURCES:!A!KEY!DIMENSION!IN!ELDERLY!
COMMUNITYGDWELLING!POPULATION!ASSESSMENT!
'1
Rogério'Manuel'Clemente'Rodrigues ,'Luís'Manuel'de'Jesus'Lourei)
'1
'1
ro ,' Sílvia' Manuela' Dais' Tavares' da' Silva ,' Zaida' de' Aguiar' Sá'
'2
Azeredo '
1
ESCOLA' SUPERIOR' DE' ENFERMAGEM,' Coimbra,'
'
Universidade'do'Porto,'Porto,'Portugal
2
ICBAS)
Abstract:'Background:'Functional'abilities'and'limitations'are'a'very'
salient'issue'related'to'ageing.'The'Older/Americans/Resources/and/
Services/ (OARS)' is' a' functional' multidimensional' assessment' in)
strument'that'evaluates'the'functional'status'in'the'five'determin)
ing' areas' for' the' elderly' quality' of' life:' social' resources,' economic'
resources,' mental' health,' physical' health' and' activities' of' daily'
living.' Its' use' is' relevant' for' the' knowledge' about' the' functional'
disability'in'physical'and'mental'areas'in'old'people.'The'aim'of'this'
study' is' to' analyse' the' applicability' of' the' OARS' (Questionário/ de/
Avaliação/ Funcional/ Multidimensional/ de/ Idosos' )' QAFMI' –' in' the'
Portuguese' version)' in' elderly' community)dwelling' population'
group.'
Methods:' comparative' analysis' of' quantitative' studies' of' descrip)
tive)correlation' type' with' a' cross)sectional' temporal' dimension.'
The'samples'in'all'studies'were'taken'in'a'randomized'and'probabil)
istic'trial,'from'the'users’'files'of'Health'Centres'and'nursing'homes.'
The' data' were' presented' by' gender' and' age' group' (65)74;' 75)84;'
≥85).'
Results:' The' evaluation' tool' showed' its' capabilities' to' collect' a'
great'volume'of'information.'Its'use'should'count,'in'the'evaluation'
of' functional' areas,' with' the' classification' according' to' the' score'
model'of'QAFMI,'because'of'the'divergences'verified'with'the'eval)
uation' realized' by' the' interviewer.' Only' by' this' way' we' can' com)
pare,' safely,' results' of' evaluations' and' possible' interventions.' The'
diverse'areas'that'are'implied'in'the'quality'of'life'of'the'elders,'and'
the'diversity'of'technicians'and'services'involved,'suggest,'as'impli)
cations'to'the'practice,'a'coordinated'intervention,'capable'of'gen)
erating'and'promoting'an'effective'intervention'that'maximize,'and'
promotes,'the'social'and'health'resources'distribution.'
Conclusion:! All' the' work' developed' with' the' Portuguese' version'
(QAFMI)'of'OARS'lead'us'to'consider'this'instrument'very'useful'to'
define'the'functional'status'of'the'elders'in'the'specific'evaluation'
areas'and'the'needs,'becoming'right'to'the'planning'of'older'care'
services.'Therefore,'OARS'(QAFMI'in'Portuguese'version)'is'a'meas)
urement'instrument'of'quality'for'older'people'providing'significant'
information' to' interventions' and' improve' adequate' social,' and'
health,'care'strategy'on'this'population'group.'
GET!UP!AND!GO!!THE!YOUNG!AT!HEART!!
Liz'Mcgettigan
1'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
1
Libraries' and' Information' Services,' THE' CITY' OF' EDINBURGH'
'
COUNCIL,'Edinburgh,'United'Kingdom
Abstract:!Well)being'is'undoubtedly'about'more'than'medicine'and'
health' and' with' a' longer,' healthier' life' as' a' goal,' we' should' all' be'
turning'more'of'our'attention'to'staying'active,'enjoying'life,'mak)
ing' friends,' waging' war' on' our' waistlines,' and' extinguishing' our'
cigarettes'for'good.'
It'is'indeed'about'the'ways'that'we'interact'with'the'environment,'
our' encounters,' our' routine' activities' such' as' walking' to' work,' to'
the'shops,'to'school,'aspects'of'work,'play'and'relaxation.'
With' all' of' this' in' mind' we' developed' Get' Up' and' Go)' a' brochure'
for' 50' +,' the' young' at' heart!,' a' brochure' that' is' unique' to' Edin)
burgh.' Jam)packed' with' articles' and' information' and' over' 300' or)
ganisations' and' activities,' from' quilt' making' to' canoeing,' there' is'
something'for'everyone'in'it.'
The'aim'was'to'encourage'healthy'minds'and'physical'activity'and'
to'make'access'to'these'opportunities'easier'for'all'of'our'citizens'
to'all'of'the'opportunities'across'the'city'of'Edinburgh.'
It' is' also' about' Libraries' as' community' spaces' for' older' people,'
places'where'they'can'volunteer,'learn'and'socialise.'
Methodology:''
•'We'worked'with'an'over'50s'advisory'and'editorial'group'
•'We'sourced,'catalogued'and'categorised'information'on'activities'
from'across'the'city'
•'We'also'made'the'information'available'electronically.'
http://www.youredinburgh.info/engage/'
•'We'linked'it'to'Get'Up'and'Go'for'IT'to'teach'the'senior'citizens'
the'skills'they'need'to'add'to'it'
•'We'made'it'widely'available'across'the'city'in'health'centres,'
libraries'community'and'leisure'centres.'
Outcomes:!We'created'a'network'of'people'interested'in'the'pro)
ject'and'a'resource'that'is'now'well'recognised'across'the'city.'
CARE!FOR!OLDER!PEOPLE!BETWEEN!STATE!AND!
FAMILY:!EVALUATION!OF!HOME!CARE!SERVICES!IN!
SLOVENIA!
Valentina'Hlebec
1'
1
UNIVERSITY' OF' LJUBLJANA,' FACULTY' OF' SOCIAL' SCIENCE,' Ljublja)
'
na,'Slovenia
Abstract:' The' development' of' formal' services' for' older' people' liv)
ing'at'home'is'studeid.'Firstly,'the'service'is'described'in'Slovenian'
context' with' regard' to' formal' requirements' of' the' program' and'
aims' and' goals' the' service' should' tackle.' Then,' we' evaluate' the'
program'with'regard'to'Slovenian'strategy'of'development'of'care'
for'older'people.'We'found'out,'using'cluster'analysis'of'municipali)
ties,'that'several'distinct'models'of'organization'of'the'service'has'
emerged' in' the' past' 5' years.' These' models' differ' in' financing'
sources' (municipality,' state' and' user),' efficient' use' of' finances'
(money' with' regard' to' number'of'services)'and'quality'(equal'and'
consistent'access'to'services).'Key'elements'of'future'development'
are'outlined'on'the'basis'of'empirical'evidence.'
CONVERSATION!ANALYSIS!AND!THE!DEVELOPMENT!
OF!NEW!SERVICES!FOR!OLDER!PEOPLE!
Abstract'Book'
17'
'
1'
Mika'Simonen
1
Department' of' Social' Research/Sociology,' UNIVERSITY' OF'
'
HELSINKI,'Helsinki,'Finland
Abstract:! Conversation' analysis' (CA)' is' a' method' for' analyzing' the'
organization'of'social'interaction.'In'this'presentation,'I'will'suggest'
that'CA'can'be'used'for'developing'new'social'and'health'care'ser)
vices'for'aging'people.'
Methods' and' materials:' We' video' recorded' 52' clinical' assessment'
interviews,' conducted' in' the' context' of' three' projects' developing'
assessment' of' functional' capacity.' The' data' were' transcribed' and'
analyzed' using' CA.' The' analysis' shows' how' the' assessment' of' the'
client’s' functional' capacity' is' produced' in' and' through' the' inter)
viewer)interviewee'interaction.'
Results:'The'professional'teams'that'were'responsible'for'develop)
ing'the'assessment'practices'considered'the'results'of'the'Conver)
sation' analysis' of' the' assessment' interviews' as' very' relevant,' be)
cause' the' recordings' and' the' transcriptions' provided' ”an' unob)
structed' view”' to' the' interview.' Conversation' analysis' explicated'
the' ways' in' which' the' assessment' interviews' proceeded' and' also'
showed'the'difficulties'involved'in'them.'The'project'staff'and'poli)
cy'makers'were'impressed'by'the'level'of'detail'that'CA'could'pro)
vide.'
Conclusion:' The' teams' responsible' for' the' projects' developing' as)
sessment' of' functional' capacity' used' the' results' of' Conversation'
analysis'in'developing'their'new'services.'Recently,'a'national'initia)
tive'for'functional'capacity'measurement'and'assessment'in'Finland'
published' recommendations' for' municipal' service' need' assess)
ments.'The'recommendation'acknowledges'that'the'social'interac)
tion'between'an'aging'person'and'health'care'personnel'should'be'
considered'when'assessment'interviews'are'conducted.'
FAMILY!COHESION!AND!ELDERLY!CARE!FOR!SENIORS!
'1
Hynek'Jerabek ,'Romana'Trusinová
1'
1
Faculty'of'Social'Sciences,'ISS,'Dep.'Sociology,'Charles'University'in'
'
Prague,'Prague,'Czech'Republic
Abstract:' The' growing' and' accelerating' need' for' care' for' elderly'
citizens'is'generating'a'continuous'need'for'family'care'for'seniors'
in' contemporary' Czech' society.' In' our' research,' we' prepared' a'
standardised'survey'and'used'it'to'interview'400'families'in'an'at)
tempt' to' answer' several' key' questions:' “How' do' the' families' of'
seniors'in'institutional'care'differ'from'the'families'caring'for'a'sen)
ior'at'home?”.'We'decided'to'select'one'hundred'seniors'aged'75'
or' over' with' a' high' level' of' assistance' (measured' using' the' BADL'
index)'who'are'in'institutional'care'and'three'hundred'seniors'who'
live' at' home' and' whose' care' is' arranged' for' or' provided' by' the'
family.'The'question'remains'as'to'what'we'regard'as'“family'cohe)
sion”?' A' family' with' strong' cohesion' is' one' that' exhibits' strong'
positive' emotional' ties' (affectual' solidarity),' enjoys' opportunities'
for' abundant' family' relationships' and' a' proximity' between' the'
caring' family' and' the' senior' (structural' solidarity),' and' has' a' high'
frequency' of' contacts' (associational' solidarity),' and' intergenera)
tional' assistance' (adult' children' helping' their' parents' –' seniors)'
(current' functional' solidarity).' We' ask:' “What' interrelationships'
exist'between'these'dimensions'of'family'cohesion?”'A'family'with'
partial' (asymmetrical)' cohesion' is' one' lacking' in' significant' ties:'
either'there'are'no'or'there'are'weakened'emotional'ties'(affectual'
solidarity),' or' the' frequency' of' contact' is' not' high' (associational'
solidarity),'or'the'opportunities'for'or'proximity'of'the'ties'is'weak'
(structural'solidarity),'yet'there'is'still'a'high'degree'of'intergenera)
tional' assistance' (current' functional' solidarity).' In' these' cases' it' is'
important'to'determine'–'and'we'asked'–'“What'mechanisms'is'this'
intergenerational' assistance' based' on?”' Hypothetically' the' main'
motivational' factors' can' be' considered' to' be:' 1)' either' a' strong'
sense'of'family'obligations'(normative'solidarity),'or,'conversely,'2)'
the' proximity' and' opportunities' for' assistance' (structural' solidari)
ty),'or'3)'frequent'contacts'(associational'solidarity),'or'4)'the'emo)
tional' relationship' (affectual' solidarity).' It' can' be' considered' very'
unlikely' that' a' high' rate' of' intergenerational' assistance' (current'
functional'solidarity)'would'occur'with'the'simultaneous'absence'of'
the' normative,' affectual,' associational' and' structural' components'
of'intergenerational'solidarity.'
FOSTER!CARE:!NEW!FAMILIES!FOR!FRAIL!OLDER!
ADULTS?!
'1
'2*
Alice'Delerue'Matos ,'Rita'Borges'Neves ,'Elisabete'Martins
1
1'
2
Sociology,' Research' Centre' for' Social' Sciences,' UNIVERSITY' OF'
'
MINHO,'Braga,'Portugal
Abstract:'Family'foster'care'for'older'adults'represents'an'alterna)
tive'to'classical'institutionalization'as'care'is'provided'to'frail'older'
people'in'a'family'context.'It'involves'the'development'of'intergen)
erational'relationships,'and'intimacy.'
This'research'intends'to'shed'some'light'on'the'dynamics'of'these'
singular' intergenerational' relationships' that' have' a' contractual'
ground.' Semi)structured' interviews' and' participating' observation'
was'undertaken'on'17'older'persons'in'foster'care'families.'
Intergenerational' dynamics' established' between' the' elderly' and'
the' care' family' do' not' seem' to' depend' on' factors' such' as' age' or'
health'of'the'former.'Results'stress'that'the'relationship'dynamics'
in' terms' of' quality' and' intensity' of' emotional' and' services' ex)
changes,'and'activities'shared'are'affected'by:'1)'needs'of'an'inti)
macy' space,' 2)' strategies' to' preserve' it' and' 3)' interiorization' of'
roles.'
Intimate,' close,' neutral' or' detached' categories' were' defined' to'
describe' the' style' of' the' relationship' between' elderly' and' foster'
family'members,'on'the'perspective'of'the'older'adult.'
Foster'care'represents'more'than'the'availability'of'permanent'care'
to'the'aged.'Despite'the'advantages'of'personalized'care'this'may'
be'a'disempowering'experience'for'the'elderly.'
THE!POLITICS!OF!VIOLENCE!IN!RESIDENTIAL!CARE!FOR!
OLDER!PEOPLE:!GENDER,!STRUCTURE!AND!SUFFERING!
'1
'2
'3
Albert'Banerjee ,'Tamara'Daly ,'Pat'Armstrong ,'Marta'Szebehely
4
'5
,'Hugh'Armstrong '
'
1
Re)imagining'Long)term'Residential'Care,'York'University,'Toronto,'
School' of' Health' Policy' &' Management,' York' University,' Toronto,'
3
Department' of' Sociology' and' Women’s' Studies,' York' University,'
4
Toronto,' Canada,' Social' Work,' Stockholm' University,' Stockholm,'
5
'
Sweden,' School'of'Social'Work,'Carleton,'Ottawa,'Canada
2
Abstract:' Comparisons' between' Scandinavia' and' Canada' indicate'
that'the'frequency'of'violence'against'workers'in'Canadian'nursing'
homes' is' extreme,' with' Canadian' frontline' careworkers' six' times'
more'likely'to'experience'violence'than'their'Scandinavian'counter)
parts.' This' presentation' outlines' the' findings' of' an' international'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
18'
Abstract'Book'
comparative' study' of' long)term' residential' care' serving' elderly'
populations'across'three'Canadian'provinces'(Manitoba,'Nova'Sco)
tia,'and'Ontario)'and'four'countries'following'a'Scandinavian'model'
of'care'(Denmark,'Finland,'Norway,'and'Sweden).'We'focus'on'the'
experience' of' Canadian' frontline' careworkers' who' provide' the'
majority'of'direct'care.'The'violence'Canadian'careworkers'experi)
ence' from' residents' and' their' family' members' is' physical,' verbal,'
racial'and'sexual.'Ninety'percent'of'those'surveyed'reported'expe)
riencing' some' form' of' physical' violence' and' 43' percent' experi)
enced'physical'violence'every'day.'Focus'groups'revealed'a'culture'
of' tolerance,' where' violence' was' considered' routine.' However,' in'
this' presentation' we' endeavour' to' do' more' than' identify' preva)
lence'rates,'and'introduce'the'concept'of'“structural'violence”'(Gal)
tung,' 1969)' to' offer' an' expanded' explanation' of' violence' that' ac)
counts' for' the' role' systemic' and' organizational' factors' –' such' as'
excessive' workload,' insufficient' staff,' lack' of' autonomy,' gender' –'
play' in' setting' the' context' for' personal' violence.' Current' working'
conditions'cause'Canadian'workers'great'suffering'and'fail'to'ena)
ble'them'to'provide'the'kind'of'care'they'know'they'are'capable'of'
providing,'given'sufficient'time,'resources'and'support.'The'concept'
of'structural'violence'helps'name'this'failure'as'a'form'of'violence,'
and' raises' pressing' questions' around' the' links' between' violence,'
work'organization,'and'social'care'policy.'
PREMIÈRE!ANNÉE!DE!VIE!DANS!UN!ETABLISSEMENT!
MÉDICOGSOCIAL:!ANALYSE!DES!PROCESSUS!
D'ADAPTATION!
'1
'2*
Murielle'Pott ,'Jérôme'Debons '
1
2
Unité' de' recherche' en' santé,' HecvSante,' Lausanne,' Sociologie,'
'
Université'de'Genève,'Genève,'Switzerland
Abstract:'Il'est'établi'que'la'majorité'des'résidantêeês'des'établisse)
ments' médico)sociaux' de' long' séjour' (EMS)' sont' de' sexe' féminin,'
âgéêeês' de' 80' ans' et' plus' et' souvent' très' affaibliêeês' par' des' pro)
blèmes' de' santé' (troubles' physiques' et' cognitifs).' Nonobstant,' la'
société'contemporaine'pose'un'sérieux'défi'à'ces'aînéêeês':'celui'de'
puiser' dans' ce' qui' leur' reste' comme' ressources' (familiales,' rela)
tionnelles,' personnelles)' pour' s’adapter' au' mieux' à' cette' nouvelle'
demeure,' synonyme' dans' plus' de' 80%' des' cas' de' dernière' rési)
dence'avant'la'mort.'Or,'le'déménagement'en'établissement'médi)
co)social'induit'une'rupture'dans'la'trajectoire'identitaire'du'sujet.'
Vécu'par'plus'd’unêe'aînéêe'comme'une'dépossession,'mort'sociale'
préfigurant'la'mort'physique,'il'sous)entend'de'quitter'un'lieu'sym)
boliquement'fort'(la'maison,'le'«'chez)soi'»)'pour'une'résidence'en'
collocation,'loin'des'repères'habituels.'De'leur'côté,'les'directrices'
et' directeurs' d’établissements' appliquent' toute' leur' attention' à'
atténuer' la' violence' symbolique' de' l’institutionnalisation.' Contre'
les' anciens' hospices' et' autres' asiles' de' vieillards,' les' EMS' ont' été'
conçus'pour'être'de'véritables'«'lieux'de'vie'»'fondés'sur'une'triple'
logique' de' soin,' d’accueil' et' d’ouverture' sur' l’extérieur' et' enfin'
d’animation.' Nous' menons' actuellement' une' recherche' sur' cette'
thématique'dans'un'EMS'du'canton'du'Valais';'ce'projet'a'pour'but'
d’observer,'dans'une'démarche'socio)ethnographique'et'en'suivant'
une'dizaine'de'résidantêeês'sur'une'période'de'1'année'(recherche'
longitudinale),' comment' ces' dernierêèreês' s’adaptent' à' leur' nou)
veau'lieu'de'vie,'et'corolairement,'ce'que'l’institution'met'en'place'
pour' favoriser' cette' adaptation' (recherche' monographique).' Dans'
le'cadre'de'l’atelier'vieillesse'RN01'Aeging/in/Europe,'nous'souhai)
tons'proposer'un'poster/en/français'présentant'd’une'part'les'parti)
cularités'de'la'structure'institutionnelle'd’un'EMS'dans'le'contexte'
actuel' en' Suisse,' et' d’autre' part,' les' résultats' des' premières' ana)
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
lyses' ethnographiques' sur' les' trajectoires' d’adaptation' des' rési)
dantêeês' suiviêeês.' Nous' présentation' ouvrira' ainsi' la' discussion' au'
sujet' de' certains' aspects' de' la' prise' en' charge' formelle' des' per)
sonnes'âgées'aujourd’hui'en'Suisse.'
AGEING,!DISABILITY!AND!PAIN:!A!STORY!ABOUT!
AGEING!PERCEPTIONS!AND!REALITIES!IN!FRENCHG
SPEAKING!SWITZERLAND,!1960G2011!
Michel'Oris
1
'1,'1
'2
'3
,'Julia'Henke ,'Christophe'Luthy '
2
Sociology,' Centre' for' interdisciplinary' Gerontology,' UNIVERSITY'
3
OF'GENEVA,'Carouge,' University'Hospital,'UNIVERSITY'OF'GENEVA,'
'
Geneva,'Switzerland
Abstract:' In' Europe,' the' canton' of' Geneva' and' the' central' area' in'
the' canton' of' Valais' are' exceptional' since' four' interdisciplinary'
surveys' have' been' run' from' the' early' 1960s' until' 2011' about' the'
living' conditions' of' the' elderly.' While' life' expectancy' and' even'
more' healthy' life' expectancy' progressed,' we' moved' from' a' very'
negative' perception' of' ageing' associated' to' senility,' disability' and'
last'step'to'death,'to'the'vision'of'a'new'stage'of'life,'the'so)called'
third' age,' where' healthy' wealthy' retired' could' maintain' their' de)
velopment' and' self)realization.' Such' drastic' change' in' the' percep)
tions'has'hided'realities'of'disabilities,'pains,'discomforts'affecting'
the' elderly,' especially' the' growing' population' of' the' oldest' old.'
Pains')'especially'those'of'the'low'back')'are'an'old'problem'but'the'
topic'has'only'recently'really'been'addressed'by'scientists,'observ)
ing' the' limitations' of' the' drug' treatments' among' the' elderly.'
Thanks' to' the' four' surveys' done' in' French)speaking' Switzerland'
between' 1963' and' 2011' and' to' an' historical' assessment' of' the'
gerontological' publications,' our' contribution' will' highlight' the' dis)
crepancy'between'changing'perceptions'and'enduring'realities.'
EXPERIENCED!AGEGDISCRIMINATION!AND!ATTITUDES!
TOWARDS!ELDERLY!PEOPLE:!REGIONAL!FINNISH!AND!
SWEDISH!TRENDS!OF!AGEISM!
Fredrik' Nils' Christian' Snellman
'3
Jungerstam '
' 1
,' Mikael' Nygård
' 2
,' Susanne'
1
Department' of' Social' Work,' UMEÅ' UNIVERSITY,' Umeå,' Sweden,'
3
Department' of' Social' Sciences,' Åbo' Akademi' University,' Novia'
'
University'of'Applied'Sciences,'NOVIA,'Vasa,'Finland
2
Abstract:'Few'aspects'permeate'our'social'life'in'the'same'way'as'
the' category' of' age.' We' all' know' from' our' own' experiences' and'
from'anecdotal'evidence'that'age'matters'in'many'different'ways'in'
our'lives.'However,'aspects'such'as'experienced'age)discrimination'
and'attitudes'towards'elderly'people'are'rarely'in'focus'of'attention'
in'research.'
The'approach'in'this'article'is'descriptive'and'differential'based'on'
cross)sectional'data.'The'aim'is'to'examine'trends'in'the'extent'to'
which'ageism'is'experienced'and'reported'as'a'structural'and'indi)
vidual'phenomenon.'More'specifically,'how'has'the'personal'expe)
rience' of' being' discriminated' against' on' the' grounds' of' age'
changed'between'2005'and'2010?'According'to'the'Eurobarometer'
an'increase'is'not'to'be'expected.'Secondly,'how'have'the'generally'
experienced' attitudes' towards' the' elderly' changed' between' 2005'
and'2010'in'different'domains'of'society?'(Eurobarometer:'increase'
to'be'expected.'Cross)sectional'data'from'the'GERDA'(GERontologi)
cal' Regional' DAtabase)' population' study,' among' individuals' born'
Abstract'Book'
19'
'
1930'and'1940'is'analysed.'Data'collection'was'carried'out'in'2005'
(n'3370)'and'replicated'in'2010.'
The'presentation'will'shed'light'on'the'currently'available'data'from'
2005'and'the'comparable'data'from'2010'(coding'of'data'complet)
ed'spring'2011)'within'the'same'age'cohort.'Regional'data'on'age)
discrimination' and' attitudes' towards' the' elderly' is' contrasted'
against'idealistic'trends'that'have'been'shown'to'exist'at'a'Europe)
an'level.'
Remarks'about'the'validity'of'the'items'used'will'be'discussed.'The'
measures' are' not' direct' reflections' of' the' prevalence' of' age)
discrimination'and'attitudes'towards'elderly'people.'However'they'
are' measures' of' the' ideas' of' these' two' phenomena.' Ideas' that'
people'have'will'affect'them'in'different'ways.'We'need'to'recog)
nise'that'people'have'these'ideas'because'having'them'is'a'part'of'
the'reproduction'of'ageism.'Ageism'exists'by'the'power'of'people’s'
idealistic'views'that'are'independent'of'any'realistic'evidence'that'
it' actually' does.' Ageism' gains' ontological' status' through' validated'
claims' that' something' is' age)discrimination' and' through' the' ideas'
that' something' is' believed' to' be' age)discrimination.' Having'
knowledge'about'the'contingent'trends'in'these'ideas'can'guide'us'
in'intervening'in'the'negative'aspects'of'the'reproductive'circle'of'
ageism.'
SPACES!OF!(NON)!AGEINGG!A!DISCOURSE!PERSPECTIVE!
Monika'Wilinska
1'
1
Research' School' of' Health' and' Welfare,' JÖNKÖPING' UNIVERSITY,'
'
Jönköping,'Sweden
Abstract:'This'paper'explores'discourses'of'old'age'within'the'wel)
fare'state'context,'in'Poland.'Acknowledging'the'socially'construct)
ed' nature' of' ageing,' this' study' seeks' to' identify' societal' spaces' of'
ageing,'spaces'where'people'are'supposed'to'grow'old.'In'this,'the'
study'adopts'a'welfare'culture'perspective'that'highlights'the'con)
textual,'emotional'and'unstable'character'of'the'welfare'state'that'
undergoes'indefinite'processes'of'change.'It'points'out'to'the'pro)
cesses'of'people'production'based'on'instilling'in'them'norms'and'
principles'that'should'govern'their'lives.'
The' study' is' based' on' multiple' data' that' follows' the' theoretical'
adherence'to'the'concept'of'discourse.'It'focuses'on'things'that'are'
said'about'old'age,'done'to'old'age,'and'heard'about'old'age'within'
the'welfare'state'context.'The'study'analyses'discourses'of'old'age'
present'in'mass'media'material,'social'policy'documents,'organiza)
tional'and'personal'narratives,'and'social'welfare'actions.'
'1
'1
'1
Silke'Van'Dyk ,'Stephan'Lessenich ,'Tina'Denninger ,'Anna'Richter
1
Institute'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'JENA,'Jena,'Germany
1'
'
Abstract:' Over' the' past' years' older' people' have' been' increasingly'
discovered' as' active' citizens,' which' is' particularly' true' for' the'
“young”'and'non)frail'elderly.'They'are'regarded'as'capable'of'living'
a'self)reliant'life,'being'able'to'contribute'to'the'public'good'as'well'
as'striving'after'meaningful'engagement.'Even'though'we'face'this'
re)negotiation' of' old' age' recently,' the' scientific' report' on' this' de)
velopment' is' often' anecdotical' or' restricted' to' specific' areas' of'
interests.' In' fact' there' is' a' lack' of' systematic' research' in' two' re)
spects:' Whereas' social' security' and' demografic' issues' are' in' the'
forefront'of'age)related'discussions,'the'encompassing'shift'of'age)
related'norms,'values'and'images'over'the'last'decades'is'neglected'
–'and'this'holds'true'first'for'the'medial'and'political'discourse'as'
well'as'secondly'for'the'individual'(self))concepts'and'images.'
The' contributed' paper' is' based' on' the' research' project' “From' re)
tirement' to' active' ageing?' Images' and' practices' of' old' age' in' the'
transformation' of' the' German' welfare' state' after' reunification”.'
The'project'explores'shifts'in'the'meaning'of'“old'age”'in'the'con)
text' of' the' demographic' and' welfare' state' changes' Germany' has'
been'witnessing'after'1989.'Based'on'a'systematic'analysis'of'1500'
newspaper' articles,' party' manifestos,' government' programs' and'
advertisement'from'1983'to'2009'the'project'investigates'to'what'
extent'and'in'which'way'there'are'age)related'images'and'expecta)
tions' of' activity' and' productivity.' In' a' second' step,' based' on' bio)
graphic,'in)depth'interviews'with'60'older'people'in'East'and'West'
Germany' the' project' explores' how' individuals' reflect' and' process'
the' new' public' imagery' of' “active' ageing”.' In' addition,' individual'
self)conceptions'of'the'elderly'are'contrasted'with'their'actual'ac)
tivities' in' everyday' life,' which' have' been' studied' on' the' basis' of'
standardised'questionnaires.'In'this'way,'the'project'aims'to'ascer)
tain' the' social' acceptance,' and' thus' the' political' success,' of' the'
“activation' agenda”' pursued' by' German' social' policy.' The' submit)
ted'paper'offers'insights'in'major'empirical'results'and'theoretical'
considerations'out'of'three'years'of'research'on'social'and'individ)
ual' re)negotations' of' old' age.' Special' attention' is' paid' to' the' fact'
that'even'two'decades'after'reunification,'there'are'still'significant'
differences' in' the' social' construction' of' old' age' and' ageing' be)
tween'East'and'West.'
'AGE!OF!AUSTERITY:!ON!WHOM!DOES!THE!AXE!FALL!
HARDEST?'!
'1
'2
Jay'Ginn ,'Sue'Himmelweit '
The' findings' of' this' study' indicate' that' there' is' a' lack' of' spaces' of'
ageing'in'the'welfare'state'context.'Discourses,'which'are'examined'
in' this' study,' illuminate' the' process' of' resentment' and' decline' of'
old'age.'People'are'expected'not'to'grow'old;'old'age'remains'to'be'
a'misunderstood'phenomenon.'Contrary'to'the'surplus'knowledge'
against' old' age,' there' is' a' considerable' lack' of' knowledge' for' old'
age.'Therefore,'spaces'of'non)ageing'are'invoked'in'order'to'elabo)
rate'on'those'processes.'Spaces'of'non)ageing'identify'various'soci)
etal'domains'and'show'what'needs'to'be'done'in'order'not'to'grow'
old.' Spaces' of' non)ageing' repudiate' the' idea' of' old' age' as' some)
thing'terrifying'and,'on'many'occasions,'immoral.'
1
THE!REGNEGOTIATION!OF!OLD!AGE!IN!TURBULENT!
TIMES.!THEORETICAL!CONSIDERATIONS!AND!
EMPIRICAL!RESULTS!ON!ACTIVE!AGEING!IN!GERMANY!
If' similar' strategies' are' used' more' widely' in' Europe,' similarly' re)
gressive'effects'can'be'expected.'
Institute' of' Gerontology,' KINGS' COLLEGE' LONDON,' coulsdon,'
'
Economics,'Open'University,'London,'United'Kingdom
2
Abstract:!The'UK'Coalition'government'has'introduced'measures'to'
reduce' the' national' deficit' by' 2015,' claiming' the' planned' cuts' in'
welfare'benefits'and'in'services'are'fair,'distributing'the'pain'across'
the'whole'of'society.'
In'this'paper,'we'outline'how'the'cuts'will'affect'older'people,'using'
estimates'that'quantify'their'financial'cost'to'pensioners,'analysed'
by' gender' and' whether' living' alone' or' in' a' couple.' Women' single'
pensioners' will' be' the' hardest' hit.' This' is' largely' driven' by' cuts' in'
social'care'and'housing'support.'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
20'
Abstract'Book'
EVERYDAY!MOBILITY!AMONG!STAYERS!AND!MOVERS!
IN!LATER!MID!LIFE!
Satu'Heikkinen
'1,'2*
'2
,'Åsa'Aretun '
1
Sociology,'Department'of'Behavioural'Sciences'and'Learning'(IBL),'
'
Mobility,'actors'and'planning'processes,'VTI,'Linköping,'Sweden
2
Abstract:' This' paper' explores' changes' in' everyday' mobility' (i.e.'
transportation)'in'later'midlife.'Assumptions'on'midlife'as'a'settled'
stage'in'life,'concerning'for'example'housing'and'travel'patterns,'is'
prevalent' in' research' and' has' resulted' in' a' lack' of' studies' on' pro)
cesses' and' variations' in' midlife' in' a' life' course' perspective.' This'
means'that'the'understanding'is'limited'of'what'happens'with'trav)
el'patterns'and'travel'needs'during'midlife'and'how'these'relates'to'
earlier' experiences' as' well' as' correspond' to' future' plans.' The' aim'
of' the' paper' is' to' focus' on' everyday' mobility' in' later' midlife' by'
highlighting' two' life' course' related' events,' empty' nesting' and'
(planning'for)'retirement.'
A' qualitative' interview' study' was' conducted' with' 45)65' years' old'
people'in'two'Swedish'cities'(Vadstena'and'Norrköping).'Two'focus'
groups'interviews'(one'in'each'city)'and'20'in)depth'interviews'(10'
in' each' city)' were' analysed' in' accordance' with' extended)case'
methodology.' One' important' finding' was' that' many' interviewees'
had'not'only'changed'everyday'mobility'related'to'the'processes'of'
empty'nesting'and'(planning'for)'retirement'but'had'changed'resi)
dence'as'well.'In'those'instances'change'of'residence'affected'eve)
ryday' mobility' and' the' analysis' had' to' consider' interactions' be)
tween' residential' mobility' and' everyday' mobility.' One' example' of'
change' in' everyday' mobility' when' children' were' moving' out' of'
home' was' “hypermobility”.' Individuals' showing' this' characteristic'
stayed' at' their' residence' while' investing' in' their' working' career.'
They'were'“free”'to'travel'as'never'before'in'work'and'also'became'
more'car)dependent.'Another'change'was'to'move'from'suburban'
areas'to'the'inner)city.'By'changing'residential'location'in'this'way'
car)driving'was'replaced'by'walking'and'bicycling.'
SOCIAL!EXCLUSION!OF!THE!ELDERLY:!A!MIXED!
METHODS!STUDY!IN!SLOVENIA!
'1
'1
Masa'Filipovic'Hrast ,'Matic'Kavcic ,'Valentina'Hlebec
1'
1
UNIVERSITY' OF' LJUBLJANA,' FACULTY' OF' SOCIAL' SCIENCE,' Ljublja)
'
na,'Slovenia
Abstract:'The'elderly'are'in'many'ways'more'vulnerable'than'other'
groups'in'society.'To'research'the'vulnerabilities'of'the'elderly,'we'
will'employ'the'concept'of'social'exclusion'which'is'less'often'used'
in' gerontological' research.' A' particularly' innovative' approach' is'
taken' in' this' study' as' secondary' quantitative' data' are' used' in' the'
explanatory' mixed' methods' model' for' the' analysis' of' social' exclu)
sion,' which' is' then' combined' with' in)depth' interviews' and' the'
grounded' theory' approach.' With' quantitative' data' we' initially' try'
to'discover'which'areas'of'social'exclusion'particularly'affect'older'
people'in'Slovenia.'Then'we'try'to'understand'the'social'exclusion'
of'the'elderly'in'greater'depth'by'analysing'their'coping'strategies'
in'each'area'of'social'exclusion.'
The'qualitative'data'yielded'an'in)depth'insight'into'the'most'prob)
lematic'areas'of'social'exclusion.'We'found'that'the'study'of'coping'
strategies' is' a' very' useful' tool' for' understanding' social' exclusion.'
The' numerous' strategies' applied' show' the' resourcefulness' of' the'
elderly,'yet'they'also'indicate'that'the'majority'of'strategies'did'not'
lead'to'an'exit'from'exclusion,'only'the'reduction'of'exclusion'in'a'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
certain'area.'Therefore,'even'though'it'is'dynamic'in'nature'social'
exclusion'seems'quite'static'for'the'elderly,'who'have'few'ways'of'
exiting' it.' For' example,' the' use' of' past' savings' only' temporarily'
means' a' reduction' of' financial' deprivation' and' cannot' be' seen' as'
an'exit'strategy.'Many'of'the'strategies'observed'therefore'seem'to'
be'often'directed'to'the'depletion'of'resources'(financial,'individual'
or'other)'and'in'the'long'run'might'even'indicate'a'future'worsen)
ing'of'the'situation'regarding'exclusion.'
SOCIAL!EXCLUSION,!DIVERSITY!AND!AGEING!IN!RURAL!
IRELAND!AND!NORTHERN!IRELAND!
Kieran'Walsh
1'
1
Irish' Centre' for' Social' Gerontology,' NATIONAL' UNIVERSITY' OF'
'
IRELAND'GALWAY,'Galway,'Ireland
Abstract:' The' intersecting' elements' of' social' exclusion,' and' their'
concentration' in' particular' places,' can' impact' on' people’s' social,'
economic' and' health' lives.' However,' there' has' been' no' research'
addressing' social' exclusion' among' older' people' living' in' diverse'
rural'areas'in'Ireland'or'Northern'Ireland,'with'a'cross)border'anal)
ysis'completely'absent.'Aside'from'a'lack'of'understanding'around'
age' itself' as' a' mediator' of' social' exclusion,' existing' research' on'
place'typically'concentrates'on'urban'areas.'Our'knowledge'of'dif)
ferent'kinds'of'rural'communities'(i.e.'village'rural,'dispersed'rural,'
remote' rural,' island' rural' and' near)urban' rural)' as' places' of' resi)
dence' for' older' people' is' also' limited.' Consequently,' there' is' a'
dearth'of'information'on'how'diverse'rural'places'can'facilitate'or'
protect'against'social'exclusion'as'people'age.'
This' paper' explores' how' age' and' rurality' combine' over' the' life)
course'to'impact'on'the'likelihood'of'social'exclusion'from'material'
resources,' social' relations,' and' services' in' five' contrasting' rural'
contexts'(i.e.'village'rural,'dispersed'rural,'island'rural,'remote'rural'
and'near)urban'rural)'in'Ireland'and'Northern'Ireland.'The'research'
draws'on'focus'groups'with'local'stakeholders'and'100'face'to'face'
interviews' with' a' diverse' group' of' older' people' in' 10' case)study'
sites'across'Ireland'and'Northern'Ireland.'Participants'were'recruit)
ed'on'the'basis'of'age'(younger'old'and'older'old);'socio)economic'
status;' composition' of' household,' gender;' isolation;' health' status;'
recent' versus' long)term' residency.' Preliminary' findings' from' this'
research'will'be'presented'and'discussed'with'reference'to'individ)
ual,'place'and'structural'components'of'social'exclusion.'The'role'of'
cumulative'advantage'and'disadvantage'is'also'examined.'
PERCEIVED!INEQUALITIES:!CAUSES!ADVOCATED!BY!
ELDERLY!WOMEN!AND!MEN!IN!TWO!NATIONAL!
CONTEXTS!
'1
'2
Fredrik'Nils'Christian'Snellman ,'Clary'Krekula '
1
Department' of' Social' Work,' UMEÅ' UNIVERSITY,' Umeå,'
Department' of' Social' Studies,' Karlstad' University,' Karlstad,' Swe)
'
den
2
Abstract:'This'paper'focuses'on'elderly’s'perception'of'inequalities.'
The' aim' is' to' illustrate' the' reported' prevalence' of' inequalities'
among' elderly' women' and' men' in' Finland' and' Sweden,' and' par)
ticularly,' to' examine' perceived' inequalities' based' ongender' and'
age.' Elderly' people' are' often' foreclosed' from' quantitative' studies'
due'to'unwarranted'expectations'that'they'will'not'be'able'to'fill'in'
a'questionnaire.'Hence,'there'is'still'a'lack'of'knowledge'about'how'
elderly' in' general' and' subcategories' specifically' perceive' inequali)
Abstract'Book'
21'
'
ties.' Our' approach' is' descriptive,' differential' and' contextual.' In)
stead'of'focusing'any'particular'single'inequality'cause,'we'are'ap)
plying'a'broader'perspective,'and'thereby'identifying'the'inequality'
causes'described'as'most'important.'Data'from'the'GERDA'(GEron)
tological' Regional' DAtabase)' population' study,' among' individuals'
born'1930'and'1940,'carried'out'in'2005'is'analysed.'
Respondents'were'asked'“do'you'think'that'everybody'has'got'the'
same' opportunities' in' today’s' society”.' 13,4' %' of' the' respondents'
answered'yes,'and'86,6'%'no,'statistically'significant'by'gender'and'
age.'Additionally,'if'responding'no,'respondents'were'asked'to'an)
swer'the'follow'up'question,'“what'do'you'consider'to'be'the'most'
important' causes' for' inequality”' (max' 3' choices).' The' most' fre)
quently' mentioned' alternatives' were' illness/disability' (46,3' %),'
economy'(44,6'%)'and'education'(42,4'%).'Age'(34,8%)'is'perceived'
as' the' fifth' most' important' inequality' cause' and' gender' (23,1%),'
surprisingly,' as' the' ninth' most' important.' An' eye)catching' differ)
ence'is'observed'between'country'of'residence'and'all'inequalities.'
In'general'the'residents'in'Sweden'report'the'inequalities'to'a'high)
er'extent'compared'to'residents'in'Finland.'
In' Sweden,' the' gender' inequality' debate' has' been' especially' in)
tense' historically' and' it' still' is.' Anti)discriminatory' legislation' has'
also' focused' gender,' while' discrimination' on' the' grounds' of' age'
was' prohibited' as' late' as' in' 2009.' In' Finland,' on' the' other' hand,'
gender' inequality' is' not,' and' has' not' been,' debated' to' the' same'
extent.' Gender' equality' legislation' exists,' and' anti)age)
discriminatory' legislation' has' existed' for' a' longer' period' of' time'
compared' to' Sweden.' The' empirical' data' reflects' these' national'
conditions.' The' subcategory' Swedish' women' report' gender' ine)
quality'–'and'Finish'women'age'inequality'–'to'a'considerably'high)
er'extent'compared'to'the'other'groups.'
AGING!IN!EUROPE!AND!SPECIALY!IN!SPAIN.!LONGG
TERM!CARES.!SHARE!PROJECT!
Ana'Maria'Lopez'Narbona
1
1'
SOCIOLOGY,'UNIVERSITY'OF'MALAGA,'MALAGA,'Spain
'
Abstract:'As'says'the'World'Bank,'the'EU'member'states'and'spe)
cially'Spain'are'facing'a'rapidly'aging'population.'One'of'the'conse)
quences'of'these'demographic'changes'is'the'expected'increase'in'
demand'among'the'older'population'for'long)term'care'(LTC).'The'
future'demand'for'LTC'services'will'be'driven'by'two'factors:'first,'
the'size'of'the'older'population'(+65),'especially'the'very'old'(+75)'
and'second,'the'percentage'of'older'people'dependent'or'severely'
dependent,' and' therefore' requiring' help' with' Activities' of' Daily'
Living'(ADL).'
Specialist'David'Casado'Marin'considers'that'to'date,'both'in'Spain'
and'virtually'all'the'other'EU'countries,'dependency'has'been'seen'
to'be'a'fundamentally'private'problem'to'be'dealt'with'by'the'fami)
ly'concerned.'In'this'way,'whether'through'informal'carers'or'con)
tracted' professionals,' in' the' domestic' environment' or' in' care'
homes,' it' is' the' dependent' person' themselves' and' their' families'
who'currently'bear'the'majority'of'the'costs.'In'light'of'this,'current'
concern'lies'in'the'social'change'that'is'coming'on,'mainly'the'ac)
celerated' aging' process' and' the' increased' participation' of' middle)
aged' women' in' the' labour' market,' which' heighten' the' need' for'
collective' organisation' of' that' which' until' now' has' been' resolved'
within'family'circles.'
In'this'context,'at'the'same'time'that'the'Government'has'issued'a'
"Long' Term' Care' Law"' in' 2006,' I' am' going' to' analyze' the' main' is)
sues'such'as'the'dependency'problems'and'its'eventual'future'evo)
lution,' the' characteristics' of' the' current' Spanish' long)term' care'
system;'the'role'that'health'services'should'have'in'the'dependency'
issue;' and' finally,' the' family' involvement' in' long)term' care' of' old'
people' and' the' benefits' and' drawbacks' of' the' main' alternatives'
that'the'Administration'could'manage'in'case'it'intends'to'increase'
its'involvement'in'this'field.'
I' will' analyse' also' the' Survey' of' Health,' Ageing' and' Retirement' in'
Europe'(SHARE)'which'is'a'multidisciplinary'and'cross)national'pan)
el' database' of' micro' data' on' health,' socio)economic' status' and'
social'and'family'networks'of'more'than'45,000'individuals'aged'50'
or' over.' As' said' in' the' web' page' of' SHARE,' it' responds' to' a' Com)
munication' by' the' European' Commission' calling' to' "examine' the'
possibility' of' establishing,' in' co)operation' with' Member' States,' a'
European'Longitudinal'Ageing'Survey.'
CARING!FOR!OLDER!PEOPLE:!DIVISION!OF!CARE!WORK!
BETWEEN!FAMILY!AND!NONGFAMILY!CARE!
José'São'José
1'
1
CIEO,'UNIVERSITY'OF'ALGARVE,'Faro,'Portugal
'
Abstract:' This' presentation' focuses' on' a' topic' that' has' been' ne)
glected' in' previous' research:' the' division' of' care' work' between'
family' carers' and' non)family' carers.' An' analytical' framework' that'
goes' beyond' the' conventional' models' of' the' interplay' between'
informal'and'formal'care'is'used,'which'has'proved'to'be'very'fruit)
ful' in' revealing' different' forms' of' division' of' care' work.' The' data'
was'gathered'trough'qualitative'research'carried'out'in'the'Lisbon'
region.' The' results' show' a' more' complex' picture' than' that' one'
depicted'by'the'conventional'models'referred'above.'For'example,'
they' show' that' the' specialization' or' differentiation' of' care' work'
between' family' and' non)family' carers' assumes' different' degrees'
(strong'or'weak)'and'different'forms'(resulting'from'different'com)
binations' of' the' roles' played' by' family' and' non)family' carers' in'
terms'of'care'tasks'provided'and'time'spent'in'care'provision).'They'
also'demonstrate'that'the'division'of'care'work'is'clearly'shaped'by'
the' level' of' financial' resources' available' in' families.' It' is' also' re)
vealed' that' family' carers' idealize' to' maintain' the' elders' in' the'
community'for'as'long'as'possible'with'the'help'of'extensive'non)
family'care.'
PROBLEMS!EMERGING!FROM!ELDERLY!CARE!IN!“CARE!
TRIANGLE”:!ELDERLY!PERSON,!CAREGIVER!AND!CLOSE!
RELATIVES!OF!ELDERS!
Ayse'Canatan
1
1'
SOCİOLOGY,'GAZI'UNIVERSITY,'Ankara,'Turkey
'
Abstract:'Aging,'elderly'people'and'their'care'are'new'concepts'for'
Turkey.'The'ratio'of'older'people'is'7%'in'whole'population.'While'
traditional'extended'family'was'maintaining'several'functions'such'
as'child'care,'elderly'care'and'some'homemade'productions;'today'
modern'nuclear'family'of'the'modern'urban'society'cannot'contin)
ue' all' these' functions' because' women' are' working' outside' the'
home.'In'this'point,'elderly'care'is'a'problem'of'the'modern'urban'
families.'Elderly'care'is'a'difficult'process'for'the'sides'of'“care'tri)
angle”.' Elderly' people,' their' close' relatives' and' caregivers' are' ele)
ments'of'care'triangle.'All'sides'of'this'triangle'have'different'posi)
tions' in' this' care' process.' These' three' sides' of' care' triangle' have'
some' problems' and' difficulties' beside' of' the' advantages.' Further)
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
22'
Abstract'Book'
more,' elderly' care' is' a' process' which' needs' seven' days' and' 24'
hours'demands'foreign'nationality'care'givers.'In'our'research,'this'
“care'triangle”'was'studied'with'32'families'living'in'Ankara'and'in'
Istanbul.'In'this'study,'it'was'made'interviews'with'32'elderly'peo)
ple,' 32' care' givers' all' are' foreign' nationality' women,' and' 43' close'
relatives'of'elders.'The'study'will'be'concluded'by'presenting'posi)
tive'and'negative'effects'for'each'side'in'elderly'care'process.'This'
presentation' mainly' focused' on' problems' or' negative' effects' for'
each'three'sides.'
THE!MANY!LIVES!OF!WOMEN!CARING!FOR!AN!
ELDERLY!PARENT!WITH!ALZHEIMER!IN!PORTUGAL!
Sanda'Samitca
1'
1
INSTITUTE' OF' SOCIAL' SCIENCES' UNIVERSITY' OF' LISBON,' Lisbon,'
'
Portugal
Abstract:' Portugal' like' other' European' countries' is' facing' an' in)
creasing'number'of'elderly'persons'suffering'from'chronic'disease,'
and'Alzheimer's'disease'(AD)'in'particular.'
Focusing'more'specifically'on'daughters,'the'paper'explores'how,'in'
a'context'of'a'high'rate'of'female'employment'and'low'availability'
of' services,' women' do' experience' and' face' the' situation,' both' at'
the'practical'and'symbolic'levels.'
Drawing'on'qualitative'interviews'with'daughters'providing'care'to'
one'of'their'parent'with'AD'while'working,'we'investigate'what'are'
the'main'care'arrangements'set'up'by'families.'
Adopting' a' work)life' balance' perspective,' the' analysis' highlights'
different' patterns' of' caregiving,' according' to' how' the' child' faces'
this'new'situation'and'defines'new'ways'of'being'together'in'a'situ)
ation'of'loss'of'references.'Those'patterns'are'also'linked'to'various'
attitudes' toward' formal' care' services.' We' examine' the' main' diffi)
culties' carers' have' to' face,' the' coping' strategies' they' develop,' as'
well'as'the'different'patterns'of'reconciling'work'and'care.'
We' will' show' how,' in' order' to' face' the' caring' needs' of' persons'
suffering'from'AD,'complex'care'arrangements'are'required.'More)
over,' in' order' to' reconcile' work' and' care,' both' demanding' tasks,'
daughters'rely'upon'various'kind'of'support.'Care'arrangements'are'
organized' most' often' by' combining' informal' and' formal' care,' in'
and'outside'the'house,'in'a'complementary'form.'
The'paper'will'also'present'how'caring'while'working'is'highly'chal)
lenging' and' has' important' repercussions' on' carers’' personal' and'
social' lives,' as' well' as' on' their' professional' lives.' However,' most'
often'family'plays'a'central'role'and'is'willing'to'assure'this'crucial'
task' even' when' working.' In' fact,' although' working' induces' con)
straints,'it'is'also'mentioned'as'a'resource'to'face'the'caring'situa)
tion.'
WORKING!CAREGIVERS!AMONG!POLISH!POPULATION!
50+!
'1
'1
Jolanta'Perek)Bialas ,'Justyna'Stypinska ,'Konrad'Turek
1
1'
Institute'of'Sociology,'JAGIELLONIAN'UNIVERSITY,'Krakow,'Poland
'
Abstract:'The'presentation'focuses'on'the'group'of'carers'aged'50'
and'more,'with'a'special'regard'paid'to'the'group'of'working'carers'
in'comparison'to'the'non)working'cares.'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
Poland' may' in' the' future' face' a' serious' problem' of' provision' of'
informal'(via'family'networks,'family'members)'and'as'well'formal'
care'services'(not'sufficient'system'of'institutions'providing'elderly'
care,' which' additionally' are' not' very' positively' perceived' by' the'
society)'for'older'people'on'sufficient'level.'The'presentation'joins'
to'the'discussion'about'the'role'of'individuals'50+'in'adult'care'and'
elderly'care'in'Poland,'the'effects'of'caregiving'for'carers'and'how'
it'might'evolve'in'the'future'while'care'demand'will'increase.'What'
impact'do'the'care'responsibilities'have'on'the'labour'market'par)
ticipation' of' caregivers' aged' 50)plus' in' Poland?' What' impact' do'
care' responsibilities' have' on' everyday' life' of' the' caregivers?' In'
what' way' does' the' reconciliation' of' work' and' care' influence' the'
psychical'and'psychological'wellbeing'of'the'carers?'
The'analysis'shed'some'light'on'better'comprehension'of'the'situa)
tion' of' working' caregivers' and' the' problem' of' reconciliation' of'
work' and' care' in' Poland.' Regression' modeling' provides' clear' con)
clusion' that' the' likelihood' of' being' sad' and' depressed' is' much'
higher'in'the'situation'of'dual'burden'or'work'and'care,'rather'than'
in'situation'of'single'burden')'either'work'or'care.'As'many'working'
carers'are'not'able'to'quit'work'or'care,'the'direction'for'improve)
ment' of' their' situation' would' be' to' introduce' solutions' helping'
them' combine' these' obligations.' Such' improvements' could' be' in)
troduced' by' employers,' local' and' central' governments,' welfare'
care'systems,'health'care'institutions,'or'private'companies.'
The' presentation' presents' data' and' results' (for' Poland)' of' few' in)
ternational' projects.' Firstly,' it' refers' to' the' results' of' qualitative'
project' “Carers' @' Work”' (aimed' at' working' carers).' Secondly,' it'
uses'data'from'ASPA'quantitative'survey'(first'such'big,'nationwide'
survey' among' Polish' employers' about' older' workers).' Thirdly,' it'
bases'on'data'from'SHARE'survey'(international'survey'on'popula)
tion'50+).'
THE!FORMAL!AND!INFORMAL!CAREGIVERS:!
COMPARATIVE!ANALYSIS!BETWEEN!THE!FAMILY!AND!
INSTITUTIONAL!CONTEXTS!
Telma'Maria'Queiros
'1,'2*
,'Maria'do'Céu'Ribeiro
1'
1
Department' of' Practical' Pedagogical' Supervision,' POLYTECHNIC'
2
INSTITUTE' OF' BRAGANÇA,' Bragança,' CIFI2D,' Faculty' of' Sport' )'
'
University'of'Porto,'Porto,'Portugal
Abstract:! Population' aging' has' become' an' emerging' problem' in'
society.'The'combination'of'several'factors'led'to'an'increase'in'life'
expectancy,' which' is' reflected' in' a' number' of' people' with' a' more'
advanced' age' and' therefore' more' dependent.' Thus,' this' led' to'
greater' demands' for' formal' and' informal' support.' In' this' sense,'
with' this' study' we' aimed' to' (i)' know' the' type' of' care' which' are'
provided' to' the' older' people,' by' Formal' and' Informal' Caregivers;'
(ii)' understand' the' perspective' of' Formal' and' Informal' Caregivers'
about' the' care' provided,' in' family' and' institutional' contexts;' (iii)'
identify'the'main'difficulties'involved'in'providing'care'for'the'For)
mal' and' Informal' Caregivers' and' (iv)' identify' the' support' (e.g.' so)
cial,'technical)'that'are'delivered'to'the'caregivers.'!
This' study' used' two' questionnaire' surveys.' A' survey' consisting' of'
thirteen' closed' questions' was' applied' to' ten' Formal' Caregivers'
(FCs),'employees'of'a'Private'Institution'of'Social'Solidarity,'in'a'city'
of' the' north' of' Portugal.' Both' were' female,' aged' between' 20)59'
years.' The' second' survey' consisted' of' fourteen' closed' questions'
and' was' applied' also' to' ten' Informal' Caregivers' (ICs),' living' in' the'
rural' area' of' the' same' city.' Nine' were' female' and' one' was' male,'
Abstract'Book'
23'
'
aged' between' 40)65' years.' A' comparative' statistical' analysis' was'
used.''
Results' had' show' that' the' FCs' provides' social' and' physical' care,'
while'the'ICs'provide'emotional'and'physical'care.'Participants'con)
sider' as' priority' care,' physiological,' psychological' and' social' care.'
FCs' appointed' two' reasons' to' exercise' this' function:' like' to' work'
with'older'people'and'like'to'feel'competent.'For'the'ICs,'the'rea)
sons'are'being'familiars'of'the'elderly'and'therefore'feel'they'have'
the' obligation' and' duty' to' exercise' that' function.' Both' indicated'
that' the' main' difficulty' is' the' physical' fatigue.' Moreover,' the' FCs'
point'to'a'lack'of'cooperation'from'the'elderly'and'ICs'indicate'the'
lack' of' housing' conditions' and' technical' support.' Despite' these'
issues,' they' consider' institutionalization' as' an' alternative.' They'
believe'that'the'elderly'are'satisfied'with'the'care'provided.'
well'as'the'private'sphere'with'the'family'involvement.'The'time'for'
retired'women'is'likely'to'be'organized'around'these'two'forms'of'
engagement'and'new'forms'of'interaction'they'prefer.'
We'ask'ourselves'the'daily'impact'volunteering'has'on'retirees,'and'
how'they'articulate'and'reconcile'that'commitment'with'potential'
family'involvement.'By'examining'their'life'course'and'the'organiza)
tion'of'their'time,'we'seek'to'answer'these'questions.'
SOCIAL!CAPITAL!OF!THE!ELDERLY!IN!POSTG
COMMUNIST!COUNTRIES!ON!THE!EXAMPLE!OF!
POLISH!ACTIVISTS!IN!CATHOLIC!ORGANIZATIONS!
Stella'Grotowska
1'
1
Institute' of' Sociology,' UNIVERSITY' OF' WROCŁAW,' Wrocław,' Po)
'
land
PARTICIPATION!IN!LEISURE!ACTIVITIES!AMONG!
PORTUGUESE!OLDER!ADULTS!
'1
Paula'Jerónimo ,'Pedro'Alcântara'Silva
'1,'2
Manuel'Villaverde'Cabral '
1
'1,'2
'2
,'Pedro'Moura'Ferreira ,'
2
Instituto'do'Envelhecimento')'UL,' Instituto'de'Ciências'Sociais'da'
'
Universidade'de'Lisboa,'Lisboa,'Portugal
Abstract:' This' paper' explore' the' impact' of' social' networks' on' the'
uses' of' free' time' on' leisure' and' social' activities' throughout' the'
aging'process,'giving'particular'attention'to'the'processes'of'transi)
tion,' particularly' in' the' transition' to' retirement,' widowhood' or'
even'for'situations'of'dependency'caused'by'health'problems.'
The'data'were'collected'from'eight'focus'groups'and'from'a'repre)
sentative' survey' of' the' Portuguese' population' over' 50' years,' con)
ducted' within' the' research' project:/ Ageing/ processes/ in/ Portugal:/
time/ use,/ social/ networks/ and/ living/ conditions/ of' the' Institute' of'
Aging,'University'of'Lisbon.'
The'analysis'identifies'the'diversity'of'trajectories'and'transitions'to'
retirement,'as'well'the'differential'impact'on'the'reconfiguration'of'
recreation' and' leisure' occupations' of' individuals' from' different'
social' groups.' The' survey' shows' that' the' practice' of' leisure' and'
social'activities'varies'depending'on'the'configuration'of'their'social'
networks,' which' result' are' related' with' social' demographic' attrib)
utes,'such'as'gender,'education'and'social'economic'status.'Finally,'
the'results'suggest'a'strong'association'between'engaging'in'leisure'
activities'and'social'activities'and'quality'of'life'of'individuals.'
RETIRED!WOMEN!IN!FRANCE!:!BETWEEN!
VOLUNTEERING!AND!FAMILY!INVOLVEMENT!
Melissa'Petit
1
1'
University'Paris'Descartes,'Paris,'France
Abstract:' Engagement' in' various' community' organizations' may'
expand'social'network'of'the'elderly'and'contribute'to'reduction'of'
their'social'isolation.'The'problem'is'of'increasing'importance'in'the'
face'of'demographic'tendencies'emerging'in'the'western'world.'
Social'networks'may'be'examined'in'view'of'the'support'and'care'
that' they' may' provide' for' the' elderly' free' of' charge' (where' the'
elderly' appear' to' be' recipients).' Application' of' the' perspective' of'
the' social' capital' allows' to' notice' that' the' elderly' perceive' them)
selves'as'members'of'partnership'networks'that'transgress'in'their'
intentions' (and' sometimes' in' their' consequences)' particular' inter)
ests'of'individuals'and'their'nearest'environment,'and'expectations'
that' they' have' of' religious' movements,' community' groups' and'
organizations'concern'mainly'other'cases.'
Situation'of'the'elderly'in'Poland'differs'from'that'of'their'peers'in'
western'countries:'(i)'Although'they'are'equal'in'their'level'of'edu)
cation,' their' education' activity' is' less' intensive.' Reasons' for' the'
situation'do'not'pertain'to'legal'regulations,'but'social'norms'–'it'is'
said'that'youth'is'the'appropriate'time'for'studies.'(ii)'The'engage)
ment'in'local'communities'of'the'elderly'in'Poland'is'typically'rather'
low,'they'hardly'enter'the'public'space,'save'for'healthcare'related'
institutions'(medical'centers,'hospitals).'(iii)'Problems'of'this'group'
are' rarely' presented' in' media,' and' even' if' they' appear,' they' are'
influenced' by' the' old' age' negative' stereotype.' (iv)' Their' problems'
rarely'become'a'focus'for'politicians.'
Since' religion' and' religious' structures' –' related' to' the' Church' or'
religious'denominations'–'are'one'of'the'enclaves'of'public'space,'
where'presence'of'the'elderly'seems'–'also'to'themselves'–'natural,'
I'am'going'to'analyze:'(i)'the'process'of'the'social'capital'emerging'
as'a'result'of'participation'of'the'elderly'in'religious'organizations;'
(ii)' social' consequences' of' that' process' (for' the' participants,' local'
communities,'the'society).'
'
Abstract:'In'the'collective'imagination,'the'world'of'women'is'one'
of'giving'and'relationships.'This'quality'as'donor,'women'are'tradi)
tionally'confined'to'the'domestic'sphere.'This'way'of'thinking'was'
imported'into'the'public'sphere'and'they'are'now'expected'to'act'
through' volunteering.' At' retirement,' the' individual' is' faced' with' a'
hand'full'of'time,'and'may,'if'desired,'adjust'his'time'by'incorporat)
ing'various'activities,'including'volunteering'and'helping'relatives.'
The' communication' will' aim' to' tackle' the' question' of' structuring'
the' time' of' retired' women,' whose' gift' is' one' of' their' characteris)
tics,' both' in' terms' of' the' public' sphere' with' the' volunteering' as'
THE!ACTIVATING!AND!MARGINALIZING!FUNCTIONS!
OF!THE!UNIVERSITIES!OF!THE!THIRD!AGE.!THE!POLISH!
CASE!
'1
Paulina'Świątek ,'Małgorzata'Rakoczy
1'
1
Departament' of' Sociology' and' Social' Anthropolgy,' AGH'
'
UNIVERSITY'OF'SCIENCE'AND'TECHNOLOGY,'Cracow,'Poland
Abstract:'Nowadays,'the'Universities'of'the'Third'Age'(UTA)'are'one'
of'the'most'popular'forms'of'continuing'social'and'intellectual'ac)
tivity'in'retirement.'Currently,'only'in'Poland'there'are'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
24'
Abstract'Book'
almost'110'UTAs,'which'constitute'an'important'form'of'spending'
free'time'for'a'constantly'growing'group'of'seniors.'
Without'a'doubt,'the'UTAs'are'specifically'designed'for'the'seniors’'
activation.' They' help' the' old' people' maintain' intellectual' activity'
and' build' interactional' networks.' Rarely' is' it' noted' that' in' a' less'
visible' way' they' may' contribute' to' the' marginalization' of' seniors.'
Examples'of'such'marginalization'may'be:'specific'subjects'of'clas)
ses,' which' focuses' almost' only' on' the' problems' stereotypically'
linked'with'ageing,'isolation'of'seniors'from'other'age'groups,'lack'
of' adaptation' classes' and' the' dysfunction' of' the' lecture' halls,' so'
the'services'seem'to'be'directed'mostly'to'the'healthy'and'efficient'
seniors,'and'therefore,'may'marginalize'those'who'need'activation'
the' most' (thus' we' have' two' different' types' of' marginalization:'
within' UTAs' and' between' UTA' students' and' society' ).' Polish' re)
search'literature'on'the'UTA'is'still'not'impressive.'However,'exist)
ing'titles'are'primarily'analytical,'enthusiastically'referring'to'UTAs'
activities.'Possible'marginalizing'actions'in'their'work'are'complete)
ly'ignored.'
The'aim'of'the'paper'is'to'defend'the'thesis'that'the'UTA'serve'next'
to' the' activation' also' marginalizing' functions.' Key' research' ques)
tions' focus' not' only' on' real' activating' potential' of' the' UTAs,' but'
also'on'the'other'side'of'such'institutions,'which'is'a'special'kind'of'
marginalization' of' the' elderly' and' whether' the' profit' from' their'
activities' for' seniors' is' higher' than' the' potential' costs.' Answering'
these' questions' is' particularly' important' in' the' context' of' an' in)
creasing'number'of'elderly'people'in'Polish'society.'Results'of'anal)
ysis' will' be' compared' with' the' activity' of' UTAs' in' other' European'
countries.'
Empirical'material'was'gathered'by'the'in)depth'interviews'with'the'
UTA'students'and'lecturers,'participant'observation'and'data'analy)
sis.' Triangulation' of' research' methods' can' contribute' to' the' com)
prehensive' analysis' of' this' phenomenon.Description' of' the' educa)
tional'service'market'provided'by'the'UTA'will'be'made'on'the'ex)
ample'of'Krakow'–'the'city'in'which'there'is'the'largest'concentra)
tion'of'such'institutions'in'Poland.'
OLDER!AGE!AND!LIFESTYLES!IN!SPAIN!
'1
'1
'1
Elena' Del' Barrio ,' Mayte' Sancho ,' Pura' Díaz)Veiga ,' Gerardo' Za)
'2
'2
mora ,'Javier'Yanguas '
1
2
INGEMA,'Madrid,' INGEMA,'San'Sebastian,'Spain
'
Abstract:'Daily'life'is'the'succession'of'activities'carried'out'regular)
ly'by'the'individual.'The'social'and'economic'functioning'of'society'
and'its'development'depend'of'the'activities'that'people'do'in'their'
normal' life.' As' well,' the' study' of' habits' can' be' use' as' a' quality' of'
life' indicator.' We' use' here' the' definition' of' lifestyle' according' to'
Dumazedier'(1965),'who'states'that'a'lifestyle'is'the'personal'form'
how'everyone'organises'his'daily'life,'in'relation'to'his'usual'activi)
ties.'
This' paper' focuses' on' lifestyles' in' old' age' and' their' relationship'
with' socio)demographics' and' wellbeing' variables.' For' the' purpose'
of'this'paper,'we'analyze'the'Survey'of'Living'Conditions'in'old'age'
from'Spain'in'2006'(sample:'3,537'people,'+65)'and'used'multivari)
able'statistics'techniques:'factorial'and'k)means'clustering.'
Data' analysis' results' were' categorised' in' six' different' lifestyles' in'
old'age'in'Spain;'which'were'classed'according'to:'(a)'activity'types'
(dynamic,'sedentary,'leisure'time,'support)'(b)'social'network'(fre)
quency' contacts),' (c)' wellbeing' variables' (emotions,' satisfactions,'
values),' (d)' socio)demographical' variables' (sex,' age,' education,'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
household'type)'and'(e)'health'(perceived'health'status,'dependen)
cy).' Lifestyles' coming' out' from' the' analysis' were:' 1.' Dynamic)
Engagement,'2.'Social'leisure)Engagement,'3.'Support)Engagement,'
4.' Sedentary)Engagement,' 5.' Sedentary)Proximity' Engagement,' 6.'
Sedentary)Disengagement.'
There'are'different'lifestyles'in'old'age;'older'people'are'very'het)
erogeneous'between'them,'countering'the'stereotypes'about'them'
in' Spain' (uniformity,' passivity).' The' new' generations' of' older' peo)
ple' are' active;' they' carry' out' a' lot' of' things' in' their' daily' life' and'
have'internalized'the'“active'aging”'motto.'We'found'that'there'is'a'
tendency' toward' autonomy;' which' is' a' new' value' in' spread.' The'
new' generations' of' older' people' are' active,' self)governing,' and'
participate'in'society.'
QUALITY!OF!LIFE,!WELLBEING!AND!LEISURE!ACTIVITIES!
AMONG!OLDER!ADULTS!IN!SPAIN!
'1
'1
Gloria' Fernandez)Mayoralas ,' Fermina' Rojo)Perez ,' Raul' Lardies)
'2
'3
'4
Bosque ,'Maria)Joao'Forjaz ,'Pablo'Martinez)Martin '
1
Institute' of' Economics,' Geography' and' Demography,' Centre' for'
Human' and' Social' Sciences,' Spanish' National' Research' Council'
2
(IEGD,'CCHS,'CSIC),'Madrid,' Department'of'Geography'and'Spatial'
3
Management,'University'of'Zaragoza,'Zaragoza,' National'School'of'
Public' Health' and' Consortium' for' Biomedical' Research' in' Neuro)
4
degenerative'Diseases'(CIBERNED),' Research'Unit,'Alzheimer'Cen)
tre' Reina' Sofia' Foundation,' and' Consortium' for' Biomedical' Re)
search' in' Neurodegenerative' Diseases' (CIBERNED),' Carlos' III' Insti)
'
tute'of'Health,'Madrid,'Spain
Abstract:'Quality'of'Life'(QoL)'is'a'framework'for'research'of'great'
interest' to' get' criteria' to' be' used' by' policymakers' for' the' mainte)
nance' and' improvement' of' living' conditions' of' the' population.' In'
this' sense,' leisure' activities,' particularly' those' made' after' retire)
ment'when'individuals'have'more'spare'time,'can'be'an'important'
source' of' satisfaction' and' personal' wellbeing' (Lardies)Bosque,'
2011).'
The' aim' of' this' study' is' to' identify' and' assess' the' influence' of' lei)
sure,'as'one'of'the'five'most'relevant'QoL'domains'in'old'age'(Fer)
nandez)Mayoralas' et' al.,' 2011),' on' subjective' well)being,' in' the'
context' of' other' QoL' domains' such' as' health,' family,' economic'
resources' and' social' network,' and' obtain' a' typology' of' people' ac)
cording' to' the' leisure' activities' they' perform,' their' health,' their'
family'and'social'contacts,'their'economic'resources'and'their'basic'
demographic'and'residential'characteristics.'
The' data' come' from' a' nationally' representative' sample' of' 1,106'
community)dwelling' adults' aged' 60' years' and' over' residents' in'
Spain'(CadeViMa)Spain,'2008)'with'no'cognitive'deficit'according'to'
Pfeiffer's' Short' Portable' Mental' Status' Questionnaire' (Pfeiffer,'
1975).'Representative'variables'on'objective'living'conditions'have'
been'selected'in'each'of'the'QoL'domains:'EQ)5D'(health'and'func)
tioning),'frequency'of'contacts'with'family'and'friends'(family'and'
social' network),' level' of' income' (economic' resources),' as' well' as'
socio)demographics' (age,' sex)' and' residential' characteristics' (ac)
cessibility' to' neighbourhood' services).' Leisure' activities' have' been'
grouped' into' five' groups:' active' leisure' (physical),' passive' leisure,'
cultural' leisure,' social' leisure,' and' travel' and' tourism.' To' measure'
the' level' of' subjective' wellbeing' the' Personal' Wellbeing' Index' will'
be'used'(International'Wellbeing'Group,'2006).'Bivariate'and'multi)
variate'analysis'will'be'run'to'get'the'aims'(Regression'and'Cluster'
Analysis).'
Abstract'Book'
25'
'
(*)'Authorship'on'behalf'of'the'Spanish'Research'Group'on'Quality'
of'Life'and'Ageing:'G.Fernandez)Mayoralas;'F.Rojo)Perez;'K.Ahmed)
Mohamed;' R.Lardies)Bosque;' M.J.' Forjaz;' P.Martinez)Martin;' M.E.'
Prieto)Flores;'C.Rodriguez)Blazquez;'B.Frades)Payo;'A.Ayala)Garcia;'
C.Delgado)Sanz.'
Research' fund:' R&D&i' Plan:' SEJ2006)15122)C02)01' and' SEJ2006)
15122)C02)02.'
INHERITANCES!AND!INEQUALITY:!NEW!PERSPECTIVES!
ON!AN!OLD!SUBJECT!
DETERMINANTS!OF!HOMEGOWNERSHIP!AND!THE!
VALUE!OF!HOUSING!AMONG!ELDERLY!EUROPEANS!
'1
'1
Nora'Müller ,'Kathrin'Kolb ,'Hans)Peter'Blossfeld
Harald'Künemund
1'
1
Chair'of'Sociology'I,'UNIVERSITY'OF'BAMBERG,'Bamberg,'Germany
'
Abstract:' Home)ownership' is' of' great' importance' for' the' wealth'
positions'of'households'and'therefore'influences'patterns'of'social'
inequalities.' The' aim' of' our' article' is' (1)' to' uncover' mechanisms'
related' to' socio)economic' household' characteristics' which' cause'
differences' regarding' the' home)ownership' rate' across' Europe' as'
well'as'to'(2)'understand'variations'in'the'value'of'housing'between'
and'within'European'countries.'The'study'emphasizes'the'existence'
of' two' steps' of' inequality' regarding' home)ownership.' The' first'
steps' concerns' the' division' of' a' country’s' population' into' owners'
and'non)owners'and'the'second'step'concerns'differences'in'hous)
ing' wealth' within' the' population' of' owners.' Analyses' with' data'
from' the' “Survey' of' Health,' Ageing' and' Retirement' in' Europe”'
(SHARE)' reveal' that' the' probability' of' home)ownership' of' the' el)
derly' strongly' varies' across' European' countries,' but' also' within'
countries'following'socioeconomic,'family,'and'migrant'characteris)
tics.'Notable'differences'are'also'observable'for'the'value'of'hous)
ing' indicating' the' existence' of' social' inequalities' even' within' the'
group'of'home)owners.'So'far'we'could'show'that'one'can'differen)
tiate'between'four'groups'of'countries.'(1)'In'a'first'group'(e.g.'DE,'
NL)' being' a' home)owner' is' strongly' affected' by' socio)economic'
factors.' Therefore' becoming' a' home)owner' seems' to' be' difficult.'
But'for'the'group'of'home)owners'there'are'only'slight'differences'
in' the' value' of' housing.' This' means' whereas' the' first' step' of' ine)
quality'is'rather'high,'the'second'step'is'pretty'easy'to'manage.'(2)'
In'a'second'group'(e.g.'SE)'it'is'just'the'other'way'round:'Whereas'
becoming' a' home' owner' seems' rather' easy,' the' value' of' housing'
strongly' differs' between' different' population' groups' (e.g.' income'
groups).'So'inequality'in'housing'concentrates'on'differences'in'the'
value' of' housing.' (3)' In' a' third' group' of' countries' (e.g.' CH)' both'
steps' are' very' hard' to' climb.' And' finally' (4)' there' is' a' forth' group'
(AT,'CZ)'where'inequality'is'comparatively'low'both'in'the'chance'of'
being'a'home)owner'as'well'as'with'regard'to'the'housing'value.'
FRIEND!OR!FOR?!AN!AGE!PERSPECTIVE!ON!GENDER!
MAINSTREAMING!
Clary'Krekula
1
1'
Dept'of'social'studies,'KARLSTAD'UNIVERSITY,'Karlstad,'Sweden
the' formulation' of' goals' and' how' other' bases' for' inequality' are'
addressed.' In' this' paper,' I' discuss' the' strategy' from' an' intersec)
tional'perspective'by'way'of'analysing'how'gender'equality'and'age'
based'equality'interact.'By'referring'to'qualitative'data'I'shed'light'
on' how' different' applications' of' gender' mainstreaming' can' both'
maintain' and' challenge' asymmetrical' age' relations.' In' so' doing,'
theoretical'tensions'and'research'frameworks'will'be'reconsidered.'
'
Abstract:' Gender' mainstreaming' has' been' defined' as' a' strategy'
which'aims'to'bring'about'gender'equality.'The'concept'emphasizes'
that'we'must'bear'in'mind'the'different'consequences'that'legisla)
tion'and'action'plans'can'have'for'women'and'men.'Since'the'con)
cept' was' first' proposed' in' 1985,' the' vocabulary' has' been' broadly'
adopted' internationally.' However,' there' are' various' levels' of' im)
plementation'and'progress.'In'both'the'political'and'academic'de)
bates' the' differences' are' substantial,' for' example' with' respect' to'
1'
1
Institute' for' Gerontology,' UNIVERSITY' OF' VECHTA,' Vechta,' Ger)
'
many
Abstract:'Recent'research'on'intergenerational'transfers'shows'that'
the'transfer'of'financial'resources'from'parents'to'children'remains'
important' throughout' the' life' course,' both' as' inter/ vivos' transfers'
and'as'bequests.'This'influence'is'unequal,'however;'some'children'
profit' from' transfers' while' others' do' not.' Both' common' sense'
knowledge' and' a' large' body' of' literature' argue' in' favor' of' a' Mat)
thew' effect:' These' transfer' favor' children' who' are' better' off' and,'
hence,' increase' inequality.' It' has' also' been' argued' that' find' that'
inter' vivos' transfers' tend' to' go' to' the' more' needy' children' of' a'
family' and,' in' consequence,' reduce' inequality.' But' as' inheritances'
are'usually'divided'equally'between'all'children,'the'societal'picture'
seems' to' be' clear:' Those' who' already' have' resources' are' more'
likely'to'receive'a'bequest,'and'they'are'more'likely'to'receive'larg)
er'amounts'of'wealth.'
New'empirical'findings'based'on'a'longitudinal'analysis'of'the'Ger)
man'Socio)economic'Panel'allow'for'a'more'detailed'account.'It'will'
be' shown' that' the' three' possible' interpretations' a)' inheritances'
increase' social' inequality,' b)' inheritances' reduce' social' inequality,'
and' c)' social' inequality' is' widely' unaffected' by' inheritances,' are'
valid' at' the' same' time.' These' findings' contradict' both' common'
sense'knowledge'and'a'large'body'of'scientific'literature.'It'will'be'
argued'that'the'main'reasons'for'these'contractions'are'imprecise'
definitions' of' inequality' (absolute' values' vs.' relative' distributions)'
and' imprecise' determination' of' the' target' population' (cohorts' of'
children'vs.'cross)sectional'samples)'in'both'cases.'
While'large'transfers'and'bequests'show'a'clear'Matthew'effect'by'
going' disproportionately' to' children' who' are' already' better' off,'
they' seem' to' be' be' particularly' valuable' for' the' less' well' off' for'
whom'they'form'a'larger'share'of'current'income'and'wealth,'and'
may'help'them'not'only'to'make'ends'meet'but'even'to'accumulate'
some' small' wealth.' Large' transfers' and' bequests' are' a' way' of' ex)
tending' parental' status' transmission' to' children' well' into' the' lat)
ter’s' old' age,' and' thus' contribute' to' preserving' status' inequality'
from' the' parents’' to' the' children’s' generation.' But' this' does' not'
mean' that' they' increase' overall' relative' wealth' inequality;' under'
the' conditions' of' distribution' and' taxation' valid' in' Germany,' for'
example,'they'tend'to'make'the'societal'wealth'distribution'some)
what'less'unequal.'
SITUATION!OF!OLDER!GENERATIONS!BASED!ON!EUG
SILC!IN!SELECTED!CENTRAL!AND!EASTERN!EUROPEAN!
COUNTRIES!
Jolanta'Perek)Bialas
1'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
26'
Abstract'Book'
1
WARSAW' SCHOOL' OF' ECONOMICS/JAGIELLONIAN' UNIVERSITY,'
'
Kraków,'Poland
Abstract:'This'paper'offers'a'unique'overview'and'joint'comparison'
of' some' countries' of' Central' and' Eastern' Europe' (CEE):' Poland,'
Lithuania,' Hungary,' Czech' Republic,' Slovakia,' Latvia,' Estonia' by'
presenting'the'socio)economic'situation'of'older'generations'using'
the'EU)SILC'2007'and'2008'data.'Information'about'the'older'gen)
eration'could'be'presented'using'i.e.'SHARE'but'only'from'the'age'
of' 50+,' and' we' would' like' also' to' compare' some' of' these' results'
with' younger' generations' (not' only' below' 65' but' also' below' 50'
years'old).'
Recent'SHARE'data'is'also'a'good'source'of'analysis'of'the'popula)
tion' 50+' but' again' there' is' a' limited' source' of' comparison' for' all'
countries'in'the'CEE'as'in'Wave'2nd'(2006)'only'the'Czech'Republic'
and'Poland'were'included.'
Therefore'the'aim'of'preparing'this'paper'is'to'check'if'the'EU)SILC'
surveys' could' be' used' in' an' analysis' of' the' situation' of' older' per)
sons' and' the' consequences' of' population' ageing.' Currently,' there'
are' a' lot' of' indicators' by' gender' and' by' age' (including' different'
ages)'available'via'EUROSTAT’s'web'page.'However,'not'all'of'them'
are'interesting'from'the'comprehensive'and'more'in)depth'analysis'
of' the' socio)economics' of' ageing.' So' having' the' possibility' to' use'
individual'data'from'EU)SILC'2007'and'2008,'there'were'more'anal)
ysis'(including'multivariate'data'analysis,'analysis'of'similarities'and'
differences'between'countries)'performed.'
We'focus'on'the'overall'economic'situation'and'living'conditions'of'
older'persons.'We'are'not'only'focused'on'income,'poverty'or'living'
conditions,' but' rather' on' cross' topics' to' show' the' results' for' the'
group'of'interest'(with'a'comparison'to'the'younger'one)'according'
to' two' approaches:' 1)' first,' the' presentation' of' the' situation' of' a'
household'with'an'older'member'(using'the'household'interview),'
and'2)'second,'the'situation'of'older'persons'(using'personal'inter)
views).'
In'this'respect,'the'whole'analysis'is'crucial'to'assess'the'quality'and'
usefulness' of' the' EU)SILC' in' presentation' the' situation' of' older'
generation'of'Central'and'Eastern'European'countries.'We'present'
the'comprehensive'analysis'of'the'situation'of'an'ageing'population'
with' stress' not' only' on' just' the' presentation' of' some' results,' but'
mainly'focusing'on'the'missing'gaps'in'data/information'by'offering'
an'analysis'of'those'gaps'with'recommendations'for'data'collection'
systems'to'facilitate'future'international'comparisons.'
AGING!IN!SWITZERLAND:!PROGRESS!AND!
INEQUALITIES!
'1
'1
Catherine'Ludwig ,'Stefano'Cavalli ,'Michel'Oris
1
1'
C.I.G.,'UNIVERSITY'OF'GENEVA,'Carouge,'Switzerland
'
Abstract:'In'this'communication,'we'present'“/Vivre///Leben///Vivere/
”' (VLV)' a' large' interdisciplinary' survey' addressing' the' life' and'
health'conditions'of'individuals'aged'65'and'above'living'in'Switzer)
land.'This'survey'is'the'third'wave'of'a'study'initiated'in'1979,'repli)
cated'in'1994/5,'and'run'in'the'canton'of'Geneva'and'in'the'Central'
Valais,'two'French)speaking'areas.'In'2011,'VLV'extends'the'original'
design'to'the'German'and'Italian)speaking'areas'of'Switzerland.'As'
a' whole,' the' survey' targets' a' representative' sample' of' 4’200' indi)
viduals,'stratified'by'age'and'sex.'Quantitative'data'are'collected'by'
means'of'one'questionnaire'and'one'interview'addressing'multiple'
spheres'of'the'individuals''life,'including'social'relations,'participa)
tion' and' values,' as' well' as' physical' and' psychological' health,' all'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
considered' as' interacting' resources' available' to' the' individuals' to'
manage'and'deal'with'life'constraints.'A'life'calendar'is'also'used'to'
grasp'major'past'life'events,'and'provide'hints'of'life'course'trajec)
tories.' The' objectives' of' VLV' are' twofold:' first' it' aims' at' providing'
an' updated' view' of' life' and' health' conditions' of' the' population'
aged'65'and'above'in'Switzerland,'with'a'major'concern'in'address)
ing'diversity'and'inequalities.'Second,'VLV'aims'at'comparing'these'
actual' conditions' to' those' reported' in' 1979' and' 1994/5,' hence'
proving' means' to' address' the' sustainability' of' the' positive' trends'
reported' previously.' In' the' face' of' the' fast' changing' times' and'
growing' demography' of' the' aged' population,' VLV' is' a' rare' oppor)
tunity' in' Europe' to' acquire' exhaustive' and' cardinal' knowledge' on'
the' heterogeneity' of' the' life' conditions' of' the' aged' and' their'
changes'over'the'past'30'years.'
“I’M!TOO!OLD!TO!WORK!BUT!TOO!YOUNG!TO!
RETIRE”:!INVOLUNTARY!JOB!LOSS!IN!MIDDLE!AGE!
MEN!
'1
Rita'Borges'Neves ,'Alice'Delerue'Matos
1'
1
Research'Centre'for'the'Social'Sciences,'University'of'Minho,'Bra)
'
ga,'Portugal
Abstract:' To' the' working' classes' in' occidental' societies' paid' work'
traditionally' guarantees' the' fulfilment' of' basic' needs,' is' central' to'
identity'and'enables'a'sense'of'control.'In'fact'unemployment'not'
only' can' deprive' from' material' goods' but' also' cause' depressive'
feelings,'anxiety'and'low'self)esteem'(1,'2).'For'older'breadwinners'
economically' dependent' on' paid' work,' involuntary' job' loss' may'
represent' an' early' labor' market' exclusion(3).' Bering' that' in' mind,'
how' can' middle' age' men' responses' to' involuntary' job' loss' be' un)
derstood?'
This'study'intends'to'shed'some'light'on'this'overlooked'topic'as'it'
approaches' the' impacts' of' involuntary' job' loss' on' older' and' less'
qualified'actives'in'terms'of'wellbeing'and'self'(re)definition.'
Life'histories'were'collected'through'semi)structured'interviews'on'
10'unemployed'blue)collar'Portuguese'men'over'55'years'old.'The'
interviewees'had'been'made'redundant'less'than'a'year'ago.'
Results'show'that'unemployment'impacts'on'wellbeing'and'self'are'
less' negative' when' i)' there' is' absence' of' significant' financial' en)
gagements'(as'mortgages);'ii)'the'event'is'perceived'as'empowering'
as'it'releases'from'work;'iii)'“retired”'or'“pre)retired”'and'not'“un)
employed”'status'is'interiorized;'iv)'individuals'are'less'resistant'to'
see'themselves'as'“old”.'
Labour'market'status'is'deeply'intertwined'with'different'stages'in'
the'life'cycle'and'for'these'interviewees'ageing'“naturally”'implies'
the'disengagement'from'adulthood'roles'such'as'work.'However'as'
an' early' exclusion' from' the' labour' market,' unemployment' is' per)
ceived' as' treason' to' a' social' pact' of' work' availability' and' a' “nor)
mal”'life)course.'Some'of'the'negative'effects'of'unemployment'on'
wellbeing'can'be'diverted'when'an'aged'identity'is'incarnated'and'
this'event'is'incorporated'as'part'of'the'ageing'“natural”'process.'
1.'Fryer,'D.(1988).'The'experience'of'Unemployment'in'Social'Con)
text.'In'Fisher,'S'&'Reason,'J.'Handbook'of'Life'Stress,'Cognition'and'
Health.'John'Wiley'&Sons'Ltd'(211)232)'
2.'Bartley,'M,'Ferrie,'J'&'Montgomery,'S.'(2006).'Health'and'labour'
market'disadvantages.'In'Marmot,'M.'&'Wilkinson,'R.'Social'Deter)
minants'of'Health,'New'York,'Oxford'University'Press'(78)95);'
Abstract'Book'
27'
'
3.'Gallo,'W.'Bradley,'E.'Siegel,'M.'and'Kasl,'S.'(2000)'Health'Effects'
of' Involuntary' Job' Loss' Among' Older' Workers:' Findings' From' the'
Health'and'Retirement'Survey'Journal'of'Gerontology:'Vol.'55B,'No.'
3,'(131–140)'
DETERMINANTS!OF!OLDER!WORKERS’!EMPLOYMENT!
AND!RETIREMENT!TRANSITIONS:!A!CROSSGNATIONAL!
COMPARISON!
Dirk'Hofäcker
1'
1
Centre'for'European'Social'Research,'UNIVERSITY'OF'MANNHEIM,'
'
Mannheim,'Germany
Abstract:' Throughout' most' of' the' last' three' to' four' decades' dec)
ades,'labour'force'participation'rates'of'older'workers'in'the'EU)27'
had' fallen' continuously.' Only' in' most' recent' years,' employment'
rates'of'senior'workers'indeed'have'started'to'rise'again.'
However,' the' employment' participation' of' older' workers' is' still'
significantly' lower' than' that' of' mid)career' employees,' they' are'
disproportionately' affected' by' –' often' long)term' unemployment,'
and'–'as'survey'data'show'–'they'often'perceive'their'exit'from'the'
labour'market'as'a'‘displacement’'from'work'rather'than'as'an'indi)
vidual' choice' to' retire.' These' trends' indicate,' that' employment'
integration'of'senior'workers'thus'continues'to'be'insufficient.'
In'order'to'sustainably'improve'the'employment'situation'of'older'
workers,' an' appropriate' understanding' of' their' employment' re)
spectively' retirement' transitions' is' required.' Based' on' evidence'
from' recent' survey' data' (ISPP,' SHARE),' my' paper' will' analyse' the'
employment)retirement'transitions'of'older'workers'and'their'per)
ception' of' voluntariness' from' a' cross)national' angle.' It' will' disen)
tangle' in' how' far' retirement' transitions' are' considered' as' ‘free'
choices’' or' as' ’forced' exits’,' and' in' how' far' this' perception' differs'
between' labour' market' groups.' By' systematically' connecting' indi)
vidual' retirement' transitions' and' perceptions' with' nation)specific'
institutional'backgrounds'(such'as'pension'systems,'labour'market'
policies'or'employment'protection'systems),'the'paper'additionally'
seeks'to'identify'the'socio)political'conditions'under'which'the'em)
ployment'of'older'workers'may'be'sustainably'raised.'
GAINFUL!EMPLOYMENT!IN!RETIREMENT:!WAY!OUT!
OF!OLDGAGE!POVERTY!OR!CONTINUATION!OF!
EMPLOYMENT!BIOGRAPHY?!
'
'2*
Carola'Burkert 1,'Daniela'Hochfellner '
1
Research' Network,' Institute' for' Employment' Research,' Frankfurt,'
Research' Data' Centre,' INSTIUTE' FOR' EMPLOYMENT' RESEARCH,'
'
Nuremberg,'Germany
2
Abstract:' The' withdrawal' from' employment' can' be'
seen' as' a' synonym' for' standing' on' the' threshold' of' a'
new' stage.' Going' into' retirement' is' associated' with' a' loss' of' re)
sources' such' as' income,' social' networks' and' the' role' identity.' In'
modern'societies,'the'problem'for'old)age'pensioners'results'out'of'
the'income'change'and'hence'affects'their'financial'situation.'In'the'
case'of'Germany'the'statutory'pension'insurance'makes'mostly'the'
bigger' part' of' the' income' of' individual' household' and' therefore'
determines' the' financial' life' situation' in' older' age.' Especially' indi)
viduals' with' short' periods' of' contributions' payments' or' with' low'
earned'income'are'in'danger'to'draw'a'statutory'pension'which'is'
not' enough' to' make' a' living.' The' lower' retirement' benefits' may'
cause,'that'retired'individuals'pursue'a'profession'to'enhance'their'
income' and' therefore' avoid' old)age' poverty.' We' analyse' the' em)
ployment' propensity' of' retired' individuals.' The' focus' is' to' find'
characteristics' which' influence' the' probability' of' being' employed'
during' the' term' of' drawing' a' statutory' pension.' To' answer' our'
questions'we'used'German'administrative'labour'market'data'and'
combined' them' with' administrative' data' of' the' German' Pension'
Insurance.'Hence'we'had'information'concerning'the'biography'of'
30.000'retired'individuals.'
The' results' show' that' about' 20%' of' the' observed' individuals' do'
have'a'job'whilst'drawing'statutory'pension'payments.'If'the'rising'
employment' propensity' of' retired' individuals' could' be' seen' as' an'
indicator'of'increasing'old)age'poverty'it'has'to'be'a'specific'group'
of' retired' individuals' who' are' employed' furthermore' such' as' less'
qualified' with' low' income' profiles' or' incomplete' and' shorter' em)
ployment' biographies.' Because' this' is' mostly' the' case' when' a' mi)
gration'background'exists,'we'took'account'for'this'in'all'our'anal)
yses.'
If' the' rinsing' employment' propensity' of' retired' individuals' is' not'
directly'linked'to'old)age'poverty'one'can'assume'that'it'is'not'this'
specific'group'that'is'employed.'The'problems'they'had'to'face'on'
the' labour' market' in' younger' age' are' assigned' to' the' stage' of' re)
tirement'as'well.'Hence,'it'is'not'the'low)qualified'pensioner,'who'is'
in'danger'of'poverty,'who'is'employed'but'the'high)qualified'pen)
sioner' who' proceeds' the' previous' employment' life' despite' being'
retired.'
Our'study'results'support'the'second'mentioned'scenery,'which'we'
would'like'to'present'and'discuss'in'detail.'
RETIREMENT!TIMING!IN!EUROPE.!DOES!SECTOR!
MAKES!A!DIFFERENCE?!EXPERIENCES!FROM!SHARE!
'1
Hanne'De'Preter ,'Dimitri'Mortelmans
1
1'
Sociology'(CELLO),'UNIVERSITY'OF'ANTWERP,'Antwerp,'Belgium
'
Abstract:'Although'the'average'retirement'age'in'Europe'has'been'
increasing,'the'Lisbon'target'of'an'employment'rate'of'50%'among'
older' workers' (55)64' year)' still' has' not' been' reached' (Barr' &' Dia)
mond,' 2006;' Eurostat,' 2010).' An' often' mentioned' solution' is' to'
increase'the'retirement'age'(Meijer'et'al.,'2008),'which'stresses'the'
importance' of' understanding' the' factors' that' influence' the' timing'
of' retirement' (Fischer' &' Sousa)Poza,' 2006).' In' the' literature,' de)
terminants' are' identified' at' the' personal,' household' and' institu)
tional'level'(Beehr,'et'al.,'2000;'Fischer'&'Sousa)Poza,'2006;'Wong'
&' Earl,' 2009).' In' our' research,' we' focus' on' the' individual' level' on'
the'influence'of'sector'in'which'older'workers'(50+)'are'employed.'
In'11'European'countries'we'study'the'effect'of'sector'on'the'tim)
ing'of'retirement.'This'is'rather'innovative,'since'previous'research'
is'unclear'about'its'effect.'Heyma'(2001)'found'for'the'Netherlands'
that' workers' in' the' industrial' and' construction' sector' have' the'
highest' hazard' on' retirement,' while' Dorn' and' Sousa)Poza' (2004)'
discovered' a' very' low' hazard' in' construction' and' manufacturing.'
Furthermore,'Heyma'(2004)'didn’t'find'different'retirement'hazards'
for' employees' working' in' either' the' private' or' the' public' sector.'
Dorn' and' Sousa)Poza' (2004)' and' Fisher' and' Sousa)Poza' (2006)' on'
the'contrary,'found'that'the'public'sector'has'got'a'larger'probabil)
ity' of' early' retirement' than' other' economic' sectors.' The' effect' of'
sector' (NACE)' on' the' retirement' timing' of' older' workers' will' be'
tested'with'the'use'of'event'history'analysis.'We'control'for'occu)
pation'(ISCO)88)'within'the'sector,'for'socio)demographic'variables'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
28'
Abstract'Book'
(gender,' age,' educational' level),' other' personal' characteristics'
(marital'status,'health,'household'income)'and'work'characteristics'
(job'satisfaction,'firm'size,'quality'of'labour,'contracted'work'hours,'
contract'duration).'In'order'to'process'the'model'with'longitudinal'
techniques,'we'use'longitudinal'micro'data'of'the'first'and'second'
wave' of' SHARE' (Survey' of' Health,' Ageing' and' Retirement' in' Eu)
rope).'Furthermore,'we'apply'GEE'methods'to'model'the'clustering'
in'countries'to'become'a'reliable'estimate'of'the'parameters.'Con)
sidering' the' literature' and' our' descriptive' data,' we' expect' high'
retirement' hazards' for' employees' working' in' manufacturing' and'
construction.'Further,'we'expect'for'employees'in'the'private'sec)
tor' a' higher' probability' of' early' retirement' than' in' the' public' sec)
tor.'
SHOULD!WE!BE!CONCERNED!ABOUT!AGE!
DISCRIMINATION?!EMPLOYERS!AND!OLDER!WORKERS!
IN!CONTEMPORARY!JOB!MARKET!IN!POLAND!
Justyna'monika'Stypinska
1
1'
Jagiellonian'University,'krakow,'Poland
'
Abstract:' The' problem' of' age' discrimination' has' been' widely' dis)
cussed' in' research' and' theoretical' analysis' by' many' scholars' in'
Europe.'The'results'of'different'studies'show'two'distinctive'trends.'
First' of' all' age' discrimination' is' perceived' by' large' public' opinion'
(from'approximately'50'to'70%[1])'as'a'very'important'social'prob)
lem.'On'other'hand,'asked'about'experiences'with'age'discrimina)
tion,' only' about' few' (5)18' %)' percent' of' adult' respondents' admit'
they'faced'this'problem'in'their'real'lives.'What'is'then'the'extent'
of' the' phenomenon' of' age' discrimination?' How' is' it' to' be' meas)
ured'in'order'to'most'accurately'reflect'the'social'reality?'
The' paper' aims' to' present' the' results' of' empirical' studies,' both'
qualitative' and' quantitative,' describing' the' issue' of' discrimination'
on'grounds'of'age'in'employment'in'Poland.'The'results'sustain'the'
dichotomous' character' of' age' discrimination' –' the' perception' of'
high'social'gravity'of'the'problem'and'the'relatively'small'extent'of'
experienced' direct' discrimination' by' the' older' workers.' On' the'
other'hand,'the'qualitative'analysis'of'the'attitudes'of'the'employ)
ers'towards'older'employees'and'job'seekers'presents'quite'widely'
spread' indirect' discrimination' in' form' of' negative' image' of' the'
potential'of'older'workers'influencing'the'hiring'decisions'with'little'
or'no'experience'with'this'age'group'of'employees.'
The' paper' shows' thus' the' trends' in' hiring' and' maintaining' older'
workers'in'the'labor'market'in'Poland'and'the'possible'threats'con)
cerning'the'stability'of'the'employment'in'Poland.'
[1]'Eurobarometer'2007,'2009,'Discrimination'in'Europe;'European'
Social'Survey'2008'(own'analysis).'
ECONOMIC!SITUATION!AND!INTERGENERATIONAL!
RELATIONS!OF!OLDER!PEOPLE!IN!TANZANIA!
Nele'Marie'Tanschus
1'
1
Department' for' Gerontology,' UNIVERSITY' OF' VECHTA,' Vechta,'
'
Germany
Abstract:' In' the' traditional' arrangements' for' social' security' in' old'
age' the' younger' generation' in' Tanzania' used' to' provide' for' the'
older' one' (Bossert' 1987).' It' is' assumed' that' due' to' certain' social'
developments' this' might' change' into' a' direction' where' younger'
generations'could'be'unable'or'unwilling'to'provide'support'for'the'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
older' generation' anymore' (Kaseke' 1996' &' 1997,' Apt' 2002,'
Mchomvu/Tungaraza/Maghimbi' 2002).' This' suggests' that' the' in)
tergenerational' relationships' might' not' work' properly' as' an' infor)
mal'old'age'security'anymore'and'that'the'quality'of'life'of'old'peo)
ple' in' Tanzania' will' decline,' because' a' well' working' formal' social'
old' age' security' does' not' exist' for' Tanzania.' If' this' is' the' case,' it'
would' be' crucial' to' know' about' the' needs' and' capacities' of' older'
people'in'order'to'find'appropriate'solutions'for'assuring'a'certain'
quality'of'life.'
The' paper' aims' firstly' at' examining' if' it' is' true,' that' the' quality' of'
life' of' older' Tanzanians' is' characterized' by' specific' deficits.' The'
measurement' chosen' for' this' analysis' are' the' living' conditions' re)
flected'in'the'economic'situation'of'old'people'in'Tanzania.'
In' a' second' step' the' roles' which' intergenerational' relationships'
play'in'securing'old'peoples'quality'of'life'will'be'looked'at.'By'do)
ing' so,' it' is' not' only' important' to' know,' what' role' the' support' by'
others'plays'in'the'everyday'life'of'old'people.'It'is'also'relevant'if'
they'themselves'provide'support'to'others.'This'examination'of'the'
connection'between'economic'resources'of'older'Tanzanians'in'the'
meaning'of'personal'capability'to'provide'support'or'to'reciprocate'
in'case'of'receipt'of'informal'help'might'give'implications'for'evalu)
ating' the' quality' of' intergenerational' relationships' and' their' pro)
spects'of'helping'to'make'ageing'secure.'
Empirical' findings' from' the' Study' on' Global' AGEing' and' Adult'
Health' (SAGE),' developed' by' the' WHO' Multi)Country' Studies' unit,'
will'be'used'in'the'paper'to'provide'first'answers'to'those'questions'
by' looking' in' detail' at' the' income' of' older' Tanzanians,' their' ex)
penditure' for' every' day' life' and' social' support' with' the' focus' on'
private' monetary' transfer' relations.' Based' on' the' empirical' find)
ings,'the'quality'of'life'and'the'status'of'intergenerational'relation)
ships' as' well' as' possible' implications' for' social' policy' will' be' dis)
cussed.'
GRANDPARENTHOOD:!A!UNIVERSAL!ASPIRATION!FOR!
LATER!LIFE?!ON!THE!SUBJECTIVE!IMPORTANCE!OF!THE!
GRANDPARENT!ROLE!IN!GERMANY!
'1
Katharina'Mahne ,'Andreas'Motel)Klingebiel
1
1'
'
GERMAN'CENTRE'OF'GERONTOLOGY,'Berlin,'Germany
Abstract:' In' the' light' of' changing' opportunity' structures' for' the'
transition' to' and' the' experience' of' grandparenthood,' we' address'
older' people’s' attitude' towards' the' grandparent' role.' We' test' the'
overall' hypothesis/ of' the' social' structural' universality' of' the' im)
portance' of' grandparenthood.' This' implies' that' the' grandparent'
role'is'a'general'aspiration'for'later'life'and'hence'independent'of'
an' individual’s' position' in' the' social' structure.' It' is,' however,' as)
sumed'that'the'importance'of'grandparenthood'is'closely'linked'to'
and' varied' across' different' living' situations,' family' settings,' and'
value'orientations'towards'life'in'general.'
Analyses'are'based'on'data'of'the'German'Ageing'Survey,'a'nation)
ally'representative'cross)sectional'and'longitudinal'study'of'individ)
uals'aged'40'years'and'older.'Data'collected'in'2008'provide'infor)
mation' on' the' subjective' importance' of' (prospective)' grand)
parenthood'as'reported'by'grandparents'and'non)grandparents.'
Regression' analyses' show' that' the' subjective' importance' of' (fu)
ture)'grandparenthood'does'not'in'fact'vary'by'social'class.'Instead,'
we'find'relationship'quality'with'grandchildren'to'be'most'influen)
tial' and' positively' related' to' the' perceived' importance' of' the'
Abstract'Book'
29'
'
grandparent' role.' The' same' holds' true' for' the' non)grandparents'
and' relationships' with' children.' Conservative' and' familistic' value'
orientations' promote' the' importance' of' a' future' transition' to'
grandparenthood'only.'Union'dissolution'is'in'any'event'associated'
with' lower' levels' of' grandparenthood' importance.' Consequently,'
grandparenthood'must'be'understood'as'a'universal'aspiration'for'
later' life' that' is' independent' of' social' structure' and' therefore' an'
independent'aspect'of'quality'of'life'in'old'age.'Given'the'changing'
chances' and' opportunities' to' experience' the' grandparent' role,'
grandparenthood' evolves' into' an' indicator' for' inequality' in' later'
life.'
INTERGENERATIONAL!RELATIONS!AND!POLICIES!IN!
RUSSIA!
Gulnara'Afruzovna'Minnigaleeva
'1,'2*
'
1
Public' Policy' Department,' NATIONAL' RESEARCH' UNIVERSITY'
2
HIGHER'SCHOOL'OF'ECON,'Moscow,' Senior'Resource'Center'Wis)
'
dom'Ripening,'Tuymazy,'Russian'Federation
Abstract:'Our'report'discusses'findings'from'the'survey'of'492'older'
citizens'(women'55'and'over'and'men'60'and'over'as'it'is'the'pen)
sionable'age'in'Russia'and'a'person'“officially”'acquires'the'status'
of' an' “older' person”)' in' 5' Russian' cities' different' in' size,' regional'
and'ethnic'specifics,'and'level'of'involvement'of'older'adults.'
Intergenerational'relations'in'Russia'are'quite'different'from'those'
in'Europe.'Clearly,'in'most'families'the'connection'between'genera)
tions'is'quite'strong.'
Unlike' in' Europe' or' North' America' many' families' live' in' two' or'
some'in'three'or'four'generations’'households.'On'average'36%'of'
the'survey'participants'reported'that'they'live'with'their'children.'A'
significant' number' of' older' persons' live' with' their' grandchildren'
(17%).' Quite' surprisingly' more' participants' in' bigger' cities' (up' to'
49%)'live'with'their'children'and'grandchildren'than'in'smaller'cities'
(23)38%).' This' may' be' explained' by' the' fact' that' it' is' much' easier'
and'cheaper'for'a'young'couple'to'move'in'a'new'flat'or'house'than'
in'a'big'city.'
Also'it'is'common'that'the'older'generations'help'the'younger'ones'
financially' till' quite' late' (up' to' the' age' of' 30' of' the' offsprings' or'
even'later).'And'in'most'cases'children'support'the'elderly'parents'
financially'and'assume'the'role'of'caregivers'if'needed,'not'trusting'
this' to' institutions.' About' 12%' of' the' survey' participants' reported'
that'their'children'support'them'financially.'More'older'persons'in'
the' most' financially' depressed' region' and' in' the' most' prosperous'
region'reported'receiving'financial'support'from'children'and'other'
relatives.'
On' the' other' hand,' with' the' economy' transitions' and' political'
changes,' often' people' view' other' generations' outside' of' their'
households'as'very'different'and'sometimes'even'evil.'What'clearly'
is'missing'here'are'intentional'policies'and'opportunities'for'inter)
generational' interactions' implemented' by' governmental' or' non)
governmental' organizations.' Only' 24%' of' survey' participants' re)
ported'that'participation'of'older'persons'is'planned'in'most'family)
oriented'events.'33%'reported'that'schools'and'educational'institu)
tions' involve' older' persons' in' their' events' for' school' children.'
About' half' of' participants' admit' that' events' for' older' adults' are'
usually' organized' within' the' community' (in' community' centers,'
schools,' libraries,' etc).' However,' all' the' numbers' vary' greatly' (in'
some'cases'by'40%)'depending'on'the'city.'
SOCIAL!RELATIONS!(NETWORKS)!IN!AGING!SOCIETIES:!
GERMANY,!ROMANIA!AND!TURKEY!
'1
Aylin'Cakiroglu'Cevik ,'Ozgur'Arun
1'
1
SOCIOLOGY,' MIDDLE' EAST' TECHNICAL' UNIVERSITY,' ANKARA,' Tur)
'
key
Abstract:' Social' relations' (networks)' have' been' considered' as' an'
important'aspect'for'the'adaptation,'integration,'adjustment,'social'
capital,' social' support' and' subjective' well)being' of' older' people'
since'1980s.'Every'country'has'different'structure'of'social'relations'
as' well' as' different' story' of' aging' process.' The' aims' of' this' article'
are'to'describe'and'to'compare'the'structure'of'social'relations'of'
older'people'from'Germany,'Romania'and'Turkey.'These'countries'
were' selected' by' the' status' in' the' European' Union' which' means'
that'Germany'is'as'old'member,'Romania'as'new'member'and'Tur)
key'as'candidate'country'of'EU.'They'will'be'analyzed'by'using'data'
provided' by' European' Quality' of' Life' Survey' (EQLS)' 2007.' In' addi)
tionally,'the'concept'of'social'relations'includes'directly'or'indirect)
ly' contact' with' family,' friends,' relatives;' social' support;' marital'
status;'having'children'and'attending'a'meeting'of'social'groups'or'
religious' service.' In' short,' we' aims' to' figure' out' the' question' that'
how' social' relations' (networks)' operate' during' aging' by' countries.'
Analysis' has' indicated' that' the' majority' of' older' people' (65+)' in'
Germany' live' with' her/his' spouse/partner' (%' 60.3)' while' the' ratio'
of' those' in' Romania' and' Turkey' is' relatively' lower' (respectively' %'
32' and' %' 43).' On' the' other' hand,' the' single' older' people' usually'
live'with'children'except'those'in'Germany'(%1.8).'Another'finding'
is'that'half'of'older'people'in'Romania'have'no'children'while'this'
ratio' is' so' low' in' Germany' and' Turkey' (respectively' %' 13.7' and' %'
9.1).' When' we' consider' the' social' support,' the' most' important'
supporter'for'elderly'in'all'country'is'family.'
INTRAGFAMILIAL!SOLIDARITY!OF!ADULT!
GENERATIONS.!SOME!ROMANIAN!EXCHANGE!
MODELS!
Cristina'Tirhas
1'
1
Social' and' Political' Sciences,' AVRAM' IANCU' UNIVERSITY,' cluj,' Ro)
'
mania
Abstract:' International' literature' has' a' long' standing' tradition' in'
describing'patterns/of'kin'support,'especially'the'different'ways'of'
exchanges'between'parents'and'their'adult'children.'Despite'much'
of' the' research' has' focused' on' patterns' of' discrete' types' of' sup)
port,' the' tendency' is' to' ignore' the' linkages' between' different' do)
mains.' In' the' same' time,' the' majority' of' these' approaches' are' di)
rected' towards' investigating' the' role' of' several' variables' in' deter)
mining' intra)familial' exchange' and' the' existence' of' inter)cultural'
similarities,' while' less' is' known' about' the' ways' in' which' those' in)
volved' in' such' linkages' see' themselves' and' the' linkages' they' are'
involved' into.' This' latter,' ’from' inside’' perspective' can' add' im)
portant' nuance' to' the' study' of' intra)generational' exchanges' and'
my'study'follows'this'approach.'
In' Eastern' European' areas' the' nature' of' kin' support' in' adulthood'
and'its'determinants'remain'almost'unknown'at'the'level'of'expla)
nations' given' by' subjects' themselves.' In' my' study,' the' nature' of'
giving'and'receiving'support'between'generations'in'some'Romani)
an'rural'and'urban'families'is'examined'in'te'light'of'these'issues.'I'
engage' in' the' study' of' four' groups' of' intergenerational' exchange'
which' emerged' as' a' result' of' factorial' analsis,' on' a' representative'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
30'
Abstract'Book'
sample' of' 180' respondents' aged' 20' and' older' (adult' parents' and'
their'parents),'from'two'urban'areas'and'two'rural'areas.'Systemat)
ic' differences' in' intergenerational' giving' and' receiving' have' been'
observed' by' age,' gender,' family' structure,' socioeconomic' status'
and'proximity'to'kin.'One'important'theoretical'view'is'focused'on'
altruism' as' one' of' the' factors' which' lead' to' parental' transfers' to'
children.'An'alternative'perspective'suggests'that'assistance'is'giv)
en'to'motivate'reciprocical'exchange'over'the'life'course.'In'inves)
tigated' areas,' our' results' suggests' that' the' pattern' of' inter' vivos'
transfer'behavior'is'more'consistent'with'the'exchange'model'than'
with'the'altruistical'model.'
DISJOINTED!STRUCTURAL!SYSTEMS!AND!KEEPING!
WARM!FOR!THE!ELDERLY!IN!WINTER!
'1,'2*
'3
'4
Angela'Mary'Tod
,'Adelaide'M'Lusambili ,'Jo'Cooke ,'Catherine'
'3
'5
'3
Homer ,'Kathleen'A'McDAID ,'Jo'Abbott '
1
Center' for' health' nd' social' care,' shefffield' Hallam' Univeristy,'
3
Public' Health,' SHEFFIELD' HALLAM' UNIVERISITY,' Sheffield,' Public'
4
Health,' National' Health' Services/UK,' Rotherham,' Public' Health,'
5
CLARHC,' NATIONAL' ENERGY' ACTION,' South' Yorkshire,' United'
'
Kingdom
2
Abstract:'This'article'presents'independent'research'commissioned'
by' the' National' Institute' for' Health' Research' (NIHR)' under' its' Re)
search' for' Patient' Benefit' (RfPB)' Programme' (Grant' Reference'
Number'PB)PG)0408)16041).'The'views'expressed'are'those'of'the'
author(s)' and' not' necessarily' those' of' the' NHS,' the' NIHR' or' the'
Department'of'Health.'
Using' Sociological' Structural' Functionalism' Theory' (SSFT),' this' pa)
per'will'discuss'how'disjointed'systems'create'challenges'for'older'
people' in' keeping' warm' at' home' in' winter.' The' selected' findings'
are'based'on'a'mixed'method'qualitative'study'that'was'conducted'
in'Rotherham,'an'area'in'South'Yorkshire'Coalfields'in'the'North'of'
England.' In' Rotherham' fuel' poverty' and' excess' winter' deaths' are'
amongst'the'highest'in'the'country'(KWILLT'original'proposal'2009:'
p2).' Findings' from' this' study' shows' that' financial' constraints,' the'
nature' and' type' of' social' connectedness,' technology' and' type' of'
housing' are' significant' barriers' to' older' people.' Other' challenges'
are'a'number'of'social'and'cultural'behavioural'mediators'such'as'
age,' mindset,' and' fear' and' trust' (see/ also' Boardman' 2010;' BERR'
2008'Maheswaran'et'al.'2004;'Hajat'&'Haines'2002).'While'most'of'
these' findings' seem' to' concur' with' the' previous' closely' related'
studies,'the'current'study'provides'insight'into'how'disjointed'sys)
tems' that' are' not' integrated' and' interconnected' amplify' other'
barriers.'Available'information'concerning'heating'and'help'such'as'
benefits,' affordable' warmth' initiatives' are' difficult' to' find' and' ac)
cess'as'systems'are'disjointed.'People'struggling'with'the'daily'chal)
lenges'of'age'are'likely'to'remain'cold'in'winter'whilst'they'remain'
baffled' by' fragmented' systems.' This' paper' provides' insight' to' in)
form' health' and' social' care' providers' as' well' as' those' developing'
and'implementing'policy.'Implications'of'concern'related'to'current'
policy'are'considered.'The'paper'reflects'on'the'sociological'theory'
of'structural'functionalism,'on'how'the'components'of'society'work'
and'how'failure'in'one'feature'affects'the'whole'society.'The'paper'
fits'in'the'theme'of'Sociology'of'Ageing'and'Technology'(SAT).'
EDUCATIONAL!DYNAMICS!IN!MORTALITY!
COMPRESSION!IN!SWITZERLAND,!1990G2000!
'1
'2
Mathias'Lerch ,'Michel'Oris '
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
1
Institute' for' Demographic' and' Life)Course' Studies' &' NCCR' LIVES,'
Interfacultary' Centre' of' Gerontology' &' NCCR' LIVES,' UNIVERSITY'
'
OF'GENEVA,'Genève,'Switzerland
2
Abstract:' Fries' (1980)' argued' that' although' chronic' diseases' and'
senescence' are' progressively' postponed' to' higher' ages,' improve)
ments'in'life'expectancy'get'harder'to'achieve'the'closer'it'reaches'
a'much'debated/biological'limit.'People'stay'longer'in'good'health'
but'ultimately'succumb'at'about'the'same'age.'If'this'trend'in'mor)
tality' compression' around' the' population's' mean' age' at' death,' as'
well' as' the' implied' rectangularisation' of' the' survival' curve,' has'
been'confirmed'for'Switzerland'until'the'early'1990s,'life'durations'
kept'on'lengthening'while'mortality'compression'stagnated'later'on'
(Cheung'et'al.'2009).'Period'trends'in'mortality'compression'of'the'
aggregate' population' may' result' from' different' effects:' divergent'
trends'in'period'mortality'of'educational'groups,'cohort'effects'due'
to'the'historical'spread'of'education,'and'differential'cohort'mortal)
ity'during'the'1990s.'If'the'first'effect'would'point'to'inequalities'in'
health'improvements,'the'latter'two'would'indicate'the'impact'of'a'
compositional'change'of'survivors.'We'question'to'what'extent'the'
constant' level' of' mortality' compression' between' 1990)04' and'
2000)04'resulted'from'unequal'improvements'in'health'or'if'it'con)
cerned' all' Swiss' inhabitants' irrespective' of' their' socioeconomic'
status.'
Our' analysis' relies' on' the' Swiss' National' Cohort' database' –' a' fol)
low)up'study'developed'through'probabilistic'record'linkages'of'the'
census)enumerated' population' (in' 1990' and' 2000)' and' its' succes)
sive'deaths'(1990)2005).'Given'our'emphasis'on'cohorts,'we'focus'
on' the' Swiss)born' elderly' population' in' 1990' who' either' survived'
until'2004'or'died'in'the'intercensal'period.'Multivariate'analysis'of'
cohort'mortality'between'both'censuses'highlights'the'primary'role'
of' education' in' shaping' cohort' selection.' Decennial' trends' in' lon)
gevity' and' mortality' compression' of' educational' groups' are' thus'
described'using'life)table'indicators.'We'then'confront'the'trend'in'
mortality'compression'of'the'total'population'with'three'scenarios,'
assuming'respectively:'a)'no'educational'differences'in'period'mor)
tality'trends'between'1990'and'2000,'b)'equal'distributions'of'edu)
cation'across'age'groups'at'both'census'dates'and'c)'no'educational'
differentials' in' cohort' selection.' The' aim' is' to' assess' whether' the'
recent' plateau' of' mortality' compression' in' Switzerland' resulted'
from' differentiated' health' improvements' or' from' compositional'
effects.'
THE!OUTCOMES!OF!PARTICIPATORY!METHODS!
AMONG!ELDERY!RESIDENTS:!ATTITUDES!AND!
REACTIONS!IN!DEVELOPING!COHERENT!ALCOHOL!
PRACTICES!–!DRUG!RULES!IN!SERVICE!HOUSING!
PROJECT!2009G2011!
'1
Eija'Kaskiharju ,'Anne)Katri'Kemppainen
1
AGE'INSTITUTE,'Helsinki,'Finland
1'
'
Abstract:' Background:' Drinking' habits' and' alcohol' use' of' older'
adults'have'been'studied'and'discussed'in'public'debate'during'the'
last'ten'years.'The'theme'has'been'present,'for'example,'in'the'EU'
Vintage' project' and' during' the' Swedish' EU' Presidency' in' 2010.' In'
Finland,' national' and' local' development' projects' were' carried' out'
to' investigate' the' needs' of' older' adults' with' their' drinking' prob)
lems.'
Objectives:'This'paper'is'based'on'the'findings'in'the'project'”Drug'
rules'in'service'housing”.'The'idea'was'to'include'both'the'staff'and'
Abstract'Book'
31'
'
residents' to' develop' joint' and' coherent' practices' of' dealing' with'
alcohol'issues'in'the'service'housing'environment.'Action'research'
was' undertaken' as' an' inquiry' method' with' a' strong' emphasis' on'
participatory'methods.'Some'examples'of'these'approaches'includ)
ed' interviews,' information' sessions' with' discussions,' brochures,'
coffee' parties,' small' talk' and' frequenting,' voting' for' and' against'
sessions,'reading'news'on'alcohol'and'elderly'sessions.'The'aims'of'
the' participatory' methods' were' to' increase' interaction' between'
the'residents,'staff'and'project'workers.'
The' aim' of' the' participatory' methods' was' to' activate' and' encour)
age'the'residents'to'express'their'thoughts'on'alcohol'issues'in'later'
life.' Those' who' took' part' in' various' meetings' and' interviews' gave'
valuable'insight'into'alcohol'and'ageing'topics'that'could'be'utilized'
in' developing' the' joint' and' coherent' practices' for' the' whole' com)
munity.' However,' the' whole' process' of' participation' was' very' de)
manding'with'many'ups'and'downs.'
Aim:'The'aim'of'this'paper'is'to'present'the'participatory'methods'
and'their'outcomes.'During'the'process'we'found'out'that'speaking'
about'alcohol'and'ageing'can'be'complex'and'sometimes'even'im)
possible.' In' the' beginning' some' fear' of' stigmatisation' emerged'
among' the' residents.' Despite' some' obstacles' and' resistance,' the'
project' was' able' to' produce' new' knowledge' about' attitudes' to'
alcohol' use' and' ways' to' approach' and' confront' various' user'
groups.' Many' residents' have' been' interested' in' hearing' the' re)
search'results'and'giving'feedback'to'the'project'workers.'
WHERE!DO!PEOPLE!DIE!IN!EUROPE?!ON!THE!
QUESTION!OF!DYING!IN!INSTITUTIONS!
'1
Michaela'Thönnes ,'Nina'R.'Jakoby
1'
1
Institute'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'ZURICH,'Zurich,'Switzerland
'
Abstract:'There'is'a'great'discrepancy'in'society'between'the'num)
ber'of'people'that'prefer'to'die'within'their'home'and'the'number'
of' cases' where' this' wish' actually' becomes' reality.' The' most' fre)
quent' place' of' dying' in' Western' societies' is' not' the' home' but' an'
institution,' such' as' a' hospital' or' nursing' home.' There' is' general'
agreement'that'the'process'of'dying'and'the'people'involved'there)
in' have' shifted' from' the' personal' privacy' of' the' home' to' the' pro)
fessional'enclaves'of'hospitals'and'nursing'homes'in'the'past'sixty'
years.' The' terms' institutionalization' or' hospitalization' stand' for' a'
process'of'banishing'death'and'dying'from'everyday'life.'The'hospi)
tal'as'a'place'of'dying'has'been'the'target'of'much'controversy.'But'
what' is' the' actual' distribution' of' places' of' dying?' Can' we' identify'
social'patterns'of'dying'related'to'the'various'places'of'dying?'The'
presentation'provides'a'theoretical'and'empirical'overview'of'place'
of' dying' as' a' social' phenomenon.' Contemporary' discourse' on' the'
institutionalization' of' dying' is' subjected' to' critical' scrutiny' in' light'
of' the' state' of' the' art' of' research.' The' investigation' is' based' on'
European' studies' that' provide' data' on' the' frequency' of' people'
dying' in' hospitals,' retirement' or' nursing' homes,' hospices,' or' at'
home.' In' addition,' other' factors' determining' places' of' dying,' such'
as' medical,' structural,' socio)demographic,' and' individual' factors,'
will' be' summarized.' Such' an' analysis' raises' interesting' questions'
concerning'the'influence'of'social'inequality'on'dying.'
A!COUPLE’S!RETIREMENT!DECISIONS!IN!THE!FAMILY!
CONTEXT:!AN!EMPIRICAL!STUDY!
Van'Thi'Mai'Bui
'1,'2*
'
1
2
Max'Planck'Institute'for'Demographic'Research,'Rostock,' Institute'
'
for'Economics,'University'of'Rostock,'Rostock,'Germany
Abstract:' This' study' investigates' the' retirement' decisions' of' mar)
ried'couples'in'Germany'between'1984'and'2009'using'the'German'
Social)Economic'Panel'data'(GSOEP).'We'perform'separate'estima)
tions' for' husbands' and' wives' under' taking' into' account' their'
spouses’' retirement' behaviors' in' order' to' assess' whether' the' ef)
fects' are' symmetric.' We' show' that' the' husbands' and' wives' have'
more' propensities' to' retire' if' their' spouses' were' retired.' The' ef)
fects'of'educational'level,'occupational'characteristics'such'as'self)
employed,'health'indicators,'satisfaction'with'leisure'time'and'age'
on'husbands’'and'wives’'retirement'are'also'symmetric.'In'particu)
lar,'husbands'and'wives'who'have'higher'education'are'more'likely'
to'exit'the'labor'market'earlier'than'those'who'have'lower'educa)
tion.'Satisfaction'with'leisure'time'has'a'positive'effect'on'the'pro)
pensity' of' husbands' and' wives' to' retire.' For' those' who' are' self)
employed,'they'are'more'likely'to'delay'their'retirement.'Being'to'
be' good' or' very' good' health' induces' both' husbands' and' wives' to'
postpone'their'retirement'while'being'to'be'bad'or'very'bad'health'
leads'them'to'retire'early.'The'variable'cumulative'duration'of'em)
ployment' over' the' life' which' is' aimed' to' measure' early' stages' in'
the' employment' career' has' a' significantly' positive' effect' on' the'
husbands’'and'wives’'retirement.'The'dummy'variable'for'the'legal'
reforms'coming'into'effect'at'the'beginning'of'2001'has'a'negative'
impact' on' the' retirement' of' the' husbands' and' wives.' The' family'
context' does' matter' in' the' married' couples’' retirement' decisions'
but' this' paper' indicates' the' gender' asymmetry' in' response' to' the'
family'characteristics'including'owner'of'the'house,'total'household'
income,' number' of' persons' in' the' family,' and' size' of' the' house.'
Only'does'the'presence'of'a'person'in'need'of'care'postpone'both'
husbands’'and'wives’'retirement'but'it'is'still'not'significant'for'the'
wives.'In'addition,'considering'dual'retirement'we'perform'a'sepa)
rate' analysis' in' which' both' spouses' were' employed' at' the' age' of'
fifty'since'the'market'roles'over'life'course'are'highly'gendered'in'
West'Germany.'
DOES!WORKING!HOURS!REDUCTION!IN!A!MOVE!TO!
FULL!RETIREMENT!WORKS?!AN!ANALYSIS!OF!THE!
EFFECTIVENESS!OF!THE!LATE!CAREER!WORKING!
HOURS!REDUCTION!SYSTEM!IN!BELGIUM!
Dorien'Van'Looy
1
1'
SOCIOLOGY,'UNIVERSITY'OF'ANTWERP,'Antwerp,'Belgium
'
Abstract:' Flexible' working' time' arrangements' at' the' end' of' the'
working'career'are'put'forward'by'the'European'Union'as'a'magical'
formula'to'enhance'the'labour'market'participation'of'people'aged'
50' and' over.' By' guaranteeing' a' more' optimal' balance' between'
“work”'and'“life”,'people'in'a'later'career'stage'ought'to'be'able'to'
combine' family/ responsibilities,' leisure/ activities,/ social/ contacts'
and' financial/ sustainability.' In' this' paper,' we' try' to' answer' the'
question'whether'people'reducing'their'working'hours'in'a'move'to'
full'retirement'will'retire'later'compared'to'their'counterparts'who'
stayed'full)time'employed.'We'ask'ourselves'how'this'effect'differs'
according' to' socio)demographic' and' job)related' control' variables?'
We'will'answer'this'question'with'an'event'history'analysis'on'the'
SHARELIFE)data.' In' the' analysis,' 2983' Belgian' respondents' are' in)
cluded.'In'2009,'1230'of'them'were'retired.'We'study'their'trajec)
tories'from'work'into'retirement'from'the'age'of'50'on.'In'the'first'
stage,'we'determine'how'much'people'made'a'transition'from'full)
time' to' part)time' work' in' a' move' to' full' retirement' and' situate'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
32'
Abstract'Book'
them'in'the'set'of'all'trajectories'from'work'into'retirement.'In'the'
second' stage,' we' test' whether' people' who' made' the' transition'
from' full)time' to' part)time' employment,' controlled' for' socio)
demographic'–'and'job)related'background'variables,'retire'later.'In'
the'third'stage,'the'aim'is'to'test'interaction)effects'to'see'whether'
the'effect'of'part)time'employment'on'the'effective'retirement'age'
differ' according' to' different' socio)demographic)' and' job)related'
background'variables.'
HOUSEHOLD!DETERMINANTS!INFLUENCING!THE!
JOINT!RETIREMENT!DECISION!OF!OLDER!COUPLES!
1
'1
Kim'Denaeghel' ,'Dimitri'Mortelmans ,'Arie'Weeren
1
UNIVERSITY'OF'ANTWERP,'Antwerp,'Belgium
1'
'
Abstract:'Although'the'retirement'decisions'of'older'workers'(espe)
cially' men)' have' been' widely' studied,' most' studies' still' treat' re)
tirement' as' an' individual' phenomenon' while' little' attention' has'
been' paid' to' the' retirement' behaviour' of' older' (married)' couples'
(Henkens,' 1999;' Hurd,' 1990;' Jiminez)Martin,' Labeaga,' &' Martinez'
Granado,' 1999).' However,' a' growing' literature' recognizes' that' re)
tirement'decisions'are'made'within'the'context'of'the'family'(Pien)
ta' &' Hayward,' 2002;' Szinovacz' &' Deviney,' 2000;' van' Solinge' &'
Henkens,'2005).'
This'paper'focuses'on'the'joint'retirement'hypothesis,'which'states'
that' husbands' and' wives' tend' to' retire' at' the' same' time' (Hurd,'
1990).' Research' has' shown' that' couples' often' coordinate' their'
retirement'decision'based'on'a'variety'of'reasons'as'many'workers'
withdraw' from' the' labor' force' at' about' the' same' time' as' their'
partner'(Johnson'&'Favreault,'2001).'
In'the'analyses,'couples'aged'50'to'70'years'old'were'selected'and'
a' distinction' was' made' between' single)' and' dual' earner' families.'
Spousal'characteristics'influencing'the'joint'retirement'decision'are'
age,' education,' health,' finances,' activity' status' and' taking' care' of'
dependents.' Data' were' drawn' from' the' European' Community'
Household' Panel' (ECHP)' which' presents' longitudinal' data' for' fif)
teen'West)European'countries'running'from'1994'to'2001.'Because'
of' the' household' level,' repeated' events' are' analysed' using' multi)
level' event' history' (Steele,' 2008).' A' random' effects' logit' model,'
also'known'as'a'(shared)'frailty'model'is'used'to'measure'the'influ)
ence' of' household' determinants' on' the' self)defined' or' self)
reported'retirement'of'(older)'couples'(Wienke,'2003).'
Based' on' previous' research' from' the' authors,' we' concluded' that'
the' family' context' in' which' labour' supply' decisions' are' made' is'
critical' to' understanding' the' retirement' process' (Johnson' &' Fa)
vreault,' 2001).' Characteristics' of' the' spouse' and' household' deter)
minants' are' expected' to' be' important' predictors' of' the' joint' re)
tirement' decision' of' older' couples' in' Europe' (Pienta' &' Hayward,'
2002).'
LES!FINS!DE!CARRIERE!DES!FEMMES!ET!DES!HOMMES!
CONNAISSENTGELLES!LES!MEMES!TURBULENCES!?!
'1
Céline'Schoeni ,'Magdalena'Rosende
1
1'
University'of'Lausanne,'Lausanne,'Switzerland
'
Abstract:'La'communication'porte'sur'les'processus'de'recomposi)
tion'des'inégalités'de'sexe'chez'les'seniors'en'emploi.'Elle's’inscrit'
dans' le' cadre' d’une' recherche' au' sein' du' Programme' national' de'
recherche'(PNR60)'sur'l’égalité'entre'les'femmes'et'les'hommes'en'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
Suisse'et'propose'd’appréhender'de'manière'novatrice,'sous'l’angle'
du'genre,'la'question'du'maintien'en'emploi'et'de'la'transition'vers'
la' retraite' des' salariéêeês' âgéêeês' de' 50' ans' et' plus.' Les' inégalités'
entre'les'sexes'en'deuxième'moitié'de'carrière'constituent'un'angle'
mort' de' la' recherche.' Les' modèles' de' trajectoire' professionnelle'
qui' se' dégagent' des' indicateurs' statistiques' considérés' sont'
aveugles'au'genre.'Or,'en'Suisse,'la'participation'des'femmes'et'des'
hommes' au' marché' du' travail' diffère' fortement' selon' la' classe'
d’âge.'Les'parcours'professionnels'féminins'ne'sont'pas'structurés'
uniquement'par'le'travail'salarié.'Entre'25'et'40'ans,'les'maternités'
et' les' soins' aux' enfants' en' bas' âge' viennent' contrecarrer' les'
logiques' propres' à' la' sphère' professionnelle.' Toutefois,' l’état' des'
connaissances'sur'la'conciliation'travail)famille'ne'nous'permet'pas'
de'savoir'si'l’injonction'à'la'«'conciliation'»'demeure'aussi'forte'en'
deuxième' moitié' de' carrière.' Par' ailleurs,' à' l’heure' où' la' question'
des' seniors' en' emploi' représente' un' enjeu' social' majeur' pour' les'
décideurs' politiques' en' Europe,' il' paraît' opportun' d’interroger' les'
mécanismes'de'différenciation'sexuée'des'trajectoires'et'de'mettre'
en'évidence'les'logiques'structurelles,'institutionnelles'et'individu)
elles' qui' facilitent' ou' entravent' les' parcours' professionnels'
féminins'pendant'la'seconde'partie'de'la'vie'active.'
En' croisant' des' données' statistiques' relatives' à' la' participation' au'
marché' du' travail' et' au' régime' de' protection' sociale,' nous' re)
tracerons'les'grandes'tendances'de'l’emploi'des'seniors'en'Suisse.'
A'l’avant)garde'des'objectifs'préconisés'pour'l’Europe,'le'cas'suisse'
s’avère'exemplaire'dans'la'mesure'où'le'taux'd’activité'des'50'ans'
et'plus'est'particulièrement'élevé'(76,7%'contre'59%'dans'l’UE)'et'
que'la'part'des'femmes'dans'cette'catégorie'progresse'de'manière'
constante.'Plus'généralement,'en'resituant'la'Suisse'dans'une'per)
spective' internationale,' nous' nous' proposons' de' questionner' la'
pertinence'analytique'des'modèles'de'trajectoires'de'fin'de'carrière'
(transition'entre'activité'et'retraite,'fragilisation'de'la'seconde'par)
tie'de'carrière)'récurrents'dans'la'littérature.'
THE!DOMESTIC!CONTEXT!FOR!RETIREMENT:!
CHALLENGING!MODELS!OF!INDIVIDUAL!CHOICE!OF!
THE!TIMING!AND!MANNER!OF!RETIREMENT!
'1
'2
Sarah'Anne'Vickerstaff ,'Wendy'Loretto '
1
2
SSPSSR,'KENT'UNIVERSITY,'Canterbury,' Business'School,'Universi)
'
ty'of'Edinburgh,'Edinburgh,'United'Kingdom
Abstract:' Against' a' global' backdrop' of' population' and' workforce'
ageing,' successive' UK' governments' have' encouraged' people' to'
work' for' longer' and' delay' retirement.' Debates' about' how' to' en)
courage' people' to' extend' their' working' lives' focus' mainly' on' fac)
tors' affecting' individuals’' decisions' when' and' how' to' retire,' with'
little' recognition' that' such' decisions' are' often' taken' within' multi)
faceted' domestic' or' family' contexts.' In' addition,' there' has' been'
scant'attention'to'gender'roles'within'these'contexts.'Drawing'up)
on'previous'research,'mainly'in'the'US,'we'argue'that'fuller'under)
standing'of'retirement'can'be'achieved'by'taking'into'account'the'
ways' in' which' individuals’' expectations' and' behaviours' reflect' a'
complicated,' dynamic' set' of' interactions' between' domestic' envi)
ronments'and'gender'roles,'often'established'over'a'long'time'pe)
riod,' as' well' as' more' temporally' proximate' factors' such' as' health'
shocks' or' unexpected' redundancy.' On' the' basis' of' a' qualitative'
empirical' study' undertaken' in' three' UK' locations' we' present' a'
number' of' contrasting' case' studies' of' couples' following' different'
retirement' patterns.' These' show' how' established' gendered' divi)
sions' of' labour' within' a' household' can' persist' and' colour' retire)
ment' transitions,' whilst' in' other' cases' temporally' immediate'
Abstract'Book'
33'
'
‘shocks’' such' a' unexpected' health' events' may' disrupt' the' house)
hold’s' established' ways' of' distributing' paid' and' unpaid' labour'
amongst'its'members.'Our'analysis'leads'us'to'conclude'that'policy'
aimed' at' encouraging' people' to' delay' retirement' needs' to' move'
away'from'the'individual'adult'worker'model'implicit'in'much'poli)
cy'discussion'and'begin'to'frame'retirement'decision'making'more'
soundly'in'its'social'context,'typically'the'domestic'setting'and'gen)
der'relations'in'which'the'individual'is'situated.'
ARE!MARRIED!PARENTS!MORE!SATISFIED!WITH!THEIR!
LIFES!AND!PARTNERSHIP!THAN!OTHER!MIDDLEGAGED!
AND!OLDER!PEOPLE?!ON!THE!RELATIONSHIP!
BETWEEN!LIVING!ARRANGEMENTS!AND!SUBJECTIVE!
WELLGBEING!IN!THE!SECOND!HALF!OF!LIFE!IN!
GERMANY!
Heribert'Engstler
1
1'
'
GERMAN'CENTRE'OF'GERONTOLOGY'(DZA),'Berlin,'Germany
Abstract:'Due'to'changes'of'partnership'and'parenthood'histories,'
the' variety' of' living' arrangements' is' increasing.' In' Germany' )' as'
well' as' in' other' western' countries' )' less' people' reach' middle' and'
old' age' being' married' and' having' children.' Will' this' affect' their'
well)being'in'later'phases'of'life?'
Research'literature'shows'mixed'evidence'on'the'effects'of'marital'
status,'union'type'and'parenthood'on'subjective'well)being.'While'
earlier' research' mainly' showed' evidence' for' a' general' marriage'
benefit'compared'to'those'without'a'partner'and'cohabitating'cou)
ples,' more' recent' research' found' little' difference' between' mar)
riage' and' cohabitation' in' countries' where' cohabitation' is' more'
widespread'and'socially'accepted.'There'are'also'ambiguous'results'
on'the'effects'ofchildlessness'and'different'forms'of'parenthood'on'
subjective' well)being.' Additionally,' research' often' lacks' the' analy)
sisis' ofthe' interrelated' effects' of' marital' status,' union' type' and'
parenthood'on'wellbeing.'
This' presentation' addresses' this' issue' using' data' of' the' German'
Ageing' Survey' 2008,' a' representative' sample' of' 40)' to' 85year' old'
men'and'women'(n=4018).'Using'covariance'analyses,'it'examines'
the' relationship' between' different' living' arrangements' (marital'
status,'union'type,'parenthood)'and'life'satisfaction'as'well'as'un)
ion'quality'and'perceived'stability,'controlling'for'other'sociodemo)
graphic'variables.'
Results'show'a'generally'higher'life'satisfaction'of'those'living'with'
a' partner.' Cohabiting' couples' are' as' satisfied' as' married' couples,'
with' one' exception:' the' divorced' are' less' satisfied' with' their' life'
even'if'they'again'live'in'a'partnership.'Cohabitors'judge'their'rela)
tionship' to' the' same' degree' as' being' well' as' married' couples' do,'
despite' a' lower' perceived' stability.' The' existence' of' children' does'
not'per'se'enhance'life'satisfaction.'Having'children'coincides'with'
higher' life' satisfaction' only' for' married' and' cohabiting' parents,'
whereassingle'parents'feature'lower'life'satisfaction.'
Rising' numbers' of' partnerless' people' who' never' could' establish' a'
union' or' who' got' separated' or' divorced' could' become' more' rele)
vant'to'the'levels'of'well)being'in'middle'and'old'age'than'the'in)
crease'in'childlessness.'
CONFLICTS!BETWEEN!OLDER!PARENTS!AND!THEIR!
CHILDREN!IN!14!EUROPEAN!COUNTRIES!
Marc'Szydlik
1'
1
Institute'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'ZURICH,'Zurich,'Switzerland
'
Abstract:'Recent'research'has'shown'a'considerable'extent'of'soli)
darity' between' family' generations.' However,' so' far' the' investiga)
tion'of'intergenerational'conflicts'has'been'neglected.'This'is'all'the'
more'surprising'given'that'mass'media'often'report'on'–'allegedly'–'
substantial' conflicts' between' generations' from' youth' to' old' age.'
From' this' perspective,' daily' conflicts' are' a' regular' feature' of' the'
relations' between' adult' children' and' elderly' parents' and' conflicts'
are'seen'as'an'indicator'of'a'crisis'of'the'family'and'a'dissolution'of'
family'bonds.'Furthermore,'it'is'argued'that'permanent'unsolvable'
conflicts'would'prevent'generations'from'helping'and'taking'care'of'
each'other'which,'consequently,'may'lead'to'isolation'and'depriva)
tion'in'old'age.'
Within' this' framework' a' number' of' important' research' questions'
arise:'To'what'extent'are'intergenerational'relations'between'older'
parents' and' their' adult' children' characterised' by' conflicts?' What'
are'the'reasons'for'and'the'consequences'of'intergenerational'con)
flicts?' What' is' the' relation' between' conflict' and' solidarity' on' the'
one'hand'and'family'conflict'and'societal'contexts'on'the'other?'
The'presentation'will'address'these'questions.'First'of'all'and'from'
a'theoretical'perspective,'conflict'and'solidarity'will'not'be'treated'
as' opposites.' Second,' conflicts' between' generations' will' be' com)
pared' with' conflicts' with' other' people,' such' as' partners,' friends'
and' other' relatives.' Additionally,' it' will' be' investigated' whether'
older'people'rather'report'on'conflicts'they'have'with'their'children'
than' with' their' parents.' Third,' reasons' and' consequences' of' con)
flicts' will' be' explored,' for' example,' in' regard' to' intergenerational'
contact,'income,'transfers'of'time'and'money,'age,'health,'marital'
status,' gender' and' migration.' Fourth,' connections' between' inter)
generational'conflicts'within'families'and'welfare'state'contexts'will'
be' examined,' such' as' whether' family' conflicts' depend' on' the' ex)
tent' of' public' support' and' whether' strong' welfare' states' lead' to'
less'family'conflict.'
The' empirical' investigations' are' based' on' the' Survey' of' Health,'
Ageing' and' Retirement' in' Europe,' focusing' on' 14' European' coun)
tries,' namely' Austria,' Belgium,' Czech' Republic,' Denmark,' France,'
Germany,' Greece,' Ireland,' Italy,' the' Netherlands,' Poland,' Spain,'
Sweden'and'Switzerland.'
ELDERLY!CARE:!DISPUTES!AND!CONFLICTS!BETWEEN!
DEPENDENT!PARENTS!AND!ADULT!CHILDREN!
Katerina'Konradova
1'
1
Faculty' of' social' science,' Charles' university' in' Prague,' Prague,'
'
Czech'Republic
Abstract:' This' paper' is' based' on' the' analysis' of' quantitative' re)
search' titled' "Family' Cohesion' in' the' Elderly' Care",' which' was' led'
by' prof.' PhDr.' Hynek' Jerabek,' CSc.' Standardized' questionnaires'
were'used'for'data'collection.'The'questionnaires'investigated'rela)
tionships' in' Czech' families' with' dependent' parents.' The' paper' fo)
cuses' on' disagreements' and' disputes' between' non' self)sufficient'
parents' and' their' adult' children.' In' addition' to' determining' what'
conflicts'families'are'facing,'the'study'attempts'to'reveal'disagree)
ments'which'are'representative'for'different'phases'of'care.'Typol)
ogy'of'family'relationships'in'dependence'on'which'kinds'of'conflict'
prevail' is' created.' The' paper' raises' the' question' what' determines'
belonging' to' a' particular' type' of' relationship,' while' attention' is'
focused,'inter'alia,'on'the'socio)economic'determinants.'The'types'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
34'
Abstract'Book'
of' relationships' are' not' considered' to' be' static,' but' are' seen' as'
changing' over' time' with' various' events' in' the' family.' The' data'
demonstrate'how'the'degree'of'representation'of'each'type'varies'
in'each'phase'of'care.'Conflicts'are'analyzed'within'the'six'dimen)
sions' of' intergenerational' solidarity' and' thus' the' paper' tries' to'
contribute' to' the' understanding' of' solidarity' and' conflict' in' inter)
generational' relations,' and' specifically' in' the' situation' when' aging'
parents'need'support.'
THE!«!PROBLEM!»!OF!INTERGENERATIONAL!
RELATIONSHIPS!:!POLITICAL!RHETORICS!AND!SOCIAL!
INTERVENTIONS!
'1
'1
'1
Cornelia'Hummel ,'Marie'Débois ,'Léonor'Després ,'Nora'Meister
1
'1
1'
,'Liliia'Isambaeva ,'Alexandre'Pillonel
1
Dpt'of'sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'GENEVA,'Genève'4,'Switzerland
'
'
Abstract:'This'paper'questions'the'present'success'for'intergenera)
tional'topics'within'the'public'space.'Through'the'profusion'of'nar)
rative'and'practice'concerning'this'issue,'the'intergenerational'rela)
tionship'appears'inevitably'as'a'problem:'the'demographical,'social,'
economical' and' political' mutations' are' summoned' to' explain' the'
weakening'–'or'lack')'of'intergenerational'relationships,'as'a'sign'of'
a'deeper'alteration'of'social'bonds.'
Focusing'on'the'intergenerational'relationships'outside'the'family,'
we'analyse'the'ways'these'are'constructed'as'a'problematic'issue'in'
the' fields' of' political' discourse' and' social' action' in' Switzerland.' A'
qualitative'analysis'has'been'conducted'on'a'corpus'that'includes,'
on'one'hand,'political'reports'produced'at'the'federal'level'and,'on'
the'other'hand,'a'sample'of'intergenerational'field'projects.'Which'
arguments'are'used'to'present'the'“intergenerational'problem”'as'
a' fact?' How' is' this' so)called' weakening' of' intergenerational' ties'
explained?'Which'preventive'or'palliative'solutions'are'proposed'to'
restore'or'maintain'the'ties'between'generations?'
The'results'presented'in'the'paper'are'outcomes'of'a'research'con)
ducted'in'Master's'workshop'during'one'year.'
THE!PROBLEM!OF!NOT!HELPING!RELATIVES!AND!
OTHERS!IN!WELFARE!STATES!
'1
'1
elina'haavio)mannila ,'mirkka'danielsbacka ,'j.p.'roos
1
1'
social'sciences,'university'of'helsinki,'Helsinki,'Finland
'
Abstract:'The'core'population'of'this'study'is'European'baby'boom)
ers'born'between'1945)50.'We'attempt'to'find'out'why'so'few'of'
them' give' informal' help' to' their' children,' other' relatives' and'
friends.' To' deepen' the' analysis,' we' studied' the' non)helping' of'
grandchildren.' Welfare' state' regime' theory,' including' the' crowd)
ing)in' and' crowding)out' hypotheses,' evolutionary' theory' and' indi)
vidualization'theory'were'used'in'developing'hypotheses'and'inter)
preting'results.'
The' data' consist' of' personal' interviews' and' answers' to' mailed'
questionnaires.' The' information' was' collected' in' the' second' wave'
of'the'SHARE'survey,'which'was'carried'out'between'2004)07'in'14'
countries.'Finnish'data'from'2007,'including'comparable'questions,'
was'added'to'the'data'set.'Linear'regression'analysis'revealed'that'
non)helping'was'predicted'by'a'low'level'of'education,'having'few'
children,'being'of'older'age,'and'attitude'which'supported'the'role'
of'the'welfare'state'as'primary'carer.'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
Of' the' four' welfare' state' regime' types' compared' there' was' least'
non)helping'in'social'democratic'(Nordic)'regimes,'next'were'insur)
ance'and'market)based'regimes.'The'most'non)helping'was'discov)
ered' in' family)based' regimes.' The' crowding)in' theory' thus' gained'
more'support'than'the'crowding)out'theory.'
Individualization' theory' assumes' that' as' traditional' social' norms'
loosen,' helping' both' diminishes' in' scope' and' intensifies:' it' is' only'
given' to' those' we' really' feel' intimacy' towards.' Modernization'
should' favour' non)relatives' as' obligations' toward' relatives' lose'
their'importance.'However,'the'non)helping'of'people’s'own'adult'
children' was' found' to' be' less' common' than' the' non)helping' of'
other' kin' and' non)kin.' This' supports' evolutionary' theory,' which'
assumes' that' people' behave' especially' altruistically' toward' their'
own'offspring.'
Key' words:' non)helping;' relatives,' children,' grandchildren,' welfare'
state'regime;'individualization;'evolutionary'theory;'altruism'
THE!CHANGING!ROLE!OF!SOCIAL!NETWORKS!IN!
DIFFERENT!SOCIOG!ECONOMIC!STATUS!GROUPS!OF!
ELDERLY!AS!A!CHALLENGE!TO!CITIZENSHIP!RIGHTS!
Sibel'Kalaycioglu
1'
1
SOCIOLOGY,' MIDDLE' EAST' TECHNICAL' UNIVERSITY,' ANKARA,' Tur)
'
key
Abstract:'This'paper'discusses'the'role'of'personal'relationships'in'
later'life'issues.'In'this'context'the'significance'of'non)kin'informal'
networks'besides'the'intergenerational,'kin'networks'for'the'elder)
ly'of'different'socio)economic'status'will'be'discussed.'The'research'
is'conducted'in'2010,'on'both'a'qualitative'and'a'quantitative'sam)
ple'from'Turkey,'over'4,000'individuals'over'the'age'of'40.'Firstly,'in'
the'presentation'the'effect'of'social'networks'on'the'coping'strate)
gies'as'well'as'on'life'satisfaction'of'the'elderly'of'different'SES'will'
be'described.'Secondly,'the'existing'institutional'structure'of'ageing'
policies'in'Turkey'will'be'discussed'especially'in'terms'of'the'chal)
lenge'to'the'system'of'the'welfare'through'the'ageing'population.'
Finally,'the'existence'of'different'social'networks'will'be'argued'in'
terms'of'how'they'effected'the'citizenship'rights'of'elderly'in'Tur)
key.'
AGEING!AND!HEALTH!IN!PORTUGAL:!A!GENDER!
ANALYSIS!
'1
'1
'2
Inês'Gomes ,'Rita'Burnay ,'Ana'Fernandes ,'Maria'Amália'Botelho
3
'4
'5
,'António'Manuel'Marques ,'Ana'Paula'Gil '
'
1
Cesnova,' FACULDADE' DE' CIÊNCIAS' SOCIAIS' E' HUMANAS' )' UNL,'
3
Cesnova,'Instituto'Superior'Ciências'Sociais'e'Políticas,' Faculdade'
4
de'Ciências'Médicas')'UNL,'Lisboa,' Escola'Superior'de'Saúde')'IPS,'
5
Setúbal,' Instituto'Nacional'Saúde'Dr.'Ricardo'Jorge,'Lisboa,'Portu)
'
gal
2
Abstract:'The'research'aims'at'determining'and'analysing'the'rele)
vance'of'gender'to'the'health'condition'and'health'care'utilization'
of'the'elderly,'in'Portugal,'based'on'the'data'of'the'National'Health'
Survey' (NHS).' Gender' affects' most' areas' of' human' existence,' in)
cluding' health.' Gender' refers' to' the' culture)bound' convention'
about' norms' for' –' and' relationships' between' –' women' and' men.'
Social'differences'between'women'and'men'are'learned,'changea)
ble'over'time'and'vary'both'within'and'between'cultures.'A'Nation)
al'Health'Service'that'is'based'on'equity'has'to'develop'a'high'level'
Abstract'Book'
35'
'
of'sensitivity'to'discrimination'issues'which'clearly'includes'sex'and'
gender' concerns.' The' importance' of' health' equity' in' the' Portu)
guese'National'Health'Service'creates'the'necessary'background'to'
determine'and'analyse'the'relevance'of'gender'to'the'health'condi)
tion' and' health' care' utilization' of' the' population' or' population'
groups.' In' Portugal,' the' latest' demographic' indicators' reveal' that'
the' main' recent' demographic' trends' have' remained' unchanged:'
slower'population'growth'and'demographic'ageing.'The'inaction'of'
social' systems' when' confronted' with' demographic' ageing' will' un)
deniably' aggravate' its' social' and' economic' impacts.' Health' and'
long)term' care' policies' can' certainly' make' a' difference' in' trans)
forming' the' pure' demographic' effect' of' ageing' into' very' different'
social' outcomes.' For' the' general' population' access' to' health' care'
and'promotion'is'an'important'health'determinant.'The'population'
ageing' confers' greater' strategic' importance' to' this' determinant,'
once'better'health'among'the'elderly'will'heavily'rely'on'the'level'
of' access' and' services' adequacy,' especially' for' the' frailest' elderly.'
This'way,'a'gender'analysis'in'health'and'in'health'care'among'the'
Portuguese'elderly'may'provide'fundamental'and'practical'answers'
to'the'public'system,'so'that'adequate'policies'may'be'formulated'
and' better' services' organized.' The' NHS' is' a' tool' of' measurement'
and' observation' in' health' that' collects' population' representative'
data,' creates' estimates' on' health' conditions,' diseases' and' its' de)
terminants,'and'studies'their'evolution'through'time.'
INDIVIDUALGLEVEL!SOCIAL!CAPITAL!AND!HEALTH:!A!
SURVEY!OF!65G!AND!75GYEARGOLDS!IN!A!CROSSG
REGIONAL!SETTING!
'1
'2*
Fredrica'Nyqvist ,'Mikael'Nygård '
1
2
NOVIA'UNIVERSITY'OF'APPLIED'SCIENCES,' Dep.'of'Social'Sciences,'
'
Åbo'Akademi'University,'Vasa,'Finland
Abstract:' Background:' Although' previous' research' has' recognised'
an'association'between'different'aspects'of'social'capital'and'self)
rated' health,' comparatively' few' studies' have' been' conducted' on'
older' adults.' Furthermore,' most' evidence' comes' from' within)
country' studies.' By' analysing' data' in' a' cross)regional' perspective,'
this'paper'focuses'on'the'ways'in'which'social'capital'may'function'
in' a' trans)regional' setting.' In' this' regard,' Västerbotten' in' Sweden'
and'Österbotten/Pohjanmaa'in'Finland'are'well'suited'for'our'pur)
pose;'since'these'regions'are'very'similar'as'to'their'socioeconomic,'
historical'and'cultural'features,'the'robustness'of'such'relationships'
can'be'tested'against'a'contextual'background.'
Aims:/The'aim'is'to'investigate'the'association'between'two'essen)
tial'indicators'of'social'capital–'social'participation'and'interperson)
al' trust–' and' self)rated' health' among' 65)' and' 75)year)olds' in' Väs)
terbotten,' in' Sweden,' and' in' Österbotten/Pohjanmaa,' in' Finland.'
We' first' describe' how' the' distribution' of' social' capital' varies' be)
tween'the'two'regions'in'Sweden'and'in'Finland,'respectively.'We'
then' study' the' ways' in' which' social' capital' varies' within' different'
subgroups' of' older' adults.' Finally' we' return' to' our' main' research'
question'to'assess'how'social'capital'relates'to'self)rated'health./
Methods:' This' paper' utilises' unique' cross)sectional' survey' data,'
collected'in'2005,'on'65)'and'75)year)olds'in'Västerbotten,'Sweden,'
and' in' Österbotten/Pohjanmaa,' Finland.' Not' only' is' this' survey'
unique'as'to'its'extensiveness'and'its'focus'on'older'adults,'it'also'
yielded'a'relatively'high'response'rate'(71%'and'67%,'respectively).'
The'research'questions'are'investigated'using'descriptive'statistics'
as'well'as'multivariate'regression'analyses./
Results:'The'results'show'that'social'capital'is'associated'with'self)
related' health' among' older' adults' in' a' cross)regional' perspective'
and' that' there' is' socio)demographic' variation' in' social' capital'
among' 65)and' 75)year)olds.' Consequently,' social' capital' can' be'
seen' as' a' significant' and' robust' predictor' of' self)rated' health' in'
both'regions./
HOW!SOCIAL!FACTORS,!HEALTH!AND!CAREGIVING!
INFLUENCE!SLEEP!QUALITY!IN!LATER!LIFE!
'1
Sara'Arber ,'Robert'Meadows
1'
1
Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'SURREY,'Guildford,'United'Kingdom
'
Abstract:' Background:' Sleep' has' been' little' researched' by' sociolo)
gists'of'ageing,'especially'the'social'and'health'patterning'of'sleep.'
The' impact' of' providing' care' for' older' or' disabled' relatives' has'
been' widely' studied,' but' limited' attention' has' been' paid' to' how'
caregiving'influences'the'sleep'quality'of'carers.'
Objectives:'This'paper'(i)'compares'the'socio)economic'and'health'
patterning'of'self)reported'sleep'quality'in'later'life'(age'>65)'with'
those'of'working'age'(20)64'years),'and'(ii)'examines'how'caregiv)
ing' impacts' on' sleep' quality' and' duration' at' working' ages' and' in'
later'life.'
Methods:'We'analyse'Wave'1'of'the'British'Understanding/Society/
survey' for' 2009' to' compare' the' sleep' patterns' of' older' people'
(n=3131,'aged'>65)'with'those'aged'20)65'(n=11355).'Self)reported'
sleep'duration'(hours'and'minutes),'sleep'latency'(unable'to'get'to'
sleep' within' 30' minutes),' problems' of' sleep' maintenance' (waking'
at'night'or'early'in'the'morning)'and'self)reported'sleep'quality'are'
analysed' using' nested' logistic' regression' models,' which' included'
gender,'age,'marital'status,'hours'of'caregiving,'education,'income,'
housing' tenure,' employment' status,' self)reported' health' and'
health'limitations.'
Results:' Strong' associations' are' found' between' living' in' disadvan)
taged' circumstances' and' short' sleep' duration,' poor' sleep' quality'
and' reported' sleep' problems.' Older' people' with' less' education,'
lower'income'and'living'in'public'housing'are'more'likely'to'report'
poor'sleep.'These'associations'with'social'disadvantage'are'weaker'
above' age' 65' than' for' the' working' ages.' Self)reported' health,'
health'limitations'and'co)resident'caregiving'are'strongly'linked'to'
poor' sleep.' There' is' a' linear' association' of' hours' spent' caregiving'
with'poorer'quality'sleep,'which'among'older'people'is'not'moder)
ated' following' adjustment' for' co)variants.' Non)resident' caregiving'
had'no'effect'on'sleep'quality.'
Conclusions:' How' socio)economic' circumstances' and' health' are'
associated'with'the'sleep'quality'of'older'people'has'hitherto'been'
neglected.' It' is' important' to' recognise' the' adverse' effects' of' co)
resident'caregiving'on'the'sleep'of'caregivers.'
The'SomnIA'project'is'funded'by'the'New'Dynamics'of'Ageing'initia)
tive,' supported' by' AHRC,' BBSRC,' EPSRC,' ESRC' and' MRC' (RES)339)
25)0009).'
WHAT!ABOUT!DIGNITY?!THE!MEANING!AND!
EXPERIENCE!OF!TERMINALLY!ILL!PATIENTS!
Ana'Patricia'Hilario
1'
1
DEPARTMENT' OF' HEALTH' AND' SOCIAL' CARE,' ROYAL' HOLLOWAY)
'
UNIVERSITY'OF'LONDON,'London,'United'Kingdom
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
36'
Abstract'Book'
Abstract:' The' literature' concerning' the' factors' that' are' likely' to'
influence'the'experience'of'dignity'at'the'end'of'life'has'been'very'
limited.' Just' a' few' studies' have' drawn' attention' to' the' ways' in'
which'the'process'of'loss'and'decay'prior'to'patient’s'death'is'likely'
to' influence' their' sense' of' dignity.' For' example,' Armstrong)Coster'
(2004),' Lawton' (2000)' and' McNamara' (2001)' have' underlined' the'
importance' of' looking' to' the' breakdown' of' bodily' integrity' to' un)
derstand'the'meaning'and'experience'of'dignity'at'the'end'of'life.'
Terminally' ill' patients,' in' the' face' of' increasing' bodily' losses,' are'
likely'to'report'a'sense'of'loss'of'dignity.'Hence'this'study'aims'to'
understand'how'the'deterioration'of'the'physical'body'and'lack'of'
self'containment'due'to'a'terminal'illness'lead'to'a'loss'of'dignity.'
The' findings' derived' from' an' ethnographic' approach' developed' in'
two'palliative'care'units'in'Portugal'for'cancer'and'non)cancer'pa)
tients.' Participant' observation' were' conducted' during' ten' months'
(five'months'in'each'unit)'to'complement'interviewing'techniques.'
A'total'of'ten'palliative'care'patients'were'interviewed'for'research'
purposes.'Interviews'were'also'conducted'with'twenty'relatives'of'
palliative'care'patients'and'twenty'palliative'care'professionals.'The'
findings'suggested'that'while'for'some'respondents'dignity'is'relat)
ed'with'individual’s'ability'to'act'as'an'autonomous'agent,'for'oth)
ers' dignity' is' deeply' embedded' with' the' notion' of' being' human.'
Two' categories' emerged' from' this' study:' an' individualist' perspec)
tive' and' a' holistic' repertoire.' Both' these' categories' and' their' de)
fined' themes' are' highlighted' on' this' ongoing' doctoral' research.'
This' study' by' looking' at' the' meaning' and' experience' of' dignity' at'
the' end' of' life,' has' served' to' underline' the' ways' in' which' formal'
and' informal' careers' can' enhance' the' dignity' of' terminally' ill' pa)
tients.'
Jyrki'Jyrkämä
1'
1
Department' of' Social' Sciences' and' Philosophy,' UNIVERSITY' OF'
'
JYVÄSKYLÄ,'Tampere,'Finland
Abstract:'The'role'of'the'so'called'wellbeing'technology'is'constant)
ly'increasing'in'the'field'of'old'age'care'and'in'the'everyday'life'of'
elderly'people.'Technology'offers'us'possibilities'and'alternatives'to'
live' in' situations' where' for' instance' our' functional' competence' is'
lower' and' we' face' problems' in' the' everyday' management' of' nor)
mal'daily'life'chores.'
However,'applying'and'incorporating'technology'into'everyday'life'
is'not'unproblematic.'It'may'also'result'in'problems'from'an'ethical'
point'of'view'to'the'point'that'requires'outside'monitoring.'In'Fin)
land'the'National'Advisory'Board'on'Social'Welfare'and'Health'Care'
Ethics' ETENE' has' just' completed' a' report' concerning' technology'
and'ethical'issues'in'the'field'of'social'and'health'care.'The'aim'of'
the' report' is' to' consider' how' we' can' use' some' of' the' common'
ethical'principles'to'evaluate'technology'in'the'context'of'everyday'
life'of'elderly'people.'
In'my'paper'I'will'present'the'main'contents'of'this'report'and'in)
troduce' also' some' theoretical' and' methodological' tools' to' ap)
proach'technology'in'the'every'life'situations'of'old'age'care'and'in'
lives'of'elderly'people.'
“THE!HOUSE!LOOKS!MESSY,!BUT!IT’S!EASIER!FOR!ME”!
–!APPLIED!ETHNOGRAPHY,!DOMESTIC!ROBOTIC!
SOLUTIONS!AND!ELDERLY!PEOPLE!
'1
SOCIAL!CAPITAL,!AGEING!AND!HEALTH!IN!EUROPE:!
COMPARATIVE!ANALYSES!BETWEEN!THREE!
EUROPEAN!COUNTRIES!
'1
'2
'3
Eleni' Koutsogeorgou ,' Fredrica' Nyqvist ,' Mikael' Nygård ,' Milda'
'1
'1
'1
1'
Cerniauskaite ,'Rui'Quintas ,'Alberto'Raggi ,'Matilde'Leonardi
1
Neurology,'Public'Health'and'Disability'Unit,'Scientific'Directorate,'
Neurological' Institute' Carlo' Besta' IRCCS' Foundation,' Milan,' Italy,'
2
3
National' Institute' for' Health' and' Welfare' (THL),' Åbo' Akademi'
'
University,'Vaasa,'Finland
Abstract:'This'study'evaluates'the'association'between'social'capi)
tal'and'self)reported'health'in'Finland,'Poland'and'Spain,'using'data'
extracted' from' the' European' Social' Survey' (ESS)' in' Round' 4'
(2008/2009)' for' respondents' over' the' age' of' 50.' Social' capital' re)
fers' to' a' wide' range' of' social' phenomena;' however,' in' this' study'
we'focus'on'structural'aspects'such'as'social'contacts'and'religious'
participation'as'well'as'cognitive'aspects'including'social'and'politi)
cal'trust.'This'study'also'focuses'on'whether'the'influence'of'vari)
ous' aspects' of' social' capital' on' health' operates' differently' in' se)
lected' countries' of' Northern,' Eastern' and' Southern' Europe.' The'
research'question'is'evaluated'by'using'descriptive'statistics'as'well'
as' multivariate' regression' analyses.' The' preliminary' results' show'
that' the' prevalence' of' good' health' is' increased' by' frequent' social'
contacts' and' high' political' trust' in' Finland,' Poland' and' Spain.' Fur)
thermore,'high'social'trust'is'associated'with'good'health'in'Finland'
and' Spain.' After' adjusting' for' sociodemographic' variables' there' is'
still'evidence'of'an'association'between'social'contacts'and'health'
in'all'three'countries.'
GERONTECHNOLOGY,!EVERYDAY!LIFE!AND!ETHICS!
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
'1
'1
Gerardo' Zamora ,' Etxeberria' Igone ,' Xabier' Ansorena ,' Alvaro'
'1
'2
'1
1'
Garcia ,'Lucia'Pigini ,'David'Facal ,'Elena'Urdaneta
1
2
INGEMA,' San' Sebastian,' Spain,' Fondazione' Don' Carlo' Gnocchi'
'
Onlus,'Milano,'Italy
Abstract:'In'the'definition'of'ICT)based'solutions,'ethnography'can'
facilitate' 'capturing' of' knowledge'' from' participants' and' increase'
their' participation.' The' SRS' project*' seeks' to' develop' remotely)
controlled,' semi)autonomous' robotic' solutions' in' domestic' envi)
ronments'to'support'elderly'people,'which'tend'to'be'discouraged'
from'adopting'existing'robotic'products,'partly'due'to'inaccurately'
gathering' user' requirements.' An' applied' ethnography' (AE)' was'
carried' out' to' collect' data' from' frail,' elderly' users' in' their' own'
homes'as'a'means'to'realize'how'such'a'robotic'solution'can'better'
tackle'their'needs.'
OBJECTIVE:'The'objective'was'threefold:'1)To'properly'describe'the'
home'environment'where'older'people'live;'2)To'complete'already)
collected'data'from'a'user'requirement'study'with'qualitative'data'
on' the' context' of' daily' living' activities;' 3)To' add' up' information'
about'socioeconomic'variables.'
METHOD:' The' AE' was' inquiry)focused' (Boyles,' Bailey' &' Mossey,'
2011),' multidisciplinary' (Patterson' et.' al,' 2009),' team' approached'
(Hallett,'Harger'&'Eder,'2009),'and'had'formulated'research'ques)
tions'to'premise'fieldwork'in'several'sites'(Kleinman,'1992;'Savage,'
1996).'15'conveniently'selected'homes'(5'in'Italy,'10'in'Spain)'were'
visited'and'observed.'Unstructured'interviews,'participant'observa)
tion,' photographs,' environmental' measures' and' a' “dairy' of' daily'
routines”'were'used'to'gather'data.'
RESULTS:' 13' women' and' 4' men' with' age)related' health' problems'
took' part' in' the' research.' 10' were' aged' 80' or' older.' Concerning'
living' arrangement:' 12' were' single)person' households,' 2' fe)
Abstract'Book'
37'
'
male/male'couple'homes'and'1'household'with'2'female'relatives.'
Women' and' men' approach' Activities' of' Daily' Living' in' different'
ways,' independent' of' living' alone' or' not.' All' had' very' structured'
routines' and' strong' home' attachment,' even' though' their' homes'
are'a'source'of'obstacles'for'independence.'They'develop'adaptive'
strategies' to' minimize' these' problems.' Management' of' risk' situa)
tions'is'thus'one'of'the'most'accepted'functionalities'of'a'potential'
robotic'solution.'
CONCLUSION:'Applied'ethnography'is'a'valuable'source'of'evidence'
for'health'care'or'ICT)based'devices.'
*'“Multi)Role'Shadow'Robotic'System'for'Independent'Living'(SRS)”'
is' funded' by' the' 7th' Framework' Programme' of' the' European' Un)
ion.'Grant'agreement'num.'247772.'Call:'FP7)ICT)2009)4.'
THE!UNCOMFORTABLE!MOULDS!OF!DIGITAL!TOOLS.!
SENIORS!USING!CYBERSPACE!IN!THEIR!OWN!WAY!
Vicent'Alberto'Querol'Vicente
1'
Philosophy'and'Sociology,'JAUME'I,'Castellón'de'la'Plana,'Spain
'
Abstract:' In' the' same' manner' as' other' leisure' practices' outside/
cyberspace,' leisure' through' digital' tools' seeks' a' pleasant' strain)
emotion' level' by' senior' users.' However,' some' digital' tools' rigidity'
or'net'sructures'prevent,'enventually,'this'emotion'through'leisure'
search.'Seniors'acquisition'of'technologies'makes'clear'some'tech)
nology' faults' in' terms' of' cyberspace' flexibilities.' In' this' sense,' as'
any' mass' communication' structure,' internet' builds' up' a' mould'
where' most' uses' are' being' channeled.' Nevertheless,' when' this'
forms'turn'out'rigid,'practices'generated'in'cyberspace'go'through'
unexpected'ways,'a/priori,'for'seniors.'
On'the'other'hand,'the'same'structure'of'cyberspace'reproduces'an'
amount' of' information' whose' classification' or' tempts' to' put' in'
order'the'data'become'a'hard'to'manage'problem.'In'this'context,'
disorder' information' and' overload' information' perceptions' affect'
senior'uses'of'cyberspace.'Acquisition'of'cyberspace'by'these'gen)
erations'of'seniors'reveals'some'incapacities'of'internet'to'dose'or'
give'priorities'to'an'enormous'information'data.'
A' qualitative' research' was' made' selecting' a' sample' of' 11' seniors.'
Semi)structured' interviews' were' used' in' order' to' capture' percep)
tions,'attitudes'and'practices'of'these'seniors'on'cyberspace.'
TRANSPORT!RESOURCES!AND!UNCOVERED!
TRANSPORT!NEEDS!AMONG!OLDER!PEOPLE!
'1
Randi'Johanne'Hjorthol ,'Susanne'Nordbakke ,'Liva'Vågane
1
REVIEWING!RESEARCH!ABOUT!ASSISTIVE!ROBOTIC!
TECHNOLOGIES!FOR!ELDERLY!PERSONS!IN!THE!
EUROPEAN!UNION!AND!JAPAN:!THE!IMPORTANCE!OF!
INDIVIDUAL!AGEING!
Priska'Flandorfer
1
'1
based'on'a'Norwegian'nationwide'survey'among'4323'respondents'
65'years'and'older.'The'respondents'were'asked'about'their'access'
to' transport' resources,' both' private' and' public,' health' problems'
connected'to'use'of'transport'modes,'their'daily'activities'and'mo)
bility,' their' uncovered' transport' needs' and' the' importance' of' dif)
ferent'activities'for'their'life'quality.'The'analysis'reveals'great'dif)
ferences'between'groups;'especially'between'men'and'women,'but'
also'between'different'age'groups'and'by'different'place'of'living.'
The'special'transport'offered'by'the'local'authorities'is'seen'as'in)
sufficient,'and'with'increasing'age'a'great'deal'of'older'people'have'
low' mobility' and' an' uncovered' transport' need' that' reduces' their'
life'quality.'
INSTITUTE'OF'TRANSPORT'ECONOMICS,'Oslo,'Norway
1'
'
Abstract:'Previous'research'has'shown'that'mobility'and'the'ability'
to' leave' the' home' are' among' the' essential' aspects' of' older' peo)
ple’s'quality'of'life.'An'individual’s'ability'to'use'the'transportation'
system'freely'has'since'long'been'defined'as'one'of'the'seven'im)
portant'areas'in'the'Instrumental'Activities'of'Daily'Living'(IADL)'of'
the'elderly.'However,'surveys'of'older'people’s'access'to'transport'
resources'and'the'impact'of'mobility'on'welfare'and'well)being'are'
few.'Many'previous'studies'are'based'on'small'samples'or'qualita)
tive' data.' The' questions' addressed' in' this' paper' is' how' transport'
resources' are' distributed' among' different' groups' of' older' people,'
to' which' degree' the' transport' needs' of' these' groups' are' met' and'
how' this' is' related' to' their' well)being.' The' empirical' analysis' is'
1'
1
INSTITUTE' OF' DEMOGRAPHY,' AUSTRIAN' ACADEMY' OF' SCIENCES,'
'
Vienna,'Austria
Abstract:' Taking' care' of' elderly' persons' is' among' the' major' chal)
lenges' currently' faced' by' an' ageing' society' and' it' becomes' more'
and'more'a'topic'considering'the'acceleration'of'the'demographic'
change.' Various' ways' on' how' to' meet' those' challenges' are' dis)
cussed.' According' to' the' technological' progress,' assistive' robotic'
devices'have'been'proposed'as'a'form'of'supporting'elderly'people'
to' stay' safe' and' healthy' at' their' homes' for' longer' times' and' to'
maintain'their'quality'of'life'while'relieving'caregivers'and'the'care'
system.' Especially' in' Japan' the' technological' development' of' such'
assistive' devices' is' highly' advanced' and' the' Japanese' government'
invests'much'in'developing'assistive'robotic'technologies.'But'also'
in' the' European' Union' (EU)' funding' for' research' activities' has'
started' both' union)wide' and' at' national' levels.' Since' ageing' is' an'
individual' process' with' various' specific' demands,' technological'
products' must' address' these' specific' requirements.' For' getting' an'
understanding' about' how' individual' aspects' of' ageing' are' taken'
into' account' Japanese' and' English' (European)' research' articles'
about'assistive'robotics'are'reviewed'on'a'systematic'basis.'The'aim'
is'to'compare'research'methods'and'outcomes'between'Japan'and'
the' EU' on' a' cross)national' basis' and' to' investigate' how' socio)
demographic' factors' (age,' gender,' education,' health' status)' of' el)
derly'persons'influence'the'acceptance,'intention'to'use'and'overall'
rating'of'assistive'robotic'technologies.'Results'show'that'previous'
research' is' widely' diversified' due' to' different' technological' inter)
ventions'and'that'evaluation'methods'for'measuring'the'technolog)
ical' acceptance' are' barely' consistent.' Although' such' versatility' ex)
ists'the'results'indicate'that'only'few'studies'take'into'account'so)
cio)demographic' factors.' Where' studies' include' these' factors' it'
becomes'evident'that'they'show'a'significant'impact'on'the'rating'
of'assistive'robotic'technologies'by'elderly'users.'The'results'further'
illustrate' that' cross)national' differences' exist' within' European'
countries' as' well' as' between' Europe' and' Japan.' Based' on' these'
findings' we' suggest' an' approach' for' evaluating' assistive' robotic'
technologies'by'also'taking'into'account'socio)demographic'aspects'
of' elderly' users.' This' offers' the' possibility' to' investigate' the' im)
portance'and'impacts'of'individual'ageing'on'the'acceptance,'inten)
tion'to'use'and'overall'rating'of'these'technologies'by'elderly'per)
sons.'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
38'
Abstract'Book'
PROFESSIONAL!IDENTITY!TRANSITIONS!OF!OLDER!
WORKERS.!CONCEPTS!AND!EMPIRICAL!EVIDENCES!
1'
Francesco'Marcaletti
1
Dipartimento' di' Sociologia,' UNIVERSITÀ' CATTOLICA' DEL' SACRO'
'
CUORE,'Milano,'Italy
Abstract:'The'identity'transitions,'within'the'more'general'process)
es'of'professional'socialization,'represent'a'topic'of'growing'inter)
est'because'of'the'increase'of'life'expectancy'and'the'consequent'
need' of' working' longer,' extending' the' duration' of' professional'
careers.'
The' reshaping' of' the' life' courses' enphasizes' the' relationship' be)
tween'the'biographical'and'relational'transitions'that'contribute'to'
remodulate'the'individual'specialized'identities'at'work'while'age)
ing.'
The' existentialist' perspective,' contrary' to' the' nominalistic' one,'
theorizes' the' identity' as' a' product' of' the' articulation' of' biograph)
ical' and' relational' dimensions,' because' socialization' is' always' the'
product'of'a'joint'effort'of'individuals'and'social'institutions.'Beside'
the'biographical'dynamic'required'to'connect'the'experience'of'the'
past' to' the' anticipation' of' the' future,' the' relational' dynamic' en)
sures'or'undermine'the'recognition'of'the'identities'claimed'by'the'
individuals'assumed'as'social'actors.'According'to'this'perspective,'
the' identity' shaping' process' is' interpreted' as' a' product' of' a' dual'
transaction' process,' obtained' by' articulating' the' bargaining' be)
tween' abscribed' identity' and' desired' identity,' on' the' biographical'
side,' and' between' attributed' identities' and' claimed' identities,' on'
the' relational' side.' Stressing' the' axis' represented' by' the' pre)
sent/past'relation,'the'identity'shaping'process'can'be'interpreted'
as' the' result' of' the' incorporation' of' an' habitus' producing' and' re)
producing')'on'the'basis'of'past'experiences'–'patterns'of'behaviour'
judged' possible.' Assuming' a' life' course' perspective,' identity' shap)
ing'process'and'incorporation'of'an'habitus'can'be'observed'within'
social' trajectories' of' social' groups' defined' as' such' and' can' be' re)
modulated' along' the' temporal' axis' present/future.' The' technique'
of' the' biographical' interview' has' been' adopted' as' methodological'
solution' for' operationalising' conceptual' categories' assumed' to'
describe' the' professional' identity' forms' and' transitions' that' lies'
within'complex'action'systems,'like'business'and'burocratic'organi)
zations' have' became' today.' Identity' forms' and' transitions' of' two'
different'samples'of'older'workers'within'multinational'companies'
have' been' observed' by' collecting' subjective' representations' of'
expectations' concerning' future' choices' of' retirement' or' staying'
longer'at'work.'The'narrative'arguments'collected'have'been'ana)
lysed'in'order'to'identify'different'categories'of'older'workers.'
THE!PEDAGOGICALIZATION!OF!AGEING!SOCIETIES!
Tine'Fristrup
1'
1
Department' of' Education,' DANISH' SCHOOL' OF' EDUCATION,'
'
AARHUS'UNIVERSITY,'Copenhagen'NV,'Denmark
Abstract:' Transformations' in' the' age' profile' of' a' population' are' a'
response' to' political' and' economic' structures' and' in' relation' to'
public'services'older'people'become'a'burden'to'the'younger'work)
ing'people.'The'construction'of'a'social'problem'in'relation'to'popu)
lation' ageing' becomes' a' social' pedagogical' problem' involving' a'
focus' on' social' pedagogical' interventions' throughout' the' life'
course.'In'order'to'shape'the'future'of'society,'the'perspective'on'
ageing'and'old'age'has'shifted'from'being'a'determined'process'to'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
becoming' a' modifiable' process' focusing' on' the' processes' of' opti)
mizing'and'realizing'people’s'potentials'lifelong.'Active'and'healthy'
ageing' unfolds' the' cure' to' the' social' problem' of' contemporary'
ageing' societies' in' order' to' make' tomorrows' life' in' old' age' better'
than' it' is' today.' The' pedagogical' issues' relate' to' the' normative'
approaches' to' the' content' of' ‘a' good' life’' and' takes' its' departure'
from'the'embodiment'of'the'neo)liberal'principles'of'containing'the'
costs'of'eldercare'and'maximizing'individual'effort'and'responsibil)
ity' for' managing' risks' of' diseases' and' decline' even' death' in' later'
life.'
This'paper'will'discuss'the'implications'of'the'pedagogicalization'of'
ageing' within' the' framework' of' a' Vision' Paper' from' EU:' “More'
Years,' Better' Lives:' The' Potential' Challenges' of' Demographic'
Change”,' February' 2011.' Disciplining' the' knowledge' production' of'
ageing'is'a'way'of'controlling'the'processes'of'subjectification'in'old'
age'as'the'socialization'of'an'ageing'person'in'relation'to'the'disci)
plining' of' population' ageing:' becoming' a' subject' to' active' and'
healthy'ageing.'The'future'of'ageing'societies'depends'on'the'plas)
ticity' of' the' individual' performance' underlying' people’s' personal'
responsibility'for'their'unsuccessful'ageing'that'manifests'in'having'
health'problems'in'later'life,'because'successful'ageing'would'have'
been'within'their'reach'had'they'maintained'a'high'level'of'physical'
activity.' PerformAge/ is' a' new' concept,' which' makes' it' possible' to'
unfold' the' different' facets' of' the' phenomenon' of' individual' and'
societal'ageing'as'a'temporal'and'spatial'theorising'of'ageing:'aged'
by'cultural'age'performativities.'
THE!LIQUID!LIFEGCOURSE:!THE!ORDER!OF!LIFEGPHASES!
IN!LATER!LIFE!
Kathrin'Susanne'Komp
1'
1
Prentice' Institute,' UNIVERSITY' OF' LETHBRIDGE,' Lethbridge,' Cana)
'
da
Abstract:'Over'the'last'decades,'the'character'of'later'life'changed'
considerably.' Later' life' covers' old' age' and' the' life)years' directly'
preceding'it.'Traditionally,'old'age'in'modern'Western'societies'was'
understood' as' the' time' after' retirement,' which' was' assumed' to'
start'with'a'withdrawal'from'paid'work.'Due'to'stock'market'crash)
es' and' economic' crises,' however,' an' increasing' number' of' older'
people' need' to' work' for' pay' after' retiring.' This' challenges' the' as)
sumption' that' old' age' is' free' from' paid' work.' Additionally,' many'
people'experience'spells'of'unemployment'before'retiring,'due'to,'
for' example,' structural' unemployment' and' lay)offs' in' the' wake' of'
the'economic'crisis.'This'raises'the'question'when'old'age,'meaning'
the'absence'from'paid'work'in'later'life,'begins.'
The'changing'character'of'old'age'challenges'the'three)partite'life)
course'model.'This'model'splits'the'time'between'birth'and'death'
into' three' subsequent' life)phases.' The' first' life)phase' is' youth,'
which' is' the' time' of' socialization' and' education.' The' second' life)
phase'is'middle)age,'which'covers'the'years'of'paid'work.'The'third'
life)phase' is' old' age,' which' stands' for' a' time' of' inactivity' due' to'
poor'health.'Due'to'the'changing'character'of'old'age,'people'expe)
rience'situations'not'included'in'this'model,'for'example'workforce'
participation' in' old' age.' Moreover,' people' might' switch' back' and'
forth'between'paid'work'and'inactivity'several'times,'which'is'also'
not' possible' in' accordance' with' this' model.' Life' has' become' too'
diverse' and' volatile' to' fit' the' three)partite' life)course' model.' The'
previously'standardized'and'institutionalized'life)course'has'turned'
into'a'liquid'life)course.'
Abstract'Book'
39'
'
This' project' studies' the' structure' of' later' life' today' by' testing' an'
expanded' version' of' the' three)partite' life)course' model.' This' ver)
sion' of' the' model' contains' a' typical' and' an' atypical' kind' of' each'
life)phase,' with' the' atypical' kind' capturing' recent' developments.'
This'model'is'used'to'answer'two'questions:'Which'life)phases'oc)
cur' in' later' life?' And' in' which' order' do' life)phases' occur' in' later'
life?'Sequence'analyses'of'German'and'US'American'panel'data'are'
carried'out.'The'answers'to'both'questions'are'used'to'reformulate'
the'three)partite'life)course'model.'
TRACING!THE!ORIGINS!OF!SUCCESSFUL!AGING:!THE!
ROLE!OF!CHILDHOOD!CONDITIONS!AND!SOCIETAL!
CONTEXT!
'1
'2
Christian'Deindl ,'Martina'Brandt ,'Karsten'Hank
Research' Institute' for' Sociology,' UNIVERSITY' OF' COLOGNE,' Co)
2
logne,' MEA' )' Mannheim' Research' Institute' for' the' Economics' of'
'
Ageing,'University'of'Mannheim,'Mannheim,'Germany
Abstract:' This' study' investigates' the' role' of' childhood' conditions'
and'societal'context'in'older'Europeans’'propensity'to'age'success)
fully,' controlling' for' later' life' risk' factors.' Successful' aging' was' as)
sessed'following'Rowe'and'Kahn’s'conceptualization,'using'baseline'
interviews'from'the'first'two'waves'of'the'Survey'of'Health,'Ageing'
and' Retirement' in' Europe' (SHARE).' These' data' were' merged' with'
retrospective' life)histories' of' participants' from' 13' Continental' Eu)
ropean' countries,' collected' in' 2008)09' as' part' of' the' SHARELIFE'
project.' Our' sample' consists' of' 22,474' men' and' women,' who' are'
representative' of' the' non)institutionalized' population' aged' 50' or'
older'(mean'age:'63.3)'in'their'respective'country.'
Estimating' multilevel' logistic' models,' we' controlled' for' de)
mographics'(age,'sex),'childhood'conditions'(SES,'health,'cognition),'
later'life'risk'factors'(various'dimensions'of'SES'and'health'behav)
iors),' as' well' as' country)level' measures' of' public' social' expendi)
tures'and'social'inequality.'There'is'an'independent'association'of'
childhood' living' conditions' with' elders’' odds' of' aging' well.' Higher'
parental'SES,'better'math'and'reading'skills,'as'well'as'self)reports'
of'good'childhood'health'were'positively'associated'with'successful'
aging,' even' if' contemporary' characteristics' were' controlled' for.'
Later)life'SES'and'health'behaviors'exhibited'the'expected'correla)
tions'with'our'dependent'variable.'Moreover,'higher'levels'of'pub)
lic' social' expenditures' and' lower' levels' of' income' inequality' were'
associated' with' a' greater' probability' to' meet' Rowe' and' Kahn’s'
successful'aging'criterion.'We'conclude'that'unfavorable'childhood'
conditions' exhibit' a' harmful' influence' on' individuals’' chances' to'
age'well'across'all'European'welfare'states'considered'in'this'study.'
Policy'interventions'should'thus'aim'at'improving'the'conditions'for'
successful'aging'throughout'the'entire'life)course.'
I!DON'T!WANNA!LIVE!FOREVER!...!BUT!APPARENTLY!I!
AM!!
1
There' have' been' several' documentaries' made' about' Lemmy' and'
his'band,'one'notably'called'“Live'fast,'die'old”.'He'has'written'an'
autobiographical'book.'In'this'paper'I'will'use'these'to'analyze'how'
the'decline'metaphor'is'used'and'contested'in'the'ways'that'Lem)
my'is'represented,'and'the'way'that'he'himself'relates'to'his'age'in'
interviews.'I'use'an'intersectional'approach'to'understand'how'age'
and'masculinity'are'used'in'the'articulation'of'Lemmy’s'status'as'a'
rock'star'and'a'legend.'
1'
1
Magnus'Nilsson
The' title' of' the' paper' is' taken' from' the' song' “Ace' of' spades”,' re)
leased'in'1981.'The'song'is'about'gambling,'and'gambling'with'your'
life.' In' the' song' Lemmy' sings' “I' don’t' want' to' live' forever…' but'
don’t' forget' the' joker.' When' the' song' is' performed' live' Lemmy'
now'sings'“I'don’t'want'to'live'forever'…'but'apparently'I'am”,'and'
thereby'confirming'his'status'as'a'legend'by'reference'to'his'age.'
AGE,!SKILLS!AND!PRODUCTIVITY!–!PERSPECTIVE!OF!
EMPLOYERS!
Konrad'Turek
1'
1
Institute'of'Sociology,'JAGIELLONIAN'UNIVERSITY,'Krakow,'Poland
'
Abstract:'The'presentation'concerns'studies'on'the'relation'of'age,'
skills' and' productivity' of' workers.' It' presents' views' of' Polish' em)
ployers'about'productivity'and'skills'of'older'workers'and'analyses'
individual' and' work)related' factors' affecting' the' employers’' per)
ception'of'productivity'of'older'workers.'Data'comes'from'the'na)
tional' representative' survey' of' Polish' companies' from' public' and'
private' sector' (CATI,' n=1037)' conducted' within' international' pro)
ject' ASPA' (Activating' Senior' Potentials' in' Ageing' Europe;' 8' coun)
tries' involved)' )' the' first' such' survey' of' Polish' employers' in' this'
topic.'
Results' for' Poland' show' that' older' workers' are' valued' more' for'
their' soft' skills' (i.e.' social' skills,' management' skills,' reliability' and'
loyalty),'while'the'younger'workers')'for'their'hard'skills'(creativity,'
physical'health,'new'technology'skills,'willingness'to'learn'and'flex)
ibility),'what'affects'productivity'ratings.'Analyses'support'the'con)
cept' that' job' performance' is' an' outcome' of' both' individual' and'
work)related'factors'and'does'not'have'to'deteriorate'in'older'age.'
Even' though' some' work)related' capabilities' usually' decrease' with'
age,'there'are'also'some'features'that'usually'improve'or'maintain'
at'the'same'level'through'the'whole'life'and'could'be'beneficial'at'
older'age.'However,'work'environment'and'job'characteristics'may'
contribute' to' workers' performance' as' well.' Employers,' basing' on'
their' knowledge' and' experience,' may' either' intent' to' improve'
productivity' of' older' workers' or' lower' the' cost' by' sending' senior'
workers'on'retirement.'Data'shows'that'age'management'aiming'at'
improvement' of' job' performance' of' older' workers' correlates' with'
higher'ratings'of'their'productivity.'Performance'of'older'workers'is'
generally'valued'higher'in'organizations'demanding'more'soft'then'
hard' skills,' what' confirms' the' theoretical' assumptions.' Finally,'
proposition' of' a' conceptualization' of' productivity' with' relation' to'
age'mediated'by'workability'is'presented.'
1'
KARLSTAD'UNIVERSITY,'Karlstad,'Sweden
'
Abstract:' The' age' of' Ian' “Lemmy”' Kilmister,' singer' and' bassist' in'
the' band' Motorhead,' has' to' an' increasing' extent' become' part' of'
his'status'as'an'legend'of'heavy'metal.'Born'in'1945'Lemmy'is'now'
over'retirement'age'but'is'still'recording'and'touring'the'world.'His'
status'as'a'rock'star'is'maintained'by'a'reputation'for'heavy'drink)
ing,'smoking,'doing'drugs'and'a'big'appetite'for'sex.'
BETWEEN!CHOICE!AND!NECESSITY:!WORK!BEYOND!
RETIREMENT!AGE!IN!GERMANY!AND!THE!UK!
'1
Simone'Scherger ,'Thomas'Lux
1'
1
Centre' for' Social' Policy' Research,' UNIVERSITY' OF' BREMEN,' Bre)
'
men,'Germany
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
40'
Abstract'Book'
Abstract:' The' number' of' retirees' who,' mostly' despite' receiving' a'
pension,'are'(still'or'again)'in'paid'employment,'has'been'increas)
ing'in'most'European'countries'during'the'last'decade.'Some'gen)
eral'reasons'of'this'trend'are'well'known:'for'example,'old'age'in)
comes' have' started' to' decrease' because' the' regulations' of' state'
pension'systems'have'become'less'generous'and'because'there'are'
more'people'with'discontinuous'careers'and'thus'less'opportunities'
to'save'for'retirement,'in'which'form'ever.'
The' paper' aims' to' examine' the' (hitherto' atypical)' combination' of'
pension' receipt' and' paid' employment' in' Germany' and' Britain,'
countries'whose'pension'systems'are'very'different'from'each'oth)
er'and'form'part'of'different'welfare'regimes.'Whereas'the'number'
of' old' people' in' employment' has' always' been' higher' in' the' UK,'
considerable'numbers'of'working'retirees'are'a'relatively'new'phe)
nomenon' in' Germany.' Furthermore,' the' debates' around' work' in'
retirement' are' different' in' both' countries,' with' a' much' stronger'
emphasis' on' the' right' to' work' in' the' UK,' and' the' idea' of' well)
deserved'retirement'still'prevalent'in'Germany.'
On' the' basis' of' cross)sectional,' descriptive' and' multivariate' anal)
yses'of'data'from'the'English'Longitudinal'Study'(ELSA)'on'the'one'
hand,'and'from'the'German'Ageing'Survey'(DEAS)'on'the'other,'the'
paper'aims'to'answer'the'following'questions:'
interest'to'preserve'and'support'the'employability'and'productivi)
ty.'In'this'context'lifelong'learning'plays'an'important'role.'
Therefore'in'the'project'“Further'Training'as'Part'of'Lifelong'Learn)
ing”'a'dataset'has'been'constructed'which'concentrates'on'further'
training' as' a' consequence' of' organisational' and' technological'
change.' Furthermore,' these' data' can' be' compared' with' French'
data'from'the'Centre'd’études'de'l’emploi'because'of'the'identical'
survey'and'questionnaire'design.'First'I'will'give'an'overview'about'
the'development'of'the'German'employment'structure.'Using'mul)
tivariate' analysis' I' identify' factors' on' the' employer' and' the' em)
ployee'side'that'have'an'effect'on'the'participation'in'further'train)
ing'of'older'workers'after'a'technological'change.'It'shows'that'that'
older' workers' have' a' lower' participation' in' further' training' as' an'
answer' to' technological' change.' The' main' results' show' that' the'
society'has'to'prepare'much'more'for'the'challenges'of'the'techno)
logical'change'and'the'ageing'of'the'labour'force.'
Literature:'
Bellmann,'L./'Kistler,'E./'Wahse,'J.'(2007):'Betriebe'müssen'sich'auf'
alternde'Belegschaften'einstellen.'IAB'Kurzbericht'21.'
Borghans,' L./' ter' Weel,' B.' (2002):' Do' Older' Workers' Have' More'
Trouble'Using'a'Computer'
•' How' many' pensioners' in' Germany' and' Britain' do' actually' work,'
and' how' can' they' be' described' more' closely?' Which' groups' must'
be'differentiated?'
Than'Younger'Workers?'Maastricht,'Research'Centre'for'Education'
and'the'Labour'Market.'
•' Which' are' the' most' important' factors' leading' to' paid' work' in'
retirement,'and'in'particular,'which'role'does'old'age'income'play?'
ELDERLY!POPULATION!IN!A!LABOUR!MARKET:!
RESOURCE!FOR!THE!ECONOMY!OR!NEW!CHALLENGE!
FOR!SOCIAL!POLICY!(CASE!OF!RUSSIA)!
•' Which' other' influences' have' to' be' taken' into' account' when' ex)
plaining' paid' work' beyond' retirement,' both' on' the' individual' and'
on'the'macro'level?'
In' this' way,' the' paper' will' contribute' to' a' differentiated' view' on'
work'in'retirement'and'its'evaluation.'The'presented'evidence'can'
be'seen'as'indication'of'how'important'economic'necessity'is'as'a'
motive'for'paid'work'in'retirement.'
CAN!FURTHER!TRAINING!BE!AN!ANSWER!TO!
TECHNOLOGICAL!INNOVATION!IN!AN!AGEING!
WORKFORCE?!
Martina'Huber
1
Yulia'Lezhnina
1'
1
HIGHER'SCHOOL'OF'ECONOMICS,'MOSCOW,'Russian'Federation
'
Abstract:' In' Russia' elderly' population' traditionally' has' been' the'
object' of' social' policy' as' most' of' it' depends' on' state' after' retire)
ment.'However,'the'active'involvement'of'senior'citizens'in'produc)
tive'activities'today'(about'a'quarter'of'them'work)'and'population'
aging' have' raised' the' question' if' elderly' population' should' be' in)
cluded'in'the'economic'life'of'society.'Employment'of'older'people'
seems'to'be'a'resource'for'the'economy'as:'
•'it'reduces'the'retirees'need'for'public'support;'
1'
'
INSTITUTE'FOR'EMPLOYMENT'RESEARCH,'Nuremberg,'Germany
Abstract:' The' German' labour' market' is' affected' by' technological'
and'demographic'change.'Especially'older'employees'are'regarded'
as'losers'of'this'development'because'of'their'insufficient!qualifica)
tion'and'the'increasing'age'of'retirement.'One'possibility'to'expand'
the'technological'competences'of'older'employees'is'further'train)
ing.'But'as'I'will'show,'older'employees'still'participate'less'in'fur)
ther'training.'
New' information' and' communication' technologies' in' establish)
ments' affect' thework' environment' and' lead' to' changes' regarding'
working'procedures'or'equipment'(Borghans,'ter'Weel'2002).'Addi)
tionally,' the' consequences' of' the' demographic' change' demand'
rethinking.'
A' decreasing' number' of' young' employees' have' to' balance' an' in)
creasing' number' of' old' employees' (Bellmann,' Kistler,' and' Wahse'
2007).' Consequently,' employees' and' employers' should' have' an'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
•' it' alleviates' the' problem' of' exclusion' of' elderly' people' and,'
hence,'governmental'spending'on'its'decision;'
•' it' reduces' the' need' for' migrants' labor' and' decreases' the' social'
tension.'
However,' the' effect' of' inclusion' of' retirees' in' the' labor' market' is'
not' so' straightforward,' because' it' poses' new' challenges' for' social'
policy'appropriated'with'additional'public'investments.'
•' retirees' employment' on' the' positions' of' unskilled' workers' (pri)
marily'of'physical'work)'is'difficult'due'to'poor'health.'And'even'in'
case' of' working' continuation' on' these' positions' retirees' are' rela)
tively' inefficient' labor' force.' Changing' the' situation' requires' fun)
damentally'new'social'policy'approaches'to'health'care'system'for'
increasing'the'duration'of'the'productive'working'life.'At'the'same'
there' is' a' demand' for' new' jobs' allowing' comfortable' transition'
(easier' conditions' of' work,' flexible' hours,' etc.)' from' the' labour'
market'to'the'retirement;'
Abstract'Book'
41'
'
•'employment'of'retirees'as'skilled'workers'(mainly'of'intellectual'
work)'today'not'only'blocks'access'to'employment'for'young'peo)
ple,'but'in'most'cases'leads'to'the'decline'in'labor'productivity'as'
the'ability'of'people'to'attain'knowledge'and'skills'changes'through'
age.'Enhancing'economic'benefits'from'the'elderly'employment'as'
professionals' and' semi)' professionals' is' impossible' without' new'
approach' to' the' educational' system' development' )' the' promoting'
of'learning'throughout'life.'
•'employment'of'retirees'replaces'their'involvement'into'the'edu)
cation'of'grandchildren'and'caring'for'sick'family'members.'That'is'
why'elderly'population'can'be'attracted'to'the'labour'market'only'
after' intensification' of' social' policy' in' field' of' social' infrastructure'
(junior'schools'and'medical'care).'
So' these' significant' changes' in' the' approaches' to' social' policy' re)
quire' not' only' understanding' and' developing' of' an' appropriate'
strategy'but'large)scale'public'investments.'
RETIREMENT!STRATEGIES!OF!RUSSIANS!G!TO!LIVE!ON!
STATE!PENSION!OR!TO!WORK!
Olga'Evgenjevna'Kuzina
1'
1
Sociology,' Higher' School' of' Economics,' Moscow,' Russian' Federa)
'
tion
Abstract:'In'my'paper'I'focus'on'‘retirement'strategies’'of'Russians'
and' address' two' questions:' how' do' people' perceive' the' level' of'
their'pensions'and'what'do'they'do'to'be'better'off'when'they'will'
retire.' To' base' my' conceptual' enterprise' on' empirical' basis' I' use'
the'data'collected'during'focus'group'discussions.'Two'focus)group'
discussions' with' the' middle' class' residents' took' place' in' October'
2010' in' St.' Petersburg' and' Krasnoyarsk.' The' aim' of' these' focus'
groups'was'to'find'out'how'people'themselves'define'what'retire)
ment'strategy'is,'what'options'people'see,'and'which'factors'they'
think' facilitate' the' implementation' of' retirement' strategies' and'
which'ones'constraint'them'and'force'to'behave'non)strategically.'
The'quantitative'part'of'the'research'is'based'on'the'data'from'the'
all)Russian'surveys'with'identical'samples'and'questions'conducted'
in'2005,'2007,'2009,'2010.'The'main'goal'of'the'quantitative'analy)
sis'is'to'reveal'what'the'most'popular'retirement'strategies'are'and'
whether'anything'has'changed'over'five'years.'
The'paper'is'structured'in'the'following'way.'In'the'beginning'I'dis)
cuss'the'concept'of'a'retirement'strategy'comparing'the'ways'the'
concept'is'approached'in'Economics'and'Economic'Sociology,'then'I'
summaries' the' findings' from' the' focus' group' discussions' and' sur)
veys.'The'main'results'are'that'people'do'not'perceive'their'future'
state' pensions' as' sufficient,' worry' about' their' incomes' during' the'
retirement,'however'in'2010'29%'of'working'population'plan'to'live'
on' their' state' pension' only,' 18%' do' not' know' what' they' can' do,'
43%'plan'to'continue'working'after'retirement,'only'8%'use'finan)
cial' strategies' to' provide' enough' incomes' during' their' retirement.'
Current'pensioners'do'even'worse:'66%'live'on'state'pension,'26%'
work,' only' 1%' receive' supplementary' pensions' or' withdraw' their'
savings,'other'sources'are'–'family'transfers'from'their'children'or'
self)provision.'The'main'reason'why'the'majority'of'people'do'not'
have'retirement'strategies'is'not'an'issue'of'low'income'but'rather'
the' problem' of' the' lack' of' trust' to' financial' institutions' and' very'
short'horizon'of'financial'planning.'
LATE!BLOOMERS!OR!LAST!RESORT?!
ENTREPRENEURSHIP!IN!THE!SECOND!PHASE!OF!LIFE!IN!
GERMANY!
Annette'Astrid'Franke
1'
1
Social' Gerontology' and' Life' course' research,' TU' DORTMUND'
'
UNIVERSITY,'Dortmund,'Germany
Abstract:' Ageing' societies' and' entrepreneurship' activities' often'
seem'to'be'incompatibly'as'setting'up'a'new'business'is'still'associ)
ated'with'persons'in'their'30s)40s.'On'the'other'hand,'demographic'
changes' in' western' societies' bear' the' potential' to' reveal' late' en)
trepreneurship' activities' –' in' particular' with' regard' to' the' current'
economic' crisis,' the' increasing' rate' of' non)linear' biographies,' the'
still'high'rate'of'unemployed'elderly,'an'increasing'retirement'age,'
and' the' aging' of' the' baby' boomers.' Comparing' with' academic' re)
search' on' other' types' of' “unusual”' entrepreneurs' (women,' mi)
grants),'little'is'known'about'late'self)employers.'This'is'particularly'
the'case'in'Germany'with'its'lack'of'“self)employed'culture”'in'gen)
eral.'
This'paper'presents'findings'from'a'Ph.D)project,'which'contributes'
to'fill'the'existing'lack'of'research'on'elderly'entrepreneurs'in'Ger)
many.'This'research'compares'to'different'aspects'as'it'pays'atten)
tion'both'to'the'entrepreneurs’'and'to'the'experts’'view.'According'
to'the'Grounded'Theory'approach'by'Glaser'and'Strauss'and'induc)
tive'perpetual'theory'building'the'research'was'realised'in'the'stag)
es'of'fieldwork'approach,'qualitative'interviews'with'entrepreneurs'
50+' (N=17),' and' expert' interviews' with' representatives' from' local'
banks,'politics,'consulting'institutions'etc.'(N=17).'
The'main'research'questions'were:'
•'How'do'experts'estimate'this'target'group?'
•'Which'branches'or'businesses'are'typical'to'be'attractive'for'later'
entrepreneurs?'
•'Which'motives'for'becoming'self)employed'are'typical'among'the'
elderly?'
•'Which'role'plays'the'work'history?'
•'What'kinds'of'gender'differences'can'be'revealed?'
•' Which' kinds' of' support' at' private,' public' or' political' level' best'
enable'entrepreneurs'50+?'
•' Which' experiences' do' exist' regarding' specific' social' policy' in)
struments'and'entrepreneurship'promotion?'
•' Which' factors' are' of' high' importance' for' the' success' of' a' late'
business?'
•'How'satisfied'are'50+entrepreneurs?'
This' paper' provides' an' insight' in' specific' characteristics,' attitudes,'
opinions' and' types' in' the' context' of' late' entrepreneurship.' Fur)
thermore,'this'research'highlights'the'influence'of'the'social'policy'
framework' to' set' up' a' business' in' the' second' half' of' life.' The' re)
search' also' refers' to' the' questions' of' “push”' and' “pull”' self)
employment,' good' working' conditions' and' the' options' of' late' en)
trepreneurship' as' a' “third' way”' between' voluntary' activities' and'
further'trainings'for'older'(unemployed)'workers.'
CARING!FOR!OLD!PEOPLE!SUFFERING!FROM!
ALZHEIMER!DISEASE!(AD)!AND!DEMENTIA:!ANALYSIS!
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
42'
Abstract'Book'
OF!THE!INTERACTIONS!BETWEEN!THE!PATIENT,!THE!
FAMILY!AND!THE!MEDICAL!FIELD!
'1
'2*
Blanche'Le'Bihan ,'Isabelle'MALLON ,'Arnaud'CAMPEON
1
1'
2
EHESP'(SCHOOL'OF'PUBLIC'HEALTH,'FRANCE),'Rennes,' University'
'
of'Lyon,'Lyon,'France
Abstract:' Defined' as' a' brain' disorder' that' causes' problems' with'
memory'and'behavior,dementia'–among'which'Alzheimer'Disease–
is'a'major'issue'in'the'field'of'Aging.'Affecting'the'old'person’s'abil)
ity'to'carry'out'daily'activities,'the'disease'cannot'be'treated'only'at'
a' medical' level.' Since' the' existing' drugs' may' only' help' to' keep'
symptoms' from' getting' worse' too' quickly,' social' care' or' “non'
pharmacological' interventions”,' according' to' medical' terms,' pro)
vided'by'families'and'professionals'from'health'and'social'sectors,'
is'considered'as'a'major'dimension'of'the'treatment'to'be'provid)
ed.'
In' this' communication' we' investigate' the' complexity' of' the' situa)
tions'of'dementia,'which'involve'the'old'person'but'also'the'infor)
mal'caregivers,'pivot'of'the'every'day'care'arrangements,'who'are'a'
resource' but' also' people' in' need' of' support.' The' analysis' exposes'
the'results'of'a'qualitative'survey'led'in'France,'where'AD'has'been'
a' priority' of' the' political' agenda' since' 2008.' What' is' the' role' of'
professionals' from' the' medical' (GP,' geriatricians,' neurologists),'
paramedical' (psychologist)' and' social' (social' workers,' home' help)
ers)'sectors'in'the'diagnosis'and'follow'up'of'the'situation?'What'is'
the'role'of'the'family?'How'do'the'situations'evolve'as'the'patients'
become' more' vulnerable?' 60' situations' of' dementia' have' been'
analyzed,' with' in' depths' interviews' led' with' informal' family' care)
givers'(partners'or'children)'and'with'the'health'and'social'profes)
sionals'involved.'
We'argue'that'different'representations'of'the'disease'develop'and'
that' the' care' trajectories' of' the' patients' are' the' results' of' these'
interactions.'Three'main'elements'will'be'exposed:'
•'The'perception'of'the'situation'varies'according'to'the'profile'of'
the'person.'Initially'considered'by'the'families'as'problems'due'to'
aging,'the'symptoms'are'progressively'defined'as'a'disease'through'
the'perception'of'the'geriatricians'and/or'neurologists.'
•'Families'and'professionals'follow'two'different'rationales.'On'the'
one' hand' the' families' and' the' patients' adapt' themselves' to' the'
evolution'of'the'disease;'on'the'other'hand,'the'health'profession)
als'try'to'anticipate'the'evolution'of'the'situation'in'order'to'avoid'
important'difficulties.'
•'For'the'geriatricians,'the'vulnerability'does'not'only'concern'the'
patient,'but'also'the'informal'caregivers,'who'must'be'supported'in'
the'everyday'care'of'the'old'person'suffering'from'AD.'
EXPERIENCES!OF!PEOPLE!LIVING!WITH!EARLYGSTAGE!
DEMENTIA!
'1
'2
Hanna)Mari'Pesonen ,'Anne'M.'Remes ,'Arja'Isola
1
1'
2
Institute' of' Health' Sciences,' Institute' of' Clinical' Medicine,'
'
UNIVERSITY'OF'OULU,'Oulu,'Finland
Abstract:'The'incidence'of'dementia'will'increase'as'the'population'
ages.'It'is'estimated'that'in'Europe'there'are'currently'over'seven'
million'people'living'with'dementia'and'this'number'is'predicted'to'
increase' significantly' in' the' future.' The' need' to' pay' attention' to'
healthy' aging' and' dignity' among' people' with' dementia' has' been'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
highlighted' by' European' Union.' Several' European' countries' either'
have'or'are'preparing'national'action'plans'aimed'at'improving'the'
quality'of'life'of'those'affected'by'dementia.'Thus'currently'there'is'
a'strong'concern'of'establishing'social'and'health'care'services'that'
meet'the'needs'of'patients'and'their'family'caregivers.'
Dementia' has' a' negative' and' stigmatized' image' which' influences'
our'views'of'people'living'with'it.'However'there'has'been'a'grow)
ing'interest'to'study'the'experiences'of'people'living'with'dementia'
emphasizing' their' personhood,' citizenship' and' social' inclusion.'
Hearing'the'voices'of'people'themselves'enables'us'to'understand'
their'needs'and'coping'methods'in'a'changing'and'challenging'life'
situation.'
This'presentation'is'based'on'an'ongoing'doctoral'study'that'aims'
to' understand' and' describe' subjective' experiences' of' both' people'
living' with' dementia' and' their' family' members' during' the' early'
phases'of'the'illness.'A'qualitative'longitudinal'design'is'used'in'the'
study.' This' presentation' will' focus' on' the' experiences' of' people'
with'dementia'(n=8)'after'the'disclosure'of'diagnosis'of'dementia.'
Research'data'consists'of'low)structured'in)depth'interviews'during'
the'first'phase'of'the'study'and'is'analyzed'using'grounded'theory')
method.' This' presentation' will' bring' forth' some' initial' findings.'
Findings'can'be'used'to'develop'supportive'services'for'people'with'
dementia' and' their' family' caregivers' to' attain' equilibrium' in' their'
life'after'the'diagnosis.'
INFORMAL!CAREGIVERS!NEEDS!AND!THE!
DEVELOPMENT!OF!AN!ICTGBASED!SYSTEM!FOR!THE!
EARLY!DETECTION!OF!ALZHEIMER’S!DISEASE!AND!
OTHER!NEURODEGENERATIVE!DISEASES!
'1
'2
'3
Elena' Del' Barrio ,' Erkuden' Aldaz ,' Bernhard' Wöckl ,' Andreas'
'4
'4
'2
Hochgatterer ,'Lukas'Roedl ,'Elena'Urdaneta '
1
2
3
4
INGEMA,' Madrid,' INGEMA,' San' Sebastian,' Spain,' CURE,' AIT,'
'
Viena,'Austria
Abstract:'The'early'diagnosis'of'Alzheimer’s'disease'is'a'challenging'
issue.' An' early' diagnosis' improves' the' quality' of' life' patients' and'
caregivers.' Studies' suggest' that' first' indicators,' which' raise' suspi)
ciousness' of' neurodegenerative' disease,' are' subtly' manifested' in'
patients’'daily'behaviour'patterns.'
The' Bedmond' Project*' addresses' this' issue' through' the' develop)
ment' of' an' ICT)based' system' for' the' early' diagnosis' of' Alzheimer'
and'other'neurodegenerative'diseases'founded'on'the'detection'of'
the'patient's'behavioural'pattern'alteration'and'for'the'monitoring'
of' the' disease' once' the' diagnosis' is' known.' This' paper' draws' on'
family'caregivers’'needs'in'order'to'develop'the'system'and'on'the'
implications'this'has'on'their'daily'lives.'
The' results' from' a' series' of' focus' groups' with' 13' caregivers,' con)
ducted' in' 2' countries' (Spain' and' Austria)' are' examined.' The' data'
analysed' included' caregivers’' needs,' their' perceptions' regarding'
the' system' and' narratives' on' health,' disease,' care' obligations' and'
what'care'is.'
The' results' analysed' show' that' in' the' early' stage' of' the' disease,'
some' common' symptoms' in' most' people' with' mild' cognitive' im)
pairment'occur.'These'symptoms'can'be'basically'found'in'the'daily'
routines'of'the'person.'Caregivers'mainly'classified'the'changes'in'3'
domains'of'elderly'persons’'daily'living:'a)'cognitive'changes'(“for)
gets' appointments,' not' taking' medication”,' “they' lose' the' lead;' if'
someone' encourages' them' to' do' something' they' do' otherwise' or'
Abstract'Book'
43'
'
they' do' nothing”);' b)' personality' changes' (“if' he' was' previously'
absent)minded,' with' the' disease' this' has' increased”);' and,' c)' Be)
haviour' changes' (“they' change' their' personal' hygiene",' "they' lose'
or'hide'objects”).'
Taking' into' account' caregivers’' narratives' in' the' development' of'
the' classification' of' common' symptoms' in' mild' cognitive' impair)
ment' for' the' early' diagnosis' and' the' follow' up' of' the' disease'
proved' to' be' useful' and' necessary' in' the' definition' of' ICT)based'
solutions.' A' focused' and' precise' qualitative' methodology' can' pro)
vide'ICT'developers'with'not)easy'to'find'user'requirements.'
*/BEDMOND:/Behaviour/Pattern/Based/Assistant/for/Early/Detection/
and/ Management/ of/ Neurodegenerative/ Diseases./ (AAL/ Joint/ Pro=
gramme;/ Call/ AAL=2008=1;/ Ingema’s/ involvement/ is/ co=funded/ by/
Instituto/de/Salud/Carlos/III,/code:/AAL08/006)/
NEEDS!OF!CARE!ANALYSIS!FROM!A!COMPARATIVE!
PERSPECTIVE!
'1
Marta'Ortega ,'Mercedes'Fernández'Alonso
1'
1
DERECHO'DEL'ESTADO'Y'SOCIOLOGIA,'UNIVERSIDAD'DE'MÁLAGA,'
'
MALAGA,'Spain
Abstract:'The'main'objective'of'the'study'is'to'determine'the'most'
relevant'care'needs'of'old'people'(older'than'65)'in'Andalucía'from'
a'comparative'perspective.'
The'study'also'allows'to'determine'the'factors'that'influence'on'a'
good' state' of' health' and' on' a' good' quality' of' life;' know' how' to'
develop'actions'that'permit'prevent'and'retard'becoming'depend)
ent;'deepen'knowledge'of'care'needs'of'the'population'older'than'
65'(dependent'and'not'dependent'ones);'analyse'the'requirements'
of'the'caregivers'(under'and'over'65'years'old).'
The' structure' of' the' present' research' is' divided' in' three' sections:'
The'first'one,'it'focuses'on'a'descriptive'analysis'of'the'older'than'
65' in' Andalucía' in' order' to' compare' the' situation' with' Spain' and'
Europe.'The'second'one,'focuses'on'an'explanatory'analysis'(logit,'
probit)' to' answer' to' the' specific' objectives.' And' the' third' section,'
analyses' the' changes' on' the' demand' of' cares' to' determine' the'
impact'of'the'Dependency'Law'in'Spain'and'Andalucía.'
The' principal' database' are:' Quality/ of/ Life/ of/ Old/ People/ Survey,'
(Sociological' Research' Center' in' Spain,' CIS,' n.' 2.6472);' European/
Quality/ of/ Life/ Survey;' Survey/ of/ Health,/ Aging/ and/ Retirement/ in/
Europe)/(SHARE).'
Keywords:'care,'aging,'dependent,'quality'of'life,'comparative'per)
spective.'
PERSPECTIVES!ON!ALZHEIMER'S!DISEASE:!
PERCEPTIONS!AND!ATTITUDES!OF!THE!GENERAL!
PUBLIC,!CAREGIVERS,!FAMILY!MEMBERS!AND!
PROFESSIONALS!
'1
'2
'3
'2
Stéphanie'Pin ,'Christophe'Léon ,'Julie'Bodard ,'Pierre'Arwidson '
1
2
3
Direction' of' Programs,' Direction' of' Scientific' Affairs,' INPES,' S)
'
Denis,'France
Abstract:'Background.'Alzheimer's'disease'(AD)'would'suffer'from'a'
negative' social' image' which' would' mix' social' representations' of'
aging' and' mental' illness.' Although' the' available' research' on' the'
perceptions' and' attitudes' towards' Alzheimer's' disease' have' in)
creased'over'the'past'ten'years,'these'works'often'involve'only'one'
specific' population' and' the' people' with' the' disease' are' rarely' in)
volved.'
Objectives.'Listed'in'the'French'Alzheimer'Plan'2008)2012,'the'pro)
gram'of'opinion'survey'on'Alzheimer's'disease'has'three'objectives:'
1'/'to'explore'the'perceptions,'knowledge'and'attitudes'of'different'
populations'regarding'the'disease;'2'/'to'measure'the'evolution'of'
some' indicators;' 3' /' to' provide' further' direction' for' research,'
health'education'or'professional'training.'
Methods.'The'methodology'combines'literature'reviews,'qualitative'
studies'and'quantitative'surveys'of'different'audiences.'Specifically,'
four'quantitative'surveys'were'conducted'among'lay'public'(2'000'
people' aged' 18' to' 75),' GPs' (n' =' 1000),' people' with' AD' and' their'
caregivers' (140' dyads)' and' professional' home' carers' (n' =' 1213'
workers).'These'surveys'included'a'battery'of'common'items'(spon)
taneous'perceptions'of'AD,'opinions,'level'of'information'...).'
Results.'AD'is'the'third'disease'feared'by'the'lay'public.'Spontane)
ous' perceptions' are' centred' around' memory' loss,' addiction' and'
loss' of' mental' faculties' as' in' the' general' population' than' among'
relatives'or'professional'caregivers.'The'dominant'feature'of'social'
representations' of' AD' is' the' predominance' of' images' related' to'
advanced'stages'of'disease.'However,'this'perception'is'not'reflect)
ed' by' attitudes' of' stigmatization' or' by' a' feeling' of' exclusion' from'
the' persons' concerned.' Main' needs' are' focused' on' research' (for'
the' general' lay' people' and' among' caregivers)' and' on' support' at'
home' (among' professional' home' carers).' People' with' AD' com)
plained'of'being'too'little'involved'in'medical'decisions.'
Conclusion.'This'original'program'of'surveys'gives'a'more'complex'
image' of' AD.' It' confirms' the' presence' of' severe' distress' among'
those' directly' affected' by' the' disease' and' high' powerlessness'
among' professionals,' but' it' leads' in' the' same' way' to' deconstruct'
some'negative'beliefs'about'AD'and'its'care.'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
44'
Abstract'Book'
RN'02'Sociology'of'The'Arts'
MODERN!ART!IN!POLAND.!ART!MARKET!AND!
INSTITUTIONAL!CONTEXT.!
Agnieszka'Natalia'Szymanska
1'
1
Institute'of'Sociology,'ADAM'MICKIEWICZ'UNIVERSITY'IN'POZNAN,'
'
Poznań,'Poland
Abstract:'It'is'said'that'there'were'turbulent'times'for'art'in'Poland.'
Socialism'had'been'affecting'art'works'for'many'years.'Finally,'after'
1989' artists' started' creating' mostly' critical' art.' Since' that' time' of'
social'and'political'change'they'felt'free'to'comment'on'what'had'
happened' during' last' years.' Something' changed' about' 2000.' The'
new'generation'came'with'their'new'art,'which'was'different'from'
the'previous'one.'
About'ten'years'ago'only'few'people'in'Poland'were'able'to'appre)
ciate'and'perceive'potential'in'young'artists.'They'took'the'risk'and'
started'to'create'‘institutional'background’'and'art'market'to'make'
the' career' of' those' young' people' possible.' However,' the' new' art'
needed'not'only'new'critics,'new'galleries'but'also'new'public'insti)
tutions.'More'still,'all'that'happened.'
Nowadays,'after'ten'years'of'building'the'right'context,'the'newest'
art'in'Poland'has'finally'its'institutions:'galleries,'museums.'It'has'its'
critics,' collectors' and' audiences' as' well.' But' is' it' sufficient?' Are'
these'roles'divided'precisely'between'particular'people?'Or'maybe'
the' whole' process' is' still' in' progress?' Last,' but' not' least,' how' the'
Polish'art/world'differs'from'the'Western'one?'
The' main' aim' of' this' paper' is' to' describe' the' institutional' condi)
tions'of'the'newest'art'in'Poland.'The'next'question'is'to'map'the'
net' of' brokerage' and' recognize' the' most' important' players.' The'
conclusions'presented'in'this'paper'are'based'on'some'basic'theo)
ries'of'art'and'on'the'main'results'of'my'research'among'so)called'
‘main' players’' in' Polish' art/ world' (gallery' owners,' collectors,' man)
agers'of'public'institutions,'curators'and'artists).'
THE!IMPACT!OF!GLOBALIZATION!ON!CONTEMPORARY!
ART!GALLERIES!IN!AMSTERDAM!AND!BERLIN.!WHY!
SPACE!REMAINS!IMPORTANT!IN!A!
DETERRITORIALIZED!ART!WORLD!
Olav'Velthuis
to' other' highly' symbolic' spaces' such' as' the' contemporary' art' fair'
and'the'virtual'space'of'the'gallery’s'website.'
1'
1
Sociology' and' Anthropology,' UNIVERSITY' OF' AMSTERDAM,' Am)
'
sterdam,'Netherlands
Abstract:'This'paper'studies'the'effects'of'cultural'globalization'on'
the'discourse'and'practices'of'contemporary'art'dealers'in'Amster)
dam'and'Berlin.'In'particular,'it'argues'that'globalization'cannot'be'
equated' with' deterritoralization,' as' is' frequently' stated' in' the' so)
ciological' literature' on' globalization.' Instead,' in' depth' interviews'
with' Amsterdam' and' Berlin' art' dealers' (21' in' total)' suggest' that'
globalization'has'done'little'to'decrease'the'importance'of'the'gal)
lery'space.'The'reason'is'that'this'space'is'the'main'theater'where'a'
set' of' firmly' institutionalized' commercial' practices' of' art' dealers'
are'displayed.'Moreover,'the'gallery'space'is'intricately'tied'up'with'
the'dealer’s'identity.'As'far'as'globalization'has'indeed'resulted'in'a'
waning'importance'of'the'local'gallery'space,'this'has'not'entailed'
deterritoralization,'but'instead'a'relocation'of'commercial'practices'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
THEATRE!FESTIVALS!AS!TRADING!ZONES.!RESULTS!OF!
AN!EMPIRICAL!RESEARCH!
Valerio'Zanardi
1'
1
teoria'sociologica/cecups,'UNIVERSITY'OF'BARCELONA,'barcelona,'
'
Spain
Abstract:/Theatre'festivals'as'trading'zones.'Results'of'an'empirical'
research.'
The'proliferation'and'the'settled'importance'of'festivals'have'to'be'
conceived'using'different'analytic'frames,'because'festivals'are'the'
context' where' different' subject,' agencies,' institutions' and' organi)
zations' build' and' constitute' meanings,' interpretations,' values' and'
where'the'artistic'fields'mix'themselves.'In'this'sense'the'category'
“trading'zone”'(Galison)'or'better,'“trading'zones”'could'be'used'as'
an'interesting'suggestion'for'researching'what'happens'in'different'
frames'in'the'same'physical'contexts.'Trading'zones'in'anthropolo)
gy' are' spaces,' physical' objects,' contexts,' visited' and' used' by' an'
heterogenous' plurality' of' actors' that' don't' share' the' same' cogni)
tive'paradigms,'meanings'and'moral'values.'
As'suggested'by'Vera'Zolberg,'I'used'the'concept'of'“trading'zone”'
for'highlighting'some'facets'of'theatre'festivals,'as'resulted'from'a'
project' of' investigation' on' the' organizative,' the' cultural' and' the'
social'implications'of'theatre'festivals'in'a'comparative'perspective.'
The' research' I' realized' (supported' with' a' grant' FI' )' formation' of'
researchers' )' of' the' government' Generalitat' of' Catalunya' and' di)
rected'by'Dr'Arturo'Rodriguez'Moratò)'was'focused'on'4'different'
cases,'2'located'in'Spain'(Grec'festival'of'Barcelona'and'the'Fira'of'
Tarrega)' and' 2' in' Italy' (international' festival' of' Santarcangelo' and'
the'Parma'Reggio'festival).'
This' paper,' that' deepens' into' a' former' presentation' discussed' in'
the' last' Isa' conference,' will' briefly' introduce' the' general' frame' of'
trading' zones' in' order' to' set' out,' focus' and' discuss' the' following'
points:'
•'The'progressive'transformation'and'instituzionalizations'of'thea)
tre'festivals,'while'some'aesthetics'aspects'of'their'“ancient”'coun)
terculture'still'survive,'with'changing'meanings'and'references.'
•' The' turn' of' the' traditional' artistic' programs' in' a' broader' offer,'
that'often'combine'shows'and'performances'with'the'presence'of'
several'activities'linked'to'the'attempt'to'rationalize'topics'related'
to'“turbolent'times”'and'social'problems.'
•' The' growth' and' the' different' practice' of' a' new' and' composite'
audiences'in'the'4'differentes'cases'analyzed.'
THE!ART!FAIR:!AN!INTERMEDIARY!INSTITUTION!OF!
THE!GLOBAL!CULTURAL!ECONOMY!
Christian'Morgner
1
1'
UNIVERSITY'PF'LUCERNE,'Lucerne,'Switzerland
'
Abstract:'The'global'financial'market'went'through'a'turbulent'time'
recently.'Effects'on'the'art'market'and'related'institutions,'howev)
Abstract'Book'
45'
'
er,' were' only' of' minor' importance.' The' crisis' even' seems' to' have'
nourished' the' arts' by' enabling' the' opening' of' reasonable' spaces'
and'creating'other'opportunities.'Our'knowledge'of'the'structures'
of'the'art'world'and'art'market'and,'in'particular,'their'relationship'
is'rather'limited.'This'paper'addresses'the'role'of'intermediary'in)
stitutions'that'couple'the'art'world'and'the'art'market'–'art'fairs.'
The' art' fair' is' a' relatively' new' institution,' with' the' first' examples'
th
being' founded' in' the' second' half' of' the' 20 ' century.' Only' a' few'
exhibitions'existed'for'quite'some'time,'but'have'experienced'dra)
matic'success'in'the'last'20'years.'Although'art'fairs'are'now'organ)
ised' on' all' continents' around' the' globe,' little' research' has' been'
conducted'on'them.'
The'paper'addresses'two'questions.'The'first'asks'what'the'function'
of'an'art'fair'is'in'the'global'cultural'economy.'The'second'regards'
how'these'institutions'developed,'focusing'on'historical'and'global'
dimensions.' In' examining' the' answers' to' these' questions,' the' pa)
per'raises'the'issue'of'the'art'fair'as'an'intermediary'structure'be)
tween' the' economic' and' art' worlds,' where' art' dealers,' works' of'
art,' collectors,' sponsors' and' other' professionals' are' intertwined.'
The' questions' are' addressed' through' the' examination' of' various'
empirical'sources,'including'statistics'on'participating'galleries'and'
artists' and' interviews' with' fair' organisers' and' art' dealers.' The' pa)
per'will'also'give'evidence'as'to'the'global'orientation'of'art'fairs,'
focusing'on'a'few'case'studies,'such'as'TEFAF'and'Art'Basel,'and'of'
these' institutions’' historical' development' with' regard' to' their'
structure' and' organisation' (from' evolutionary' prerequisites' to'
sponsors).'
CULTURIZATION!OF!ECONOMY!AND!THE!CULTURAL!
COMMONS!
Juhana'Venäläinen
1'
1
Dept.' of' Finnish' Language' &' Cultural' Research,' UNIVERSITY' OF'
'
EASTERN'FINLAND,'Joensuu,'Finland
Abstract:'During'the'last'two'decades,'we'have'witnessed'an'ever)
growing'discussion'of'creative/economy/or'economy/of/culture.'This'
prevalent'academic'and'popular'discourse,'advocated'e.g.'by'Rich)
ard' Florida' (2002),' has' disinterred' two' important' processes' of' so)
cial' turbulence:' first,' the' instability' in' the' notion' of' ‘culture’' but'
also'–'and'more'importantly'–'in'the'notion'of'‘economy’.'Underly)
ing' this' discourse' is' the' observation' of' growing' weight' of' creative'
industries,' or' more' generally,' immaterial' industries' (i.a.' culture,'
education,'care'and'tourism),'in'the'creation'of'wealth.'
While'highlighting'focal'anxieties,'these'discourses'have'their'limi)
tations:' ‘economy' of' culture’' remains' sociologically' ambiguous' if'
not'interpreted'as'a'moment'of'a'wider'paradigmatic'shift'in'econ)
omy'and'production.'Moreover,'the'economical'theories'developed'
for'understanding'the'industrial)Fordist'model'of'capitalism'do'not'
sufficiently'consider'the'role'of'cultural'factors'(symbols,'meanings,'
contexts,' social' relations,' affects' and' communication)' in' valoriza)
tion' processes' (see' Boltanski' &' Chiapello' 2005,' Marazzi' 2008,'
Moulier'Boutang'2007).'
The'goal'of'my'paper'is'to'trace'and'describe'a'historical'shift'in'the'
mode' of' production' –/ the' culturization/ of/ economy' –' in' which'
commodity' production' based' on' material' resources' is' growingly'
replaced'by'immaterial'production'based'on'human'resources.'This'
transformation' is' portrayed' through' a' viewpoint' of' cultural/ com=
mons' –' a' new' productive' basis' upon' which' the' wealth' creation' is'
realized.'
In' the' field' of' cultural' commons,' the' productive' logic' of' “modern'
market' economy”' is' fundamentally' transformed' as' the' logics' of'
scarcity,' individualism' and' exclusive/ personal/ gain' are' gradually'
replaced' with' the' logics' of' affluence,' collaboration/ and' sharing.'
Thus,' the' modern' economical' problem' of' allocating' scarce' re)
sources'has'to'be'accompanied'by'a'“postmodern”'economical'(or'
better,' a' “neoclassical”' sociological)' question:' what/ do/ we/ have/ in/
common?'
References'
Boltanski,'Luc'&'Chiapello,'Eve'(2005).'The/New/Spirit/of/Capitalism.'
London:'Verso.'
Florida,'Richard'(2002)./The/Rise/of/the/Creative/Class:/And/How/It's/
Transforming/ Work,/ Leisure/ and/ Everyday/ Life./ New' York:' Basic'
Books.'
Marazzi,' Christian' (2008).' Capital/ and/ Language:/ From/ the/ New/
Economy/to/the/War/Economy.'Los'Angeles:'Semiotext(e).'
Moulier' Boutang,' Yann' (2007).' Le/ capitalisme/ cognitif./ La/ nouvelle/
grande/transformation.'Paris:'Éditions'Amsterdam.'
SOCIOLOGY,!ART!AND!SOCIOLOGY!OF!ART:!BOURDIEU!
AND!AFTER!
Arpita'Mitra
1'
1
Centre' for' Historical' Studies,' JAWAHARLAL' NEHRU' UNIVERSITY,'
'
New'Delhi,'India
Abstract:'Within'the'domain'of'sociology,'whose'disciplinary'history'
dates' back' to' the' second' half' of' the' nineteenth' century,' the' sub)
discipline' of' sociology' of' art' is' a' relatively' young' area' of' inquiry,'
which' has' already' given' rise' to' several' theoretical' debates' and'
numerous'ways'of'broaching'the'question'of'art'from'a'sociological'
point'of'view'(sociology'of'art'works,'sociology'of'art'markets,'soci)
ology'of'artistic'professions'etc.).'There'is'no'one/way'of'doing'soci)
ology'of'art.'The'striking'plurality'of'approaches'in'this'discipline'is'
proof'of'its'vitality'and'possibilities.'
However,'notwithstanding'the'variety'of'approaches,'certain'theo)
retical' issues' remain' common' to' the' discipline' (the' nature' of' the'
relationship' between' art' and' society,' agency' and' subjectivity,' for'
instance).' One' such' common' theoretical' premise' concerns' the'
specificity'of'the'domain'of'art'as'a'subject'of'sociological'enquiry.'
The'very'root'of'the'discipline'of'sociology'lies'in'the'study'of'the'
‘general’,'the'‘collective’;'whereas'the'domain'of'art'celebrates'and'
valorises'the'‘particular’'and'the'‘individual’.'The'emancipation'of'a'
‘social’'study'of'art'from'idealist'notions'of'art'and'artists'enshrined'
the'moment'of'triumph'for'the'sociology'of'art.'In'fact,'it'was'pos)
sible'precisely'because'of'the'very'specific'nature'of'sociology'as'a'
discipline' that' foregrounds' the' ‘general’' and' the' ‘collective’.' This'
inherent'probability'of'a'tension'between'sociology'as'a'discipline'
and' its' chosen' subject' of' study' in' this' case' –' art' –' has' a' bearing'
upon' many' of' the' fundamental' theoretical' questions' in' the' field,'
such'as'the'social'fact'of'being'an'artist,'professionalisation'of'artis)
tic' vocation' and' vocationalisation' of' artistic' profession,' autono)
my/heteronomy'of'the'artistic'field,'among'others.'
The' proposed' paper' seeks' to' chart' this' debate' with' reference' to'
the'specific'contribution'of'Bourdieuian'sociology'of'art'and'some'
of' its' critics.' It' was' quite' a' battle' to' establish' the' socially' ‘condi)
tioned’'(for'want'of'a'better'word)'nature'of'artistic'production'and'
reception.'Now,'it'might'be'worthwhile'to'think'if'art'as'a'specific'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
46'
Abstract'Book'
field' also' offers' unique' possibilities' of' subversion' of' social' struc)
tures'that'are'absent'in'other'social'spheres,'and'can'therefore'be'
theoretically'very'insightful'for'practising'sociologists?'
REGCONCEPTUALIZING!ARTISTIC!PRACTICES!
Graciela'Miriam'Trajtenberg
1'
1
Goverment' and' Society,' THE' ACADEMIC' COLLEGE' OF' TEL' AVIV' )
'
YAFFO,'Tel'Aviv,'Israel
Abstract:'The'core'of'the'sociology'of'the'art'theory'has'conceptu)
alized' artistic' practices' on' an' implicit' assumption' which' under)
stands'them'as'“sealed”'within'the'boundaries'of'a'defined'society'
i.e.' the' nation' state.' This' taken' for' granted' view' includes' quintes)
sential'and'disparate'theorists'such'as'H.'Becker'(Becker,'1982)'and'
P.' Bourdieu' (1992).' Yet,' during' the' last' three' decades' trans)
national'artistic'flows,'associated'with'diverse'aesthetical'and'ideo)
logical'commitments,'have'affected'domestic'fields'of'arts.'The'goal'
of'this'paper'is'to'examine'theoretical'developments'in'the'light'of'
current' socio)artistic' changes.' Assuming,' that' modernity' has' un)
dergone' subsequent' globalizing' waves,' what’re' the' differences'
between' the' contemporary' flows' of' artistic' practices' and' those'
that’d'occurred'before?'Furthermore,'what'kind'of'theoretical'con)
cepts'are'required'to'understand'these'transformations?'The'Field'
th
of' Arts' of' the' 21 ' Century' occupies' a' contested' space' in' which'
groups'negotiate'authority'and'achieve'(or'fail'to'achieve)'recogni)
tion.' Artistic' practices' arise' in' internet' linking' people' in' various'
countries'and'regions.'A'diversity'of'artistic'forms'are'created'and'
distributed'by'a'diversity'of'producers'and'distributors.'Thus,'con)
temporary'field'of'arts'compels'both'a'new,'wider'analysis'as'well'
as'a'rethinking'of'basic'forms'and'definitions.'
DANCE!RESEARCH!IN!TURBULENT!TIMES!
'1
'2*
Heike'Salzer ,'Kristine'Sommerlade '
1
SCHOOL' OF' ARTS' AND' MEDIA,,' TEESSIDE' UNIVERSITY,' Middles)
2
'
brough,' Tees'Valley'Dance,'Stockton'on'Tees,'United'Kingdom
Abstract:'The'current'turbulences'in'the'arts'sectors'of'many'coun)
tries' do' not' only' present' numerous' challenges' and' threats' to' the'
established'professional'dance'landscape'but'also'opportunities'for'
reflection,' change' and' development.' Funding' cuts' will' require' a'
rigorous' analysis' of' the' dance' sector' in' terms' of' its' capital' infra)
structure,' work' force,' content' production' and' income' generation,'
in' order' to' effectively' adapt' to' new' financial' circumstances' and'
their'structural'implications.'A'premise'to'successfully'negotiate'the'
above' situation' is' an' unbiased' and' in' depth' understanding' of' the'
complex,' art' form' specific' functions' and' roles' of' individuals' and'
organisations' within' the' dance' sector.' However,' whilst' dance' has'
been' very' successful' in' terms' of' its' capital' and' infrastructural' de)
velopment'and'its'growth'in'popularity'in'recent'years,'the'authors'
suggest' that' the' dance' sector' is' lacking' a' critical' debate' that' en)
gages'with'dance'in'a'holistic'manner.'The'dance'sector,'and'many'
dance' scholars,' display' a' certain' reticence' to' engage' with' issues,'
such' as' for' example,' the' sector’s' economics' or' its' domination' by'
particular'value'systems'and'narratives'it'is'traditionally'embedded'
in.' Dance' practitioners' as' well' as' scholars' appear' to' steer' away'
from' reflecting' on' and/or' clarifying' their' position' in' relation' to'
established' artistic' or' scholarly' modes' of' viewing' and' evaluating'
dance'or'the'demands'of'the'contemporary'economic'and'political'
landscape.' Apart' from' critical' feminist' approaches' towards' dance'
education' which' reflect' on' traditional' methods,' dance' scholarship'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
seems'to'privilege'a'theoretical'discourse'that'evolves'around'aes)
thetics,'textuality'and'gender.'Other'research'is'frequently'commis)
sioned'to'serve'as'an'advocacy'tool'or'it'features'dance'within'the'
canon'of'the'other'arts.'This'inevitably'leads'to'generalizations'that'
lack'art'form'specificity'and'seem'to'be'underpinned'by'a'romantic'
notion'of'practitioners'being'either'successful'geniuses'or'undera)
chieving'starving'artists.'
Drawing' on' their' experiences' as' artistic' director/employer' of' a'
dance' company' and' educator/researcher' in' Higher' Education,' the'
authors' evaluate' how' practitioners' are' viewed' in' the' field.' They'
suggest' that' the' dance' sector' would' benefit' from' research' that'
focuses' on' artistic' production' as' located' practice,' covers' more' di)
verse'research'topics'and'values'practitioners’'input.'
S.O.S!CULTURE.!WILL!THE!NEW!MEDIA!SAVE!THEATRE!
AND!LIVE!ARTS?!
Gaia'Peruzzi
1'
1
Coris')'Comunicazione'e'Ricerca'sociale,'SAPIENZA,'UNIVERSITY'OF'
'
ROME,'Rome,'Italy
Abstract:'How'does'the'use'of'new'medias'transform'the'daily'life'
of' theatres' and' acting' companies' and' their' relationships' with' the'
public?'Can'the'free'and'open'spaces'of'social'networks'become'a'
concrete' resource' for' artistic' non)profit' organizations' during' the'
economic'crisis?'
The'Web'and'Facebook'have'become'almost'an'inevitable'meeting'
point'for'artists,'cultural'organizations,'operators,'theatre'enthusi)
asts' or' “simple”' theatre)goers,' particularly' those' interested' in' in)
novative'and'experimental'forms'of'performance'arts.'
Today'in'Italy'the'most'important'landscape'of'the'performing'arts'
is' constituted' by' small' and' medium' as' well' as' non)profit' theater'
groups'and'companies'that,'while'being'conditioned'by'a'poor'cul)
ture'market,'are'now'suffering'dramatically'from'the'heaviest'cuts'
to'public'funding.'
The'proposed'paper'rises'from'a'research'conducted'in'the'autumn'
of'2009'in'the'theatres'of'Tuscany,'a'region'owing'a'great'part'of'its'
fame'to'its'cultural'life.'
The' question' to' be' investigated' was' whether' the' companies' that'
are' investing' in' digital' technologies,' by' regularly' attending' social'
networks,' are' concretely' benefiting' from' this' kind' of' involvement'
in'terms'of'social,'cultural'and'economic'capital'(new'contacts,'new'
experiences,'new'incomes).'
The' core' of' the' inquiry' is' a' compared' study' of' the' organizational'
life'of'ten'theater'companies'of'different'Tuscan'cities'with'active'
and' up)to)dated' Facebook' profiles.' They' are' all' private' non)profit'
organizations'of'medium'and'small'dimensions,'but'benefiting'by'a'
solid' continuity' and' a' good' notoriety,' even' beyond' regional' bor)
ders.' Then,' all' these' companies' could' be' defined' as' “non)
conventional”,' “experimental”' theaters,' that' are' mostly' attended'
by'young'and'youthful'people.'
The'second'part'of'the'research'was'aimed'at'spreading'light'on'the'
nature' of' organizations' and' the' territory.' It' consisted' of' two' ac)
tions:'a'monitoring'of'on)line'activities'of'all'thirteen'Tuscan'public'
theaters' and' the' study' of' two' companies' living' in' metropolitan'
contexts,'Rome'and'Milan.'
The' research' strategy' blended' on' and' off)line' methods' and' tools:'
analysis' of' the' websites' of' all' the' selected' organizations,' ethno)
Abstract'Book'
47'
'
graphic'observations)participation'to'their'Facebook'profiles,'face)
to)face'and'mediated'interviews'to'the'responsible'of'communica)
tion'of'all'the'companies,'and'to'five'cultural'operators.'
ARTISTIC!AND!CULTURAL!SPONSORSHIP!IN!TURKEY!
1990S!AND!ONWARDS!
Gözde'Çerçioğlu
1'
1
Graduate'School'of'Social'Sciences,'Middle'East'Technical'Universi)
'
ty,'Ankara,'Turkey
Abstract:'This'paper'aims'to'analyze'how'art'sponsorship'in'Tukey'
has'been'shaped'since'1990’s'with'respect'to'the'corporations’'and'
non)profit' sector’s' involvement' within' the' context' of' economic'
crisis.'This'attempt'to'explore'art'sponsorship'stems'from'the'fact'
that'art'sponsorship'has'risen'as'a'form'of'support'by'certain'cor)
porations,' foundations' and' nonprofit' organizations' to' the' rapidly'
increasing'artistic'and'cultural'activities'in'urban'spheres'of'Turkey.'
Consequently,'there'is'a'need'to'understand'and'explain'how'and'
why'certain'corporations'engage'in'sponsorship'of'certain'cultural'
and'artistic'activities'as'joint'project'initiators'as'well'as'engaging'in'
sponsoring' certain' events.' This' not' only' directs' us' to' think' about'
the'corporations'themselves'and'their'interest'in'art'but'also'their'
ways'of'negotiating'with'other'actors'such'as'the'government;'art)
ists;' curators;' public' relations' specialists' and' the' public.' Besides,'
the'process'of'negotiation'involves'a'strong'organization'and'insti)
tutionalization' which' needs' to' be' understood' in' order' to' explain'
the'main'motives'behind'for'sponsoring'cultural'and'artistic'events.'
This' study' concentrates' on' the' analysis' of' the' characteristics' and'
the'affiliation'of'the'main'organizers'and'sponsors'as'well'as'explor)
ing'the'ways'in'which'they'collaborate'to'initiate'and'publicize'the'
events,' by' focusing' on' the' visual' and' published' materials' such' as'
events’' posters,' announcements,' commercials,' press' releases' and'
interviews' that' are' related' to' the' artistic' and' cultural' activities' in'
the' urban' spheres' of' Turkey.' This' analysis' aims' to' elucidate' what'
kind'of'economic'and'social'actors'such'as'corporations'and'foun)
dations'do'cooperate'in'what'kind'of'artistic'and'cultural'activities'
and'how'do'they'define'the'event’s'role'in'the'society'and'their'role'
as'sponsors.'
BRITISH!CULTURAL!POLICY!UNDER!THE!COALITION!
GOVERNMENT:!DEEP!SPENDING!CUTS!AND!A!
PRELIMINARY!ANALYSIS!OF!IMPLICATIONS!
Victoria'Alexander
1'
1
Department'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'SURREY,'Guildford,'Unit)
'
ed'Kingdom
Abstract:'In'May'2010,'the'UK'General'Election'failed'to'give'a'clear'
majority'to'any'political'party.'David'Cameron’s'Conservatives'and'
Nick' Clegg’s' Liberal' Democrats' formed' a' coalition' government,'
whose' main' aims,' apparently,' are' to' cut' government' spending' in'
every'area.'Spending,'they'argue,'had'spiralled'out'of'control'under'
the' previous' Labour' Government.' The' Coalition' uses' the' current'
economic'crisis'to'reduce'government'spending'at'a'dramatic'rate,'
and'many'observers'suggest'that'these'reductions'are'driven'more'
by'a'neo)liberal'political'philosophy'than'a'genuine'need'to'cut'so'
deeply.' This' paper' examines' the' implications' of' the' Coalition' gov)
ernment’s'actions'on'funding'for'the'arts'in'England.'
This' paper' reports' on' one' aspect' of' a' larger' project' on' cultural'
policy'in'the'United'Kingdom'examining'trends'toward'the'market)
isation' of' public)sector' arts,' increasing' government' intervention,'
and'a'growing'emphasis'on'managerialism.'The'project'focuses'on'
the'analysis'of'government'documents'and'policies'relating'to'the'
arts' and' arts' organisations.' This' paper' looks' in' detail' at' policy'
statements' made' by' Coalition' Government' ministers' and' some'
responses'by'Arts'Organisations.'
THE!IMPORTANCE!OF!SOCIAL!INTERACTION!IN!
MUSEUM!EXPERIENCES!
Mia'Stokmans
1'
1
cultural'studies,'TILBURG'UNIVERSITY,'Tilburg,'Netherlands
'
Abstract:' In' Bourdieu’s' theory,' participation' in' the' arts' is' mainly'
determined' by' social' factors,' in' that' participation' repertoires' are'
homogeneous' within' social' classes' and' heterogeneous' between'
social' classes.' This' perspective' focuses' on' social' pressure' within'
(reference)'groups'and'social'status'between'social'classes.'Yet,'are'
these' the' only' influences' social' groups' have' on' participation?' Re)
search' indicates' that' most' people' prefer' to' visit' the' arts' with' a'
spouse'or'friend.'Furthermore,'experience'marketing'indicates'that'
an' artistic' experience' can' be' intensified' by' active' participation.'
These' observations' suggest' another' important' social' factor' in' arts'
participation'that'finds'its'origin'in'the'consumption'situation.'
In' a' consumption' situation,' the' interaction' between' an' individual'
and'an'artistic'object'may'result'in'psychological'benefits'(pleasure,'
self)actualization),'whereas'the'interpersonal'interaction'may'result'
in' psychological' as' well' as' social' benefits' (identification,' self)
esteem).'Interaction'ritual'chains'(Collins,'2004)'bring'these'experi)
ences' together' in' a' model.' According' to' this' model' interpersonal'
interaction'in'a'consumption'situation'intensifies'the'mutual'focus'
of' attention,' it' enhances' emotional' experiences,' it' brings' about'
social'benefits'(such'as'belongingness'and'group'solidarity),'and'it'
paves' the' way' for' the' construction' of' homogeneous' evaluation'
schemes'within'the'group.'
These'ideas'are'explored'in'a'survey'study'(N=82)'among'frequent'
visitors'of'museums.'It'turned'out'that'about'20%'of'the'respond)
ents' visited' the' museum' alone,' about' 50%' with' family' and' about'
30%' with' friends' or' colleagues.' Marked' differences' were' found'
between' these' visiting' groups:' Those' who' went' with' friends' or'
colleagues' were' more' content' with' the' museum' visit' and' talked'
more'about'this'museum'visit'and'museum'visits'in'general.'How)
ever,' the' groups' did' not' differ' in' overall' evaluation.' Further' anal)
yses'indicated'that'talking'(before,'and'during)'about'the'museum'
visit'has'a'positive'effect'on'the'evaluation'of'the'visit'(expressed'in'
10'points)'as'well'as'the'positive'emotions'experienced,'even'if'all'
other'aspects'of'this'museum'visit'(contentment'with'the'artworks'
presented,'and'other'aspects'of'the'augmented'product)'and'mind)
set' regarding' museum' visits' (hedonic' and' utilitarian' attitude' and'
involvement)'were'accounted'for.'
BETTER!ALONE!THAN!IN!BAD!COMPANY?!THE!SOCIAL!
DIMENSION!IN!THE!EXPERIENCE!OF!VIEWING!ART!IN!
MUSEUMS.!
'1
'2
'3
Elena'Pérez)Rubiales ,'Jordi'López'Sintas ,'Ercilia'García'Álvarez '
1
2
Centre'for'Studies'and'Research'in'Humanities,' Business'Econom)
ics,' UNIVERSITAT' AUTÒNOMA' DE' BARCELONA,' Bellaterra'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
48'
Abstract'Book'
(Cerdanyola' del' Vallès),' Management,' Universitat' Rovira' i' Virgili,'
'
Tarragona,'Spain
3
1
Abstract:'We'have'designed'a'phenomenological'research'to'study'
the' social' dimension' of' the' experience' of' visiting' an' art' museum'
framed'in'the'symbolic'interactionism'theory.'To'elucidate'the'role'
of' social' interaction' among' museum' visitors,' we' have' analyzed'
their' experiences' before,' during' and' after' their' visits.' The' specific'
goal'of'this'study'is'to'determine'the'conditions,'social'interaction'
strategies' and' content' of' museum' visitor' experiences.' We' have'
conducted'21'interviews'with'Spanish'individuals'who'visit'art'mu)
seums' regularly,' which' were' digitally' recorded' and,' later,' tran)
scribed'ad'verbatim.'Transcripts'and'contextual'comments'record)
ed'during'the'field'work'have'shaped'the'data'sources'for'our'pro)
ject,' analyzed' with' the' help' of' computer' assisted' qualitative' data'
analysis' software' (CAQDAS).' We' have' found' that' cultural' capital'
and' social' context' of' individuals' influence' their' social' strategy,'
whether'visiting'alone'or'accompanied'and,'therefore,'the'content'
of'the'experience.'On'the'one'hand,'visitors'with'a'low'contextual'
cultural'capital'look'for'a'social'experience'in'the'museum'visit'and,'
consequently,'they'attend'in'company'to'be'able'to'interact'during'
the'exhibition'itinerary.'On'the'other'hand,'visitors'with'a'high'con)
textual'cultural'capital'search'a'more'aesthetic'experience'and'as'a'
result' they' prefer' visiting' alone.' The' social' interaction' of' this' se)
cond' group' of' visitors,' contrary' to' the' previous' one,' is' prominent'
before'and'after'the'aesthetic'experience.'
Abstract:' Currently' there' are' a' series' of' art' projects' spread' over'
different'artistic'fields'from'public'art,'to'ecological'art,'to'bio)art,'
to' political' art,' to' gender' art,' among' others,' that' subscribe' to' a'
notion'of'active'citizenship,'through'participation'and'performative'
intervention'in'the'public'space.'
Keywords:'social'interaction,'art'museums,'contextual'cultural'capi)
tal.'
VISITING!ART!EXHIBITIONS!G!A!COMPLEX!CULTURAL!
PRAXIS!
Nina'Tessa'Zahner
1'
1
Department'of'Cultural'Science,'UNIVERSITY'OF'LEIPZIG,'Nürnberg,'
'
Germany
Instituto' Ciências' Sociais,' ICS)UNIVERSIDADE' DE' LISBOA,' Lisboa,'
'
Portugal
This'inscription'gives'to'this'intentional'"social'art"'a'political'status'
where,' however,' several' notions' of' politics' are' struggling,' either'
from'the'artists'sphere'or'from'the'political'authorities'to'support'
art.' Taking' for' example' the' Portuguese' context,' we' analyze' these'
various'notions'of'politics'in'art'in'these'global'turbulent'times.'
INFINITE!RIFT!INFINITE!SEAL!;!ART!AND!SOCIAL!
UNREST!
Kebedech'Tekleab
1'
1
Foundation' Studies,' SAVANNAH' COLLEGE' OF' ART' AND' DESIGN,'
'
Savannah,'Ga.31410,'United'States
Abstract:' Every' time' part' of' the' world’s' social' fabric' breaks' into'
pieces'there'is'a'need'to'collect'the'fragmented'parts'to'put'them'
back' together' again.' Understanding' why' the' breakup' occurs' and'
putting' the' pieces' together' is' difficult' since' for' the' most' part,' the'
answers'lie'between'the'cracks'–'the'voids'that'are'beyond'repair.'
These'in)between'spaces'need'to'be'filled'creatively,'imaginatively,'
and'philosophically'because'there'is'no'single'rational'that'can'sim)
ultaneously'provide'commonality'of'the'different'truth'claimed'by'
each'broken'piece.'
As' a' backdrop' my' paper' will' discuss' historic' and' contemporary'
artworks' created' during' and' after' major' social' unrest.' It' will' pro)
vide'insight'into'the'role'of'the'works'that'may'give'solace'to'some'
but'mainly'serve'as'bridges'across'the'societal'rifts'created'by'the'
turmoil.'
Abstract:'The'visit'of'art'exhibitions'as'a'cultural'phenomenon'is'a'
complex'cultural'praxis.'As'such'it'cannot'be'understood'on'basis'of'
quantitative' material' as' it' is' produced' by' visitor' studies.' These'
studies' find' a' highly' educated' public' in' museums' but' cannot' ex)
plain'why'this'is'the'case.'To'explain'the'elite'nature'of'this'public'
they'often'recur'to'Pierre'Bourdieus'famous'museum'studies'from'
the/1960s.'Here'Bourdieu'developed'a'theory'of'art'reception'that'
identifies'a'specific'aesthetic'knowledge'crucial'for'the'reception'of'
an'object'as'a'work'of'art.'I'will'show'that'this'notion'of'reception'is'
only/ one' position' in' the' highly' differentiated' art' field' of' today,'
where'the'idea'of'autonomous'art'is'only'one'conception'within'a'
vast'plurality'of'art'conceptions.'I'will'present'material'from'several'
qualitative'case'studies'conducted'in'an'ethnographic'manner'that'
investigate' how' different' people' make' actually' use' of' art' exhibi)
tions.' The' praxis' of' visiting' art' exhibitions' is' being' reconstructed'
from'the'visitor’s'point'of'view.'It'is'investigated'which'exhibitions'
different'people'visit,'how'they'conduct'their'visit'and'what'mean)
ing'they'ascribe'to'this'praxis.'I'will'show'that'for'understanding'the'
praxis' of' visiting' art' exhibitions' not' only' a' certain' knowledge' or'
kind' of' reception' is' crucial' but' the' social' value' that' is' ascribed' to'
the'visit'by'the'visitors'themselves.'
The'paper'also'focuses'on'my'visual'and'literary'works'as'a'person'
who' survived' ten' years' of' imprisonment' and' as' an' artist' who' is'
inspired'by'humanitarian'issues.'
“SOCIAL!ART":!A!POLITICAL!ART!WITHOUT!POLICY!
SUPPORT?!
In'discussing'my'work,'I'will'address'the'issues'of'
Cláudia'Guerra'Madeira
1'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
The' tragedy' of' the' Ethio)Somali' war,' and' my' personal' experience'
as'a'civilian'internee'in'Somalia,'is'central'in'my'work'besides'other'
global'humanitarian'issues.'
The' conditions' that' brought' about' my' capture' by' Somali' fighters'
started'when'I'was'a'teenage)girl'living'in'Addis'Ababa.'
In'late'70’s'and'early'80’s'the'internal'civil'war'in'Ethiopia,'fueled'by'
the' infamous' era' of' the' “Red' Terror”,' made' every' Ethiopian' that'
did' not' support' the' military' junta' in' power,' vulnerable.' The' gov)
ernment'was'desperate'to'stop'all'internal'resistances'while'waging'
a'full)scale'war'with'neighboring'Somalia.'A'number'of'my'friends'
and' I' were' among' the' student' body' that' opposed' the' regime' and'
among' fortunate' ones' who' survived' the' whole' scale' massacre' of'
the' red' terror' by' fleeing' the' country' on' foot' across' the' desert.' It'
was' our' misfortune' however;' that' in' our' attempt' to' escape' the'
Ethiopian' threat,' we' strayed' into' territory' controlled' by' Somali'
forces'and'we'were'captured.'For'the'next'ten'years'we'were'im)
prisoned'as'prisoners'of'war.'
ê'Memory'and'imagination'that'penetrate'layers'of'experience'and'
set'visual'and'literary'languages.'
Abstract'Book'
49'
'
ê' Social' commentary' and' modernity,' the' balance' of' content' and'
form.'
ê'My'quest'to'reconcile'the'differing'dynamics'of'tragedy'and'beau)
ty'on'each'single'piece.'
ART!ON!TRIAL:!WHEN!CRITICISM!OF!REALITY!TAKES!
AN!ARTIST!TO!COURT!G!ART!AS!CRIME!IN!A!MARKETG
BASED!SOCIETY!
Ulla'Karttunen
1'
1
Department' of' Cultural' Research,' UNIVERSITY' OF' EASTERN'
'
FINLAND,'Joensuu,'Finland
Abstract:'The'contemporary'art'world'is'increasingly'commodified.'
Alongside'art'as'brands'of'luxury'objects,'there'are'activist,'socially'
aware' tendencies' in' visual' art.' In' reality/ art' artworks' offer' com)
mentary' on' real)world' phenomena' in' spite' of' creating' fictive'
realms:'art'becomes'part'of'social'criticism.'But'is'there'any'place'
for'art'as'a'criticism'of'reality'under'marketized'cultural'practices?'
This'paper'studies'an'art'trial'case'in'contemporary'Finland.'In'the'
Western,'pluralistic'art'world,'a'work'of'art'seldom'leads'to'a'legal'
case.'In'Finland'a'work'presented'in'the'gallery'of'the'Helsinki'City'
Art'Museum'led'to'criminal'proceedings'(2008,'2009,'and'still'ongo)
ing'with'the'artist’s'appeal'to'the'European'Court'of'Human'Rights).'
The' court' ruled' that' it' is' not' possible' in' art' to' criticize' the' public'
social'realm,'as'would'have'been'possible'in'research'or'journalism.'
According'to'the'court,'it'was'clear'that'the'artist'was'critical'of'the'
phenomenon'in'question,'but'nevertheless'this'act'of'criticism'was'
interpreted' as' a' crime.' The' work' was' confiscated' and' declared'
secret'for'25'years,'the'artist’s'computer'was'wiped'as'a'“means'of'
crime”' and' in' the' immense' media' uproar' the' artist' was' reviled' as'
the'most'despised'criminal,'which'seemed'to'some'observers'like'a'
modern)day'witch'hunt.'
What'kind'of'reality'was'the'art'work'criticizing?'The'work'attacked'
the' business)oriented' structure' of' society' by' focusing' its' criticism'
on' open)access' pages' in' the' internet' and' an' especially' popular'
part,'teen'porn'galleries.'The'legal'investigation'was'not'interested'
in'the'material'in'its'original'place'–'the'branded'sites'were'not'put'
under'investigation'–'but'only'in'criticism'of'them.'
There'exists'in'the'internet'a'gallery'structure'so'vast'that'it'could'
make' corresponding' fields' in' the' art' world' seem' wholly' marginal.'
These'porn'galleries'are'an'important'part'of'consumerized'popular'
culture,'visited'by'millions'of'viewers,'open'24/7'all'over'the'globe,'
marked'by'the'same'desire'for'success'and'celebrity'as'other'parts'
of' the' entertainment' business.' A' sociologically' interesting' fact'
should' also' be' that' for' the' first' time' in' human' history,' advertise)
ment'images'have'become'objects'consumed'by'a'large'clientele.'
When' justice' borrowed' its' ethics' from' the' market,' the' statement'
was'clear:'critical'art'shall'be'silenced.'
WHEN!PUBLIC!ART!GOES!GUERRILLA!
Cattani'Annalisa
1
1'
Communication,' UNIVERSITY' OF' TRIESTE)ACADEMY' OF' FINE' ARTS'
'
BOOGNA,'Imola)Bologna,'Italy
Abstract:'Public'Art'exists'as'a'distinctive'trend'in'Art'since'the'early'
Seventies.' The' research' object' of' this' paper' is' to' articulate' the'
term,'in'order'to'define'it'in'a'dialectical,'non)dogmatic'way.'
•'We'often'tend'to'identify'Public'Art'with'the'so)called'permanent/
site/ specific' works,' made' in' collaboration' with' the' institutions,'
which'generally'tend'to'loose'their'dialectical'power'after'a'while,'
like' monuments' do.' Nevertheless' the' concept' can' be' developed,'
showing' how' the' concept' moved' from' site/ specific' to' audience/
specific/projects,'according'much'more'importance'to'the'commu)
nity'of'a'given'space,'than'to'the'space'itself.'
Collecting'the'most'important'results'in'Public'Art'practices'we'can'
systematize' an' articulated' definition,' following' as' research' meth)
odology'a'pragmadialectical'and'rhetoical'approach:'
•'Permanent'site'specific'works:'installations'which'always'imply'an'
official'project.'
•' Temporary' site' specific' works:' which' could' be' official' or' unau)
thorised'installations.'
•'Public'Art'as'de)design:'It'consists'in'art'actions'that'seem'to'be'
superfluous;' they' create' a' sort' of' disturb,' in' order' to' de)structure'
stereotypes' and' passive' ways' of' living.' Public' art' goes' this' way'
beyond'the'personal'gesture'of'the'artist,'trascends'pure'subjectivi)
ty' and' responds' to' the' urban,' social' and' political' structure' that'
defines'a'given'place.'
•'Public'Art'as'Transculture:'Public'art'can'also'come'in'through'the'
back'door,'like'a'second'class'citizen'and'present'itself'as'the'voice'
of'marginal'cultures'activating'a'transcultural'process,'well'defined'
by'Fernando'Ortiz.'
These'last'two'aspects'are'at'the'moment' the' most' interesting' as'
they' allow' social' and' political' engaged' art' actions' which' can' de)
structure'stereotypes'or'improve'critical'thinking.'
•' From' this' short' analysis' the' main' findings' prove' how' Public' Art'
left' its' first' “formal”' aims' in' order' to' achieve' an' interdisciplinary'
approach,' promoting' neighbourhood' through' a' socratic' dialogue'
with'the'public,'who'becomes'more'and'more'an'active'subject'of'
the' work,' able' to' transform' the' aesthetic' function' into' a' social)
aesthetic'one.'
EUROPEAN!CULTURAL!POLICIES!AND!THE!‘CREATIVE!
INDUSTRIES’!TURN.!
Pierre)Michel'Menger
1
1'
Sociology,'EHESS'&'CNRS,'Paris,'France
'
Abstract:/Cultural' policy' in' Europe' is' deeply' rooted' in' the' Welfare'
State'doctrine'that'has'been'prevailing'during'the'last'half'century.'
Its' implementation' has' gone' along' with' the' invention' and' rise' of'
educational' policy,' social' policy' and' health' policy.' This' paper'
sketches'its'evolution'as'a'four'phase'move'towards'what'has'been'
emerging'as'the'central'dual'content'of'the'current'public'cultural'
policy:' preserving' and' promoting' heritage,' and' bringing' the' crea)
tive' industries' at' the' core' of' the' so)called' knowledge' society.' The'
general'evolutionary'trend'shows'four'distinct'phases:'1)'the'crea)
tion'of'a'systematic'cultural'supply'policy'based'on'a'limited'defini)
tion'of'culture'suitable'for'public'financing'and'based'on'a'vertical'
concept'of'democratization'by'conversion;'2)'the'gradual'decentral)
ization'of'public'action,'which'leads'to'an'increasing'disparity'in'its'
aims' and' functions,' and' which' challenges' the' initial' universalist,'
top)down'egalitarian'model;'3)'a'revision'of'the'legitimate'scope'of'
public' action,' which' declares' symbolically' obsolete' the' founding'
hierarchy'of'cultural'politics,'that'which'would'oppose'high'culture,'
protected' from' market' forces' and' entertainment' culture' and' gov)
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
50'
Abstract'Book'
erned'by'the'laws'of'the'industrial'economy;' 4)'an'increasing'ten)
dency' to' justify' cultural' policy' on' the' basis' of' its' contribution' to'
economic' growth' and' to' the' balance' of' national' social' diversity,'
which'legitimises'the'regulatory'power'of'public'action'as'well'en)
couraging'the'expansion'of'the'creative'industries'and'the'demands'
for'the'evaluation'of'procedures'and'results.'The'last'section'of'this'
paper'moves'away'from'the'state'centered'perspective'and'focuses'
on'the'city'as'the'incubator'of'cultural'generativity,'in'order'to'sug)
gest' how' a' city)centered' approach' to' cultural' development' chal)
lenges'the'state)centered'doctrine'of'cultural'policy.'
FAKE!CREATIVE!CLASS!ENTERTAINING!SUPER!STARS:!A!
CREATIVE!CITY!TRAP!FOR!ANTALYA!
Reyhan'Görk
1'
1
Political' Science' and' Public' Administration,' CANKIRI' KARATEKIN'
'
UNIVERSITY,'CANKIRI,'Turkey
Abstract:' The' aim' of' this' paper' is' to' analyze' the' terms' of' creative'
class'and'creative'city'for'the'case'of'Antalya'while'scrutinizing'the'
relation' between' cultural' policies' and' global' capitalism' as' well' as'
this'relation’s'impact'on'the'process'of'restructuring'Antalya'into'a'
‘city' of' culture’.' The' flow' of' creative' class' for' the' formation' of' a'
creative' city' is' inevitable.' However' the' strategies' for' transforming'
Antalya'into'runaway'production'center'are'not'enough'to'pull'the'
creative'class.'Instead,'it'turned'into'a'kind'of'‘star'hosting'organi)
zation’'from'Hollywood.'
Florida' (2002b:' 7;' 2005:' 151;' 2006:' 72)' emphasizes' the' social)
cultural' dimensions' of' city' life,' suggesting' that' the' “creative' class'
does' not' just' cluster' where' the' jobs' are' […]' they' cluster' in' places'
that' are' centers' of' creativity' and' also' where' they' like' to' live.”' As'
observed'in'cities'like'Vancouver,'Milwaukee,'Baltimore'local'“crea)
tive' clusters”' develop' within' these' cities' and' city' regions,' and' are'
tightly' connected' to' the' international' creative' industry—comprise'
a'“creative'city'network”'(UNESCO,'2006:'58).'According'to'Landry'
(2006:'61),'in'all'of'these'cities'called'‘creative’,'“most'of'the'strat)
egies' and' plans' are' in' fact' concerned' with' strengthening' the' arts'
and'cultural'fabric,'such'as'support'for'the'arts'and'artists'and'the'
institutional'infrastructure'to'match.”'
For'the'purpose'of'the'study,'various'qualitative'research'methods'
were' used' to' collect' data;' individual' interviews' were' conducted'
(representatives'of'different'interest'groups'like'bureaucrats,'local'
politicians,' entrepreneurs,' representatives' of' NGOs,' etc.);' group'
interviews'of'academics'were'realized;'life'history'accounts'(mem)
oirs)'were'collected;'and'the'news'on'Antalya'in'local'newspapers'
were'systematically'analyzed.'
Looking' at' the' process' of' restructuring' Antalya' into' a' ‘city' of' cul)
ture’'in'the'field'of'art'and'culture,'it'is'observed'that'almost'all'of'
the'related'institutions,'foundations'and'establishments'of'art'and'
culture'have'been'administered'or'directed'by'outsiders,'most'no)
tably' by' actors' from' Istanbul.' They' have' relatively' higher' cultural,'
educational,' social' and' symbolic' capital' and' are' now' commonly'
seen'in'Antalya,'with'their'own'words'“trying'to'attract'global'capi)
tal'to'the'city”'in'this'age'of'inter)urban'competition.'Still,'one'can)
not'argue'that'here'is'a'creative'class'flow'to'Antalya.'
LOOKING!AT!MUSIC!SCENES!AS!CREATIVE!INDUSTRIES.!
THE!INDEPENDENT!LIVE!MUSIC!SECTOR!OF!MILAN!
Silvia'Tarassi
1'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
1
CATHOLIC'UNIVERSITY,'MILAN,'Italy
'
Abstract:'Within'popular'music'studies,'the'notion'of'‘music'scene’'
(e.g.' Shank,' 1994;' Straw,' 1991)' has' been' often' used' to' take' into'
account'music'practices'taking'in'place'in'urban'contexts.'The'mu)
sic'scene'has'been'regarded'as'being'alternative'and'independent'
from' the' music' industry,' and' as' being' constituted' by' small' music'
collectives' adopting' a' DIY' (Do' it' yourself)' approach.' Further' re)
search' has' instead' underlined' how' music' production' and' perfor)
mance'at'a'local'level'has'become'a'more'professionalized'activity'
(Smith'&'Maugan,'1997),'which'can'play'a'central'role'in'the'crea)
tive'economy'of'the'city.'The'music'scene'can'therefore'be'studied'
as' a' creative' subsector,' characterized' by' local' creative' networks'
and' infrastructures' taking' place' within' specific' urban' areas'
(Hesmondhalgh,'1996;'Scott,'1999;'2000).'
There'is'therefore'a'need'to'look'at'the'local'specificity,'taking'ac)
count' of' the' ‘soft' infrastructures’' constituted' by' the' networks' of'
people' involved' in' the' music' sector' (Brown,' Cohen' &' O'Connor,'
2000)' and' to' look' at' the' creative' industries' sector' in' a' broader'
sense'in'order'to'understand'the'possible'cooperation'or'competi)
tion'existing'between'multiple'subsectors.'
The' paper' will' therefore' present' the' qualitative' research' which' is'
conducted' in' the' independent' live' music' sector' of' Milan' by' inter)
viewing' using' the' life' story' approach' the' different' actors' involved'
inside' (musicians,' booking' agents,' artistic' directors,' venue' manag)
ers)' and' outside' the' scene' (Music' Consultant,' Councillors)' and' by'
using' participant' observations' in' venues' and' during' music' events'
were'conducted'in'order'to'grasp'the'different'networking'practic)
es' taking' place' in' the' scene.' The' case' study' will' enable' to' discuss'
the'explanatory'relevance'of'the'term'music'scene'to'analyze'music'
practices'of'production'and'consumption'and'to'point'out'the'need'
of' popular' music' studies' of' combining' the' theoretical' perspective'
of'scene'with'the'debate'around'the'creative'industries.'
BALKAN!MUSIC!IN!AUSTRIA!UNDER!THE!LENSE!OF!
BOURDIEU'S!FIELD!THEORY!
Regina'Claudia'Sperlich
1
1'
mediacult,'Vienna,'Austria
'
Abstract:' Since' 1990,' Balkan' music' has' developed' to' a' popular'
phenomenon' in' Austria.' Considering' the' development' before,' al)
ready'the'first'generation'of'migrant'workers'brought'Balkan'music'
to'Austria'in'the'70s'and'80s,'but'to'appeal'to'the'Austrian'majority'
this' music' had' to' become' part' of' “World' music”,' a' label' for' all'
“non)Western”' music,' which' had' been' invented' by' the' music' in)
dustry'in'the'1980s.'However,'at'the'beginning'of'the'90s'music'of'
the' Balkan' region' still' was' not' understood' as' “Balkan' music”,' but'
was'only'known'(if'at'all)'by'the'majority'through'a'few'single'musi)
cians' and' bands.' One' of' the' first' of' such' bands' was' the' Wiener/
Tschuschenkapelle,/which'was'founded'in'1989'in'Vienna.'Another'
early' branch' was' Greek' music,' which' had' emerged' already' in' the'
1980s,' like' Lakis/ &/ Achwach' and' Marios/ &/ Julie.' Since' the' second'
half' of' the' 1990s' and' increasingly' since' 2000' in' Vienna' and' Graz'
more' and' more' musicians' have' dedicated' themselves' to' Balkan'
music,' not' only' but' especially' musicians' who' were' born' in' South)
East)Europe.' An' important' context,' which' must' be' regarded,' was'
the'civil'war'in'former'Yugoslavia'resulting'into'a'flood'of'migrants.'
But' over' the' years' not' only' refugees' came,' but' also' students' of'
classical' music' or' jazz.' Many' of' them' discovered' “their”' Balkan'
music'for'the'first'time'in'Austria.'Finally,'in'the'2000s'new'musical'
institutions' have' appeared,' such' as' ost=klub' or' the' Balkan/ Fever/
Abstract'Book'
51'
'
Festival'which'both'have'driven'the'popularization'of'Balkan'music'
forward.' This' “little' history”' of' Balkan' music' is' investigated' by' re)
ferring'to'Bourdieu’s'field'theory'of'cultural'production.'We'regard'
Balkan'music'as'a'subfield'of'music'production'in'which'musicians'
and' managers' of' festivals' and' clubs' struggle' for' social' acknowl)
edgement.' Most' musicians' and' managers' acting' in' this' field' are'
well' educated' and' belong' to' the' middle' class.' Though' their' eco)
nomic' recourses' are' rather' limited' they' have' access' to' cultural,'
social' and' symbolic' “capitals”.' Therefore,' they' are' more' likely' to'
mobilize' support' and' to' bridge' the' gap' between' established' and'
marginalized' positions.' These' issues' concerning' the' development'
of' Balkan' music' since' the' early' 1990s' until' today' are' investigated'
on'the'basis'of'the'analysis'of'Austrian'daily'newspapers'and'music'
magazines'concerning'this'period'of'time'as'well'as'the'analysis'of'
qualitative' interviews,' which' were' conducted' with' musicians' and'
managers'of'festivals'and'clubs.'
MEN!AND!WOMEN’S!ACCESS!TO!SOCIAL!
RECOGNITION!AND!FAME!IN!THE!INTERNATIONAL!
CONTEMPORARY!ART!WORLD!:!GENDER!AND!
SUCCESS!IN!THE!VISUAL!ARTS!
'1
'2
Alain'Philippe'Quemin ,'Clara'Léa'Lévy '
1
2
Dpmt'of'sociology,'UNIVERSITÉ'PARIS)EST,'Paris,' dpmt'of'sociolo)
'
gy,'université'Nancy)II,'Nancy,'France
Abstract:' Since' 1970,' German' magazines' Capital/ and' Manager/
Magazine' have' published' nearly' every' year' a' ranking,' the' Kunst'
Kompass,' that' aims' at' making' public' the' names' of' the' 100' most'
visible' artists' on' the' international' art' scene.' The' ranking' is' built'
individually'for'each'artist'who'receives'a'certain'number'of'points'
for'his'or'her'exhibitions,'either'personal'or'collective'in'major'art'
institutions'such'as'museums'or'biennales'or'for'the'press'cuttings'
that' they' get' in' major' international' contemporary' art' magazines.'
Although' the' ranking' is' based' on' the' individual,' it' is' possible' to'
consider'groups'of'artists'that'share'common'social'characteristics.'
In'this'presentation,'we'will'compare'male'and'female'artists.'
After' a' critical' presentation' of' the' instrument' that' the' Kunst'
Kompass'offers'presenting'both'its'limits'but'also'what'it'can'bring,'
the'first'phenomenon'of'the'increasing'share'of'women'among'the'
most'visible'international'artists'and'their'confrontation'to'a'ceiling'
that'prevents'them'from'perfect'integration'to'the'art'world'will'be'
analyzed.'
Besides,'not'only'does'the'Kunst'Kompass'make'it'possible'to'com)
pare' the' share' of' men' and' women' among' the' most' recognized'
international'artists,'but'it'also'enables'us'to'compare'various'social'
characteristics' of' male' and' female' artists.' Such' is' the' case' of' ca)
reers' that' can' be' more' or' less' rapid.' At' what' age' do' men' and'
women'appear'in'the'Kunst'Kompass?'What'is'the'average'age'of'
men'and'that'of'women'for'a'given'year?'
Other' criteria' will' be' analyzed.' In' what' countries' were' male' and'
female'artists'born'and'where'do'they'live'?'In'what'country'is'their'
main'gallery'(mentioned'in'the'Kunst'Kompass)'located'?'What'are'
the'main'media'used'by'the'most'famous'male'and'female'artists'
(painting,'sculpture,'photography,'video,'performance,'installation,'
environment…)'and'what'movements'of'contemporary'creation'do'
they'belong'to'?'This'will'enable'us'to'study'the'link'between'gen)
der'and'the'characteristics'of'the'works.'A'similar'concern'for'other'
traits'of'the'works'will'justify'the'study'of'the'average'prices'of'the'
works' created' by' female' artists' to' that' of' male' artists' for' equiva)
lent'positions'in'the'ranking.'
In' this' presentation,' we' will' try' and' study' social' characteristics,'
should'they'be'biographical'and'related'to'the'private'sphere'or'to'
the'professional'space,'of'female'and'male'artists'and'try'and'show'
the'impact'of'gender'on'artistic'recognition.'
DOES!THE!LEGISLATION!FOR!THE!ARTS!PROMOTING!
ACTUALLY!PROMOTE!ARTS:!THE!CASE!OF!THE!VISUAL!
ARTISTS!IN!FINLAND!
Pauli'Rautiainen
1'
1
School' of' Management,' UNIVERSITY' OF' TAMPERE,' Tampere,' Fin)
'
land
Abstract:' The' Finnish' model' of' arts' and' artists' promotion' is' one'
variant' of' the' Nordic' model.' The' shift' into' the' present' policy' of'
promoting' the' arts' and' artists' in' the' 1960s' was' ideologically' con)
nected' to' the' expanding' Nordic' welfare' state' in' all' of' the' Nordic'
countries.'By'the'end'of'the'1960s'the'earlier'administrative'struc)
tures' of' distributing' direct' state' support' to' artists' were' replaced'
with' new' administrative' bodies' and' budget' appropriations.' The'
reason' for' this' was' to' consolidate' the' types' of' grants' and' their'
distribution' by' legislation.' During' the' period' of' expanding' welfare'
state' the' Nordic' countries' introduced' also' indirect' public' support'
forms' that' consisted' of' various' legislative' schemes' to' support' the'
individual'artists.'These'schemes'are'mainly'connected'to'the'social'
security'law,'tax'law'and'copyright'law.'
In' my' presentation' I' am' asking' does' this' legislation' for' the' arts'
promoting'actually'promote'arts.'I'am'focusing'on'the'visual'artists'
(painters,' sculptors,' photographers' etc.)' in' Finland.' When' answer)
ing'to'this'question'I'will'mostly'rely'on'a'survey'carried'out'in'the'
summer' 2010.' In' addition' I' will' use' register' data' and' results' from'
the'previous'studies'(mostly'carried'out'by'the'Arts'Council'of'Fin)
land).' This' presentation' is' closely' connected' with' my' on)going' re)
search' project' regarding' how' the' legal' regulation' promotes' and'
prohibits'the'artistic'work'in'Finland.'
CULTURE!OR!PRODUCTION?!THE!IMPACT!OF!
CULTURAL!COMPREHENSION!ON!WORKING!
STRUCTURES!WITHIN!THE!CULTURAL!INDUSTRIES!
Christiane'Schnell
1
1'
Goethe)University' Frankfurt/Main,' INSTITUTE'
'
RESEARCH,'Frankfurt'am'Main,'Germany
OF'
SOCIAL'
Abstract:'Referring'to'the'example'of'TV'camera'operators'the'pa)
per'will'analyse'the'relation'between'prevailing'concepts'of'culture'
and' working' structures' within' the' cultural' industries.' It' is' argued,'
that'camera'operators'represent'an'occupational'group'positioned'
in'between'artistic'creativity'and'technological'service,'which'does'
not'fit'into'the'framework,'which'regulates'cultural'work'in'Germa)
ny.'The'argumentation'proceeds'in'three'steps:'First'the'emergence'
of' an' institutional' setting' around' cultural' work' is' described' within'
its'historical'context.'One'pillar'of'this'institutional'framework'is'for'
example' the' integration' of' Artists' into' the' German' social' security'
system' (Künstlersozialversicherung).' Secondly,' the' explicit' and' im)
plicit'presumptions'and'consequences'of'this'model'are'analysed'in'
the'face'of'the'structural'change'of'the'cultural'industries'and'the'
shifting'relation'between'public'financed'cultural'production,'small'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
52'
Abstract'Book'
businesses' and' media' corporations' over' the' last' decades.' Thirdly,'
the'example'of'TV'camera'operators'is'taken'to'explain'how'com)
prehension' of' culture' and' old' and' new' working' structures' within'
the'cultural'industries'are'interrelated.'
CONTESTED!HOMES:!PROFESSIONALISM,!HEGEMONY!
AND!ARCHITECTURE!IN!TIMES!OF!CHANGE!
'1
'2*
'3
Hadas'Shadar ,'Zvika'Orr ,'Yael'Maizel '
1
Faculty'of'Architecture'and'Town'Planning,'Technion'–'Israel'Insti)
2
tute' of' Technology,' Haifa,' Federmann' School' of' Public' Policy' &'
Government,' Hebrew' University' of' Jerusalem,' Jerusalem,'
3
Department' of' Political' Sciences,' Tel)Aviv' University,' Tel)Aviv,'
'
Israel
Abstract:' Professionals' possess' an' authoritative' and' monopolistic'
position'based'on'their'exclusive'professional'knowledge.'However,'
in' post)modern' societies,' professions' are' increasingly' forced' to'
compete'for'their'monopoly'and'autonomy'and'protect'their'juris)
diction.'This'process'is'particularly'salient'with'regard'to'the'archi)
tectural'profession,'due'to'its'dependency'on'clients,'and'because'
architecture' often' involves' struggles' over' collective' identities' and'
power.' Architects’' constructed' products' are' conspicuously' visible'
to'the'public.'Therefore,'an'analysis'of'the'architectural'profession'
enables' us' to' examine' the' complex' interrelations' between' the'
professionals'and'the'general'public.'
In'addition,'in'hegemonic'processes,'professionals,'including'archi)
tects,' often' serve' as' “traditional' intellectuals,”' or' agents' that' pre)
serve'the'interests'of'those'in'power.'By'constructing'and'deliver)
ing' the' dominant' ideologies,' epistemologies' and' symbols,' these'
professionals'affect'the'social'order'and'strengthen'the'stability'of'
hegemonic' structures.' Architects' have' a' unique' role' in' these' pro)
cesses,' as' professionals' who' can' spatially' and' physically' express'
and'symbolize'abstract'values,'ideologies'and'national'identities.'
This'paper'focuses'on'a'critical'moment'in'which'a'threat'is'posed'
to' both' the' architects'' professional' autonomy' and' the' established'
hegemonic' structure' in' which' their' social' group' possesses' socio)
cultural'dominance.'This'paper'examines'the'reaction'of'the'archi)
tects'to'this'double)threat,'by'analyzing'the'discourse'of'Israeli'elite'
architects' under' the' conditions' of' hegemonic' crisis' during' the'
1980s,'which'entailed'a'partial'privatization'of'urban'planning'and'
freedom'to'individuals'to'design'their'own'homes.'
This'paper'explores'the'arguments'used'by'these'architects'in'order'
to'contend'with'this'double)threat.'This'paper'shows'that'the'archi)
tects'attempted'to'protect'the'old'social'structure'and'hegemonic'
ideology,' while' neglecting' their' exclusive' knowledge' and' tools' as'
professionals,'thereby'diminishing'their'professional'status.'Follow)
ing' the' voluntary' “recruitment”' of' the' professionals' for' the' “de)
fense”'of'the'hegemonic'order,'the'architects'no'longer'promoted'
the'idea'of'professionalism'as'a'normative'value'system.'In'the'long'
term,' this' strategy' has' weakened' the' status' of' the' architects' in'
society.'
VALUATION!CRITERIA!OF!PROFESSIONAL!CRITICS!IN!
THE!POPULAR!MUSIC!PRESS!
Gunnar'Otte
1
1'
Sociological'Institute,'UNIVERSITY'OF'ZÜRICH,'Zürich,'Switzerland
'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
Abstract:' Professional' critics' occupy' a' mediating' position' between'
cultural'producers'and'consumers'and'are'said'to'act'as'“gatekeep)
ers”,' “tastemakers”' or' mere' “predictors”' of' artistic' success.' In' re)
cent'years,'the'impact'of'critics'on'market'success'has'been'studied'
particularly'in'the'realm'of'film.'There'is'also'work'on'the'historical'
changes'in'the'techniques'that'critics'have'been'using'in'their'film'
reviews.' Concrete' valuation' criteria,' however,' have' rarely' been'
investigated' systematically' and' comprehensively' –' even' less' so' in'
the' realm' of' popular' music.' Drawing' on' the' pioneering' efforts' of'
Ralf' von' Appen,' a' coding' scheme' was' developed' in' order' to' con)
tent)analyze' album' reviews' in' three' influential' German' popular'
music'magazines'–'Rolling'Stone,'Spex'and'Intro'–'on'a'quantitative'
basis.'The'codebook'differentiates'several'dozens'of'subcategories'
of' compositional,' interpretative,' emotional' and' personal' qualities'
as'well'as'references'to'musicians’'biographies'and'their'positioning'
in' the' musical' field.' Our' database' also' links' critics’' valuations' to'
objective' characteristics' of' musicians' and' their' albums' as' well' as'
their' chart' success.' The' sample' consists' of' about' 800' reviews' in'
1995,' 2000,' 2005' and' 2010.' The' presentation' will' address' the' fol)
lowing' questions:' How' frequent' are' different' valuation' criteria?'
What'is'their'relative'impact'on'critics’'overall'rating'of'an'album?'
Do'valuation'criteria'differ'between'music'genres'such'as'rock,'hip'
hop'and'electronic'dance'music?'Has'the'evolution'of'musical'styles'
lead' to' changes' in' critical' discourse' over' the' fifteen' year' time)
span?'How'do'critical'reviews'relate'to'an'album’s'popular'success?'
PLAYING,!COMPETING!AND!PRIZEWINNING:!WHAT!
ARE!THE!ISSUES!OF!INTERNATIONAL!MUSIC!
COMPETITIONS!FOR!YOUNG!MUSICIANS!
Miriam'Gina'Odoni
1
1'
Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'GENEVA,'Genève'4,'Switzerland
'
Abstract:' The' international' music' competition' is' an' organisation'
with'its'own'staff,'its'own'rules'and'its'own'structure.'The'competi)
tion' pertains' to' an' array' of' selection' tools' allowing' to' access' the'
professional' classical' music' market.' The' competition' aims' to' pro)
mote'the'career'of'young'and'talented'musicians'and'is'an'"inter)
face"'between'education'and'music'production.'
The'purpose'of'this'research'is,'using'the'international'music'com)
petition' as' a' privileged' viewpoint,' to' study' how' musicians' are' se)
lected'and'brought'to'the'music'market.'To'analyze'the'impact'of'
prize' winning' in' the' career' of' musicians,' we' reconstruct' and' ana)
lyse' the' trajectory' of' musicians' who' participated' to' international'
music' competitions' and' who' want' to' do' an' international' career.'
The'music'market'has'its'own'specificities:'its'actors'are'very'com)
petitive' and' it' functions' through' project' organization.' We' study'
how'musicians'invest'this'market'and'how'they'manage'to'stay'in'
it.'
One'issue'that'we'wish'to'address'as'such'is'that'this'research'inte)
grates'various'research'methods:'observations'during'several'music'
competitions' and' interviews' with' contestants,' a' documentary' re)
search' on' international' competitions' and' interviews' with' organiz)
ers'of'competitions,'an'online'questionnaire'sent'to'about'800'prize'
winners,' "life' stories"' with' twenty' prize' winners' and' finally' inter)
views' with' a' control' population' of' ten' persons' who' did' not' win' a'
competition'prize.'
What'are'the'reasons'for'musicians'to'take'part'into'international'
music'competitions'which'is'an'activity'with'high'risk'for'them'(no'
guarantee'of'winning'a'prize'and'very'expensive'in'terms'of'money,'
Abstract'Book'
53'
'
work' and' energy)?' How' do' they' live' this' moment?' What' are' the'
immediate'consequences'of'winning'a'prize,'and'how'do'they'live'
the'time'after'the'competition?'Those'are'the'questions'we'would'
like'to'expand'upon'as'we'present'the'first'results'of'this'research.'
And' consequently,' question' issues' raised' by' the' participation' into'
international'music'competitions'for'a'musician.'
REPUTATION!AND!ECONOMIC!DISILLUSION:!THE!CASE!
OF!ARCHITECTS!IN!PORTUGUESE!SOCIETY!
Vera'Sousa'Borges
'1,1'
1
Instituto' de' Ciências' Sociais,' UNIVERSIDADE' DE' LISBOA,' Lisboa,'
'
Portugal
Abstract:' The' literature' on' artistic' reputation' has' explored' it' as' a'
phenomenon'with'implications'for'the'entire'society,'culture,'crea)
tivity,' economy.' Several' authors' have' increasingly' been' studying'
the'meaning'and'the'survival'of'artistic'reputation'and'the'power'of'
some'individuals'that'accumulate'reputational'credits,'the'“winner)
take' all)markets”.' We' will' analyse' the' results' of' a' qualitative' re)
search'inside'14'ateliers,'with'23'Portuguese'architects'in'order'to'
describe:' (a)' the' role' of' reputation' in' the' organization' of' work' in'
architecture,' (b)' the' professional' disillusion' by' young' architects,'
characterized' by' the' desire' to' abandon' architecture' and' by' the'
amount'of'time'without'artistic'work'in'the'field;'finally,'(c)'we'will'
explore'the'links'between'reputation'and'occupational'risk'in'today'
turbulent'times.'
TOWARDS!A!SOCIOLOGY!OF!READING!FICTIONAL!
NARRATIVE.!THE!SOCIAL!CONSTRUCTION!OF!
FICTIONAL!LITERARY!NARRATIVE!
Pablo'Venegas
1'
1
Laboratoire' de' Sociologie' de' Grenoble' EMC2)LSG,' UNIVERSITÉ'
'
PIERRE'MENDÈS'FRANCE')'GRENOBLE'2,'GRENOBLE,'France
Abstract:'Our'central'hypothesis'is'as'follows:'fictional'literary'nar)
rative' is' a' socially)constructed' cultural' object,' which' means' that'
fictional' literary' texts' in' themselves' are' devoid' of' meaning.' The'
meaning'is'constructed'from'the'intellectual'and'sensitive'process)
es' involved' in' the' act' of' reading' by' virtue' of' reception' processes'
and'intersubjective'type'cognitive'operations.'We'maintain'that'the'
meaning' of' literary' fiction' is' that' given' to' it' by' the' participants' in'
what'we'refer'to'as'the'Fictional/Narrative/Reading/Institute,'where'
the'actors'adopt'a'predetermined'role'and'assume'the'norms'and'
conventions' which' dictate' what' the' fictional/ narrative/ should'
mean.'
From' the' reception' of' the' fictional' narrative' By/ Night/ in/ Chile/ by'
Roberto' Bolaño' in' two' countries' (France' and' Spain),' we' approach'
the'social'creation'of'a'fictional'text'produced'by'the'reading/situa=
tion,' as' a' sociological' phenomenon,' as' both' an' individual' and' a'
collective'process.'Thus,'the'aim'is'to'describe'the'particular'condi)
tions'of'the'social'creation'of'a'text'from'the'connection'between'
the'literary'text'itself'and'its'reception'by'the'different'readers.'We'
examine' the' nature' of' the' processes' that' readers' confront' when'
facing'a'fictional'narrative'and'the'manner'in'which'readers'confer'
meaning' to' the' text' depending' on' their' origins,' cultural' back)
ground,' and' the' whole' array' of' factors' that' affect' the' practice' of'
reading'a'fictional'text.'
TRANSITIONS!IN!THE!LITERARY!FIELD:!COMPARING!
U.S.,!FRANCE,!GERMANY!AND!THE!NETHERLANDS,!
1955G2005!
Marc'Verboord
1'
1
Media' &' Communication,' ERASMUS' UNIVERSITY' ROTTERDAM,'
'
Rotterdam,'Netherlands
Abstract:' The' artistic' value' that' is' attributed' to' cultural' products'
and'genres'in'societies'is'to'a'large'extent'the'outcome'of'interac)
tions'among'institutionally'embedded'agents'like'critics,'academics,'
and' other' cultural' entrepreneurs.' Organized' into' cultural' fields,'
these' agents' have' been' legitimated' to' classify' cultural' products'
into' symbolically' potent' categories' which' signal' distinctive' struc)
tural' properties' as' well' as' degrees' of' artistic' excellence.' Previous'
work' offered' studies' of' individual' careers,' in)depth' analyses' of'
specific'cultural'institutions'and'one)moment'analyses'of'a'specific'
form' of' recognition' (retrospective' cultural' consecration).' In' this'
paper,'we'aim'to'map'transitions'in'how'cultural'institutions'relate'
to'one'another'and'through'their'social'standing'affect'the'status'of'
individual'artists.'
More'specifically,'we'examine'artistic'value'attribution'by'analyzing'
the'choices'made'in'one'particular'institution'(newspaper'criticism)'
in'relation'to'other'forms'of'institutional'recognition'(retrospective'
cultural'consecration'through'entries'in'literary'encyclopedias,'con)
temporary' cultural' consecration' through' literary' awards,' commer)
cial'recognition'through'bestseller'list'success'and'producers’'status'
through' the' prestige' of' publishers).' Our' baseline' is' formed' by'
newspaper' critics' –' cultural' agents' whose' authority' to' evaluate'
artistic' expressions' has' been' shown' in' previous' studies(e.g.'
Janssen,'Kuipers'&'Verboord,'2008).'
For'a'sample'of'newspaper'articles'from'the'years'1955,'1975,'1995'
and'2005'from'8'newspapers'in'4'countries'(N=2,419),'we'retrieved'
information'on'the'fiction'book'authors'discussed.'We'then'induc)
tively'analyze'how'fiction'book'authors'appearing'in'these'articles'
can' be' characterized' in' terms' of' the' mentioned' forms' of' institu)
tional' recognition.' We' conduct' cluster' analysis' and' multinomial'
logistic'regression'analyses.'
The'aim'of'the'paper'is'threefold.'First,'we'pursue'a'more'detailed'
examination' of' how' hierarchical' differences' within' one' particular'
cultural'domain'have'evolved'in'the'past'50'years.'Second,'we'at)
tempt'to'come'to'a'more'fine)tuned'analysis'of'how'different'cul)
tural' institutions' relate' to' one' another' and' impact' the' symbolic'
value' of' cultural' products.' Third,' we' learn' about' the' mechanisms'
by'comparing'the'literary'fields'in'four'countries:'France,'Germany,'
the'Netherlands,'the'United'States.'
FIGHTING!PROFESSORS!AND!OTHER!SCANDALS!–!THE!
CHANGING!IMAGE!OF!NONGFICTION!WRITERS!IN!
MEDIA!
Maaria'Linko
1'
1
Department'of'Social'Resarch,'UNIVERSITY'OF'HELSINKI,'HELSINKI,'
'
Finland
Abstract:'The'media'publicity'in'any'field'of'art'can'be'vital'for'its'
success.'This'is'also'the'case'on'non)fiction'books'and'their'writers.'
The' huge' changes' in' media' have' affected' also' the' ways' in' which'
non)fiction' writers' are' represented' in' media.' Media' researchers'
have' claimed' that' the' aesthetic' paradigm' in' culture' sections' of'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
54'
Abstract'Book'
newspapers'has'been'removed'by'the'journalistic'paradigm'which'
among' other' things' has' lead' to' an' emphasis' of' news' instead' of'
reviews' of' artistic' works.' In' addition,' the' Internet' has' brought' an'
enormous'change'which'affects'the'whole'book'world'and,'also'the'
media'publicity'of'literature.'
In'these'circumstances,'the'paper'examines'the'media'publicity'of'
non)fiction'and'especially'the'writers'of'non)fiction.'How'are'non)
fiction' writers' being' framed' in' media?' Which' sub)fields' of' non)
fiction' are' the' winners' in' the' competition' of' media' space?' The'
research' data' consists' of' media' publicity' of' non)fiction' in' three'
largest'newspapers,'two'tabloids'and'three'magazines.'The'visibility'
of' non)fiction' in' the' Internet' is' discussed' in' the' light' of' the' most'
important'websites'on'which'literature'is'present.'
Nine' different' frames' that' the' non)fiction' writers' are' represented'
in' newspapers' and' magazines' were' discerned:' non)fiction' writers'
were' framed' as' experts,' interpreters,' truth)tellers,' professionals,'
politicians,'philosophers,'art'enthusiasts,'reporters'or'therapists.'
The' tenth' frame' is' that' of' a' celebrity.' This' frame,' however,' is' a'
surplus' frame' which' can' be' added' to' other' frames.' The' media' is'
interested,' if' a' piece' of' news' can' or,' preferably' a' scandal' can' be'
reported,'and't'scandals'sell,'and'publishers'are'aware'of'this'too.'
Best' selling' scandals' deal' with' the' private' lives' of' writers' or' the'
people' they' write' about.' Not' even' non)fiction' writers' can' remain'
completely'outside'the'wide)spread'therapy'culture'in'which'public'
confessions' and' disagreements' with' other' people' are' more' inter)
esting'than'research'results'of'artistic'work'of'exceptional'quality.'
Two' history' professors' disagreeing' strongly' about' details' of' war'
history'or'a'young,'award)winning'female'writer'with'strong'opin)
ions'about'Finnish'men'win'in'the'competition'of'media'space.'Not'
to'mention'biographers'and'their'subjects'if'there'is'a'scandal'to'be'
reported.'Still,'there'is'also'a'notable'space'for'non)fiction'writers'
as'experts'in'media'–'the'question'remains,'does'the'reading'public'
notice,'that'these'experts'are'or'also'authors?'
IS!THIS!ART?!A!TRANSDISCIPLINARY!STUDY!ON!THE!
DECISION!ART!/!NONGART!IN!THE!RECEPTION!OF!
NEDKO!SOLAKOV’S!WORK!“A!LABEL!LEVEL”!
'1
'2
Martin'Anton'Tröndle ,'Volker'Kirchberg '
1
Culture,' Communication' &' Management,' ZEPPELIN' UNIVERSITY,'
2
Friedrichshafen,' Cultural' Sociology,' Leuphana' University,' Lüne)
'
burg,'Germany
Abstract:'Searching'for'the'key'word'“aesthetics”'the'Encyclopædia'
Britannica' (2001)' states:' “Indeed,' it' could' be' said' that' self)
definition' has' been' the' major' task' of' modern' aesthetics.”' This'
Swiss'national'research'project'eMotion/–/mapping/museum/expe=
rience'analyses'the'implicit'decision'art/non)art'of'museum'visitors'
in'the'field'of'a'fine'art'museum'using'a'truly'interdisciplinary'ap)
proach,' from' an' art' theoretical,' sociological,' psychological' and' ex)
perimental' perspective.' To' gain' access' to' this' complex' decision)
making' process' of' visitor' reception' in' the' museum,' we' developed'
innovative' research' methods:' A' contemporary,' complex' visitor'
tracking'system,'biometric'measurements,'empirical'social'science,'
as' well' as' the' experiment' itself' were' integrated' in' a' complemen)
tary' fashion.' Our' field' study' was' conducted' for' several' months' in'
2009' in' the' Art' Museum' of' St.' Gallen,' Switzerland.' Since' then' we'
have'been'analyzing'a'vast'amount'of'data'which'we'collected'from'
more'then'500'probands'in'the'field.'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
For'this'presentation'“Is'this'art?”,'the'(art)work'and'its'effects'on'
the'museum'visitors'which'we'have'analysed'were'created'by'the'
renown'Bulgarian'artist'Nedko'Solakov.'In'the'following'we'will'first'
describe'and'discuss'the'psychogeographic'data,'i.e.,'the'computer)
assisted'mappings'reflecting'the'immanent'visitors’'experiences'of'
Solakov’s'art.'We'will'secondly'describe'and'analyse'statistical'data'
on' experiencing' and' remembering' Solakov’s' art' as' yield' by' stand)
ardized'entrance'and'exit'surveys.'Thirdly'we'will'interpret'the'data'
gained'by'the'psychogeographically'oriented'mapping'methods'and'
by'the'quantitative'visitor'surveys'in'view'of'the'major'sociological'
art'theories'which'have'been'discussed'in'the'last'decades'–'some'
of'these'may'will'have'to'be're)thought.'
THE!MULTIFACED!CONCEPT!OF!AVANTGGARDE:!NEW!
ART!OR!NEW!SOCIAL!PRIORITIES?!
Ilaria'Riccioni
1'
1
Faculty'of'education,'FREE'UNIVERSITY'OF'BOZEN,'Bozen,'Italy
'
Abstract:/The'concept'of'avantgarde'has'been'rarely'inquired'in'all'
its'different'potential'facets.'However,'whenever'we'talk'about'art'
we'cannot'avoid'to'consider'what'kind'of'art'we'are'approaching.'
In'contemporary'times,'art'is'highly'connected'to'economy,'market,'
public'relation'and'ability'to'communicate.'The'intent'of'this'paper'
is'heading'in'a'triple'direction:'1)'find'out'if'the'concept'of'avant)
garde' is' still' holding' a' role' in' our' contemporary' art;' 2)' how' is' it'
changed' in' relation' to' the' original' utopic' idea' of' the' early' avant)
garde' artists' of' the' early' nineties,' as' we' consider' that' a' society'
which' doesn't' have' room' for' utopia' is' at' risk' of' it' inner' meaning'
and'orientation.'If'avant)garde'is,'in'a'sense,'the'outcome'of'a'sort'
of' utopic' thinking' able' to' shape' society' in' its' fears' and' wishes,' as'
well' as' its' economical' needs,' what' is' the' shape' of' utopia' in' the'
recent'artistic'pieces'of'meaning?'3)'sthe'first'sociological'consider)
ations'on'the'concept'of'avant)garde'appear'with'the'book'of'Re)
nato'Poggioli,'"the'theory'of'the'avant)garde",'where'the'concept'is'
widely' considered' as' a' main' concept' to' read' modern' way' of' art'
thinking.' A' second' important' contribution' to' the' concept' is' given'
by'Peter'Burger's,'"Theory'of'the'avant)garde",'where'the'concept'
of' avant)garde' is' stretched' to' its' meaning' to' a' postmodern' inter)
pretation.' However,' if' avantgarde' is' a' way' of' thinking' the' role' of'
arts'in'contemporary'society,'we'cannot'avoid'considering'its'rela)
tion' to' time,' social' organisation,' bureaucracy' and' extended' con)
ception' of' space.' What' is,' therefore,' the' shape' of' contemporary'
avant)garde?' Do' we' still' have' one?' In' which' areas?' Does' art' still'
have'a'leading'role?'
SOCIOLOGY!OF!THE!ARTS!AFTER!MASSMODERNISM!
Alfred'Smudits
1'
1
Institut' für' Musiksoziologie,' UNIVERSITY' FOR' MUSIC' AND'
'
PERFORMING'ARTS,'Vienna,'Austria
Abstract:' I' will' start' with' the' discussion' of' the' terms' ‚modernity‘,'
‚modernism‘,' and' ‚modernization‘.' In' this' context' several' dimen)
sions' of' modernization,' such' as' rationalisation,' individualisation,'
differentiation,'domestication'etc.'will'be'identified'as'well'as'sev)
eral' stages' of' modernity' (early' modernism,' bourgeois' modernism,'
mass'modernism).'
One'oft'he'main'issues'of'any'sociology'oft'he'arts'was'the'modern)
ization'of'the'field'oft'the'arts.'Max'Weber'argued'that'rationalisa)
tion'in'the'beginning'of'early'modernism'was'the'main'characteris)
Abstract'Book'
55'
'
tic'of'the'specific'developement'of'occidental'art.'The'rise'of'mass'
media,'in'particular'of'electronic'media'in'the'beginning'of'the'20th'
century'(the'beginning'of'massmodernism)'forced'sociological'the)
ories'oft'the'arts'to'integrate'mass'‚media‘'in'their'concepts.'That'
means' that' modernization' of' society' goes' along' with' moderniza)
tion' of' the' field' oft' he' arts,' and' alltogether' these' developements'
ask'for'a'modernization'of'the'sociology'oft'the'arts,'the'develop)
ment' of' an' adequate' sociological' concept' oft' the' arts' (objects,'
practices,'structures,'functions).'
With' the' emergence' of' digitalisation' a' new' step' of' modernization'
takes' place.' Sociology' oft' he' arts' hast' o' face' the' challenges' that'
arise'out'of'this'newest'step'of'modernization,'which'means'above'
all'to'keep'in'touch'with'culture'sociology'and'general'sociological'
theories.'
THE!CONTEMPORARY!SPHERE!OF!ART!FROM!THE!
STANDPOINT!OF!SYSTEMGTHEORETICAL!SOCIOLOGY!
Erkki'Tapio'Sevänen
1'
1
Department'of'the'Humanities,'UNIVERSITY'OF'EASTERN'FINLAND,'
'
Joensuu,'Finland
Abstract:' Theorists' of' postmodernity' and' creative' economics' hold'
that' modern' society' consisted' of' differentiated' sub)systems,' each'
of' which' had' its' own' function' in' society' and' which' were' largely'
autonomous'with'regard'to'each'other.'However,'they'go'on,'today'
there' are' no' longer' cleat)cut' boundaries' between' art' and' other'
sub)systems,' because' art' is' merging' with' other' sub)systems,' in'
particular,'with'economics.'
In'contrast'to'this,'Niklas'Luhmann'stated'that'we'still'live'in'mod)
ern' society.' According' to' him,' in' this' society' the' sphere' of' art' is,'
like' other' sub)systems,' an' autopoietic' formation,' that' is,' it' has' its'
own' principles' of' operation' on' which' its' functioning' is' based' and'
which'differentiate'it'from'other'sub)systems.'
Both'of'these'views'are'unsatisfactory.'A'system)theoretical'view'of'
the' contemporary' sphere' of' art' should' start' from' the' following'
principles.'
(1)'Since'the'1960s,'an'increasing'process'of'de)differentiation'has'
been' characteristic' of' society.' On' a' world' scale,' single' national'
societies'have'become'more'open'in'relation'to'each'other,'and'in'
single'national'societies'different'sub)systems'are'more'interlaced.'
(2)' In' the' 1960' and' 1970s,' it' was,' besides' cultural' industries,' also'
the' avantgarde' movements,' the' movement' of' political' art,' young'
popular' artists' and,' in' part,' the' expansive' welfare' state' that' at)
tempted' to' widen' art’s' boundaries.' However,' from' the' 1980s' on'
the' process' of' de)differentiation' has' mainly' been' based' on' the'
demands' of' capitalist' economics' and' neo)liberalist' policy;' they'
declare' that' the' whole' of' society' must' function' like' capitalist' en)
terprises'do.'
(3)'As'a'result'of'this,'the'system'of'art'has'borrowed'principles'of'
operation'from'economics,'and'economics'has'borrowed'principles'
of'operation'from'art.'Through'this,'these'systems'have'lost'a'great'
deal'of'their'specific'and'autopoietic'way'of'operation.'Consequent)
ly,'today'there'is,'in'society,'a/wide/interpenetration/zone/between/
art/and/economics.'This'zone'contains'elements'from'both'of'these'
two'systems.'
(4)'Yet,'the'system'of'art'has'not'merged'with'economics.'Certain'
genres' of' art' (installations,' performances,' activist' art)' inherently'
resist' the' process' of' commodification,' and' Western' states' also'
maintain'layers'of'art'that'could'not'survive'in'a'pure'market'com)
petition.'
NEW!CULTURAL!POLICIES!IN!EUROPE:!TOWARDS!A!
“SOCIAL”!FUNCTION!OF!CULTURE!AND!ARTS?!
'1
'2
Olivier'Moeschler ,'Olivier'THEVENIN '
1
2
UNIVERSITY' OF' LAUSANNE,' Lausanne,' Switzerland,' UNIVERSITY'
'
OF'HAUTE'ALSACE,'Mulhouse,'France
Abstract:'Cultural'policies'and'public'cultural'expenses'have'often,'
in' the' 80’s' and' 90’s,' been' legitimated' by' local' and' national' gov)
ernment'by'emphasizing'the'economic'contribution'of'culture'and'
arts,'either'directly'(as'an'economic'sector'per/se)'or'indirectly'(by'
increasing'the'attractiveness'of'a'place'for'tourists'or'enterprises).'
In' the' past' decade,' this' discourse' underwent' a' considerable'
change,'in'the'context'of'both'the'economic'crisis'and'the'increas)
ing'social'and'ethnic'diversity'of'Europe,'notably'of'its'large'cities.'
In'this'context,'metropolitan'cultural'policies'are'ready'to'point'at'
the' “social”' and' integrating' function' of' cultural' institutions' and'
events.' Art' is' to' provide' communication,' distraction,' solace,' but'
also'social'cement'to'increasingly'hybrid'societies.'There'is'no'will'
anymore' to' bring' underprivileged' categories' of' the' population' to'
major'works'of'art'considered'as'valuable,'yet'untouchable'goods.'
Today'the'real'need'seems'to'be'to'bring'culture'in'its'various'and'
expanding' forms' to' populations' which' are' increasingly' mixed' so)
cially,'ethnically'and'nationally'speaking.'
What' appears' to' be' a' new' paradigm' of' cultural' policies' in' Europe'
raises' some' questions.' How' do' authorities' argue' and' elaborate'
their'discourse'around'this'“social”'function'of'culture?'What'per)
manent'features'and'local'characteristics'of'these'discourses'can'be'
identified?' Which' audiences' are' precisely' aimed' at,' and' how?'
Which'cultural'and'artistic'production'is'defined'in'these'projects?'
Mainly'based'on'detailed'analyses'of'discourses'and'of'catalogues'
of' measures' formulated' by' the' cultural' management' of' cities' in'
France,'Belgium,'Germany'and'Switzerland,'this'paper'aims'to'un)
derstand'the'changes'that'public'discourse'on'culture'–'and'culture'
itself'–'is'undergoing'in'Europe’s'new'cultural'policies.'
ARTWORKS!AS!SOURCES!OF!NOVEL!EXPERIENCE!
GOODS.!FIVE!EPISODES!OF!"TRANSFORMATION"!
Michael'Hutter
'1,'2*
'
1
Cultural' Sources' of' Newness,' SOCIAL' SCIENCE' RESEARCH' CENTER'
2
BERLIN,' Department' of' Sociology,' Technische' Universität' Berlin,'
'
Berlin,'Germany
Abstract:'The'products'of'the'creative'industries'trigger'experiences'
in' users' through' narratives,' sounds' and' images.' To' achieve' their'
effects,' the' creators' use' inventions' originally' realized' in' artworks.'
How'do'such'transformations'happen?'
Based'on'a'model'of'interdependence'between'autonomous'social'
subsystems' or' plays' of' value,' five' historical' cases' of' successful'
transformation' are' reconstructed:' an' advertising' photograph' by'
Edward'Steichen,'an'animation'film'by'the'Disney'Studio,'an'office'
highrise'building'by'Mies'van'der'Rohe,'a'poster'with'an'art'motive'
by'Andy'Warhol'and'a'handbag'designed'by'Takashi'Murakami.'The'
five'items'span'the'spectrum'of'the'experience'economy.'The'cases'
demonstrate'that'the'metaphor'of'transformation'is'inadequate'to'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
56'
Abstract'Book'
capture'essential'features'of'the'process,'and'they'suggest'alterna)
tive' theoretical' categories' for' understanding' the' relationship' be)
tween'artistic'and'commercial'worlds.'
STUDIO!PRACTICE!AND!LARGE!SCALE!PRODUCTION!
'1
Karen'Van'Den'Berg ,'Ursula'Pasero
1'
1
Cultural' Management,' ZEPPELIN' UNIVERSITY,' Friedrichshafen,'
'
Germany
Abstract:'How'do'artists'work'in'the'large'scaled'studio'of'the'21st'
century?' The' presentation' is' based' on' an' empirical' research' that'
examines' the' working' practice' and' conditions' in' artist’s' studios'
with'more'than'10'employees.'Large'scaled'studios'at'the'edge'of'
“the' post)studio' era”' with' up' to' 100' employees' –' like' the' one' of'
Olafur' Eliasson' –have' become' a' more' and' more' widespread' phe)
nomenon' since' the' beginning' of' the' 21rst' century.' Our' research'
analyses' this' particular' studio' practice' in' order' to' create' findings'
about'its'role'models,'the'careers'of'the'employees,'and'the'forms'
of' knowledge' production,' which' take' place' in' studios' of' artists,'
whose'practice'can'be'seen'as'a'form'new'art'industry.'The'analysis'
is'based'on'10'guided'interviews'and'studio'visits.'
The'study'explores'forms'of'organization,'patterns'of'professionali)
zation,' and' structures' of' decision)making' in' these' places.' One' of'
the'finings'is'that'the'artists'in'question'on'the'one'hand'are'seen'
as'market'winners,'but'one'the'other'hand'are'confronted'with'the'
suspicion'to'be'more'part'of'the'culture'industries'then'part'of'the'
inner'circles'of'the'art'field.'They'therefore'developed'new'forms'of'
legitimization' practices.' Insofar' this' new' form' of' studio' practice'
cannot'only'be'equated'with'delimitation'into'the'broader'field'of'
culture'industries.'Speaking'of'delimitation'loses'sight'of'the'pow)
ers'and'efforts,'which'are'immanent'to'the'art'field,'particularly'to'
mention'and'mark'these'limits.'Therefore'the'presentation'outlined'
here' also' raises' questions' about' attribution' patterns' which' distin)
guish'art'and'non)art'in'the'art'field.'
LINKING!CREATIVITY!AND!ART!THROUGH!THE!
MUSEUM!SOUVENIRS!
Chia)Ling'Lai
1'
1
GRADUATE' INSTITUTE' OF' EUROPEAN' CULTURE' AND' TOURISM,'
'
NATIONAL'TAIWAN'NORMAL'UNIVERSITY,'Taipei,'Taiwan
Abstract:' Souvenir' shops' in' the' museum,' not' only' perform' the'
commodification'of'museums,'but'also'provide'the'portable'memo)
ries' and' reportable' art' for' visitors' when' involving' the' process' of'
translating' art' ideas' into' consumable' everyday' aesthetic' designs.'
This' research' analyse' the' museum' practice' in' the' National' Palace'
Museum'(NPM)'in'Taipei'since'2006,'which'invited'Italian'designer'
company,'Alessi,'to'render'the'exhibits'embodying'Chinese'heritage'
into'design'that'can'be'used'in'the'contemporary'everyday'context.'
Alessi' Designer,' Stefano' Giovannoni,' appropriates' the' image' of'
Emperor'of'Ching'Dynasty'to'create'Mr.'Chin'and'Chin'Family'series'
of'dolls'and'apply'them'at'the'design'of'daily'use'utensils,'including'
pepper'cans,'can'openers,'egg'cups'and'so'on.'Compared'with'the'
NPM’s' previous' souvenirs' design' that' emphasis' on' the' antique'
Chinese' cultural' elements,' Alessi' series' not' only' create' the' hybrid'
design'but'also'bring'the'contemporary'everyday'aesthetic'into'the'
old'universe'of'museum'souvenirs.'It'also'stirs'up'public'discussion'
on'the'ideology'of'the'design'and'bring'up'the'purchase'attention'
for'younger'generations.'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
Drawing' upon' theories' of' souvenirs' (Stewart,' 1996;' Lury,' 1997),'
aestheticization' of' everyday' life' (Featherstone,' 1994;' Lury' and'
Lash,' 2007),' and' tourism' and' consumption' theory' (Miller,' 1998;'
Urry,' 2002;' Zukin,' 2004),' this' paper' analyses' how' the' souvenirs'
perform'and'be'consumed'in'the'museum.'It'will'firstly'analyse'the'
politics'of'hybrid'design'in'the'metonymy'used'in'the'Alessi'design'
and'the'translating'process'from'historical'art'into'everyday'design.'
Also,' it' will' deal' with' the' politics' of' display' when' souvenirs' per)
formed'in'the'museum'shops'and'museum'shop'website.'Finally,'it'
will' explore' how' the' souvenirs' are' consumed' by' flâneur' visi)
tors/tourists' from' different' background' in' the' museum' shops,' re)
lating'to'how'souvenirs'perform'as'the''portable'memory',''report)
able'art'objects''and''gifts'as'consumer's'love'.'
AN!ECOLOGY!OF!MUSIC!GENRES:!STUDYING!THE!
DYNAMICS!OF!CLASSIFICATION!SYSTEMS!
Alex'van'Venrooij
1'
1
Department' of' Sociology' and' Anthropology,' UNIVERSITY' OF'
'
AMSTERDAM,'Amsterdam,'Netherlands
Abstract:' This' paper' studies' the' dynamics' of' aesthetic' categories,'
i.e.'genres,'in'the'field'of'popular'music:'a'field'that'is'characterized'
by' a' turbulent' rise' and' fall' of' large' numbers' of' (sub)genres' and'
therefore'offers'an'especially'interesting'case'for'analyzing'dynamic'
mechanisms' in' categorical' systems.' Between' 1985' and' 2005,' the'
genre'diversity'in'popular'music'increased'substantially,'witnessing'
the' rise' and' growth' of,' among' others,' hip)hop,' reggae,' ska,' new'
wave,'punk'rock,'grunge,'heavy'metal,'house'music,'techno'(Lopes,'
1992;' Dowd,' 2004).' Some' of' these' genres' had' short' life' cycles,'
whereas' others' remained' part' of' the' musical' landscape.' Some'
spawned' many' subgenres' –' electronic' dance' music' almost' 300'
(McLeod,'2001)'–'whereas'others'remained'relatively'undifferenti)
ated'genres.'Some'genres'were'more'successful'in'some'countries,'
but' unsuccessful' in' others.' Electronic' dance' music,' for' example,'
became')'by'several'indicators')'one'of'the'most'central'genres'in'
Europe,'but'remained'peripheral'in'the'United'States.'The'question'
I' want' to' address' in' this' paper' is' how' to' explain' these' dynamics?'
More' particularly,' the' aim' of' this' paper' is' to' develop' and' test' a'
‘cultural'ecological’'model'of'the'dynamics'of'genres.'The'ecological'
perspective'has'been'successful'in'analyzing'the'dynamics'of'organ)
izational' forms' (Carroll' &' Hannan,' 1989;' McPherson' &' Ranger)
Moore,' 1991).' One' of' the' most' interesting' questions,' however,' is'
whether'this'perspective'can'be'applied'to'the'dynamic'analysis'of'
‘cultural' forms’' (Kaufman,' 2004;' McPherson,' 2004;' Lieberson,'
2000;' Wuthnow,' 1987;' Abbott,' 2001;' Isaac,' 2009).' This' project'
therefore' addresses' the' research' question:' do/ ecological/ mecha=
nisms/explain/the/dynamics/of/popular/music/genres?'
VALUE!CONSTRUCTION:!AMATEUR!JUDGEMENTS!OF!
PHOTOGRAPHY!
'1
Nuné'Nikoghosyan ,'André'Ducret
1
1'
'
Sociology'Department,'University'of'Geneva,'Geneva,'Switzerland
Abstract:'Our'contribution'presents'a'case'study'of'the'construction'
of' judgement' on' photography' by' amateurs' as' can' be' analysed'
through' written' comments' of' the' members' of' a' photo' sharing'
website,' TrekLens.com.' Past' studies' have' dealt' with' the' construc)
tion'of'judgement'in'other'areas'of'the'arts,'but'such'a'study'con)
cerning' photography,' and' in' its' online' context,' has' been' absent'
from' the' literature.' TrekLens' is' a' public' website' with' the' motto'
Abstract'Book'
57'
'
“Learning'about'photography'through'the'world”'that'allows'mem)
bers,' professionals' and' amateurs' alike,' to' alternate' between' the'
roles'of'photographer,'critic'and'audience.'
Our' research' question' is' as' follows:' What' value' systems' do' the'
judgements'of'photographs'on'TrekLens'refer' to?' In' sketching'the'
value' systems,' our' analysis' of' online' comments' shall' verify' two'
hypotheses:' 1)' the' value' systems' vary' with' the' genres;' 2)' the' val)
ues' most' referred' to' are' more' specific' to' photography' itself,' its'
techniques' and' aesthetics.' Our' method' is' content' analysis' of' the'
arguments'developed'in'the'comments'that'leave'traces'of'a'value'
system' as' their' source.' The' final' results' will' be' presented' in' two'
tables:' one' crossing' the' photo' genres' with' the' value' systems,' the'
other' crossing' the' value' systems' with' the' comment’s' negative' or'
positive'orientation.'
Throughout' our' study' of' an' online' space' we' faced' challenges' and'
difficulties' that' led' to' methodological' reconsiderations.' First,' con)
sidering'the'internet'as'a'field'to'be'observed'and'analysed'means'
viewing' it' not' only' as' a' communicative' tool,' but' a' place' for' com)
munication.' This' field,' then,' imposes' questions' of' whether' or' not'
online' data' should' be' separated' from' the' offline,' whether' they'
should'then'be'combined'for'full'applicability'or'can'each'suffice'if'
taken' separately?' Moreover,' an' impersonal' relation' via' internet'
may'limit'the'researcher’s'analysis'to'textual'aspects'only.'This'has'
the'benefit'of'experiencing'the'website'as'its'users'do,'having'only'
written' text' as' a' means' of' exchange,' but' also' the' shortcoming' of'
lacking' access' to' face)to)face' interviews,' arguably' more' enriching'
in' analysing' opinions' and' judgements.' Finally,' important' benefits'
and'drawbacks'not'to'be'neglected'result'from'the'specificity'of'the'
material,' produced' by' the' subjects' without' the' researcher’s' inter)
vention,'voluntarily,'spontaneously'and'in'the'heat'of'the'moment.'
The' presentation' of' our' final' results' will' revisit' these' and' other'
questions'of'methodology.'
SOCIOLOGICAL!ASPECTS!ON!ESCHATOLOGICAL!ISSUES!
OF!MACEDONIAN!FRESCO!PAINTING!IN!THE!PERIOD!
BETWEEN!15TH!AND!20TH!CENTURY!
Duska'Matevska
1'
1
Public' administration' and' political' science,' SOUTH' EAST'
'
EUROPEAN'UNIVERSITY,'Skopje,'Macedonia
Abstract:'This'research'is'an'attempt'to'do'sociological'analyses'on'
the' issues' of' eschatological' significance' within' Macedonian' Fresco'
Painting,'i.e.'their'social)political'conditionality'and'the'functionali)
ty'of'these'issues'in'a'defined'socially'determined'context.'In'fact,'
sacral'painting'is'not'just'an'optically'organized'formal'creation,'but'
also' an' expression' of' the' attitudes' towards' the' world,' which' de)
pend'on'the'society.'
Christian' philosophers' considered' that' the' picture' performs' the'
most' important' gnoseological' function' and' also' that' the' human'
being'with'his'nature'is'not'in'position'to'lift'himself'on'the'level'of'
spiritual' reception' without' certain' meditation.' In' their' creations'
they'remarkably'express'the'didactic'significance'of'the'biography.'
From' the' period' of' Turkish' domination' on' the' territory' of' the' Re)
public' of' Macedonia,' till' the' modern' times,' the' appearance' of' so)
cial'motives'in'the'Macedonian'fresco'painting'is'particularly'inter)
esting.'Their'inserting'was'easiest'and'most'acceptable'for'the'con)
servative' environment' within' the' issues' of' eschatological' signifi)
cance,'Painter’s'trend,'appointed'by'the'Church'and'its'establishers'
and'protectors'was'completely'clear:'to'present'all'negative'social'
appearances' that' were' popular' in' that' period,' but' also' related' to'
certain'territory,'what'finally'had'to'influence'the'believers'in'order'
to' decrease' moral' norms.' This' mainly' refers' to' the' convinced' be)
lievers'who'implicitly'accept'all'dogmas'that'affirm'Orthodox'Chris)
tian'religion.'A'conclusion'that'can'derive'from'the'elaborated'issue'
is'that'sacral'painting'had'not'the'effect'and'influence'that'it'used'
to'have'in'the'past.'This'is'due'to'the'fact'that'today'the'messages'
are'mainly'communicated'through'the'mass'media,'what'is'radical'
change'of'the'communication'form.'The'creations'belonging'to'the'
sphere' of' painting' are' more' and' more' displaced' from' individuals’'
lives,'as'a'result'of'mass'media'expansion.'Besides,'sacral'painting'
still'has'its'influence'in'the'rural'environments,'where'mass'media'
do'not'have'so'a'great'intensity.'Rural'population'lives'in'a'closed'
world,' where' pictures' located' in' their' sacral' objects' actually' influ)
ence'on'their'spiritual'lives.'
Key'words:'eschatology;'fresco'painting;'moral'norms'
THE!ART!OF!MAKING!MUSICAL!INSTRUMENTS:!WHY!
ONLY!YAMAHA!COULD!BE!A!BIG!COMPANY?!
'1
'2
Yuko'Oki ,'Hideo'Yamada '
1
2
KYOTO' SANGYO' UNIVERSITY,' Kyoto,' Waseda' University,' Tokyo,'
'
Japan
Abstract:'This'article'focuses'on'a'study'of'product'architecture'of'
musical' instruments.' In' the' musical' instrument' industry,' only'
Yamaha'became'a'big'company'in'the'world.'Analyzing'case'studies'
of' manufacturing' the' piano,' violin' and' saxophone,' we' discuss' the'
mass'manufacturing'system'for'integral'architectural'products.'
Yamaha'targeted'the'mid)priced'segment'rather'than'the'high)end'
one.' Gaining' such' customers,' however,' required' a' certain' quality'
level'of'musical'instruments'even'under'mass)production.'The'case'
study'shows'how'the'company'has'promoted'introducing'the'state)
of)the)art'technology'and'the'automation'to'avoid'manual'variabil)
ity,'and'outsourcing'module'components'while'ensuring'the'“inte)
gration”' which' is' the' key' for' manufacturing' instruments.' We'
demonstrate' that' the' company' enables' to' mass)produce' instru)
ments'by'committing'to'in)house'manufacturing'for'finished'prod)
ucts'with'the'integration'as'well'as'its'supporting'mechanization.'
On'the'other'hand,'although'the'company'has'stood'on'a'par'with'a'
leading' company' in' the' category' of' the' woodwind' and' the' brass'
which' could' be' easily' standardized,' it' does' not' still' get' reputation'
from'high)end'segment'of'piano'and'violin'which'are'made'of'wood'
under' the' “ultimate' integration.”' Instruments' demand' “connois)
seurs”'to'judge'good'wood'for'processing'as'well'as'unquantifiable'
“sound”' and' “sonance,”' thus' the' competition' of' manufacturing'
instruments'has'been'in'the'“Invisible'Dimension”'(Kusunoki,'2006).'
This' characteristic' makes' customers' keep' traditional' brand' belief,'
resulting'in'a'long'time'to'evaluate'a'new'comer.'
DECOUPLING!THE!BOURDIEUAN!DISTINCTION!
STRUCTURE:!POPULARIZATION!OF!HIGH!CULTURE!
AND!MIDDLEGCLASS!OMNIVORE!IN!KOREA!
'1
'1
Dongyoub'Shin ,'Kangsan'Lee ,'Margeum'Kim
1
1'
YONSEI'UNIVERSITY,'Seoul,'Korea,'Republic'Of
'
Abstract:'This'paper'concerns'how'the'recent'popularization'of'high'
culture' has' brought' about' the' decoupling' between' cultural' taste'
and' class' in' the' structure' of' Bourdieuan' distinction.' In' his' famed'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
58'
Abstract'Book'
framework' of' class' distinction' based' on' cultural' capital,' Bourdieu'
underlined' the' tight' coupling' between' class' and' cultural' taste,'
which' serves' as' a' crucial' basis' of' the' distinction' among' different'
classes.' Bourdieu' and' his' followers,' such' as' Peterson' and' Kern,'
further'pointed'out'that'members'of'upper'class'tend'to'be'cultural'
omnivore' in' their' taste,' and,' thus,' their' cultural' preference' often'
ranges'over'a'variety'of'different'artistic'genres.'
We' argue' that' the' coupling' between' class' and' cultural' taste' has'
been' significantly' loosened' in' recent' years' due' primarily' to' the'
popularization'of'high'culture.'With'the'world)wide'institutionaliza)
th
tion' of' neo)liberalist' ideology' in' the' late' 20 ' century,' art' worlds'
have' also' come' to' be' subjected' to' the' pressure' toward' the' hege)
monic' institutional' logics' of' economic' efficiency' and' financial' self)
sufficiency.'As'a'result,'producers'of'high'culture'began'to'expand'
their'target'audience'to'middle)class'masses'in'an'effort'to'gener)
ate'financial'resources'efficiently'from'high'culture'the'enjoyment'
of' which' used' to' be' monopolized' by' members' of' upper' class.' For'
instance' in' korea,' producers' of' high' culture' have' made' various'
attempts' to' achieve' financial' self)sufficiency' through' ticket' sales'
without'relying'on'government'funds'or'public'sponsorship'by'low)
ering'entry'barrier'to'high'culture.'
However,'the'popularization'of'high'culture'has'inflicted'unintend)
ed' disruption' on' the' Bourdieuan' distinction' structure.' Bestowed'
with' an' access' to' diverse' high)culture' genres,' members' of' middle'
class'have'come'to'accumulate'a'considerable'level'of'cultural'capi)
tal' over' a' broad' range' of' high)culture' genres' by' aggressively' ap)
propriating' the' new' opportunity' structure.' As' a' consequence,' the'
proportion'of'cultural'omnivore'among'member'of'middle'class'has'
rapidly'increased.'On'the'other'hand,'members'of'upper'class'who'
have' lost' their' cultural' basis' of' distinction' began' to' explore' new'
ways' to' differentiate' their' class' status' from' the' newly' emerging'
middle)class'cultural'omnivores'in'various'ways.'In'this'regard,'the'
empirical' part' of' this' paper' deals' with' the' emergence' of' middle)
class'cultural'omnivore'and'the'responses'of'upper)class'members'
to'the'popularization'of'high'culture'in'Korea.'
(RE)!DRAWING!A!CULTURAL!MAP!OF!SERBIA!
'1
'1
Predrag'Cveticanin ,'Jasmina'Nedeljkovic ,'Nemanja'Krstic
1'
how' they' relate' to' cultural' practices' constructed' in' the' manner'
described'above.'In'the'central'part'of'this'article'we'compare'the'
results'obtained'based'on'the'data'from'all'three'studies'undertak)
en'in'Serbia'cited'above'(in'2005'and'2010),'while'the'final'section'
of'the'paper'compares'our'results'with'the'results'of'similar'studies'
in' Great' Britain' [Bennett' at' al,' 2009],' Finland' [Kahma' and' Toikka,'
2009]'and'Flanders'[Roose,'van'Eijck'&'Lievens,'2010].'
RESEARCH!THAT!IDENTIFIED!VULNERABLE!MINORITIES!
IN!GEORGIA,!ISOLATED!FROM!THE!COUNTRY'S!SOCIAL!
LIFE!TO!DIFFERENT!EXTENT.!THE!SOCIOLOGY!OF!THE!
ART!AND!CULTURE!OF!ETHNIC/RELIGIOUS!MINORITIES!
OF!GEORGIA!IN!TURBULENT!TIMES,CAN!ART!HELP!
HEAL!SOCIAL!RIFTS!WHICH!
'1
'2
Marine'Solomonishvili ,'Marine'Tumanishvili '
1
2
Center' of,' Intercultural' Dialogue,' INTERNATIONAL' FOUNDATION'
'
LEA&COUNCILOFJEWISH'WOMEN,'Tbilisi,'Georgia
Abstract:' The' sociology' of' the' Art' and' Culture' of' ethnic/religious'
minorities' of' Georgia' in' Turbulent' Times.' Contents,' production,'
mediation'and'reception'of'the'arts'influence,'manipulate'and'de)
termine' our' contemporary' life' in' many' ways,' and' in' turn' these'
social'structures'and'processes'also'have'an'impact'on'the'arts.We'
will'put'an'emphasis'on'those'issues'that'are'of'sociological'interest'
within'arts'worlds'but'also'relate'to'those'powerful'developments'
in' economy,' ecology' and' ethic' contexts' on' the' macro' level' that'
influence,'manipulate'or'determine'production,'content'and'forms,'
distribution' and' reception' of' the' arts' in' Georgia' and' Europe,Also'
we'will'carry'out'the'comparative'analysis.'
In' Georgia' about' 1/3' population' ethnic/religious' minorities,' we'
investigated'influence'of'different'cultures'on'development'of'crea)
tive' potential' of' artists' different' ethnic/religious' minori)
ties.Research' that' identified' vulnerable' minorities' in' Georgia,' iso)
lated' from' the' country's' social' life' to' different' extent.Inspiration'
during'these'turbulent'times'can'art'help'heal'social'rifts'which'may'
arise' as' result.' gender' dimensions' implications' in' Turbulent' Times'
and'etc.'
1
CENTRE' FOR' EMPIRICAL' CULTURAL' STUDIES' OF' SE' EUROPE,' Nis,'
'
Serbia
Abstract:'Our'paper'is'based'on'data'collected'in'the'course'of'the'
survays' “Cultural' Needs,' Habits' and' Taste' of' Citizens' of' Serbia”'
undertaken'in'2005'within'a'CCI'project'of'the'same'name'(national'
proportional'probability'sample,'1364'respondents);'“Cultural'Prac)
tices' of' Citizens' of' Serbia”' of' the' Centre' for' the' Study' of' Cultural'
Development'from'2010'(national'proportional'probability'sample,'
1490'respondents);'and'“Social'and'Cultural'Capital'in'Serbia”'from'
2010'of'the'Centre'for'Empirical'Cultural'Studies'of'South)East'Eu)
rope' realized' within' the' Regional' Research' Promotion' Programme'
(telephone' survey,' national' proportional' probability' sample,' 970'
respondents)'in'which'authors'of'this'paper'have'participated.'
In'the'analysis'of'these'data'we'used'the'“reciprocal'approach”'in'
the'application'of'Multiple'Correspondence'Analysis'(MCA)'as'out)
lined' in' Lebart' et' al.' (1984).' First,' based' on' data' on' respondents’'
cultural' needs,' cultural' habits,' tastes,' cultural' knowledge' and' cul)
tural'equipment'and'possessions,'we're)constructed'a'field'of'cul)
tural' practices' in' Serbia.' Next' we' superimposed' the' socio)
demographic' variables' (education,' age,' income,' wealth,' gender,'
place'of'residence,'region'of'residence)'as'passive'variables'to'see'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
ARTFUL!AFFORDANCES!IN!LEADERSHIP!AND!
MANAGEMENT!DEVELOPMENT:!INSPIRATION!IN!
TURBULENT!TIMES!
Ian'Damon'Sutherland
1'
1
POSTGRADUATE' STUDIES,' IEDC)BLED' SCHOOL' OF' MANAGEMENT,'
'
Bled,'Slovenia
Abstract:' The' world' is' in' crisis' and' the' arts' are' increasingly' called'
into'service'to'save'it.'To'those'involved'in'business'and'exeuctive'
education' it' has' become' clear' rationally' based,' instrumental,' out)
come' driven' management' and' leadership' development' does' not'
prepare' individuals' for' the' dynamic' challenges' they' face.' In' fact,'
they'are'part'of'the'problem'as'they'do'not'cultivate'holistic,'social)
ly' responsible' views' of' the' world' and' leadership/management'
practice.' This' paper' examines' the' growing' position' of' arts)based'
methods'in'this'activity.'
To' develop' responsible' views' of' systems' of' problems' which' go'
beyond' the' individual,' organisation,' sector,' etc.' –' leaders' must'
develop' new' ways' of' sensing' and' acting.' The' challenge' is' to' re)
Abstract'Book'
59'
'
imagine' the' complex' realities' faced' and' re)envision' how' to' ap)
proach'them.'Enter'the'world'of'the'plastic'and'performative'arts.'
Following' a' grounded' theory' approach' the' research' conducted'
studied' reflection' papers' by' 24' Executive' MBA' participants' in' a'
choral' conducting' workshop.' By' combining' emergent' trends' from'
this' data' with' arts)based' management' literature' this' paper' exam)
ines' the' art)mediated' affordances' of' the' music' and' arts' in' action'
methods' employed.' The' results' describe' how' art)based' methods'
(experiential'learning'through'storytelling,'drama/theatre,'painting,'
music,'crafts,'etc.)'develop'unique'affordance'frameworks'of'space,'
time' and' structure' to' afford' presentational,' experiential' knowing'
leading'to'more'dynamic,'creative,'socially'sensitive'modes'of'man)
agement'and'leadership'action.'
CITY!INFORMATION!AS!CULTURAL!PHENOMENA!
PERCEPTION!ANALYSIS!
Miroslava'Sergeevna'Tsapko
1'
1
department'of'political'sociology,'RUSSIAN'STATE'UNIVERSITY'FOR'
'
THE'HUMANITIES,'Moscow,'Russian'Federation
Abstract:'Moscow'is'overloaded'with'outdoor'advertisement'that’s'
why' analysis' of' advertising' campaigns' efficiency' becomes' an' ex)
tremely' actual' matter.' We' use' tracking' to' solve' a' lot' of' research'
tasks,'such'as'determination'of'the'population'percentage'attract)
ed' by' any' advertisement,' correlation' between' advertising' images'
kept'in'mind'and'number'of'brands'or'company'names'recognized,'
poster'attractiveness'for'target'groups'of'any'cultural'organization,'
etc.' In' spite' of' considerable' measurements,' regular' sociological'
surveys' in' this' sphere' were' only' conducted' in' England,' Australia'
and'Switzerland.'
We'have'experience'monthly'tracking'surveys'in'the'outdoor'advis)
ing'market'in'Russia./Espar/Analyst'research/agency'has'conducted'
the'first'monthly'tracking'surveys'in'the'outdoor'advising'market'in'
Russia.'The'objects'of'its'research'are'advertising'posters'within'the'
territory' of' Moscow' and' the' matters' are' cultural' events,' cinemas'
and'new'films.'
The' goal' of' the' research' is' to' determine' an' efficiency' rate' of' an'
outdoor' advertising' campaign.' Efficiency' means' here' the' rate' of'
poster' penetration' and' brand' recognition.' This' goal' may' be'
achieved' in' case' if' the' main' task' of' measuring' general' parameter'
for'evaluation'of'each'outdoor'advertising'campaign’s'efficiency'is'
resolved.'
The'following'factors'shall'be'considered'in'the'analysis'of'the'data'
obtained:'
•'number,'type'and'location'of'advertising'media;'
•'duration'of'the'adverting'campaign;'
•'other'media'used'for'advertising'the'brand'and'their'correlation'
with'the'poster'creative'solution;'
•'creative'solution;'
•'advertised'product'category.'
From'March'2001'up'to'the'present'time,'150'research'waves'have'
been'conducted.'
One'of'the'most'important'results'of'tracking'campaigns'is'an'op)
portunity'to'form'a'limited'indicator'basis'for'each'group'of'cultural'
organisms,'which'would'allow'to'compare'the'campaigns'and'bring'
their' characteristics' into' correlation' with' average' indicators' for'
different'social'groups'or'formats'used.'Such'surveys'are'aimed'at'
renewal' the' empirical' basis' of' social' sciences,' which' study' the' in)
fluence'of'different'format'advertising'images'of'human'conscious)
ness'that'is'extremely'important'when'the'so'called'visual'culture'is'
developed.'
The' city' information' became' habitual' making' daily' occurrence' of'
cities.' Features' of' perception' of' the' city' information' became' an'
actual'problem'in'sphere'sociological'practice.'
TURKISH!THEATRE:!CHANGE!AND!CONFIGURATION!OF!
A!CREATIVE!INDUSTRY!THROUGH!INSTITUTIONAL!
LOGICS!
Ozge'Can
1'
1
Faculty' of' Economics' and' Administrative' Sciences,' YASAR'
'
UNIVERSITY,'Izmir,'Turkey
Abstract:'Researchers'are'interested'in'the'evolution'and'structure'
of'organization'groups,'as'organizational'species,'and'how'they'are'
linked'to'socio)cultural'and'institutional'frames'at'societal'level.'Yet'
there'is'lack'of'a'clear'understanding'of'the'effect'of'such'historical'
and' cultural' contingency' in' organizational' identities' and' resulting'
industry'classifications.'It'is'an'interesting'question'to'ask'how'insti=
tutional/ logics' as' societal' belief' systems' might' inform' individual'
organizations' to' produce' their' identities' and' to' locate' themselves'
in'the'industry'space.'My'study'seeks'to'unravel'both'the'transfor)
mation' of' a' creative' industry' itself' and' macro' institutional' logics'
influencing'it.'
Turkish' theatre' field' has' undergone' important' transformations'
during'its'development'since'the'establishment'of'modern'Turkey.'
Contradictory' macro' logics' emerged' in' different' time' points' and'
have'been'sustained'unresolved'across'decades'and'tend'to'inform'
the'value'and'function'of'theatre.'Within'this'pluralism,'search'for'a'
distinct'identity'has'always'been'considered'as'the'central'concern'
of'Turkish'theatre,'questioning'the'meaning'and'role'of'theatre'in'a'
late)developing' country' like' Turkey.' This' rather' complex' and' con)
flicting' institutional' influence' has' been' reflected' on' how' theatre'
companies'define'themselves'and'present'their'creative'outputs.'
For'empirical'analysis,'I'use'longitudinal'archival'data'entailing'the'
listing'of'the'plays'performed'by'each'active'professional'theatre'in'
Turkey' between' 1923' and' 1999,' as' manifestations' of' their' identi)
ties.' 2624' separate' plays' were' coded' with' 21' dichotomous' varia)
bles.' With' a' Cluster' Analysis' performed,' I' determined' the' clusters'
of' play' profiles' in' the' field' for' three' different' time' periods' and'
compared'them.'
Cluster'solutions'points'that'while'there'are'identity'profiles'which'
remain'intact'(or'undergo'only'some'slight'changes)'along'different'
periods' regardless' of' changing' social' understandings,' some' new'
profiles' do' appear' in' each' coming' period.' Overall,' this' indicates'
that'there'is'a'strong'relationship'between'the'plays'theatre'com)
panies' choose' to' perform' and' the' dominant' logic(s)' of' the' time.'
Altering'logics'imprint'the'maps'of'configuration'and'change'in'this'
creative'industry'by'making'certain'ideological'pieces'and'resources'
available'for'field'members.'Such'mapping'of'industry'configuration'
and'how'it'changes'can'contribute'to'the'future'discussions'on'the'
formation'of'fields.'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
60'
Abstract'Book'
CAN!THE!COMPREHENSIVE!SOCIAL!SIGNALS!
EMBEDDED!IN!CORPORATE!ART!COLLECTIONS!AND!
HEADQUARTERS!ARCHITECTURE!MAKE!BASIS!FOR!
NEW!THEORIES!WITHIN!THE!SOCIOLOGY!OF!ART!AND!
CULTURE?!
Målfrid'Irene'Hagen
1'
had' long' since' been' integrated' in' the' present' network' capitalism.'
Values' like' autonomy,' creativity,' self)realization,' individuality,' and'
flexibility' are' part' of' the' new' capitalism’s' value' system' and' have'
been' transformed' into' expectations' that' capitalism' itself' aims' at'
the' individuals.' Thus' we' question' which' reflexive' potential' can'
today'still'be'attributed'to'the'artistic'critique.'Particularly'we'want'
to' investigate' whether' elements' of' artistic' critique' on' network'
capitalism'still'exist'that'withdraw'from'integration'of'protest.'
1
School' of' Business' and' Social' Science,' BUSKERUD' UNIVERSITY'
'
COLLEGE,'Drammen,'Norway
Abstract:'Based'on'my'PhD)project'where'I'examine'corporate'art'
collections' and' headquarters' architecture' in' Norway,' USA,' Japan'
and'France,'I'present'findings'and'suggestions'on'how'the'findings'
and' aspects' that' are' enlightened' in' the' study' can' make' basis' for'
new'theories.'By'analyzing'visual'observations,'photographs,'inter)
views,'conversations,'corporate'publications,'websites'and'relevant'
theory'within'sociology'and'art'history,'I'look'at'how'art'collections'
and'the'architecture'of'headquarters'can'reflect'the'corporate'cul)
ture' and' the' culture' in' the' time' period' and' society' in' which' they'
are' founded,' and' the' multiple' social' signals' that' are' embedded' in'
corporate' art' and' architecture.' In' the' project' I' have' analyzed' 12'
corporate'collections'and'12'headquarters,'and'made'comparative'
analysis' of' the' included' cases.' By' analyzing' corporate' collections'
and'the'architecture'of'headquarters'established'in'different'times'
and' cultures,' one' can' explore' the' comprehensive' social' signals'
embedded' in' corporate' collections' and' the' architecture' of' head)
quarters,'which'are'often'more'multiple'facetted'than'we'observe'
at'the'first'glance.'The'interesting'is'how'all'these'social'signals'can'
make'way'for'theories'on'issues'such'as;'the'value'of'symbols,'the'
problem' of' gender,' conceptions' and' mantras' on' creativity' and' in)
novation,'transparency'in'organizations'and'societies,'the'problem'
of' norms' and' moral,' territorial' identity,' social' and' environmental'
concern,' cultural' capital' and' the' money' economy' of' corporations'
and'societies.'
FROM!PROTEST!TO!PROJECT?!THE!STATE!OF!ARTISTIC!
CRITIQUE!IN!NETWORK!CAPITALISM.!
'1
Sighard'Neckel ,'Monica'Titton
1'
1
DEPARTMENT' OF' SOCIOLOGY,' UNIVERSITY' OF' VIENNA,' VIENNA,'
'
Austria
Abstract:'“Life'with'Pop')'Demonstration'for'Capitalist'Realism”'was'
the'title'of'an'art'happening'performed'in'October'1963'by,'among'
others,' Gerhard' Richter' and' Sigmar' Polke,' in' a' furniture' store' in'
Düsseldorf.'The'art'happening'was'meant'to'express'an'ironic'dis)
tance'towards'the'incipient'consumer'capitalism'and'to'unmask'the'
habits'and'clichés'of'the'sixties.'
The'performance'in'Düsseldorf'represents'an'aesthetic'divergence'
from'modern'society,'as'it'had'been'formulated'time'and'again'in'
the' history' of' capitalism' since' Romanticism.' Also' today,' artistic'
critique' articulates' itself' in' diverse' manners,' increasingly' against'
the'art'world'itself.'In'their'work'about'the'“New'Spirit'of'Capital)
ism”,' Luc' Boltanski' and' Ève' Chiapello' thoroughly' investigate' the'
phenomenon' of' artistic' criticism' in' this' vein.' They' interrogate' in'
which' ways' the' artistic' critique' contributed' to' the' justification' of'
capitalism'itself.'
In'our'paper'we'want'to'answer'the'question'along'the'analysis'of'
the' mentioned' art' happening' “Life' with' Pop”.' It' can' be' demon)
strated' that' the' measures' of' critical' activities' formulated' in' 1963'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
INTERACTION!ART?!HOW!„ACTING!TOGETHER“!MAY!
HAVE!BECOME!AN!ART!FORM!
Dagmar'Danko
1'
1
Sociology,'Albert)Ludwigs)Universität'Freiburg,'Freiburg,'Germany
'
Abstract:' In' my' presentation,' I' would' like' to' speak' about' what' I'
want' to' call' "Interaction' Art".' During' the' past' decades,' there' has'
been'a'predominant'focus'on'the'notion'of'"performance"'in'spe)
cific' forms' of' contemporary' art.' Happenings,' body' art' etc.' were'
analysed'from'this'perspective'which'goes'with'particular'theoreti)
cal' concepts.' I' want' to' propose' to' look' at' these' art' forms' anew,'
from' a' sociological' vista' which' puts' the' emphasis' on' interaction.'
Many'well)known'artworks'–'or'rather'art'projects'–'are'constitut)
ed'by'the'concerted'action'of'several'people'which'may'or'may'not'
include'the'artist.'This'observation'goes'beyond'Howard'S.'Becker’s'
idea' of' artworks' as' a' result' of' collective' action,' because' I' am' not'
referring'to'the'impact'of'intermediaries'on'the'artwork.'Rather,'I'
want' to' concentrate' my' attention' on' artworks' which' are' not' just'
produced'by'the'interaction'of'several'people,'but'whose'subject'is'
interaction.' This' might' help' gain' a' new' understanding' of' works' of'
art'by'artists'such'as'Sophie'Calle,'Ai'Weiwei,'Francis'Alÿs'and'many'
more.'
BODY!PIERCING!AND!INSURGENCY:!THE!AESTHETIC!
POLITICAL!EXPERIENCE!
Lisiunia'A.'Romanienko
1
1'
Sociology,'WROCLAW'UNIVERSITY,'Wroclaw,'Poland
'
Abstract:! Piercing' and' other' forms' of' body' modification' among'
musicians,' artists,' and' other' aesthetic' bohemians' signifies' mem)
bership' in' diverse' oppositional' political' constituencies' that' resist,'
undermine,'or'are'otherwise'immune'to'inauthentic'principles'and'
practices'needed'to'actively'participate'in'an'exploitative'one'world'
systemic' economy.' The' analysis' will' demonstrate' that' continued'
alienation'and'disenfranchisement'of'creatively'embodied,'increas)
ingly'mobile,'discursively'aesthetic,'migrating'citizens'has'led'to'the'
proliferation' of' alternative' methods' of' authenticating' expression'
through' the' musical,' visual,' and' performing' arts.' These' resistant'
forms'of'cultural'capital'formalized'through'the'arts'upon'and' be)
yond' the' tactile' limits' of' the' body' are' fundamental' in' developing'
the' fortitude' and' resilience' necessary' to' resist' simultaneous' gov)
ernment)exacerbated' social)political)ecological' catastrophes.' Or)
ganized'and'disorganized'outrage'creatively'deploying'the'embod)
ied' arts' are' an' important' element' in' postmaterial' contestation'
efforts,' which' are' becoming' a' powerful' vehicle' to' articulate' out)
rage'and'usurp'existing'hegemonic'power'arrangements'in'unprec)
edented' ways.' Through' music,' performance,' and' related' creative'
activism,'artists'in'bohemian'communities'around'the'world'have,'
over' time,' constructed' an' ideologically' diverse' but' powerfully' re)
sistant'strategic'network'of'contemporary'communities'of'migrato)
ry'defiance;'unified'and'driven'by'the'desire'to'construct'their'own'
Abstract'Book'
61'
'
sexual,' political,' aesthetic,' and' organic' utopia' wherever' they' find'
themselves.'Intentional'limitations'of'state'power'(Touraine,'1995),'
radical' political' agency' (Russinow,' 1998),' the' aesthetic' rise' of' op)
positional'transcripts'in'marginalized'culture'(Rose,'1994),'the'role'
of'the'arts'in'resisting'totalitarian'regime'(Hamersky,'2002),'and'the'
recovery'of'radical'aesthetic'human'agency'(Varela,'1999)'are'some'
of'the'aesthetic'and'political'factors'discussed'that'are'contributing'
to' the' widespread' resurgence' of' anarchist' thought' and' embodied'
outrage' in' contemporary' politics' to' authenticate' utopian' projects'
for' sensual,' aesthetic,' and' political' sabotage' of' the' established'
world'order.'
IMPROVISING!A!CAREER!IN!MUSIC:!AN!EVALUATION!
OF!THE!REFLEXIVE!WORKER!ARTIST!MODEL!IN!
RECURRING!UNCERTAIN!TIMES!
Allan'James'Sutherland
1'
1
KYUSHU'UNIVERSITY'OF'NURSING'AND'SOCIAL'WELFARE,'Tamana,'
'
Japan
Abstract:'The'concept'reflexivity'has'featured'prominently'in'theo)
retical'and'empirical'sociological'work'on'employment,'the'arts'and'
culture,'and'is'sometimes'said'to'be'an'entailed'condition'for'indi)
viduals'acting'within'increasingly'mobile,'especially'neo)liberal'con)
temporary'societies'(e.g.,'Adorno,'Beck,'Bauman,'Bourdieu,'DeNo)
ra,' Lash).' However,' there' is' commonly' an' unresolved' tension' be)
tween' reflexivity' as' a' hermeneutics' of' suspicion,' and' reflexivity' in'
determining'daily'and'irregular'activities,'and'future'practices.'Im)
provising' musicians' are' found' among' the' growing' number' of' self)
employed'workers,'also'in'the'expanding'arts,'cultural'employment'
sectors'within'contemporary'economies.'With'few'exceptions,'im)
provising' musicians’' performance' incomes' are' volatile,' partly' as'
they' have' historically' depended' upon' venues' such' as' night' clubs,'
bars,'restaurants,'etc.,'prone'to'instability'due'to'operating'within'
the' highly' competitive' entertainment' sector,' subject' to' amplified'
demand'fluctuations'within'economic'cycles'because'dependent'on'
discretionary' expenditures.' They' have' intermittently' appealed' to'
major'recording'companies,'who'have'ambitiously'signed'and'sub)
sequently' dropped' improvising' musicians' from' their' rosters' in' re)
sponse' to' low' sales,' inability' to' know' how' to' package' the' musi)
cians,' and' seeking' higher' short)term' returns.' This' paper' examines'
case'studies'of'musicians’'responses'to'the'difficulty'of'sustaining'a'
career' in' repetitively' variable' contexts,' especially' to' advancing'
technologies,'seeking'to'assess'the'degree'each'form'of'reflexivity'
manifests'in'their'musical'and'career'strategies,'and'explains'their'
creative' trajectories.' This' is' done' with' specific' reference' to' the'
career' strategies,' musics,' writings' and' interviews' of' Miles' Davis,'
Dave' Douglas,' Brad' Mehldau,' Evan' Parker,' Tim' Berne,' Matthew'
Shipp,' and' Satoko' Fujii,' examining' their' responses' to' turbulent'
times.'
Keywords:'Career,'improvisation,'reflexivity,'network'links'
A!VOCATION!FOR!A!MIDDLEGBROW!ART?!SOCIAL!
TRAJECTORIES!TOWARDS!PHOTOGRAPHY!SCHOOL!
Lisa'Marx
1
1'
UNIVERSITE'DE'GENEVE,'Geneva,'Switzerland
'
Abstract:' Photography' is' both' a' widely' practiced' hobby,' a' way' of'
recording'social'life,'and'an'art'form,'at'least'to'some'extent.'This'
tension'leads'Bourdieu'to'call'it'a'“middle)brow'art”.'Photography’s'
status' as' an' art,' and' as' a' profession,' is' still' questioned' despite' its'
growing' institutionalization,' and' needs' to' be' continually' reaf)
firmed.' This' relative' uncertainty' is' not' without' incidence' on' the'
social'recruitment'of'photography'and'photography'schools.'
The' choice' to' pursue' a' career' in' the' arts' is' often' explained' by' «'
vocation'»,'a'higher'calling,'not'unlike'the'one'invoked'for'religion.'
However,'the'conditions'of'possibility'for'this'calling'are'located'in'
social'space'and'can'be'investigated.'This'paper'will'draw'on'field)
work' carried' out' for' my' master’s' thesis' at' a' local' photography'
school,'combining' statistical'analysis'of'data'concerning'all'former'
students'and'in)depth'interviews'with'current'students,'in'order'to'
pinpoint'the'social'conditions'and'the'different'trajectories'leading'
students'to'photography'school.'
Two' different' groups' of' students,' with' different' social' trajectories'
and' representations' of' photography,' can' be' identified.' A' first'
group,'to'which'most'students'belong,'contains'offspring'of'upper)'
and' middle)class' families.' Struggling' to' maintain' their' status,' not'
having' been' able' to' attain' their' parents’' level' of' education,' they'
are'very'technically'inclined.'Photography'school'is'a'“discipline'of'
refuge”,' a' gateway' to' a' profession' allowing' them' to' maintain' an'
uncertainty'concerning'their'social'status,'because'it'is'incommen)
surable'with'their'origins.'A'second,'smaller'group'of'students'hail'
from' working)class' families.' They' are' better' students' than' their'
peers' and' consider' photography' to' be' art.' Photography' school' is'
their' gateway' into' the' arts' scene,' permitting' social' ascension' out)
side' of' the' traditional' paths' without' requiring' them' to' break' with'
their'origins.'
Going'to'photography'school'does'not'equal'becoming'a'photogra)
pher:' one' can' be' a' photographer' without' following' this' path,' and'
not'all'graduates'will'end'up'working'in'photography.'My'research'
shows'the'impact'of'the'relatively'unstable'position'of'photography'
among'the'arts,'as'it'attracts'students'for'whom'it'provides'a'way'
of' hiding' their' falling' social' trajectories' or' for' accessing' the' arts'
through'a'door'yet'to'be'fully'legitimated.'
LE!«!BON!TRAVAIL!»!AUX!FRONTIÈRES!DES!MONDES!
DE!L'ART!:!LE!RAPPORT!AU!TRAVAIL!ET!À!L'EMPLOI!
DES!CÉRAMISTES!ET!ARTISANS!CRÉATEURS!
'1
'2
Marc'Perrenoud ,'Flora'Bajard '
1
2
UNIVERSITE' DE' LAUSANNE,' Lausanne,' Switzerland,' Université'
'
Pierre'Mendès'France,'Grenoble,'France
Abstract:/ Nous' proposons' ici' d’exposer' les' principaux' résultats'
d’une' enquête' engagée' avec' le' DEPS' (Ministère' de' la' Culture' en'
France),' portant' sur' la' qualité' de' l’emploi' dans' les' métiers' artis)
tiques.'Dans'une'démarche'comparatiste,'nous'avons'mis'en'regard'
des' activités' professionnelles' et' des' populations' aux' marges' des'
mondes' l’art,' renvoyant' à' des' identités' au' travail' et' à' des' inscrip)
tions' (symboliques' et' économiques)' "entre' l'art' et' le' métier".' En'
l’occurrence,' cette' communication' s’ancrera' autour' de' deux' des'
terrains' enquêtés' :' les' céramistes' et' les' "artisans' créateurs"' (on'
verra'que'l'expression'mérite'd'être'discutée).'
Ces' métiers' indépendants' mettent' en' jeu' une' économie' symbol)
ique' dont' les' éléments' ne' recoupent' que' très' imparfaitement' les'
indicateurs' objectifs' de' la' qualité' de' l'emploi' )' construits' essen)
tiellement'pour'le'modèle'du'salariat,'et'ne'sont'pas'non'plus'en)
tièrement' justiciables' du' modèle' mengerien' d'analyse' socio)
économique'du'travail'artistique')'se'préoccupant'peu'de'la'subjec)
tivité' du' travailleur,' de' sa' satisfaction,' du' sens' qu'il' donne' à' son'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
62'
Abstract'Book'
activité.' Au)delà' des' spécificités' du' travail' artistique,' nous' avons'
donc' pris' en' compte' le' "rapport' au' travail"' dans' son' sens' le' plus'
anthropologique,' autant' que' le' "rapport' à' l'emploi".' Ainsi,' nous'
montrerons'que'la'représentation'd’un'«'bon'travail'»'repose'aussi'
bien'sur'le'processus'(l’activité'de'travail)'que'le'résultat'(les'objets'
et'oeuvres'fabriqués).'En'ce'sens,'la'qualité'et'la'valeur'éthique'et'
axiologique' du' travail,' sa' valeur' marchande,' la' trajectoire' bi)
ographique' (travail' et' hors' travail),' ou' encore' les' processus'
d’inscription' professionnelle' individuelle' (professionnalité)' et' col)
lective' (professionnalisation)' constituent' autant' d’éléments' qui'
permettent'de'comprendre'le'sens'que'les'acteurs'donnent'à'leur'
rapport'à'l'emploi.'
Après' un' an' d’enquête' en' France,' nous' avons' au' final' pu' rap)
procher' de' manière' peut)être' inattendue' les' points' de' vue' de' la'
théorie' critique' (reconnaissance,' statut' émancipateur' du' travail'
social)'et'ceux'de'la'tradition'interactionniste,'pour'mettre'en'avant'
cette'dimension'capitale'des'résultats'de'l'enquête':'la'qualité'des'
emplois' dans' les' espaces' professionnels' enquêtés' semble' se' con)
struire'dans'le'temps'et'l'espace'sur'le'rapport'à'autrui'(publics'et'
pairs).'
SHAPING!VIRTUOSO:!‘SCHOOLED’!ROCK!MUSIC!IN!
TAIWAN!
Chi)Chung'Wang
1'
1
Department'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'EDINBURGH,'Edinburgh,'
'
United'Kingdom
Abstract:'What'kind'of'rockers'would'be'produced'in'an'authorita)
tive'learning'context?'Contrary'to'classical'music,'popular'music'has'
always'been'perceived'as'lacking'formal'learning'mechanisms.'
As'studies'have'shown'that'the'way'popular'musicians'learn'could'
be' best' characterized' as' ‘self)learning’,' this' article' aims' to' prob)
lematize' this' thesis' through' addressing' ‘schoolled’' rock' music' in'
Taiwan.' During' the' last' twenty' years,' rock' music' has' grown' in'
popularity' in' Taiwan,' there' are' two' characteristics' of' this' recent'
phenomenon' worth' the' attention' of' the' sociology' of' music.' First,'
the'main'population'is'composed'of'students,'and'second,'the'stu)
dent' societies' in' high' schools' (aged' 16)18)' have' become' central'
places'where'most'musicians'embark'on'their'music'journey.'Dur)
ing' this' phase' of' learning,' students' engage' in' competition' with'
each' other' in' terms' of' their' playing' techniques.' Whilst' favoring'
virtuosic' genres' such' as' heavy' metal' and' hard' rock,' music' genres'
that'do'not'contain'virtuoso'element'are'recognized'as'technically'
incompetent.' This' paper' draws' upon' semi)structured' interviews'
with'musicians'from'school'rock'societies'to'investigate'the'repro)
duction' of' virtuoso)oriented' rock' practice.' Drawing' upon' the' cur)
rent' development' of' Sociology' of' Scientific' Knowledge' (SSK)' in'
terms' of' learning/training,' it' can' be' argued' that' while' there' is' a'
tradition'of'a'hierarchical'relationship'between'students'who'are'in'
different' grade)levels,' especially' in' academically' prestigious' high'
schools,' ultimately' senior' students' play' the' role' of' authoritative'
figures'that'pass'on'the'virtuosic'skills'within'the'societies.'By'being'
taught'to'listen'and'play'in'an'appropriate'manner'with'reference'
to' classic' rock' tunes' that' contain' virtuosic' elements,' junior' mem)
bers' are' oriented' to' prefer' and' be' able' to' manipulate' a' virtuosic'
style'of'rock'music,'and'the'reputation'of'the'society'and'the'school'
are'thus'maintained'and'sustained.'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
DISCOURSE!ANALYSIS!OF!THE!NATIONAL!ART!IN!IRAN:!
A!SOCIOLOGICAL!ANALYSIS!OF!THREE!ERAS!OF!
NATIONAL!ART!IN!CONTEMPORARY!IRAN!
'1
'2
Mohammad'Reza'Moridi ,'masoomeh'taghizadegan '
1
social'communication,'ISLAMIC'AZAD'UNIVERSITY,'BANDAR'ABBAS'
2
BRANCH,' IRAN,' social' communication,' tehran' university,' tehran,'
'
Iran,'Islamic'Republic'Of
Abstract:'National'art'cannot'be'considered'a'specific'genre'or'style'
of'art'because'various'themes'can'be'construed'from'it;'for'exam)
ple,'historical,'folklore'and'official'art'of'a'country.'Due'to'different'
social'and'political'reasons,'in'different'eras,'each'of'these'themes'
becomes' the' centre' of' attention.' It' is' obvious' that' national' art' is'
more'than'other'forms'of'art'associated'with'official'power'institu)
tions,'therefore,'one'can'use'discourse'analysis'in'order'to'discover'
its' semantic' and' ideological' layers.' However,' the' goal' of' the' art'
discourse'analysis'is'not'merely'the'analysis'of'the'meaning'of'the'
text' (artistic' work),' it' is' rather' the' analysis' of' the' circumstances'
within' which' this' meaning' is' produced.' Hence,' in' art' discourse'
analysis,' the' institutions' which' produce' meaning' and' reproduce'
discourse'are'dealt'with.'This'departure'from'text'to'discourse'pro)
ducing'institutions'indicates'the'ultimate'goal'of'art'discourse'anal)
ysis'which'is'to'reveal'the'relation'between'text,'power,'and'ideol)
ogy'in'the'visual'culture.'
In'this'article,'applying'Michael'Foucault’s'discourse'analysis'meth)
od,' we' analyse' four' discourse' rules' in' the' Iranian' national' art:' 1)'
unity' of' subject,' 2)' unity' of' expressive' styles,' 3)' unity' of' concepts'
system,' and' 4)' unity' of' strategy.' Iranian' national' art' will' be' dis)
cussed'in'three'historical'periods:'the'first'one'is'during'the'rule'of'
Reza'Shah'Pahlavi'(1920'–'1941),'through'which'a'nationalistic,'pre)
Islam' ancient)oriented' discourse' prevails' Iranian' art;' the' second'
one' is' during' the' rule' of' Mohammad' Reza' Pahlavi' (1941' –' 1978),'
through' which' an' identity' discourse' referring' to' the' domestic' cul)
ture'prevails'Iranian'art;'and'the'third'one'is'the'post)revolutionary'
period' (up' to' the' present' time)' during' which' an' Islamic' discourse'
with' anti)imperialistic,' revolutionary' discourse' has' prevailed' the'
Iranian'national'art.'
The' discourse' analysis' of' the' Iranian' national' art' deals' with' socio)
logical' analysis' of' the' creation' of' the' political' and' religious' power'
institutions' which' produce' meaning' on' one' hand,' and' reveals' the'
social'grounds'of'reproduction'of'power'in'the'meaning'of'the'ar)
tistic'works,'on'the'other'hand.'This'approach'will'provide'us'with'
new' understanding' in' sociological' examination' of' the' modern' Ira)
nian'art.'
Key' word:' national' art,' art' discourse,' Iranian' contemporary' paint)
ing.'
ROMANIAN!CONTEMPORARY!VISUAL!ARTS!WORLD!
AFTER!1989:!TENSION!AND!FRAGMENTATION!
Mara'Victoria'Ratiu
1'
1
Theory' Department,' UNIVERSITY' OF' ART' AND' DESIGN,' Cluj)
'
Napoca,'Romania
Abstract:'This'paper'addresses'the'issue'of'the'contemporary'visual'
arts' world' in' post)communist' Romania,' with' focus' on' its' institu)
tions.' The' reason' for' such' an' endeavor' is' the' finding' that,' more'
than'twenty'years'after'the'fall'of'the'Communist'regimes,'the'Ro)
manian' contemporary' visual' arts' world' is' still' a' highly' tense' and'
Abstract'Book'
63'
'
fragmented' one,' comparing' to' other' Central)Eastern' European'
contemporary'visual'arts'worlds.'My'hypothesis'is'that'this'state'of'
affairs' is' rooted' in' the' institutional' shifts' generated' by' the' transi)
tion'from'a'totalitarian'regime'to'a'democratic'one.'Therefore,'the'
reconfiguration' of' the' institutional' system' of' contemporary' visual'
arts'after'1989'and'its'impact'on'the'artistic'practices,'as'well'as'its'
reception'among'art'professionals,'stand'out'as'a'crucial'object'of'
analysis.' The' aim' is' to' highlight' the' structural' features' of' the' Ro)
manian'contemporary'visual'arts'world'that'lead'to'the'present)day'
fragmentation,'as'well'as'to'explain'the'acute'tension'that'charac)
terizes' the' relationships' among' its' actors.' From' a' methodological'
point' of' view' I' combine' conceptual' analysis' of' the' topic)related'
literature'with'empirical'investigation,'i.e.'personal'observation'and'
interviews'with'artists'and'art'professionals.'Additionally,'I'propose'
a' brief' comparison' with' the' Hungarian' contemporary' visual' arts'
world'in'order'to'emphasize'the'specificity'of'the'Romanian'one.'
Key'words:'art'world,'art'institutions,'Romania,'Hungary,'visual'arts'
EMBLEMS!OF!FREEDOM:!INSIGHTS!INTO!THE!
TUNISIAN!REVOLUTION!
'1
Valerie'Hayaert ,'Valerie'Hayaert
1'
1
English' and' Language' Studies,' CANTERBURY' CHRIST' CHURCH'
'
UNIVERSITY,'Canterbury,'Kent,'United'Kingdom
Abstract:'This'contribution'to'the'conference'will'present'part'of'an'
ongoing'research'project'consisting'of'an'exploration'of'emblemat)
ic'structures'relating'to'the'theme'of'liberation.'These'range'from'
the' scenes' of' manumissio/ per/ vindicta,' a' ritual' essential' in' Roman'
law'to'the'use'of'iconic'or'vexilollogic'profiles'used'by'young'Tuni)
sians'in'the'events'of'January'and'February'2011.'
We'shall'identify'the'element'of'continuity'in'the'gestures'accom)
panying'each'of'these'"dispositifs"'and'show'the'comparative'value'
of' symbols,' so' as' to' the' broad' epistemological' and' chronological'
framework' employed.' A' representation' of' liberation' needs' to' de)
ploy'above'all'a'theory'of'"affects".'A'flag'motivates'and'represents'
the'essence'of'action;'a'new'symbol'of'recently'acquired'freedom'
functions'according'to'modalities'which'we'shall'identify.'
This' paper' involves' analysis' of' several' iconotexts,' trying' to' grasp'
the' roots' of' certain' iconic' schemes' and' their' interplay' with' the'
tunisian'current'political'and'mediatical'contexts,'reflecting'on'the'
ways' and' means' in' which' they' are' used' in' social' networks' (Face)
book'and'Tweeter).'
FANTASY!ROLEGPLAYING!GAMES!AS!THE!EXAMPLE!OF!
SOCIAL!AESTHETICS!AND!COMPENSATING!ACTIVITY!
Dominik'Porczyński
1
1'
Institute'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'RZESZÓW,'Rzeszów,'Poland
'
Abstract:' Media' convergence' (Jenkins' 2006)' could' be' treated' not'
only'as'the'process'of'combination'of'different'kinds'of'media,'but'
also'as'combination'of'cultural'phenomena,'that'so'far'were'treat)
ed' as' separate.' An' example' of' this' can' be' role)playing' games' and'
massively' multiplayer' online' role)playing' games' (here' treated' as'
the'next'step'of'development'of'genre),'which'both'contains'ludic'
quality,'however,'by'researchers'(Mackay'2001)'are'also'considered'
in' terms' of' aesthetic.' Being' various' types' of' virtual' worlds,' they'
make,' according' to' Peter' Berger' and' Thomas' Luckmann’s' work'
(1966)' a' social' constructed' reality' par/ excellence.' This' constructiv)
ism'can'be'portrayed'as'a'process'consisting'of'two'phases:'objec)
tivization,'which'is'literally'creating'a'world,'appereance'of'which'is'
the'result'of'work'of'many'people'–'designers,'graphic'artists,'de)
velopers,'etc.'–'and'“existing'in'action”'(Blumer'1969)'what'means'
maintaining' and' transforming' that' world' by' players' involved' who'
are' creating' this' way' a' kind' of' aesthetic' community' (Maffesoli'
2008).'The'latter'aspect'was'called'by'Robert'Boostrom'(2008)'“the'
social'construction'of'virtual'reality”.'
As'an'aesthetic'phenomenon'role'playing'games'seem'to'reflect'the'
thesis' of' Zygmunt' Bauman' (2000)' that' art' compensates' for' the'
shortcomings'of'reality,'reveals'the'truth'which'is'difficult'to'see'in'
the' thicket' of' social' interaction,' and' the' universe' created' by' it' is'
understandable' and' subjected' to' an' unequivocal' interpretation.'
This'paper'aims'to'show'the'game'universe'as'an'example'and'ef)
fect' of' social' artistic' creativity,' a' construction' of' understandable'
world' with' clearly' defined' social' roles' and' goals' to' be' achieved,'
which' could' be' the' balance' to' the' obscure,' fragmented' reality' of'
everyday' life.' An' analysis' of' two' stages' of' this' process' was' con)
ducted.'The'first'of'these'was'examined'on'the'basis'of'documents'
such' as' manuals,' instructions,' and' websites,' and' the' other' on' the'
basis' of' content' analysis' of' forums,' interviews' with' players' and'
participant'observation.'
THE!DIGITAL!TURN!IN!EUROPEAN!VISUAL!ARTS:!
CHANGES!IN!THE!MEDIA,!CHANGES!IN!THE!CREATIVE!
PROCESS?!
Dafne'Muntanyola1'
1
Sociology,'UNIVERSIDAD'AUTONOMA'MADRID,'Madrid,'Spain
'
Abstract:'The'goal'of'this'paper'is'to'make'apparent'the'centrality'
of'interaction'in'the'creative'process,'moving'away'from'excessive'
abstraction' or' empiricist' reductionism.' Specifically,' we' look' at' the'
changes' brought' about' by' the' digital' turn' in' Visual' Arts' depart)
ments'in'Europe.'Given'the'many'social'factors'in'decision)'making,'
the' existing' relationship' between' artists' and' its' instruments' must'
take'into'account'both'the'discursive'and'structural'dimensions'of'
the'creative'process.'Thus'speech,'gesture,'and'tool'manipulation,'
first' mostly' analog' and' currently' digital,' constitute' background'
practices' for' visual' artists.' Our' theoretical' stance' allows' us' to' es)
cape' the' phenomenological' determinism' of' husserlian' bracketing'
(Cicourel,'2010).'We'define'artistic'creativity'as'a'process'of'distrib)
uted' (Hollan' et' al,' 2000),' multimodal' (Alac,' 2005)' and' embodied'
cognition' (Clark,' 2008).' Our' working' hypothesis' is' that' the' digital'
turn' has' triggered' a' conceptual' transformation' of' intermediate'
products:' diagrams,' models' and' other' epistemic' objects' (Knorr)
Cetina,'1999).'The'ethnographical'observation'of'actual'work'allows'
for' an' empirical' model' that' compares' artists’' choices.' Interviews'
with'45'visual'artists'are'taking'place'in'academic'centers'in'Spain,'
France' and' United' Kingdom.' Through' the' application' of' Critical'
Discourse' Analysis' (CDA)' with' ELAN' software' we' are' putting' to)
gether' a' vocabulary' of' tools' and' processes.' Preliminary' findings'
show'that'digitalization'defines'the'modality'of'intermediate'prod)
ucts,'and'modifies'the'conceptualization,'execution'and'evaluation'
phases'from'the'creative'workflow.'
KAFKA’S!TURBULENT!SOCIETY!IN!THE!TRIAL:!A!
DURKHEIMEAN!INVESTIGATION!
'1
Cagatay'Topal ,'Fatma'Umut'Beşpınar
1'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
64'
Abstract'Book'
1
DEPARTMENT' OF' SOCIOLOGY,' MIDDLE' EAST' TECHNICAL'
'
UNIVERSITY,'ANKARA,'Turkey
Abstract:' This' paper' attempts' to' co)read' two' important' figures'
from'the'turbulent'times'of'Europe'during'the'late'nineteenth'and'
the' early' twentieth' century:' Durkheim' (1858)1917)' and' Kafka'
(1883)1924).' Both' experienced' the' World' War' I' and' its' conse)
quences' during' their' last' years.' Both' were' Jewish' suffering' from'
the' implications' of' their' minority' backgrounds.' Both' were' subject'
to'alienating,'anomic,'and'bizarre'conditions'and'reflected'these'in'
their' works.' And' both' were' searching' for' existential' meanings' for'
their'life'and'their'environment.'To'our'knowledge,'almost'no'liter)
ature'has'been'developed'towards'a'systematic'appreciation'of'the'
relation'between'Durkheim'and'Kafka.'
In'the'example'of'Kafka’s'work,'The/Trial,'this'paper'examines'how'
Kafka'conceives'power,'consciousness,'society'and'the'individual'in'
a' turbulent' context.' The' paper' asks' what' kind' of' legitimacy' that'
society' generates' in' the' consciousness' of' individuals' in' The/ Trial'
and' where' this' legitimacy' comes' from.' For' this' investigation,' the'
paper' draws' upon' Durkheim’s' methodological' and' sociological'
analysis.'The'main'Durkheimean'themes'that'are'used'in'the'paper'
are' collective' conscience,' the' external' and' coercive' character' of'
society,'morality,'law,'and'finally'collective'effervescence.'
The' paper' argues' that' an' inherent' and' powerful' morality' imposes'
itself'throughout'The/Trial.'Similarly,'the'court'that'represents'the'
law' has' an' intrinsic' and' coercive' legitimacy.' The' key' character,' K.'
seems' to' be' truly' internalized' of' this' legitimacy' even' though' he'
does'not'understand'its'proper'nature.'In'fact,'Kafka'never'reveals'
the'“true”'nature'of'the'court.'In'this'sense,'the'court'–'and'law'–'
remains' an' external' constraining' force.' The' process' of' the' trial'
appears'as'the'reflection'of'a'collective'conscience'against'the'indi)
vidual'consciousness'of'K.'The'trial'is'an'ongoing'ritual;'and,'more)
over,' this' ritual' is' the' story' of' K(afka)' itself.' Finally,' the' trial' gives'
way' for' the' moments' of' collective' effervescence.' K.' experiences'
the'concrete'effects'of'the'law'during'these'moments'as'well'as'in'
his'daily'life'outside'the'court.'In'summary,'law'is'the'main'theme'
in'the'text'and'it'represents'the'character'of'society'in'Kafka’s'per)
spective.' Consequently,' following' a' Durkheimean' methodology,'
this' paper' asserts' that' the' turbulent' nature' of' society' in' The/ Trial'
can'be'understood'through'the'analysis'of'the'turbulent'nature'of'
law'in'The/Trial'again.'
BETWEEN!THE!EYE!AND!THE!MIND!:!THE!TEXT/IMAGE!
OR!THE!IMAGE!AS!TEXT.!FOR!A!SEMIOG
ANTHROPOLOGY!OF!VISUAL!CONSTRUCTION.!
Florent'GAUDEZ
1'
1
EMC2' )' Laboratoire' de' Sociologie' de' Grenoble,' UNIVERSITÉ'
'
PIERRE)MENDÈS)FRANCE'(GRENOBLE'2),'GRENOBLE,'France
Abstract:'Visual'sociology'is'a'new'branch'of'sociology'that'seeks'to'
use'the'image'as'a'particular'mode'of'investigation.'This'poses'sev)
eral' preliminary' methodological' and' epistemological' problems.'
Indeed'sociology'is,'above'all,'a'matter'of'vision,'of'a'point'of'view,'
of'lighting,'of'angle,'of'depth'of'field,'and,'of'course,'of'focus.'Don’t'
we'speak'frequently'of'a«'sociological'perspective'»'?'
Therefore,' sociological' understanding' is,' first' and' foremost,' a' fic)
tional'construction'of'reality'(itself'a'fictional'construction'of'the'«'
real' »)' as' an' intersubjective,' empathic' and' heuristic' process.' To'
speak'of'a'sociology'of'the'gaze'requires'us'to'view'both'the'gaze'
and'the'«'sociological'perspective'»'through'the'prism'of'sociologi)
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
cal' understanding.' Moreover,' to' posit' the' possibility' of' this' meta)
gaze' equally' forces' us' to' question' our' own' methodological' and'
epistemological'points'of'view.'Can'visual'sociology'avoid'the'ques)
tion'of'the'production'of'the'gaze'?'And'what'vision'does'it'have'of'
itself'?'
ART!AS!UNCONVENTIONAL!SOURCE!OF!THE!
SOCIOLOGICAL!SCIENCE!
Angela'Maria'Zocchi
1'
1
Department' of' Communication' Studies,' UNIVERSITY' OF' TERAMO,'
'
Teramo,'Italy
Abstract:' The' paper' is' a' theoretical' reflection' about' the' relation)
ship' between' art' and' sociology,' starting' from' Sociology/ as/ an/ Art/
Form/ of' Robert' Nisbet.' First' of' all,' the' paper' analyses' the' text' of'
Nisbet,' examined' in' its' challenges' for' the' sociology' today.' Then' it'
focuses' on' the' problematic' knots' of' the' sociology' of' the' art,' ad)
vancing'the'proposal'to'consider'the'art'as'unconventional'source'
of' the' sociological' science.' In' other' terms,' not' a' sociology' of/ the'
art,'but'a'sociology'in/the'art,'such'as'claimed'in'philosophical'field'
by'Reinhard'Brandt.'Can'a'work'of'art'be'considered'a'sociological'
text?'What'are'the'implications'of'this'perspective'for'the'sociolog)
ical'theory?'The'essay'intends'to'answer'to'these'questions'consid)
ering,'at'the'same'time,'the'possible'consequences'for'the'future'of'
the'sociology.'
HOW!DIFFERENT!SOCIAL!ACTORS!AND!THE!ART!
WORLD!HAVE!REACTED!TO!THE!MARKETGBASED!TURN!
IN!CULTURAL!POLICY?!THE!CASE!OF!FINLAND!G!
DESCRIPTION!OF!A!RESEARCH!PROJECT!
' 1
' 1
' 2
Erkki' Tapio' Sevänen ,' Simo' Häyrynen ,' Kalle' Lampela ,' Anne'
1'
Logrén
1
Department' of' the' Humanities,' University' of' Eastern' Finland,'
2
Joensuu,' Department' of' the' Arts,' University' of' Lapland,' Rovanie)
'
mi,'Finland
Abstract:'In'the'1980s'and'1990s,'the'era'of'the'expansive'Western'
welfare'state'and'the'East'European'state'socialism'came'to'a'close'
and' these' societies' were' opened)up' to' market' forces' on' a' more'
global'scale.'These'societies'have,'therefore,'been'ruled'by'a'neo)
liberalist'policy'that'treats'the'whole'of'society'and'the'rest'of'the'
world'as'capitalist'markets.'This'shift'has'affected'the'at'world'pro)
foundly,'for'phenomena'of'creative'economics'and'commercialized'
art'are'typical'of'this'new'phase.'
'In' Finland,' the' state' has' followed' the' market)based' policy;' for'
example,'at'the'beginning'of'this'year'all'of'the'Finnish'universities'
were' privatized.' Yet,' the' Finnish' state' has' not' been' able' to' apply'
this'policy'to'the'art'life'on'the'same'scale.'In'Finland'and'in'other'
Nordic'countries'(Denmark,'Norway,'Sweden),'the'art'life'is'largely'
dependent' on' the' state.' In' these' countries,' the' national' art' mar)
kets' are' quite' limited' in' seize;' their' art' worlds' cannot,' therefore,'
function' properly' without' the' expansive' support' of' the' state.' Alt)
hough' the' Finnish' state' and' the' Finnish' economic' life' more' and'
more'often'see'artists'and'art'institutions'as'co)actors'in'economic'
action,' the' Finnsh' state' also' nowadays' finances' art' institutions'
(theatres,' orchestras,' museums)' )' even' to' the' extent' that' 70)80%'
of'their'incomes'might'come'from'the'public'section.'
Abstract'Book'
65'
'
'The'Nordic'countries'clearly'differ'from'the'Anglo)American'coun)
tries' (Great' Britain,' the' United' States)' that' underline' the' im)
portance' of' markets,' private' sponsorship' and' donations' in' the' art'
life.'Likewise,'Finland'differs'from'the'post)socialist'countries'(Esto)
nia,'Russia)'in'which'the'state'is'not'rich'enough'to'give'expansive'
financial'support'to'the'art'life,'nor'is'their'private'section'capable'
of' effectively' acting' in' a' role' like' this.' In' part,' Finland' resembles'
France,'in'which'politicians'and'ordinary'citizens'still'think'that'it'is'
the'duty'of'the'state'and'the'public'section'to'protect'the'sphere'of'
art'against'pure'market'forces'and'private'interests.'
'In' our' project,' we' consider' what' kind' of' attitudes' different' social'
actors'(the'state,'political'parties,'economic'life,'artists,'art'institu)
tions)'take'up'towards'the'market)based'turn'in'social'and'cultural'
policy.' At' the' same' time' we' compare' the' Finnsh' art' world' with'
other'art'worlds'in'Western'societies.'
MASTER!PIECES!AND!CREATIVE!DESTRUCTION.!THE!
DESTABILIZATION!OF!TWENTIETH!CNTURY!ART!
Feiwel'Kupferberg
1'
1
Culture,' Media' and' Language,' MALMO' UNIVERSITY,' Malmo,' Swe)
'
den
Abstract:'When'art'historians'in'the'future'will'look'back'upon'the'
twentieth'century,.'the'first'thing'they'will'ask'is'what'actually'hap)
pened'here.'Why'was'art'destabilized'to'the'degree'where'it'almost'
vanished?'Art'sociologists'will'add'the'question'of'what'social'forc)
es' were' at' work' here,' resulting' in' the' destabilization' of' twentieth'
century'art.'In'this'paper'I'will'suggest'that'we'do'not'need'to'look'
into' the' future' but' can' firmly' place' ourselves' in' the' present' and'
compare'it'with'the'past'in'order'to'present'an'analytical'account'
of' what' happened.' In' order' to' account' for' the' destabilization' of'
twentieth'century'art,'a'good'strategy'would'be'too'start'with'the'
Austrian' economist' Joseph' Schumpeter' who' coined' the' phrase'
“creative' destruction”' as' the' main' driving' principle' of' modern,'
entrepreneurial' capitalism.' The' basic' principle' of' creative' destruc)
tion'is'the'opposite'of'traditional'art,'it'devaluates'all'previous'in)
novations'or'creativity,'replacing'it'with'the'latest'innovation.'Nov)
elty'becomes'the'prime'value'in'its'own'right.'This'can'be'contrast)
ed'with'traditional'art'which,'as'already'Marx'noted,'aimed'at'mas)
ter'pieces'rather'than'novelty,'that'is'art'works'with'perennial'(or'
even'increasing)'value.'The'history'of'twentieth'century'art'can'be'
conceptualized'as'the'constant'vascillation'between'the'traditional'
model' of' artistic' creativity' aiming' at' master' pieces' and' the' entre)
preneurial' model' of' creative' destruction.' The' import' of' the' latter'
model'into'the'art'world'originated'with'the'impressionists'but'its'
corrosive'effect'only'became'visible'around'the'turn'of'the'twenti)
eth'century.'In'both'cases'the'pressure'of'technological'inventions'
(photography'and'movies)'seem'to'have'been'the'prime'causes,'as'
suggested' already' by' Benjamin' and' not' merely' different' career'
patterns'as'asserted'in'Bourdieu´s'over)socialized'model.'
MUSEUMS!IN!TURBULENT!TIMES.!THE!CASE!OF!
SAADIYAT!CULTURAL!DISTRICT!IN!ABU!DHABI.!
Anna'Gruszka
1'
1
Institute' of' Sociology,' ADAM' MICKIEWICZ' UNIVERSITY' POZNAŃ,'
'
POLAND,'Poznań,'Poland
Abstract:'If'it'is'true'that'culture'is'directly'linked'to'the'notion'of'
power' (Bourdieu' et' al.)' and' constitutes' an' expression' of' forms' of'
social' domination,' then' undoubtedly' museums' are' still' one' of' the'
best'arenas'to'examine'those'relations.'
Museums' have' always' demonstrated' power:' of' the' state,' of' the'
private' collectors' etc.' (Duncan' 1995)' Still' nowadays,' in' the' late'
capitalism,' museums' are' inscribed' in' the' mechanism' of' co)
dependancy'of'culture'and'economy,'often'referred'to'as''museum'
industry''(Krauss'1990)'and'linked'to'the'cultural'economy'of'cities'
(Scott'2000).'Also,'the'current'shift'of'the''museum'boom''from'the'
West' to' the' East' goes' along' with' the' crisis' of' the' Euro)American'
economic'and'symbolic'domination'as'well'as'the'economic'growth'
of' such' countries' as' China,' the' latter's' 'museum' fever'' being' the'
most'spectacular'illustration'of'this'process'so'far.'(Economist,'Jun'
14,'2007)'Yet,'the'spectrum'of'sociological'causes'and'consequenc)
es'of'the'Eastern''museum'boom''is'much'more'complex.'
In'this'paper'I'will'examine'the'case'of'Saadiyat'Cultural'District'in'
Abu'Dhabi'that'comes'in'the'middle'of'all'those'processes.'By'the'
end' of' 2018' it' will' comprise' Louvre' Abu' Dhabi,' Guggenheim' Abu'
Dhabi,'Zayed'National'Museum,'Performing'Arts'Centre'and'other.'
These' institutions' will' be' designed' by' the' world's' leading' “West)
ern”' architects' (Gehry,' Nouvel,' Foster,' Hadid)' and' often' labeled'
with'iconic'brands'of'Western'culture'(Louvre,'Guggenheim).'I'will'
try'to'answer'the'question'posed'in'this'context'by'Peter'Aspden:'
“[...]'what'can'it'tell'us'about'the'power'of'culture?”'(FT'Weekend'
Magazine,'Feb'19/20,'2011)'
Analysing' the' current' plans,' concepts' and' interviews' with' people'
involved,' I' will' examine' whether' this' creation' of' a' new' “capital' of'
culture”' is' a' symptom' of' the' geopolitical' shift' in' Wallersteinian'
world)systems' sense' or' is' it' rather' a' mere' illusion' of' a' voluntary'
colonialism'and'Bhabhaesque'reversed'self)orientalisation.'To'what'
extent' will' those' institutions' enhance' the' local' identity' and' herit)
age'and'bridge'the'Eastern'and'Western'art'and'to'what'extent'will'
they'obey'the'rules'of'the'art'world'market'and'exhibit'the'Western'
art'that'sells'best?'Finally,'who'is'the'target'public'of'these'muse)
ums'and'how'will'they'respond'to'the'needs'of'their'communities?'
RETICENT!OBJECTS,!BOUNDARIES,!AND!FIELD!
DYNAMICS!AT!MUSEUM!OF!MODERN!ART!OF!NEW!
YORK!(MOMA)!
Fernando'Dominguez'Rubio
'1,'2*
'
1
Centre' for' Research' on' Socio)Cultural' Change,' Open' University,'
2
Milton'Keynes,'United'Kingdom,' Sociology,'NYU,'New'York,'United'
'
States
Abstract:' Over' the' last' decades,' the' study' of' the' dynamics' of' the'
‘artworld’' has' motivated' a' great' deal' of' sociological' interest.' This'
interest'has'been'very'productive'in'detailing'the'processes'of'ne)
gotiation,' cooperation' and' struggle' between' the' different' actors'
involved'in'this'field.'However,'there'has'been'very'little'considera)
tion' of' the' role' that' artworks' themselves' play' in' mediating' these'
dynamics.' In' this' paper' I' explore' how' artworks' intervene' in' these'
processes'both're)producing'divisions'within'the'field'of'contempo)
rary'art'and're)drawing'boundaries'between'agents'and'fields.'The'
study' is' based' on' ethnographic' evidence' from' the' Conservation'
Laboratory'of'the'Museum'of'Modern'Art'of'New'York'(MoMA).'It'
shows'how'some'artworks'operate'as'‘reticent'objects’'challenging'
and' redrawing' internal' boundaries' and' established' hierarchies' as'
well'as'the'institutional'boundaries'that'separate'the'museum'from'
other' institutions' and' related' fields.' Tracing' the' trajectories' of'
some' of' these' reticent' objects' as' they' travel' through' various' de)
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
66'
Abstract'Book'
partments' will' allow' us' to' explore' the' dynamics' of' change' as' the'
different' actors' in' the' museum' adapt' to' the' challenges' posed' by'
these' objects.' As' I' shall' show,' these' reticent' objects' demand' the'
institution'of'a'novel'process'of'judgement'that'redistributes'com)
petencies' and' expertise' among' different' actors' and' creates,' in' so'
doing,'a'new'cartography'of'power'within'the'museum.'I'will'con)
clude'by'exploring'the'role'of'these'‘reticent'objects’'as'vectors'of'
transformation'and'change'in'the'field'of'contemporary'art.'
BEAUTY!AND!THE!EYE!OF!THE!BEHOLDER:!
SEGMENTATION!OF!MUSEUM!AUDIENCES!USING!
GEOMETRIC!DATA!ANALYSIS!
'1
'2
'2
Henk'Roose ,'Laurie'Hanquinet ,'Mike'Savage '
1
Department' of' Sociology,' GHENT' UNIVERSITY,' Gent,' Belgium,'
Department' of' Sociology,' The' University' of' York,' York,' United'
'
Kingdom
2
Abstract:'Views'on'what'the'fine'arts'are/should'be'and'how'they'
should' be' appropriated' have' changed' during' the' last' century—in'
line' with' Bourdieu’s' conception' of' the' emergence' and' develop)
th
ment' of' a' field.' The' ‘traditional’' view' grounded' in' 19 ' century'
bourgeois' society' with' its' emphasis' on' beauty,' elegance,' balance,'
and'emotional'aesthetics'has'been'challenged'by'the'emergence'of'
artistic' movements' based' on' transgression,' experimentation,' con)
ceptual' forms,' sensuousness.' At' present—anno' 2011—these' dif)
ferent' forms' of' art' and' ditto' forms' of' reception' coexist' and' are'
more'or'less'similarly'institutionalized.'One'of'the'key'findings'of'La/
Distinction'is'exactly'showing'that'aesthetic'judgment'and'taste'are'
socially' anchored.' In' this' paper' we' want' to' contribute' two' things'
using'Multiple'Correspondence'Analysis'(MCA):'
(1)' we' use' an' item' battery' specifically' designed' to' measure' the'
different' aesthetic' dispositions' and' conceptions.' We' want' to' con)
struct'the'space'of'aesthetic'perception'by'means'of'about'twenty'
items' describing' how/what' art' should' be' or' incorporate:' e.g.' ‘Art'
should' be' beautiful’' versus' ‘One' colour' or' one' line' are' enough' to'
create'a'piece'of'art’;'
(2)' we' analyze' the' relationship' between' these' different' aesthetic'
conceptions' and' the' social' origin' and' environment' of' spectators,/
i.e.' besides' including' the' traditional' socio)demographic' variables,'
we'insert'items'that'indicate'perceptions'of'someone’s'social'posi)
tion,' and' perceptions' of' what' members' of' his/her' social' network'
prefer.'
The'use'of'MCA'has'a'number'of'advantages.'First,'it'allows'for'the'
inclusion' of' a' lot' of' variables' simultaneously.' Second,' it' explicitly'
visualizes'a'space'in'terms'of'a'relational'logic.'Third,'it'enables'the'
inclusion' of' a' number' of' structuring—supplementary—factors'
showing'the'homology'or'association'between'aesthetic'perception'
and' their' social' embeddedness.' We' rely' on' an' audience' survey' of'
about' 1,000' visitors' from' two' art' museums' in' Ghent' (Belgium),'
namely'the'Museum/of/Fine/Arts'and'the'City/Museum/for/Contem=
porary/Art'(also'known'as'S.M.A.K.).'
OPENING!UP!MUSEUMS!TO!SOCIETY.!A!TYPOLOGY!OF!
PUBLIC!ORIENTATION!
Volker'Kirchberg
1'
1
Cultural'Analysis,'LEUPHANA'UNIVERSITY'LUENEBURG,'Lueneburg,'
'
Germany
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
Abstract:' Following' a' declaration' of' the' American' Association' of'
Museums' (AAM' 2002),' most' American' museums' are' nowadays'
willing' and' eager' to' reach' out' to' audiences' that' go' beyond' their'
typical' and' potentially' exclusionary' visitorship.' However,' the' level'
of' outreach' and' inclusion' varies' from' museum' to' museum.' Also,'
'public' orientation'' can' be' defined' in' different' ways,' e.g.' one' can'
understand' museums' as' institutions' for' a' civil' society' and' public'
culture' (Karp,' Gaither,' Heuman' Gurian),' as' institutions' for' social'
identities' (MacDonald,' Bennett),' as' institutions' that' serve' specific'
audiences' (Perin,' Tchen)' or' artists' (Zolberg),' as' institutions' that'
politically' propagate' the' purpose' of' inclusiveness' (Sandell,' Mes)
sage),' as' institutions' that' market)research' and' then' react' to' their'
customers''wishes'(Anderson,'Worts),'or'as'institutions'that'act'as'
open' arena' and' as' an' intermediary' among' different' public' stake)
holders'(Sandell,'Hooper)Greenhill).'Based'on'a'typology'by'DiMag)
gio' (patron,' social' and' marketing' museums),' on' the' geographical'
focus' (local,' regional,' national),' and' on' different' museum' types'
(art,' history,' and' ethnology' museums)' this' presentation' will' com)
pare'and'interpret'these'degrees'and'scopes'of'the'public'orienta)
tion' of' different' museums' in' New' York' and' Washington,' D.C.' (in'
New' York' the' Lower' Eastside' Tenement' Museum,' the' New' Muse)
um' of' Contemporary' Art,' the' Brooklyn' Museum' of' Art,' the' Ellis'
Island' Immigration' Museum,' and' in' Washington,' D.C.,' the' Ana)
costia'Community'Museum'and'the'National'Museum'of'the'Amer)
ican).'
POPULAR!MUSIC!AND!CULTURAL!MEMORY!
Andy'Bennett
1'
1
Griffith' Centre' for' Cultural' Research,' GRIFFITH' UNIVERSITY,' Na)
'
than,'Australia
Abstract:' In' sociological' research' on' popular' music,' there' is' an'
emerging' focus' on' the' generational' impact' of' popular' music' and'
the'extent'to'which'questions'of'value,'authenticity'and'transcend)
ence,'as'these'coalesce'around'musical'practices'and'resources,'are'
becoming' tied' to' collective' articulations' of' cultural' memory.' As'
research' across' a' variety' of' popular' music' genres' in' specific' local'
and'national'contexts'is'beginning'to'reveal,'ageing'and'biography,'
together' with' associated' processes' of' remembering' and' critical'
reflection,'must'now'be'considered'key'elements'in'an'analysis'and'
interpretation'of'popular'music’s'social'and'cultural'meaning.'Long)
term' cultural' investment' in' particular' musical' genres' by' ageing'
audiences,' together' with' their' re)presentation' via' the' lens' of' cul)
tural' memory,' is' now' articulated' in' a' variety' of' ways,' manifesting'
itself'at'both'the'institutional'level'of'the'cultural'industries'and'in'
mundane,' everyday' practice.' Drawing' on' the' preliminary' findings'
of' an' Australian' Research' Council' (ARC)' funded,' three)year,' five)
country'project,'this'paper'outlines'an'approach'to'the'sociological'
study' of' popular' music' applying' the' conceptual' framework' of' cul)
tural'memory'and'considers'the'value'of'such'an'approach'in'map)
ping' forms' of' musical' attachment' grounded' in' generationally' em)
bedded'practices'of'remembering.'
TELLING!SOUNDS:!POPULAR!MUSIC!IN!MUSEUMS!
'1
Amanda'Maria'Caterina'Brandellero ,'Susanne'Janssen
1'
1
Department'of'Media'and'Communication,'ERASMUS'UNIVERSITY'
'
ROTTERDAM,'Rotterdam,'Netherlands
Abstract:'The'ways'popular'music'and'related'material'culture'are'
used' in' cultural' heritage' narratives' and' representations' are' ex)
Abstract'Book'
67'
'
plored' through' an' analysis' of' Dutch' local' and' national' historical'
museums.'This'paper'specifically'addresses'how'local'popular'mu)
sic' histories' are' mobilised' and' displayed' in' these' institutions.' Be)
yond' the' role' of' music' in' the' construction' of' personal' identities,'
the'paper'explores'the'extent'to'which'popular'music'provides'not'
simply'a'background'soundtrack'to'local'histories,'but'rather'plays'
an' active' role' in' shaping' a' place’s' cultural' heritage' and' a' shared'
sense' of' belonging' and' identity' formation.' On' the' one' hand,' the'
paper'reflects'on'the'nexus'between'aesthetic'and'artistic'materials'
and'the'circumstances'and'contexts'of'their'use.'On'the'other,'the'
paper'asks'how'popular'music'is'mobilised'as'part'of'the'museums’'
strategies' for' greater' public' engagement.' The' data' is' collected'
through'in)depth'interviews'with'museum'curators'and'a'review'of'
(archival'material'on)'collections'and'temporary'exhibitions,'as'well'
as' policy' and' strategy' documents.' The' analysis' draws' out' insights'
into'the'extent'to'which'popular'music'participates'increasingly'to'
conceptualization' of' cultural' heritage' and' finds' a' place' within' the'
aims'and'objectives'of'heritage'institutions.'In'doing'so,'the'paper'
teases' out' how' institutional' narratives' around' popular' music' are'
constructed' and' the' prominent' music' cultures' and' moments' that'
emerge.'In'conclusion,'the'paper'reflects'upon'the'contribution'of'
popular'music'to'the'construction'and'framing'of'collective'memo)
ries'and'their'connection'to'place.'
POPULAR!MUSIC!HERITAGE,!CULTURAL!MEMORY!AND!
CULTURAL!IDENTITY!
'1
'1
Susanne'Janssen ,'Amanda'Brandellero ,'Arno'van'der'Hoeven
1'
1
Dept.' of' Media' and' Communication,' ERASMUS' UNIVERSITY'
'
ROTTERDAM,'Rotterdam,'Netherlands
Abstract:'In'this'paper'we'provide'an'outline'of'our'current'interna)
tional' collaborative' research' project' (POPID),' in' which' we' explore'
the'relationship'between'popular'music'and'contemporary'render)
ings'of'cultural'identity'and'local'and'national'cultural'heritage'in'a'
pan)European'context.'Furthermore,'it'explores'how'these'articula)
tions'are'negotiated'in'the'business'practices'of'the'global'popular'
music' industry.' The' overall' aim' of' the' project' is' twofold:' (i)' to' as)
sess' the' role' played' by' local' popular' music' in' the' negotiation' of'
cultural'identity'in'a'local,'national,'and'European'context;'and'(ii)'
to'specify'how'the'European'music'industry'can'feed'into'Europe)
ans'audiences’'ongoing'connections'to'local'popular'music'heritage'
in'a'way'that'continues'to'be'meaningful'for'local'audiences.'
The' paper' presents' the' initial' findings' from' extensive' research'
among' cultural' heritage' institutions' and' archivists,' music' industry'
workers' and' audience' members.' It' also' interrogates' the' situated'
articulation'of'popular'music'heritage'in'a'combination'of'localities,'
some'of'which'have'rich'musical'histories'and'have'made'a'contri)
bution' to' the' national' and' global' music' industries,' and' others'
which' are' less' readily' recognized' as' having' strong' local' popular'
music'heritage.'Finally,'it'reflects'on'popular'music's'contribution'to'
the' narratives' of' cultural' identity' and' representations' of' cultural'
memories'
DIVISIONS!IN!ART!ACTIVITIES!BASED!ON!GENDER!
Azam')'Ravadrad
1
1'
communications,' UNIVERSITY' OF' TEHRAN,' Tehran,' Iran,' Islamic'
'
Republic'Of
Abstract:'In'this'article'artists'are'studied'in'terms'of'their'appear)
ance' in' different' artistic' fields.' The' main' factor' important' in' this'
appearance'is'regarded'to'be'gender.'It'shows'how'rare'are'women'
artists' in' some' fields' and' how' common' they' are' in' other' fields.'
Moreover' it' shows' that' even' in' those' fields' which' are' presenting'
more'women,'famous'artists'appear'to'be'mostly'men.'
Data'is'collected'from'case'of'Iran'using'documentary'method'and'
shows' that' population' of' women' directors' in' film' industry' and' in'
theater' is' much' smaller' than' population' of' men' directors.' On' the'
other'hand'population'of'women'painters,'musicians'and'writers'is'
bigger'in'comparison'to'women'in'film'and'theatre.'
The' question' that' raises' here' is' whether' there' are' social' factors'
which' influence' men' and' women' doing' different' artistic' activities'
with' different' degree' of' competence?' This' article' is' aimed' to' give'
an'analytical'answer'to'this'question.'
YOUTHFUL!CREATIVITY!AND!ARTISTIC!PRODUCTION!
IN!NAPLES!
Enza'Maria'Paolino
1'
1
Department' of' Sociology,' UNIVERSITÀ' DEGLI' STUDI' DI' NAPOLI'
'
FEDERICO'II,'Napoli,'Italy
Abstract:'The'paper'presents'the'empirical'work'carried'out'for'the'
PhD' in' Sociology' and' Social' Research' and' as' part' of' the' last' re)
search' by' Osservatorio' Territoriale' sui' Giovani' of' Naples' (OTG,'
2009)2011).' The' research' focuses' on' the' processes' of' youthful'
artistic' production' in' Naples,' questioning' the' ways' in' which' new'
generations' of' Neapolitan' artists' articulate' their' relationship' with'
the'territory.'Art'contributes'to'the'process'of'construction'of'reali)
ty' and,' at' the' same' time,' any' practice' is' inseparable' from' the' dy)
namics' of' context' (Grossberg' 2002).' The' relationships' of' young'
artists' with' their' city,' with' institutions' and' cultural' organizations,'
with' the' circuits' of' production' are' some' questions' underlying' the'
research'on'the'field.'The'city'is'a'privileged'place'for'observation'
of' the' “cultural' complexity”' theorized' by' Hannerz' (1992)' and' the'
study'of'creativity'and'analysis'of'the'interplay'between'the'system'
and' the' cultural' act,' therefore,' can' provide' a' good' indicator' of'
change' (Crespi' 2006).' Following' Melucci's' studies' (1994),' the' em)
pirical' research' –' qualitative,' based' on' the' semi)structured' inter)
view' and' the' content' analysis' –' is' articulated' around' three' main'
levels'of'investigation:'the'subject,'including'social'extraction,'edu)
cation'(cultural'capital),'system'of'relations'in'which'the'subject'is'
embedded' (social' capital),' motivations' and' expectations;' the' con)
texts,'in'which'actions'and'creative'experiences'are'generated;'the'
discourses,' which' bring' to' the' content' and' to' creative' forms' of'
expression'adopted'by'the'subjects.'The'study'of'cultural'practices'
draws'attention'also'to'the'communication'process'and,'specifical)
ly,'to'the'analysis'of'the'role'of'media')'both'traditional'and'virtual')'
in'the'dynamics'of'cultural'and'artistic'production.'Digital'media,'in'
particular,'produce'substantial'changes'in'the'forms'of'perception,'
cognition' and' communication' (de' Kerckhove' 1991),' but' also' pro)
vide,'in'terms'of'resource,'new'spaces'and'new'ways'of'distribution'
of' knowledge' and' skills' (Levy' 1999).' In' addition,' new' media' and'
Internet'offer'new'ways'of'managing'social'networks,'also'acting'as'
a' resource' in' the' processes' of' production' of' social' and' cultural'
capital.'Finally,'encouraging'the'movement'of'global'cultural'flows'
in' a' continuous' exchange' between' the' local' level' and' the' global'
one,'Internet'contributes'to'contaminations'and'cultural'hybridiza)
tions,'leading'to'creativity'and'cultural'vitality'(Thompson'1998).'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
68'
Abstract'Book'
“CRACOW”:!“CITY”:!“ISLAND”.!BIOGRAPHICAL!MYTH!
OF!PLACE!AS!A!PERFORMATIVE!“FICTION”!IN!A!LOCH!
CAMELOT!CABARET!
Anna'Kapusta
1
1'
Jagiellonian'Univesity,'Cracow,'Poland
HOW!TO!CHARACTERIZE!POLISH!DESIGN!WORLD?!
THEORETICAL!AND!METHODOLOGICAL!SUPPOSITIONS!
Monika'Katarzyna'Rosinska
1'
1
'
Abstract:' The' main' issue' of' exploration' is' the' contemopraray' pro)
cess' of' transformation' the' mythical' narration' into' performative'
municipal'“fiction”.'That'is'social'mechanisms'of'“biographical'myth'
of'place”'materialising'in'polish,'cracovian'artistic'biographies.'The'
case'study'is'based'on'data'from'the'Loch'Camelot'Cabaret'in'Cra)
cow.'“Biographical'myth'of'place”'analysed'in'cognitive'categories'
and'autodefinitions'of'the'cabaret'artists'as'well'as'symbolic'struc)
tures'present'in'the'culture'texts'was'reconstructed'in'the'language'
analysis'of'unrestrained'and'profound'interviews,'author’s'observa)
tions' and' compiled' audial' documentation' (municipal' cracovian'
song,' in' peculiarity' entitled' “On' the' Cracow' Isle”).' The' effect' of'
research' is' constatation' that' late)modernity' forms' of' mythical'
thinking'establish'new'spiritual'phenomena'of'places,'among'them'
function'of'aesthetic'communication'sacrum'mediated'by'the'caba)
ret'sender)recipient'act.'One'of'the'dimensions'of'mythical'thinking'
constitute' also' occurrence' of' aestheticization' of' biographies' and'
symbolic' social' ties,' which' are' integral' feature' of' processual' work'
of'art,'whose'example'undoubtedly'is'the'recital'program'“On'the'
Cracow'Isle.”'
'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
Department'of'Sociology,'ADAM'MICKIEWICZ'UNIVERISTY,'Poznań,'
'
Poland
Abstract:'The'paper'aims'at'both'presenting'the'possible'theoreti)
cal' framework' for' the' analysis' of' the' contemporary' young' Polish'
design' field' and' adducing' some' methodological' issues' when' it'
comes'to'inquiring'such'a'manifold'and'hybrid'phenomenon.'Draw)
ing' on' research' (13' Individual' Depth' Interviews)' I' conducted' in'
2009' in' Poland' and' by' briefly' invoking' the' context' I' would' like' to'
present'and'sociologically'characterize'the'very'peculiar'designers’'
discourse(s).'What'do'designers'say'about'their'role'in'the'modern'
world?' What' is' their' task?' How' do' they' perceive' and' define' the'
(Polish)'Design'World?'Who'is'playing'the'most'profound'and'influ)
ential' roles?' How' the' power' relations' are' explicated' and' reaf)
firmed?' Agreeing' that' the' very' nature' of' definitions' lies' in' their'
changeability'may'serve'in'the'presented'theme'not'only'to'under)
stand'the'dynamics'of'peculiar'discourses'but'more'importantly'to'
acknowledge' that' they' reflect' historical,' socio)cultural' context' in'
which' they' occur' and' epitomize' social' relations' which' “produce”'
and' ideologically' legitimize' particular' ones.' Keeping' this' in' mind'
may' help' to' discover' and' analyse' the' specificity' of' contemporary'
young' Polish' field' of' design,' its' culture,' practices,' status,' and' ex)
panding'popularity.'
Abstract'Book'
69'
'
RN'03'Biographical'Perspectives'on'European'Socie)
ties'
BIOGRAPHY,!IDENTITY!AND!THE!CONCEPT!OF!
BIOGRAPHICAL!RESOURCES!
Anne'Juhasz'Liebermann
1'
1
Fakultät' für' Sozialwissenschaft,' RUHR)UNIVERSITÄT' BOCHUM,'
'
Bochum,'Germany
Abstract:'The'relationship'between'biography'and'identity'is'a'very'
prominent'and'contested'topic'of'biographical'research.'For'exam)
ple,'biography'has'been'described'as'a'‘resource’'in'every'day'life,'
which' confirms' ourselves' as' persons' and' provides' us' with' sense'
and' self)assurance.' Hence,' biography' is' seen' as' a' resource,' which'
helps'dealing'with'life'experiences,'which'forms'and'restores'one)
self.' In' other' words,' biography' is' conceptualised' as' a' resource' for'
giving' identity,' which' is' summed' up' in' the' term' ‘biographical' re)
source’.' The' notion' of' ‘biographical' resources’' is' widely' used' in'
biographical' research' but' seldom' defined' and' conceptualized.'
However,' a' closer' look' on' its' use' in' biographical' research' reveals'
very' different' understandings' and' meanings.' Given' this' back)
ground,' this' paper' addresses' the' following' issues:' How' can' the'
term'‘biographical'resource’'be'defined'and'conceptualised?'What'
is' the' relationship' between' biography,' biographical' resources' and'
identity?'How'can'the'notion'of'biographical'resource'be'theoreti)
cally'framed?'It'will'be'argued'that'an'understanding'of'biography,'
identity'and'biographical'resources'in'terms'of'processes'of'educa)
tion,' crisis' and' the' emergence' of' the' new' helps' to' sharpen' the'
comprehension' of' the' named' notions' and' to' better' understand'
their'interrelation.'
COPING!WITH!LIFE:!THE!ROLE!OF!PERSONAL!
REFLEXIVITY!ON!INDIVIDUAL!BIOGRAPHIES!
Ana'Caetano
1
1'
CIES)IUL,'ISCTE')'LISBON'UNIVERSITY'INSTITUTE,'Lisbon,'Portugal
'
Abstract:'Throughout'their'lives,'individuals'face'the'need'to'make'
choices' and' to' reflect' upon' what' they' should' or' shouldn’t' do' in'
diverse'social'circumstances.'Pondering,'deliberating'and'making'a'
decision'may'occur'on'a'daily'basis,'but'it’s'even'more'prominent'in'
crises' situations,' as' well' as' in' transitions' between' phases' and'
spheres' of' life.' That’s' why' it’s' so' important' to' take' into' account'
reflexivity' in' the' analysis' of' individual' biographies.' This' paper' is'
part'of'a'PhD'research'that'reflects'precisely'upon'the'role'of'social'
mechanisms' of' personal' reflexivity' on' the' configuration' of' bio)
graphical' pathways.' The' focus' is' placed' on' the' processes' through'
which'people'confer'meaning'to'their'actions'and'how'they'choose'
to' act' in' certain' ways' in' different' moments' and' social' contexts.'
Special' attention' is' given' to' the' connections' between' societal'
structures' of' constraint' and' opportunity,' and' the' social' contexts'
that' frame' the' everyday' and' long)term' experiences' of' individuals.'
Multi)session' biographical' interviews' were' carried' out' in' order' to'
understand' (i)' how' the' ability' to' think' about' oneself' is' developed'
throughout'the'life)course,'(ii)'how'can'these'reflexive'processes'be'
characterized,'(iii)'and'what'effects'can'they'have'on'the'definition'
of'specific'courses'of'action.'The'analysis'of'the'empirical'material'
allows'us'to'understand'how'people'cope'with'social'circumstances'
(such'as'social'change,'economic'crisis,'social'inequalities,'instabil)
ity),'as'well'as'with'personal'events'and'situations'(such'as'individ)
ual' crisis,' spatial' and' social' mobility,' relationships,' emotions),' and'
how'they'define'themselves'and'their'biographies'in'the'process.'
FROM!BIOGRAPHY!TO!THEORY:!CSO!WORK!AND!
EUROPEAN!MENTAL!SPACE!
'1
2*
Markieta'Domecka ,'Anja'Schröder)Wildhagen' '
1
School'of'Sociology,'Social'Policy'and'Social'Work,'Queen's'Univer)
2
sity,' Belfast,' United' Kingdom,' Institute' of' Sociology,' Otto)Von)
'
Guericke)Universität,'Magedburg,'Germany
Abstract:'Whereas'much'of'the'biographical'research'tends'to'end'
up'at'the'descriptive'level,'we'll'demonstrate'the'analytical'process'
leading' from' biography' to' theory' building.' Through' the' means' of'
‘pragmatic' refraction’' (Schütze,' 2008),' which' consists' of' text' sort'
differentiation'and'sequential'structural'description,'and'thus'pro)
vides' the' basis' for' a' systematic' comparison' of' autobiographical'
self)theorizing'of'the'informant'and'the'biographical'unfolding'with'
its'specific'sequence'of'experiences,'we'can'look'closely'at'the'pro)
cess' of' identity' formation' and' its' social' (and' biographical)' condi)
tions.'With'it,'we'are'able'to'reach'a'level'of'generalization'(theo)
retical'representation)'without'losing'sight'of'individual'cases.'
The' empirical' basis' of' our' analysis' are' the' autobiographical' narra)
tive'interviews'with'workers'in'civil'society'organizations,'collected'
within'the'7FP'project'‘Euroidentities’.'We'focus'on'two'groups'of'
CSO'activists:'those'originally'coming'from'Europe'and'those'born'
on'other'continents,'who'started'their'CSO'work'in'their'countries'
of'origin'and'then'continued'it'after'moving'to'Europe.'
The' CSO' work' encompasses' here' reconciliation,' environmental'
protection' and' the' rights' of' ethnic' minorities' and' undocumented'
migrants' in' Europe.' Through' comparative' analysis' of' these' two'
groups' we' will' show' how' and' under' which' conditions' Europe' be)
comes'a'frame'of'reference'orienting'CSO'workers.'In'particular,'we'
will'stress'the'role'of'personal'experiences'with'(conflicting)'collec)
tivities' in' shaping' the' biographical' identities' of' CSO' workers' and'
further,'in'supporting'their'commitment'to'the'CSO'work'in'Europe.'
With'it,'we'will'present'the'inductively'developed'concept'of'Euro)
pean'mental'space'of'reference'(Schütze'et'al.,'2009;'2010)'and'the'
role'it'plays'for'the'unfolding'of'biographies'of'CSO'workers,'their'
biographical'decision'making'and'the'shaping'of'their'biographical'
work.' We' will' reconstruct' the' process,' in' which' Europe' becomes'
biographically'relevant'with'special'attention'to'the'process'of'be)
coming'sensitized'to'incisive'experiences'with'collectivities'in'one’s'
own' life,' of' one’s' belonging' to' and' of' one’s' distancing' from' these'
collectivities' and' of' becoming' oriented' to' a' new' collective' phe)
nomenon,' the' European' mental' space.' In' other' words,' we' will' re)
veal' the' process' by' which' Europe' becomes' embodied' and' then' is'
accomplished'by'practical'action.'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
70'
Abstract'Book'
PATCHWORK!IDENTITIES?!BIOGRAPHICAL!
PERSPECTIVES!ON!TURBULENT!TIMES!
Daniela'Schiek
1'
1
INSTITUTE' FOR' SOCIAL' WORK' AND' SOCIAL' POLICY,' UNIVERSITÄT'
'
DUISBURG)ESSEN,'Essen,'Germany
Abstract:'Since'the'1980s'it'has'been'said'to'be'a'sociological'com)
monplace,'that'constant'securing'and'‘calming'down’'of'life'has'lost'
its' importance' for' the' functioning' of' both:' labour' society' and' the'
individual.' Supposedly,' patchwork' identity' compensates' the' van)
ished' tripartite' structure' of' the' life' course' and' even' appreciates'
turbulent' times.' “In' place' of' life' course' structured' by' expectable'
phases'patchwork'biography'occurs.'Consequently,'the'actor’s'per)
spective' on' life' has' now' begun' to' change.' Successful' (and' happy)'
are'these'individuals,'which'have'developed'into'‘surfers’'of'life.'If'
there' is' an' opportunity' they' are' willing' to' throw' away' their' plans'
and'‘jump’”'(Rosa'2009,'pp.'34)35).[1]'
There' is' hardly' any' ‘grounded' theoretical’' credit' for' the' insistent'
thesis'about'individual’s'appreciation'of'turbulent'biographies'and'
their' social' integration.' What' about' the' social' and' individual' rele)
vance' of' the' ability' to' plan' or' even' ‘think’' lifetime' and' its' disap)
pearance?' The' most' exemplary' cases' for' testing' this' are' individu)
als’' responses' to' the' increasing' of' precarity.' The' empirical' under)
pinning' of' this' paper' is' a' qualitative' study' about' employees’' bio)
graphical'perspectives'on'uncertain'(e.'g.'temporary)'jobs'and'their'
social'positioning.'The'study'is'based'on'sequential'analyses'of'nar)
rative' biographical' interviews' and' their' contrastive' generalisation'
in'terms'of'types.'A'major'result'is'that'the'biographical'perspective'
is' the' most' common' view' for' employees' in' an' enduring' uncertain'
job' situation.' The' reasoning' is' that' the' biographical' perspective' is'
the'one'access'to'individual’s'self'–'or'rather:'it'is'individual’s'self'–'
and'now'it'is'threatened'in'its'entirety:'the'ability'to'plan'or'even'
‘think’'lifetime'depends'on'its'constant'securing'and'means'life,'the'
only'one'individuals'know.'Reversely,'the'disability'to'plan'or'even'
think'lifetime'is'located'outside'of'the'society,'not'as'‘good'life’'or'
even'life'at'all.'
Hence,' contrary' to' the' mainstream' discussion' the' present' paper'
argues' for' an' ethnomethodological' approach:' In' turbulent' times'
the'importance'of'constant'securing'and'‘calming'down’'of'life'for'
the'functioning'of'both:'labour'society'and'the'individual'does'not'
disappear'but'even'comes'to'light'because'of'its'failure.'
[1]'Rosa,'H.'(2009):'Jedes'Ding'hat'keine'Zeit?'Flexible'Menschen'in'rasend)
en'Verhältnissen.'In:'King,'V.'and'Gerisch,'B.'(Ed.):'Zeitgewinn'und'Selbstver)
lust.'Frankfurt'a.'M./New'York:'Campus,'pp.'21–39.'
RESEARCHING!CAREER!AND!LIFEGWORLD!SELFG
UNDERSTANDINGS:!A!DISCUSSION!ON!THE!MERITS!OF!
BIOGRAPHICAL!INTERVIEWING!AND!ANALYSIS!
Kathryn'Breda'Feehan
1
1'
Sociology,'TRINITY'COLLEGE'DUBLIN,'Dublin,'Ireland
'
Abstract:'Based'on'a'series'of'biographical'narrative'interviews'on'
business'graduate'careers,'this'paper'presents'both'a'methodologi)
cal'and'theoretical'discussion'on'the'‘how'of'interviewing’,'and'the'
‘how'of'analysing’'biographic'data.'
This' paper' is' situated' within' the' larger' context' of' my' doctoral' re)
search' that' compares' and' contrasts' biographical' data' from' four'
cohorts'of'business'graduates'from'the'1970’s,'1980’s,'1990’s'and'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
2000’s.'At'the'core'of'this'research'are'questions'that'ask'whether'
careers'have'changed'and'if'we'can'speak'of'career'changes'occur)
ring' at' different' points' in' the' life' course' or' at' different' points' in'
time.'Its'overarching'concern'is'to'examine'the'extent'to'which'we'
can'speak'of'identities'being'made'up'by'aspects'of'work,'lifestyle,'
place'and'mobility.'
By' presenting' a' case' for' the' use' of' a' ‘biographical' narrative' inter)
pretative'method’,'this'paper'explores'to'what'extent'it'is'a'useful'
tool'capable'of'examining'different'levels'of'analysis,'such'as:'indi)
vidual' self)understandings' of' careers' and' to' what' extent' careers'
make' up' identities;' how' decisions' regarding' careers' routes' are'
made,'with'whom,'and'at'what'points'in'the'life'course,'and'how'all'
this' is' situated' within' the' larger' socio)historical' social' context.' By'
investigating'such'questions,'this'paper'opens'a'discussion'on'what'
an'analysis'of'biographical'data'using'‘biographical'narrative'inter)
pretative'method’'can'accomplish.'
VICTOR!F.!PETRENKO!IS!A!RUSSIAN!FOUNDER!OF!
PSYCHOSEMANTIC!APPROACH!IN!SCIENCE!
Choduraa'Mongush
1
1'
Psychology,'TUVAN'STATE'UNIVERSITY,'Kyzyl,'Russian'Federation
'
Abstract:'Victor'F.'Petrenko'is'a'Russian'psychologist,'an'expert'on'
Psychology'of'Consciousness'and'Psychosemantics'and'a'founder'of'
a' new' approach' in' Psychology' named' Experimental' Psychoseman)
tics.'He'was'born'in'Leningrad'in'1948.'In'1968'he'entered'Psychol)
ogy' Department' at' Lomonosov' Moscow' State' University.' Being' a'
student'he'took'an'active'part'in'Summer'Schools'and'conferences.'
His' teachers' and' early' colleagues' Alexander' Luria,' Pyotr' Galperin,'
Vladimir' Zinchenko,' and' Alexei' Leontiev' shaped' his' character' of' a'
man' of' science.' In' 1978' and' 1988' he' defended' his' master’s' and'
doctoral'thesis'respectively.'His'doctoral'thesis'was'researched'on'
Psychosemantics' of' Consciousness' under' the' supervision' of' Alexei'
Leontiev.'After'graduation'he'remained'at'Psychology'Department'
of'Moscow'State'University'to'do'teaching'and'continue'research)
ing.' He' is' currently' the' head' of' a' Laboratory' of' Communication'
Psychology' and' Psychosemantics' at' Moscow' State' University.' In'
1993' he' got' a' position' of' a' professor' and' four' years' later' he' be)
came' a' member' of' Russian' Academy' of' Science.' A' big' number' of'
diploma' works' and' doctoral' thesis' were' successfully' researched'
and' defended' under' his' supervision.' He' is' the' first' to' broadly' use'
Experimental'Paradigm'of'Psychosemantics'based'on'Personal'Con)
struct'Theory'of'George'Kelly'and'Semantic'Differential'Method'of'
Charles' Osgood.' Psychosemantics' investigates' various' forms' of'
existence'of'meanings'in'individual,'ethnic'and'social'consciousness'
(images,' symbols,' colors,' symbolical' actions,' signs,' and' verbal'
units).'It'analyses'the'influence'of'motivators'and'emotional'condi)
tions'of'the'individual'and'collective'subject'on'meaning’s'systems'
which'he'or'she'or'they'have.'It'studies'the'individual’s'representa)
tion' in' the' fields' of' Politics,' Economics,' Law,' Art,' his' ideas' about'
himself,' other' people' and' his' model' of' the' world.' Using' this' ap)
proach'Victor'Petrenko'created'a'new'principle'of'individual'typol)
ogy'based'on'his'world'view.'He'is'also'an'author'of'a'big'number'
of' research' papers' on' ethnic' stereotypes,' on' the' content' of' con)
sciousness' and' its' altered' forms,' cross)cultural' comparisons,' the'
reconstruction'of'ethnic,'political,'aesthetic'mentality'of'the'various'
groups' and' communities.' In' times' of' turbulence' Psychosemantic'
approach'is'essential'being'widely'used'in'different'fields'of'science'
and'having'aspects'of'Philosophy,'Culturology,'Linguistics,'Sociology'
and'Computer'science.'
Abstract'Book'
71'
'
THEORY,BIOGRAPHY!AND!THE!OTHER.!RESEARCHING!
SCIENTIFIC!BIOGRAPHIES!
Feiwel'Kupferberg
1'
1
Culture,' Media' and' Language,' MALMO' UNIVERSITY,' Malmo,' Swe)
'
den
Abstract:'Most'biographical'research'so'far'has'been'mainly'meth)
odological' and' its' prime' knowledge' interests' or' theoretical' ambi)
tions'have'stayed'within'the'discipline'in'which'the'researcher'has'
been' trained' (sociology).' The' potentials' of' the' biographical' ap)
proach'as'a'research'programme'or'strategy'is'much'wider'in'scope'
though.'In'this'paper'I'will'explore'how'researching'scientific'biog)
raphies'can'add'to'our'knowledge'of'the'“Other”'which'has'always'
been' the' prime' aim' of' sociological' biography' research.' Although'
science' itself' is' oriented' towards' a' paradigmatic' or' logically' con)
sistent,'transparent,'simplifying'and'conciliatory'mode'of'presenta)
tion' (“the' scientific' argument”),' personal' as' well' as' collective' pro)
cesses'of'scientific'discovery'itself'seem'to'be'driven'by'a'different'
logic'“in'vivo”,'which'can'best'be'captured'empirically'by'the'narra)
tive' language' game' (biographical' projects,' turning' points,' self)
presentations' and' genres)' before' moving' on' to' the' logic' of' “in'
vitro”' where' the' usual' conceptual' apparatus' of' scientific' paradig)
matic' thinking' takes' over' and' assumes' control' over' the' emerging'
academic' text.' My' renumerations' on' this' topic' will' use' Charles'
Darwin´s'scientific'biography'as'an'exemplary'case/
EUROPEANESS!AND!OTHERNESS:!DIFFERENT!TYPES!OF!
“OTHERS”!AND!DIFFERENT!WAYS!OF!DEALING!WITH!
DIVERSITY!
'1
Antonella'Spanò ,'Elisabetta'Perone
1
'1,'1
,'Pasquale'Musella
1'
Department'of'sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'NAPLES,'Naples,'Italy
'
Abstract:' Identity' formation' process' always' implies' both' self)
identification'and'self)differentiation'from'other(s).'In'this'perspec)
tive,'also'the'development'of'European'identity'has'necessarily'to'
deal'with'the'“otherness”.'
On' the' basis' of' Euroidentities' project' results,' the' paper' aims' to'
explore' different' meanings' of' “otherness”' and' different' ways' of'
dealing'with'the'“other”.'In'particular,'differences'will'be'highlight)
ed' between' “others”' inside' Europe' (i.e.' other' European' nations)'
and' outside' Europe;' where' Europe,' following' our' interviewees’'
perspective,'is'meant'as'an'imagined'space'rather'than'a'geograph)
ical'or'political'entity.'Indeed,'Europe’s'boundaries,'those'that'sep)
arates'we)ness'and'otherness,'seem'to'be'“mobile”'and'connected'
to'people’s'vision'of'the'“other”.'
The'paper'takes'as'a'basis'one'of'the'main'results'of'the'Euroidenti)
ties' project,' that' is' the' existence' of' an' European' shared' space' of'
reference,'which'constitutes'a'fundamental'platform'for'comparing'
nations,' ethnicities,' value' systems,' institutional' procedures,' politi)
cal' cultures,' social' habits' etc.' In' particular,' the' contribution' will'
reflect'upon'the'different'ways'of'doing'comparison'(more'or'less'
driven' by' stereotyped' categorizations)' when' comparison' concerns'
contexts'perceived'as'different'but'at'the'same'time'belonging'to'a'
common' imaged' space,' or' when' it' regards' a' reality/culture' per)
ceived'as'completely'extraneous.'
The' contribution' identifies' different' ways' of' relating' to' otherness'
and'reflects'on'both'personal'characteristics'and'biographical'expe)
riences'and'processes'which'on'the'one'hand'effect'the'extension'
of' the' imaged' Europe,' and' on' the' other' hand' seem' to' result' ina'
different'capacity'to'deal'with'what'is'perceived'as'being'different.'
Unexpectedly,' cultural' capital,' high' level' of' education,' open)
mindedness,'prolonged'and'meaningful'cross)cultural'and'or'cross)
national'experiences'do'not'prevent'from'getting'caught'in'stereo)
typed'visions:'these,'in'fact,'can'be'in'action'though'often'masked'
by' “politically' correct”' discourses' and' hidden' by' a' declared' ac)
ceptance'of'diversity.'
THE!AMBIVALENT!VIEWS!OF!EUROPE!IN!FARMERS!
BIOGRAPHICAL!NARRATIVES!
'1
Mariana'Draganova ,'Rumiana'Jeleva
1'
1
INSTITUTE'FOR'THE'STUDY'OF'SOCIETIES'AND'KNOWLEDGE,'Sofia,'
'
Bulgaria
Abstract:' The' paper' focuses' on' the' results' of' the' EUROIDENTITIES'
project.'In'particular'it'presents'the'findings'about'the'farmers'as'a'
group'‘sensitized’'by'Europe'on'the'base'of'biographical'interviews'
collected'in'Bulgaria,'Poland,'Germany'and'Wales.'
Compared'to'the'other'groups'studied'in'the'project'that'of'farm)
ers' is' not' an' “ordinary”' sensitized' group.' Farmers' are' settled,' im)
mobile' and' bound' to' many' features' of' their' material' surrounding'
environment' like' land,' family,' locality' and' nature.' In' the' current'
paper' we' trace' out' this' embeddedness' of' farmers’' existence' and'
work'into'the'material'and'natural'surrounding'world'as'well'as'its'
impact' on' the' farmers’' biographical' development' and' transfor)
mation'in'the'four'countries'studied.'Our'intention'is'to'present'the'
whole' variety' of' ambivalent' views' of' farmers,' when' referring' to'
Europe' in' their' explanations,' interpretations' and' argumentations.'
Significant' for' the' farmers’' narratives' are' the' figurations' (Elias).'
Along' to' the' most' evident' figuration' “old/ member/ states/ versus/
new/member/states”'we'try'to'elaborate'on'other'significant'inter)
relations' like' “farmers/ versus/ other/ market/ actors”' (food' chains,'
environmentalists,'state'and'national'bureaucracy,'etc)'in'order'to'
embrace'both'–'the'variety'of'the'perceptions'about'the'significant'
“others”' in' the' farmers’' social' world' as' well' as' the' ambivalent'
views'about'Europe'in'the'farmers''group.'
THINKING!THE!EDUCATIONAL!OTHER:!COMPARATIVE!
DIMENSIONS!OF!BIOGRAPHICAL!EXPERIENCE!OF!
TRANSNATIONAL!MOBILITY!IN!THE!EUROPEAN!
HIGHER!EDUCATION!AREA!
Howard'Davis
1'
1
School' of' Social' Sciences,' BANGOR' UNIVERSITY,' Bangor,' United'
'
Kingdom
Abstract:'Policies'on'education'and'mobility'in'the'European'Higher'
Education'Area'have'promoted'the'structural'convergence'of'quali)
fications' frameworks,' cooperation' between' institutions' and' stu)
dent' mobility.' The' Euroidentities' project' (2008)11)' collected' auto)
biographical' narrative' interview' data' which' can' be' used' to' inter)
pret'the'themes'of'education,'mobility'and'Europe'in'comparative'
perspective.' The' research' allows' mobility' experiences' to' be' com)
pared'across'a'range'of'European'countries:'north'and'south,'east'
and'west.'Taking'individuals'who'had'previously'experienced'study'
abroad' in' higher' education,' the' project' examines' the' biographical'
data' for' evidence' of' how' the' available' opportunities' for' mobility'
are'used'as'well'as'the'evidence'of'changes'which'are'reported'at'
the' level' of' everyday' life.' Personal' experience' broadens' through'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
72'
Abstract'Book'
mobility'but'the'analysis'suggests'that'students'encounter'the'edu)
cational' ‘other’' through' strategies' and' frameworks' of' reference'
which'are'embedded'in'the'various'educational'cultures'which'can'
be' found' in' Europe.' Students' from' contrasting' educational' back)
grounds,' with' different' levels' of' commitment' and' skills,' gravitate'
towards'different'types'of'student'mobility.'At'the'same'time,'eve)
ry'type'of'mobility'develops'new'skills'and'stimulates'further'aspi)
rations.'Some'are'transnational'and'others'may'qualify'as'‘Europe)
an’.'The'paper'considers'a'number'of'questions.'What'are'the'limits'
of' observation' and' experience' in' the' life' stories?' Which' compari)
sons' do' narrators' use?' Where' does' the' category' ‘Europe’' emerge'
in' argumentation' and' reflective' commentary?' How' do' pathways'
through' education' influence' life' trajectories' in' periods' of' social'
turbulence'and'at'different'stages'of'the'life'course?'The'narratives'
provide' insights' into' the' longer)term' impact' of' experiences' in' the'
European'educational'mobility'arena:'the'integration'of'new'learn)
ing,' opportunities' for' cultural' contact' and' self)development' into'
other'life'experiences.'
TRANSNATIONAL!WORK!IN!TURBULENT!TIMES!
Kaja'Kazmierska
1'
1
UNIVERSITY'OF'LODZ,'Lodz,'Poland
'
Abstract:' Working' abroad' in' Europe' becomes' more' and' more'
common' way' of' designing' one’s' professional' biography.' This' con)
siders'both'short'term'projects'related'to'goal'oriented'mobility'as'
well' as' the' project' of' transnational' professional' career.' From' the'
perspective' of' Eastern' Europe' mobility' connected' with' temporal'
work'to'save'the'money'or'survive'crisis'on'labour'market'appeared'
to'be'an'effective'strategy'for'individual'biography'as'well'as'in'the'
context' of' such' social' problems' as' unemployment.' Especially' that'
differences'in'wages'seem'to'keep'their'attractiveness.'Yet'this'kind'
of' mobility' is' also' connected' with' biographical' costs' related' to' a'
transnational'worker'situation'of'Shützian'homecomer'who'at'the'
same'time'has'to'reestablish'relationships'in'his'local'environment'
and'remains'a'stranger'in'host'society.'I'will'comment'on'this'prob)
lem' by' relating' to' biographical' materials' collected' in' EuroIdentity'
project.'
"I'M!BUILDING!MY!OWN!'EUROPEAN'!IDENTITY”:!
ASPIRATION!TO!EUROPEAN!CULTURE!IN!THE!
BIOGRAPHICAL!NARRATIVES!OF!THE!RUSSIANG
SPEAKING!YOUTH!IN!ESTONIA!
Aida'Hachaturyan
1'
1
Centre' for' Contemporary' Cultural' Studies,' TALLINN' UNIVERSITY,'
'
Tallinn,'Estonia
Abstract:' In' the' focus' of' current' research' is' a' question' how' the'
younger'generation'of'Russian)speaking'community'in'Estonia'rep)
resents' and' identifies' itself' after' the' year' 2000,' when' began' the'
second'decade'after'the'collapse'of'Soviet'Union'and'Estonia's'‘re)
turning'to'the'West’.'We'deal'with'a'peculiar'group'of'young'peo)
ple' who' do' not' represent' Russian)speaking' youth' of' Estonia' in'
whole,' but' who' have' their' own' interesting' paths' and' messages:'
leaders'and'members'of'different'voluntary'organizations.'
Estonia's'joining'the'European'Union'has'ultimately'eliminated'the'
border' with' the' West.' At' the' same' time' young' respondents' feel'
their'remoteness'from'their'cultural'mother'country,'from'its'men)
tality,' Russia' becomes' even' incomprehensible' and' stranger' to'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
them.' Obviously,' the' whole' complexity' of' the' issue' of' identity' of'
young' respondents' is' that' the' question' "who' we' are?"' they' re)
spond' while' watching' the' East' and' the' West' simultaneously.' The'
purpose'of'the'paper'is'to'show'a''picture''of'represented'identities'
of'young'Russian)speaking'intellectuals.'
The'narratives'shows'the'tendency'of'cosmopolitan'attitude'in'self)
representations'of'the'respondents'))'border'as'a'geopolitical'phe)
nomenon' narrows,' bounds' the' space' of' their' cultural' identity.' In'
this' case' respondent' refuse' to' identify' himself' as' a' citizen' of' cur)
rent'state.'Is'it'possible'in'case'of'current'study'group'to'talk'about'
a' 'traces'' of' such' phenomena' as' a' hybrid' identity,' transcultural'
identity?' From' this' point' of' view' it' is' possible' to' consider' repre)
sented' desire' of' young' people' to' go' beyond' the' boundaries' of' a'
particular' state,' to' move' to' another' space,' where' the' issue' of'
boundaries' between' 'own'' and' 'other'' would' be' eliminated.' Ac)
cording' to' the' young' respondents'' views,' Europe' meets' these' ex)
pectations,'it'is'represented'as'the'most'suitable'space'for'creative'
ideas' and' future' prospects.' Multicultural' identity' implies,' on' the'
one' hand,' the' maintenance' of' cultural' differences.' On' the' other'
hand,' for' the' formation' of' multicultural' identity' is' important' the'
existence'of'multicultural'values.'One'of'these'can'be'seen'in'Euro)
pean'culture'as'a'phenomenon.'European'identity'as'a'prototype'of'
multicultural' identity' (Beck' 2000)' seems' to' be' suitable' for' our' re)
spondents,' who' represent' themselves' as' carriers' of' European' cul)
ture,'values,'norms,'traditions,'mentality.'
DISCOURSE!OF!ETHNICITY!AND!NATION!IN!LATVIA:!
POLYPHONIC!CHARACTER!OF!“SELF”!AND!“OTHER”!
Baiba'Bela
1'
1
Institute'of'Philosophy'and'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'LATVIA,'Riga,'
'
Latvia
Abstract:' In' my' paper' I' would' like' to' focus' on' the' construction' of'
“self”'and'“other”'in'the'discourse'of'ethnic'and'national'identity'in'
contemporary' Latvia.' There' has' been' 20' years' since' regaining' of'
independence' –' sufficient' time' to' adjust' private' and' collective'
identities' to' new' situation.' However' situation' is' complicated' –' al)
most'half'of'population'is'different'minority'groups'and'in'the'same'
time'in'the'society'dominates'discourse'of'national'identity'typical'
th
for' 19 ' century' Europe' and' still' typical' for' Eastern' Europe' which'
identifies'ethnic'and'national'identity.'It'is'still'not'clear,'who'forms'
Latvia’s'nation'–'Latvians'or'others'as'well,'ethnicity'and'language'is'
very' important' in' everyday' communication.' How' Latvians' see'
themselves' and' other' ethnic' groups' in' Latvia?' How' other' ethnic'
groups' experience' belonging' to' Latvia' and' how' they' see' them)
selves'and'titular'nation?'
I'would'like'to'focus'on'discourse'of'national'identity'and'place'of'
ethnicity' within' it.' Research' is' based' on' interviews' conducted' for'
research' grant' “Formation' of' consciousness' of' national' identity'
after' the' reestablishing' of' independence' in' Latvia:' tendencies' and'
factors”.' Discourse' of' national' and' ethnic' identity' is' interpreted'
using'perspectives'of'constructivism'and'postmodernism'–'theories'
of'B.Anderson,'A.L.'Epstein,'S.Hall,'Z.Bauman,'M.'Castels.'
ETHNICITY!–!MIGRATION!G!IDENTITY.!BIOGRAPHICAL!
CONSTRUCTIONS!OF!BELONGING!BY!POLISH!
EMIGRANTS!IN!GERMANY!
Thea'D.'Boldt
1'
Abstract'Book'
73'
'
1
KWI,'Essen,'Germany
'
Abstract:'This'presentation'summarizes'the'final'results'of'my'PhD'
project' on' biographical' constructions' of' belonging' by' Polish' mi)
grants'in'Germany.'
The'central'question'of'my'thesis'is'how'the'construction'of'biog)
raphies'of'(these)'people'is'related'to'the'experience'of'migration'
and' how' this' is' changing' in' the' process' of' life' history.' I' work' out'
which'biographical'concepts'and'plots'the'migrants'are'following'as'
well' as' what' sort' of' needs,' expectations' and' attitudes' are' ex)
pressed'within'the'biographies'and'related'to'migration.'
The'results'of'my'study'show,'that'Polish'belonging'in'Germany'is'
constructed' as' an' ethnic' process' embedded' in' the' collective' Ger)
man)Polish'history'as'a'space'of'recollection.'In'this,'special'focus'is'
made' on' family' members’' experiences' during' the' Second' World'
War.'
My'study'shows'how'the'recollection'and'reinterpretation'of'these'
experiences'is'used'biographically'in'order'to'make'sense'of'migra)
tion' experience' and' of' life' in' Germany,' and' how' the' meaning' of'
being'Polish'is'constructed'in'this'frame.'
The'final'results'of'my'study'will'be'published'by'Campus'Verlag'in'
Germany'in'October'2011.'
FAITH!AND!RELIGION!IN!THE!FORMATION!OF!
IDENTITIES!OF!THE!ETHNIC!MINORITIES!IN!EASTERN!
EUROPEAN!COUNTRIES!
Lyudmila'A.'Nurse
1
1'
OXFORD'XXI,'Thame,'Oxfordshire,'United'Kingdom
'
Abstract:' The' paper' addresses' the' place' and' role' of' faith' in' the'
formation'and'reproduction'of'ethnic'identities'based'on'analysis'of'
biographical' accounts' of' ethnic' minorities' in' Lithuania' and' Latvia'
(ethnic'Russian'and'Polish'minorities)'that'were'studied'in'the'FP7'
ENRI)EAST' project:' European,' National' and' Regional' Identities.'
Faith'and'religious'belief'have'been'sidelined'in'studies'of'the'for)
mation' of' identities' in' Eastern' European' countries.' The' fall' of'
Communism' in' Eastern' European' countries' was' followed' by' a' re)
vival' of' religion' where' it' had' been' banned' or' significantly' op)
pressed'by'regimes.'Religious'practices'are'analysed'in'the'context'
of'ethnic'self)identification.'Religious'beliefs'are'traditionally'main)
tained'in'families'and'can'be'passed'from'generation'to'generation'
whereas'in'the'Socialist'atheist'states'this'pattern'of'belief'transfer'
became' “withdrawn' from' public' eye”' due' to' the' official' atheist'
doctrine'of'the'state'and'society'and'people’s'fear'of'being'discrim)
inated'against'on'the'account'of'religious'beliefs'and'practices.'The'
states’'position'on'religion'transformed'the'way'people'expressed'
their'religious'beliefs.'This'is'reflected'in'the'ethnic'minorities’'life'
stories'collected'in'biographical'interviews.'
FROM!‘IMMIGRANTS’!TO!‘MUSLIMS’:!THE!POLITICAL!
MOBILISATION!AND!SHIFTING!IDENTITIES!OF!THE!
SECOND!GENERATION!IN!BRITAIN!AND!FRANCE!
Timothy'Peace
1
1'
Department' of' Sociology,' UNIVERSITÉ' DU' QUÉBEC' À' MONTRÉAL,'
'
Montréal,'Canada
Abstract:' This' paper' demonstrates' the' continuity' of' mobilisation'
between'the'first'generation'of'
post)colonial'migrants'to'Britain'and'France'and'the'second'genera)
tion'that'was'raised'in'these'countries.'It'also'explores'how'activists'
from' this' second' generation' gradually' changed' their' self)
identification'from'immigrants/children'of'immigrants'to'‘Muslims’.'
The' focus' is' on' the' political' participation' of' second' generation'
North'Africans'in'France'and'those'whose'parents'originated'from'
the'Indian'sub)continent'in'Britain.'In'the'latter'case,'activism'in'the'
70s'and'80s'bridged'the'linguistic'and'religious'divides'in'the'South'
Asian' community,' religious' identity' was' in' fact' sub)ordinate' to' an'
‘Asian’' or' ‘Black’' identity.' In' France' too,' an' ‘Arab’' identity' was'
much' more' prominent' and' religion' never' entered' their' demands.'
The'‘Asian'Youth'Movements’'in'Britain'and'the'mouvement/beur'in'
France' were' the' most' symbolic' social' movements' of' the' second'
generation'and'some'organizations'still'exist'today'as'secular'lega)
cies'of'these'movements.'It'was'only'during'the'1990s'in'fact'that'
these'‘Asians’'and'‘Arabs’'first'started'mobilising'as'‘Muslims’.'1989'
represented'a'watershed'with'the'Rushdie'affair'in'Britain'and'the'
first' headscarf' affair' in' France,' and' in' both' countries' a' ‘Muslim’'
identity' became' more' prominent.' The' paper' argues' that' despite'
both'sets'of'activists'moving'towards'an'Islamic'identity,'in'France'
there'was'much'more'continuity'with'the'past.'French'Muslim'ac)
tivists'of'the'second'generation'went'on'to'form'their'own'organi)
sations' which' later' regrouped' under' the' umbrella' of' the' Collectif/
des/Musulmans/de/France'(CMF).'These'groups'mobilised'on'Mus)
lim'issues'but'also'wider'questions'connected'to'global'justice'(po)
lice'brutality,'social'and'welfare'issues,'asylum'seekers).'There'was'
no'such'development'in'the'UK.'Indeed'the'groups'that'later'estab)
lished' themselves' were' founded' by' first' generation' migrants' and'
were'almost'exclusively'concerned'with'religious'issues.'This'helps'
to'explain'why'today'Muslims'in'France'are'much'more'likely'to'get'
involved'in'broader'social'movements'and'why'identities'in'Britain'
have'become'much'more'rigid'and'conservative.'
BIOGRAPHY,!COMMUNITY!AND!RESISTANCE!IN!SKID!
ROW!
'1
'2
Maggie'Oneill ,'Philip'Stenning '
1
Applied' Social' SCiences,' DURHAM' UNIVERSITY,' Durham,' United'
2
'
Kingdom,' Griffith'University,'Brisbane,'Australia
Abstract:/Taking'a'biographical'and'visual'ethnographic'approach'to'
analyse' the' politics' of' community' and' resistance' in' 'skid' row'' we'
discuss'the'multiple'ways'of'seeing'the'spaces'and'places'of'‘com)
munity’'through'the'narratives'and'photographs'of'residents'in'the'
DTES.' Moreover,' we' reflect' upon' the' theoretical' and' empirical'
implications' for' re)thinking' biography,' community' and' resistance'
through' participatory' and' arts' based' research' within' socio)
economic'conditions'of'sharpening'sexual'and'social'inequalities.'
FRAYED!CAREERS!IN!TURBULENT!TIMES.!INDIVIDUAL!
CHOICES!OR!SITUATIONAL!FORCES?!
Elisabeth'Schilling
1'
1
Social'Sciences,'UNIVERSITY'OF'APPLIED'ADMINISTRATIVE'SCIENCE'
'
NRW,'Cologne,'Germany
Abstract:' Careers' (as' a' part' of' a' biography)' were' originally' under)
stood'as'a'linear'individual'development'within'one'stable'employ)
ing' organization.' This' conjunction' began' to' disintegrate' with' the'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
74'
Abstract'Book'
environmental' changes' and' turbulences.' In' my' research' project' I'
analyse'if'the'linear'career'no'longer'has'its'normative'power,'if'the'
individuals'freely'choose'to'pursue'non)linear'career'patterns'or'if'
they'are'forced'by'their'circumstances'to'this'path.'
The' manifold' barriers' in' women’s' careers' produce' not' only' the'
obstacles'to'reach'the'career'goal,'respectedposition'or'acceptance'
in'the'working'world.'They'also'cause'interruptions,'downtimes'or'
career'breaksin'the'career'development.'Women'in'highly'qualified'
professions'are'very'often'forced'not'to'pursue'the'standard'linear'
and' cumulative' working' lives' but' to' search' for' unknown' and' unu)
sual'side'ways'in'order'to'reach'the'professional'goal.'
Using'the'framework'developed'by'Reiter'(2010)'I'analyse'the'indi)
vidual' strategies' which' help' profession)oriented' women' to' deal'
with' the' uncertainty' of' their' frayed' biographies.' I' use' this' frame)
work'in'order'to'analyse'the'biographicalwork'of'older'profession)
als.'They'discover'strategies'to'cope'with'insecurity,'organizational'
injustice' or' life' course' stereotypes' such' as' networking,' additional'
qualification,'change'over'to'a'self)employed'position'or'working'in'
an'interdisciplinary'field.'
In' my' presentation' I' would' like' to' compare' the' biographicalnarra)
tives' of' three' older' female' professionals.' I' aim' to' bring' together'
empirical'data'about'different'biographical'models'and'the'patterns'
of' women's' mental' handling' of' their' own' biographies.' My' special'
attention' is' further' directed' towards' the' subjective' notion' of' per)
sonal'success.'
The' success' of' their' strategies' is' equivocal' since' they' are' highly'
individualistic,' create' additional' transitional' moments' and' hence'
additional' risk' in' the' life' course.' It' can' be' stated' that' individual'
effort' and' individual' ability' are' not' as' powerful' as' organizational'
form' and' organizational' policy' in' order' to' resolve' female' career'
obstacles.'
PHOTOGRAPHIC!PORTRAITS!AND!MEMORY!
Brian'Roberts
1'
1
PSYCHOSOCIAL' RESEARCH' UNIT,' UNIVERSITY' OF' CENTRAL'
'
LANCASHIRE,'PRESTON,'United'Kingdom
Abstract:' The' paper' seeks' to' add' to' the' increasing' interest' and'
development' of' visual' materials' in' narrative' and' biographical' re)
search' by' exploring,' through' a' particular' interpretive' approach' )'
the' photographic' portrait' )' "self)images"' taken' of' us' by' ourselves'
(self)portraits)'or'taken'by'others'(portraits'gained'informally'or'by'
professionals),'alone'or'as'part'of'a'group.'The'paper'has'a'strong'
auto/biographical' focus:' it' explores' how' we' "look"' at' (and' experi)
ence' according' to' our' "senses")' personal' photographs' and' associ)
ate' them' with' memories' of' our' past,' our' current' experience,' and'
future.'It'takes'as'examples'two'school'photographs'(1956)8)'of'me'
aged'6)8'years'old'and'uses'the'idea'of'"time'perspectives"'and'a'
range' of' associated' concepts.' Two' connected' narratives' are' out)
lined')'firstly,'a'commentary'on'the'two'school'photographs'and'my'
childhood' development' (e.g.' sensual,' intellectual)' between' 6)8'
years' old,' and' second,' my' current' outlook' and' activities' and' how'
the'relate'to'memories'raised'by'the'photographs.'
“CRACOW”:!“CITY”:!“ISLAND”.!BIOGRAPHICAL!MYTH!
OF!PLACE!AS!A!PERFORMATIVE!“FICTION”!IN!A!LOCH!
CAMELOT!CABARET!
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
Anna'Kapusta
1'
1
Sociology,'JAGIELLONIAN'UNIVERSITY,'Cracow,'Poland
'
Abstract:' The' main' issue' of' exploration' is' the' process' of' transfor)
mation' the' mythical' narration' into' performative' municipal' “fic)
tion”.' That' is' social' mechanisms' of' “biographical' myth' of' place”'
materialising' in' polish,' cracovian' artistic' biographies.' The' case'
study' is' based' on' data' from' the' Loch' Camelot' Cabaret' in' Cracow.'
“Biographical' myth' of' place”' analysed' in' cognitive' categories' and'
autodefinitions'of'the'cabaret'artists'as'well'as'symbolic'structures'
present'in'the'culture'texts'was'reconstructed'in'the'language'anal)
ysis'of'unrestrained'and'profound'interviews,'author’s'observations'
and' compiled' audial' documentation' (municipal' cracovian' song,' in'
peculiarity'entitled'“On'the'Cracow'Isle”).'The'effect'of'research'is'
constatation' that' late)modernity' forms' of' mythical' thinking' estab)
lish' new' spiritual' phenomena' of' places,' among' them' function' of'
aesthetic'communication'sacrum'mediated'by'the'cabaret'sender)
recipient'act.'One'of'the'dimensions'of'mythical'thinking'constitute'
also' occurrence' of' aestheticization' of' biographies' and' symbolic'
social' ties,' which' are' integral' feature' of' processual' work' of' art,'
whose'example'undoubtedly'is'the'recital'program'“On'the'Cracow'
Isle.”'
QUEERING!VEGANISMG!ADVENTURES!IN!BIOGRAPHY!
AND!REFLEXIVITY!
Nathan'David'Stephens'Griffin
1'
1
School'of'Applied'Social'Sciences,'DURHAM'UNIVERSITY,'Durham,'
'
United'Kingdom
Abstract:' This' paper' (and' my' broader' research)' reconceptualizes'
veganism' in' Queer' terms,' taking' the' vegan' as' its' Queer' subject.'
Biographical'research'is'a'methodologically'diverse'field,'but'gener)
ally' its' methods' seek' to' understand' the' experiences' and' outlooks'
of' individual' subjects' in' their' broader' social' and' political' context.'
Principles' such' as' respect,' reciprocity,' trust' as' well' as' a' sensitivity'
to'the'importance'of'narrative,'are'central'to'many'of'these'meth)
ods.' My' research' expands' upon' these' principles,' combining' con)
ventional' biographical' interviews' with' the' use' of' comics.' Comics'
are' a' narrative' medium' utilizing' visual' and/or' textual' modes' of'
communication.' Comics' are' visually' engaging' in' a' way' that' tradi)
tional'prose'is'not'and'rather'than'being'a'hindrance'to'complexity,'
comics'can'convey'nuanced'ideas'in'a'multi)dimensional'way.'Peo)
ple'from'wider'social'and'educational'backgrounds'can'engage'with'
and'respond'to'comics.'Hopefully'this'means'that'my'research'can'
reach'beyond'the'traditionally'insular'boundaries'of'the'academy.'
TOWARDS!A!PRAGMATIC!APPROACH:!A!STRATEGY!TO!
THE!ANALYSIS!OF!BIOGRAPHICAL!DATA!
'1
'2
Trine'Lund'Thomsen ,'Rasmus'Antoft '
1
2
Department'of'Culture'and'Global'Studies,' Department'of'Sociol)
'
ogy,'AALBORG'UNIVERSITY,'Aalborg,'Denmark
Abstract:'The'main'purpose'of'this'paper'is'to'develop'on'the'idea'
of'a'”pragmatic”'approach'to'the'biographical'method.'In'this'per)
spective'the'biographical'research'method'can'be'divided'into'four'
main' approaches' and' in' short' they' are' characterized' by;' 1)' the/
agent=oriented/approach'which'main'focus'is'that'the'lives'of'indi)
viduals'are'characterized'by'biographical'projects'that'are'constant)
ly' revised;' 2)' the/ institutional/ approach' where' the' point' of' depar)
Abstract'Book'
75'
'
ture' is' that' institutions' have' a' significant' influence' on' the' lives' of'
individuals'in'terms'of'self)understanding'and'placing'oneself'into'a'
broader' context' and' that' this' influence' can' be' traced' in' the' bio)
graphical'stories;'3)'the/narrative/approach'is'based'on'the'applica)
tion' of' the' narration' from' the' life' story' as' statements' which' are'
transformed' into' text' and' that' the' text' has' its' own' reality' as' a'
meaning' formatting' construction;' 4)' the/ cognitive/ approach' as)
sumes'that'there'exists'a'fundamental'homology'between'the'told'
story'and'the'lived'life.'These'four'main'approaches'are'analytical'
constructions'that'rarely'are'used'in'a'“straight”'version,'but'rather'
that' elements' from' some' of' the' approaches' are' brought' together'
in'order'to'fit'with'a'specific'study'at'hand.'
The' introduction' of' this' kind' of' pragmatic' approach' depending'
largely'on'the'social'relations'and'processes'explored'in'the'investi)
gation'is'based'on'that'they'are'comprehended'better'in'terms'of'
context' and' interaction' and' consequently' biography.' In' this' paper'
we' seek' to' elaborate' on' the' four' approaches' and' explore' how' a'
pragmatic'approach'may'be'an'appropriate'strategy'to'apply'when'
conducting'biographical'research.'
INDIVIDUAL!MEMORY!AND!COLLECTIVE!FORGETTING:!
BETWEEN!GRAND!NARRATIVES!IN!LATVIA!
Edmunds'Supulis
1'
1
LATVIA'UNIVERSITY,'riga,'Latvia
'
Abstract:' Restoration' of' independence' and' liberalization' of' re)
pressed' historical' memory' forged' new' Grand' narrative' on' Latvia`s'
past'to'replace'the'representations'made'under'Soviet'regime.'New'
memory'regimes'in'former'Soviet'states'(and'countries'of'Warsaw'
pact)' on' one' hand' liberated' repressed' recollections' (of' independ)
ence,' occupation,' deportations' etc.),' on' other' hand' each' country'
are'experiencing'its'own'kind'of'amnesia'regarding'particular'ques)
tions'of'Soviet'experience.'In'my'country'it'is'seen'from'turning'to'
both' public' discourses' and' analyzing' various' life' story' interviews'
from'the'Latvia'National'Oral'history'collection.'People'in'Latvia'still'
have' very' personal' memories' of' Soviet' time' and' certain' problems'
to'adjust'them'with'present'biographical'narratives.'Can'those'“so)
viet' memories”' and' “Latvian' identity”' be' reconciled?' The' paper'
touches' upon' aspects' of' memory' studies' where' power' operated'
within' politics' of' memory' is' eliminating' some' recollections' and'
supporting' the' others.' What' kind' of' Latvian' historical' vision' and'
national' identity' is' offered' to' people' who' are' divided' both' by' lin)
guistic'and'mnemonic'practices?'Current'politics'of'memory'in'Lat)
via' raises' my' attention' to' the' ways' how' to' deal' with' contestable'
past' and' to' the' possibility' to' converge' opposite' communities' of'
memory.'
MAKING!SOVIET!PAST!USABLE:!NARRATIONS!OF!THE!
THREE!ESTONIAN!GENERATIONS!
Aili'Aarelaid)Tart
1'
1
Centre' for' Contemporary' Cultural' Studies,' TALLINN' UNIVERSITY,'
'
Tallinn,'Estonia
Abstract:'I'compare'the'narrations'on'Soviet'period'by'three'differ)
ent'generations:'1)'born'in'1920s'or'Republican'youth'(RG);'2)'born'
in'1945)1950s'or'after)war'children'(AG);'3)'born'1985)1991'or'Kids'
of'Singing'Revolution'(SG).'All'these'generations'use'these'memo)
ries' as' identity)building' tools' for' more' convenient' interpretations'
their' social' positions' in' rapidly' changing' value)reality' in' Estonia.'
The' life' stories' of' RG' are' full' of' comparisons' of' two' independent'
periods' cut' by' triple' occupation' years.' Unpleasant' memories' on'
long' Soviet' times' are' contrasted' to' very' trusty' pre)war' child)
hood/youth' what' was' interrupted' by' deportations,' violence' and'
horror'in'1940.'The'restoration'of'independent'statehood'in'1991'is'
taken'as'a'happiest'event'in'their'lives.'One'part'from'RG'demand)
ed'revenge'for'the'lost'youth,'the'large'part'asks'for'understanding'
of' their' double)minded' behaviour' in' the' coercive' circumstances.'
The' members' of' RG' (who' are' over' 80' years' old)' are' the' experi)
enced'survivors'in'historical'whirlpool.'AG'had'not'their'own'mem)
ories'on'pre)war'state'in'their'formative'years,'that'period'revealed'
for'them'as'something'strongly'forbidden'but'desirable.'The'“red”'
ideology,' double' mental' standards' and' deficit' for' everyday' goods'
were'them'as'taken'for'granted'framing'of'life.'The'collapse'of'the'
Soviet'system'captures'them'in'the'middle'of'their'working'career'
demanding'strong'revisiting'of'previous'values.'They'do'not'narrate'
this' rapid' change' as' huge' event' in' their' lives' but' estimate' it' as'
something' very' normal.' Even' the' loosing' of' high' (nomenclature)'
positions' they' narrate' now' as' a' becoming' of' right' time' to' make'
some' changes' in' their' working' career.' SG' remembering' of' Soviet'
time'is'very'fragmentary'or'absent'at'all.'Their'knowledge'on'Sovi)
ets'is'intermediated'by'school'text)books'or'listened'from'relatives.'
The' essence' of' Soviet' ideology' and' repressive' state)machinery' is'
quite' alien' for' them,' pure' facts' from' history' only.' They' are' inter)
ested'in'the'Soviet'everyday'life'full'of'queues'for'sausage,'butter,'
milk,' tights,' underwear,' etc.' They' are' children' of' rising' consumer'
society'where'things'are'more'important'than'ideas.'Told'at'homes'
fantastic'stories'on'deficit'economy'(no'bananas,'no'jeans,'no'fibre'
pens'–'incredible!)'they'take'as'an'adventure,'as'a'fun.'The'archae)
ology'of'Soviet'past'opens'to'SG'a'new'framing'to'understand'their'
position'in'the'latest'years'of'restricted'consumerism.'
THE!NEGATION!OF!BIOGRAPHICAL!PAST.!THE!
IDENTITY!WORK!OF!ADULTS!GROWING!UP!IN!
CHILDREN’S!INSTITUTIONS!
Agnieszka'Golczyńska)Grondas
1
1'
Institute'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'LODZ,'Lodz,'Poland
'
Abstract:' The' paper' treats' about' the' identity' work' undertaken' by'
interviewees'in'the'project'“Institutionalized'identity?'Life'stories'of'
adults' who' grew' up' in' state' children’s' homes”' (2010)2011).' The'
narrators' come' from' poor,' socially' deprived' families' and' )' due' to'
the' family' dysfunctions' )' were' placed' in' institutions.' It' has' been'
proved' that' the' economic' poverty' and' low' social' status' are' very'
often'connected'with'“biographical'paucity”'(e.g.'Palska'H.,'Bieda'i'
Dostatek.'O'nowych'stylach'życia'w'Polsce'lat'dziewięćdziesiątych,'
Warszawa' 2002).' In' the' case' of' narrators' in' the' project,' the' phe)
nomenon' of' biographical' “rooting' out”' regards' hardly' perceptible'
resources'of'biographical'memory'about'past'and'older'generations'
and' primary' social' environment' of' biography' incumbents.' These'
resources'are'limited'also'due'to'the'lack'or'institutionally'restrict)
ed'interactions'with'parents'and'other'family'members.'The'possi)
bilities' of' developing' individual’s' identity' and' benefiting' from' the'
resources'of'biographical'memory'are'confined'not'only'because'of'
the' lack' of' information' about' the' personal' past,' but' also' on' ac)
count'of'suffering'and'traumatic'events'experienced'by'narrators'in'
childhood'and'adolescence.'Moreover'the'interviewees'have'had'to'
face' stigmatizing' practices' of' (significant)' others' ascribing' them'
intergenerationally' “inherited”' negative' attributes.' Narrators’' atti)
tudes'towards'past,'biographical'roots'and'assigned'characteristics'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
76'
Abstract'Book'
seem'to'be'crucial'for'their'identity'and'biographical'work'and'sub)
sequent'life'course.'
THE!RUSSIAN!MUSEUMS!OF!AFGHAN!WAR!AND!
COLLECTIVE!REMEMBRANCE!STRATEGIES!
'1
'2
Elena'Rozhdestvenskaya ,'Irina'Tartakovskaya '
1
2
Sociology,'State'University'Higher'School'of'Economic,' Institute'of'
'
Sociology,'Moscow,'Russian'Federation
Abstract:' The' museums' of' Soviet' War' in' Afghanistan' have' been'
organized' by' the' survived' veterans' and' relatives' of' the' perished'
soldiers.' Most' important' motivation' was' to' commemorate' their'
comrades'killed'in'this'war.'That'means'the'necessity'for'two'things'
(or' objectives):' mourning' and' grief' but' also' giving' sense' to' their'
deaths' as' well' as' to' the' War' in' Afghanistan.' The' second' objective'
transforms' into' the' “mission”' of' younger' generation' patriotic'
breeding.'
The'Museum'fails'to'answer'the'question'of'what'was'the'reason'of'
war.'This'is'the'museum'made'for'the'remembrance'of'people'who'
performed'their'duty'participating'in'a'tragic'event.'That'event'had'
no'personal'meaning'for'them'and'their'state'didn’t'care'to'create'
any' clear' frame' of' explanation.' So' the' task' of' giving' sense' is' per)
formed' as' the' formation' of' the' sequence' of' participation' in' the'
wars'and'with'the'help'of'the'emotional'rituals.'
What' is' important' for' setting' the' intra)museum' space' of' Afghan'
theme'are'the'things'which'represent'it'–'discursive'somatizations,'
which' localize,' describe' and' personify' military' experience.' These'
representations'find'their'expression'in'the'images'of'individual'or'
collective'body.'
T.Bennett'in'his'work'‘Birth'of'the'Museum’'describes'museum'as'
the'disciplinary'machine'embodying'the'general'standards'of'social'
behavior'via'the'enlightenment'tasks.'This'dimension'of'visual'cul)
ture' development' serves' executes' the' power' of' interpretation' of'
very' certain' way' of' development' and' selection' of' significant' land)
marks' (of' knowledge).' But' on' top' of' the' task' of' pathos' transmis)
sion,' a' contemporary' museum' must' be' attractive,' entertaining.'
When' we' balance' these' tasks,' we' also' can' trace' the' interplay' be)
tween'different'politics'of'memorization'and'representation.'
The'museums'of'war'in'Afghanistan'are'neither'militaristic,'aiming'
to' support' the' military' spirit,' nor' pacifistic,' blaming' somebody' for'
the'fact'of'war'and'daring'to'say'this'‘never'again’.'Actually,'there'
are' museums' of' fatalism,' telling' their' story' about' the' inevitability'
of'war'which'harvest'souls'and'bodies'young'and'innocent'victims,'
who'should'be'ready'to'participate'in'
MEMORYSCAPE:!BIOGRAPHY!AS!CAPITAL!AND!
MEDIATOR!OF!COMMUNICATION!AND!
HARMONIZATION!OF!EXPERIENCES!
Dace'Bormane
1'
1
INSTITUTE' OF' PHILOSOPHY' AND' SOCIOLOGY,' UNIVERSITY' OF'
'
LATVIA,'Riga,'Latvia
Abstract:'There'are'processes,'things'or'occurrences'that'could'be'
understood'only'within'contexts.The'study'of'biography'(in'a'broad'
sense)'is'an'example'of'humanistic'sociology.'In'this'context'we'can'
speak' about' the' memory/ work' and' controlled' understanding.' The'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
significant' role' of' memory' in' society' consists' of' the' fact' that' the'
past'is'never'the'past.'
The' present' paper' will' analyze' the' mindscape' as' a' space' of'
memory,'the'facticity'of'memory'and'the'politics'of'memory,'the'so'
called'“hot'memories”,'the'narrative'ethics'…'
Memory'is'creative.'It'forms'the'scene'of'thinking'and'presupposes'
the' so)called' “memories' to' be' filled)up”,' the' spheres' of' common'
decisions'and'the'logic'of'communication.'Then'the'necessity'of'the'
harmonization'of'experiences'as'formation'of'a'certain'capital'aris)
es'when'narratives'serve'for'people'for'practicing'to'act.'
The'life)story'texts'were'created'developed'and'they'functions'as'a'
dialogue'(in'the'broad'sense'of'the'word)'within'the'communicative/
network' (N.' Luhman).' It' is' a' communication' with' a' nation' in' the'
situation' of' the' many)sided,' plural' society,' it' is' a' communication'
with' politicians,' with' communities' (in' different' regions,' in' etnoses'
…').'
The'power'of'memory'encompasses'different'structures:'the'men)
tal,' traditional,' national,' political' ones,' especially' when' the' collec)
tive'memory'is'in'action'opening'the'“doors”'to'the'space'of'identi)
ty' of' the' human' being.' It' is' speak' about' the' narrative' aspect' of'
unfolding'the'memory'and'the'thematization'of'experience'in'nar)
ratives.' In' everyday' praxis' we' speak' about' the' harmonization' of'
experiencesd' and,' so' to' say,' about' the' harmonization' of' history,'
where'history'is'biographised.'We'found'it'in'the'“reconciliation”'of'
people’s' experiences.' A' person’s' experience' obtains' its' meaning'
and'plausibility'in'relation'with'the'experience'of'others.'
The' “agent”' of' habitus' is' memory.' Values' without' memory' are'
nothing,' likewise' values' without' memory.' It' becomes' especially'
actual'in'social'relations'during'turbulent'times.'
The'questions'of'the'present'topic'correlate'with'social'processes'in'
the' contemporary' Latvia:' memory' as' ideology' and' memory' as' a'
channel' of' communication' in' the' development' of' people' and'
communities' and' different' ethnical' communities.The' materials' for'
biographical'research'are'gathered'in'the'expeditions'in'Latvia'the)
se'results'are'stored'in'the'Oral'History'Archives'in'the'University'of'
Latvia'(Riga).'
BIOGRAPHICAL!CONSEQUENCES!OF!CHILDHOOD!
MOBILITY.!THIRD!CULTURE!KIDS’!CASE!
Agnieszka'Ewa'Trąbka
1
1'
Institute'of'Sociology,'JAGIELLONIAN'UNIVERSITY,'Kraków,'Poland
'
Abstract:'I'would'like'to'analyze'consequences'of'mobility'in'child)
hood'(because'of'parents’'work)'for'further'biography'and'identity.'
In'seems'that'such'mobility'(involuntary'and'in'early'stages'of'life)'
differs'significantly'from'other'types'of'migrations.'
That'is'why'I'decided'to'devote'my'research'to'Third'Culture'Kids,'
i.e.' people' ”who' have' spent' a' significant' part' of' his' or' her' devel)
opmental' years' outside' his/her' parents’' culture.' The' third' culture'
kid' builds' relationships' to' all' the' cultures,' while' not' having' full'
ownership'in'any'(Pollock'2009).'TCKs'are'usually'children'of'busi)
nessmen,' diplomats,' scholars' or' missionaries' and,' in' a' way,' they'
seem'to'be'privileged'group,'but'very'often'they'experience'serious'
problems'in'adapting'to'their'passport'country'and'have'difficulties'
in'constructing'cohesive'and'integral'identity.'
In'the'frames'of'my'research'I'conduct'biographical'interviews'with'
TCKs,' or,' to' be' precise' with' adult' TCKs.' I' am' strongly' inspired' by'
Abstract'Book'
77'
'
narrative'interview'method'of'Fritz'Schutze.'Its'main'advantage'in'
the'context'or'my'subject'is'processual'attitude'towards'one’s'iden)
tity:/Following/experiences/gradually/make/an/individual/change/his/
or/ her/ self=definiotions./ Changes/ can/ be/ marked/ by/ turning/ points/
constituted/by/critical/incidents/[…]'The/deeper/the/change/the/more/
elaborated/ the/ biographical/ work/ that/ has/ to/ be/ done/ in/ order/ to/
integrate/one’s/experiences/into/a/more/or/less/coherent/wholeness./
(Kaźmierska,' 2003:' 5).' As' I' shall' try' to' show' TCKs’' biographies' are'
marked' by' such' turning' points' –' moving' from' one' country' to' an)
other'–'and'all'the'time'previous'experiences'are'reinterpreted.'
Moving' in' childhood' they' have' contact' with' different' people,' dif)
ferent'cultures,'very'often'they'attend'international'schools'which'
results' in' cosmopolitan' identity' and' multicultural' competences.'
They' easily' adapt' in' new' environments,' but' often' have' problems'
with'identifying'their'home./They'have'sense'of'temporality'in'eve)
ry'place'they'live'in'–'after'some'time'they'cannot'imagine'them)
selves'living'too'long'in'one'place'and'very'often'finally'they'choose'
for' themselves' similar' mobile' lifestyle.' Some' TCKs' suffer' however'
from'deep'crisis'because'of'this'sense'of'“homelessness”.'
In' this' paper' I' would' like' to' present' some' preliminary' result' from'
biographical'interviews'I'have'conducted.'
BRAZILIAN!IMMIGRANTS!IN!PORTUGAL,!LIVING!
BETWEEN!EQUALS!AND!DIFFERENTS:!LIFE!STORIES!
AND!THE!CONSTRUCTION!OF!THE!THIRD!PERSON!
'1
Cristóvão'Ribeiro'Margarido ,'Ricardo'Neves'Vieira
1'
1
ciid')'Centro'Investigação'Identidades'e'Diversida,'IPL')'INSTITUTO'
'
POLITÉCNICO'DE'LEIRIA,'Leiria,'Portugal
Abstract:'We'will'present'a'biographical'study'about'Brasilians'im)
migrants' in' Portugal,' in' order' to' understand' the' process' of'
(re)creating' the' personal' identity' in' people' who' pass' social' and'
cultural'frontiers.'
The'people'who'live'with'a'cultural'stability'and'have'few'interac)
tions' with' alterations,' tend' to' have' more' monocultural' attitudes'
which'are'closer'to'the'type'of'behaviour'belonging'to'the'culture'
in'which'they'are'originally'integrated'with'their'peers'and'family.'
Those'that,'for'various'reasons'undergo'a'process'of'social'mobility'
whether' ascending' or' descending,' are' subject' to' a' cultural' meta)
morphosis' and' therefore' recreate' their' personal' identities:' they'
recreate'the'image'that'they'have'of'themselves'and'the'one'they'
show' others.' The' immigrant' seeks' to' create' their' new' me' amid'
their' culture' of' origin' and' their' newly' found' culture' by' separating'
the'two'worlds,'joining'them'or'creating'a'third'identity'dimension,'
in' an' attempt' to' find' the' most' secure' way' in' an' ontological' per)
spective.'
leading' to' the' monocultural' immigrant.' Another' strategy' could' be'
the' development' of' a' transnational' identity' that' consists' in' living'
regularly'in'‘two'worlds’.'
TRANSNATIONAL!MOBILES!AND!THE!QUESTION!OF!
BELONGING.!HOW!OTHERNESS,!TRANSCULTURALITY!
AND!COSMOPOLITANISM!ARE!TAKEN!PART!IN!
BIOGRAPHY!AND!IDENTITY!WORK!
Claudia'Vorheyer
1'
1
Institut'of'Sociolgy,'University'of'Zurich,'Zurich,'Switzerland,'Swit)
'
zerland
Abstract:'Migration'and'mobility,'transnationalisation'and'transcul)
turality,' become' )' in' different' ways' direct' or' indirect' )' part' of' the'
individual' and' collective' experiences' and' challenges' of' society'
members.'From'the'biographical'research'point'of'view'they'can'be'
passed'by'individuals'as'an'institutional'schedule'model'or'followed'
intentional,' they' can' initiate' processes' of' biographical' transfor)
mations' or' trajectories' of' suffering.' On' one' hand' border' and'
boundary'crossing,'extend'options'of'action'and'widen'the'experi)
ence' realm' and' social' universe' of' individuals.' On' the' other' hand'
plurality'and'heterogeneity'as'well'as'uncertainty'and'unsteadiness,'
otherness' and' ambivalence' are' prominent' challenges' and' difficul)
ties.' Against' this' background' we' need' to' ask' what' kind' of' social'
capacities'subjects'provide'to'construct'a'transnational'social'reali)
ty,' which' social' dispositions' and' competences' are' required' and'
what'kind'of'socialization'and'learning'processes'are'involved.'
As' prototypes' for' current' transnational' socialization' processes' we'
centre' on' the' group' so' called' Transnational' Mobiles,' who' were'
long)term' living' and' working' in' several' different' countries' and'
who`s' social' and' occupational' worlds' are' often' characterized' by' a'
combination' of' frequently' traveling' and' periodical' moving.' Based'
on' autobiographical' narrative' interviews' we' reconstruct' the' pat)
terns' of' their' life' courses' and' transnational' careers.' Thereby' the'
research'interest'and'talk'focus'on'the'coherence'of'objective'and'
subjective' transnationalisation' processes.' How' transnational' mo)
biles' handle' socio)cultural' diversity' and' experiences' of' otherness'
on' the' cognitive,' interactional' and' emotional' level?' What' kind' of'
specific'patterns'of'perception'and'action'like'for'example'cosmo)
politan' perspectives' and' orientations' can' be' seen?' How' the' self'
and' own' nationality' and' the' people' from' other' countries' and' cul)
tures' are' represented' and' reflected?' In' which' ways' transnational'
life' courses' and' career' paths' stimulate' new' forms' of' biographical'
and'identity'work?'What'kind'of'post)national'or'post)traditional'or'
other' reflexive' forms' of' identity' formation' transnational' mobiles'
develop?'
Contrary' to' what' is' normally' assumed' in' cultural' studies' about'
immigrants'which'tend'to'explain'social'and'mental'pathologies'as'
a' result' of' emigration,' especially' amongst' children' of' immigrants,'
allegedly' tormented' because' of' living' divided' between' different'
cultures,'we'believe'that'these'individuals'have'the'capacity'to'live'
comfortably'in'different'worlds'without'any'type'of'pathology.'
TRANSNATIONALISATION!AND!MIGRANT!
BIOGRAPHIES!
In' sum,' this' communication' departs' from' the' general' idea' that'
immigrant’s' integration' strategies' oscillate' between' an' attitude' of'
commitment'and'an'attitude'of'intercultural'evasion.'The'first'case'
refers' to' the' immigrants' who' integrate' their' culture' of' origin' into'
the' emerging' cultural' identity' both' implicitly' and' explicitly.' The'
latter' denies' the' culture' of' origin' and' idealizes' the' target' culture,'
Abstract:' Transnational' spaces' should' not' be' understood' as' loca)
tions'on'a'map'but'instead'as'relational'social'areas.'Contemporary'
societies' are' increasingly' heterogeneous,' less' limited' by' physical'
boundaries' and' more' spatially' and' socially' spread' out.' Through'
migration,' streams' of' people' incorporate' social' connections' into'
their'daily'lives'which'go'beyond'national'borders.'It'is'for'this'rea)
son' that' transnational' spaces' can' in' no' way' be' regarded' as' a' ho)
'1
Barbara'Theresia'Schröttner ,'Angela'Pilch)Ortega'Hernandez
1
1'
Department'of'Education,'UNIVERSITY'OF'GRAZ,'Graz,'Austria
'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
78'
Abstract'Book'
mogeneous'phenomenon'and'thus,'they'cannot'be'conceived'of'as'
sealed' containers.' They' are' relational' structures' which' are' com)
posed'of'various'relationships'arising'from'global'mobility'and'hav)
ing' different' coverage.' Transnationalisation' can' therefore' be' ana)
lyzed' as' the' increasing' liberation' and/or' emancipation' from' place'
because' the' bond' of' social' relations' to' the' local' environment' is'
opened' up.' However' place' does' not' loose' its' relevance' as' an' or)
ganizing' and' structural' principle' –' instead' it' gains' relevance' be)
cause' social' relations' as' well' as' all' other' interactions' still' have' a'
territorial'reference.'Due'to'these'developments'new'‘transit'spac)
es’,' ‘asylum)seeker' spaces’,' ‘migration' spaces’,' ‘refugee' spaces’,'
‘tourist' spaces’,' ‘intercultural' spaces’' and' also' ‘integration' spaces’'
emerge.'Biographies'of'global'actors'and'migrants'reference'trans)
national' spaces;' within' these' spaces,' experiences' of' transnational'
acting' and' interacting' are' biographically' gathered' and' developed.'
Migrants' establish' relationships' in' different' geographical' locations'
and' maintain' these' relationships' despite' the' physical' divide.' New'
technologies' facilitate' communication' and' allow' for' the' continua)
tion'of'these'social'connections;'the'overlapping'social'areas'bring'
new'challenges'which'have'to'be'mastered'in'the'everyday'organi)
sation'of'life.'The'aim'of'the'paper'is'to'focus'on'transnational'so)
cial'relationships'and'the'related'challenges'such'as'diversity,'con)
tradictoriness,' inconsistency,' virtual' distance' and' the' proximity' in'
daily' life.' This' leaves' the' question:' How' do' humans' create' their'
own' transcultural' references' in' their' everyday' lives' and' how' do'
these'support'the'transformation'of'regionally'embodied'structures'
and'practices?'By'taking'this'question'into'consideration,'it'can'be'
concluded' that' the' “irritating' potential”' which' occurs' through' the'
confrontation' within' and' among' transnational' spaces' can' be' ana)
lyzed'and'dealt'with'in'learning'processes.'
NEW!MATERIAL!OBJECTS!AND!CHANGE!OF!SOCIAL!
PRACTICES!DURING!THE!LIFE!COURSE!OF!THE!ELDERLY!
IN!POLAND!
Joanna'Marta'Zalewska
1'
1
Institute' of' Philosophy' and' Sociology,' Academy' of' Special' Peda)
'
gogics,'Warsaw,'Poland
Abstract:'The'aim'of'the'presentation'is'to'discuss'the'perception'of'
turbulent' changes' of' social' practices' in' everyday' life,' which' have'
taken'place'during'the'life'course'of'the'generations'of'the'elderly'
in'Poland.'
The'ethnographic'research'was'inspired'by'multi)sited'ethnography'
and'life'course'approach.'It'was'conducted'in'Warsaw'with'eleven'
interlocutors'born'between'1918'and'1940.'The'analyzed'materials'
come' from' ten' biographical' narrative' interviews,' eleven' in)depth'
interviews'on'perception'of'changes'and'eleven'in)depth'interviews'
on'social'ties.'The'interlocutors'were'differentiated'on'their'social'
characteristics' (family' background,' education,' profession,' income,'
moment'of'moving'to'Warsaw).'
The' most' important' change' for' the' interlocutors' was' the' appear)
ance'of'huge'amount'of'new'material'objects'with'new'features'in'
their'everyday'lives'as'a'result'of'technological'development.'It'was'
experienced' as' intense' change' after' the' II' world' war,' and' it' was'
perceived' as' gradual' change' in' the' next' decades.' The' appearance'
of' new' objects' in' everyday' life' was' connected' with' the' change' of'
ways'of'satisfying'needs,'ways'of'sharing'duties'in'families,'change'
in'structure'of'time'and'in'social'ties.'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
Thus'the'appearance'of'new'objects'in'everyday'life'was'connected'
with'the'development'of'new'social'practices.'It'can'be'interpreted'
with' the' concept' of' ‘maintenance' regimes’' of' M.' Krajewski.'
‘Maintenance'regimes’'are'social'practices'that'enable'continuation'
and' recreation' of' everyday' life' through' operations' on' material'
objects.' They' developed' as' a' result' of' changing' organization' of'
consumption' (consumption' outside' family,' new' forms' of' services'
offered'by'market'and'state,'new'technologies'in'everyday'life).'
Before'the'development'of'‘maintenance'regimes’'the'rules'of'be)
havior' in' everyday' life' were' rooted' in' customs' and' norms' of' re)
spective'communities.'During'the'life'course'of'the'generations'of'
the'elderly'in'Poland'social'practices'in'everyday'life'became'more'
driven' by' features' of' material' objects' and' less' by' customs' and'
norms.' The' exteriorization' of' rules' of' behavior' has' taken' place.'
Development' of' ‘maintenance' regimes’' enabled' the' change' in' so)
cial' ties' in' families.' In' patriarchal' families' the' everyday' duties' of'
family'members'were'assigned'according'to'age,'gender'and'posi)
tion' in' family.' ‘Maintenance' regimes’' )' rooted' in' material' objects'
provided' by' market' )' allow' individuals' independently' satisfy' their'
everyday'needs.'
DISCOURSE!OF!THE!POWER!AS!A!TOOL!FOR!THE!
COLLECTIVE!CRIMINAL!BIOGRAPHY!CONSTRUCTION!
Alexandra'Dmitrieva
1'
1
ST.' PETERSBURG' STATE' UNIVERSITY,' St.' Petersburg,' Russian' Fed)
'
eration
Abstract:' The' process' of' attributing' social' value' to' the' different'
kinds' of' drugs' promotes' changes' of' representations' about' social'
norms.' It' is' especially' appreciable' in' the' modern' society' where' in'
the' major' countries' is' taking' place' the' process' of' reconsideration'
consequences'of'certain'drugs'consumption.'In'Russia'at'the'same'
time' we' can' find' out' the' opposite' process:' till' 2020' is' “painted”'
actually'new'policy'of'not'differentiated'"toughening"'of'the'social'
exclusion' of' drugs' consumers.' The' danger' of' such' policy' is' that' it'
promotes'criminalization'of'the'social'group'and'creates'a'compul)
sion'situation'of'criminal'relations'between'authorities'and'citizens,'
if' we' are' taking' into' account' corrupted' militia.' For' example,' con)
sidering'the'Note'1'article'228'of'the'criminal'code'of'Russian'Fed)
eration,'Russian'law'welcomes'for'calls'for'"unmasking"'drug'users'
by'the'other'users'to'avoid'punishment,'but'in'fact'also'by'any'oth)
er'people'that'have'similar'information.'That'is'basically'logical,'but'
not'in'case'of'taking'into'account'specificity'of'the'further'content'
which'is'lead'absolutely'different'cases'to'a'common'outcome.'For'
example,'it'is'possible'to'imagine'that'in'one'house'on'the'one'floor'
lives' peaceful' marijuana' smoker' growing' up' for' his' private' use' a'
couple' of' bushes,' and' in' the' cellar' there' is' an' equipped' "kitchen"'
for'synthetic'drugs'manufacture.'In'case'of'any'of'other'inhabitants'
of' this' house' will' guess' a' smell' of' marijuana' from' the' neighbor’s'
door'and'will'call'to'militia,'punishment'level'in'this'case'and'in'the'
second' case' will' be' approximately' the' same.' It' will' occur' because'
marijuana'smoker'will'hardly'prove'that'this'couple'of'bushes'isn't'
«illegal'manufacture'with'a'sales'objective»'for'which'in'the'crimi)
nal'code'of'Russian'Federation'suppose'to'punish'by'imprisonment'
for' the' term' from' 4' till' 8' years' and' it' doesn’t' depend' on' a' drug'
kind.'
Thus' drug' use' in' Russia's' representation' will' remain' a' symbol' of'
belonging'to'the'socially'excluded'and'criminalized'groups'despite'
of'changing'orientations'in'European'societies.'While'the'dialogue'
between'Russian'state'and'Russian'society'will'continue'to'remind'
Abstract'Book'
79'
'
the'theater'of'the'absurd'where'the'director'of'the'Russian'Federal'
Service' for' control' over' drug' trafficking' Viktor' Ivanov' will' openly'
ask' the' readers' of' his' blog' a' hypocritical' question:' "How' can' we'
change'the'high'tolerance'of'our'citizens'to'a'drug'use?"'
IDENTITY!IN!THE!CROSSROADS!OF!MIGRATIONS!
Maruta'Pranka
1'
1
Institute' of' Philosophy' and' Sociology,' LATVIA' UNIVERSITY,' Riga,'
'
Latvia
Abstract:' The' paper' presents' analysis' of' materials' of' longitudinal'
biographical' case' study,' dealing' with' experience' in' researching'
migration'processes.'Life'stories'and'other'biographical'data'(pho)
tos,'personal'documents)'have'been'collected'from'the'inhabitants'
of' a' single' apartment' building' (38' life' story' interviews' from' 20'
apartment’s' dwellers)' in' Riga.' The' data' analysis' of' the' case' study'
using' biographical' research' methodology' allows' examining' migra)
tion'processes'in'the'period'from'1936'–'when'the'house'was'built'
)'till'the'present'with'focusing'on'actual'migration.'
The' specifics' of' the' research' methodology' lie' in' the' fact' that' the'
house'as'the'research'object'gives'the'opportunity'to'organize'rela)
tive'borders'of'the'space'and'time'and'thereby'opportunity'to'talk'
about' common' experience' of' a' definite' group.' The' research' deals'
with' analysis' of' different' kinds' of' the' house' dwellers’' migration'
experience' focusing' on' personal' experiences’' contextualization'
with'the'particular'historical'phases'and'social'context.'
Migration'being'always'a'biographical'break'in'individual'life'is'con)
nected'with'different'risks,'including'the'risk'of'shaping'and'keep)
ing' identity.' Migration' also' includes' the' risk' of' stigmatization' of'
individual' or' group.' Especially' it' is' attributed' to' the' forced' migra)
tion.'–'realized'against'individual'will'and'choice.'The'paper'points'
out'also'voluntary'migration'caused'both'by'pull'and'push'factors'–'
economical,'political,'kinship'etc.'
The' research' project' is' realized' by' the' researchers' of' Latvian' Oral'
History'Project'in'the'Institute'of'Philosophy'and'Sociology'of'Latvia'
University.'
WOMEN!ENGINEERS’!PROFESSIONAL!IDENTITY!AND!
MIGRATION!
'1
Yves'Jeanrenaud ,'Susanne'Ihsen
1'
1
Gender'Studies'in'Science'and'Engineering,'Technische'Universtität'
'
München,'Munich,'Germany
Abstract:'Following'G.'H.'Mead’s'concept'of'identity,'where'identity'
itself' consist' of' a' self' image' incorporating' the' spontaneous' “I”,'
which'not'able'to'react'mindfully,'and'multiple'instances'of'“Me”,'
reflect' the' individual’s' beliefs' of' what' idea' others' have' about' him'
or'her'by'construing'their'reactions'to'the'individual’s'own'actions,'
we'must'conceive'the'professional'identity'as'part'of'the'“self”'and'
therefore'crucial'for'one’s'identity'as'a'whole.'Hence'we'would'like'
to' point' out' empirical' findings' about' the' professional' identity' of'
women'engineers'and'effects'of'migration'on'this.'
Our' study,' funded' by' the' Economics' Ministry' of' Baden)
Württemberg,' analysed' the' reasons' and' causes' for' women' engi)
neers'to'drop'out'of'employment'corresponding'to'their'technical'
education.' It' was' carried' out' by' Gender' Studies' in' Engineering' at'
the' TU' Munich' from' mid' 2008' to' mid' 2009' and' longed' to' answer'
the'questions'as'to'why'these'women'dropped'out'and'how'to'win'
them'back'into'technological'fields.'Hence,'the'study'primarily'con)
sisted' of' 40' biographical' telephone' interviews' conducted' among'
women'who'possess'engineering'degrees'(and'comparable'ones'for'
the'control'group)'but'are'no'longer'or'have'never'been'employed'
in'the'professions'their'education'led'towards.'
Besides' the' interesting' results' on' women’s' employment' factors' in'
engineering' professions,' migration' was' not' specifically' in' the' pri)
mary' focus' of' the' study,' but' nevertheless' not' neglected.' Some' of'
the' women' interviewed' had' a' migration' background,' varying' in'
their' country' of' origin,' circumstances,' reasons' and' motives' for'
leaving'it.'But'all'of'them'share'one'common'detail:'ever'since'they'
left' their' home' country' they' were' not' working' as' engineers' any)
more.'However'they'responded'to'our'call'looking'for'women'engi)
neers'not'working'in'their'jobs'anymore.'This'is'particularly'curious'
because'it'is'pointing'out'that'their'construction'of'their'own'iden)
tity'as'an'engineer'is'still'faultless,'even'after'decades'of'leaving'the'
job'and'home'country.'
Hence' we' would' like' to' show' empirically' how' migrated' women'
construct'their'(professional)'identity'in'their'biographies'and'how'
this' may' be' seen' in' comparison' to' the' identities' of' other' former'
women'engineers'and'scientists'we'interviewed.'
CONSTRUCTING!IDENTITIES!IN!IMMIGRANT!LIFE!
STORIES!
Sirkku'Varjonen
1'
1
Department'of'Social'Research,'UNIVERSITY'OF'HELSINKI,'Helsinki,'
'
Finland
Abstract:'How'are'identities'and'belonging'constructed'in'the'con)
text'of'personal'life'stories'narrated'by'immigrants?'In'this'qualita)
tive' study' autobiographical' immigrant' narratives' are' approached'
from'a'social'constructionist'point'of'view.'The'analysis'focuses'on'
the'immigrant'identities'constructed'as'well'as'on'the'changes'that'
take' place' in' the' life' stories' over' the' years' the' narrators' spend' in'
Finland,'their'new'country'of'residence.'
The'unique'longitudinal'research'data'consists'of'46'autobiograph)
ical'narratives'by'23'immigrants.'The'study'is'discursively'oriented'
and'the'data'is'analysed'from'"narrative'constructionist"'and'"sto)
ried'resource'perspective".'This'means'looking'at'narratives'as'so)
cial' and' discursive' actions.' It' also' involves' looking' at' the' cultural'
narrative' resources' which' the' narrators' draw' on' and' resist' when'
constructing'their'life'stories'and'identities.'
The' immigrant' narrators' construct' various' types' of' identities' to'
position' themselves' and' other' immigrants' in' relation' to' Finns.' Ex)
amples' of' identity' positions' constructed' include:' dependent' child,'
underdog,'victim,'outsider'and'participant.'These'constructions'are'
used' as' discursive' tools' when' creating' a' functional' space' for' the'
narrators' as' individual' actors,' and' also' for' immigrants' in' general,'
within'the'Finnish'society.'Immigration'is'discussed'most'typically'in'
relation'to'themes'of'otherness,'belonging'and'discrimination.'With'
their'life'stories'the'narrators'actively'participate'in'the'public'dis)
cussion' regarding' immigration' and' resist' the' marginal' position' of)
ten'reserved'for'immigrants.'
LIFE!STORY!TELLING!IN!CHICAGO’S!IMMIGRANT!
RIGHTS!MOVEMENT:!A!SENSEGMAKING,!LEGITIMIZING!
AND!MOVEMENTGBUILDING!PRACTICE!
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
80'
Abstract'Book'
Thomas'Swerts
1'
1
Sociology,'University'of'Chicago,'Chicago,'United'States
'
Abstract:'Over'the'last'decade,'the'immigrant'rights'movement'has'
increasingly' mobilized' immigrants' in' the' US.' Regardless' of' legal'
status,'immigrants'have'organized'themselves'collectively'to'claim'
their'civil'rights.'In'this'context,'people'often'share'their'everyday'
life' experiences' in' diverging' social' settings.' Yet,' the' relative' im)
portance'of'life'story'telling'is'largely'ignored'by'sociological'studies'
of'immigrant'activism.'
Mobilizing' immigrants' does' not' happen' overnight.' In' this' respect,'
the' literature' on' social' movements' emphasizes' the' importance' of'
framing'efforts'as'a'basic'mechanism'for'mobilization'(Snow'et'al.'
1986,'Snow'and'Benford'1994,'McAdam'1996).'However,'the'focus'
on'organizational'discourses'in'framing'studies'overlooks'the'deep)
er'significance'and'meaning'that'people'attach'to'their'biographies.'
Recently,'several'scholars'have'begun'to'recognize'the'relevance'of'
life'stories'for'social'movements'(Jasper'1999,'Davis'2002,'Polletta'
2006).' In' order' to' gain' a' better' insight' in' the' social' mechanisms'
accounting'for'immigrant'mobilization,'I'argue'that'life'story'telling'
needs'to'be'studied'as'an'essential'social'movement'practice.'
As'a'case'study,'this'research'investigates'life'story'telling'in'SMOs'
in'Chicago:'the'Illinois'Coalition'for'Immigrant'and'Refugee'Rights,'a'
coalition'of'120'immigrant'organizations,'and'the'Immigrant'Youth'
Justice' League,' a' self)organization' of' undocumented' youth.' Quali)
tative'data'were'gathered'by'organizational'ethnographies,'partici)
pant'observation'and'content'analysis'of'primary'documents.'
Based'on'this'empirical'research,'I'show'that'life'stories'are'careful)
ly' constructed' to' suit' diverging' purposes' in' different' social' con)
texts.'From'an'individual'perspective,'life'story'telling'can'be'seen'
as' a' motivational' practice' accounting' for' the' storyteller’s' political'
involvement.'From'a'collective'perspective,'life'story'stelling'is'not'
only'a'means'of'self)reflection,'but'also'a'political'strategy.'Conse)
quently,'I'argue'that'life'story'telling'fulfills'different'functions'de)
pending' upon' the' structural' level' of' communication' wherein' life'
stories' are' told,' the' types' of' interactions' that' characterize' this'
communication' and' the' actors' involved' in' those' interactions.'
Hence,'I'identify'sense)making,'movement)building'and'legitimizing'
as' the' three' major' functions' of' life' story' telling' as' a' social' move)
ment'practice.'
POWER!OF!BIOGRAPHY!AS!ECOLOGY!OF!IDENTITY:!
LATVIAN!LIFE!STORIES!IN!GERMANY!
Dace'Bormane
1'
1
INSTITUTE' OF' PHILOSOPHY' AND' SOCIOLOGY,' UNIVERSITY' OF'
'
LATVIA,'Riga,'Latvia
Abstract:'Narrative'identity,'creativity,'exile,'structure'of'communi)
cation,'sociotopos,'habitus,'and'power'are'conceptual'key'words'in'
this'research'topic.'
The' nation' as' subject,' which' gathers/ thousands/ of/ epistles.' In' this'
context,' we' can' speak' about' memory/ work.' People' who' became'
emigrants' as' a' result' of' World' War' II' have' practised' this' for' dec)
st
ades,'and'the'concept'is'also'familiar'to'21 'century'migrants'from'
Latvia.'Locality'and'regionality'are'a'communicative'structure'in'the'
context' of' globalisation.' The' following' question' therefore' arose:'
what'are'the'paradigms'and'practises'of'individual'and'community'
identity?'This'is'a'question'of'commune'and'autonomy,'of'solidari)
ty,'of'paradoxes'and'the'history/of/attitudes....'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
Life' stories' are' the' “living' material”' used' in' the' analysis' of' this' is)
sue.'Life'stories'are'a'modifiable'identity'test'that'reveals'local'and'
global'identities,'which'can'also'be'analysed'in'the'context'of'glob)
alisation.'
The'Latvian'National'Oral'History'Archives'at'the'University'of'Lat)
via'in'Riga'contain'recordings'of'life'stories'of'the'Latvian'communi)
ty'(in'the'widest'sense),'which'are'used'as'a'resource'for'this'topic'
and'thereby'provide'a'testimony'to'the'above)mentioned'issues.'
COLLECTIVE!MEMORY!AND!THE!MEDIATION!OF!
EXPERIENCE.!HOW!DOES!IT!WORK!IN!POLISH!
SOCIETY?!
Wojciech'Połeć
1'
1
FACULTY' OF' HUMANITIES/' DEPARTMENT' OF' SOCIOLOGY,'
'
WARSAW'UNIVERSITY'OF'LIFE'SCIENCES')'SGGW,'Warszawa,'Poland
Abstract:/In'the'theoretical'part'of'my'paper,'I’m'tryingto'examine'
and' compare' the' notions' of' the' different' types' of' the' collective'
memory,'and'the'notion'of'the'mediation'of'experience'in'the'con)
text'of'the'sociological'theory.'I'ask'some'questions'on'the'compat)
ibility'and'differences'of'the'“memory'studies”'and'the'sociological'
studies'on'the'socialisation,'self)identity,'national'identity'and'ideo)
logies.' I' focus' on' the' comparison' of' the' theory' of' the' “Cultural'
Memory”' presented' by' Jan' Assmann' versus' the' theory' of' self)
identity' and' modernity' developed' by' Anthony' Giddens' and' the'
classical'theory'of'the'“Social'Construction'of'Reality”'of'Peter'Ber)
ger'and'Thomas'Luckmann'(in'the'part'the'theory'of'the'socialisa)
tion).'
The'empirical'part'of'my'article'will'be'based'on'survey's'data.'The'
presented'data'come'from'two'survey'made'on'the'representative'
sample'of'inhabitants'of'Poland'(in'January'and'May'2010)'and'one'
survey'on'the'representative'sample'of'inhabitants'of'City'Warsaw'
(in'December'2010).'
In'the'article'I'deal'with'a'study'of'relationships'between'forms'of'
collective'memory'and'chosen'Poles''attitudes'toward'Russia.'Social'
memory')'communicative'and'cultural')'interests'me'in'this'study,'
first'of'all'in'the'aspect'of'her'forms'and'sources.'I'ask'if'according'
to'Giddens'it'could'be'assumed'that'cultural'memory'becomes'the'
part' of' the' individual's' experience,' which' decides' on' the' individu)
al's' direction' of' actions,' defines' its' attitude,' becomes' a' part' of' its'
identity.' The' analyses' show' that' this,' what' we' have' in' memory'
about' Russia' is,' using' a' metaphorical' wording,' in' an' increasingly'
large' degree' knowledge' "from' second' hand".' This' is' knowledge'
which' in' large' degree' we' do' not' create' but' which' we' inherit,' re)
ceive' in' finished' form,' we' improve' her' so' that' she' fits' us.' In' this'
sense,'the'past,'not'the'present,'is'in'essential'degree'what'defines'
our'relations'to'Russia'today.'I'made'the'assumption'that'there'is'a'
relationship' between' social' forms' of' communication' and' social'
memory.' Therefore,' we' treated' different' sources' of' knowledge'
about'Russia'and'Russians'declared'by'Poles'as'indicators'of'various'
forms'of'reference'to'the'past,'in'other'words'different'categories'
of' memory.' One' of' the' more' important' empirical' conclusions' is'
that'Poles,'in'their'molding'of'knowledge'on'the'subject'of'Russia,'
use'the'resources'of'mediated'experience,'which'is'supplied'by'the'
"experts"'or'using'Assman's'notion')'cultural'memory.'
COLLECTIVE!MEMORY!AND!TRADE!UNION!ACTIVISM!
IN!EASTERN!EUROPE:!THE!BIOGRAPHIES!OF!
Abstract'Book'
81'
'
COMPANYGLEVEL!TRADE!UNION!ACTIVISTS!IN!POLAND!
AND!ROMANIA!
'1
'2
Adam'Mrozowicki ,'Réka'Geambaşu '
1
Institute' of' Sociology,' University' of' Wrocław,' Wrocław,' Poland,'
2
Faculty'of'Sociology'and'Social'Work,'Babeş)Bolyai'University,'Cluj)
'
Napoca,'Romania
Abstract:' This' paper' explores' the' relationship' between' workers’'
collective' memory' of' the' socialist' past' and' the' emergent' types' of'
trade'union'activism'in'the'automotive'sector'and'the'retail'sector'
in'Poland'and'Romania.'While'in'both'countries'labour'movements'
underwent'erosion'after'1989,'research'carried'out'in'the'last'dec)
ade' documented' how' new' and' reformed' company)level' union'
leaders' had' strived' for' halting' and' reversing' this' negative' trend.'
This' research' adopts' the' actor)centred' approach' to' explore' the'
local' practices' of' ‘trade' union' revitalisation’' through' the' biog)
raphies' of' company)level' union' leaders.' Considering' culture' as' a'
toolkit'of'‘symbols,'stories,'rituals,'and'world)views’'that'actors'use'
to' construct' their' life' strategies' (Swidler),' we' explore' the' role' of'
the' available' stocks' of' cultural' motives,' including' the' memories'
about'the'socialist'past'and'the'discourses'of'capitalist'transition,'in'
fostering' and/or' hindering' the' formulation' of' a' new' pro)active'
trade' union' agenda' by' union' activists.' Based' on' the' exploratory'
analysis'of'over'20'biographical'narrative'interviews'with'company)
level' trade' union' activists' (collected' in' 2010)2011),' tentative' con)
clusions'are'formulated.'Except'for'the'long)standing'leaders'of'the'
Solidarity'union'in'Poland,'‘grand’'historical'events,'such'as'Revolu)
tion'in'1989'in'Romania'or'Solidarity'resistance'in'the'1980s'in'Po)
land,'rarely'appear'as'the'core'frames'of'life'stories.'Although'the'
silencing'of'the'‘grand'history’'is'a'widespread'biographical'process,'
it' is' especially' apparent' in' the' biographies' of' newcomers' to' trade'
unions,'who'joined'or'co)established'union'organisations'in'the'last'
decade'of'transformation'(regardless'of'their'age).'While'the'biog)
raphies'of'long)standing'trade'union'leaders'tend'to'be'framed'by'
rich'references'to'the'histories'of'their'work'milieus'and'unions,'the'
life' stories' of' newcomers' are' predominantly' constructed' in' the'
context'of'their'individual'and'family'experiences.'This'‘neutralisa)
tion' of' grand' union' history’' provides' more' space' to' experiment'
with'new'meanings'of'trade'unionism'in'the'context'of'radical'so)
cial' change.' However,' the' lack' of' coherent' and' collectively' shared'
cultural' frames' of' reference' for' trade' union' activity' is' also' an' ob)
stacle'for'trade'union'development'in'a'long'run'as'it'reflects'a'very'
fragmented'cultural'basis'for'workers’'solidarity.'
CONSTRUCTING!MEMORISING!INDENTITY:!THE!CASE!
OF!LOCAL!WAR!
Victoria'Vladimirovna'Semenova
1'
1
INSTITUTE'OF'SOCIOLOGY,'ACADEMY'OF'SCIENCES,'Moscow,'Rus)
'
sian'Federation
Abstract:'The'paper'is'devoted'to'the'problem'of'identity'construc)
tion'process'choosing'between'time'dimension:'past/present'orien)
tation' in' situation' of' past' trauma' experience.' The' object' of' the'
research' are' former' soldiers' who' went' through' the' experience' of'
local'war')Soviet/Afgan'war'in'1979)1989.'
According'to'their'attitude'towards'memory'and'towards'past'suf)
fering' they' choose' different' strategies' of' remembering' and' differ)
ent'types'of'identity'construction'process.'
The'author'discusses'the'problem'of'a'set'of'individual'factors'that'
predominate'their'biographical'strategies'as'well'as'their'collective'
memory' work' that' connected' their' past' with' present.' The' main'
aspect'to'be'discussed'here'is'if'memory'work'in'present'is'a'part'of'
present'indentification'or'is'a'link'between'present'and'past.'
THE!GUADIANA!BORDER:!HEAVEN'S!GATE!OR!HELL'S!
DOOR?!THE!EXPERIENCE!OF!THE!SPANISH!CIVIL!WAR!
REFUGEES!(1936/1939)!
Joaquim'Mealha'Silva
1'
1
Departamento' Sociologia' )' ACTAE)NICPRI.UÉ,' UNIVERSIDADE' DE'
'
EVORA,'Evora,'Portugal
Abstract:'In'recent'years'we'have'seen'great'progresses'in'the'field'
of' the' preservation' of' the' historical' memory' and' of' individu)
al/collective' experiences,' namely' about' the' period' of' the' Spanish'
Civil'War'(1936/1939).'This'renewed'interest'concerning'that'turbu)
lent'period'in'the'recent'history'of'Spain,'is'explained'by'the'neces)
sity'of'knowing'better'the'traumatic'migrations'imposed'by'war'to'
communities' who' lived' near' border' areas' and' tried' to' save' their'
lives.'Against'the'will'of'the'countries'involved'(Portugal'and'Spain),'
people' used' the' pre)existing' social' linkages' and' the' border' net)
works,' created' by' old' border' smugglers,' to' escape' from' war' and'
Nationalist' [and' Republican?]' persecution.' The' memory' of' these'
episodes'is'still'traumatic'for'many'residents'near'the'river'Guadia)
na’s'border,'and'so'we'often'deal'with'a'strange'and'bizarre'kind'of'
amnesia' and' silence.' The' Spanish' refugees' came' into' Portuguese'
homes,'trying'to'escape'and'to'save'their'lives,'and'many'of'them'
were'hidden'in'attics'and'animal'shelters,'but'great'numbers'were'
captured' by' Portuguese' authorities' and' sent' back' to' the' Spanish'
side'of'the'border,'where'the'Franquist'troops'executed'them.'
The' Spanish' Civil' War' and' these' border' flows' changed' Guadiana’s'
river'border'and'the'lives'of'Portuguese'and'Spanish'communities'
in'these'areas,'which'were'invaded'by'many'thousands'of'Spanish'
refugees'in'a'very'short'time,'many'of'them'invocating'a'“right'to'
escape”'from'death.'All'these'activities'had'very'important'implica)
tions' in' everyday' life,' creating' significant' levels' of' risk,' instability'
and'insecurity,'changing'perspectives'on'identities'and'social'struc)
tures,' challenging' the' constellations' of' power,' in' the' South' of'
Alentejo' and' Algarve,' and' in' the' Spanish' Andalucia' as' well.' In' this'
presentation' we' will' approach' the' process' of' construction' and'
preservation'of'memories,'both'collective'and'individual,'research)
ing' the' forced' migration' flows' of' that' period,' analyzing' the' social'
actors’' roles' and' the' strategies' used' by' them,' the' cycles' and' rea)
sons' used' by' the' new' generations' to' forget' or' to' remember' this'
past.'
The' methodological' approach' adopted' is' qualitative,' crossing' doc)
umental' research' and' deep' biographic' semi)directive' interviews.'
We'shall'try'to'enhance'the'complex'relations,'the'belonging'feel)
ings,' the' identities,' the' contestation' and' the' opposition,' which'
made'remarkable'the'biographical'life'stories'of'the'social'actors'of'
those'turbulent'times.'
'
'
'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
82'
Abstract'Book'
RN'04'Sociology'of'Children'and'Childhood'
!
IMPLIED!AND!EXPLICIT!THEORIES!OF!ACTION!IN!THE!
FIELD!OF!CHILD!PARTICIPATION.!A!RESEARCH!OUTLINE!
Daniel'Stoecklin
1'
1
Children's'Rights'Unit,'UNIVERSITY'INSTITUTE'KURT'BOESCH,'1950'
'
Sion'4,'Switzerland
Abstract:' The' paper' explores' child' participation' from' the' perspec)
tives' of' the' sociology' of' action.' “Participation' rights”' contained' in'
UN'Convention'on'the'Rights'of'the'Child'convey'a'new'legal'status'
to' children' viewed' as' subjects' of' rights' with' evolving' capacities.'
Despite' the' important' literature' on' child' participation' in' the' two'
decades'following'adoption'of'the'UNCRC,'a'theory'of'child'partici)
pation'is'still'missing.'Many'authors'use'concepts'like'“social'actor”'
and' “agency”' as' taken' for' granted,' which' are' also' widely' used' by'
activists' mostly' unaware' of' the' hidden' frameworks' lying' behind'
different' and' conflicting' paradigms.' Specifying' these' concepts' is'
possible' only' when' theories' of' action' are' made' explicit.' Our' re)
search'outline'highlights'the'importance'of'addressing'the'different'
theories'of'action,'whether'implied'or'explicit,'used'in'the'literature'
on' child' participation.' Instead' of' relying' primarily' on' dimensions'
linked' to' intervention' agendas,' there' is' a' need' for' a' theory' of' ac)
tion'that'would'acknowledge'the'cumulative'and'systemic'nature'of'
action,' therefore' contributing' to' better' understand' the' link' be)
tween'reflexivity'and'capability,'a'central'question'regarding'actors'
with'evolving'capacities.'
INFORMAL!CHILDHOODS:!STREET!CHILDREN!
WORKING!IN!ACCRA’S!INFORMAL!SECTOR!
Phillip'Mizen
1
1'
sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'WARWICK,'Coventry,'United'Kingdom
'
Abstract:' This' paper' explores' children’s' work' within' the' urban' in)
formal' sector.' It' does' so' by' drawing' upon' research' examining' the'
lives' of' children' looking' to' make' a' living' on' the' streets' of' central'
Accra,' Ghana.' The' paper' considers' these' children’s' work' through'
addressing' two' inter)related' themes.' First,' it' considers' the' chil)
dren’s' work' within' a' broader' understanding' of' the' work' practices'
and'employment'relations'of'other'comparable'groups'of'workers'
occupying' the' lower' echelons' of' a' heterogeneous' urban' informal'
economy;' and' the' strategies' of' ‘informal' survivalism’' that' they'
develop'in'response.'A'second'and'related'theme'is'the'considera)
tion' of' these' workers' as' children.' It' is' often' acknowledged' that'
children'comprise'a'significant'and'visible'category'of'worker'within'
the' urban' informal' economy,' but' there' is' little' understanding' of'
how'children'are'integrated'into'(or'excluded'from)'its'competitive'
practices.' By' considering' how' these' children’s' work' and' employ)
ment' is' regulated' through' ‘institutions' of' identity’' (Harriss)White'
2010),' like' age,' gender' or' ethno)cultural' identity' –' forms' of' social'
regulation' that' have' their' basis' outside' of' the' informal' economy'
but'which'constitute'important'relations'of'authority'within'it'–'the'
paper'will'explore'more'fully'the'nature'of'these'children’s'partici)
pation'in'informal'economic'processes.'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
IS!WORK!ENNOBLING!AND!EDUCATION!A!SILVER!
BULLET?!CONTRADICTIONS!AND!TENSIONS!WITHIN!
THE!GERMAN!CHILD!POVERTY!DISCOURSE!
Maksim'Hübenthal
1'
1
FACULTY' OF' PHILOSOPHY' III' )' Educational' Science,' MARTIN)
'
LUTHER)UNIVERSITY,'Halle,'Germany
Abstract:'For'more'than'one'decade'child'poverty'is'understood'as'
a'relevant'social'problem'in'Germany'and'since'the'end'of'the'con)
servative)liberal' era' in' 1998' the' German' Federal' Government' ex)
plicitly'identifies'the'fight'against'the'poverty'of'children'and'fami)
lies'as'a'central'political'goal'in'the'field'of'child'and'family'policy.'
However,' despite' this' high' attention' for' years' children' form' the'
population'group'in'Germany'that'is'affected'the'most'by'poverty.'
As' a' consequence' there' are' public' debates' between' the' Federal'
Government,' childhood' and' poverty' researchers,' non)profit)
organisations,'etc.'about'how,'for'what'reasons'and'with'what'goal'
child'poverty'in'Germany'has'to'be'abolished.'
At'present'time,'the'state'of'the'art'of'child'poverty'research'allows'
us'to'structure'the'German'discourse'about'child'poverty'alongside'
two'poles:'a'children’s'rights'perspective'which'criticizes'that'pov)
erty' is' violating' the' child’s' rights' on' a' decent' standard' of' living' in'
the'present'and'demands'more'state'intervention'in'several'politi)
cal'areas'on'the'one'side'and'on'the'other'side'a'social'investment'
perspective'which'emphasizes'that'poverty'of'children'is'producing'
economic'losses'in'the'future'and'is'primarily'linked'to'investments'
in'in)kind)transfers'and'in'the'educational'system.'These'two'ideal'
typical'poles'can'be'understood'as'the'expression'and'symbol'of'a'
diverted'discourse'on'child'poverty'in'Germany.'
Against' this' backdrop,' it' is' the' aim' of' this' presentation' to' deliver'
first' insights' into' the' specific' social' constructions' of' child' poverty'
behind' these' two' poles.' Based' upon' this,' it' is' intended' to' discuss'
major'contradictions'within'and'central'tensions'between'the'social'
constructions' of' child' poverty' in' Germany.' For' this' purpose' I' ana)
lyse'the'current'debate'on'reforming'the'German'social'assistance)
system'via'a'discourse)analytic'setting'of'qualitative'methods'from'
a' child)oriented' perspective' in' the' sense' of' the' “new' childhood'
studies”.'
CHILDGFRIENDLY!CITY,!DISTRICT!AND!STREET!
Maria'Sibireva
1'
1
SAINT)PETERSBURG' STATE' UNIVERSITY,' Saint)Petersburg,' Russian'
'
Federation
Abstract:'When'we'study'social'problems'of'city,'it'is'necessary'to'
answer'how'can'the'city'become'comfortable'and'safe'for'its'small'
inhabitants.' The' decision' is' to' ask' children' by' themselves' what'
problems' do' they' face' in' everyday' life' in' the' city.' The' research'
which'was'conducted'by'the'author'in'2008'–'2009'in'nine'kinder)
gartens' in' six' districts' of' St.' Petersburg' showed' that' 5' )' 7' years'
children' can' become' co)researchers' when' we' use' adequate' tech)
niques' of' the' collection' and' interpreting' data.' Methods' of' the' re)
search'included:'
Abstract'Book'
83'
'
•!projective'technique'“The'Person'in'the'City”.'The'analysis'of'the'
received' 224' pictures' (the' pictures' were' used' as' questionnaires)'
and'interviews'allowed'to'define'the'features'of'perception'of'so)
cio)spatial'characteristics'of'the'city;'
•'interviews'with'children!according'to'cards'with'the'images'of'the'
city.' The' pictures' were' shown' to' 137' children' and' contained' the'
description'of'the'most'typical'social'situations'of'city'life'which'can'
provoke'children'to'make'a'decision.'
According'to'the'received'results'of'the'research'it'was'possible'to'
define' how' many' children' have' potential' to' overcome' difficulties'
and'what'must'adults'do'to'make'child')'friendly'city,'districts'and'
streets.'
CHILDREN'S!SOCIALGSPATIAL!INCLUSION!IN!
DISADVANTAGED!AND!COMPARISON!AREAS!
Malcolm'Hill
'1,1'
1
UNIVERSITY'OF'STRATHCLYDE,'Glasgow,'United'Kingdom
'
Abstract:'The'presentation'will'discuss'processes'of'children's'inclu)
sion' and' exclusion' with' regard' to' informal' spaces' and' formal' ser)
vices.'It'is'based'on'two'studies'carried'out'in'Scotland'with'over)
lapping'themes'and'mutually'supportive'findings.'The'first'focused'
on' how' children' aged' 8)14' cope' with' being' brought' up' in' areas'
with'high'levels'of'income'deprivation'and'neighbourhood'hazards.'
Both'children's'and'parents''viewpoints'were'included'in'the'study,'
which'was'based'on'four'different'areas,'all'poor.'The'second'study'
examined' children's' perspectives' on' services' and' how' they' ac)
cessed'them.'Data'was'obtained'in'three'contrasting'areas,'so'that'
the'analysis'was'able'to'take'account'of'relative'affluence'and'the'
rural)urban'spectrum.'
The'studies'highlighted'the'many'hazards'faced'by'children'in'nego)
tiating'their'local'environments,'especially'when'these'were'disad)
vantaged' areas.' Children' displayed' wisdom' about' the' spatial' and'
temporal' dimensions' of' risk' and' safety.' The' studies' revealed' a'
range'of'techniques'deployed'by'parents'and'children'to'minimise'
risk'and'facilitate'children's'movements'and'activities,'but'even'so'
fears'and'threats'often'resulted'in'exclusion'from'desired'places'or'
restricted'use.'Children'living'in'higher'income'households'in'more'
favourable' environments' had' much' more' access' to' safe' private'
spaces' and' to' organised' services.' In' addition' to' safety' considera)
tions'and'availability'of'formal'services,'children's'access'to'recrea)
tional' and' educational' resournces' were' much' affected' by' direct'
and'indirect'costs'of'services'and'transport.'
Please' note' that' with' small' modifications,' this' presentation' could'
go'equally'well'in'the'section'on'Poverty'and'Children.'
MORE!RELATIONAL!CHILDREN!AND!YOUNG!PEOPLE’S!
PARTICIPATION!TO!IMPROVE!WELLBEING:!HOW!IN!
CHANGING!CONTEXTS!DO!WE!ENCOURAGE!DIALOGUE!
AND!MORE!COLLABORATIVE!APPROACHES?!
Vicky'Johnson
ing'on'significant'features'of'context.'Within'this'analysis'different'
mechanisms' encouraged' positive' outcomes' for' improving' chil)
dren's' wellbeing.' External' drivers,' such' as' political' economy,' cul)
tural'beliefs'and'practices,'and'instiutional'setting'were'considered'
alongside' internal' processes' including' capacity,' commitment' and'
whether'there'were'champions'for'children.'This'paper'argues'that'
children'and'young'people'should'be'made'more'visible'in'broader'
social' development' processes,' and' that' in' order' to' do' this,' power'
dynamics' need' to' be' addressed.' Recent' participation' discourses'
suggest'more'relational'approaches'to'participatory'processes'with'
children,' mirroring' some' of' the' discourses' in' gender' mainstream)
ing.'This'fits'with'both'the'concept'of'improving'children’s'wellbe)
ing,'but'also'with'the'kinds'of'mechanisms'that,'in'varying'contexts'
in'the'research,'led'to'more'meaningful'participation'and'transfor)
mation' at' individual,' institutional' and' broader' societal' levels.'
Mechanisms'included'different'forms'of'collaboration'and'commu)
nication,' including' dialogue' between' different' stakeholders.' The'
challenge'then'remains'how,'in'such'changing'contexts,'to'convince'
those' in' positions' of' power' to' build' on' dialogical' approaches' and'
encourage'innovative'and'flexible'participatory'processes'with'chil)
dren'and'young'people.'
POVERTY!AND!WELLGBEING!OF!CHILDREN!LIVING!IN!
THE!POVERTY!POCKETS!IN!LODZ!IN!POLAND!
Marta'Petelewicz
1'
1
Department'of'genaral'sociolgy,'UNIVERITY'OF'LODZ,'Lodz,'Poland
'
Abstract:'Living'conditions'of'children,'child'poverty'and'well)being'
have'gained'recently'increasing'recognition'of'the'European'Union.'
Underprivileged'children'became'the'target'group'for'the'EU'policy.'
National' (Warzywoda)Kruszyńska,' Wóycicka)' and' comparative'
(UNICEF,' EC)' reports' indicates' that' Poland' face' severe' problem' of'
child'poverty.'Child'poverty'cannot'be'treated'as'an'isolated'prob)
lem,' there' is' a' growing' body' of' evidence' that' childhood' disad)
vantage' has' negative' effects' on' development,' well)being' and' fu)
ture' life)chances.' Nevertheless,' there' is' lack' of' in)depth' data' and'
analysis,'especially'those'incorporating'children’s,'perspective'con)
cerning' the' state' of' the' youngest' Poles.' The' current' study' is' an'
attempt'to'address'this'gap.'Life'situation'is'a'complex'issue,'multi)
dimensional'perspective'should'be'included,'that'is'why'in'the'tak)
en' approach' poverty' and' well)being' are' regarded' as' the' reverse'
sides' of' the' same' coin.' Both' concepts' are' to' be' explored' on' the'
basis' of' the' empirical' data,' that' were' gathered' among' 12)13' year'
old' children' living' in' the' areas' of' concentrated' poverty' in' Lodz' in'
Poland.' Self)completed' questionnaires' were' conducted' in' the' ele)
mentary'schools'placed'in'the'most'and'least'deprived'parts'of'city.'
In' the' schools,' where' the' field' study' was' conducted' there' is' an'
overrepresentation' of' children' coming' from' families' supported' by'
the'welfare.'Several'domains'of'the'life'situation'of'the'youngsters'
will' be' examined,' contrasted' and' compared:' family' and' peer' rela)
tions,' living' conditions,' available' resources,' health,' neighborhood,'
education' and' self)perception.' Indexes' of' well)being' )' deprivation'
will'be'created'for'three'clusters'representing:'having,/loving,/being'
dimensions,'taken'from'E.'Allardt’s'concept'of'the'quality'of'life.'
1'
1
Social'Work,'UNIVERSITY'OF'CENTRAL'LANCASHIRE,'Preston,'Unit)
'
ed'Kingdom
RESEARCHING!CHILD!POVERTY!IN!RELATION!TO!THE!
FAMILY:!UNCOVERING!DYNAMICS!IN!THE!BLACK!BOX!
Abstract:'Exploring'the'links'between'process'and'context'through'
case'studies'in'Nepal'and'the'UK'showed'that'decision)makers're)
sponded' to' children’s' evidence' in' participatory' processes' depend)
Griet'Roets ,'Elisabetta'Ruspini ,'Rudi'Roose
'1
'2
'1,'3
'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
84'
Abstract'Book'
1
Department' of' Social' Welfare' Studies,' GHENT' UNIVERSITY,' Gent,'
2
Belgium,' Department'of'Sociology'and'Social'Research,'University'
3
of'Milano)Bicocca,'Melano,'Italy,' Department'of'Criminology,'Free'
'
University'Brussels,'Brussels,'Belgium
Abstract:' Internationally,' child' poverty' is' a' persistent' social' prob)
lem' and' constitutes' an' important' issue' in' social' policy' and' social'
work' research.' In' Western' welfare' states,' social' policy' predomi)
nantly'perceives'the'role'of'social'work'as'essential'in'order'to'“ac)
tivate”' the' family,' and' mothers' in' particular,' in' the' realisation' of'
child' welfare' and' in' the' protection' of' children’s' rights' in' poverty'
situations.' This' gives' cause' for' activation' strategies' oriented' to)
wards'parents,'and'towards'mothers'in'particular.'Recent'research'
findings' indicate' that' mothers/ are/ activated/ into/ employment' to'
take' their' responsibility' in' heightening' the' family' income,' and' are/
simultaneously/ activated/ to/ take/ their/ responsibility/ for/ child/ care.'
Nevertheless'there'is'a'lack'of'insight'into'the'implications'of'these'
activation' strategies' on' families,' particularly' on' individual' family'
members' such' as' both' mothers' and' children.' This' contributes' to'
what'we'name'as'a'“black'box”'approach'to'the'family'in'poverty'
situations' which' may' have' implications' for' the' way' we' are' re)
searching,' and' therefore' tackling,' child' poverty.' Without' any'
knowledge' of' its' internal' workings' and' of' the' intra)household'
strategies' used' to' distribute' individual' and' social' resources,' the'
family'can'easily'be'governed'as'a'self)sufficient'system.'We'tease'
out'which'research'approaches'and'methods'may'be'useful'to'un)
cover'these'dynamics'and'strategies'in'the'family.'We'argue'that,'in'
order' to' unpack' the' black' box' approach,' quantitative' as' well' as'
qualitative' research' is' necessary.' Quantitative' research' is' needed'
to' measure' both' intra=household/ financial/ management/ and/ re=
source/ allocation,' as' well' as' inter=household/ structural/
(re)distribution/of/resources;'this/in'order'to'consider'the'likelihood'
that' variations' in' child)specific' consumption' are' determined' by'
variations'in'total'household'consumption'and'variations'by'house)
hold'type.'Qualitative'research'is'needed'to'examine'which'strate)
gies'are'developed'by'mothers,'fathers'and'children'to'make'use'of'
social'resources;'this'is'a'key'element'if'we'want'to'reveal'the'com)
plex'relationship'between'adult'(men’s'and'women’s)'poverty'and'
child' poverty.' In' relation' to' social' work' activation' strategies,' the'
conditions'under'which'interventions'are'interpreted'as'being'sup)
portive'for'mothers,'fathers'and'children'need'to'be'identified.'
SILENT!AND!INVISIBLE!IN!THE!MIDST!OF!CRISIS.!THE!
SWISS!PEASANT!CHILDHOODS!BETWEEN!MYTHS!AND!
REALITIES!
Michele'Poretti
1'
studies.'It'is'based'on'field'observations'and'semi)structured'inter)
views' with' key' stakeholders' representing' peasant' unions,' govern)
mental' bodies' and' non)governmental' organizations.' The' research'
highlights' how' different' conceptions' of' childhood' intersect' with'
dominant'myths'associating'the'peasants'with'an'idyllic'alpine'Ar)
cadia'and'with'the'origins'of'the'Swiss'Confederation.'In'particular,'
it'shows'how'discourses'which'idealize'peasant'childhood'serve'to'
excise' regional,' class,' age' and' gender' differentiations' and' to' de)
politicise' the' slow' disappearance' of' peasant' family' farms' and'
childhoods.'
CHILDHOOD!AT!LATITUDE!ZERO!–!THE!GAMES!OF!THE!
AFRICAN!‘GLOBAL’!CHILD!
Sandra'Barra
1'
1
Instituto'de'Educação,'UNIVERSIDADE'DO'MINHO,'Braga,'Portugal
'
Abstract:'This'study'aims'to'dip'into'the'daily'playful'lives'of'African'
children'born'in'Sao'Tome'and'Principe,'in'order'to'scan'into'one'of'
the'social'and'cultural'worlds'of'childhood'and'reveal'it'in'the'voice'
of'children'themselves.'
Through' observation' and' analysis' of' the' practices' and' meanings'
associated'with'the'game'and'toy'in'the'life'contexts'of'children'in'
Sao'Tome'and'Principe,'will'seek'to'clarify'how'the'cultures'of'chil)
dren'in'its'genesis'and'structure'are'intertwined'on'the'broad'con)
text'of'an'ongoing'globalization.'
That' is,' investigate' how' are' reflected' in' the' games' and' toys' that'
use'African'children'the'premises'of'a'globalized'world'or'a'"global'
child"'is'the'main'cut'of'the'project'to'be'undertaken.'
The'main'objectives'of'this'study'are:'
Contribute' to' enrich' the' studies' of' childhood,' giving' voice' to' Afri)
can'children'in'the'natural'context'of'their'existence,'explaining'the'
concepts' and' social' practices' of' a' childhood' outside' the' western'
standard,'but'in'the'context'of'a'globalized'world.'
Competing' for' the' analysis' of' the' impact' of' globalisation' in' the'
contemporary' childhoods,' researching' the' ways' they' relate' global'
and'local'in'childhood'cultures'through'the'processes'of'production'
and' reception' of' culture' by' the' children' and' their' expression' on'
peer'cultures'in'daily'playful'activities.'
Deepen' knowledge' about' the' childhood' cultures,' extending' the'
analysis' of' the' play' and' toys,' examining' how' and' whether' the'
games' and' toys' from' the' children' in' the' study' express,' accept,' or'
reject'the'global'culture'and'the''global'child'.'
1
Children's'Rights'Unit,'UNIVERSITY'INSTITUTE'KURT'BÖSCH'(IUKB),'
'
Sion'4,'Switzerland
Abstract:' While' the' peasantry' has' been' at' the' forefront' of' the'
Swiss' social' and' political' debates' during' centuries,' peasant' child)
hood'has'remained'largely'silent'and'invisible.'The'slow'disappear)
ance'of'family'farms,'accelerated'by'the'liberalisation'of'agriculture'
of' the' past' two' decades,' has' not' changed' this' pattern.' Peasant'
children'continue'to'be'subsumed'into'the'patriarchal'family'–'per)
ceived' as' the' guardian' of' traditions' and' national' identity' –' and'
trapped' into' intertwined' dualist' representations' of' social' reality'
such' as' peasant/non)peasant,' rural/urban,' traditional/modern,'
backwardness/progress.'
The' paper' will' summarize' the' findings' of' a' recent' empirical' re)
search' situated' at' the' crossroads' of' peasant,' rural' and' childhood'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
‘IT’S!ABOUT!CHANGING!SERVICES!AND!BUILDING!
RELATIONSHIPS’:!THE!DEVELOPMENT!OF!CHILDREN!IN!
CARE!COUNCILS!
'1
'2*
Nigel'Thomas ,'Barry'Percy)Smith '
1
School' of' Social' Work,' University' of' Central' Lancashire,' Preston,'
Faculty'of'Health'and'Life'Sciences,'University'of'the'West'of'Eng)
'
land,'Bristol,'United'Kingdom
2
Abstract:'Within'a'context'of'economic'austerity'and'the'pressure'
on' local' authorities' to' ensure' efficient' and' cost' effective' services,'
resources'to'support'the'participation'of'children'and'young'people'
are'at'risk'of'being'cut.'Yet,'it'could'also'be'argued'that'participa)
tion'is'even'more'important'to'ensure'that'services'deliver'what'is'
Abstract'Book'
85'
'
needed.'More'importantly,'ensuring'the'right'of'the'most'vulnera)
ble'to'have'a'say'is'imperative'in'ensuring'the'well)being'of'children'
during'public'sector'cuts.'This'paper'reports'on'a'recent'evaluation'
of'Children'in'Care'Councils'(CiCCs)'in'London,'England.'It'maps'out'
the' extent' and' nature' of' such' developments,' but' also' documents'
experiences'and'challenges'which'are'at'the'heart'of'the'search'for'
‘meaningful’' participation.' The' paper' discusses' how' the' purpose'
and'operation'of'CiCCs'are'understood'before'going'on'to'consider'
some' of' the' complexity' at' play' with' respect' to' how' CiCCs' have'
sought' to' change' processes' and' relationships' at' the' heart' of' gov)
ernance.' The' paper' considers' the' impacts' of' CiCCs' as' well' as' the'
barriers' to' their' future' development.' The' paper' concludes' by' re)
flecting' on' the' significance' of' Children' in' Care' Councils' in' relation'
to'wider'understandings'of'participation.'
RECOGNISING!THE!POTENTIAL!FOR!JUSTICE!IN!THE!
(MIS)BEHAVIOUR!OF!YOUNG!CITIZENS!
Cath'Sarah'Ann'Larkins
1'
1
SOCIAL' WORK,' UNIVERSITY' OF' CENTRAL' LANCASHIRE,' PRESTON,'
'
United'Kingdom
Abstract:' Children' are' citizens,' holding' rights' and' responsibilities'
and'participating'as'members'of'local'and'global'spaces.'Children’s'
status' as' citizens' is' claimed' in' order' to' recognise' children’s' social'
contributions' and' to' link' their' aspirations' to' demands' for' justice'
from' institutions' that' affect' their' lives.' Despite' claims' for' citizen)
ship,' however,' institutions' do' not' always' provide' justice' for' chil)
dren,' as' the' 2011' EU' Agenda' on' Children’s' Rights' illustrates.' To'
advance' children’s' achievement' of' the' citizenship' to' which' they'
aspire'a'clearer'understanding'is'needed'of'children’s'perspectives'
on'justice'and'how'this'can'be'enacted.'
This'paper'presents'the'understanding'of'justice'and'action'devel)
oped' in' research' by' groups' of' children' aged' 5)13' in' Wales' and'
France.'I'outline'the'groups’'expressions'of'justice'in'attitudes,'lim)
its' and' inclusions' associated' with' citizenship.' I' then' draw' on' this'
understanding' to' show' how' some' children' enact' justice' in' ways'
that' transgress' the' boundaries' of' dominant' conceptions' of' appro)
priate'citizenship.'These'actions'can'be'described'as'(mis)behaviour'
or'as'‘acts'of'citizenship’'(Isin'and'Nielsen'2008).'In'these'turbulent'
times,'where'governmental'responses'to'financial'crisis'fail'to'pro)
vide'citizenship'justice,'recognizing'and'enabling'children’s'citizen)
ship'in'(mis)behaviour'has'potential'for'widening'understandings'of'
participation.'
REPRESENTING!THE!RELATIONAL!IN!THE!
PARTICIPATORY!PROCESS:!A!NEW!THEORETICAL!
FRAMEWORK!
Victoria'Jupp'Kina
1'
1
School' of' Health' Sciences' and' Social' Care,' BRUNEL' UNIVERSITY,'
'
Uxbridge,'United'Kingdom
Abstract:' When' reviewing' recent' debates' on' children' and' young'
people’s' participation' there' appears' to' be' two' distinctive' contra)
dictions.'First,'despite'the'acknowledgement'of'the'positive'impact'
that' participation' can' have' on' children' and' young' people' these'
impacts' are' rarely' absorbed' back' into' the' various' definitions' and'
categorisations.' While' participation' is' regarded' as' a' process' the'
dominant' theoretical' frameworks' remain' fairly' static.' Second,' of'
the'many'barriers'to'participation'that'have'been'and'continue'to'
be'identified'adults'are'viewed'as'the'biggest'challenge.'While'it'is'
largely'accepted'that'the'practice,'perceptions'and'preconceptions'
of'adults'constitute'one'of'the'primary'barriers'within'children'and'
young'people’s'participation'theoretical'frameworks'focus'on'defin)
ing' the' act' between' adult' and' child' through' categorising' the' level'
or' ‘degree’' of' participation.' This' fails' to' incorporate' the' relational'
aspect' of' the' act' as' the' focus' is' on' the' final' result' of' the' action'
rather' than' the' interrelationships' that' led' there.' This' paper' will'
attempt' to' address' these' two' contradictions' through' proposing' a'
new' two)dimensional' theoretical' framework' that' recognises' the'
fluidity' and' continual' learning' processes' of' all' and' explicitly' chal)
lenges'current'dualisms'by'placing'the'adult'alongside'the'child'as'a'
subject'of'the'participatory'process.'
BETRAYAL!OF!TRUST:!VICTIMS!OF!MATERNAL!INCEST!
Jackie'Turton
1'
1
Department'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'ESSEX,'Colchester,'Unit)
'
ed'Kingdom
Abstract:'The'sexual'abuse'of'children'has'traditionally'been'viewed'
as'a'male'crime'(Grubin,'1998;'Cawson'et.al.,'2000;'Bunting,'2005).'
Children' have' few,' if' any,' strategies' of' coping' with' sexual' abuse'
and'such'a'betrayal'of'trust'by'an'adult'may'well'affect'their'rela)
tionships'with'all'adults,'particularly'if'the'perpetrator'is'a'familiar'
figure.' The' difficulties' are' exacerbated' for' child' victims' when' the'
offender' is' female' and' even' more' so' in' cases' of' maternal' incest'
(Elliott,' 1993;' Turton,' 2008).' In' this' paper' I' intend' to' focus' on' the'
problems' victims' of' maternal' incest' have' in' disclosing' their' abuse'
and'work'towards'understanding'the'dilemmas'these'children'face'
when'considering'who'to'trust.'
The' data' for' this' paper' comes' from' a' wider' study' investigating'
female' perpetrators.' The' interviewees' included' professionals,' of)
fenders'and'adult'survivors'of'female'perpetrators.'This'discussion'
will' focus' on' the' survivor' sample' most' of' whom' were' abused' by'
their'mother'or'mother'–figure.'
The'analysis'of'the'data'suggests'that'even'after'the'sexual'abuse'
has' been' exposed' and' as' adults' the' survivors' had' considerable'
difficulty'in'coming'to'terms'with'their'experiences.'I'argue'that'the'
mother'figure'is'so'pivotal'that'victims'of'maternal'incest'deny'and'
minimise'their'abuse'to'overcome'the'gross'betrayal'of'trust.'
Bunting,' L.' 2005' Females' who' Sexually' Offend' Against' Children:'
Responses'of'the'Child'Protection'and'Criminal'Justice'System,'Lon)
don:'NSPCC.'
Cawson,' P.,' Wattam,' C.,' Brooker,' S.' and' Kelly,' G.' 2000' Child' Mal)
treatment'in'the'UK:'A'study'of'the'prevalence'of'child'sexual'abuse'
and'neglect,'London:'NSPCC.'
Elliott,'M,'ed.'1993,'The'Last'Taboo,'London,'Longman'
Grubin,'D.'1998'Sex'Offending'Against'Children:'understanding'the'
risk,'London:'Police'and'Reducing'Crime'Unit,'RDS.'
Turton,' J.' 2008' Child' Abuse,' Gender' and' Society,' London:'
Routledge.'
MAPPING!INDEPENDENT!CHILDREN'S!RIGHTS!
INSTITUTIONS!
'1
'2
'3
Karl'Hanson ,'Brian'Gran ,'Nigel'Thomas '
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
86'
Abstract'Book'
1
Children's' Rights' Unit,' University' Institute' Kurt' Bösch,' Sion,' Swit)
2
zerland,' Department'of'Sociology'and'School'of'Law,'Case'Western'
3
Reserve' University,' Cleveland,' OH,' United' States,' School' of' Social'
'
Work,'University'of'Central'Lancashire,'Preston,'United'Kingdom
CHILDHOOD.!FINDINGS!FROM!A!UK!WIDE!STUDY!OF!
CHILD!MALTREATMENT!AND!VICTIMISATION!
Abstract:' Independent' Children’s' Rights' Institutions' (ICRIs),' also'
called'ombudspersons'or'commissioners'for'children,'have'a'man)
date'to'bring'about'changes'in'society'in'order'to'improve'respect'
for'the'rights'of'children,'who'themselves'play'only'marginal'roles'
in' the' political' process' that' determines' Government' responses' to'
societal'changes.'Their'work'may'include'influencing'policy'through'
contacts'with'executive'and'legislative'bodies,'raising'public'aware)
ness' of' children’s' rights,' providing' information' and' advice,' and'
assisting' children' to' speak' for' themselves.' In' some' countries' they'
also'have'a'mandate'to'investigate'violations'of'children’s'rights'in'
individual'cases.'Across'Europe,'ICRIs'encounter'challenges'to'their'
independence,' changes' to' their' organizational' structures,' and,' for'
some,' dismantlement' of' their' offices,' thereby' relegating' them' as'
no'longer'affordable'luxury'institutions'of'the'past.'
1
Based' on' research' undertaken' within' the' Research' Group' on' Om)
budspersons'for'Children,'this'paper'will'provide'a'typology'of'ex)
isting' ICRIs' in' Europe' taking' into' account' the' commonalities' and'
variations'between'them,'in'particular'in'terms'of'legal'status,'de)
grees' of' independency,' functions,' powers' and' funding.' The' paper'
will'discuss'the'particular'roles'of'ICRIs'in'turbulent'times'and'also'
give'evidence'of'how'these'turbulent'times,'in'turn,'impact'on'their'
work.'
URBAN!CHILDHOODS/URBAN!PLAYGROUNDS:!
BETWEEN!SURVEILLANCE,!INVISIBILITY!AND!
PARTICIPATION!
Maja'Brzozowska)Brywczyńska
Institute'of'Sociology,'Adam'Mickiewicz'University,'Poznań,'Poland
'2
2
School' of' Policy' Studies,' UNIVERSITY' OF' BRISTOL,' Bristol,' child'
protection' research' department,' NSPCC' Weston' House' 42' Curtain'
'
Road,'London'EC2A'3NH,'United'Kingdom
Abstract:'Children’s'experiences'of'violence'and'abuse'in'the'home'
are' frequently' described' as' ‘hidden’.' This' paper' will' draw' on' find)
ings'from'UK'wide'research'into'the'prevalence'and'impact'of'child'
maltreatment'and'victimisation'in'the'UK,'to'explore'developmen)
tal' aspects' in' naming' victimisation' experiences' as' ‘abuse’.' Inter)
views' were' collected' from' 6196' caregivers,' children' and' young'
adults,' identified' from' the' post' code' address' files' using' random'
probability' sampling' methods.' CASI' and' A' CASI' interviews' were'
conducted'asking'caregivers'of'children'under'the'age'of'11'years,'
children'aged'11'to'17'years'and'young'adults'aged'18'to'24'years'
about'childhood'experiences'of'maltreatment'and'victimisation'and'
the'impact'on'wellbeing'and'behavior.'Up'to'39'different'types'of'
victimisation'were'assessed,'using'measures'from'the'Juvenile'Vic)
timization' Questionnaire' (Hamby,' Finkelhor,' Ormrod' &' Turner).'
Follow' up' and' in' depth' interviews' were' also' conducted' with' over'
60'young'adult'survivors'of'child'maltreatment'to'explore'the'pro)
cesses'of'naming'experiences'as'‘abuse’'and'finding'safety.'
CHILDREN’S!RESOURCES!IN!ACTION!–!A!
BOURDIEUSIAN!FIELD!IN!PRESCHOOL!
Mari'Vuorisalo
1'
1
Department' of' Educational' Sciences,' UNIVERSITY' OF' JYVÄSKYLÄ,'
'
Jyväskylä,'Finland
1'
1
'1
Lorraine'Radford ,'Debbie'Allnock '
'
Abstract:' Taking' the' material' culture' of' urban' childhood' as' envi)
sioned' in' design' of' playgrounds' and' other' children' spaces' within'
the' city' as' its' starting' point' and' inspired' by' Colin' Ward’s' assump)
tion'that:'"The'failure'of'an'urban'environment'can'be'measured'in'
direct' propotion' to' the' number' of' >>playgrounds<<"' (Child' in' the'
City,'1977:73)'I'would'like'to'discuss'the'complexities'of'children’s'
(negotiating)'autonomy'in'the'urban'space.'The'discipline'and'safe)
ty' embedded' in' typical' 4S' (see)saw,' swing,' slide,' sand)box)' play)
grounds,' the' "invisibility"' of' children‘s' Temporary' Autonomus'
Zones' (Hakim' Bey)' within' the' otherwise' monomorphic' (Owain'
Jones)'urban'spaces'and'the'potential'of'children‘s'participation'in'
designing' their' own' >>playscapes<<' (resp.' junk/adventure' play)
grounds)'all'provide'a'basis'for'linking'the'play'(and'the'definition'
of' play,' child' and' childhood' assumed' by' each' of' the' above' play)
ground' "models")' with' the' problem' of' children’s' "ownership"' of'
their' cities' and,' consequently,' the' issue' of' city)as)Lebenswelt‘s'
possibility'and'quality.'The'presentation'will'be'supported'by'pho)
tographic' data' from' the' ongoing' research' project' "The' Invisible'
City"'(dedicated'to'analysing'different'forms'of'everyday'urbanism'
in'major'Polish'cities)'I'am'involved'in.'
WHAT’S!‘NORMAL’,!WHAT’S!A!‘CRIME’!AND!WHAT’S!
‘ABUSE’?!POSITIONING!EXPERIENCES!OF!
MALTREATMENT!AND!VICTIMISATION!IN!
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
Abstract:' In' this' study,' children’s' activities' in' the' preschool' are'
conceptualized' as' a/ social/ practice' within' a' Bourdieusian' frame.'
This'means'to'study'children’s'everyday'interaction'as'their'active'
construction.'
The' starting' point' for' a' Bourdieusian' analysis' of' social' spaces'
(fields)'is'the'understanding'of'the'social'world'as'being'both'struc)
turing'and'structured.'In'this'study'the'volume'and'the'composition'
of'the'resources'that'children'bring'into'preschool'are'seen'to'give'
their'interaction'its'objective'structure'as'they'determine'the'inter)
related,'reciprocal'positions.'The'empirical'base'of'the'study'is'eth)
nography'in'a'Finnish'preschool.'
A' Bourdieusian' field' is' a' dynamic' space' of' positions' taken' and'
struggle'for'by'agents'in'the'field,'within'its'existing'power'relations'
and'with'resources'that'are'recognized'in'the'field'as'valid'and'val)
ued' capitals.' Therefore,' to' be' accepted' as' an' active' participant'
(agent)'to'the'game'in'the'field'requires'that'children'know'how'to'
do'play'i.e.'they'have'a'‘feel'for'the'game’.'
This' paper' focuses' on' the' ‘game’' children' play' in' the' field' of' kin)
dergarten'and'the'utilization'of'resources'in'these'games.'The'pa)
per'is'part'of'a'PhD'study'in'early'childhood'education.'
IS!ANYONE!LISTENING?!CHILDREN’!PARTICIPATION!IN!
PUBLIC!DECISIONGMAKING,!TURNING!‘VOICE’!INTO!
‘INFLUENCE’!
Anne'Catherine'Crowley
1'
Abstract'Book'
87'
'
1
SOCSI,'CARDIFF,'Penarth,'United'Kingdom
'
Abstract:'This'paper'examines'the'impact'of'children’s'participation'
on' public' services' in' four' formal' governance' structures' )' a' local'
authority' youth' forum' and' primary' school' council' in' Wales,' UK;' a'
children’s' advisory' group' of' an' large' international' Non)
Governmental' Organisation' and' neighbourhood' children's' parlia)
ments' in' Tamil' Nadu,' India.' A' critical' review' of' the' processes' in)
volved' in' turning' children’s' ‘voice’' in' to' ‘influence’' in' these' case'
studies,' suggests' that' traditional' constructions' of' childhood' are'
alive' and' well' and' work' to' ensure' that' formal' participation' struc)
tures'and'mechanisms'established'as'a'result'of'policy'drivers'in'the'
UK,' have' been' much' more' about' providing' opportunities' for' chil)
dren' to' practice' 'good'' citizenship,' develop' a' responsible' attitude,'
and' to' learn' about' the' complexity' of' public' decision)making' than'
about'user'involvement'in'shaping'public'services'or'holding'service'
providers'or'policy'makers'to'account.'
Drawing' on' broader' theories' in' political' science' relating' to' citizen'
engagement'and'new'governance'as'well'as'the'sociology'of'child)
hood,'the'paper'concludes'with'a'summary'of'the'factors'that'show'
promise' as' ‘enablers’' in' turning' children’s' ‘voice’' into' influence' in'
formal'participatory'structures'and'deliberative'forums.'
‘STAR!OF!THE!WEEK’!AND!OTHER!FORMS!OF!
GOVERNANCE:!CONSTRUCTING!NORMATIVE!
CHILDHOOD!IN!DAYGCARE!
Anna'Laura'Elina'Siippainen
1'
1
Education/' unit' of' Early' childhood' education,' UNIVERSITY' OF'
'
JYVÄSKYLÄ,'Jyväskylä,'Finland
Abstract:' Generational' relations' between' children' and' adults' are'
going' through' changes' (Alanen' 2009).' This' has' sparked' off' a' vivid'
debate' on' children’s' agency' and' need' for' adult)provided' protec)
tion.' In' my' ongoing' dissertation' research' I' examine' intergenera)
tional' relationships' in' a' Finnish' day)care' center' and' try' to' answer'
to'the'following'research'questions:'What'kind'of'position'do'chil)
dren' take' in' intergenerational' relationships' in' day)care?' How' do'
children'shape'these'relationships?'How'do'the'relations'between'
children'and'adults'affect'children’s'agency'and'well)being?'
Theoretical' ideas' are' adopted' mainly' from' governmentality' re)
search' ((Foucault,' Rose,' Dean).' The' data' are' collected' by' ethno)
graphic' methods' in' one' kindergarten' group' (children' aged' 3)5)
years'old)'by'observing'and'interviewing'the'children'and'the'per)
sonnel'during'the'spring'2011.'In'this'presentation'I'will'take'a'clos)
er' look' at' some' empirical' cases' from' the' point' of' view' of' govern)
ance' and' discuss' the' kind' of' normative' childhood' and' ideal' child'
that'the'practices'of'the'day)care'center'help'to'construct?'
My'research'builds'on'my'master’s'thesis'and'is'part'of'the'project'
“Intergenerational' partnerships:' emergent' forms' for' promoting'
children’s' well)being”.' The' project' is' funded' by' the' Academy' of'
Finland'(2010)2013).'
THE!SOCIAL!IMPORTANCE!OF!THINGS:!INCLUSION!
AND!EXCLUSION!AMONG!CHILDREN!IN!A!MULTIG
ETHNIC!SUBURB!OF!OSLO!
Mari'Rysst
1
1'
Consumer' culture,' NATIONAL' INSTITUTE' FOR' CONSUMER'
'
RESEARCH,'Oslo,'Norway
Abstract:' Since' the' Second' World' War,' nation' building' in' Norway'
has'focused'on'welfare,'quity'and'equality.'From'the'same'period,'
immigrants' from' non)western' countries' arrived' in' great' numbers.'
As' a' consequence,' egalitarian' values' regarding' gender,' race' and'
ethnicity' are' highly' prioritized' in' kindergarten,' schools' and' else)
where.'Children'learn'from'an'early'age'that'"people'look'different,'
but' are' similar' inside",' and' that' inner' qualities' count' more' than'
appearance,'which'include'physiology'and'clothes.'The'field'site'is'
in' an' ethnically' heterogeneous' suburb' of' Oslo' peopled' by' immi)
grants' from' all' over' the' world.' Based' on' more' than' six' months' of'
ethnographic'fieldwork'in'a'primary'school'consisting'of'95%'pupils'
with' immigrant' backgrounds,' the' paper' discusses' inclusion' and'
exclusion'in'the'light'of'children's'social'networks'and'social'capital.'
The' paper' discusses' the' following' questions:' How' are' children's'
friendship'networks'to'be'understood'in'the'light'of'gender,'ethnic)
ity' and' different' proficiencies?'Which'"things",'including'activities,'
seem'important'for'children's'inclusion?'How'do'children'and'their'
family's' social' networks' relate' to' their' overall' inclusion' and' exclu)
sion'in'this'particular'place?'
CHILD!MALTREATMENT!AS!A!MATTER!OF!SOCIALLY!
EMBEDDED!EXPERTS.!THE!COLOURING!OF!
PROFESSIONAL!INTERVENTIONS!THROUGH!
COGNITIVE!AND!ORGANISATIONAL!IDIOSYNCRACIES.!
'1
Lars' Alberth ,' Ingo' Bode
1'
Eisentraut
' 2*
'1
,' Doris' Bühler)Niederberger ,' Steffen'
1
Sociology,' BERGISCHE' UNIVERSTAET' WUPPERTAL,' Wuppertal,'
'
Social'Politics,'University'of'Kassel,'Kassel,'Germany
2
Abstract:'Internationally,'maltreatment'of'small'children'is'increas)
ingly' viewed' as' a' severe' challenge' to' social' professionalism.' Con)
cern' is' widespread' about' imperfections' of' existing' patterns' of' in)
tervention,' regarding' the' use' of' organisational' resources' and' re)
sistance' to' interprofessional' collaboration.' However,' this' debate'
has' shortcomings' concerning' the' way' it' addresses' professional'
divides' in' the' societal' response' to' child' maltreatment.' Firstly,'
greater'awareness'is'needed'concerning'the'professions’'intrusion'
in'the'families’'life'world'as'this'intrusion'is'subject'to'a'bargaining'
between'parents'and'professions.'A'crucial'problem'here'seems'to'
be' the' invisibility' of' the' child' in' the' process' of' professional' inter)
vention,'with'children'ranging'from'a'mere'‘bearer'of'symptoms’'to'
being' an' active' participant' in' the' intervention' process.' Secondly,'
professional'interventions'are'embedded'in'institutional'and'organ)
isational'regulations,'with'a'simultaneous'involvement'of'different'
professions' and' organizations,' each' following' a' distinctive' ap)
proach'of'how'to'intervene.'In'this'configuration,'particular'trajec)
tories' of' professional' interference' emerge' which' entail' case)
specific'(chains'of)'reactions.'
The' paper' is' based' on' a' research' project' funded' by' the' German'
Research'Council'(DFG).'It'explores'professional'interventions'in'the'
field' of' child' maltreatment' and' neglect.' On' the' basis' of' in)depth)
interviews' with' different' professions' (social' workers,' physicians,'
midwives' etc.)' as' well' as' reported' cases,' an' analysis' of' the' triage'
process'(the'process'leading'to'a'decision'if'the'case'is'to'be'seen'
as'maltreatment,'neglect'etc.'or'not)'is'presented.'The'hypothesis'
developed' in' this' paper' is' that' professional' interventions' are' sub)
ject'to'as'distinctive'social'embeddedness'and,'among'other'things,'
contingent' on' a)' the' processing' of' professional' knowledge' and' b)'
prevailing'organisational'structures,'with'both'impacting'specifically'
on' the' situational' interaction' with' the' family' under' treatment.'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
88'
Abstract'Book'
Thus,' intervention' against' child' maltreatment' risks' being' only'
loosely'coupled'to'what'the'needs'of'children'or'their'families'ac)
tually'may'require.'At'least,'idiosyncracies'rooted'in'the'knowledge'
processing'of'professions'and'organizational'constraints'colour'the'
process'of'intervention'makedly.'
SEGREGATION!AND!MIXING!IN!BELFAST:!TEENAGERS'!
PERCEPTIONS!OF!THE!POST!CONFLICT!CITY!
Madeleine'Leonard
1'
1
sociology,'QUEEN'S'UNIVERSITY'BELFAST,'Belfast,'United'Kingdom
'
Abstract:' Until' recently,' studies' of' modern' cities' and' their' impact'
on'the'daily'lives'of'occupants'focused'largely'on'adult'spatial'pat)
terns.'This'focus'often'rendered'young'people'as'invisible'inhabit)
ants' of' urban' landscapes' and' by' failing' to' incorporate' their' own'
‘ways' of' seeing’' they' were' positioned' as' outsider' groups' (Mat)
thews' 1995).' In' attempting' to' redress' this' balance,' research' on'
young'people’s'micro)geographies'has'revealed'the'myriad'ways'in'
which' they' utilise' street' corners,' shopping' centres,' vacant' spaces,'
parks' and' playgrounds' as' places' where' they' can' meet' and' create'
their' own' identities' (Matthews' et' al' 1998).' Young' people' often'
access'public'spaces'as'members'of'groups'and'this'often'results'in'
young' people' making' territorial' claims' over' the' spaces' they' com)
monly' use.' In' cities' such' as' Belfast' which' have' historically' been'
ethno)nationally' divided' into' parallel' landscapes' whereby' one'
group' claims' control' over' space' and' defends' that' space' against'
others,'one'would'expect'that'young'people'growing'up'alongside'
pre)defined' boundaries' and' barriers' would' be' territorial' in' their'
daily' practices.' However,' as' the' paper' will' demonstrate,' while'
there' are' some' continuities' between' adults’' and' children’s' per)
spectives' on' divided' spaces' there' are' also' likely' to' be' differences.'
Thus,'while'young'people’s'‘ways'of'seeing’'may'support'adult'per)
spectives' regarding' traditional' patterns' of' segregation' they' may'
also' dilute,' challenge' and' contest' them.' Reflecting' O’Brien' et' al’s'
(2000:'257)'assertion'that'debates'about'children’s'place'in'the'city'
need' to' move' away' from' ‘the' unitary' public' child’,' this' paper' ex)
plores'the'heterogeneity'of'young'people’s'attitudes'to'growing'up'
in'Belfast'and'the'extent'to'which'they'view'Belfast'as'a'divided'or'
shared' city.' By' focusing' on' the' contradictory' narratives' produced'
by'young'people,'the'research'aims'to'demonstrate'the'diversity'of'
their' experiences' of' growing' up' in' a' city' divided' by' physical' and'
symbolic'boundaries'and'the'ways'in'which'they'make'sense'of'and'
challenge'segregated'urban'landscapes.'
THE!EXPERIENCES!OF!THE!ASYLUM!SEEKING!CHILDREN!
IN!FLIGHT!AND!EXILE!
Minna'Mari'Lähteenmäki
1'
1
Institute'of'Behavioural'Sciences,'UNIVERSITY'OF'HELSINKI,'Helsin)
'
ki,'Finland
Abstract:'The'number'of'asylum'seekers'is'rising'sharply'in'the'Eu)
ropean'Union.'This'means'the'growth'of'the'child'victims'of'human'
smuggling' and' it' also' resulting' in' the' growth' of' the' number' of'
those' children' who' have' experiences' of' war' and' flight.' The' own'
stories'the'children'and'their'mothers'who'seek'asylum'in'Finland'
tell'about'the'fear'of'being'killed,'the'longing;'about'the'silence'and'
being' silenced;' the' submission;' the' negligence;' the' witnessing' of'
the'violence'and'the'seeking'of'protection'from'it;'the'helplessness;'
the' hiding;' the' hunger;' the' coldness;' the' pain' and' the' fear.' They'
also' tell' about' the' sense' of' relief' the' children' have' felt' after' the'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
flight.'From'these'narratives'can'be'found'experiences'of'different'
kinds'of'exercise'of'power'and'the'possibilities'of'agency,'but'also'
the'lack'of'such'possibilities.'
In'addition'to'the'age'and'gender'of'the'child,'the'length'and'heav)
iness' of' the' journey,' the' used' vehicles,' the' need' of' being' hidden'
and'it´s'duration'and'the'parent's'condition'and'ability'to'help'her'
child,' affected' how' the' child' felt' during' the' flight.' Although' the'
child'may'apparently'appear'to'have'managed'the'journey'without'
great' difficulties,' it' is' however' both' mentally' and' physically' hard'
time' for' all' children.' The' flight' stories' of' asylum' seeking' children'
and' their' mothers' will' help' us' to' understand' the' backgrounds' of'
the'silence'and'malaise'of'those'children'living'in'exile.'These'back)
grounds' are' largely' similar' to' what' the' Finnish' evacuee' children'
experienced'during'the'Second'World'War'and'immediately'after'it.'
Silence' and' to' be' silenced' appear' to' be' common' to' families'
wounded' by' war,' regardless' of' the' geographical' location' and' the'
period'of'time'we'are'examining.'
The' flight' stories' of' the' asylum' seeking' children' and' mothers' are'
part'of'an'extensive'research'data.'In'this'doctoral'thesis'I'propose'
to' address' the' day)to)day' life' of' children' who' seek' asylum' in' Fin)
land'together'with'their'families'in'the'context'of'the'Finnish'refu)
gee'reception'centers'and'schools.'I'shall'consider'the'significance'
of' the' family,' the' reception' center' and' the' preparatory' education'
in'a'situation'where'the'children'are'trying'to'cope'with'their'diffi)
cult'conditions.'Another'strain'of'the'study'will'concentrate'on'the'
support'provided'by'various'networks'and'the'own'experiences'of'
the'children'in'the'midst'of'asylum'seeking'process.'
DAILIY!LIFE!IN!A!ROMANIAN!PRISON!FOR!YOUTH!AND!
MINORS!
Petronel'Mirel'Dobrica
1'
1
Faculty'of'Sociology'and'Social'Work,'UNIVERSITY'OF'BUCHAREST,'
'
Bucharest,'Romania
Abstract:'Daily'life'in'a'Romanian'prison'for'minors'and'youth'
The' aim' of' this' paper' is' to' describe' and' explain' some' aspects' of'
everyday'lives'in'a'prison'for'youths'and'minors.'The'paper'shows'
the'results'of'a'field'research,'“Deculturation'as'effect'of'detention.'
Resocialization' in' the' context' of' the' progressive' and' regressive'
regime' of' prison' sentence' execution”,' financed' by' CNCSIS' –'
UEFISCDI'(project'IDEI'PCE'2008,'ID)1977).'
The' universe' of' young' inmates' exists' as' a' separated' and' in' many'
ways'as'a'contrary'world'to'the'official'depiction'of'the'institution'
of'prison.'What'are'the'attributes'of'this'world?'What'kind'of'rep)
resentations'of'the'prison'and'the'outside'world'are'elaborated'by'
the'young'inmates?'What'is'the'inner'social'hierarchy'in'this'envi)
ronment'and'what'are'the'elements'that'determine'the'individual’s'
inclusion'into'this'world?'My'research'analyses'the'inmate’s'strate)
gy'of'adaptability'to'the'official'rules,'on'the'one'hand,'and'to'the'
informal'rules'of'prisoners,'on'the'other.'
One'of'the'most'salient'aspects'of'my'research'refers'to'the'evalua)
tion'of'the'consequences'of'the'penal'system'for'youth'and'minors,'
which' dramatically' diminish' the' social' reintegration' of' former'
young'inmates.'
CHANGING!CHILDHOOD,!SHIFTING!PRIORITIES.!
INTERNATIONAL!CHILDREN'S!RIGHTS!ADVOCACY!
Abstract'Book'
89'
'
SINCE!THE!ADOPTION!OF!THE!CONVENTION!ON!THE!
RIGHTS!OF!THE!CHILD!
'1
Karl'Hanson ,'Michele'Poretti
1'
1
Children's'Rights'Unit,'UNIVERSITY'INSTITUTE'KURT'BÖSCH'(IUKB),'
'
Sion'4,'Switzerland
Abstract:'In'spite'of'the'comprehensiveness'of'the'UN'Convention'
on'the'Rights'of'the'Child'(CRC),'limited'resources'and'time'inevita)
bly' lead' duty' bearers' to' prioritize' some' issues' over' others.' The'
international'children’s'rights'agenda'can'therefore'be'conceived'as'
a' process' of' meaning)negotiation' between' antagonistic' ideas' of'
children’s'rights'and'related'priorities.'
The' paper' will' present' the' findings' of' an' ongoing' interdisciplinary'
research' project' which' aims' to' gain' better' insights' into' the' pro)
cesses' of' prioritization' in' international' children’s' rights' advocacy.'
The' project' explores,' in' particular,' the' extent' to' which' there' is'
space'for'translating'children’s'own'conceptions'of'their'rights'(un)
derstood'as'‘living'rights’),'especially'when'these'do'not'correspond'
to'dominant'children’s'rights'discourses.'
The'project'findings'are'based'on'data'from'semi)structured'inter)
views' with' key' informants' and' from' quantitative' analysis' of' more'
than' 300' documents' produced' by' the' United' Nations' system' and'
international' NGOs' between' 1989' and' 2009.' The' paper' will' high)
light' how' competing' understandings' of' children’s' rights' intersect'
with' changing' conceptions' of' childhood,' unequal' power' relations,'
established' institutions' and' transnational' advocacy' networks' to'
include'childhood)related'themes'in'–'or'exclude'them'from'–'the'
global'agenda.'
CHILDREN’S!CITIZENSHIP!IN!EUROPE:!THEORISING!
CURRENT!PRACTICES!
Tom'Cockburn
1'
1
Social' Science' and' Criminal' Justice' Studies,' UNIVERSITY' OF'
'
BRADFORD,'Bradford,'United'Kingdom
Abstract:'Children’s'citizenship'has'been'the'subject'of'considerable'
action' and' debate' across' Europe' in' the' last' 10' years' or' so.' These'
debates'have'been'occurring'inside'and'between'nation'states'and'
within'the'Council'of'Europe'itself.'The'debates'are'extremely'wide'
ranging:'covering'as'diverse'issues'as'the'protection'of'children,'the'
participation' of' children,' children’s' migrations,' citizenship' educa)
tion,' numerous' strategies' around' `youth’' following' the' Lisbon'
Agenda,'and'so'on.'Furthermore,'the'nature'and'condition'of'chil)
dren’s' citizenship' is' heterogeneous' if' we' consider' the' contrasting'
nature' of' citizenship' between' nation' states' (e.g.' UK' subjects' and'
French'citizens;'or'the'welfare'citizens'of'Sweden'and'Bulgaria).'
Despite'this'there'are'common'issues'around'children’s'citizenship'
when'viewed'through'social'and'political'theory.'All'member'states'
have'ideologies'of'citizenship'shaped'by'the'enlightenment'and'it'is'
these'enlightenment'ideologies'that'have'placed,'or'more'accurate)
ly' excluded,' children' from' nineteenth' and' twentieth' century' citi)
zenship.' However,' children’s' rights' and' children’s' citizenship' have'
been' re)evaluated' in' the' twentieth' century' and' now' all' member'
states'are'influenced'by'a'growing'children’s'rights'movement'that'
have' challenged' many' of' the' assumptions' of' children' that' have'
excluded'them'from'conventional'notions'of'citizenship.'
THE!CHILD!AND!THE!CITY:!CHILDREN’S!CITIZENSHIP,!
PARTICIPATION!AND!THE!RIGHT!TO!URBAN!LIFE!
'1
Gabriela'Pina'Trevisan ,'Manuel'Jacinto'Sarmento
1
1'
institute'of'Education,'MINHO'UNIVERSITY,'braga,'Portugal
'
Abstract:' Contemporary' citizenship' debates' explore' its' subjective'
meanings,'new'spheres'of'action'and'identities'by'rejecting'a'mere'
and' formal' definition' of' citizenship' as' a' simple' set' of' rights' and'
duties.' Children’s' citizenship' implies' a' more' complex' discussion'
since'their'political'status'(at'least'until'they’re'16'years'old)'is'not'
previewed' or' consacrated.' Yet,' on' the' agency' plan' children' are'
political' agents,' intervening' in' the' life' of' cities' and' institutions,'
suffering' and' influencing' collective' decisions,' being' the' beginning'
but' also' the' agents' (invisible' and' marginal' but,' nevertheless,' real)'
of' political' action.' Matters' of' exclusion' and' inclusion' also' contrib)
ute' to' the' struggles' of' the' idea' of' children' as' citizens,' since' they'
remain'nowadays'as'the'main'excluded'group'of'political'participa)
tion.' Participation' in' formal' structures' of' public' decision' making'–'
such'as'the'city')'is'seen'as'a'fundamental'tool'for'this'recognition.'
Children's' competences' and' adults' perspectives' on' their' status' as'
citizenships'help'to'shape'and'define'their'opportunities'on'partici)
pation'structures'and'the'impact'of'those'experiences'in'children's'
everyday' life' settings.' Sociological' analysis' of' children’s' participa)
tion'challenges'common'notions'of'citizenship'and'questions'inter)
pretative'frameworks'proposed'by'sociology'on'social'and'political'
participation.' New' ways' and' meanings' of' citizens' participation' in'
political'have'been'questioned'and'rebuilt.'This'questioning'will'be'
built' from' a' research' in' a' Portuguese' city' –' through' the' Child'
Friendly' Cities' Unicef' Program' –' focusing' particularly' on' its' con)
straints'and'inhibitions'but'also'the'possibilities'of'children’s'action'
on' the' organisation' of' public' space,' looking' at' children’s' and' city'
council'deciders'perspectives.'
OF!INNOCENCE!AND!GUILT:!YOUNG!CHILDREN!
NEGOTIATING!‘RACE’!AND!BELONGING!IN!IRISH!
PRIMARY!SCHOOLS!
Susan'Mcdonnell
1
1'
Applied'Social'Science,'UNIVERSITY'COLLEGE'CORK,'Cork,'Ireland
'
Abstract:' This' paper' presents' some' of' the' findings' from' research'
with'young'children'(age'6'to'7)'focusing'on'identity'constructions'
and' specifically' the' area' of' racialised' identities.' According' to' Toni'
Morrison,'we'live'in'a'‘wholly'racialised'world’'(1992:4).'Emphasis)
ing'the'production'of'inclusion'and'exclusion'as'dynamic'processes'
situated' in' particular' cultures' and' contexts,' the' paper' refutes' the'
dichotomies'of'childhood'‘innocence’'or'(implied)'‘guilt’'sometimes'
associated'with'inquiry'into'areas'considered'sensitive'with'young)
er' children.' The' research' engages' with' children’s' narratives' and'
embodied' peer' interactions' within' the' ‘mainly' white’' and' govern)
mentally'Catholic'spaces'of'Irish'schooling.'In'the'context'of'depo)
liticised'official'discourses'emphasising'equality'and'belonging'and'
eliding' difference,' the' research' demonstrates' children’s' capacities'
to' actively' reiterate,' negotiate' and' resist' discursive' hierarchies' of'
belonging,' as' well' as' their' knowledge' of' what' may' and' may' not'
legitimately' be' said.' The' paper' suggests' that' ‘colour)blind’' and'
‘colour' mute’' educational' policies,' while' endeavouring' perhaps' to'
protect' children’s' ‘innocence’' and' ensure' their' inclusion,' do' so' at'
the' expense' of' engaging' in' an' effective' manner' with' issues' that'
have'real'resonance'and'consequence'in'children’s'everyday'lives.'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
90'
Abstract'Book'
Reference'
needs.' Differences' also' depend' on' the' degree' of' autonomy' and'
control'of'children,'due'to'their'psycho)social'status'within'a'family'
that'lack'the'presence'of'the'mother'because'of'imprisonment.'
Morrison,'T.'(1992)'Playing'in'the'Dark'
WHAT!AFFECTS!CHILD!AGENCY!AND!WELLGBEING!IN!
KYRGYZSTAN?!
Saltanat'Rasulova
1'
1
Social'Policy'and'Intervention,'OXFORD'UNIVERSITY,'Oxford,'Unit)
'
ed'Kingdom
Abstract:/What'affects'child'agency'and'well)being'in'Kyrgyzstan?'
The' concept' of' agency' and' how' it' relates' to' wellbeing' are' rarely'
defined'by'children'themselves.'And'studies'of'agency'often'lack'an'
awareness'of'children’s'connections'with'materiality'and'how'their'
role' changes' within' a' specific' society.' This' paper' explores' the' na)
ture'of'child'agency'and'the'factors'which'affect'it'in'a'specific'eco)
nomic,' social' and' cultural' locality.' In' doing' so,' it' investigates' chil)
dren’s' own' understandings' of' child' agency' and' how' it' relates' to'
wellbeing.' It' identifies' the' commonalities' and' differences' within'
the' wider' social)economic' environment' shared' by' Kyrgyz' children'
across' differences' in' age' and' sex' between' them' and' in' material'
position'between'their'families.'It'will'draw'on'the'author’s'qualita)
tive' fieldwork' carried' out' in' Bishkek,' Kyrgyzstan' in' 2010/2011.' 40'
semi)structured' qualitative' interviews' were' conducted' with' chil)
dren'aged'12'and'16'at'state'and'private'schools'and'group'discus)
sions'were'held'with'both'parents'and'children.'
The' research' objective' was' to' study' how' agency' functions' under'
specific' life' circumstances' and' forms' of' social' involvement' of' chil)
dren' and' the' personal' meanings' of' agency' for' children' given' the'
economic'conditions'and'cultural'demands'of'childhood'in'contem)
porary'Kyrgyzstan.'Based'on'the'fieldwork'data,'the'paper'will'ex)
plore'two'main'issues:'first,'the'importance'of'the'subjective'views'
of' children' in' understanding' what' the' concept' of' child' agency'
means'and'how'it'is'exerted'in'Kyrgyz'society;'and'second,'the'im)
portance'of'love'and'care'for'children’s'lives'and'the'effects'of'cul)
ture,' materiality' and' the' socio)economic' circumstances' in' which'
they' live.' This' study' raises' issues' central' to' the' consideration' of'
appropriate' policies' to' enable' children' to' lead' satisfying' lives' and'
contributes' to' the' quantity' and' quality' of' research' engaging' with'
children’s'subjective'views,'in'particular'about'child'agency.'
CHILDREN’S!AND!TEENAGERS’!SOCIAL!ROLES!IN!
FAMILIES!WITH!IMPRISONED!MOTHERS!
'1
'1
Dan'Octavian'Rusu ,'Andrea'Muller)Fabian ,'Maria'Roth
1'
1
FACULTY' OF' SOCIOLOGY' AND' SOCIAL' WORK,' BABES)BOLYAI'
'
UNIVERSITY,'Cluj)Napoca,'Romania
Abstract:'The'objective'of'our'research'is'to'highlight'the'practice'of'
children’s' rights' in' families' with' imprisoned' mothers,' and' the' dif)
ferences' between' them' and' children' with' parents' not' involved'
with' the' justice' system' in' respect' to' the' way' they' can' take' ad)
vantage' of' their' rights,' decision' making' in' social' problems,' and'
involvement'in'family'tasks,'as'well'as'the'involvement'in'religious'
organizations.'The'participation'of'children'in'social'life'depends'on'
their' family' situation' and' support.' Families' shape' the' moral' re)
sponsibilities' and' practical' duties' of' children,' according' to' their'
own'values'and'social'situation.'Involvement'of'children'in'religious'
organizations'can'also'depend,'among'other'factors,'on'the'needs'
of'children'and'on'the'response'of'religious'organizations'to'these'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
Methodology.' The' study' involved' 50' children' and' adolescent' with'
imprisoned' mothers' and' a' sample' of' 50' children' and' adolescents'
living'in'families'not'involved'with'justice.'As'instruments'we'used'a'
semi)structured'individual'interview.'The'objectives'are:'1.'to'eval)
uate'the'way'children'with'imprisoned'mothers'can'put'into'prac)
tice'their'rights'regarding'participation'in'social'life,'and'the'evalua)
tion'of'the'frequency'the'children'and'teenagers'participate'to'the'
family'decisions'about'the'main'tasks'and'problems'in'the'family;'2.'
the' evaluation' of' the' involvement' in' religious' organizations' and'
activities.'
Conclusions.' Our' results' highlight' differences' between' the' 2'
groups,'but'we'found'a'large'diversity'also'within'both'groups.'The'
absence'of'the'mothers'from'children’s'family'environment'impacts'
children’s' rights,' increasing' the' vulnerability' to' discrimination,' by'
the'risk'of'reducing'their'personal'networks,'pressuring'on'the'de)
velopment'of'autonomy'and'their'independence'in'decision'making'
and' involvement' in' religious' organizations' and' activities.' We'
demonstrate'that'the'absence'of'mothers'puts'a'high'pressure'on'
children’s'social'roles,'who'prematurely'overtake'adult'roles,'which'
are' experienced' as' heavy' burden' by' several' children.' Mothers’'
imprisonment' might' have' for' children' the' meaning' of' a' punish)
ment' that' frames' the' space' and' the' quality' of' their' children’s'
rights.'
AMBIVALENT!EXPERIENCES!IN!THE!PSYCHOSEXUAL!
DEVELOPMENT!OF!CHILDREN!FOR!PARENTS!AND!
PROFESSIONALS!CHILDREN’S!EXPERIENCES!WITH!
THEIR!BODILY!IMAGES!IN!THE!FAMILY!AND!EARLY!
CHILDCARE!INSTITUTIONS!
Inés'Brock
1'
1
MAGDEBURGER' AUSBILDUNGSINSTITUT' FÜR' PSYCHOTHERAPEU,'
UNIVERSITY' OF' APPLIED' SCIENCE' MAGDEBURG)STENDAL,' Hal)
'
le(Saale),'Germany
Abstract:' In' the' presentation' I' will' discuss' the' actual' status' of' my'
scientific'work'about'psychosexual'development'in'the'early'child)
hood.' The' sexual' education' in' the' family' and' in' early' childhood'
institutions' can' be' seen' as' occupated' by' ambivalent' emotions.'
Especially' in' the' first' years,' children' discover' their' bodies' in' an'
uncommitted'fashion.'Attention'to'children’s'bodies,'and'how'the)
se'function,'are'experienced'and'constructed'by'each'child'individ)
ually.'This'is'an'important'presupposition'in'understanding'children'
as' social' actors.' We' have' to' bear' in' mind' that' some' effects' are'
influenced' by' the' relationships' in' which' the' children' are' involved.'
Infants' and' very' young' children' are' reliant' on' the' habits' of' their'
parents,'the'behavior'of'their'peers'and'the'rules'of'professionals.'
My'theoretical'interest'concerns'the'social'practice'and'emotional'
circumstances'under'which'children’s'physical'personification'arise.'
The'body'and'childhood'can'be'comprehended'as'complex'entities'
in'which'a'mixture'of'cultural'and'natural'factors'influence'the'pos)
sibilities.'
A'child’s'body'is'seen'as'one'characterized'by'change'and'growth'–'
a' process' of' biological' and' emotional' development' dependent' on'
the' quality' and' behavior' of' closely' related' peers' and' adults.' Chil)
dren'experience'themselves'simultaneously'in'and'as'their'bodies.'
In' the' early' part' of' an' individual’s' life' course,' personal' and' social'
Abstract'Book'
91'
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relations'are'very'important'in'accepting'the'physical'changes'and'
in' finding' the' appropriate' balance' of' personal' well)being' and' the'
acceptance'of'social'norms.'
This'theory'is'based'on'childhood'sociology'and'emotional'sociolo)
gy,' keeping' in' mind' that' adjoining' disciplines' such' as' psychology'
and' anthropology' are' incorporated.' Children' are' limited' by' the'
conditions'of'their'social'lives,'but'also'find'ways'of'creatively'man)
aging,' negotiating' and' extending' their' possibilities.' The' paper' will'
introduce'the'implikations'of'the'development'of'sexual'identity'in'
the'family'and'early'child'education,'whilst'focusing'on'the'ambiva)
lent'aspects'these'processes.'The'pilot'study'with'expert'interviews'
has'been'finished'and'some'nonverbal'data'of'children’s'inner'no)
tions'were'collected.'Theoretical'approach'to'interpret'the'empiri)
cal'material'is'the'Grounded'Theory.'
Claudio'Baraldi ,'Federico'Farini
Nele'Van'Den'Cruyce
1'
VRIJE'UNIVERSITEIT'BRUSSEL,'Etterbeek,'Belgium
Scienze' del' linguaggio' e' della' cultura,' UNIVERSITÀ' DI' MODENA' E'
'
REGGIO'EMILIA,'Modena,'Italy
Abstract:' According' to' Giddens,' in' modern' societies' trust' can' be'
enhanced'in'two'ways:'a.'through'expertise'and'technological'sys)
tems,'b.'through'interpersonal'affective'relationships.'In'the'educa)
tion' system,' expertise' is' generally' considered' the' main' source' of'
trust'since'adults'are'hold'to'be'the'experts'(educators),'those'who'
must'be'trusted'for'their'knowledge'and'competence.'Recent'stud)
ies' in' sociology' of' childhood' suggest' that' expertise' can' become'
risky'for'children’s'trust'in'educational'activities'and'that'the'lack'of'
trust'may'cause'children’s'marginalization'and'self)marginalization.'
Therefore,' educators' should' facilitate' interpersonal' affective' rela)
tionships' with' children,' supporting' their' agency.' Following' these'
studies,'children'should'trust'primarily'adults'who'show'sensitivity'
towards' their' personal' expressions;' therefore,' it' seems' important'
to'understand'if'facilitation'of'personal'expressions'can'create'trust'
effectively.' This' can' be' understood' through' an' analysis' that' high)
lights'those'types'of'actions'that'can'promote'trust'in'a'way'which'
is'visible'in'communication'processes'involving'adults'and'children.'
This' presentation' analyses' interactions' that' are' taken' from' re)
search' on' activities' of' peace' education' in' international' groups' of'
adolescents' and' the' purpose' is' to' highlight' the' cues' for' the' social'
construction' of' trust' that' are' made' evident' in' the' organisation' of'
the'interaction.'
TRUST!RELATIONSHIPS!BETWEEN!CHILDREN,!YOUNG!
PEOPLE!AND!SOCIAL!WELFARE!PROFESSIONALS!
1
1'
social'sciences,'OPEN'UNIVERSITY,'Milton'Keynes,'United'Kingdom
1'
1
1
sharon'pinkney
The'paper'assesses'some'of'the'constraints'in'the'process'of'devel)
opment'of'trust'by'using'examples'from'social'policy'and'consulta)
tion'with'groups'of'children.'The'task'is'for'individual'professionals'
as'well'as'institutions'of'child'welfare'to'recognise'the'significance'
of' the' process' and' relations' of' trust' within' this' often' fraught' and'
contested'arena'of'social'welfare'work'with'children.'
CHILDHOOD!NORMS:!BALANCING!BETWEEN!
VULNERABLILITY!AND!SUCCESS!
TRUST!AND!FACILITATION!IN!ADULTGCHILDREN!
EDUCATIONAL!INTERACTIONS!
'1
The'importance'of'the'development'of'trust'is'evident'in'all'kinds'of'
professional' relationships' but' with' children' who' are' involved' with'
welfare'services'it'takes'on'an'elevated'level'of'significance.'These'
children'often'have'reasons'to'be'particularly'cautious'about'trust)
ing'adults'because'of'experiences'of'abuse'and'violations'of'trust.'
This' makes' it' particularly' important' that' professionals' have' the'
time'and'skills'to'build'and'develop'trust'with'them.'
'
Abstract:' This' paper' explores' the' dynamics' of' trust' between' chil)
dren' and' social' welfare' professionals.' Participation' and' children’s'
rights'literatures'tell'us'that'trust'takes'time'to'develop'between'a'
child' and' professional.' The' conditions' of' increased' managerialism'
and' administration' in' social' welfare' mean' that' time' is' a' scarce'
commodity'for'welfare'professionals'charged'with'advocating,'rep)
resenting' and' assessing' ‘the' best' interests’' of' children' and' young'
people.'
'
Abstract:' Childhood' is' part' of' social' life,' it' is' a' social' and' cultural'
concept.' Within' social' life,' believes' and' ideas' are' shaped' into'
norms.' In' Western' culture' many' forms' of' behavior' are' evaluated'
on'the'basis'of'these'norms'rather'than'on'the'direct'observation'
of'an'actual'fact.'Cultural'preferences'and'practices'are'the'basis'on'
which'one'elaborates'individual'and'collective'identities.'This'is'the'
same' with' children' and' child' behavior.' Ideas' about' what' a' child'
should'look'like'and'what'a'childhood'consists'of'are'part'of'socie)
tal' norms.' It' is' exactly' the' possibility' of' experiencing' childhoods'
different'to'these'norms'which'forms'the'basis'of'this'paper.'
The' main' focus' lies' on' contemporary' societal' representations' of'
childhood'and'on'how'Belgian'children'in'different'socio)economic'
and' cultural' positions' deal' with' these' childhood' norms.' Which'
norms' do' they' encounter' and' how' do' they' experience' them?' Do'
they'reflect'upon'social'norms'when'positioning'themselves'in'rela)
tion'to'other'children?'Which'information'sources'do'they'rely'on'
when' posistioning' themselves' and' others?' Do' children' experience'
different'socio)economical'or'cultural'status'positions'among'their'
peers'and'how'do'they'act'upon'these'differences?'To'what'extend'
do'children'consider'childhood'norms'and'their'positions'in'relation'
to'these'norms'to'be'determinants'of'their'future?'
Using'creative'methods'(cf'scrapbooks)'Belgian'children'are'actively'
involved'in'this'research'whereby'they'themselves'reflect'upon'the'
childhood' norms' which' they' experience' in' their' daily' lives,' and'
their'own'future'considering'their'position'related'to'these'norms.'
CHILDREN'S!TIME!AND!PARENTS'!CLOCK.!A!
SOCIOLOGICAL!LOOK!BEYOND!CHILDREN'S!BEDTIME!
Rosalina'Pisco'Costa
1'
1
Department'of'Sociology/School'of'Social'Sciences,'UNIVERSITY'OF'
'
ÉVORA,'Évora,'Portugal
Abstract:' Bedtime' is' socially' constructed' as' a' children’s' time.' As'
children'become'more'and'more'central'in'contemporary'families,'
bedtime'is'idealized'as'a'(the?)'moment'where,'in'a'kind'of'‘stop)
ping’'everyday'life,'parents'can'‘recover’'their'children'after'a'day'
where'they'stood'apart.'The'parent)child'relationship'can'then'be'
constructed'and'enhanced,'namely'by'means'of'providing'comfort,'
reliability' and' safety' messages.' But' bedtime' rituals' are' strongly'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
92'
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shaped' by' parents’' clock.' Participation' in' labor' market,' relations'
between'paid'and'unpaid'work,'including'gender'inequalities'inside'
family,'as'well'as'family'structure,'are'central'in'shaping'what'bed)
time'is,'beyond'what'it'should'be.'
In'this'paper'we'specifically'address'bedtime'rituals'for'young'chil)
dren'as'“family'rituals”'(Wolin'e'Bennett,'1984;'Imber)Black'&'Rob)
erts,'1992;'Gillis,'1996;'Pleck,'2000).'Methodological'anchored'up)
on' empirical' data' from' qualitative' in)depth' interviews' carried' out'
to'both'nuclear'and'single)parent'families,'this'paper'purpose'is'to'
discuss' bedtime' rituals' as' a' way' of' constructing' contemporary'
family.' Through' an' empiric' and' theoretical' analysis' of' collected'
data' we' hope' to' critically' highlight' the' sociological' knowledge' on'
relations' between' family,' time' and' children,' with' a' special' focus'
into'different'family'structures.'Sharing'of'space,'time'and'meaning'
are'strongly'valued'by'parents,'especially'in'single)parent'families,'
where'the'presence'of'only'one'adult'turns'this'seeming'common)
place'into'a'‘special’'moment'in'both'adults'and'children’s'everyday'
life.'
EDUCATIONAL!CHOICES!OF!THE!ÉLITES!
'1
Stefania'Fucci ,'Giulia'Maria'Cavaletto
1
1'
department'of'social'science,'UNIVERSITY'OF'TURIN,'Turin,'Italy
'
Abstract:'Inside'a'national'research'project,'a'study'focused'on'the'
educational' choices' for' children' 9' and' 12' years' old' (pupils' of' the'
fourth' class' of' primary' school' and' the' first' class' of' middle' lower'
school)'of'the'élites'(upper'classes)'in'the'Turintown'had'been'real)
ised.'The'school'observed'is'equipped'of'some'characteristics:'high'
level'courses,'extracurricular'activities'(sports,'music,'chess),'disci)
plines' in' foreign' languages.' A' school' attending' by' working' class'
families'formed'the'control'group.'
The'theoretical'framework'of'sociology'of'childhood'(James,'Jenks,'
Prout,' 1998;' Qvortrup,' 2004;' Alanen,' Mayall,' 2001;' Hengst,' H.,'
Zeiher' H.,' 2004)' was' connected' to' the' topic' of' the' educational'
practices' of' the' families' according' to' the' social' class' (Kellerhals'
J.M.,'Montandon'C.,'1991;'Kellerhals'J.M.,'Montandon'C.,'Ritschard'
G.,'Sardi'Mr.,'1992,'C.'Perregaux,'2002;'P.'Deubel,'J.')'M.'Huart,'Mr.'
Montoussé,' 2007).' The' research' question' was' articulated' in' two'
analytical' axes.' The' first' one' inquired' the' relations' between' par)
ents'and'children,'with'special'attention'at'school'performance,'the'
saturation'of'time'with'additional'formative'activities,'and'the'role'
of'the'peers'groups'for'social'capital.'The'second'one'explored'the'
relationship'between'school'and'family,'observing'alliances'or'con)
trasts' in' the' educational' methods' and' practices' and' the' rules' sys)
tem.'
The' aim' of' the' research' is' the' the' reconstruction' of' meanings' of'
educational' practices' adopted' by' parents,' involved' in' an' educa)
tional'project'which'produces/a/child'in'which'you'can'already'see'
the'adult'of'the'future.'
The' school' choices' of' excellence' can' be' interpreted' like' status'
maintenance'and'distinction'practices'in'order'to'offer'to'children'
educational'and'professional'chances'over'the'average'of'the'chil)
dren'of'the'same'age,'attending'other'schools.'
Interviews'with'parents'and'children'(20'upper'class'and'20'work)
ing'class'families'involved),'and'focus'groups'with'teachers'(4)'are'
realised,' and' then' analysed' through' analytical' dimensions' and' Al)
ceste'software.'In'particular,'different'dimensions'emerge'from'the'
analysis'such'as'parenting'models'(permissive,'negotiating,'authori)
tarian),' positions' with' respect' to' extracurricular' activities' (perfec)
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
tionism/experimentation),' socialization' to' parent' expectations'
towards'the'social'evaluation'of'school'and'peers'context.'
EVERYDAY!ANTISOCIAL:!CHILDREN'S!EXPERIENCES!OF!
ANTISOCIAL!BEHAVIOUR!
Emma'Clare'Davidson
1'
1
Centre'for'Research'on'Families'and'Relationships,'UNIVERSITY'OF'
'
EDINBURGH,'Edinburgh,'United'Kingdom
Abstract:' Over' the' last' two' decades,' UK' governments' have' given'
attention' to' antisocial' behaviour' (ASB)' as' a' contemporary' social'
problem.' Children' have' been' a' particular' focus' of' this' discourse.'
While'‘youth’'are'symbolic'of'a'declining'social'order,'children'are'
innocent'victims.'
This' paper' argues' that' this' dual' conceptualisation' of' children' –' as'
victims'or/perpetrators'–'fails'to'take'account'of'the'social'context'
in'which'ASB'takes'place.'Using'data'from'an'ethnography'of'chil)
dren’s'spaces'in'a'Scottish'housing'estate,'it'is'suggested'that'chil)
dren’s'everyday'experiences'of'ASB,'and'policies'designed'to'tackle'
the'problem,'are'mismatched.'
The'study'found'that'for'children'growing'up'in'a'‘poor’'place,'ASB'
is' a' daily,' and' often' unexceptional,' occurrence.' Normalised' within'
their'surroundings,'‘antisocial’'becomes'an'established'part'of'chil)
dren’s'walks'to'school,'friendships,'leisure'activities'and'family'life.'
Children’s'experiences'of'ASB,'as'a'victim,'perpetrator'or'observer,'
is'thus'rationalised'as'part'of'everyday'life.'
The'paper'concludes'by'stating'that'while'social'policies'define'ASB'
as'a'collective'concern,'solutions'are'individualistic.'There'is'a'need'
to' move' to' a' relational' approach' to' tackling' ASB,' which' connects'
the'problem'to'the'social'spaces'where'it'occurs.'
WHEN!THERE!IS!LITTLE!KNOWN!ABOUT!THE!RULES!
AND!RIGHTS:!YOUTH!RESEARCH!IN!THE!CZECH!
REPUBLIC!
'1
'1
Michaela'Bartosova ,'Beatrice'Elena'Chromková'Manea ,'Beatrice'
1'
Elena'Chromková'Manea
1
IVRIS,' FACULTY' OF' SOCIAL' STUDIES,' MASARYK' UNIVERSITY,' Brno,'
'
Czech'Republic
Abstract:'The'position'of'children'as'independent'actors'and'there)
fore' individually' conscious' research' subjects' and' co)researchers' is'
more' and' more' acknowledged' by' the' research' practice.' Scholars'
point' out' that' younger' members' of' society' are' not' exempt' from'
the' general' requirement' of' post)modern' discourse' for' individual'
reflection' on' their' own' biography' (Moxnes' 2003,' Greene,' Hogan'
2005,'James'et'al.'1999).'Simultaneously,'it'is'necessary'to'protect'
their'rights'as'they'are'still'minors.'
Researchers' who' conduct' research' with' children' must' negotiate'
with'parents'or'teachers.'At'the'same'time,'they'must'not'neglect'
the' real' subjects' of' the' research' –' children.' Mostly' the' teenagers'
have'a'certain'degree'of'independence'(from'parents)'and'life'ex)
perience,'and'the'approval'of'a'parent'or'teacher'for'the'research'
to'take'place'does'not'necessarily'mean'that'the'adolescent'agrees'
with'participating'in'the'research.'
In' the' Czech' context,' there' are' no' official' ethical' rules' or' recom)
mendations'for'conducting'research'with'children'and'adolescents,'
a' fact' associated' with' the' lack' of' recognition' and' enforcement' of'
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rights' for' children' and' adolescents' in' general.' Researchers' must'
individually' find' their' way' and' the' rules' for' conducting' a' research'
that' meets' certain' ethical' requirements.' Their' position' is' compli)
cated'by'the'tradition'of'authoritarian'approach'of'institutions'and'
parents'towards'children'and'teenagers,'who'are'primarily'seen'as'
inferior,' subordinated' subjects' without' own' opinion.' The' effort' to'
work'with'juveniles'as'independent'subjects'in'the'research,'while'
protecting' their' rights,' can' obscure' the' negotiations' with' the' key'
actors.'
In'our'paper,'we'intend'to'tackle'the'issue'of'research'experience'
based'on'our'own'experience'in'conducting'research'with'children'
of'two'age'groups'(8–10,'12)14'years)'in'the'sociology'of'family'and'
the'experience'of'other'scholars'from'various'disciplines.'We'want'
to'find'out'what'importance'is'assigned'by'each'researcher'to'ethi)
cal'values'in'such'a'research'and'which'common'ethical'principles'
researchers'agree'with.'We'want'to'understand'how'they'defined'
the'most'fundamental'barriers'to'ethical'research'with'children'in'
the'Czech'Republic'and'how'they'dealt'with'them'in'their'research.'
AGING!OUT!AS!SEPARATED!MINORS!IN!
SWITZERLAND:!PERSPECTIVES!OF!A!TRANSITION!
Manuela'Scelsi
1'
1
Unité' de' recherche' en' droits' de' l'enfant,' INSTITUT' UNIV.' KURT'
'
BOSCH/UNIV.'DE'FRIBOURG,'Montreux,'Switzerland
Abstract:'Due'to'increasing'migration'flows,'separated'minors'(SM),'
which'are'considered'a'particular'vulnerable'minority'group'among'
migrants,' have' become' a' permanent' reality' in' most' European'
countries.' The' presence' of' SM' in' Switzerland' poses' several' chal)
lenges' not' only' for' the' receiving' population' and' institutions,' but'
also'for'the'young'people'themselves.'Our'research'aims'to'better'
understand' the' transition' period' for' SM' from' childhood' to' adult)
hood,'phrased'as'‘aging'out’,'whereby'young'people'leave'a'struc)
ture'of'formal'care'because'they'have'reached'the'upper'age'limit.'
The'transition'to'legal'majority'not'only'forces'SM'to'leave'institu)
tional'and'welfare'structures'that'provided'special'support'but'also'
takes' away' special' protection' rights' contained' in' the' CRC;' neither'
do'they'obtain,'in'most'cases,'a'valid'residence'permit.'
The' proposed' paper/poster' will' explore' how' separated' minors' in'
Switzerland'manage'to'face'new'situations'and'challenges'linked'to'
their' recently' acquired' legal' status' (majority)' in' the' absence' of'
institutional' networks' that' previously' supported' them.' What' re)
sources' do' they' use?' Besides' presenting' the' initial' findings' of' our'
qualitative'study'into'the'ageing'out'of'SM,'we'will'also'discuss'the'
significance' of' visual' research' methods' and' field' interviews' for'
obtaining'our'results.'
CHILDREN!IN!TEMPORARY!INSTITUTIONAL!CARE.!A!
LOOK!INTO!THE!DECISION!MAKING!PROCESS.!
Clara'F.'M.'Oliveira
1
1'
CIES/'ISCTE)IUL,'Lisbon,'Portugal
example,'promoting'adoption'or'improving'the'quality'of'the'social'
work' amongst' the' families' of' origin.' Still,' many' of' these' children'
linger' in' an' institutional' environment,' many' of' them' transitioning'
from'year'to'year'and'some'of'them'without'certainties'about'their'
future.' What' are' the' reasons' for' this' to' happen?' With' our' PhD'
research,'supervised'by'Prof.'Anália'Cardoso'Torres,'we'propose'to'
find'explanations'amongst'the'adults'who'are'in'charge'of'deciding,'
from'families'of'origin'who'are'primary'decision'makers'on'the'lives'
of'children,'to'judges,'ultimate'decision'makers,'and'also'with'the'
technical'staff'of'temporary'placement'facilities.'In'the'present'text'
we'take'a'look'at'a'first'stage'of'the'research,'in'which'we'intend'to'
study'the'situation'of'children'at'risk'within'the'context'of'a'tempo)
rary' placement' facility' (Centro/ de/ acolhimento/ temporário/ –/ CAT).'
This'kind'of'institution'represents'the'first'moment'where'the'state'
substitutes'the'parents'in'deciding'what'the'child´s'best'interest'is.'
By' analyzing' the' documents' underlying' the' decision,' we' want' to'
comprehend' the' paths' of' these' children' and' young' people' in' a'
route' marked' by' legal' and' formal' instances,' mandatory' and' time'
consuming.' Our' main' goal' is' to' understand' what' reasons' led' the'
families'of'origin'to'have'a'child'removed,'how'long'were'the'chil)
dren' institutionalized' until' a' decision' was' made' and' what' were'
those'decisions.'Thus,'this'text'gives'an'account'of'the'results'of'the'
first'data'collected'in'a'Portuguese'CAT,'based'on'the'documental'
study'of'171'individual'files'of'children'who'entered'the'institution,'
from'1996'to'2009,'its'analysis'and'a'few'preliminary'conclusions.'
Amongst'other'findings,'we'showthat'many'children'remain'institu)
tionalized'for'periods'of'time'superior'to'one'year,'well'beyond'the'
scope' of' the' temporary' character' of' the' facility;' and' that' half' the'
children,' independent' of' the' reason' of' removal' from' their' family,'
went'back'either'to'the'family'of'origin'or'the'care'of'another'fami)
ly'member.'
THE!VIOLENCE!OF!PUPILS!IN!SCHOOLS!AND!THE!
EMERGENCY!OF!A!SOCIAL!REGULATION!PLAN:!THE!
CASE!OF!GENEVA!
'1
'2
Arnaud'Frauenfelder ,'Geneviève'Mottet '
1
Haute' école' de' travail' social,' Genève,' UNIVERSITY' OF' APPLIED'
2
SCIENCES' WESTERN' SWITZERLAND,' Faculté' des' sciences' de' l'édu)
'
cation,'Université'de'Genève,'Genève,'Switzerland
Abstract:' How,' during' the' last' two' decades,' has' the' violence' of'
pupils'in'school'become'a'public'issue'in'Geneva?'This'contribution'
aims'at'describing'the'main'stages'of'such'a'construction.'For'this'
purpose,'a'documentary'analysis'of'various'sources'(parliamentary'
debates,' print' media' articles,' scientific' reports,' institutional' dis)
courses,'and'intervention'protocols)'has'been'conducted.'Whereas'
the'existence'of'“youth'violence”'has'been'debated'since'the'early'
1990’s,' we' will' see' how' this' question' led' gradually' to' a' certain'
moral'and'political'consensus.'We'will'also'see'that'the'suspicion'of'
youth' dangerousness' has' been' emphasized' to' a' level' of' risk' by'
school'policies.'In'a'context'that'denies'the'social'matter,'it'is'nec)
essary'to'know'and'to'regulate'such'a'risk.'
'
Abstract:'According'to'Portuguese'official'records,'there'are'about'
ninety' thousand' children' who' are' considered' to' be' at' risk' every'
year.' Also' yearly,' the' number' of' children' who' are' currently' not'
living'with'their'family'of'origin'due'to'child'services'intervention'is'
about'ten'thousand.'Thesenumbers'are'considered'too'high'by'the'
authorities,' who' have' implemented' measures' to' reduce' it' by,' for'
ROAMING!SAN!SALVADOR.!CAUSES!AND!EFFECTS!OF!
THE!PHENOMENON!OF!STREET!CHILDREN!IN!CENTRAL!
AMERICA!
Raúl'Ruiz)Callado
'1,'2*
'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
94'
Abstract'Book'
1
2
Sociología' I,' University' of' Alicante,' Alicante,' Spain,' Chaire' de' re)
cherche'en'immigration,'ethnicité'et'citoyenneté'(CRIEC),'Universi)
'
té'du'Québec'à'Montréal'(UQÀM),'Montréal,'Canada
Abstract:' The' paper' presented' here' is' the' result' of' the'
BEST/2010/075/ research' project' carried' out' at' the' Latin' American'
Faculty'of'Social'Sciences)El'Salvador'Programme,'funded'by'means'
of' a' public' call' by' the' Regional' Government' of' Valencia' (Spain)'
during'the'months'of'July,'August'and'September,'2010.'
It' involves' a' detailed' analysis,' which' is' not' merely' descriptive,' of'
the'theoretical'approaches'to'knowledge'of'the'variables'explaining'
the'processes'by'which'too'many'Central'American'minors'come'to'
join' the' group' of' homeless' street' children.' It' makes' a' diagnosis'
which'compares'Central'America)European'Union)North'America'in'
order'to'understand'and'contextualise'strategic'actions'as'regards'
policies' for' the' integration' of' children.' Furthermore,' the' develop)
ment'of'the'concept'of'the'family'within'the'Central'American'con)
text'has'been'studied,'analysing'local,'regional'and'state'policies'for'
the'social'inclusion'and'integration'of'minors'at'risk'of'social'exclu)
sion.' It' also' identifies' the' social' changes' that' link' citizens,' group'
identity'and'social'integration'with'the'exclusion'of'young'people'in'
migrant' societies,' specifically' in' El' Salvador,' keeping' in' mind' the'
comparative' viewpoint' with' respect' to' Europe' and,' specifically,'
Spain.'
This' research' project' involves' the' analysis' of' street' children' as' a'
social' phenomenon,' that' is' to' say,' with' social' causes' and' conse)
quences,'based'on'some'of'the'most'important'sociological'expla)
nations'regarding'deviance,'starting'from'the'idea'that'not'all'street'
children'show'deviant'behaviour.'The'interpretations'of'social'devi)
ance' by' the' modern' sociological' theories' essentially,' with' some'
exceptions,'deal'with'seeking'the'causes,'the'aetiology,'of'deviant'
behaviour' (Aptekar,' 1988).' What' are' the' precipitating' factors' that'
cause'adolescents'to'leave'their'homes'and'stay'a'number'of'days'
away'from'their'families,'spending'time'on'activities'that'are'mar)
ginal'or'which'are'not'characteristic'of'that'age)group?'What'is'the'
cause' of' their' behaviour?' These' are' some' of' the' questions' that,'
based' on' qualitative' and' quantitative' sociological' research' carried'
out'in'Central'America'in'recent'months,'are'answered'here.'
SCHOOL!BULLYING!AND!OTHER!VIOLENCE:!TRAPS!OF!
THE!CURRICULUM!MODEL!CONTRARY!TO!THE!"BODY!
OF!CHILDHOOD"!
'1
Rosana'Coronetti'Farenzena ,'Maria'Beatriz'Pereira
1
1'
Instituto'de'Educação,'UNIVERSIDADE'DO'MINHO,'Braga,'Portugal
'
Abstract:' The' universalisation' of' children´s' formal' education' is' an'
unchallenged' societal' advance.' It' guarantees' the' right' of' active'
citizenship' to' a' non' dominant' generation' in' areas' of' participation'
and' power.' However,' the' massive' and' early' influx' of' children' in'
schools' can' contain' paradixical' functions,' if' not' considered' the'
specific'features'of'this'generation'group'and'the'increasing'differ)
entiation'of'the'curriculum'subjects.'The'playful'body'language'of'a'
child' still' raises' eyebrows' considering' the' current' model' of' school'
organization.'Little)known'processes'derive'from'the'body'jettison'
and'its'various'manifestations'in'the'schooling'of'children.'The'play)
ing'has'a'structuring'function,'which'extends'beyond'childhood.'It'
must'be'regarded,'from'the'public'policies'to'the'educational'prac)
tices,' in' all' dimensions' that' it' can' involve.' The' appropriate' play'
culture,'produced'by'children'in'the'formal'education'process,'de)
terminant'patterns'of'the'interactions'within'and'between'genera)
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
tions' emerge.' The' violence' made' present' in' this' territory,' and'
therefore'bullying,'found'in'almost'all'contexts'where'it'is'searched,'
is'linked'to'this'model'of'social'coexistence,'which'must'be'under)
stood.'The'school's'educational'project'needs'this'understanding'of'
children'so'that'it'can'follow'the'perspective'of'a'single'and'decon)
textualized' curriculum.' It' might' be' different,' but' it' has' not' been'
this' way.' It' is' important' to' recognize' that' it' is' possible,' from' and'
through'school'to'give'childhood'back'to'every'child.'
Keywords:' childhood' )' school' )' curriculum' model' )' play' culture' )'
violence')'social'coexistence'
CHILDREN`S!FATE.!THE!WELLGBEING!OF!INMATE!
MOTHERS!AND!THEIR!CHILDREN!
'1
Andrea'Müller)Fabian ,'Dan'Rusu
1'
1
Sociology' and' Social' Work,' BABEŞ)BOLYAI' UNIVERSITY,' Cluj)
'
Napoca,'Romania
Abstract:'The'phenomenon'of'imprisonment'implies'more'than'just'
the' prison' (institution).' It' includes' the' effects' of' imprisonment' on'
society'and'society’s'interpretation'about'prisons,'the'way'in'which'
criminals'think'about'prisons,'their'role'and'effect.'Women'offend)
ers'and'their'children'represent'a'severely'disadvantaged'and'mar)
ginalized'population.'
Based' on' these' general' considerations,' the' present' study' takes' as'
object'of'analysis'the'well)being'of'inmate'mothers'and'their'chil)
dren.'
Based' on' the' results' of' our' empirical' researches,' we' have' ap)
proached' the' problem' from' two' points' of' view:' on' the' one' hand,'
from'the'point'of'view'of'inmate'mothers'(based'on'the'results'of'
semi)structured' individual' interviews' made' with' a' sample' of' 120'
persons,'as'well'as'standardized'questionnaire),'on'the'other'hand'
from' the' point' of' view' of' children,' which' was' revealed' during' a'
group'activity'with'50'children.'
The' definite' conclusion' of' the' research' is' that' we' cannot' speak'
about'a'“protected'age”'regarding'this'loss,'because'children'are'in'
all' cases' negatively' affected' –' irrespective' of' their' age' –' by' the'
imprisonment' of' their' mother,' which' is' leading' to' a' situation' in'
which'children'are'partially'or'fully'losing'their'parent.'However,'in'
most'cases'the'loss'is'not'an'individual'one,'but'a'series'of'losses:'
father'is'backing'out'of'child'rearing,'as'well,'because'is'imprisoned'
together' with' the' mother' or' is' simply' not' undertaking' the' role,'
entrusting' the' child' to' a' member' of' the' wider' family' (mostly'
grandparents)' or' various' institutions,' while' himself' is' founding' a'
new'family.'The'breakup'of'the'family'is'not'meaning'only'a'change'
of' the' structure,' but' is' leading' to' several' psychosocial' modifica)
tions.' These' modifications' eventuating' on' multiple' levels' is' gener)
ating'for'most'children'the'vulnerability'inherited'through'genera)
tions.'This'vulnerability'can'provoke'different'types'of'deviancies'or'
eventually'delinquency.'
OUTCOMES!OF!TAKING!CHILDREN!INTO!CARE!
Heidi'Pohjanpalo
1'
1
Department'of'Social'Sciences,'UNIVERSITY'OF'EASTERN'FINLAND,'
'
KUOPIO,'Finland
Abstract:' The' main' objective' of' my' research' is' to' analyse' and' ex)
plain'whether'we'get'all'those'good'things'that'we'aim'to,'when'we'
take'children'into'society’s'care.'Other'objectives'are,'what'kind'of'
Abstract'Book'
95'
'
outcomes'are'attained'by'child'protection'measures'with'used're)
sources,'what'are'the'child'protection'processes'like,'which'factors'
affect' success' and' what' are' the' preconditions' for' effective' place)
ments.'The'research'emphasizes'the'child’s'perspective.'A'random'
sample'of'40'cases'(and'additional'4'pairs'of'twins)'of'261'children'
in'all'taken'into'care'in'1990)1998'in'a'Finnish'town'are'going'to'be'
examined.' Child' protection' processes,' the' course' of' life' from' the'
beginning'of'the'custom'in'child'welfare'till'the'time'of'the'research'
and' outcome' of' taking' the' child' into' care' are' studied' from' docu)
ments'as'a'doctoral'thesis.'The'data'collection'from'the'documents'
(social'workers’'journals,'final'acts'and'different'kind'of'resolutions,'
letters,' etc.)' is' now' completed.' The' collected' data' is' going' to' be'
analyzed'by'e.g.'qualitative'and'quantitative'content'analysis.'Doc)
toral'thesis'will'be'a'beginning'of'a'follow)up'study'as'a'post'doc'–
research'made'by'e.g.'interviews'and'Critical'Incident'Technique.'
CHILDREN'S!RIGHTS!AND!PARENTAL!RIGHTS!
Marta'Almeida'Carreira
1'
1
CIES')'IUL,'ISCTE)'UNIVERSITY'INSTITUTE'OF'LISBON,'Lisboa,'Portu)
'
gal
Abstract:'The'rights'of'children'are'now'in'the'spotlight'of'adults.'In'
a'world'designed'by'and'for'adults,'in'recent'years'alert'voices'for'
the' need' to' respect' and' guarantee' the' children’s' rights' began' to'
emerge.'Yet,'every'day'we'hear'about'situations'disregarding'those'
rights,'both'inside'and'outside'the'family.'
After'presenting'a'new'perspective'on'childhood,'brought'by'Soci)
ology,'we'focus'on'the'rising'of'children’s'rights'and'in'the'constitu)
tion'of'the'child'protection'system'in'Portugal,'especially'the'Com)
missions'for'Protection'of'Children'and'Youth'(CPCY).'
Let’s'look'at'the'speeches'of'those'children’s'parents'whose'rights'
have' been' challenged' on' the' needs' and' rights' of' children,' about'
the'importance'of'the'CPCY'and'how'they'evaluate'the'contribution'
of' this' institution' in' their' family,' trying' to' discern' whether' chil)
dren’s'rights'and'parent’s'rights'collide'or'coincide.'
DYNAMICS!OF!REPRODUCTION!OF!TRADITIONAL!AND!
DISSEMINATION!OF!INNOVATIVE!PRACTICES!OF!
CHILDREN'S!READING!
Elena'Kolosova
1'
1
Sociological' department,' RUSSIAN' STATE' UNIVERSITY' FOR' THE'
'
HUMANITIES,'Moscow,'Russian'Federation
Abstract:'Kolosova'E.'
Dynamics'of'reproduction'of'traditional'and'dissemination'of'inno)
vative'practices'of'children's'reading'
Children’s'reading'in'the'past'was'one'of'the'most'important'chan)
nels' of' education' of' morality,' inculcating' values' of' patriotism' and'
internationalism' to' the' younger' generation.' Nowadays' there' is' a'
serious'evolution'of'the'content'of'literature'for'children,'and'also'
of'the'actual'practices'of'reading.'
All)Russia' research' “Young' Reader' 2010”' was' carried' out' at' the'
beginning' of' 2010' year,' which' was' attended' by' 1100' primary'
school'children'aged'7)11'years'from'eight'federal'districts.'
The'major'goal'was'to'identify'the'genre'and'thematic'preferences'
of' contemporary' Russian' readers,' pupil’s' involvement' in' the' pro)
cess' of' "reading' for' the' soul",' the' consideration' of' channels' and'
ways' to' get' information' about' books' for' modern' children' and' to'
outline'the'dynamics'of'innovation'practices'of'reading'(in'this'case'
among' children),' such' as' reading' online,' reading' from' the' screen,'
reading'from'the'special'devices'and'so'on.'
The'study'gave'some'insight'into'what'today'is'children’s'reading,'
whether' it' is' a' school' program' or' for' pleasure,' whether' today's'
children' are' recording' their' thoughts' about' books' they’ve' read,'
how'well'they'know'the'preferences'of'their'parents'in'childhood.'
So,'the'conflict'of'modern'children'with'the'book'culture,'of'course,'
in' no' small' measure' due' to' the' abrupt' change' in' civilization' and'
technological' conditions' of' their' lives.' However,' a' considerable'
burden'lies'with'the'society'in'which'the'child'is'brought'up.'Grad)
ual' but' steady' destruction' of' the' social' environment' that' encour)
ages' reading,' predetermined' mass' rejection' of' books' and' reading'
in' the' generation' of' the' twenty)first' century.' But' the' dynamics' of'
reproduction' of' traditional' practices' suggests' that' the' situation' is'
not' critical' (at' least' for' primary' school' age),' and' use' of' new' tech)
nologies' designed' to' quickly' improve,' supplement' and' to' some'
extent,'facilitate'the'process'of'reading,'but'not'replace'it'for'enter)
tainment'in'its'purest'form.'
FREE!TIME!AS!A!TIME!OF!SOCIAL!LEARNING!FOR!
CHILDREN!
Lourdes'Gaitán
1'
1
GSIA' (SOCIOLOGY' OF' CHILDHOOD' WORKING' GROUP),' NATIONAL'
ASSOCIATION'OF'SOCIOLOGY'AND'POLITICAL'SC,'Las'Rozas'de'Ma)
'
drid'(Madrid),'Spain
Abstract:' The' coexistence' of' "modern"' and' "postmodern"' models'
in'the'understanding'of'childhood'produce'contradictions'in'peda)
gogical'discourse'on'children.'On'one'hand'the'emphasis'on'prepar)
ing'them'for'the'future'leads'to'the'strengthening'of'conventional'
formulas'of'protection'and'control.'On'the'other'hand,'recognition'
of' children's' right' to' autonomy,' to' "agency",' comes' to' consider'
them'responsible'for'their'own'learning'and'their'use'of'time'and'
space.' Children' are' no' longer' "objects"' of' protection' to' be' recog)
nized'as'"subjects"'with'capacities.'
Currently,'new'informal'learning'environments'are'competing'with'
the'school'in'time'spent'and'value'conceded'by'children.'The'terms'
"learning"' and' "education"' have' been' expanded' to' include' new'
forms' of' knowledge' acquisition.' Learning' can' take' place' almost'
anywhere'and'in'connection'with'very'different'kinds'of'activities.'
Furthermore'it'is'something'that'we'all'engage,'regardless'of'age,'
which'"education"'no'longer'seen'as'an'exclusive'field'for'children.'
Be' involved' in' this' common' process' of' continuous' learning,' modi)
fies'intergenerational'relationships.'
We' present' the' results' of' a' study' conducted' in' the' region' of' Ma)
drid'with'the'objective'of'knowing:'the'concept'that'children'have'
the'free'time,'how'they'use'and'who'decides'what'is'done.'
GENERATIONAL!PORTRAIT!AS!A!METHOD!OF!
STUDYING!OF!THE!CHILDHOOD!
Pavel'Makeev
1'
1
Department' of' sociology,' RUSSIAN' STATE' SOCIAL' UNIVERSITY,'
'
Moscow,'Russian'Federation
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
96'
Abstract'Book'
Abstract:' The' interrelation' of' generations' passes' stages' from' an'
inequality,'the'representative'form'(an'imperious'vertical'of'gener)
ations)')'to'an'equal'dialogue'in'rights'as'the'higher'form,'peculiar'
to'characteristic'of'a'society'of'the'XXI)st'century.'
support,' company' or' comfort,' for' example' in' conflicts' with' other'
children'in'the'park,'the'children'create'momentarily'a'family'space'
inside' the' park,' which' they' can' use' as' a' means' of' extending' their'
own'activity'space.'
We' determine' intergenerational' dialogue' as' a' process' of' interac)
tion'equal'in'rights'between'representatives'of'two'or'more'gener)
ational' groups,' directed' on' transfer,' critical' comprehension' and'
reproduction'of'social'experience,'on'its'development'and'modern)
ization.'Thus'the'rising'generation'is'the'occurrence'accelerator'in'
life' of' new' information' technologies,' that' is' why' as' a' whole' new'
technological'and'culturological'processes'because'it'comes'under'
influence'of'inertness'of'former'forms'less.'
Theoretically'the'paper'draws'on'mobile'sociology'(John'Urry)'and'
the' anthropology' of' place' (Doreen' Massey).' The' data' consist' of'
ethnographic'observation'and'interviews.'
The' second' aspect' of' intergenerational' interaction' is' connected'
with' influence' of' generational' features' of' the' childhood' and' a'
youth' on' the' further' course' of' life' at' transition' from' one' stage' to'
another.'
At'the'approach'to'rising'generation'as'to'the'subject'of'intergen)
erational'dialogue'equal'in'rights'it'needs'a'proper'studying'of'it,'on'
the'one'hand,'as'an'integrity,'and'on'the'other'hand')'as'variabili)
ties' of' courses' of' life' of' representatives' of' one' generation' (biog)
raphyzation'generations).'
For'structurization,'the'description,'forecasting'of'rising'generation'
we'together'with'the'philosopher'and'psychologist'S.Tsymbalenko'
develop'a'model'of'"a'generational'portrait"'which'includes'statis)
tical' (quantitative)' characteristics' of' generation' and' individually)
biographic' (qualitative)' characteristics.' The' model' represents' the'
structural' layers' considering' age' and' generational' features,' vital'
biographies' which' can' be' studied' in' their' dynamics' by' means' of'
target' groups.' Inclusion' of' children' and' youth' in' the' self)studying'
mechanism.' Model' generational' portrait' will' allow' interpretations'
that' are' important' for' assessing' the' qualitative' features' of' the'
younger' generation,' analysis' of' social' problems' through' theprism'
of'generational'portrait'forecast'the'influence'of'generational'spec)
ificity'in'the'development'of'society.'
MOBILITY!AND!MOBILE!COMMUNICATION!IN!THE!
MAKING!OF!PLACE!
Harriet'Anita'Strandell
1'
1
Department' of' Social' Research,' UNIVERSITY' OF' HELSINKI,' 00014'
'
Helsinki,'Finland
Abstract:'Children’s'play'parks'have'emerged'as'an'important'insti)
tution' supplying' after)school' care' and' activities' for' 7)9' year' old'
children'in'the'Helsinki'region,'Finland.'The'play'park'is'in'the'paper'
analyzed'from'a'spatial'perspective.'Conceiving'of'childhood'places'
as' “islands”' clearly' bounded,' spatially' separated' from' the' rest' of'
society'and'surrounded'by'ideologies'of'protection'has'been'in'the'
core' of' modern' childhood.' The' social' geography' of' play' parks,'
however,'is'different.'It'is'characterized'by'openness,'mobility,'both'
internally'and'across'its'borders,'and'by'the'frequent'use'of'mobile'
phones'in'the'organizing'of'children’s'times'and'spaces'across'bor)
ders.'
The' children’s' and' the' leaders’' recurrent' mobile' communication'
with'parents'and'other'instances'and'places'involved'in'the'organiz)
ing' of' children’s' after)school' time,' such' as' hobby' clubs,' is' in' the'
paper'conceptualized'as'a'fundamental'spatial'quality'of'the'park.'
Mobile'communication'is'used'by'children,'parents'and'leaders'for'
coordinating'children’s'leaving'for'home'or'other'engagements.'By'
contacting'their'parents'by'phone'in'situations'in'which'they'need'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
'
THE!“RELATIONAL!TURN”!IN!SOCIAL!SCIENCES!AND!
THE!DIFFERENCE!IT!MAKES!TO!THE!SOCIOLOGY!OF!
CHILDHOOD!
Leena'Alanen
1'
1
Department' of' Education,' UNIVERSITY' OF' JYVÄSKYLÄ,' Jyväskylä,'
'
Finland
Abstract:' The' “long' march' of' relational' sociology”' (Vautier' 2008)'
started' with' Weber,' Durkheim' and' Simmel;' they' all' were' partici)
pants'in'the'debate'on'where'sociology'should'start:'from'individu)
als'in'order'to'understand'the'social'structure,'or'from'structures'in'
order' to' understand' individuals’' logic' of' action.' The' debate' has'
stayed'on,'also'in'the'sociology'of'childhood'(cf.'micro)'vs.'macro)
sociologies;'interactionist'vs.'structural'paradigms).'
Simmel'was'the'first'to'propose'a'relational'solution'to'the'(onto)
logical)' problem.' Since' then' the' march' of' relational' sociology' has'
not' been' too' vigorous' –' until' the' last' 2)3' decades.' While' Pierre'
Bourdieu' was' developing' his' theory' of' practice' )' undoubtedly' the'
best)known'relational'sociology'today'–'also'several'other'relation)
al'‘schools’'have'been'building'up:'a'“relational'turn”'is'taking'place'
across'social'sciences.'
The' core' idea' in' relational' thinking' is' that' “in' the' beginning' is' the'
relation”' (Bachelard),' and' therefore' discrete,' pregiven' units' (such'
as'the'individual'or'society)'cannot'be'posited'as'ultimate'starting'
points'of'sociological'analysis;'instead,'attention'needs'to'be'shift)
ed'towards'relational'structures'and'processes.'
The'paper'will'present'a'range'of'relational'approaches'and'discuss'
their'benefits'for'theoretically'and'conceptually'advancing'the'soci)
ology'of'childhood.'
CONCEPTUAL,!METHODOLOGICAL!AND!ETHICAL!
ISSUES!IN!CHILDREN’S!RESEARCH!IN!PORTUGAL!
'1
'2*
Catarina'Tomás ,'Natália'Fernandes '
1
Escola' Superior' de' Educação' de' Lisboa,' Instituto' Politécnico' de'
2
Lisboa,' Lisboa,' Instituto' de' Educação,' Universidade' do' Minho,'
'
Braga,'Portugal
Abstract:' Methodological' issues' in' research' with' children' have'
sparked'a'growing'interest'by'the'Sociology'of'Childhood'since'the'
last'decades.'In'Portugal,'this'interest'is'more'recent,'but'it'has'had'
a'significant'increase.'
Considering' several' researches,' namely' master' thesis,' oriented' by'
the'authors'on'the'framework'of'Sociology'of'Childhood,'this'pro)
posal'intends'to'characterize'some'methodological'complexities'in'
research' with' children' in' Portugal,' when' we' consider' their' voice'
and'agency'in'the'knowledge'producing'about'them.'
Abstract'Book'
97'
'
The'goal'of'this'paper'is'to'contribute'to'the'methodological'discus)
sion'on'research'with'children'through'the'identification'of'a'set'of'
challenges' related' with:' (i)' the' diversity' of' methodologies' uses' in'
children’s'research,'(ii)'ethical'concerns'and'(iii)'the'role'of'the're)
searcher.'
Keywords:' Methodological' and' Ethical' complexities,' sociology' of'
childhood,'academic'research'in'Portugal'
MOBILISING!TRUST!IN!CHILDREN'S!LIVES:!CHALLENGES!
AND!OPPORTUNITIES!
'1
'2
Jo'Moran)Ellis ,'Heinz'Suenker '
1
Department'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'SURREY,'Guildford,'Unit)
2
ed' Kingdom,' Department' of' Educational' and' Social' Sciences,' Uni)
'
versity'of'Wuppertal,'Wuppertal,'Germany
Abstract:'This'paper'examines'the'concept'of'trust'within'intergen)
erational' relations' and' institutional' orderings' in' children's' lives.'
Starting'first'with'an'attempt'to'distinguish'trust'from'confidence,'
we'note'the'role'of'cultural'semantics'and'discourses'in'these'dis)
tinctions.'We'then'develop'a'consideration'of'how'adult'(and'insti)
tutional)' perceptions' of' risk' in' relation' to' children' interact' differ)
ently' with' ideologies' of' childhood' and' constructs' of' children's' ca)
pabilities'in'differing'contexts.'These'contexts'range'from'the'edu)
cational' setting,' to' formal' welfare' provision,' across' to' research'
encounters'in'the'social'sciences.'Applying'these'considerations'to'
the' example' of' the' role' of' trust' in' research' with' children,' and'
based'on'examples'of'such'research,'we'explore'how'trust'is'crucial'
to'the'project'of'involving'children'in'the'production'of'knowledge'
about' their' lives,' but,' how' at' the' same' time,' anxieties' about' chil)
dren's' vulnerability' in' inter)generational' relationships' can' under)
mine'the'capacity'for'trust'to'be'enacted.'The'paper'concludes'with'
a' reflection' on' the' implications' of' how' trust' can' be' enacted' and'
mobilised' in' the' range' of' institutional' contexts' in' which' children's'
lives'are'located.'
TO!BE!OR!NOT!TO!BE!A!POWERFUL!AGENT!TRUST!AS!A!
CRUCIAL!DYNAMIC!IN!THE!SHAPING!OF!CHILDREN’S!
PARTICIPATION!AND!CITIZENSHIP!IN!COMPLEX!
GLOBALIZED!SOCIETIES!
Hanne'Warming
1
1'
Society'and'Globalization,'ROSKILDE,'Roskilde,'Denmark
'
Abstract:' This' paper' explores' how' sociological' trust' theorizing' can'
contribute' to' a' dynamic' and' critical' understanding' of' children’s'
(differentiated)' participation' and' citizenship.' The' point' of' depar)
ture'is'the'theoretical'identification'of'trust'as'crucial'to'social'life'
and' agency' in' complex' globalized' societies' (Luhmann,' 2005).' The'
paper'introduces'different'approaches'to'trust,'exploring'how'the)
se' in' various' ways' can' contribute' to' a' dynamic' understanding' of'
the'shaping'of'different'aspects'of'children’s'participation'and'citi)
zenship.'These'aspects'include'the'children’s'influence'on'decision'
making,'other'rights'aspects,'access'to'(cultural,'social'and'econom)
ic)'capital'and'citizen'identity.'
WHAT!KIND!OF!TRUST!IN!WHAT!KIND!OF!CONTEXT?!
THE!(LACK!OF)!CONCEPTUALIZATION!OF!TRUST!IN!
CHILDHOOD!RESEARCH!
Michael'Christensen
1'
1
Department' of' Society' and' Globalisation,' ROSKILDE' UNIVERSITY,'
'
Roskilde,'Denmark
Abstract:'If'there'is'one'thing'researchers'dealing'with'the'concept'
of' trust' in' general' agree' upon' it' is' that' the' concept' is' confusing,'
contested,' multi)faced' and' quite' elusive' to' get' a' hold' on.' Few'
scholars'agree'upon'what'to'make'of'the'concept'with'conceptual'
confusion'about'trust'as'a'result.'An'often'stated'argument'about'
trust' is' that' trust' is' a' subjective' matter' by' which' concrete' trust'
formations,'what'constitutes'trust'and'how'trust'can'be'recognised'
should'be'empirically'elaborated'and'acknowledged.'On'behalf'of'a'
literature)review'of'1008'selected'articles'focusing'on'children'and'
trust'(and'mistrust)'the'argument'of'the'paper'is'that'though'trust'
is' considered' to' be' of' particular' importance,' trust/distrust' and'
trustworthiness' in' childhood' research' is' vaguely' defined' and' is'
often' not' conceptualized' explicitly.' The' paper' thus' advocates' an'
awareness' of' the' many' faces' of' trust' and' a' more' meticulous' con)
ceptualization' of' trust' and' its' associated' concepts' with' the' aim' of'
reducing'potential'conceptual'uncertainty'and'thereby'strengthens'
explanatory'force'in'childhood'research'dealing'with'trust.'
GOVERNMENTAL!MODES!OF!INCORPORATION!AND!
EDUCATIONAL!OPPORTUNITIES!OF!IMMIGRANT!
CHILDREN:!THE!GERMAN!CASE!
Janina'Soehn
1'
1
SOCIAL'SCIENCE'RESEARCH'CENTER'BERLIN'(WZB),'Berlin,'Germa)
'
ny
Abstract:' In' the' last' two' decades,' Germany' experienced' a' large'
influx' of' immigrants.' These' new' immigrant' cohorts' not' only' came'
from'a'wide'range'of'countries,'but'their'legal)political'situation'in'
Germany'was'very'diverse'as'well.'Thus,'the'German'case'provides'
us'with'an'ideal'case'for'an'examination'of'the'more'general'ques)
tion'of'how'the'assignment'of'immigrants'to'different'legal)status'
categories'and'the'treatment'following'from'that'affect'their'struc)
tural' integration' and' the' educational' opportunities' of' immigrant'
children' in' particular.' The' presentation' will' present' a' theoretical'
framework' of' the' mechanisms' linking' legal' status' and' educational'
attainment'and'will'apply'this'framework'to'the'German'case.'The'
politically' privileged' ethnic' German' “repatriates”' (Aussiedler)' are'
compared' to' other' immigrants' with' less' favourable' modes' of' in)
corporation'by'the'government,'with'refugees'being'confronted'by'
the'most'exclusive'form'of'reception.'The'hypotheses'derived'from'
the'institutional'analysis'of'group)specific'rights'and'policies'will'be'
tested' with' data' from' the' German' sample' census' 2005' –' the' first'
representative' data' set' suitable' for' this' intergroup' comparison.' I'
will' demonstrate' the' effect' of' legal' status' on' the' educational' at)
tainment' of' immigrant' children' (1.5' generation)' and' its' interplay'
with'other'social'determinants'of'educational'opportunities.'
My'proposal'is'based'on'a'recently'finished'PhD'thesis'which'anal)
yses' major' groups' among' the' immigrants' cohorts' arriving' in' Ger)
many'from'the'end'of'the'1980s'to'the'beginning'of'the'2000s.'
PRACTISES!OF!GLOBAL!AND!GENERATIONAL!
RELATIONS!IN!AN!EARLY!EDUCATION!AND!CARE!
INSTITUTION!IN!NORWAY!
Randi'Dyblie'Nilsen
1'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
98'
Abstract'Book'
1
Norwegian'Centre'for'Child'Research,'NTNU,'Trondheim,'Norway
'
Abstract:' This' paper' is' conceptually' grounded' in' the' Sociology' of'
childhoods'and'it'draws'on'field)work'data'from'a'day)care'centre'
for'children'(3)6'years)'in'a'multiethnic'neighbourhood'in'Norway.'
Both'ethnic'minority'–'majority'relations'and'generational'relations'
are' played' out' in' recurrent' practices' connected' to' global' child)
hoods.' In' certain' adult' initiated' events' Global' North' –' South' rela)
th
tions'are'involved;'such'as'marking'the'occasion'of'the'24 'of'Oc)
tober' (the' United' Nations' day)' and' particular' activities' to' raise'
money' for' NGOs' who' are' engaged' in' ‘poor' children’' in' the' Global'
South.'In'Norway,'such'practices'have'been'established'as'a'tradi)
tion'in'Early'Education'and'Care'institutions'as'analysed'in'an'earli)
er'study'with'fieldwork'20'years'ago,'and'it'resembles'practices'in'
schools'and'the'wider'society,'including'children’s'initiatives'as'well'
as' connecting' to' engagement' of' Global' solidarity' by' the' affluent'
Norwegian'welfare'state.'Analysis'of'certain'situations'among'eth)
nic' diverse' children' and' adults' in' the' contemporary' study' illumi)
nates'a'complexity'of'relations'between'Us'and'Them,'Global'North'
–' South,' and' generation.' In' analysing' daily' life' interaction' among'
children' and' staff' members' this' complexity' will' be' explored' and'
different' social' identities' (subject' positions)' for' diverse' children'
might'be'illuminated.'
THE!SIGNIFICANCE!OF!CHILDREN!UNDER!SCHOOLGAGE!
IN!THE!PROCESS!OF!SOCIAL!INTEGRATION!
Ullamaija'Seppälä
'1,1'
1
Faculty' of' Social' Science,' UNIVERSITY' OF' HELSINKI,' University' of'
'
Helsinki,'Finland
Abstract:' About' three' percent' of' Finland’s' population' consists' of'
immigrants.' The' biggest' ethnic' groups' are' Russian' and' Estonian'
people.'A'big'share'of'them'are'families'and'children.'I’m'particu)
larly'interested'in'how'children'before'school)age'(in'Finland'under'
7)year'old)'are'integrating'to'society'and'what'is'the'significance')'
and' even' stake' )' of' small' children' in' the' process' of' social' integra)
tion'of'the'whole'family.'Social'integration'is'here'defined'as'a'pro)
cess,'where'the'immigrants'take'up'their'position'and'start'partici)
pating'in'their'new'environment.'I'study'the'integration'of'children'
from' the' both' sites,' the' immigrants' and' the' basic' population' in'
Finland.'
Researching' small' children' has' many' challenges.' The' extra' chal)
lenge' in' this' study' is' that' the' researcher' doesn’t' have' a' common'
language'with'the'children'she'communicates'with.'For'this'reason'
I' must' give' a' lot' of' attention' in' selecting' and' developing' the' re)
search'methods.'In'my'presentation'I’m'going'to'open'the'process'
of'building'the'research'positions.'I’m'going'to'tell'how'the'children'
with' immigrant' backgrounds' have' been' researched' earlier' and'
what'kind'of'results'have'got.'I'also'tell'how'I’m'going'to'study'the'
children' in' this' specific' case.' In' autumn)time' this' study' will' be' in'
the'position'of'pre)study.'
GENDER!DIFFERENCES!IN!ECONOMIC!SOCIALIZATION:!
DO!FINANCIAL!EDUCATION!PROJECTS!HELP!FILLING!
THE!GAP?!
'1
'2
Lorenzo'Todesco ,'Emanuela'Rinaldi '
1
Department' of' Social' Sciences,' Università' degli' Studi' di' Torino,'
2
Turin,' Department' of' Sociology,' Università' Cattolica' del' Sacro'
'
Cuore,'Milan,'Italy
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
Abstract:' Moving' from' Blood' and' Wolf' (1960)' pioneering' study,'
some' scholars' (e.g.' Pahl,' 1989;' 1995;' 2004;' Gambardella,' 1998,'
2004)' show' that' a' fruitful' framework' to' study' gender' inequalities'
within'the'household'is'pointing'the'attention'on'the'gender'differ)
ences' in' the' control' and' allocation' of' money' and' in' important' fi)
nancial' decisions.' Other' studies' (Rabow,' Rodriguez,' 1993;' Rabow,'
Newcomb,' 1999)' also' maintain' that' sons' and' daughters' receive'
different' economic' socialization' patterns,' with' the' result' of' devel)
oping' gendered' attitudes' towards' money' and' financial' behavior'
that'in'turn'reproduce'and'maintain'an'unbalanced'distribution'of'
power.'This'study'has'two'main'purposes.'The'first'is'to'shed'light'
on'the'gender'dynamics'shaping'the'attitudes'towards'money,'the'
financial' behavior' and' the' degree' of' information' on' economic' is)
sues' among' Italian' preadolescents.' The' second' is' to' analyze' the'
role'played'by'financial'education'in'minimizing'such'dynamics.'The'
survey'used'in'this'study'was'conducted'in'2010'by'an'interdiscipli)
nary' team' of' scholars' (sociologists,' economists,' statisticians' and'
psychologists)'and'consisted'of'a'self)completion'questionnaire'on'
a' sample' of' 2.103' students' aged' 12)14' years' attending' lower' sec)
ondary' school.' The' survey' collected' information' on' a' range' of' as)
pects'that'can'be'grouped'in'five'main'sections:'family'life'and'pro)
gress'at'school,'interest'in'economy'and'sources'of'information'on'
the'issues'related,'an'evaluation'test'of'economic'knowledge,'atti)
tudes'towards'money'and'economy,'values'and'personality.'A'sub)
sample'of'1.476'respondents'has'participated'to'a'financial'educa)
tion'project,'while'a'group'of'control'consisting'of'627'respondents'
has'not.'The'effect'of'gender'dynamics'and'of'financial'education'is'
estimated' using' some' multivariate' statistical' techniques.' Results'
are'discussed'with'some'indications'for'policy)makers'in'designing'
future'financial'education'projects.'
QUELLE!JUSTICE!JUVÉNILE!DANS!UN!CONTEXTE!DE!
PLURALISME!JURIDIQUE!?!L’ENFANT!LIBANAIS!ENTRE!
ORDRE!ÉTATIQUE!ET!ORDRES!COMMUNAUTAIRES!
Samer'Ghamroun
1
1'
ISP,'ENS'CACHAN,'Paris,'France
'
Abstract:' Longtemps' sous' l’emprise' juridique' et' politique' commu)
nautaire' dans' un' pays' où' les' communautés' religieuses' disposent'
d’une'autonomie'législative'et'judiciaire'dans'les'affaires'familiales,'
le' domaine' de' la' prise' en' charge' de' l’enfance' au' Liban' a' récem)
ment' fait' l’objet' d’incursions' institutionnelles' et' normatives' opé)
rées'par'l’État'à'travers'la'création'et'l’activation'en'2002'd’un'juge'
des'enfants'susceptible'de'modifier'les'pratiques'traditionnelles'des'
tribunaux' communautaires.' La' nouvelle' catégorie' «' d’enfant' en'
danger'»'constitue'désormais'la'porte'd’entrée'pour'ces'nouvelles'
normes' sociales' et' juridiques' dans' les' espaces' communautaires'
clos.'
Ces'nouveaux'tribunaux'créés'en'2002'constituent'un'espace'inter)
systémique' où' les' échanges' internormatifs' peuvent' être' étudiés' à'
travers'des'méthodes'd’enquête'sociologiques'et'ethnographiques.'
L’observation' des' interactions' dans' ces' tribunaux,' complétée' par'
des'entretiens'semi)directifs'menés'en'situation'd’enquête,'montre'
comment' à' travers' cette' catégorie' spécifique' d’enfant' en' danger'
largement'interprétée,'une'nouvelle'génération'de'juges'étatiques,'
s’appuyant' sur' de' nouvelles' techniques' socio)judiciaires,' introdui)
sent'une'nouvelle'définition'de'la'famille'et'de'la'place'de'l’enfant'
et'de'la'femme'en'son'sein,'face'à'des'stratégies'de'résistance,'de'
contestation' et' d’adaptation' de' la' part' des' acteurs' communau)
taires.'
Abstract'Book'
99'
'
SAFEGUARDING!YOUNG!PEOPLE!IN!THE!UK:!
RESPONDING!TO!YOUNG!PEOPLE!AGED!11!TO!17!
WHO!ARE!MALTREATED!
'1
Alison'Jobe ,'Sarah'Gorin
1'
1
Child' Protection' Research' Department,' NSPCC,' London,' United'
'
Kingdom
Abstract:'A'large'number'of'young'people'aged'11)17'are'affected'
by' abuse' and' neglect.' Research' in' other' countries' has' highlighted'
the'importance'of'acknowledging'the'different'maltreatment'expe)
riences' and' needs' of' young' people,' as' compared' with' younger'
children.'Yet,'in'the'UK,'the'issue'has'received'very'little'attention.'
This' paper' presents' research' findings' from' the' first' large' scale' re)
search' study' to' explore' these' issues' in' the' UK' context.' The' study'
focused'upon'young'people'(age'11)17)'who'have'been'maltreated'
and' explored' their' access' to' appropriate' safeguarding' services' in'
the'UK.'The'research'was'conducted'by'the'National'Society'for'the'
Prevention'of'Cruelty'to'Children'(NSPCC),'in'partnership'with'The'
Children’s'Society'and'the'University'of'York,'with'funding'from'the'
Big'Lottery'Research'Grants'Programme.'
Drawing' from' these' research' findings,' this' paper' focuses' upon'
young'people’s'(11)17'years)'accounts'of'maltreatment,'help'seek)
ing'and'experiences'of'being'referred'to'Children's'Social'Care'Ser)
vices'in'the'UK.'The'paper'will'outline'some'key'contextual'factors'
concerning'young'people’s'maltreatment'experiences,'which'make'
young' people’s' case' histories' distinct' from' younger' children.' The'
paper'also'presents'key'themes'concerning'young'people’s'experi)
ences' of' seeking' help' and' receiving' help.' Throughout' the' paper'
professional'and'system'responses'to'this'age'group'in'the'UK'con)
text'will'also'be'explored.'
SEXUALIZED!TECHNOLOGY!–!PORTUGUESE!
YOUNGSTERS!AND!THE!NEW!MEDIA!
'1
Daniel'Santos'Cardoso ,'Cristina'Ponte
1
1'
Communication'Sciences,'FCSH')'UNL,'Lisbon,'Portugal
'
Abstract:' In' 2010,' aiming' to' understanding' how' children' use' the'
internet'assessing'both'risks'and'opportunities'and'how'risk'can'be'
fought'while'at'the'same'time'increasing'opportunities'and'digital'
literacy,' the' EU' Kids' Online' project' interviewed' 25' thousand' chil)
dren' (ages' 9)16)' in' 25' European' countries,' as' well' as' one' of' their'
caretakers,'using'a'representative'sample'of'each'country’s'popula)
tion' (see' Livingstone,' Haddon' and' Gorzig,' 2011).' Amongst' other'
risks,'children'were'asked'several'questions'that'related'to'sexual)
ized' uses' of' new' technologies,' from' sexting' to' the' (accidental' or'
willful)' viewing' of' pornographic' material,' its' source' and' context,'
and'how'they'coped'with'that'experience.'
This'paper'is'focused'on'the'Portuguese'results'of'this'survey,'and'
attempts' to' see' how' Portuguese' youngsters' incur' in' a' sexualized'
use'of'new'media.'In'this'aspect,'Portugal'comes'out'as'average'in'
comparison' with' the' other' countries' when' it' comes' to' the' con)
sumption'of'sexualized'images'but'Portuguese'parents'are'also'the'
most'prone'to'deny'that'their'children'have'ever'seen'sexual'imag)
es'online.'Aiming'to'analyze'more'closely'what'is'seemingly'a'very'
residual'practice'(the'usage'of'new'media'in'a'sexualized'manner),'
this'paper'tries'to'trace'the'different'kinds'of'sexualized'usages'of'
the' new' technologies' and' how' they' are' linked' to' different' socio)
demographic'profiles'and'to'different'attitudes'by'parents'in'their'
role'as'mediators.'These'results'are'analyzed'in'light'of'the'effects'
of' a' conservative' and' religious' culture,' with' a' deep' generational'
gap' in' terms' of' education' and' media' literacy,' and' a' paradox' be)
tween'an'“unfinished'modernity”'(Machado'&'Costa,'1998)'and'an'
ever)growing'bedroom'culture,'fueled'by'the'fact'that'Portugal'has'
a' very' high' penetration' rate' of' both' mobile' phones' and' laptop'
computers,' creating' a' unique' combination' of' possibilities' and' lack'
of' cognitive' and' contextual' resources' to' deal' with' those' possibili)
ties.'This'approach'will'attempt'to'see'the'possible'risks'and'harm'
that' come' from' these' practices,' but' also' the' opportunities' they'
open' up,' as' youngsters' come' to' grips' with' their' changing' bodies'
and'seek'autonomy'over'the'usage'of'their'own'desires'and'intima)
cy.'
CARE!HOME!CHILDREN’S!PERSPECTIVES!ON!THEIR!
BIOLOGICAL!FAMILIES!IN!BRAZIL!
Fernanda'Müller
1'
1
'
Faculty'of'Education,'University'of'Brasília,'Brasília,'Brazil
Abstract:' The' work' explores' care' home' children’s' conception' on'
their'biological'families.'Eight'children'from'care'homes'located'in'
deprived'areas'in'Sao'Paulo/Brazil'who'keep'ties'with'their'biologi)
cal'families'participated'in'the'research.'Based'on'the'argument'of'
family’s'negligence,'these'children'were'separated'from'their'fami)
lies'and'taken'to'a'care'home.'The'ethnographic'method'was'used'
in'combination'with'others'which'were'produced'with'the'children,'
such'as'photographs,'video'recordings,'drawings'and'conversations.'
The'data'collection'took'place'in'the'children'care'homes'and'last)
ed' one' year.' Doing' research' on' diverse' familial' dynamics' through'
care'home'children’s'points'of'view'could'help'with:'1)'presenting'a'
barely' explored' research' object;' 2)' deconstructing' the' negative'
idea'about'poor'people’s'familial'dynamics.'Also'the'study'aims'to'
contribute'for'the'consolidation'of'childhood'studies'in'Brazil,'pref)
erably' with' children' and' not' just' about' them.' The' work' presents'
results' that' aim' to' improve' Brazilian' public' policies' in' order' to'
guarantee' quality' in' children’s' care' homes' stay' and' in' families`'
support.' The' research' shows' that' children' present' alternative' fa)
milial' dynamics,' different' from' the' nuclear' and' middle' class' mod)
els.' Although' these' familial' dynamics' are' taken' as' hazardous' by'
public' policies,' children' are' hopeful' to' go' back' to' their' family'
homes.'On'one'hand'obviously'it'is'not'acceptable'that'children'live'
in' precarious' conditions' such' as' misery,' parent’s' alcoholism,' ag)
gression,'and'insecure'homes,'on'the'other,'the'current'social'poli)
cies' for' vulnerable' children' are' a' failure.' They' do' not' solve' the'
source' of' poor' families’' problems' and' usually' blame' the' parents.'
There' is' urgency' of' integrated' public' policies' (transport,' health,'
education,' home),' which' could' support' families' and' children' in'
order'to'avoid'situations'related'to'negligence.'
‘CHILDREN!WITH!(DIS)ABILITIES’!–!PRACTICE!AND!
VALUES!IN!DAYGCARE!CENTERS.!
Karianne'Franck
1'
1
Norwegian'Centre'for'Child'Research,'NORWEGIAN'UNIVERSITY'OF'
'
SCIENCE'AND'TECHNOLOGY,'Trondheim,'Norway
Abstract:'Title:'‘Children'with'(dis)abilities’'–'practice'and'values'in'
day)care'centers.'
In'this'paper'I'will'present'some'preliminary'analysis'from'my'PhD'
project,' which' focuses' on' practices' and' values' among' staff' mem)
bers'(teachers'and'assistants)'in'Norwegian'daycare'centers'in'rela)
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
100'
Abstract'Book'
tion'to'categorization'processes'and'early'intervention'discussions'
of'children'with'possibly'indistinct'and'debatable'(dis)abilities.'The'
project'addresses'issues'such'as:'how'is'the'category'children'with'
disabilities'constructed?'Which'child)identities'are'used'by'the'staff'
in'daycare'centers'and'how'do'they'carry'out'and'reflect'on'prac)
tices' in' relation' to' create' borders' between' ‘children' with' disabili)
ties’'and'‘children'without'disabilities’'–'between'so'called'‘normal'
children’' and' ‘different' children’?' What' kind' of' normativity' and'
perspectives'are'explicitly'or'implicitly'interwoven'in'practices'and'
values' among' the' staff' regarding' children' with' (dis)abilities?' The'
project' is' grounded' in' Sociology' of' childhood' in' combination' with'
disability' research.' Qualitative' interviews' of' staff' members' in' four'
day)care'centers'and'short'term'participant'observation'are'carried'
out.'
OUTGOFGHOME!CHILDREN!AND!YOUTHS!CARE!
SERVICES:!TOWARDS!A!“RELATIONAL!QUALITY”!
EVALUATION!
Elisabetta'Carrà
1'
A)' efficiency:' residential' care' facilities' are' generally' good,' while'
social' services' resources' often' appear' insufficient' to' ensure' an'
adequate'work'with'birth'families;'
B)' effectiveness:' children' and' youths’' wellbeing' in' residential' care'
facilities'is'high,'but'generally'they'move'from'one'facility'to'anoth)
er'never'returning'to'their'birth'family;'
C)' participative/ approach:' rather' lacking' in' terms' of' the' involve)
ment'of'children'and'their'families'at'different'path'stages;'
D)'empowerment:'the'most'critical'element'is'the'lack'of'attention'
devoted'to'working'with'birth'families.'
The' application' of' the' assessment' frame' of' relational' quality' ena)
bled' to' highlight' strengths' and' weaknesses' of' the' network' re)
sponding'to'the'needs'of'out)of)home'children'and'youths.'
THE!TYRANNY!OF!FORMS!IN!PARENTGPRACTITIONER!
INTERACTION!
Maarit'Alasuutari
1'
1
Atheneum' Centre' for' Family' Research' and' Studies,' CATHOLIC'
'
UNIVERSITY'OF'MILAN,'Milan,'Italy
1
Abstract:/THEORETICAL'FRAMING'
Abstract:'The'paper'studies'parent)practitioner'meetings'in'Finnish'
early' childhood' education' and' care' (ECEC).' In' them' an' individual'
educational' plan' (IEP)' is' drafted' for' each' child.' The' plan' aims' at'
taking'account'of'the'child’s'individuality'in'ECEC.'The'meetings'are'
carried' out' by' using' a' form' that' is' partly' filled' in' by' the' parent(s)'
before' the' discussion' with' the' practitioner.' Besides' providing' the'
themes'of'the'parent)practitioner'discussion,'the'form'is'also'sup)
posed'to'function'as'the'child’s'IEP.'
In' Italy,' over' the' last' decade' the' percentage' of' out)of)home' chil)
dren' and' youths' is' growing,' and' this' makes' increasingly' urgent' to'
assess' the' quality' of' services' meeting' this' important' social' prob)
lem.' Foster' care' is' spreading' rapidly,' but' there' are' still' many' chil)
dren'housed'in'residential'facilities.'Recently,'reflection'on'residen)
tial'care'quality'has'greatly'developed,'at'national'and'international'
level.'
This'intervention'presents'the'results'of'a'research)assessment'on'
residential' care' facilities' for' children' and' youths' in' a' region' of'
Northern' Italy' (Lombardy),' taking' into' account' four' dimensions:'
efficiency,'effectiveness,'participation'in'planning'and'intervention,'
empowerment' of' children' and' youths' and' their' family' relation)
ships.'Their'emerging'effect'is'defined'as'"relational'quality".'
HYPOTHESIS'
A' broad' examination' of' international' literature' shows' that' the' re)
sponse' to' children’s' needs' is' as' much' more' effective' as' children'
themselves' and' their' families' take' an' active' role' in' the' interven)
tion,' with' a' network' approach' that' connects' all' services' having'
competence'over'the'cases.'The'purpose'of'this'research'is'to'verify'
the'effectiveness'of'such'a'network,'which'in'Italy'involves'residen)
tial' care' facilities' and' social' services,' with' the' latter' in' charge' of'
referring' the' minors' to' residential' care' facilities' and' follow' their'
families.'
METHODOLOGY'
Wecarried'out'187'online'self)report'interviews'to'coordinators'of'
residential'care'facilities;'30'face)to)face'semi)structured'interviews'
to'social'workers;'97'self)report'questionnaires'to'minors'above'10'
yrs'living'in'children'homes.'
RESULTS'
Education,' UNIVERISTY' OF' JYVÄSKYLÄ,' University' of' Jyväskylä,'
'
Finland
The'paper'examines'how'the'use'of'the'form'structures'the'parent)
practitioner' interaction' and' especially,' the' talk' about' the' child.' It'
studies' how' the' child' is' constructed' and' portrayed' in' the' form)
framed' talk' and' what' the' function' of' this' talk' is' in' parent)
practitioner' interaction.' Theoretically,' the' paper' applies' a' social'
constructionist' approach.' It' approaches' childhood' as' a' thoroughly'
social' phenomenon' that' is' historically' and' culturally' produced,'
determined' and' negotiated.' In' addition,' it' assumes' that' also' the'
forms' have' constructive' functions.' They' pose' various' descriptive'
and'interactional'demands'on'their'users'and'hence,'act'as'agents'
in'the'human'interface'they'are'part'of.'
The' data' of' the' paper' consist' of' recordings' and' IEP' documents'
originating'from'21'parent)teacher'meetings'in'ECEC.'The'data'are'
analysed' by' using' discourse' analysis' and' categorized' according' to'
the'discursive'positioning'of'the'child'and'the'interactional'function'
of'the'positioning.'
The'findings'show'that'the'forms'easily'invite'a'pattern'of'interac)
tion' which' comprises' reading' of' the' question' and' the' answer' on'
the'form,'justification'of'the'answer'and/or'confirmation'of'its'fac)
tuality.' Consequently,' the' talk' is' very' much' adult' oriented.' The'
child'is'typically'constructed'as'an'object'and'the'child’s'viewpoint'
and' perspective' are' only' seldom' taken' under' consideration.' The'
demand'to'take'account'of'the'child’s'viewpoint'when'drawing'up'
an'IEP'in'ECEC'will'be'discussed.'
RN'05'Sociology'of'Consumption'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
Abstract'Book'
101'
'
BETWEEN!NETWORKS!AND!MOVEMENTS:!
CONSUMPTION!COLLECTIVES!AS!DYNAMIC!
PHENOMENA!
Kai)Uwe'Hellmann
1'
1
Institut' für' Soziologie,' Technische' Universität' Berlin,' Berlin,' Ger)
'
many
Abstract:' Since' the' publication' of' the' article' …Brand' Community”'
by'Albert'M.'Muñiz,'Jr.,'and'Thomas'C.'O’Guinn'in'the'year'of'2001'
this'kind'of'research'object'got'a'lot'of'attention'manifested'in'an'
avalanche' of' subsequent' publications' in' many' different' journals'
and' books.' Salient' is' examining' this' bunch' of' articles' that' at' least'
the' decision' of' Muñiz' and' O’Guinn' to' define' their' object' of' scien)
tific' interest' as' a' “community”' related' with' the' three' properties'
“shared'consciousness,'rituals'and'traditions,'and'a'sense'of'moral'
responsibility”' was' more' or' less' fully' accepted' by' all' other' col)
leagues' without' further' scrutiny.' Obviously' this' approach' fulfilled'
the'need'of'offering'some'fundamental'terms'and'concepts'which'
relieve' from' the' duty' to' start' always' again' from' the' scratch' quite'
perfectly.' Thomas' S.' Kuhn' called' this' effect' the' career' of' doing'
normal' science' implementing' a' paradigm' which' serves' as' a' frame'
of'reference'which'becomes'more'and'more'immune'against'criti)
cism'from'the'outside'as'well'as'from'the'inside.'
Starting' with' this' consideration' the' intention' of' my' presentation'
will'be'to'go'back'to'the'roots'of'this'“brand'community”'paradigm'
and'reflecting'the'conceptual'and'empirical'evidence'of'the'defini)
tion'of'the'term'“brand'community”'and'its'three'properties'under'
sociological'circumstances.'The'scientific'grounded'suspicion'is'that'
the'term'“community”'doesn’t'match'the'empirical'phenomenon'in'
a'sufficient'way'if'we'compare'the'three'properties'not'only'in'rela)
tion'to'the'state'of'the'art'of'the'community'research'since'more'
than'100'years'but'moreover'if'we'check'the'empirical'basis'which'
is' shown' in' the' articles.' To' say' it' in' a' different' way' the' empirical'
material' presented' in' the' articles' often' does' not' suffice' what' the'
three'properties'shared'consciousness,'rituals'and'traditions,'and'a'
sense' of' moral' responsibility' require' taking' them' seriously.' This'
doesn’t'mean'that'there'is'not'all'shared'consciousness,'rituals'and'
traditions,'and'a'sense'of'moral'responsibility'in'any'of'these'cases'
but'that'whatever'presented'it'lacks'the'evidence'to'label'the'de)
scribed' phenomena' as' “communities”' whether' brand' related' or'
whatever.' Alternatively' we' observe' instead' of' communities' often'
only'social'networks'or'groups'which'set'less'ambitious'conditions'
for'their'confirmation'compared'to'communities.'
LOCATING!THE!SENSES!IN!THE!SOCIOLOGY!OF!
CONSUMPTION!
Lydia'Martens
1'
environmentally' ‘trained’' and' by' locating' them' broadly' within' a'
conception'of'practice'that'interconnects'learning,'habit'formation,'
the' body,' memory' and' that' emphasises' the' fundamental' salience'
of' tools' (and' thus' objects)' in' the' mediation' of' action.' Moreover,'
rather' than' locating' the' senses' on' the' ‘sideline’' (as' we' e.g.' did' in'
our' eating' out' research,' se' Warde' &' Martens' 2000),' we' here' find'
an' analysis' that' starts' ‘from’' the' senses' (see' e.g.' Grasseni' 2007,'
2008' on' looking)' and' where' sensory' attention' is' integrated' in'
methodology'and'knowledge'development'in'central'and'interest)
ing'ways'(Pink'2007;'Harris'2007).'In'this'paper,'I'will'reflect'on'how'
and' in' what' manner' these' theoretical' insights' may' be' of' use' to'
reflect' on' consumption;' defined' broadly' as' “a' process' whereby'
agents' engage' in' appropriation' and' appreciation...' of' goods,' ser)
vices,'performances,'information'or'ambience,'whether'purchased'
or' not,' over' which' the' agent' has' some' degree' of' discretion”'
(Warde,'2005),'and'on'‘ways'of'knowing’'about'consumption.'
THE!FUTURE!OF!CONSUMPTION:!DECREASING!OR!
POSTGGROWTH?!
Paolo'Corvo
1'
1
UNIVERSITY' OF' GASTRONOMIC' SCIENCES,' Bra)Pollenzo' (Cuneo),'
'
Italy
Abstract:'The'current'global'financial'and'economic'crisis'is'causing'
profound'transformations'in'consumption'patterns'and'lifestyles'of'
many' Europeans.' Even' sociologists' who' study' the' concept' of' risk'
they'are'trying'to'understand'those'changes'and'to'provide'plausi)
ble' interpretations.' In' this' perspective,' play' a' significant' role' the'
theories,'as'the'‘serene'decreasing’'of'Serge'Latouche,'that'propose'
as'a'possible'solution'to'systemic'problems'an'alternative'model'of'
development' and' consumption' in' relation' to' the' environment,'
energy,'transport,'food,'pointing'to'a'qualitative'and'not'quantita)
tive'dimension'of'social'life.'
Other'theories'prefer'use'the'concept'of'post)growth'and'observe'
the'worldwide'spread'of'movements'and'associations'that'seek'to'
change' the' approach' to' the' consumption' of' natural' resources' ac)
cording'to'a'vision'of'economic,'social'and'environmental'sustaina)
bility.' It’s' possible' to' prevent' the' risk' of' environmental' disaster,'
exhaustion'of'energy'sources,'global'food'crisis,'with'the'demateri)
alization' of' economy' and' a' lower' use' of' energy' and' resources,'
based'on'a'changed'view'of'the'relationship'with'nature'and'socie)
ty.'
Public' policy' could' take' the' opportunity' of' the' crisis' to' determine'
and' implement' new' strategies,' involving' citizens' more' directly,'
promoting'a'qualitative'lifestyle,'with'attention'to'territorial'devel)
opment,'exploitation'of'local'natural'resources,'in'food,'transport,'
energy'sources.'It's'important'to'dedicate'more'time'to'sociability'
and' community' life.' It' 's' a' delicate' and' complex' challenge,' which'
could'lead'to'a'positive'and'renewed'equilibrium'of'ecosystem.'
1
Sociology' and' Criminology,' KEELE' UNIVERSITY,' Keele,' Stafford)
'
shire,'United'Kingdom
Abstract:'The'sociology'of'consumption'has'to'date'been'little'con)
cerned'with'the'senses'and'the'multi)sensory'nature'of'experience.'
Considering'first'of'all'in'what'ways'the'senses'play'a'crucial'role'in'
consumption,'I'think'through'how'recent'developments'in'the'phe)
nomenological'anthropology'of'the'senses'and'experience'may'be'
brought' into' conversation' with' the' sociology' of' consumption.' At'
first' glance,' anthropological' debate' seems' to' have' something' to'
offer' in' the' sense' that' it' conceives' of' the' senses' as' culturally' and'
WHAT!IS!A!PRACTICE:!SPATIOGTEMPORAL,!ABSTRACT!
OR!THEORETICAL?!
Ruth'Rettie1'
1
Business'School,'KINGSTON'UNIVERSITY,'Kingston,'United'Kingdom
'
Abstract:'The'paper'aims'to'elucidate'the'concept'of'a'practice'by'
comparing' the' ways' in' which' various' authors' (Schatzki,' Reckwitz,'
Warde,' Shove,' Halkier,' Gram)' Hanssen,' Ropke)' theorize' the' con)
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
102'
Abstract'Book'
cept,'highlighting'their'similarities'and'differences.'In'addition'to'a'
discussion'of'different'taxonomies'of'practice'elements,'the'paper'
considers' the' following:' what' is' the' ontological' status' of' practice)
as)entity:' spatio)temporal,' abstract' or' theoretical?' What' is' the'
relationship' between' practice)as)entity' and' practice)as)
performance' and' what' are' the' implications' for' practice' change?'
What' is' meant' by' practice' links' and' are' some' links' more' im)
portant/stable'than'others?'Finally'the'paper'considers'how'a'prac)
tice'perspective'contributes'to'our'understanding'of'consumption.'
The'paper'argues'that'it'is'important'to'clarify'our'understanding'of'
practices' in' order' to' employ' the' perspective' both' as' an' analytical'
lens'and'as'an'intervention'designed'to'shape'consumption.'
A!MISEGENG!SCÈNE!OF!THE!SHATTERED!HABITUS!THE!
EFFECT!OF!SOCIAL!MOBILITY!ON!AESTHETIC!
DISPOSITIONS!TOWARDS!FILMS!
'1
Stijn'Daenekindt ,'Henk'Roose
1
1'
Department'Sociology,'GHENT'UNIVERSITY,'Ghent,'Belgium
'
Abstract:'This'paper'treats'the'relation'between'economic'modern)
ization' and' religious' change.' Following' John' K.' Galbraith' I' argue'
that' in' order' to' realize' economic' growth,' companies' in' Western'
societies'mainly'have'to'solve'the'problem'of'marketing'consumer'
goods'under'conditions'where'original'needs'are'already'satisfied.'
In'order'to'do'this,'consumer'products'are'charged'with'imaginary'
values' by' means' of' marketing' measures.' Moreover,' companies'
incrementally'supply'commodified'social'practices'and'social'infra)
structures'like'holiday'resorts,'theme'parks,'shopping'malls,'clubs,'
restaurant'chains,'gyms'etc.,'in'order'to'make'consumption'a'rou)
tine'sociocultural'practice.'
Next,' I' argue,' that' this' process' incrementally' puts' consumption' in'
competition' to' traditional' religious' practices' and' imageries.' This'
argument' follows' Émile' Durkheim’s' conception' of' religion' as'
‘something' eminently' social’.' Durkheim' defines' religion' as' an' in)
ventory'of'symbols,'practices'and'beliefs'that'enable'individuals'to'
socially'connect.'Consumption,'however,'provides'a'range'of'prod)
ucts' and' services' that' equally' work' as' ‘intermediaries’' for' social'
activities' and,' therefore,' in' the' long' run,' can' supplant' the' social'
functions'of'traditional'religion.'
Abstract:'This'paper'focuses'on'the'effect'of'social'mobility'on'aes)
thetic' dispositions' towards' films.' Central' query' is' whether' Bour)
dieu’s'idea'of'a'rather'static,'class)based'habitus—and'its'associat)
ed'way'of'appreciating'art'as'voiced'in' La/Distinction—holds'anno'
2010.'Or'is'his'idea'of'the'habitus'as'a'more'permeable,'malleable'
entity,' as' argued' in' his' later' work' and' recently' voiced' by' Lahire,'
more'accurate?'
In'the'empirical'part'of'the'paper'I'test'this'hypothesis'by'analyzing'
the'development'of'income,'consumption)related'leisure'activities'
and' church' attendance' of' a' sample' of' young' Catholics' from' Ger)
many.' Analyses' are' conducted' via' bivariate' and' multilevel' regres)
sions' and' rely' on' the' longitudinal' data' of' the' German' Socio)
economic'panel'(1984)2009).'
Research'on'the'link'between'individual’s'social'position'and' their'
taste'uses'a'variety'of'
OPERATIONALIZATION!OF!ETHNICITY!AND!
DIFFERENCES!IN!READING!CLIMATE!DETECTED!
measures' for' taste—usually' someone’s' actual' cultural' participa)
tion.'In'this'study'we'
want' to' grasp' the' habitus' dispositionally' by' focusing' on' aesthetic'
dispositions—i.e./ in' terms' of' attitudes' towards' the' arts;' expecta)
tions' people' have' when' being' confronted' with' art.' By' measuring'
taste' this' way,' we' try' to' minimize' the' bias' associated' with' using'
actual'cultural'praxis'as'an'indicator—certainly'public'participation'
is' inherently' conspicuous' and' therefore' it' may' not' only' reflect'
sheer'taste.'
Strategy'is'to'investigate'whether'socially'mobile'individuals'adhere'
to' the' dispositions' acquired' from' their' social' context' of' origin,' of'
whether'they'adapt'to'attitudes'and'dispositions'viable'in'their'new'
social'environment.'Building'on'a'large)scale'survey'representative'
for' the' Flemish' population' (n/ =' 2,849),' we' consider' innovative,'
emotional'and'action'dispositions'towards'films.'Results'show'that'
the' effects' of' social' mobility' are' a' complex' matter' and' differ' ac)
cording' to' highbrow' or' lowbrow' orientation' of' the' dispositions' at'
hand.'Implications'for'the'conceptualization'of'the'habitus'are'dis)
cussed.'
FROM!RELIGIOUS!TO!CONSUMPTIONGRELATED!SOCIAL!
ACTIVITIES:!A!LONGITUDINAL!ANALYSIS!OF!THE!
IMPACT!OF!INCREASING!SOCIOCULTURAL!
CONSUMPTION!ON!CHURCH!ATTENDANCE!AMONG!
GERMAN!CATHOLICS!
Jochen'Hirschle
1'
1
Department' of' Sociology,' FERNUNIVERSITÄT' IN' HAGEN,' Hagen,'
'
Germany
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
'1
'1
Mia'Stokmans ,'Peter'Broeder ,'Carel'van'Wijk
1
1'
cultural'studies,'TILBURG'UNIVERSITY,'Tilburg,'Netherlands
'
Abstract:'It'is'common'knowledge'that'adult,'female,'native'Dutch'
read' more' fiction' as' a' leisure' activity' than' adolescent,' male,' mi)
grant' Dutch.' Results' about' differences' between' ethnic' groups' in'
reading'practices'or'cultural'participation'in'general,'are'of'course'
predetermined'by'the'way'ethnicity'is'operationalized.'At'this'mo)
ment,' objective' criteria' such' as' country' of' birth' are' used' next' to'
more'subjective'criteria'focusing'on'language'use'or'self'identifica)
tion.' Since' some' ethnic' groups' have' stayed' for' generations' in' the'
Netherlands,' while' others' move' quite' quickly,' the' correlation' be)
tween'the'objective'criteria'and'the'subjective'criteria'is'deteriorat)
ing.'In'this'study'we'explore'the'idea'that'the'usefulness'of'an'op)
erationalization'of'ethnicity'can'be'derived'by'linking'it'to'cultural'
behavoir' such' as' reading' practices' of' fiction.' Since,' in' the' cultural'
sociological'perspective,'it'is'believed'that'differences'in'stratifica)
tion'go'along'with'differences'in'socio)demographic'characteristics'
as'well'as'differences'in'modes'of'conduct'in'cultural'domains.'
Data' for' this' study' originate' from' a' questionnaire' presented' at' a'
stratified'sample'(310'native'adolescents,'310'migrant'adolescents,'
310' native' adults,' and' 310' migrant' adults).' In' this' questionnaire,'
ethnicity'is'asked'for'by'objective'(country'of'birth,'first'of'second'
generation)'as'well'as'subjective'criteria'(dominant'language'used,'
self'identification).'Regarding'reading'practices,'the'indicators'used'
are'based'on'the'theory'of'planned'behavior'and'encompass:'read)
ing' frequency,' reading' attitude,' social' norms' of' important' refer)
ence'groups'about'reading,'and'perceived'opportunities'to'read.'
Preliminary'analyses'on'ethnic'groups'defined'by'only'one'indicator'
showed'that'there'are'differences'in'reading'climate'however'they'
Abstract'Book'
103'
'
go' together' with' differences' in' sex' and' age' (adult' versus' adoles)
cents)' and' less' with' differences' in' ethnicity.' Moreover,' analyses'
show'that'the'indicators'of'ethnicity'for'native'Dutch'have'a'100%'
correspondence,'while'those'for'migrants'show'a'smaller'concord)
ance'which'is'not'straightforward'to'describe.'So'it'is'unclear'what'
differences'in'reading'climate'go'together'with'ethnicity'when'the'
objective' and' subjective' indicators' of' ethnicity' are' combined' to'
unravel'differences'in'reading'climate.'Additional'multivariate'anal)
yses'will'provide'more'insight'into'this'issue.'
A!VISIT!TO!THE!MEMORY!SITE!ESTABLISHED!ON!THE!
FORMER!DEATH!AND!CONCENTRATION!CAMP!AS!A!
CONSUMPTION!OF!THE!PAST!FOR!THE!YOUNG!
GENERATION!
'1
Karolina'Keler ,'Katarzyna'Stec
1
1'
JAGIELLONIAN'UNIVERSITY,'Kraków,'Poland
'
Abstract:'The'meaning'and'significance'of'the'visit'to'the'memorial'
sites' established' on' the' former' death' and' concentration' camps' is'
becoming'an'inherent'part'of'a'discussion'about'the'relation'of'the'
contemporary'young'generation'to'the'consumption'of'the'history'
and'memory'of'the'past.'The'past,'according'to'some'researchers,'
is' becoming' an' attractive' tourist' commodity' (e.g.' Seaton' 1996,'
Sharpley' and' Stone' 2009,' Urry' 2007).' However,' there' is' a' lack' of'
complex' empirical' studies' which' explore' both' visitor’s' motivation'
and'influence'of'the'visit'to'the'Holocaust'sites.'The'aim'of'the'pa)
per' is' to' explore' the' experiences,' motivations' and' views' of' young'
people' connected' with' their' visit' to' the' memorial' sites' from' the'
perspective'of'the'process'of'consumption'of'memory'and'the'dis)
cussion' of' commercialization' of' the' past.' In' order' to' explore' this'
issue'the'survey'study'(before'and'immediately'after'the'visit)'was'
carried'out'in'2009)2010'among'young'visitors'(14+,'N=2355)'to'the'
memorial' sites' (Auschwitz)Birkenau,' Majdanek,' Treblinka' in' Po)
land).' Additionally,' the' photographic' observation' of' young' visitors'
during'visit,'the'focus'group'interviews'with'guides,'personal'inter)
views' with' teachers' and' follow' up' qualitative' study' with' survey'
respondents' were' made.' In' the' paper,' the' phenomenon' of' dark'
tourism' (thanatourism)' is' explored' in' context' of' the' motivations'
and' needs' of' contemporary' young' visitors' to' the' memorial' sites'
and'how'these'aspects'correlates'to'the'perception'of'the'memori)
al'site'as'a'tourist'attraction.'
CHILDREN!SPEND,!CHILDREN!SAVE:!THE!CASE!OF!A!
PRIMARY!SCHOOL!IN!LISBON!
Raquel'Ribeiro
1'
that'contextualizes'the'decision'of'whether'to'spend'or'save,'from'
the' children´' viewpoint,' is' yet' to' be' further' explored.' While' chil)
dren'have'been'increasingly'regarded'as'active'and'influential'con)
sumption'actors,'they'are'also'taught'(again)'on'how'to'refrain'and'
save' money,' especially' during' recessive' economic' periods.' It' is'
therefore'important'to'identify'and'understand'the'representations'
and'practices'that'shape'consumption'and'financial'management'of'
children' and' what' is' the' contribution' of' parents,' school,' peers,'
media' and' other' agents' for' this' process.' The' research' is' quali)
quantitative;'focus'groups,'individual'interviews'questionnaires'will'
be' applied' to' approximately' 60' children' and' to' their' parents' and'
teachers.'Gender'and'socio)economic'effects'will'be'analysed.'The'
results' will' serve' to' define' pedagogical' practices' and' to' build' a' fi)
nancial'education'program'tailored'to'the'needs'of'children.'
PREGSCHOOLERS!AND!SUPERMARKETS:!LEARNING!
AND!TEACHING!TO!CONSUME.!
'1
Margit'Keller ,'Riina'Ruus
1'
1
Institute' of' Journalism' and' Communication,' UNIVERSITY' OF'
'
TARTU,'Tartu,'Estonia
Abstract:!The'current'consumer'literacy'debate'gaining'momentum'
in' Estonia' increasingly' stresses' the' need' to' teach' "sensible' con)
sumption“' at' a' pre)school' age.' The' main' responsibility' lies' with'
parents.'Earlier'research'shows'that'Estonian'parents'are'relatively'
protectionist'in'their'attitudes,'at'the'same'time'lacking'resources'–'
mostly'knowledge'and'time,'sometimes'willingness')'to'systemati)
cally' educate' their' offpring' in' consumption' matters.' The' present'
study' draws' on' focus' groups,' interviews' and' participant' observa)
tions'with'pre)schoolers'(aged'3)6)'and'their'parents'conducted'in'
2008)2009.' The' paper' is' inspired' by' practice' theory' (Reckwitz,'
2002;'Warde'2005)'as'well'as'various'recent'practice)based'studies'
of' consumption.' The' objective' is' to' track' how' routine' grocery'
shopping' with' small' children' is' built' of' sub)practices' of' shopping'
and'good'parenting.'Interview'and'focus'group'data'highlight'main)
ly'how'practices'are'articulated'as'entities'and'participant'observa)
tion' provides' material' to' analyse' how' they' are' enacted' as' perfor)
mances.'The'main'foci'are'cases'of'teaching,'i.e.'parental'attempts'
to' either' explicitly' or' tacitly' induce' their' children' to' adopt' certain'
routines'and'ways'of'shopping'deemed'by'them'as'"sensible“,'"ra)
tional“' and' "appropriate".' We' also' look' at' how' problematic' situa)
tions,' where' children’s' and' parents‘' wishes' clash,' challenge' the'
existing' practices.' The' practice' theory' inspiried' approach' helps' to'
study'not'only'the'discursive'and'reflexive'side'of'"teaching'to'con)
sume“' but' also' the' bodily' and' material' arrangements' and' moves'
used'both'by'children'and'parents'to'achieve'their'particular'ends'
in'a'situation'of'shopping.'
1
CAPP,' SUPERIOR' INSTITUTE' OF' SOCIAL' AND' POLITICAL' SCIENCE,'
'
Lisboa,'Portugal
Abstract:'This'article'examines'consumption'and'saving'representa)
tions'and'practices'of'children'aged'8)11'years,'attending'a'primary'
school' in' Lisbon,' Portugal.' This' school' is' adhering' to' a' Program' of'
Financial'Education'by'Montepio'Bank'and'our'purpose'is'to'identi)
fy'and'understand'perceptions,'behaviours'and'cognitive'outcomes'
of' the' children' under' consideration,' before/ and' after/ the' imple)
mentation' of' the' program.' Research' has' demonstrated' the' rela)
tionship' between' the' development' of' the' concepts' of' money' and'
saving' among' children' and' their' subsequent' use' in' adulthood,' as'
well'as'the'importance'of'factors'such'as'education'and'social'net)
works'in'the'construction'of'these'notions.'But'the'mental'dialogue'
CONSUMER!BEHAVIOUR,!BODY!AND!POWER!
Arne'Dulsrud
1
1'
NATIONAL'INSTITUTE'OF'CONSUMER'RESEARCH,'OSLO,'Norway
'
Abstract:'The'idea'of'modern'shopping'spaces'and'supermarkets'as'
the' key' arenas' of' the' sovereign' and' empowered' consumer' is' not'
only' disputed' by' sociologists,' but' also' by' behavioural' economists.'
Whereas' economists' argue' that' “behavioural' biases”' stem' from'
individual' and' cognitive' limitations,' we' argue' that' consumer' and'
purchasing'behaviour'is'embedded'in'power.'Inspired'by'Foucault’s'
general' thesis' that' the' emergence' of' individual' freedom' coincides'
with' new' techniques' of' discipline,' this' paper' explores' consumer'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
104'
Abstract'Book'
routines' as' an' outcome' of' governance' structures' embedded' in'
modern'retail'marketing'techniques.'First,'the'term'embodiment'of'
consumer'choice'is'introduced'to'describe'how'shopping'in'modern'
supermarkets' hinges' on' various' techniques' of' bodily' discipline.'
Second,' by' relying' on' a' study' of' in)store' marketing' in' retailing,'
these'promotional'activities'are'examined'as'techniques'of'normal)
izing'purchasing'behaviour.'We'conclude'by'saying'that'power'and'
discipline' are' underestimated' as' explanations' to' the' formation' of'
shopping' behaviour' and' consumer' routines.' Our' findings' partly'
supplement,' but' also' challenge' basic' assumptions' within' behav)
ioural'economics.'
CONSUMPTION,!FETISHISM!AND!TRANSGRESSION!G!
EXPERIENCING!DEATH,!SEX,!AND!INTIMACY!THROUGH!
LADY!GAGA’S!BODY!
'1
Swen'Seebach ,'NATÀLIA'CANTÓ)MILÀ
1'
1
ARTS' &' HUMANITIES,' UNIVERSITAT' OBERTA' DE' CATALUNYA'
'
(UOC),'BARCELONA,'Spain
Abstract:/In'his'book'Eroticism'Georges'Bataille'showed'that'two'of'
the' most' elementary' social' taboos' in' religious' societies' concern'
sexuality' and' death' and' that' the' moment' of' the' sacred' festivals'
gave'the'possibility'to'experience'these'socially'and'morally'forbid)
den' zones' in' moments' of' ‘liminality’' wherein' the' taboo' was' lifted'
and' the' impossible' became' possible.' These' liminal' moments' of'
social' disorder,' these' moments' of' transgression' have' been' crucial'
for'the'webbing'of'religious'society.'
In'modernity,'related'with'the'secularization'of'society'and'with'the'
disenchanting'character'of'capitalism'these'moments'have'changed'
their' expression' and' meaning:' We' experience' these' liminal' mo)
ments'mediated'through'one'or'some'of'the'various'forms'of'con)
sumption.' We' experience' liminal' moments' with' our' partners' by'
joined'consumption,'we'experience'death'and'sex'in'movies'and'TV'
and'we'experience'it'mediated'by'and'projected'on'the'body'of'our'
chosen' others.' Lady' Gaga' is' one' example' for' those' helping' us' to'
transgress' social' moral' boundaries' and' making' us' consumptively'
experiencing'the'most'important'social'taboos.'
An' analysis' of' Lady' Gaga' and' her' performance' of' Sex,' Death' and'
Intimacy'will'help'us'to'understand'what'these'taboos'mean'in'late'
modern' society' and' whether' a' liminal' experience' might' still' be'
possible.'
"IT'S!ALL!ABOUT!YOU":!APOTHEOSIS!OF!THE!BODY!IN!
ADVERTISEMENTS!FOR!HYGIENE!PRODUCTS!
'1
'2*
Sigal'Barak)Brandes ,'Amit'Kama '
1
The' School' of' Media' Studies,' COLLEGE' OF' MANAGEMENT'
2
ACADEMIC' STUDIES,' Rishon' Lezion,' Communication' Dept.,' Aca)
'
demic'College'of'Emek'Yezreel,'Emek'Yezreel,'Israel
Abstract:' Despite' the' recent' burgeoning' of' sociological' interest' in'
the' body' as' a' culturally' constructed' project,' little' research' atten)
tion' has' been' paid' to' bodily' excretions' (sweat,' urine,' feces,' men)
strual'blood,'saliva,'rhinorrhea,'and'skin'fat)'and'their'social'impli)
cations.'Furthermore,'studies'of'the'roles'played'by'advertisements'
in'the'regulation'of'body'waste'are'even'scarcer.'The'present'study'
therefore'addresses'this'lacuna.'Since'advertising'for'hygiene'prod)
ucts'can'be'assumed'to'reflect'prevailing'hegemonic'ideas'regard)
ing' the' body' and' the' regulation' of' its' excretions' and' smell,' this'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
research'focused'on'two'major'questions:'What'messages'are'con)
veyed'by'advertisements'for'products'that'are'intended'to'regulate'
bodily'excretions?'How'is'shame'constructed'and'constituted'in'the'
ads?'
One'hundred'and'fifty'nine'ads'that'appeared'in'Israeli'newspapers'
between'2005)2010'were'qualitatively'analyzed.'Semiotic'analyses'
were'performed'by'the'authors'and'were'also'based'on'categories'
developed'in'a'pilot'study'of'five'random'ads.'
Several' common' themes' emerged' from' the' analysis:' pampering'
hedonism,' return' to' Nature,' pseudo)science,' and' concealment' of'
the' actual' purpose' of' the' product.' Ads' were' also' found' to' consti)
tute'mechanisms'of'identity'formation'and'dissociation'of'the'cor)
poreal'body'from'the'self.'
The' results' indicate' that' shame,' discipline' and' regulation' of' the'
body’s'orifices'and'waste'do'not'constitute'the'overarching'frame'
for' promoting' hygiene' products.' On' the' contrary,' the' issue' of'
cleaning'one's'body'for'hygienic'purposes'is'covert,'at'best.'Rather,'
the' ads' reflect' a' hedonistic' cult' of' the' self.' This' apotheosis' of' the'
body'implies'that'pampering'oneself'requires'constant'investment,'
including'the'purchase'of'products'that'only'incidentally'take'care'
of'unwanted'waste.'
‘MASS!PRODUCTION’!IN!THE!MASS!CONSUMPTION!
SOCIETIES:!THE!CASE!OF!MALE!BODYBUILDING!
Guillaume'Vallet
1'
1
'
GENEVE/EHESS/GRENOBLE,'TALLOIRES,'France
Abstract:'‘Mass'Production’'in'the'Mass'Consumption'Societies:'the'
Case'of'Male'Bodybuilding'
Nowadays,' the' body' seems' to' be' the' perfect' object' of' consump)
tion.' People' use' it' to' define' themselves' but' also' as' a' vehicle' that'
can'send'signs'to'others'in'the'hope'that'their'body'will'be'a'factor'
of'social'integration'and'social'recognition.'That'would'explain'why'
people' have' turned' to' their' body,' as' a' support' of' intimacy' and'
differentiation.'Hence'we'can'observe'the'development'of'practic)
es' of' body' transformations' which' go' along' the' contemporary' phi)
losophy'in'which'everything'seems'possible'for'everybody,'with'no'
limits' whatsoever.' The' practice' of' bodybuilding' sustains' efforts' in'
that'direction:'historically'born'and'developed'along'with'the'con)
sumption'society,'it'came'to'embody'its'values.'Particularly,'a'mus)
cular' body' symbolizes' for' the' persons' who' practice' this' sport' a'
high)performance'body'that'is'highly'valued.'And'as'they'think'this'
body' is' nicer' and' stronger' than' the' others,' they' can' exhibit' it' to'
attract'people’s'glance.'The'present'research'assumes'that'this'is'a'
relevant'strategy'for'those'men'who'have'principally'their'body'as'
capital'to'value,'in'particular'to'be'more'“attractive”'and'“competi)
tive”'in'a'gender'problematic.'The'analysis'is'based'on'observations'
in'2'bodybuilding'settings'and'30'interviews'with'bodybuilders'con)
ducted' in' France.' Results' will' show' how' bodybuilding' reflects' the'
consumption'society’s'norms,'that'is'a'practice'in'which'the'body'is'
in' tension' between' imitation' and' distinction,' hence' showing' the'
will'to'be'‘like'others'but'better’'thanks'to'the'production'of'a'nice'
and'‘massive’'body.'
EXPLAINING!CONSUMPTION!BEHAVIOUR:!THE!CASE!
OF!HIGHBROW!CULTURAL!CONSUMPTION!IN!EUROPE!
Sebastian'Eduard'Weingartner
1'
Abstract'Book'
105'
'
1
Institute'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'ZURICH,'Zürich,'Switzerland
'
Abstract:/ Most' empirical' examinations' of' cultural' consumption'
theories' focus' on' the' direct' relationship' between' social' position'
and'cultural'consumption'behaviour.'Curiously,'the'underlying'indi)
vidual' constructs' such' as' preferences,' orientations' and' opportuni)
ties'are'taken'into'account'only'implicitly,'if'at'all.'Accurate'specifi)
cations' of' the' individual' mechanism' between' social' structure' and'
action' are' rarely' found,' although' essential' for' the' comprehensive'
understanding'of'consumption'behaviour.'
In'order'to'fill'this'gap'I'propose'action)based'modelling'of'the'indi)
vidual' determinants' of' cultural' consumption' behaviour.' These' de)
terminants' include' cultural' preferences' and' situational' opportuni)
ties'as'well'as'cultural'orientations'and'embodied'cultural'practices.'
The'former'two'are'rather'consciously'considered'parameters'of'a'
rational'choice'whereas'the'latter'two'can'be'characterised'as'au)
tomatically'processed'cultural'internalisations.'Therefore'a'model'is'
required' which' is' able' to' integrate' both' a' conscious' and' an' auto)
matic' logic' of' action.' The' “model' of' frame' selection”' meets' these'
demands'by'assuming'two'interactively'connected'modes'of'infor)
mation' processing.' Thus,' it' serves' as' a' general' theoretical' core' in'
the'explanation'of'cultural'consumption'behaviour.'
Empirically'highbrow'cultural'consumption'behaviour'in'29'Europe)
an'countries'is'analysed'using'data'from'the'2007'“Special'Euroba)
rometer”'on'cultural'values.'It'can'be'shown'that'preferences,'op)
portunities,' orientations,' and' practices' have,' besides' structural'
variables,'an'independent'influence.'Moreover,'it'can'be'observed'
that'with'cultural'orientations'and'practices'being'strongly'internal)
ized'the'effects'of'preferences'and'opportunities'decrease,'which'is'
in'line'with'the'interaction'assumed'by'the'theoretical'model.'
HIGH!CULTURE!CONSUMPTION!OVER!TIME:!AN!
EMPIRICAL!STUDY!FOR!GERMAN!
Bettina'Isengard
1
1'
Institute'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'ZURICH,'Zurich,'Switzerland
'
Abstract:'Although'lifestyles'in'general'and'high'cultural'activities'in'
particular' are' relatively' robust' over' the' life' course,' they' can' be'
subjected'to'certain'transformations'over'time.'Next'to'age'effects'
which'are'mostly'close'connected'with'changing'consumption'pat)
terns'of'leisure'activities'like'going'to'the'opera'or'theatre'for'ex)
ample,' also' cohort' effects' can' stand' behind' these' changes.' While'
the' first' connection' could' be' pointed' out' in' numerous' investiga)
tions,'the'relation'between'birth'cohort'and'high'cultural'activities'
were' examined' only' insufficiently' so' far.' But' also' changing' living'
conditions' due' to' socio)economic' reasons' and' family' formation'
processes'plays'an'important'role.'Using'the'longitudinal'data'set'of'
the' German' Socio)Economic' Panel' Study' (SOEP)' the' contribution'
regards'changing'patterns'in'high'cultural'consumption'to'close'the'
research' gap.' To' analyse' the' impact' of' age' and' cohort' effects' as'
well'as'changes'of'economic'resources'or'family'situation'over'time'
random' effects' models' are' estimated' for' a' time' period' between'
covering'five'years'between'1990'and'2008.'It'can'be'observe'that'
next' to' age' and' cohort' also' other' changing' living' conditions' influ)
ence'the'consumption'of'high'cultural'activities'over'time.'Next'to'
changes' in' the' individual' socio)economic' situation' due' to' labour'
market'changes'also'particularly'family'events'like'changing'house)
hold'formations'by'marriage'or'birth'affect'the'probability'of'high'
culture'participation.'
NEW!GENERATIONS!DO!NOT!CONTRADICT!RETIREES!
'1
'2
Luc'Champarnaud ,'Trine'Bille ,'Sophie'Dabo
1'
1
Equippe,' EQUIPPE' UNIVERSITY' LILLE/UNIVERSITY' ARTOIS,' Ville)
2
neuve'd'Ascq'cedex,'France,' Copenhagen'Business'School,'Copen)
'
hagen,'Denmark
Abstract:' We' look' for' effective' generations,' in' the' spirit' of' Karl'
Manheim’s' work,' i.e.' that' differ' according' to' the' nature' of' their'
cultural' expenditure,' not' only' according' to' the' birth' dates.' Thus'
datation' of' the' length' of' the' periods' of' generations' is' given' by'
structural' changes' in' average' behaviors,' and' not' by' an' abstract'
cutting' of' periods.' Our' methodology' is' two' folds.' First' we' found'
evidences' of' key' behaviors' for' identifying' generations' living' in'
France' between' 1979' and' 2006.' We' showed' that' on' the' basis' of'
the' cultural' spending' declared' by' 62247' households' in' six' surveys'
extracted' from' the' family' budget' survey' from' the' INSEE' (1979,'
1984,'1989,'1995,'2001,'and'2006).'The'amounts'spent'are'detailed'
by' nature' that' differs' according' to' nine' items:' books,' performing'
art/cinema,' television' plan,' museum,' gambling,' travels' forfeit,'
newspaper,' image' or' sound' supports,' and' stationery.' We' consid)
ered'the'age'of'reference'person'in'the'household.'We'were'lucky'
because' the' first' dimension' of' a' CA' (Correspondence' Analysis)' on'
the'cultural'spending'displays'a'good'ordering'considering'the'gen)
erations.'Once'the'CA'has'been'done,'a'hierarchical'ascendant'clas)
sification'(or'clusterization)'allows'us'to'assess'each'household'his'
effective' generation.' Thus,' we' decomposed' then' age' and' genera)
tions'components'in'a'tobit'regression'of'the'spending'coefficients'
in' each' item.' We' observed' that' when' spendings' are' negatively'
correlated' with' ages'–for' museum' or' books,' for' instance),' succes)
sive'generations'tend'to'consume'less'and'vice/versa'–for'newspa)
pers,' for' instance).' We' explain' that' by' a' model' of' diffusion' of' the'
quality' where' the' quality' of' cultural' products' is' assumed' to' im)
prove'the'‘‘productivity"'of'the'household'in'producing'culture.'For'
instance,'we'can'think'that'the'quality'of'programs'on'TV'has'been'
improved'such'that,'for'the'same'money'spent'on'these'programs,'
the' contents' is' more' efficient' in' producing' culture' over' new' peri)
ods.'We'showed'that'changes'in'quality'of'goods'can'very'well'ex)
plain' why' if' spending' of' elders' are' higher' than' younger’s,' then'
spending'of'successive'generations'increases,'and'vice/versa'
.'
THE!HOMOLOGY!HYPOTHESIS!IN!FRANCE,!GERMANY,!
SWITZERLAND,!UNITED!KINGDOM!AND!THE!USA!
'1
'2
'3
Amal'Tawfik ,'Dominique'Joye ,'Julien'Chevillard '
1
Department' of' Political' Science,' University' of' Geneva,' Geneva,'
Research' Center' on' Methodology' Inequalities' and' Social' Change,'
3
Laboratory' for' life' course' studies,' University' of' Lausanne,' Lau)
'
sanne,'Switzerland
2
Abstract:' The' model' proposed' by' Bourdieu' in' La/ Distinction' re)
ceived'a'large'echo,'largely'due'to'the'fact'that'it'reflects'a'fruitful'
interaction'between'systematic'theoretical'reflection'and'empirical'
analysis.' Though' some' scholars' consider' that' this' model' reflects'
the'specificity'of'the'French'society'in'the'sixties'and,'therefore,'is'
not' applicable' to' other' national' contexts,' this' model' still' remains,'
thirty'years'after'its'elaboration,'at'the'heart'of'a'heated'debate'in'
the'field'of'the'sociology'of'cultural'consumption'and'social'stratifi)
cation.' But' changes' of' tastes' and' cultural' hierarchies,' and,' inter'
alia,'the'rise'of'omnivorism,'coupled'to'a'large'extent'with'changes'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
106'
Abstract'Book'
in' lifestyles,' seem' to' contradict' the' homology' link' established' by'
Bourdieu'between'social'space'and'lifestyle'space.'
to'express'this'disappointment'with'the'formulation'of'a'claim'to)
wards'the'provider.'
This' presentation' aims' at' testing' systematically' the' homology' hy)
pothesis' in' five' countries' :' France,' Germany,' Switzerland,' United'
Kingdom'and'the'USA.'The'comparison'between'these'countries'is'
based'on'an'analysis'of'the'data'from'the'2007'ISSP'«'Leisure,'Time'
and'Sports'».'
For' the' presentation' the' strategies' of' customer' complaints' are'
analyzed'along'the'dimensions'of'the'i)'expression'of'emotionality,'
ii)' anticipation' of' the' modes' of' communication' and' iii)' attitude'
towards'the'provider'organization.'Second'the'course'of'complaint)
interaction' based' on' the' customer)performed' impression' man)
agement' is' examined.' On' this' foundation' consequences' of' com)
plaints'for'consumer'behaviour'in'general'can'be'derived'from'the'
evaluation' of' the' complaint' interaction' in' regard' to' the' causing'
problem,'the'provider'(personal)'and'the'consumer'himself.'
This' comparative' approach' allows' to' determine' whether' the' mo)
dalities'and'forms'of'the'relationship'between'the'social'space'and'
the'lifestyle'space'are'similar'in'the'five'countries'under'considera)
tion,' or' whether' they' differ' in' function' of' national' specificities.' In'
the' latter' case,' the' various' forms' of' homology' should' be' able' to'
shed'light'on'the'social'and'cultural'divisions'within'each'of'these'
countries.' The' microclass' scheme' will' be' used' to' measure' social'
position.'
DOES!MADEGINGITALY!STILL!MATTER!FOR!ITALIAN!
CONSUMERS?!
Ariela'Mortara
The' presentation' builds' on' an' empirical' research' project' about'
barriers'of'social'action'in'customer'complaints'due'to'online'shop)
ping'funded'by'the'German'Research'Foundation'since'April'2008.'
The' empirical' basis' of' the' research' consists' of' focus' interviews,'
documents,'self)reports'and'protocols'of'participant'observations.'
1'
1
IULM'UNIVERSITY,'Milan,'Italy
'
Abstract:' The' topic' of' country)of)origin' effect' (COO)' gained' the'
attention' of' marketing' scholars' in' the' early' ‘60s' (Schooler,' 1965)'
and'is'well'documented'in'the'literature'on'consumer’s'evaluation'
of' products' since' the' ’70' (Bilkey,' Nes' 1982).' In' recent' years' some'
authors'(Pharr,'2005)'have'argued'on'the'saliency'of'this'concept'in'
an'era'in'which'products'and'brands'are'progressively'more'global,'
and' multinational' corporations' prefer' not' to' emphasize' the' origin'
of' goods' since' they' routinely' delocalize' production' in' countries'
with' weaker' quality' image.' Moreover,' nowadays' many' consumers'
seem'to'be'unaware'of'the'made)in'of'the'products'they'buy'and,'if'
they' are' aware' of' it,' merge' these' information' with' other' clues' as'
price,'brand,'point'of'sales.'But'a'large'body'of'research'literature'
still' deals' with' this' topic' (Usunier,' 2006)' and' points' out' that,' in'
addition'to'its'role'as'a'quality'signal,'COO'has'symbolic'and'emo)
tional'meaning'to'consumers,'relating'a'product'to'national'identity'
(Fournier,'1998).'
Although' some' studies' explore' the' role' of' socio)demographics'
characteristics,' like' profession,' on' COO' (Chao,' Rajendran,' 1993),'
most'research'uses'convenience'sample,'often'groups'of'students,'
to'study'the'phenomenon.'The'aim'of'this'paper'is'to'present'some'
results'of'an'explorative'research'on'the'perception'of'Italian'con)
sumer' of' the' concept' of' Made' in' Italy' based' on' a' more' reliable'
sample:' 800' individuals,' representative' of' the' Italian' population,'
questioned'through'computer'assisted'telephone'interviews'(CATI).'
HOW!TO!IMPRESS!G!CUSTOMER!COMPLAINT!
MANAGEMENT!
Paul'Eisewicht
1
1'
Departement' of' Sociology,' KARLSRUHE'
'
TECHNOLOGY,'Karlsruhe,'Germany
INSTITUTE'
The'research'findings'are'reflected'and'embodied'in'the'context'of'
the'discourses'about'i)'complaining'as'a'distinctive'communicative'
practice,'ii)'the'recent'acceleration'of'mediatization'processes'as'a'
radical'change'in'the'scope'of'action'of'the'actors'and'the'course'of'
action'and'iii)'the'role'of'the'consumer'in'relation'to'the'provider'
and'other'consumers.'
OF'
Abstract:'Considering'the'relation'between'customer'and'provider'
the' sociology' of' consumption' normally' centres' on' the' purchase'
situation' and' the' related' services.' This' presentation' in' contrast'
focuses' on' situations' occurring' after' the' purchase' there' the' cus)
tomer'is'disappointed'in'his'expectations'of'the'product'and'seeks'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
PURCHASING!ATTITUDES!OF!ETHICAL!CONSUMERS!IN!
POLAND!
Agata'Kinga'Neale
1
1'
Sociology,'Jagiellonian'University,'Kraków,'Poland
'
Abstract:'Purchasing'attitudes'of'ethical'consumers'in'Poland'
Ethical' consumption' is' a' well' known' and' researched' practice' in'
Western'European'countries'but'in'the'case'of'Poland'it'is'still'not'a'
popular' mean' of' purchasing.' The' reasons' for' that' are' among' oth)
ers:' materialistically' oriented' mentality' of' the' Poles,' absence' of'
ethical'and'sustainable'consumption'related'subjects'in'school'cur)
riculum,' dearth' of' eco)friendly' laws' and' regulations.' Despite' this'
the'amount'of'consumers'dedicated'to'buying'sustainably'and'ethi)
cally' is' slowly' growing' in' number.' The' purpose' of' this' paper' is' to'
relate' issues' of' ethical' consumption' in' Poland' (such' as' availability'
and'accessibility'of'goods,'sources'of'knowledge,'the'lack'of'a'posi)
tive' attitude' to' the' problem' in' the' Polish' society)' to' a' theory' of'
attitudes,'situate'ethical'consumption'in'the'specific'economic'and'
political'context'of'Poland'and'show'how'such'consumption'is'be)
ing'viewed'and'practiced.'
Attitude' will' be' understood' as' a' model' with' three' components:'
cognitive,' emotional,' and' behavioral.' Ethical' consumption' will' be'
defined' as' ecologically' and' socially' sustainable' shopping' practices'
in'using'the'Earth’s'resources.'
The' empirical' data' of' the' study' were' collected' in' two' qualitative'
research'projects'done'in'2008'and'2011'among'respondents'who'
claimed' to' be' exclusively' responsible' buyers.' This' paper' presents'
the' results' of' the' study' of' the' projects' investigating' the' relations'
among' the' three' components' of' attitude.' The' study' mapped' rela)
tions'among'the'emotion'people'show'towards'the'general'idea'of'
sustainability,' ecological' and' ethical' consumption,' producers' and'
products' accessible' on' the' stores’' shelves,' the' expert' knowledge'
such'consumers'tend'to'have,'and'their'willingness'to'act'in'ethical'
ways'while'in'the'market'for'goods.'The'studies'have'shown'a'great'
will' of' ethical' Polish' consumers' to' purchase' ethically' and' a' great'
Abstract'Book'
107'
'
inability' to' do' so' on' a' large' scale' due' to' a' lack' of' ecological' and'
ethical'awareness'of'the'Polish'society'which'explains'lack'of'a'de)
sired' variety' of' products.' This' paper' will' answer' the' questions' of'
how' consumers' in' Poland' manage' to' continue' ethical' shopping'
while' encountering' many' difficulties' and' how' the' three' compo)
nents' of' the' attitude' model' interact' with' each' other' during' shop)
ping.'
As' I' go' on' to' show,' the' experience' of' doing' yoga' and' computer'
gaming'and'their'‘leisurely’'status'also'depends'on'how'these'prac)
tices' are' synchronised' and' coordinated' with' other' ‘non)leisure’'
activities' and' with' how' they' fit' into' more' comprehensive' systems'
of'practice.'
THE!CONCEPT!OF!WELLNESS!IN!MARKETING,!
RETAILING,!TOURISM,!AND!LEISURE!G!A!REVIEW!OF!
MAJOR!JOURNALS!
'1
'1
Miia'Katariina'Grénman ,'Juulia'Räikkönen ,'Heli'Marjanen
1'
1
Marketing,' UNIVERSITY' OF' TURKU,' TURKU' SCHOOL' OF'
'
ECONOMICS,'Turku,'Finland
Abstract:' Wellness' is' seen' as' one' of' the' key' drivers' of' consumer'
behavior' as' consumers' pursue' health,' well)being,' and' a' better'
quality'of'life.'As'people'are'putting'more'emphasis'on'health'and'
well)being,' the' commercial' wellness' market' is' growing' rapidly' (cf.'
wellness' revolution),' and' the' wellness' ideology' is' emphasized' in'
various'studies'concerning'future'society.'
Besides' wellness' consumption,' consumption' of' experiences' is' in)
creasing' as' individuals' function' in' multiple' social' worlds' creating'
identities,'seeking'new'ways'to'enjoy'life,'and'taking'care'of'them)
selves.' Wellness' consumption' is' considered' as' a' conscious' and'
active' pursuit' of' well)being,' whereas' a' wellness' consumer' can' be'
viewed' upon' as' an' active,' youthful,' and' healthy' individual' who'
takes' responsibly' for' his' own' well)being,' while' making' consump)
tion' choices.' In' the' wellness' market,' consumers' construct' their'
identities'by'purchasing'images'of'healthy,'beautiful,'youthful,'and'
trendy'selves.'
Although'health'and'well)being'are'increasingly'significant'motiva)
tors'in'consumer'behavior,'wellness'consumption'is'an'under'theo)
rized'and'researched'domain'in'academic'research.'The'purpose'of'
this'study'is'to'examine'wellness)related'research'within'the'fields'
of' marketing,' retailing,' tourism,' and' leisure.' In' short,' this' article'
identifies' the' research' themes' related' to' wellness,' published' in'
major'journals'of'each'discipline.'Due'to'the'commercial'nature'of'
previous'wellness'studies,'this'article'focuses'on'mapping'the'scien)
tific'knowledge'of'the'phenomenon.'Based'on'a'literature'review'of'
108' articles,' 14' research' themes' were' identified.' The' results' pro)
vide'an'overview'of'past'scientific'research,'explore'research'gaps,'
and'suggest'directions'for'future'research.'
ESCAPING!PRACTICES:!THE!SCHEDULING!OF!'LEISURE'!
PRACTICES!IN!EVERYDAY!LIFE.!
Stanley'Webster
1
1'
SOCIOLOGY,'LANCASTER'UNIVERSITY,'Lancaster,'United'Kingdom
rials,' skills' and' temporalities' associated' with' each' practice.' Alt)
hough' material' aspects' are' important' in' both' cases,' it' is' evident'
that' practices' are' not' simply' “scripted”' by' the' material' require)
ments' of' participation.' Rather,' routines' are' established' and'
changed' through' dynamic' processes' of' interaction' between' the'
material' and' the' embodied' skill' of' the' practitioner.' These' interac)
tions' are' important' for' how' participation' structures' daily' sched)
ules.'
'
Abstract:'This'paper'uses'social'theories'of'materiality'and'practice'
to'help'understand'the'socio)temporal'rhythm'of'everyday'life'and'
to'characterise'that'space'in'routine'which'is'often'denoted'as'‘lei)
sure’'time.'I'begin'by'asking'how'different'‘leisure’'practices'come'
to'be'scheduled'and'organised'within'various'routines.'Do'so)called'
‘leisure'practices’,'often'regarded'as'a'means'of'escaping'the'busy)
ness'of'everyday'life,'have'distinctive'temporalities'of'their'own?'
With'this'question'in'mind'I'discuss'the'experiences'of'people'en)
gaged'in'yoga'and'computer'gaming'and'analyse'the'various'mate)
Discussion'of'these'contrasting'cases'leads'me'to'question'the'utili)
ty'of'understanding'either'practice'as'an'inherently'‘leisurely’'pur)
suit.'In'addition,'comparison'between'them'allows'me'to'develop'a'
more' thorough' understanding' of' the' relation' between' materiality'
and' embodied' skill,' and' to' demonstrate' the' importance' of' this'
relation' in' establishing' and' maintaining' the' multiple' rhythms' and'
routines'of'which'daily'lives'are'made.'
FAMILY!(AND)!CULTURE:!THE!EFFECT!OF!EMBODIED,!
INSTITUTIONALIZED!AND!OBJECTIFIED!CULTURAL!
CAPITAL!WITHIN!THE!FAMILY!ON!CULTURAL!
PARTICIPATION!OF!ADOLESCENTS!
Mart'Willekens
1'
1
Sociology,'GHENT'UNIVERSITY,'Ghent,'Belgium
'
Abstract:' Bourdieu’s' theory' of' social' reproduction' states' that' cul)
tural'capital'is'passed'down'from'generation'to'generation'through'
the'habitus'that'Is'formed'within'the'family'of'origin.'This'cultural'
capital' presents' itself' in' three' different' states.' An' embodied' state'
(dispositions' and' practices),' an' institutionalized' state' (educational'
qualifications)' and' an' objectified' state' (cultural' goods).' In' this'
scheme,' the' presence' of' all' three' forms' of' cultural' capital' in' the'
family' should' have' a' great' impact' on' the' educational' careers' and'
cultural'participation'patterns'of'adolescents'in'those'families.'This'
paper' will' focus' on' cultural' participation' patterns' of' adolescents.'
Using' data' collected' at' the' household' level,' we' construct' a' multi)
level' structural' equation' model' with' the' presence' of' the' three'
forms'of'cultural'capital'in'the'family'as'“family'level'effects”'(with'
cultural'participation'patterns'and'education'level'of'both'parents'
and' cultural' goods' in' the' household' as' indicators' of' embodied,'
institutionalized' and' objectified' cultural' capital)' and' educational'
position'of'the'adolescents'as'a”'mediating'effect”'at'the'individual'
level.' This' way' it' is' possible' to' test' the' direct' effects' of' cultural'
capital' in' the' household' and' the' indirect' effects' through' educa)
tional'position'on'cultural'participation.'Other'individual'and'family'
level'variables,'like'gender,'age,'socio)economic'position'and'family'
composition'will'also'be'included'in'the'model'as'control'variables.'
We' use' data' from' the' ‘Cultural' Participation' Survey' 2003)2004’,' a'
large)scale' representative' population' survey' (3.144' face)to)face'
interviews'supplemented'with'3.757'paper'questionnaires'of'family'
members)'in'Flanders'(Belgium).'
GOVERNMENT!FUNDING!OF!CULTURE:!DOES!IT!SERVE!
CONSUMERS!OF!CULTURE?!
Tally'Katz)Gerro
1'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
108'
Abstract'Book'
1
Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'HAIFA,'Haifa,'Israel
'
Abstract:' The' literature' offers' two' main' ways' to' think' about' the'
relationship'between'public'funding'of'culture'and'social'inequality.'
One' approach' sees' the' state' as' responsible' for' providing' arts' and'
culture'as'merit'goods'that'are'considered'a'basic'right'for'citizens,'
and' posits' public' funding' as' an' equalizing' force.' The' other' ap)
proach'emphasizes'the'way'public'funding'of'culture'can'reproduce'
the'social'hierarchy'by'preserving'or'even'strengthening'inequality'
between'social'groups.'
We'maintain'that'public'funding'of'arts'and'culture'is,'at'least'to'a'
certain'extent,'responsive'to'societal'demographic,'economic,'and'
political'characteristics.'Therefore,'analysis'of'the'way'change'over'
time'in'public'funding'of'culture'is'associated'with'change'in'demo)
graphic,' economic,' or' political' characteristics' may' provide' insight'
into'the'two'cultural'policy'approaches'described'above.'
To' adjudicate' between' the' two' approaches,' we' collected' data' on'
public'funding'of'art'bodies'in'Israel'over'the'period'1960)2009.'We'
employed' time' series' analysis' to' model' the' ways' GDP' per' capita,'
mean'income,'mean'age,'percent'of'individuals'with'higher'educa)
tion,'ethnic'heterogeneity,'and'political'affiliation'of'the'minister'of'
culture,' are' associated' with' trends' in' public' funding' of' classical'
orchestras,'theaters,'opera,'and'dance'companies.'
We'find'that'change'over'time'in'funding'for'the'theater,'classical'
orchestras,'and'dance'companies'is'positively'associated'with'level'
of' education' and' with' size' of' the' underprivileged' ethnic' group' in'
Israel'(Mizrachi'Jews),'negatively'associated'with'income'level,'and'
has' an' insignificant' association' with' the' size' of' the' Ashkenazi'
group.'We'interpret'these'findings'in'the'context'of'the'merit'good'
and'the'hegemony'theories.'
VEBLEN!WAS!SO!RIGHT!!!ANALYZING!ADVERTIZING!
CAMPAIGNS!OF!THE!CONTEMPORARY!LUXURY!
SECTOR!IN!THE!LIGHT!OF!THE!THEORY!OF!THE!LEISURE!
CLASS.!
Alain'Philippe'Quemin
1
1'
Department'of'sociology,'UNIVERSITÉ'PARIS)EST,'Paris,'France
'
Abstract:'Although'Veblen'published'his'Theory/of/the/Leisure/Class'
in'1899,'we'would'like'to'show'in'this'presentation'that'the'analysis'
and'concepts'that'he'developed'in'his'brilliant'essay'are'still'most'
relevant'to'understand'advertising'campaigns'of'the'luxury'sector.'
Through' a' wide' selection' of' advertisements' published' mostly' in'
recent'French'luxury'and'fashion'magazines'or'other'titles'avertis)
ing'luxury'brands'such'as'Dior,'Chanel,'Yves'Saint'Laurent,'Vuitton,'
Hermès,'Prada,'Gucci,'Boss,'Michael'Kors'and'many'others,'we'will'
show' that,' although' advertising' and' marketing' are' essential' for'
creating'the'social'value'that'is'attributed'to'upscale'brands'and'to'
push'consumers'to'accept'high'prices,'the'imagination'of'advertis)
ing'agencies'seems'very'limited'in'the'luxury'field'and'mostly'refers'
to'a'very'limited'number'of'codes'that'express'strong'social'norms.'
Besides,'even'today,'these'norms'that'make'it'possible'to'sell'luxu)
ry'goods'are'very'close'to'some'concepts'that'were'central'in'Thor)
stein'Veblen’s'Theory/of/the/Leisure/Class.'
Ostentatious' leisure' is' massively' expressed' by' the' archetype' of'
extremely' thin' women' wearing' stilettos' (very' high' heal' shoes)' in'
front'on'swimming'pools'or'by'the'sea'(when'the'swimming'pools'
are'not'located'by'the'sea…),'doing'nothing'and'expressing'obvious'
bore.'Ostentatious'spoil'is'also'expressed'in'diverse'ways.'Second)
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
ary'leisure'class'appears'in'a'wide'range'of'situations'showing'serv)
ants'serving'their'masters.'However,'the'most'striking'example'will'
be' that' of' animals' and' especially' pets.' The' number' of' animals' in'
advertisements' for' luxury' goods' is' surprising' and' nearly' always'
tends'to'underline'the'master'or'the'mastress’s'power.'As'Veblen'
put' it,' no' other' animals' are' more' represented' than' horses' and'
especially'dogs,'as'the'latters'are'both'useless'and'perfectly'express'
total'obedience'to'their'masters.'
The'communication'will'be'illustrated'with'a'Powerpoint'presenta)
tion'of'dozens'of'advertisements'to'try'and'show'both'the'extreme'
concentration'of'themes'in'the'campaigns'for'luxury'goods'and'the'
striking'relevance'of'the'Veblenian'analysis.'
CLASSGCULTURAL!DISTINCTIONS!ON!THE!DRESSED!
BODY:!A!CASE!STUDY!ON!THE!CONSUMPTION!AND!
EMBODIMENT!PRACTICES!OF!TURKISH!MIDDLE!CLASS!
WOMEN!
Irmak'Karademir'Hazir
1'
1
Sociology,' UNIVERSITY' OF' MANCHESTER,' MANCHESTER,' United'
'
Kingdom
Abstract:'This'research'intends'to'analyze'whether'social'class'and'
cultural'capital'structure'taste'patterns'and'consumption'practices'
in' the' area' of' the' “dressed' body”' in' Turkey.' While' exploring' the'
consumption'patterns'in'relation'to'body'and'clothing,'the'research'
focuses' not' only' to' the' point' of' purchase' but' to' the' consumption'
practice'as'a'process'including'the'formations'of'taste,'judgment'of'
tastes,'transmissions'of'tastes'from'family'and'their'symbolic'pow)
er' in' daily' life.' The' analysis' draws' on' the' in)depth' interviews' held'
with' 43' women' living' in' three' socioculturally' diverse' middle' class'
neighbourhoods' in' Ankara/Turkey.' The' limited' number' of' con)
sumption'and'class'studies'in'Turkey'mostly'focuses'on'the'secular'
upper'middle'class'and'very'recently'on'the'religious'upper'middle'
classes.' However' unlike' them,' the' snowball' sample' of' this' study'
reflects' both' the' vertical' (upper)lower)' and' the' horizontal' (con)
servative/covered' and' secular/uncovered)' divisions.On' theoretical'
grounds,' the' research' reveals' that,' contrary' to' reflexive' embodi)
ment' and' individualization' thesis' suggest,' the' impact' of' cultural'
capital' and' class' still' persists' in' the' patterning' of' tastes' and' con)
sumption'practices'on'the'domain'of'body'and'clothing.'The'narra)
tives'of'the'women'prove'that'‘unreflexive’'embodiments'do'have'
symbolic' power' and' do' create' cultural' exclusions' and' inequalities'
on' other' fields' of' daily' life.' On' the' other' hand,' contextual' conclu)
sion' of' the' research' contrasts' to' a' widely' accepted' argument' in'
Turkey' which' suggests' the' religious/secularist' divide' as' the' main'
patterning' of' cultural' divisions' and' differential' embodiments' in'
Turkey.' The' analysis' of' the' themes' identified' regarding' the' judg)
ments' of' tastes;' such' as' modern' vs.' traditional,' necessity' vs.' aes)
thetic,' ordinariness' vs.' originality,' proposes' that,' although' inter)
twined'at'certain'points'with'secular)religious'divide,'class'is'a'sali)
ent'crosscutting'category'that'shapes'the'cultural'stratification'and'
divisions' on' the' dressed' body' which' continues' to' be' one' of' the'
most'visible'and'symbolically'value'laden'domain'of'consumption.'
COMPENSATED!DATING!IN!RUSSIA:!THE!
COMMODIFICATION!OF!INTIMACY?!
Christopher'Scott'Swader
1'
Abstract'Book'
109'
'
1
Sociology,' NRU' )' HIGHER' SCHOOL' OF' ECONOMICS,' MOSCOW,'
'
Moscow,'Russian'Federation
Abstract:'“Compensated'dating,”'is'an'exchange'whereby'intimacy,'
mainly' in' a' sexual' form,' is' exchanged' for' material' compensation,'
often'in'the'form'of'gifts.'It'has'been'described'in'detail'in'Japan,'
where'it'is'known'by'the'Japanese'term'“Enjo'Kosai.”'Most'often,'it'
involves' school)aged' girls' who' engage' in' intimate' acts' with' older'
men'in'order'to'receive'payments'or'a'gift.'Evidence'from'Russian'
dating'websites,'blogs,'and'forums'shows'that'a'similar'practice'has'
begun' to' penetrate' the' Russian' dating' market' as' well.' In' one' ver)
sion,' men' are' expected' to' take' their' partners' shopping' on' the'
morning'after'a'one)night)stand.'In'another'example,'a'woman'tells'
a'man,'“Well,'I'do'not'like'you,'but'I’ll'be'with'you'if'you'take'me'to'
Rome'for'the'weekend.”'In'its'long)term'forms,'it'takes'the'form'of'
“sponsoring,”' where' the' woman' earns' a' regular' income' in' ex)
change' for' her' monogamous,' primarily' sexual,' relationship' with' a'
man.'This'paper'approaches'the'topic'theoretically'using'the'lens'of'
commodification,' whereby' something' previously' not' bought' and'
sold' on' the' marketplace' (such' as' intimacy' and' physical' pleasures)'
comes' to' be' so.' Yet,' since' compensated' dating' does' not' always'
involve'direct'monetary'exchanges,'it'is'rather'a'“grey'area,”'a'qua=
si=commodification'taking'place'as'a'form'of'barter.'It'appears'as'a'
spillover'effect'of'the'commercialization'of'sex'into'the'neighboring'
sphere'of'dating.'Why'do'such'exchanges'occur'in'lieu'of'a'mone)
tary'transaction?'Evidence'from'both'online'sources'and'from'real)
world'“speed'dating”'investigations'describes'compensated'dating'
as'a'hybrid'practice'located'between'commercial'sex'and'romantic'
love,'yet'distinct'from'both.'
information' on' the' organisation' of' everday' life,' engagement' with'
legitimate'culture,'cultural'activities'and'taste.'As'there'are'differ)
ent'ethnic'groups'living'in'this'neighbourhood,'the'role'of'ethnicity'
on' the' organisation' of' the' cultural' field' is' considered.' Similarly,'
there'a'ethnographic'studies'that'highlights'Islamism'among'work)
ing'classes'in'Turkey'(White:'2002;'Tugal'2009).'Hence,'the'role'of'
religion' on' cultural' practices' of' working' class' is' also' considered.'
Furthermore,'while'the'cultural'practices'of'working'class'is'identi)
fied,' the' production' of' subjectivity' in' relation' to' class' will' be' con)
sidered.' Indeed,' as' class' is' central' to' how' these' people' live' their'
lives,'the'study'considers'not'just'locating'their'everyday'practices,'
but' ‘the' emotional' politics' of' class’' (Skeggs' 2001:75).' Drawing' on'
the' ethnography,' the' paper' will' show' the' ways' in' which' class'
opeartes'subjectively'within'daily'practices'of'the'working'class.'
Key' Words:' working' class,' culture,' subjectivity,' ethnicity' and' reli)
gion.'
Skeggs,'B.'2001.'Formations/of/Class/and/Gender,'London:'Sage.'
Tugal,'C.'2009.'Passive/Revolution:/Absorbing/the/Islamic/Challenge/
to/Capitalism,'Stanford:Stanford'University'Press.'
White,'J.'2002.'Islamist/Mobilisation/in/Turkey,'Washington:'Wash)
ington'University'Press.'
CONSUMING!COMPETENTLY!IN!POSTGSOCIALIST!
SPACES:!THE!MORAL!ECONOMIES!OF!SOCIAL!
REPRODUCTION!
'1
'2
Jeremy'Bryan'Morris ,'Kathryn'Cassidy '
MANAGING!OVERWEIGHT:!CLASS!AND!GENDER!
PERSPECTIVES!ON!EMBODIED!EXPERIENCE!AND!
EVERYDAY!PRACTICES!
'1
'2
Lotte'Holm ,'Louise'Hardman'Smith '
1
Institute' of' Food' and' Resource' Economics,' COPENHAGEN'
2
UNIVERSITY,' Frederiksberg' C,' National' centre' for' research' in' the'
'
work'life,'Copenhagen,'Denmark
Abstract:' Based' on' life' history' interviews' with' twenty' men' and'
women' who' have' experienced' overweight' or' obesity,' this' paper'
will' discuss' how' the' experience,' the' conceptualization' and' the'
managing'of'overeweight'is'differentiated'according'to'gender'and'
class'(in'terms'of'educational'background).'The'data'stems'from'a'
Danish' explorative' study,' which' was' part' of' a' project' addressing'
social'inequality'of'overweight'and'obesity.'The'analysis'is'inspired'
by' Watson’s' dimensions/ of/ embodiment' and' it' highlights' how' the'
experience' and' normative' conceptualization' of' such' dimensions'
vary' between' different' individuals.' The' study' also' underlines' how'
material' and' social' resources' influence' if' and' how' bodily' over)
weight'is'considered'a'problem'to'be'addressed'by'the'individual'
CLASS,!CULTURE!AND!EXCLUSION!IN!A!WORKING!
CLASS!NEIGHBOURHOOD!IN!TURKEY!
Meltem'Karadag
1
1'
Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'GAZIANTEP,'Gaziantep,'Turkey
'
Abstract:' This' paper' is' on' the' working' class' and' culture.' It' will' be'
based' on' interviews' with' working' class' members' in' the' working'
class' neighourhood' of' Gunes' in' Gaziantep,' Turkey.' It' has' been' an'
on' going' project,' and' in)depth' interviews' were' used' to' capture'
1
Centre' for' Russian' and' East' European' Studies,' UNIVERSITY' OF'
2
BIRMINGHAM,' Birmingham,' School' of' Geography,' Queen' Mary,'
'
University'of'London,'London,'United'Kingdom
Abstract:'This'paper'adds'to'the'growing'body'of'literature'on'con)
sumption' in' post)socialist' Europe.' By' drawing' on' ethnographic'
material' from' Russia' and' Ukraine' it' describes' the' processes' by'
which' everyday' practices' of' consumption,' initially' developed' as' a'
result' of' constrained' economic' circumstances,' have' been' imbued'
with' cultural' and' moral' meanings.' We' argue' that' clear' notions' of'
what' it' is' to' be' a' ‘competent’' consumer' have' emerged' in' these'
contexts' and' are' produced' and' re)produced' through' specific' per)
formances'in'both'public'and'private'spheres.'
We'adopt'the'term'‘moral'economy’'(after'Scott'1976,'and'Thomp)
son'1991)'to'highlight'a'variety'of'social'and'cultural'values'relating'
to'consumption.'After'Graeber'(2002),'the'research'attempts'to'tie'
together' different' meanings' of' ‘value’' for' social' actors:' ‘values’' as'
social'and'cultural'dispositions'about'what'is'‘good’'or'‘fitting’'con)
sumption,'its'exchange)'and'use)'conceptions,'and'‘value’'in'terms'
of'performing'sameness'and'difference'through'consumption.'
We'explore'the'ways'in'which'the'values'linked'to'consumption'are'
shared' and' in' a' sense' ‘enforced’' in' both' of' the' fieldwork' sites;'
through' ‘performance’' of' consumption,' both' as' an' act' itself' in'
spaces'of'consumption,'but'also'in'other'public'and'private'spheres'
as'a'social'discourse.'In'doing'so,'we'draw'on'Judith'Butler’s'work'
on'the'creation'of'gender'norms,'(1990).'
‘Competent' consumption’' is' understood' as' a' set' of' interrelated'
routines'and'dispositions'structuring'a'‘moral'economy’'that'people'
take' part' in' through' choices' and' attitudes' towards' produc)
ing/consuming'and'the'meaning'of'goods.'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
110'
Abstract'Book'
THE!MORALISATION!OF!CONSUMPTION:!
CONTINUITIES!AND!DISCONTINUITIES!
Jens'Hälterlein
1'
1
Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'JENA,'Jena,'Germany
CULTURAL!CAPITAL!IN!ACTION!
'
Abstract:'In'my'paper'I'want'to'address'the'relation'between'mo)
rality' and' consumption' from' the' perspectives' of' social' theory' and'
social'history.'In'public'discourses'as'well'as'in'scientific'discourses'
(Michele'Micheletti,'Paul'Cloke,'Ulrich'Beck,'Nico'Stehr'etc.)'a'cur)
rently'occurring'moralisation'of'consumption'is'stated.'In'doing'so,'
it'is'often'assumed,'implicitly'or'explicitly,'that'so'far'consumption'
has'been'an'amoral'practice'aiming'at'the'pacification'of'needs'or'
the'symbolic'expression'of'identity.'Only'now,'due'to'the'ecological'
crisis'and'other'“arousing”'events'of'our'turbulent'times,'consump)
tion'has'become'a'question'of'morality.'However,'this'diagnosis'is'
ignoring' that' consumption' has' been' ever' since' the' objective' of'
social'policy'and'its'corresponding'risk'perceptions'and'has'experi)
enced'specific'forms'of'moralisation.'
A' reconstruction' of' these' moral' codes,' focussing' on' continuities'
and' discontinuities,' can' contribute' to' the' understanding' of' our'
present'(consumption).'Thus,'for'example,'the'discourse'of'sustain)
able' consumption' can' be' understood' as' an' attempt' to' do' both'
initiating'a'transformation'of'patterns'of'consumption'according'to'
new' risk' perceptions' and' continuing' the' politics' of' social' integra)
tion'through'mass'consumption.'
The'theoretical'background'of'my'paper'is'based'on'the'conceptual'
tools,'methods'and'analytical'distinctions'of'governmentality/stud=
ies.' The' empirical' evidence' of' my' paper' is' based' on' a' discourse'
analysis'focussing'on'liberalism,'the'welfare'state'and'neoliberalism'
(already'carried'out'in'the'course'of'my'PhD'thesis)'and'findings'of'
the'history/of/consumption.'
THE!USE!OF!FOOD!BANKS!AND!THE!EXCLUSION!FROM!
THE!CONSUMPTION!SOCIETY!
Stephan'Lorenz
1
charity' work' doesn’t' bring' people' nearer' to' an' autonomous' con)
sumer'status.'
1'
FRIEDRICH'SCHILLER'UNIVERSITY,'Jena,'Germany
Joerg'Roessel
1'
1
Institute'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'ZURICH,'Zurich,'Switzerland
Abstract:/Cultural'Capital'in'Action'
There' is' a' twofold' perspective' on' cultural' consumption' in' sociolo)
gy.' On' the' one' hand' sociologists' focus' on' specific' social' determi)
nants'of'various'forms'of'cultural'participation'and'taste,'e.'g.'class,'
gender,'age'or'education.'On'the'other'hand,'there'is'an'emphasis'
on' the' relevance' and' the' consequences' of' cultural' consumption'
and'taste,'insofar'as'it'has'an'impact'on'educational'success,'labor'
market' position,' marital' choice' or' network' formation.' In' these'
fields'cultural'participation'and'taste'are'used'as'cultural'capital'to'
send'signs'of'high'status'and'to'draw'symbolic'boundaries'against'
groups'with'a'lower'status.'A'huge'array'of'survey)based'empirical'
studies'has'shown'the'relevance'of'cultural'capital'in'the'aforemen)
tioned'fields.'However,'there'is'a'dearth'of'research'that'analyzes'
the'impact'of'cultural'capital'on'the'level'of'micro)interactions'and'
thereby'elucidates'the'causal'mechanisms'that'link'cultural'capital'
on' the' one' hand' and' interactional' outcomes' on' the' other' hand.'
This' study' presents' results' from' group' discussions' about' movie'
preferences' with' more' than' 90' apprentices' and' college' students.'
On' this' empirical' basis' it' analyzes' the' interactional' outcomes' of'
different'levels'of'cultural'capital:'conversational'dominance,'group'
satisfaction'and'individual'mood'after'participation'in'the'conversa)
tion.' This' study' insofar' offers' exploratory' results' on' the' relevance'
of' cultural' capital' for' micro)level' outcomes' that' might' also' shed'
some' light' on' the' findings' of' more' meso)' and' macro)level' studies'
on'cultural'capital.'
CULTURAL!CONSUMPTION!OF!POP!MUSIC:!FANS’!
PLEASURE!IN!TEXT!OR!CONTEXT?!
'1
'
Abstract:'Food'banks'and'similar'organizations'have'been'becoming'
an' increasing' social' reality' in' most' European' countries' in' recent'
years.'They'are'working'at'the'edge'of'the'consumption'societies.'
On' the' one' hand,' they' collect' the' food' excess' that' systematically'
emerges' from' production,' retail' and' consumption' processes.'
Therefore'and'contrary'to'their'claim'of'fighting'food'waste'and'the'
‘throwaway' society’,' they' are' dependent' on' the' affluent' society.'
On' the' other' hand,' they' distribute' the' collected' goods' to' people'
who'are'excluded'from'(work'and)'consumption'to'a'large'extent.'
The' presentation' will' discuss' the' work' of' the' “Tafel”' initiatives' I'
have' researched' over' the' last' years.' The' “Tafel”' is' the' biggest' or)
ganization' in' Germany' that' works' on' food' bank' principles.' The'
initiatives' normally' use' a' market' communication,' e.g.' speaking'
about'“Tafel”'users'as'customers'or'referring'to'their'redistribution'
outlets' as' shops.' However,' no' one' would' use' the' “Tafel”' if' he' or'
she' did' not' have' problems' accessing' the' market' as' a' customer.'
Rather,' using' the' “Tafel”' shows' that' one' is' excluded' from' that.' I'
will'argue'that'“Tafel”'initiatives,'while'trying'to'be'helpful,'to'some'
extent' carry' the' exclusion' from' the' consumption' society.' Their'
market' communication' demonstrates' the' relevance' of' consump)
tion' especially' where' it' is' hardly' attainable.' However,' it' just' ne)
glects'the'disruption'of'real'market'access'as'a'customer,'and'their'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
'
'2
Massimiliano'Nuccio ,'Anna'Sgrina'D'Augusta '
1
2
università'Bocconi,'milano,' università'Bocconi,'milan,'Italy
'
Abstract:'Fandom,'after'being'negatively'depicted'as'pathology,'has'
been'reconsidered'and'emerged'as'a'complex'emotional,'participa)
tive'and'productive'experience.'However,'relevant'spaces'and'gaps'
still'remain'to'be'analyzed:'although'what/fans'do'has'been'investi)
gated' in)depth,' still' the' role' of' those' practices' in' relation' to' fans’'
pleasure'is'not'completely'clear.'If'a'limited'view'of'fandom'as'an'
excessive'consumption'of'popular'texts'has'been'challenged,'even'
a'limited'idea'of'fans’'pleasure'as'mainly'aroused'by'the'core'con)
sumption'of'a'text,'must'be'challenged.'This'work'aimed'at'investi)
gating'this'aspect,'specifically'in'reference'to'pop'music'fans:'does'
the'source'of'pleasure'lie'in'text,'that'is'in'music,'or'in'context,'in'
the'practices'of'fandom?'A'qualitative'analysis'has'been'conducted'
on' a' Madonna' fans' virtual' community,' through' netnography,' in)
depth' interviews' and' a' focus' group.' A' quantitative' research' fol)
lowed,'structured'on'the'basis'of'the'material'collected'through'the'
qualitative'analysis:'two'samples'have'been'confronted,'one'to'153'
fans,' community' members,' and' one' to' 80' non)fans,' pop' music'
consumers.' The' analysis' of' the' data' has' involved' descriptive' and'
inferential' statistics' and' revealed' important' differences' between'
fans'and'non)fans’'behavior'and'motivations.'In'particular,'the'hy)
pothesis'that'fans’'pleasure'is'mainly'excited'by'the'context'of'fan)
Abstract'Book'
111'
'
dom,'rather'than'by'text'(music),'has'been'accepted,'contrarily'to'
non)fans,' who' consider' text' as' the' most' important' element' for'
their'pleasure'and'satisfaction,'with'important'implications'on'how'
to'deal'with'these'two'groups'of'consumers.'
References'
Fiske,' J.' (1995).' Understanding' popular/ culture.' Fourth' impression'
(Original'edition'by'Unwin'Hyman'Ltd,'1989).'London:'Routledge.'
Frith,'S.'(1996).'Music/and/identity.'In'Hall,'S.'and'Du'Gay,'P.'(1996),'
Questions/of/cultural/identity.'London:'Sage.'
Grey' J.' (2007).' Fandom:/ identities/ and/ communities/ in/ a/ mediated/
world./New'York'and'London:'New'York'University'Press.'
Jenkins,' H.' (2008).' Fan,/ blogger/ e/ videogamers:/ l'emergere/ delle/
culture/ partecipative/ nell'era/ digitale/ (Original' edition:' Fans,/ blog=
gers,/ and/ gamers:/ exploring/ participatory/ culture./ New' York:' New'
York'University'Press,'2006).'Milano:'Franco'Angeli.'
Lewis,' L.' (1992).' The/ adoring/ audience:/ fan/ culture/ and/ popular/
media.'London:'Routledge.'
Sandvoss,' C.' (2005).' Fans:/ the/ mirror/ of/ consumption.' Cambridge:'
Polity'Press.'
“HIGH!CULTURE!IS!AN!ARROGANT!NAME”!UNEASE!
WITH!CULTURAL!HIERARCHIES!IN!THE!NETHERLANDS!
Marcel'van'den'Haak
1'
1
Amsterdam' Institute' for' Social' Science' Research,' UNIVERSITY' OF'
'
AMSTERDAM,'Amsterdam,'Netherlands
Abstract:' In' my' PhD' project' ‘Perceptions' of' cultural' hierarchies’' I'
researched'to'what'extent'present)day'Dutch'people'rank'cultural'
objects'in'a'hierarchical'way,'i.e.'in'terms'of'‘high’'and'‘low'culture’.'
How' do' the' hierarchies' people' perceive' relate' to' their' personal'
tastes?' Do' people' look' down' on' other' one’s' taste' (distinction,'
Bourdieu),'do'they'look'up'to'it'(cultural'goodwill,'Bourdieu),'or'do'
they' perceive' tastes' as' equal' (which' would' be' a' logical' but' not'
necessary'consequence'of'the'rise'of'‘cultural'omnivores’,'e.g.'Pe)
terson)?' And' how' do' these' perceptions' and' attitudes' vary' along'
education'level,'parents’'background,'age,'and'sex?'Starting'point'is'
that'a'cultural'hierarchy'is'no'objective'fact,'but'a'social'construc)
tion.'
In'2009'and'2010'I'conducted'semi)structured'interviews'with'nine)
ty,' mostly' randomly' selected,' people' from' the' Netherlands' (Am)
sterdam' and' surroundings).' These' interviews' dealt' with' people’s'
likes'and'dislikes'(in'five'cultural'disciplines:'music,'film'&'TV'fiction,'
theater,'visual'arts),'their'knowledge'of'and'opinion'on'other'peo)
ple’s'tastes,'and'concrete'concepts'such'as'‘high’'and'‘low'culture’'
and'‘good’'and'‘bad'taste’.'All'interviews'ended'with'the'ranking'of'
thirty'cards'with'names'from'the'field'of'music'(such'as'composers'
and'singers),'according'to'(1)'people’s'own'taste,'and'(2)'their'hier)
archical'perception.'
The'quantitative'analysis'of'this'card'ranking'shows'that'most'peo)
ple' –' regardless' of' education' or' age' –' recognize' a' cultural' hierar)
chy,'and'that'there'is'much'consensus'on'the'nature'of'this'hierar)
chy.'In'broad'strokes:'classical'music'is'generally'perceived'as'high'
culture;'Dutch'language'music'as'low'culture.'This'hierarchy'is'very'
much'similar'to'the'taste'ranking'of'older'higher'educated'people,'
and'opposite'to'the'taste'of'younger'lower'educated'people.'
Qualitative' analysis' of' the' interviews' however' shows' that' many'
people'are'ambivalent'about'this.'On'the'one'hand'they'recognize'
a'hierarchy'and'they'often'openly'distinguish'themselves'from'(or'
look' up' to)' other' people,' but' on' the' other' hand' many' downplay'
their' own' statements,' resist' the' high/low' distinction,' and' hold' a'
relativistic' view' instead.' This' ambivalence' and' unease' with' hierar)
chies' might' be' typical' for' a' more' egalitarian' society' such' as' the'
Netherlands'(cf.'Wouters,'Hjellbrekke).'
THE!‘CULTURAL’!AND!THE!‘ECONOMIC’!DIMENSIONS!
OF!POSITIONAL!GOODS:!SUPPLEMENTING!BOURDIEU!
WITH!SEN!
Dean'Curran
1'
1
Sociology,'Queen's'University,'Canada,'Kingston,'Canada
'
Abstract:'There'has'been'a'growing'tendency'to'subsume'the'‘eco)
nomic’'within'the'‘cultural’'in'all'fields'of'economic'sociology.'This'
paper'argues'that,'unless'the'(relative)'autonomy'of'the'economic'
from' the' cultural' is' preserved,' certain' key' dimensions' of' power'
relations' in' contemporary' neo)liberal' societies' will' be' neglected.'
This'general,'theoretical'point'may'be'substantiated'through'a'field'
of' study' which' has' primarily' applied' a' cultural' approach,' that' of'
consumption.' Through' building' upon' Amartya' Sen’s' insight' that'
consumption' is' also' ‘productive’' –' and' Sen’s' replacement' of' the'
view' that' commodities' simply' yield' “utility”' –' with' an' account' of'
what'are'some'of'the'specific'roles'that'material'goods'play'in'ful)
filling' one’s' key' ends,' this' paper' outlines' a' renewed' account' of'
positional'goods.'By'exploring'the'central'theme'of'Bourdieu’s'So=
cial/ Structures/ of/ the/ Economy,' namely' the' question' of' housing,'
through' the' ‘economic’' lens,' and' doing' so' specifically' with' regard'
to'how'both'the'“exchange'entitlement”'of'one’s'resources'and'the'
adequacy' of' one’s' commodities' to' one’s' purposes' are' fundamen)
tally'socially'contingent,'key'dimensions'of'the'scope'of'positional'
goods,' and' hence' power' relations,' can' be' identified' that' are' not'
accounted' for' by' cultural' approaches' such' as' Veblen’s' and' Bour)
dieu’s.'Consequently,'in'affirming'the'dual'importance'and'relative'
autonomy' of' the' economic' and' the' cultural,' this' paper' suggests'
that' only' an' approach' that' retains' the' full' contribution' that' both'
the'‘cultural’'and'the'‘economic’'makes'to'contemporary'consump)
tion' can' illuminate' the' relation' between' consumption,' stratifica)
tion,'and'power'in'contemporary'societies.'
DO!ETHICAL!MOTIVATIONS!FOSTER!ETHICAL!FASHION!
CONSUMPTION?!AN!EXPLORATIVE!RESEARCH!
'1
Ariela'Mortara ,'Simona'Ironico
1
IULM'UNIVERSITY,'Milan,'Italy
1'
'
Abstract:'Fair'trade'fashion,'second'hand,'vintage,'eco)fashion,'and'
swapping'represent'different'facets'of'ethical'fashion.'According'to'
a' previous' study' carried' out' by' the' authors,' ethical' fashion' con)
sumers'are'driven'by'different'motivations'(hedonic,'utilitarian'and'
ethical)'often'coexisting'in'the'same'person.'The'relevance'of'each'
of'these'motivations'is'different'according'to'the'different'kinds'of'
ethical'fashion,'so'that'it'is'not'easy'to'evaluate'to'what'extent'they'
influence'consumer'behavior'and'the'purchase'decision.'
This'contribution'presents'the'preliminary'results'of'an'explorative'
quantitative' research' aimed' at' understanding' the' reciprocal' im)
portance' of' utilitarian,' hedonic' and' ethical' motivations' in' the' dif)
ferent'forms'of'ethical'fashion'consumption.'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
112'
Abstract'Book'
The'survey'has'been'conducted'on'a'convenience'sample'of'ethical'
fashion' consumers' using' an' on)line' questionnaire' developed' ac)
cording'to'the'findings'of'the'previous'qualitative'research’s'phase.'
THE!CONSUMER!BOYCOTT!IN!EUROPE:!AN!EMPIRICAL!
ANALYSIS!FOCUSED!IN!SOME!EUROPEAN!COUNTRIES!
Ramon'Llopis)Goig
1'
1
Department' of' Sociology,' UNIVERSITY' OF' VALENCIA,' Valencia,'
'
Spain
Abstract:'In'the'past,'the'job'provided'the'worker'with'the'central'
axis'of'the'formation'of'his/her'identity,'as'well'as'the'ability'to'act'
as' a' counterforce' by' withdrawing' the' work' effort' through' the' or)
ganized'strike.'But'this'role'played'by'work'as'the'basic'element'in'
the' formation' of' the' individual’s' identity' has' been' replaced' to' a'
large'degree'by'consumption,'as'the'previous'dialectic'is'being'in)
creasingly' impaired' by' the' lost' centrality' of' work,' but' also' by' the'
new'trans)border'mobility'of'capital.'Thus,'the'role'of'counterforce'
corresponds'more'and'more'to'the'global/civil/society,'and'especial)
ly'to'the'figure'of'the'political/consumer,'whose'power'stems'from'
the'fact'that's/he'can'refuse'to'purchase'at'any'place'and'time.'This'
possibility'of'refusing'to'buy'constitutes'a'form'of'political/consum=
erism' whose' presence' has' begun' to' grow' in' European' societies' in'
the'past'few'years.'
This' communication' is' divided' into' three' main' sections,' although'
previously,'a'review'is'carried'out'of'the'main'theoretical'proposals'
based' on' which' the' study' of' the' consumer' boycott' can' be' ap)
proached:'as'a'form'of'political'protest;'as'an'expression'of'reflec)
tivity,'as'a'means'of'increasing'the'feeling'of'consumer'sovereignty;'
and'as'an'exercise'in'self)expression'and'a'challenge'to'the'charac)
teristic'elite'in'a'post)industrial'society.'After'these'theoretical'con)
siderations,' we' present' the' results' of' an' empirical' research' based'
on'the'last'wave'of'the'World'Value'Survey'which'provides'data'for'
the' majority' of' the' countries' of' the' world.' First,' we' quantify' the'
share' of' consumer' boycotts' that' people' carry' out' in' the' different'
countries'of'Europe.'Second,'we'explore'the'social'profile'of'people'
who'is'involved'in'such'behaviours,'analysing'the'influence'of'sev)
eral'socio)demographic'and'ideological'variables.'Third,'we'present'
several' statistical' analysis' which' test' the' hypothesis' and' assump)
tions'introduced'in'the'theoretical'frame.'We'use'various'multivari)
ate'statistical'techniques'to'achieve'the'aforementioned'objectives'
UNITED!WE!BUY:!NEW!CONSUMER!ORGANIZATIONS!
FOR!A!SUSTAINABLE!FUTURE.!THE!CASE!OF!THE!GAS!–!
GRUPPI!DI!ACQUISTO!SOLIDALI!(SOLIDARITYGBASED!
PURCHASE!GROUPS).!
'1
'2
'3
Francesca'Forno ,'Cristina'Grasseni ,'Silvana'Signori '
1
Department' of' Language,' Communication' and' Cultural,'
3
Department' of' Human' Sciences,' Department' of' Business' Admin)
'
istration,'UNIVERSITY'OF'BERGAMO,'Bergamo,'Italy
2
Abstract:'More'and'more'often'consumers'are'considered'as'both'a'
cause' and' a' possible' solution' to' consumption)related' problems.'
Within' this' line' of' reasoning' the' growth' of' so)called' "critical' con)
sumption"'in'recent'years'has'generated'considerable'interest'(and'
hope).'Many'of'the'studies'on'the'subject,'however,'have'analyzed'
this' phenomenon' by' focusing' mainly' on' the' individual' consumer'
and'on'his/her'motivations.'Little'attention'has'instead'been'placed'
on'organized'forms'of'“political'consumerism”'–'such'as'groups'of'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
citizens'that'promote'consumption'as'a'critical'means'of'achieving'
greater'social'and'environmental'justice.'
The'paper'will'focus'on'some'new'grassroots'initiatives'promoting'
alternative'forms'of'consumption'as'a'way'to'protect'the'environ)
ment'and'the'right'of'workers,'which'have'been'very'successful'in'
Italy'in'the'latest'decade.'Born'in'1994,'according'to'the'census'of'
the' National' GAS' network,' “Solidarity)based' Purchase' Groups”' (or'
“Gruppi' di' Acquisto' Solidale”,' GAS),' count' today' more' than' 700'
groups.' Their' estimate' is' that' about' 75.000' people' buy' food' and'
other' environmentally' friendly' products' collectively' privileging' fair'
trade' goods' and' organic' and' local' foods' which' they' buy' directly'
form' farmers,' pursuing' the' goal' of' responsibly' collaborating' with'
the' producers' and' managing' the' financial' and' logistic' aspects' of'
bulk)buying'on'a'voluntary'basis.'Their'criteria'for'selecting'produc)
ers' flag' up' respect' for' the' environment' and' solidarity,' both'
amongst' group' members' and' with' the' producers.' Nevertheless,'
such' criteria' are' interpreted' and' appropriated' on' a' strictly' local'
basis.'
From' many' points' of' view,' GAS' are' an' important' case' study' for'
understanding' the' mechanisms' and' decisional' processes' through'
which' citizens' can' enter' into' a' cooperative' relationship' amongst'
themselves' and' with' individual' producers' or' networks' of' produc)
ers,'aiming'for'reciprocal'benefit'on'a'concrete'basis,'namely'modi)
fying' the' production' processes' towards' a' higher' sustainability.'
GAS’s'purchase'preferences'are'sometimes'determinant'in'provid)
ing'a'survival'opportunity'to'small'businesses'or'farms.'
The'paper'will'present'the'results'of'the'first'step'of'a'more'com)
prehensive'multi)'and'inter)disciplinary'project.'In'particular'it'will'
focus'on'a'quantitative'study'aimed'at'“mapping”'the'GAS'and'their'
members.'
VOLUNTARY!SIMPLICITY!AS!A!RESPONSE!TO!SOCIALG!
ENVIRONMENTAL!CRISES!IN!AN!ERA!OF!CAPITALISM!
AND!CONSPICUOUS!CONSUMPTION!
Einat'Zamwel
1'
1
Sociology' and' Anthropology,' BAR' ILAN' UNIVERSITY,' Ramat' Gan,'
'
Israel
Abstract:' This' study' examines' the' choice' of' simple' living' and' ab)
stention'from'consumption'as'a'new'type'of'political'consumption'
and'as'a'mechanism'of'social'change'and'expression'of'opinion.'By'
studying'Israelis'that'have'chosen'a'lifestyle'of'voluntary'simplicity,'
the'paper'asks'what'social,'political'and'personal'implications'these'
consumers'attribute'to'their'abstention'from'consumption.'This'is'a'
work'in'progress'whose'initial'findings'are'presented'here.'
Voluntary' simplicity' is' a' way' of' life' that' offers' an' alternative' to'
capitalist' consumption' culture,' whose' basic' tenet' is' to' minimize'
consumer' activity' as' much' as' possible.' This' is' a' personal' practice,'
done' in' the' private' sphere;' however,' it' belongs' to' a' wider' phe)
nomenon'of'alternative'consumption'whose'increased'prominence'
is' attributed' to' consumers’' response' to' environmental,' social' and'
economic' crises' of' the' past' two' decades,' as' well' as' to' individual'
crises'stemming'from'enslavement'to'capitalist'lifestyle.'
This'paper'is'based'on'interpretive'analysis'of'interviews'with'thirty'
alterative'consumers'that'have'chosen'different'degrees'of'reduced'
consumption.'
The' findings' show' that' these' consumers' employ' a' universal)
environmental,'thus'political'rhetoric,'while'the'immediate'consid)
Abstract'Book'
113'
'
erations'for'this'choice'of'this'lifestyle'are'mainly'individualistic.'My'
main' claim' is' that' their' consumption' patterns' attest' to' creativity'
and' change' compared' to' conventional' consumption' patterns.'
However,'while'the'literature'refers'to'the'choice'of'voluntary'sim)
plicity'as'a'means'to'financial,'social'and'environmental'change,'the'
consumers'focus'on'the'change'itself'and'see'it'as'an'end'in'and'of'
itself.'
FOOD!IN!THE!FAMILY:!BRINGING!YOUNG!PEOPLE!
BACK!IN!
Geoffrey'Hunt
1
INSTITUTE'FOR'SCIENTIFIC'ANALYSIS,'alameda,'United'States
'
Abstract:'This'paper'examines'the'practices'and'beliefs'about'eat)
ing'within'the'family'in'the'narratives'of'
30'“at)risk”'adolescent'girls'in'the'San'Francisco'Bay'Area.'We'ex)
amine'traditional'notions'of'the'family'meal'and'question'the'liter)
ature's'tendency'to'portray'the'family'as'a'single'unit'of'consump)
tion.' In' examining' our' respondents'' households,' we' identify' a' di)
versity'of'structures,'few'of'which'conform'to'traditional'notions'of'
the' nuclear' family.' Household' food' purchasing' and' consumption'
activities' are' varied,' and' frequently' rely' upon' extended' family'
members'and'non)kin'relations'for'support.'We'identify'two'sets'of'
practices' and' meanings' associated' with' eating:' eating' alone,' and'
eating' with' others.' For' the' first' group,' eating' alone' is' symbolic' of'
independence'from'one's'family'of'origin,'serves'as'an'opportunity'
to'satisfy'individual'tastes'and'preferences,'or'can'be'the'result'of'
familial'conflict'at'the'dinner'table.'For'the'second'group,'although'
eating' with' the' entire' nuclear' family' rarely' occurs,' we' see' that'
these'young'girls'and'women'value'eating'with'family'when'it'hap)
pens,' and' make' attempts' to' incorporate' family' meals' into' their'
daily' lives.' This' active' agency' represents' an' involvement' that' has'
been'ignored'in'much'of'available'literature.'
POLARIZING!APPETITES?!STABILITY!AND!CHANGE!IN!
THE!CULINARY!CULTURES!IN!FINLAND,!1995G2007!
'1
THE!MORALITY!OF!FOOD!CONSUMPTION!
Jonas'Grauel
1'
Semi'Purhonen ,'Jukka'Gronow
ly'for'a'"normal"'weekday'main'meal'and'for'a'Sunday'main'meal.'
The' identified' culinary' cultures' are' analyzed' according' to' socio)
demographic' variables:' age,' gender,' education,' income,' marital'
status'and'residential'area.'Finally,'the'main'findings,'reflecting'the'
tensions'between'light'and'heavy,'global/ethnic'and'local/national,'
modern'and'traditional,'are'illustrated'by'excerpts'from'qualitative'
follow)up' interviews' collected' among' selected' respondents' of' the'
2007'survey'(N=28).'
1'
1
Department'of'Social'Research,'UNIVERSITY'OF'HELSINKI,'Helsinki,'
'
Finland
Abstract:'This'paper'analyzes'trends'in'culinary'cultures'in'Finland'
since'the'mid)1990s.'Because'the'period'is'characterized'by'a'rapid'
socio)cultural' change' of' Finnish' society' that' includes' important'
changes'also'in'the'area'of'food'and'eating,'it'is'reasonable'to'sup)
pose' that' changes' have' taken' place' in' culinary' cultures' and' taste'
patterns'related'to'food.'What'kind'of'culinary'cultures')'if'any')'can'
be'detected'in'Finland?'How'these'culinary'cultures'are'differenti)
ated' according' to' socio)demographic' characteristics?' Have' the'
shape'of'culinary'cultures'and'the'way'they'are'socially'structured'
changed'in'recent'years?'Drawing'upon'two'nationally'representa)
tive'survey'data'from'1995'(N=2,540)'and'2007'(N=1,388),'this'pa)
per' aims' to' answer' these' questions' by' operationalizing' culinary'
cultures'through'favourite'foods'and'most'typically'consumed'table'
beverages.' Both' data' included' identical' questions' on' favourite'
foods:' liking/disliking' for' a' list' of' different' dishes,' ranging' from'
global'and'ethnic'items'(Chateaubriand,'Chinese'food,'Greek'salad,'
pizza,' Wiener' schnitzel)' to' the' traditional' Finnish' dishes' made' of'
meat'("Karelian'hot'pot")'or'fish'("fried'sander").'In'addition,'both'
surveys'asked'about'the'most'often'consumed'beverage,'separate)
1'
1
Faculty' of' Philosophy,' Sociology,' UNIVERSITY' OF' SIEGEN,' Siegen,'
'
Germany
Abstract:' In' recent' years,' the' thesis' has' become' widespread' that'
everyday' consumption' is' more' and' more' structured' by' moral' or'
ethical' decisions.' However,' sociology' has' mostly' studied' splinter'
groups' of' self)appointed' “ethical' consumers”' until' now' (e.g.'
FairTrade)activists),' neglecting' the' broad' majority' of' consumers.'
My' paper' deals' with' the' morality' of' consumption' in' two' ways:'
First,'which'forms'of'moralization'in'relation'to'buying'and'consum)
ing' food' can' be' found?' Second,' can' types' of' consumption' morali)
ties'be'identified'and'how'are'they'grounded'in'social'structure?'
The' empirical' results' presented' can' be' fruitfully' linked' to' Bour)
dieu’s' theory' of' distinction:' While' morality' is' highly' fragmented,'
ambivalent' and' context)specific,' moral' orientations' towards' food'
consumption' can' be' found' for' all' cases' examined' across' different'
social' milieus.' On' the' one' hand' it' is' shown' that' moralizations' of'
others’' consumption' patterns' can' be' understood' on' the' back)
ground'of'social'position'and'capital'structure,'suggesting'that'even'
in'the'private'area'of'food'consumption'social'distinction'is'at'work.'
On' the' other' hand,' collective' forms' of' moral' consumption' seem'
also'to'be'negotiated'within'households.'These'results'suggest'that'
Bourdieu' was' wrong' to' neglect' the' role' of' morality' within' class'
struggles.'Results'also'imply'that'approaches'which'see'ethical'con)
sumption' primarily' as' a' search' for' personal' authentic' self)
expression'underestimate'the'social'embeddedness'both'of'morali)
ty'and'of'everyday'consumption.'
Evidence' is' based' on' a' series' of' semi)standardized' in)depth' inter)
views'with'consumers'from'a'medium)sized'town'in'Germany.'
CONSUMPTION!PRACTICES!AND!SOCIAL!MEDIA:!
BARBIE!CONSUMERS’!RITUALS!AND!RESISTANCE!
TACTICS!IN!FLICKR!
Roberta'Bartoletti
1'
1
Department' of' Communication' Sciences,' UNIVERSITY' OF' URBINO'
'
CARLO'BO,'Urbino,'Italy
Abstract:' In' the' debate' regarding' prosumerism,' we' should' recog)
nize'that'social'media'play'a'very'important'role.'A'prosumer'(Tof)
fler,'Ritzer)'is'a'consumer'who'self'produces'–'symbolically'and/or'
materially')'the'products'that'he'consumes.'In'this'paper'our'start)
ing' point' is' de' Certeau’s' concept' (1980)' of' “consumer’' tactics”,' in'
order' to' evaluate' if' social' media' can' be' considered' as' new' social'
places' where' consumers' can' act' as' prosumers,' in' different' ways.'
According' to' de' Certeau,' a' tactic' is' an' invisible' and' irreverent' use'
by' consumer' that' cannot' be' capitalized.' Are' social' media' new' so)
cial' places' where' consumers' can' capitalize' and' share' with' other'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
114'
Abstract'Book'
consumers' meanings,' relationship' styles,' skills' and' tricks,' cultural'
and'also'political'forms'of'resistance?'We'attempted'an'answer'to'
this'research'question'observing'the'practices'of'Flickr'users,'espe)
cially' regarding' those' who' produced' images' of' their' Barbie' dolls,'
that'is'to'say'consumers'publishing'and'sharing'them'in'the'social'
network'site.'We'analyzed'images'and'comments'in'order'to'reflect'
upon'prosumerism'practices'in'a'digital'environment.'
GENDER!IN!THE!KITCHEN:!FOOD!PRACTICES!IN!THE!
LIGHT!OF!ECONOMIC!SOCIOLOGY!
'1
'2
Livia'Barbosa ,'John'Wilkinson '
1
Center' Advanced' Studies:' Marketing' /' Consumption,' ESCOLA'
2
SUPERIOR'DE'PROPAGANDA'E'MARKETING,' CPDA'/Graduate'Cen)
'
ter,'Federal'Rural'University,'Rio'de'Janeiro,'Brazil
Abstract:/Paper'Proposal:'Summary'
Gender' in' the' Kitchen:' Cooking' Practices' in' the' Light' of' economic'
Sociology'
WHAT!IS!CLEAN?!ENACTING!CLEANLINESS!IN!
KITCHENS!AND!CLOSETS!
John'Wilkinson'
Livia'Barbosa'
Economic' sociology' has' identified' two' apparently' opposed' but' in'
practice' interdependent' dynamics' to' the' construction' of' markets.'
On' the' one' hand,' much' research' has' shown' the' extent' to' which'
markets' are' anchored' in' wider' practices,' often' identified' with' so)
cial'networks'and'the'notion'of'embeddedness.'On'the'other,'mar)
kets' are' argued' to' be' actively' framed' in' a' process' of' social' con)
struction' based' on' the' interests,' values' and' theories' of' engaged'
actors' making' them' relatively' immune' to' social' pressures.' We'
would'argue'that'it'is'the'mutual'interplay'of'these'two'processes'
which'best'explains'market'dynamics.'In'this'paper'we'look'at'the'
changing' gender' profile' of' cooking' practices' and' show' how' both'
these' processes' are' at' work' in' redefining' gender' partnerships' in'
the'kitchen.'The'analysis'is'based'on'a'nationwide'questionnaire'on'
food'practices'carried'out'in'Brazil'covering'ten'of'its'principal'cities'
and' a' series' of' in)depth' interviews' with' chefs' also' in' Brazil.' Our'
research' suggests' that' specific' strategies' of' market' construction'
are'continually'redefined'by'broader'social'practices'and'that'these'
latter' in' the' case' of' cooking' practices' point' to' the' greater' im)
portance' of' more' egalitarian' gender' relations' in' the' domestic'
kitchen.'A'similar'tendency'can'be'identified'in'the'increasing'chal)
lenge' to' the' male' appropriation' of' the' image' of' the' chef' as' artist'
and'star.'
UNDERSTANDING!THE!INTERSECTION!BETWEEN!CARE!
WORK!AND!CONSUMER!SOCIETY,!AS!SHAPING!LOWG
INCOME!MOTHER’S!PERCEPTIONS!ABOUT!THEIR!
CHILDREN’S!NEEDS!
Einat'Lavee
1
1'
sociology,'bar'Ilan'University,'Ramat'Gan,'Israel
material'support,'and'care'at'the'social'emotional'level.'The'essay'
examines' how' in' consumer' society,' low)income' mothers' also' per)
ceive' their' children’s' non)basic' needs' as' essential,' and' what' they'
do' to' fulfill' these' needs.' The' study’s' findings' are' based' on' 35' in)
depth'interviews'with'low)income'mothers.'The'findings'show'that'
these' women’s' perceptions' of' their' children’s' needs' are' derived'
from'the'concurrent'directives'of'consumer'society'and'the'mater)
nal' discourse,' which' requires' her' to' devote' her' entire' being.' The'
attempt' to' provide' for' the' children’s' emotional' and' social' needs'
often' entails' the' attainment' of' financial' resources' that' will' secure'
their' children’s' place' as' equal' and' worthy.' In' order' to' attain' the'
resources' that' will' enable' this' equality,' the' women' “stretch' the'
limits”' –' attempt' to' gain' financial' resources' in' various' different'
ways,' which' appear' to' be' difficult' and' detrimental' to' them.' The'
study'elaborates'on'the'phenomenon'of'latent'poverty,'presented'
by'Ruth'Lister,'and'examines'how'the'discourses'that'dictate'what'
motherhood' provides' in' a' consumer' society' exacerbate' the' wom)
en’s' personal' poverty,' and' how' gender' patterns' of' livelihood' and'
care'in'such'a'society'are'reshaped'
'1
Eivind'Jacobsen ,'Ingun'G.'Klepp
1'
1
NATIONAL' INSTITUTE' FOR' CONSUMER' RESEARCH' (SIFO),' Oslo,'
'
Norway
Abstract:/How'is'cleanliness'defined'and'enacted'by'ordinary'peo)
ple' with' regard' to' food' related' activities' in' kitchens' and' to' cloths'
and'their'cleaning'in'washrooms'and'inspection'in'wardrobes.'How'
are' standards' set' and' enacted' in' these' settings?' Are' there' sharp'
defining'lines'between'categories'of'cleanliness,'and'if'so,'how'are'
they'managed'in'practice?'How'is'gender'enacted,'and'what'roles'
and' tasks' are' assigned' to' non)humans' of' different' kinds?' For' in)
stance,'are'bacteria'enacted'in'these'processes,'and'if'so,'in'what'
ways?'
These'questions'will'be'discussed'taking'on'two'sets'of'qualitative'
data,' one' related' to' food' hygiene' practices' in' private' Norwegian'
kitchens'and'one'related'to'Norwegians’'private'management'and'
cleaning'of'cloths.'Both'the'kitchen'and'the'wardrobe'data'consists'
of'interviews'and'a'broad'set'of'handbooks,'surveys,'and'guides'on'
how'to'take'care'of'food'hygiene'as'well'as'how'to'wash'clothes.'
Though' the' discussions' are' explorative' in' their' intent' they' are'
heavily' inspired' by' literature' on' dirt' and' social' order' (Douglas'
1966),' on' rituals' of' cleanliness' (Shove' 2003)' related' to' ordinary'
consumption'(Gronow'and'Warde'2001)'within'everyday'practices'
(Schatzki'1996;'Shove'et'al.'2007),'and'on'the'role'of'artifacts'and'
their' enactment' as' discussed' in' the' tradition' of' ANT' and' material'
semiotics' (Akrich' 1992;' Law' 2004).' We' discuss' women’s' roles' in'
domestic' standard' setting' within' households' (cf.' Bianchi' et' al.'
2000).'Besides,'in'line'with'Halkier'(2001)'we'look'for'moral'ambi)
guities'within'everyday'consumption'practices.'
'
Abstract:'Capitalist'Western'society'is'a'consumer'society.'Individu)
als'living'in'poverty'that'are'unable'to'participate'in'the'consumer'
culture'suffer'not'only'from'real'material'depravity'but'from'social'
ostracism' as' well,' and' are' considered' ‘disposable’' in' Bauman’s'
terms.'This'study'focuses'on'how'single'parent,'low)income'moth)
ers' perceive' their' role' as' being' obligated' to' provide' for' their' chil)
dren’s' needs,' as' a' combination' between' an' obligation' to' provide'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
ENJOYMENT!IN!AN!AGE!OF!AUSTERITY:!GUILT,!
CONSUMPTION!AND!THE!END!OF!AFFLUENCE!
Colin'Cremin
1
1'
Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'AUCKLAND,'Auckland,'New'Zealand
'
Abstract'Book'
115'
'
Abstract:'The'commodity,'once'celebrated,'has'now'lost'something'
of'its'shine.'Instead'of'the'mantra'‘greed'is'good’'there'are'numer)
ous'‘talking'heads’'or'what'Antonio'Gramsci'called'organic'intellec)
tuals' raising' concerns' about' the' material' effects' of' the' system' on'
people'and'planet.'The'evident'concerns'of'prominent'sociologists'
about'climate'change,'inequality'or'even'state'violence'is'part'of'a'
wider' media' discourse' that' we' see' in' television' documentaries'
such'as'Blood,/Sweat/and/Tee=Shirts'about'child'labour'in'India,'high'
profile' campaigns' of' NGOs' and' news' coverage' on' anything' from'
poverty'in'Africa'to'the'devastation'wrought'by'natural'phenomena'
increasingly' linked' to' climate' change.' Fredric' Jameson' once' said'
that'‘the'underside'of'culture'is'blood,'death,'torture'and'horror.’'
Today,'the'hidden'relations'of'the'commodity'are'themselves'high)
lighted'by'the'very'agents'who'prosper'from'the'unsustainable'and'
unconscionable'exploitation'of'nature'and'labour'power.'
Slavoj' Žižek' speaks' of' ‘liberal' communists’' such' as' Bill' Gates' who'
disavow'their'role'in'perpetuating'inequality'through'small'acts'of'
generosity'towards'those'deemed'worthy'victims'of'capitalism.'But'
it'is'not'only'CEOs'who'appear'to'feel'guilty'about'their'relationship'
to' capital.' Consumers' too' are' increasingly' made' to' feel' guilty' for'
their'habits.'Apart'from'being'self)centred,'superficial'and'narcissis)
tic,' the' consumer' is' held' responsible' for' global' warming,' poverty'
and'now,'by'‘binging'on'easy'credit’,'economic'crisis.'A'straw'man'
has' many' uses,' including' being' ‘part' of' the' solution’' by' reducing'
‘carbon' footprints’,' consuming' ‘more' ethically’' and' tightening' the'
proverbial' belt.' ‘Desire’,' Deleuze' and' Guattari' said,' ‘is' shamed,'
stupefied…' it' is' easily' persuaded' to' deny' “itself”' in' the' name' of'
more' important' interests' of' civilisation’.' Developing' arguments'
from' my' 2011' book' Capitalism’s/ New/ Clothes,' the' paper' defends'
the' ‘consumer’' against' the' charge' that' it' must' take' responsibility'
for'its'own'excessive'desires.'
ORGANIZED!CONSUMPTION:!BUYING!FAIR!AND!THE!
“FAIR!TRADE”!MOVEMENTS!IN!WESTERN!EUROPE!
Sebastian'Koos
1
1'
Universität'Mannheim,'Mannheim,'Germany
'
Abstract:'Fair'trade'commodifies'normative'standards,'by'setting'a'
“just”'price'above'the'market'average'to'support'deprived'produc)
er'groups.'Explanations'of'why'consumers'are'willing'to'pay'such'a'
premium'have'mostly'focused'on'individual'consumer'motives,'like'
consumers’' ethical' identity' or' post' materialist' value' orientations'
(e.g.' De' Pelsmacker' and' Janssens,' 2007;' Shaw' 2005).' This' paper'
employs' a' different' perspective' in' highlighting' the' organizational'
embeddeness'of'fair'buying.'Fair'Trade'consumption'is'perceived'as'
an' organizational' phenomenon,' where' social' movement' organiza)
tions' provide' opportunities' for' fair' buying' and' try' to' shape' con)
sumers’' understandings' of' fair' market' exchange.' Fair' trade' move)
ments'in'Western'Europe'differ'in'the'way'they'organize'and'mar)
ket'fair'traded'goods.'Drawing'on'social'movement'theories'of'eco)
nomic' opportunity' structures' and' framing,' it' is' elaborated' how'
organizations'and'ways'of'organizing'shape'consumption'patterns.'
Hypotheses' are' empirically' tested' using' a' quantitative' multilevel'
design.'Organizational'data'on'national'fair'trade'movements'com)
piled' from' an' organizational' survey' of' the' European' Fair' Trade'
Association' is' combined' with' individual' level' survey' data' of' the'
1997' Eurobarometer' for' 14' European' countries.' Logistic' hierar)
chical'regression'models'reveal'the'crucial'importance'of'the'organ)
izational' communication' efforts' as' well' as' the' importance' of' the'
distribution'channels'for'individual'fair'trade'consumption.'A'com)
plementing'second'analysis'using'aggregate'measures'of'per'capita'
Fair'Trade'consumption'for'the'year'2007'provides'evidence'for'the'
persistent'effect'of'organizational'determinants.'
THE!PLACE!OF!ANIMALS!IN!POLITICAL!CONSUMPTION:!
EXPLORING!CITIZENGCONSUMER!POSITIONS!IN!FARM!
ANIMAL!ISSUES!
'1
'2
'3
Saara'Kupsala ,'Pekka'Jokinen ,'Markus'Vinnari '
1
Department'of'Geographical'and'Historical'Studies,'UNIVERSITY'OF'
2
EASTERN'FINLAND,'Helsinki,' Department'of'Geographical'and'His)
torical' Studies,' UNIVERSITY' OF' EASTERN' FINLAND,' Joensuu,'
3
Department'of'Geographical'and'Historical'Studies,'UNIVERSITY'OF'
'
EASTERN'FINLAND,'Tampere,'Finland
Abstract:'Consumption'has'become'increasingly'an'arena'for'politi)
cal' participation,' in' which' everyday' lifestyle' choices' appear' as' a'
form' of' protest' and' public' engagement.' At' the' same' time,' the'
moral'standing'of'animals'has'become'subjected'to'societal'contes)
tation' and' re)evaluation,' and' the' importance' of' animal' ethics' in'
consumption'politics'has'increased.'
In' the' scholarly' discussion' on' sustainable' or' ethical' consumption'
much'attention'has'been'given'to'identifying'and'characterising'the'
green,'ethical'or'political'consumer.'However,'more'research'atten)
tion'is'required'to'investigate'what'kinds'of'consumer'orientations'
or'segments'can'be'found'related'to'political'consumption'in'repre)
sentative'population'level'data.'In'this'paper'we'explore'this'issue'
based'on'an'extensive'nationwide'survey.'We'focus'on'farm'animal'
welfare'questions,'analysing'which'kinds'of'citizen)consumer'orien)
tations' people' take' as' regards' to' animal' ethics' and' livestock' pro)
duction.'
Our'research'material'consists'of'survey'data'carried'out'in'Finland'
in' 2010.' The' survey' was' based' upon' a' random' sample' of' 18–75)
year)old'Finns,'with'a'response'rate'of'47.9'percent'(n=1,893).'Our'
results' indicate' that' the' majority' of' Finns' do' not' define' consump)
tions' as' an' active' political' arena' through' which' to' influence' farm'
animal'conditions,'but'we'also'identified'a'noticeable'proportion'of'
active'consumers'taking'a'more'political'role.'We'identified'several'
citizen)consumer' orientations' that' differed' from' each' other' with'
their' expression' of' trust' in' regulative' institutions,' with' their' atti)
tudes'to'knowledge'uncertainties,'with'their'expression'of'consum)
er'empowerment'and'with'their'attitudes'to'animal'welfare'stand)
ards.'We'conclude'the'paper'by'discussing'the'challenges'involved'
in' integrating' farm' animal' concerns' into' everyday' consumption'
choices'among'the'different'identified'consumer'groups.'
THE!UTOPIAS!OF!POLITICAL!CONSUMPTION:!THE!
SEARCH!OF!ALTERNATIVES!TO!MASS!CONSUMPTION!
Sophie'Bossy
1'
1
Political' and' Social' Sciences,' European' University' Institute,' Flor)
'
ence,'Italy
Abstract:'This'paper'is'a'study'of'political'consumerism'understood'
as' a' social' movement' in' which' a' network' of' individual' and' collec)
tive' actors' criticize' and' try' to' differentiate' themselves' from' tradi)
tional' consumerism' by' politicizing' the' act' of' buying' in' order' to'
search' and' promote' other' types' of' consumption.' The' use' of' con)
sumption' as' a' political' tool' has' been' increasingly' investigated' re)
cently.'However'this'study'offers'an'original'angle:'utopia.'Utopia'is'
defined' here' as' both' a' form' of' discourse' and' a' set' of' particular'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
116'
Abstract'Book'
practices.' To' be' called' utopian,' a' discourse' has' to' include,' first,' a'
rejection'of'the'existing'society,'and'second,'if'not'a'clear'concep)
tion' of' what' another' world' might' look' like,' at' least' the' idea' that'
another'society'is'possible'and'desirable.'And,'to'be'called'utopian,'
practices' need' to' be' an' attempt' to' create' here' and' now' at' least'
some' of' the' features' of' this' utopian' discourse,' in' the' hope' of' a'
spread' in' the' rest' of' society.' Therefore,' the' goal' is' to' identify' the'
utopian' elements' that' can' be' found' within' political' consumerism'
and'to'see'what'their'impact'is'on'collective'action.'
The'answers'given'by'political'consumerism'to'the'global'economic'
downturn'in'terms'of'anti)consumerism'(that'states'that'de)growth'
is' something' that' is' both' necessary' and' desirable)' or' alter)
consumerism'(that'promotes'solutions'through'a'more'responsible'
consumption)'will'be'the'focus'of'attention.'Indeed,'viewing'politi)
cal'consumerism'with'the'lenses'of'utopia'helps'to'understand'how'
actors' view' consumption' and' how' they' related' their' acts' of' (non)
)consuming' to' ideals' and' dreams' of' a' better' world.' Utopia' also'
helps' to' show' that' the' particular' choices' of' consumption,' of' life)
style'or'the'choices'collectively'made'within'the'groups'they'belong'
to' are' only' really' understandable' if' one' looks' at' the' logics' behind'
them' and' their' articulation' to' the' ideals' and' hopes' actors' have.'
Finally,'the'lenses'of'utopia'allow'the'researcher'to'see'how'actors'
articulate'the'individual'and'collective'levels'of'action'since'it'helps'
understand' that' for' the' actors' their' everyday' choices' of' living' are'
also'done'in'order'to'achieve'some'necessary'changes'within'socie)
ty.' In' order' to' illustrate' this' theory,' this' paper' will' be' based' on' a'
comparison' of' four' case' studies' done' in' France' and' in' the' United'
Kingdom' with' two' local' groups' of' the' Slow' Food' organization,' a'
group' of' de)growth' promoters' and' an' intentional' community' be)
longing'to'the'ecovillage'network.'
BEYOND!OMNIVOROUSNESS:!USING!A!SOCIAL!SPACE!
APPROACH!TO!ANALYZE!THE!SOCIAL!STRUCTURING!
OF!LIFESTYLES!
'1
'2
Henk'Roose ,'Koen'van'Eijck ,'John'Lievens
1'
1
Department' of' Sociology,' GHENT' UNIVERSITY,' Gent,' Belgium,'
Department' of' Arts' and' Culture' Studies,' Erasmus' University' Rot)
'
terdam,'Rotterdam,'Netherlands
2
Abstract:' By' using' Bourdieu’s' social' space' approach,' this' analysis'
maps'the'structure'of'cultural'lifestyles'in'Flanders,'Belgium.'Infor)
mation' on' a' broad' range' of' cultural' behaviors' (participation)' and'
dispositions' (what' is' important' in' cultural' activities)' from' 2,849'
respondents' is' analyzed' and' linked' to' a' set' of' indicators' of' social'
position.' By' means' of' Multiple' Correspondence' Analysis' (MCA)'
three'structuring'dimensions'are'found.'The'first'is'an'engagement)
disengagement' axis,' distinguishing' an' active,' and' open)minded'
lifestyle'versus'a'more'passive,'home)bound'way'of'living.'The'se)
cond'dimension'contrasts'a'preference'for'contemplation'and'legit)
imate' arts' with' a' preference' for' adventure' and' action.' The' third'
axis'adds'an'opposition'between'a'pronounced,'reflexive'openness'
to'new'things'and'a'more'unreflexive'taste.'Cultural'and'economic'
capital' are' primarily' associated' with' axis' one,' age' with' axis' two.'
The' third' dimension' is' linked' to' different' combinations' of' social'
categories.'The'findings'show'that'respondents'have'distinct'ways'
of' showing' the' underlying' trait' of' openness' depending' on' their'
position'in'the'social'space—omnivorousness'is'only'one'of'its'ex)
pressions'linked'to'younger'people'with'a'lot'of'cultural'capital.'Our'
analysis' demonstrates' the' power' of' MCA' to' reveal' additional' in)
sights' in' the' social' structuring' of' lifestyles,' insights' that' comple)
ment'results'obtained'via'traditional'correlational'techniques.'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
IT!TAKES!TWO!TO!TANGO:!THE!IMPORTANCE!OF!
SOCIAL!NETWORKS!FOR!EXPLAINING!CULTURAL!
PARTICIPATION!
'1
Jef'Vlegels ,'John'Lievens
1'
1
Ghent'University,'Gent,'Belgium
'
Abstract:/ The' social' stratification' of' cultural' participation' is' a' well'
studied'topic'in'sociology.'Often'still'inspired'by'Bourdieus’'classical'
work:' ‘La' Distinction’,' researchers' try' to' understand' the' ‘field’' in'
which' cultural' taste' and' participation' preferences' are' formed' an'
internalized.' The' conversion' between' different' forms' of' capital,'
and'more'specific'the'relative'importance'of'economic'and'cultural'
capital' to' explain' cultural' praxis' still' gets' a' lot' of' attention' in' the'
sociology'of'culture.'In'recent'literature,'sociologists'challenge'the'
deterministic'class)model'by'exploring'the'effect'of'more'individu)
alistic' characteristics.' Research' on' cultural' mobility,' personal' capi)
tal' accumulation,' ethnicity,' gender,' etc.' put' Bourdieus’' traditional'
class)model'in'a'new'perspective.'
In' this' paper,' we' build' on' these' recent' insights' and' focus' on' the'
role'of'an'individual’s'social'network'for'explaining'cultural'partici)
pation.'We'test'the'relative'importance'of'personal'social'capital')
besides'the'more'traditional'class'effects)'to'predict'participation'in'
a'broad'range'of'cultural'domains'(‘highbrow’'as'well'as'‘lowbrow’'
activities).'We'expect'that'personal'social'network'structures'offer'
important' resources' (or' constraints)' that' can' influence' participa)
tion' in' cultural' activities' in' a' substantial' way.' More' specific,' we'
focus'on'social'integration'(tie'strength),'network'heterogeneity'(in'
terms' of' gender,' role' and' age' composition)' and' network' size' as'
explanatory' variables' for' cultural' participation.' Furthermore,' we'
pay'special'attention'to'the'causal'direction'of'the'effect'by'using'a'
two)stage' least' squares' regression' analysis' to' encounter' potential'
feedback'effects.'
DATA:' We' use' data' from' the' ‘Cultural' Participation' in' Flanders'
2003)2004’' survey.' This' is' a' representative' (weighted)' sample' of'
the' Dutch' speaking' part' of' Belgium,' with' 2849' randomly' selected'
respondents' between' 14' and' 85' year' old.' They' were' questioned'
with'a'computer)assisted'face)to)face'interview'about'their'cultural'
behavior'and'attitudes'and'we'used'a'name'generator'to'construct'
the'ego)centric'cultural'participation'network'of'each'respondent.'
PROFILING!CULTURAL!OMNIVORES!IN!KOREA:!
QUANTITY!AND!BREADTH!OF!CULTURAL!
CONSUMPTION!
'1
Eun)mee'Kim ,'Sae)rom'SUH
1'
1
Communication,' SEOUL' NATIONAL' UNIVERSITY,' Seoul,' Korea,' Re)
'
public'Of
Abstract:'Bourdieu‘s'theory'stirred'up'debates'over'its'applicability'
to'contexts'other'than'the'1960s'French'society'and'the'omnivore'
hypothesis'was'posed'as'one'of'the'complementary'explanation'on'
how'cultural'capital'functions.'
Previous'research'on'cultural'omnivores'in'the'U.S'and'Europe'sug)
gests' that' the' concept' of' cultural' capital' and' omnivore' should' be'
explicated' within' a' specific' context.' What' it' means' to' do' cultural'
consumption'and'its'social'utility'differ'in'each'society,'especially'in'
Asian'countries'such'as'Korea'where'most'of'high'cultural'forms'are'
western'and'class'mobility'is'high.'Regardless'of'forms'and'genres,'
cultural'participation'is'significant'as'a'marker'for'higher'social'sta)
Abstract'Book'
117'
'
tus.'Upward'mobility'is'a'strong'motive'behind'any'cultural'partici)
pation' and' therefore' omnivores' who' have' developed' taste' for' di)
verse'cultural'activities'and'those'who'want'to'be'visible'in'various'
well)known'cultural'events'may'be'differentiated.'In'such'context,'
it'would'be'more'sensible'to'consider'both'quantity'and'breadth'of'
cultural' participation.' Therefore,' we' focused' on' the' difference'
within' omnivores' depending' on' the' quantity' of' cultural' consump)
tion:'Active'omnivores'and'inactive'omnivores.'
To'profile'omnivores'in'Korean'context,'Korean'General'Social'Sur)
vey'data'of'2007'were'analyzed'by'regression'models.'The'quantity'
of'cultural'consumption'as'well'as'the'breadth'had'significant'rela)
tionship'with'cultural'capital.'Education,'father’s'education'and'the'
total' period' of' arts' education' predicted' both' the' quantity' and'
breadth'of'the'cultural'consumption'while'the'influence'of'house)
hold' income' and' perceived' class' membership' turned' invalid' after'
including'the'cultural'capital'variables'in'the'model.'The'difference'
between'active'and'inactive'omnivores'was'as'expected.'We'found'
out'that'Active'omnivores'had'higher'cultural'capital'than'inactive'
omnivores'and'were'significantly'younger'while'inactive'omnivores'
had' lower' cultural' capital' but' higher' income' level' and' lower' per)
ceived' class' membership.' The' characteristics' of' active' omnivores'
who'harriedly'consume'many'major'blockbuster'events'regardless'
of'Opera,'musical,'or'classical'performance'is'further'discussed.'Yet'
another'test'of'omnivore'concept'in'a'different'social'context'and'
the'differentiation'between'active'and'inactive'omnivores'will'con)
tribute'to'systematic'theorizing'on'the'relationship'of'cultural'capi)
tal'and'cultural'consumption.'
SOCIAL!STRUCTURE,!FIELDGSPECIFIC!CAPITAL!AND!
YOUNG!PEOPLE’S!CULTURAL!CONSUMPTION!IN!A!
LOCAL!CLUB!AND!DISCOTHEQUE!MARKET!
Gunnar'Otte
1
WHAT!IS!“GOOD!TASTE”!IN!POPULAR!MUSIC?!
OPENNESS!AS!A!RESOURCE!IN!THE!PURSUIT!OF!
SUPERIORITY!
Michael'Parzer
1'
1
Department'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'VIENNA,'Vienna,'Austria
'
Abstract:' The' declining' importance' of' social' and' aesthetic' hierar)
chies' is' a' great' challenge' for' cultural' sociology.' It' is' not' clear'
whether'this'tendency'indicates'an'erosion'of'claims'for'social'and'
cultural' superiority' or' whether' new' ways' of' expressing' distinction'
are' emerging' instead.' While' the' fragility' of' boundaries' between'
high'and'low'culture'has'been'subject'of'extensive'research,'similar'
changes'within'popular'culture'have'been'largely'neglected'so'far.'
Drawing'on'discussions'on'musical'preferences'in'online)fora'it'will'
be' shown' how' and' to' what' extent' tastes' in' the' field' of' popular'
music'are'used'as'a'resource'in'the'pursuit'of'superiority.'
While'the'distinction'between'“authentic”'and'“commercial”'music'
still' serves' as' an' important' symbolic' boundary' and' hence' as' the'
base'for'defining'“good”'taste'in'popular'culture,'there'is'evidence'
that' concepts' of' “authenticity”' are' increasingly' put' into' question.'
Empirical' findings' suggest' that' rhetorics' of' authenticity' conflict'
with'a'new'pattern'of'interpretation:'“Openness”'is'promoted'as'a'
key'concept'of'musical'taste'in'popular'culture.'This'concept'is'not'
only'characterized'by'crossing'boundaries'between'“authentic”'and'
“commercial”' ostentatiously,' but' also' by' being' open' towards' a'
broad'range'of'different'musical'worlds.'Consequently,'a'clear'sep)
aration' from' consumers' of' music' with' a' rather' limited' taste' is'
called' for.' Not' what' is' liked' or' disliked,' but' how' consumers' deal'
with' the' diversity' of' musical' genres' has' become' the' criterion' for'
symbolic'and'possibly'also'social'distinction'within'popular'culture.'
1'
Sociological'Institute,'UNIVERSITY'OF'ZÜRICH,'Zürich,'Switzerland
'
Abstract:' In' the' last' two' decades,' many' empirical' studies' have' in)
vestigated' whether' cultural' consumption' is' structured' by' social'
class,'education,'the'life'course,'gender'and'ethnicity,'or'whether'it'
takes' place' in' an' individualized,' structurally' decoupled' fashion.'
While'traditional'stratification'dimensions'keep'on'exerting'consid)
erable' influence,' it' is' also' evident' that' endogenous' cultural' expla)
nations' are' needed' to' enrich' our' understanding' of' consumption'
behaviour.' Attempts' to' do' this' in' a' systematic' way' are' rare,' how)
ever.' This' paper' locates' field)specific' forms' of' capital' at' an' inter)
mediate' level' between' social' structure' and' concrete' consumption'
behaviour.'Emanating'from'Thornton’s'notion'of'“sub)cultural'capi)
tal”,' two' forms' of' capital' are' assumed' to' guide' young' people’s'
moves' in' a' local' market' of' clubs' and' discotheques:' music' capital'
and' bodily' capital.' These' concepts' were' operationalized' and' im)
plemented'in'a'standardized'questionnaire.'The'survey'is'part'of'a'
comprehensive' mixed)method' project' that' intends' to' reveal' the'
mechanisms' matching' demand' and' supply' in' the' market' of' clubs'
and' discotheques' in' Leipzig,' Germany.' The' questionnaire' was' dis)
tributed'among'864'randomly'selected'visitors'of'twelve'clubs'and'
discotheques'varying'in'size,'organizational'form'and'musical'genre.'
The' survey' allows' us' to' investigate' audience' overlaps' and' to' map'
cultural'niches'of'urban'nightlife.'Multiple'correspondence'analyses'
are'used'to'depict'these'market'segments'and'regression'models'to'
explain' frequencies' of' attendance' of' specific' locations.' Based' on'
these' analyses' the' explanatory' power' of' classic' stratification' con)
cepts'and'field)specific'capitals'is'assessed.'
LOOKING!FOR!CREATIVITY!AND!INNOVATION!IN!
CONSUMPTION!PATTERNS.!THE!DEMOCRATIZATION!
OF!COMPUTER!HACKING!AND!THE!EMERGING!OF!
NEW!CONSUMER!PRACTICES.!
Paolo'Magaudda
1
1'
Dep.'Sociology')'CIGA,'UNIVERSITY'OF'PADOVA,'Padova,'Italy
'
Abstract:' This' contribution' aims' to' show' how' hacking' practices,'
and'their'recent'evolutions,'are'becoming'increasingly'relevant'for'
consumer' studies.' In' the' last' decade,' the' term' “hacker”' has' lost'
their' unique' association' with' digital' criminals' or' countercultural'
heroes'and'“hacking'practices”'have'started'to'increasingly'involve'
more' ordinary' young' people' and' their' everyday' lives' and' leisure.'
When'we'consider'hacking'practices'in'a'broader'sense,'we'can'see'
that'these'practices'are'frequently'appearing'in'the'realm'of'ordi)
nary' consumption' patterns' and' therefore' they' became' related' to'
understand' the' stability' and' the' innovation' of' consumer' culture'
and'practices.'
In'this'presentation'I'will'show'one'of'the'possible'ways'to'concep)
tualize' and' analyze' empirically' the' relationship' between' hacking'
practices' and' consumption' practices,' by' showing' few' examples'
concerning' consumers’' modifications' and' transformations' of' Ap)
ple’s' hardware.' More' specifically,' I' will' focus' on' the' examples' re)
garding'the'appropriation'of'two'kind'of'digital'Apple'devices:'the'
well)known' iPhone' and' the' “Hackintosh”' (a' computer' based' on'
non)Apple' hardware,' but' running' Apple' software).' In' both' cases,'
people’s'modifications'of'Apple'hardware'does'not'represent'only'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
118'
Abstract'Book'
individual' activity' or' the' result' of' esoteric' knowledge,' but' they'
rather' represent' the' outcome' of' a' reconfiguration' of' consumer'
practices,' in' which' issues' connected' with' «craft' consumption»,'
«cultural' jamming»' and' new' consumers’' skills' and' material' tools'
are'involved.'
In'conclusion,'grounding'on'a'“theory'of'practice”'framework,'I'will'
argue'that'the'complex'set'of'competences'and'knowledge'original)
ity'required'in'hacking'practices'is'today'being'translated'into'cul)
tural,' practical' and' material' terms' to' fit' into' contemporary' con)
sumer' patterns.' The' interaction' between' socio)material' elements'
from' hacking' practices' and' from' ordinary' consumer' behaviors'
helps'us'to'highlight'on'of'the'sources'of'creativity'and'innovation'
in'contemporary'consumption'patterns.'
THE!CRISIS!OF!INTANGIBLE!IDENTITIES:!FASHION!
BRANDS!AND!SEMIOTIC!SATURATION!
Emanuela'Mora
1'
1
dipartimento' sociologia,' UNIVERSITÀ' CATTOLICA' SACRO' CUORE,'
'
Milano,'Italy
Abstract:' In' the' first' ages' of' modern' fashion,' the' difference' be)
tween' fashion' and' clothing' was' rooted' in' the' creative' content' of'
the' former,' produced' by' fashion' designer' and' couturier' and' em)
phasised' by' advertisers' and' communication' professionals.' After)
wards,' during' the' Nineties,' the' difference' between' fashion' and'
clothing' has' progressively' evanesced,' as' the' latter' doesn't' exist'
almost'anymore,'due'to'the'catching'on'of'brands'even'at'the'mass'
market'level.'The'role'of'materiality'had'been'higly'underestimated'
during' this' phase,' but' materiality' seems' to' be' going' to' revenge'
itself,' because' of' the' progressive' thickness's' lost' of' the' intangible'
contents.'
The' paper' presents' and' discusses' the' main' findings' of' a' research'
program'that'explores'a'phenomenon'we'call'"semiotic'saturation",'
according'to'the'process'Simmel'identified'at'the'beginning'of'the'
XXth'century'as'typical'in'the'diffusion'of'fashion'among'social'clas)
ses.'What'makes'different'the'present'occurence'of'the'phenome)
non'is'that'it'doesn't'imply'in'principle'the'abandoning'of'the'satu)
rated'images'by'the'luxury'brands.'On'the'contrary'it'contributes'to'
the'stabilization'of'the'mainstream'fashion's'visual'mood'of'a'cer)
tain' period.' The' result' seems' however' to' be' the' lost' of' thickness'
(meaningful'uniqueness'and'exclusiveness)'of'communicated'imag)
es' of' brands.' The' research' program' had' been' carried' out' with' a'
convenient' (60' people)' sample' of' respondents' balanced' as' far' as'
regarding'gender'and'age,'and'showed'that'people'feel'disoriented'
when'asked'to'recognize'the'brands'associated'with'blind'submit)
ted' images.' More' than' a' half' of' the' intervieweed' couldn't' accom)
plish'the'job.'As'a'conclusion'it'will'be'argued'that'the'visual'con)
tent' of' brands' isn't' enough' to' communicate' the' identity' of' the'
brand'itself'and'that'semiotic'saturation'represents'the'final'stage'
of'a'culture'of'fashion'mostly'based'on'a'pure'commercial'imagery.'
UPCOMING!CHANGE!IN!URBAN!LIFESTYLES!IN!2050:!
TOWARDS!A!POST!CONSUMPTION!SOCIETY?!
Michelle'Dobre
1
'1,'2*
'
2
Département'de'Sociologie/Cerrev,'UNIVERSITE'DE'CAEN,' Centre'
d'études'et'Recherches'sur'les'risques'et'les'vulnérabilités,'Univer)
'
sité'de'Caen,'Caen,'France
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
Abstract:' An' important' today’s' concern' with' changing' social' prac)
tice'is'the'anticipation'of'changes'in'lifestyles'confronted'to'carbon'
constraints'related'to'climate'change'politics.'Is'the'ecological'tran)
sition' leading' us' to' post' consumption' societies?' Our' approach' is'
based'on'an'ongoing'empirical'research'(PROMOV),'funded'by'the'
CNRS' and' the' Prospective' Board' of' the' French' Ministry' of' Devel)
opment' from' 2009' to' 2011.' While' a' wide' literature' exists' on' eco)
nomic' or' general' social' changes' (EEA' 2009),' very' few' if' none' deal'
with'lifestyles'as/driving/forces'for'change.'Lifestyles'and'consump)
tion'are'more'often'seen'as'the'“black'box”'in'other,'over'determi)
nant' dimensions.' On' the' other' hand,' contributions' in' sociology' of'
consumption'(Lipovetsky'2006;'Galand'&'Lemel'2006;'Dobré'&'Juan'
2009)' have' a' potential' to' be' employed' in' the' field' of' sociological'
prospective'on'lifestyles.'
Based'on'the'state'of'the'art'on'statistical'sources,'social'theories,'
prospective'literature'and'a'review'of'science'fiction'literature,'this'
paper' discusses' the' ways' of' engaging' sociological' diagnosis' and'
knowledge' of' cultural' trends,' material' consumption,' urban' life'
changes,' in' order' to' build' lifestyles' scenarios' for' future.' The' six'
scenarios' here' presented' are' the' outcome' of' an' interdisciplinary'
collective' discussion' on' relevant' dimensions' for' change' in' future'
lifestyles:'individualism'Vs.community,'religious'renewal'Vs.'laiciza)
tion,'simplicity'Vs.'growing'consumption'are'some'examples.'Three'
main' dimensions' bound' to' change' in' the' future' delimit' the' con)
trasting'scenarios:'relation'to'others'(sociability);'new'technologies;'
public' space' (political' participation).' The' relation' to' material' Con)
sumption'is'the'common'cross'variable'which'structures'the'archi)
tecture'of'the'6'scenarios.'
EEA'2009,'N.'3,'Looking/back/on/looking/forward:/a/review/on/eval=
uative/scenario/literature.'
Dobré' M,' Juan' S.' (eds)' 2009.' Consommer/ autrement./ La/ réforme/
écologique/des/modes/de/vie.'L’Harmattan.'
Galland'O.,'Lemel'Y.,'2006.'La/société/française,/pesanteurs/et/mu=
tations/:/le/bilan,'Armand'Colin.'
Lipovetsky'G.2006./Le/bonheur/paradoxal,'Gallimard.'
BETWEEN!INDIVIDUALIZATION!AND!HOMOLOGY:!
YOUNG!ITALIANS!READING!BEHAVIOR!FROM!1983!TO!
2004!
Ferruccio'Biolcati)Rinaldi
1'
1
Department'of'Social'and'Political'Studies,'UNIVERSITY'OF'MILAN,'
'
Milan,'Italy
Abstract:' According' to' some' globalization' and' individualization'
theorists' (Pakulski' and' Waters),' changes' that' are' redefining' con)
temporary' societies' eventually' replace' production' with' consump)
tion'as'the'ordering'principle'of'social'systems.'Lifestyles'and'con)
sumption' patterns' would' then' be' independent' from' traditional'
factors' such' as' stratification' of' social' classes,' creating' complex'
social' positions' and' more' permeable' boundaries.' This' position' is'
opposed' to' the' homology' theory' of' Bourdieu,' according' to' which'
lifestyles'vary'depending'on'to'different'combinations'of'economic'
capital'and'social'capital'that'distinguish'individuals.'
Linked' to' this' debate' are' those' analyses' that' give' an' account' of'
recent' changes' in' the' media' diets.' One' example' can' be' found' in'
the'theory'of'omnivorism'of'Peterson'and'Kern'that'holds'that'indi)
viduals' who' occupy' top' social' positions' do' not' distinguish' them)
selves'for'the'choice'of'activities'and'sophisticated'cultural'genres'
Abstract'Book'
119'
'
but'for'the'ability'of'mixing'different'consumptions,'from'the'most'
popular'to'the'most'exclusive.'
All' these' and' other' theories' address' two' interrelated' issues:' the'
first'is'the'change'in'the'ways'people'mix'different'media'and'me)
dia'genres;'the'second'is'the'change'in'strength'of'the'relationship'
between' the' traditional' stratification' variables' and' media' con)
sumption.' The' presentation' deals' with' these' research' questions'
focusing' on' Italian' young' people' reading' behavior' (newspapers,'
magazines,' comics,' books).' Multivariate' analysis' techniques' are'
applied' to' data' from' IARD' survey' on' Italian' youth' that' covers' the'
period'from'1983'to'2004.'
BUYING!TO!DRESS,!DRESSING!TO!MEAN!G!
CONSUMPTION!IN!THE!SARTORIAL!FIELD!AS!AN!
INDICATOR!OF!LATE!MODERNITY!AND!
POSTMODERNITY!IN!CULTURE!
Gabriela'Żuchowska
1'
1
Wydział' Filozoficzny,' Instytut' Socjologii,' Jagiellonian' University,'
'
Kraków,'Poland
Abstract:' Contemporary' individuals' are' now' perfectly' aware' that'
goods' are,' as' Mary' Douglas' suggests,' …a' system' of' communica)
tion.”'They'tap'into'various'narrations'within'the'market,'media'or'
popular' culture' incorporated' by' commercial' objects.' One' of' the'
hallmarks' of' late' modern' culture' is' a' coercion' of' constant' choice'
between' goods,' with' which' social' actors' are' to' compose' a' coher)
ent,' stable' image' of' themselves' Contrary,' the' type' of' identity(ies)'
that' postmodern' actors' are' encouraged' to' incorporate' or' diag)
nosed' to' have' incorporated' is' heterogeneous,' eclectic' and' incon)
sistent.'As'opposed'to'modern'“designers”'of'solid,'original'charac)
ters,' postmodern' individuals' are' apparently' role)players' that' have'
as' many' contradictory' identities' as' there' are' social' encounters' in'
which'they'participate.'Theoretical'background'for'these'ideas'was'
provided' by' works' of' Giddens' and' Bourdieu' (questions' of' late'
modern' identity' and' taste),' Bauman' (on' postmodernity' or' fluid'
modernity)' and' followers.' The' paper' will' challenge' Malcolm' Bar)
nard's'claim'that'communication'emerging'from'the'use'of'clothes'
may'not'be'voluntary'exchange'of'meanings,'but'is'merely'a'prod)
uct'of'pre)existing'set'of'values'and'ideas'of'people'involved'in'the'
process.' Questioning' results' obtained' by' Thomas' and' Hayko' (that'
sartorial' purchases' of' consumers' express' their' modern' but' not'
postmodern' values)' another' aim' will' be' to' show,' basing' on' two'
tours' of' small)scale' qualitative' observations' (survey' for' 50' partici)
pants' in' 2008' and' a' few' in)depth' interviews' in' 2011' that' are' to'
serve' as' a' pilot' for' large' PhD' project),' that' consumers' in' fact' do'
express'attitudes'that'indicate'postmodernity'in'culture.'
FRENCH!TEACHERS'!CULTURAL!PRACTICES!AT!THE!
TEST!OF!TIME!
Géraldine'Farges
critique/ of/ the/ judgement/ of/ taste/ (1979),' cultural' practices' and'
tastes' of' French' secondary)education' teachers' display' a' “sense' of'
distinction”,' in' compliance' with' the' dominant' class,' even' though'
teachers'are'more'“scholastics”'than'“mondains”.'However,'within'
a' few' decades,' the' teaching' population' has' experienced' several'
changes,'regarding'recruitment'procedures,'the'desirability'of'their'
social' position,' or' within' schools’' public,' which' is' more' socially'
diverse.' As' a' matter' of' fact,' in' a' recent' publication,' Philippe' Cou)
langeon'has'pointed'out'the'cultural'effects'of'the'massification'of'
education.' Considering' reading' and' television' habits,' he' observes'
that' highest' diplomas' are' no' more' automatically' associated' with'
highbrow' culture.' Our' research' program' consists' in' a' comparison'
of' data' from' a' survey' realised' in' 1970' on' a' sample' of' French' sec)
ondary)education'teachers'with'new'data'provided'by'a'survey'we'
carried' out' in' 2008' during' our' doctoral' research.' Thanks' to' our'
methodological'procedure,'we'provide'demonstration'of'quantita)
tive' changes' within' teachers’' cultural' consumption' from' 1970' to'
2008,'giving'evidence'of'generational'effects.'
1'
“NOT!FOR!SOMEONE!LIKE!ME.”!PERCEPTIONS!OF!
FOUR!CULTURAL!ACTIVITIES.!
'1
Astrid'Van'Steen ,'John'Lievens
1
1'
Ghent'University,'Ghent,'Belgium
'
Abstract:' Cultural' sociology' merely' focuses' on' cultural' practices'
and'tastes'to'understand'social'and'cultural'stratification.'However,'
culture'functions'also'in'a'less'tangible'way.'Culture'is'for'example'
an' important' identity' marker' used' for' the' creation' of' symbolic'
boundaries;'it'establishes'social'relations'and'as'a'social'phenome)
non,' culture' encompasses' a' wide' variety' of' social' meanings' and'
connotations.' These' meanings' and' connotations,' attributed' by'
individuals,'are'based'on'experiences'and'practical'knowledge'and'
strongly' depend' on' someone’s' social' and' cultural' position' (Bour)
dieu,'1984).'
In' order' to' study' this' wide' variety' of' connotations,' we' use' data'
from' the' ‘Participation' Survey' 2009’,' a' large)scale' population' sur)
vey'(N=3144)'in'Flanders'(Belgium).'By'means'of'a'newly'designed'
semantic'differential'scale,'we'examine'the'connotations,'or'more'
general,'the'perceptions'of'four'cultural'activities.'This'allows'us'to'
understand' how' individuals' perceive' and' experience' culture' and'
how' they' position' themselves' and' others' in' cultural' settings.' We'
define' perceptions' as' the' complex' of' meanings,' connotations,' as)
sociations,'prejudices'and'stereotypes.'First,'differences'in'percep)
tions'of'non)attendees,'occasional'and'frequent'attendees'are'de)
scribed.' According' to' the' theoretical' assumptions,' we' mainly' ex)
pect' differences' for' perceptions' concerning' the' relation' between'
the'activity'and'the'individual,'not'between'the'activity'and'its'so)
cietal'aspects.'Second,'we'assess'what'determinants'are'associated'
with' positive' or' negative' perceptions.' Results' will' show' a' puzzling'
effect'of'young'age'on'negative'perceptions.'We'end'the'presenta)
tion'with'some'theoretical'remarks'and'discuss'the'advantages'and'
limits'of'a'quantitative'approach'of'perceptions.'
1
Observatoire' Sociologique' du' Changement,' SCIENCES' PO,' Paris,'
'
France
Abstract:'In'our'presentation,'we'propose'to'analyse'French'teach)
ers’'cultural'consumption'on'a'long)term'period,'as'regards'cinema,'
theatre' and' reading' habits.' We' formulate' the' hypothesis' that'
teacher’s' cultural' consumption' has' changed' through' time.' High)
brow' culture' is' traditionally' associated' with' teachers’' behaviours.'
For' instance,' according' to' Pierre' Bourdieu’s' Distinction:/ a/ social/
THE!DISSECTION!OF!THE!AMATEUR.!AN!EMPIRICAL!
ANALYSIS!OF!THE!DETERMINANTS!OF!ACTIVE!
CULTURAL!PARTICIPATION!
'1
Dries'Vanherwegen ,'John'Lievens
1'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
120'
Abstract'Book'
1
CUDOS,'GHENT'UNIVERSITY'DEPARTEMENT'OF'SOCIOLOGY,'Gent,'
'
Belgium
Abstract:' In' contrast' to' the' amount' of' research' dealing' with' the'
causes'and'consequences'of'receptive'highbrow'participation'in'the'
arts,'little'research'has'focused'on'active'artistic'participation.'Our'
aim' is' to' introduce' active' participation' into' cultural' participation'
research'by'analyzing'the'mechanisms'that'influence'active'partici)
pation'in'the'arts.'Drawing'on'Bourdieu’s'theorem'of'social'repro)
duction'and'DiMaggio’s'claims'on'cultural'mobility,'we'focus'on'the'
relative'influences'of'parental'milieu'vs.'personal'accumulated'cap)
ital' on' active' participation' in' the' arts.' Additionally,' we' query' the'
possible'influence'of'art'education.'Results'based'on'stepwise'mul)
tinominal'logistic'regression'analyses'on'representative'population'
data'for'Flanders'(N=3146)'yield'support'for'both'Bourdieu’s'theo)
rem'on'social'reproduction'and'DiMaggio’s'model'of'cultural'mobil)
ity.'We'find'a'clear'influence'of'the'cultural'milieu'in'which'one'was'
raised' and' a' net' effect' of' individually' accumulated' cultural' and'
social'capital.'Surprisingly,'the'influence'of'educational'capital'dis)
appeared,' after' controlling' for' parental' cultural' milieu,' personal'
capital'accumulation'and'the'influence'of'taking'art'classes'during'
high'school.'Socio)economic'status'of'the'family'in'which'one'was'
raised' and' personal' economic' capital' prove' to' have' no' negative'
impact' on' the' odds' of' engaging' actively' in' the' arts.' Art' education'
during' high' school' has' a' positive' effect' on' the' chances' of' actively'
engaging'in'the'arts.'Moreover,'we'observe'a'cumulative'impact'of'
both'receptive'and'active'arts'instructing'during'high'school.'Inter)
action'effects'between'social'class'indicators'and'art'education'are'
examined.' Implications' of' these' findings' for' further' research' are'
discussed.'
PUBLIC!PRIVATE!PARTNERSHIPS!(PPP)!AND!THE!
DIFFERENT!PRECONDITIONS!FOR!FIGHTING!OBESITY!
IN!EUROPEAN!COUNTRIES!
'1
Anita'Borch ,'Gun'Roos
1'
1
NATIONAL' INSTITUTE' FOR' CONSUMER' RESEARCH' (SIFO),' Oslo,'
'
Norway
Abstract:'According'to'the'report/‘Health/at/a/Glance:/Europe/2010’,'
more' than' half' of' the' adult' population' in' EU' is' regarded' as' over)
weight' or' obese,' and' the' rate' of' obesity' has' more' than' doubled'
over'the'past'20'years.Drawing'on'Esping)Andersen’s'(1990)'theory'
of'‘The/Three/World/of/Welfare/Capitalism’'and'some'of'its'criticism,'
this' paper' aims' to' explore' the' rates' and' forms' of' Public' Private'
Partnerships'(PPPs)'related'to'weight'issues'in'European'countries,'
and' discusses' the' structural' preconditions' for' implementing' PPPs'
to'fight'obesity'in'Europe.'The'European'countries'are'clustered'in'
four' categories' representing' the' ‘liberal’,' the' ‘corporative)
conservative’,'the'‘Mediterranean’,'the'‘social'democratic’'regimes'
respectively,'as'well'as'one'category'representing'the'East'Europe)
an'Countries'(EEC).'
Questions'are:'What'are'the'rates'and'forms'of'PPPs'fighting'obesi)
ty' in' European' countries?' What' social' groups' are' the' PPPs' target)
ing?' The' analysis' is' based' on' reports' from' 28' European' countries'
(27' EU' and' Norway)' collected' in' 2010' as' part' of' the' EU)founded'
project'‘Obesity'Governance’'headed'by'National'Institute'for'Con)
sumer'Research,'Norway.'One'thesis'is'that'PPP'rates'are'highest'in'
liberal' regimes' and' lowest' in' EECs.' Another' is' that' private' busi)
nesses' are' more' involved' in' PPPs' in' liberal' countries' and' less' in)
volved'in'EECs.'A'third'is'that'most'PPPs'target'social'groups'at'risk'
for'developing'obesity.'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
"YOU'RE!NOT!JUST!BUYING!COFFEE":!THE!PROMISE!&!
CONTRADICTIONS!OF!ETHICAL!CONSUMPTION!
Nicki'Lisa'Cole
1'
1
Sociology,' University' of' California,' Santa' Barbara,' Santa' Barbara,'
'
CA,'United'States
Abstract:' Ethical' capitalism' and' consumption' have' become' main)
stream' in' Western' societies.' Today,' marketplaces' abound' with'
ethically'branded'and'certified'goods'that'appeal'to'a'host'of'con)
sumer'values,'desires,'and'identities.'The'history'of'the'coffee'mar)
ket,' and' consumer' awareness' of' the' struggles' faced' by' producers'
make' ethically' coded' coffee' particularly' attractive' and' successful.'
In'the'United'States,'its'product'design'communicates'a'message'of'
a'happy'farmer'set'amongst'a'lush'landscape'in'rural'communities'
that' are' positioned' as' in' need' of' both' economic' and' ecological'
preservation.'Drawing'on'research'of'the'coffee'industry'and'with'
consumers'of'ethical'coffee'conducted'along'the'west'coast'of'the'
U.S.,' I' present' an' analysis' and' critique' of' these' phenomena.' The'
findings,' based' on' a' survey' of' 180' participants' and' 30' in)depth'
interviews,' reveal' that' the' narrative' presented' by' the' industry' via'
product' packaging,' marketing' materials,' and' baristas' succeeds' in'
interpellating'consumers'as'saviors'of'the'world’s'poor.'Consumers'
of'ethical'coffee'express'and'articulate'moral'subjectivities'in'rela)
tion' to' the' product' and' its' representation' of' producers,' and' thus'
affirm' the' concept' of' consumer)driven' social' change.' I' argue' that'
despite' critical' consumer' concerns,' the' ideology' and' discourse' of'
ethical'capitalism'ultimately'quell'concern'over'labor'and'environ)
mental' exploitation,' fuel' mass' consumption,' and' reproduce' the'
dominant' system' of' global' capitalism.' Far' from' a' move' toward'
social' change,' ethical' consumption' benefits' privileged' consumers'
and'further'binds'laborers'around'the'world'to'a'system'that'offers'
them'limited'options'for'survival.'
YOUTH,!CONSUMPTION!AND!CITIZENSHIP:!THE!
BRAZILIAN!CASE!
' 1
Fatima' Portilho ,' Livia' Barbosa
'2
Dubeux '
' 2*
' 1
,' John' Wilkinson ,' Veranise'
1
CPDA' )' Social' Science' Graduate' Program,' RURAL' FEDERAL'
2
UNIVERSITY'OF'RIO'DE'JANEIRO,'Rio'de'Janeiro/RJ,' CAEPM,'ESPM,'
'
São'Paulo/SP,'Brazil
Abstract:'There'is'evidence'that'points'to'a'possible'politicisation'of'
consumption'in'Brazil,'similar'to'what'has'been'occurring'in'other'
countries.' In' this' process,' consumption' attitudes,' behaviors,' and'
practices'are'perceived'and'used'as'a'way'of'participation'and'polit)
ical'action.'Theories'of'pos)materialism'and'hypotheses'of'mistrust'
in'relation'to'political'institutions'have'been'used'as'an'explanation'
for' this' phenomenon.' However,' little' is' known' about' the' use' of'
these'actions'by'young'adults'in'Brazil.'To'explore'this'question'we'
developed' a' quantitative' survey' to' analyze' the' perceptions,' inter)
ests,' forms' of' engagement,' personal' and' institutional' trust,' and'
political' practices,' including' political' consumption,' of' 457' brazilian'
young'adults.'Respondents'were'aged'16'to'25,'lived'in'the'cities'of'
Rio' de' Janeiro' and' São' Paulo,' and' were' part' of' the' three' highest'
economic'classes'in'the'country'–'A,'B,'and'C.'The'results'obtained'
show'that,'in'Brazil,'involvement'in'activities'of'political'consump)
tion' are' low,' with' little' variation' regarding' social' and' economic'
class,'age'and'school'level.'This'can'be'explained'by'the'important'
role' of' the' family' in' Brazilian' culture' and' by' the' presence' of' nu)
merous,'active'social'organizations'that'seem'to'be'the'main'actors'
Abstract'Book'
121'
'
of'social'changes,'making'individual'action'secondary.'Our'data'do'
not'confirm'theories'of'post)materialism'or'lack'of'trust'in'political'
institutions' as' the' explanation' of' political' consumption' phenome)
non.'
CONTESTED!SCHOOL!FOOD:!FROM!CHILDREN'S!NEEDS!
TO!CHILDREN'S!RIGHT!TO!CHOOSE!
Minna'Ruckenstein
1'
1
Social'and'Cultural'Anthropology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'HELSINKI,'Helsin)
'
ki,'Finland
Abstract:'Since'the'1940s'Finnish'children'have'been'offered'a'daily'
lunch'at'school.'The'aim'of'the'emerging'welfare'state'was'to'cre)
ate' public' services' accessible' to' all' citizens.' Many' everyday' tasks'
and' responsibilities' were' outsourced' to' the' state,' including' social'
and' health)related' activities,' such' as' providing' nurturing' food' to'
pupils.' Today' this' state)designed' mechanism' for' maintaining' chil)
dren’s' wellbeing' is' constantly' debated' in' the' public' discourse.'
However,'in'most'debates,'the'voice'of'children'and'young'people'
is'not'heard;'it'is'the'experts'on'nutrition'and'childhood'who'define'
the' needs' and' the' 'best' interests' of' children'.' This' research' ap)
proaches'the'school'meal'as'a'prism'through'which'everyday'inter)
ests' and' orientations' of' children' and' young' people' (mainly' 13)' to'
15)year' olds)' are' expressed' and' manifested.' The' ethnographic' pi)
lot)study' took' advantage' of' a' variety' of' methods,' including' data'
gathering' by' children.' The' data' demonstrate' how' school' lunch' is'
consumed'and'not)consumed,'how'it'relates'to'conflicting'ideas'of'
childhood.'The'school'meal'represents'the'adult'order'and'it'is'an'
object' of' evaluation' by' children.' For' instance,' youngsters' skip'
school' meals,' because' they' have' money' that' gives' them' the' right'
to'choose'other'offerings'from'the'food'market.'Thus'conceptions'
of'and'practices'around'school'food'open'for'scrutiny'current'ten)
sions'and'contradictions'between'adults'and'children'and'bring'to'
the'fore'the'cultural'underpinnings'of'publicly'served'food.'
CONVENIENT!MEDIA!FOOD?!NETWORKING!AND!
CONTESTED!FOOD!CONSUMPTION!
Bente'Halkier
1'
1
CBIT,'ROSKILDE'UNIVERSITY,'Roskilde,'Denmark
'
Abstract:'Convenient'media'food?'Networking'and'contested'food'
consumption'
Abstract'for'paper'to'be'presented'at'the'RN'on'Sociology'of'con)
sumption,'ESA'Conference,'Geneva,'2011'
By'Bente'Halkier,'Roskilde'University,'Denmark'
Convenience'food'is'a'fast)growing'and'differentiating'consumption'
style.' At' the' same' time,' convenience' food' is' a' contested' category'
in' society' due' to' its' normative' connotations' with' fast' food' and'
industrialized'food.'Hence,'public'information'and'behavior'change'
campaigns' on' food' quality,' nutrition' and' health' tend' to' question'
the' appropriateness' of' convenience' food.' However,' the' existing'
empirical' studies' of' food' practices' and' understandings' of' “proper'
food”' do' not' take' into' account' that' food' practitioners' are' also'
skilled'social'networkers'and'media'practitioners'who'use'differen)
tiated' types' of' convenience' food' and' negotiate' a' multiplicity' of'
cross)genre' mediated' constructions' of' convenience' food' in' their'
social' network' interactions' while' shopping,' cooking' and' eating' in'
everyday'life.'Rather,'understandings'and'uses'of'convenience'food'
are' seen' as' results' of' life)historical' experiences,' individual' choice)
making'or'socio)material'conditions.'
This'paper'forms'part'of'producing'a'theoretical'framework'for'an'
empirical' qualitative' investigation' of' how' food' consumers' use' dif)
ferent'material'and'mediated'genres'of'convenience'food'for'navi)
gating' and' negotiating' normatively' appropriate' food' practicing' in'
their'social'networks.'On'the'basis'of'my'previous'research'on'con)
tested'food'consumption'types,'I'suggest'to'combine'the'following'
theoretical'elements:'A'practice'theoretical'perspective,'interaction'
analysis,'positioning'theory'and'qualitative'social'network'analysis.'
In' the' research' field' of' contested' food' consumption,' there' is' a'
long)standing' critique' of' the' deficit)approach' to' public' food' com)
munication,'and'an'approach'that'includes'socio)practical'complex)
ities'and'networking'is'seen'as'a'potential'analytical'improvement.'
Existing'practice'theoretical'approaches'to'consumption'as'well'as'
existing' network' communication' approaches' both' fail' to' address'
explicitly' conceptually' the' micro)level' of' social' interaction' and' in)
terpersonal'communication.'The'purpose'of'the'paper'is'to'unfold'a'
first'attempt'to'make'this'theoretical'combination,'and'to'discuss'it'
in'relation'to'the'planned'empirical'study,'“Easy'eating?'Negotiat)
ing'convenience'food'in'media'food'practices”.'
EXPLORING!WEIGHT!MANAGEMENT!FROM!A!
PRACTICE!THEORETICAL!POINT!OF!VIEW!
'1
'1
Mari'Niva ,'Mikko'Jauho ,'Johanna'Mäkelä
1
1'
National'Consumer'Research'Centre,'Helsinki,'Finland
'
Abstract:' Our' paper' has' the' dual' objective' of' i)' examining' the'
methodological'challenges'of'analysing'weight'management'from'a'
practice' theoretical' perspective,' and' ii)' presenting' empirical' find)
ings' of' practices' of' weight' management.' The' paper' draws' on' the'
recent' line' of' practice' theory' developed' for' empirical' analyses' in'
sociology' of' consumption' particularly' by' Bente' Halkier' and' Alan'
Warde.' In' this' version' of' practice' theory,' understandings,' proce)
dures'and'engagements'are'conceptualised'as'the'constitutive'ele)
ments'of'a'practice.'
The'paper'is'based'on'an'analysis'of'eight'focus'group'discussions'in'
which'68'people'(47'women,'21'men,'average'age'55)'participated'
in' Helsinki' in' autumn' 2009.' In' six' groups,' the' participants' were'
trying' to' lose' weight' at' the' time' of' the' recruitment' and' in' two'
groups'they'were'not.'
In'the'paper,'we'first'discuss'our'methodological'solutions'relating'
to'the'challenges'of'analytically'distinguishing'the'three'constituent'
elements' of' a' practice' in' the' data.' We' present' our' categorisation'
scheme'developed'based'on'a'detailed'analysis'of'a'verbatim'tran)
script'of'one'focus'group'discussion'and'discuss'the'difficulties'that'
we' faced' in' the' analysis.' Second,' we' focus' on' our' findings' on'
weight' management' from' the' perspective' of' the' three' elements.'
Our' preliminary' analysis' suggests' that' the' understandings,' proce)
dures'and'engagements'of'weight'management'include'a'variety'of'
ideals,' activities' and' negotiations' relating' to' why' and' how' to' con)
trol'weight.'Third,'we'discuss'the'nature'of'weight'management'as'
either' an' integrative,' complex' practice' with' its' own' dynamics' and'
socially' recognisable' features,' or' a' dispersed' practice' forming' a'
part'of'other'practices,'such'as'eating'and/or'exercise.'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
122'
Abstract'Book'
SCHOOL!MEALS!AND!BIOPEDAGOGIES:!A!CRITICAL!
EXAMINATION!OF!THEIR!EFFECTS!ON!CHILDREN’S!
FOOD!PRACTICES!
'1
'1
'2
Monica'Truninger ,'Ana'Horta ,'Silvia'Alexandre ,'Vanda'Aparecida
3
'4
1'
,'Mara'Miele ,'José'Teixeira
1
'
2
Institute' of' Social' Sciences,' University' of' Lisbon,' SOCIUS,' ISEG,'
3
4
Lisbon,' CRIA,'ISCTE)IUL,'Lisboa,'Portugal,' CPLAN,'Cardiff'Universi)
'
ty,'Cardiff,'United'Kingdom
Abstract:'Nowadays'socio)political'discourse'is'mobilized'to'fight'a'
‘war'on'obesity’'in'schools'(Leahy,'2010).'The'way'this'war'is'fought'
makes' use' of' devices,' or' biopedagogies' (Wright' and' Harwood,'
2009),' such' as' initiatives' to' improve' eating' practices' amongst'
school' children' (changing' menus' contents,' food' education,' BMI'
monitoring,'and'more).'In'this'paper'we'talk'about'a'myriad'of'ini)
tiatives' and' programmes' that' have' been' recently' put' forward' by'
the'Portuguese'health'and'education'governing'bodies,'private'and'
voluntary' sectors' in' order' to' encourage' school' meal' changes' and'
healthier' children’s' eating' practices.' By' adopting' an' a)humanist'
perspective'(Lee,'2008),'inspired'by'a'material'semiotic'sensibility,'
we'focus'on'a'critical'examination'of'the'various'effects'that'these'
biopedagogies' (assembled' through' a' hybrid' assortment' of' human'
and' non' human' elements)' may' have' on' children’s' consumption'
seen' as' a' moment' in' most' practices' (Warde,' 2005),' on' food' taste'
acquisition,' on' children's' social' networks,' and,' ultimately,' on' be)
coming' ‘person’' (Allport,' 1955).' Some' of' the' questions' that' guide'
this'examination'are:'Are'children'becoming'consumers'or'citizens?'
Do' children' participate' and' have' a' voice' in' assembling' school'
meals?' How' do' these' initiatives' affect' parents)children' relation)
ships,'namely'regarding'food'control,'choice'and'care?'The'empiri)
cal'material'is'based'on'a'thematic'documental'analysis'of'healthier'
school'meals'initiatives'in'Portugal'and'on'the'findings'of'a'British'
project' on' children' and' parents’' focus' groups' on' school' meals' in'
the'UK'and'Italy.It'is'concluded'that'the'British'and'the'Italian'cases'
illustrate'children'becoming'consumers'and'citizens'respectively.'In'
Portugal,'the'implementation'of'some'of'these'biopedagogies'may'
contribute'to'lessening'what'should'be'a'broader'understanding'of'
food'consumption'in'everyday'life,'and'also'to'promoting'a'view'of'
children' and' their' families' as' mere' vessels' of' information.' That' is,'
voiceless' non)participants' in' the' process' of' constructing' healthier'
and'happier'school'food'cultures.'
PERSONAL!NORMS!AS!PREDICTORS!OF!SUSTAINABLE!
CONSUMPTION:!EXTENSION!OF!THE!TPB!
FRAMEWORK!
'1
'1
Jan'Urban ,'Iva'Zverinova ,'Milan'Scasny
1'
1
Environment'Center,'CHARLES'UNIVERSITY,'Praha'6,'Czech'Repub)
'
lic
Abstract:'The'main'purpose'of'this'study'is'to'examine'the'role'of'
personals'norms'and'environmentally)related'beliefs'in'motivating'
organic' food' consumption.' The' study' uses' data' from' a' survey' of'
general' population' (N=600)' and' of' the' subpopulation' of' organic'
food' consumers' (N=600)' in' the' Czech' Republic' in' 2010.' Theory' of'
planned'behavior'(Ajzen'1991),'previously'used'is'several'empirical'
studies'of'organic'food'consumption'(Kaufmann,'Stagl,'and'Franks'
2009;' Arvola' et' al.' 2008),' is' used' as' a' theoretical' framework.' Fur)
ther,'we'seek'to'extend'the'framework'of'the'TPB'by'including'per)
sonal'norms'related'to'organic'food'consumption.'Personal'norms'
have' been' found' in' previous' meta)analytical' studies' to' be' an' im)
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
portant' predictor' of' proenvironmental' behavior,' explaining' as'
much' as' 52%' of' variation' in' proenvironmental' behavior' (Bamberg'
and' Möser' 2007)' and' several' have' attempted' to' include' personal'
norms'in'TPB'framework'(see'e.g.'Bamberg'and'Schmidt'2003,'Wall,'
Devine)Wright'and'Mill'2007).'
Based' on' the' literature' review,' we' propose' and' empirically' test' 5'
models,' using' latent' variable' structural' equation' modeling' with'
categorical'data'(due'to'Muthén'1983).'M1'is'a'standard'TPB'mod)
el.'M2'is'M1'extended'with'personal'norms'(PN)'and'with'all'effects'
of'PN'on'TPB'variables'being'constrained'to'zero.'M3'is'similar'M2'
except'that'we'relax'the'zero'constraint'on'the'effect'of'PN'on'atti)
tudes.'M4'is,'again,'similar'to'M2,'except'that'we'allow'PN'to'influ)
ence'behavioral'intention.'Finally,'in'M5'we'modify'M2'by'relaxing'
the'constraint'on'the'effect'of'PN'on'reported'behavior,'i.e.'organic'
food'consumption.'
Our' results' suggest' that' conventional' TPB' model' (M1)' performs'
decently'well'in'explanation'of'organic'food'consumption.'Interest)
ingly,' self)related' beliefs' and' altruistic' beliefs' seem' to' play' much'
more' prominent' role' as' indirect' factors' of' organic' food' consump)
tion' than' environmentally)related' beliefs.' Further,' personal' norms'
seem' to' have' no' direct' effect' on' organic' food' consumption' but'
rather,'their'effect'seems'to'be'mediated'by'attitudes.'
SUSTAINABLE!CONSUMPTION:!THE!DILEMMAS!OF!THE!
RELATIONSHIP!BETWEEN!INDIVIDUAL!CHOICE!AND!
THE!SOCIAL,!CULTURAL,!AND!POLITICAL!CONTEXT!
Isabel'Maria'Fernandes'Silva'Cruz
1'
1
Institute' of' Sociology,' UNIVERSITY' OF' PORTO,' Matosinhos,' Portu)
'
gal
Abstract:' The' theoretical' and' methodological' approach' that' we'
propose'in'order'to'understand'sustainable'consumption'practices'
requires:' i)' the' analysis' of' the' relationship' between' consumer'
choice'and'welfare,'ii)'the'analysis'of'constrains'resulting'from'gov)
ernment' policies' and' actions,' undertaken' by' various' associations'
on'the'internalization'of'environmentalists’'dispositions.'The'analy)
sis' will' take' place' at' both' the' individual' psychological' and' social'
level'as'well'as'at'the'environment'level.'Thus,'the'analysis'focuses'
on'the'concepts'of'habitus,'reflexivity,'secondary'socialization,'and'
consumer' welfare,' which' we' consider' central' in' order' to' under)
stand'these'practices.'
As' Illich' (1977),' Bauman' (2008)' and' Kasser' (2002)' we' also' sustain'
that' in' modern' society' the' demand' for' welfare' is' a' difficult' task,'
with'damaging'repercussions'in'terms'of'environmental,'social'and'
psychological' individual' well)being.' In' this' sense' it' is' considered'
that:' i)' the' effects' of' eco)industry' are' insufficient' to' achieve' sus)
tainable' development,' ii)' the' need' to' meet' consumer' issues,' such'
as' consumption' level' and' pattern,' consumer' expectations' and' be)
haviors,' the' nature' of' consumers' decision)making' processes' and'
the' importance' of' changing' attitudes,' behaviors' and' expectations'
in'favor'of'clean'products,'reducing'environmental'impact,'and'iii)'
the' constraints' of' social' and' cultural' context' in' the' definition' and'
constraint'of'individual'choice.'Finally,'we'stress'the'importance'of'
policy' intervention' in' promoting' moral' and' social' behavior' (Daw)
kins,'2001).'
The' empirical' analysis' aims' to' characterize' the' relationship' be)
tween'the'government,'the'market'and'society'in'the'definition'of'
public'policies'concerning'sustainable'consumption'in'Portugal.'
Abstract'Book'
123'
'
WHICH!CONCEPTION!OF!SUSTAINABILITY!FOR!
SUSTAINABLE!PUBLIC!PROCUREMENT?!
Ronan'Le'Velly
1'
1
UMR'Innovation,'MONTPELLIER'SUPAGRO,'Montpellier,'France
'
Abstract:'Sustainable'consumption'does'not'only'concern'individual'
consumers.'In'many'countries,'notably'in'France,'“sustainable'pro)
curement”' of' local' and' central' governments' is' also' recognized' as'
an'important'political'task.'But,'to'which'development'model'does'
sustainable'public'procurement'refer?'
To' explore' the' conception' of' sustainability' that' is' associated' to'
sustainable' public' procurement,' the' author' has' observed'the'con)
tent' of' some' ninety' “normative' documents”' drafted' by' various'
French' entities' (local' governments,' NGOs,' government' agencies,'
etc.)'and'international'organizations'(European'Commission,'OECD,'
etc.).'These'“normative'documents”'consist'of'regulations,'guides,'
manuals,' reports' on' experiences,' and' so' on,' and' have' all' in' com)
mon' to' present' the' good' practices' that' should' be' followed' in' the'
name'of'sustainable'public'procurement.'
The' author' shows' that' these' documents' envision' a' more' or' less'
wide' range' of' good' practices' that' is' related' to' different' concep)
tions' of' sustainability.' Three' types' of' justification' for' sustainable'
procurement' are' distinguished:' “doubly' winning' purchasing”,'
“overall' winning' purchasing”,' and' “morally' responsible' purchas)
ing”.'What'is'at'stake'is'very'concrete.'For'example,'if'the'first'ar)
gument' predominates,' notably' because' of' budgetary' tensions,'
sustainable' procurement' concentrates' on' energy' efficiency' and'
forsakes' fair' trade' goods' or' the' products' of' organic' agriculture.'
Then,' the' identification' of' these' three' justifications' also' strives' to'
avoid'having'current'thinking'about'sustainable'public'procurement'
refer'only'to'the'first'(or'first'two)'of'them.'
WHAT!CAN!THE!LITERATURES!ON!WELFARE!REGIMES!
AND!VARIETIES!OF!CAPITALISM!TELL!US!ABOUT!THE!
ROOM!FOR!CONSUMER!SELFGREGULATION!AS!A!
STRATEGY!FOR!SUSTAINABLE!CONSUMPTION!IN!
NORWAY!AND!THE!UK?!
Sjur'Kasa
1
1'
CICERO,'UNIVERSITY'OF'OSLO,'OSLO,'Norway
'
Abstract:' Among' current' efforts' to' spur' sustainable' consumption,'
there' is' a' bias' towards' various' branding' and' labelling' efforts' that'
aim' to' regulate' the' environmental' consequences' of' consumption'
through' individual' choice.' I' perceive' this' turn' towards' individual'
self)regulation' as' a' regulatory' tool' to' make' consumption' more'
sustainable'as'intrinsically'linked'to'the'rise'of'the'regulatory'state.'
In' contrast' to' classical' liberalism,' neo)liberal' forms' of' regulation'
put' a' stronger' emphasis' on' markets,' but' do' not' simply' denote'
state' withdrawal' and' ”laissez)faire”.' Rather,' the' regulatory' state'
differs' from' former' goal)oriented' and' interventiontist' state' forms'
by' seeking' to' establish' new' procedural' routines' aiming' to' assist'
markets' in' functioning' better' and' thereby' presumably' produce'
superior'outcomes.'Modern'self)regulation'takes'place'under'close'
state' monitoring' and' with' the' deliberate' use' of' incentives,' infor)
mation'measures'and'various'kinds'of'hands)on/hands)off'network'
facilitation,'as'we'can'see'many'examples'of'in'the'field'of'sustain)
able'consumption.'There/is'a'large'literature'on'the'legitimacy'and'
efficiency' of' self)regulation' as' a' tool' for' encouraging/ sustainable'
consumption' but' little' research' on' the' factors' that' shape' policies'
aimed' at' encouraing' sustainable' consumption.' Such' regulatory'
policies' are' strongly' path)dependent,' attributing' different' respon)
sibilities'to'state'bureaucracies,'interest'groups,'firms'and'individu)
als.'So'far,'consumption'practices'and'regulations'have'had'a'mar)
ginal'position'in'broader'typologies'of'welfare'regimes'and'varieties'
of' capitalism.' In' this' paper,' I' discuss' to' what' extent' differences'
between' the' shape' and' ambitousness' of' government' policies' in'
encouraging' sustainable' consumption' through' individual' self)
regulation'in'two'different'national'settings'–'Norway'and'the'UK'–'
can'be'said'to'be'structured'by'varying'relationships'between'state'
and'individual'in'the'two'countries'roughly'similar'to'the'idealtypes'
suggested' in' the' literature' on' welfare' regimes' (social)democratic'
vs.' liberal)' and' the' production)oriented' literature' on' varieties' of'
capitalism'(liberal'vs.'coordinated'market'economies).'
CULTIVATING!OPPORTUNITY!IN!THE!SOIL!OF!CRISIS:!
NEOLIBERALISM,!CONSUMPTION,!AND!THE!LOCAL!
FOOD!MOVEMENT!
Stefanie'Torlai'Stauffer
1'
1
Sociology/Global' Studies,' UNIVERSITY' OF' CALIFORNIA' AT' SANTA'
'
BARBARA,'Santa'Barbara,'CA,'United'States
Abstract:' This' project' is' an' ethnographic' study' of' the' local' food'
movement' in' Michigan' and' California' conducted' through' urban'
agriculture' experiments' and' participant' observation' of' farmer's'
markets,' urban' farming' non)profits,' farmer's' cooperatives,' com)
munity' gardens,' school' gardens,' restaurants,' and' local' food' distri)
bution' networks.' Building' on' the' work' of' critical' globalization'
scholars,' urban' and' environmental' sociologists,' social' movement'
theorists,' and' the' Frankfurt' School,' this' project' investigates' how'
neoliberalism' has' altered' food' consumption' patterns' and' how'
people' have' responded' to' those' changes.' A' main' premise' here' is'
that'the'adoption'of'neoliberal'practices'has'encouraged'states'to'
deregulate,'privatize,'and'thus'commodify'social'services'once'pro)
vided'for'free'(or'at'relatively'low'cost),'creating'a'situation'where'
people'without'monetary'means'to'access'these'services'have'gone'
into'debt'or'gone'without.'Couple'this'reduction'in'public'services'
with' rising' unemployment' rates' and' soaring' fuel' and' food' costs,'
and'the'result'is'a'growing'number'of'people'who'are'subsequently'
unable' to' consume' healthy,' affordable' food' or' provide' for' other'
basic'needs.'This'project'investigates'how'the'local'food'movement'
has' subsequently' responded' to' this' crisis' of' access' by' relocalizing'
the'economy'and'adopting'more'sustainable'consumption'practices'
in'the'face'of'the'economic'inequality,'resource'scarcity,'and'social'
fragmentation' exacerbated' by' neoliberal' hyper)production.' We'
shall' see' explicitly' that' although' neoliberalism' has' encouraged'
many' people' to' consume' the' same' cheap,' mass)produced,' low)
quality'goods'available'at'large'retail'chains'across'the'globe,'it'has'
encouraged'others'to'do'quite'the'opposite.'
EATING!BOBO!IN!PARIS.!SOCIALLY!TAGGED!LIFESTYLE!
AND!CONSUMPTION!AS!AN!IDENTITY!
Sabine'Bognon
1
1'
ENPC'LATTS,'Paris,'France
'
Abstract:'Created'by'David'Brookes,'the'bobo'phenomenon'(bour)
geois'bohemian)'holds'a'slightly'different'meaning'in'France'than'it'
does'in'the'United'States.'Thanks'to'the'well)established'bourgeois'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
124'
Abstract'Book'
condition,'Bohemian'lifestyle'is'both'the'origin'and'a'consequence'
of'the'gentrification'of'French'(and'some'European)'cities.'
If'"there'is'no'tongue'like'one'from'Paris"'(as'mentionned'by'Fran)
cois' Villon,' French' poet' of' the' 15th' century),' how' not' to' link' the'
emergence'of'this'social'group,'which'claims'to'be'French/vanguard'
of'urban'trends,'with'its'eating'habits?'
Ways'and'lifestyles'associated'with'the'bobo'phenomenon'are'both'
valued' and' denigrated:' the' analysis' of' bobo's' ways' of' eating,' be)
tween' marginality' and' conformism,' denotes' a' highly' interesting'
fact'as'it'represents'a'real'social'practice.'
First,' this' article' proposes' to' analyze' the' contemporary' parisian'
bobo' eating' habits' through' a' quick' study' of' food' supply' in' the'
eastern'Paris.'
Then,'with'a'short'series'of'semi)structured'interviews,'we'demon)
strate'the'existence'of'a'specific'identity'expressed'by'a'real'bobo'
way'of'eating.'Thus,'we'will'release'common'features'targeted'by'
commercial' offer' and' even' urban' settings.' Finally,' by' using' a' food'
prism,' we' suggest' a' new' way' of' understanding' the' sociological'
meaning'of'the'bobo'model.'
THERE!ARE!NO!BONDS!WITHOUT!HIERARCHY!G!
CONTEMPORARY!CHINA!EATING!AND!DRINKING!
INTERACTION!RITUALS!ANALYZE!
Jaroslaw'Jerzy'Jura
1'
1
LAZARSKI'UNIVERSITY,'Warsaw,'Poland
'
Abstract:'The'paper'draws'on'the'findings'of'a'study'of'eating'and'
drinking' behaviour' in' contemporary' Beijing.' The' research' has' a'
qualitative'background'and'focuses'on'conventional'actions'during'
the'meal,'and'on'the'study'of'verbal'and'non)verbal'interaction.'It'
took'place'in'several'dozens'(mainly'gastronomic)'locales'in'Beijing'
between'1999'and'2004'and'involved'both'observational'materials'
and'data'derived'from'interviews.'Some'comparative'data'has'been'
gathered'in'villages'nearby'Beijing'as'well.'
The'whole'work'has'been'conducted'under'the'influence'of'Anselm'
Strauss' grounded' theory' therefore' it' would' be' said' that' research'
generally'has'been'aimed'at'creation'of'sets'of'interrelated'theoret=
ical/categories,'together'with'description'of'their'conditional/matrix'
and'tracing'conditional/path'between'them.'
The'main'idea'of'the'whole'project'was'to'analyse'eating'and'drink)
ing' interaction' patterns' in' the' context' of' their' role' in' creation,'
maintenance' and' change' of' social' bonds' and' hierarchy.' One' of'
findings' of' research' is' an' observation' that' social' bonds' and' social'
hierarchy' are' inextricably' linked.' Author's' aim' is' to' defend' and'
explain'this'thesis'with'support'of'gathered'empirical'material'and'
with'reference'to'some'concepts'which'can'be'find'in'both'Chinese'
and'Western'ritualistic'studies'just'to'mention:'li/(ritual)/=/yue'(joy')'
music)' apparent' contradiction' (according' to' Yang' Xiangkui's' ana)
lyse),' Goffman's' work' on' "interaction' rituals",' Eibl)Eibelsfeldt's'
work'on'aggression,'love'and'rites,'etc.'
RECIPIENT!TYPES!AND!DEFINING!OF!THE!
PARTICIPATION!SITUATION!IN!ARTISTIC!CULTURE.!AN!
ANALYSIS!MODEL!OF!THE!PARTICIPATION!PATTERNS.!
Przemyslaw'Kisiel
'1,'2*
'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
1
Department' of' Sociology,' CRACOW' UNIVERSITY' OF' ECONOMICS,'
Department' of' Sociology' of' Family,' The' Pontifical' University' of'
'
John'Pope'II'in'Cracow,'Cracow,'Poland
2
Abstract:'The'question'of'patterns'of'participation'in'artistic'culture'
has'been'often'regarded,'but'it'was'usually'considered'in'conjunc)
tion' with' the' factors,' which' form' the' general' context' for' cultural'
activity.'An'attention'is'then'given'on'the'effect'of'such'factors'as'
for'instance:'position'in'social'structure,'cultural'and'social'capital,'
social'and'economic'status'or'demographic'variables'(gender,'age,'
education'or'education'of'the'spouse).'Undoubtedly,'these'factors'
play' a' very' important' role,' as' is' evidenced' by' numerous' empirical'
studies.'However,'we'must'to'remember'that'cultural'participation'
is' a' social' process' and' every' act' of' participation' is' a' social' action,'
and'how'any'such'action'is'subject'to'the'contextual'and'situational'
determinants'as'well.'Therefore,'it'is'also'important,'to'look'closer'
at'the'situational'factors,'directly'linked'to'the'acts'of'participation.'
Among'them,'one'of'the'most'important'is'the'mode'of'defining'of'
the'participation'situation'by'the'recipient'culture.'
In'this'paper'a'theoretical'model'of'the'participation'in'artistic'cul)
ture'will'be'presented.'The'model'is'focused'on'efforts'undertaken'
by'recipients'of'culture'to'define'the'situation'of'participation'as'a'
factor'which'determines'the'participation'process.'To'the'definition'
of' the' participation' situation' two' aspects' has' been' distinguished:'
the'aspect'of'the'definition'of'a'work'of'culture,'and'the'aspect'of'
the'definition'of'its'meaning,'and'then'on'their'basis'a'typology'of'
recipients'–'participants'in'the'cultural'activities'has'been'created.'
The' empirical' data' proves' that' suggested' theoretical' typologies'
help'capture'highly'significant'differences'in'the'frequency'of'inci)
dence' and' also' in' characterisations' of' participatory' behaviour' ex)
hibited'by'each'of'the'recipient'types.'Therefore'emphasizing'situa)
tional'factors'have'a'real'impact'on'the'process'of'the'participation'
in'culture'and'that'they'should'be'regarded'in'the'study'of'the'cul)
tural'participation.'
FROM!MYTHS!OF!TRANSCENDENCE!TO!MYTHS!OF!
SUBLIMATION.!MYTHS!IN!LATE!MODERNITY!
'1
'1
Swen'Seebach ,'Isaac'Gonzàlez)Balletbo ,'Natàlia'CANTÓ)MILÀ
1'
1
ARTS' &' HUMANITIES,' UNIVERSITAT' OBERTA' DE' CATALUNYA'
'
(UOC),'Barcelona,'Spain
Abstract:/ It' is' a' constant' in' the' literature' that' human' beings' are'
beings' in' need' of' myths,' myths' understood' as' narratives' that' be)
stow'human'life'and'experience'with'a'meaning,'ordering'and'regu)
lating'their'everyday'life'practices'in'relation'to'this'‘higher’'dimen)
sion'of'meaning'that'is'reminded'and'restored'by'the'myth.'
However'myths'have'not'always'worked'the'same'way;'they'have'
not' had' the' same' structure,' or' told' the' same' kind' of' narration' in'
order'to'work,'and'accomplish'their'more'constant'function.'
In' this' paper' we' will' seek' to' depict' the' transformations' (in' struc)
ture'and'consequences)'that'myths'have'undergone'in'modernity;'
thus'arguing'at'the'end'of'our'presentation'that,'at'the'moment,'in'
late'(or'second)'modernity'we'are'facing'a'new'form'of'myth'which'
is' disguised' as' contingent' and' is' exercised' through' an' act' of' con)
sumption.' Myths' that' seem' to' be' ‘ad)hoc’,' myths' that' seem' to'
break' that' which' myths' are' supposed' to' be,' and' exult' the' most'
individual,' his' (normally' his)' authenticity,' the' fluctuating' moment,'
but'which,'dressed'up'as'anti)myths,'continue'to'exercise'their'very'
old' function,' and' this' is' a' rather' effective' way.' We' will' use' exam)
Abstract'Book'
125'
'
ples'from'the'movies'and'advertisements'in'order'to'illustrate'our'
theses.'
ILLEGAL!DRUGG!AND!ALCOHOL!USE!IN!THE!NIGHT!
TIME!ECONOMY!–!AN!EDGEWORK!OF!
OVERCONSUMPTION!
Jakob'Demant
1'
out' to' parents' with' children' within' the' age' of' 3)14' years' old,' this'
poster'purpose'is'to'present'final'data'and'concluding'remarks'on'
both' practices' and' social' representations' surrounding' contempo)
rary'families’'shopping'times'and'contexts.'Through'an'empiric'and'
theoretical'analysis'of'collected'data'we'hope'to'critically'highlight'
the'sociological'knowledge'on'relations'between'family,'consump)
tion' time' and' children.' Sociology' of' the' family' and' childhood' in)
sights'brought'into'discussion'can'enhance'a'both'original'and'fruit)
ful'contribution'to'sociology'of'consumption'debates.'
1
Centre' for' Alcohol' and' Drug' Research,' AARHUS' UNIVERSITY,' Co)
'
pehagen'S,'Denmark
Abstract:' A' paradox' appears' in' young' adults’' intoxication' on' drug'
and' alcohol' in' the' Danish' night' time' economy.' On' the' one' hand'
they'strive'for'getting'very'intoxicated,'mostly'with'alcohol,'and'on'
the'other'hand'in'keeping'control,'with'drugs'like'cocaine'and'am)
phetamine.'Stephen'Lyng’s'concept'of'edgework'grasp'the'paradox'
of'control'vs.'loss'of'control'in'the'way'he'describes'the'identities'
gained' from' the' skillfulness' of' keeping' control' in' a' self' produced'
chaos'(risk).'But'can'the'theory'of'edgework'be'used'to'grasp'drug'
use'in'a'controlled'mainstream'consumption'site'of'the'night'club'
where'the'behavior'when'intoxicated'on'drugs'is'far'more'restrict)
ed'that'in'the'sub)cultural'clubs'or'in'street'drug'scene?'The'paper'
argues' that' edgework' can' be' a' fruitful' concept' in' understanding'
this' phenomenon' of' overconsumption' if' we' address' the' social'
space' that' constitutes' the' setting' for' the' edgework.' The' edge' for'
the'young'mainstream'clubbers'is'exactly'produced'in'a'context'of'
the'regulated'consumption'site'where'a'high'level'of'intoxication'is'
expected.'The'edge'is'as'such'both'social'and'bodily'defined.'Within'
this' space' mastering' of' over)consumption' integrates' one' into' an'
accepted'consumption'based'youth'society'and'as'such'produce'an'
acceptable' identity.' This' reflection' of' drug' and' alcohol' consump)
tion' may' be' relevant' also' in' order' to' understand' other' forms' of'
overconsumption'–'gambling,'shopaholics'and'compulsive)eating'–'
that'is'likewise'placed'on'the'borderline'of'pathologic'consumption'
within'spaces'where'high'consumption'is'expected.'
SHOPPING!WITH(OUT)!CHILDREN:!FAMILY!AND!
CONSUMPTION!IN!THE!SUPERMARKET!ARENA!
Rosalina'Pisco'Costa
1'
1
Department'of'Sociology/School'of'Social'Sciences,'UNIVERSITY'OF'
'
ÉVORA,'Évora,'Portugal
Abstract:' Sociological' perspective' on' shopping' time' is' usually' un)
dertaken'from'a'gender'point'of'view.'In'this'presentation'we'pros)
ecute' a' different' look.' Focusing' specifically' on' shopping' time' with'
(or'without)'children,'we'conceptualize'it'as'a'“family'ritual”'(Wolin'
e' Bennett,' 1984;' Imber)Black' &' Roberts,' 1992;' Gillis,' 1996;' Pleck,'
2000).'Family'rituals'are'powerful'tools'to'catch'inner'dynamics'of'
both'family'practices'and'representations,'namely'the'ones'related'
with'the'central'place'of'children'in'contemporary'families.'Some)
times' invisible' in' consumption' practices,' children' indeed' play' a'
major'role'in'decision)making'process'of'their'parents.'But'children'
are' also' actors' in' context' and' the' supermarket' can' be' the' arena'
where' family' presents' itself.' For' the' ones,' to' go' with' or' without'
children'is'a'question'of'option;'for'the'others,'there'is'no'option'at'
all.' In' this' case,' family' faces' other' families' whose' behavior' is' ac)
cepted'or'refused,'but'always'judged.'
In' this' poster' we' specifically' address' shopping' time' involving' par)
ents'and'children'in'urban'supermarkets.'Methodological'anchored'
upon' empirical' data' from' qualitative' in)depth' interviews' carried'
THE!ROLE!OF!THE!CONSUMER!IN!NATIONAL!MEDIA!
DEBATES!ON!ENVIRONMENTAL!SUSTAINABILITY.!A!
COMPARISON!OF!NORWAY!AND!FRANCE!
1
2
Siv'Elin'Ånestad' ,'Sophie'Dubuisson)Quellier' ,'Unni'Kjærnes1'
1
SIFO' (NATIONAL' INSTITUTE' FOR' CONSUMER' RESEARCH),' Oslo,'
2
Norway,' Center' for' the' Sociology' of' Organizations' (CNRS),' PARIS,'
'
France
Abstract:' Sustainable' consumption' is' receiving' increasing' political'
and'academic'attention'in'policies'for'environmental'sustainability.'
There'is'a'general'call'for'measures'aimed'at'promoting'consumers`'
voluntary' engagement' in' sustainable' development,' e.g.' through'
product' labelling' schemes.' However,' how' the' notion' of' consumer'
responsibilities' is' constructed' depends' on' the' political' system,'
market' conditions' and' people`s' everyday' practices.' To' better' un)
derstand' the' role' of' consumers' in' relation' to' sustainability' in' dif)
ferent'national'contexts,'we'conduct'a'comparative'analysis'of'the'
media'discourse'in'Norway'and'France.'In'Norway'the'current'focus'
on'consumer'involvement'has'developed'from'a'tradition'of'steer)
ing' consumption' through' direct' regulatory' intervention,' whereas'
France' would' be' characterized' by' a' more' recent' tradition' of' sus)
tainable'consumption'policies.'Our'discussion'is'based'on'a'content'
analysis' of' relevant' articles' published' in' the' five' most' important'
newspapers'in'the'countries'over'a'ten'year'period.'We'emphasise'
five' main' issues' 1)' how' the' issue' of' sustainable' consumption' is'
defined'as'a'public'issue,'2)'the'main'actors'involved'in'the'debates'
and'conflict'alignments,'3)'images'and'roles'of'consumers'present)
ed,' 4)' the' main' consumption' areas' highlighted' and' discussed' as'
problematic' (textiles,' chemicals,' meat,' energy,' housing,' water,'
waste,'mobility'etc.)'and'5)'how'consumers'are'presented'in'social'
mobilization'and'as'agents'of'change.'Our'study'allows'us'to'assess'
the' way' these' different' national' framings' of' consumers`' responsi)
bilities' arise' from' the' interlocking' between' public' policies,' provi)
sioning'systems'for'various'products,'and'national'issues'emerging'
as' key' subjects' for' a' transition' towards' sustainability.' The' paper'
describes' what' is' presented' as' unresolved' issues' for' making' con)
sumption' more' sustainable,' and' how' these' are' to' be' addressed' –'
through' direct' public' regulation' of' pricing' and' legislation,' product'
labelling,' education,' local/communitarian' initiatives,' or' so)called'
“partnerships”'between'public,'commercial'and'other'social'actors.'
Keywords:' Sustainable' consumption,' media' debate,' consumer' re)
sponsibility,'regulation'
FOOD!POLICY!AND!HEALTH:!ANALISYS!OF!CHANGE!IN!
DIETARY!RECOMMENDATIONS!IN!SPAIN!
'1
'2
Cecilia'Díaz)Méndez ,'Cristobal'Gómez)Benito '
1
Departamento' de' Sociologia,' UNIVERSITY' OF' OVIEDO,' Oviedo,'
'
Departamento'de'Sociologia,'UNED,'Madrid,'Spain
2
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
126'
Abstract'Book'
Abstract:' In' this' paper' our' aim' is' to' analyse' the' way' the' relation)
ship'between'health'and'food'has'been'changing'at'the'same'time'
as'Spanish'society'itself.'From'the'beginnings'of'the'consumer'soci)
ety' until' the' present' day' the' modernization' process' has' made' its'
imprint'on'the'guidelines'public'bodies'have'issued'to'the'public'on'
caring'for'their'health'and'diet.'Beginning'in'the'sixties'with'a'wel)
fare' idea' of' a' healthy' diet,' very' typical' of' the' decade,' and' meant'
for' a' population' with' nutritional' problems,' today' we' have' guide)
lines'for'an'overfed'population.'The'social'trends'dominant'in'each'
historical' moment' are' shown' throughout' this' transformation' pro)
cess'and'the'dietary'recommendations'have'been'part'of'the'social'
change.' However,' the' perceptions' of' the' administration' itself' on'
what' constitutes' a' healthy' diet' have' also' made' their' mark' on' the'
criteria.'The'modernizing'nature'of'the'paternalistic'administration'
of'the'sixties'can'be'easily'seen'in'contrast'with'the'public'bodies'of'
the'eighties'competing'with'the'messages'from'the'food'and'agri)
cultural' businesses.' As' the' 20th' century' drew' to' a' close,' dietary'
advice'was'in'keeping'with'a'background'dominated'by'considera)
tions'on'the'nature'of'social'change'and'in'which'both'public'bod)
ies'and'citizens'trusted'in'the'truths'of'science'as'a'reference'point'
for' correct' action.' At' the' beginning' of' the' 21st' century' reflexivity'
and'questioning'of'scientific'power'appear'and'also'an'increase'in'
public'preoccupation'with'food'risks.'Each'stage'is'analysed'relating'
historical'background'and'dietary'recommendations.'
MEDIA,!FOOD!&!MORAL.!THE!TRINITY!OF!GOOD!
COOKING!
Sascha'Qvortrup
1'
1
Meal' Science' &' Public' Health' Nutrition' )' MENU,' AALBORG'
'
UNIVERSITY,'ballerup,'Denmark
Abstract:/Media,'food'and'moral.'
This' paper' tend' to' investigate' “good' cooking”' as' a' enactment' of'
negotiated' moral' practice.' Methodologically' I' have' combined' tex)
tual' discourse' analysis' (Aakerstrøm,'1999;' Foucault,'1984)' of' Dan)
ish'food'magazines'published'in'the'period'2000'till'2010'with'par)
ticipant' observations' in' 10' families' (Hammersley' and' Atkinson,'
1995)' The' participant' observation' was' experimental/ and/ interven=
ing/ fieldwork/ (Marcus/ &/ Fischer/ 1999)/ through/ the/ use/ of/ cultural/
probes/ (photos,/ foodstuff/ ingredients,/ objects/ etc;/ Gaver,/ Dunne/ &/
Pacenti/1999).'I'have'observed'“good'cooking”'as'an'enactment'of'
practical'morality'in'relation'to'the'level'of'magazines'in'relation'to'
the' level' of' users.' Through' the' analysis,' I' investigated' to' what' ex)
tend' the' magazines’' showed' knowledge' dissemination' articulate'
values'and'norms'and'to'what'extend'the'users'negotiate'and'ac)
cept' or' reject' these' values' and' norms.' I' have' focused' on' two' as)
pects:'1:'How'is'“good'cooking”'articulated'over'the'period'2000'to'
2010,' and' how' can' the' discursive' strategies' be' localized.' 2.' How'
does'the'discursive'strategies'of'magazines'create'different'gener)
alized' dispositifs' and' how' do' they' relate' to' the' ”good' cooking”' in'
the'families.'It'seems'as'the'norms'are'articulated'in'a'modern'ver)
sion' of' the' antic' trinity' of' :' the' good,' the' truth/ and' the' beauti=
ful/pretty/ (Platon,' 1975)' transformed' into' :' the' good,' the' healthy'
and' the' beautiful/pretty.' The' trinity' is' reflected' in' the' concept' of'
negotiated'narratives'of'“good'cooking”'by'the'food'responsible'in'
the'family'articulated'in'shopping,'cooking'and'interaction'between'
family'members,'food'responsibles'and'articulation'from'the'insti)
tutions.'The'good'cooking'as'a'negotiated'moral'practice'is'created'
as'a'narrative'the'family'live'by.'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
Aakerstrøm' Andersen,' N.' 1999:' Diskursive/ analysestrategier.' Kø)
benhavn:'Nyt'fra'Samfundsvidenskaberne'
Foucault,'M.'1984:'‘Nietzsche,'Genealogy'and'History’.'In:'Rabinow,'
P.'(ed.):'The/Foucault/reader.'New'York:'Pantheon.'
Gaver,'B.,'Dunne'T.'&'Pacenti'E.,'1999:'‘Cultural'Probes’'in'Interac=
tions,'Volume'6,'Issue'1,'p.'21)29.'
Hammersley,' M.' &' Atkinson,' P.' 1995:' Ethnography./ Principles/ in/
Practice.'London:'Routledge.'
Marcus,' G.E.' &' Fischer,' M.M.' 1999:' Anthropology/ as/ cultural/ cri=
tique:/ an/ experimental/ moment/ in/ the/ human/ sciences.' Chicago:'
University'of'Chicago'Press.'
Platon'1975:'Staten,'København:'Hans'Reitzels'Forlag.'
STUDYING!THE!"EATING!OUT":!DEFINITIONS,!
RECORDS!AND!RESULTS!
'1
Adrián'Rey'Díaz ,'CECILIA'DIAZ)MENDEZ
1
OVIEDO,'OVIEDO,'Spain
1'
'
Abstract:'Food'consumption'out'of'home'has'increased'significantly'
in' the' industrialized' countries' in' recent' decades.' The' study' of' this'
food' behaviour' has' been' discussed' widely' in' the' Anglo)Saxon'
world,' with' less' intensity' in' countries' like' China' or' Japan' and' it' is'
very'little'treatment'in'scientific'Spanish'literature.'
Much'of'the'existing'scientific'analysis'seems'to'agree'on'the'exist)
ence' of' two' problems' that' hinder' the' analysis:' on' one' hand,' the'
difficulties' of' definition' and,' on' the' other,' deficiencies' of' meas)
urement.'
The' difficulties' of' definition' are' given' by' the' lack' of' clarity' about'
what' is' understood' as' consumption' out' of' home.' The' alternatives'
to'"eating'out")understood'as'opposed'to'household'consumption)'
differ'according'to'place'of'consumption'(home'of'friends'or'family,'
cafes,'parks,'company),'the'development'of'the'product'(fast'food,'
restaurant,'home),'the'consumer'mobility'(take)away,'street'food)'
or'the'purpose'of'this'consumption'(leisure,'work).'
The' data' sources' are' very' diverse' in' the' register' of' data' that' pre)
vents' a' precise' analysis.' In' addition,' there' is' heterogeneity' in' offi)
cial'sources'of'different'countries'that'hinder'comparative'analysis.'
The' increase' in' consumption' outside' the' home' appears' to' be' a'
constant'linked'to'the'modernization'of'society'and'it'is'affected'by'
the'economic'crisis.'All'invited'to'a'study'in'depth'about'what'it'is,'
how' is' recorded' and' how' varies' the' food' consumption' out' of'
home.'
A!SUBURBIAN!HOUSE!AS!A!GENDERED!PATTERN!OF!
VALUE!CONSUMPTION.!THE!CASE!OF!PIERĪGA!
'1
'2
Gunta'Darbina ,'Agita'Luse '
1
2
Department'of'Social'Work,' Department'of'Communication'Stud)
'
ies,'RIGA'STRADINS'UNIVERSITY,'Riga,'Latvia
Abstract:'Before'the'global'economic'crisis,'Latvian'families'strove'
for' own' house.' During' the' previous' decade' the' expansion' of' the'
Riga'suburb'Pieriga/was'facilitated'by'easily'accessible'mortgages.'A'
life'in'the'suburb'became'a'way'of'consuming'values.'The'middle)
class' in' particular,' strove' to' confirm' its' “elective' belonging”' (Sav=
age,'2005).'Belonging'to'a'place'is'related'to'self)esteem'and'rais)
Abstract'Book'
127'
'
ing' and' educating' the' children.' The' orientation' to' these' values' is'
markedly'shaped'by'gender.'
For'example,'a'consumption)oriented'economics'affected'women’s'
identities'in'Britain'in'the'1920s)1950s'when'development'of'sub)
urbs' gave' rise' to' a' concept' of' the' ideal' house' with' its' consumer/
housewife/(Gile,'2007).'
st
Within'the'framework'of'her'doctoral'research,'1 'author'took'part'
in'a'study'on'the'Pieriga'inhabitants’'attitude'to'their'place'of'resi)
dence' (SKDS,' 2009).' The' survey' showed' that' satisfaction' with' dif)
ferent'aspects'of'life'there'was'quite'low.'That'can'be'explained'by'
the' specific' pattern' of' the' suburban' development,' strongly' influ)
enced'by'an'intensive'land'market'and'resulting'in'scattered'hous)
ing'schemes'with'no'common'planning,'nor'infrastructure.'
We' conclude' that' the' new' suburban' zone' failed' to' provide' the'
middle'class'of'Pieriga/with'an'“elective'belonging”.'The'high'ratio'
of' divorced' families' and' low' average' income' mean' that' women'
have'to'balance'their'identity'of'consumer/housewives/with'efforts'
to'preserve'their'homes.'
DEINDUSTRIALIZATION!AS!MATERIAL!CULTURE:!FROM!
ABANDONED!OBJECTS!TO!CONSUMPTION!
Liviu'Chelcea
1'
1
'
Sociology,'University'of'Bucharest,'Bucharest,'Romania
Abstract:'As'other'cities'in'many'parts'of'the'world,'Bucharest'un)
derwent'substantial'deindustrialization'during'the'last'two'decades.'
This' has' produced' a' large' number' of' abandoned' and' unclaimed'
objects.'Some'are'moveable,'while'other'are'immoveable.'Evacuat)
ed'as'an'economic'practice'from'the'urban'core,'these'ex)industrial'
objects' gained' new' material' and' symbolic' value.' Underclass' fami)
lies,'heritage'protection'groups,'artists,'‘urban'explorers’'and'urban'
flanneurs'use'these'objects'in'a'variety'of'ways.'I'will'describe'how'
these' groups' transform' these' objects' into' items' of' consumption,'
either'as'material'or'immaterial'commodities'(pictures,'scrap'met)
al,' art' installations' or' blogs),' heritage' objects' or' new' aesthetic'
forms.'The'research,'carried'out'between'2008'and'2010,'is'based'
on' observation' of' several' abandoned' industrial' sites' and' partici)
pant' observation' among' people' who' visit' and' extract' objects' and'
meaning' from' such' sites.' I' engage' with' literature' on' deindustriali)
zation' as' material' culture' (Mah,' Alice,' 2010,' Memory,/ Uncertainty/
and/Industrial/Ruination,'Int.'Jour.'of'Urban'and'Regional'Research,'
34.2:398)413;'Edensor,'Tom,'2010,'Industrial/Ruins/Spaces,/Aesthet=
ics/and/Materiality,'Oxford:'Berg),'the'social'life'of'objects'(Appadu)
rai,' Arjun' ed.,' 1986,' The/ Social/ Life/ of/ Things,' Cambridge:' Cam)
bridge'UP),'voluntary'risk)taking'(Deborah'Lupton'and'John'Tulloch,'
2002,'Life/would/be/pretty/dull/without/risk,'Health,'Risk'and'Socie)
ty,' 4.2:113)124),' sensory' overstimulation' and' tourism' (Simmel,'
Georg,'1906,'The/Metropolis/and/Mental/Life;'Urry,'John,'2002,'The/
Tourist/Gaze,'London:'Sage).'The'research'emphasizes'the'potential'
of'abandoned,'residual'objects'to'become'objects'of'consumption.'
TASTE!THE!DIFFERENCE:!SLOW!FOODS!AND!THE!
SOCIALITY!OF!THE!SENSES!
Dana'Bentia
1
1'
Sociology'Department,'LANCASTER'UNIVERSITY,'Lancaster,'United'
'
Kingdom
Abstract:'Taste'has'acquired'an'almost'infamous'status'as'a'marker'
of' distinction,' as' a' determinant' of' hierarchical' forms' of' inclusion'
and' exclusion,' and' as' a' relatively' stable' reflection' of' identities.' In'
this' way,' taste' came' to' occupy' an' uneasy' and' tense' position' in'
respect' to' current' social,' political' and' environmental' challenges'
posed'to'food'production'and'consumption.'
More'recently,'social'scientists'came'to'devote'a'new'focus'to'the'
relationship' between' food' and' taste' in' ways' which' question' the'
solidity'of'the'concept'of'taste'and'thus'to'highlight'new'facets'and'
understandings' of' what' it' means' to' consume' and' be' a' consumer'
(i.e.'Warde'et'al.'2007'on'the'cultural'omnivore;'Soper'2007'on'the'
alternative' hedonist;' Mol' 2009' on' the' normativity' of' good' taste).'
Along' such' developments,' social' movements' and' groups' such' as'
the' international' Slow' Food' Movement' provide' ongoing' forms' of'
interrogating'the'notion'of'the'eater'in'its'various'roles'as'consum)
er,'producer,'citizen,'and'human'inhabitant'of'this'planet.'
Based'on'ethnographic'research'on'the'practices'of'the'Slow'Food'
Movement' pursued' in' Britain,' the' paper' explores' distinctive' as)
pects' of' the' nature' of' relationship' between' food' and' taste' by' fo)
cusing' on' the' embodied' and' situated' aspects' of' tasting,' dining,'
buying' and' crafting' certain' foods' and' dishes.' It' contributes' to' un)
folding'debates'(mentioned'above)'in'showing'how'such'slow'food'
practices'reveal'taste'as'a'process'of'training'and'formation'of'skills'
and'knowledge'and'as'deeply'entangled'with'various'forms'of'soci)
ality.' Thus,' relational' and' multi)sensuous' dimensions' of' taste' not'
only' undermine' beliefs' regarding' the' difficulty' of' changing' tastes'
but' also' uncover' taste' as' a' practice' generative' of' creativity' and'
difference.'
VISUAL!SACRIFICES!G!THE!APPEARANCE!OF!THE!BODY,!
DESIRE!AND!FEMININITY!IN!HOLLYWOOD’S!LOVE!
STORIES!
'1
'1
Ana'Rodríguez)Granell ,'SWEN'SEEBACH ,'NATÀLIA'CANTÓ)MILÀ
1'
1
ARTS' &' HUMANITIES,' UNIVERSITAT' OBERTA' DE' CATALUNYA'
'
(UOC),'BARCELONA,'Spain
Abstract:'Since'the'beginning'of'the'last'century'society'has'under)
gone' significant' changes.' This' paper' is' based' on' the' assumption'
that'these'changes'are'anchored'in'the'social'developments'of'late'
modernity,'the'change'from'capitalist'society'based'on'production'
to' capitalist' society' based' on' mass' consumption.' In' this' process'
towards' a' society' of' mass' consumption,' society' not' just' turned'
towards' consumption' as' a' means' to' satisfy' needs' and' desires' but'
we' and' our' interactions' with' others' have' changed' into' objects' of'
consumption.'One'important'element'shaping'and'channelling'this'
transformational' process' has' been' the' cinema.' In' watching' and'
identifying'with'images'on'the'screen'and'by'relating'the'projected'
images' back' to' ourselves' we' have' slowly' learned' to' perform' the'
illusionary' images,' to' speak' using' the' forms' and' shapes' and'
phrases' of' visual' cineastic' language' and' to' see' and' perceive' our)
selves'and'the'others'like'they'would'be'mediated'by'a'screen.'This'
paper' attempts' to' explore' the' hypothesis' that' the' most' crucial'
changes'taking'place'in'late'modernity'shaped'by'mass'media'(es)
pecially' the' cinema)' have' been' related' to' the' changed' perception'
of' our' materiality' (our' human' body)' and' touches' especially' those'
spheres' of' social' life' in' which' the' body' plays' a' crucial' role.' Fur)
thermore,' the' imaginary' play' on' the' screen' takes' especially' those'
dimensions'into'account'that'had'been'foremost'closely'related'to'
the'body,'namely'desires'and'emotions.'The'presentation'of'emo)
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
128'
Abstract'Book'
tions,' desires' and' the' body' are' therefore' crucial' in' analysing' the'
disciplinary'regulative'character'of'movies.'
The' objective' of' this' paper' is' to' examine' the' ways' in' which' the'
imageries' of' the' body,' desires' and' emotions' in' movies' have' con)
tributed' to' social' developments' in' late' modernity.' This' paper' will'
present'a'discursive'text'and'film'analysis'of'5'movies:'Revolution=
ary/Road,'Existenz,'Black/Heaven,/The/Pianist'and'The/Matrix.'
EMBEDED!CONSUMERISM:!TOBACCO,!MOTORBIKE,!
AND!PC!
I)Liang'Wahn
1'
1
sociology,' UNIVERSITY' OF' ESSEX,' Colchester,' Essex,' United' King)
'
dom
Abstract:'Rapid'economic'growth'in'East'Asia'brought'specific'con)
sumer' revolution' that' is' seldom' examined' in' existing' sociology' of'
consumption.' Instead' of' assuming' universal' and' converging' con)
sumerism,'this'research'set'out'to'explore'how'development'shape'
East'Asian'consumers.'
By'comparing'consumption'patterns'between'Taiwan'and'the'Unit)
ed' Kingdom,' this' research' attempts' to' characterize' the' difference'
between'emerging'and'traditional'consumer'society.'And'by'focus)
ing' on' three' commodities' featuring' different' historical' stage:' To)
bacco,' motorbike,' and' personal' computer,' this' research' examine'
developmental' influence' on' consumer' practices.Twenty' semi)
structured' interviews' are' carried' out' with' consumers' from' each'
society' after' online' forum' observations.' Discourse' analysis' is' ap)
plied' on' narratives' thus' collected,' focusing' on' how' consumption'
practices'are'learned'and'imitated'from'others.'
This' comparison' discovered' common' ways' consumers' construct'
practices'through'institutional'structures'and'attribute'meanings'to'
commodities'through'social'networks'in'both'societies.'Yet'memo)
ries' of' socio)economic' transformation' played' a' stronger' role' in'
Taiwan' as' consumers' drew' on' history' to' understand' and' recreate'
specific' practice.' Personal' history' intersects' economic' history,'
transforming'consumption'as'generations'replace'one'other.'Rapid'
transformation' thus' facilitated' the' condition' for' the' formation' of'
multiple'consumer'cultures.'
HERO!OR!HELPER?!FINNISH!SOCIAL!WORKERS’!
ACTANTIAL!POSITION!IN!ALCOHOLISM!TREATMENT!
Michael'Dieter'Egerer
1'
1
Department'of'Social'Research,'UNIVERSITY'OF'HELSINKI,'Universi)
'
ty'of'Helsinki,'Finland
Abstract:'In'Finland'alcoholism'is'considered'traditionally'as'a'social'
problem'and'handled'accordingly.'Recent'studies'suggest'a'conver)
gence'of'drinking'culture,'alcohol'policies'and'treatment'approach)
es'in'the'Western'countries:'Secondary'prevention,'and'a'consider)
ation'of'alcohol'consumption'as'an'individual'lifestyle'issue'replac)
es' population' based' measures' aimed' at' reducing' total' consump)
tion.'
The'purpose'of'this'study'is'to'show'how'social'workers,'not'work)
ing' in' institutions' specialized' on' addiction' treatment,' perceive' al)
coholism' and' alcohol' problems' and' in' which' position' they' see'
themselves'in'its'treatment'in'the'context'of'changing'alcohol'poli)
cy'and'treatment'approaches.'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
Eight' focus' group' interviews' were' conducted' with' Finnish' social'
workers.'Film'clips'serve'as'discussion'stimulus.'The'short'vignettes'
show'incidences'of'alcohol'problems'taken'from'fiction'movies.'The'
three'clips'follow'thematically'loss'of'control,'harm'of'loved'ones,'
and'cue)dependency.'The'transcribed'interviews'were'analysed'by'
coding' them' on' biological,' psychological' and' social' contextualisa)
tion'of'alcoholism.'By'using'a'Greimasian'actantial'model'onto'this'
first' organisation' of' the' interview' narrative' it' is' shown' where' the'
social'workers'place'themselves'in'the'treatment'process.'
Social'workers'consider'alcoholism'as'a'social'problem'and'focus'on'
the'alcoholic’s'close)ones.'They'consider'themselves'as'the'subject'
of' the' fight' against' these' symptoms' of' alcoholism.' Their' sender' is'
the' Welfare' State' and' the' receiver' of' their' work' the' alcoholic’s'
family'and'society'in'general.'Their'opponents'are'the'social'prob)
lems'connected'to'alcoholism,'but'not'alcoholism'itself.'In'alcohol)
ism'treatment'they'are'only'helpers.'The'“hero”'of'curing'alcohol)
ism'instead'is'specialized'drug'service'and'therapy'there,'in'which'
normal' social' workers' are' not' involved.' Therefore,' social' workers'
still' follow' the' Finnish' non)medical' approach' and' leave' treatment'
of'alcoholism'itself'to'specialized'institutions.'
MORAL!BOUNDARIES!AND!BELONGING:!ATHEISTS!
AND!HOMOSEXUALS!
Murat'Ergin
1'
1
Sociology,'KOC'UNIVERSITY,'Istanbul,'Turkey
'
Abstract:' This' presentation' examines' the' nature' and' limits' of' the'
acceptance'of'atheists'and'homosexuals'in'Turkey.'Moral'bounda)
ries' delineate' symbolic' distinctions' that' are' based' on' both' inclu)
sions'and'exclusion.'Despite'the'relatively'lower'and'declining'lev)
els' of' prejudice' against' ethnic' and' religious' minorities' as' well' as'
foreigners' in' surveys,' moral' boundaries' drawn' concerning' non)
believers' and' homosexuals' remain' strong.' The' data' come' from' a'
recent' nationally' representative' survey' collected' in' the' project'
entitled' “The' Construction' of' Cultural' Boundaries:' Relations' be)
tween' Cultural,' Socio)Economic' and' Moral' Status' Symbols' in' Tur)
key”'(2011,'N=1893).'Results'show'that'the'distrust'of'homosexuals'
is'significantly'higher'when'compared'with'atheists,'although'both'
groups'are'among'the'least'likely'to'be'accepted.'The'existing'liter)
ature'on'the'way'in'which'race,'ethnicity,'gender,'social'class,'and'
education'are'implicated'in'drawing'social'and'cultural'boundaries'
against' the' perceived' “others”' in' different' societies' is' rich.' Alt)
hough'the'limits'of'acceptance'toward'both'homosexuals'and'athe)
ists' are' driven' by' a' number' of' demographic' predictors' that' are'
related' to' education,' social' location,' gender,' and' class,' this' study'
also' demonstrates' that' the' hesitance' to' accept' these' groups' is' as'
much' rooted' in' symbolic' boundaries' as' it' is' in' cultural' and' con)
sumption' patterns.' The' presentation' offers' a' theoretical' view' to'
understand' moral' membership' and' exclusion' in' contemporary'
Turkish'society.'
PATHWAYS!AND!SPEEDWAYS!TO!GAMBLING!
ADDICTION!
Pekka'Sulkunen
1
'1,'1
'1
,'Maija'Majamäki ,'Virve'Pöysti
1'
social'research,'UNIVERSITY'OF'HELSINKI,'Helsinki,'Finland
'
Abstract:'Gambling'may'lead'to'addiction.'Several'factors,'including'
personality,' availability' of' games,' types' of' stimuli' offered' by' the'
game'and'the'social'environment,'have'been'shown'to'be'potential'
Abstract'Book'
129'
'
risk' factors.' No' coherent' theory,' however,' currently' explains' how'
these'factors'are'related'to'each'other'and'what'forms'of'gambling'
and' gambling' behaviour' are' more' prone' to' generate' dependency.'
This' paper' presents' elements' for' such' a' theory' derived' from' the'
IMAGES' approach.' Social' behaviour' is' governed' by' holistic' images'
that'structure'our'understanding'of'diverse'material'and'immateri)
al' elements.' These' images' make' the' world' significant' and' under)
standable'to'us'and'influence'both'the'way'we'perceive'the'world'
and'how'we'act'in'it.'It'is'likely'that'the'structure'of'those'images'is'
related' to' the' addictive' potential' of' gambling' behaviour.' Using'
qualitative' group' interviews' among' active' players' in' Finland' and'
France' as' phenomenological' evidence,' we' hypothesise' that' some'
images'of'gambling'are'more'prone'to'lead'to'addiction'than'oth)
ers.'We'argue'that'the'insight'and'experience'of'active'gamblers'on'
the'images'of'gambling'behaviour'and'potential'risk'factors'leading'
to' gambling' addiction' can' be' utilised' to' construct' a' theory' of' po)
tential'pathways'and'speedways'to'addiction.'
HYBRID!CONSUMPTION!PRACTICE!A!QUALITATIVE!
ANALYSIS!OF!CONSUMPTION!STYLES!OF!CHILDREN!OF!
IMMIGRANTS!BORN!AND!BRED!IN!ITALY!
'1
Luisa'Leonini ,'Lorenzo'Domaneschi
1'
1
dept.'of'Social'and'Political'Studies,'UNIVERSITY'OF'MILAN,'Milan,'
'
Italy
Abstract:! The' paper' presents' the' main' results' fromtwo' empirical'
researches'in'the'urban'area'of'Milan'focused'on'the'teenage'chil)
dren'of'immigrants'consumption'styles'and'their'dealing'with'ma)
terial'culture.'It'claims'that'sociological'approaches'to'consumption'
and'material'culture'in'the'case'of'everyday'life'of'the'children'of'
immigrantsreveal' themselves' as' essential' in' both' an' investigation'
of'ethnic'identifications'and'a'critical'review'of'actual'consumption'
studies.'Consumption'styles'in'Western'country'have,'in'fact,'usual)
ly' be' considered' as' a' typical' reference' of' the' white,' bourgeois,'
mainstream' culture' (Brewer,' Trentmann' 2006).' Hence' the' con)
struction' of' cultural' difference' has' been' developed' also' through'
the'claim'of'different'consumption'styles'and'the'rising'of'so)called'
ethnic'youth'subcultures.'However'our'research'on'consumption'of'
the' children' of' immigrants' shows' that' the' Italian' culture' as' “the'
majority'group”,'especially'in'the'area'of'consumption'styles,'is'not'
an'established'and'shared'dominant'model'for'these'young'people.'
At'the'end'of'such'a'double'qualitative'analysis'focusing'on'repre)
sentations' of' taste' by' a' sample' of' youngsters' from' different' na)
tional' origins,' born' or' bred' in' Italy,' new' potential' profiles' of' con)
sumers' emerge' as' well.' The' meaning' itself' of' being' a' consumer'
appears'in'those'cases'rather'less'as'a'linear'process'of'constantly'
approaching'to'a'given'standard'of'national'values,'than'it'is'a'prac)
tical'process'of'“learning'by'doing”,'as'much'conflicting'as'creative'
in'its'social'effects.Finally,'young'children'of'immigrants'consump)
tion' practices' seem' to' be' sociologically' explained' by' empirical' en)
counters' between' situated' commodities' and' embodied' agents.' In'
this'vein,'the'purpose'is'here'to'pay'attention'on'the'very'ambiva)
lent' role' played' by' material' culture' in' structuring' the' relationship'
between'consumption'and'identification.'
”NECESSARY”!CONSUMPTION!AND!CONSUMPTION!
NORMS!IN!FINNISH!CONSUMER!CULTURE!
'1
Terhi)Anna'Wilska ,'Riikka'Aro
1'
1
Dept.' of' Social' Sciences' and' Philosophy,' UNIVERSITY' OF'
'
JYVÄSKYLÄ,'Jyväskylä,'Finland
Abstract:'Problems'related'to'consumers’'“real”'needs'and'”neces)
sary”'consumption'have'been'under'heavy'debate'both'in'research'
and'media'recently.'The'discussion'is'connected'to'larger'issues'of'
economic'growth'and'de)growth,'well)being'of'individuals'and'eco)
logical'and'ethical'values.'In'this'study,'we'focus'on'the'connection'
between' economic' well)being' and' perceived' necessity' of' certain'
durable' goods' and' leisure' time' services.' We' also' aim' to' find' out'
connections' between' the' perceived' necessities' and' consumers’'
attitudes'in'1999,'2004'and'2009.'Our'research'data'is'derived'from'
“Finland'1999)2009”'–lifestyle'surveys.'
In' poverty' research,' in' particular,' consuming' less' and' thereby' not'
leading'an'acceptable,'conventional'and'“normal”'lifestyle,'is'usual)
ly' regarded' as' a' sign' of' poverty' and' deprivation' in' consumerist'
societies.'This'is'the'case'regardless'of'the'fact'that'voluntary'sim)
plicity'and'de)growth'are'topics'that'have'been'widely'discussed'for'
decades.' However,' the' perceived' ”normal”' consumption' level' has'
kept' growing' and' simplistic' lifestyles' have' remained' marginal.' De)
viations' from' consumption' norms' are' typically' seen' as' abnormal'
behaviour.'This'is'why'we'should'focus'on'the'ways'the'connection'
between' consumption' and' well)being' in' society' are' talked' about,'
as' well' as' how' consumerist' lifestyles' are' being' supported' and'
strengthened.'
Previous' studies' have' revealed' that' people’s' perceptions' of' suffi)
cient' and' reasonable' consumption' standards' in' relation' to' their'
own' economic' situation' are' not' necessarily' related' to' their' actual'
income.' Also' experiences' of' reasonability' and' necessities' are' de)
pendent' on' people’s' social' background,' age' and' life' course' stage,'
values,'attitudes'and'expectations.'
According'to'our'research'results,'almost'all'goods'under'examina)
tion'were'regarded'as'necessities'more'often'in'2009'than'in'previ)
ous' years' under' examination.' The' changes' were' particularly' nota)
ble'in'items'related'to'new'technology.'There'was'not'much'change'
in' leisure' time' services,' such' as' travelling' or' culture.' We' also' no)
ticed' connections' between' high' subjective' economic' well)being,'
high'income'and'perceiving'expensive'goods,'such'as'cars'or'com)
puters' as' necessities.' However,' consumerist' attitudes' still' seemed'
to'have'decreased'between'1999'and'2009.'
THE!PECULIAR!FEATURES!OF!CONSUMER!BEHAVIOR!IN!
CONTEMPORARY!RUSSIA!
Nikolaj'Narbut
1'
1
Sociology' Chair,' PEOPLES'' FRIENDSHIP' UNIVERSITY' OF' RUSSIA,'
'
Moscow,'Russian'Federation
Abstract:'Transformations'in'Russian'society'have'given'rise'to'the'
peculiar' consumer' patterns' which' can' be' described' as' inherently'
contradictory.'On'the'one'hand,'the'consumption'patterns'in'con)
temporary' Russia' are' set' by' the' Western' model' typical' of' all' the'
“consumer'societies”'which'can'be'described'by'the'proliferation'of'
status'consumption'imposed'by'advertising'and'emerging'as'a'cor)
nerstone'of'the'socioeconomic'structure'characterized'by'increased'
prevalence' of' service' sector' and' marketing' systems' involving' con)
sumer'behaviour'patterns'which'are'of'benefit'to'them.'However,'
unlike' Western' system' which' has' taken' shape' as' a' result' of' “the'
general'welfare'society”,'where'the'problem'of'access'to'basic'con)
sumer' goods' is' not' posed' any' more,' the' Russian' one,' on' the' first'
hand,' emerged' at' the' time' of' commodity' deficiency' so' that' the'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
130'
Abstract'Book'
contemporary'generation,'which'can'afford'most'goods'at'present,'
still' remembers' the' time' of' queues' and' is' by' no' means' always'
ready' to' develop' rational' choice' patterns' amid' the' contemporary'
abundance' of' goods.' On' the' second' hand,' the' context' of' Russian'
system'development'does'not'still'involve'the'access'of'the'majori)
ty'of'the'population'to'many'commodities'due'to'their'insufficient'
income.'
The' first' of' the' above)mentioned' factors' gives' rise' to' the' unre)
stricted' consumption,' thoughtless' buying' of' luxury' goods' and'
gadgets' by' the' elite' encouraging' the' “middle' class”' to' outrageous'
expenditures' to' achieve' the' delusive' feeling' of' belonging' to' the'
elite' (sometimes' even' at' the' expense' of' basic' needs' satisfaction).'
As'far'as'the'second'factor'is'concerned,'it'can'entail'not'merely'the'
rise'of'consumer'inequality'but'also'social'tension'escalation'affect)
ing'in'a'specific'manner'the'consumer'patterns'of'low'classes'who'
are' eager' to' “domesticate”' the' images' of' advertising' by' means' of'
surrogate'and'counterfeit'consumption'and'other'imitations'of'the'
elite'status.'
The' thesis' is' also' confirmed' by' empirical' studies' results' which'
show,' for' instance,' that' in' spite' of' lower' living' standards' Russian'
females' spend' more' on' their' clothes' than' the' French' ones' (with'
due'consideration'of'the'“climatic”'parameters).'
The' application' of' the' concept' of' reflexivity' coined' by' Giddens'
seems' to' be' of' heuristic' value' here' to' develop' an' explanatory'
model'of'consumer'behavior'in'contemporary'Russia.'
APATHY,!ANGER!AND!AGENCY:!CONSUMER!
RESPONSES!TO!GLOBALIZATION!
'1
'2
Stefanie'Torlai'Stauffer ,'Nicki'Lisa'Cole '
1
2
Sociology/Global' Studies,' Sociology,' UNIVERSITY' OF' CALIFORNIA'
'
AT'SANTA'BARBARA,'Santa'Barbara,'CA,'United'States
Abstract:'A'wave'of'discontent'is'spreading'today'across'the'world'
in'response'to'the'economic,'political'and'social'externalities'of'the'
widespread'adoption'of'neoliberal'policy'and'practice.'As'neoliberal'
globalization' has' encouraged' the' automation' and' outsourcing' of'
production,'the'downsizing'of'government'function,'and'increasing'
rates' of' environmental' degradation,' cultural' homogenization,' and'
social'fragmentation,'the'responses'to'this'global'system'have'been'
diverse.' Some' responses' have' been' nationalist,' fundamentalist,'
regionalist,'or'simply'reactionary,'while'others'have'been'driven'by'
a'desire'to'consume'ethically,'or'to'consume'less'altogether.'Here'
we' examine' the' ethical' consumption' of' coffee' and' the' local' food'
movement' in' order' to' better' understand' what' values' and' experi)
ences' encourage' people' to' support' such' projects' for' sustainable'
social'and'economic'change.'Through'analysis'of'these'distinct'cas)
es' we' highlight' the' striking' similarities' and' key' differences' among'
participants'' values,' experiences,' identities,' and' practices' (as' well'
as' their' complexities).' Similarities' include' an' ability' to' trace' prob)
lems' to' the' dominant' system' of' production' and' consumption,' a'
concern' for' environmental' and' economic' sustainability,' and' a' de)
sire' to' enact' change' favoring' small,' independent' producers,' while'
differences'include'political'sensibilities,'economic'motivation,'and'
levels' of' community' support.' Overall,' we' argue' that' class,' race,'
demography,' individual' experience' and' community' history' shape'
divergent'responses'to'globalization'and'we'conclude'by'offering'a'
spectrum'of'consumer'behavior'that'aims'to'more'readily'identify'
values' and' practices' associated' with' sustainable' social' change'
(while'noting'which'factors'would'challenge'and'stall'that'change).'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
ENERGY!CONSUMPTION!AND!THE!CONSUMERS’!
POINT!OF!VIEW!
'1
Nina'Heidenstrøm ,'Pål'Strandbakken
1'
1
NATIONAL' INSTITUTE' FOR' CONSUMER' RESEARCH' (SIFO),' Oslo,'
'
Norway
Abstract:' Contrary' to' public' beliefs' and' media' focus,' consumption'
will'not'necessarily'always'increase.'During'the'last'20'years,'elec)
tricity' consumption' in' Norwegian' households' has' stabilised' and'
even' decreased.' This' unexpected' development' has' so' far' not'
caused' any' headlines;' neither' in' the' scientific' nor' in' the' political'
discourse.' Bot' seem' to' cling' to' a' focus' on' fiasco' rather' than' on'
success.' But' in' a' time' of' potentially' very' serious' climate' change,'
the' occurrence' of' a' decrease' in' domestic' energy' use' in' a' rich' na)
tion' like' Norway' is' both' politically' relevant' and' academically' chal)
lenging,' most' notably' since' it' has' occurred' during' a' period' of'
strong'economic'growth.'
The' paper' will' focus' on' some' of' the' measures' consumers' (or'
households)'do'or'wish'they'could'do,'such'as'improving'the'insula)
tion,' installing' heat' pumps,' recycling' or' lowering' the' indoor' tem)
perature.'By'using'new'results'from'a'national'consumer'survey,'we'
are'able'to'investigate'whether'there'are'interesting'discrepancies'
between' the' measures' consumers' think' of' as' effective,' and'
measures'they'think'of'as'easy/to/implement.'Further,'we'will'con)
sider' questions' of' consumers’' expectations' of' how' fast' an' invest)
ment'in'energy'saving'measures'should'pay'off.'Survey'results'indi)
cate'that'93'per'cent'expect'their'investments'to'pay'off'financially'
within' 5' years.' This' means' that' some' of' the' more' advanced,' and'
hence' expensive,' heat' pumps' are' probably' not' competitive' in' the'
market' place,' without' governmental' price' subsidies.' It' also' indi)
cates'that'consumers'as'house'owners'do'not'see'energy'motivated'
investments' as' contributing' to' real' estate' value,' but' are' focussing'
solely'on'direct'energy'use.'
These' survey' findings' and' questions/themes' will' be' introduced' in'
focus' group' interviews' with' consumers' from' different' household'
types.' Here,' we' will' try' to' emphasise' some' of' the' challenges' con)
sumers' might' meet' when' trying' to' reduce' their' energy' consump)
tion;' investment' of' time' and' money,' gathering' information' or'
changing'their'habits.'
“UNTIL!IT!BREAKS!OR!I!LOSE!IT,!I’M!NOT!GOING!TO!
CHANGE!IT.”!G!EXPLORING!TEENAGE!CONSUMPTION!
THROUGH!THE!LENS!OF!DIVESTMENT!
Rebecca'Collins
1'
1
Geography,' UNIVERSITY' COLLEGE' LONDON,' London,' United' King)
'
dom
Abstract:'Young'people'are'widely'recognised'as'some'of'the'most'
committed'consumers.'At'the'same'time,'they'can'be'vocal'citizens,'
agents'of'potentially'significant'social'change'and,'frequently,'ready'
and'willing'to'act'in'line'with'their'principles.'As'such,'they'inhabit'a'
powerful' position' at' the' nexus' of' consumption' and' sustainability.'
Yet' research' with' this' group,' particularly' older' adolescents,' has'
remained' sparse' and' has' often' failed' to' connect' with' wider' con)
sumption'subthemes.'The'research'presented'in'this'paper'aims'to'
address'this'gap'and'reports'on'the'empirical'findings'of'work'with'
26'young'people'aged'16)19,'in'UK'schools.'
Abstract'Book'
131'
'
While' consumption' research' with' teens' has' focused' on' processes'
of'acquisition,'how'young'people'experience'and'enact'subsequent'
phases'of'consumption'has'remained'neglected.'In'this'project'the'
aim'has'been'to'explore'young'people’s'attitudes'towards'the'con)
sumption' of' material' possessions' through' the' lens' of' divestment.'
By'exploring'how'decisions'about'ridding,'wasting,'giving'away'and'
generally'‘getting'rid’'are'made'and'enacted,'I'suggest'that'a'more'
nuanced' picture' of' what' consumption' means' and' involves' for'
young'people'results.'Further,'since'the'nature'of'divesting'person)
al'possessions'necessarily'locates'the'decisions'and'processes'firmly'
within'the'context'of'the'home'and'family,'I'explore'the'extent'to'
which' teens’' embeddedness' in' close' social' networks' governs' the'
choices'they'make,'and'the'extent'to'which'a'family)based'divest)
ment'habitus'might'be'reshaped'by'individual'experiences'beyond'
the'home.'
ADVERTISING!AND!THE!PERFORMATIVE!
CONSUMPTION!OF!THE!CITIES!
Stefania'Antonioni
1'
1
Department' of' Communication' Studies,' UNIVERSITY' OF' URBINO'
'
CARLO'BO,'Urbino'(PU),'Italy
Abstract:' Contemporary' audiences' can' be' described' as' more' and'
more' active' or,' to' be' more' precise,' performative' and' diffused'
(Abercrombie&Longhurst).' Nonetheless' nowadays' we' have' to' ad)
dress'to'audiences'as'to'networked'publics'(Ito),'facing'social,'cul)
tural' and' technological' shifts' leading' us' to' a' different' amount' of'
involvement'by'digital'media.'
So' networked' publics' broaden' their' chance' to' create,' post' and'
share'all'type'of'contents'(video,'images,'texts,'etc.)'in'a'new'wider'
public' space' that' witness' the' creation' of' a' convergence' culture'
(Jenkins).'In'this'sense'the'amount'of'user'generated'contents,'but'
also'the'time'spent'in'producing'them,'arises'the'“new”'character'
of'the'prosumer,'an'hybrid'of'productive'consumer'of'material'and'
immaterial'goods'(Toffler,'Ritzer,'Fabris).'
Considering' the' new' shape' and' way' of' feeling' of' these' creative'
publics,'more'and'more'enterprises,'brands,'companies'and'corpo)
rations' are' taking' benefits' of' this' new' frame,' especially' using' the'
strategy'of'crowdsourcing'(Brabham,'Howe),'but'also'other'practic)
es'of'productive'engagement'in'advertising'and'promotion'at'large.'
Particularly' interesting' is' how' brands' and' companies' use' urban'
spaces' to' build' this' sort' of' connections' with' consumers,' but' also'
how'people'uses'cities'and'in'the'meantime'construct'and'dissemi)
nate'their'personal'meanings'on'them.'In'fact'contemporary'forms'
of'advertising'based'on'urban'spaces,'such'as'ambient'advertising,'
guerrilla'advertising'and'all'the'so)called'non'conventional'advertis)
ing,' reflect' the' logic' of' digital' media,' that' is' to' say' improve' en)
gagement,' creativity,' self' expression,' connectivity.' All' of' them' are'
subjectively'performed'by'city'users,'that'can'subsequently'dissem)
inate'them'further'in'social'network'sites,'with'geolocalization,'etc.'
So' the' aim' of' this' paper' is' to' give' its' contribution' to' the' analysis'
and' thinking' on' this' topic,' collecting' several' examples' of' these'
practices'taken'in'a'global'scenery.'
BUILDING!LUDIC!TERRITORIES!IN!BARCELONA!AND!
LISBON:!URBAN!TRANSFORMATION,!LEISURE,!
TOURISM!AND!CONSUMPTION!
'1
'1
Patrícia'Pereira ,'Luis'Baptista ,'Jordi'Nofre
1'
1
CesNova,' Faculdade' de' Ciências' Sociais' e' Humanas,' Universidade'
'
Nova'de'Lisboa,'Lisboa,'Portugal
Abstract:' In' most' capitalist' cities,' the' economy' of' leisure' has' be)
come' one' of' the' main' strategies' for' the' renewal' of' their' spaces.'
The'celebration'of'great'events'transfigures'urban'everyday'life'and'
space'by'creating'ludic'territories.'In'Lisbon'and'Barcelona,'Expo'98'
and'Forum'das'Culturas,'respectively,'led'to'the'transformation'of'
inner' city' waterfront' areas,' formerly' occupied' by' heavy' industry,'
storage' and' working' class' residents.' These' activities' and' inhabit)
ants'were'displaced'and'replaced'by'service'activities'and'local'and'
global'new'middle'classes.'Focusing'in'both'cases'of'Fòrum'(Barce)
lona)' and' Parque' das' Nações' (Lisbon),' this' presentation' highlights'
the'role'of'urban'leisure'and'consumption'in'the'renewal'of'former'
marginal'urban'spaces.'It'includes'a'description'of'the'main'urban'
transformations'and'of'some'aspects'of'day'to'day'life'in'these'new'
territories,'but'also'a'debate'on'how'the'concepts'of'Bryman’s'Dis=
neyization,' Ritzer’s' MacDonaldization' and' Hannigan’s' Fantasy/ City'
can'be'used'to'analyze'both'study'cases.'The'presentation'contrib)
utes' to' the' debate' around' the' path' of' Western' postfordist' cities'
towards'becoming'puzzles,'divided'into'distinct/fragmented'neigh)
borhoods,' where' intrusions' and' disorders' are' minimized' and' a'
“social' class”)led' environment' is' presented' through' architecture'
and' urban' design,' landscape,' costumes,' cultural' practices,' urban'
entertainment'and'themed'stores.'
Keywords:' Disnezation,' McDonaldization,' Urban' transformations,'
waterfronts,'Lisbon,'Barcelona.'
References'
Baptista'L'V'(2005)'Territórios'lúdicos'(e'o'que'torna'lúdico'um'ter)
ritório):'ensaiando'um'ponto'de'partida.' Fórum/Sociológico'13/14:'
47)58.'
Bryman'A'(1999)'The'Disneyization'of'society.'The/Sociological/Re=
view'47(1):'25)47.'
Hannigan'J'(1998)'Fantasy/City:/Pleasure/and/Profit/in/the/Postmod=
ern/Metropolis.'New'York:'Routledge.'
Nofre'J'(2009a)'L’Agenda/Cultural/Oculta./Una/deconstrucció/de/l’oci/
nocturn/de/Barcelona/i/els/seus/suburbis./Premi/Joventut/2009./Bar)
celona:'Generalitat'de'Catalunya.'(in'press).'
Pereira'P'(2010)'Urban'renewal'in'global'context:'the'conversion'of'
the' Lisbon' eastern' waterfront.' 8th/ European/ Urban/ &/ Regional/
Studies/Conference.'(Available'Online).'
Ritzer' G' (2004[1993])' The/ McDonaldization/ of/ society.' Thousand'
Oaks:'Pineforge'Press.'
KEEPING!COOL!:!CLIMATE!CHANGE!POLICY!AND!THE!
TINY!DETAILS!OF!DAILY!LIFE!
Elizabeth'Shove
1
1'
sociology,'LANCASTER'UNIVERSITY,'Lancaster,'United'Kingdom
'
Abstract:'This'paper'tracks'one'bit'of'climate'change'policy'from'its'
formulation'within'government'through'to'its'consequences'for'the'
tiny' details' of' daily' life.' In' the' process,' it' engages' with' a' range' of'
more' fundamental' questions' about' how' policies' have' impact' on'
what'people'do'and'on'related'patterns'of'consumption'and'prac)
tice.'I'consider'the'case'of'Cool'Biz,'a'programme'launched'by'the'
Japanese' government' in' 2005.' Under' Cool' Biz,' the' government’s'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
132'
own' buildings' were' not' cooled' until' indoor' temperatures' reached'
28'degrees'C.'Occupants'were'expected'to'adjust'their'clothing'to'
suit.' Various' measures' were' taken' to' persuade' businesses' and'
companies' to' adopt' the' same' strategy.' Government' ministers'
were,' for' example,' shown' wearing' lightweight' clothing.' Ambassa)
dors' participated' in' fashion' shows' run' by' the' ministry' of' environ)
ment,'and'the'department'stores'were'involved.'
By' any' standards,' this' programme' has' significantly' reduced' the'
energy'used'for'air)conditioning.'It'has'also'transformed'social'con)
ventions' of' office' life.' In' particular,' male' office' workers' no' longer'
expect' to' wear' a' jacket' and' tie' during' the' summer' months.' Alt)
hough'this'might'seem'like'a'simple'solution,'conventions'of'cloth)
ing' are' embedded' in' traditions' and' institutions' of' power,' respect'
and' social' status.' From' this' point' of' view,' adopting' Cool' Biz' was'
anything'but'simple.'
Abstract'Book'
'1
'2*
Sami'Coll ,'Jason'Pridmore '
1
The'Graduate'Center,'The'City'University'of'New'York,'New'York,'
2
United' States,' The' DigiDeas' project,' Zuyd' University,' Maastricht,'
'
Netherlands
Abstract:'Over'the'past'few'decades,'retailers'have'collected'mas)
sive'amounts'of'data'on'a'daily'basis'through'loyalty'card'programs.'
These' serve' to' gather' at' the' point)of)purchase' the' identity' of' the'
consumer,'date'and'time'of'the'transaction,'and'a'list'of'products'
purchased.' As' an' incentive,' these' programs' enable' consumers' to'
collect' points' or' miles' for' each' purchase,' which' then' can' be' con)
verted'to'rewards'or'access'to'special'offers'only'available'to'card'
owners.' They' are' part' of' a' relationship/ marketing' paradigm' that'
relies'upon'precise'data'on'consumers'in'order'to'establish'a'per)
sonalized'and'long)term'relationship'with'them.'
In'reflecting'on'this'case'I'discuss'the'possibility'that'Cool'Biz'repre)
sents' an' accidentally' powerful' intervention' that' succeeded' not'
because'of'the'ideas'around'which'it'was'designed,'but'because'of'
how'it'became'embedded'in'the'tiny'details'of'daily'life.'In'conclu)
sion'I'explore'the'wider'implications'of'this'case'for'social'theories'
of' behaviour,' consumption' and' practice,' and' for' climate' change'
policy.'
This'paper'argues'that'loyalty'programs'make'the'mundane,'every'
day'practices'of'consumption'into'important'building'blocks'for'the'
performance'of'economies.'In'this'process,'consumers'are'‘created’'
with' varying' levels' of' significance' through' an' increasing' level' of'
surveillance.' That' is,' with' the' (usually)' voluntary' participation' in'
loyalty' programs,' consumers' are' deemed' worthwhile' or' not'
through' a' “purposeful,' routine,' systematic' and' focused' attention'
paid' to' personal' details”' that' exists' to' control,' manage,' influence'
and'entitle'consumption'practices'(see'Lyon'2001).'This'surveillance'
has'both'significant'social'and'socio)economic'implications'as'well'
as' raises' concerns' about' the' usefulness' of' personal' privacy' in' its'
current'form.'
SURVEILLANCE!OF!MUNDANE!CONSUMPTION:!
LOYALTY!CARDS!AS!A!CONSTRUCTION!OF!
CONSUMERS!
The'paper'draws'on'two'significant'studies'of'loyalty'cards,'made'in'
Canada'and'in'Switzerland,'both'of'which'begin'to'demonstrate'the'
potentials' and' problems' of' contemporary' marketing' practices' in'
general'and'the'issues'and'implications'of'loyalty'card'marketing'in'
specific.'
Interviews' with' those' involved' in' making' and' responding' to' Cool'
Biz' reveal' the' different' registers' across' which' this' policy' plays' out'
and'gives'a'sense'of'the'many'varied'settings'in'which'it'is'enacted'
and'resisted'for'real.'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
Abstract'Book'
133'
'
RN'06'Critical'Political'Economy'
THE!ASYMMETRIES!OF!EUROPEAN!GOVERNANCE!AND!
THE!CRISIS!OF!PORTUGUESE!CAPITALISM!
'1
'2
João'Rodrigues ,'José'Reis '
1
2
Centre' for' Social' Studies,' School' of' Economics' and' Centre' for'
'
Social'Studies,'UNIVERSITY'OF'COIMBRA,'Coimbra,'Portugal
Abstract:' The' recent' turn' in' European' integration,' from' a' process'
based' on' cohesion' to' another' based' on' competitive' asymmetric'
relations,' has' deep' consequences' for' Portuguese' capitalism.' The'
structural'imbalances'between'central'and'peripheral'countries,'at'
the' core' of' the' recent' eurozone' crisis,' and' the' austerity' policies'
now'being'pursued'with'great'intensity'in'the'latter'can'be'seen'as'
the' main' expressions' of' the' lack' of' resilience' of' the' asymmetric'
configuration' of' the' European' integration' with' important' conse)
quences'for'Portugal.'This'asymmetry'refers'to'1)'the'way'the'sin)
gle'market'and'monetary'integration'coexist'with'increasingly'het)
erogeneous'social,'labour'and'tax'regimes'at'the'national'level,'2)'
the'differentiated'impact'of'the'single'market'on'existing'varieties'
of'capitalism,'particularly'on'the'peripheral'ones;'3)'the'absence'of'
non)deflationary'policy'instruments,'both'at'the'national'and'Euro)
pean'levels,'which'might'block'the'transfer'of'the'brunt'of'adjust)
ment' to' labour,' particularly' in' a' context' of' pressures' in' financial'
markets' and' imbalances' in' the' current' account' positions' of' Euro)
pean'countries.'The'question'raised'by'Jean'Monnet'in'1955'–'“is'it'
possible' to' have' a' Common' Market' without' federal' social,' mone)
tary'and'macro)economic'policies?”'–'must'become'central'in'dis)
cussions' about' the' future' of' European' integration' and' the' Portu)
guese'economy'therein.'
This'communication'will'analyse'the'Portuguese'variety'of'capital)
ism'in'the'context'of'the'crisis'of'legitimacy'affecting'the'European'
project'as'the'more'coordinated'and'egalitarian'varieties'of'capital)
ism'experience'pressures'for'deregulation'and'peripheral'countries,'
with' more' unequal' capitalisms,' experience' the' consequences' of'
IMF)style' policies' of' structural' adjustment.' It' will' be' argued' that'
these'policies'run'the'risk'of'perpetuating'a'socioeconomic'regime,'
consolidated' with' the' decision' to' join' the' Euro,' marked' by' high'
levels'of'inequality,'increased'levels'of'unemployment'and'precari)
ous'work,'very'low'growth'rates'and'huge'levels'of'external'debt.'A'
critique'of'the'logic'of'austerity'policies'and'an'analysis'of'proposals'
to' correct' the' asymmetries' of' European' integration' are' needed' in'
order'to'think'about'sustainable'avenues'for'the'Portuguese'econ)
omy.'
THE!POLITICAL!ECONOMY!OF!LABOUR!RELATIONS!IN!
THE!EMU:!IRISH!NEOLIBERAL!CORPORATISM!IN!CRISIS!
Aidan'Regan
1
1'
UNIVERSITY'COLLEGE'DUBLIN,'Dublin,'Ireland
'
Abstract:'Ireland'is'a'critical'case'of'embedded'neo)liberalism'that'
challenges' many' of' the' functionalist' assumptions' in' the' study' of'
varieties' of' capitalism.' It' is' said' to' lack' the' institutional' pre)
conditions' for' the' emergence' and' institutionalisation' of' national'
corporatist' policy' making' structures.' The' political' party' system' is'
not' configured' on' a' left)right' ideological' basis,' it' has' a' pluralist'
administrative' state' tradition,' trade' unions' do' not' encompass' the'
majority'of'employees'and'it'has'a'voluntarist'collective'bargaining'
regime.' It' has' relatively' high' levels' of' income' inequality,' a' liberal'
welfare' state' and' an' industrial' policy' premised' on' low' tax' foreign'
investment.' However,' between' 1987' and' 2008,' ‘centralised' wage'
bargaining’' or' ‘social' partnership’' became' the' default' position' of'
both' labour' relations' and' Irish' politics.' Seven' national' income'
agreements'were'negotiated'between'the'representative'interests'
of'labour,'capital'and'state.'Whilst'wage'bargaining'was'central'to'
negotiations'the'‘social'pacts’'covered'a'wide'variety'of'public'poli)
cies'including'fiscal,'welfare'and'labour'market'policy.'The'nature'of'
the' bargain' was' not' premised' on' a' wide' distributional' agenda' of'
social' democracy' but' market' competition.' It' was' an' institution' of'
labour' relations,' constructed' by' the' state,' to' manage' the' con)
straints' of' Europeanisation' in' a' rapidly' changing' capitalist' econo)
my.'But,'despite'twenty'three'years'of''social'partnership','the'gov)
ernment' opted' for' a' market' led' rather' than' a' negotiated' adjust)
ment'to'the'crisis.'The'paper'will'argue'that'the'diminishing'power'
resources'of'organised'labour'and'the'policy'constraints'of'the'EMU'
are'central'factors'in'explaining'this'shift'in'strategy.'In'this'regard'
we'need'to'bring'power'and'politics'back'into'the'study'of'Europe)
an'varieties'of'capitalism.'
"WEST!EUROPEAN!POLITICAL!ECONOMIES!IN!CRISIS:!
WHAT!HAS!CHANGED!SINCE!THE!1970S?"!
'1
Jonas'Pontusson ,'Damian'Raess
1
1'
Political'Science,'UNIVERSITY'OF'GENEVA,'Geneva,'Switzerland
'
Abstract:'Our'paper'will'contrast'the'crisis'of'2007)10'to'the'crisis'
of' the' mid)1970s' in' an' effort' to' understand' better' how' advanced'
capitalist'political'economies'have'changed.'The'origins'and'nature'
of' the' two' crises' were' clearly' different,' following' different' phases'
of' capitalist' expansion.' Triggered' by' sharp' oil' price' increases,' the'
crisis'of'the'1970s'ended'a'period'of'energy)intensive'Fordist'mass'
production' that' boosted' the' union' bargaining' power.' By' contrast,'
the' current' crisis' was' triggered' by' bank' failures' and' marked' the'
end'of'an'expansionary'period'characterized'by'the'rise'of'finance'
capitalism.'Notwithstanding'these'differences,'both'crises'resulted'
in' dramatic' recessions' of' the' real' economy.' Emphasizing' trends'
that' cut' across' the' distinction' between' LMEs' and' CMEs,' our' ac)
count'diverges'from'the'“VofC'approach.”'
A' striking' feature' of' near)term' government' responses' to' the' cur)
rent'crisis'is'the'absence'of'many'of'the'non)Keynesian'alternatives'
to'orthodoxy'that'governments'relied'on'the'1970s,'notably'protec)
tionism,' nationalization,' and' competitive' devaluations.' In' seeking'
to'explain'the'universal'but'also'limited'reliance'on'fiscal'stimulus,'
we'explore'the'implications'of'European'integration,'the'decline'of'
manufacturing'unions,'and'asset'ownership'among'middle)income'
voters.' While' the' Euro' eliminates' the' use' of' competitive' devalua)
tion,' the' Single' Market' prevents' individual' member' states' from'
raising' tariff' barriers' and' prohibits' payment' of' direct' subsidies' to'
companies.' In' addition,' the' institutional' set)up' of' the' EU' creates'
coordination' problems' that' explain' the' limited' extent' of' fiscal'
stimulus.' The' decline' of' manufacturing' unions' represents' another'
factor' behind' the' absence' of' alternatives' to' Keynianism.' Unions’'
loss' of' members' and' mobilizational' capacity,' particularly' pro)
nounced' among' low)income' wage)earners,' accounts' for' why' un)
ions'are'less'likely'than'they'were'in'the'1970s'to'pull'Left'parties'in'
a'more'egalitarian'direction.'Finally,'we'argue'that'the'policy'pref)
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
134'
Abstract'Book'
erences' of' middle)income' voters' have' changed' to' the' extent' that'
their'economic'well)being'has'come' to' depend' increasingly' on' as)
set' prices.' Private' insurance' via' asset' ownership' yields' political'
opposition'to'publicly'provided'social'insurance'and'support'for'tax'
cuts'among'the'middle'class,'providing'an'explanation'for'the'prior)
ity' given' to' tax' cuts' (over' spending' increases)' by' many' govern)
ments.'
and' North' America' are' rich,' Latin' America' is' in' the' middle,' and'
Africa' and' south' Asia' are' poor.' Only' east' Asian' countries' have'
shown'much'mobility,'and'even'then'much'less'mobility'than'most'
people' assume.' The' fact' that' the' broad' regional' outlines' of' the'
world)economy' haven't' changed' in' over' a' hundred' years' should'
provoke'questioning.'Just'how'much'"should"'the'world'be'chang)
ing'from'decade'to'decade'based'on'reasonable'models'of'how'the'
world)economy'works?'
EXTENDING!VARIETIES!OF!CAPITALISM?!A!CRITIQUE!
The' research' reported' here' uses' concepts' from' entropy' theory' to'
measure' the' degree' of' structure' in' the' contemporary' world)
economy.' Entropy' is' the' concept' that' all' structures' will' tend' to'
decay'over'time'unless'energy'is'expended'to'maintain'them.'Left'
to' themselves,' the' economies' of' any' world' region' should' tend' to'
diverge' over' time' as' individual' countries' pursue' different' policies'
or' simply' experience' different' luck.' The' fact' that' the' regional' or)
ganization' of' the' world' remain' coherent' decade' after' decade' im)
plies'that'strong'systemic'forces'are'continuously'working'to'main)
tain'the'regional'structure'of'the'world)economy.'
Matthias'Ebenau
1'
1
QUEEN'MARY,'UNIVERSITY'OF'LONDON,'London,'United'Kingdom
'
Abstract:! Over' the' last' decade,' the' Varieties' of' Capitalism' (VoC)'
framework'has'emerged'as'the'paradigmatic'approach'to'compar)
ing' political' economies,' especially' in' Anglophone' academia.' Not)
withstanding' its' obvious' popularity,' which' manifests' itself' in' the'
burgeoning'amount'of'literature'drawing'on'the'framework,'other'
scholars' have' developed' an' array' of' critiques.' One' of' the' most'
salient' points' concerns' the' inability' (according' to' many' critics)' of'
the' basic' distinction' between' so)called' ‘liberal' market' economies’'
(USA' etc.)' and' ‘coordinated' market' economies’' (Germany,' Japan'
etc.),'to'account'for'both'the'existing'diversity'within'and'the'fun)
damental'characteristics'of'modern'capitalism.'
These'weaknesses,'the'critics'contend,'are'a'result'of'the'empirical'
focus'of'the'VoC'literature'on'the'Triad'and'its'proponents’'theoret)
ical' concern' with' parsimony' and' analytical' neatness.' Partly' re)
sponding'to'these'criticisms,'recently'some'authors'have'begun'to'
apply' VoC’s' conceptual' apparatus' to' political' economies' outside'
the' OECD)group,' such' as' the' ‘mixed' market' economies’' of' the'
Mediterranean,' the' ‘dependent' market' economies’' of' Cen)
tral/Eastern' Europe' and' the' ‘hierarchical' market' economies’' of'
Latin'America.'In'the'light'of'the'debates'surrounding'the'VoC'liter)
ature,' this' paper' seeks' to' critically' assess' these' extensions' at' a'
conceptual'level'and'to'illustrate'the'resulting'criticisms'by'drawing'
on'examples'from'the'Latin'American'context.'
It' argues,' first,' that' not' only' the' methodological' nationalism' and'
exaggerated' firm)centrism' inherent' in' the' general' framework' do'
persist' and' compromise' its' critical)analytical' potentials;' but' also,'
second,' that' a' problematic' normative' Eurocentrism' is' introduced'
by' reversing' the' rationale' of' the' VoC’s' ‘core’' framework' –' from'
explaining'different'paths'to'success'under'conditions'of'globalisa)
tion' to' explaining' why' political' economies' fail' to' ‘cope’' with' the'
challenges' it' poses' –' which' is' concretised' in' the' notions' of' ‘nega)
tive' institutional' complementarities’' and' ‘institutional' discomple)
mentarities’.'As'a'result,'analyses'building'on'the'VoC'approach'will'
underestimate'the'significance'of'transnational'social'and'political)
economic'interconnectedness'and'the'dynamics'at'a'world)system'
scale'for'the'development'of'nationally'framed'economies.'
MEASURING!THE!STABILITY!OF!THE!STRUCTURE!OF!
THE!WORLDGECONOMY:!THE!CONTINUING!SALIENCE!
OF!REGION!
'1
Salvatore'J'Babones ,'Francisco'J'Morales
1'
1
Department' of' Sociology' &' Social' Policy,' THE' UNIVERSITY' OF'
'
SYDNEY,'Sydney,'Australia
Abstract:' The' general' contours' of' the' global' income' distribution'
look'pretty'much'the'same'today'as'they'did'a'century'ago:'Europe'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
The'strength'of'these'forces'can'be'measured'(indirectly)'by'com)
paring' the' actual' rate' of' decay' in' the' regional' structure' of' the'
world)economy' to' the' rate' of' decay' that' would' be' expected' if'
countries' were' growing' at' random.' This' null' scenario' of' random'
growth'is'operationalized'using'a'Brownian'motion'model.'All'coun)
tries'start'at'their'1974'levels'of'income'per'capita.'A'simulation'is'
then' run' in' which' countries' grow' at' random' every' year' for' 25'
years.'The'simulated'salience'of'region'in'2009'is'then'compared'to'
the' beginning' salience' of' region' in' 1974.' After' hundreds' of' itera)
tions'it'is'possible'to'estimate'the'degree'to'which'the'salience'of'
region'"should"'be'decaying'over'time.'
Preliminary'results'indicate'that'powerful'systemic'forces'are'con)
tinually' at' work' maintaining' the' structure' of' the' world)economy.'
These'forces'have'repeatedly'restored'the'regional'structure'of'the'
world)economy' after' major' crises' (like' the' Latin' American' debt'
crisis,'the'Asian'financial'crisis,'and'the'global'financial'crisis).'This'is'
strong' (though' indirect)' evidence' of' the' existence' of' systematic'
international'exploitation'in'the'contemporary'world)economy.'
TOP!DOWN!OR!BOTTOM!UP?!A!CROSSGNATIONAL!
STUDY!OF!VERTICAL!OCCUPATIONAL!SEX!
SEGREGATION!IN!EUROPEAN!COUNTRIES!
'1
'1
'2
Andrea'Schaefer ,'Karin'Gottschall ,'Ingrid'Tucci '
1
Gender' Policy' in' the' Welfare' State,' ZES/UNIVERSITY' OF' BREMEN,'
2
'
Bremen,' SOEP,'DIW'Berlin,'Berlin,'Germany
Abstract:'Starting'with'a'comparative'assessment'of'different'wel)
fare' regimes' and' political' economies' from' the' perspective' of' gen)
der'awareness'and'“pro)women”'policies,'this'paper'identifies'the'
determinants' of' cross)national' variation' in' women’s' chances' of'
holding' a' high)status' occupation' in' twelve' Western' European'
Countries.' Special' emphasis' is' given' to' size' and' structure' of' the'
service' sector,' including' public' employment' and' power' resource)
related'factors'such'as'union'density.'
The' first' level' of' comparison' between' men' and' women' concen)
trates'on'gender'representation'in'the'higher'rungs'of'the'job'hier)
archy,'while'a'second'level'comparing'women'extends'the'scope'of'
analysis' to' the' degree' of' occupational' sex' segregation' between'
women'in'high)status'occupations'and'low)status'work'in'order'to'
allow' for' a' more' nuanced' analysis' of' the' interrelation' between'
gender'and'class.'
Abstract'Book'
135'
'
The'first)level'analysis'is'based'on'European'Social'Survey'data'for'
the' years' 2002)08' using' multi)level' random' intercept' models' to'
capture'more'recent'trends'in'occupational'dynamics.'Results'indi)
cate' that' a' large' public' sector' and' a' high' union' density' enhance'
women’s' chances' of' holding' high)status' occupations,' i.e.,' in' the'
public' sector.' Furthermore,' equality' at' the' top' can' well' be' paired'
with'inequality'at'the'bottom,'as'countries'with'a'highly'polarized'
occupational'hierarchy'such'as'the'UK'show.'
VARIETIES!OF!POLITICAL!ECONOMIES!AS!
COMBINATIONS!OF!DIFFERENT!POWER!PATTERNS!
SURROUNDING!WORK!AND!LABOUR!
Jeffrey'Harrod
1'
1
Political' Science,' UNIVERSITY' OF' AMSTERDAM,' NETHERLANDS,'
'
Amsterdam,'Netherlands
Abstract:' The' so)called' variety' of' capitalism' literature' of' the' past'
decade' has' used' market' and' institutional' criteria' to' distinguish'
different'forms'of'capitalist'economies.'Previous'attempts'with'the'
same'objective'were'varieties'of'corporatism,'which'had'a'focus'of'
the' role' of' labour' organisations' in' the' institutional' arrangements,'
the'regulation'school'in'which'the'total'productive'systems'includ)
ing' labour' control' was' incorporated,' and' labour' relations' systems'
which'saw'the'core'importance'of'labour'relations'and'labour'mo)
tivation' in' general' to' any' particular' economy.' Emerging' from' this'
literature' was' the' argument' in' the' late' 1980s' that' the' work' and'
labour'relations'identified'in'these'typologies'should'themselves'be'
disaggregated'into'distinctive'modes'of'social'relations'or'patterns'
of'power'relations'surrounding'work'and'production.'Corporatism,'
for'example,'focused'on'organised'labour'and'yet'in'most'political'
economies' organised' labour' was' a' minority' pattern' in' the' total'
labour'force.'Other'patterns'of'power'surrounding'different'forms'
of'work'were'also'important.'Thus'while'almost'all'political'econo)
mies'have'a'pattern'which'could'be'labelled'“self)employment”'the'
size'of'a'casual'or'“precarious”'pattern'varies'substantially'and'that'
variation'to'some'extent'determines'both'national'politics'and'for)
eign'policy.'By'identifying'and'naming'eight'different'patterns'and'
analysing' them' as' dominate' and' subordinate,' different' combina)
tions' and' sizes' create' different' varieties' of' political' economy' with'
dramatically' different' social' and' political' outcomes.' This' paper'
examines' these' combinations' as' they' appear' in' currently' extant'
models' to' illustrate' the' utility' and' appropriateness' of' this' ap)
proach.'For'example,'to'unpack'the'imprecise'and'macro'level'no)
tions' of' the' models' of' Neo)liberal,' Social' Market' and' Asian' Devel)
opment' models' using' these' criteria' identifies' the' central' forms' or'
labour' control' and' motivation' and' advances' the' understanding' of'
their'less'obvious'differences.'In'conclusion,'the'paper'argues'that'
refinements' and' promotion' of' approaches' considering' disciplinary'
power' surrounding' work' and' production' within' modern' societies'
are' needed' in' the' social' sciences' in' general' as' a' midway' path' be)
tween'the'current'excessive'economism'and'promoted'individualis)
tic'well)being.'
CURRENT!TRENDS!IN!THE!RUSSIAN!BANKING:!
COMPARATIVE!AND!INSTITUTIONAL!ANALYSIS!
'1
Svetlana'Kirdina ,'Andrei'Vernikov
1
1'
Institute' of' Economics' Russian' Academy' of' Sciences,' Moscow,'
'
Russian'Federation
Abstract:' We' compare' the' functions' performed' by' the' banks' in'
different' types' of' economic' systems,' with' regard' to' general' and'
specific'functions'of'banks'within'a'monetary'economy'Institutional'
matrices' theory' suggests' that' in' an' X)type' redistributive' “non)
capitalist”economy'the'banking'system'has'a'different'institutional'
design' and' follows' a' different' model' of' banking' than' in' a' Y)type'
market' “capitalist”' economy,' namely' we' see' a' “top)down' model”'
instead' of' a' “bottom)up' model”.We' suggest' that' for' X)type' econ)
omies'private'banking'activity'just'complements'the'institutions'of'
centralized' finance' and' credit' allocation.' We' test' this' hypothesis'
with' historical' and' contemporary' evidence' from' Russia' as' well' as'
from' China' and' the' USA.' Russia’s' experiment' with' bank' de)
natiohnalization' did' not' produce' an' efficiently)functioning' system'
of'privately'owned'banks.'Current'trends'in'the'Russian'banking'are'
consistent'with'the'guideline'of'evolution'of'core'economic'institu)
tions' in' the' country' including' state' ownership' of' core' industrial'
assets.'The'share'of'state)controlled'banks'keeps'growing'and'may'
have' exceeded' 54' percent' of' total' banking' assets.' We' conclude'
that' the' complex' and' uncoordinated' nature' of' the' evolutionary'
change' of' Russian' banks' in' Russia' after' the' economic' crisis' repre)
sents'a'search'for'a'better'balance'between'redistributive'and'mar)
ket' instruments' and' an' institutional' model' of' banking' that' would'
be'more'natural'to'this'country.'
SOME!POLITICAL!CHANGES!IN!BRAZILIAN!FINANCIAL!
INSTITUTIONALIZING!PATH!
Marcus'Ianoni
1'
1
DEPARTMENT' OF' POLITICAL' SCIENCE,' UNIVERSIDADE' FEDERAL'
'
FLUMINENSE,'NITERÓI,'Brazil
Abstract:'In'the'history'of'industrialization'and'economic'moderni)
zation'in'Brazil,'opened'since'the'30s,'the'financing'of'investments'
in'major'projects'related'to'development'was'brought'about'main)
ly,' or' by' the' state' or' by' foreign' capital,' or' by' the' association' be)
tween'capital'and'private'capital.'Medium'and'small'sized'projects'
have'had'their'investments'financed'by'the'reinversion'of'company'
profits.'The'Brazilian'banking'system,'especially'the'private'sector,'
differently,' for' instance,' from' the' German,' traditionally' had' little'
involvement'in'the'financing'of'capitalist'investment'in'the'country.'
Moreover,'Brazilian'banks'have'not'been'effective'in'incorporating'
the'majority'of'the'population'to'credit'and'other'financial'services.'
Bank'credit'in'Brazil'is'still'scarce'and'very'expensive.'These'charac)
teristics'of'the'Brazilian'banking'system'lead'to'the'debate'on'the'
model' of' financial' institutionalization' existing' in' the' country.' Eco)
nomics'and'political'economy,'as'well'as'the'literature'on'varieties/
of/capitalism,'show'the'importance'of'financial'institutionalizing'in'
the'development.'In'Brazil,'one'of'the'most'important'issues'in'the'
debate'about'development'is'the'model'of'financial'institutionaliza)
tion.' This' paper' proposal' considers' the' institutionalization' of' the'
Brazilian' banking' system' inefficient' in' terms' of' its' ability' to' play' a'
more'active'role'within'a'framework'of'financial'institutionalization'
aimed' to' maximize' the' development' possibilities.' Brazilian' banks'
intermediate' many' businesses' related' to' financial' flows,' via' Na)
tional' Treasury' bonds,' and' is' less' engaged' in' financial' intermedia)
tion'of'productive'activities,'especially'the'industrial'ones.'The'im)
portant'transformations'in'the'Brazilian'banking'industry'since'the'
monetary'stabilization'of'1994'has'not'changed'that'situation.'But'
since' 2003,' with' the' formation' of' the' Lula' government,' some'
changes' started' to' happen.' Although' this' government' has' main)
tained' the' macroeconomic' policy' of' its' predecessor,' it' starts' from'
the'assumption'that,'since'Lula'has'been'some'incremental'change'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
136'
Abstract'Book'
in'the'trajectory'of'relations'between'state'and'financial'interests,'
and' they' were' important' to' minimize' the' effects' of' international/
crisis'in'Brazil'and'to'demarcate'possibilities'to'change'the'institu)
tionalization' bank' towards' a' greater' state' coordination' of' the' fi)
nancial'market.'
VARIETIES!OF!LIBERALISM:!ANGLOGSAXON!
CAPITALISM!IN!CRISIS?!
'1
'2
'3
Gerhard'Schnyder ,'Sue'Konzelmann ,'Marc'Fovargue)Davies '
1
Management' Department,' KING'S' COLLEGE' LONDON,'
3
Management'Department,' LCCGE,'Birkbeck'University'of'London,'
'
London,'United'Kingdom
2
Abstract:' The' recent' financial' crisis' has' raised' doubts' about' the'
conventional'wisdom'of'economic'liberalism'and'debate'about'the'
appropriate' direction' of' theory' and' policy.' However,' the' sharply'
contrasting' experiences' during' this' crisis' of' the' four' main' Anglo)
Saxon' banking' systems' suggest' that' the' crisis' may' not' be' one' of'
liberal'capitalism'as'such,'but'of'the'neo)classical'variety'that'char)
acterizes' the' British' and' American' systems.' We' investigate' the'
factors' which' ensured' that' Canada,' and' Australia,' both' with' well'
developed'financial'markets,'emerged'from'the'financial'crisis'rela)
tively' unscathed.' This' is' in' sharp' contrast' to' the' other' two' major'
liberal' market' economies' –' the' US,' UK' –' which' were' very' badly'
affected'by'the'crisis.'Using'the'concept'of'‘varieties'of'liberalism,’'
we' assess' how' different' approaches' to' liberalisation' and' different'
rules' or' a' more' prudent' application' of' the' same' rules' affect' both'
corporate'and'regulatory'behaviour.'We'find'important'differences'
in'the'way'that'economic'liberalism'was'theorized'and'implement)
ed'in'the'four'countries'during'the'period'preceding'the'crisis,'sug)
gesting'that'broad'classifications'of'national'business'systems'into'
‘liberal' market’' and' other' varieties' of' capitalism' do' not' capture'
their' inherent' diversity.' Further,' liberalization' of' financial' markets'
appears' to' be' viable' only' if' accompanied' by' appropriate' supervi)
sion.' In' the' current' crisis,' regulatory' capture,' political' fragmenta)
tion' and' the' financial' sector’s' political' and' economic' leverage' are'
among'the'most'important'factors'contributing'to'national'banking'
system'vulnerability.'
BRINGING!THE!INDIVIDUAL!AND!THE!STATE!BACK!IN:!
VARIETIES!OF!CAPITALISM!IN!THE!BRITISH!AND!
GERMAN!HOUSING!MARKET!
Ben'Jacoby
1'
1
Politics'and'International'Studies,'The'University'of'Warwick,'Cov)
'
entry,'United'Kingdom
Abstract:' The' academic' success' of' the' wider' ‘Varieties' of' Capital)
ism’'(VoC)'literature'has'been'extensive,'and'yet'it'seems'that'the'
debate' is' not' coming' to' a' point' of' maturation,' the' reason' being'
that'by'now'the'critics'of'VoC'hold'at'least'as'strong'a'position'as'
their' original' supporters.' Hence' the' question:' is' the' whole' VoC'
paradigm' in' crisis?' The' present' paper' takes' distance' from' the' de)
bate' and' analyses' its' underlying' assumptions' and' methodological'
foundations.' From' such' a' critical' point' of' departure' it' claims' that'
many' of' the' VoC' flaws' are' related' to' it’s' neglect' of' the' individual'
and' the' state,' hence' the' essence' of' the' political.' Suggesting' a'
framework' that' starts' from' an' ontological' position' that' radically'
puts'the'individual'into'the'centre'of'politics,'the'paper'builds'upon'
constructivist' accounts' that' have' human' indeterminacy' as' their'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
core.' At' the' same' time,' the' approach' opens' space' for' state' inter)
vention'upon'economic'agency'and'advances'a'method'that'moves'
towards' the' new' institutionalisms' debate.' By' integrating' the' indi)
vidual' into' the' ideational/discursive' variant,' the' argument' is' put'
forward'that'capitalist'diversity'must'be'understood'as'differences'
in' individual)state' relationships' in' different' institutional' arrange)
ments'(polities).'Hence,'it'brings'back'into'VoC'two'quintessentially'
political'concepts:'the'individual'and'the'state.'The'paper'then'goes'
on'to'showcase'the'approach'with'the'comparative'study'of'British'
and' German' state' interventions' upon' economic' subjectivities' in'
their' respective' housing' markets.' It' becomes' clear' how' specific'
legitimation' regimes' and' interactive' individual)state' processes' in)
fluence' socio)economic' internally' consistent' variance' in' the' way'
that' the' state' considers' the' economy,' and' how' and' why' policies'
are'enacted.'Capitalist'variety'is'thus'a'much'broader'topic'than'the'
initial' contributions,' but' also' the' current' critiques' to' VoC' suggest.'
Finally,'VoC'can'only'be'advanced'when'its'critics'are'taken'serious)
ly' and' radically' applied' into' an' alternative' perspective' upon' eco)
nomic' regimes,' on' that' is' centrally' concerned' with' economic' sub)
jectivities,'hence'agency,'and'the'state.'
NEOLIBERALISM!AND!SOCIAL/CHRISTIAN!
DEMOCRACY!
Ian'Bruff
1
1'
UNIVERSITY'OF'MANCHESTER,'MANCHESTER,'United'Kingdom
'
Abstract:' This' paper' will' focus' on' how' the' last' thirty' years' in' Eu)
rope' have' seen' a' gradual' unravelling' of' the' policies,' programmes'
and'practices'associated'with'post)1945'christian'and'social'democ)
racy.' This' will' be' examined' across' three' key' examples' –' collective'
bargaining'practices,'welfare'programmes'and'the'system'of'politi)
cal'representation'–'where'the'rights'of'trade'unions,'the'values'of'
social'solidarity'and'equality'plus'the'dominance'of'moderate,'cen)
trist' politics' have' been' fundamentally' challenged.' Moreover,' the'
current' economic' and' legitimacy' crisis' facing' the' eurozone' could'
well' accelerate' this' slow)burning' crisis' of' the' political' economy' of'
christian' and' social' democracy.' I' will' also' consider' the' extent' to'
which' Europe' is' on' the' verge' of' a' fracturing' of' traditional' social'
coalitions'into'a'radicalised'social'democracy'on'the'one'hand'and'
especially' a' resurgent' neoliberalism' –' recast' along' authoritarian'
(and'sometimes'xenophobic)'lines'–'on'the'other.'
There' is' a' broader' relevance,' too,' for' my' approach' contrasts' with'
much'of'the'fast)growing'International'Political'Economy'(IPE)'liter)
ature,'which'continues'to'adhere'(even'if'implicitly)'to'a'“states'and'
markets”' dichotomy.' That' is,' when' seeking' to' make' sense' of' the'
potentially' transformative' developments' associated' with' neoliber)
alism,' an' unsatisfactory' “either/or”' methodology' is' still' dominant.'
Structures'and'agents'tend'to'be'defined'by'pre)determined'capa)
bilities'and'interests,'which'then'drives'analysis'along'“political”'or'
“economic”' lines.' The' more' detrimental' logic' deemed' inherent' to'
markets' rather' than' the' more' benign' logic' viewed' as' inherent' to'
institutions' leads' to' a' concentration' of' “critical”' analysis' on' the'
former' and' not' the' latter.' IPE‘s' multidisciplinary' and' interdiscipli)
nary' potential' is' not' realised' in' consequence,' and' it' ought' to' be'
more' open' to' insights' from' other' disciplines' when' attempting' to'
make'sense'of'the'complex,'contemporary'era.'
SMALL!NORDIC!COUNTRIES!AND!GLOBALISATION:!IS!
THERE!STILL!A!SPECIFIC!MODEL!OF!CAPITALISM?!
Abstract'Book'
137'
'
1'
Andreas'Bieler
1
School' of' Politics' and' International' Relations,' UNIVERSITY' OF'
'
NOTTINGHAM,'Nottingham,'United'Kingdom
Abstract:'There'has'been'a'large'range'of'literature'on'the'continu)
ing'viability'or'inevitable'demise'of'the'Nordic'model'of'capitalism'
with'a'specific'emphasis'on'developments'in'the'Swedish'case.'This'
paper'will'compare'the'Finnish'and'Norwegian'political'economies,'
two' much' less' analysed' case' studies,' through' a' comparison' with'
developments' in' Sweden' and' thereby' help' to' fill' a' gap' in' our' un)
derstanding'of'the'current'development'of'Nordic'countries.'
Conceptually,' the' paper' will' critically' engage' with' the' varieties' of'
capitalism'literature'and'argue'that'its'focus'on'institutionalist'con)
tinuities' and' change' implies' that' changes' in' the' underlying' social'
relations' of' production' and' the' related' power' balance' between'
capital'and'labour'cannot'be'taken'into'account.'Instead,'a'histori)
cal'materialist'approach'will'be'put'forward'which'makes'it'possible'
to' conceptualise' the' relationship' between' changing' production'
structures'and'class'agency'in'both'countries.'Empirically,'the'paper'
will'focus'on'the'decision'by'the'Finnish'employers’'association'EK'
to'abandon'the'tripartite'TUPO'system'in'2007'and'the'Norwegian'
Campaign'for'the'Welfare'State'to'mobilise'trade'unions'and'social'
movements' against' neo)liberal' restructuring' in' the' elections' in'
2005' and' 2009.' It' will' be' argued' that' both' the' failure' of' EK' to'
change' the' Finnish' model' drastically' as' well' as' the' success' of' the'
Campaign'for'the'Welfare'State'to'block'neo)liberal'restructuring'in'
Norway' is' partly' due' to' the' fact' that' the' production' structure' in'
both'countries'is'comparatively'less'transnationalised'than'in'Swe)
den.'Hence,'Finnish'and'Norwegian'capital'are'less'powerful'vis)à)
vis' labour' than' Swedish' capital.' Nevertheless,' such' developments'
are'not'automatic'but'crucially'depend'on'the'strategies'of'labour'
to'retain'their'specific,'more'socially)oriented'model'of'capitalism.'
A!POLITICAL!ECONOMY!ANALYSIS!OF!HUMAN!RIGHTS:!
RESTRUCTURING!OF!STATEGEDUCATION!
RELATIONSHIPS!AND!ITS!IMPLICATIONS!ON!THE!
RIGHT!TO!EDUCATION!IN!TURKEY!
Funda'Karapehlivan'Şenel
1
1'
Sociology,'MARMARA'UNIVERSITY,'Istanbul,'Turkey
'
Abstract:'Consolidation'of'neoliberalism'and'expansion'of'capitalist'
relations' in' every' aspect' of' life' have' resulted' in' a' decline' in' the'
well)being'of'people'throughout'the'world.'Hence,'the'neoliberali)
sation' process' and' increasing' inequalities' between' and' within' the'
countries' have' created' a' deteriorating' environment' for' the' enjoy)
ment'of'human'rights'especially'for'the'working'classes'and'other'
disadvantaged'groups'all'around'the'world.'This'paper'aims'to'con)
tribute'to'the'emerging'field'of'sociology'of'human'rights'by'analyz)
ing' the' right' to' education' from' a' political' economy' perspective.' A'
political'economy'approach'requires'an'analysis'of'power'relations'
and' structural' inequalities' in' capitalist' society.' This' paper' has' a'
critical' approach' to' liberal)individualist' theory' of' human' rights'
which'has'emphasized'civil'and'political'rights'without'considering'
the'effects'of'the'economic,'social,'cultural'and'political'inequalities'
of' capitalist' societies' on' the' realisation' of' these' rights.' It' argues'
that'economic,'social'and'cultural'rights,'on'the'other'hand,'despite'
their' formal' recognition,' have' been' reduced' to' ‘consumer' rights’'
with' the' withdrawal' of' the' state' from' the' provision' of' the' public'
services'and'the'introduction'of'the'market'system'in'these'services'
since'the'1970s.'I'will'try'to'disclose'this'gap'in'formal'recognition'
and'substantive'enjoyment'of'the'right'to'education'by'drawing'on'
the' case' of' Turkey.' The' paper' will' discuss' the' possibility' of' provi)
sion'and'enjoyment'of'the'right'to'education'within'the'neoliberal'
socio)economic'structure'and'also'asks'how'successful'the'right'to'
education'is'in'addressing'the'current'social,'economic'and'political'
realities' as' it' is' formulated' in' the' international' human' rights' in)
struments.'Its'specific'concern,'in'this'process'of'neoliberalisation,'
is' the' introduction' of' market' relations' into' primary' education' and'
their'implications'on'the'right'to'education'in'Turkey.'In'this'paper,'
it'will'be'argued'that'the'restructuring'of'state)education'relation)
ships' has' had' implications' on' the' right' to' education' in' Turkey' by'
creating' new' forms' of' inequalities' in' education.' In' order' to' illus)
trate'this'point,'I'will'focus'on'the'consequences'of'macro'polices'in'
micro' level,' namely' on' individual' schools,' teachers,' parents' and'
students' by' drawing' on' the' micro' level' qualitative' research' con)
ducted'in'two'primary'schools'in'Ankara.'
INSTITUTIONAL!CHANGE!AND!VARIETIES!OF!
CAPITALISM!
Daniel'Heinrich
1'
1
Geographisches' Institut,' RUHR)UNIVERSITÄT' BOCHUM,' Bochum,'
'
Germany
Abstract:' The' development' of' capitalism' in' western' states' is' not'
accurate' classifiable' in' a' dichotomous' convergence)divergence'
model.' The' reason' is' that' institutional' complementarities,' differ)
ently'than'in'the'VoC'postulated,'need'not'be'coherent.'Despite'the'
overall'meaningful'and'comprehensible'classification'in'liberal'and'
coordinated'market'economies,'national'institutional'arrangements'
are' justified' as' a' social' regime' which' is' determined' by' historical'
contexts,'that'can'contain'liberal'as'well'as'coordinated'elements.'
The'affect'of'mega'trends,'such'as'economical'globalization'and'the'
increasing' importance' of' knowledge,' are,' according' to' national'
historical'contexts,'institutionally'processed.'In'particular,'the'coor)
dinated'market'economies'are'in'a'fiscal'pressure'condition.'These'
economies'aim'to'optimize'their'national'business'demography'to'
face'the'effects'of'the'mega'trends.'In'fact,'institutional'change'for'
the'reinforcement'of'the'competitiveness'of'business'demography'
is'influenced'by'national'path'dependency.'Thus,'despite'of'conver)
sion,'drift,'exhaustion,'layering'and'displacement,'no'hybrid'type'of'
market' economy' develops,' but' a' new' more' competitive' form' of'
coordinated' market' economy.' There' are' no' competitive' ad)
vantages'for'the'liberal'market'economies.Instead,'they'must'deal'
with'new'forms'of'dependence'on'their'business'demography.'For'
example,'Denmark'and'Ireland'pursued'different'policies'for'chang)
ing' their' institutions' to' optimize' their' business' demography.Both'
nations'are'not'clearly'marked'by'a'distinct'institutional'trend.'As'a'
result,' liberal' institutional' complementarities' will' harmonize' with'
coordinated,'if'the'institutional'hierarchy'remains'clear.'
COMMUNICATING!THE!EU!SOCIAL!ECONOMY!AND!
THE!WELFARE!STATE!AFTER!THE!LISBON!TREATY!
Mihaela'Danetiu
1'
1
Communication,' National' School' of' Political' and' Administrative'
'
Studies,'Bucharest,'Romania
Abstract:' The/ main/ goal/ of/ this/ article/ is/ to/ analyze/ how/ are/ the/
European/ social/ economy/ and/ the/ social/ policies/ communicated/
from/the/institutions/to/the/citizens./Are/the/EU/institutions/able/to/
communicate/the/social/responsibility?/Is/the/European/Social/Econ=
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
138'
Abstract'Book'
omy/a/communication/tool/itself?/The/current/EU/strategy/that/was/
adopted/after/the/Lisbon/Treaty/highlights/the/need/of/constructing/
the/European/citizenship/that/can/overcome/the/unilateralist/dimen=
sion/given/by/the/national/citizenship./The/social/inclusion/policy/and/
the/social/integration/on/the/market/labor/require/a/communication/
strategy/that/targets/the/European/citizens./Social/economy/obliges/
several/political/actors/such/as/the/EU/institutions,/corporations/and/
states/ to/ take/ part/ in/ forging/ the/ European/ Citizenship./ The/ study/
will/ analyze/ the/ social/ economy/ as/ a/ communication/ tool/ that/ has/
the/ability/to/convert/the/national/interests/and/projecting/them/to/
the/ European/ level./ From/ the/ humanist/ philosophical/ principles/ of/
the/ social/ economy/ to/ the/ cultural/ patterns/ of/ each/ member/ state,/
responsibility/and/equal/opportunities/merge/into/a/single/dimension/
of/an/identity/that/can/play/a/key/role/in/consolidating/the/European/
public/ sphere./ The/ EU/ Barometers,/ the/ projects/ that/ have/ been/ al=
ready/ implemented/ on/ employment,/ the/ social/ cohesion/ and/ the/
institutional/communicational/products/from/the/EU/institutions/can/
provide/ useful/ data/ that/ can/ indicate/ the/ degree/ of/ implication/ of/
the/ citizen/ in/ the/ EU/ social/ policy./ The/ social/ dimension/ of/ the/ EU/
2020/strategy/can/point/out/the/strengthening/of/the/Welfare/Euro=
pean/states.'
Keywords:social'economy,'citizenship,'corporate'social'responsibil)
ity,'Welfare,'social'policy.'
EU!CORPORATE!SOCIAL!RESPONSIBILITY!IN!A!POSTG
LISBON!CONTEXT!
Laura'Horn
1'
1
Political'Science,'VU'UNIVERSITY'AMSTERDAM,'Amsterdam,'Neth)
'
erlands
Abstract:'In'its'Europe'2020'strategy,'the'European'Commission'has'
made'a'strong'commitment'to'promoting'Corporate'Social'Respon)
sibility'(CSR)'‘as'a'key'element'in'ensuring'long'term'employee'and'
consumer' trust’.' In' particular' in' the' context' of' the' financial' and'
economic' crisis,' CSR' is' increasingly' seen' as' a' policy' instrument' to'
address'questions'of'corporate'behaviour'and'societal'change.'
This'paper'puts'the'recent'developments'in'CSR'at'the'EU'level'in'
the' Post)Lisbon' period' in' the' context' of' a' broader' perspective' of'
how' CSR' emerged' as' a' policy' area' in' the' European' Union.' CSR' is'
often'criticised'as'a'non)committal'form'of'social'and'environmen)
tal' self)regulation,' avoiding' more' concrete' regulation' on' labour'
standards' and' environmental' protection.' Drawing' on' a' neo)
Gramscian'approach'to'European'integration,'the'paper'argues'that'
CSR' initiatives' by' the' European' Commission' have' constituted' a'
moment' of' trasformismo,' in' which' contestation' and' opposition'
have' been' incorporated' into' a' broad' and' non)binding' process' of'
civil'society'dialogue.'Institutionally,'within'the'Commission'there'is'
a' strong' bifurcation' of' CSR' and' industrial/social' policy' on' the' one'
hand,'and'Internal'Market'and'Financial'Regulation'on'the'other'–'
while'inititiaves'in'the'latter'often'have'a'binding'character,'discus)
sions' in' the' former' domain' tend' to' be' programmatic' rather' than'
offering' concrete' outcomes.' In' light' of' the' recent' financial' and'
economic' crisis,' the' paper' then' examines' whether' the' Commis)
sion’s'CSR'policy'has'changed'significantly'following'the'regulatory'
reactions'to'the'immediate'crisis'and'the'recession,'and'how'these'
changes'reflect'a'general'reconsideration'of'social'policy'at'the'EU'
level.'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
INTEGRATION!IN!CRISIS:!A!REGULATIONIST!
PERSPECTIVE!ON!THE!INTERACTION!OF!EUROPEAN!
VARIETIES!OF!CAPITALISM!
'1
'2
Johannes'Jäger ,'Joachim'Becker '
1
Economics,' UNIVERSITY' OF' APPLIED' SCIENCES' BFI' VIENNA,' Viena,'
Economics,' University' of' Economics' and' Business' Vienna,' Vienna,'
'
Austria
2
Abstract:'The'present'crisis'in'Europe'affects'national'economies'in'
different'ways.'In'addition,'the'whole'pattern'of'European'integra)
tion'is'in'crisis'and'important'institutional'transformations'are'ob)
served.' It' is' proposed' to' apply' a' theoretical' framework' which' al)
lows'focusing'on'the'specific'linkages'between'(national)'regimes'of'
accumulation' in' combination' with' a' systematic' analysis' of' institu)
tions'at'different'spatial'levels.'This'is'provided'by'a'modified'and'
expanded'regulation'approach'which'we'use'as'framework'for'our'
paper.'Based'on'this,'we'provide'an'empirical'overview'of'the'dif)
ferent'regimes'of'accumulation'and'their'interaction'to'explain'the'
crisis'and'its'dynamics.'In'addition,'we'analyse'the'reactions'to'the'
crisis'and'the'consequences'in'terms'of'institutional'transformation'
at' different' territorial' levels.' This' allows' drawing' conclusions' re)
garding'the'dynamics'of'future'political)economic'developments'in'
Europe.'
THE!DISEMBEDDED!GOVERNANCE!OF!THE!EUROPEAN!
UNION!
Maja'Lazo'Savevska
1'
1
Institut' d'Etudes' Europeenne,' Universite' Libre' de' Bruxelles,' Brus)
'
sels,'Belgium
Abstract:' I' aim' to' provide' a)' Polanyian' critique' of' the' incomplete'
neo)Gramscian' interpretation' of' the' EU' governance' structure,' by'
drawing'insights'from'the'neo)Polanyian'scholarship'b)'Constructiv)
ist' critique' of' the' pessimistic' accounts' of' Gill' and' Harmes' which'
identify'neoliberal'preemptive'measures'in'every'societal'initiative.'
I' am' interested' in' applying' Polanyi’s' concept' of' disembeddedness'
to' analyze' the' structural' transformations' of' the' society)economy'
relation.' Many' formulations' provide' a' valid' analysis' of' underlying'
issues'within'the'EU,'however'they'fail'to'theorize'the'implications'
of'the'EU'integration'on'the'society)economy'relation.'Thus,'I'pro)
pose'a'return'to'the'concept'of'disembeddedness,'which'can'help'
us'assess'the'extent'to'which'the'economy'and'the'policy'are'inte)
grated'at'the'EU'level.'Harmes'used'somewhat'redefined'version'of'
this' concept' to' signify' the' configuration' of' the' EU.' However'
Harmes' makes' two' mistakes' when' applying' this' tool:' a)' borrows'
this' concept' from' Polanyi' without' problematizing' it,' and' b)' pro)
claims'that'there'is'disembedded'federalism'within'the'EU'without'
making'a'refined'distinction'between'the'different'stages'of'disem)
beddedness' that' marked' the' EU' integration.' If' he' engages' in' any'
periodization'he'theorizes'only'the'general'transition'from'embed)
ded'to'neo'liberalism'i.e.'his'periodization'is'not'EU'specific.'I'argue'
that'we'should'question'the'direct'applicability'of'the'grand'neolib)
eral' narrative.' Many' critical' thinkers' have' agreed' on' a' common'
narrative' of' how' neoliberal' ideas' and' practices' spread' around' the'
world.'However,'the'neoliberalization'of'the'EU'did'not'unfold'in'a'
linear'manner.'Thus,'we'should'aim'at'an'EU'specific'narrative'that'
would' be' more' complete' only' if' we' inspect' the' discrete' transfor)
mations' within' it.' I' propose' to' reintroduce' the' concept' of' disem)
beddedness'and'exhaust'its'explanatory'potential.'First,'I'would'like'
to' theoretically' dissect' the' concept' of' disembeddedness' and' ex)
Abstract'Book'
139'
'
plain'my'understanding'of'the'concept.'Then'I'will'look'at'the'con)
tingent' structural' transformations' that' marked' the' disembedden)
ing'within'the'EU.'Not'to'repeat'Harmes'mistake,'I'intent'to'engage'
in'more'precise'interpretation'of'the'extent'of'the'asymmetric'gov)
ernance,'by'providing'periodization'of'it.'A'closer'look'at'the'insti)
tutional' setup' of' the' EU' would' reveal' a' more' complicated' picture'
that' disproves' the' thesis' that' the' economy' operates' absolutely'
above'the'polity.'
THE!POLITICAL!ECONOMY!OF!THE!
TRANSNATIONALISATION!
Eva'Hartmann
1'
their' subsequent' patterns' of' evolution,' based' on' ‘longue' durée’'
accounts' of' historical' development' and' on' ‘non)absolute’' notions'
of'path'dependency.'Section'five'uses'the'literature'on'‘varieties'of'
capitalism’'and'‘welfare'state'regimes’'to'develop'some'provisional'
theories' about' different' contemporary' forms' of' social' cohesion'
which'may'be'found'in'particular'regions'–'or'clusters'of'countries')'
in' the' West' and' east' Asia.' We' call' these' ‘regimes' of' social' cohe)
sion’,'in'the'same'way'that'Esping)Andersen'(1990)'refers'to'‘wel)
fare'regimes’'and'Michael'Walzer'(1997)'to'‘regimes'of'toleration’.'
The'last'section'of'the'paper'uses'international'data'on'social'atti)
tudes' and' institutional' characteristics' to' test' empirically' whether'
such'regimes'can'be'identified'in'terms'of'regions'or'country'clus)
ters'which'display'particular'sets'of'institutional'characteristics'and'
aggregate'social'attitudes.'
1
Intitute' of' political' and' international' studies,' UNIVERSITY' OF'
'
LAUSANNE,'Lausanne,'Switzerland
Abstract:'The'concept'of'varieties'of'capitalism'has'been'very'influ)
ential'in'questioning'the'assumption'that'globalisation'will'lead'to'
conversion.' This' paper' wants' to' challenge' the' methodological' na)
tionalism' built' into' this' account' without,' however,' substituting'
methodological'globalism'for'methodological'nationalism.'It'argues'
that' what' is' needed' are' studies' that' examine' whether' the' nation'
state'remains'the'main'organising'principle'and'if'so'why.'In'other'
words,' the' nation)state' is' no' longer' the' explanans/ but' the' ex=
planandum.'
The'point'of'the'departure'of'the'paper'is'Hall’s'and'Soskice’s'dis)
tinction'between'the'two'basic'types'of'capitalism,'i.e.'liberal'mar)
ket' economy' and' coordinated' market' economy.' The' empirical'
study'examines'vocational'education'and'training'(VET)'whose'co)
ordination' differ' significantly' in' market' und' coordinated' econo)
mies.'This'domain'thus'illustrates'very'well'the'two'types'of'market'
economy.' By' looking' at' the' recent' internationalisation' of' VET' the'
paper' analyses' to' which' extend' and' how' the' nation)state' as' the'
principle'level'of'coordination'is'undermined.'
REGIMES!OF!SOCIAL!COHESION:!A!COMPARATIVE!
ANALYSIS!
Andy'David'Green
1'
1
Department' of' Lifelong' and' International' Education,' Institute' of'
'
Education,'University'of'London,'London,'United'Kingdom
Abstract:'This'paper'explores'the'different'meanings'of'social'cohe)
sion' in' historical' and' contemporary' societies' and' identifies' some'
different'‘regimes'of'social'cohesion’,'and'their'characteristics,'that'
can'be'found'in'western'and'east'Asian'societies.'It'adopts'a'mixed)
method' and' interdisciplinary' approach,' drawing' on' the' literatures'
in'comparative'historical'sociology'and'comparative'political'econ)
omy,'and'using'both'qualitative,'logical'comparative'methods,'and'
quantitative'statistical'analysis.'In'the'first'section'of'the'paper'we'
analyse' the' constituents' of' social' cohesion' which' are' specified' in'
different' definitions)in)use' in' policy' and' contemporary' academic'
writing.' This' leads' to' a' definition' of' social' cohesion' which' is' non)
normative' and' non)exclusive' and' which' can' be' used' in' empirical'
analysis.' The' second' section' seeks' to' identify' the' major' historical'
traditions'of'writings'about'social'cohesion'and'the'social'order'in'
western'sociology'and'political'philosophy'and'the'logics'they'imply'
as'to'the'forces'which'bind'society'together.'
Sections' three' and' four' review' some' historical' evidence' for' social'
origins' of' different' traditions' of' social' cohesion' in' the' West,' and'
VARIETIES!OF!CAPITALISM:!POTENTIAL!WELLSPRING!
OF!THEORETICAL!ROUTES!IN!ASIA!PACIFICGFOCUSSED!
POLITICAL!ECONOMY!RESEARCH!
Lisa'Tilley
1
1'
East'Asian'Studies,'University'of'Leeds,'Leeds,'United'Kingdom
'
Abstract:' This' paper' argues' that' the' varieties' of' capitalism' (VoC)'
approach,' up' to' now' sparsely' applied' in' the' East' Asian' context' in'
particular,' represents' a' potential' wellspring' of' related' theoretical'
perspectives' for' Asia' Pacific' researchers.' The' developmental' state'
model' may' be' exhausted' in' the' sense' that' both' developing' and'
industrialised' economies' no' longer' conform' to' its' most' precise'
definition,' if' in' fact' they' ever' did;' while' convergence' theories' )'
which' anticipate' largely' unidirectional' movements' towards' an' An)
glo)American'neoliberal'model'–'have'been'contested'by'numerous'
empirical' studies' into' capitalist' diversity.' In' contrast,' the' VoC' ap)
proach' )' employing' essentially' a' firm)level' analysis' with' particular'
focus'on'inter)firm'and'state)business'relational'aspects'in'order'to'
identify'core'determinants'of'capitalist'diversity')'offers'more'con)
ceptual'density'and'methodological'precision.'
Two'key'examples'are'presented'which'locate'the'VoC'approach'at'
an' early' stage' of' its' employment' in' the' Asia' Pacific' rather' than' at'
an'end'point'or'in'crisis.'Firstly,'the'VoC'framework'is'proving'useful'
in'theoretical'modelling'of'Southeast'Asia’s'developing'capitalisms,'
which' may' not' entirely' adhere' to' liberal)' (LME)' or' coordinated'
market'economy'(CME)'models,'but'may'show'elements'of'each'or'
form'hybrid'types'combining'developmental'state'features'in'addi)
tion.'Secondly,'application'of'the'VoC'approach'to'Japan'has'shown'
its'use'in'defining'post)developmental'states'and'provided'a'theo)
retical'framework'through'which'to'illustrate'divergent'practices'of'
firms'in'these'states'from'those'based'in'LMEs.'
Rather' than' expecting' Asia' Pacific' economies' to' conform' to' the'
LME)CME' typologies,' this' paper' expects' their' boundaries' to' be'
stretched,'even'to'a'third'or'hybrid'type'of'market'economy.'Relat)
ed'to'this,'it'is'anticipated'that'some'of'the'region’s'economies'may'
challenge' the' VoC' hypothesis' that' hybrid' regimes' which' approxi)
mate'neither'the'LME'nor'the'CME'pole'develop'less'inter)firm'and'
firm)institutional' complementarity' than' those' closer' to' the' two'
ideal'types'–'Singapore'for'instance,'may'display'both'hybrid)type'
capitalism' and' high' levels' of' complementarity.' On' the' whole,' the'
Asia' Pacific' has' much' empirical' substance' to' add' to' the' testing' of'
VoC'theories,'just'as'the'VoC'approach'has'much'to'add'to'theoret)
ical'discourse'on'Asia'Pacific'capitalism.'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
140'
Abstract'Book'
VARIETIES!OF!CAPITALISM!AND!THE!RESTRUCTURING!
OF!THE!NORDIC!LABOUR!PROCESS!
Markku'Sippola
1
1'
UNIVERSITY'OF'EASTERN'FINLAND,'Joensuu,'Finland
'
Abstract:' The' position' of' the' worker' is' in' a' state' of' flux' in' North'
European' societies.' The' Nordic' countries,' that' is' to' say,' Denmark,'
Finland,'Iceland,'Norway'and'Sweden,'have'been'traditionally'cate)
gorised' as' representatives' of' ‘the' Nordic' model’' or' coordinated'
market' economies.' This' classification' does' not' satisfactorily' take'
the' changing' situation,' based' on' historical' trajectories,' into' ac)
count.'According'to'Finnish'and'Swedish'scholars,'the'emergence'of'
the'universal'welfare'state'system'in'Nordic'countries,'for'example,'
traces'back'to'early'changes'in'institutional'arrangements'that'have'
had' great' implications' at' much' later' stages.' Moreover,' the' whole'
capitalist'accumulation'is'taking'new'shape'in'the'aftermath'of'the'
financial' crisis' 2008)2009,' which' calls' for' a' change' of' the' social/
system/ of/ innovation/ and/ production' (SSIP)' from' a' ‘social)
democratic’' SSIP' toward' a' ‘market)based’' one.' New' dynamics' of'
division'of'work'and'employment'relations'are'emerging.'The'‘high'
road’'to'economic'growth'and'workers’'equal'prospects'in'the'Nor)
dic' labour' market' are' giving' way' to' a' greater' variation' in' worker'
status'within'a'country,'sector,'and'even'workplace.'New'forms'of'
precarious' work' are' gaining' ground.' The' use' of' flexi)time,' agency'
and' posted' workers,' typically' of' foreign' origin,' is' becoming' more'
widespread.' Simultaneously,' certain' parts' of' manufacturing' and'
construction' processes' are' being' standardised' and' relocated' to'
abroad.'In'connection'with'the'relocation,'blue)collar'labour'is'un)
dergoing' degradation' while' the' white)collar' work' is' being' intensi)
fied.' This' study' draws' upon' empirical' data' collected' from' Finnish'
manufacturing'and'construction'sites'and'Baltic'and'Russian'subsid)
iaries'of'Nordic'manufacturing'companies.'The'analysis'reveals'that'
the' employer' utilises' both' in/ situ' and' spatial' strategies' of' labour'
control,'under'the'all)encompassing'regime'of'‘hegemonic'despot)
ism’.'This'new'regime,'intertwined'with'international'disintegration'
of' production,' relies' upon' the' inequality' of' different' parts' of' the'
process' for' ensuring' “national”' competitiveness' and' the' “natural”'
evolution'of'economies.'Here'capitalists'–'the'Nordic'ones'included'
–'seek'to'maximise'comparative'advantage'through'the'relocation'
of'low)cost'labour'manufacturing'operations'that'and'through'en)
couraging'work)related'migration.'This'also'provides'the'economic'
rationale'behind'the'integration'of'the'Eastern'European'countries'
within'the'EU.'
SELFGORGANISATION!AS!A!FOUNDATION!OF!
ECONOMIC!GROWTH:!PAST!AND!CURRENT!PROBLEMS!
OF!RUSSIA!
Vasiliy'Skalon
1'
1
Department' of' Local' Administration,' HIGHER' SCHOOL' OF'
'
ECONOMICS,'Moscow,'Russian'Federation
Abstract:' The' World' economic' crisis' showed' once' again' on' the'
example'of'Russia'that'raw)material'orientation,'however'high'raw'
commodity'prices'are,'is'not'quite'a'sound'foundation'for'the'eco)
nomic'system.'However,'current'economic'policy'in'Russia'doesn't'
facilitate' the' increase' of' robustness' of' Russian' economy' in' turbu)
lent' environment.' Expansion' of' government' intervention,' greater'
concentration' of' power,' populist' growth' of' social' obligations' hin)
der'the'diversification'of'Russian'economy'and'produce'steep'level'
of'unproductive'institutional'costs.'The'main'thesis'of'our'paper'is'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
that'Russia,'heading'towards'welfare'state,'skipped'a'crucial'stage:'
creation' of' a' robust' institutional' and' economic' foundation.' The'
essential'factor'of'creation'of'such'a'foundation'is'a'developed'local'
governance'system.'
We' look' at' the' problems' of' Russian' economy' through' the' lens' of'
local' governance,' because' this' element' of' public' administration' is'
of'key'importance'for'the'functioning'of'extended'order'of'human'
cooperation.'It'is'the'level'governed'by'the'local'authorities,'where'
the' major' part' of' economic' activity' not' concerned' with' raw)
materials'extraction'and'processing'happens.'In'search'of'the'gene)
sis'of'the'considered'problems'we'refer'to'the'Russian'history.'
The' high' degree' of' concentration' of' power' has' been' a' distinctive'
feature' of' Russian' statesmanship' during' last' four' centuries.' Even'
today'Russian'policy'still'bears'marks'of'some'medieval'institutions.'
We'conclude'that'Russian'economy'is'a'prisoner'of'"bad"'institutes,'
such'as:'defunct'land'market,'archetypic'bureaucratism,'civil'socie)
ty'deficits,'etc.'
Nevertheless,'during'the'reforms'of'later'19th'—'early'20th'century'
there'has'been'taken'a'number'of'fundamental'decisions'(removal'
of' serfdom,' creation' of' district' councils' ('zemstvo'),' cooperation'
support),' which' allowed' the' Russian' economy' to' perform' an' un)
precedented'breakthrough,'interrupted'by'the'First'World'War'and'
bolshevik's' coming' to' power.' In' our' paper' we' are' going' to' show'
that' our' history' provides' some' decisions,' satisfying' the' require)
ments' of' Russian' peculiarity' better,' than' uncritical' importation' of'
foreign'(particularly'European)'models.'
The'study'is'based'on'field'research'of'local'governance,'conducted'
by'the'author'during'last'2,5'years,'and'contains'conclusions,'which'
can'be'of'interest'to'anyone,'concerned'with'condition'of'not'raw)
commodity' oriented' part' of' Russian' economy' and' Russian' local'
governance.'
THE!STATE!GOVERNANCE!OF!CRISIS!WITHIN!THE!
CONTEXT!OF!A!CRISIS!OF!STATE!GOVERNANCE:!TWO!
VERSIONS!OF!(POSTGFORDIST)!NEOGLIBERAL!
RESTRUCTURING!IN!SPAIN!AND!THE!UK!
'1
Nagore'Calvo'Mendizabal ,'Ivaylo'Vassilev
1
'1,'2
'
2
European'Studies'/'SPLAS,'King's'College'London,'London,' School'
for' Community' Based' Medicine,' The' University' of' Manchester,'
'
Manchester,'United'Kingdom
Abstract:'While'the'main'concerns'surrounding'the'on)going'global'
crisis' have' primarily' focused' on' addressing' the' causes' and' conse)
quences'of'the'crisis,'we'argue'that'it'offers'a'useful'context'within'
which'to'explore'arguments'about'the'on)going'restructuring'of'the'
state' as' well' as' examining' specific' strategies' of' adaptation.' In' de)
veloping'this'analysis'we'will'draw'on'the'regulation'approach'and'
state'theory'and'will'compare'Spain'and'the'UK.'More'specifically,'
we' will' explore' the' nationally' specific' articulations' of' the' global'
crisis' as' the' unfolding' of' a' set' of' specific' economic,' political' and'
social'crises'in'Spain'and'the'UK.'Our'main'focus'however'will'be'on'
the'political'system'and'the'strategies'and'political'rhetorics'devel)
oped' in' response' to' these' different' crises,' and' the' ways' in' which'
they'contribute'to'an'on)going'cycle'of'partial'resolution,'displace)
ment,'and're)emergence'of'crisis.'In'developing'our'arguments,'we'
will' analyse' official' government' documents' and' reports' as' well' as'
coverage' and' discussion' in' major' national' newspapers' in' order' to'
identify'key'issues,'adopted'policies,'controversies,'and'alternative'
agendas,' alliances,' strategies' and' rhetorics.' Within' the' context' of'
Abstract'Book'
141'
'
Spain'this'will'include'a'focus'on'the'financial'crisis,'the'role'of'the'
saving' banks' in' relation' to' the' housing' bubble,' the' expansion' and'
contrition'of'the'construction'sector,'and'the'effects'of'the'crisis'on'
employment.'Related'to'the'latter'we'will'further'discuss'the'politi)
cal' crisis' associated' with' the' handling' of' labour' and' pensions' re)
forms'and'the'challenges'that'the'Spanish'economy'and'the'Span)
ish' state' are' facing' in' relation' to' its' participation' in' the' EU' mone)
tary'union.'Within'the'context'of'the'UK,'we'will'discuss'the'domi)
nance' of' the' debates' around' the' collapse' of' the' financial' sector,'
the' welfare' reform' and' the' shrinking' of' the' public' sector.' We' will'
argue' that' Spain' and' the' UK' have' adopted' different' strategies' of'
adaptation'with'a'stronger'emphasis'on'a'neo)corporatist'and'neo)
liberal'policies,'respectively,'although'framed'within'different'rhet)
orics:' corporatist' and' communitarian.' This' is' within' the' broader'
context'of'the'post)Fordist'restructuring'that'is'currently'dominat)
ed'by'neo)liberal'ideology,'rhetorics,'and'policies.'
RADICAL!INNOVATION!IN!A!COORDINATED!MARKET!
ECONOMY!–!SOCIAL!EMBEDDING!AND!
CONCERTATION!
Gerhard'Fuchs
1
1'
Social'Sciences,'UNIVERSITY'OF'STUTTGART,'Stuttgart,'Germany
'
Abstract:'David'Soskice'and'Peter'Hall'in'their'seminal'contribution'
on' the' Varieties' of' Capitalism' have' established' the' distinction' be)
tween' coordinated' market' economies' (CMEs)' and' liberal' market'
economies'(LMEs).'The'different'types'of'capitalism'are'linked'with'
distinctive'economic'strengths,'specific'modes'of'policy'making'and'
implementation.' With' respect' to' innovation' Hall/Soskice' claimed'
that' the' institutional' framework' of' CMEs' (like' in' the' case' of' Ger)
many)'favors'the'development'of'incremental'innovations,'while'on'
the'other'hand'the'institutional'framework'of'LMEs'(like'in'the'case'
of'the'USA)'would'be'especially'suited'for'radical'innovations.'This'
paper' does' not' intend' to' put' into' question' the' whole' VoC' frame)
work.' It' on' the' one' hand' rather' will' make' the' point' that' the' two'
varieties' of' capitalisms' still' show' stark' differences' with' respect' to'
the'creation'resp.'construction'of'new'markets,'but'the'postulated'
differences'between'innovativeness'do'not'hold.The'paper'will'look'
at' one' specific' case' of' innovation:' Photovoltaics.' Looking' at' the'
history' of' this' innovation,' one' gets' the' initial' impression' that' re)
search'and'economic'implementation'in'the'USA'was'far'ahead'of'
its' main' competitors' and' in' line' with' general' arguments' on' the'
advantages' of' the' US' institutional' framework' for' technologically'
based' radical' innovations.' Observers' in' the' 1980s' and' 1990s' be)
lieved' that' the' US)market' possessed' the' ideal' characteristics' to'
develop'into'a'lead'market'for'PV'and'will'mimic'developments'in'
other'high'tech'areas.'Meanwhile'both'in'terms'of'economic'viabil)
ity' and' technology' Germany' (and' other' coordinated' market' econ)
omies)'seem'to'be'ahead.'The'proposed'paper'will'argue'that'radi)
cal'innovations'in'Coordinated'Market'Economies'are'possible'and'
use'the'example'of'PV'development'in'Germany.'In'order'to'make'
this'point'the'paper'will'first'try'to'clarify'the'meaning'of'the'con)
cept'of'…radical'innovation“.'Contributions'to'the'Varieties'of'Capi)
talism'debate'have'repeatedly'claimed'that'the'concept'of'innova)
tion'is'not'very'well'defined'by'Hall/Soskice.'By'establishing'linkag)
es'to'discussions'in'innovation'research'a'more'elaborate'definition'
for' radical' innovations' will' be' proposed.' Based' on' this' definition'
the'PV)developments'in'a'LME'(USA)'and'a'CME'(Germany)'will'be'
briefly' compared' in' order' to' explain' under' what' auspices' PV)
development'Germany'as'a'radical'innovation'could'be'successful.'
STANDING!ON!THE!SHOULDERS!OF!GALBRAITH:!FROM!
MANAGED!MARKERTS!TO!CORPORATEGGUIDED!
MARKETS!
'1
Brendan'Michael'Sheehan ,'Brendan'Michael'Sheehan
1'
1
Economics' and' International' Business,' LEEDS' METROPOLITAN'
'
UNIVERSITY,'Leeds,'United'Kingdom
Abstract:'This'paper'builds'upon'the'audacious'insights'of'J.K.'Gal)
braith'(1958;'1972)'with'respect'to'managed'markets'and'the'man)
agement' of' specific' demand.' It' begins' by' outlining' the' dominant'
threat' to' the' global' economy,' and' especially' the' system' of' abun)
dance:'that'of'under)consumption'by'the'people'of'plenty'(Potter,'
1973).' In' the' system' of' abundance' the' institution' of' marketing'
spontaneously' emerges' to' counter' this' threat' (Sheehan,' 2010).'
Next,'the'paper'reviews'Galbraith’s'audacious'analysis'of'managed'
markets.' Galbraith’s' approach' marks' a' distinct' break' with' the'
mainstream'frame'of'reference'of'markets'influenced'by'an'invisi)
ble' hand.' The' paper' proceeds' to' evaluate' the' Galbraithian' ap)
proach,' highlighting' some' important' limitations.' Finally,' the' paper'
introduces' Sheehan’s' concept' of' corporate)guided' markets' for'
branded'products.'This'is'the'general'market'form'in'the'system'of'
abundance.'Corporate)guided'markets'provide'the'most'propitious'
conditions' for' corporations' increase' sales' of' their' branded' prod)
ucts;'this'market'form'is'vital'to'the'growth'dynamic'of'the'system'
of' abundance.' The' concept' of' corporate)guided' markets' refines'
and'develops'Galbraith’s'analysis;'most'tellingly'it'incorporates'the'
critical'role'played'by'the'institution'of'marketing.'Put'another'way,'
the'insights'contained'in'this'paper'are'the'result'of'standing'on'the'
shoulders'of'an'economic'giant'–'J.K.'Galbraith.'
DOES!COORDINATED!CAPITALISM!STILL!WORK?!
LABOUR!MARKET!‘DUALISATION’!AND!THE!GLOBAL!
FINANCIAL!CRISIS!IN!GERMANY!AND!JAPAN!
Steffen'Heinrich
1'
1
Institute' of' Sociology,' UNIVERSITY' DUISBURG)ESSEN,' Duisburg,'
'
Germany
Abstract:' Germany' and' Japan' are' both' marked' by' comparatively'
strong' divisions' between' labour' market' insiders' (regular,' non)
termed' workers' that' are' covered' by' traditional' collective' bargain)
ing'practices)'and'outsiders'(non)regular'employees'who'are'repre)
sented'in'collective'bargaining'and'consultation'bodies).'The'global'
financial'crisis'has'hit'the'latter'group'particularly'hard'(e.g.almost'
two' thirds' of' temp' agency' workers' in' Japan' had' lost' their' job' at'
one'point'and'more'than'a'third'in'Germany),'yet'the'main'concern'
of'governments'in'the'aftermath'of'the'crisis'has'been'the'stabilisa)
tion' of' regular' employment' policies.' Comparatively' little' has' been'
done' to' raise' the' status' of' non)regular' employees' and' to' perma)
nently' improve' their' level' of' social' protection.' While' parts' of' this'
reaction' can' be' explained' with' short)term' pressures,' this' paper'
argues'that'this'primarily'reflects'long)term'institutional'changes'in'
German'and'Japanese'labour'market'arrangements'since'the'early'
1990s.' This' paper' aims' to' demonstrate' that' the' scope' of' institu)
tional' change' in' so' called' coordinated' market' economies' is' both'
wider' and' more' heterogeneous' than' is' commonly' understood.'
Although'the'Varieties'of'Capitalism'approach'(VOC)'has'been'criti)
cised'for'being'overly'static,'the'global'financial'crisis'shows'that'it'
still' is' very' helpful' to' understand' current' developments.' VOC' can'
be'used'to'show'how'the'traditional'employment'models'and'insti)
tutions'have'maintained'an'“economic'functionality”'even'though'a'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
142'
Abstract'Book'
large' number' of' firms' now' operate' outside' them' and' a' “political'
functionality”' despite' the' fading' structural' power' of' organised'
business'and'labour.'
“DON'T!THINK!OF!THE!COW!–!THINK!OF!THE!MONEY!!
“!–!UNDERSTANDING!ARGENTINE!AGROGINDUSTRIAL!
CAPITALISM!IN!A!GLOBAL!MARKET!
Yvonne'Franke
1'
1
Otto)Suhr)Institut' für' Politikwissenschaft,' FREIE' UNIVERSITÄT'
'
BERLIN,'Berlin,'Germany
Abstract:' Capitalist' development' is' embedded' in' broader' societal'
processes'and'cannot'be'interpreted'without'taking'global'econom)
ic'and'political'conditions'into'account.'In'order'to'understand'the'
specific'formation'of'Argentina's'capitalism'this'paper'analyzes'the'
development' of' the' dairy' chain' in' Argentina.' Field' research' was'
conducted'in'2009'and'2010'based'on'a'Grounded'Theory'research'
design,' which' allowed' for' broad' insights' into' socio)economic' pro)
cesses.'Thus,'the'paper'seeks'to'promote'qualitative'field'research'
as' an' innovative' instrument' to' understand' the' specific' historically'
embedded' context' of' capitalist' development' and' therefore' going'
beyond' a' pure' varieties/ of/ capitalism/ or' global/ commodity/ chains'
approach.'
The' specific' Argentine' mode' of' capitalist' development' rests' on'
three'pillars:'
1.' Argentine' capitalist' development' has' historically' been' strongly'
connected'to'the'world'market,'as'it'is'until'today.'Global'markets'
for'agricultural'commodities'have'influenced'agricultural'and'agro)
industrial' production' as' well' as' the' Argentine' capitalist' mode' of'
production'in'general.'In'case'of'the'dairy'chain'their'performance'
depends'heavily'on'the'international'market'for'milk'powder'(e.g.'
highly'influenced'by'the'Common'Agricultural'Policy'of'the'EU)'and'
the'international'exchange'rate'regime'dominated'by'the'US)Dollar'
and'Euro.'
2.'The'specific'agricultural'system,'which'is'characterized'by'what'I'
call'the'relay)principle'of'Argentine'agricultural'production,'is'highly'
responsive' to' international' incentives.' This' flexibility' is' based' on'
historical'class'formation'and'land'ownership,'and'mirrored'in'the'
local,'regional'and'national'institutional'and'legal'framework.'Here'
the'challenges'that'soybean'production'poses'to'the'dairy'chain'will'
be' examined,' taking' economic,' societal' and' political' aspects' into'
account.'
3.'The'rise'of'the'narrative'of'the'“granero/del/mundo”'(granary'of'
the' world)' is' shaping' Argentine' cross)over' politics' until' today' and'
can'be'considered'as'a'fundamental'consensus'in'Argentine'society.'
This'narrative'supports'politics'promoting'an'agro)industrial'export)
based'capitalism,'which'is'in'the'interest'of'the'Argentine'elites,'but'
might'threaten'food'security'and'sovereignty'in'Argentina'in'many'
ways.'
My' analysis' of' these' three' pillars' follows' the' idea' of' Global/ Com=
plexity'(John'Urry'2003)'and'outlines'that'national'capitalist'devel)
opment'is'strongly'shaped'by'general'social'parameters.'
LOCAL!ECONOMIC!CRISES!IN!GLOBAL!CONTEXT:!AN!
IRISH!CASE!STUDY!
Terrence'Mcdonough
1'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
1
Economics,'NATIONAL'UNIVERSITY'OF'IRELAND'GALWAY,'Galway,'
'
Ireland
Abstract:' The' Social' Structure' of' Accumulation' (SSA)' Framework'
argues' that' capitalist' history' is' characterized' by' successive' stages'
separated' from' one' another' by' periods' of' crisis.' These' stages' are'
characterized' by' sets' of' institutions,' economic,' political,' and' ideo)
logical' which' support' the' capital' accumulation' process.' Thus' the'
institutional' framework' of' capitalism' changes' from' period' to' peri)
od.' These' structures' of' accumulation' as' they' contain' political' and'
ideological' elements' have' also' historically' differed' from' place' to'
place,' thus' sharing' a' conceptual' affinity' with' the' varieties' of' capi)
talism' literature.' Recent' work' has' argued' that' globalization' has'
created' a' more' geographically' extensive' SSA' with' local' (national)'
variations.'
The'SSA'framework'has'also'analyzed'the'current'crisis'as'the'crisis'
of'the'global'neoliberal'SSA'dating'from'the'early'1980’s.'Thus'the'
crisis'is'a'general'one'but'one'which'is'likely'to'have'specific'local'
manifestations.' This' paper' examines' the' relationship' between'
global'neoliberalism'as'a'world)wide'structure'of'accumulation'and'
more' local' structures' of' accumulation' nested' within' it.' As' a' case'
study'it'analyzes'the'relationship'between'the'global'neoliberal'era'
which'followed'the'stagflationary'crisis'of'the'1970s'and'the'Celtic'
Tiger'period'in'Ireland.'It'then'compares'the'institutional'dynamics'
of'the'current'crisis'in'global'neoliberalism'and'the'economic'crash'
in'Ireland.'It'finds'the'Irish'case'to'be'a'local'instance'of'global'ne)
oliberalism'but'with'significant'differences'in'some'institutions'and'
dynamics.'
THE!FUTURE!OF!CAPITALISM:!RAPPROCHEMENT!OF!
EAST!AND!WESTERN!VALUES!
Larissa'Vladimirovna'Tserkasevich
1'
1
Management' Faculty,' ST.' PETERSBURG' ACADEMY' OF'
MANAGEMENT'AND'ECONOMIC,'Sankt)Petersburg,'Russian'Federa)
'
tion
Abstract:/ The' future' of' capitalism:' rapprochement' of' East' and'
Western'values'
There'is'a'point'of'view'point'of'view'that'the'liberal'model'of'social'
development' is' perfect.' And' this' model' is' realized' in' countries' of'
the'Europe'and'Northern'America.'Moreover,'the'modern'scientists'
propagandize'this'way'as'a'unique'possible'way'of'development'of'
a'society.'However'at'present'time'in'Western'countries'the'system'
of'individualism'is'come'to'deep'crisis'for'all'spheres'of'a'public'life:'
from'economy'and'politics'to'culture'and'demography.'In'this'case'
it' is' very' important' to' study' the' experience' of' modernization' of'
some'the'countries'of'the'East'which'give'us'an'example'of'an'al)
ternative' way' of' the' social' and' economic' development' which' are'
based'on'collectivistic'values.'It'is'necessary'to'understand'that'in'
the' East' the' state' has' an' active' a' role' of' initiating' force' of' devel)
opment' and' the' state' is' a' guarantor' of' the' statement' of' market'
values,' rates' and' relations' in' economy.' It' also' has' introduced'
achievements' of' the' western' technogenic' civilization,' but' pre)
served'basic'eastern'cultural'values'and'public'attitudes.'The'aspi)
ration'to'modernization'was'occurred'without'destruction'of'basic'
traditions'of'a'society.'For'example,'such'countries'as'China,'Singa)
pore,' Japan' achieved' the' symbiosis' of' traditional' and' technogenic'
civilization' what' provided' fast' growth' of' economy,' qualitative' im)
provement' of' conditions' of' a' life' and' work,' and' also' increase' of'
authority' of' these' countries' in' the' world' community.' Significant'
emigration'of'the'Asian'population'in'the'countries'of'the'West'can'
Abstract'Book'
143'
'
lead'to'diffusion'of'cultural'traditions'of'the'East'and'the'West'and'
all'paradigm'of'social'development.'
AFTER!NEOLIBERALISM?!BRAZIL,!INDIA!AND!CHINA!IN!
THE!GLOBAL!ECONOMIC!CRISIS!
'1
'2
Stefan'Schmalz ,'Matthias'Ebenau '
1
Sociology,' FRIEDRICH' SCHILLER)UNIVERSITY' JENA,' Jena,' Germany,'
School' of' Politics' &' IR,' Queen' Mary's' University' of' London,' Lon)
'
don,'United'Kingdom
2
Abstract:'It'has'becomecommon'knowledgethat'rising'powers'such'
as' Brazil,' India' and' China' copedbetter' with' the' global' economic'
crisis'2008ff'than'most'core'countries.'While'China'and'India'never'
entered' into' recession,' Brazil' was' among' the' first' countries' to'
overcomeeconomic' contraction.' In' thispaper' we' combine' neo)
Gramscian' IPE' and' regulation)theoreticalinsightsto' identify' the'
major' reasons' for' these' countries'good' economic' performance'
during'the'crisis.'We'arguethat'before'the'global'crisis,'each'coun)
try'ran'through'a'phase'of'neoliberal'reforms'that'eventually'led'to'
the'establishment'ofdifferent'transnationalized'formsof'capitalism.'
In'China'and'Brazil,'these'neoliberal'models'already'experiencedcri)
sis' tendenciesbefore' the' global' meltdown' had' begun.' Both' gov)
ernments,' however,' tried' to' make' use' of' the' crisis' to' restructure'
the' economy' and' to' reshape' social' relations.' In' Brazil,' the' crisis'
reinforced' the' transitionto' a' social)democratic' neo)
developmentism.' In' China,' however,' it' is' still' rather' unclear'
whethera' fundamentalregime' change' will' be' accomplished.' India,'
in' turn,' did' notchange' its' economic' policy' significantly.' There,' the'
crisis' has' not' presentedan' effective' challenge' to' neoliberal' domi)
nance.We' conclude' that,' due' to' these' divergingtrajectories,' theg)
lobal' political' economy' might' pass' through' a' phase' characterized'
by' different,' potentially' tension)ladenregional' hegemonic' constel)
lations.'
The' paper' is' based' on' a' researchproject' funded' by' Rosa)
Luxemburg)Foundation'and'gives'an'overview'of'ourbook'“Auf'dem'
Sprung' –' Brasilien,' Indien' und' China.' Zur' gesellschaftlichen' Trans)
formation'in'der'Krise“'(2011).'
CONTRIBUTIONS!FROM!FLECHA!AND!OLIN!WRIGHT:!
REAL!UTOPIAS!IN!TURBULENT!TIMES.!THE!
MONDRAGON!EXPERIENCE!
'1
'1
'2
Ana'Burgués ,'Gisela'Redondo ,'Tatiana'Santos '
1
2
University' of' Barcelona,' Barcelona,' University' of' Girona,' Girona,'
'
Spain
Abstract:' In' the' year' 2006,' due' to' the' economic' crisis,' Ramon'
Flecha' and' other' researchers' decided' to' deepen' into' the' study' of'
real'alternatives'to'the'capitalist'economy,'with'a'clear'emphasis'in'
the'Mondragon'case.'Erik'O.'Wright'became'enthousiastic'with'the'
idea' and' included' this' proposal' in' the' “The' Real' Utopias' Project”.'
The' present' proposal' is' framed' in' the' analysis' of' this' experience'
which'constitutes'an'economic'successful'action'in'the'framework'
of'the'current'crisis.'This'paper'will'analyse'some'of'the'strategies'
and' actions' that' are' being' carried' out' in' the' Mondragon' co)
opswhich'show'sustainable'employment'creation'policies'that'fos)
ter'social'justice.'The'Mondragon'corporation'is'the'seventh'enter)
preneurial' group' in' Spain' and' the' decision)making' in' their' coops'
follows' the' premise' of' “one' person,' one' vote”.' Among' the' conse)
quences' that' this' functioning' generates,' we' can' highlight' )on' the'
one' hand)' that' the' managerial' policies' favour' the' totality' of' their'
workers'and'not'an'enterpreneurial'elite'owning'the'capital.'On'the'
other' hand,' the' internationalisation' of' the' corporation' has' not'
supposed' the' delocalisation' of' the' employment,' which' is' also' an'
element'to'be'stressed'out.'The'Mondragon'corporation'posesses'a'
narrow' salary' range' compared' to' other' companies' in' the' sector.'
However,' in' the' context' of' the' global' economic' crisis,' policies' for'
wage' reduction' have' been' possible' and' agreed' by' consensus,'
which'has'prevented'cooperatives'from'conducting'policies'of'em)
ployment'reduction.'
VARIETIES!OF!ALTERNATIVES!TO!CAPITALISM!IN!
SYSTEMIC!CRISIS!
Vera'Vratusa
1'
1
sociology,' BELGRADE' UNIVERSITY' FACULTY' OF' PHILOSOPHY,' Bel)
'
grade,'Serbia
Abstract:'The'paper'argues'that'it'is'high'time'that'critical'scholar)
ship' goes' a' step' further' beyond' description' of' different' types' of'
responses'to'the'most'visible'financial'and'fiscal'aspects'of'the'pre)
sent' acute' manifestation' of' systemic' crisis' of' capitalist' mode' of'
production'as'such.'It'is'demonstrated'that'the'common'feature'of'
apparently'divergent'neo)Smithean'or'neo)Keynesian'responses'to'
present' systemic' crisis' manifestations' in' all' empirical' varieties' of'
national'capitalisms,'presents'the'implementation'of'policy'options'
that' equally' aim' to' preserve' the' present' system' of' contradictory'
capitalist' production' relations' which' reproduce' social' crises' and'
imperialist'war'disasters.'
Paper'proposes'that'the'main'task'of'critical'scholarship'is'to'exam)
ine'varieties'of'past,'existing'and'possible'future'alternatives'to'the'
present' system' of' exploitative,' opressive' and' life' destructive' capi)
talist'social'relations.'
The' main' finding' of' the' paper' is' that' reproduction' of' cyclical' sys)
temic' crises' can' be' resolved' only' through' substitution' of' present'
private' ownership,' menagerial' decision)making,' market' regulation'
and'private'profit'motivation'institutional'mechanismes,'with'social'
ownership,' producer’s' and' consumer’s' councils’' decision)making,'
participative'planning'and'human'capacities’'development'motiva)
tion'institutional'mechanismes.'
Key' words:' varieties' of' alternatives' to' capitalism,' systemic' crisis,'
institutional' mechanisms,' ownership,' decision)making,' regulation,'
motivation.'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
144'
Abstract'Book'
RN'07'Sociology'of'Culture'
CULTURAL!GLOBALIZATION!AS!A!FIELD!OF!RESEARCH,!
2001G2010!
Diana'Crane
1'
1
Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'PENNSYLVANIA,'Paris,'France
'
Abstract:'What'can'the'literature'on'cultural'globalization'contrib)
ute' to' the' sociology' of' culture?' How' can' the' sociology' of' culture'
contribute' to' our' understanding' of' cultural' globalization?' The' an)
swers' to' these' questions' will' be' discussed' in' relation' to:' (1)' A' re)
view' of' major' theories' in' the' field' which' concern' the' effects' of'
cultural' globalization' on' national' cultures,' the' nature' of' transna)
tional'networks'and'flows,'and'the'emergence'of'world'culture'and'
global' civil' society;' and' (2)' a' survey' of' the' literature' on' cultural'
globalization' in' the' past' decade,' using' a' set' of' 164' articles,' pub)
lished'between'2001'and'2010'and'retrieved'from'two'information'
databases' (Sociological' Abstracts' and' International' Bibliography' of'
the' Social' Sciences).' The' survey' shows' that' researchers' studying'
cultural' globalization' are' based' primarily' in' Europe' and' North'
America'but'the'most'frequent'location'of'recent'research'is'Asia,'
followed' by' Europe' and' North' America.' On' the' whole,' the' litera)
ture'is'focused'on'the'effects'of'cultural'globalization,'usually'some'
form' of' media,' on' national' cultures' rather' than' on' global' net)
works/flows'or'on'world'culture'and'civil'society.'Cultural'and'me)
dia' imperialism' remain' important' subjects' of' debate,' particularly'
the' role' of' American' culture' and' changes' in' the' content' of' media'
hegemony.'
AFRICAN!CONTEMPORARY!ART!G!ART!INSTITUTIONAL!
APPROACH!OUTSIDE!THE!CONTINENT!
Sara'Martins
1
This'presentation'will'reflect'my'on)going'PhD'research'on'Cultural'
Policies'regarding'African'Contemporary'Art'in'Portugal.'
1'
Sociology,'Goldsmiths'College,'London,'United'Kingdom
'
Abstract:' After' the' consolidation' of' independence' movements' in'
Africa,' there' was' a' need' to' create' a' discursive' dialogue' between'
nationalism'and'the'importance'of'the'Arts,'but'it'is'specially'since'
the'90’s,'that'the'concept'of'“African'Contemporary'Art”'has'been'
acquiring'more'and'more'international'attention'with'specific'exhi)
bitions,'festivals,'and'dedicated'areas'from'the'Venice'Biennial'or'in'
the'Documenta'11.'
The' visibility' of' this' new' category' is' still' controversial' for' some'
agents'from'the'arts'world'–'what'is'it'to'be'“African”?'What's'the'
position'of'the'Diasporas?'Why'do'we'need'to'categorise'origins'in'
such' global' arts' world' system?' Some' artistic' agents' resist' to' it,'
while' some' others' engage' with' it.' The' fact' is' that' the' number' of'
institutions'and'events'dedicated'to'“African'Contemporary'Art”'is'
still'increasing'outside'the'African'continent.'
With'this'presentation'I'aim'to'rethink'this'process'from'the'point'
of' view' of' the' Sociology' of' Culture.' This' reflection' will' articulate'
different' domains:' politics,' economy' and' art' worlds,' in' order' to'
better'identify'patterns'and'possible'explanations'for'this'process.'
As'a'case'study,'I'will'focus'on'the'recent'initiative'from'the'Portu)
guese'government'to'create'a'Centre'of'Contemporary'African'Art)'
to'be'open'Lisbon'in'2012.'On'this'presentation,'I'will'then'give'an'
account'from'its'socio)political'context,'and'its'present)future'posi)
tional'strategy/ies'regarding'other'peer'institutions'outside'Africa.'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
WORLD!CULTURE!–!THE!'SACRED!CANOPY'!OF!WORLD!
SOCIETY,!OR!JUST!ITS!TECHNICAL!UNDERBELLY?!
OUTLINE!OF!A!MACROGPHENOMENOLOGICAL!
RESEARCH!PERSPECTIVE!
Sebastian'M.'Büttner
1'
1
Institute' of' Sociology,' UNIVERISTY' OF' ERLANGEN)NUREMBERG,'
'
Erlangen,'Germany
Abstract:' While' the' so)called' ‘world)culture' theory’' proposed' by'
John'W.'Meyer'and'colleagues'has'been'quite'popular'in'studies'of'
organizations' and' globalization,' it' has' been' largely' disregarded' in'
the' sociology' of' culture.' The' reasons' of' this' peculiar' inattendance'
are'multifaceted,'but'some'seem'tobe'obvious:'First'and'foremost,'
cultural'sociologists'were'mainly'pre)occupied'with'the'analysis'of'
local'particularities,'distinctions'and'variations'in'the'past'decades.'
Thus,'a'theoretical'account'that'asserts'trans)local,'or'even'global,'
similarities' has' been' eyed' with' suspicion.' Second,' the' thesis' of' a'
massive'diffusion'of'‘modernity’'that'the'world)culture'school'puts'
forward' articulately' has' been' widely' perceived' as' a' strong' deter)
ministic' theory' of' social' change' and' an' unfortunate' resurgence' of'
orthodox' modernization' theory.' Third,' the' whole' notion' of' ‘world'
culture’'and'the'use'of'the'term'‘culture’'in'connection'with'aspects'
which' are' often' regarded' as' the' opposite' of' ‘culture’,' such' as' ra)
tional' bureaucratic' practices,' technical' standards' and' procedures,'
relatively'vague'and'abstract'scientific'models'and'legal'documents,'
are'also'widely'refused'by'culturalists.'And'from'the'perspective'of'
new' theories' of' culture' the' conceptual' anchorage' of' the' world)
culture' theory' in' institutionalist' sociology' appears' somewhat' out)
dated.' This' papers' argues,' nevertheless,' that' world)culture' theory'
should' be' seen' as' vital' element' of' the' all)encompassing' ‘cultural'
turn’' in' sociology' and' that' it' is' worth' paying' more' attention' to' in'
the'sociology'of'culture.'Based'on'theoretical'premises'of'phenom)
enological' sociology' (Berger/Luckmann),' symbolic' interactionism,'
and'Post)Parsonsian'sociology'of'culture'(Geertz,'Alexander)'it'is'a'
highly'constructionist,'non)deterministic,'empirical'account'of'con)
temporary'globalizing'society.'It'highlights'the'increasing'relevance'
of'relatively'similar'cultural'models,'standards'and'practices'around'
the' globe' that' are' widely' shared' and' enacted' in' by' experts' and'
professionals' and' increasingly' shape' performances' and' actions' of'
such' different' social' entities' as' individuals,' organizations,' or' even'
states.' In' this' way,' the' world)culture' theory' can' be' used' to' fill' a'
missing'link'in'contemporary'sociology'of'culture,'namely:'the'link'
between'local'knowledge'and'practice'and'more'recent'accounts'of'
expanding' expert)driven' systems' and' the' constitutive' technical'
foundations'of'modern'life.'
GUERNICA!–!THE!PLACE!TO!WHICH!WE!REMEMBER!–!
BUT!WHY!AND!TO!WHAT!EXACTLY?!
Akos'Kopper
1'
1
Social'Sciences,'ELTE'UNIVERSITY'BUDAPEST,'Budapest,'Hungary
Abstract:'FOR'RS07'ARTS'CULTURE'AND'CULTURAL'MEMORY'
'
Abstract'Book'
145'
'
Our'paper'is'interested'in'the'question'why'certain'events'turn'into'
places' of' memory' not' only' for' national' communities' but' become'
also'part'of'the'global'‘memory)scape’.'We'elucidate'this'question'
through'the'example'of'Guernica.'We'suggest'that'Guernica’s'‘suc)
cess’' is' rooted' in' the' fact' that' it' epitomizes' modernity' not' only' in'
WHAT'it'stands'for'but'also'HOW'it'invokes'this'via'Picasso’s'paint)
ing.'
Guernica' is' arguably' one' of' the' few' political/cultural' icons,' which'
has' a' truly' global' resonance.' (Thus' protesting' Chinese' students'
could'use'in'their'outrage'against'the'US'to'have'bombed'by'mis)
take' the' Chinese' Embassy' in' Belgrade;' one' can' find' references' to'
Guernica' in' protests' against' atrocities' in' the' Middle)East;' just' as'
much'Guernica'inspired'artworks'remembering'the'terrorist'attack'
of' 9/11).' Although,' intuitively,' there' seems' little' to' be' surprised'
about'this'state'of'affairs'–'given'that'Picasso'was'one'of'the'great)
th
est'artists'of'the'20 'century'–'nevertheless'we'believe'it'deserves'
scrutiny'why'Guernica'became'THE'historical'painting'of'the'mod)
ern' world.' Why' is' it' that' Guernica' turned' into' a' universal' symbol'
through'which'men'of'different'cultures'can'send'messages'to'one'
another?'
Concerning' what' Guernica' refers' to' we' underline' that' it' is' rare' to'
find'such'an'uncontroversial'point'of'capturing'the'way'aggression'
and'war'completely'lost'its'human'face.'While'there'are'hundreds'
of' comparable' events' in' modern' history' many' of' these' events' in)
vite' for' taking' sides' and' finding' excuses' –' at' least' explanations' )'
why' there' were' reasons' for' the' actual' tragic' unfolding' of' those'
events' –' Hiroshima,' the' bombing' of' Dresden' etc..' What' is' one' of'
the'peculiarities'of'Guernica'is'the'fact'that'it'seems'to'lack'a'strug)
gle'about'appropriating'the'past,'which'allows'for'it'to'have'a'glob)
al'reach.'
Furthermore,'it'is'even'more'significant'that'Picasso’s'painting'pro)
vides'an'abstract'depiction'of'Guernica,'which'makes'it'both'partic)
ular' and' universal' at' the' same' time.' Guernica' is' in' a' way' a' ‘logo’'
that' is' not' bound' to' an' event' but' goes' beyond' it.' The' painting' is'
about' Guernica' but' it' is' about' much' more' than' Guernica.' This' is,'
however,'we'argue,'a'rare'phenomenon.'Usually'when'we'remem)
ber,'WHAT'we'remember'is'upon'which'the'emphasis'is'put.'In'case'
of'Guernica,'however,'the'medium'of'remembering'–'i.e.'the'paint)
ing)'turned'out'to'have'a'much'greater'significance'than'the'actual'
event'itself.'
MIGRATION!AND!MORALITY:!A!CASE!OF!POLISH!
LABOUR!MIGRANTS!IN!OSLO!AND!LONDON!
Elżbieta'Anna'Czapka
Paper'presents'the'partial'results'of'the'research'conducted'among'
Polish'labour'migrants'in'Oslo.'Data'were'collected'using'both'qual)
itative' (focused' and' in)depth' interviews)' and' quantitative' (survey)'
methods.'
The' research' results' show' that' if' there' is' no' social' sanctions' that'
regulate'individuals’'behaviour'abroad,'migrants'are'more'prone'to'
break'their'moral'norms.'
THE!EXPANSION!OF!THE!SOCIOGCULTURAL!SPACE.!
POLES!VERSUS!FOREIGNERS!
Rafał'Wiśniewski
1'
1
THE' FACULTY' OF' HISTORY' AND' SOCIAL' SCIENCES,' CARDINAL'
'
STEFAN'WYSZYNSKI'UNIVERSITY'IN'WARSAW,'Warszawa,'Poland
Abstract:' Opening' of' national' borders' and' labour' markets' affects'
migration' processes' in' various' degrees.' For' example,' in' Poland' a'
change'in'the'dynamics'of'migration'processes'has'been'apparent'
since'joining'the'European'Union'and'later,'in'the'period'of'global'
economic'crisis.'Migrations'cause'not'only'encounters'with'‘cultural'
differences’' but' also' implement' this' ‘difference’' into' individuals’'
own'activity'space'such'as'work'and'education'in'the'multicultural'
environment.' Acquired' competences' help' to' understand' a'
‘stranger’'and'co)operate'in'a'different'organisation'culture.'
Work'and'education'in'the'multicultural'environment'are,'in'a'way,'
a' form' of' dialogue' between' various' individuals' and' groups.' Func)
tioning'in'such'environment'may'benefit'later'in'the'form'of'a'fu)
ture' co)operation' or' gaining' trust' whilst' working' for' an' interna)
tional'company.'This'refers'to'both')'foreigners'immigrating'to'Po)
land'and'to're)emigrating'Poles,'who'gained'new'experiences'in'the'
multicultural' environment.' There' appears' a' question:' how' does' a'
common' presence' of' cultural' diversity' affect' attitudes' towards'
foreigners?' Accepting' one' defined' attitude' expresses' itself' in' one'
of' multiple' possible' accultural' strategies' towards' the' strange'
group.'
The' aim' of' this' paper' is' to' present' the' outcome' of' research' con)
ducted'as'a'part'of'the'Polish'Measurement'of'Attitudes'and'Values'
(PPPiW)' project' in' 2009)2010' on' attitudes' of' Poles' towards' for)
eigners.' One' of' the' concepts' referred' in' this' paper' to,' is' the' Bo)
gardus' Social' Distance' Scale.' It' was' used' in' order' to' describe' the'
social' distance' between' Poles' and' foreigners.' Acquired' data' is'
compared' in' the' local' and' national' scale' and' allow' depicting' two'
different'perspectives'towards'strangers.'
1'
1
Institute'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'MARIE'CURIE)SKŁODOWSKA'
'
IN'LUBLIN,'Lublin,'Poland
Abstract:'Migration'is'a'multidimensional'process'in'which'an'indi)
vidual' changes' their' position' in' geographical,' social' and' cultural'
space.' Migrants' are' replaced' from' an' axionormative' system' that'
they'are'familiar'with'to'the'unknown'one.'Each'culture'has'its'own'
system' of' norms' and' values,' including' moral' ones,' and' creates' a'
specific' system' of' internal' and' external' sanctions' that' come' into'
play'when'certain'norms'are'breached.'The'paper'analyzes'migra)
tion' is' in' context' of' morality.' The' author' tries' to' examine' what'
happens' to' individuals’' morality' when' they' emigrate.' Does' it'
change?' What' do' migrants' think' about' their' moral' attitudes'
abroad?' Do' they' sanction' deviant' behaviour' of' their' compatriots?'
Does' emigration' from' one’s' country' mean' emigration' from' one’s'
morality?'
ETRE!UN!DES!NOTRES,!UN!DES!LEURS!
Laura'Ferilli
1'
1
Institut' of' Social' Sciences' /' Lab' of' Sociology,' UNIVERSITY' OF'
'
LAUSANNE,'Lausanne,'Switzerland
Abstract:' Au' Capo' di' Leuca,' au' sud' de' l'Italie,' parler' dialecte' crée'
immédiatement' une' proximité' qui' se' traduit' généralement' par' le'
passage' au' tutoiement,' un' regard' et' un' sourire' complices,' des'
gestes'amples'd’affabilité,'etc.'Cela's’explique'peut)être'par'le'fait'
que' mes' interlocuteurs' pensent,' à' ce' moment' de' découverte' de'
connivence'linguistico)territoriale,'que'nous'partageons,'pour'ainsi'
dire,' un' même' «' nous' ».' En' effet,' partageant' une' même' langue'
locale,' il' va' presque' de' soi' que' nous' partageons' une' culture' com)
mune'et'que'nous'appartenons'au'même'«'nous'»,'bien'que'celui)ci'
ne' se' définisse' ou' ne' s’explicite' jamais.' Un' élément' apparaît' au'
Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'
146'
Abstract'Book'
cours'de'la'discussion'et'crée'un'«'avant'»'et'un'«'après'»'dans'les'
rapports,' les' modifiant.' Il' a' le' pouvoir' d’opérer' un' changement'
d’attitude' chez' mes' interlocuteurs' vis)à)vis' de' moi' et' me' permet'
d’être' incluse' dans' leur' groupe' dont' les' contours' s’avèrent' flot)
tants,'mouvants.'Ces'«'comme'nous'»,'«'des'nôtres'»,'«'d’ici'»,'ne'
s’explicitent'pas.'Vouloir'le'faire'ou'tenter'de'le'faire'reviendrait'à'
se' désavouer' soi)même' en' tant' que' membre,' se' déclarer' non)
membre'rien'qu’en'posant'la'question'de'clarification'puisque'cel)
le)ci' avouerait' le' manque' de' capacité' )' attendue' chez' et' par' tous'
les' membres' ),' de' comprendre,' non' au' niveau' rationnel' mais' au'
niveau' émotionnel,' donc' de' «' sentir' »' ce' qu’englobe' ce' «' nous' »'
énoncé'à'tel'ou'tel'moment.'Comme'le'rappelle'Watson,'cette'in)
détermination'des'propos,'même'centraux,'au'cours'd’une'conver)
sation,' remplit' une' fonction' communicationnelle' importante' et'
parfois,'le'caractère'vague'(«'vagueness'»)'du'langage'n’est'pas'un'
défaut' à' corriger,' mais' au' contraire,' «' il' peut' être' une' ressources'
interactionnelle' très' valable' pouvant' servir' à' assurer' la' continuité'
d’une'conversation'».'Le'discours'souvent'répété'par'les'locuteurs'
du' dialecte' dit' que' l’italien' est' la' langue' nationale' indiscutable,'
qu’elle' crée' l’unité' entre' les' Italiens,' le' fondement' de' l’italianité'
même,' le' sentiment' d’appartenance' à' la' patrie,' le' partage' d’une'
culture'cultivée'commune.'C’est'elle'qui'permet'la'communication'
entre' toutes' les' régions' d’Italie,' qui' ouvre' l’accès' au' monde' du'
travail' et' à' l’instruction.' En' résumé,' la' langue' nationale' a' réussi' à'
créer' plus' qu’un' simple' sentiment' d’appartenance' à' un' État,' une'
solide'croyance'en'l’existence'd’un'«'nous'»'national'dont'la'réalité'
est'indiscutée,'voire'indiscutable,'et'une'importante'loyauté'à'son'
encontre.'
CULTURAL!PARTICIPATION!IN!DIGITAL!TIMES!
Gert'Nulens
1
and'sexe.'Thirdly'we'will'look'for'an'explanation'of'digital'cultural'
participation'by'presenting'a'multivariate'model.'
Finally'we'will'comment'on'the'impact'of'our'results'for'the'cultural'
actors'and'for'cultural'policy'makers.'
ITALIANNESS!AND!MADE!IN!ITALY!IN!FASHION!
ADVERTISING:!A!CONTENT!ANALYSIS!
'1
Simona'Ironico ,'Nello'Barile
1'
1
Istituto' di' Comunicazione,' comportamento' e' consumi,' IULM'
'
UNIVERSITY,'Milano,'Italy
Abstract:'The'aim'of'this'contribution'is'to'investigate'the'conven)
tion' of' representations' of' Italianness' in' fashion' advertising.'
Through'the'findings'of'an'empirical'research'carried'out'on'a'sam)
ple'of'360'Italian'fashion'brands,'the'authors'will'provide'a'better'
understanding' of' the' image' of' Made' in' Italy,' emphasizing' a' pro)
gressive'shift'from'a'simple'notion'of'“country'of'origin”'to'a'more'
complex'and'universal'concept'labeled'as'“metabrand”.'
Specifically,' qualitative' and' quantitative' content' analysis' of' print'
advertisements' enabled' the' researchers' to' identify' the' discursive'
strategies' through' which' fashion' companies' reappropriate' their'
national'identity'to'strengthen'their'brand'imaginaries'and'values.'
The'comparison'of'the'visual'narratives'on'the'Italian'geographies,'
stereotypes,' traditions' and' cultural' heritages' emerged' from' the'
advertisements' gave' insight' into' a' deeper' comprehension' of' Ital)
ianness' and' Made' in' Italy' distinctive' features,' highlighting' the'
power'of'Made'in'Italy'as'a'metabrand'in'supporting'fashion'com)
panies’'communication'strategies.'
1'
IBBT/SMIT,'VRIJE'UNIVERSITEIT'BRUSSEL,'Brussels,'Belgium
'
Abstract:' In' turbulent' economic' times' public' spending' is' scruti)
nized.' Especially' subsidies' for' arts' and' cultural' organisations' are'
criticised' in' a' context' of' financial' crisis.' Recently' governments' all'
over'Europe'have'drastically'cut'down'support'for'the'cultural'sec)
tor.'Cultural'organisations'are'trying'to'legitimise'public'support'by'
focusing'on'participation'numbers.'
It' seems,' though,' that' we' are' dealing' with' a' very' static' cultural'
participation' divide.' Numerous' publications' show' that' the' charac)
teristics'of'cultural'participants'are'well'known'and'are'very'invari)
able.' Among' others,' parental' context' and' educational' level,' are'
excellent'predictors'of'cultural'participation.'
In' the' quest' for' new' audiences' cultural' organisations' are' experi)
menting'with'new'technologies,'namely'internet,'which'are'increas)
ingly' domesticated' by' all' social' groups.' Museums' are' presenting'
there' collections' in' a' digital' way,' music' concerts' are' streamed'
online,'youngsters'buy'or'download'music'on'global'platforms,'etc.'
The'internet'seems'to'have'changed'both'the'cultural'industry'and'
cultural'participation.'
In' this' paper' we' will' compare' the' outcome' of' two' participation'
surveys'(2003'and'2009)