ESA 10th Conference Abstract Book Geneva, 7-10 September 2011

ESA 10th Conference Abstract Book Geneva, 7-10 September 2011

Geneva, 7-10 September 2011

ESA 10th Conference

Social Relations in Turbulent Times

Abstract Book

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Geneva,'7)10'September'2011'

ESA'10th'Conference'

Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

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Abstract!Book!

European'Sociological'Association'(ESA)'

University'of'Geneva'&'Swiss'Sociological'Association'

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Geneva,'7)10'September'2011'

ESA'10th'Conference'

Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

Organisers:'University'of'Geneva'&'Swiss'Sociological'Association'

ISBN'2)940386)18)8978)2)940386)18)5'

' www.esa10thconference.com' www.europeansociology.org' www.unige.ch/ses/socio'

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Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

Abstract'Book'

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Contents'

RN'01'Ageing'in'Europe'

RN'02'Sociology'of'The'Arts'

RN'03'Biographical'Perspectives'on'European'Societies'

RN'04'Sociology'of'Children'and'Childhood'

RN'05'Sociology'of'Consumption'

RN'06'Critical'Political'Economy'

RN'07'Sociology'of'Culture'

RN'08'Disaster'and'Social'Crisis'

RN'09'Economic'Sociology'

RN'10'Sociology'of'Education'

RN'11'Sociology'of'Emotions'

RN'12'Environment'and'Society'

RN'13'Sociology'of'Families'and'Intimates'Lives'

RN'14'Gender'Relations'in'The'Labour'Market'and'the'Welfare'State'

RN'16'Sociology'of'Health'and'Illness'

RN'17'Industrial'Relations,'Labour'Market'Institutions'and'Employment'

RN'18'Sociology'of'Communications'and'Media'Research'

RN'19'Sociology'of'Profession'

RN'20'Qualitative'Methods'

RN'22'Sociology'of'Risk'and'Uncertainty'

RN'23'Sexuality'

RN'24'Science'and'Technology'

RN'25'Social'Movements'

RN'26'Sociology'of'Social'Policy'and'Social'Welfare'

RN'27'Southern'European'Societies'

RN'28'Society'and'Sports'

RN'29'Social'Theory'

RN'30'Youth'and'Generation'

RN'31'Ethnic'Relations,'Racism,'Antisemitism'

RN'32'Political'Sociology'

RN'33'Women's'and'Gender'Studies'

RN'34'Sociology'of'Religions'

RN'35'Sociology'of'Migration'

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441!

472!

492!

508!

236!

261!

298!

333!

351!

378!

531!

551!

565!

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44!

69!

82!

100!

575!

588!

604!

636!

659!

685!

704!

723!

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RS'01'Sociology'of'Disability'

RS'02'Dynamics'and'Complexity'of'Minority'Statuses'in'Plural'Societies'

RS'03'East'and'West'in'Europe:'Two'Decades'of'Transformations'

RS'06'Maritime'Sociology'

RS'07'Arts'Culture'and'Public'Memory'

RS'10'Socio)Anthropological'Approaches'To'Transnational'Migrations'

RS'14'Regional'Conflicts'

RS'15'Rethinking'Inheritance'of'Inequalities'

RS'17'Sociology'of'Celebration'

RS'18'Economic'Elites'in'Turbulent'Times'

RS'19'The'Tacit)Knowing'Approach'

RS'20'Culture,'Politics'and'Conflict'

RS'21'RENCORE:'Methods'for'Comparative'Research'on'Europe'

RS'22'European'National'and'Regional'Identities'

RS'23'Bringing'Lefebvre'Sociology'Back'in'Urban'Studies'

RS'24'The'Sustainable'City'and'the'Arts'

RS'25'Evolution'and'Sociology'

RS'26'Global'and'Transnational'Sociology'

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RS'27'Russian'Sociology'in'Time,'Social'Space'and'Transition'

RS'28'The'Relevance'Of'Karl'Marx’s'Theory'Today:'Does'It'Exist?'

RS'29'Arts'And'Cultural'Management'

Index'

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Abstract'Book'

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RN'01'Ageing'in'Europe'

AGEING!IN!RUSSIA:!QUALITY!OF!LIFE!AND!SOCIAL!

POLICIES!REGARDING!SENIOR!CITIZENS!

Irina'Khiznyakova

1'

1

Public' Policy' Department,' National' Research' University' Higher'

School'of'Economics,'Moscow,'Russian'Federation'

Abstract:'For'Russia'it'is'important'to'develop'efficient'social'poli) cies'regarding'senior'citizens'because'even'now'21,6%[1]'of'Russian' citizens' are' pensioners' and' this' number' is' growing.' But' do' they' have'real'opportunities'for'self)actualization'and'quality'life?!

This'paper'discusses'the'data'of'the'research'aimed'to'explore'so) cial'policies'regarding'pensioners'and'quality'of'life'of'Russian'sen) ior' citizens.' Several' Russian' cities[2]' different' in' size,' economical' and' social' level' have' been' chosen' for' research.' In' each' of' these' cities' several' employees' of' different' governmental' and' non) governmental'organizations'working'with'older'people'were'inter) viewed[3].'About'a'hundred'of'pensioners'in'each'city'were'inter) viewed,'too[4].'

Research' discovers' that' governmental' organizations' provide' just' basic' needs:' basic' medical' services' and' small' retirement' benefits.'

However,'pensions'provided'by'the'government'(which'is'the'only' source'of'income'for'most'pensioners)'are'reported'to'be'too'low' by' about' 90%' of' respondents.' Non)governmental' organizations' help' in' those' cases' where' government' is' weak.' But' non) governmental'organizations'do'not'have'enough'resources'to'help' everyone.'Some'of'interviewed'nonprofit'organizations'even'avoid' publicity'and'are'not'widely'known.'

Another'problem'is'lack'of'communications'between'organizations.'

For' example,' there' are' several' gerontology' centers' in' Russia' but' they'do'not'use'best'practices'of'each'other'because'they'do'not' share' their' experience.' Of' course' it' slows' down' development' of' gerontology.'

Communications' with' society,' leisure' activities' and' opportunities' for'self)actualization'are'aspects'of'life'quality.'But'there'is'lack'of' dialogue' between' pensioners' and' society' in' Russia.' Most' of' pen) sioners' don’t' know' how' to' use' Internet' or' have' no' access' to' it;' there' are' few' TV)programs,' newspapers' and' entertainments' for' pensioners.'Pensioners'are'often'left'alone.'

Government' has' no' efficient' policy' regarding' senior' citizens.' Pen) sioners'should'have'information'about'their'rights'and'opportuni) ties.'

[1]'http://www.gks.ru'

[2]' Moscow,' Saint' Petersburg,' Orel,' Tuimazy,' Novokuznetsk,' Ufa,'

Kazan,'Prokopevsk,'Naberezhnye'Chelny.'

[3]'About'5)10'interview'in'each'city'

[4]'About'100)200'feedback'forms'in'each'city'

CONSUMPTION,!PRACTICES!AND!SOCIABILITY!IN!THE!

LIFE!COURSE.!LEAVE!THE!LABOUR!MARKET!AS!A!

TURNING!POINT?!

Hélène'Eraly

1'

1

Laboratoire' d'anthropologie' prospective,' UNIVERSITÉ' CATHO)

LIQUE'DE'LOUVAIN,'Louvain)la)Neuve,'Belgium

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Abstract:'This'communication'aims'to'understand'the'relationship' between' retirement' and' consumption' patterns.' More' specifically' we'analyse'the'consumption'practices'across'three'items:'yoga,'car' and' gifts.' These' three' items' refer' respectively' to' the' body' aging,' spatiality'and'sociability.'Older'age'is'considered'in'this'paper,'not' in'terms'of'active'retirement,'but'as'a'step'in'the'life'course'(Ab) bott,' Sewell,' Caradec,' Membrado).' Consumption' is' analysed' in' terms'of'practices'rather'than'economic'exchange'(Warde).'

This'communication'is'based'on'qualitative'and'inductive'approach.'

Semi'structured'interviews'are'conducted'with'people'aged'55'to'

67'years,'having'left'the'labour'market'(retirees,'pre)retirees,'dis) ease,'older'unemployed).'

INDIVIDUALS’!VIEWS!ON!PENSIONS!AND!PENSION!

REFORMS!IN!AN!AGEING!SOCIETY.!NEW!EVIDENCE!

FROM!FOCUS!GROUPS!AND!INGDEPTH!INTERVIEWS!

Katrin'Prinzen

1'

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Institute'for'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'COLOGNE,'Koeln,'Germany

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Abstract:'Whereas'there'is'a'huge'public'discourse'on'pension're) forms'in'an'ageing'society,'we'know'little'about'individuals’'views' on'this'topic.'I'conduct'an'analysis'of'what'people'think'about'the' pension'system'and'pension'reforms'in'an'ageing'society.'I'analyze' qualitative'data'of'12'focus'groups'and'12'in)depth'interviews'con) ducted' in' Germany' (2009)2011)' that' were' stratified' by' education' and'age.'Both'characteristics'matter'as'they'are'standard'explana) tory'factors'for'welfare'state'attitudes'and'I'thus'expect'to'capture' a'wide'heterogeneity'of'attitudes.'Additionally,'age'is'important'as' it' determines' the' membership' to' a' certain' generation' that' gains' similar' experiences' with' regard' to' the' pension' system' in' certain' demographic' settings.' The' thematic' analysis' of' verbal' statements' gives'a'good'picture'of'how'individuals'perceive'the'pension'system' and'its'current'reforms'in'the'context'of'an'ageing'society.'

In' contrast' to' the' meagre' findings' from' quantitative' survey' re) search,' the' qualitative' study' yields' a' multitude' of' highly' relevant' opinions'that'occupy'individuals.'The'data'analysis'yields'for'exam) ple' the' following:' (1)' Individuals' regard' their' contributions' to' the'

German' public' pay)as)you)go' pension' system' as' personal' savings.'

As' a' result,' they' uttered' expectations' of' pension' entitlement' and' judged'pension'cutbacks'as'hurting'the'norm'of'equity.'This'could' cause'problems'in'case'of'pension'retrenchment'in'a'society'with'a' shrinking'size'of'the'contributors’'group'size.'(2)'Young'individuals,' though'being'well'informed'about'the'importance'of'a'private'pen) sion' insurance' for' their' generation,' perseveringly' ignored' to' con) clude'such'an'insurance'themselves'due'to'their'general'perceived' insecurity' resulting' from' welfare' state' reforms,' rising' public' debt' and' societal' changes.' (3)' Individuals' perceived' a' new' conflict' be) tween'future'pensioners,'namely'between'those'who'could'afford' private'pensions'insurance'and'those'who'could'not'afford'such'a' private' provision' life' phase' of' work.' (4)' Young' and' middle)aged' individuals' that' could' not' afford' a' private' pension' insurance' ut) tered'feelings'of'disappointment'and'frustration.'In'their'view,'the' state' abdicates' from' its' responsibility' for' the' poor' in' society.' The'

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Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

6' paper'discusses'the'implications'of'the'qualitative'findings'for'the'

German'pension'system'and'its'legitimacy.'It'concludes'by'present) ing'inductive'theses'that'can'be'tested'in'quantitative'studies.'

THE!POLITICAL!PARTICIPATION!OF!THE!ELDERLY!

PEOPLE!IN!THE!CZECH!REPUBLIC!

Marcela'Petrová'Kafková

'1*

,'Lucie'Vidovićová

'2

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1

Fakulty'of'Social'Studies,'

Czech'Republic'

2

IVRIS'FSS,'MASARYK'UNIVERSITY,'Brno,'

Abstract:'The'stereotyped'view'of'elderly'people'as'politically'pas) sive'persons'not'participating'in'the'public'sphere'has'been'rebut) ted'by'many'researches'in'post)industrial'countries.'On'the'contra) ry,'it'is'becoming'apparent'that'elderly'people'are'highly'politically' active,'especially'in'those'forms'which'do'not'require'any'high'ac) tivity.'Classical'examples'are'high'election'turnout'and'party'mem) bership.'The'high'election'turnout'of'elderly'people'is'visible'in'the'

Czech'Republic'nowadays.'This'could'not'be'seen'at'the'beginning' of' the' 90s' because' the' launching' of' country' transformation' to) wards' the' democratic' system' was' accompanied' by' exceptionally' high' public' interest' in' political' affairs.' The' election' turnout' in' the' first'free'parliamentary'election'in'1990'was'97%.'The'next'devel) opment'has'brought'phenomena'known'from'west'European'coun) tries'–'decline'of'election'turnout'in'the'political'field'and'the'se) cond' demographic' transition' with' extensive' population' ageing' in' the'demographic'field.'Elderly'people'have'become'a'group'that'is' highly'interested'in'political'affairs'and'is'watching'political'issues'in' mass'media'most'intensively.'

My'paper'is'based'on'a'data'analysis'from'European/Values/Study/

(EVS)'which'surveyed'data'in'the'Czech'Republic'in'1991,'1999'and'

2008.'Due'to'the'longitudinal'nature'of'the'data'not'only'the'cur) rent' political' participation' of' elderly' people' has' been' researched' but'mainly'their'development'and'changes'in'the'past'two'decades.'

I' focused' not' only' on' differences' between' elderly' people’s' and' young' people’s' participation' but' also' the' disputability' of' the' gen) eral'image'of'elderly'people'as'a'source'of'votes'for'left)wing'par) ties.'

CIVIC!ENGAGEMENT!OF!OLDER!PEOPLE!IN!RUSSIA!

Timur'Zulkarnaev

1'

1

HIGHER' SCHOOL' OF' ECONOMICS' MOSCOW,' Moscow,' Russian'

Federation

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Abstract:' The' number' of' older' people' is' growing' very' fast.' The' number'of'Russians'aged'60)64'increased'in'2040'by'60%'and'over'

80'years')'more'than'120%[1].'Today'we'can'see,'that'the'role'and' participation' of' older' people' in' various' organizations' and' social' movements'through'which'they'can'convey'to'the'public'their'posi) tions'are'increasing.'But'this'situation'is'typical'only'for'West'coun) tries,'but'not'for'Russia.'The'image'of'ageing'in'Russia'is'negative.'It' is'believed'that'when'a'person'reaches'old'age'(or'having'retired)' he'lives'out'his'years,'not'realizing'that'life'can'start'in'this'period.'

So'older'people'are'below'the'public'life.'That'is'why'the'problem' of'civic'engagement'of'older'people'requires'extensive'research.'

There'are'two'main'purposes:'

1.' To' study' how' the' civic' engagement' is' developed' in' Russia' and' abroad.'

Abstract'Book'

2.'To'see'what'can'be'useful'in'foreign'experience,'and'how'it'can' be'applied'in'Russia.'

According'to'these'objectives'there'are'three'aims'of'the'research:' a)How'is'the'inclusion'of'senior'citizens'realized'in'the'discussion'of' political,'social'programs?' c)' How' are' the' older' people' involved' in' self)government' at' the' local'level?'

Older'people'in'Russia'connect'most'of'their'problems'not'with'the' material' well)being' (45%),' but' with' the' psychological' moments'

(55%)[2].' About' 40%' of' interviewed' older' Russian' people' have' a' proactive' stance' and' participate' in' several' organizations.[3]' Not' only' NGO’s' but' also' state' authorities' declare' that' the' Western'

(mostly' Scandinavian)' system' of' working' with' the' elderly' is' the' best.'

1.'Civic'participation'of'the'elderly'in'Russia'is'at'a'low'level.'

2.' There' is' a' potential' for' the' development' of' the' civic' participa) tion,'which'is'incorporated'in'the'pensioners'themselves,'because' they'become'more'active.'

3.' Some' useful' experience' is' accumulated' in' Western' countries,' which' can' be' successfully' adapted' in' Russia' (volunteering,' older' people'as'consultants'and'other)'

[1]The' project' «Creating' the' conditions' of' realizing' the' social' po) tential'of'senior'citizens'at'the'municipal'level»'HSE.'

[2]The'results'of'the'interviews'with'the'representatives'of'organi) zations'specializing'in'working'with'older'people.'

[3]Based'on'the'depth'interviews'with'the'older'people'in'several'

Russian'countries.'

INTERGENERATIONAL!RELATIONSHIPS!OF!ELDERLY!

RUSSIANGSPEAKING!MIGRANTS!–!AN!ISRAELIG

GERMAN!COMPARISON!

Sharon'Shiovitz)Ezra

'1

,'Claudia'Vogel

'2*

'

1

The'Hebrew'University'of'Jerusalem,'Jerusalem,'Israel,' of'Vechta,'Vechta,'Germany

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2

University'

Abstract:'In'modern'ageing'societies,'families'face'new'challenges' regarding'care'for'the'growing'elderly'population'and'exchange'of' support'between'generations.'Although'migrant'families'in'ageing' societies'generally'face'the'same'challenges'regarding'the'provision' for'old'age,'very'little'is'known'about'their'ageing'and'familial'ex) change'processes'in'the'countries'of'destination.'

We'study'the'familial'exchange'of'resources'and'the'development' of' intergenerational' relationships' in' migrant' families.' Specifically' we' investigate' the' structure' and' the' development' of' the' social' networks' that' are' available' to' them' in' case' of' need' and' the' ex) change'of'help'within'their'families.'

We' focus' on' one' country' of' origin' and' two' destinations,' because'

Russian)speaking'migrants'are'one'of'the'largest'immigrant'popula) tion' groups' in' both' German' and' Israeli' societies.' In' Germany' not' much'is'known'about'the'life'of'these'migrant'families,'their'family' structures,'employment'history,'housing'and'health'situation'–'and' least' is' known' about' the' ageing' and' the' elderly' among' them.' In'

Israel,'on'the'contrary,'migration'has'been'in'the'focus'of'geronto) logical'research'already'at'the'edge'of'the'21 th

'century.'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

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With'the'Israeli'data'from'2010'of'the'Survey'of'Health,'Ageing'and'

Retirement' in' Europe' (SHARE)' –' a' representative' analysis' of' the' intergenerational' relations' within' families' of' Russian)speaking' mi) grants' is' possible.' A' different' research' strategy' however' is' neces) sary' for' the' analysis' of' intergenerational' exchange' among' elderly' migrants'in'Germany.'Consequently'we'will'conduct'a'supplemen) tary'survey'among'Russian'migrant'families'in'selected'counties'of'

Lower'Saxony'based'on'about'500'telephone'interviews.'

We'expect'to'find'some'similarities'among'Russian'migrants'in'both' countries'of'destination'with'some'differences'that'are'mainly'due' to'cultural'norms'and'welfare'arrangements.'

OLDER!IMMIGRANTS!AND!SOCIAL!INEQUALITIES:!

STATE!OF!THE!ART,!ARISING!QUESTIONS!AND!

METHODOLOGICAL!CHALLENGES!

Claudio'Bolzman

'1

,'Etienne'Christe

'1

,'Laure'Kaeser

'1

,'Ülkü'Dagli

1'

1

GRADUATE' SCHOOL' OF' SOCIAL' WORK,' UNIVERSITY' OF' APPLIED'

SCIENCES'WESTERN'SWITZERLAND,'Geneva,'Switzerland

'

Abstract:'Various'papers'published'in'Switzerland'and'elsewhere'in'

Europe'have'highlighted'an'improvement'in'the'living'conditions'of' new'cohorts'reaching'retirement'age.'However,'these'findings'con) cerning' an' improvement' in' the' living' conditions' of' older' people' were' not,' for' reasons' of' cost' and' language' difficulties,' based' on' samples'that'were'sufficiently'large'or'representative'of'the'popu) lation'of'former'immigrant'workers!who'reach'retirement'age'and! have' to' face' up' to' the' problems' of' ageing.' These' people,' who' mostly'came'from'countries'of'southern'and'eastern'Europe'as'well' as'countries'of'the'developing'world,'nevertheless'make'up'a'signif) icant' fraction' of' the' working' class' in' the' countries' of' central' and' northern'Europe,'having'been'recruited'for'the'most'part'between' the'1950s'and'the'early'1970s'to'do'low)skilled'jobs.'The'result'is' that' studies' on' ageing' in' European' societies' largely' fail' to' reflect' the'situation'of'a'significant'part'of'the'older'working)class'popula) tion.'

On'the'other'hand,'there'are'already'some'specific'studies'on'the' relationship'between'age'and'migration.'These'local'studies'show' that' older' migrants' have' specific' life' trajectories,' conditions' and' level' of' well' being' compared' to' the' general' population.' This' sug) gests' that' they' may' have' special' needs' and' will' have' to' require' particular' resources' to' face' old' age.' This' paper' will' underline' the' main'results'that'arise'from'an'overview'of'the'international'scien) tific'literature'and'will'present'a'methodological'strategy'elaborat) ed' to' compare' the' situation' of' older' immigrants' and' Swiss' born' within' the' framework' of' a' Sinergia' project' financed' by' the' Swiss'

National'Scientific'Foundation.'

RELIGION!AND!WELLGBEING!OF!FINNISH!OLDER!

ADULTS!IN!COSTA!DEL!SOL,!SPAIN!

Jenni'Anna)Liisa'Spännäri

'1

,'Antti'Karisto

1'

1

UNIVERSITY'OF'HELSINKI,'Helsinki,'Finland

'

Abstract:' The' debate' on' “ageing' well”' has' in' the' recent' years' ex) tended' it’s' scope' towards' values,' morality' and' spirituality' –' ele) ments'traditionally'sustained'by'and'interlocked'with'religion.'This' paper'takes'a'multi)dimensional'approach'both'to'ageing'well'and' religion'in'the'lives'of'older'adults.'

7'

The' study' is' based' on' qualitative' data' (texts' and' interviews)' and' quantitative' data' (a' questionnaire' survey)' of' Finnish' older' adults' residing' in,' during' the' winter' season' or' otherwise,' or' frequently' visiting' the' Spanish' Costa' del' Sol.' The' Finnish' pensioners' in' Spain' form'an'interesting'winterbird'community,'with'a'great'geograph) ical' distance' but' mental' proximity' to' the' country' of' provenance,' and'with'religious'organizations'at'the'hub'of'social'life.'A'specific' feature'is'also'the'abundance'of'engagement'with'religious'activi) ties'among'persons'considering'themselves'none'too'religious.'

The'data'demonstrates'that'spirituality,'religious'activities'and'reli) gious'communities'play'various'roles'in'the'social'and'personal'lives' of'older'adults,'and'that'religion'in'its'multiple'forms'can'support' well)being'in'older'age'via'various'dimensions'of'good'ageing.'This' paper'aims'to'point'out'the'factors'contributing'to'this'phenome) non,' to' identify' the' processes' where' these' factors' promote' good' ageing' and' to' suggest' ways' to' support' these' processes' in' other' communities.'Also'the'future'of'religion'as'an'element'of'well)being' for'the'older'adults'is'discussed.'

THE!SIGNIFICANCE!OF!ETHNICITY!IN!PENSIONS:!A!

QUANTITATIVE!OVERVIEW!

Orla'Gough

'1

,'Anita'Sharma

'1

,'Roberta'Adami

'1

,'Andrea'Carosi

'2

'

1

WESTMINSTER' BUSINESS' SCHOOL,' London,' United' Kingdom,'

2

University'of'Bologna,'Bologna,'Italy

'

Abstract:' The' research' provides' an' overview' of' the' variation' in' employment' patterns,' pension' participation' and' poverty' levels' at' retirement'between'the'white'majority'and'ethnic'minorities'in'the'

UK'and'highlights'differences'between'the'various'ethnic'minority' groups.' Using' data' from' the' Family' Resources' Survey' (FRS)' from'

1997' to' 2007' we' show' the' differences' that' still' exist' in' terms' of' employment' status,' income,' pension' contributions' and' pension' benefits'between'ethnic'minorities'and'the'white'majority.'We'use' socio)economic' and' demographic' variables' such' as' age,' gender,' income,'education'and'family'background'as'indicators'of'an'indi) vidual’s'future'retirement'income.'Our'analysis'spans'across'differ) ent'age'groups'including'those'in'the'early'stages'of'their'working' life' as' well' as' those' aged' 65+' who' are' already' in' retirement.' We' show' how' disadvantage' in' the' labour' market' affects' retirement' prospects'of'ethnic'minorities'and'often'leads'to'poverty'in'old'age.'

By'comparing'the'first'generation'of'immigrants'to'Britain'with'the' younger' second' generation' in' terms' of' employment,' income' and' pension' contributions,' we' provide' an' insight' into' the' current' and' future' attitudes' to' retirement' planning' among' ethnic' minority' groups.'

TRANSBORDER!IDEALS!OF!CARE:!ELDERLY!TURKISHG

BORN!MIGRANTS!IN!SWEDEN!

Öncel'Naldemirci

1'

1

Department' of' Sociology,' UNIVERSITY' OF' GOTHENBURG,' Göte) borg,'Sweden

'

Abstract:' The' number' of' elderly' migrants' in' Europe' is' increasing.'

Many'early)in)life'immigrants'prefer'staying'in'the'host'country'due' to' the' social' and' economic' rights' that' they' gained' and' for' family' and' kinship' networks,' some' shuttle' between' the' host' and' origin' country.' Care' facilities' and' networks' in' both' countries' are' signifi) cant' in' this' mobility.' On' the' other' hand,' care' for' old' migrants' in' their'frail'age'is'considered'to'embody'the'paradox'of'multicultural'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

8' policies'and'the'tension'between'universal'right'to'receive'care'and' culturally'informed'ideals,'norms'and'practices.'In'the'example'of' elderly' care,' certain' cultural' patterns' are' demanded' as' an' im) portant' component' of' care' giving' and' receiving.' Nevertheless,' there'are'also'significant'divergences'from'cultural'norms,'depend) ing'on'different'biographies'and'contexts'in'which'care'encounters' happen.' In' this' paper' I' argue' that' transborder' citizens' live' also' across'the'borders'of'countries'in'terms'of'their'imagination,'aspi) ration' and' deployment' of' care' relations' and' resources.' They' con) coct' their' imagination' about' care' through' different' identifications' and'encountering'different'ideals'and'practices.'Following'an'ongo) ing'ethnographic'research'with'Turkish)born'elderly'in'Sweden,'this' paper'aims'to'describe'and'discuss'particular'stories'of'frail'old'age' which'are'anchored'in'the'context'of'migration'and'to'add'another' significant'layer'into'the'complexity'of'care.'

AGING!AND!THE!OLD!AGE!IN!THE!CONTEXT!OF!

CHANGING!CITIES!

Dana'Sykorova

1'

1

Department' of' Social' Sciences,' FACULTY' OF' SOCIAL' STUDIES,'

UNIVERSITY'OF'OSTRAVA,'Ostrava,'Czech'Republic

'

Abstract:'The'paper'aims'at'opening'debate'about'the'specific'as) pects'of'aging'and'old'age,'especially'focusing'on'the'examination' of' the' relationship' between' old' age,' resp.' seniors' and' the' urban' environment.'It'covers'the'issues'that'are'currently'not'at'the'cen) ter'of'attention'of'the'(Czech)'gerontosociology'research.'

The' author' tries' to' dispute' the' generally' persisting' tendency' to' characterize' the' cities' as' areas' that' are' unsuitable' and' hazardous' for'the'´aging'in'place´'as'well'as'the'tendency'to'interpret'the'con) sequences' of' the' urban' development' processes' in' terms' of' social' exclusion.' Therefore' she' brings' the' question' whether' the' actual' lived'experience'of'aging'and'old'age'in'the'city'corresponds'with' the'generally'accepted'notion.'

The'research'has'been'carried'out'as'a'part'of'the'project'´Ageing'in' the'Environment:'Regeneration,'Gentrification'and'Social'Exclusion' as' New' Issues' in' Environmental' Gerontology´' supported' by' the'

Grant'Agency'of'the'Czech'Republic'(No.'P404/10/1555).'The'rele) vant' data' have' been' collected' by' the' methods' of' focused' groups' and'semi)structured'interviews.'

The'presented'results'of'the'qualitative'data'analysis'are'indicating' that'the'picture'of'everyday'life'of'the'elderly'inhabitants'in'urban' areas'as'well'as'their'strategies'of'coping'with'the'possible'negative' impacts' of' the' urban' changes' on' their' quality' of' life' seem' to' be' rather'plastic'and'multidimensional.'

AGEING!SINGLE!MEN!IN!RURAL!AREAS!

Magnus'Nilsson

1'

1

KARLSTAD'UNIVERSITY,'Karlstad,'Sweden

'

Abstract:' The' rural' context' has' consequences' for' the' ways' that' gender' structures' the' lives' of' people' throughout' the' life' course,' both'materially'and'socially.'Norms'of'masculinity'remains'strong'in' rural'areas'and'there'is'less'room'for'deviations'than'in'urban'are) as.'This'is'not'least'connected'to'the'scarcity'of'meeting'places,'and' above'all'to'that'of'alternative'spaces.'Men'in'rural'areas'who'have' remained'unmarried'throughout'their'lives'and'live'without'a'part) ner'tend'to'live'in'the'areas'where'they'were'born.'The'identity'and'

Abstract'Book' ways'of'living'of'unmarried'men'is'often'tied'to'the'places'where' they'live,'but'it'is'also'connected'to'notions'of'heterosexuality'and' couplehood.' In' this' paper' I' will' explore' the' ways' that' unmarried' and'childless'older'men'talk'about'relationships'and'childlessness'in' relation' to' norms' of' masculinity' and' heterosexuality,' notions' of' ageing,'growing'old'and'approaching'death.'

NATIVE!MINORITY!LANGUAGE!AS!RESOURCE!OF!

EVERY!DAY!LIFE!IN!OLD!AGE!IN!TORNE!VALLEY,!NORTH!

SWEDEN!

Tarja'Tellervo'Tapio

1'

1

Health' care' and' social' services,' UNIVERSITY' OF' APPLIED' SCIENCE'

OF'KEMI)TORNIO,'Kemi,'Finland

'

Abstract:' Only' the' members' of' the' oldest' generations' are' still' speaking'the'native'Meänkieli,'a'recognised'minority'language'spo) ken' in' villages' in' Torne' Valley,' North' Sweden.' Using' their' native' language'separates'them'from'wider'Swedish)speaking'society'and' members'of'the'younger'generations'that'speak'only'Swedish.'Ad) ditionally'Meänkieli'is'a'spoken'language'and'people'cannot'write' or'read'in'it,'even'though'they'speak'it'on'a'daily'basis.'Despite'this,' it'is'a'crucial'resource'for'the'everyday'life'of'the'oldest'Meänkieli) speaking'generations.'The'importance'of'using'the'native'language' is'not'only'a'question'of'communication'and'speaking:'it'also'rein) forces'agency'and'provides'continuity.'In'my'paper'I'will'focus'on' the'way'native'language'in'Torne'Valley'emerges'as'a'resource'for' the'oldest'generation'belonging'to'an'ethnic'and'national'minority,'

tornionlaaksolaiset.The'research'took'place'in'a'small,'rural'village' of'less'than'140'residents'in'Torne'Valley,'near'the'Arctic'Circle.'A' group' of' seven' native' speakers,' aged' between' 65' and' 75,' partici) pated'in'the'research'process.'Storytelling'was'used'as'a'research' method'and'the'stories'were'recorded'in'the'village'in'2005.Telling' stories' in' Meänkieli' is' a' way' of' articulating' ethnic' identity' and' knowledge'based'on'the'traditional'way'of'life'in'Torne'Valley.'I'will' illustrate'the'way'native'language'forms'a'resource'for'the'daily'life' of'the'oldest'local'generation.'I'will'also'explain'the'research'pro) cess' in' which' native)language' storytelling' was' used' as' a' research' method.' The' paper' is' based' on' my' doctoral' thesis,' published' re) cently'at'the'University'of'Jyväskylä,'Finland.'

RETIREMENT!–!NOT!NECESSARILY!A!FAREWELL!TO!

YOUR!WORKPLACE!

Anne'Inga'Hilsen

'1

,'Robert'Salomon

1'

1

WORK'RESEARCH'INSTITUTE,'Oslo,'Norway

'

Abstract:' Due' to' financial' and' demographic' reasons,' many' coun) tries' are' trying' to' increase' the' actual' retirement' age.' Pension' re) forms'are'taking'place'in'countries'as'France,'Greece'and'the'UK.'

Norway'has'recently'introduced'a'new'pension'reform'from'Janu) ary' 1st' 2011' to' encourage' longer' work' life' careers.' The' reform' is' flexible'in'the'sense'that'people'can'retire'at'the'age'of'62'with'a' modest' pension.' Their' pension' rights' will' then' improve' for' every' year'they'work'beyond'62'years'to'75'years.'

These'reforms'may'lead'to'a'variety'of'options'on'life/work'balance' choices'at'the'later'stages'of'working'life.'Based'on'earlier'studies' by'Walker'and'Taylor'and'our'own'studies'we'have'identified'three' overlapping' phases' of' good' managerial' practices' and' worker' re) sponses'affecting'the'employment'of'older'workers.'We'developed' an'analytical'model'(“a'three'phase'perspective'on'senior'policies”)'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' of' organisational' orientations' towards' older' workers.' This' paper' will'focus'on'a'possible'fourth'phase'at'the'end'of'the'working'ca) reer'as'well'as'the'transition'from'work'to'retirement.'The'fourth' phase'consists'of'both'an'economic'and'a'social'link'between'em) ployer'and'employee.'

Our'contribution'will'be'based'on'empirical'data'from'a'Norwegian' case'study'of'nine'separate'workplaces.'The'nine'cases'include'the' state'sector,'municipalities'and'private'companies.'The'researchers' interviewed' managers,' employees,' and' pensioners' from' the' case' enterprises' as' well' as' the' unions' in' each' of' the' cases,' using' both' individual'qualitative'interviews'and'focus'groups.'

The' paper' will' present' a' comparative' study' of' the' economic' link,' demonstrating'how'pensioners'and'management'enter'into'certain' flexible'and'(often)'short'term'paid'assignments'in'the'cases.'Fur) thermore,' the' paper' will' examine' some' cases' of' social' links' be) tween' pensioners' and' their' previous' workplaces,' and' how' they' function'and'are'assessed'by'the'pensioners'and'management.'We' will'also'discuss'how'established'links'may'be'threatened'by'mer) gers' and' restructuring' processes.' Finally,' we' will' analyze' how' the' economic'and'social'links'are'functioning'together,'especially'illus) trated'by'observations'on'flexible'symbiosis'between'a'hotel,'local' workers'and'the'whole'community.'

The'paper'will'contribute'to'further'development'of'action'theories' concerning'policies'for'older'workers.'

WISDOM!AND!SOCIAL!UNCERTAINTY:!LEARNING!

FROM!OLDER!PEOPLE!

Ricca'Edmondson

1'

1

School' of' Political' Science' and' Sociology,' NATIONAL' UNIVERSITY'

OF'IRELAND'GALWAY,'Galway,'Ireland

'

Abstract:' From' the' earliest' discussions' of' wisdom' onwards,' this' trait' (or' set' of' practices' or' abilities)' has' been' associated' with' the' capacity' to' tolerate' the' uncertainty' and' contingency' of' human' circumstances,' both' personal' and' public' or' political.' The' paper' begins'by'interrogating'some'standard'debates'on'wisdom'as'well' as'examples'of'‘wise’'older'people'in'historical'and'contemporary' literature,'in'an'attempt'to'become'clearer'about'what'this'capacity' is'thought'to'entail.'It'uses'these'debates'and'examples'to'contrast' the'structure'of'wise'arguing,'which'characteristically'begins'from' premises'which'acknowledge'uncertainty'in'a'number'of'ways,'with' personal'and'public'interactions'which'attempt'to'respond'to'con) ditions' of' uncertainty.' There' are,' it' suggests,' a' range' of' ways' in' which' ‘wisdom’' classically' promises' to' offer' resources' here.' It' ex) plores'some'interrelations'between'them'and'shows'how'they'are' reflected'in'contemporary'ethnographic'evidence.'

The' paper' distinguishes' between' conditions' of' uncertainty' which' characteristically'hold'sway'in'different'ways'in'different'life'stages,' and'conditions'of'uncertainty'which'are'perceived'as'holding'sway' across'entire'societies'and'generations'(though'the'equality'of'their' distribution'is'disputed).'Can'we'acquire'evidence,'from'documen) tary' sources' or' from' ethnographic' interviews,' that' casts' light' on' how' the' development' of' wisdom' or' wise' practices' supports' indi) viduals,'families'or'other'groups'in'dealing'with'the'potentially'un) dermining'effects'of'different'sources'of'social'uncertainty?'

Lastly,'older'age'itself,'in'most'contemporary'versions'of'its'social' construction,'poses'specific'challenges'to'the'imaginative'negotia) tion'of'human'lifetime.'The'paper'therefore'tries'to'become'clearer' about'whether'responses'to'uncertainty'associated'with'‘wisdom’'

9' offer'support'in'predicaments'related'to'these'challenges'in'partic) ular.'

A!TASTE!OF!WHAT’S!TO!COME:!CHANGES!IN!

INDIVIDUAL!EXPECTATIONS!ON!AGEING!AND!LATER!

LIFE!IN!TIMES!OF!WELFARE!STATE!REFORMS!AND!

ECONOMIC!CRISES!

Andreas'Motel)Klingebiel

'1

,'Julia'Simonson

1'

1

GERMAN'CENTRE'OF'GERONTOLOGY,'Berlin,'Germany

'

Abstract:'Resources,'needs'and'evaluations'are'dimensions'of'qual) ity'of'life'and'pre)conditions'for'autonomy'and'life'planning.'Projec) tions' of' older' people’s' future' living' standards' in' Europe' predict' declining' levels' and' increasing' inequality' due' to' pension' reforms' and' changing' employment' patterns.' Effects' of' ongoing' economic' crises' need' also' to' be' considered' as' well' as' changing' needs,' ex) penditures'and'values'of'older'people.'

Recent' data' from' the' German' Ageing' Survey' (DEAS)' demonstrate' stable'socio)economic'resources'and'increasing'inequalities'among' retirees.' The' most' important' trend' over' time' is' a' remarkable' in) crease'in'concerns'about'future'living'standards'which'is'very'signif) icant'from'a'social'policy'as'well'as'from'a'gerontological'perspec) tive.'Based'on'this'data,'the'presentation'calls'for'its'sources'and' conclusions' to' be' drawn.' It' presents' descriptive' information' and' results' from' multi)level' modelling.' It' heightens' awareness' of' changes'in'later'life'due'to'reforms'and'crises'and'will'contribute'to' a'wider'understanding'of'multi)level'interactions'between'individu) al'resources,'evaluations'and'societal'development.'

The'DEAS'is'an'enduring'representative'cross)sectional'and'longitu) dinal'survey'of'those'aged'over'40'(n=8.200'in'2008)'in'Germany,' funded' by' the' Federal' Ministry' for' Family' Affairs,' Senior' Citizens,'

Women'and'Youth'(BMFSFJ).'

Three'hypotheses'–'a)'hypothesis'of'social'structure'effects,'b)'hy) pothesis'of'cohort'change'of'later'life,'c)'hypothesis'of'differentia) tion'of'inequality'patterns'–'are'tested'and'mostly'supported'by'the' study.' Analyses' show' that' increasing' concerns' influence' the' indi) viduals''demands'for'welfare'state'intervention.'Concerns'interact' with'income'and'portfolio'structures'but'are'partly'independent'of' education' and' gender.' Moreover,' differences' between' regions' mirror'context'effects.'

EXTENDING!THE!EMPIRICAL!BASIS!FOR!WEALTH!

INEQUALITY!RESEARCH!USING!STATISTICAL!

MATCHING!OF!ADMINISTRATIVE!AND!SURVEY!DATA!

Anika'Rasner

'1

,'Joachim'R.'Frick

'1

,'Markus'M.'Grabka

1'

1

Socio)Economic'Panel,'DIW'Berlin,'Berlin,'Germany

'

Abstract:' Social' security' entitlements' are' a' substantial' source' of' wealth' that' grows' in' importance' over' the' individual’s' lifecycle.'

Despite'its'quantitative'relevance,'social'security'wealth'has'been' thus'far'omitted'from'wealth'inequality'analyses.'In'Germany,'it'is' the'lack'of'adequate'micro'data'that'accounts'for'this'shortcoming.'

Using'population'representative'survey'data'from'the'German'So) cio)Economic' Panel' and' administrative' pension' records' from' the'

Statutory' Pension' Insurance,' the' authors' compare' four' statistical' matching' and' imputation' techniques' to' complement' survey' infor) mation'on'net'worth'with'social'security'wealth'(SSW)'information'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

10' from' the' administrative' records.' The' unique' properties' of' the' linked' data' allow' for' a' straight' control' of' the' quality' of' matches' under' each' technique.' Based' on' three' evaluation' criteria,' Ma=

halanobis/ distance/ matching/ performs' best.' Exploiting' the' ad) vantages'of'the'newly'assembled'data,'the'authors'include'SSW'in'a' wealth' inequality' analysis.' The' analysis' shows' to' what' extent' the' inclusion'of'social'security'wealth'affects'the'level'and'the'distribu) tion' of' individual' net' worth' as' well' as' overall' inequality.' The' pre) sent'value'of'pension'entitlements'(including'entitlements'from'the' statutory' pension' system' as' well' as' from' the' separate' system' for' civil' servants)' amounts' to' 5.6' trillion' Euros,' which' corresponds'to' an'average'of'78,500'Euros'per'person'–'thus'almost'doubling'the' level'of'net'worth.'Compared'to'results'based'on'net'worth'only,' inequality'of'our'amended'wealth'measure'is'about'25'percent'less.'

Moreover,' we' present' significant' differences' in' pension' entitle) ments'across'occupational'groups'with'civil'servants'gaining'most' from'the'inclusion'of'public'pension'wealth'in'the'extended'wealth' measure'and'self)employed'benefiting'the'least.'Overall,'our'results' provide'clear'indication'for'the'relevance'of'including'the'notional' wealth'held'in'pension'entitlements'providing'a'less'biased'picture' of'the'level'and'the'socio)economic'structure'of'wealth'in'Germa) ny.' Above' and' beyond' such' within)country' variation,' our' findings' may'also'be'most'relevant'for'comparative'analyses'across'welfare) regimes.'

INFLUENCING!POLICY!DEVELOPMENT!FOR!OLDER!

PEOPLE!IN!IRELAND:!IMPACT!OF!THE!RECESSION!

Aine'Ni'Leime

'1*

'

1

Irish' Centre' for' Social' Gerontology,' NATIONAL' UNIVERSITY' OF'

IRELAND,'GALWAY,'Galway,'Ireland

'

Abstract:' This' paper' considers' the' strategies' used' by' civil' society' organisations'(CSO’s)'representing'older'people'who'are'engaged'in' social' partnership' in' Ireland' in' achieving' their' goal' of' developing' policy'to'enhance'the'lives'of'older'people.'It'explores'the'impact' that' the' recession' has' had' on' their' level' and' manner' of' engage) ment' with' social' partnership' and' with' the' wider' political' system.'

Ireland'has'introduced'the'concept'of'the'Developmental'Welfare'

State'and'the'Life'Cycle'approach'to'social'policy'development'and' service'provision.'This'approach'places'the'individual'at'the'heart'of' policy' provision' and' development' and' acknowledges' that' people' may'encounter'particular'vulnerabilities'based'on'their'stage'of'the' life' cycle.' Certain' civil' society' organisations' have' been' given' an' opportunity'to'influence'policy'development'and'service'delivery'in'

Ireland'as'part'of'the'Community'and'Voluntary'Pillar'(CVP)'in'social' partnership.'The'CVP'is'one'of'five'pillars'(employers,'trade'unions,' farmers'and'the'environmental'grouping)'that'are'directly'consult) ed' regarding' policy' development' in' Ireland.' This' paper' considers' the'specific'institutional'environment'in'which'civil'society'organi) sations' representing' older' people' operate' and' the' level' of' re) sources' they' have' to' draw' upon;' it' draws' some' comparisons' be) tween'the'operation'of'civil'society'organisations'in'the'older'peo) ples’' stage' and' those' in' other' life' cycle' stages' (Children,' People' with'Disabilities'and'People'of'Working'Age).'

The'paper'is'based'on'a'study'that'consulted'all'seventeen'organi) sations'involved'in'the'Community'and'Voluntary'Pillar'using'a'Par) ticipatory'Action'Research'(PAR)'methodology.'The'advantages'and' challenges'of'using'this'methodology'will'be'discussed.'

The' paper' concludes' that' CSO’s' representing' older' people' in' Ire) land'are'potentially'significant'agents'for'policy'transformation'and'

Abstract'Book' for' the' protection' of' existing' rights' for' older' people.' However' as' might' be' predicted' by' a' political' economy' approach' to' ageing,' a' global'crisis'such'as'the'current'recession'can'have'severe'impacts' on' their' efficacy' and' highlights' the' need' for' strategic' adaptability' on'theiir'part.'

NORDIC!SOCIAL!SERVICE!STATES!IN!ELDER!CARE!

Minna'Zechner

'1

,'Lina'Van'Aerschot

'2

'

1

School'of'Health'Care'and'Social'Work,'SEINÄJOKI'UNIVERSITY'OF'

APPLIED' SCIENCES,' Seinäjoki,'

2

School' of' Social' Sciences' and' Hu) manities,'University'of'Tampere,'Tampere,'Finland

'

Abstract:'Nordic'welfare'states'have'been'referred'to'as'social'ser) vice' states,' meaning' that' a' great' part' of' the' public' support' is' of) fered'to'citizens'as'services'instead'of'insurance)based'social'secu) rity'systems'(Anttonen'1990).'This'paper'looks'firstly'at'the'idea'of' a'social'service'state'and,'secondly,'examines'with'the'help'of'in) ternational'and'national'statistics'whether'the'Nordic'countries'of'

Denmark,' Finland,' Norway' and' Sweden' can' be' defined' as' social' service'states'in'elder'care.'

Our' starting' point' is' that' the' core' values' of' the' Nordic' welfare' model'are'universalism,'solidarity'and'decommodification'(Esping)

Andersen'1990)'and'on'the'operational'level'social'services'are'the' key'element'of'the'Nordic'welfare'states'(Abrahamson'1997;'Sipilä'

1997;' Cox' 2004).' Thus' we' are' examining' the' social' services' and' especially'care'of'older'people'as'ageing'of'the'population'has'been' named'as'one'of'the'main'challenges'to'the'Nordic'welfare'states'

(Greve'2007;'Normann'et'al.'2009).'The'central'features'of'a'social' service'state'in'the'context'of'elder'care'are:'social'rights'attached' to'services,'all'social'classes'use'public'services,'services'are'offered' rather' than' cash' benefits,' low' service' fees,' little' private' spending' on'services,'majority'of'elder'care'is'formal'instead'of'informal'and' service'sector'is'an'important'employer'for'women.'Most'of'these' features'will'be'analyzed'in'our'conference'paper'by'using'statisti) cal'data'mainly'from'the'European'Union'(EU),'Nordic'Council'(NC)' and'the'Organisation'for'Economic'Co)operation'and'Development'

(OECD).'

REVISITING!THE!ROLE!OF!INFORMAL!CARERS!IN!

FAMILIALISM:!A!DISCUSSION!ON!RECENT!REFORMS!IN!

LONGGTERM!CARE!IN!PORTUGAL!

Alexandra'Lopes

1'

1

Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'PORTO,'Porto,'Portugal

'

Abstract:'The'recognition'of'the'importance'of'informal'care'but,'at' the'same'time,'of'the'present'and'future'challenges'that'it'faces,' has' led' many' countries' across' Europe' to' put' in' place' policies' to' support' informal' carers.' Recent' developments' in' long)term' care' reforms'have'been'reflecting'precisely'the'recognition'of'informal' carers' as' crucial' agents' in' the' global' picture' of' care' provision' to' older'people.'This'has'been'taking'place'under'different'forms:'by' providing'cash'benefits'to'carers,'by'recognizing'them'as'carers'or' by'providing'specific'services'to'assist'them'in'their'caring'tasks.'It' is' a' trend' that' has' been' taking' place' in' different' countries,' with' different' traditions' in' welfare' provision' mechanisms.' In' Portugal,' however,' that' has' not' been' the' dominant' element' in' recent' re) forms'in'the'long)term'care'system.'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

The' paper' will' discuss' recent' developments' in' long)term' care' re) forms'in'Portugal'and'show'how'those'remain'strongly'entrenched' in'the'core'principles'of'familialism,'with'a'particular'emphasis'on' the' relative' position' informal' carers' are' given' in' the' system.' Two' main'domains'of'policy'reforms'will'be'discussed:'the'implementa) tion'of'cash'benefits'to'improve'the'living'conditions'of'the'elderly;' the'implementation'of'a'national'long)term'care'network.'It'will'be' shown' that' policy' instruments' remain' biased' towards' the' elderly' themselves'and'do'not'acknowledge'informal'carers'as'an'object'of' social'policy.'This'characteristic'remains'truly'faithful'to'the'princi) ples' of' familialism' and' more' specifically' to' the' taken' for' granted' willingness'of'families,'and'women'in'particular'to'perform'the'role' the'system'assumes'they'should'perform.'The'paper'will'continue' showing' that' the' conditions' for' that' role' to' be' effectively' per) formed' are' changing' quite' rapidly' which' suggests' that' the' pres) sures'on'the'formal'care'system'will'increase.'

STRETCHED,!SQUEEZED!AND!OVERWHELMED:!USING!

PHOTOVOICE!TO!EXPLORE!THE!EXPERIENCES!OF!

FEMALE!MULTIGGENERATIONAL!CAREGIVERS!

Caroline'Julie'Moore

1'

1

Health' and' Social' Care,' THE' OPEN' UNIVERSITY,' Milton' Keynes,'

United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:' Demographic' trends' in' the' United' Kingdom' include' an' increasing' ageing' population,' changes' in' family' structures,' an' in) crease'in'women'in'paid'employment'and'an'increase'in'the'num) ber'of'young'adults'who'live'with'their'parents'(O.N.S.,'2008).'The) se'changes'mean'that'more'women'are'simultaneously'occupying' multiple' demanding' roles.' These' may' include' the' roles' of' wife,' partner,'mother,'grandmother,'employee'and'carer.'The'challeng) ing'demands'of'these'roles'may'not'only'affect'women’s'lifestyle,' personal'time,'career'development'and'financial'stability,'but'may' also'impact'on'their'health.'

Literature'concerning'the'experiences'of'female'multi)generational' carers' and' of' how' they' cope' with' their' situation' appears' to' be' sparse.'

Twenty' multi)generational' caregivers' were' recruited' for' interview' and'were'asked'to'take'photographs'of'images'which'they'felt'rep) resented' their' everyday' care)giving.' During' a' second' interview,' photographs' which' they' had' selected' were' used' as' discussion' prompts' (photovoice)' to' enable' them' to' reflect' and' discuss' their' experiences.' By' using' the' photovoice' method' these' multi) generational' caregivers' identified' situations,' places' and' objects' which'they'felt'were'significant'to'them'and'enriched'the'quality'of' their'every'day'care)giving'experiences.'

A' grounded' methodology' was' used' and' Maintaining/ Caregiver/

Equilibrium' emerged' as' the' core' category.' Related' concepts' that' underpinned'the'participants’'ability'to'cope'with'their'care)giving' situation' were' Intergenerational/ Ambivalence,/ Multi=generational/

Caregiver/ Satisfaction/ and' Health/ Effects./ Work/ and/ Faith/ were' found'to'be'key'coping'strategies'used'by'these'caregivers.'

This'research'may'inform'policy'makers'about'how'to'support'fe) male'multi)generational'caregivers'in'the'future,'providing'effective' relief'to'projected'care'burdens'in'these'situations.'

SUPPORTING!FRAIL!ELDERLY!AND!THEIR!FAMILIES:!

BEST!PRACTICES!IN!ITALY!

11'

Stefania'Giada'Meda

'1

,'Donatella'Bramanti

1'

1

Department'of'Sociology,'CATHOLIC'UNIVERSITY'OF'MILAN,'Mila) no,'Italy

'

Abstract:'The'study'analyses'best'practices'for'frail'elderly'and'their' families,'able'to'provide'qualified'answers'to'the'complex'needs'of' the'last'stage'of'life.'

The' recent' explosion' in' population' ageing' is' one' of' the' most' re) markable'demographic'changes'with'implications'for'governments,' economic'and'welfare'systems,'and'individuals.'Concern'over'con) sequences' of' ageing' on' family' relations' is' gaining' consent,' high) lighting'macro'morphogenetic'trends'such'as'generational'inequali) ties'and'vertical'deprivation;'the'onset'of'multigenerational'families' and'a'sandwich'generation.'

To'prevent'psycho)social'risks,'families'of'and'with'elder'frail'peo) ple'must'be'helped'to'face'stressful'events'of'the'family'life'cycle.'

Hence,'it'becomes'crucial'designing'and'implementing'policies'and' interventions' aiming' at' caring' for' elderly' in' a' family' friendly' per) spective.'

The'concept'of'best'practice'identifies'services'of'excellence'as'for' efficiency' and' efficacy' and' indicate,' according' to' a' relational' per) spective,'programs'promoting'the'we=relation'at'family'level,'which' is'the'family’s'capability'to'keep'on'generate'relational'goods.'In) deed,'each'stressful'event,'as'the'impairment'of'one'family'mem) ber,'defies'family'life'and'compels'the'subjects'to'act'some'reflexiv) ity'on'their'modus/vivendi.'

Best'practices'are'thus'measures'where'elders'and'families'partici) pate'in'the'process'of'coping'with'ageing)related'issues,'in'a'per) spective'supportive'of'the'kinship'networks’'coping'skills.'

The'paper'illustrates'findings'of'a'comparative'analysis'of'best'prac) tices' to' support' families' with' elderly' in' three' different' Italian' Re) gions:'Liguria'(North)West),'Lombardia'(North),'Sicilia'(South).'

Researchers'have'selected'8'best'practices'and'carried'out'in)depth' case'studies.'

The'study'highlighted'some'major'findings:'

•'Focus'is'on'the'elder,'his/her'family'and/or'other'caregivers;'

•' Localisation' in' the' community,' perceived' as' a' place' rich' in' re) sources' to' use' in' a' perspective' likely' to' trigger' community' devel) opment;'

•' Presence' of' social' partnerships' between' State' and' Third' Sector' organisations;'

•' Direct' involvement' of' families' as' beneficiaries,' and' suppliers' of' help;'

•'Sustainability,'both'at'cost'level'and'human'resources;'

•'High'satisfaction'expressed'by'all'the'involved'stakeholders.'

The' research' gives' indications' to' professionals' working' alongside' families'and'policy'makers.'

THE!IMPORTANCE!OF!A!STRONG!SOCIAL!NETWORK!

AND!OF!SATISFACTION!WITH!CARE!FOR!THE!

EMOTIONAL!WELLGBEING!OF!OLDER!PERSONS!LIVING!

AT!HOME!

Jonathan'Bennett

'1

,'Matthias'Riedel

'1

,'Robert'Fluder

1'

1

Social'Work,'BERN'UNIVERSITY'OF'APPLIED'SCIENCES,'Bern,'Swit) zerland

'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

12'

Abstract:'From'September'2009'to'January'2010,'712'persons'aged'

64)98'years'(M=81.9;'SD=6.2),'living'in'the'Swiss'cantons'of'Aargau,'

Bern' and' Zurich' were' interviewed' face)to)face' at' home' with' a' standardized'questionnaire.'The'sample'was'randomly'drawn'from' the' customers' of' a' Swiss' health' insurance' company.' Among' the' topics'covered'in'the'interview'were'the'following:'

•!perceived'need'and'use'of'formal'and'informal'home'care,'

•'perceived'lack'of'care,'

•'the'strength'of'respondents’'social'network'(number'of'relatives,' friends' and' neighbors' with' whom' they' related' regularly,' whom' they'could'ask'for'help'and'easily'discuss'private'matters;'Lubben' et'al.,'2006)'

•'general'as'well'as'psychological'well)being.'

Logistic'regression'analysis'revealed'that'the'strength'of'the'social' network' (OR=1.44;' p<.01)' and' non)satisfaction' with' received' care'

(OR=0.5;'p<.01)'were'the'most'important'predictors'of'general'life' satisfaction.'On'the'other'hand,'the'degree'of'dependence'in'activi) ties'of'daily'living,'the'amount'of'received'formal'and'informal'care' and'the'number'of'illnesses'treated'by'a'medical'doctor'in'the'past'

12'months'did'not'prove'to'have'any'significant'predictive'value.'

Results' were' largely' similar' concerning' psychological' well)being'

(Bullinger'&'Kirchberger,'1998).'However,'other'than'in'the'case'of' general'life)satisfaction,'the'number'of'illnesses'being'treated'by'a' medical' doctor' during' the' last' 12' months' did' have' a' significant' predictive'value'for'psychological'well)being.'

Our' findings' demonstrate' that' emotional' well)being' in' persons' living'at'home'is'possible'even'amid'strong'dependence'on'care.'An' important' prerequisite' is' the' existence' of' a' strong' social' network' allowing'for'the'seeking'of'help'and'the'discussion'of'private'mat) ters.'In'addition,'in'order'to'sustain'emotional'well)being,'persons' must' be' satisfied' with' the' care' they' receive.' Our' data' also' show' that'satisfaction'with'care'is'related'to'the'quality'of'relationships' to'important'informal'caregivers.'This'is'in'line'with'other'research' stressing'the'importance'for'emotional'well)being'of'the'quality'of' relationships' to' informal' caregivers' (Katz,' 2009;' Merz' &' Huxhold,'

2010).'

INFORMAL!ELDER!CARE!IN!THE!MODERNISATION!

PROCESS:!IMPACT!OF!SOCIAL!MILIEUS!IN!RUSSIA’S!

AND!GERMANY’S!WELFARE!REGIMES!

Irina'Siegel

1'

1

Institute'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'FREIBURG,'Freiburg,'Germa) ny

'

Abstract:' This' paper' builds' on' the' theoretical' framework' of' the' bilateral'pilot'project'studying'social'distributions'of'different'soli) darity' types' in' Russia' and' Germany' and' addresses' how' informal' elderly'care'is'anchored'in'the'social'structure'and'affected'by'wel) fare'regime.'

In' micro)sociological' perspective' we' believe' that' sociostructural' and' )cultural' resources' impact' decisions' of' intergenerational' soli) darity.'It'is'assumed'that'structure'of'actions'and'situations'of'in) formal' care' are' of' little' compatibility' with' preferences' typical' for'

"modern'concepts'of'life"'(Blinkert,'Klie'2004).'The'latter'are'meas) ured'as'attitudes'to'women’s'role.'At'the'macro)level'the'welfare' state’s'distributive'justice'and'elderly'care'policy'shape'intergener)

Abstract'Book' ational'solidarity,'wheres'at'the'meso)level'availability'and'usage'of' local'care'infrastructure'are'crucial.'

Demographic' change' paradigm' tackles' though' future' availability' and' ability' of' informal' carers' (Uhlenberg,' Cheuk' 2008;' Johnson'

2008)' but' not' their' motivations.' The' way' informal' care' changes' under' the' sociocultural' change' affecting' motivations' and' prefer) ences' is' in' the' focus' of' Freiburger’s' approach.' Informal' care' is' found'mainly'in'the'milieus'that'have'become'less'important'("mi) lieu' of' tradition)conscious' unprivileged' class")' and' is' particularly' seldom'observed'in'the'milieus'gaining'on'meaning'in'the'moderni) sation'process'("milieu'of'liberal'middle'class")'(Blinkert,'Klie'2004).'

Socioeconomic'status'was'found'to'be'decisive'for'filial'help'in'con) servative)corporatist' and' familistic' but' not' in' social)democratic' welfare' regimes' (Sarasa,' Billingsley' 2008).' Neither' differentiated' social' stratification' concepts' or' theoretical' explanations' were' ap) plied' to' studying' familial' caregiving' nor' was' Russian’s' welfare' re) gime'of'the'former)USSR'type'(Fenger'2007)'in'the'focus'of'previ) ous'cross)cultural'research'(Sundström,'et'al.'2008).'

We'utilise'data'of'two'samples'with'200)240'F2F'interviews'being' currently' collected' in' the' Russian' city' of' Samara' and' the' German' city'of'Freiburg.'Though'both'samples'are'not'representative'of'the' whole' Germany' or' Russia' they' allow' us' to' make' descriptive' be) tween)group' comparisons' in' each' country' and,' in' a' restricted' sense,'between'countries'and'thus'to'reveal'important'trends.'The' study'relies'on'the'well)proven'questionnaire'used'in'German'stud) ies' adopted' for' Russian' sociocultural' conditions' and' for' compara) tive'needs'by'harmonising'socioeconomic'variables.'

WHAT!IS!THE!BEST!CARE!FOR!DEPENDENT!ADULTS?!

NOT!COVERED!NEEDS!BY!TYPE!OF!CARE!IN!SPAIN!

Jesús'Rogero)García

'1

,'Karim'Ahmed)Mohamed

'2

'

1

Department'of'Sociology,'AUTONOMOUS'UNIVERSITY'OF'MADRID,'

2

Spanish'Sociological'Research'Center,'Madrid,'Spain

'

Abstract:'In'this'study'for'Spain,'not'covered'needs'of'dependent' adults' are' analyzed.' Four' types' of' dependent' adult' care' can' be' established' according' to' caregiver' identity:' unpaid' care,' private' care' (fully' funded' by' the' dependent' person' or/and' the' family),' public'care'and'care'from'non)profit'organizations.'Both'in'academ) ic' and' policy' making' spheres' there' is' a' burning' debate' about' the' most' appropriate' measures' to' promote' dependent' people' auton) omy'and'the'satisfaction'of'their'needs.'In'spite'of'its'importance,' there'are'few'studies'examining'to'what'extent'each'type'of'care' covers'the'needs'of'dependent'people.'The'aims'of'this'work'are:'

(1)'To'identify'what'type'of'care'achieves'the'highest'coverage'of' adult'dependent'needs,'and'(2)'to'identify'factors'influencing'high) er'coverage'of'needs'within'each'type'of'care.'This'study'is'based' on' a' sample' of' 4.782' dependent' adults' (>17' years' old)' whom' re) ported'receiving'care'in'the'Survey'on'Disability,'Personal'Autono) my'and'Dependency'Situations'2008'(National'Statistical'Institute).'

Statistical' analysis' included' characteristics' of' the' dependent' per) sons'and'households.'Logistic'regression'models'were'used'to'iden) tify'factors'related'to'the'non)coverage'of'needs.'Adults'receiving' only' private' care' had' a' higher' probability' of' having' their' needs' covered,' in' comparison' to' those' receiving' any' other' type' of' care.'

People' in' public' care' had' the' lowest' probability' of' having' their' needs'covered,'even'when'it'was'combined'with'family'care.'Cov) erage' probability' was' higher' among' dependent' adults' living' with' their'caregiver,'as'well'as'when'the'family'caregiver'did'not'have'a' paid' job.' These' data' highlight' significant' differences' in' terms' of'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' coverage'of'dependents'adult'needs,'and'provide'relevant'findings' for'policy'making.'

CARING!FOR!CARERS!OF!THE!ELDERLY!IN!SPAIN:!

CURRENT!FRAME!AND!EVALUATION!OF!

PROGRAMMES!

Alberto'Veira)Ramos

'1

,'Maria'Silveria'Agulló)Tomás

'1

Martín)Palomo

' 1

,'Rosana'Saiz)Villar

' 2

,'Esteban'Auglló

Sanchez)Barricarte

1'

,'Maria'Teresa'

' 2

,'Jesús'Javier'

1

Sociology,' Universidad' Carlos' III' de' Madrid,' Getafe,'

Univeridad'de'Oviedo,'Oviedo,'Spain

'

2

Psicology,'

Abstract:' Over' the' oncoming' decades' European' societies' will' be' facing'various'challenges'derived'from'demographic'ageing.'One'of' the'most'important'will'be'the'growth'of'the'number'of'dependent' people,' and' with' it,' the' increase' of' the' number' of' persons' who' devote'part'of'their'time'to'look'after'them'in'a'non)professional' fashion.'The'first'part'of'this'presentation'addresses'the'profile'of'

Spanish' informal' carers' contrasting' it' with' the' profiles' of' carers' from'other'European'countries,'describing'some'of'their'problems' around' this' experience.' This' was' done' by' using' information' from' the' 8' waves' of' the' European' Community' Household' Panel' data.'

The' second' part' describes' the' main' features' of' the' programmes' offered' in' Spain' by' public' institutions' and' from' NGO's' to' try' to' solve' some' of' these' problems' that' informal' caregivers' face.' They' are' training' programmes,' psychosocial' support,' therapies' and' so' on.'The'pathway'should'be'a'move'towards'the'quality'of'care'for' dependent'elderly'and'their'caregivers,'both'support'professionals' and'the'families.'Different'objectives'of'this'evaluation'research'are' achieved'from'a'combined'approach:'quantitative'techniques'(data' mining' and' electronic' survey)' and' qualitative' (in)depth' interviews' and'focus'groups'to'carers).'All'this'forms'the'basis'of'current're) search' entitled' "Caregivers' of' older' people:' situation' before' the'

Dependency'Act'and'evaluation'of'programmes'for'carers”'(2009)

2012),'funded'by'the'Ministry'of'Science'and'Innovation'(CSO2009)

10290,'under'the'Sixth'National'Research'Plan'R+D+i).'

ACTIVE!AGEING!AND!INTERGENERATION!

Maria'Ester'Vaz

1'

1

Industrial' Studies' and' Management' Higher' School,' OPORTO'

POLYTECHNICAL'INSTITUTE,'Vila'do'Conde,'Portugal

'

Abstract:'This'work'reflects'about'the'current'notion'of'active'aging' and' the' perspective' of' older' people' himself.' This' topic' has' been' discussed'worldwide,'namely'by'the'World'Health'Organization'and' the'United'Nations.'In'the'late'XX'century'there'was'a'commitment' to' defining' political' strategies' and' the' implementation' of' social' intervention'measures.'This'concern'sought'to'convey'a'new'image' of' old' age,' considering' it' as' a' social' category' and' culturally' con) structed.'

The' deepening' of' the' theme' in' this' study' followed' a' qualitative' methodological' approach' withinterviews,' highlighting' the' images' and'representations'that'older'people'have'regarding'old'age.'The' data'presented'were'collected'to'24'persons'with'the'age'fifty)five' years'old'or'more.'

The' respondents' experience' indicated' that' there' was' a' different' ways' in' the' process' of' aging.' The' evidence' is' the' extreme' im) portance'of'convivial'ways'in'old'age'especially'with'younger'peo)

13' ple.' The' study' shows' that' the' intergenerationality' is' seen' as' an' important' issue' for' old' people' in' the' sense' that' the' relations' are' promoters'of'active'aging'who'provide'a'mutual'aid'and'a'mutual' learning.'

DYADIC!RELATIONSHIP!BETWEEN!THIRD!AND!FOURTH!

AGE!AND!THE!DISCIPLINARY!PRACTICES!

SURROUNDING!AGEING!BODIES!

Jaroslava'Hasmanova'Marhankova

1'

1

Department' of' Sociology,' UNIVERSITY' OF' WEST' BOHEMIA,' Plzen,'

Czech'Republic

'

Abstract:'In'the'1990s'the'World'Health'Organization'adopted'the' term' active' ageing,' which' currently' represents' a' key' vision' of' old' age'in'the'western'societies'that'face'the'situation'of'demograph) ical' ageing.' The' imperative' of' activity' penetrates' gerontological' knowledge,'social'policy'and'social'work'and'is'a'crucial'component' of'the'disciplinary'discourse'surrounding'elderly'people.'The'paper' is' based' on' three)years' ethnographic' study' (participant' observa) tion,' 47' in)depth' interviews' with' clients' and' employees)' of' two' centres' in' the' Czech' Republic' that' offer' leisure' time' activities' for' seniors.'This'segment'of'seniors)oriented'social'services'represents' an' institutional' context' for' the' manifestation' of' the' discourse' of' active'ageing'and'strongly'refers'to'the'idea'of'third'age.'The'paper' highlights'the'role'of'third)fourth'age'distinction'for'the'construc) tion'of'social'position'in'the'centres.'The'clients'and'employees'of' the' centres' use' the' participation' in' the' activities' as' an' important' mechanism' of' group' identity' construction.' This' identity' is' at' the' same'time'constructed'in'strict'opposition'to'“other”'seniors'who' are' not' active.' The' active' lifestyle' embodied' in' the' idea' of' active' ageing'offers'a'positive'representation'of'ageing'that'has'become'a' significant'resource'of'self)esteem'for'the'clients'of'the'centres.'In' that' respect,' the' idea' of' active' ageing' represents' a' welcomed' change' in' the' ways' old' age' was' traditionally' constructed.' On' the' other' hand,' the' closed' connection' between' activity' and' old' age' epitomized' in' the' discourse' of' active' ageing' represented' by' the' centres' pose' a' new' set' of' demands' on' ageing' subjectivities' and' bodies.' Although' the' representations' of' fourth' age' are' missing' in' the' centres,' the' distinction' between' third' and' fourth' age' repre) sents'a'key'dimension'that'is'constantly'present'in'the'daily'running' of'the'centres.'The'boundary'between'superior'third'age'and'stig) matized'fourth'age'functions'as'a'form'of'disciplinary'practice'mo) bilized'contextually'by'various'agents.'This'paper'analyze'the'daily' practices'of'the'management'of'ageing'bodies'by'means'of'pene) trable'thin'boundary'between'third'and'fourth'age.'

IMAGINES!OF!THE!FUTURE!ABOUT!AGING,!WELLBEING!

AND!SOCIAL!AND!HEALTH!CARE!SERVICES!IN!2030!BY!

NORTHERN!FINLANDS!BABY!BOOMERS!

Maire'Hannele'Vuoti

'1

,'Arja'Isola

'1

,'Petri'Kinnunen

'2

'

1

Institute' of' Health' Sciences' Department' of' Nursing,' UNIVERSITY'

OF' OULU,' Oulu,'

2

Faculty' of' Social' Sciences,' University' of' Lapland,'

Rovaniemi,'Finland

'

Abstract:'In'the'future'there'are'more'people'who'live'into'old'age' than'at'any'time'in'past.'Population'ageing'is'seen'as'major'force' transforming'at'various'level'like'in'health'and'social'care'services' and'in'society'as'a'whole.'In'this'research,'respondents'are'Finnish'

Baby' Boomers' (BB)' who' were' born' between' 1945' and' 1950.' This'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

14' generation' was' exceptionally' large' and' that' kind' of' phenomenon' has'not'been'seen'before'or'after'in'Finnish'history.'This'generation' is'elderly'people'in'future'and'the'aim'of'this'research'is'to'describe' their'imagines'of'the'future'about'aging,'wellbeing'and'social)'and' healthcare'services.The'method'used'in'this'research'is'qualitative) ly' driven' mixed' methods.' Qualitatively' driven' approaches' mixed' methods' offer' great' potential' for' generating' new' ways' of' under) standing'the'visions'and'imagines'of'the'future'that'is'in'contexts'of' social'experience.'Qualitative'method'in'this'research'was'Method' of'Empathy)Based'Stories'(MEBS).'MEBS'in'this'research'produced' stories'about'the'future.'The'respondents'received'orientation'and' a'script'to'assist'them'in'writing'essays'or'stories'about'their'aging,' wellbeing'productive'factors'and'social'and'health'care'services'in' future.' Instructions' had' the' temporal' perspective' for' the' stories' focused' till' the' year' the' 2030.' The' stories' were' analyzed' qualita) tively'by'categorizing'the'responses'in'into'the'following'themes:'1.' aging' as' subjective' and' social' experience,' 2.' wellbeing' productive' factors'from'the'perspective'of'lifecontrol'and'environment,'and'3.' social'and'health'care'services'from'the'perspective'of'operational' environments'and'resources.Based'on'these'themes'questionnaire' was' build.' The' aim' was' to' investigate' BB´s' attitudes,' beliefs' and' feelings'toward'aging,'wellbeing'and'social'and'health'care'services' in' the' future.' Data' was' collected' from' Northern' Finland’s' 405' BB' and' analyzed' by' Principal' Component' Analysis,' K)Means' Cluster'

Analyze'and'Correspondence'Analyze.Findings'from'this'study'will' give' insights' on' BB' expectations' and' responses' to' societal' aging' and' contribute' to' the' new' vision' of' aging' and' wellbeing' and' BB' social'and'health'service'expenditures.'It'is'important'that'we'know' about'elderly'people’s'possibilities'and'limitations'as'it'appears'to' them'in'relation'to'their'own'agendas,'expectations'and'emotions' about'their'future.'Final'results'will'be'published'in'the'autumn'of'

2011.'

'THEY!PREFER!TO!STAY!AT!HOME':!THE!PORTRAYAL!OF!

ELDERLY!PEOPLE!IN!THE!DISCOURSE!ON!CARE!

Bernhard'Weicht

1'

1

University'of'Utrecht,'Utrecht,'Netherlands

'

Abstract:'Care'at'the'beginning'of'the'21st'century'can'be'charac) terised'by'a'discourse'on'the'difficulties'related'to'ageing'societies' in' combination' with' a' decline' of' traditional' family' structures.' The'

Austrian'arrangement'for'the'provision'of'care'for'elderly'people'is' largely'based'on'informal'settings,'usually'within'the'care'receiver’s' family.'The'traditional'dependence'on'the'nuclear'family'and'other' informal' bonds' correlates' with' a' construction' of' care' work' being' based' on' emotional' attributes' such' as' proximity,' closeness,' love' and'intimacy.'These'values'and'virtues'can'be'found'in'both'public' and'private'discourse'and'can'thus'be'summarised'as'a'moral'con) sensus'in'society.'Similarly'‘staying'at'home’'is'described'as'every) one’s' wish' in' old' age' and' living' ‘independently’' is' constructed' as' the'main'aim'of'social'policy'in'relation'to'elderly'people'and'peo) ple'in'need'of'care'and'support.'

In' this' paper' I' analyse' the' portrayal' of' elderly' people' in' the' dis) courses'on'care'in'Austria.'Data'collected'in'the'context'of'research' on' the' moral' construction' of' care,' consisting' of' newspapers' and' focus'group'discussions'will'be're)analysed'using'Critical'Discourse'

Analysis' to' identify' how' elderly' people' are' talked' about' and' con) structed.'Why'is'there'an'almost'total'absence'of'elderly'people'in' the'public'discourse?'To'what'extent'are'elderly'people'constructed' as'passive'and'dependent?'To'what'extent'are'‘wishes’'and'‘ideals’' of' elderly' people' constructions' of' the' public' discourse?' The' main'

Abstract'Book' aim'of'this'research'is'to'highlight'the'significance'of'the'way'elder) ly'people'are'portrayed'in'relation'to'their'absence'as'actors'in'the' discourse.'Theoretically,'I'will'draw'on'the'writings'of'the'disability' movement' and' their' argumentation' for' support' and' empower) ment,'as'well'as'on'the'ethics'of'care'approach'and'their'focus'on' interdependencies.'An'understanding'of'the'public'construction'of' elderly'people'in'the'context'of'care'enables'to'question'both'pub) lic' constructions' of' elderly' people' and' social' policies' which' are' related'to'the'public'construction'of'care.'The'way'society'speaks' about'the'elderly'impacts'significantly'on'people’s'life'chances'and' their' quality' of' life.' The' way' elderly' people’s' lives' are' described' also' influences' political' decision' making' processes.' Both' aspects' need'to'be'analysed'and'challenged'in'order'to'deal'with'questions' of'ageing'and'care'in'a'fair'and'just'way.'

DETERMINANTS!OF!HEALTHGFUNCTIONING!

CONDITIONS!AND!THE!RESIDENTIAL!ENVIRONMENT!

ON!THE!QUALITY!OF!LATER!LIFE!IN!SPAIN!

Fermina' Rojo)Perez

Forjaz

'2

' 1

,' Gloria' Fernandez)Mayoralas

' 1

,'Pablo'Martinez)Martin

'3

'

,' Maria)Joao'

1

Institute' of' Economics,' Geography' and' Demography;' Centre' for'

Human' and' Social' Sciences,' Spanish' National' Research' Council'

(IEGD,'CCHS,'CSIC),'

2

National'School'of'Public'Health'and'Consorti) um' for' Biomedical' Research' in' Neurodegenerative' Diseases'

(CIBERNED),'

3

Research'Unit,'Alzheimer'Centre'Reina'Sofia'Founda) tion'and'Consortium'for'Biomedical'Research'in'Neurodegenerative'

Diseases'(CIBERNED),'Carlos'III'Institute'of'Health,'Madrid,'Spain

'

Abstract:' Objective.' This' paper' aimed' at' examining' the' relation) ships' between' health)functioning' conditions' and' residential' envi) ronment' (both' measured' by' means' of' objective' and' subjective' indicators),' and' their' effects' on' Quality' of' Life' (QoL)' among' com) munity)dwelling'older)adults'in'Spain.'The'assumption'is'that'better' personal'and'living'conditions'are'associated'with'a'better'QoL.'

Methods.' The' data' come' from' a' nationally' representative' sample' of'1,106'people'aged'60'years'and'over'(CadeViMa)Spain).'To'ana) lyse'the'structure'of'the'data'set'(living'arrangements'and'house) hold' features,' residential' characteristics,' health' and' functioning' conditions,' satisfaction' with' life' as' a' whole' as' QoL' indicator),' re) duce'its'dimensionality'and'find'out'the'effects'of'the'selected'vari) ables' in' quality' of' later' life,' bivariate' and' multivariate' statistical' techniques'are'applied'(factor'analysis,'optimal'scaling'method'and' multivariate'linear'regression'analysis).'

Results.' Thirty' percent' of' the' variance' of' the' QoL' is' explained' by' the' regressions' predictors' (household' perceived' socioeconomic' status'and'satisfaction'with'living'arrangements;'objective'and'sub) jective'health'vs.'depression'and'morbidity;'and'residential'satisfac) tion'related'to'housing,'neighbourhood'and'neighbours).'The'high) er'the'satisfaction'with'household,'health'and'residential'environ) ments'as'well'as'the'lower'morbidity'and'depression,'the'better'the'

Quality'in'Later'Life'will'be.'

Conclusions.' The' results' indicate' the' high' predictive' power' of' the' perceptual'or'subjective'information,'in'line'with'others'results'in'

Quality' in' Later' Life' (Rojo)Pérez' et/ al.,' 2001).' Future' research' will' deepen'on'a'global'QoL'model'that'takes'into'consideration'other' important' dimensions' (family' and' social' networks,' participation' and'leisure'activities,'economic'resources)'according'to'the'mean) ing'of'QoL'in'old'age'(Fernandez)Mayoralas'et/al.,'2007).'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

(*)'Authorship'On'behalf'of'the'Spanish'Research'Group'on'Quality' of' Life' and' Ageing:' F.' Rojo)Perez;' G.' Fernandez)Mayoralas;' K.' Ah) med)Mohamed;'R.'Lardies)Bosque;'P.'Martinez)Martin;'M.'J.'Forjaz;'

M.' E.' Prieto)Flores;' C.' Rodriguez)Blazquez;' B.' Frades)Payo;' C.' Del) gado)Sanz;'A.'Ayala)García.'

HEALTHY!AGING:!DO!SOCIAL!NETWORKS!PROMOTE!

DAILY!PHYSICAL!ACTIVITY?!

Florian'Herbolsheimer

'1

,'Thorsten'Nikolaus

'2

,'Richard'Peter

1'

1

Institute' of' Epidemiology' and' Medical' Biometry,' cine,'ULM'UNIVERSITY,'Ulm,'Germany

'

2

Geriatric' Medi)

Abstract:'Background:'There'is'a'need'for'describing'the'impact'of' social' networks' on' promoting' daily' physical' activity' (PA)' in' older' adults.' The' aim' of' the' study' is' to' determine' if' different' network' sizes'and'ties'are'related'to'physical'activity'levels.'

Design' and' Methods:' The' ActiFE)Ulm' baseline' screening' is' a' Ger) man'cross)sectional'study'of'1321'community'dwelling'older'adults' aged' 65' years' and' over' (mean' age' of' 76.6' years)' recruited' from' both'urban'and'rural'neighborhoods'surrounding'Ulm.'The'risk'of' social'isolation'was'screened'by'the'short'form'of'the'Lubben'Social'

Network' Scale' (LSNS)6)' that' was' conducted' by' an' interview) administered' questionnaire.' PA' was' objectively' measured' by' an' advanced' accelerometer' over' a' period' of' one' week.' This' devise,' which'was'attached'to'the'leg,'considerably'improves'conventional' estimates' of' physical' activity' and' even' allows' further' differentia) tions'according'to'activity'patterns'(sitting,'standing'and'walking).'

Multivariate' regression' models' that' were' adjusted' for' age,' Activi) ties'of'Daily'Living,'morbidities'and'other'confounders'were'calcu) lated.'

Results:' The' rotated' factor' structure' of' the' LSNS)6' clearly' distin) guished' between' three' items' dealing' with' family' and' three' items' on'the'non)kin'networks'according'to'the'literature.'The'two'sub) scales'(family'and'friends)'differently'influenced'higher'levels'of'PA.'

Whereas' the' relation' of' family' networks' on' PA' disappeared' after' full' adjustment,' larger' friendship' networks' showed' a' significant' increased' in' PA' levels.' Beside' the' friendship' subscale,' separate' analysis'based'exclusively'on'the'friendship'network'size'appeared' to'show'even'stronger'effects'(p'<'.01)'on'promoting'PA.'

Implication:' Information' on' friendship' ties' based' on' the' LSNS)6' is' beneficial'for'the'assessment'of'the'personal'risk'of'inactivity'and' planning'of'targeted'interventions'enhancing'daily'physical'activity' in' an' older' population.' A' lack' of' friendship' networks' is' an' im) portant'determinant'for'the'level'of'physical'activity'among'older' adults.'

LIVE!EVERYDAY!!TARGETED!ACTIVITIES!FOR!YOUNG!

PEOPLE!WITH!DEMENTIA!G!AN!INTERVENTION!

PROJECT!

Petra'Ahnlund

1'

1

Social'work,'UMEÅ'UNIVERSITY,'Umeå,'Sweden

'

Abstract:'Younger'persons'with'dementia'(that'is'persons'under'65' years' of' age)' is' a' group' of' which' knowledge' about' their' needs' in' social'services'and'health'care'are'limited.'In'the'new'guidelines'for' health' care' services' for' people' with' dementia' it' is' recognised' as' important,'that'the'care'provided'to'young'persons'with'dementia' should'be'based'on'a'team)based'work'in'which'different'profes)

15' sions' are' included.' In' order' to' have' a' meaningful' life,' the' work' should'also'be'based'in'a'person)centered'approach.'

The'study'is'an'intervention'project'in'one'nursing'home'in'Umeå,'

Sweden.' Six' younger' persons' with' dementia' living' in' a' nursing' home'for'elderly'have'during'eight'months,'once'a'week'been'on' targeted' activities,' together' with' personnel' from' the' care' setting.'

The' targeted' activities' is' based' on' what' the' persons' themselves' want'to'do'and'what'their'relatives'have'told'the'personnel'about' the'persons'interests.'

The'aim'of'the'study'is'two'folded,'the'fist'aim'is'to'improve'the' quality'of'life'for'younger'persons'with'dementia,'living'in'a'nursing' home'for'elderly.'The'second'aim'is'to'study'if'the'project'have'had' any' positive' effect' on' the' working' environment' in' the' nursing' home.'

Method:'After'each'of'the'targeted'activates,'personnel'have'filled' in'a'survey'about'the'activity;'what'they'did,'how'the'elderly'liked'it' and'what'the'personnel'experienced'about'the'activity'in'relation' to' the' elderly.' Interviews' with' the' personnel' about' the' activities' and'the'process'are'to'be'conducted.'

Results:'The'results'are'not'yet'fully'analysed'but'the'initial'analyse' show'that'the'personnel'is'experience'the'activities'as'a'good'way' of'making'the'elderly'more'active'in'the'every'day'life.'The'way'of' gathering' a' small' group' of' persons' once' a' week' and' to' do' new' things'together,'is'having'a'positive'effect'on'the'persons'involved.'

The' personnel' have' come' to' realise' that' it' is' not' necessary' to' do'

“big' and' complex' activities”' such' as' long' trips;' the' elderly' seems' happy'to'be'together,'with'people'that'understands'them'and'to'do' things' that' are' familiar' to' them.' For' the' personnel' it' has' been' meaningful'to'work'with'colleagues'from'other'parts'of'the'nursing' home'and'they'experience'that'they'learned'a'lot'about'the'work' from'each'other'about'young'persons'with'dementia.'

TOWARDS!A!GENERAL!MODEL!OF!WELLBEING!

Björn'Halleröd

1'

1

Dept.' of' Sociology,' UNIVERSITY' OF' GOTHENBURG,' Gothenburg,'

Sweden

'

Abstract:!Social'scientists'need'to'better'understand'how'different' aspects'of'peoples’'wellbeing'are'tied'together'and'how'these'ties' differs'between'individuals'at'one'point'of'time'and'within'individ) uals'over'time.'Our'aim'is'to'theoretically'outline'a'general'model' that' considers' the' multi)factorial' structure' of' peoples’' wellbeing.'

We' will' utilize' the' potential' of' latent' variable' modeling' to' find' strategies' and' procedures' for' statistical' design' and' analysis' of' a' unique'Swedish'database,'the'Panel/Survey/of/Ageing/and/the/Elder=

ly(/PSAE).'

The'approach'demands'the'development'of'an'inclusive'and'flexi) ble'theoretical'model'that'considers'the'interactions'between'semi) autonomous' domains' (material' resources,' social' position,' psycho) social' factors,' lifestyle,' etc.).' Our' empirical' study' is' at' this' stage' based'on'cross'sectional'PSAE/data'and'focus'on'people'that'are'55' years'old'or'older'(N=5,374).'The'analysis'goes'beyond'traditional' structural' equation' modeling' (SEM)' and' utilizes' recent' develop) ments'in'statistical'theory'and'software'in'the'field'of'latent'varia) ble' modeling' to' bring' about' a' more' realistic,' dynamic' and' theory' confirming' analysis' of' a' multifaceted' and' stratified' phenomenon' such'as'wellbeing.'One'of'the'contributions'is'that'the'latent'varia) ble' framework' allows' the' specification' of' nested' measurement' models'that'takes'advantage'of'non)random'residual'information,'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

16' important' information' that' in' most' analyses' is' left' unconsidered.'

We'will'also'test'to'what'degree'it'is'necessary'to'differentiate'the' measure' of' wellbeing' between' different' age' groups' and' between' men'and'women.'

The' research' process' includes' the' following' stages:' A)' Choosing' domains'and'variables.'B)'Formulating'a'tentative'general'model.'C)'

Testing'the'relevance'of'the'theoretical'model.'D)'Validate'the'con) firmative'model.'E)'Analysing'the'outcomes'of'the'model'in'relation' to'predictors'such'as'socioeconomic'status,'gender,'and'age.'

SOCIAL!RESOURCES:!A!KEY!DIMENSION!IN!ELDERLY!

COMMUNITYGDWELLING!POPULATION!ASSESSMENT!

Rogério'Manuel'Clemente'Rodrigues ro

' 1

Azeredo

'2

'1

,' Sílvia' Manuela' Dais' Tavares' da' Silva

'

,'Luís'Manuel'de'Jesus'Lourei)

' 1

,' Zaida' de' Aguiar' Sá'

1

ESCOLA' SUPERIOR' DE' ENFERMAGEM,' Coimbra,'

Universidade'do'Porto,'Porto,'Portugal

'

2

ICBAS)

Abstract:'Background:'Functional'abilities'and'limitations'are'a'very' salient'issue'related'to'ageing.'The'Older/Americans/Resources/and/

Services/ (OARS)' is' a' functional' multidimensional' assessment' in) strument'that'evaluates'the'functional'status'in'the'five'determin) ing'areas'for'the'elderly'quality'of'life:'social'resources,'economic' resources,' mental' health,' physical' health' and' activities' of' daily' living.' Its' use' is' relevant' for' the' knowledge' about' the' functional' disability'in'physical'and'mental'areas'in'old'people.'The'aim'of'this' study' is' to' analyse' the' applicability' of' the' OARS' (Questionário/ de/

Avaliação/ Funcional/ Multidimensional/ de/ Idosos' )' QAFMI' –' in' the'

Portuguese' version)' in' elderly' community)dwelling' population' group.'

Methods:' comparative' analysis' of' quantitative' studies' of' descrip) tive)correlation' type' with' a' cross)sectional' temporal' dimension.'

The'samples'in'all'studies'were'taken'in'a'randomized'and'probabil) istic'trial,'from'the'users’'files'of'Health'Centres'and'nursing'homes.'

The'data'were'presented'by'gender'and'age'group'(65)74;'75)84;'

≥85).'

Results:' The' evaluation' tool' showed' its' capabilities' to' collect' a' great'volume'of'information.'Its'use'should'count,'in'the'evaluation' of' functional' areas,' with' the' classification' according' to' the' score' model'of'QAFMI,'because'of'the'divergences'verified'with'the'eval) uation' realized' by' the' interviewer.' Only' by' this' way' we' can' com) pare,'safely,'results'of'evaluations'and'possible'interventions.'The' diverse'areas'that'are'implied'in'the'quality'of'life'of'the'elders,'and' the'diversity'of'technicians'and'services'involved,'suggest,'as'impli) cations'to'the'practice,'a'coordinated'intervention,'capable'of'gen) erating'and'promoting'an'effective'intervention'that'maximize,'and' promotes,'the'social'and'health'resources'distribution.'

Conclusion:! All' the' work' developed' with' the' Portuguese' version'

(QAFMI)'of'OARS'lead'us'to'consider'this'instrument'very'useful'to' define'the'functional'status'of'the'elders'in'the'specific'evaluation' areas'and'the'needs,'becoming'right'to'the'planning'of'older'care' services.'Therefore,'OARS'(QAFMI'in'Portuguese'version)'is'a'meas) urement'instrument'of'quality'for'older'people'providing'significant' information' to' interventions' and' improve' adequate' social,' and' health,'care'strategy'on'this'population'group.'

GET!UP!AND!GO!!THE!YOUNG!AT!HEART!!

Liz'Mcgettigan

1'

Abstract'Book'

1

Libraries' and' Information' Services,' THE' CITY' OF' EDINBURGH'

COUNCIL,'Edinburgh,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:!Well)being'is'undoubtedly'about'more'than'medicine'and' health'and'with'a'longer,'healthier'life'as'a'goal,'we'should'all'be' turning'more'of'our'attention'to'staying'active,'enjoying'life,'mak) ing' friends,' waging' war' on' our' waistlines,' and' extinguishing' our' cigarettes'for'good.'

It'is'indeed'about'the'ways'that'we'interact'with'the'environment,' our' encounters,' our' routine' activities' such' as' walking' to' work,' to' the'shops,'to'school,'aspects'of'work,'play'and'relaxation.'

With'all'of'this'in'mind'we'developed'Get'Up'and'Go)'a'brochure' for' 50' +,' the' young' at' heart!,' a' brochure' that' is' unique' to' Edin) burgh.'Jam)packed'with'articles'and'information'and'over'300'or) ganisations' and' activities,' from' quilt' making' to' canoeing,' there' is' something'for'everyone'in'it.'

The'aim'was'to'encourage'healthy'minds'and'physical'activity'and' to'make'access'to'these'opportunities'easier'for'all'of'our'citizens' to'all'of'the'opportunities'across'the'city'of'Edinburgh.'

It' is' also' about' Libraries' as' community' spaces' for' older' people,' places'where'they'can'volunteer,'learn'and'socialise.'

Methodology:''

•'We'worked'with'an'over'50s'advisory'and'editorial'group'

•'We'sourced,'catalogued'and'categorised'information'on'activities' from'across'the'city'

•'We'also'made'the'information'available'electronically.' http://www.youredinburgh.info/engage/'

•'We'linked'it'to'Get'Up'and'Go'for'IT'to'teach'the'senior'citizens' the'skills'they'need'to'add'to'it'

•'We'made'it'widely'available'across'the'city'in'health'centres,' libraries'community'and'leisure'centres.'

Outcomes:!We'created'a'network'of'people'interested'in'the'pro) ject'and'a'resource'that'is'now'well'recognised'across'the'city.'

CARE!FOR!OLDER!PEOPLE!BETWEEN!STATE!AND!

FAMILY:!EVALUATION!OF!HOME!CARE!SERVICES!IN!

SLOVENIA!

Valentina'Hlebec

1'

1

UNIVERSITY'OF'LJUBLJANA,'FACULTY'OF'SOCIAL'SCIENCE,'Ljublja) na,'Slovenia

'

Abstract:'The'development'of'formal'services'for'older'people'liv) ing'at'home'is'studeid.'Firstly,'the'service'is'described'in'Slovenian' context' with' regard' to' formal' requirements' of' the' program' and' aims' and' goals' the' service' should' tackle.' Then,' we' evaluate' the' program'with'regard'to'Slovenian'strategy'of'development'of'care' for'older'people.'We'found'out,'using'cluster'analysis'of'municipali) ties,'that'several'distinct'models'of'organization'of'the'service'has' emerged' in' the' past' 5' years.' These' models' differ' in' financing' sources' (municipality,' state' and' user),' efficient' use' of' finances'

(money'with'regard'to'number'of'services)'and'quality'(equal'and' consistent'access'to'services).'Key'elements'of'future'development' are'outlined'on'the'basis'of'empirical'evidence.'

CONVERSATION!ANALYSIS!AND!THE!DEVELOPMENT!

OF!NEW!SERVICES!FOR!OLDER!PEOPLE!

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

Mika'Simonen

1'

1

Department' of' Social' Research/Sociology,' UNIVERSITY' OF'

HELSINKI,'Helsinki,'Finland

'

Abstract:!Conversation'analysis'(CA)'is'a'method'for'analyzing'the' organization'of'social'interaction.'In'this'presentation,'I'will'suggest' that'CA'can'be'used'for'developing'new'social'and'health'care'ser) vices'for'aging'people.'

Methods'and'materials:'We'video'recorded'52'clinical'assessment' interviews,' conducted' in' the' context' of' three' projects' developing' assessment' of' functional' capacity.' The' data' were' transcribed' and' analyzed'using'CA.'The'analysis'shows'how'the'assessment'of'the' client’s' functional' capacity' is' produced' in' and' through' the' inter) viewer)interviewee'interaction.'

Results:'The'professional'teams'that'were'responsible'for'develop) ing'the'assessment'practices'considered'the'results'of'the'Conver) sation' analysis' of' the' assessment' interviews' as' very' relevant,' be) cause' the' recordings' and' the' transcriptions' provided' ”an' unob) structed' view”' to' the' interview.' Conversation' analysis' explicated' the' ways' in' which' the' assessment' interviews' proceeded' and' also' showed'the'difficulties'involved'in'them.'The'project'staff'and'poli) cy'makers'were'impressed'by'the'level'of'detail'that'CA'could'pro) vide.'

Conclusion:' The' teams' responsible' for' the' projects' developing' as) sessment' of' functional' capacity' used' the' results' of' Conversation' analysis'in'developing'their'new'services.'Recently,'a'national'initia) tive'for'functional'capacity'measurement'and'assessment'in'Finland' published' recommendations' for' municipal' service' need' assess) ments.'The'recommendation'acknowledges'that'the'social'interac) tion'between'an'aging'person'and'health'care'personnel'should'be' considered'when'assessment'interviews'are'conducted.'

FAMILY!COHESION!AND!ELDERLY!CARE!FOR!SENIORS!

Hynek'Jerabek

'1

,'Romana'Trusinová

1'

1

Faculty'of'Social'Sciences,'ISS,'Dep.'Sociology,'Charles'University'in'

Prague,'Prague,'Czech'Republic

'

Abstract:' The' growing' and' accelerating' need' for' care' for' elderly' citizens'is'generating'a'continuous'need'for'family'care'for'seniors' in' contemporary' Czech' society.' In' our' research,' we' prepared' a' standardised'survey'and'used'it'to'interview'400'families'in'an'at) tempt' to' answer' several' key' questions:' “How' do' the' families' of' seniors'in'institutional'care'differ'from'the'families'caring'for'a'sen) ior'at'home?”.'We'decided'to'select'one'hundred'seniors'aged'75' or' over' with' a' high' level' of' assistance' (measured' using' the' BADL' index)'who'are'in'institutional'care'and'three'hundred'seniors'who' live' at' home' and' whose' care' is' arranged' for' or' provided' by' the' family.'The'question'remains'as'to'what'we'regard'as'“family'cohe) sion”?' A' family' with' strong' cohesion' is' one' that' exhibits' strong' positive' emotional' ties' (affectual' solidarity),' enjoys' opportunities' for' abundant' family' relationships' and' a' proximity' between' the' caring' family' and' the' senior' (structural' solidarity),' and' has' a' high' frequency' of' contacts' (associational' solidarity),' and' intergenera) tional' assistance' (adult' children' helping' their' parents' –' seniors)'

(current' functional' solidarity).' We' ask:' “What' interrelationships' exist'between'these'dimensions'of'family'cohesion?”'A'family'with' partial' (asymmetrical)' cohesion' is' one' lacking' in' significant' ties:' either'there'are'no'or'there'are'weakened'emotional'ties'(affectual' solidarity),' or' the' frequency' of' contact' is' not' high' (associational' solidarity),'or'the'opportunities'for'or'proximity'of'the'ties'is'weak'

17'

(structural'solidarity),'yet'there'is'still'a'high'degree'of'intergenera) tional'assistance'(current'functional'solidarity).'In'these'cases'it'is' important'to'determine'–'and'we'asked'–'“What'mechanisms'is'this' intergenerational' assistance' based' on?”' Hypothetically' the' main' motivational' factors' can' be' considered' to' be:' 1)' either' a' strong' sense'of'family'obligations'(normative'solidarity),'or,'conversely,'2)' the' proximity' and' opportunities' for' assistance' (structural' solidari) ty),'or'3)'frequent'contacts'(associational'solidarity),'or'4)'the'emo) tional' relationship' (affectual' solidarity).' It' can' be' considered' very' unlikely' that' a' high' rate' of' intergenerational' assistance' (current' functional'solidarity)'would'occur'with'the'simultaneous'absence'of' the' normative,' affectual,' associational' and' structural' components' of'intergenerational'solidarity.'

FOSTER!CARE:!NEW!FAMILIES!FOR!FRAIL!OLDER!

ADULTS?!

Alice'Delerue'Matos

'1

,'Rita'Borges'Neves

'2*

,'Elisabete'Martins

1'

1

Sociology,'

2

Research' Centre' for' Social' Sciences,' UNIVERSITY' OF'

MINHO,'Braga,'Portugal

'

Abstract:'Family'foster'care'for'older'adults'represents'an'alterna) tive'to'classical'institutionalization'as'care'is'provided'to'frail'older' people'in'a'family'context.'It'involves'the'development'of'intergen) erational'relationships,'and'intimacy.'

This'research'intends'to'shed'some'light'on'the'dynamics'of'these' singular' intergenerational' relationships' that' have' a' contractual' ground.' Semi)structured' interviews' and' participating' observation' was'undertaken'on'17'older'persons'in'foster'care'families.'

Intergenerational' dynamics' established' between' the' elderly' and' the' care' family' do' not' seem' to' depend' on' factors' such' as' age' or' health'of'the'former.'Results'stress'that'the'relationship'dynamics' in' terms' of' quality' and' intensity' of' emotional' and' services' ex) changes,'and'activities'shared'are'affected'by:'1)'needs'of'an'inti) macy' space,' 2)' strategies' to' preserve' it' and' 3)' interiorization' of' roles.'

Intimate,' close,' neutral' or' detached' categories' were' defined' to' describe' the' style' of' the' relationship' between' elderly' and' foster' family'members,'on'the'perspective'of'the'older'adult.'

Foster'care'represents'more'than'the'availability'of'permanent'care' to'the'aged.'Despite'the'advantages'of'personalized'care'this'may' be'a'disempowering'experience'for'the'elderly.'

THE!POLITICS!OF!VIOLENCE!IN!RESIDENTIAL!CARE!FOR!

OLDER!PEOPLE:!GENDER,!STRUCTURE!AND!SUFFERING!

Albert'Banerjee

'1

,'Tamara'Daly

'2

4

,'Hugh'Armstrong

'5

'

,'Pat'Armstrong

'3

,'Marta'Szebehely

'

1

Re)imagining'Long)term'Residential'Care,'York'University,'Toronto,'

2

School'of'Health'Policy'&'Management,'York'University,'Toronto,'

3

Department' of' Sociology' and' Women’s' Studies,' York' University,'

Toronto,' Canada,'

Sweden,'

5

4

Social' Work,' Stockholm' University,' Stockholm,'

School'of'Social'Work,'Carleton,'Ottawa,'Canada

'

Abstract:' Comparisons' between' Scandinavia' and' Canada' indicate' that'the'frequency'of'violence'against'workers'in'Canadian'nursing' homes' is' extreme,' with' Canadian' frontline' careworkers' six' times' more'likely'to'experience'violence'than'their'Scandinavian'counter) parts.' This' presentation' outlines' the' findings' of' an' international'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

18' comparative' study' of' long)term' residential' care' serving' elderly' populations'across'three'Canadian'provinces'(Manitoba,'Nova'Sco) tia,'and'Ontario)'and'four'countries'following'a'Scandinavian'model' of'care'(Denmark,'Finland,'Norway,'and'Sweden).'We'focus'on'the' experience' of' Canadian' frontline' careworkers' who' provide' the' majority'of'direct'care.'The'violence'Canadian'careworkers'experi) ence' from' residents' and' their' family' members' is' physical,' verbal,' racial'and'sexual.'Ninety'percent'of'those'surveyed'reported'expe) riencing' some' form' of' physical' violence' and' 43' percent' experi) enced'physical'violence'every'day.'Focus'groups'revealed'a'culture' of' tolerance,' where' violence' was' considered' routine.'However,' in' this' presentation' we' endeavour' to' do' more' than' identify' preva) lence'rates,'and'introduce'the'concept'of'“structural'violence”'(Gal) tung,' 1969)' to' offer' an' expanded' explanation' of' violence' that' ac) counts' for' the' role' systemic' and' organizational' factors' –' such' as' excessive' workload,' insufficient' staff,' lack' of' autonomy,' gender' –' play' in' setting' the' context' for' personal' violence.' Current' working' conditions'cause'Canadian'workers'great'suffering'and'fail'to'ena) ble'them'to'provide'the'kind'of'care'they'know'they'are'capable'of' providing,'given'sufficient'time,'resources'and'support.'The'concept' of'structural'violence'helps'name'this'failure'as'a'form'of'violence,' and' raises' pressing' questions' around' the' links' between' violence,' work'organization,'and'social'care'policy.'

PREMIÈRE!ANNÉE!DE!VIE!DANS!UN!ETABLISSEMENT!

MÉDICOGSOCIAL:!ANALYSE!DES!PROCESSUS!

D'ADAPTATION!

Murielle'Pott

'1

,'Jérôme'Debons

'2*

'

1

Unité' de' recherche' en' santé,' HecvSante,' Lausanne,'

Université'de'Genève,'Genève,'Switzerland

'

2

Sociologie,'

Abstract:'Il'est'établi'que'la'majorité'des'résidantêeês'des'établisse) ments'médico)sociaux'de'long'séjour'(EMS)'sont'de'sexe'féminin,'

âgéêeês' de' 80' ans' et' plus' et' souvent' très' affaibliêeês' par' des' pro) blèmes' de' santé' (troubles' physiques' et' cognitifs).' Nonobstant,' la' société'contemporaine'pose'un'sérieux'défi'à'ces'aînéêeês':'celui'de' puiser' dans' ce' qui' leur' reste' comme' ressources' (familiales,' rela) tionnelles,'personnelles)'pour's’adapter'au'mieux'à'cette'nouvelle' demeure,' synonyme' dans' plus' de' 80%' des' cas' de' dernière' rési) dence'avant'la'mort.'Or,'le'déménagement'en'établissement'médi) co)social'induit'une'rupture'dans'la'trajectoire'identitaire'du'sujet.'

Vécu'par'plus'd’unêe'aînéêe'comme'une'dépossession,'mort'sociale' préfigurant'la'mort'physique,'il'sous)entend'de'quitter'un'lieu'sym) boliquement'fort'(la'maison,'le'«'chez)soi'»)'pour'une'résidence'en' collocation,'loin'des'repères'habituels.'De'leur'côté,'les'directrices' et' directeurs' d’établissements' appliquent' toute' leur' attention' à' atténuer' la' violence' symbolique' de' l’institutionnalisation.' Contre' les' anciens' hospices' et' autres' asiles' de' vieillards,' les' EMS' ont' été' conçus'pour'être'de'véritables'«'lieux'de'vie'»'fondés'sur'une'triple' logique' de' soin,' d’accueil' et' d’ouverture' sur' l’extérieur' et' enfin' d’animation.' Nous' menons' actuellement' une' recherche' sur' cette' thématique'dans'un'EMS'du'canton'du'Valais';'ce'projet'a'pour'but' d’observer,'dans'une'démarche'socio)ethnographique'et'en'suivant' une'dizaine'de'résidantêeês'sur'une'période'de'1'année'(recherche' longitudinale),' comment' ces' dernierêèreês' s’adaptent' à' leur' nou) veau'lieu'de'vie,'et'corolairement,'ce'que'l’institution'met'en'place' pour' favoriser' cette' adaptation' (recherche' monographique).' Dans' le'cadre'de'l’atelier'vieillesse'RN01'Aeging/in/Europe,'nous'souhai) tons'proposer'un'poster/en/français'présentant'd’une'part'les'parti) cularités'de'la'structure'institutionnelle'd’un'EMS'dans'le'contexte' actuel' en' Suisse,' et' d’autre' part,' les' résultats' des' premières' ana)

Abstract'Book' lyses' ethnographiques' sur' les' trajectoires' d’adaptation' des' rési) dantêeês' suiviêeês.' Nous' présentation' ouvrira' ainsi' la' discussion' au' sujet' de' certains' aspects' de' la' prise' en' charge' formelle' des' per) sonnes'âgées'aujourd’hui'en'Suisse.'

AGEING,!DISABILITY!AND!PAIN:!A!STORY!ABOUT!

AGEING!PERCEPTIONS!AND!REALITIES!IN!FRENCHG

SPEAKING!SWITZERLAND,!1960G2011!

Michel'Oris

'1,'1

,'Julia'Henke

'2

,'Christophe'Luthy

'3

'

1

Sociology,'

2

Centre' for' interdisciplinary' Gerontology,' UNIVERSITY'

OF'GENEVA,'Carouge,'

Geneva,'Switzerland

'

3

University'Hospital,'UNIVERSITY'OF'GENEVA,'

Abstract:'In'Europe,'the'canton'of'Geneva'and'the'central'area'in' the' canton' of' Valais' are' exceptional' since' four' interdisciplinary' surveys' have' been' run' from' the' early' 1960s' until' 2011' about' the' living' conditions' of' the' elderly.' While' life' expectancy' and' even' more' healthy' life' expectancy' progressed,' we' moved' from' a' very' negative' perception' of' ageing' associated' to' senility,' disability' and' last'step'to'death,'to'the'vision'of'a'new'stage'of'life,'the'so)called' third' age,' where' healthy' wealthy' retired' could' maintain' their' de) velopment'and'self)realization.'Such'drastic'change'in'the'percep) tions'has'hided'realities'of'disabilities,'pains,'discomforts'affecting' the' elderly,' especially' the' growing' population' of' the' oldest' old.'

Pains')'especially'those'of'the'low'back')'are'an'old'problem'but'the' topic'has'only'recently'really'been'addressed'by'scientists,'observ) ing' the' limitations' of' the' drug' treatments' among' the' elderly.'

Thanks' to' the' four' surveys' done' in' French)speaking' Switzerland' between' 1963' and' 2011' and' to' an' historical' assessment' of' the' gerontological' publications,' our' contribution' will' highlight' the' dis) crepancy'between'changing'perceptions'and'enduring'realities.'

EXPERIENCED!AGEGDISCRIMINATION!AND!ATTITUDES!

TOWARDS!ELDERLY!PEOPLE:!REGIONAL!FINNISH!AND!

SWEDISH!TRENDS!OF!AGEISM!

Fredrik' Nils' Christian' Snellman

' 1

,' Mikael' Nygård

' 2

,' Susanne'

Jungerstam

'3

'

1

Department' of' Social' Work,' UMEÅ' UNIVERSITY,' Umeå,' Sweden,'

2

Department' of' Social' Sciences,' Åbo' Akademi' University,'

University'of'Applied'Sciences,'NOVIA,'Vasa,'Finland

'

3

Novia'

Abstract:'Few'aspects'permeate'our'social'life'in'the'same'way'as' the' category' of' age.' We' all' know' from' our' own' experiences' and' from'anecdotal'evidence'that'age'matters'in'many'different'ways'in' our'lives.'However,'aspects'such'as'experienced'age)discrimination' and'attitudes'towards'elderly'people'are'rarely'in'focus'of'attention' in'research.'

The'approach'in'this'article'is'descriptive'and'differential'based'on' cross)sectional'data.'The'aim'is'to'examine'trends'in'the'extent'to' which'ageism'is'experienced'and'reported'as'a'structural'and'indi) vidual'phenomenon.'More'specifically,'how'has'the'personal'expe) rience' of' being' discriminated' against' on' the' grounds' of' age' changed'between'2005'and'2010?'According'to'the'Eurobarometer' an'increase'is'not'to'be'expected.'Secondly,'how'have'the'generally' experienced' attitudes' towards' the' elderly' changed' between' 2005' and'2010'in'different'domains'of'society?'(Eurobarometer:'increase' to'be'expected.'Cross)sectional'data'from'the'GERDA'(GERontologi) cal' Regional' DAtabase)' population' study,' among' individuals' born'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

1930'and'1940'is'analysed.'Data'collection'was'carried'out'in'2005'

(n'3370)'and'replicated'in'2010.'

The'presentation'will'shed'light'on'the'currently'available'data'from'

2005'and'the'comparable'data'from'2010'(coding'of'data'complet) ed'spring'2011)'within'the'same'age'cohort.'Regional'data'on'age) discrimination' and' attitudes' towards' the' elderly' is' contrasted' against'idealistic'trends'that'have'been'shown'to'exist'at'a'Europe) an'level.'

Remarks'about'the'validity'of'the'items'used'will'be'discussed.'The' measures' are' not' direct' reflections' of' the' prevalence' of' age) discrimination'and'attitudes'towards'elderly'people.'However'they' are' measures' of' the' ideas' of' these' two' phenomena.' Ideas' that' people'have'will'affect'them'in'different'ways.'We'need'to'recog) nise'that'people'have'these'ideas'because'having'them'is'a'part'of' the'reproduction'of'ageism.'Ageism'exists'by'the'power'of'people’s' idealistic'views'that'are'independent'of'any'realistic'evidence'that' it'actually'does.'Ageism'gains'ontological'status'through'validated' claims'that'something'is'age)discrimination'and'through'the'ideas' that' something' is' believed' to' be' age)discrimination.' Having' knowledge'about'the'contingent'trends'in'these'ideas'can'guide'us' in'intervening'in'the'negative'aspects'of'the'reproductive'circle'of' ageism.'

SPACES!OF!(NON)!AGEINGG!A!DISCOURSE!PERSPECTIVE!

Monika'Wilinska

1'

1

Research' School' of' Health' and' Welfare,' JÖNKÖPING' UNIVERSITY,'

Jönköping,'Sweden

'

Abstract:'This'paper'explores'discourses'of'old'age'within'the'wel) fare'state'context,'in'Poland.'Acknowledging'the'socially'construct) ed'nature'of'ageing,'this'study'seeks'to'identify'societal'spaces'of' ageing,'spaces'where'people'are'supposed'to'grow'old.'In'this,'the' study'adopts'a'welfare'culture'perspective'that'highlights'the'con) textual,'emotional'and'unstable'character'of'the'welfare'state'that' undergoes'indefinite'processes'of'change.'It'points'out'to'the'pro) cesses'of'people'production'based'on'instilling'in'them'norms'and' principles'that'should'govern'their'lives.'

The' study' is' based' on' multiple' data' that' follows' the' theoretical' adherence'to'the'concept'of'discourse.'It'focuses'on'things'that'are' said'about'old'age,'done'to'old'age,'and'heard'about'old'age'within' the'welfare'state'context.'The'study'analyses'discourses'of'old'age' present'in'mass'media'material,'social'policy'documents,'organiza) tional'and'personal'narratives,'and'social'welfare'actions.'

The'findings'of'this'study'indicate'that'there'is'a'lack'of'spaces'of' ageing'in'the'welfare'state'context.'Discourses,'which'are'examined' in' this' study,' illuminate' the' process' of' resentment' and' decline' of' old'age.'People'are'expected'not'to'grow'old;'old'age'remains'to'be' a'misunderstood'phenomenon.'Contrary'to'the'surplus'knowledge'

against' old' age,' there' is' a' considerable' lack' of' knowledge' for' old' age.'Therefore,'spaces'of'non)ageing'are'invoked'in'order'to'elabo) rate'on'those'processes.'Spaces'of'non)ageing'identify'various'soci) etal'domains'and'show'what'needs'to'be'done'in'order'not'to'grow' old.' Spaces' of' non)ageing' repudiate' the' idea' of' old' age' as' some) thing'terrifying'and,'on'many'occasions,'immoral.'

THE!REGNEGOTIATION!OF!OLD!AGE!IN!TURBULENT!

TIMES.!THEORETICAL!CONSIDERATIONS!AND!

EMPIRICAL!RESULTS!ON!ACTIVE!AGEING!IN!GERMANY!

19'

Silke'Van'Dyk

'1

,'Stephan'Lessenich

'1

,'Tina'Denninger

'1

,'Anna'Richter

1'

1

Institute'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'JENA,'Jena,'Germany

'

Abstract:'Over'the'past'years'older'people'have'been'increasingly' discovered' as' active' citizens,' which' is' particularly' true' for' the'

“young”'and'non)frail'elderly.'They'are'regarded'as'capable'of'living' a'self)reliant'life,'being'able'to'contribute'to'the'public'good'as'well' as'striving'after'meaningful'engagement.'Even'though'we'face'this' re)negotiation'of'old'age'recently,'the'scientific'report'on'this'de) velopment' is' often' anecdotical' or' restricted' to' specific' areas' of' interests.' In' fact' there' is' a' lack' of' systematic' research' in' two' re) spects:' Whereas' social' security' and' demografic' issues' are' in' the' forefront'of'age)related'discussions,'the'encompassing'shift'of'age) related'norms,'values'and'images'over'the'last'decades'is'neglected'

–'and'this'holds'true'first'for'the'medial'and'political'discourse'as' well'as'secondly'for'the'individual'(self))concepts'and'images.'

The'contributed'paper'is'based'on'the'research'project'“From're) tirement' to' active' ageing?' Images' and' practices' of' old' age' in' the' transformation' of' the' German' welfare' state' after' reunification”.'

The'project'explores'shifts'in'the'meaning'of'“old'age”'in'the'con) text' of' the' demographic' and' welfare' state' changes' Germany' has' been'witnessing'after'1989.'Based'on'a'systematic'analysis'of'1500' newspaper' articles,' party' manifestos,' government' programs' and' advertisement'from'1983'to'2009'the'project'investigates'to'what' extent'and'in'which'way'there'are'age)related'images'and'expecta) tions' of' activity' and' productivity.' In' a' second' step,' based' on' bio) graphic,'in)depth'interviews'with'60'older'people'in'East'and'West'

Germany' the' project' explores' how' individuals' reflect' and' process' the' new' public' imagery' of' “active' ageing”.' In' addition,' individual' self)conceptions'of'the'elderly'are'contrasted'with'their'actual'ac) tivities' in' everyday' life,' which' have' been' studied' on' the' basis' of' standardised'questionnaires.'In'this'way,'the'project'aims'to'ascer) tain' the' social' acceptance,' and' thus' the' political' success,' of' the'

“activation'agenda”'pursued'by'German'social'policy.'The'submit) ted'paper'offers'insights'in'major'empirical'results'and'theoretical' considerations'out'of'three'years'of'research'on'social'and'individ) ual' re)negotations' of' old' age.' Special' attention' is' paid' to' the' fact' that'even'two'decades'after'reunification,'there'are'still'significant' differences' in' the' social' construction' of' old' age' and' ageing' be) tween'East'and'West.'

'AGE!OF!AUSTERITY:!ON!WHOM!DOES!THE!AXE!FALL!

HARDEST?'!

Jay'Ginn

'1

,'Sue'Himmelweit

'2

'

1

Institute' of' Gerontology,' KINGS' COLLEGE' LONDON,' coulsdon,'

2

Economics,'Open'University,'London,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:!The'UK'Coalition'government'has'introduced'measures'to' reduce' the' national' deficit' by' 2015,' claiming' the' planned' cuts' in' welfare'benefits'and'in'services'are'fair,'distributing'the'pain'across' the'whole'of'society.'

In'this'paper,'we'outline'how'the'cuts'will'affect'older'people,'using' estimates'that'quantify'their'financial'cost'to'pensioners,'analysed' by'gender'and'whether'living'alone'or'in'a'couple.'Women'single' pensioners'will'be'the'hardest'hit.'This'is'largely'driven'by'cuts'in' social'care'and'housing'support.'

If' similar' strategies' are' used' more' widely' in' Europe,' similarly' re) gressive'effects'can'be'expected.'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

20'

EVERYDAY!MOBILITY!AMONG!STAYERS!AND!MOVERS!

IN!LATER!MID!LIFE!

Satu'Heikkinen

'1,'2*

,'Åsa'Aretun

'2

'

1

Sociology,'Department'of'Behavioural'Sciences'and'Learning'(IBL),'

2

Mobility,'actors'and'planning'processes,'VTI,'Linköping,'Sweden

'

Abstract:' This' paper' explores' changes' in' everyday' mobility' (i.e.' transportation)'in'later'midlife.'Assumptions'on'midlife'as'a'settled' stage'in'life,'concerning'for'example'housing'and'travel'patterns,'is' prevalent'in'research'and'has'resulted'in'a'lack'of'studies'on'pro) cesses' and' variations' in' midlife' in' a' life' course' perspective.' This' means'that'the'understanding'is'limited'of'what'happens'with'trav) el'patterns'and'travel'needs'during'midlife'and'how'these'relates'to' earlier'experiences'as'well'as'correspond'to'future'plans.'The'aim' of' the' paper' is' to' focus' on' everyday' mobility' in' later' midlife' by' highlighting' two' life' course' related' events,' empty' nesting' and'

(planning'for)'retirement.'

A' qualitative' interview' study' was' conducted' with' 45)65' years' old' people'in'two'Swedish'cities'(Vadstena'and'Norrköping).'Two'focus' groups'interviews'(one'in'each'city)'and'20'in)depth'interviews'(10' in' each' city)' were' analysed' in' accordance' with' extended)case' methodology.' One' important' finding' was' that' many' interviewees' had'not'only'changed'everyday'mobility'related'to'the'processes'of' empty'nesting'and'(planning'for)'retirement'but'had'changed'resi) dence'as'well.'In'those'instances'change'of'residence'affected'eve) ryday' mobility' and' the' analysis' had' to' consider' interactions' be) tween'residential'mobility'and'everyday'mobility.'One'example'of' change' in' everyday' mobility' when' children' were' moving' out' of' home' was' “hypermobility”.' Individuals' showing' this' characteristic' stayed' at' their' residence' while' investing' in' their' working' career.'

They'were'“free”'to'travel'as'never'before'in'work'and'also'became' more'car)dependent.'Another'change'was'to'move'from'suburban' areas'to'the'inner)city.'By'changing'residential'location'in'this'way' car)driving'was'replaced'by'walking'and'bicycling.'

SOCIAL!EXCLUSION!OF!THE!ELDERLY:!A!MIXED!

METHODS!STUDY!IN!SLOVENIA!

Masa'Filipovic'Hrast

'1

,'Matic'Kavcic

'1

,'Valentina'Hlebec

1'

1

UNIVERSITY'OF'LJUBLJANA,'FACULTY'OF'SOCIAL'SCIENCE,'Ljublja) na,'Slovenia

'

Abstract:'The'elderly'are'in'many'ways'more'vulnerable'than'other' groups'in'society.'To'research'the'vulnerabilities'of'the'elderly,'we' will'employ'the'concept'of'social'exclusion'which'is'less'often'used' in' gerontological' research.' A' particularly' innovative' approach' is' taken'in'this'study'as'secondary'quantitative'data'are'used'in'the' explanatory'mixed'methods'model'for'the'analysis'of'social'exclu) sion,' which' is' then' combined' with' in)depth' interviews' and' the' grounded' theory' approach.' With' quantitative' data' we' initially' try' to'discover'which'areas'of'social'exclusion'particularly'affect'older' people'in'Slovenia.'Then'we'try'to'understand'the'social'exclusion' of'the'elderly'in'greater'depth'by'analysing'their'coping'strategies' in'each'area'of'social'exclusion.'

The'qualitative'data'yielded'an'in)depth'insight'into'the'most'prob) lematic'areas'of'social'exclusion.'We'found'that'the'study'of'coping' strategies' is' a' very' useful' tool' for' understanding' social' exclusion.'

The' numerous' strategies' applied' show' the' resourcefulness' of' the' elderly,'yet'they'also'indicate'that'the'majority'of'strategies'did'not' lead'to'an'exit'from'exclusion,'only'the'reduction'of'exclusion'in'a'

Abstract'Book' certain'area.'Therefore,'even'though'it'is'dynamic'in'nature'social' exclusion'seems'quite'static'for'the'elderly,'who'have'few'ways'of' exiting' it.' For' example,' the' use' of' past' savings' only' temporarily' means' a' reduction' of' financial' deprivation' and' cannot' be' seen' as' an'exit'strategy.'Many'of'the'strategies'observed'therefore'seem'to' be'often'directed'to'the'depletion'of'resources'(financial,'individual' or'other)'and'in'the'long'run'might'even'indicate'a'future'worsen) ing'of'the'situation'regarding'exclusion.'

SOCIAL!EXCLUSION,!DIVERSITY!AND!AGEING!IN!RURAL!

IRELAND!AND!NORTHERN!IRELAND!

Kieran'Walsh

1'

1

Irish' Centre' for' Social' Gerontology,' NATIONAL' UNIVERSITY' OF'

IRELAND'GALWAY,'Galway,'Ireland

'

Abstract:' The' intersecting' elements' of' social' exclusion,' and' their' concentration' in' particular' places,' can' impact' on' people’s' social,' economic' and' health' lives.' However,' there' has' been' no' research' addressing' social' exclusion' among' older' people' living' in' diverse' rural'areas'in'Ireland'or'Northern'Ireland,'with'a'cross)border'anal) ysis'completely'absent.'Aside'from'a'lack'of'understanding'around' age' itself' as' a' mediator' of' social' exclusion,' existing' research' on' place'typically'concentrates'on'urban'areas.'Our'knowledge'of'dif) ferent'kinds'of'rural'communities'(i.e.'village'rural,'dispersed'rural,' remote' rural,' island' rural' and' near)urban' rural)' as' places' of' resi) dence' for' older' people' is' also' limited.' Consequently,' there' is' a' dearth'of'information'on'how'diverse'rural'places'can'facilitate'or' protect'against'social'exclusion'as'people'age.'

This' paper' explores' how' age' and' rurality' combine' over' the' life) course'to'impact'on'the'likelihood'of'social'exclusion'from'material' resources,' social' relations,' and' services' in' five' contrasting' rural' contexts'(i.e.'village'rural,'dispersed'rural,'island'rural,'remote'rural' and'near)urban'rural)'in'Ireland'and'Northern'Ireland.'The'research' draws'on'focus'groups'with'local'stakeholders'and'100'face'to'face' interviews' with' a' diverse' group' of' older' people' in' 10' case)study' sites'across'Ireland'and'Northern'Ireland.'Participants'were'recruit) ed'on'the'basis'of'age'(younger'old'and'older'old);'socio)economic' status;'composition'of'household,'gender;'isolation;'health'status;' recent' versus' long)term' residency.' Preliminary' findings' from' this' research'will'be'presented'and'discussed'with'reference'to'individ) ual,'place'and'structural'components'of'social'exclusion.'The'role'of' cumulative'advantage'and'disadvantage'is'also'examined.'

PERCEIVED!INEQUALITIES:!CAUSES!ADVOCATED!BY!

ELDERLY!WOMEN!AND!MEN!IN!TWO!NATIONAL!

CONTEXTS!

Fredrik'Nils'Christian'Snellman

'1

,'Clary'Krekula

'2

'

1

Department' of' Social' Work,' UMEÅ' UNIVERSITY,' Umeå,'

2

Department' of' Social' Studies,' Karlstad' University,' Karlstad,' Swe) den

'

Abstract:'This'paper'focuses'on'elderly’s'perception'of'inequalities.'

The' aim' is' to' illustrate' the' reported' prevalence' of' inequalities' among' elderly' women' and' men' in' Finland' and' Sweden,' and' par) ticularly,' to' examine' perceived' inequalities' based' ongender' and' age.' Elderly' people' are' often'foreclosed' from' quantitative' studies' due'to'unwarranted'expectations'that'they'will'not'be'able'to'fill'in' a'questionnaire.'Hence,'there'is'still'a'lack'of'knowledge'about'how' elderly' in' general' and' subcategories' specifically' perceive' inequali)

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' ties.' Our' approach' is' descriptive,' differential' and' contextual.' In) stead'of'focusing'any'particular'single'inequality'cause,'we'are'ap) plying'a'broader'perspective,'and'thereby'identifying'the'inequality' causes'described'as'most'important.'Data'from'the'GERDA'(GEron) tological' Regional' DAtabase)' population' study,' among' individuals' born'1930'and'1940,'carried'out'in'2005'is'analysed.'

Respondents'were'asked'“do'you'think'that'everybody'has'got'the' same'opportunities'in'today’s'society”.'13,4'%'of'the'respondents' answered'yes,'and'86,6'%'no,'statistically'significant'by'gender'and' age.'Additionally,'if'responding'no,'respondents'were'asked'to'an) swer'the'follow'up'question,'“what'do'you'consider'to'be'the'most' important' causes' for' inequality”' (max' 3' choices).' The' most' fre) quently' mentioned' alternatives' were' illness/disability' (46,3' %),' economy'(44,6'%)'and'education'(42,4'%).'Age'(34,8%)'is'perceived' as' the' fifth' most' important' inequality' cause' and' gender' (23,1%),' surprisingly,' as' the' ninth' most' important.' An' eye)catching' differ) ence'is'observed'between'country'of'residence'and'all'inequalities.'

In'general'the'residents'in'Sweden'report'the'inequalities'to'a'high) er'extent'compared'to'residents'in'Finland.'

In' Sweden,' the' gender' inequality' debate' has' been' especially' in) tense' historically' and' it' still' is.' Anti)discriminatory' legislation' has' also' focused' gender,' while' discrimination' on' the' grounds' of' age' was' prohibited' as' late' as' in' 2009.' In' Finland,' on' the' other' hand,' gender' inequality' is' not,' and' has' not' been,' debated' to' the' same' extent.' Gender' equality' legislation' exists,' and' anti)age) discriminatory' legislation' has' existed' for' a' longer' period' of' time' compared' to' Sweden.' The' empirical' data' reflects' these' national' conditions.' The' subcategory' Swedish' women' report' gender' ine) quality'–'and'Finish'women'age'inequality'–'to'a'considerably'high) er'extent'compared'to'the'other'groups.'

AGING!IN!EUROPE!AND!SPECIALY!IN!SPAIN.!LONGG

TERM!CARES.!SHARE!PROJECT!

Ana'Maria'Lopez'Narbona

1'

1

SOCIOLOGY,'UNIVERSITY'OF'MALAGA,'MALAGA,'Spain

'

Abstract:'As'says'the'World'Bank,'the'EU'member'states'and'spe) cially'Spain'are'facing'a'rapidly'aging'population.'One'of'the'conse) quences'of'these'demographic'changes'is'the'expected'increase'in' demand'among'the'older'population'for'long)term'care'(LTC).'The' future'demand'for'LTC'services'will'be'driven'by'two'factors:'first,' the'size'of'the'older'population'(+65),'especially'the'very'old'(+75)' and'second,'the'percentage'of'older'people'dependent'or'severely' dependent,' and' therefore' requiring' help' with' Activities' of' Daily'

Living'(ADL).'

Specialist'David'Casado'Marin'considers'that'to'date,'both'in'Spain' and'virtually'all'the'other'EU'countries,'dependency'has'been'seen' to'be'a'fundamentally'private'problem'to'be'dealt'with'by'the'fami) ly'concerned.'In'this'way,'whether'through'informal'carers'or'con) tracted' professionals,' in' the' domestic' environment' or' in' care' homes,' it' is' the' dependent' person' themselves' and' their' families' who'currently'bear'the'majority'of'the'costs.'In'light'of'this,'current' concern'lies'in'the'social'change'that'is'coming'on,'mainly'the'ac) celerated'aging'process'and'the'increased'participation'of'middle) aged' women' in' the' labour' market,' which' heighten' the' need' for' collective' organisation' of' that' which' until' now' has' been' resolved' within'family'circles.'

In'this'context,'at'the'same'time'that'the'Government'has'issued'a'

"Long'Term'Care'Law"'in'2006,'I'am'going'to'analyze'the'main'is)

21' sues'such'as'the'dependency'problems'and'its'eventual'future'evo) lution,' the' characteristics' of' the' current' Spanish' long)term' care' system;'the'role'that'health'services'should'have'in'the'dependency' issue;' and' finally,' the' family' involvement' in' long)term' care' of' old' people' and' the' benefits' and' drawbacks' of' the' main' alternatives' that'the'Administration'could'manage'in'case'it'intends'to'increase' its'involvement'in'this'field.'

I'will'analyse'also' the'Survey'of'Health,'Ageing'and'Retirement'in'

Europe'(SHARE)'which'is'a'multidisciplinary'and'cross)national'pan) el' database' of' micro' data' on' health,' socio)economic' status' and' social'and'family'networks'of'more'than'45,000'individuals'aged'50' or'over.'As'said'in'the'web'page'of'SHARE,'it'responds'to'a'Com) munication' by' the' European' Commission' calling' to' "examine' the' possibility' of' establishing,' in' co)operation' with' Member' States,' a'

European'Longitudinal'Ageing'Survey.'

CARING!FOR!OLDER!PEOPLE:!DIVISION!OF!CARE!WORK!

BETWEEN!FAMILY!AND!NONGFAMILY!CARE!

José'São'José

1'

1

CIEO,'UNIVERSITY'OF'ALGARVE,'Faro,'Portugal

'

Abstract:' This' presentation' focuses' on' a' topic' that' has' been' ne) glected' in' previous' research:' the' division' of' care' work' between' family' carers' and' non)family' carers.' An' analytical' framework' that' goes' beyond' the' conventional' models' of' the' interplay' between' informal'and'formal'care'is'used,'which'has'proved'to'be'very'fruit) ful' in' revealing' different' forms' of' division' of' care' work.' The' data' was'gathered'trough'qualitative'research'carried'out'in'the'Lisbon' region.' The' results' show' a' more' complex' picture' than' that' one' depicted'by'the'conventional'models'referred'above.'For'example,' they' show' that' the' specialization' or' differentiation' of' care' work' between' family' and' non)family' carers' assumes' different' degrees'

(strong'or'weak)'and'different'forms'(resulting'from'different'com) binations' of' the' roles' played' by' family' and' non)family' carers' in' terms'of'care'tasks'provided'and'time'spent'in'care'provision).'They' also'demonstrate'that'the'division'of'care'work'is'clearly'shaped'by' the' level' of' financial' resources' available' in' families.' It' is' also' re) vealed' that' family' carers' idealize' to' maintain' the' elders' in' the' community'for'as'long'as'possible'with'the'help'of'extensive'non) family'care.'

PROBLEMS!EMERGING!FROM!ELDERLY!CARE!IN!“CARE!

TRIANGLE”:!ELDERLY!PERSON,!CAREGIVER!AND!CLOSE!

RELATIVES!OF!ELDERS!

Ayse'Canatan

1'

1

SOCİOLOGY,'GAZI'UNIVERSITY,'Ankara,'Turkey

'

Abstract:'Aging,'elderly'people'and'their'care'are'new'concepts'for'

Turkey.'The'ratio'of'older'people'is'7%'in'whole'population.'While' traditional'extended'family'was'maintaining'several'functions'such' as'child'care,'elderly'care'and'some'homemade'productions;'today' modern'nuclear'family'of'the'modern'urban'society'cannot'contin) ue' all' these' functions' because' women' are' working' outside' the' home.'In'this'point,'elderly'care'is'a'problem'of'the'modern'urban' families.'Elderly'care'is'a'difficult'process'for'the'sides'of'“care'tri) angle”.'Elderly'people,'their'close'relatives'and'caregivers'are'ele) ments'of'care'triangle.'All'sides'of'this'triangle'have'different'posi) tions' in' this' care' process.' These' three' sides' of' care' triangle' have' some'problems'and'difficulties'beside'of'the'advantages.'Further)

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

22' more,' elderly' care' is' a' process' which' needs' seven' days' and' 24' hours'demands'foreign'nationality'care'givers.'In'our'research,'this'

“care'triangle”'was'studied'with'32'families'living'in'Ankara'and'in'

Istanbul.'In'this'study,'it'was'made'interviews'with'32'elderly'peo) ple,'32'care'givers'all'are'foreign'nationality'women,'and'43'close' relatives'of'elders.'The'study'will'be'concluded'by'presenting'posi) tive'and'negative'effects'for'each'side'in'elderly'care'process.'This' presentation' mainly' focused' on' problems' or' negative' effects' for' each'three'sides.'

THE!MANY!LIVES!OF!WOMEN!CARING!FOR!AN!

ELDERLY!PARENT!WITH!ALZHEIMER!IN!PORTUGAL!

Sanda'Samitca

1'

1

INSTITUTE' OF' SOCIAL' SCIENCES' UNIVERSITY' OF' LISBON,' Lisbon,'

Portugal

'

Abstract:' Portugal' like' other' European' countries' is' facing' an' in) creasing'number'of'elderly'persons'suffering'from'chronic'disease,' and'Alzheimer's'disease'(AD)'in'particular.'

Focusing'more'specifically'on'daughters,'the'paper'explores'how,'in' a'context'of'a'high'rate'of'female'employment'and'low'availability' of' services,' women' do' experience' and' face' the' situation,' both' at' the'practical'and'symbolic'levels.'

Drawing'on'qualitative'interviews'with'daughters'providing'care'to' one'of'their'parent'with'AD'while'working,'we'investigate'what'are' the'main'care'arrangements'set'up'by'families.'

Adopting' a' work)life' balance' perspective,' the' analysis' highlights' different' patterns' of' caregiving,' according' to' how' the' child' faces' this'new'situation'and'defines'new'ways'of'being'together'in'a'situ) ation'of'loss'of'references.'Those'patterns'are'also'linked'to'various' attitudes'toward'formal'care'services.'We'examine'the'main'diffi) culties' carers' have' to' face,' the' coping' strategies' they' develop,' as' well'as'the'different'patterns'of'reconciling'work'and'care.'

We' will' show' how,' in' order' to' face' the' caring' needs' of' persons' suffering'from'AD,'complex'care'arrangements'are'required.'More) over,' in' order' to' reconcile' work' and' care,' both' demanding' tasks,' daughters'rely'upon'various'kind'of'support.'Care'arrangements'are' organized' most' often' by' combining' informal' and' formal' care,' in' and'outside'the'house,'in'a'complementary'form.'

The'paper'will'also'present'how'caring'while'working'is'highly'chal) lenging' and' has' important' repercussions' on' carers’' personal' and' social' lives,' as' well' as' on' their' professional' lives.' However,' most' often'family'plays'a'central'role'and'is'willing'to'assure'this'crucial' task' even' when' working.' In' fact,' although' working' induces' con) straints,'it'is'also'mentioned'as'a'resource'to'face'the'caring'situa) tion.'

WORKING!CAREGIVERS!AMONG!POLISH!POPULATION!

50+!

Jolanta'Perek)Bialas

'1

,'Justyna'Stypinska

'1

,'Konrad'Turek

1'

1

Institute'of'Sociology,'JAGIELLONIAN'UNIVERSITY,'Krakow,'Poland

'

Abstract:'The'presentation'focuses'on'the'group'of'carers'aged'50' and'more,'with'a'special'regard'paid'to'the'group'of'working'carers' in'comparison'to'the'non)working'cares.'

Abstract'Book'

Poland' may' in' the' future' face' a' serious' problem' of' provision' of' informal'(via'family'networks,'family'members)'and'as'well'formal' care'services'(not'sufficient'system'of'institutions'providing'elderly' care,' which' additionally' are' not' very' positively' perceived' by' the' society)'for'older'people'on'sufficient'level.'The'presentation'joins' to'the'discussion'about'the'role'of'individuals'50+'in'adult'care'and' elderly'care'in'Poland,'the'effects'of'caregiving'for'carers'and'how' it'might'evolve'in'the'future'while'care'demand'will'increase.'What' impact'do'the'care'responsibilities'have'on'the'labour'market'par) ticipation' of' caregivers' aged' 50)plus' in' Poland?' What' impact' do' care' responsibilities' have' on' everyday' life' of' the' caregivers?' In' what' way' does' the' reconciliation' of' work' and' care' influence' the' psychical'and'psychological'wellbeing'of'the'carers?'

The'analysis'shed'some'light'on'better'comprehension'of'the'situa) tion' of' working' caregivers' and' the' problem' of' reconciliation' of' work'and'care'in'Poland.'Regression'modeling'provides'clear'con) clusion' that' the' likelihood' of' being' sad' and' depressed' is' much' higher'in'the'situation'of'dual'burden'or'work'and'care,'rather'than' in'situation'of'single'burden')'either'work'or'care.'As'many'working' carers'are'not'able'to'quit'work'or'care,'the'direction'for'improve) ment' of' their' situation' would' be' to' introduce' solutions' helping' them' combine' these' obligations.' Such' improvements' could' be' in) troduced' by' employers,' local' and' central' governments,' welfare' care'systems,'health'care'institutions,'or'private'companies.'

The'presentation'presents'data'and'results'(for'Poland)'of'few'in) ternational' projects.' Firstly,' it' refers' to' the' results' of' qualitative' project' “Carers' @' Work”' (aimed' at' working' carers).' Secondly,' it' uses'data'from'ASPA'quantitative'survey'(first'such'big,'nationwide' survey' among' Polish' employers' about' older' workers).' Thirdly,' it' bases'on'data'from'SHARE'survey'(international'survey'on'popula) tion'50+).'

THE!FORMAL!AND!INFORMAL!CAREGIVERS:!

COMPARATIVE!ANALYSIS!BETWEEN!THE!FAMILY!AND!

INSTITUTIONAL!CONTEXTS!

Telma'Maria'Queiros

'1,'2*

,'Maria'do'Céu'Ribeiro

1'

1

Department' of' Practical' Pedagogical' Supervision,' POLYTECHNIC'

INSTITUTE' OF' BRAGANÇA,' Bragança,'

University'of'Porto,'Porto,'Portugal

'

2

CIFI2D,' Faculty' of' Sport' )'

Abstract:! Population' aging' has' become' an' emerging' problem' in' society.'The'combination'of'several'factors'led'to'an'increase'in'life' expectancy,'which'is'reflected'in'a'number'of'people'with'a'more' advanced' age' and' therefore' more' dependent.' Thus,' this' led' to' greater' demands' for' formal' and' informal' support.' In' this' sense,' with' this' study' we' aimed' to' (i)' know' the' type' of' care' which' are' provided' to' the' older' people,' by' Formal' and' Informal' Caregivers;'

(ii)' understand' the' perspective' of' Formal' and' Informal' Caregivers' about' the' care' provided,' in' family' and' institutional' contexts;' (iii)' identify'the'main'difficulties'involved'in'providing'care'for'the'For) mal'and'Informal'Caregivers'and'(iv)'identify'the'support'(e.g.'so) cial,'technical)'that'are'delivered'to'the'caregivers.'!

This' study' used' two' questionnaire' surveys.' A' survey' consisting' of' thirteen' closed' questions' was' applied' to' ten' Formal' Caregivers'

(FCs),'employees'of'a'Private'Institution'of'Social'Solidarity,'in'a'city' of' the' north' of' Portugal.' Both' were' female,' aged' between' 20)59' years.' The' second' survey' consisted' of' fourteen' closed' questions' and'was'applied'also'to'ten'Informal'Caregivers'(ICs),'living'in'the' rural' area' of' the' same' city.' Nine' were' female' and' one' was' male,'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' aged' between' 40)65' years.' A' comparative' statistical' analysis' was' used.''

Results' had' show' that' the' FCs' provides' social' and' physical' care,' while'the'ICs'provide'emotional'and'physical'care.'Participants'con) sider' as' priority' care,' physiological,' psychological' and' social' care.'

FCs' appointed' two' reasons' to' exercise' this' function:' like' to' work' with'older'people'and'like'to'feel'competent.'For'the'ICs,'the'rea) sons'are'being'familiars'of'the'elderly'and'therefore'feel'they'have' the' obligation' and' duty' to' exercise' that' function.' Both' indicated' that' the' main' difficulty' is' the' physical' fatigue.' Moreover,' the' FCs' point'to'a'lack'of'cooperation'from'the'elderly'and'ICs'indicate'the' lack' of' housing' conditions' and' technical' support.' Despite' these' issues,' they' consider' institutionalization' as' an' alternative.' They' believe'that'the'elderly'are'satisfied'with'the'care'provided.'

PARTICIPATION!IN!LEISURE!ACTIVITIES!AMONG!

PORTUGUESE!OLDER!ADULTS!

Paula'Jerónimo

'1

,'Pedro'Alcântara'Silva

'1,'2

,'Pedro'Moura'Ferreira

'2

Manuel'Villaverde'Cabral

'1,'2

'

,'

1

Instituto'do'Envelhecimento')'UL,'

2

Instituto'de'Ciências'Sociais'da'

Universidade'de'Lisboa,'Lisboa,'Portugal

'

Abstract:'This'paper'explore'the'impact'of'social'networks'on'the' uses' of' free' time' on' leisure' and' social' activities' throughout' the' aging'process,'giving'particular'attention'to'the'processes'of'transi) tion,' particularly' in' the' transition' to' retirement,' widowhood' or' even'for'situations'of'dependency'caused'by'health'problems.'

The'data'were'collected'from'eight'focus'groups'and'from'a'repre) sentative'survey'of'the'Portuguese'population'over'50'years,'con) ducted' within' the' research' project:/ Ageing/ processes/ in/ Portugal:/

time/ use,/ social/ networks/ and/ living/ conditions/ of' the' Institute' of'

Aging,'University'of'Lisbon.'

The'analysis'identifies'the'diversity'of'trajectories'and'transitions'to' retirement,'as'well'the'differential'impact'on'the'reconfiguration'of' recreation' and' leisure' occupations' of' individuals' from' different' social' groups.' The' survey' shows' that' the' practice' of' leisure' and' social'activities'varies'depending'on'the'configuration'of'their'social' networks,'which'result'are'related'with'social'demographic'attrib) utes,'such'as'gender,'education'and'social'economic'status.'Finally,' the'results'suggest'a'strong'association'between'engaging'in'leisure' activities'and'social'activities'and'quality'of'life'of'individuals.'

RETIRED!WOMEN!IN!FRANCE!:!BETWEEN!

VOLUNTEERING!AND!FAMILY!INVOLVEMENT!

Melissa'Petit

1'

1

University'Paris'Descartes,'Paris,'France

'

Abstract:'In'the'collective'imagination,'the'world'of'women'is'one' of'giving'and'relationships.'This'quality'as'donor,'women'are'tradi) tionally'confined'to'the'domestic'sphere.'This'way'of'thinking'was' imported'into'the'public'sphere'and'they'are'now'expected'to'act' through'volunteering.'At'retirement,'the'individual'is'faced'with'a' hand'full'of'time,'and'may,'if'desired,'adjust'his'time'by'incorporat) ing'various'activities,'including'volunteering'and'helping'relatives.'

The' communication' will' aim' to' tackle' the' question' of' structuring' the'time'of'retired'women,'whose'gift'is'one'of'their'characteris) tics,' both' in' terms' of' the' public' sphere' with' the' volunteering' as'

23' well'as'the'private'sphere'with'the'family'involvement.'The'time'for' retired'women'is'likely'to'be'organized'around'these'two'forms'of' engagement'and'new'forms'of'interaction'they'prefer.'

We'ask'ourselves'the'daily'impact'volunteering'has'on'retirees,'and' how'they'articulate'and'reconcile'that'commitment'with'potential' family'involvement.'By'examining'their'life'course'and'the'organiza) tion'of'their'time,'we'seek'to'answer'these'questions.'

SOCIAL!CAPITAL!OF!THE!ELDERLY!IN!POSTG

COMMUNIST!COUNTRIES!ON!THE!EXAMPLE!OF!

POLISH!ACTIVISTS!IN!CATHOLIC!ORGANIZATIONS!

Stella'Grotowska

1'

1

Institute' of' Sociology,' UNIVERSITY' OF' WROCŁAW,' Wrocław,' Po) land

'

Abstract:' Engagement' in' various' community' organizations' may' expand'social'network'of'the'elderly'and'contribute'to'reduction'of' their'social'isolation.'The'problem'is'of'increasing'importance'in'the' face'of'demographic'tendencies'emerging'in'the'western'world.'

Social'networks'may'be'examined'in'view'of'the'support'and'care' that' they' may' provide' for' the' elderly' free' of' charge' (where' the' elderly' appear' to' be' recipients).' Application' of' the' perspective' of' the' social' capital' allows' to' notice' that' the' elderly' perceive' them) selves'as'members'of'partnership'networks'that'transgress'in'their' intentions'(and'sometimes'in'their'consequences)'particular'inter) ests'of'individuals'and'their'nearest'environment,'and'expectations' that' they' have' of' religious' movements,' community' groups' and' organizations'concern'mainly'other'cases.'

Situation'of'the'elderly'in'Poland'differs'from'that'of'their'peers'in' western'countries:'(i)'Although'they'are'equal'in'their'level'of'edu) cation,' their' education' activity' is' less' intensive.' Reasons' for' the' situation'do'not'pertain'to'legal'regulations,'but'social'norms'–'it'is' said'that'youth'is'the'appropriate'time'for'studies.'(ii)'The'engage) ment'in'local'communities'of'the'elderly'in'Poland'is'typically'rather' low,'they'hardly'enter'the'public'space,'save'for'healthcare'related' institutions'(medical'centers,'hospitals).'(iii)'Problems'of'this'group' are' rarely' presented' in' media,' and' even' if' they' appear,' they' are' influenced'by'the'old'age'negative'stereotype.'(iv)'Their'problems' rarely'become'a'focus'for'politicians.'

Since' religion' and' religious' structures' –' related' to' the' Church' or' religious'denominations'–'are'one'of'the'enclaves'of'public'space,' where'presence'of'the'elderly'seems'–'also'to'themselves'–'natural,'

I'am'going'to'analyze:'(i)'the'process'of'the'social'capital'emerging' as'a'result'of'participation'of'the'elderly'in'religious'organizations;'

(ii)' social' consequences' of' that' process' (for' the' participants,' local' communities,'the'society).'

THE!ACTIVATING!AND!MARGINALIZING!FUNCTIONS!

OF!THE!UNIVERSITIES!OF!THE!THIRD!AGE.!THE!POLISH!

CASE!

Paulina'Świątek

'1

,'Małgorzata'Rakoczy

1'

1

Departament' of' Sociology' and' Social' Anthropolgy,' AGH'

UNIVERSITY'OF'SCIENCE'AND'TECHNOLOGY,'Cracow,'Poland

'

Abstract:'Nowadays,'the'Universities'of'the'Third'Age'(UTA)'are'one' of'the'most'popular'forms'of'continuing'social'and'intellectual'ac) tivity'in'retirement.'Currently,'only'in'Poland'there'are'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

24' almost'110'UTAs,'which'constitute'an'important'form'of'spending' free'time'for'a'constantly'growing'group'of'seniors.'

Without'a'doubt,'the'UTAs'are'specifically'designed'for'the'seniors’' activation.' They' help' the' old' people' maintain' intellectual' activity' and' build' interactional' networks.' Rarely' is' it' noted' that' in' a' less' visible' way' they' may' contribute' to' the' marginalization' of' seniors.'

Examples'of'such'marginalization'may'be:'specific'subjects'of'clas) ses,' which' focuses' almost' only' on' the' problems' stereotypically' linked'with'ageing,'isolation'of'seniors'from'other'age'groups,'lack' of' adaptation' classes' and' the' dysfunction' of' the' lecture' halls,' so' the'services'seem'to'be'directed'mostly'to'the'healthy'and'efficient' seniors,'and'therefore,'may'marginalize'those'who'need'activation' the' most' (thus' we' have' two' different' types' of' marginalization:' within' UTAs' and' between' UTA' students' and' society' ).' Polish' re) search'literature'on'the'UTA'is'still'not'impressive.'However,'exist) ing'titles'are'primarily'analytical,'enthusiastically'referring'to'UTAs' activities.'Possible'marginalizing'actions'in'their'work'are'complete) ly'ignored.'

The'aim'of'the'paper'is'to'defend'the'thesis'that'the'UTA'serve'next' to' the' activation' also' marginalizing' functions.' Key' research' ques) tions' focus' not' only' on' real' activating' potential' of' the' UTAs,' but' also'on'the'other'side'of'such'institutions,'which'is'a'special'kind'of' marginalization' of' the' elderly' and' whether' the' profit' from' their' activities' for' seniors' is' higher' than' the' potential' costs.' Answering' these' questions' is' particularly' important' in' the' context' of' an' in) creasing'number'of'elderly'people'in'Polish'society.'Results'of'anal) ysis'will'be'compared'with'the'activity'of'UTAs'in'other'European' countries.'

Empirical'material'was'gathered'by'the'in)depth'interviews'with'the'

UTA'students'and'lecturers,'participant'observation'and'data'analy) sis.'Triangulation'of'research'methods'can'contribute'to'the'com) prehensive'analysis'of'this'phenomenon.Description'of'the'educa) tional'service'market'provided'by'the'UTA'will'be'made'on'the'ex) ample'of'Krakow'–'the'city'in'which'there'is'the'largest'concentra) tion'of'such'institutions'in'Poland.'

OLDER!AGE!AND!LIFESTYLES!IN!SPAIN!

Elena'Del'Barrio

' 1 mora

'2

,'Mayte'Sancho

' 1

,'Javier'Yanguas

'2

'

,'Pura'Díaz)Veiga

' 1

,'Gerardo'Za)

1

INGEMA,'Madrid,'

2

INGEMA,'San'Sebastian,'Spain

'

Abstract:'Daily'life'is'the'succession'of'activities'carried'out'regular) ly'by'the'individual.'The'social'and'economic'functioning'of'society' and'its'development'depend'of'the'activities'that'people'do'in'their' normal'life.'As'well,'the'study'of'habits'can'be'use'as'a'quality'of' life' indicator.' We' use' here' the' definition' of' lifestyle' according' to'

Dumazedier'(1965),'who'states'that'a'lifestyle'is'the'personal'form' how'everyone'organises'his'daily'life,'in'relation'to'his'usual'activi) ties.'

This' paper' focuses' on' lifestyles' in' old' age' and' their' relationship' with'socio)demographics'and'wellbeing'variables.'For'the'purpose' of'this'paper,'we'analyze'the'Survey'of'Living'Conditions'in'old'age' from'Spain'in'2006'(sample:'3,537'people,'+65)'and'used'multivari) able'statistics'techniques:'factorial'and'k)means'clustering.'

Data' analysis' results' were' categorised' in' six' different' lifestyles' in' old'age'in'Spain;'which'were'classed'according'to:'(a)'activity'types'

(dynamic,'sedentary,'leisure'time,'support)'(b)'social'network'(fre) quency' contacts),' (c)' wellbeing' variables' (emotions,' satisfactions,' values),' (d)' socio)demographical' variables' (sex,' age,' education,'

Abstract'Book' household'type)'and'(e)'health'(perceived'health'status,'dependen) cy).' Lifestyles' coming' out' from' the' analysis' were:' 1.' Dynamic)

Engagement,'2.'Social'leisure)Engagement,'3.'Support)Engagement,'

4.' Sedentary)Engagement,' 5.' Sedentary)Proximity' Engagement,' 6.'

Sedentary)Disengagement.'

There'are'different'lifestyles'in'old'age;'older'people'are'very'het) erogeneous'between'them,'countering'the'stereotypes'about'them' in'Spain'(uniformity,'passivity).'The'new'generations'of'older'peo) ple' are' active;' they' carry' out' a' lot' of' things' in' their' daily' life' and' have'internalized'the'“active'aging”'motto.'We'found'that'there'is'a' tendency' toward' autonomy;' which' is' a' new' value' in' spread.' The' new' generations' of' older' people' are' active,' self)governing,' and' participate'in'society.'

QUALITY!OF!LIFE,!WELLBEING!AND!LEISURE!ACTIVITIES!

AMONG!OLDER!ADULTS!IN!SPAIN!

Gloria' Fernandez)Mayoralas

' 1

,' Fermina' Rojo)Perez

' 1

Bosque

'2

,'Maria)Joao'Forjaz

'3

,'Pablo'Martinez)Martin

'4

,' Raul' Lardies)

'

1

Institute' of' Economics,' Geography' and' Demography,' Centre' for'

Human' and' Social' Sciences,' Spanish' National' Research' Council'

(IEGD,'CCHS,'CSIC),'Madrid,'

2

Department'of'Geography'and'Spatial'

3

National'School'of' Management,'University'of'Zaragoza,'Zaragoza,'

Public' Health' and' Consortium' for' Biomedical' Research' in' Neuro) degenerative'Diseases'(CIBERNED),'

4

Research'Unit,'Alzheimer'Cen) tre' Reina' Sofia' Foundation,' and' Consortium' for' Biomedical' Re) search' in' Neurodegenerative' Diseases' (CIBERNED),' Carlos' III' Insti) tute'of'Health,'Madrid,'Spain

'

Abstract:'Quality'of'Life'(QoL)'is'a'framework'for'research'of'great' interest'to'get'criteria'to'be'used'by'policymakers'for'the'mainte) nance' and' improvement' of' living' conditions' of' the' population.' In' this' sense,' leisure' activities,' particularly' those' made' after' retire) ment'when'individuals'have'more'spare'time,'can'be'an'important' source' of' satisfaction' and' personal' wellbeing' (Lardies)Bosque,'

2011).'

The'aim'of'this'study'is'to'identify'and'assess'the'influence'of'lei) sure,'as'one'of'the'five'most'relevant'QoL'domains'in'old'age'(Fer) nandez)Mayoralas' et' al.,' 2011),' on' subjective' well)being,' in' the' context' of' other' QoL' domains' such' as' health,' family,' economic' resources'and'social'network,'and'obtain'a'typology'of'people'ac) cording' to' the' leisure' activities' they' perform,' their' health,' their' family'and'social'contacts,'their'economic'resources'and'their'basic' demographic'and'residential'characteristics.'

The' data' come' from' a' nationally' representative' sample' of' 1,106' community)dwelling' adults' aged' 60' years' and' over' residents' in'

Spain'(CadeViMa)Spain,'2008)'with'no'cognitive'deficit'according'to'

Pfeiffer's' Short' Portable' Mental' Status' Questionnaire' (Pfeiffer,'

1975).'Representative'variables'on'objective'living'conditions'have' been'selected'in'each'of'the'QoL'domains:'EQ)5D'(health'and'func) tioning),'frequency'of'contacts'with'family'and'friends'(family'and' social' network),' level' of' income' (economic' resources),' as' well' as' socio)demographics' (age,' sex)' and' residential' characteristics' (ac) cessibility'to'neighbourhood'services).'Leisure'activities'have'been' grouped' into' five' groups:' active' leisure' (physical),' passive' leisure,' cultural'leisure,'social'leisure,'and'travel'and'tourism.'To'measure' the'level'of'subjective'wellbeing'the'Personal'Wellbeing'Index'will' be'used'(International'Wellbeing'Group,'2006).'Bivariate'and'multi) variate'analysis'will'be'run'to'get'the'aims'(Regression'and'Cluster'

Analysis).'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

(*)'Authorship'on'behalf'of'the'Spanish'Research'Group'on'Quality' of'Life'and'Ageing:'G.Fernandez)Mayoralas;'F.Rojo)Perez;'K.Ahmed)

Mohamed;' R.Lardies)Bosque;' M.J.' Forjaz;' P.Martinez)Martin;' M.E.'

Prieto)Flores;'C.Rodriguez)Blazquez;'B.Frades)Payo;'A.Ayala)Garcia;'

C.Delgado)Sanz.'

Research' fund:' R&D&i' Plan:' SEJ2006)15122)C02)01' and' SEJ2006)

15122)C02)02.'

DETERMINANTS!OF!HOMEGOWNERSHIP!AND!THE!

VALUE!OF!HOUSING!AMONG!ELDERLY!EUROPEANS!

Nora'Müller

'1

,'Kathrin'Kolb

'1

,'Hans)Peter'Blossfeld

1'

1

Chair'of'Sociology'I,'UNIVERSITY'OF'BAMBERG,'Bamberg,'Germany

'

Abstract:' Home)ownership' is' of' great' importance' for' the' wealth' positions'of'households'and'therefore'influences'patterns'of'social' inequalities.' The' aim' of' our' article' is' (1)' to' uncover' mechanisms' related' to' socio)economic' household' characteristics' which' cause' differences' regarding' the' home)ownership' rate' across' Europe' as' well'as'to'(2)'understand'variations'in'the'value'of'housing'between' and'within'European'countries.'The'study'emphasizes'the'existence' of' two' steps' of' inequality' regarding' home)ownership.' The' first' steps' concerns' the' division' of' a' country’s' population' into' owners' and'non)owners'and'the'second'step'concerns'differences'in'hous) ing' wealth' within' the' population' of' owners.' Analyses' with' data' from' the' “Survey' of' Health,' Ageing' and' Retirement' in' Europe”'

(SHARE)' reveal' that' the' probability' of' home)ownership' of' the' el) derly' strongly' varies' across' European' countries,' but' also' within' countries'following'socioeconomic,'family,'and'migrant'characteris) tics.'Notable'differences'are'also'observable'for'the'value'of'hous) ing' indicating' the' existence' of' social' inequalities' even' within' the' group'of'home)owners.'So'far'we'could'show'that'one'can'differen) tiate'between'four'groups'of'countries.'(1)'In'a'first'group'(e.g.'DE,'

NL)' being' a' home)owner' is' strongly' affected' by' socio)economic' factors.' Therefore' becoming' a' home)owner' seems' to' be' difficult.'

But'for'the'group'of'home)owners'there'are'only'slight'differences' in' the' value' of' housing.' This' means' whereas' the' first' step' of' ine) quality'is'rather'high,'the'second'step'is'pretty'easy'to'manage.'(2)'

In'a'second'group'(e.g.'SE)'it'is'just'the'other'way'round:'Whereas' becoming' a' home' owner' seems' rather' easy,' the' value' of' housing' strongly' differs' between' different' population' groups' (e.g.' income' groups).'So'inequality'in'housing'concentrates'on'differences'in'the' value' of' housing.' (3)' In' a' third' group' of' countries' (e.g.' CH)' both' steps'are'very'hard'to'climb.'And'finally'(4)'there'is'a'forth'group'

(AT,'CZ)'where'inequality'is'comparatively'low'both'in'the'chance'of' being'a'home)owner'as'well'as'with'regard'to'the'housing'value.'

FRIEND!OR!FOR?!AN!AGE!PERSPECTIVE!ON!GENDER!

MAINSTREAMING!

Clary'Krekula

1'

1

Dept'of'social'studies,'KARLSTAD'UNIVERSITY,'Karlstad,'Sweden

'

Abstract:' Gender' mainstreaming' has' been' defined' as' a' strategy' which'aims'to'bring'about'gender'equality.'The'concept'emphasizes' that'we'must'bear'in'mind'the'different'consequences'that'legisla) tion'and'action'plans'can'have'for'women'and'men.'Since'the'con) cept' was' first' proposed' in' 1985,' the' vocabulary' has' been' broadly' adopted' internationally.' However,' there' are' various' levels' of' im) plementation'and'progress.'In'both'the'political'and'academic'de) bates' the' differences' are' substantial,' for' example' with' respect' to'

25' the' formulation' of' goals' and' how' other' bases' for' inequality' are' addressed.' In' this' paper,' I' discuss' the' strategy' from' an' intersec) tional'perspective'by'way'of'analysing'how'gender'equality'and'age' based'equality'interact.'By'referring'to'qualitative'data'I'shed'light' on' how' different' applications' of' gender' mainstreaming' can' both' maintain' and' challenge' asymmetrical' age' relations.' In' so' doing,' theoretical'tensions'and'research'frameworks'will'be'reconsidered.'

INHERITANCES!AND!INEQUALITY:!NEW!PERSPECTIVES!

ON!AN!OLD!SUBJECT!

Harald'Künemund

1'

1

Institute' for' Gerontology,' UNIVERSITY' OF' VECHTA,' Vechta,' Ger) many

'

Abstract:'Recent'research'on'intergenerational'transfers'shows'that' the'transfer'of'financial'resources'from'parents'to'children'remains' important'throughout'the'life'course,'both'as'inter/vivos'transfers' and'as'bequests.'This'influence'is'unequal,'however;'some'children' profit' from' transfers' while' others' do' not.' Both' common' sense' knowledge'and'a'large'body'of'literature'argue'in'favor'of'a'Mat) thew'effect:'These'transfer'favor'children'who'are'better'off'and,' hence,' increase' inequality.' It' has' also' been' argued' that' find' that' inter' vivos' transfers' tend' to' go' to' the' more' needy' children' of' a' family'and,'in'consequence,'reduce'inequality.'But'as'inheritances' are'usually'divided'equally'between'all'children,'the'societal'picture' seems' to' be' clear:' Those' who' already' have' resources' are' more' likely'to'receive'a'bequest,'and'they'are'more'likely'to'receive'larg) er'amounts'of'wealth.'

New'empirical'findings'based'on'a'longitudinal'analysis'of'the'Ger) man'Socio)economic'Panel'allow'for'a'more'detailed'account.'It'will' be' shown' that' the' three' possible' interpretations' a)' inheritances' increase' social' inequality,' b)' inheritances' reduce' social' inequality,' and' c)' social' inequality' is' widely' unaffected' by' inheritances,' are' valid' at' the' same' time.' These' findings' contradict' both' common' sense'knowledge'and'a'large'body'of'scientific'literature.'It'will'be' argued'that'the'main'reasons'for'these'contractions'are'imprecise' definitions' of' inequality' (absolute' values' vs.' relative' distributions)' and' imprecise' determination' of' the' target' population' (cohorts' of' children'vs.'cross)sectional'samples)'in'both'cases.'

While'large'transfers'and'bequests'show'a'clear'Matthew'effect'by' going' disproportionately' to' children' who' are' already' better' off,' they' seem' to' be' be' particularly' valuable' for' the' less' well' off' for' whom'they'form'a'larger'share'of'current'income'and'wealth,'and' may'help'them'not'only'to'make'ends'meet'but'even'to'accumulate' some'small'wealth.'Large'transfers'and'bequests'are'a'way'of'ex) tending' parental' status' transmission' to' children' well' into' the' lat) ter’s' old' age,' and' thus' contribute' to' preserving' status' inequality' from' the' parents’' to' the' children’s' generation.' But' this' does' not' mean' that' they' increase' overall' relative' wealth' inequality;' under' the' conditions' of' distribution' and' taxation' valid' in' Germany,' for' example,'they'tend'to'make'the'societal'wealth'distribution'some) what'less'unequal.'

SITUATION!OF!OLDER!GENERATIONS!BASED!ON!EUG

SILC!IN!SELECTED!CENTRAL!AND!EASTERN!EUROPEAN!

COUNTRIES!

Jolanta'Perek)Bialas

1'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

26'

1

WARSAW' SCHOOL' OF' ECONOMICS/JAGIELLONIAN' UNIVERSITY,'

Kraków,'Poland

'

Abstract:'This'paper'offers'a'unique'overview'and'joint'comparison' of' some' countries' of' Central' and' Eastern' Europe' (CEE):' Poland,'

Lithuania,' Hungary,' Czech' Republic,' Slovakia,' Latvia,' Estonia' by' presenting'the'socio)economic'situation'of'older'generations'using' the'EU)SILC'2007'and'2008'data.'Information'about'the'older'gen) eration'could'be'presented'using'i.e.'SHARE'but'only'from'the'age' of' 50+,' and' we' would' like' also' to' compare' some' of' these' results' with' younger' generations' (not' only' below' 65' but' also' below' 50' years'old).'

Recent'SHARE'data'is'also'a'good'source'of'analysis'of'the'popula) tion' 50+' but' again' there' is' a' limited' source' of' comparison' for' all' countries'in'the'CEE'as'in'Wave'2nd'(2006)'only'the'Czech'Republic' and'Poland'were'included.'

Therefore'the'aim'of'preparing'this'paper'is'to'check'if'the'EU)SILC' surveys'could'be'used'in'an'analysis'of'the'situation'of'older'per) sons'and'the'consequences'of'population'ageing.'Currently,'there' are' a' lot' of' indicators' by' gender' and' by' age' (including' different' ages)'available'via'EUROSTAT’s'web'page.'However,'not'all'of'them' are'interesting'from'the'comprehensive'and'more'in)depth'analysis' of' the' socio)economics' of' ageing.' So' having' the' possibility' to' use' individual'data'from'EU)SILC'2007'and'2008,'there'were'more'anal) ysis'(including'multivariate'data'analysis,'analysis'of'similarities'and' differences'between'countries)'performed.'

We'focus'on'the'overall'economic'situation'and'living'conditions'of' older'persons.'We'are'not'only'focused'on'income,'poverty'or'living' conditions,' but' rather' on' cross' topics' to' show' the' results' for' the' group'of'interest'(with'a'comparison'to'the'younger'one)'according' to' two' approaches:' 1)' first,' the' presentation' of' the' situation' of' a' household'with'an'older'member'(using'the'household'interview),' and'2)'second,'the'situation'of'older'persons'(using'personal'inter) views).'

In'this'respect,'the'whole'analysis'is'crucial'to'assess'the'quality'and' usefulness' of' the' EU)SILC' in' presentation' the' situation' of' older' generation'of'Central'and'Eastern'European'countries.'We'present' the'comprehensive'analysis'of'the'situation'of'an'ageing'population' with' stress' not' only' on' just' the' presentation' of' some' results,' but' mainly'focusing'on'the'missing'gaps'in'data/information'by'offering' an'analysis'of'those'gaps'with'recommendations'for'data'collection' systems'to'facilitate'future'international'comparisons.'

AGING!IN!SWITZERLAND:!PROGRESS!AND!

INEQUALITIES!

Catherine'Ludwig

'1

,'Stefano'Cavalli

'1

,'Michel'Oris

1'

1

C.I.G.,'UNIVERSITY'OF'GENEVA,'Carouge,'Switzerland

'

Abstract:'In'this'communication,'we'present'“/Vivre///Leben///Vivere/

' (VLV)' a' large' interdisciplinary' survey' addressing' the' life' and' health'conditions'of'individuals'aged'65'and'above'living'in'Switzer) land.'This'survey'is'the'third'wave'of'a'study'initiated'in'1979,'repli) cated'in'1994/5,'and'run'in'the'canton'of'Geneva'and'in'the'Central'

Valais,'two'French)speaking'areas.'In'2011,'VLV'extends'the'original' design'to'the'German'and'Italian)speaking'areas'of'Switzerland.'As' a'whole,'the'survey'targets'a'representative'sample'of'4’200'indi) viduals,'stratified'by'age'and'sex.'Quantitative'data'are'collected'by' means'of'one'questionnaire'and'one'interview'addressing'multiple' spheres'of'the'individuals''life,'including'social'relations,'participa) tion' and' values,' as' well' as' physical' and' psychological' health,' all'

Abstract'Book' considered' as' interacting' resources' available' to' the' individuals' to' manage'and'deal'with'life'constraints.'A'life'calendar'is'also'used'to' grasp'major'past'life'events,'and'provide'hints'of'life'course'trajec) tories.'The'objectives'of'VLV'are'twofold:'first'it'aims'at'providing' an' updated' view' of' life' and' health' conditions' of' the' population' aged'65'and'above'in'Switzerland,'with'a'major'concern'in'address) ing'diversity'and'inequalities.'Second,'VLV'aims'at'comparing'these' actual' conditions' to' those' reported' in' 1979' and' 1994/5,' hence' proving' means' to' address' the' sustainability' of' the' positive' trends' reported' previously.' In' the' face' of' the' fast' changing' times' and' growing'demography'of'the'aged'population,'VLV'is'a'rare'oppor) tunity'in'Europe'to'acquire'exhaustive'and'cardinal'knowledge'on' the' heterogeneity' of' the' life' conditions' of' the' aged' and' their' changes'over'the'past'30'years.'

“I’M!TOO!OLD!TO!WORK!BUT!TOO!YOUNG!TO!

RETIRE”:!INVOLUNTARY!JOB!LOSS!IN!MIDDLE!AGE!

MEN!

Rita'Borges'Neves

'1

,'Alice'Delerue'Matos

1'

1

Research'Centre'for'the'Social'Sciences,'University'of'Minho,'Bra) ga,'Portugal

'

Abstract:' To' the' working' classes' in' occidental' societies' paid' work' traditionally'guarantees'the'fulfilment'of'basic'needs,'is'central'to' identity'and'enables'a'sense'of'control.'In'fact'unemployment'not' only' can' deprive' from' material' goods' but' also' cause' depressive' feelings,'anxiety'and'low'self)esteem'(1,'2).'For'older'breadwinners' economically' dependent' on' paid' work,' involuntary' job' loss' may' represent' an' early' labor' market' exclusion(3).' Bering' that' in' mind,' how'can'middle'age'men'responses'to'involuntary'job'loss'be'un) derstood?'

This'study'intends'to'shed'some'light'on'this'overlooked'topic'as'it' approaches' the' impacts' of' involuntary' job' loss' on' older' and' less' qualified'actives'in'terms'of'wellbeing'and'self'(re)definition.'

Life'histories'were'collected'through'semi)structured'interviews'on'

10'unemployed'blue)collar'Portuguese'men'over'55'years'old.'The' interviewees'had'been'made'redundant'less'than'a'year'ago.'

Results'show'that'unemployment'impacts'on'wellbeing'and'self'are' less' negative' when' i)' there' is' absence' of' significant' financial' en) gagements'(as'mortgages);'ii)'the'event'is'perceived'as'empowering' as'it'releases'from'work;'iii)'“retired”'or'“pre)retired”'and'not'“un) employed”'status'is'interiorized;'iv)'individuals'are'less'resistant'to' see'themselves'as'“old”.'

Labour'market'status'is'deeply'intertwined'with'different'stages'in' the'life'cycle'and'for'these'interviewees'ageing'“naturally”'implies' the'disengagement'from'adulthood'roles'such'as'work.'However'as' an' early' exclusion' from' the' labour' market,' unemployment' is' per) ceived' as' treason' to' a' social' pact' of' work' availability' and' a' “nor) mal”'life)course.'Some'of'the'negative'effects'of'unemployment'on' wellbeing'can'be'diverted'when'an'aged'identity'is'incarnated'and' this'event'is'incorporated'as'part'of'the'ageing'“natural”'process.'

1.'Fryer,'D.(1988).'The'experience'of'Unemployment'in'Social'Con) text.'In'Fisher,'S'&'Reason,'J.'Handbook'of'Life'Stress,'Cognition'and'

Health.'John'Wiley'&Sons'Ltd'(211)232)'

2.'Bartley,'M,'Ferrie,'J'&'Montgomery,'S.'(2006).'Health'and'labour' market'disadvantages.'In'Marmot,'M.'&'Wilkinson,'R.'Social'Deter) minants'of'Health,'New'York,'Oxford'University'Press'(78)95);'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

3.'Gallo,'W.'Bradley,'E.'Siegel,'M.'and'Kasl,'S.'(2000)'Health'Effects' of' Involuntary' Job' Loss' Among' Older' Workers:' Findings' From' the'

Health'and'Retirement'Survey'Journal'of'Gerontology:'Vol.'55B,'No.'

3,'(131–140)'

DETERMINANTS!OF!OLDER!WORKERS’!EMPLOYMENT!

AND!RETIREMENT!TRANSITIONS:!A!CROSSGNATIONAL!

COMPARISON!

Dirk'Hofäcker

1'

1

Centre'for'European'Social'Research,'UNIVERSITY'OF'MANNHEIM,'

Mannheim,'Germany

'

Abstract:' Throughout' most' of' the' last' three' to' four' decades' dec) ades,'labour'force'participation'rates'of'older'workers'in'the'EU)27' had' fallen' continuously.' Only' in' most' recent' years,' employment' rates'of'senior'workers'indeed'have'started'to'rise'again.'

However,' the' employment' participation' of' older' workers' is' still' significantly' lower' than' that' of' mid)career' employees,' they' are' disproportionately' affected' by' –' often' long)term' unemployment,' and'–'as'survey'data'show'–'they'often'perceive'their'exit'from'the' labour'market'as'a'‘displacement’'from'work'rather'than'as'an'indi) vidual' choice' to' retire.' These' trends' indicate,' that' employment' integration'of'senior'workers'thus'continues'to'be'insufficient.'

In'order'to'sustainably'improve'the'employment'situation'of'older' workers,' an' appropriate' understanding' of' their' employment' re) spectively' retirement' transitions' is' required.' Based' on' evidence' from' recent' survey' data' (ISPP,' SHARE),' my' paper' will' analyse' the' employment)retirement'transitions'of'older'workers'and'their'per) ception' of' voluntariness' from' a' cross)national' angle.' It' will' disen) tangle' in' how' far' retirement' transitions' are' considered' as' ‘free' choices’'or'as'’forced'exits’,'and'in'how'far'this'perception'differs' between' labour' market' groups.' By' systematically' connecting' indi) vidual' retirement' transitions' and' perceptions' with' nation)specific' institutional'backgrounds'(such'as'pension'systems,'labour'market' policies'or'employment'protection'systems),'the'paper'additionally' seeks'to'identify'the'socio)political'conditions'under'which'the'em) ployment'of'older'workers'may'be'sustainably'raised.'

GAINFUL!EMPLOYMENT!IN!RETIREMENT:!WAY!OUT!

OF!OLDGAGE!POVERTY!OR!CONTINUATION!OF!

EMPLOYMENT!BIOGRAPHY?!

Carola'Burkert

'

1,'Daniela'Hochfellner

'2*

'

1

Research'Network,'Institute'for'Employment'Research,'Frankfurt,'

2

Research' Data' Centre,' INSTIUTE' FOR' EMPLOYMENT' RESEARCH,'

Nuremberg,'Germany

'

Abstract:'

The' withdrawal' from' employment' can' be' seen' as' a' synonym' for' standing'

on' the' threshold' of' a' new' stage.' Going' into' retirement' is' associated' with' a' loss' of' re) sources' such' as' income,' social' networks' and' the' role' identity.' In' modern'societies,'the'problem'for'old)age'pensioners'results'out'of' the'income'change'and'hence'affects'their'financial'situation.'In'the' case'of'Germany'the'statutory'pension'insurance'makes'mostly'the' bigger' part' of' the' income' of' individual' household' and' therefore' determines'the'financial'life'situation'in'older'age.'Especially'indi) viduals' with' short' periods' of' contributions' payments' or' with' low' earned'income'are'in'danger'to'draw'a'statutory'pension'which'is'

27' not' enough' to' make' a' living.' The' lower' retirement' benefits' may' cause,'that'retired'individuals'pursue'a'profession'to'enhance'their' income' and' therefore' avoid' old)age' poverty.' We' analyse' the' em) ployment' propensity' of' retired' individuals.' The' focus' is' to' find' characteristics' which' influence' the' probability' of' being' employed' during' the' term' of' drawing' a' statutory' pension.' To' answer' our' questions'we'used'German'administrative'labour'market'data'and' combined' them' with' administrative' data' of' the' German' Pension'

Insurance.'Hence'we'had'information'concerning'the'biography'of'

30.000'retired'individuals.'

The' results' show' that' about' 20%' of' the' observed' individuals' do' have'a'job'whilst'drawing'statutory'pension'payments.'If'the'rising' employment' propensity' of' retired' individuals' could' be' seen' as' an' indicator'of'increasing'old)age'poverty'it'has'to'be'a'specific'group' of' retired' individuals' who' are' employed' furthermore' such' as' less' qualified' with' low' income' profiles' or' incomplete' and' shorter' em) ployment'biographies.'Because'this'is'mostly'the'case'when'a'mi) gration'background'exists,'we'took'account'for'this'in'all'our'anal) yses.'

If' the' rinsing' employment' propensity' of' retired' individuals' is' not' directly'linked'to'old)age'poverty'one'can'assume'that'it'is'not'this' specific'group'that'is'employed.'The'problems'they'had'to'face'on' the'labour'market'in'younger'age'are'assigned'to'the'stage'of're) tirement'as'well.'Hence,'it'is'not'the'low)qualified'pensioner,'who'is' in'danger'of'poverty,'who'is'employed'but'the'high)qualified'pen) sioner' who' proceeds' the' previous' employment' life' despite' being' retired.'

Our'study'results'support'the'second'mentioned'scenery,'which'we' would'like'to'present'and'discuss'in'detail.'

RETIREMENT!TIMING!IN!EUROPE.!DOES!SECTOR!

MAKES!A!DIFFERENCE?!EXPERIENCES!FROM!SHARE!

Hanne'De'Preter

'1

,'Dimitri'Mortelmans

1'

1

Sociology'(CELLO),'UNIVERSITY'OF'ANTWERP,'Antwerp,'Belgium

'

Abstract:'Although'the'average'retirement'age'in'Europe'has'been' increasing,'the'Lisbon'target'of'an'employment'rate'of'50%'among' older'workers'(55)64'year)'still'has'not'been'reached'(Barr'&'Dia) mond,' 2006;' Eurostat,' 2010).' An' often' mentioned' solution' is' to' increase'the'retirement'age'(Meijer'et'al.,'2008),'which'stresses'the' importance'of'understanding'the'factors'that'influence'the'timing' of' retirement' (Fischer' &' Sousa)Poza,' 2006).' In' the' literature,' de) terminants' are' identified' at' the' personal,' household' and' institu) tional'level'(Beehr,'et'al.,'2000;'Fischer'&'Sousa)Poza,'2006;'Wong'

&'Earl,'2009).'In'our'research,'we'focus'on'the'individual'level'on' the'influence'of'sector'in'which'older'workers'(50+)'are'employed.'

In'11'European'countries'we'study'the'effect'of'sector'on'the'tim) ing'of'retirement.'This'is'rather'innovative,'since'previous'research' is'unclear'about'its'effect.'Heyma'(2001)'found'for'the'Netherlands' that' workers' in' the' industrial' and' construction' sector' have' the' highest' hazard' on' retirement,' while' Dorn' and' Sousa)Poza' (2004)' discovered' a' very' low' hazard' in' construction' and' manufacturing.'

Furthermore,'Heyma'(2004)'didn’t'find'different'retirement'hazards' for' employees' working' in' either' the' private' or' the' public' sector.'

Dorn'and'Sousa)Poza'(2004)'and'Fisher'and'Sousa)Poza'(2006)'on' the'contrary,'found'that'the'public'sector'has'got'a'larger'probabil) ity' of' early' retirement' than' other' economic' sectors.' The' effect' of' sector' (NACE)' on' the' retirement' timing' of' older' workers' will' be' tested'with'the'use'of'event'history'analysis.'We'control'for'occu) pation'(ISCO)88)'within'the'sector,'for'socio)demographic'variables'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

28'

(gender,' age,' educational' level),' other' personal' characteristics'

(marital'status,'health,'household'income)'and'work'characteristics'

(job'satisfaction,'firm'size,'quality'of'labour,'contracted'work'hours,' contract'duration).'In'order'to'process'the'model'with'longitudinal' techniques,'we'use'longitudinal'micro'data'of'the'first'and'second' wave' of' SHARE' (Survey' of' Health,' Ageing' and' Retirement' in' Eu) rope).'Furthermore,'we'apply'GEE'methods'to'model'the'clustering' in'countries'to'become'a'reliable'estimate'of'the'parameters.'Con) sidering' the' literature' and' our' descriptive' data,' we' expect' high' retirement' hazards' for' employees' working' in' manufacturing' and' construction.'Further,'we'expect'for'employees'in'the'private'sec) tor'a'higher'probability'of'early'retirement'than'in'the'public'sec) tor.'

SHOULD!WE!BE!CONCERNED!ABOUT!AGE!

DISCRIMINATION?!EMPLOYERS!AND!OLDER!WORKERS!

IN!CONTEMPORARY!JOB!MARKET!IN!POLAND!

Justyna'monika'Stypinska

1'

1

Jagiellonian'University,'krakow,'Poland

'

Abstract:' The' problem' of' age' discrimination' has' been' widely' dis) cussed' in' research' and' theoretical' analysis' by' many' scholars' in'

Europe.'The'results'of'different'studies'show'two'distinctive'trends.'

First' of' all' age' discrimination' is' perceived' by' large' public' opinion'

(from'approximately'50'to'70%[1])'as'a'very'important'social'prob) lem.'On'other'hand,'asked'about'experiences'with'age'discrimina) tion,' only' about' few' (5)18' %)' percent' of' adult' respondents' admit' they'faced'this'problem'in'their'real'lives.'What'is'then'the'extent' of' the' phenomenon' of' age' discrimination?' How' is' it' to' be' meas) ured'in'order'to'most'accurately'reflect'the'social'reality?'

The' paper' aims' to' present' the' results' of' empirical' studies,' both' qualitative' and' quantitative,' describing' the' issue' of' discrimination' on'grounds'of'age'in'employment'in'Poland.'The'results'sustain'the' dichotomous' character' of' age' discrimination' –' the' perception' of' high'social'gravity'of'the'problem'and'the'relatively'small'extent'of' experienced' direct' discrimination' by' the' older' workers.' On' the' other'hand,'the'qualitative'analysis'of'the'attitudes'of'the'employ) ers'towards'older'employees'and'job'seekers'presents'quite'widely' spread' indirect' discrimination' in' form' of' negative' image' of' the' potential'of'older'workers'influencing'the'hiring'decisions'with'little' or'no'experience'with'this'age'group'of'employees.'

The' paper' shows' thus' the' trends' in' hiring' and' maintaining' older' workers'in'the'labor'market'in'Poland'and'the'possible'threats'con) cerning'the'stability'of'the'employment'in'Poland.'

[1]'Eurobarometer'2007,'2009,'Discrimination'in'Europe;'European'

Social'Survey'2008'(own'analysis).'

ECONOMIC!SITUATION!AND!INTERGENERATIONAL!

RELATIONS!OF!OLDER!PEOPLE!IN!TANZANIA!

Nele'Marie'Tanschus

1'

1

Department' for' Gerontology,' UNIVERSITY' OF' VECHTA,' Vechta,'

Germany

'

Abstract:' In' the' traditional' arrangements' for' social' security' in' old' age' the' younger' generation' in' Tanzania' used' to' provide' for' the' older' one' (Bossert' 1987).' It' is' assumed' that' due' to' certain' social' developments' this' might' change' into' a' direction' where' younger' generations'could'be'unable'or'unwilling'to'provide'support'for'the'

Abstract'Book' older' generation' anymore' (Kaseke' 1996' &' 1997,' Apt' 2002,'

Mchomvu/Tungaraza/Maghimbi' 2002).' This' suggests' that' the' in) tergenerational'relationships'might'not'work'properly'as'an'infor) mal'old'age'security'anymore'and'that'the'quality'of'life'of'old'peo) ple' in' Tanzania' will' decline,' because' a' well' working' formal' social' old' age' security' does' not' exist' for' Tanzania.' If' this' is' the' case,' it' would'be'crucial'to'know'about'the'needs'and'capacities'of'older' people'in'order'to'find'appropriate'solutions'for'assuring'a'certain' quality'of'life.'

The'paper'aims'firstly'at'examining'if'it'is'true,'that'the'quality'of' life' of' older' Tanzanians' is' characterized' by' specific' deficits.' The' measurement'chosen'for'this'analysis'are'the'living'conditions're) flected'in'the'economic'situation'of'old'people'in'Tanzania.'

In' a' second' step' the' roles' which' intergenerational' relationships' play'in'securing'old'peoples'quality'of'life'will'be'looked'at.'By'do) ing'so,'it'is'not'only'important'to'know,'what'role'the'support'by' others'plays'in'the'everyday'life'of'old'people.'It'is'also'relevant'if' they'themselves'provide'support'to'others.'This'examination'of'the' connection'between'economic'resources'of'older'Tanzanians'in'the' meaning'of'personal'capability'to'provide'support'or'to'reciprocate' in'case'of'receipt'of'informal'help'might'give'implications'for'evalu) ating' the' quality' of' intergenerational' relationships' and' their' pro) spects'of'helping'to'make'ageing'secure.'

Empirical' findings' from' the' Study' on' Global' AGEing' and' Adult'

Health'(SAGE),'developed'by'the'WHO'Multi)Country'Studies'unit,' will'be'used'in'the'paper'to'provide'first'answers'to'those'questions' by' looking' in' detail' at' the' income' of' older' Tanzanians,' their' ex) penditure' for' every' day' life' and' social' support' with' the' focus' on' private' monetary' transfer' relations.' Based' on' the' empirical' find) ings,'the'quality'of'life'and'the'status'of'intergenerational'relation) ships' as' well' as' possible' implications' for' social' policy' will' be' dis) cussed.'

GRANDPARENTHOOD:!A!UNIVERSAL!ASPIRATION!FOR!

LATER!LIFE?!ON!THE!SUBJECTIVE!IMPORTANCE!OF!THE!

GRANDPARENT!ROLE!IN!GERMANY!

Katharina'Mahne

'1

,'Andreas'Motel)Klingebiel

1'

1

GERMAN'CENTRE'OF'GERONTOLOGY,'Berlin,'Germany

'

Abstract:' In' the' light' of' changing' opportunity' structures' for' the' transition' to' and' the' experience' of' grandparenthood,' we' address' older'people’s'attitude'towards'the'grandparent'role.'We'test'the' overall' hypothesis/ of' the' social' structural' universality' of' the' im) portance' of' grandparenthood.' This' implies' that' the' grandparent' role'is'a'general'aspiration'for'later'life'and'hence'independent'of' an' individual’s' position' in' the' social' structure.' It' is,' however,' as) sumed'that'the'importance'of'grandparenthood'is'closely'linked'to' and' varied' across' different' living' situations,' family' settings,' and' value'orientations'towards'life'in'general.'

Analyses'are'based'on'data'of'the'German'Ageing'Survey,'a'nation) ally'representative'cross)sectional'and'longitudinal'study'of'individ) uals'aged'40'years'and'older.'Data'collected'in'2008'provide'infor) mation' on' the' subjective' importance' of' (prospective)' grand) parenthood'as'reported'by'grandparents'and'non)grandparents.'

Regression' analyses' show' that' the' subjective' importance' of' (fu) ture)'grandparenthood'does'not'in'fact'vary'by'social'class.'Instead,' we'find'relationship'quality'with'grandchildren'to'be'most'influen) tial' and' positively' related' to' the' perceived' importance' of' the'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' grandparent' role.' The' same' holds' true' for' the' non)grandparents' and' relationships' with' children.' Conservative' and' familistic' value' orientations' promote' the' importance' of' a' future' transition' to' grandparenthood'only.'Union'dissolution'is'in'any'event'associated' with' lower' levels' of' grandparenthood' importance.' Consequently,' grandparenthood'must'be'understood'as'a'universal'aspiration'for' later' life' that' is' independent' of' social' structure' and' therefore' an' independent'aspect'of'quality'of'life'in'old'age.'Given'the'changing' chances' and' opportunities' to' experience' the' grandparent' role,' grandparenthood' evolves' into' an' indicator' for' inequality' in' later' life.'

INTERGENERATIONAL!RELATIONS!AND!POLICIES!IN!

RUSSIA!

Gulnara'Afruzovna'Minnigaleeva

'1,'2*

'

1

Public' Policy' Department,' NATIONAL' RESEARCH' UNIVERSITY'

HIGHER'SCHOOL'OF'ECON,'Moscow,'

2

Senior'Resource'Center'Wis) dom'Ripening,'Tuymazy,'Russian'Federation

'

Abstract:'Our'report'discusses'findings'from'the'survey'of'492'older' citizens'(women'55'and'over'and'men'60'and'over'as'it'is'the'pen) sionable'age'in'Russia'and'a'person'“officially”'acquires'the'status' of' an' “older' person”)' in' 5' Russian' cities' different' in' size,' regional' and'ethnic'specifics,'and'level'of'involvement'of'older'adults.'

Intergenerational'relations'in'Russia'are'quite'different'from'those' in'Europe.'Clearly,'in'most'families'the'connection'between'genera) tions'is'quite'strong.'

Unlike' in' Europe' or' North' America' many' families' live' in' two' or' some'in'three'or'four'generations’'households.'On'average'36%'of' the'survey'participants'reported'that'they'live'with'their'children.'A' significant' number' of' older' persons' live' with' their' grandchildren'

(17%).' Quite' surprisingly' more' participants' in' bigger' cities' (up' to'

49%)'live'with'their'children'and'grandchildren'than'in'smaller'cities'

(23)38%).'This'may'be'explained'by'the'fact'that'it'is'much'easier' and'cheaper'for'a'young'couple'to'move'in'a'new'flat'or'house'than' in'a'big'city.'

Also'it'is'common'that'the'older'generations'help'the'younger'ones' financially' till' quite' late' (up' to' the' age' of' 30' of' the' offsprings' or' even'later).'And'in'most'cases'children'support'the'elderly'parents' financially'and'assume'the'role'of'caregivers'if'needed,'not'trusting' this'to'institutions.'About'12%'of'the'survey'participants'reported' that'their'children'support'them'financially.'More'older'persons'in' the'most'financially'depressed'region'and'in'the'most'prosperous' region'reported'receiving'financial'support'from'children'and'other' relatives.'

On' the' other' hand,' with' the' economy' transitions' and' political' changes,' often' people' view' other' generations' outside' of' their' households'as'very'different'and'sometimes'even'evil.'What'clearly' is'missing'here'are'intentional'policies'and'opportunities'for'inter) generational' interactions' implemented' by' governmental' or' non) governmental' organizations.' Only' 24%' of' survey' participants' re) ported'that'participation'of'older'persons'is'planned'in'most'family) oriented'events.'33%'reported'that'schools'and'educational'institu) tions' involve' older' persons' in' their' events' for' school' children.'

About' half' of' participants' admit' that' events' for' older' adults' are' usually' organized' within' the' community' (in' community' centers,' schools,' libraries,' etc).' However,' all' the' numbers' vary' greatly' (in' some'cases'by'40%)'depending'on'the'city.'

29'

SOCIAL!RELATIONS!(NETWORKS)!IN!AGING!SOCIETIES:!

GERMANY,!ROMANIA!AND!TURKEY!

Aylin'Cakiroglu'Cevik

'1

,'Ozgur'Arun

1'

1

SOCIOLOGY,'MIDDLE'EAST'TECHNICAL'UNIVERSITY,'ANKARA,'Tur) key

'

Abstract:' Social' relations' (networks)' have' been' considered' as' an' important'aspect'for'the'adaptation,'integration,'adjustment,'social' capital,' social' support' and' subjective' well)being' of' older' people' since'1980s.'Every'country'has'different'structure'of'social'relations' as'well'as'different'story'of'aging'process.'The'aims'of'this'article' are'to'describe'and'to'compare'the'structure'of'social'relations'of' older'people'from'Germany,'Romania'and'Turkey.'These'countries' were' selected' by' the' status' in' the' European' Union' which' means' that'Germany'is'as'old'member,'Romania'as'new'member'and'Tur) key'as'candidate'country'of'EU.'They'will'be'analyzed'by'using'data' provided'by'European'Quality'of'Life'Survey'(EQLS)'2007.'In'addi) tionally,'the'concept'of'social'relations'includes'directly'or'indirect) ly' contact' with' family,' friends,' relatives;' social' support;' marital' status;'having'children'and'attending'a'meeting'of'social'groups'or' religious'service.'In'short,'we'aims'to'figure'out'the'question'that' how'social'relations'(networks)'operate'during'aging'by'countries.'

Analysis' has' indicated' that' the' majority' of' older' people' (65+)' in'

Germany'live'with'her/his'spouse/partner'(%'60.3)'while'the'ratio' of'those'in'Romania'and'Turkey'is'relatively'lower'(respectively'%'

32' and' %' 43).' On' the' other' hand,' the' single' older' people' usually' live'with'children'except'those'in'Germany'(%1.8).'Another'finding' is'that'half'of'older'people'in'Romania'have'no'children'while'this' ratio'is'so'low'in'Germany'and'Turkey'(respectively'%'13.7'and'%'

9.1).' When' we' consider' the' social' support,' the' most' important' supporter'for'elderly'in'all'country'is'family.'

INTRAGFAMILIAL!SOLIDARITY!OF!ADULT!

GENERATIONS.!SOME!ROMANIAN!EXCHANGE!

MODELS!

Cristina'Tirhas

1'

1

Social'and'Political'Sciences,'AVRAM'IANCU'UNIVERSITY,'cluj,'Ro) mania

'

Abstract:' International' literature' has' a' long' standing' tradition' in' describing'patterns/of'kin'support,'especially'the'different'ways'of' exchanges'between'parents'and'their'adult'children.'Despite'much' of' the' research' has' focused' on' patterns' of' discrete' types' of' sup) port,'the'tendency'is'to'ignore'the'linkages'between'different'do) mains.'In'the'same'time,'the'majority'of'these'approaches'are'di) rected'towards'investigating'the'role'of'several'variables'in'deter) mining' intra)familial' exchange' and' the' existence' of' inter)cultural' similarities,'while'less'is'known'about'the'ways'in'which'those'in) volved' in' such' linkages' see' themselves' and' the' linkages' they' are' involved' into.' This' latter,' ’from' inside’' perspective' can' add' im) portant' nuance' to' the' study' of' intra)generational' exchanges' and' my'study'follows'this'approach.'

In' Eastern' European' areas' the' nature' of' kin' support' in' adulthood' and'its'determinants'remain'almost'unknown'at'the'level'of'expla) nations' given' by' subjects' themselves.' In' my' study,' the' nature' of' giving'and'receiving'support'between'generations'in'some'Romani) an'rural'and'urban'families'is'examined'in'te'light'of'these'issues.'I' engage' in' the' study' of' four' groups' of' intergenerational' exchange' which'emerged'as'a'result'of'factorial'analsis,'on'a'representative'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

30' sample' of' 180' respondents' aged' 20' and' older' (adult' parents' and' their'parents),'from'two'urban'areas'and'two'rural'areas.'Systemat) ic' differences' in' intergenerational' giving' and' receiving' have' been' observed' by' age,' gender,' family' structure,' socioeconomic' status' and'proximity'to'kin.'One'important'theoretical'view'is'focused'on' altruism' as' one' of' the' factors' which' lead' to' parental' transfers' to' children.'An'alternative'perspective'suggests'that'assistance'is'giv) en'to'motivate'reciprocical'exchange'over'the'life'course.'In'inves) tigated' areas,' our' results' suggests' that' the' pattern' of' inter' vivos' transfer'behavior'is'more'consistent'with'the'exchange'model'than' with'the'altruistical'model.'

DISJOINTED!STRUCTURAL!SYSTEMS!AND!KEEPING!

WARM!FOR!THE!ELDERLY!IN!WINTER!

Angela'Mary'Tod

Homer

'3

'1,'2*

,'Adelaide'M'Lusambili

,'Kathleen'A'McDAID

'5

,'Jo'Abbott

'3

'

'3

,'Jo'Cooke

'4

,'Catherine'

1

Center' for' health' nd' social' care,' shefffield' Hallam' Univeristy,'

2

Public' Health,' SHEFFIELD' HALLAM' UNIVERISITY,' Sheffield,'

Health,' National' Health' Services/UK,' Rotherham,'

CLARHC,'

Kingdom

'

3

Public'

4

Public' Health,'

5

NATIONAL' ENERGY' ACTION,' South' Yorkshire,' United'

Abstract:'This'article'presents'independent'research'commissioned' by' the' National' Institute' for' Health' Research' (NIHR)' under' its' Re) search' for' Patient' Benefit' (RfPB)' Programme' (Grant' Reference'

Number'PB)PG)0408)16041).'The'views'expressed'are'those'of'the' author(s)' and' not' necessarily' those' of' the' NHS,' the' NIHR' or' the'

Department'of'Health.'

Using' Sociological' Structural' Functionalism' Theory' (SSFT),' this' pa) per'will'discuss'how'disjointed'systems'create'challenges'for'older' people' in' keeping' warm' at' home' in' winter.' The' selected' findings' are'based'on'a'mixed'method'qualitative'study'that'was'conducted' in'Rotherham,'an'area'in'South'Yorkshire'Coalfields'in'the'North'of'

England.' In' Rotherham' fuel' poverty' and' excess' winter' deaths' are' amongst'the'highest'in'the'country'(KWILLT'original'proposal'2009:' p2).' Findings' from' this' study' shows' that' financial' constraints,' the' nature' and' type' of' social' connectedness,' technology' and' type' of' housing' are' significant' barriers' to' older' people.' Other' challenges' are'a'number'of'social'and'cultural'behavioural'mediators'such'as' age,' mindset,' and' fear' and' trust' (see/ also' Boardman' 2010;' BERR'

2008'Maheswaran'et'al.'2004;'Hajat'&'Haines'2002).'While'most'of' these' findings' seem' to' concur' with' the' previous' closely' related' studies,'the'current'study'provides'insight'into'how'disjointed'sys) tems' that' are' not' integrated' and' interconnected' amplify' other' barriers.'Available'information'concerning'heating'and'help'such'as' benefits,' affordable' warmth' initiatives' are' difficult' to' find' and' ac) cess'as'systems'are'disjointed.'People'struggling'with'the'daily'chal) lenges'of'age'are'likely'to'remain'cold'in'winter'whilst'they'remain' baffled' by' fragmented' systems.' This' paper' provides' insight' to' in) form' health' and' social' care' providers' as' well' as' those' developing' and'implementing'policy.'Implications'of'concern'related'to'current' policy'are'considered.'The'paper'reflects'on'the'sociological'theory' of'structural'functionalism,'on'how'the'components'of'society'work' and'how'failure'in'one'feature'affects'the'whole'society.'The'paper' fits'in'the'theme'of'Sociology'of'Ageing'and'Technology'(SAT).'

EDUCATIONAL!DYNAMICS!IN!MORTALITY!

COMPRESSION!IN!SWITZERLAND,!1990G2000!

Mathias'Lerch

'1

,'Michel'Oris

'2

'

Abstract'Book'

1

Institute' for' Demographic' and' Life)Course' Studies' &' NCCR' LIVES,'

2

Interfacultary' Centre' of' Gerontology' &' NCCR' LIVES,' UNIVERSITY'

OF'GENEVA,'Genève,'Switzerland

'

Abstract:' Fries' (1980)' argued' that' although' chronic' diseases' and' senescence' are' progressively' postponed' to' higher' ages,' improve) ments'in'life'expectancy'get'harder'to'achieve'the'closer'it'reaches' a'much'debated/biological'limit.'People'stay'longer'in'good'health' but'ultimately'succumb'at'about'the'same'age.'If'this'trend'in'mor) tality'compression'around'the'population's'mean'age'at'death,'as' well' as' the' implied' rectangularisation' of' the' survival' curve,' has' been'confirmed'for'Switzerland'until'the'early'1990s,'life'durations' kept'on'lengthening'while'mortality'compression'stagnated'later'on'

(Cheung'et'al.'2009).'Period'trends'in'mortality'compression'of'the' aggregate' population' may' result' from' different' effects:' divergent' trends'in'period'mortality'of'educational'groups,'cohort'effects'due' to'the'historical'spread'of'education,'and'differential'cohort'mortal) ity'during'the'1990s.'If'the'first'effect'would'point'to'inequalities'in' health'improvements,'the'latter'two'would'indicate'the'impact'of'a' compositional'change'of'survivors.'We'question'to'what'extent'the' constant' level' of' mortality' compression' between' 1990)04' and'

2000)04'resulted'from'unequal'improvements'in'health'or'if'it'con) cerned' all' Swiss' inhabitants' irrespective' of' their' socioeconomic' status.'

Our' analysis' relies' on' the' Swiss' National' Cohort' database' –' a' fol) low)up'study'developed'through'probabilistic'record'linkages'of'the' census)enumerated'population'(in'1990'and'2000)'and'its'succes) sive'deaths'(1990)2005).'Given'our'emphasis'on'cohorts,'we'focus' on' the' Swiss)born' elderly' population' in' 1990' who' either' survived' until'2004'or'died'in'the'intercensal'period.'Multivariate'analysis'of' cohort'mortality'between'both'censuses'highlights'the'primary'role' of' education' in' shaping' cohort' selection.' Decennial' trends' in' lon) gevity' and' mortality' compression' of' educational' groups' are' thus' described'using'life)table'indicators.'We'then'confront'the'trend'in' mortality'compression'of'the'total'population'with'three'scenarios,' assuming'respectively:'a)'no'educational'differences'in'period'mor) tality'trends'between'1990'and'2000,'b)'equal'distributions'of'edu) cation'across'age'groups'at'both'census'dates'and'c)'no'educational' differentials' in' cohort' selection.' The' aim' is' to' assess' whether' the' recent' plateau' of' mortality' compression' in' Switzerland' resulted' from' differentiated' health' improvements' or' from' compositional' effects.'

THE!OUTCOMES!OF!PARTICIPATORY!METHODS!

AMONG!ELDERY!RESIDENTS:!ATTITUDES!AND!

REACTIONS!IN!DEVELOPING!COHERENT!ALCOHOL!

PRACTICES!–!DRUG!RULES!IN!SERVICE!HOUSING!

PROJECT!2009G2011!

Eija'Kaskiharju

'1

,'Anne)Katri'Kemppainen

1'

1

AGE'INSTITUTE,'Helsinki,'Finland

'

Abstract:' Background:' Drinking' habits' and' alcohol' use' of' older' adults'have'been'studied'and'discussed'in'public'debate'during'the' last'ten'years.'The'theme'has'been'present,'for'example,'in'the'EU'

Vintage'project' and' during'the'Swedish'EU' Presidency' in' 2010.'In'

Finland,'national'and'local'development'projects'were'carried'out' to' investigate' the' needs' of' older' adults' with' their' drinking' prob) lems.'

Objectives:'This'paper'is'based'on'the'findings'in'the'project'”Drug' rules'in'service'housing”.'The'idea'was'to'include'both'the'staff'and'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' residents' to' develop' joint' and' coherent' practices' of' dealing' with' alcohol'issues'in'the'service'housing'environment.'Action'research' was' undertaken' as' an' inquiry' method' with' a' strong' emphasis' on' participatory'methods.'Some'examples'of'these'approaches'includ) ed' interviews,' information' sessions' with' discussions,' brochures,' coffee' parties,' small' talk' and' frequenting,' voting' for' and' against' sessions,'reading'news'on'alcohol'and'elderly'sessions.'The'aims'of' the' participatory' methods' were' to' increase' interaction' between' the'residents,'staff'and'project'workers.'

The'aim'of'the'participatory'methods'was'to'activate'and'encour) age'the'residents'to'express'their'thoughts'on'alcohol'issues'in'later' life.'Those'who'took'part'in'various'meetings'and'interviews'gave' valuable'insight'into'alcohol'and'ageing'topics'that'could'be'utilized' in'developing'the'joint'and'coherent'practices'for'the'whole'com) munity.'However,'the'whole'process'of'participation'was'very'de) manding'with'many'ups'and'downs.'

Aim:'The'aim'of'this'paper'is'to'present'the'participatory'methods' and'their'outcomes.'During'the'process'we'found'out'that'speaking' about'alcohol'and'ageing'can'be'complex'and'sometimes'even'im) possible.' In' the' beginning' some' fear' of' stigmatisation' emerged' among' the' residents.' Despite' some' obstacles' and' resistance,' the' project' was' able' to' produce' new' knowledge' about' attitudes' to' alcohol' use' and' ways' to' approach' and' confront' various' user' groups.' Many' residents' have' been' interested' in' hearing' the' re) search'results'and'giving'feedback'to'the'project'workers.'

WHERE!DO!PEOPLE!DIE!IN!EUROPE?!ON!THE!

QUESTION!OF!DYING!IN!INSTITUTIONS!

Michaela'Thönnes

'1

,'Nina'R.'Jakoby

1'

1

Institute'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'ZURICH,'Zurich,'Switzerland

'

Abstract:'There'is'a'great'discrepancy'in'society'between'the'num) ber'of'people'that'prefer'to'die'within'their'home'and'the'number' of' cases' where' this' wish' actually' becomes' reality.' The' most' fre) quent' place' of' dying' in' Western' societies' is' not' the' home' but' an' institution,' such' as' a' hospital' or' nursing' home.' There' is' general' agreement'that'the'process'of'dying'and'the'people'involved'there) in'have'shifted'from'the'personal'privacy'of'the'home'to'the'pro) fessional'enclaves'of'hospitals'and'nursing'homes'in'the'past'sixty' years.' The' terms' institutionalization' or' hospitalization' stand' for' a' process'of'banishing'death'and'dying'from'everyday'life.'The'hospi) tal'as'a'place'of'dying'has'been'the'target'of'much'controversy.'But' what'is'the'actual'distribution'of'places'of'dying?'Can'we'identify' social'patterns'of'dying'related'to'the'various'places'of'dying?'The' presentation'provides'a'theoretical'and'empirical'overview'of'place' of'dying'as'a'social'phenomenon.'Contemporary'discourse'on'the' institutionalization'of'dying'is'subjected'to'critical'scrutiny'in'light' of' the' state' of' the' art' of' research.' The' investigation' is' based' on'

European' studies' that' provide' data' on' the' frequency' of' people' dying' in' hospitals,' retirement' or' nursing' homes,' hospices,' or' at' home.'In'addition,'other'factors'determining'places'of'dying,'such' as' medical,' structural,' socio)demographic,' and' individual' factors,' will' be' summarized.' Such' an' analysis' raises' interesting' questions' concerning'the'influence'of'social'inequality'on'dying.'

A!COUPLE’S!RETIREMENT!DECISIONS!IN!THE!FAMILY!

CONTEXT:!AN!EMPIRICAL!STUDY!

Van'Thi'Mai'Bui

'1,'2*

'

31'

1

Max'Planck'Institute'for'Demographic'Research,'Rostock,' for'Economics,'University'of'Rostock,'Rostock,'Germany

'

2

Institute'

Abstract:' This' study' investigates' the' retirement' decisions' of' mar) ried'couples'in'Germany'between'1984'and'2009'using'the'German'

Social)Economic'Panel'data'(GSOEP).'We'perform'separate'estima) tions' for' husbands' and' wives' under' taking' into' account' their' spouses’' retirement' behaviors' in' order' to' assess' whether' the' ef) fects' are' symmetric.' We' show' that' the' husbands' and' wives' have' more' propensities' to' retire' if' their' spouses' were' retired.' The' ef) fects'of'educational'level,'occupational'characteristics'such'as'self) employed,'health'indicators,'satisfaction'with'leisure'time'and'age' on'husbands’'and'wives’'retirement'are'also'symmetric.'In'particu) lar,'husbands'and'wives'who'have'higher'education'are'more'likely' to'exit'the'labor'market'earlier'than'those'who'have'lower'educa) tion.'Satisfaction'with'leisure'time'has'a'positive'effect'on'the'pro) pensity' of' husbands' and' wives' to' retire.' For' those' who' are' self) employed,'they'are'more'likely'to'delay'their'retirement.'Being'to' be'good'or'very'good'health'induces'both'husbands'and'wives'to' postpone'their'retirement'while'being'to'be'bad'or'very'bad'health' leads'them'to'retire'early.'The'variable'cumulative'duration'of'em) ployment' over' the' life' which' is' aimed' to' measure' early' stages' in' the' employment' career' has' a' significantly' positive' effect' on' the' husbands’'and'wives’'retirement.'The'dummy'variable'for'the'legal' reforms'coming'into'effect'at'the'beginning'of'2001'has'a'negative' impact' on' the' retirement' of' the' husbands' and' wives.' The' family' context' does' matter' in' the' married' couples’' retirement' decisions' but'this'paper'indicates'the'gender'asymmetry'in'response'to'the' family'characteristics'including'owner'of'the'house,'total'household' income,' number' of' persons' in' the' family,' and' size' of' the' house.'

Only'does'the'presence'of'a'person'in'need'of'care'postpone'both' husbands’'and'wives’'retirement'but'it'is'still'not'significant'for'the' wives.'In'addition,'considering'dual'retirement'we'perform'a'sepa) rate' analysis' in' which' both' spouses' were' employed' at' the' age' of' fifty'since'the'market'roles'over'life'course'are'highly'gendered'in'

West'Germany.'

DOES!WORKING!HOURS!REDUCTION!IN!A!MOVE!TO!

FULL!RETIREMENT!WORKS?!AN!ANALYSIS!OF!THE!

EFFECTIVENESS!OF!THE!LATE!CAREER!WORKING!

HOURS!REDUCTION!SYSTEM!IN!BELGIUM!

Dorien'Van'Looy

1'

1

SOCIOLOGY,'UNIVERSITY'OF'ANTWERP,'Antwerp,'Belgium

'

Abstract:' Flexible' working' time' arrangements' at' the' end' of' the' working'career'are'put'forward'by'the'European'Union'as'a'magical' formula'to'enhance'the'labour'market'participation'of'people'aged'

50' and' over.' By' guaranteeing' a' more' optimal' balance' between'

“work”'and'“life”,'people'in'a'later'career'stage'ought'to'be'able'to' combine' family/ responsibilities,' leisure/ activities,/ social/ contacts' and' financial/ sustainability.' In' this' paper,' we' try' to' answer' the' question'whether'people'reducing'their'working'hours'in'a'move'to' full'retirement'will'retire'later'compared'to'their'counterparts'who' stayed'full)time'employed.'We'ask'ourselves'how'this'effect'differs' according'to'socio)demographic'and'job)related'control'variables?'

We'will'answer'this'question'with'an'event'history'analysis'on'the'

SHARELIFE)data.' In' the' analysis,' 2983' Belgian' respondents' are' in) cluded.'In'2009,'1230'of'them'were'retired.'We'study'their'trajec) tories'from'work'into'retirement'from'the'age'of'50'on.'In'the'first' stage,'we'determine'how'much'people'made'a'transition'from'full) time' to' part)time' work' in' a' move' to' full' retirement' and' situate'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

32' them'in'the'set'of'all'trajectories'from'work'into'retirement.'In'the' second' stage,' we' test' whether' people' who' made' the' transition' from' full)time' to' part)time' employment,' controlled' for' socio) demographic'–'and'job)related'background'variables,'retire'later.'In' the'third'stage,'the'aim'is'to'test'interaction)effects'to'see'whether' the'effect'of'part)time'employment'on'the'effective'retirement'age' differ' according' to' different' socio)demographic)' and' job)related' background'variables.'

HOUSEHOLD!DETERMINANTS!INFLUENCING!THE!

JOINT!RETIREMENT!DECISION!OF!OLDER!COUPLES!

Kim'Denaeghel'

1

,'Dimitri'Mortelmans

'1

,'Arie'Weeren

1'

1

UNIVERSITY'OF'ANTWERP,'Antwerp,'Belgium

'

Abstract:'Although'the'retirement'decisions'of'older'workers'(espe) cially' men)' have' been' widely' studied,' most' studies' still' treat' re) tirement' as' an' individual' phenomenon' while' little' attention' has' been' paid' to' the' retirement' behaviour' of' older' (married)' couples'

(Henkens,' 1999;' Hurd,' 1990;' Jiminez)Martin,' Labeaga,' &' Martinez'

Granado,'1999).'However,'a'growing'literature'recognizes'that're) tirement'decisions'are'made'within'the'context'of'the'family'(Pien) ta' &' Hayward,' 2002;' Szinovacz' &' Deviney,' 2000;' van' Solinge' &'

Henkens,'2005).'

This'paper'focuses'on'the'joint'retirement'hypothesis,'which'states' that' husbands' and' wives' tend' to' retire' at' the' same' time' (Hurd,'

1990).' Research' has' shown' that' couples' often' coordinate' their' retirement'decision'based'on'a'variety'of'reasons'as'many'workers' withdraw' from' the' labor' force' at' about' the' same' time' as' their' partner'(Johnson'&'Favreault,'2001).'

In'the'analyses,'couples'aged'50'to'70'years'old'were'selected'and' a' distinction' was' made' between' single)' and' dual' earner' families.'

Spousal'characteristics'influencing'the'joint'retirement'decision'are' age,' education,' health,' finances,' activity' status' and' taking' care' of' dependents.' Data' were' drawn' from' the' European' Community'

Household' Panel' (ECHP)' which' presents' longitudinal' data' for' fif) teen'West)European'countries'running'from'1994'to'2001.'Because' of' the' household' level,' repeated' events' are' analysed' using' multi) level' event' history' (Steele,' 2008).' A' random' effects' logit' model,' also'known'as'a'(shared)'frailty'model'is'used'to'measure'the'influ) ence' of' household' determinants' on' the' self)defined' or' self) reported'retirement'of'(older)'couples'(Wienke,'2003).'

Based' on' previous' research' from' the' authors,' we' concluded' that' the' family' context' in' which' labour' supply' decisions' are' made' is' critical' to' understanding' the' retirement' process' (Johnson' &' Fa) vreault,'2001).'Characteristics'of'the'spouse'and'household'deter) minants' are' expected' to' be' important' predictors' of' the' joint' re) tirement' decision' of' older' couples' in' Europe' (Pienta' &' Hayward,'

2002).'

LES!FINS!DE!CARRIERE!DES!FEMMES!ET!DES!HOMMES!

CONNAISSENTGELLES!LES!MEMES!TURBULENCES!?!

Céline'Schoeni

'1

,'Magdalena'Rosende

1'

1

University'of'Lausanne,'Lausanne,'Switzerland

'

Abstract:'La'communication'porte'sur'les'processus'de'recomposi) tion'des'inégalités'de'sexe'chez'les'seniors'en'emploi.'Elle's’inscrit' dans' le' cadre' d’une' recherche' au' sein' du' Programme' national' de' recherche'(PNR60)'sur'l’égalité'entre'les'femmes'et'les'hommes'en'

Abstract'Book'

Suisse'et'propose'd’appréhender'de'manière'novatrice,'sous'l’angle' du'genre,'la'question'du'maintien'en'emploi'et'de'la'transition'vers' la' retraite' des' salariéêeês' âgéêeês' de' 50' ans' et' plus.' Les' inégalités' entre'les'sexes'en'deuxième'moitié'de'carrière'constituent'un'angle' mort' de' la' recherche.' Les' modèles' de' trajectoire' professionnelle' qui' se' dégagent' des' indicateurs' statistiques' considérés' sont' aveugles'au'genre.'Or,'en'Suisse,'la'participation'des'femmes'et'des' hommes' au' marché' du' travail' diffère' fortement' selon' la' classe' d’âge.'Les'parcours'professionnels'féminins'ne'sont'pas'structurés' uniquement'par'le'travail'salarié.'Entre'25'et'40'ans,'les'maternités' et' les' soins' aux' enfants' en' bas' âge' viennent' contrecarrer' les' logiques' propres' à' la' sphère' professionnelle.' Toutefois,' l’état' des' connaissances'sur'la'conciliation'travail)famille'ne'nous'permet'pas' de'savoir'si'l’injonction'à'la'«'conciliation'»'demeure'aussi'forte'en' deuxième'moitié'de'carrière.'Par'ailleurs,'à'l’heure'où'la'question' des' seniors' en' emploi' représente' un' enjeu' social' majeur' pour' les' décideurs' politiques' en' Europe,' il' paraît' opportun' d’interroger' les' mécanismes'de'différenciation'sexuée'des'trajectoires'et'de'mettre' en'évidence'les'logiques'structurelles,'institutionnelles'et'individu) elles' qui' facilitent' ou' entravent' les' parcours' professionnels' féminins'pendant'la'seconde'partie'de'la'vie'active.'

En'croisant'des'données'statistiques'relatives'à'la'participation'au' marché' du' travail' et' au' régime' de' protection' sociale,' nous' re) tracerons'les'grandes'tendances'de'l’emploi'des'seniors'en'Suisse.'

A'l’avant)garde'des'objectifs'préconisés'pour'l’Europe,'le'cas'suisse' s’avère'exemplaire'dans'la'mesure'où'le'taux'd’activité'des'50'ans' et'plus'est'particulièrement'élevé'(76,7%'contre'59%'dans'l’UE)'et' que'la'part'des'femmes'dans'cette'catégorie'progresse'de'manière' constante.'Plus'généralement,'en'resituant'la'Suisse'dans'une'per) spective' internationale,' nous' nous' proposons' de' questionner' la' pertinence'analytique'des'modèles'de'trajectoires'de'fin'de'carrière'

(transition'entre'activité'et'retraite,'fragilisation'de'la'seconde'par) tie'de'carrière)'récurrents'dans'la'littérature.'

THE!DOMESTIC!CONTEXT!FOR!RETIREMENT:!

CHALLENGING!MODELS!OF!INDIVIDUAL!CHOICE!OF!

THE!TIMING!AND!MANNER!OF!RETIREMENT!

Sarah'Anne'Vickerstaff

'1

,'Wendy'Loretto

'2

'

1

SSPSSR,'KENT'UNIVERSITY,'Canterbury,'

2

Business'School,'Universi) ty'of'Edinburgh,'Edinburgh,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:' Against' a' global' backdrop' of' population' and' workforce' ageing,' successive' UK' governments' have' encouraged' people' to' work' for' longer' and' delay' retirement.' Debates' about' how' to' en) courage'people'to'extend'their'working'lives'focus'mainly'on'fac) tors' affecting' individuals’' decisions' when' and' how' to' retire,' with' little'recognition'that'such'decisions'are'often'taken'within'multi) faceted' domestic' or' family' contexts.' In' addition,' there' has' been' scant'attention'to'gender'roles'within'these'contexts.'Drawing'up) on'previous'research,'mainly'in'the'US,'we'argue'that'fuller'under) standing'of'retirement'can'be'achieved'by'taking'into'account'the' ways' in' which' individuals’' expectations' and' behaviours' reflect' a' complicated,' dynamic' set' of' interactions' between' domestic' envi) ronments'and'gender'roles,'often'established'over'a'long'time'pe) riod,' as' well' as' more' temporally' proximate' factors' such' as' health' shocks' or' unexpected' redundancy.' On' the' basis' of' a' qualitative' empirical' study' undertaken' in' three' UK' locations' we' present' a' number' of' contrasting' case' studies' of' couples' following' different' retirement' patterns.' These' show' how' established' gendered' divi) sions' of' labour' within' a' household' can' persist' and' colour' retire) ment' transitions,' whilst' in' other' cases' temporally' immediate'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

‘shocks’' such' a' unexpected' health' events' may' disrupt' the' house) hold’s' established' ways' of' distributing' paid' and' unpaid' labour' amongst'its'members.'Our'analysis'leads'us'to'conclude'that'policy' aimed' at' encouraging' people' to' delay' retirement' needs' to' move' away'from'the'individual'adult'worker'model'implicit'in'much'poli) cy'discussion'and'begin'to'frame'retirement'decision'making'more' soundly'in'its'social'context,'typically'the'domestic'setting'and'gen) der'relations'in'which'the'individual'is'situated.'

ARE!MARRIED!PARENTS!MORE!SATISFIED!WITH!THEIR!

LIFES!AND!PARTNERSHIP!THAN!OTHER!MIDDLEGAGED!

AND!OLDER!PEOPLE?!ON!THE!RELATIONSHIP!

BETWEEN!LIVING!ARRANGEMENTS!AND!SUBJECTIVE!

WELLGBEING!IN!THE!SECOND!HALF!OF!LIFE!IN!

GERMANY!

Heribert'Engstler

1'

1

GERMAN'CENTRE'OF'GERONTOLOGY'(DZA),'Berlin,'Germany

'

Abstract:'Due'to'changes'of'partnership'and'parenthood'histories,' the' variety' of' living' arrangements' is' increasing.' In' Germany' )' as' well'as'in'other'western'countries')'less'people'reach'middle'and' old' age' being' married' and' having' children.' Will' this' affect' their' well)being'in'later'phases'of'life?'

Research'literature'shows'mixed'evidence'on'the'effects'of'marital' status,'union'type'and'parenthood'on'subjective'well)being.'While' earlier' research' mainly' showed' evidence' for' a' general' marriage' benefit'compared'to'those'without'a'partner'and'cohabitating'cou) ples,' more' recent' research' found' little' difference' between' mar) riage' and' cohabitation' in' countries' where' cohabitation' is' more' widespread'and'socially'accepted.'There'are'also'ambiguous'results' on'the'effects'ofchildlessness'and'different'forms'of'parenthood'on' subjective' well)being.' Additionally,' research' often' lacks' the' analy) sisis' ofthe' interrelated' effects' of' marital' status,' union' type' and' parenthood'on'wellbeing.'

This' presentation' addresses' this' issue' using' data' of' the' German'

Ageing'Survey'2008,'a'representative'sample'of'40)'to'85year'old' men'and'women'(n=4018).'Using'covariance'analyses,'it'examines' the' relationship' between' different' living' arrangements' (marital' status,'union'type,'parenthood)'and'life'satisfaction'as'well'as'un) ion'quality'and'perceived'stability,'controlling'for'other'sociodemo) graphic'variables.'

Results'show'a'generally'higher'life'satisfaction'of'those'living'with' a' partner.' Cohabiting' couples' are' as' satisfied' as' married' couples,' with' one' exception:' the' divorced' are' less' satisfied' with' their' life' even'if'they'again'live'in'a'partnership.'Cohabitors'judge'their'rela) tionship' to' the' same' degree' as' being' well' as' married' couples' do,' despite'a'lower'perceived'stability.'The'existence'of'children'does' not'per'se'enhance'life'satisfaction.'Having'children'coincides'with' higher' life' satisfaction' only' for' married' and' cohabiting' parents,' whereassingle'parents'feature'lower'life'satisfaction.'

Rising'numbers'of'partnerless'people'who'never'could'establish'a' union'or'who'got'separated'or'divorced'could'become'more'rele) vant'to'the'levels'of'well)being'in'middle'and'old'age'than'the'in) crease'in'childlessness.'

CONFLICTS!BETWEEN!OLDER!PARENTS!AND!THEIR!

CHILDREN!IN!14!EUROPEAN!COUNTRIES!

33'

Marc'Szydlik

1'

1

Institute'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'ZURICH,'Zurich,'Switzerland

'

Abstract:'Recent'research'has'shown'a'considerable'extent'of'soli) darity' between' family' generations.' However,' so' far' the' investiga) tion'of'intergenerational'conflicts'has'been'neglected.'This'is'all'the' more'surprising'given'that'mass'media'often'report'on'–'allegedly'–' substantial' conflicts' between' generations' from' youth' to' old' age.'

From' this' perspective,' daily' conflicts' are' a' regular' feature' of' the' relations' between' adult' children' and' elderly' parents' and' conflicts' are'seen'as'an'indicator'of'a'crisis'of'the'family'and'a'dissolution'of' family'bonds.'Furthermore,'it'is'argued'that'permanent'unsolvable' conflicts'would'prevent'generations'from'helping'and'taking'care'of' each'other'which,'consequently,'may'lead'to'isolation'and'depriva) tion'in'old'age.'

Within' this' framework' a' number' of' important' research' questions' arise:'To'what'extent'are'intergenerational'relations'between'older' parents' and' their' adult' children' characterised' by' conflicts?' What' are'the'reasons'for'and'the'consequences'of'intergenerational'con) flicts?' What' is' the' relation' between' conflict' and' solidarity' on' the' one'hand'and'family'conflict'and'societal'contexts'on'the'other?'

The'presentation'will'address'these'questions.'First'of'all'and'from' a'theoretical'perspective,'conflict'and'solidarity'will'not'be'treated' as' opposites.' Second,' conflicts' between' generations' will' be' com) pared' with' conflicts' with' other' people,' such' as' partners,' friends' and' other' relatives.' Additionally,' it' will' be' investigated' whether' older'people'rather'report'on'conflicts'they'have'with'their'children' than' with' their' parents.' Third,' reasons' and' consequences' of' con) flicts' will' be' explored,' for' example,' in' regard' to' intergenerational' contact,'income,'transfers'of'time'and'money,'age,'health,'marital' status,' gender' and' migration.' Fourth,' connections' between' inter) generational'conflicts'within'families'and'welfare'state'contexts'will' be' examined,' such' as' whether' family' conflicts' depend' on' the' ex) tent' of' public' support' and' whether' strong' welfare' states' lead' to' less'family'conflict.'

The' empirical' investigations' are' based' on' the' Survey' of' Health,'

Ageing' and' Retirement' in' Europe,' focusing' on' 14' European' coun) tries,' namely' Austria,' Belgium,' Czech' Republic,' Denmark,' France,'

Germany,' Greece,' Ireland,' Italy,' the' Netherlands,' Poland,' Spain,'

Sweden'and'Switzerland.'

ELDERLY!CARE:!DISPUTES!AND!CONFLICTS!BETWEEN!

DEPENDENT!PARENTS!AND!ADULT!CHILDREN!

Katerina'Konradova

1'

1

Faculty' of' social' science,' Charles' university' in' Prague,' Prague,'

Czech'Republic

'

Abstract:' This' paper' is' based' on' the' analysis' of' quantitative' re) search'titled'"Family'Cohesion'in'the'Elderly'Care",'which'was'led' by' prof.' PhDr.' Hynek' Jerabek,' CSc.' Standardized' questionnaires' were'used'for'data'collection.'The'questionnaires'investigated'rela) tionships'in'Czech'families'with'dependent'parents.'The'paper'fo) cuses' on' disagreements' and' disputes' between' non' self)sufficient' parents' and' their' adult' children.' In' addition' to' determining' what' conflicts'families'are'facing,'the'study'attempts'to'reveal'disagree) ments'which'are'representative'for'different'phases'of'care.'Typol) ogy'of'family'relationships'in'dependence'on'which'kinds'of'conflict' prevail'is'created.'The'paper'raises'the'question'what'determines' belonging' to' a' particular' type' of' relationship,' while' attention' is' focused,'inter'alia,'on'the'socio)economic'determinants.'The'types'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

34' of' relationships' are' not' considered' to' be' static,' but' are' seen' as' changing' over' time' with' various' events' in' the' family.' The' data' demonstrate'how'the'degree'of'representation'of'each'type'varies' in'each'phase'of'care.'Conflicts'are'analyzed'within'the'six'dimen) sions' of' intergenerational' solidarity' and' thus' the' paper' tries' to' contribute' to' the' understanding' of' solidarity' and' conflict' in' inter) generational'relations,'and'specifically'in'the'situation'when'aging' parents'need'support.'

THE!«!PROBLEM!»!OF!INTERGENERATIONAL!

RELATIONSHIPS!:!POLITICAL!RHETORICS!AND!SOCIAL!

INTERVENTIONS!

Cornelia'Hummel

'1

1

,'Liliia'Isambaeva

'1

,'Marie'Débois

'1

,'Léonor'Després

,'Alexandre'Pillonel

1'

'1

,'Nora'Meister

'

1

Dpt'of'sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'GENEVA,'Genève'4,'Switzerland

'

Abstract:'This'paper'questions'the'present'success'for'intergenera) tional'topics'within'the'public'space.'Through'the'profusion'of'nar) rative'and'practice'concerning'this'issue,'the'intergenerational'rela) tionship'appears'inevitably'as'a'problem:'the'demographical,'social,' economical' and' political' mutations' are' summoned' to' explain' the' weakening'–'or'lack')'of'intergenerational'relationships,'as'a'sign'of' a'deeper'alteration'of'social'bonds.'

Focusing'on'the'intergenerational'relationships'outside'the'family,' we'analyse'the'ways'these'are'constructed'as'a'problematic'issue'in' the' fields' of' political' discourse' and' social' action' in' Switzerland.' A' qualitative'analysis'has'been'conducted'on'a'corpus'that'includes,' on'one'hand,'political'reports'produced'at'the'federal'level'and,'on' the'other'hand,'a'sample'of'intergenerational'field'projects.'Which' arguments'are'used'to'present'the'“intergenerational'problem”'as' a' fact?' How' is' this' so)called' weakening' of' intergenerational' ties' explained?'Which'preventive'or'palliative'solutions'are'proposed'to' restore'or'maintain'the'ties'between'generations?'

The'results'presented'in'the'paper'are'outcomes'of'a'research'con) ducted'in'Master's'workshop'during'one'year.'

THE!PROBLEM!OF!NOT!HELPING!RELATIVES!AND!

OTHERS!IN!WELFARE!STATES!

elina'haavio)mannila

'1

,'mirkka'danielsbacka

'1

,'j.p.'roos

1'

1 social'sciences,'university'of'helsinki,'Helsinki,'Finland

'

Abstract:'The'core'population'of'this'study'is'European'baby'boom) ers'born'between'1945)50.'We'attempt'to'find'out'why'so'few'of' them' give' informal' help' to' their' children,' other' relatives' and' friends.' To' deepen' the' analysis,' we' studied' the' non)helping' of' grandchildren.' Welfare' state' regime' theory,' including' the' crowd) ing)in'and'crowding)out'hypotheses,'evolutionary'theory'and'indi) vidualization'theory'were'used'in'developing'hypotheses'and'inter) preting'results.'

The' data' consist' of' personal' interviews' and' answers' to' mailed' questionnaires.'The'information'was'collected'in'the'second'wave' of'the'SHARE'survey,'which'was'carried'out'between'2004)07'in'14' countries.'Finnish'data'from'2007,'including'comparable'questions,' was'added'to'the'data'set.'Linear'regression'analysis'revealed'that' non)helping'was'predicted'by'a'low'level'of'education,'having'few' children,'being'of'older'age,'and'attitude'which'supported'the'role' of'the'welfare'state'as'primary'carer.'

Abstract'Book'

Of' the' four' welfare' state' regime' types' compared' there' was' least' non)helping'in'social'democratic'(Nordic)'regimes,'next'were'insur) ance'and'market)based'regimes.'The'most'non)helping'was'discov) ered' in' family)based' regimes.' The' crowding)in' theory' thus' gained' more'support'than'the'crowding)out'theory.'

Individualization' theory' assumes' that' as' traditional' social' norms' loosen,' helping' both' diminishes' in' scope' and' intensifies:' it' is' only' given' to' those' we' really' feel' intimacy' towards.' Modernization' should' favour' non)relatives' as' obligations' toward' relatives' lose' their'importance.'However,'the'non)helping'of'people’s'own'adult' children' was' found' to' be' less' common' than' the' non)helping' of' other' kin' and' non)kin.' This' supports' evolutionary' theory,' which' assumes' that' people' behave' especially' altruistically' toward' their' own'offspring.'

Key'words:'non)helping;'relatives,'children,'grandchildren,'welfare' state'regime;'individualization;'evolutionary'theory;'altruism'

THE!CHANGING!ROLE!OF!SOCIAL!NETWORKS!IN!

DIFFERENT!SOCIOG!ECONOMIC!STATUS!GROUPS!OF!

ELDERLY!AS!A!CHALLENGE!TO!CITIZENSHIP!RIGHTS!

Sibel'Kalaycioglu

1'

1

SOCIOLOGY,'MIDDLE'EAST'TECHNICAL'UNIVERSITY,'ANKARA,'Tur) key

'

Abstract:'This'paper'discusses'the'role'of'personal'relationships'in' later'life'issues.'In'this'context'the'significance'of'non)kin'informal' networks'besides'the'intergenerational,'kin'networks'for'the'elder) ly'of'different'socio)economic'status'will'be'discussed.'The'research' is'conducted'in'2010,'on'both'a'qualitative'and'a'quantitative'sam) ple'from'Turkey,'over'4,000'individuals'over'the'age'of'40.'Firstly,'in' the'presentation'the'effect'of'social'networks'on'the'coping'strate) gies'as'well'as'on'life'satisfaction'of'the'elderly'of'different'SES'will' be'described.'Secondly,'the'existing'institutional'structure'of'ageing' policies'in'Turkey'will'be'discussed'especially'in'terms'of'the'chal) lenge'to'the'system'of'the'welfare'through'the'ageing'population.'

Finally,'the'existence'of'different'social'networks'will'be'argued'in' terms'of'how'they'effected'the'citizenship'rights'of'elderly'in'Tur) key.'

AGEING!AND!HEALTH!IN!PORTUGAL:!A!GENDER!

ANALYSIS!

Inês'Gomes

3

'1

,'Rita'Burnay

'1

,'Ana'Fernandes

,'António'Manuel'Marques

'4

'2

,'Maria'Amália'Botelho

,'Ana'Paula'Gil

'5

'

'

1

Cesnova,' FACULDADE' DE' CIÊNCIAS' SOCIAIS' E' HUMANAS' )' UNL,'

2

Cesnova,'Instituto'Superior'Ciências'Sociais'e'Políticas,' de'Ciências'Médicas')'UNL,'Lisboa,'

Setúbal,' gal

'

5

4

3

Faculdade'

Escola'Superior'de'Saúde')'IPS,'

Instituto'Nacional'Saúde'Dr.'Ricardo'Jorge,'Lisboa,'Portu)

Abstract:'The'research'aims'at'determining'and'analysing'the'rele) vance'of'gender'to'the'health'condition'and'health'care'utilization' of'the'elderly,'in'Portugal,'based'on'the'data'of'the'National'Health'

Survey' (NHS).' Gender' affects' most' areas' of' human' existence,' in) cluding' health.' Gender' refers' to' the' culture)bound' convention' about' norms' for' –' and' relationships' between'–' women' and' men.'

Social'differences'between'women'and'men'are'learned,'changea) ble'over'time'and'vary'both'within'and'between'cultures.'A'Nation) al'Health'Service'that'is'based'on'equity'has'to'develop'a'high'level'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' of'sensitivity'to'discrimination'issues'which'clearly'includes'sex'and' gender' concerns.' The' importance' of' health' equity' in' the' Portu) guese'National'Health'Service'creates'the'necessary'background'to' determine'and'analyse'the'relevance'of'gender'to'the'health'condi) tion' and' health' care' utilization' of' the' population' or' population' groups.' In' Portugal,' the' latest' demographic' indicators' reveal' that' the' main' recent' demographic' trends' have' remained' unchanged:' slower'population'growth'and'demographic'ageing.'The'inaction'of' social'systems'when'confronted'with'demographic'ageing'will'un) deniably' aggravate' its' social' and' economic' impacts.' Health' and' long)term' care' policies' can' certainly' make' a' difference' in' trans) forming'the'pure'demographic'effect'of'ageing'into'very'different' social' outcomes.' For' the' general' population' access' to' health' care' and'promotion'is'an'important'health'determinant.'The'population' ageing' confers' greater' strategic' importance' to' this' determinant,' once'better'health'among'the'elderly'will'heavily'rely'on'the'level' of'access'and'services'adequacy,'especially'for'the'frailest'elderly.'

This'way,'a'gender'analysis'in'health'and'in'health'care'among'the'

Portuguese'elderly'may'provide'fundamental'and'practical'answers' to'the'public'system,'so'that'adequate'policies'may'be'formulated' and' better' services' organized.' The' NHS' is' a' tool' of' measurement' and' observation' in' health' that' collects' population' representative' data,' creates' estimates' on' health' conditions,' diseases' and' its' de) terminants,'and'studies'their'evolution'through'time.'

INDIVIDUALGLEVEL!SOCIAL!CAPITAL!AND!HEALTH:!A!

SURVEY!OF!65G!AND!75GYEARGOLDS!IN!A!CROSSG

REGIONAL!SETTING!

Fredrica'Nyqvist

'1

,'Mikael'Nygård

'2*

'

1

NOVIA'UNIVERSITY'OF'APPLIED'SCIENCES,'

2

Dep.'of'Social'Sciences,'

Åbo'Akademi'University,'Vasa,'Finland

'

Abstract:' Background:' Although' previous' research' has' recognised' an'association'between'different'aspects'of'social'capital'and'self) rated' health,' comparatively' few' studies' have' been' conducted' on' older' adults.' Furthermore,' most' evidence' comes' from' within) country' studies.' By' analysing' data' in' a' cross)regional' perspective,' this'paper'focuses'on'the'ways'in'which'social'capital'may'function' in' a' trans)regional' setting.' In' this' regard,' Västerbotten' in' Sweden' and'Österbotten/Pohjanmaa'in'Finland'are'well'suited'for'our'pur) pose;'since'these'regions'are'very'similar'as'to'their'socioeconomic,' historical'and'cultural'features,'the'robustness'of'such'relationships' can'be'tested'against'a'contextual'background.'

Aims:/The'aim'is'to'investigate'the'association'between'two'essen) tial'indicators'of'social'capital–'social'participation'and'interperson) al'trust–'and'self)rated'health'among'65)'and'75)year)olds'in'Väs) terbotten,' in' Sweden,' and' in' Österbotten/Pohjanmaa,' in' Finland.'

We' first' describe' how' the' distribution' of' social' capital' varies' be) tween'the'two'regions'in'Sweden'and'in'Finland,'respectively.'We' then' study' the' ways' in' which' social' capital' varies' within' different' subgroups' of' older' adults.' Finally' we' return' to' our' main' research' question'to'assess'how'social'capital'relates'to'self)rated'health./

Methods:' This' paper' utilises' unique' cross)sectional' survey' data,' collected'in'2005,'on'65)'and'75)year)olds'in'Västerbotten,'Sweden,' and' in' Österbotten/Pohjanmaa,' Finland.' Not' only' is' this' survey' unique'as'to'its'extensiveness'and'its'focus'on'older'adults,'it'also' yielded'a'relatively'high'response'rate'(71%'and'67%,'respectively).'

The'research'questions'are'investigated'using'descriptive'statistics' as'well'as'multivariate'regression'analyses./

35'

Results:'The'results'show'that'social'capital'is'associated'with'self) related' health' among' older' adults' in' a' cross)regional' perspective' and' that' there' is' socio)demographic' variation' in' social' capital' among' 65)and' 75)year)olds.' Consequently,' social' capital' can' be' seen' as' a' significant' and' robust' predictor' of' self)rated' health' in' both'regions./

HOW!SOCIAL!FACTORS,!HEALTH!AND!CAREGIVING!

INFLUENCE!SLEEP!QUALITY!IN!LATER!LIFE!

Sara'Arber

'1

,'Robert'Meadows

1'

1

Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'SURREY,'Guildford,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:'Background:'Sleep'has'been'little'researched'by'sociolo) gists'of'ageing,'especially'the'social'and'health'patterning'of'sleep.'

The' impact' of' providing' care' for' older' or' disabled' relatives' has' been' widely' studied,' but' limited' attention' has' been' paid' to' how' caregiving'influences'the'sleep'quality'of'carers.'

Objectives:'This'paper'(i)'compares'the'socio)economic'and'health' patterning'of'self)reported'sleep'quality'in'later'life'(age'>65)'with' those'of'working'age'(20)64'years),'and'(ii)'examines'how'caregiv) ing' impacts' on' sleep' quality' and' duration' at' working' ages' and' in' later'life.'

Methods:'We'analyse'Wave'1'of'the'British'Understanding/Society/ survey' for' 2009' to' compare' the' sleep' patterns' of' older' people'

(n=3131,'aged'>65)'with'those'aged'20)65'(n=11355).'Self)reported' sleep'duration'(hours'and'minutes),'sleep'latency'(unable'to'get'to' sleep' within' 30' minutes),' problems' of' sleep' maintenance' (waking' at'night'or'early'in'the'morning)'and'self)reported'sleep'quality'are' analysed' using' nested' logistic' regression' models,' which' included' gender,'age,'marital'status,'hours'of'caregiving,'education,'income,' housing' tenure,' employment' status,' self)reported' health' and' health'limitations.'

Results:'Strong'associations'are'found'between'living'in'disadvan) taged' circumstances' and' short' sleep' duration,' poor' sleep' quality' and' reported' sleep' problems.' Older' people' with' less' education,' lower'income'and'living'in'public'housing'are'more'likely'to'report' poor'sleep.'These'associations'with'social'disadvantage'are'weaker' above' age' 65' than' for' the' working' ages.' Self)reported' health,' health'limitations'and'co)resident'caregiving'are'strongly'linked'to' poor' sleep.' There' is' a' linear' association' of' hours' spent' caregiving' with'poorer'quality'sleep,'which'among'older'people'is'not'moder) ated'following'adjustment'for'co)variants.'Non)resident'caregiving' had'no'effect'on'sleep'quality.'

Conclusions:' How' socio)economic' circumstances' and' health' are' associated'with'the'sleep'quality'of'older'people'has'hitherto'been' neglected.' It' is' important' to' recognise' the' adverse' effects' of' co) resident'caregiving'on'the'sleep'of'caregivers.'

The'SomnIA'project'is'funded'by'the'New'Dynamics'of'Ageing'initia) tive,' supported' by' AHRC,' BBSRC,' EPSRC,' ESRC' and' MRC' (RES)339)

25)0009).'

WHAT!ABOUT!DIGNITY?!THE!MEANING!AND!

EXPERIENCE!OF!TERMINALLY!ILL!PATIENTS!

Ana'Patricia'Hilario

1'

1

DEPARTMENT'OF'HEALTH'AND'SOCIAL'CARE,'ROYAL'HOLLOWAY)

UNIVERSITY'OF'LONDON,'London,'United'Kingdom

'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

36'

Abstract:' The' literature' concerning' the' factors' that' are' likely' to' influence'the'experience'of'dignity'at'the'end'of'life'has'been'very' limited.' Just' a' few' studies' have' drawn' attention' to' the' ways' in' which'the'process'of'loss'and'decay'prior'to'patient’s'death'is'likely' to'influence'their'sense'of'dignity.'For'example,'Armstrong)Coster'

(2004),'Lawton'(2000)'and'McNamara'(2001)'have'underlined'the' importance'of'looking'to'the'breakdown'of'bodily'integrity'to'un) derstand'the'meaning'and'experience'of'dignity'at'the'end'of'life.'

Terminally' ill' patients,' in' the' face' of' increasing' bodily' losses,' are' likely'to'report'a'sense'of'loss'of'dignity.'Hence'this'study'aims'to' understand'how'the'deterioration'of'the'physical'body'and'lack'of' self'containment'due'to'a'terminal'illness'lead'to'a'loss'of'dignity.'

The'findings'derived'from'an'ethnographic'approach'developed'in' two'palliative'care'units'in'Portugal'for'cancer'and'non)cancer'pa) tients.'Participant'observation'were'conducted'during'ten'months'

(five'months'in'each'unit)'to'complement'interviewing'techniques.'

A'total'of'ten'palliative'care'patients'were'interviewed'for'research' purposes.'Interviews'were'also'conducted'with'twenty'relatives'of' palliative'care'patients'and'twenty'palliative'care'professionals.'The' findings'suggested'that'while'for'some'respondents'dignity'is'relat) ed'with'individual’s'ability'to'act'as'an'autonomous'agent,'for'oth) ers' dignity' is' deeply' embedded' with' the' notion' of' being' human.'

Two'categories'emerged'from'this'study:'an'individualist'perspec) tive' and' a' holistic' repertoire.' Both' these' categories' and' their' de) fined' themes' are' highlighted' on' this' ongoing' doctoral' research.'

This'study'by'looking'at'the'meaning'and'experience'of'dignity'at' the' end' of' life,' has' served' to' underline' the' ways' in' which' formal' and' informal' careers' can' enhance' the' dignity' of' terminally' ill' pa) tients.'

SOCIAL!CAPITAL,!AGEING!AND!HEALTH!IN!EUROPE:!

COMPARATIVE!ANALYSES!BETWEEN!THREE!

EUROPEAN!COUNTRIES!

Eleni' Koutsogeorgou

Cerniauskaite

' 1

,' Fredrica' Nyqvist

'1

,'Rui'Quintas

' 2

'1

,'Alberto'Raggi

,' Mikael' Nygård

' 3

'1

,' Milda'

,'Matilde'Leonardi

1'

1

Neurology,'Public'Health'and'Disability'Unit,'Scientific'Directorate,'

Neurological' Institute' Carlo' Besta' IRCCS' Foundation,' Milan,' Italy,'

2

National' Institute' for' Health' and' Welfare' (THL),'

University,'Vaasa,'Finland

'

3

Åbo' Akademi'

Abstract:'This'study'evaluates'the'association'between'social'capi) tal'and'self)reported'health'in'Finland,'Poland'and'Spain,'using'data' extracted' from' the' European' Social' Survey' (ESS)' in' Round' 4'

(2008/2009)'for'respondents'over'the'age'of'50.'Social'capital're) fers' to' a' wide' range' of' social' phenomena;' however,' in' this' study' we'focus'on'structural'aspects'such'as'social'contacts'and'religious' participation'as'well'as'cognitive'aspects'including'social'and'politi) cal'trust.'This'study'also'focuses'on'whether'the'influence'of'vari) ous' aspects' of' social' capital' on' health' operates' differently' in' se) lected' countries' of' Northern,' Eastern' and' Southern' Europe.' The' research'question'is'evaluated'by'using'descriptive'statistics'as'well' as' multivariate' regression' analyses.' The' preliminary' results' show' that'the'prevalence'of'good'health'is'increased'by'frequent'social' contacts'and'high'political'trust'in'Finland,'Poland'and'Spain.'Fur) thermore,'high'social'trust'is'associated'with'good'health'in'Finland' and' Spain.' After' adjusting' for' sociodemographic' variables' there' is' still'evidence'of'an'association'between'social'contacts'and'health' in'all'three'countries.'

GERONTECHNOLOGY,!EVERYDAY!LIFE!AND!ETHICS!

Abstract'Book'

Jyrki'Jyrkämä

1'

1

Department' of' Social' Sciences' and' Philosophy,' UNIVERSITY' OF'

JYVÄSKYLÄ,'Tampere,'Finland

'

Abstract:'The'role'of'the'so'called'wellbeing'technology'is'constant) ly'increasing'in'the'field'of'old'age'care'and'in'the'everyday'life'of' elderly'people.'Technology'offers'us'possibilities'and'alternatives'to' live' in' situations' where' for' instance' our' functional' competence' is' lower'and'we'face'problems'in'the'everyday'management'of'nor) mal'daily'life'chores.'

However,'applying'and'incorporating'technology'into'everyday'life' is'not'unproblematic.'It'may'also'result'in'problems'from'an'ethical' point'of'view'to'the'point'that'requires'outside'monitoring.'In'Fin) land'the'National'Advisory'Board'on'Social'Welfare'and'Health'Care'

Ethics' ETENE' has' just' completed' a' report' concerning' technology' and'ethical'issues'in'the'field'of'social'and'health'care.'The'aim'of' the' report' is' to' consider' how' we' can' use' some' of' the' common' ethical'principles'to'evaluate'technology'in'the'context'of'everyday' life'of'elderly'people.'

In'my'paper'I'will'present'the'main'contents'of'this'report'and'in) troduce' also' some' theoretical' and' methodological' tools' to' ap) proach'technology'in'the'every'life'situations'of'old'age'care'and'in' lives'of'elderly'people.'

“THE!HOUSE!LOOKS!MESSY,!BUT!IT’S!EASIER!FOR!ME”!

–!APPLIED!ETHNOGRAPHY,!DOMESTIC!ROBOTIC!

SOLUTIONS!AND!ELDERLY!PEOPLE!

Gerardo' Zamora

Garcia

' 1

,' Etxeberria' Igone

'1

,'Lucia'Pigini

' 1

,' Xabier' Ansorena

'2

,'David'Facal

'1

,'Elena'Urdaneta

1'

' 1

,' Alvaro'

1

INGEMA,' San' Sebastian,' Spain,'

Onlus,'Milano,'Italy

'

2

Fondazione' Don' Carlo' Gnocchi'

Abstract:'In'the'definition'of'ICT)based'solutions,'ethnography'can' facilitate' 'capturing' of' knowledge'' from' participants' and' increase' their' participation.' The' SRS' project*' seeks' to' develop' remotely) controlled,' semi)autonomous' robotic' solutions' in' domestic' envi) ronments'to'support'elderly'people,'which'tend'to'be'discouraged' from'adopting'existing'robotic'products,'partly'due'to'inaccurately' gathering' user' requirements.' An' applied' ethnography' (AE)' was' carried' out' to' collect' data' from' frail,' elderly' users' in' their' own' homes'as'a'means'to'realize'how'such'a'robotic'solution'can'better' tackle'their'needs.'

OBJECTIVE:'The'objective'was'threefold:'1)To'properly'describe'the' home'environment'where'older'people'live;'2)To'complete'already) collected'data'from'a'user'requirement'study'with'qualitative'data' on' the' context' of' daily' living' activities;' 3)To' add' up' information' about'socioeconomic'variables.'

METHOD:' The' AE' was' inquiry)focused' (Boyles,' Bailey' &' Mossey,'

2011),' multidisciplinary' (Patterson' et.' al,' 2009),' team' approached'

(Hallett,'Harger'&'Eder,'2009),'and'had'formulated'research'ques) tions'to'premise'fieldwork'in'several'sites'(Kleinman,'1992;'Savage,'

1996).'15'conveniently'selected'homes'(5'in'Italy,'10'in'Spain)'were' visited'and'observed.'Unstructured'interviews,'participant'observa) tion,' photographs,' environmental' measures' and' a' “dairy' of' daily' routines”'were'used'to'gather'data.'

RESULTS:'13'women'and'4'men'with'age)related'health'problems' took' part' in' the' research.' 10' were' aged' 80' or' older.' Concerning' living' arrangement:' 12' were' single)person' households,' 2' fe)

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' male/male'couple'homes'and'1'household'with'2'female'relatives.'

Women' and' men' approach' Activities' of' Daily' Living' in' different' ways,' independent' of' living' alone' or' not.' All' had' very' structured' routines' and' strong' home' attachment,' even' though' their' homes' are'a'source'of'obstacles'for'independence.'They'develop'adaptive' strategies' to' minimize' these' problems.' Management' of' risk' situa) tions'is'thus'one'of'the'most'accepted'functionalities'of'a'potential' robotic'solution.'

CONCLUSION:'Applied'ethnography'is'a'valuable'source'of'evidence' for'health'care'or'ICT)based'devices.'

*'“Multi)Role'Shadow'Robotic'System'for'Independent'Living'(SRS)”' is'funded'by'the'7th'Framework'Programme'of'the'European'Un) ion.'Grant'agreement'num.'247772.'Call:'FP7)ICT)2009)4.'

THE!UNCOMFORTABLE!MOULDS!OF!DIGITAL!TOOLS.!

SENIORS!USING!CYBERSPACE!IN!THEIR!OWN!WAY!

Vicent'Alberto'Querol'Vicente

1'

1

Philosophy'and'Sociology,'JAUME'I,'Castellón'de'la'Plana,'Spain

'

Abstract:' In' the' same' manner' as' other' leisure' practices' outside/ cyberspace,' leisure' through' digital' tools' seeks' a' pleasant' strain) emotion'level'by'senior'users.'However,'some'digital'tools'rigidity' or'net'sructures'prevent,'enventually,'this'emotion'through'leisure' search.'Seniors'acquisition'of'technologies'makes'clear'some'tech) nology' faults' in' terms' of' cyberspace' flexibilities.' In' this' sense,' as' any' mass' communication' structure,' internet' builds' up' a' mould' where' most' uses' are' being' channeled.' Nevertheless,' when' this' forms'turn'out'rigid,'practices'generated'in'cyberspace'go'through' unexpected'ways,'a/priori,'for'seniors.'

On'the'other'hand,'the'same'structure'of'cyberspace'reproduces'an' amount' of' information' whose' classification' or' tempts' to' put' in' order'the'data'become'a'hard'to'manage'problem.'In'this'context,' disorder' information' and' overload' information' perceptions' affect' senior'uses'of'cyberspace.'Acquisition'of'cyberspace'by'these'gen) erations'of'seniors'reveals'some'incapacities'of'internet'to'dose'or' give'priorities'to'an'enormous'information'data.'

A'qualitative'research'was'made'selecting'a'sample'of'11'seniors.'

Semi)structured' interviews' were' used' in' order' to' capture' percep) tions,'attitudes'and'practices'of'these'seniors'on'cyberspace.'

TRANSPORT!RESOURCES!AND!UNCOVERED!

TRANSPORT!NEEDS!AMONG!OLDER!PEOPLE!

Randi'Johanne'Hjorthol

'1

,'Susanne'Nordbakke

'1

,'Liva'Vågane

1'

1

INSTITUTE'OF'TRANSPORT'ECONOMICS,'Oslo,'Norway

'

Abstract:'Previous'research'has'shown'that'mobility'and'the'ability' to' leave' the' home' are' among' the' essential' aspects' of' older' peo) ple’s'quality'of'life.'An'individual’s'ability'to'use'the'transportation' system'freely'has'since'long'been'defined'as'one'of'the'seven'im) portant'areas'in'the'Instrumental'Activities'of'Daily'Living'(IADL)'of' the'elderly.'However,'surveys'of'older'people’s'access'to'transport' resources'and'the'impact'of'mobility'on'welfare'and'well)being'are' few.'Many'previous'studies'are'based'on'small'samples'or'qualita) tive' data.' The' questions' addressed' in' this' paper' is' how' transport' resources'are'distributed'among'different'groups'of'older'people,' to'which'degree'the'transport'needs'of'these'groups'are'met'and' how' this' is' related' to' their' well)being.' The' empirical' analysis' is'

37' based'on'a'Norwegian'nationwide'survey'among'4323'respondents'

65'years'and'older.'The'respondents'were'asked'about'their'access' to' transport' resources,' both' private' and' public,' health' problems' connected'to'use'of'transport'modes,'their'daily'activities'and'mo) bility,' their' uncovered' transport' needs' and' the' importance' of' dif) ferent'activities'for'their'life'quality.'The'analysis'reveals'great'dif) ferences'between'groups;'especially'between'men'and'women,'but' also'between'different'age'groups'and'by'different'place'of'living.'

The'special'transport'offered'by'the'local'authorities'is'seen'as'in) sufficient,'and'with'increasing'age'a'great'deal'of'older'people'have' low' mobility' and' an' uncovered' transport' need' that' reduces' their' life'quality.'

REVIEWING!RESEARCH!ABOUT!ASSISTIVE!ROBOTIC!

TECHNOLOGIES!FOR!ELDERLY!PERSONS!IN!THE!

EUROPEAN!UNION!AND!JAPAN:!THE!IMPORTANCE!OF!

INDIVIDUAL!AGEING!

Priska'Flandorfer

1'

1

INSTITUTE' OF' DEMOGRAPHY,' AUSTRIAN' ACADEMY' OF' SCIENCES,'

Vienna,'Austria

'

Abstract:' Taking' care' of' elderly' persons' is' among' the' major' chal) lenges' currently' faced' by' an' ageing' society' and' it' becomes' more' and'more'a'topic'considering'the'acceleration'of'the'demographic' change.' Various' ways' on' how' to' meet' those' challenges' are' dis) cussed.' According' to' the' technological' progress,' assistive' robotic' devices'have'been'proposed'as'a'form'of'supporting'elderly'people' to' stay' safe' and' healthy' at' their' homes' for' longer' times' and' to' maintain'their'quality'of'life'while'relieving'caregivers'and'the'care' system.'Especially'in'Japan'the'technological'development'of'such' assistive'devices'is'highly'advanced'and'the'Japanese'government' invests'much'in'developing'assistive'robotic'technologies.'But'also' in' the' European' Union' (EU)' funding' for' research' activities' has' started' both' union)wide' and' at' national' levels.' Since' ageing' is' an' individual' process' with' various' specific' demands,' technological' products'must'address'these'specific'requirements.'For'getting'an' understanding' about' how' individual' aspects' of' ageing' are' taken' into' account' Japanese' and' English' (European)' research' articles' about'assistive'robotics'are'reviewed'on'a'systematic'basis.'The'aim' is'to'compare'research'methods'and'outcomes'between'Japan'and' the' EU' on' a' cross)national' basis' and' to' investigate' how' socio) demographic' factors' (age,' gender,' education,' health' status)' of' el) derly'persons'influence'the'acceptance,'intention'to'use'and'overall' rating'of'assistive'robotic'technologies.'Results'show'that'previous' research' is' widely' diversified' due' to' different' technological' inter) ventions'and'that'evaluation'methods'for'measuring'the'technolog) ical'acceptance'are'barely'consistent.'Although'such'versatility'ex) ists'the'results'indicate'that'only'few'studies'take'into'account'so) cio)demographic' factors.' Where' studies' include' these' factors' it' becomes'evident'that'they'show'a'significant'impact'on'the'rating' of'assistive'robotic'technologies'by'elderly'users.'The'results'further' illustrate' that' cross)national' differences' exist' within' European' countries' as' well' as' between' Europe' and' Japan.' Based' on' these' findings' we' suggest' an' approach' for' evaluating' assistive' robotic' technologies'by'also'taking'into'account'socio)demographic'aspects' of' elderly' users.' This' offers' the' possibility' to' investigate' the' im) portance'and'impacts'of'individual'ageing'on'the'acceptance,'inten) tion'to'use'and'overall'rating'of'these'technologies'by'elderly'per) sons.'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

38'

PROFESSIONAL!IDENTITY!TRANSITIONS!OF!OLDER!

WORKERS.!CONCEPTS!AND!EMPIRICAL!EVIDENCES!

Francesco'Marcaletti

1'

1

Dipartimento' di' Sociologia,' UNIVERSITÀ' CATTOLICA' DEL' SACRO'

CUORE,'Milano,'Italy

'

Abstract:'The'identity'transitions,'within'the'more'general'process) es'of'professional'socialization,'represent'a'topic'of'growing'inter) est'because'of'the'increase'of'life'expectancy'and'the'consequent' need' of' working' longer,' extending' the' duration' of' professional' careers.'

The' reshaping' of' the' life' courses' enphasizes' the' relationship' be) tween'the'biographical'and'relational'transitions'that'contribute'to' remodulate'the'individual'specialized'identities'at'work'while'age) ing.'

The' existentialist' perspective,' contrary' to' the' nominalistic' one,' theorizes'the'identity'as'a'product'of'the'articulation'of'biograph) ical' and' relational' dimensions,' because' socialization' is' always' the' product'of'a'joint'effort'of'individuals'and'social'institutions.'Beside' the'biographical'dynamic'required'to'connect'the'experience'of'the' past' to' the' anticipation' of' the' future,' the' relational' dynamic' en) sures'or'undermine'the'recognition'of'the'identities'claimed'by'the' individuals'assumed'as'social'actors.'According'to'this'perspective,' the' identity' shaping' process' is' interpreted' as' a' product' of' a' dual' transaction' process,' obtained' by' articulating' the' bargaining' be) tween'abscribed'identity'and'desired'identity,'on'the'biographical' side,' and' between' attributed' identities' and' claimed' identities,' on' the' relational' side.' Stressing' the' axis' represented' by' the' pre) sent/past'relation,'the'identity'shaping'process'can'be'interpreted' as'the'result'of'the'incorporation'of'an'habitus'producing'and're) producing')'on'the'basis'of'past'experiences'–'patterns'of'behaviour' judged'possible.'Assuming'a'life'course'perspective,'identity'shap) ing'process'and'incorporation'of'an'habitus'can'be'observed'within' social' trajectories' of' social' groups' defined' as' such' and' can' be' re) modulated' along' the' temporal' axis' present/future.' The' technique' of'the'biographical'interview'has'been'adopted'as'methodological' solution' for' operationalising' conceptual' categories' assumed' to' describe' the' professional' identity' forms' and' transitions' that' lies' within'complex'action'systems,'like'business'and'burocratic'organi) zations' have' became' today.' Identity' forms' and' transitions' of' two' different'samples'of'older'workers'within'multinational'companies' have' been' observed' by' collecting' subjective' representations' of' expectations' concerning' future' choices' of' retirement' or' staying' longer'at'work.'The'narrative'arguments'collected'have'been'ana) lysed'in'order'to'identify'different'categories'of'older'workers.'

THE!PEDAGOGICALIZATION!OF!AGEING!SOCIETIES!

Tine'Fristrup

1'

1

Department' of' Education,' DANISH' SCHOOL' OF' EDUCATION,'

AARHUS'UNIVERSITY,'Copenhagen'NV,'Denmark

'

Abstract:' Transformations' in' the' age' profile' of' a' population' are' a' response' to' political' and' economic' structures' and' in' relation' to' public'services'older'people'become'a'burden'to'the'younger'work) ing'people.'The'construction'of'a'social'problem'in'relation'to'popu) lation' ageing' becomes' a' social' pedagogical' problem' involving' a' focus' on' social' pedagogical' interventions' throughout' the' life' course.'In'order'to'shape'the'future'of'society,'the'perspective'on' ageing'and'old'age'has'shifted'from'being'a'determined'process'to'

Abstract'Book' becoming' a' modifiable' process' focusing' on' the' processes' of' opti) mizing'and'realizing'people’s'potentials'lifelong.'Active'and'healthy' ageing' unfolds' the' cure' to' the' social' problem' of' contemporary' ageing'societies'in'order'to'make'tomorrows'life'in'old'age'better' than' it' is' today.' The' pedagogical' issues' relate' to' the' normative' approaches'to'the'content'of'‘a'good'life’'and'takes'its'departure' from'the'embodiment'of'the'neo)liberal'principles'of'containing'the' costs'of'eldercare'and'maximizing'individual'effort'and'responsibil) ity' for' managing' risks' of' diseases' and' decline' even' death' in' later' life.'

This'paper'will'discuss'the'implications'of'the'pedagogicalization'of' ageing' within' the' framework' of' a' Vision' Paper' from' EU:' “More'

Years,' Better' Lives:' The' Potential' Challenges' of' Demographic'

Change”,'February'2011.'Disciplining'the'knowledge'production'of' ageing'is'a'way'of'controlling'the'processes'of'subjectification'in'old' age'as'the'socialization'of'an'ageing'person'in'relation'to'the'disci) plining' of' population' ageing:' becoming' a' subject' to' active' and' healthy'ageing.'The'future'of'ageing'societies'depends'on'the'plas) ticity' of' the' individual' performance' underlying' people’s' personal' responsibility'for'their'unsuccessful'ageing'that'manifests'in'having' health'problems'in'later'life,'because'successful'ageing'would'have' been'within'their'reach'had'they'maintained'a'high'level'of'physical' activity.' PerformAge/ is' a' new' concept,' which' makes' it' possible' to' unfold' the' different' facets' of' the' phenomenon' of' individual' and' societal'ageing'as'a'temporal'and'spatial'theorising'of'ageing:'aged' by'cultural'age'performativities.'

THE!LIQUID!LIFEGCOURSE:!THE!ORDER!OF!LIFEGPHASES!

IN!LATER!LIFE!

Kathrin'Susanne'Komp

1'

1

Prentice'Institute,'UNIVERSITY'OF'LETHBRIDGE,'Lethbridge,'Cana) da

'

Abstract:'Over'the'last'decades,'the'character'of'later'life'changed' considerably.' Later' life' covers' old' age' and' the' life)years' directly' preceding'it.'Traditionally,'old'age'in'modern'Western'societies'was' understood' as' the' time' after' retirement,' which' was' assumed' to' start'with'a'withdrawal'from'paid'work.'Due'to'stock'market'crash) es' and' economic' crises,' however,' an' increasing' number' of' older' people'need'to'work'for'pay'after'retiring.'This'challenges'the'as) sumption' that' old' age' is' free' from' paid' work.' Additionally,' many' people'experience'spells'of'unemployment'before'retiring,'due'to,' for'example,'structural'unemployment'and'lay)offs'in'the'wake'of' the'economic'crisis.'This'raises'the'question'when'old'age,'meaning' the'absence'from'paid'work'in'later'life,'begins.'

The'changing'character'of'old'age'challenges'the'three)partite'life) course'model.'This'model'splits'the'time'between'birth'and'death' into' three' subsequent' life)phases.' The' first' life)phase' is' youth,' which' is' the' time' of' socialization' and' education.' The' second' life) phase'is'middle)age,'which'covers'the'years'of'paid'work.'The'third' life)phase' is' old' age,' which' stands' for' a' time' of' inactivity' due' to' poor'health.'Due'to'the'changing'character'of'old'age,'people'expe) rience'situations'not'included'in'this'model,'for'example'workforce' participation' in' old' age.' Moreover,' people' might' switch' back' and' forth'between'paid'work'and'inactivity'several'times,'which'is'also' not' possible' in' accordance' with' this' model.' Life' has' become' too' diverse' and' volatile' to' fit' the' three)partite' life)course' model.' The' previously'standardized'and'institutionalized'life)course'has'turned' into'a'liquid'life)course.'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

This' project' studies' the' structure' of' later' life' today' by' testing' an' expanded' version' of' the' three)partite' life)course' model.' This' ver) sion' of' the' model' contains' a' typical' and' an' atypical' kind' of' each' life)phase,' with' the' atypical' kind' capturing' recent' developments.'

This'model'is'used'to'answer'two'questions:'Which'life)phases'oc) cur' in' later' life?' And' in' which' order' do' life)phases' occur' in' later' life?'Sequence'analyses'of'German'and'US'American'panel'data'are' carried'out.'The'answers'to'both'questions'are'used'to'reformulate' the'three)partite'life)course'model.'

TRACING!THE!ORIGINS!OF!SUCCESSFUL!AGING:!THE!

ROLE!OF!CHILDHOOD!CONDITIONS!AND!SOCIETAL!

CONTEXT!

Christian'Deindl

'1

,'Martina'Brandt

'2

,'Karsten'Hank

1'

1

Research' Institute' for' Sociology,' UNIVERSITY' OF' COLOGNE,' Co) logne,'

2

MEA' )' Mannheim' Research' Institute' for' the' Economics' of'

Ageing,'University'of'Mannheim,'Mannheim,'Germany

'

Abstract:' This' study' investigates' the' role' of' childhood' conditions' and'societal'context'in'older'Europeans’'propensity'to'age'success) fully,'controlling'for'later'life'risk'factors.'Successful'aging'was'as) sessed'following'Rowe'and'Kahn’s'conceptualization,'using'baseline' interviews'from'the'first'two'waves'of'the'Survey'of'Health,'Ageing' and'Retirement'in'Europe'(SHARE).'These'data'were'merged'with' retrospective' life)histories' of' participants' from' 13' Continental' Eu) ropean' countries,' collected' in' 2008)09' as' part' of' the' SHARELIFE' project.' Our' sample' consists' of' 22,474' men' and' women,' who' are' representative' of' the' non)institutionalized' population' aged' 50' or' older'(mean'age:'63.3)'in'their'respective'country.'

Estimating' multilevel' logistic' models,' we' controlled' for' de) mographics'(age,'sex),'childhood'conditions'(SES,'health,'cognition),' later'life'risk'factors'(various'dimensions'of'SES'and'health'behav) iors),' as' well' as' country)level' measures' of' public' social' expendi) tures'and'social'inequality.'There'is'an'independent'association'of' childhood'living'conditions'with'elders’'odds'of'aging'well.'Higher' parental'SES,'better'math'and'reading'skills,'as'well'as'self)reports' of'good'childhood'health'were'positively'associated'with'successful' aging,' even' if' contemporary' characteristics' were' controlled' for.'

Later)life'SES'and'health'behaviors'exhibited'the'expected'correla) tions'with'our'dependent'variable.'Moreover,'higher'levels'of'pub) lic'social'expenditures'and'lower'levels'of'income'inequality'were' associated' with' a' greater' probability' to' meet' Rowe' and' Kahn’s' successful'aging'criterion.'We'conclude'that'unfavorable'childhood' conditions' exhibit' a' harmful' influence' on' individuals’' chances' to' age'well'across'all'European'welfare'states'considered'in'this'study.'

Policy'interventions'should'thus'aim'at'improving'the'conditions'for' successful'aging'throughout'the'entire'life)course.'

I!DON'T!WANNA!LIVE!FOREVER!...!BUT!APPARENTLY!I!

AM!!

Magnus'Nilsson

1'

1

KARLSTAD'UNIVERSITY,'Karlstad,'Sweden

'

Abstract:' The' age' of' Ian' “Lemmy”' Kilmister,' singer' and' bassist' in' the' band' Motorhead,' has' to' an' increasing' extent' become' part' of' his'status'as'an'legend'of'heavy'metal.'Born'in'1945'Lemmy'is'now' over'retirement'age'but'is'still'recording'and'touring'the'world.'His' status'as'a'rock'star'is'maintained'by'a'reputation'for'heavy'drink) ing,'smoking,'doing'drugs'and'a'big'appetite'for'sex.'

39'

The'title'of'the'paper'is'taken'from'the'song'“Ace'of'spades”,'re) leased'in'1981.'The'song'is'about'gambling,'and'gambling'with'your' life.' In' the' song' Lemmy' sings' “I' don’t' want' to' live' forever…' but' don’t' forget' the' joker.' When' the' song' is' performed' live' Lemmy' now'sings'“I'don’t'want'to'live'forever'…'but'apparently'I'am”,'and' thereby'confirming'his'status'as'a'legend'by'reference'to'his'age.'

There' have' been' several' documentaries' made' about' Lemmy' and' his'band,'one'notably'called'“Live'fast,'die'old”.'He'has'written'an' autobiographical'book.'In'this'paper'I'will'use'these'to'analyze'how' the'decline'metaphor'is'used'and'contested'in'the'ways'that'Lem) my'is'represented,'and'the'way'that'he'himself'relates'to'his'age'in' interviews.'I'use'an'intersectional'approach'to'understand'how'age' and'masculinity'are'used'in'the'articulation'of'Lemmy’s'status'as'a' rock'star'and'a'legend.'

AGE,!SKILLS!AND!PRODUCTIVITY!–!PERSPECTIVE!OF!

EMPLOYERS!

Konrad'Turek

1'

1

Institute'of'Sociology,'JAGIELLONIAN'UNIVERSITY,'Krakow,'Poland

'

Abstract:'The'presentation'concerns'studies'on'the'relation'of'age,' skills' and' productivity' of' workers.' It' presents' views' of' Polish' em) ployers'about'productivity'and'skills'of'older'workers'and'analyses' individual' and' work)related' factors' affecting' the' employers’' per) ception'of'productivity'of'older'workers.'Data'comes'from'the'na) tional' representative' survey' of' Polish' companies' from' public' and' private' sector' (CATI,' n=1037)' conducted' within' international' pro) ject' ASPA' (Activating' Senior' Potentials' in' Ageing' Europe;' 8' coun) tries' involved)' )' the' first' such' survey' of' Polish' employers' in' this' topic.'

Results' for' Poland' show' that' older' workers' are' valued' more' for' their' soft' skills' (i.e.' social' skills,' management' skills,' reliability' and' loyalty),'while'the'younger'workers')'for'their'hard'skills'(creativity,' physical'health,'new'technology'skills,'willingness'to'learn'and'flex) ibility),'what'affects'productivity'ratings.'Analyses'support'the'con) cept' that' job' performance' is' an' outcome' of' both' individual' and' work)related'factors'and'does'not'have'to'deteriorate'in'older'age.'

Even' though' some' work)related' capabilities' usually' decrease' with' age,'there'are'also'some'features'that'usually'improve'or'maintain' at'the'same'level'through'the'whole'life'and'could'be'beneficial'at' older'age.'However,'work'environment'and'job'characteristics'may' contribute' to' workers' performance' as' well.' Employers,' basing' on' their' knowledge' and' experience,' may' either' intent' to' improve' productivity' of' older' workers' or' lower' the' cost' by' sending' senior' workers'on'retirement.'Data'shows'that'age'management'aiming'at' improvement'of'job'performance'of'older'workers'correlates'with' higher'ratings'of'their'productivity.'Performance'of'older'workers'is' generally'valued'higher'in'organizations'demanding'more'soft'then' hard' skills,' what' confirms' the' theoretical' assumptions.' Finally,' proposition' of' a' conceptualization' of' productivity' with' relation' to' age'mediated'by'workability'is'presented.'

BETWEEN!CHOICE!AND!NECESSITY:!WORK!BEYOND!

RETIREMENT!AGE!IN!GERMANY!AND!THE!UK!

Simone'Scherger

'1

,'Thomas'Lux

1'

1

Centre' for' Social' Policy' Research,' UNIVERSITY' OF' BREMEN,' Bre) men,'Germany

'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

40'

Abstract:' The' number' of' retirees' who,' mostly' despite' receiving' a' pension,'are'(still'or'again)'in'paid'employment,'has'been'increas) ing'in'most'European'countries'during'the'last'decade.'Some'gen) eral'reasons'of'this'trend'are'well'known:'for'example,'old'age'in) comes' have' started' to' decrease' because' the' regulations' of' state' pension'systems'have'become'less'generous'and'because'there'are' more'people'with'discontinuous'careers'and'thus'less'opportunities' to'save'for'retirement,'in'which'form'ever.'

The' paper' aims' to' examine' the' (hitherto' atypical)' combination'of' pension' receipt' and' paid' employment' in' Germany' and' Britain,' countries'whose'pension'systems'are'very'different'from'each'oth) er'and'form'part'of'different'welfare'regimes.'Whereas'the'number' of' old' people' in' employment' has' always' been' higher' in' the' UK,' considerable'numbers'of'working'retirees'are'a'relatively'new'phe) nomenon' in' Germany.' Furthermore,' the' debates' around' work' in' retirement' are' different' in' both' countries,' with' a' much' stronger' emphasis' on' the' right' to' work' in' the' UK,' and' the' idea' of' well) deserved'retirement'still'prevalent'in'Germany.'

On' the' basis' of' cross)sectional,' descriptive' and' multivariate' anal) yses'of'data'from'the'English'Longitudinal'Study'(ELSA)'on'the'one' hand,'and'from'the'German'Ageing'Survey'(DEAS)'on'the'other,'the' paper'aims'to'answer'the'following'questions:'

•'How'many'pensioners'in'Germany'and'Britain'do'actually'work,' and'how'can'they'be'described'more'closely?'Which'groups'must' be'differentiated?'

•' Which' are' the' most' important' factors' leading' to' paid' work' in' retirement,'and'in'particular,'which'role'does'old'age'income'play?'

•'Which'other'influences'have'to'be'taken'into'account'when'ex) plaining' paid' work' beyond' retirement,' both' on' the' individual' and' on'the'macro'level?'

In' this' way,' the' paper' will' contribute' to' a' differentiated' view' on' work'in'retirement'and'its'evaluation.'The'presented'evidence'can' be'seen'as'indication'of'how'important'economic'necessity'is'as'a' motive'for'paid'work'in'retirement.'

CAN!FURTHER!TRAINING!BE!AN!ANSWER!TO!

TECHNOLOGICAL!INNOVATION!IN!AN!AGEING!

WORKFORCE?!

Martina'Huber

1'

1

INSTITUTE'FOR'EMPLOYMENT'RESEARCH,'Nuremberg,'Germany

'

Abstract:' The' German' labour' market' is' affected' by' technological' and'demographic'change.'Especially'older'employees'are'regarded' as'losers'of'this'development'because'of'their'insufficient!qualifica) tion'and'the'increasing'age'of'retirement.'One'possibility'to'expand' the'technological'competences'of'older'employees'is'further'train) ing.'But'as'I'will'show,'older'employees'still'participate'less'in'fur) ther'training.'

New' information' and' communication' technologies' in' establish) ments' affect' thework' environment' and' lead' to' changes' regarding' working'procedures'or'equipment'(Borghans,'ter'Weel'2002).'Addi) tionally,' the' consequences' of' the' demographic' change' demand' rethinking.'

A' decreasing' number' of' young' employees' have' to' balance' an' in) creasing' number' of' old' employees' (Bellmann,' Kistler,' and' Wahse'

2007).' Consequently,' employees' and' employers' should' have' an'

Abstract'Book' interest'to'preserve'and'support'the'employability'and'productivi) ty.'In'this'context'lifelong'learning'plays'an'important'role.'

Therefore'in'the'project'“Further'Training'as'Part'of'Lifelong'Learn) ing”'a'dataset'has'been'constructed'which'concentrates'on'further' training' as' a' consequence' of' organisational' and' technological' change.' Furthermore,' these' data' can' be' compared' with' French' data'from'the'Centre'd’études'de'l’emploi'because'of'the'identical' survey'and'questionnaire'design.'First'I'will'give'an'overview'about' the'development'of'the'German'employment'structure.'Using'mul) tivariate' analysis' I' identify' factors' on' the' employer' and' the' em) ployee'side'that'have'an'effect'on'the'participation'in'further'train) ing'of'older'workers'after'a'technological'change.'It'shows'that'that' older' workers' have' a' lower' participation' in' further' training' as' an' answer' to' technological' change.' The' main' results' show' that' the' society'has'to'prepare'much'more'for'the'challenges'of'the'techno) logical'change'and'the'ageing'of'the'labour'force.'

Literature:'

Bellmann,'L./'Kistler,'E./'Wahse,'J.'(2007):'Betriebe'müssen'sich'auf' alternde'Belegschaften'einstellen.'IAB'Kurzbericht'21.'

Borghans,' L./' ter' Weel,' B.' (2002):' Do' Older' Workers' Have' More'

Trouble'Using'a'Computer'

Than'Younger'Workers?'Maastricht,'Research'Centre'for'Education' and'the'Labour'Market.'

ELDERLY!POPULATION!IN!A!LABOUR!MARKET:!

RESOURCE!FOR!THE!ECONOMY!OR!NEW!CHALLENGE!

FOR!SOCIAL!POLICY!(CASE!OF!RUSSIA)!

Yulia'Lezhnina

1'

1

HIGHER'SCHOOL'OF'ECONOMICS,'MOSCOW,'Russian'Federation

'

Abstract:' In' Russia' elderly' population' traditionally' has' been' the' object' of' social' policy' as' most' of' it' depends' on' state' after' retire) ment.'However,'the'active'involvement'of'senior'citizens'in'produc) tive'activities'today'(about'a'quarter'of'them'work)'and'population' aging' have' raised' the' question' if' elderly' population' should' be' in) cluded'in'the'economic'life'of'society.'Employment'of'older'people' seems'to'be'a'resource'for'the'economy'as:'

•'it'reduces'the'retirees'need'for'public'support;'

•' it' alleviates' the' problem' of' exclusion' of' elderly' people' and,' hence,'governmental'spending'on'its'decision;'

•' it' reduces' the' need' for' migrants' labor' and' decreases' the' social' tension.'

However,' the' effect' of' inclusion' of' retirees' in' the' labor' market' is' not'so'straightforward,'because'it'poses'new'challenges'for'social' policy'appropriated'with'additional'public'investments.'

•' retirees' employment' on' the' positions' of' unskilled' workers' (pri) marily'of'physical'work)'is'difficult'due'to'poor'health.'And'even'in' case' of' working' continuation' on' these' positions' retirees' are' rela) tively' inefficient' labor' force.' Changing' the' situation' requires' fun) damentally'new'social'policy'approaches'to'health'care'system'for' increasing'the'duration'of'the'productive'working'life.'At'the'same' there' is' a' demand' for' new' jobs' allowing' comfortable' transition'

(easier' conditions' of' work,' flexible' hours,' etc.)' from' the' labour' market'to'the'retirement;'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

•'employment'of'retirees'as'skilled'workers'(mainly'of'intellectual' work)'today'not'only'blocks'access'to'employment'for'young'peo) ple,'but'in'most'cases'leads'to'the'decline'in'labor'productivity'as' the'ability'of'people'to'attain'knowledge'and'skills'changes'through' age.'Enhancing'economic'benefits'from'the'elderly'employment'as' professionals' and' semi)' professionals' is' impossible' without' new' approach'to'the'educational'system'development')'the'promoting' of'learning'throughout'life.'

•'employment'of'retirees'replaces'their'involvement'into'the'edu) cation'of'grandchildren'and'caring'for'sick'family'members.'That'is' why'elderly'population'can'be'attracted'to'the'labour'market'only' after' intensification' of' social' policy' in' field' of' social' infrastructure'

(junior'schools'and'medical'care).'

So'these'significant'changes'in'the'approaches'to'social'policy're) quire' not' only' understanding' and' developing' of' an' appropriate' strategy'but'large)scale'public'investments.'

RETIREMENT!STRATEGIES!OF!RUSSIANS!G!TO!LIVE!ON!

STATE!PENSION!OR!TO!WORK!

Olga'Evgenjevna'Kuzina

1'

1

Sociology,' Higher' School' of' Economics,' Moscow,' Russian' Federa) tion

'

Abstract:'In'my'paper'I'focus'on'‘retirement'strategies’'of'Russians' and' address' two' questions:' how' do' people' perceive' the' level' of' their'pensions'and'what'do'they'do'to'be'better'off'when'they'will' retire.' To' base' my' conceptual' enterprise' on' empirical' basis' I' use' the'data'collected'during'focus'group'discussions.'Two'focus)group' discussions' with' the' middle' class' residents' took' place' in' October'

2010' in' St.' Petersburg' and' Krasnoyarsk.' The' aim' of' these' focus' groups'was'to'find'out'how'people'themselves'define'what'retire) ment'strategy'is,'what'options'people'see,'and'which'factors'they' think' facilitate' the' implementation' of' retirement' strategies' and' which'ones'constraint'them'and'force'to'behave'non)strategically.'

The'quantitative'part'of'the'research'is'based'on'the'data'from'the' all)Russian'surveys'with'identical'samples'and'questions'conducted' in'2005,'2007,'2009,'2010.'The'main'goal'of'the'quantitative'analy) sis'is'to'reveal'what'the'most'popular'retirement'strategies'are'and' whether'anything'has'changed'over'five'years.'

The'paper'is'structured'in'the'following'way.'In'the'beginning'I'dis) cuss'the'concept'of'a'retirement'strategy'comparing'the'ways'the' concept'is'approached'in'Economics'and'Economic'Sociology,'then'I' summaries'the'findings'from'the'focus'group'discussions'and'sur) veys.'The'main'results'are'that'people'do'not'perceive'their'future' state'pensions'as'sufficient,'worry'about'their'incomes'during'the' retirement,'however'in'2010'29%'of'working'population'plan'to'live' on' their' state' pension' only,' 18%' do' not' know' what' they' can' do,'

43%'plan'to'continue'working'after'retirement,'only'8%'use'finan) cial'strategies'to'provide'enough'incomes'during'their'retirement.'

Current'pensioners'do'even'worse:'66%'live'on'state'pension,'26%' work,' only' 1%' receive' supplementary' pensions' or' withdraw' their' savings,'other'sources'are'–'family'transfers'from'their'children'or' self)provision.'The'main'reason'why'the'majority'of'people'do'not' have'retirement'strategies'is'not'an'issue'of'low'income'but'rather' the' problem' of' the' lack' of' trust' to' financial' institutions' and' very' short'horizon'of'financial'planning.'

41'

LATE!BLOOMERS!OR!LAST!RESORT?!

ENTREPRENEURSHIP!IN!THE!SECOND!PHASE!OF!LIFE!IN!

GERMANY!

Annette'Astrid'Franke

1'

1

Social' Gerontology' and' Life' course' research,' TU' DORTMUND'

UNIVERSITY,'Dortmund,'Germany

'

Abstract:' Ageing' societies' and' entrepreneurship' activities' often' seem'to'be'incompatibly'as'setting'up'a'new'business'is'still'associ) ated'with'persons'in'their'30s)40s.'On'the'other'hand,'demographic' changes' in' western' societies' bear' the' potential' to' reveal' late' en) trepreneurship'activities'–'in'particular'with'regard'to'the'current' economic' crisis,' the' increasing' rate' of' non)linear' biographies,' the' still'high'rate'of'unemployed'elderly,'an'increasing'retirement'age,' and'the'aging'of'the'baby'boomers.'Comparing'with'academic're) search' on' other' types' of' “unusual”' entrepreneurs' (women,' mi) grants),'little'is'known'about'late'self)employers.'This'is'particularly' the'case'in'Germany'with'its'lack'of'“self)employed'culture”'in'gen) eral.'

This'paper'presents'findings'from'a'Ph.D)project,'which'contributes' to'fill'the'existing'lack'of'research'on'elderly'entrepreneurs'in'Ger) many.'This'research'compares'to'different'aspects'as'it'pays'atten) tion'both'to'the'entrepreneurs’'and'to'the'experts’'view.'According' to'the'Grounded'Theory'approach'by'Glaser'and'Strauss'and'induc) tive'perpetual'theory'building'the'research'was'realised'in'the'stag) es'of'fieldwork'approach,'qualitative'interviews'with'entrepreneurs'

50+'(N=17),'and'expert'interviews'with'representatives'from'local' banks,'politics,'consulting'institutions'etc.'(N=17).'

The'main'research'questions'were:'

•'How'do'experts'estimate'this'target'group?'

•'Which'branches'or'businesses'are'typical'to'be'attractive'for'later' entrepreneurs?'

•'Which'motives'for'becoming'self)employed'are'typical'among'the' elderly?'

•'Which'role'plays'the'work'history?'

•'What'kinds'of'gender'differences'can'be'revealed?'

•' Which' kinds' of' support' at' private,' public' or' political' level' best' enable'entrepreneurs'50+?'

•' Which' experiences' do' exist' regarding' specific' social' policy' in) struments'and'entrepreneurship'promotion?'

•' Which' factors' are' of' high' importance' for' the' success' of' a' late' business?'

•'How'satisfied'are'50+entrepreneurs?'

This'paper'provides'an'insight'in'specific'characteristics,'attitudes,' opinions' and' types' in' the' context' of' late' entrepreneurship.' Fur) thermore,'this'research'highlights'the'influence'of'the'social'policy' framework' to' set' up' a' business' in' the' second' half' of' life.' The' re) search' also' refers' to' the' questions' of' “push”' and' “pull”' self) employment,'good'working'conditions'and'the'options'of'late'en) trepreneurship' as' a' “third' way”' between' voluntary' activities' and' further'trainings'for'older'(unemployed)'workers.'

CARING!FOR!OLD!PEOPLE!SUFFERING!FROM!

ALZHEIMER!DISEASE!(AD)!AND!DEMENTIA:!ANALYSIS!

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

42'

OF!THE!INTERACTIONS!BETWEEN!THE!PATIENT,!THE!

FAMILY!AND!THE!MEDICAL!FIELD!

Blanche'Le'Bihan

'1

,'Isabelle'MALLON

'2*

,'Arnaud'CAMPEON

1'

1

EHESP'(SCHOOL'OF'PUBLIC'HEALTH,'FRANCE),'Rennes,'

2

University' of'Lyon,'Lyon,'France

'

Abstract:' Defined' as' a' brain' disorder' that' causes' problems' with' memory'and'behavior,dementia'–among'which'Alzheimer'Disease– is'a'major'issue'in'the'field'of'Aging.'Affecting'the'old'person’s'abil) ity'to'carry'out'daily'activities,'the'disease'cannot'be'treated'only'at' a' medical' level.' Since' the' existing' drugs' may' only' help' to' keep' symptoms' from' getting' worse' too' quickly,' social' care' or' “non' pharmacological' interventions”,' according' to' medical' terms,' pro) vided'by'families'and'professionals'from'health'and'social'sectors,' is'considered'as'a'major'dimension'of'the'treatment'to'be'provid) ed.'

In' this' communication' we' investigate' the' complexity' of' the' situa) tions'of'dementia,'which'involve'the'old'person'but'also'the'infor) mal'caregivers,'pivot'of'the'every'day'care'arrangements,'who'are'a' resource'but'also'people'in'need'of'support.'The'analysis'exposes' the'results'of'a'qualitative'survey'led'in'France,'where'AD'has'been' a' priority' of' the' political' agenda' since' 2008.' What' is' the' role' of' professionals' from' the' medical' (GP,' geriatricians,' neurologists),' paramedical' (psychologist)' and' social' (social' workers,' home' help) ers)'sectors'in'the'diagnosis'and'follow'up'of'the'situation?'What'is' the'role'of'the'family?'How'do'the'situations'evolve'as'the'patients' become' more' vulnerable?' 60' situations' of' dementia' have' been' analyzed,' with' in' depths' interviews' led' with' informal' family' care) givers'(partners'or'children)'and'with'the'health'and'social'profes) sionals'involved.'

We'argue'that'different'representations'of'the'disease'develop'and' that' the' care' trajectories' of' the' patients' are' the' results' of' these' interactions.'Three'main'elements'will'be'exposed:'

•'The'perception'of'the'situation'varies'according'to'the'profile'of' the'person.'Initially'considered'by'the'families'as'problems'due'to' aging,'the'symptoms'are'progressively'defined'as'a'disease'through' the'perception'of'the'geriatricians'and/or'neurologists.'

•'Families'and'professionals'follow'two'different'rationales.'On'the' one' hand' the' families' and' the' patients' adapt' themselves' to' the' evolution'of'the'disease;'on'the'other'hand,'the'health'profession) als'try'to'anticipate'the'evolution'of'the'situation'in'order'to'avoid' important'difficulties.'

•'For'the'geriatricians,'the'vulnerability'does'not'only'concern'the' patient,'but'also'the'informal'caregivers,'who'must'be'supported'in' the'everyday'care'of'the'old'person'suffering'from'AD.'

EXPERIENCES!OF!PEOPLE!LIVING!WITH!EARLYGSTAGE!

DEMENTIA!

Hanna)Mari'Pesonen

'1

,'Anne'M.'Remes

'2

,'Arja'Isola

1'

1

Institute' of' Health' Sciences,'

2

Institute' of' Clinical' Medicine,'

UNIVERSITY'OF'OULU,'Oulu,'Finland

'

Abstract:'The'incidence'of'dementia'will'increase'as'the'population' ages.'It'is'estimated'that'in'Europe'there'are'currently'over'seven' million'people'living'with'dementia'and'this'number'is'predicted'to' increase' significantly' in' the' future.' The' need' to' pay' attention' to' healthy' aging' and' dignity' among' people' with' dementia' has' been'

Abstract'Book' highlighted'by'European'Union.'Several'European'countries'either' have'or'are'preparing'national'action'plans'aimed'at'improving'the' quality'of'life'of'those'affected'by'dementia.'Thus'currently'there'is' a'strong'concern'of'establishing'social'and'health'care'services'that' meet'the'needs'of'patients'and'their'family'caregivers.'

Dementia' has' a' negative' and' stigmatized' image' which' influences' our'views'of'people'living'with'it.'However'there'has'been'a'grow) ing'interest'to'study'the'experiences'of'people'living'with'dementia' emphasizing' their' personhood,' citizenship' and' social' inclusion.'

Hearing'the'voices'of'people'themselves'enables'us'to'understand' their'needs'and'coping'methods'in'a'changing'and'challenging'life' situation.'

This'presentation'is'based'on'an'ongoing'doctoral'study'that'aims' to'understand'and'describe'subjective'experiences'of'both'people' living' with' dementia' and' their' family' members' during' the' early' phases'of'the'illness.'A'qualitative'longitudinal'design'is'used'in'the' study.' This' presentation' will' focus' on' the' experiences' of' people' with'dementia'(n=8)'after'the'disclosure'of'diagnosis'of'dementia.'

Research'data'consists'of'low)structured'in)depth'interviews'during' the'first'phase'of'the'study'and'is'analyzed'using'grounded'theory') method.' This' presentation' will' bring' forth' some' initial' findings.'

Findings'can'be'used'to'develop'supportive'services'for'people'with' dementia'and'their'family'caregivers'to'attain'equilibrium'in'their' life'after'the'diagnosis.'

INFORMAL!CAREGIVERS!NEEDS!AND!THE!

DEVELOPMENT!OF!AN!ICTGBASED!SYSTEM!FOR!THE!

EARLY!DETECTION!OF!ALZHEIMER’S!DISEASE!AND!

OTHER!NEURODEGENERATIVE!DISEASES!

Elena' Del' Barrio

Hochgatterer

' 1

,' Erkuden' Aldaz

'4

,'Lukas'Roedl

'4

' 2

,' Bernhard' Wöckl

,'Elena'Urdaneta

'2

'

' 3

,' Andreas'

1

INGEMA,' Madrid,'

Viena,'Austria

'

2

INGEMA,' San' Sebastian,' Spain,'

3

CURE,'

4

AIT,'

Abstract:'The'early'diagnosis'of'Alzheimer’s'disease'is'a'challenging' issue.' An' early' diagnosis' improves' the' quality' of' life' patients' and' caregivers.' Studies' suggest' that' first' indicators,' which' raise' suspi) ciousness' of' neurodegenerative' disease,' are' subtly' manifested' in' patients’'daily'behaviour'patterns.'

The' Bedmond' Project*' addresses' this' issue' through' the' develop) ment' of' an' ICT)based' system' for' the' early' diagnosis' of' Alzheimer' and'other'neurodegenerative'diseases'founded'on'the'detection'of' the'patient's'behavioural'pattern'alteration'and'for'the'monitoring' of' the' disease' once' the' diagnosis' is' known.' This' paper' draws' on' family'caregivers’'needs'in'order'to'develop'the'system'and'on'the' implications'this'has'on'their'daily'lives.'

The' results' from' a' series' of' focus' groups' with' 13' caregivers,' con) ducted' in' 2' countries' (Spain' and' Austria)' are' examined.' The' data' analysed' included' caregivers’' needs,' their' perceptions' regarding' the'system'and'narratives'on'health,'disease,'care'obligations'and' what'care'is.'

The' results' analysed' show' that' in' the' early' stage' of' the' disease,' some' common' symptoms' in' most' people' with' mild' cognitive' im) pairment'occur.'These'symptoms'can'be'basically'found'in'the'daily' routines'of'the'person.'Caregivers'mainly'classified'the'changes'in'3' domains'of'elderly'persons’'daily'living:'a)'cognitive'changes'(“for) gets' appointments,' not' taking' medication”,' “they' lose' the' lead;' if' someone'encourages'them'to'do'something'they'do'otherwise'or'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' they' do' nothing”);' b)' personality' changes' (“if' he' was' previously' absent)minded,' with' the' disease' this' has' increased”);' and,' c)' Be) haviour'changes'(“they'change'their'personal'hygiene",'"they'lose' or'hide'objects”).'

Taking' into' account' caregivers’' narratives' in' the' development' of' the' classification' of' common' symptoms' in' mild' cognitive' impair) ment' for' the' early' diagnosis' and' the' follow' up' of' the' disease' proved' to' be' useful' and' necessary' in' the' definition' of' ICT)based' solutions.'A'focused'and'precise'qualitative'methodology'can'pro) vide'ICT'developers'with'not)easy'to'find'user'requirements.'

*/BEDMOND:/Behaviour/Pattern/Based/Assistant/for/Early/Detection/ and/ Management/ of/ Neurodegenerative/ Diseases./ (AAL/ Joint/ Pro= gramme;/ Call/ AAL=2008=1;/ Ingema’s/ involvement/ is/ co=funded/ by/

Instituto/de/Salud/Carlos/III,/code:/AAL08/006)/

NEEDS!OF!CARE!ANALYSIS!FROM!A!COMPARATIVE!

PERSPECTIVE!

Marta'Ortega

'1

,'Mercedes'Fernández'Alonso

1'

1

DERECHO'DEL'ESTADO'Y'SOCIOLOGIA,'UNIVERSIDAD'DE'MÁLAGA,'

MALAGA,'Spain

'

Abstract:'The'main'objective'of'the'study'is'to'determine'the'most' relevant'care'needs'of'old'people'(older'than'65)'in'Andalucía'from' a'comparative'perspective.'

The'study'also'allows'to'determine'the'factors'that'influence'on'a' good' state' of' health' and' on' a' good' quality' of' life;' know' how' to' develop'actions'that'permit'prevent'and'retard'becoming'depend) ent;'deepen'knowledge'of'care'needs'of'the'population'older'than'

65'(dependent'and'not'dependent'ones);'analyse'the'requirements' of'the'caregivers'(under'and'over'65'years'old).'

The'structure'of'the'present'research'is'divided'in'three'sections:'

The'first'one,'it'focuses'on'a'descriptive'analysis'of'the'older'than'

65' in' Andalucía' in' order' to' compare' the' situation' with' Spain' and'

Europe.'The'second'one,'focuses'on'an'explanatory'analysis'(logit,' probit)'to'answer'to'the'specific'objectives.'And'the'third'section,' analyses' the' changes' on' the' demand' of' cares' to' determine' the' impact'of'the'Dependency'Law'in'Spain'and'Andalucía.'

The' principal' database' are:' Quality/ of/ Life/ of/ Old/ People/ Survey,'

(Sociological' Research' Center' in' Spain,' CIS,' n.' 2.6472);' European/

Quality/ of/ Life/ Survey;' Survey/ of/ Health,/ Aging/ and/ Retirement/ in/

Europe)/(SHARE).'

Keywords:'care,'aging,'dependent,'quality'of'life,'comparative'per) spective.'

43'

PERSPECTIVES!ON!ALZHEIMER'S!DISEASE:!

PERCEPTIONS!AND!ATTITUDES!OF!THE!GENERAL!

PUBLIC,!CAREGIVERS,!FAMILY!MEMBERS!AND!

PROFESSIONALS!

Stéphanie'Pin

'1

,'Christophe'Léon

'2

,'Julie'Bodard

'3

,'Pierre'Arwidson

'2

'

1

Direction' of' Programs,'

Denis,'France

'

2

Direction' of' Scientific' Affairs,'

3

INPES,' S)

Abstract:'Background.'Alzheimer's'disease'(AD)'would'suffer'from'a' negative' social' image' which' would' mix' social' representations' of' aging' and' mental' illness.' Although' the' available' research' on' the' perceptions' and' attitudes' towards' Alzheimer's' disease' have' in) creased'over'the'past'ten'years,'these'works'often'involve'only'one' specific' population' and' the' people' with' the' disease' are' rarely' in) volved.'

Objectives.'Listed'in'the'French'Alzheimer'Plan'2008)2012,'the'pro) gram'of'opinion'survey'on'Alzheimer's'disease'has'three'objectives:'

1'/'to'explore'the'perceptions,'knowledge'and'attitudes'of'different' populations'regarding'the'disease;'2'/'to'measure'the'evolution'of' some' indicators;' 3' /' to' provide' further' direction' for' research,' health'education'or'professional'training.'

Methods.'The'methodology'combines'literature'reviews,'qualitative' studies'and'quantitative'surveys'of'different'audiences.'Specifically,' four'quantitative'surveys'were'conducted'among'lay'public'(2'000' people' aged' 18' to' 75),' GPs' (n' =' 1000),' people' with' AD' and' their' caregivers' (140' dyads)' and' professional' home' carers' (n' =' 1213' workers).'These'surveys'included'a'battery'of'common'items'(spon) taneous'perceptions'of'AD,'opinions,'level'of'information'...).'

Results.'AD'is'the'third'disease'feared'by'the'lay'public.'Spontane) ous' perceptions' are' centred' around' memory' loss,' addiction' and' loss' of' mental' faculties' as' in' the' general' population' than' among' relatives'or'professional'caregivers.'The'dominant'feature'of'social' representations' of' AD' is' the' predominance' of' images' related' to' advanced'stages'of'disease.'However,'this'perception'is'not'reflect) ed'by'attitudes'of'stigmatization'or'by'a'feeling'of'exclusion'from' the' persons' concerned.' Main' needs' are' focused' on' research' (for' the' general' lay' people' and' among' caregivers)' and' on' support' at' home' (among' professional' home' carers).' People' with' AD' com) plained'of'being'too'little'involved'in'medical'decisions.'

Conclusion.'This'original'program'of'surveys'gives'a'more'complex' image' of' AD.' It' confirms' the' presence' of' severe' distress' among' those' directly' affected' by' the' disease' and' high' powerlessness' among' professionals,' but' it' leads' in' the' same' way' to' deconstruct' some'negative'beliefs'about'AD'and'its'care.'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

44' Abstract'Book'

RN'02'Sociology'of'The'Arts'

MODERN!ART!IN!POLAND.!ART!MARKET!AND!

INSTITUTIONAL!CONTEXT.!

Agnieszka'Natalia'Szymanska

1'

1

Institute'of'Sociology,'ADAM'MICKIEWICZ'UNIVERSITY'IN'POZNAN,'

Poznań,'Poland

'

Abstract:'It'is'said'that'there'were'turbulent'times'for'art'in'Poland.'

Socialism'had'been'affecting'art'works'for'many'years.'Finally,'after'

1989' artists' started' creating' mostly' critical' art.' Since' that' time' of' social'and'political'change'they'felt'free'to'comment'on'what'had' happened' during' last' years.' Something' changed' about' 2000.' The' new'generation'came'with'their'new'art,'which'was'different'from' the'previous'one.'

About'ten'years'ago'only'few'people'in'Poland'were'able'to'appre) ciate'and'perceive'potential'in'young'artists.'They'took'the'risk'and' started'to'create'‘institutional'background’'and'art'market'to'make' the' career' of' those' young' people' possible.' However,' the' new' art' needed'not'only'new'critics,'new'galleries'but'also'new'public'insti) tutions.'More'still,'all'that'happened.'

Nowadays,'after'ten'years'of'building'the'right'context,'the'newest' art'in'Poland'has'finally'its'institutions:'galleries,'museums.'It'has'its' critics,' collectors' and' audiences' as' well.' But' is' it' sufficient?' Are' these'roles'divided'precisely'between'particular'people?'Or'maybe' the'whole'process'is'still'in'progress?'Last,'but'not'least,'how'the'

Polish'art/world'differs'from'the'Western'one?'

The' main' aim' of' this' paper' is' to' describe' the' institutional' condi) tions'of'the'newest'art'in'Poland.'The'next'question'is'to'map'the' net' of' brokerage' and' recognize' the' most' important' players.' The' conclusions'presented'in'this'paper'are'based'on'some'basic'theo) ries'of'art'and'on'the'main'results'of'my'research'among'so)called'

‘main'players’'in'Polish'art/world'(gallery'owners,'collectors,'man) agers'of'public'institutions,'curators'and'artists).'

THE!IMPACT!OF!GLOBALIZATION!ON!CONTEMPORARY!

ART!GALLERIES!IN!AMSTERDAM!AND!BERLIN.!WHY!

SPACE!REMAINS!IMPORTANT!IN!A!

DETERRITORIALIZED!ART!WORLD!

Olav'Velthuis

1'

1

Sociology' and' Anthropology,' UNIVERSITY' OF' AMSTERDAM,' Am) sterdam,'Netherlands

'

Abstract:'This'paper'studies'the'effects'of'cultural'globalization'on' the'discourse'and'practices'of'contemporary'art'dealers'in'Amster) dam'and'Berlin.'In'particular,'it'argues'that'globalization'cannot'be' equated' with' deterritoralization,' as' is' frequently' stated' in' the' so) ciological' literature' on' globalization.' Instead,' in' depth' interviews' with' Amsterdam' and' Berlin' art' dealers' (21' in' total)' suggest' that' globalization'has'done'little'to'decrease'the'importance'of'the'gal) lery'space.'The'reason'is'that'this'space'is'the'main'theater'where'a' set' of' firmly' institutionalized' commercial' practices' of' art' dealers' are'displayed.'Moreover,'the'gallery'space'is'intricately'tied'up'with' the'dealer’s'identity.'As'far'as'globalization'has'indeed'resulted'in'a' waning'importance'of'the'local'gallery'space,'this'has'not'entailed' deterritoralization,'but'instead'a'relocation'of'commercial'practices' to'other'highly'symbolic'spaces'such'as'the'contemporary'art'fair' and'the'virtual'space'of'the'gallery’s'website.'

THEATRE!FESTIVALS!AS!TRADING!ZONES.!RESULTS!OF!

AN!EMPIRICAL!RESEARCH!

Valerio'Zanardi

1'

1 teoria'sociologica/cecups,'UNIVERSITY'OF'BARCELONA,'barcelona,'

Spain

'

Abstract:/Theatre'festivals'as'trading'zones.'Results'of'an'empirical' research.'

The'proliferation'and'the'settled'importance'of'festivals'have'to'be' conceived'using'different'analytic'frames,'because'festivals'are'the' context' where' different' subject,' agencies,' institutions' and' organi) zations' build' and' constitute' meanings,' interpretations,' values' and' where'the'artistic'fields'mix'themselves.'In'this'sense'the'category'

“trading'zone”'(Galison)'or'better,'“trading'zones”'could'be'used'as' an'interesting'suggestion'for'researching'what'happens'in'different' frames'in'the'same'physical'contexts.'Trading'zones'in'anthropolo) gy' are' spaces,' physical' objects,' contexts,' visited' and' used' by' an' heterogenous' plurality' of' actors' that' don't' share' the' same' cogni) tive'paradigms,'meanings'and'moral'values.'

As'suggested'by'Vera'Zolberg,'I'used'the'concept'of'“trading'zone”' for'highlighting'some'facets'of'theatre'festivals,'as'resulted'from'a' project' of' investigation' on' the' organizative,' the' cultural' and' the' social'implications'of'theatre'festivals'in'a'comparative'perspective.'

The' research' I' realized' (supported' with' a' grant' FI' )' formation' of' researchers' )' of' the' government' Generalitat' of' Catalunya' and' di) rected'by'Dr'Arturo'Rodriguez'Moratò)'was'focused'on'4'different' cases,'2'located'in'Spain'(Grec'festival'of'Barcelona'and'the'Fira'of'

Tarrega)'and'2'in'Italy'(international'festival'of'Santarcangelo'and' the'Parma'Reggio'festival).'

This' paper,' that' deepens' into' a' former' presentation' discussed' in' the'last'Isa'conference,'will'briefly'introduce'the'general'frame'of' trading' zones' in' order' to' set' out,' focus' and' discuss' the' following' points:'

•'The'progressive'transformation'and'instituzionalizations'of'thea) tre'festivals,'while'some'aesthetics'aspects'of'their'“ancient”'coun) terculture'still'survive,'with'changing'meanings'and'references.'

•' The' turn' of' the' traditional' artistic' programs' in' a' broader' offer,' that'often'combine'shows'and'performances'with'the'presence'of' several'activities'linked'to'the'attempt'to'rationalize'topics'related' to'“turbolent'times”'and'social'problems.'

•' The' growth' and' the' different' practice' of' a' new' and' composite' audiences'in'the'4'differentes'cases'analyzed.'

THE!ART!FAIR:!AN!INTERMEDIARY!INSTITUTION!OF!

THE!GLOBAL!CULTURAL!ECONOMY!

Christian'Morgner

1'

1

UNIVERSITY'PF'LUCERNE,'Lucerne,'Switzerland

'

Abstract:'The'global'financial'market'went'through'a'turbulent'time' recently.'Effects'on'the'art'market'and'related'institutions,'howev)

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' er,'were'only'of'minor'importance.'The'crisis'even'seems'to'have' nourished' the' arts' by' enabling' the' opening' of' reasonable' spaces' and'creating'other'opportunities.'Our'knowledge'of'the'structures' of'the'art'world'and'art'market'and,'in'particular,'their'relationship' is'rather'limited.'This'paper'addresses'the'role'of'intermediary'in) stitutions'that'couple'the'art'world'and'the'art'market'–'art'fairs.'

The' art' fair' is' a' relatively' new' institution,' with' the' first' examples' being' founded' in' the' second' half' of' the' 20 th

' century.' Only' a' few' exhibitions'existed'for'quite'some'time,'but'have'experienced'dra) matic'success'in'the'last'20'years.'Although'art'fairs'are'now'organ) ised' on' all' continents' around' the' globe,' little' research' has' been' conducted'on'them.'

The'paper'addresses'two'questions.'The'first'asks'what'the'function' of'an'art'fair'is'in'the'global'cultural'economy.'The'second'regards' how'these'institutions'developed,'focusing'on'historical'and'global' dimensions.' In' examining' the' answers' to' these' questions,' the' pa) per'raises'the'issue'of'the'art'fair'as'an'intermediary'structure'be) tween' the' economic' and' art' worlds,' where' art' dealers,' works' of' art,' collectors,' sponsors' and' other' professionals' are' intertwined.'

The' questions' are' addressed' through' the' examination' of' various' empirical'sources,'including'statistics'on'participating'galleries'and' artists'and'interviews'with'fair'organisers'and'art'dealers.'The'pa) per'will'also'give'evidence'as'to'the'global'orientation'of'art'fairs,' focusing'on'a'few'case'studies,'such'as'TEFAF'and'Art'Basel,'and'of' these' institutions’' historical' development' with' regard' to' their' structure' and' organisation' (from' evolutionary' prerequisites' to' sponsors).'

CULTURIZATION!OF!ECONOMY!AND!THE!CULTURAL!

COMMONS!

Juhana'Venäläinen

1'

1

Dept.' of' Finnish' Language' &' Cultural' Research,' UNIVERSITY' OF'

EASTERN'FINLAND,'Joensuu,'Finland

'

Abstract:'During'the'last'two'decades,'we'have'witnessed'an'ever) growing'discussion'of'creative/economy/or'economy/of/culture.'This' prevalent'academic'and'popular'discourse,'advocated'e.g.'by'Rich) ard'Florida'(2002),'has'disinterred'two'important'processes'of'so) cial' turbulence:' first,' the' instability' in' the' notion' of' ‘culture’' but' also'–'and'more'importantly'–'in'the'notion'of'‘economy’.'Underly) ing'this'discourse'is'the'observation'of'growing'weight'of'creative' industries,' or' more' generally,' immaterial' industries' (i.a.' culture,' education,'care'and'tourism),'in'the'creation'of'wealth.'

While'highlighting'focal'anxieties,'these'discourses'have'their'limi) tations:' ‘economy' of' culture’' remains' sociologically' ambiguous' if' not'interpreted'as'a'moment'of'a'wider'paradigmatic'shift'in'econ) omy'and'production.'Moreover,'the'economical'theories'developed' for'understanding'the'industrial)Fordist'model'of'capitalism'do'not' sufficiently'consider'the'role'of'cultural'factors'(symbols,'meanings,' contexts,' social' relations,' affects' and' communication)' in' valoriza) tion' processes' (see' Boltanski' &' Chiapello' 2005,' Marazzi' 2008,'

Moulier'Boutang'2007).'

The'goal'of'my'paper'is'to'trace'and'describe'a'historical'shift'in'the' mode' of' production' –/ the' culturization/ of/ economy' –' in' which' commodity' production' based' on' material' resources' is' growingly' replaced'by'immaterial'production'based'on'human'resources.'This' transformation' is' portrayed' through' a' viewpoint' of' cultural/ com=

mons'–'a'new'productive'basis'upon'which'the'wealth'creation'is' realized.'

45'

In' the' field' of' cultural' commons,' the' productive' logic' of' “modern' market' economy”' is' fundamentally' transformed' as' the' logics' of'

scarcity,' individualism' and' exclusive/ personal/ gain' are' gradually' replaced' with' the' logics' of' affluence,' collaboration/ and' sharing.'

Thus,' the' modern' economical' problem' of' allocating' scarce' re) sources'has'to'be'accompanied'by'a'“postmodern”'economical'(or' better,'a'“neoclassical”'sociological)'question:'what/do/we/have/in/

common?'

References'

Boltanski,'Luc'&'Chiapello,'Eve'(2005).'The/New/Spirit/of/Capitalism.'

London:'Verso.'

Florida,'Richard'(2002)./The/Rise/of/the/Creative/Class:/And/How/It's/

Transforming/ Work,/ Leisure/ and/ Everyday/ Life./ New' York:' Basic'

Books.'

Marazzi,' Christian' (2008).' Capital/ and/ Language:/ From/ the/ New/

Economy/to/the/War/Economy.'Los'Angeles:'Semiotext(e).'

Moulier'Boutang,'Yann'(2007).'Le/capitalisme/cognitif./La/nouvelle/

grande/transformation.'Paris:'Éditions'Amsterdam.'

SOCIOLOGY,!ART!AND!SOCIOLOGY!OF!ART:!BOURDIEU!

AND!AFTER!

Arpita'Mitra

1'

1

Centre' for' Historical' Studies,' JAWAHARLAL' NEHRU' UNIVERSITY,'

New'Delhi,'India

'

Abstract:'Within'the'domain'of'sociology,'whose'disciplinary'history' dates'back'to'the'second'half'of'the'nineteenth'century,'the'sub) discipline' of' sociology' of' art' is' a' relatively' young' area' of' inquiry,' which' has' already' given' rise' to' several' theoretical' debates' and' numerous'ways'of'broaching'the'question'of'art'from'a'sociological' point'of'view'(sociology'of'art'works,'sociology'of'art'markets,'soci) ology'of'artistic'professions'etc.).'There'is'no'one/way'of'doing'soci) ology'of'art.'The'striking'plurality'of'approaches'in'this'discipline'is' proof'of'its'vitality'and'possibilities.'

However,'notwithstanding'the'variety'of'approaches,'certain'theo) retical' issues' remain' common' to' the' discipline' (the' nature' of' the' relationship' between' art' and' society,' agency' and' subjectivity,' for' instance).' One' such' common' theoretical' premise' concerns' the' specificity'of'the'domain'of'art'as'a'subject'of'sociological'enquiry.'

The'very'root'of'the'discipline'of'sociology'lies'in'the'study'of'the'

‘general’,'the'‘collective’;'whereas'the'domain'of'art'celebrates'and' valorises'the'‘particular’'and'the'‘individual’.'The'emancipation'of'a'

‘social’'study'of'art'from'idealist'notions'of'art'and'artists'enshrined' the'moment'of'triumph'for'the'sociology'of'art.'In'fact,'it'was'pos) sible'precisely'because'of'the'very'specific'nature'of'sociology'as'a' discipline' that' foregrounds' the' ‘general’' and' the' ‘collective’.' This' inherent'probability'of'a'tension'between'sociology'as'a'discipline' and' its' chosen' subject' of' study' in' this' case' –' art' –' has' a' bearing' upon' many' of' the' fundamental' theoretical' questions' in' the' field,' such'as'the'social'fact'of'being'an'artist,'professionalisation'of'artis) tic' vocation' and' vocationalisation' of' artistic' profession,' autono) my/heteronomy'of'the'artistic'field,'among'others.'

The' proposed' paper' seeks' to' chart' this' debate' with' reference' to' the'specific'contribution'of'Bourdieuian'sociology'of'art'and'some' of' its' critics.' It' was' quite' a' battle' to' establish' the' socially' ‘condi) tioned’'(for'want'of'a'better'word)'nature'of'artistic'production'and' reception.'Now,'it'might'be'worthwhile'to'think'if'art'as'a'specific'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

46'

field' also' offers' unique' possibilities' of' subversion' of' social' struc) tures'that'are'absent'in'other'social'spheres,'and'can'therefore'be' theoretically'very'insightful'for'practising'sociologists?'

REGCONCEPTUALIZING!ARTISTIC!PRACTICES!

Graciela'Miriam'Trajtenberg

1'

1

Goverment' and' Society,' THE' ACADEMIC' COLLEGE' OF' TEL' AVIV' )

YAFFO,'Tel'Aviv,'Israel

'

Abstract:'The'core'of'the'sociology'of'the'art'theory'has'conceptu) alized' artistic' practices' on' an' implicit' assumption' which' under) stands'them'as'“sealed”'within'the'boundaries'of'a'defined'society' i.e.'the'nation'state.'This'taken'for'granted'view'includes'quintes) sential'and'disparate'theorists'such'as'H.'Becker'(Becker,'1982)'and'

P.' Bourdieu' (1992).' Yet,' during' the' last' three' decades' trans) national'artistic'flows,'associated'with'diverse'aesthetical'and'ideo) logical'commitments,'have'affected'domestic'fields'of'arts.'The'goal' of'this'paper'is'to'examine'theoretical'developments'in'the'light'of' current' socio)artistic' changes.' Assuming,' that' modernity' has' un) dergone' subsequent' globalizing' waves,' what’re' the' differences' between' the' contemporary' flows' of' artistic' practices' and' those' that’d'occurred'before?'Furthermore,'what'kind'of'theoretical'con) cepts'are'required'to'understand'these'transformations?'The'Field' of' Arts' of' the' 21 th

' Century' occupies' a' contested' space' in' which' groups'negotiate'authority'and'achieve'(or'fail'to'achieve)'recogni) tion.' Artistic' practices' arise' in' internet' linking' people' in' various' countries'and'regions.'A'diversity'of'artistic'forms'are'created'and' distributed'by'a'diversity'of'producers'and'distributors.'Thus,'con) temporary'field'of'arts'compels'both'a'new,'wider'analysis'as'well' as'a'rethinking'of'basic'forms'and'definitions.'

DANCE!RESEARCH!IN!TURBULENT!TIMES!

Heike'Salzer

'1

,'Kristine'Sommerlade

'2*

'

1

SCHOOL' OF' ARTS' AND' MEDIA,,' TEESSIDE' UNIVERSITY,' Middles) brough,'

2

Tees'Valley'Dance,'Stockton'on'Tees,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:'The'current'turbulences'in'the'arts'sectors'of'many'coun) tries' do' not' only' present' numerous' challenges' and' threats' to' the' established'professional'dance'landscape'but'also'opportunities'for' reflection,' change' and' development.' Funding' cuts' will' require' a' rigorous' analysis' of' the' dance' sector' in' terms' of' its' capital' infra) structure,'work'force,'content'production'and'income'generation,' in' order' to' effectively' adapt' to' new' financial' circumstances' and' their'structural'implications.'A'premise'to'successfully'negotiate'the' above' situation' is' an' unbiased' and' in' depth' understanding' of' the' complex,' art' form' specific' functions' and' roles' of' individuals' and' organisations' within' the' dance' sector.' However,' whilst' dance' has' been' very' successful' in' terms' of' its' capital' and' infrastructural' de) velopment'and'its'growth'in'popularity'in'recent'years,'the'authors' suggest' that' the' dance' sector' is' lacking' a' critical' debate' that' en) gages'with'dance'in'a'holistic'manner.'The'dance'sector,'and'many' dance' scholars,' display' a' certain' reticence' to' engage' with' issues,' such' as' for' example,' the' sector’s' economics' or' its' domination' by' particular'value'systems'and'narratives'it'is'traditionally'embedded' in.' Dance' practitioners' as' well' as' scholars' appear' to' steer' away' from' reflecting' on' and/or' clarifying' their' position' in' relation' to' established' artistic' or' scholarly' modes' of' viewing' and' evaluating' dance'or'the'demands'of'the'contemporary'economic'and'political' landscape.' Apart' from' critical' feminist' approaches' towards' dance' education'which'reflect'on'traditional'methods,'dance'scholarship'

Abstract'Book' seems'to'privilege'a'theoretical'discourse'that'evolves'around'aes) thetics,'textuality'and'gender.'Other'research'is'frequently'commis) sioned'to'serve'as'an'advocacy'tool'or'it'features'dance'within'the' canon'of'the'other'arts.'This'inevitably'leads'to'generalizations'that' lack'art'form'specificity'and'seem'to'be'underpinned'by'a'romantic' notion'of'practitioners'being'either'successful'geniuses'or'undera) chieving'starving'artists.'

Drawing' on' their' experiences' as' artistic' director/employer' of' a' dance' company' and' educator/researcher' in' Higher' Education,' the' authors' evaluate' how' practitioners' are' viewed' in' the' field.' They' suggest' that' the' dance' sector' would' benefit' from' research' that' focuses'on'artistic'production'as'located'practice,'covers'more'di) verse'research'topics'and'values'practitioners’'input.'

S.O.S!CULTURE.!WILL!THE!NEW!MEDIA!SAVE!THEATRE!

AND!LIVE!ARTS?!

Gaia'Peruzzi

1'

1

Coris')'Comunicazione'e'Ricerca'sociale,'SAPIENZA,'UNIVERSITY'OF'

ROME,'Rome,'Italy

'

Abstract:'How'does'the'use'of'new'medias'transform'the'daily'life' of' theatres' and' acting' companies' and' their' relationships' with' the' public?'Can'the'free'and'open'spaces'of'social'networks'become'a' concrete' resource' for' artistic' non)profit' organizations' during' the' economic'crisis?'

The'Web'and'Facebook'have'become'almost'an'inevitable'meeting' point'for'artists,'cultural'organizations,'operators,'theatre'enthusi) asts' or' “simple”' theatre)goers,' particularly' those' interested' in' in) novative'and'experimental'forms'of'performance'arts.'

Today'in'Italy'the'most'important'landscape'of'the'performing'arts' is' constituted' by' small' and' medium' as' well' as' non)profit' theater' groups'and'companies'that,'while'being'conditioned'by'a'poor'cul) ture'market,'are'now'suffering'dramatically'from'the'heaviest'cuts' to'public'funding.'

The'proposed'paper'rises'from'a'research'conducted'in'the'autumn' of'2009'in'the'theatres'of'Tuscany,'a'region'owing'a'great'part'of'its' fame'to'its'cultural'life.'

The' question' to' be' investigated' was' whether' the' companies' that' are' investing' in' digital' technologies,' by' regularly' attending' social' networks,' are' concretely' benefiting' from' this' kind' of' involvement' in'terms'of'social,'cultural'and'economic'capital'(new'contacts,'new' experiences,'new'incomes).'

The' core' of' the' inquiry' is' a' compared' study' of' the' organizational' life'of'ten'theater'companies'of'different'Tuscan'cities'with'active' and' up)to)dated' Facebook' profiles.' They' are' all' private' non)profit' organizations'of'medium'and'small'dimensions,'but'benefiting'by'a' solid' continuity' and' a' good' notoriety,' even' beyond' regional' bor) ders.' Then,' all' these' companies' could' be' defined' as' “non) conventional”,' “experimental”' theaters,' that' are' mostly' attended' by'young'and'youthful'people.'

The'second'part'of'the'research'was'aimed'at'spreading'light'on'the' nature' of' organizations' and' the' territory.' It' consisted' of' two' ac) tions:'a'monitoring'of'on)line'activities'of'all'thirteen'Tuscan'public' theaters' and' the' study' of' two' companies' living' in' metropolitan' contexts,'Rome'and'Milan.'

The'research'strategy'blended'on'and'off)line'methods'and'tools:' analysis' of' the' websites' of' all' the' selected' organizations,' ethno)

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' graphic'observations)participation'to'their'Facebook'profiles,'face) to)face'and'mediated'interviews'to'the'responsible'of'communica) tion'of'all'the'companies,'and'to'five'cultural'operators.'

ARTISTIC!AND!CULTURAL!SPONSORSHIP!IN!TURKEY!

1990S!AND!ONWARDS!

Gözde'Çerçioğlu

1'

1

Graduate'School'of'Social'Sciences,'Middle'East'Technical'Universi) ty,'Ankara,'Turkey

'

Abstract:'This'paper'aims'to'analyze'how'art'sponsorship'in'Tukey' has'been'shaped'since'1990’s'with'respect'to'the'corporations’'and' non)profit' sector’s' involvement' within' the' context' of' economic' crisis.'This'attempt'to'explore'art'sponsorship'stems'from'the'fact' that'art'sponsorship'has'risen'as'a'form'of'support'by'certain'cor) porations,' foundations' and' nonprofit' organizations' to' the' rapidly' increasing'artistic'and'cultural'activities'in'urban'spheres'of'Turkey.'

Consequently,'there'is'a'need'to'understand'and'explain'how'and' why'certain'corporations'engage'in'sponsorship'of'certain'cultural' and'artistic'activities'as'joint'project'initiators'as'well'as'engaging'in' sponsoring' certain' events.' This' not' only' directs' us' to' think' about' the'corporations'themselves'and'their'interest'in'art'but'also'their' ways'of'negotiating'with'other'actors'such'as'the'government;'art) ists;' curators;' public' relations' specialists' and' the' public.' Besides,' the'process'of'negotiation'involves'a'strong'organization'and'insti) tutionalization' which' needs' to' be' understood' in' order' to' explain' the'main'motives'behind'for'sponsoring'cultural'and'artistic'events.'

This' study' concentrates' on' the' analysis' of' the' characteristics' and' the'affiliation'of'the'main'organizers'and'sponsors'as'well'as'explor) ing'the'ways'in'which'they'collaborate'to'initiate'and'publicize'the' events,' by' focusing' on' the' visual' and' published' materials' such' as' events’' posters,' announcements,' commercials,' press' releases' and' interviews' that' are' related' to' the' artistic' and' cultural' activities' in' the' urban' spheres' of' Turkey.' This' analysis' aims' to' elucidate' what' kind'of'economic'and'social'actors'such'as'corporations'and'foun) dations'do'cooperate'in'what'kind'of'artistic'and'cultural'activities' and'how'do'they'define'the'event’s'role'in'the'society'and'their'role' as'sponsors.'

BRITISH!CULTURAL!POLICY!UNDER!THE!COALITION!

GOVERNMENT:!DEEP!SPENDING!CUTS!AND!A!

PRELIMINARY!ANALYSIS!OF!IMPLICATIONS!

Victoria'Alexander

1'

1

Department'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'SURREY,'Guildford,'Unit) ed'Kingdom

'

Abstract:'In'May'2010,'the'UK'General'Election'failed'to'give'a'clear' majority'to'any'political'party.'David'Cameron’s'Conservatives'and'

Nick' Clegg’s' Liberal' Democrats' formed' a' coalition' government,' whose' main' aims,' apparently,' are' to' cut' government' spending' in' every'area.'Spending,'they'argue,'had'spiralled'out'of'control'under' the' previous' Labour' Government.' The' Coalition' uses' the' current' economic'crisis'to'reduce'government'spending'at'a'dramatic'rate,' and'many'observers'suggest'that'these'reductions'are'driven'more' by'a'neo)liberal'political'philosophy'than'a'genuine'need'to'cut'so' deeply.'This'paper'examines'the'implications'of'the'Coalition'gov) ernment’s'actions'on'funding'for'the'arts'in'England.'

47'

This' paper' reports' on' one' aspect' of' a' larger' project' on' cultural' policy'in'the'United'Kingdom'examining'trends'toward'the'market) isation' of' public)sector' arts,' increasing' government' intervention,' and'a'growing'emphasis'on'managerialism.'The'project'focuses'on' the'analysis'of'government'documents'and'policies'relating'to'the' arts' and' arts' organisations.' This' paper' looks' in' detail' at' policy' statements' made' by' Coalition' Government' ministers' and' some' responses'by'Arts'Organisations.'

THE!IMPORTANCE!OF!SOCIAL!INTERACTION!IN!

MUSEUM!EXPERIENCES!

Mia'Stokmans

1'

1 cultural'studies,'TILBURG'UNIVERSITY,'Tilburg,'Netherlands

'

Abstract:' In' Bourdieu’s' theory,' participation' in' the' arts' is' mainly' determined' by' social' factors,' in' that' participation' repertoires' are' homogeneous' within' social' classes' and' heterogeneous' between' social' classes.' This' perspective' focuses' on' social' pressure' within'

(reference)'groups'and'social'status'between'social'classes.'Yet,'are' these'the'only'influences'social'groups'have'on'participation?'Re) search' indicates' that' most' people' prefer' to' visit' the' arts' with' a' spouse'or'friend.'Furthermore,'experience'marketing'indicates'that' an' artistic' experience' can' be' intensified' by' active' participation.'

These'observations'suggest'another'important'social'factor'in'arts' participation'that'finds'its'origin'in'the'consumption'situation.'

In' a' consumption' situation,' the' interaction' between' an' individual' and'an'artistic'object'may'result'in'psychological'benefits'(pleasure,' self)actualization),'whereas'the'interpersonal'interaction'may'result' in' psychological' as' well' as' social' benefits' (identification,' self) esteem).'Interaction'ritual'chains'(Collins,'2004)'bring'these'experi) ences' together' in' a' model.' According' to' this' model' interpersonal' interaction'in'a'consumption'situation'intensifies'the'mutual'focus' of' attention,' it' enhances' emotional' experiences,' it' brings' about' social'benefits'(such'as'belongingness'and'group'solidarity),'and'it' paves' the' way' for' the' construction' of' homogeneous' evaluation' schemes'within'the'group.'

These'ideas'are'explored'in'a'survey'study'(N=82)'among'frequent' visitors'of'museums.'It'turned'out'that'about'20%'of'the'respond) ents' visited' the' museum' alone,' about' 50%' with' family' and' about'

30%' with' friends' or' colleagues.' Marked' differences' were' found' between' these' visiting' groups:' Those' who' went' with' friends' or' colleagues' were' more' content' with' the' museum' visit' and' talked' more'about'this'museum'visit'and'museum'visits'in'general.'How) ever,' the' groups' did' not' differ' in' overall' evaluation.' Further' anal) yses'indicated'that'talking'(before,'and'during)'about'the'museum' visit'has'a'positive'effect'on'the'evaluation'of'the'visit'(expressed'in'

10'points)'as'well'as'the'positive'emotions'experienced,'even'if'all' other'aspects'of'this'museum'visit'(contentment'with'the'artworks' presented,'and'other'aspects'of'the'augmented'product)'and'mind) set' regarding' museum' visits' (hedonic' and' utilitarian' attitude' and' involvement)'were'accounted'for.'

BETTER!ALONE!THAN!IN!BAD!COMPANY?!THE!SOCIAL!

DIMENSION!IN!THE!EXPERIENCE!OF!VIEWING!ART!IN!

MUSEUMS.!

Elena'Pérez)Rubiales

'1

,'Jordi'López'Sintas

'2

,'Ercilia'García'Álvarez

'3

'

1

Centre'for'Studies'and'Research'in'Humanities,'

2

Business'Econom) ics,' UNIVERSITAT' AUTÒNOMA' DE' BARCELONA,' Bellaterra'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

48'

(Cerdanyola' del' Vallès),'

Tarragona,'Spain

'

3

Management,' Universitat' Rovira' i' Virgili,'

Abstract:'We'have'designed'a'phenomenological'research'to'study' the' social' dimension' of' the' experience' of' visiting' an' art' museum' framed'in'the'symbolic'interactionism'theory.'To'elucidate'the'role' of' social' interaction' among' museum' visitors,' we' have' analyzed' their'experiences'before,'during'and'after'their'visits.'The'specific' goal'of'this'study'is'to'determine'the'conditions,'social'interaction' strategies' and' content' of' museum' visitor' experiences.' We' have' conducted'21'interviews'with'Spanish'individuals'who'visit'art'mu) seums' regularly,' which' were' digitally' recorded' and,' later,' tran) scribed'ad'verbatim.'Transcripts'and'contextual'comments'record) ed'during'the'field'work'have'shaped'the'data'sources'for'our'pro) ject,' analyzed' with' the' help' of' computer' assisted' qualitative' data' analysis' software' (CAQDAS).' We' have' found' that' cultural' capital' and' social' context' of' individuals' influence' their' social' strategy,' whether'visiting'alone'or'accompanied'and,'therefore,'the'content' of'the'experience.'On'the'one'hand,'visitors'with'a'low'contextual' cultural'capital'look'for'a'social'experience'in'the'museum'visit'and,' consequently,'they'attend'in'company'to'be'able'to'interact'during' the'exhibition'itinerary.'On'the'other'hand,'visitors'with'a'high'con) textual'cultural'capital'search'a'more'aesthetic'experience'and'as'a' result' they' prefer' visiting' alone.' The' social' interaction' of' this' se) cond'group'of'visitors,'contrary'to'the'previous'one,'is'prominent' before'and'after'the'aesthetic'experience.'

Keywords:'social'interaction,'art'museums,'contextual'cultural'capi) tal.'

VISITING!ART!EXHIBITIONS!G!A!COMPLEX!CULTURAL!

PRAXIS!

Nina'Tessa'Zahner

1'

1

Department'of'Cultural'Science,'UNIVERSITY'OF'LEIPZIG,'Nürnberg,'

Germany

'

Abstract:'The'visit'of'art'exhibitions'as'a'cultural'phenomenon'is'a' complex'cultural'praxis.'As'such'it'cannot'be'understood'on'basis'of' quantitative' material' as' it' is' produced' by' visitor' studies.' These' studies' find' a' highly' educated' public' in' museums' but' cannot' ex) plain'why'this'is'the'case.'To'explain'the'elite'nature'of'this'public' they'often'recur'to'Pierre'Bourdieus'famous'museum'studies'from' the/1960s.'Here'Bourdieu'developed'a'theory'of'art'reception'that' identifies'a'specific'aesthetic'knowledge'crucial'for'the'reception'of' an'object'as'a'work'of'art.'I'will'show'that'this'notion'of'reception'is'

only/ one' position' in' the' highly' differentiated' art' field' of' today,' where'the'idea'of'autonomous'art'is'only'one'conception'within'a' vast'plurality'of'art'conceptions.'I'will'present'material'from'several' qualitative'case'studies'conducted'in'an'ethnographic'manner'that' investigate' how' different' people' make' actually' use' of' art' exhibi) tions.' The' praxis' of' visiting' art' exhibitions' is' being' reconstructed' from'the'visitor’s'point'of'view.'It'is'investigated'which'exhibitions' different'people'visit,'how'they'conduct'their'visit'and'what'mean) ing'they'ascribe'to'this'praxis.'I'will'show'that'for'understanding'the' praxis' of' visiting' art' exhibitions' not' only' a' certain' knowledge' or' kind'of'reception'is'crucial'but'the'social'value'that'is'ascribed'to' the'visit'by'the'visitors'themselves.'

“SOCIAL!ART":!A!POLITICAL!ART!WITHOUT!POLICY!

SUPPORT?!

Cláudia'Guerra'Madeira

1'

Abstract'Book'

1

Instituto' Ciências' Sociais,' ICS)UNIVERSIDADE' DE' LISBOA,' Lisboa,'

Portugal

'

Abstract:' Currently' there' are' a' series' of' art' projects' spread' over' different'artistic'fields'from'public'art,'to'ecological'art,'to'bio)art,' to' political' art,' to' gender' art,' among' others,' that' subscribe' to' a' notion'of'active'citizenship,'through'participation'and'performative' intervention'in'the'public'space.'

This'inscription'gives'to'this'intentional'"social'art"'a'political'status' where,' however,' several' notions' of' politics' are' struggling,' either' from'the'artists'sphere'or'from'the'political'authorities'to'support' art.' Taking' for' example' the' Portuguese' context,' we' analyze' these' various'notions'of'politics'in'art'in'these'global'turbulent'times.'

INFINITE!RIFT!INFINITE!SEAL!;!ART!AND!SOCIAL!

UNREST!

Kebedech'Tekleab

1'

1

Foundation' Studies,' SAVANNAH' COLLEGE' OF' ART' AND' DESIGN,'

Savannah,'Ga.31410,'United'States

'

Abstract:' Every' time' part' of' the' world’s' social' fabric' breaks' into' pieces'there'is'a'need'to'collect'the'fragmented'parts'to'put'them' back' together' again.' Understanding' why' the' breakup' occurs' and' putting'the'pieces'together'is'difficult'since'for'the'most'part,'the' answers'lie'between'the'cracks'–'the'voids'that'are'beyond'repair.'

These'in)between'spaces'need'to'be'filled'creatively,'imaginatively,' and'philosophically'because'there'is'no'single'rational'that'can'sim) ultaneously'provide'commonality'of'the'different'truth'claimed'by' each'broken'piece.'

As' a' backdrop' my' paper' will' discuss' historic' and' contemporary' artworks' created' during' and' after' major' social' unrest.' It' will' pro) vide'insight'into'the'role'of'the'works'that'may'give'solace'to'some' but'mainly'serve'as'bridges'across'the'societal'rifts'created'by'the' turmoil.'

The'paper'also'focuses'on'my'visual'and'literary'works'as'a'person' who' survived' ten' years' of' imprisonment' and' as' an' artist' who' is' inspired'by'humanitarian'issues.'

The' tragedy' of' the' Ethio)Somali' war,' and' my' personal' experience' as'a'civilian'internee'in'Somalia,'is'central'in'my'work'besides'other' global'humanitarian'issues.'

The' conditions' that' brought' about' my' capture' by' Somali' fighters' started'when'I'was'a'teenage)girl'living'in'Addis'Ababa.'

In'late'70’s'and'early'80’s'the'internal'civil'war'in'Ethiopia,'fueled'by' the' infamous' era' of' the' “Red' Terror”,' made' every' Ethiopian' that' did' not' support' the' military' junta' in' power,' vulnerable.' The' gov) ernment'was'desperate'to'stop'all'internal'resistances'while'waging' a'full)scale'war'with'neighboring'Somalia.'A'number'of'my'friends' and'I'were'among'the'student'body'that'opposed'the'regime'and' among' fortunate' ones' who' survived' the' whole' scale' massacre' of' the' red' terror' by' fleeing' the' country' on' foot' across' the' desert.' It' was' our' misfortune' however;' that' in' our' attempt' to' escape' the'

Ethiopian' threat,' we' strayed' into' territory' controlled' by' Somali' forces'and'we'were'captured.'For'the'next'ten'years'we'were'im) prisoned'as'prisoners'of'war.'

In'discussing'my'work,'I'will'address'the'issues'of'

ê'Memory'and'imagination'that'penetrate'layers'of'experience'and' set'visual'and'literary'languages.'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

ê' Social' commentary' and' modernity,' the' balance' of' content' and' form.'

ê'My'quest'to'reconcile'the'differing'dynamics'of'tragedy'and'beau) ty'on'each'single'piece.'

ART!ON!TRIAL:!WHEN!CRITICISM!OF!REALITY!TAKES!

AN!ARTIST!TO!COURT!G!ART!AS!CRIME!IN!A!MARKETG

BASED!SOCIETY!

Ulla'Karttunen

1'

1

Department' of' Cultural' Research,' UNIVERSITY' OF' EASTERN'

FINLAND,'Joensuu,'Finland

'

Abstract:'The'contemporary'art'world'is'increasingly'commodified.'

Alongside'art'as'brands'of'luxury'objects,'there'are'activist,'socially' aware' tendencies' in' visual' art.' In' reality/ art' artworks' offer' com) mentary' on' real)world' phenomena' in' spite' of' creating' fictive' realms:'art'becomes'part'of'social'criticism.'But'is'there'any'place' for'art'as'a'criticism'of'reality'under'marketized'cultural'practices?'

This'paper'studies'an'art'trial'case'in'contemporary'Finland.'In'the'

Western,'pluralistic'art'world,'a'work'of'art'seldom'leads'to'a'legal' case.'In'Finland'a'work'presented'in'the'gallery'of'the'Helsinki'City'

Art'Museum'led'to'criminal'proceedings'(2008,'2009,'and'still'ongo) ing'with'the'artist’s'appeal'to'the'European'Court'of'Human'Rights).'

The' court' ruled' that' it' is' not' possible' in'art' to' criticize' the' public' social'realm,'as'would'have'been'possible'in'research'or'journalism.'

According'to'the'court,'it'was'clear'that'the'artist'was'critical'of'the' phenomenon'in'question,'but'nevertheless'this'act'of'criticism'was' interpreted' as' a' crime.' The' work' was' confiscated' and' declared' secret'for'25'years,'the'artist’s'computer'was'wiped'as'a'“means'of' crime”'and'in'the'immense'media'uproar'the'artist'was'reviled'as' the'most'despised'criminal,'which'seemed'to'some'observers'like'a' modern)day'witch'hunt.'

What'kind'of'reality'was'the'art'work'criticizing?'The'work'attacked' the' business)oriented' structure' of' society' by' focusing' its' criticism' on' open)access' pages' in' the' internet' and' an' especially' popular' part,'teen'porn'galleries.'The'legal'investigation'was'not'interested' in'the'material'in'its'original'place'–'the'branded'sites'were'not'put' under'investigation'–'but'only'in'criticism'of'them.'

There'exists'in'the'internet'a'gallery'structure'so'vast'that'it'could' make'corresponding'fields'in'the'art'world'seem'wholly'marginal.'

These'porn'galleries'are'an'important'part'of'consumerized'popular' culture,'visited'by'millions'of'viewers,'open'24/7'all'over'the'globe,' marked'by'the'same'desire'for'success'and'celebrity'as'other'parts' of' the' entertainment' business.' A' sociologically' interesting' fact' should' also' be' that' for' the' first' time' in' human' history,' advertise) ment'images'have'become'objects'consumed'by'a'large'clientele.'

When' justice' borrowed' its' ethics' from' the' market,' the' statement' was'clear:'critical'art'shall'be'silenced.'

WHEN!PUBLIC!ART!GOES!GUERRILLA!

Cattani'Annalisa

1'

1

Communication,'UNIVERSITY'OF'TRIESTE)ACADEMY'OF'FINE'ARTS'

BOOGNA,'Imola)Bologna,'Italy

'

49'

Abstract:'Public'Art'exists'as'a'distinctive'trend'in'Art'since'the'early'

Seventies.' The' research' object' of' this' paper' is' to' articulate' the' term,'in'order'to'define'it'in'a'dialectical,'non)dogmatic'way.'

•'We'often'tend'to'identify'Public'Art'with'the'so)called'permanent/

site/ specific' works,' made' in' collaboration' with' the' institutions,' which'generally'tend'to'loose'their'dialectical'power'after'a'while,' like' monuments' do.' Nevertheless' the' concept' can' be' developed,' showing' how' the' concept' moved' from' site/ specific' to' audience/

specific/projects,'according'much'more'importance'to'the'commu) nity'of'a'given'space,'than'to'the'space'itself.'

Collecting'the'most'important'results'in'Public'Art'practices'we'can' systematize' an' articulated' definition,' following' as' research' meth) odology'a'pragmadialectical'and'rhetoical'approach:'

•'Permanent'site'specific'works:'installations'which'always'imply'an' official'project.'

•' Temporary' site' specific' works:' which' could' be' official' or' unau) thorised'installations.'

•'Public'Art'as'de)design:'It'consists'in'art'actions'that'seem'to'be' superfluous;'they'create'a'sort'of'disturb,'in'order'to'de)structure' stereotypes' and' passive' ways' of' living.' Public' art' goes' this' way' beyond'the'personal'gesture'of'the'artist,'trascends'pure'subjectivi) ty' and' responds' to' the' urban,' social' and' political' structure' that' defines'a'given'place.'

•'Public'Art'as'Transculture:'Public'art'can'also'come'in'through'the' back'door,'like'a'second'class'citizen'and'present'itself'as'the'voice' of'marginal'cultures'activating'a'transcultural'process,'well'defined' by'Fernando'Ortiz.'

These'last'two'aspects'are'at'the'moment'the'most'interesting'as' they' allow' social' and' political' engaged' art' actions' which' can' de) structure'stereotypes'or'improve'critical'thinking.'

•' From' this' short' analysis' the' main' findings' prove' how' Public' Art' left' its' first' “formal”' aims' in' order' to' achieve' an' interdisciplinary' approach,' promoting' neighbourhood' through' a' socratic' dialogue' with'the'public,'who'becomes'more'and'more'an'active'subject'of' the' work,' able' to' transform' the' aesthetic' function' into' a' social) aesthetic'one.'

EUROPEAN!CULTURAL!POLICIES!AND!THE!‘CREATIVE!

INDUSTRIES’!TURN.!

Pierre)Michel'Menger

1'

1

Sociology,'EHESS'&'CNRS,'Paris,'France

'

Abstract:/Cultural'policy'in'Europe'is'deeply'rooted'in'the'Welfare'

State'doctrine'that'has'been'prevailing'during'the'last'half'century.'

Its' implementation' has' gone' along' with' the' invention' and' rise' of' educational' policy,' social' policy' and' health' policy.' This' paper' sketches'its'evolution'as'a'four'phase'move'towards'what'has'been' emerging'as'the'central'dual'content'of'the'current'public'cultural' policy:' preserving' and' promoting' heritage,' and' bringing' the' crea) tive'industries'at'the'core'of'the'so)called'knowledge'society.'The' general'evolutionary'trend'shows'four'distinct'phases:'1)'the'crea) tion'of'a'systematic'cultural'supply'policy'based'on'a'limited'defini) tion'of'culture'suitable'for'public'financing'and'based'on'a'vertical' concept'of'democratization'by'conversion;'2)'the'gradual'decentral) ization'of'public'action,'which'leads'to'an'increasing'disparity'in'its' aims' and' functions,' and' which' challenges' the' initial' universalist,' top)down'egalitarian'model;'3)'a'revision'of'the'legitimate'scope'of' public' action,' which' declares' symbolically' obsolete' the' founding' hierarchy'of'cultural'politics,'that'which'would'oppose'high'culture,' protected'from'market'forces'and'entertainment'culture'and'gov)

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

50' erned'by'the'laws'of'the'industrial'economy;'4)'an'increasing'ten) dency' to' justify' cultural' policy' on' the' basis' of' its' contribution' to' economic' growth' and' to' the' balance' of' national' social' diversity,' which'legitimises'the'regulatory'power'of'public'action'as'well'en) couraging'the'expansion'of'the'creative'industries'and'the'demands' for'the'evaluation'of'procedures'and'results.'The'last'section'of'this' paper'moves'away'from'the'state'centered'perspective'and'focuses' on'the'city'as'the'incubator'of'cultural'generativity,'in'order'to'sug) gest' how' a' city)centered' approach' to' cultural' development' chal) lenges'the'state)centered'doctrine'of'cultural'policy.'

FAKE!CREATIVE!CLASS!ENTERTAINING!SUPER!STARS:!A!

CREATIVE!CITY!TRAP!FOR!ANTALYA!

Reyhan'Görk

1'

1

Political' Science' and' Public' Administration,' CANKIRI' KARATEKIN'

UNIVERSITY,'CANKIRI,'Turkey

'

Abstract:'The'aim'of'this'paper'is'to'analyze'the'terms'of'creative' class'and'creative'city'for'the'case'of'Antalya'while'scrutinizing'the' relation' between' cultural' policies' and' global' capitalism' as' well' as' this'relation’s'impact'on'the'process'of'restructuring'Antalya'into'a'

‘city' of' culture’.' The' flow' of' creative' class' for' the' formation' of' a' creative'city'is'inevitable.'However'the'strategies'for'transforming'

Antalya'into'runaway'production'center'are'not'enough'to'pull'the' creative'class.'Instead,'it'turned'into'a'kind'of'‘star'hosting'organi) zation’'from'Hollywood.'

Florida' (2002b:' 7;' 2005:' 151;' 2006:' 72)' emphasizes' the' social) cultural' dimensions' of' city' life,' suggesting' that' the' “creative' class' does'not'just'cluster'where'the'jobs'are'[…]'they'cluster'in'places' that' are' centers' of' creativity' and' also' where' they' like' to' live.”' As' observed'in'cities'like'Vancouver,'Milwaukee,'Baltimore'local'“crea) tive'clusters”'develop'within'these'cities'and'city'regions,'and'are' tightly'connected'to'the'international'creative'industry—comprise' a'“creative'city'network”'(UNESCO,'2006:'58).'According'to'Landry'

(2006:'61),'in'all'of'these'cities'called'‘creative’,'“most'of'the'strat) egies' and' plans' are' in' fact' concerned' with' strengthening' the' arts' and'cultural'fabric,'such'as'support'for'the'arts'and'artists'and'the' institutional'infrastructure'to'match.”'

For'the'purpose'of'the'study,'various'qualitative'research'methods' were' used' to' collect' data;' individual' interviews' were' conducted'

(representatives'of'different'interest'groups'like'bureaucrats,'local' politicians,' entrepreneurs,' representatives' of' NGOs,' etc.);' group' interviews'of'academics'were'realized;'life'history'accounts'(mem) oirs)'were'collected;'and'the'news'on'Antalya'in'local'newspapers' were'systematically'analyzed.'

Looking' at' the' process' of' restructuring' Antalya' into' a' ‘city' of' cul) ture’'in'the'field'of'art'and'culture,'it'is'observed'that'almost'all'of' the'related'institutions,'foundations'and'establishments'of'art'and' culture'have'been'administered'or'directed'by'outsiders,'most'no) tably'by'actors'from'Istanbul.'They'have'relatively'higher'cultural,' educational,' social' and' symbolic' capital' and' are' now' commonly' seen'in'Antalya,'with'their'own'words'“trying'to'attract'global'capi) tal'to'the'city”'in'this'age'of'inter)urban'competition.'Still,'one'can) not'argue'that'here'is'a'creative'class'flow'to'Antalya.'

LOOKING!AT!MUSIC!SCENES!AS!CREATIVE!INDUSTRIES.!

THE!INDEPENDENT!LIVE!MUSIC!SECTOR!OF!MILAN!

Silvia'Tarassi

1'

Abstract'Book'

1

CATHOLIC'UNIVERSITY,'MILAN,'Italy

'

Abstract:'Within'popular'music'studies,'the'notion'of'‘music'scene’'

(e.g.' Shank,' 1994;' Straw,' 1991)' has' been' often' used' to' take' into' account'music'practices'taking'in'place'in'urban'contexts.'The'mu) sic'scene'has'been'regarded'as'being'alternative'and'independent' from' the' music' industry,' and' as' being' constituted' by' small' music' collectives' adopting' a' DIY' (Do' it' yourself)' approach.' Further' re) search' has' instead' underlined' how' music' production' and' perfor) mance'at'a'local'level'has'become'a'more'professionalized'activity'

(Smith'&'Maugan,'1997),'which'can'play'a'central'role'in'the'crea) tive'economy'of'the'city.'The'music'scene'can'therefore'be'studied' as' a' creative' subsector,' characterized' by' local' creative' networks' and' infrastructures' taking' place' within' specific' urban' areas'

(Hesmondhalgh,'1996;'Scott,'1999;'2000).'

There'is'therefore'a'need'to'look'at'the'local'specificity,'taking'ac) count' of' the' ‘soft' infrastructures’' constituted' by' the' networks' of' people' involved' in' the' music' sector' (Brown,' Cohen' &' O'Connor,'

2000)' and' to' look' at' the' creative' industries' sector' in' a' broader' sense'in'order'to'understand'the'possible'cooperation'or'competi) tion'existing'between'multiple'subsectors.'

The' paper' will' therefore' present' the' qualitative' research' which' is' conducted'in'the'independent'live'music'sector'of'Milan'by'inter) viewing'using'the'life'story'approach'the'different'actors'involved' inside'(musicians,'booking'agents,'artistic'directors,'venue'manag) ers)' and' outside' the' scene' (Music' Consultant,' Councillors)' and' by' using' participant' observations' in' venues' and' during' music' events' were'conducted'in'order'to'grasp'the'different'networking'practic) es'taking'place'in'the'scene.'The'case'study'will'enable'to'discuss' the'explanatory'relevance'of'the'term'music'scene'to'analyze'music' practices'of'production'and'consumption'and'to'point'out'the'need' of' popular' music' studies' of' combining' the' theoretical' perspective' of'scene'with'the'debate'around'the'creative'industries.'

BALKAN!MUSIC!IN!AUSTRIA!UNDER!THE!LENSE!OF!

BOURDIEU'S!FIELD!THEORY!

Regina'Claudia'Sperlich

1'

1 mediacult,'Vienna,'Austria

'

Abstract:' Since' 1990,' Balkan' music' has' developed' to' a' popular' phenomenon' in' Austria.' Considering' the' development' before,' al) ready'the'first'generation'of'migrant'workers'brought'Balkan'music' to'Austria'in'the'70s'and'80s,'but'to'appeal'to'the'Austrian'majority' this' music' had' to' become' part' of' “World' music”,' a' label' for' all'

“non)Western”' music,' which' had' been' invented' by' the' music' in) dustry'in'the'1980s.'However,'at'the'beginning'of'the'90s'music'of' the' Balkan' region' still' was' not' understood' as' “Balkan' music”,' but' was'only'known'(if'at'all)'by'the'majority'through'a'few'single'musi) cians' and' bands.' One' of' the' first' of' such' bands' was' the' Wiener/

Tschuschenkapelle,/which'was'founded'in'1989'in'Vienna.'Another' early' branch' was' Greek' music,' which' had' emerged' already' in' the'

1980s,'like'Lakis/&/Achwach'and'Marios/&/Julie.'Since'the'second' half' of' the' 1990s' and' increasingly' since' 2000' in' Vienna' and' Graz' more' and' more' musicians' have' dedicated' themselves' to' Balkan' music,'not'only'but'especially'musicians'who'were'born'in'South)

East)Europe.' An' important' context,' which' must' be' regarded,' was' the'civil'war'in'former'Yugoslavia'resulting'into'a'flood'of'migrants.'

But' over' the' years' not' only' refugees' came,' but' also' students' of' classical' music' or' jazz.' Many' of' them' discovered' “their”' Balkan' music'for'the'first'time'in'Austria.'Finally,'in'the'2000s'new'musical' institutions' have' appeared,' such' as' ost=klub' or' the' Balkan/ Fever/

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

Festival'which'both'have'driven'the'popularization'of'Balkan'music' forward.'This'“little'history”'of'Balkan'music'is'investigated'by're) ferring'to'Bourdieu’s'field'theory'of'cultural'production.'We'regard'

Balkan'music'as'a'subfield'of'music'production'in'which'musicians' and' managers' of' festivals' and' clubs' struggle' for' social' acknowl) edgement.' Most' musicians' and' managers' acting' in' this' field' are' well' educated' and' belong' to' the' middle' class.' Though' their' eco) nomic' recourses' are' rather' limited' they' have' access' to' cultural,' social' and' symbolic' “capitals”.' Therefore,' they' are' more' likely' to' mobilize' support' and' to' bridge' the' gap' between' established' and' marginalized' positions.' These' issues' concerning' the' development' of'Balkan'music'since'the'early'1990s'until'today'are'investigated' on'the'basis'of'the'analysis'of'Austrian'daily'newspapers'and'music' magazines'concerning'this'period'of'time'as'well'as'the'analysis'of' qualitative' interviews,' which' were' conducted' with' musicians' and' managers'of'festivals'and'clubs.'

MEN!AND!WOMEN’S!ACCESS!TO!SOCIAL!

RECOGNITION!AND!FAME!IN!THE!INTERNATIONAL!

CONTEMPORARY!ART!WORLD!:!GENDER!AND!

SUCCESS!IN!THE!VISUAL!ARTS!

Alain'Philippe'Quemin

'1

,'Clara'Léa'Lévy

'2

'

1

Dpmt'of'sociology,'UNIVERSITÉ'PARIS)EST,'Paris,'

2 dpmt'of'sociolo) gy,'université'Nancy)II,'Nancy,'France

'

Abstract:' Since' 1970,' German' magazines' Capital/ and' Manager/

Magazine' have' published' nearly' every' year' a' ranking,' the' Kunst'

Kompass,' that' aims' at' making' public' the' names' of' the' 100' most' visible' artists' on' the' international' art' scene.' The' ranking' is' built' individually'for'each'artist'who'receives'a'certain'number'of'points' for'his'or'her'exhibitions,'either'personal'or'collective'in'major'art' institutions'such'as'museums'or'biennales'or'for'the'press'cuttings' that' they' get' in' major' international' contemporary' art' magazines.'

Although' the' ranking' is' based' on' the' individual,' it' is' possible' to' consider'groups'of'artists'that'share'common'social'characteristics.'

In'this'presentation,'we'will'compare'male'and'female'artists.'

After' a' critical' presentation' of' the' instrument' that' the' Kunst'

Kompass'offers'presenting'both'its'limits'but'also'what'it'can'bring,' the'first'phenomenon'of'the'increasing'share'of'women'among'the' most'visible'international'artists'and'their'confrontation'to'a'ceiling' that'prevents'them'from'perfect'integration'to'the'art'world'will'be' analyzed.'

Besides,'not'only'does'the'Kunst'Kompass'make'it'possible'to'com) pare' the' share' of' men' and' women' among' the' most' recognized' international'artists,'but'it'also'enables'us'to'compare'various'social' characteristics' of' male' and' female' artists.' Such' is' the' case' of' ca) reers' that' can' be' more' or' less' rapid.' At' what' age' do' men' and' women'appear'in'the'Kunst'Kompass?'What'is'the'average'age'of' men'and'that'of'women'for'a'given'year?'

Other' criteria' will' be' analyzed.' In' what' countries' were' male' and' female'artists'born'and'where'do'they'live'?'In'what'country'is'their' main'gallery'(mentioned'in'the'Kunst'Kompass)'located'?'What'are' the'main'media'used'by'the'most'famous'male'and'female'artists'

(painting,'sculpture,'photography,'video,'performance,'installation,' environment…)'and'what'movements'of'contemporary'creation'do' they'belong'to'?'This'will'enable'us'to'study'the'link'between'gen) der'and'the'characteristics'of'the'works.'A'similar'concern'for'other' traits'of'the'works'will'justify'the'study'of'the'average'prices'of'the'

51' works'created'by'female'artists'to'that'of'male'artists'for'equiva) lent'positions'in'the'ranking.'

In' this' presentation,' we' will' try' and' study' social' characteristics,' should'they'be'biographical'and'related'to'the'private'sphere'or'to' the'professional'space,'of'female'and'male'artists'and'try'and'show' the'impact'of'gender'on'artistic'recognition.'

DOES!THE!LEGISLATION!FOR!THE!ARTS!PROMOTING!

ACTUALLY!PROMOTE!ARTS:!THE!CASE!OF!THE!VISUAL!

ARTISTS!IN!FINLAND!

Pauli'Rautiainen

1'

1

School' of' Management,' UNIVERSITY' OF' TAMPERE,' Tampere,' Fin) land

'

Abstract:' The' Finnish' model' of' arts' and' artists' promotion' is' one' variant' of' the' Nordic' model.' The' shift' into' the' present' policy' of' promoting' the' arts' and' artists' in' the' 1960s' was' ideologically' con) nected' to' the' expanding' Nordic' welfare' state' in' all' of' the' Nordic' countries.'By'the'end'of'the'1960s'the'earlier'administrative'struc) tures' of' distributing' direct' state' support' to' artists' were' replaced' with' new' administrative' bodies' and' budget' appropriations.' The' reason' for' this' was' to' consolidate' the' types' of' grants' and' their' distribution'by'legislation.'During'the'period'of'expanding'welfare' state' the' Nordic' countries' introduced' also' indirect' public' support' forms'that'consisted'of'various'legislative'schemes'to'support'the' individual'artists.'These'schemes'are'mainly'connected'to'the'social' security'law,'tax'law'and'copyright'law.'

In' my' presentation' I' am' asking' does' this' legislation' for' the' arts' promoting'actually'promote'arts.'I'am'focusing'on'the'visual'artists'

(painters,'sculptors,'photographers'etc.)'in'Finland.'When'answer) ing'to'this'question'I'will'mostly'rely'on'a'survey'carried'out'in'the' summer'2010.'In'addition'I'will'use'register'data'and'results'from' the'previous'studies'(mostly'carried'out'by'the'Arts'Council'of'Fin) land).'This'presentation'is'closely'connected'with'my'on)going're) search' project' regarding' how' the' legal' regulation' promotes' and' prohibits'the'artistic'work'in'Finland.'

CULTURE!OR!PRODUCTION?!THE!IMPACT!OF!

CULTURAL!COMPREHENSION!ON!WORKING!

STRUCTURES!WITHIN!THE!CULTURAL!INDUSTRIES!

Christiane'Schnell

1'

1

Goethe)University' Frankfurt/Main,' INSTITUTE' OF' SOCIAL'

RESEARCH,'Frankfurt'am'Main,'Germany

'

Abstract:'Referring'to'the'example'of'TV'camera'operators'the'pa) per'will'analyse'the'relation'between'prevailing'concepts'of'culture' and' working' structures' within' the' cultural' industries.' It' is' argued,' that'camera'operators'represent'an'occupational'group'positioned' in'between'artistic'creativity'and'technological'service,'which'does' not'fit'into'the'framework,'which'regulates'cultural'work'in'Germa) ny.'The'argumentation'proceeds'in'three'steps:'First'the'emergence' of'an'institutional'setting'around'cultural'work'is'described'within' its'historical'context.'One'pillar'of'this'institutional'framework'is'for' example' the' integration' of' Artists' into' the' German' social' security' system'(Künstlersozialversicherung).'Secondly,'the'explicit'and'im) plicit'presumptions'and'consequences'of'this'model'are'analysed'in' the'face'of'the'structural'change'of'the'cultural'industries'and'the' shifting'relation'between'public'financed'cultural'production,'small'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

52' businesses' and' media' corporations' over' the' last' decades.' Thirdly,' the'example'of'TV'camera'operators'is'taken'to'explain'how'com) prehension' of' culture' and' old' and' new' working' structures' within' the'cultural'industries'are'interrelated.'

CONTESTED!HOMES:!PROFESSIONALISM,!HEGEMONY!

AND!ARCHITECTURE!IN!TIMES!OF!CHANGE!

Hadas'Shadar

'1

,'Zvika'Orr

'2*

,'Yael'Maizel

'3

'

1

Faculty'of'Architecture'and'Town'Planning,'Technion'–'Israel'Insti) tute' of' Technology,' Haifa,'

Government,' Hebrew' University' of' Jerusalem,' Jerusalem,'

3

Department' of' Political' Sciences,' Tel)Aviv' University,' Tel)Aviv,'

Israel

'

2

Federmann' School' of' Public' Policy' &'

Abstract:' Professionals' possess' an' authoritative' and' monopolistic' position'based'on'their'exclusive'professional'knowledge.'However,' in' post)modern' societies,' professions' are' increasingly' forced' to' compete'for'their'monopoly'and'autonomy'and'protect'their'juris) diction.'This'process'is'particularly'salient'with'regard'to'the'archi) tectural'profession,'due'to'its'dependency'on'clients,'and'because' architecture' often' involves' struggles' over' collective' identities' and' power.' Architects’' constructed' products' are' conspicuously' visible' to'the'public.'Therefore,'an'analysis'of'the'architectural'profession' enables' us' to' examine' the' complex' interrelations' between' the' professionals'and'the'general'public.'

In'addition,'in'hegemonic'processes,'professionals,'including'archi) tects,'often'serve'as'“traditional'intellectuals,”'or'agents'that'pre) serve'the'interests'of'those'in'power.'By'constructing'and'deliver) ing' the' dominant' ideologies,' epistemologies' and' symbols,' these' professionals'affect'the'social'order'and'strengthen'the'stability'of' hegemonic' structures.' Architects' have' a' unique' role' in' these' pro) cesses,' as' professionals' who' can' spatially' and' physically' express' and'symbolize'abstract'values,'ideologies'and'national'identities.'

This'paper'focuses'on'a'critical'moment'in'which'a'threat'is'posed' to'both'the'architects''professional'autonomy'and'the'established' hegemonic' structure' in' which' their' social' group' possesses' socio) cultural'dominance.'This'paper'examines'the'reaction'of'the'archi) tects'to'this'double)threat,'by'analyzing'the'discourse'of'Israeli'elite' architects' under' the' conditions' of' hegemonic' crisis' during' the'

1980s,'which'entailed'a'partial'privatization'of'urban'planning'and' freedom'to'individuals'to'design'their'own'homes.'

This'paper'explores'the'arguments'used'by'these'architects'in'order' to'contend'with'this'double)threat.'This'paper'shows'that'the'archi) tects'attempted'to'protect'the'old'social'structure'and'hegemonic' ideology,' while' neglecting' their' exclusive' knowledge' and' tools' as' professionals,'thereby'diminishing'their'professional'status.'Follow) ing' the' voluntary' “recruitment”' of' the' professionals' for' the' “de) fense”'of'the'hegemonic'order,'the'architects'no'longer'promoted' the'idea'of'professionalism'as'a'normative'value'system.'In'the'long' term,' this' strategy' has' weakened' the' status' of' the' architects' in' society.'

VALUATION!CRITERIA!OF!PROFESSIONAL!CRITICS!IN!

THE!POPULAR!MUSIC!PRESS!

Gunnar'Otte

1'

1

Sociological'Institute,'UNIVERSITY'OF'ZÜRICH,'Zürich,'Switzerland

'

Abstract'Book'

Abstract:'Professional'critics'occupy'a'mediating'position'between' cultural'producers'and'consumers'and'are'said'to'act'as'“gatekeep) ers”,'“tastemakers”'or'mere'“predictors”'of'artistic'success.'In're) cent'years,'the'impact'of'critics'on'market'success'has'been'studied' particularly'in'the'realm'of'film.'There'is'also'work'on'the'historical' changes'in'the'techniques'that'critics'have'been'using'in'their'film' reviews.' Concrete' valuation' criteria,' however,' have' rarely' been' investigated' systematically' and' comprehensively' –' even' less' so' in' the' realm' of' popular' music.' Drawing' on' the' pioneering' efforts' of'

Ralf' von' Appen,' a' coding' scheme' was' developed' in' order' to' con) tent)analyze' album' reviews' in' three' influential' German' popular' music'magazines'–'Rolling'Stone,'Spex'and'Intro'–'on'a'quantitative' basis.'The'codebook'differentiates'several'dozens'of'subcategories' of' compositional,' interpretative,' emotional' and' personal' qualities' as'well'as'references'to'musicians’'biographies'and'their'positioning' in' the' musical' field.' Our' database' also' links' critics’' valuations' to' objective' characteristics' of' musicians' and' their' albums' as' well' as' their' chart' success.' The' sample' consists' of' about' 800' reviews' in'

1995,'2000,'2005'and'2010.'The'presentation'will'address'the'fol) lowing' questions:' How' frequent' are' different' valuation' criteria?'

What'is'their'relative'impact'on'critics’'overall'rating'of'an'album?'

Do'valuation'criteria'differ'between'music'genres'such'as'rock,'hip' hop'and'electronic'dance'music?'Has'the'evolution'of'musical'styles' lead' to' changes' in' critical' discourse' over' the' fifteen' year' time) span?'How'do'critical'reviews'relate'to'an'album’s'popular'success?'

PLAYING,!COMPETING!AND!PRIZEWINNING:!WHAT!

ARE!THE!ISSUES!OF!INTERNATIONAL!MUSIC!

COMPETITIONS!FOR!YOUNG!MUSICIANS!

Miriam'Gina'Odoni

1'

1

Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'GENEVA,'Genève'4,'Switzerland

'

Abstract:' The' international' music' competition' is' an' organisation' with'its'own'staff,'its'own'rules'and'its'own'structure.'The'competi) tion' pertains' to' an' array' of' selection' tools' allowing' to' access' the' professional' classical' music' market.' The' competition' aims' to' pro) mote'the'career'of'young'and'talented'musicians'and'is'an'"inter) face"'between'education'and'music'production.'

The'purpose'of'this'research'is,'using'the'international'music'com) petition'as'a'privileged'viewpoint,'to'study'how'musicians'are'se) lected'and'brought'to'the'music'market.'To'analyze'the'impact'of' prize'winning'in'the'career'of'musicians,'we'reconstruct'and'ana) lyse' the' trajectory' of' musicians' who' participated' to' international' music' competitions' and' who' want' to' do' an' international' career.'

The'music'market'has'its'own'specificities:'its'actors'are'very'com) petitive' and' it' functions' through' project' organization.' We' study' how'musicians'invest'this'market'and'how'they'manage'to'stay'in' it.'

One'issue'that'we'wish'to'address'as'such'is'that'this'research'inte) grates'various'research'methods:'observations'during'several'music' competitions' and' interviews' with' contestants,' a' documentary' re) search' on' international' competitions' and' interviews' with' organiz) ers'of'competitions,'an'online'questionnaire'sent'to'about'800'prize' winners,' "life' stories"' with' twenty' prize' winners' and' finally' inter) views'with'a'control'population'of'ten'persons'who'did'not'win'a' competition'prize.'

What'are'the'reasons'for'musicians'to'take'part'into'international' music'competitions'which'is'an'activity'with'high'risk'for'them'(no' guarantee'of'winning'a'prize'and'very'expensive'in'terms'of'money,'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' work' and' energy)?' How' do' they' live' this' moment?' What' are' the' immediate'consequences'of'winning'a'prize,'and'how'do'they'live' the'time'after'the'competition?'Those'are'the'questions'we'would' like'to'expand'upon'as'we'present'the'first'results'of'this'research.'

And'consequently,'question'issues'raised'by'the'participation'into' international'music'competitions'for'a'musician.'

REPUTATION!AND!ECONOMIC!DISILLUSION:!THE!CASE!

OF!ARCHITECTS!IN!PORTUGUESE!SOCIETY!

Vera'Sousa'Borges

'1,1'

1

Instituto' de' Ciências' Sociais,' UNIVERSIDADE' DE' LISBOA,' Lisboa,'

Portugal

'

Abstract:' The' literature' on' artistic' reputation' has' explored' it' as' a' phenomenon'with'implications'for'the'entire'society,'culture,'crea) tivity,' economy.' Several' authors' have' increasingly' been' studying' the'meaning'and'the'survival'of'artistic'reputation'and'the'power'of' some'individuals'that'accumulate'reputational'credits,'the'“winner) take' all)markets”.' We' will' analyse' the' results' of' a' qualitative' re) search'inside'14'ateliers,'with'23'Portuguese'architects'in'order'to' describe:' (a)' the' role' of' reputation' in' the' organization' of' work' in' architecture,' (b)' the' professional' disillusion' by' young' architects,' characterized' by' the' desire' to' abandon' architecture' and' by' the' amount'of'time'without'artistic'work'in'the'field;'finally,'(c)'we'will' explore'the'links'between'reputation'and'occupational'risk'in'today' turbulent'times.'

TOWARDS!A!SOCIOLOGY!OF!READING!FICTIONAL!

NARRATIVE.!THE!SOCIAL!CONSTRUCTION!OF!

FICTIONAL!LITERARY!NARRATIVE!

Pablo'Venegas

1'

1

Laboratoire' de' Sociologie' de' Grenoble' EMC2)LSG,' UNIVERSITÉ'

PIERRE'MENDÈS'FRANCE')'GRENOBLE'2,'GRENOBLE,'France

'

Abstract:'Our'central'hypothesis'is'as'follows:'fictional'literary'nar) rative' is' a' socially)constructed' cultural' object,' which' means' that' fictional' literary' texts' in' themselves' are' devoid' of' meaning.' The' meaning'is'constructed'from'the'intellectual'and'sensitive'process) es' involved' in' the' act' of' reading' by' virtue' of' reception' processes' and'intersubjective'type'cognitive'operations.'We'maintain'that'the' meaning'of'literary'fiction'is'that'given'to'it'by'the'participants'in' what'we'refer'to'as'the'Fictional/Narrative/Reading/Institute,'where' the'actors'adopt'a'predetermined'role'and'assume'the'norms'and' conventions' which' dictate' what' the' fictional/ narrative/ should' mean.'

From' the' reception' of' the' fictional' narrative' By/ Night/ in/ Chile/ by'

Roberto'Bolaño'in'two'countries'(France'and'Spain),'we'approach' the'social'creation'of'a'fictional'text'produced'by'the'reading/situa=

tion,' as' a' sociological' phenomenon,' as' both' an' individual' and' a' collective'process.'Thus,'the'aim'is'to'describe'the'particular'condi) tions'of'the'social'creation'of'a'text'from'the'connection'between' the'literary'text'itself'and'its'reception'by'the'different'readers.'We' examine' the' nature' of' the' processes' that' readers' confront' when' facing'a'fictional'narrative'and'the'manner'in'which'readers'confer' meaning' to' the' text' depending' on' their' origins,' cultural' back) ground,' and' the' whole' array' of' factors' that' affect' the' practice' of' reading'a'fictional'text.'

53'

TRANSITIONS!IN!THE!LITERARY!FIELD:!COMPARING!

U.S.,!FRANCE,!GERMANY!AND!THE!NETHERLANDS,!

1955G2005!

Marc'Verboord

1'

1

Media' &' Communication,' ERASMUS' UNIVERSITY' ROTTERDAM,'

Rotterdam,'Netherlands

'

Abstract:' The' artistic' value' that' is' attributed' to' cultural' products' and'genres'in'societies'is'to'a'large'extent'the'outcome'of'interac) tions'among'institutionally'embedded'agents'like'critics,'academics,' and' other' cultural' entrepreneurs.' Organized' into' cultural' fields,' these' agents' have' been' legitimated' to' classify' cultural' products' into' symbolically' potent' categories' which' signal' distinctive' struc) tural' properties' as' well' as' degrees' of' artistic' excellence.' Previous' work' offered' studies' of' individual' careers,' in)depth' analyses' of' specific'cultural'institutions'and'one)moment'analyses'of'a'specific' form' of' recognition' (retrospective' cultural' consecration).' In' this' paper,'we'aim'to'map'transitions'in'how'cultural'institutions'relate' to'one'another'and'through'their'social'standing'affect'the'status'of' individual'artists.'

More'specifically,'we'examine'artistic'value'attribution'by'analyzing' the'choices'made'in'one'particular'institution'(newspaper'criticism)' in'relation'to'other'forms'of'institutional'recognition'(retrospective' cultural'consecration'through'entries'in'literary'encyclopedias,'con) temporary'cultural'consecration'through'literary'awards,'commer) cial'recognition'through'bestseller'list'success'and'producers’'status' through' the' prestige' of' publishers).' Our' baseline' is' formed' by' newspaper' critics' –' cultural' agents' whose' authority' to' evaluate' artistic' expressions' has' been' shown' in' previous' studies(e.g.'

Janssen,'Kuipers'&'Verboord,'2008).'

For'a'sample'of'newspaper'articles'from'the'years'1955,'1975,'1995' and'2005'from'8'newspapers'in'4'countries'(N=2,419),'we'retrieved' information'on'the'fiction'book'authors'discussed.'We'then'induc) tively'analyze'how'fiction'book'authors'appearing'in'these'articles' can' be' characterized' in' terms' of' the' mentioned' forms' of' institu) tional' recognition.' We' conduct' cluster' analysis' and' multinomial' logistic'regression'analyses.'

The'aim'of'the'paper'is'threefold.'First,'we'pursue'a'more'detailed' examination' of' how' hierarchical' differences' within' one' particular' cultural'domain'have'evolved'in'the'past'50'years.'Second,'we'at) tempt'to'come'to'a'more'fine)tuned'analysis'of'how'different'cul) tural' institutions' relate' to' one' another' and' impact' the' symbolic' value' of' cultural' products.' Third,' we' learn' about' the' mechanisms' by'comparing'the'literary'fields'in'four'countries:'France,'Germany,' the'Netherlands,'the'United'States.'

FIGHTING!PROFESSORS!AND!OTHER!SCANDALS!–!THE!

CHANGING!IMAGE!OF!NONGFICTION!WRITERS!IN!

MEDIA!

Maaria'Linko

1'

1

Department'of'Social'Resarch,'UNIVERSITY'OF'HELSINKI,'HELSINKI,'

Finland

'

Abstract:'The'media'publicity'in'any'field'of'art'can'be'vital'for'its' success.'This'is'also'the'case'on'non)fiction'books'and'their'writers.'

The' huge' changes' in' media' have' affected' also' the' ways' in' which' non)fiction' writers' are' represented' in' media.' Media' researchers' have' claimed' that' the' aesthetic' paradigm' in' culture' sections' of'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

54' newspapers'has'been'removed'by'the'journalistic'paradigm'which' among' other' things' has' lead' to' an' emphasis' of' news' instead' of' reviews' of' artistic' works.' In' addition,' the' Internet' has' brought' an' enormous'change'which'affects'the'whole'book'world'and,'also'the' media'publicity'of'literature.'

In'these'circumstances,'the'paper'examines'the'media'publicity'of' non)fiction'and'especially'the'writers'of'non)fiction.'How'are'non) fiction' writers' being' framed' in' media?' Which' sub)fields' of' non) fiction' are' the' winners' in' the' competition' of' media' space?' The' research' data' consists' of' media' publicity' of' non)fiction' in' three' largest'newspapers,'two'tabloids'and'three'magazines.'The'visibility' of' non)fiction' in' the' Internet' is' discussed' in' the' light' of' the' most' important'websites'on'which'literature'is'present.'

Nine'different'frames'that'the'non)fiction'writers'are'represented' in' newspapers' and' magazines' were' discerned:' non)fiction' writers' were' framed' as' experts,' interpreters,' truth)tellers,' professionals,' politicians,'philosophers,'art'enthusiasts,'reporters'or'therapists.'

The' tenth' frame' is' that' of' a' celebrity.' This' frame,' however,' is' a' surplus' frame' which' can' be' added' to' other' frames.' The' media' is' interested,' if' a' piece' of' news' can' or,' preferably' a' scandal' can' be' reported,'and't'scandals'sell,'and'publishers'are'aware'of'this'too.'

Best' selling' scandals' deal' with' the' private' lives' of' writers' or' the' people' they' write' about.' Not' even' non)fiction' writers' can' remain' completely'outside'the'wide)spread'therapy'culture'in'which'public' confessions' and' disagreements' with' other' people' are' more' inter) esting'than'research'results'of'artistic'work'of'exceptional'quality.'

Two' history' professors' disagreeing' strongly' about' details' of' war' history'or'a'young,'award)winning'female'writer'with'strong'opin) ions'about'Finnish'men'win'in'the'competition'of'media'space.'Not' to'mention'biographers'and'their'subjects'if'there'is'a'scandal'to'be' reported.'Still,'there'is'also'a'notable'space'for'non)fiction'writers' as'experts'in'media'–'the'question'remains,'does'the'reading'public' notice,'that'these'experts'are'or'also'authors?'

IS!THIS!ART?!A!TRANSDISCIPLINARY!STUDY!ON!THE!

DECISION!ART!/!NONGART!IN!THE!RECEPTION!OF!

NEDKO!SOLAKOV’S!WORK!“A!LABEL!LEVEL”!

Martin'Anton'Tröndle

'1

,'Volker'Kirchberg

'2

'

1

Culture,' Communication' &' Management,' ZEPPELIN' UNIVERSITY,'

Friedrichshafen,' burg,'Germany

'

2

Cultural' Sociology,' Leuphana' University,' Lüne)

Abstract:'Searching'for'the'key'word'“aesthetics”'the'Encyclopædia'

Britannica' (2001)' states:' “Indeed,' it' could' be' said' that' self) definition' has' been' the' major' task' of' modern' aesthetics.”' This'

Swiss'national'research'project'eMotion/–/mapping/museum/expe=

rience'analyses'the'implicit'decision'art/non)art'of'museum'visitors' in'the'field'of'a'fine'art'museum'using'a'truly'interdisciplinary'ap) proach,'from'an'art'theoretical,'sociological,'psychological'and'ex) perimental' perspective.' To' gain' access' to' this' complex' decision) making'process'of'visitor'reception'in'the'museum,'we'developed' innovative' research' methods:' A' contemporary,' complex' visitor' tracking'system,'biometric'measurements,'empirical'social'science,' as' well' as' the' experiment' itself' were' integrated' in' a' complemen) tary'fashion.'Our'field'study'was'conducted'for'several'months'in'

2009'in'the'Art'Museum'of'St.'Gallen,'Switzerland.'Since'then'we' have'been'analyzing'a'vast'amount'of'data'which'we'collected'from' more'then'500'probands'in'the'field.'

Abstract'Book'

For'this'presentation'“Is'this'art?”,'the'(art)work'and'its'effects'on' the'museum'visitors'which'we'have'analysed'were'created'by'the' renown'Bulgarian'artist'Nedko'Solakov.'In'the'following'we'will'first' describe'and'discuss'the'psychogeographic'data,'i.e.,'the'computer) assisted'mappings'reflecting'the'immanent'visitors’'experiences'of'

Solakov’s'art.'We'will'secondly'describe'and'analyse'statistical'data' on'experiencing'and'remembering'Solakov’s'art'as'yield'by'stand) ardized'entrance'and'exit'surveys.'Thirdly'we'will'interpret'the'data' gained'by'the'psychogeographically'oriented'mapping'methods'and' by'the'quantitative'visitor'surveys'in'view'of'the'major'sociological' art'theories'which'have'been'discussed'in'the'last'decades'–'some' of'these'may'will'have'to'be're)thought.'

THE!MULTIFACED!CONCEPT!OF!AVANTGGARDE:!NEW!

ART!OR!NEW!SOCIAL!PRIORITIES?!

Ilaria'Riccioni

1'

1

Faculty'of'education,'FREE'UNIVERSITY'OF'BOZEN,'Bozen,'Italy

'

Abstract:/The'concept'of'avantgarde'has'been'rarely'inquired'in'all' its'different'potential'facets.'However,'whenever'we'talk'about'art' we'cannot'avoid'to'consider'what'kind'of'art'we'are'approaching.'

In'contemporary'times,'art'is'highly'connected'to'economy,'market,' public'relation'and'ability'to'communicate.'The'intent'of'this'paper' is'heading'in'a'triple'direction:'1)'find'out'if'the'concept'of'avant) garde' is' still' holding' a' role' in' our' contemporary' art;' 2)' how' is' it' changed' in' relation' to' the' original' utopic' idea' of' the' early' avant) garde' artists' of' the' early' nineties,' as' we' consider' that' a' society' which' doesn't' have' room' for' utopia' is' at' risk' of' it' inner' meaning' and'orientation.'If'avant)garde'is,'in'a'sense,'the'outcome'of'a'sort' of'utopic'thinking'able'to'shape'society'in'its'fears'and'wishes,'as' well' as' its' economical' needs,' what' is' the' shape' of' utopia' in' the' recent'artistic'pieces'of'meaning?'3)'sthe'first'sociological'consider) ations'on'the'concept'of'avant)garde'appear'with'the'book'of'Re) nato'Poggioli,'"the'theory'of'the'avant)garde",'where'the'concept'is' widely' considered' as' a' main' concept' to' read' modern' way' of' art' thinking.' A' second' important' contribution' to' the' concept' is' given' by'Peter'Burger's,'"Theory'of'the'avant)garde",'where'the'concept' of' avant)garde' is' stretched' to' its' meaning' to' a' postmodern' inter) pretation.' However,' if' avantgarde' is' a' way' of' thinking' the' role' of' arts'in'contemporary'society,'we'cannot'avoid'considering'its'rela) tion' to' time,' social' organisation,' bureaucracy' and' extended' con) ception' of' space.' What' is,' therefore,' the' shape' of' contemporary' avant)garde?' Do' we' still' have' one?' In' which' areas?' Does' art' still' have'a'leading'role?'

SOCIOLOGY!OF!THE!ARTS!AFTER!MASSMODERNISM!

Alfred'Smudits

1'

1

Institut' für' Musiksoziologie,' UNIVERSITY' FOR' MUSIC' AND'

PERFORMING'ARTS,'Vienna,'Austria

'

Abstract:' I' will' start' with' the' discussion' of' the' terms' ‚modernity‘,'

‚modernism‘,' and' ‚modernization‘.' In' this' context' several' dimen) sions' of' modernization,' such' as' rationalisation,' individualisation,' differentiation,'domestication'etc.'will'be'identified'as'well'as'sev) eral'stages'of'modernity'(early'modernism,'bourgeois'modernism,' mass'modernism).'

One'oft'he'main'issues'of'any'sociology'oft'he'arts'was'the'modern) ization'of'the'field'oft'the'arts.'Max'Weber'argued'that'rationalisa) tion'in'the'beginning'of'early'modernism'was'the'main'characteris)

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' tic'of'the'specific'developement'of'occidental'art.'The'rise'of'mass' media,'in'particular'of'electronic'media'in'the'beginning'of'the'20th' century'(the'beginning'of'massmodernism)'forced'sociological'the) ories'oft'the'arts'to'integrate'mass'‚media‘'in'their'concepts.'That' means' that' modernization' of' society' goes' along' with' moderniza) tion' of' the' field' oft' he' arts,' and' alltogether' these' developements' ask'for'a'modernization'of'the'sociology'oft'the'arts,'the'develop) ment' of' an' adequate' sociological' concept' oft' the' arts' (objects,' practices,'structures,'functions).'

With'the'emergence'of'digitalisation'a'new'step'of'modernization' takes' place.' Sociology' oft' he' arts' hast' o' face' the' challenges' that' arise'out'of'this'newest'step'of'modernization,'which'means'above' all'to'keep'in'touch'with'culture'sociology'and'general'sociological' theories.'

THE!CONTEMPORARY!SPHERE!OF!ART!FROM!THE!

STANDPOINT!OF!SYSTEMGTHEORETICAL!SOCIOLOGY!

Erkki'Tapio'Sevänen

1'

1

Department'of'the'Humanities,'UNIVERSITY'OF'EASTERN'FINLAND,'

Joensuu,'Finland

'

Abstract:' Theorists' of' postmodernity' and' creative' economics' hold' that'modern'society'consisted'of'differentiated'sub)systems,'each' of' which' had' its' own' function' in' society' and' which' were' largely' autonomous'with'regard'to'each'other.'However,'they'go'on,'today' there' are' no' longer' cleat)cut' boundaries' between' art' and' other' sub)systems,' because' art' is' merging' with' other' sub)systems,' in' particular,'with'economics.'

In'contrast'to'this,'Niklas'Luhmann'stated'that'we'still'live'in'mod) ern' society.' According' to' him,' in' this' society' the' sphere' of' art' is,' like'other'sub)systems,'an'autopoietic'formation,'that'is,'it'has'its' own' principles' of' operation' on' which' its' functioning' is' based' and' which'differentiate'it'from'other'sub)systems.'

Both'of'these'views'are'unsatisfactory.'A'system)theoretical'view'of' the' contemporary' sphere' of' art' should' start' from' the' following' principles.'

(1)'Since'the'1960s,'an'increasing'process'of'de)differentiation'has' been' characteristic' of' society.' On' a' world' scale,' single' national' societies'have'become'more'open'in'relation'to'each'other,'and'in' single'national'societies'different'sub)systems'are'more'interlaced.'

(2)'In'the'1960'and'1970s,'it'was,'besides'cultural'industries,'also' the' avantgarde' movements,' the' movement' of' political' art,' young' popular' artists' and,' in' part,' the' expansive' welfare' state' that' at) tempted' to' widen' art’s' boundaries.' However,' from' the' 1980s' on' the' process' of' de)differentiation' has' mainly' been' based' on' the' demands' of' capitalist' economics' and' neo)liberalist' policy;' they' declare' that' the' whole' of' society' must' function' like' capitalist' en) terprises'do.'

(3)'As'a'result'of'this,'the'system'of'art'has'borrowed'principles'of' operation'from'economics,'and'economics'has'borrowed'principles' of'operation'from'art.'Through'this,'these'systems'have'lost'a'great' deal'of'their'specific'and'autopoietic'way'of'operation.'Consequent) ly,'today'there'is,'in'society,'a/wide/interpenetration/zone/between/

art/and/economics.'This'zone'contains'elements'from'both'of'these' two'systems.'

(4)'Yet,'the'system'of'art'has'not'merged'with'economics.'Certain' genres' of' art' (installations,' performances,' activist' art)' inherently'

55' resist' the' process' of' commodification,' and' Western' states' also' maintain'layers'of'art'that'could'not'survive'in'a'pure'market'com) petition.'

NEW!CULTURAL!POLICIES!IN!EUROPE:!TOWARDS!A!

“SOCIAL”!FUNCTION!OF!CULTURE!AND!ARTS?!

Olivier'Moeschler

'1

,'Olivier'THEVENIN

'2

'

1

UNIVERSITY' OF' LAUSANNE,' Lausanne,' Switzerland,'

OF'HAUTE'ALSACE,'Mulhouse,'France

'

2

UNIVERSITY'

Abstract:'Cultural'policies'and'public'cultural'expenses'have'often,' in' the' 80’s' and' 90’s,' been' legitimated' by' local' and' national' gov) ernment'by'emphasizing'the'economic'contribution'of'culture'and' arts,'either'directly'(as'an'economic'sector'per/se)'or'indirectly'(by' increasing'the'attractiveness'of'a'place'for'tourists'or'enterprises).'

In' the' past' decade,' this' discourse' underwent' a' considerable' change,'in'the'context'of'both'the'economic'crisis'and'the'increas) ing'social'and'ethnic'diversity'of'Europe,'notably'of'its'large'cities.'

In'this'context,'metropolitan'cultural'policies'are'ready'to'point'at' the' “social”' and' integrating' function' of' cultural' institutions' and' events.' Art' is' to' provide' communication,' distraction,' solace,' but' also'social'cement'to'increasingly'hybrid'societies.'There'is'no'will' anymore' to' bring' underprivileged' categories' of' the' population' to' major'works'of'art'considered'as'valuable,'yet'untouchable'goods.'

Today'the'real'need'seems'to'be'to'bring'culture'in'its'various'and' expanding' forms' to' populations' which' are' increasingly' mixed' so) cially,'ethnically'and'nationally'speaking.'

What'appears'to'be'a'new'paradigm'of'cultural'policies'in'Europe' raises' some' questions.' How' do' authorities' argue' and' elaborate' their'discourse'around'this'“social”'function'of'culture?'What'per) manent'features'and'local'characteristics'of'these'discourses'can'be' identified?' Which' audiences' are' precisely' aimed' at,' and' how?'

Which'cultural'and'artistic'production'is'defined'in'these'projects?'

Mainly'based'on'detailed'analyses'of'discourses'and'of'catalogues' of' measures' formulated' by' the' cultural' management' of' cities' in'

France,'Belgium,'Germany'and'Switzerland,'this'paper'aims'to'un) derstand'the'changes'that'public'discourse'on'culture'–'and'culture' itself'–'is'undergoing'in'Europe’s'new'cultural'policies.'

ARTWORKS!AS!SOURCES!OF!NOVEL!EXPERIENCE!

GOODS.!FIVE!EPISODES!OF!"TRANSFORMATION"!

Michael'Hutter

'1,'2*

'

1

Cultural' Sources' of' Newness,' SOCIAL' SCIENCE' RESEARCH' CENTER'

BERLIN,'

2

Department' of' Sociology,' Technische' Universität' Berlin,'

Berlin,'Germany

'

Abstract:'The'products'of'the'creative'industries'trigger'experiences' in' users' through' narratives,' sounds' and' images.' To' achieve' their' effects,' the' creators'use'inventions'originally'realized'in'artworks.'

How'do'such'transformations'happen?'

Based'on'a'model'of'interdependence'between'autonomous'social' subsystems' or' plays' of' value,' five' historical' cases' of' successful' transformation' are' reconstructed:' an' advertising' photograph' by'

Edward'Steichen,'an'animation'film'by'the'Disney'Studio,'an'office' highrise'building'by'Mies'van'der'Rohe,'a'poster'with'an'art'motive' by'Andy'Warhol'and'a'handbag'designed'by'Takashi'Murakami.'The' five'items'span'the'spectrum'of'the'experience'economy.'The'cases' demonstrate'that'the'metaphor'of'transformation'is'inadequate'to'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

56' capture'essential'features'of'the'process,'and'they'suggest'alterna) tive' theoretical' categories' for' understanding' the' relationship' be) tween'artistic'and'commercial'worlds.'

STUDIO!PRACTICE!AND!LARGE!SCALE!PRODUCTION!

Karen'Van'Den'Berg

'1

,'Ursula'Pasero

1'

1

Cultural' Management,' ZEPPELIN' UNIVERSITY,' Friedrichshafen,'

Germany

'

Abstract:'How'do'artists'work'in'the'large'scaled'studio'of'the'21st' century?' The' presentation' is' based' on' an' empirical' research' that' examines' the' working' practice' and' conditions' in' artist’s' studios' with'more'than'10'employees.'Large'scaled'studios'at'the'edge'of'

“the' post)studio' era”' with' up' to' 100' employees' –' like' the' one' of'

Olafur' Eliasson' –have' become' a' more' and' more' widespread' phe) nomenon' since' the' beginning' of' the' 21rst' century.' Our' research' analyses' this' particular' studio' practice' in' order' to' create' findings' about'its'role'models,'the'careers'of'the'employees,'and'the'forms' of' knowledge' production,' which' take' place' in' studios' of' artists,' whose'practice'can'be'seen'as'a'form'new'art'industry.'The'analysis' is'based'on'10'guided'interviews'and'studio'visits.'

The'study'explores'forms'of'organization,'patterns'of'professionali) zation,' and' structures' of' decision)making' in' these' places.' One' of' the'finings'is'that'the'artists'in'question'on'the'one'hand'are'seen' as'market'winners,'but'one'the'other'hand'are'confronted'with'the' suspicion'to'be'more'part'of'the'culture'industries'then'part'of'the' inner'circles'of'the'art'field.'They'therefore'developed'new'forms'of' legitimization' practices.' Insofar' this' new' form' of' studio' practice' cannot'only'be'equated'with'delimitation'into'the'broader'field'of' culture'industries.'Speaking'of'delimitation'loses'sight'of'the'pow) ers'and'efforts,'which'are'immanent'to'the'art'field,'particularly'to' mention'and'mark'these'limits.'Therefore'the'presentation'outlined' here'also'raises'questions'about'attribution'patterns'which'distin) guish'art'and'non)art'in'the'art'field.'

LINKING!CREATIVITY!AND!ART!THROUGH!THE!

MUSEUM!SOUVENIRS!

Chia)Ling'Lai

1'

1

GRADUATE' INSTITUTE' OF' EUROPEAN' CULTURE' AND' TOURISM,'

NATIONAL'TAIWAN'NORMAL'UNIVERSITY,'Taipei,'Taiwan

'

Abstract:' Souvenir' shops' in' the' museum,' not' only' perform' the' commodification'of'museums,'but'also'provide'the'portable'memo) ries' and' reportable' art' for' visitors' when' involving' the' process' of' translating' art' ideas' into' consumable' everyday' aesthetic' designs.'

This' research' analyse' the' museum' practice' in' the' National' Palace'

Museum'(NPM)'in'Taipei'since'2006,'which'invited'Italian'designer' company,'Alessi,'to'render'the'exhibits'embodying'Chinese'heritage' into'design'that'can'be'used'in'the'contemporary'everyday'context.'

Alessi' Designer,' Stefano' Giovannoni,' appropriates' the' image' of'

Emperor'of'Ching'Dynasty'to'create'Mr.'Chin'and'Chin'Family'series' of'dolls'and'apply'them'at'the'design'of'daily'use'utensils,'including' pepper'cans,'can'openers,'egg'cups'and'so'on.'Compared'with'the'

NPM’s' previous' souvenirs' design' that' emphasis' on' the' antique'

Chinese'cultural'elements,'Alessi'series'not'only'create'the'hybrid' design'but'also'bring'the'contemporary'everyday'aesthetic'into'the' old'universe'of'museum'souvenirs.'It'also'stirs'up'public'discussion' on'the'ideology'of'the'design'and'bring'up'the'purchase'attention' for'younger'generations.'

Abstract'Book'

Drawing' upon' theories' of' souvenirs' (Stewart,' 1996;' Lury,' 1997),' aestheticization' of' everyday' life' (Featherstone,' 1994;' Lury' and'

Lash,' 2007),' and' tourism' and' consumption' theory' (Miller,' 1998;'

Urry,' 2002;' Zukin,' 2004),' this' paper' analyses' how' the' souvenirs' perform'and'be'consumed'in'the'museum.'It'will'firstly'analyse'the' politics'of'hybrid'design'in'the'metonymy'used'in'the'Alessi'design' and'the'translating'process'from'historical'art'into'everyday'design.'

Also,' it' will' deal' with' the' politics' of' display' when' souvenirs' per) formed'in'the'museum'shops'and'museum'shop'website.'Finally,'it' will' explore' how' the' souvenirs' are' consumed' by' flâneur' visi) tors/tourists' from' different' background' in' the' museum' shops,' re) lating'to'how'souvenirs'perform'as'the''portable'memory',''report) able'art'objects''and''gifts'as'consumer's'love'.'

AN!ECOLOGY!OF!MUSIC!GENRES:!STUDYING!THE!

DYNAMICS!OF!CLASSIFICATION!SYSTEMS!

Alex'van'Venrooij

1'

1

Department' of' Sociology' and' Anthropology,' UNIVERSITY' OF'

AMSTERDAM,'Amsterdam,'Netherlands

'

Abstract:' This' paper' studies' the' dynamics' of' aesthetic' categories,' i.e.'genres,'in'the'field'of'popular'music:'a'field'that'is'characterized' by' a' turbulent' rise' and' fall' of' large' numbers' of' (sub)genres' and' therefore'offers'an'especially'interesting'case'for'analyzing'dynamic' mechanisms' in' categorical' systems.' Between' 1985' and' 2005,' the' genre'diversity'in'popular'music'increased'substantially,'witnessing' the' rise' and' growth' of,' among' others,' hip)hop,' reggae,' ska,' new' wave,'punk'rock,'grunge,'heavy'metal,'house'music,'techno'(Lopes,'

1992;' Dowd,' 2004).' Some' of' these' genres' had' short' life' cycles,' whereas' others' remained' part' of' the' musical' landscape.' Some' spawned' many' subgenres' –' electronic' dance' music' almost' 300'

(McLeod,'2001)'–'whereas'others'remained'relatively'undifferenti) ated'genres.'Some'genres'were'more'successful'in'some'countries,' but' unsuccessful' in' others.' Electronic' dance' music,' for' example,' became')'by'several'indicators')'one'of'the'most'central'genres'in'

Europe,'but'remained'peripheral'in'the'United'States.'The'question'

I'want'to'address'in'this'paper'is'how'to'explain'these'dynamics?'

More' particularly,' the' aim' of' this' paper' is' to' develop' and' test' a'

‘cultural'ecological’'model'of'the'dynamics'of'genres.'The'ecological' perspective'has'been'successful'in'analyzing'the'dynamics'of'organ) izational' forms' (Carroll' &' Hannan,' 1989;' McPherson' &' Ranger)

Moore,' 1991).' One' of' the' most' interesting' questions,' however,' is' whether'this'perspective'can'be'applied'to'the'dynamic'analysis'of'

‘cultural' forms’' (Kaufman,' 2004;' McPherson,' 2004;' Lieberson,'

2000;' Wuthnow,' 1987;' Abbott,' 2001;' Isaac,' 2009).' This' project' therefore' addresses' the' research' question:' do/ ecological/ mecha=

nisms/explain/the/dynamics/of/popular/music/genres?'

VALUE!CONSTRUCTION:!AMATEUR!JUDGEMENTS!OF!

PHOTOGRAPHY!

Nuné'Nikoghosyan

'1

,'André'Ducret

1'

1

Sociology'Department,'University'of'Geneva,'Geneva,'Switzerland

'

Abstract:'Our'contribution'presents'a'case'study'of'the'construction' of' judgement' on' photography' by' amateurs' as' can' be' analysed' through' written' comments' of' the' members' of' a' photo' sharing' website,' TrekLens.com.' Past' studies' have' dealt' with' the' construc) tion'of'judgement'in'other'areas'of'the'arts,'but'such'a'study'con) cerning' photography,' and' in' its' online' context,' has' been' absent' from' the' literature.' TrekLens' is' a' public' website' with' the' motto'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

“Learning'about'photography'through'the'world”'that'allows'mem) bers,' professionals' and' amateurs' alike,' to' alternate' between' the' roles'of'photographer,'critic'and'audience.'

Our' research' question' is' as' follows:' What' value' systems' do' the' judgements'of'photographs'on'TrekLens'refer'to?'In'sketching'the' value' systems,' our' analysis' of' online' comments' shall' verify' two' hypotheses:'1)'the'value'systems'vary'with'the'genres;'2)'the'val) ues' most' referred' to' are' more' specific' to' photography' itself,' its' techniques' and' aesthetics.' Our' method' is' content' analysis' of' the' arguments'developed'in'the'comments'that'leave'traces'of'a'value' system' as' their' source.' The' final' results' will' be' presented' in' two' tables:'one'crossing'the'photo'genres'with'the'value'systems,'the' other' crossing' the' value' systems' with' the' comment’s' negative' or' positive'orientation.'

Throughout'our'study'of'an'online'space'we'faced'challenges'and' difficulties' that' led' to' methodological' reconsiderations.' First,' con) sidering'the'internet'as'a'field'to'be'observed'and'analysed'means' viewing'it'not'only'as'a'communicative'tool,'but'a'place'for'com) munication.' This' field,' then,' imposes' questions' of' whether' or' not' online' data' should' be' separated' from' the' offline,' whether' they' should'then'be'combined'for'full'applicability'or'can'each'suffice'if' taken' separately?' Moreover,' an' impersonal' relation' via' internet' may'limit'the'researcher’s'analysis'to'textual'aspects'only.'This'has' the'benefit'of'experiencing'the'website'as'its'users'do,'having'only' written'text'as'a'means'of'exchange,'but'also'the'shortcoming'of' lacking' access' to' face)to)face' interviews,' arguably' more' enriching' in' analysing' opinions' and' judgements.' Finally,' important' benefits' and'drawbacks'not'to'be'neglected'result'from'the'specificity'of'the' material,'produced'by'the'subjects'without'the'researcher’s'inter) vention,'voluntarily,'spontaneously'and'in'the'heat'of'the'moment.'

The' presentation' of' our' final' results' will' revisit' these' and' other' questions'of'methodology.'

SOCIOLOGICAL!ASPECTS!ON!ESCHATOLOGICAL!ISSUES!

OF!MACEDONIAN!FRESCO!PAINTING!IN!THE!PERIOD!

BETWEEN!15TH!AND!20TH!CENTURY!

Duska'Matevska

1'

1

Public' administration' and' political' science,' SOUTH' EAST'

EUROPEAN'UNIVERSITY,'Skopje,'Macedonia

'

Abstract:'This'research'is'an'attempt'to'do'sociological'analyses'on' the'issues'of'eschatological'significance'within'Macedonian'Fresco'

Painting,'i.e.'their'social)political'conditionality'and'the'functionali) ty'of'these'issues'in'a'defined'socially'determined'context.'In'fact,' sacral'painting'is'not'just'an'optically'organized'formal'creation,'but' also' an' expression' of' the' attitudes' towards' the' world,' which' de) pend'on'the'society.'

Christian' philosophers' considered' that' the' picture' performs' the' most' important' gnoseological' function' and' also' that' the' human' being'with'his'nature'is'not'in'position'to'lift'himself'on'the'level'of' spiritual' reception' without' certain' meditation.' In' their' creations' they'remarkably'express'the'didactic'significance'of'the'biography.'

From'the'period'of'Turkish'domination'on'the'territory'of'the'Re) public'of'Macedonia,'till'the'modern'times,'the'appearance'of'so) cial'motives'in'the'Macedonian'fresco'painting'is'particularly'inter) esting.'Their'inserting'was'easiest'and'most'acceptable'for'the'con) servative' environment' within' the' issues' of' eschatological' signifi) cance,'Painter’s'trend,'appointed'by'the'Church'and'its'establishers' and'protectors'was'completely'clear:'to'present'all'negative'social'

57' appearances' that' were' popular' in' that' period,' but' also' related' to' certain'territory,'what'finally'had'to'influence'the'believers'in'order' to' decrease' moral' norms.' This' mainly' refers' to' the' convinced' be) lievers'who'implicitly'accept'all'dogmas'that'affirm'Orthodox'Chris) tian'religion.'A'conclusion'that'can'derive'from'the'elaborated'issue' is'that'sacral'painting'had'not'the'effect'and'influence'that'it'used' to'have'in'the'past.'This'is'due'to'the'fact'that'today'the'messages' are'mainly'communicated'through'the'mass'media,'what'is'radical' change'of'the'communication'form.'The'creations'belonging'to'the' sphere' of' painting' are' more' and' more' displaced' from' individuals’' lives,'as'a'result'of'mass'media'expansion.'Besides,'sacral'painting' still'has'its'influence'in'the'rural'environments,'where'mass'media' do'not'have'so'a'great'intensity.'Rural'population'lives'in'a'closed' world,'where'pictures'located'in'their'sacral'objects'actually'influ) ence'on'their'spiritual'lives.'

Key'words:'eschatology;'fresco'painting;'moral'norms'

THE!ART!OF!MAKING!MUSICAL!INSTRUMENTS:!WHY!

ONLY!YAMAHA!COULD!BE!A!BIG!COMPANY?!

Yuko'Oki

'1

,'Hideo'Yamada

'2

'

1

KYOTO' SANGYO' UNIVERSITY,' Kyoto,'

Japan

'

2

Waseda' University,' Tokyo,'

Abstract:'This'article'focuses'on'a'study'of'product'architecture'of' musical' instruments.' In' the' musical' instrument' industry,' only'

Yamaha'became'a'big'company'in'the'world.'Analyzing'case'studies' of' manufacturing' the' piano,' violin' and' saxophone,' we' discuss' the' mass'manufacturing'system'for'integral'architectural'products.'

Yamaha'targeted'the'mid)priced'segment'rather'than'the'high)end' one.' Gaining' such' customers,' however,' required' a' certain' quality' level'of'musical'instruments'even'under'mass)production.'The'case' study'shows'how'the'company'has'promoted'introducing'the'state) of)the)art'technology'and'the'automation'to'avoid'manual'variabil) ity,'and'outsourcing'module'components'while'ensuring'the'“inte) gration”' which' is' the' key' for' manufacturing' instruments.' We' demonstrate' that' the' company' enables' to' mass)produce' instru) ments'by'committing'to'in)house'manufacturing'for'finished'prod) ucts'with'the'integration'as'well'as'its'supporting'mechanization.'

On'the'other'hand,'although'the'company'has'stood'on'a'par'with'a' leading' company' in' the' category' of' the' woodwind' and' the' brass' which'could'be'easily'standardized,'it'does'not'still'get'reputation' from'high)end'segment'of'piano'and'violin'which'are'made'of'wood' under' the' “ultimate' integration.”' Instruments' demand' “connois) seurs”'to'judge'good'wood'for'processing'as'well'as'unquantifiable'

“sound”' and' “sonance,”' thus' the' competition' of' manufacturing' instruments'has'been'in'the'“Invisible'Dimension”'(Kusunoki,'2006).'

This' characteristic' makes' customers' keep' traditional' brand' belief,' resulting'in'a'long'time'to'evaluate'a'new'comer.'

DECOUPLING!THE!BOURDIEUAN!DISTINCTION!

STRUCTURE:!POPULARIZATION!OF!HIGH!CULTURE!

AND!MIDDLEGCLASS!OMNIVORE!IN!KOREA!

Dongyoub'Shin

'1

,'Kangsan'Lee

'1

,'Margeum'Kim

1'

1

YONSEI'UNIVERSITY,'Seoul,'Korea,'Republic'Of

'

Abstract:'This'paper'concerns'how'the'recent'popularization'of'high' culture' has' brought' about' the' decoupling' between' cultural' taste' and' class' in' the' structure' of' Bourdieuan' distinction.' In' his' famed'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

58' framework' of' class' distinction' based' on' cultural' capital,' Bourdieu' underlined' the' tight' coupling' between' class' and' cultural' taste,' which' serves' as' a' crucial' basis' of' the' distinction' among' different' classes.' Bourdieu' and' his' followers,' such' as' Peterson' and' Kern,' further'pointed'out'that'members'of'upper'class'tend'to'be'cultural' omnivore' in' their' taste,' and,' thus,' their' cultural' preference' often' ranges'over'a'variety'of'different'artistic'genres.'

We' argue' that' the' coupling' between' class' and' cultural' taste' has' been' significantly' loosened' in' recent' years' due' primarily' to' the' popularization'of'high'culture.'With'the'world)wide'institutionaliza) tion' of' neo)liberalist' ideology' in' the' late' 20 th

' century,' art' worlds' have'also'come'to'be'subjected'to'the'pressure'toward'the'hege) monic'institutional'logics'of'economic'efficiency'and'financial'self) sufficiency.'As'a'result,'producers'of'high'culture'began'to'expand' their'target'audience'to'middle)class'masses'in'an'effort'to'gener) ate'financial'resources'efficiently'from'high'culture'the'enjoyment' of'which'used'to'be'monopolized'by'members'of'upper'class.'For' instance' in' korea,' producers' of' high' culture' have' made' various' attempts' to' achieve' financial' self)sufficiency' through' ticket' sales' without'relying'on'government'funds'or'public'sponsorship'by'low) ering'entry'barrier'to'high'culture.'

However,'the'popularization'of'high'culture'has'inflicted'unintend) ed' disruption' on' the' Bourdieuan' distinction' structure.' Bestowed' with'an'access'to'diverse'high)culture'genres,'members'of'middle' class'have'come'to'accumulate'a'considerable'level'of'cultural'capi) tal' over' a' broad' range' of' high)culture' genres' by' aggressively' ap) propriating'the'new'opportunity'structure.'As'a'consequence,'the' proportion'of'cultural'omnivore'among'member'of'middle'class'has' rapidly'increased.'On'the'other'hand,'members'of'upper'class'who' have' lost' their' cultural' basis' of' distinction' began' to' explore' new' ways' to' differentiate' their' class' status' from' the' newly' emerging' middle)class'cultural'omnivores'in'various'ways.'In'this'regard,'the' empirical' part' of' this' paper' deals' with' the' emergence' of' middle) class'cultural'omnivore'and'the'responses'of'upper)class'members' to'the'popularization'of'high'culture'in'Korea.'

(RE)!DRAWING!A!CULTURAL!MAP!OF!SERBIA!

Predrag'Cveticanin

'1

,'Jasmina'Nedeljkovic

'1

,'Nemanja'Krstic

1'

1

CENTRE' FOR' EMPIRICAL' CULTURAL' STUDIES' OF' SE' EUROPE,' Nis,'

Serbia

'

Abstract:'Our'paper'is'based'on'data'collected'in'the'course'of'the' survays' “Cultural' Needs,' Habits' and' Taste' of' Citizens' of' Serbia”' undertaken'in'2005'within'a'CCI'project'of'the'same'name'(national' proportional'probability'sample,'1364'respondents);'“Cultural'Prac) tices' of' Citizens' of' Serbia”' of' the' Centre' for' the' Study' of' Cultural'

Development'from'2010'(national'proportional'probability'sample,'

1490'respondents);'and'“Social'and'Cultural'Capital'in'Serbia”'from'

2010'of'the'Centre'for'Empirical'Cultural'Studies'of'South)East'Eu) rope'realized'within'the'Regional'Research'Promotion'Programme'

(telephone' survey,' national' proportional' probability' sample,' 970' respondents)'in'which'authors'of'this'paper'have'participated.'

In'the'analysis'of'these'data'we'used'the'“reciprocal'approach”'in' the'application'of'Multiple'Correspondence'Analysis'(MCA)'as'out) lined' in' Lebart' et' al.' (1984).' First,' based' on' data' on' respondents’' cultural' needs,' cultural' habits,' tastes,' cultural' knowledge' and' cul) tural'equipment'and'possessions,'we're)constructed'a'field'of'cul) tural' practices' in' Serbia.' Next' we' superimposed' the' socio) demographic' variables' (education,' age,' income,' wealth,' gender,' place'of'residence,'region'of'residence)'as'passive'variables'to'see'

Abstract'Book' how' they' relate' to' cultural' practices' constructed' in' the' manner' described'above.'In'the'central'part'of'this'article'we'compare'the' results'obtained'based'on'the'data'from'all'three'studies'undertak) en'in'Serbia'cited'above'(in'2005'and'2010),'while'the'final'section' of'the'paper'compares'our'results'with'the'results'of'similar'studies' in' Great' Britain' [Bennett' at' al,' 2009],' Finland' [Kahma' and' Toikka,'

2009]'and'Flanders'[Roose,'van'Eijck'&'Lievens,'2010].'

RESEARCH!THAT!IDENTIFIED!VULNERABLE!MINORITIES!

IN!GEORGIA,!ISOLATED!FROM!THE!COUNTRY'S!SOCIAL!

LIFE!TO!DIFFERENT!EXTENT.!THE!SOCIOLOGY!OF!THE!

ART!AND!CULTURE!OF!ETHNIC/RELIGIOUS!MINORITIES!

OF!GEORGIA!IN!TURBULENT!TIMES,CAN!ART!HELP!

HEAL!SOCIAL!RIFTS!WHICH!

Marine'Solomonishvili

'1

,'Marine'Tumanishvili

'2

'

1

Center' of,'

2

Intercultural' Dialogue,' INTERNATIONAL' FOUNDATION'

LEA&COUNCILOFJEWISH'WOMEN,'Tbilisi,'Georgia

'

Abstract:' The' sociology' of' the' Art' and' Culture' of' ethnic/religious' minorities' of' Georgia' in' Turbulent' Times.' Contents,' production,' mediation'and'reception'of'the'arts'influence,'manipulate'and'de) termine' our' contemporary' life' in' many' ways,' and' in' turn' these' social'structures'and'processes'also'have'an'impact'on'the'arts.We' will'put'an'emphasis'on'those'issues'that'are'of'sociological'interest' within'arts'worlds'but'also'relate'to'those'powerful'developments' in' economy,' ecology' and' ethic' contexts' on' the' macro' level' that' influence,'manipulate'or'determine'production,'content'and'forms,' distribution' and' reception' of' the' arts' in' Georgia' and' Europe,Also' we'will'carry'out'the'comparative'analysis.'

In' Georgia' about' 1/3' population' ethnic/religious' minorities,' we' investigated'influence'of'different'cultures'on'development'of'crea) tive' potential' of' artists' different' ethnic/religious' minori) ties.Research' that' identified' vulnerable' minorities' in' Georgia,' iso) lated' from' the' country's' social' life' to' different' extent.Inspiration' during'these'turbulent'times'can'art'help'heal'social'rifts'which'may' arise'as'result.'gender'dimensions'implications'in'Turbulent'Times' and'etc.'

ARTFUL!AFFORDANCES!IN!LEADERSHIP!AND!

MANAGEMENT!DEVELOPMENT:!INSPIRATION!IN!

TURBULENT!TIMES!

Ian'Damon'Sutherland

1'

1

POSTGRADUATE'STUDIES,'IEDC)BLED'SCHOOL'OF'MANAGEMENT,'

Bled,'Slovenia

'

Abstract:'The'world'is'in'crisis'and'the'arts'are'increasingly'called' into'service'to'save'it.'To'those'involved'in'business'and'exeuctive' education'it'has'become'clear'rationally'based,'instrumental,'out) come' driven' management' and' leadership' development' does' not' prepare' individuals' for' the' dynamic' challenges' they' face.' In' fact,' they'are'part'of'the'problem'as'they'do'not'cultivate'holistic,'social) ly' responsible' views' of' the' world' and' leadership/management' practice.' This' paper' examines' the' growing' position' of' arts)based' methods'in'this'activity.'

To' develop' responsible' views' of' systems' of' problems' which' go' beyond' the' individual,' organisation,' sector,' etc.' –' leaders' must' develop' new' ways' of' sensing' and' acting.' The' challenge' is' to' re)

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' imagine' the' complex' realities' faced' and' re)envision' how' to' ap) proach'them.'Enter'the'world'of'the'plastic'and'performative'arts.'

Following' a' grounded' theory' approach' the' research' conducted' studied' reflection' papers' by' 24' Executive' MBA' participants' in' a' choral' conducting' workshop.' By' combining' emergent' trends' from' this'data'with'arts)based'management'literature'this'paper'exam) ines' the' art)mediated' affordances' of' the' music' and' arts' in' action' methods' employed.' The' results' describe' how' art)based' methods'

(experiential'learning'through'storytelling,'drama/theatre,'painting,' music,'crafts,'etc.)'develop'unique'affordance'frameworks'of'space,' time' and' structure' to' afford' presentational,' experiential' knowing' leading'to'more'dynamic,'creative,'socially'sensitive'modes'of'man) agement'and'leadership'action.'

CITY!INFORMATION!AS!CULTURAL!PHENOMENA!

PERCEPTION!ANALYSIS!

Miroslava'Sergeevna'Tsapko

1'

1 department'of'political'sociology,'RUSSIAN'STATE'UNIVERSITY'FOR'

THE'HUMANITIES,'Moscow,'Russian'Federation

'

Abstract:'Moscow'is'overloaded'with'outdoor'advertisement'that’s' why' analysis' of' advertising' campaigns' efficiency' becomes' an' ex) tremely' actual' matter.' We' use' tracking' to' solve' a' lot' of' research' tasks,'such'as'determination'of'the'population'percentage'attract) ed' by' any' advertisement,' correlation' between' advertising' images' kept'in'mind'and'number'of'brands'or'company'names'recognized,' poster'attractiveness'for'target'groups'of'any'cultural'organization,' etc.' In' spite' of' considerable' measurements,' regular' sociological' surveys' in' this' sphere' were' only' conducted' in' England,' Australia' and'Switzerland.'

We'have'experience'monthly'tracking'surveys'in'the'outdoor'advis) ing'market'in'Russia./Espar/Analyst'research/agency'has'conducted' the'first'monthly'tracking'surveys'in'the'outdoor'advising'market'in'

Russia.'The'objects'of'its'research'are'advertising'posters'within'the' territory' of' Moscow' and' the' matters' are' cultural' events,' cinemas' and'new'films.'

The' goal' of' the' research' is' to' determine' an' efficiency' rate' of' an' outdoor' advertising' campaign.' Efficiency' means' here' the' rate' of' poster' penetration' and' brand' recognition.' This' goal' may' be' achieved'in'case'if'the'main'task'of'measuring'general'parameter' for'evaluation'of'each'outdoor'advertising'campaign’s'efficiency'is' resolved.'

The'following'factors'shall'be'considered'in'the'analysis'of'the'data' obtained:'

•'number,'type'and'location'of'advertising'media;'

•'duration'of'the'adverting'campaign;'

•'other'media'used'for'advertising'the'brand'and'their'correlation' with'the'poster'creative'solution;'

•'creative'solution;'

•'advertised'product'category.'

From'March'2001'up'to'the'present'time,'150'research'waves'have' been'conducted.'

One'of'the'most'important'results'of'tracking'campaigns'is'an'op) portunity'to'form'a'limited'indicator'basis'for'each'group'of'cultural' organisms,'which'would'allow'to'compare'the'campaigns'and'bring'

59' their' characteristics' into' correlation' with' average' indicators' for' different'social'groups'or'formats'used.'Such'surveys'are'aimed'at' renewal'the'empirical'basis'of'social'sciences,'which'study'the'in) fluence'of'different'format'advertising'images'of'human'conscious) ness'that'is'extremely'important'when'the'so'called'visual'culture'is' developed.'

The' city' information' became' habitual' making' daily' occurrence' of' cities.' Features' of' perception' of' the' city' information' became' an' actual'problem'in'sphere'sociological'practice.'

TURKISH!THEATRE:!CHANGE!AND!CONFIGURATION!OF!

A!CREATIVE!INDUSTRY!THROUGH!INSTITUTIONAL!

LOGICS!

Ozge'Can

1'

1

Faculty' of' Economics' and' Administrative' Sciences,' YASAR'

UNIVERSITY,'Izmir,'Turkey

'

Abstract:'Researchers'are'interested'in'the'evolution'and'structure' of'organization'groups,'as'organizational'species,'and'how'they'are' linked'to'socio)cultural'and'institutional'frames'at'societal'level.'Yet' there'is'lack'of'a'clear'understanding'of'the'effect'of'such'historical' and' cultural' contingency' in' organizational' identities' and' resulting' industry'classifications.'It'is'an'interesting'question'to'ask'how'insti=

tutional/ logics' as' societal' belief' systems' might' inform' individual' organizations'to'produce'their'identities'and'to'locate'themselves' in'the'industry'space.'My'study'seeks'to'unravel'both'the'transfor) mation' of' a' creative' industry' itself' and' macro' institutional' logics' influencing'it.'

Turkish' theatre' field' has' undergone' important' transformations' during'its'development'since'the'establishment'of'modern'Turkey.'

Contradictory' macro' logics' emerged' in' different' time' points' and' have'been'sustained'unresolved'across'decades'and'tend'to'inform' the'value'and'function'of'theatre.'Within'this'pluralism,'search'for'a' distinct'identity'has'always'been'considered'as'the'central'concern' of'Turkish'theatre,'questioning'the'meaning'and'role'of'theatre'in'a' late)developing' country' like' Turkey.' This' rather' complex' and' con) flicting' institutional' influence' has' been' reflected' on' how' theatre' companies'define'themselves'and'present'their'creative'outputs.'

For'empirical'analysis,'I'use'longitudinal'archival'data'entailing'the' listing'of'the'plays'performed'by'each'active'professional'theatre'in'

Turkey' between' 1923' and' 1999,' as' manifestations' of' their' identi) ties.' 2624' separate' plays' were' coded' with' 21' dichotomous' varia) bles.'With'a'Cluster'Analysis'performed,'I'determined'the'clusters' of' play' profiles' in' the' field' for' three' different' time' periods' and' compared'them.'

Cluster'solutions'points'that'while'there'are'identity'profiles'which' remain'intact'(or'undergo'only'some'slight'changes)'along'different' periods' regardless' of' changing' social' understandings,' some' new' profiles' do' appear' in' each' coming' period.' Overall,' this' indicates' that'there'is'a'strong'relationship'between'the'plays'theatre'com) panies' choose' to' perform' and' the' dominant' logic(s)' of' the' time.'

Altering'logics'imprint'the'maps'of'configuration'and'change'in'this' creative'industry'by'making'certain'ideological'pieces'and'resources' available'for'field'members.'Such'mapping'of'industry'configuration' and'how'it'changes'can'contribute'to'the'future'discussions'on'the' formation'of'fields.'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

60'

CAN!THE!COMPREHENSIVE!SOCIAL!SIGNALS!

EMBEDDED!IN!CORPORATE!ART!COLLECTIONS!AND!

HEADQUARTERS!ARCHITECTURE!MAKE!BASIS!FOR!

NEW!THEORIES!WITHIN!THE!SOCIOLOGY!OF!ART!AND!

CULTURE?!

Målfrid'Irene'Hagen

1'

1

School' of' Business' and' Social' Science,' BUSKERUD' UNIVERSITY'

COLLEGE,'Drammen,'Norway

'

Abstract:'Based'on'my'PhD)project'where'I'examine'corporate'art' collections' and' headquarters' architecture' in' Norway,' USA,' Japan' and'France,'I'present'findings'and'suggestions'on'how'the'findings' and' aspects' that' are' enlightened' in' the' study' can' make' basis' for' new'theories.'By'analyzing'visual'observations,'photographs,'inter) views,'conversations,'corporate'publications,'websites'and'relevant' theory'within'sociology'and'art'history,'I'look'at'how'art'collections' and'the'architecture'of'headquarters'can'reflect'the'corporate'cul) ture' and' the' culture' in' the' time' period' and' society' in' which' they' are'founded,'and'the'multiple'social'signals'that'are'embedded'in' corporate' art' and' architecture.' In' the' project' I' have' analyzed' 12' corporate'collections'and'12'headquarters,'and'made'comparative' analysis' of' the' included' cases.' By' analyzing' corporate' collections' and'the'architecture'of'headquarters'established'in'different'times' and' cultures,' one' can' explore' the' comprehensive' social' signals' embedded' in' corporate' collections' and' the' architecture' of' head) quarters,'which'are'often'more'multiple'facetted'than'we'observe' at'the'first'glance.'The'interesting'is'how'all'these'social'signals'can' make'way'for'theories'on'issues'such'as;'the'value'of'symbols,'the' problem'of'gender,'conceptions'and'mantras'on'creativity'and'in) novation,'transparency'in'organizations'and'societies,'the'problem' of' norms' and' moral,' territorial' identity,' social' and' environmental' concern,' cultural' capital' and' the' money' economy' of' corporations' and'societies.'

FROM!PROTEST!TO!PROJECT?!THE!STATE!OF!ARTISTIC!

CRITIQUE!IN!NETWORK!CAPITALISM.!

Sighard'Neckel

'1

,'Monica'Titton

1'

1

DEPARTMENT' OF' SOCIOLOGY,' UNIVERSITY' OF' VIENNA,' VIENNA,'

Austria

'

Abstract:'“Life'with'Pop')'Demonstration'for'Capitalist'Realism”'was' the'title'of'an'art'happening'performed'in'October'1963'by,'among' others,' Gerhard' Richter' and' Sigmar' Polke,' in' a' furniture' store' in'

Düsseldorf.'The'art'happening'was'meant'to'express'an'ironic'dis) tance'towards'the'incipient'consumer'capitalism'and'to'unmask'the' habits'and'clichés'of'the'sixties.'

The'performance'in'Düsseldorf'represents'an'aesthetic'divergence' from'modern'society,'as'it'had'been'formulated'time'and'again'in' the' history' of' capitalism' since' Romanticism.' Also' today,' artistic' critique' articulates' itself' in' diverse' manners,' increasingly' against' the'art'world'itself.'In'their'work'about'the'“New'Spirit'of'Capital) ism”,' Luc' Boltanski' and' Ève' Chiapello' thoroughly' investigate' the' phenomenon' of' artistic' criticism' in' this' vein.' They' interrogate' in' which' ways' the' artistic' critique' contributed' to' the' justification' of' capitalism'itself.'

In'our'paper'we'want'to'answer'the'question'along'the'analysis'of' the' mentioned' art' happening' “Life' with' Pop”.' It' can' be' demon) strated' that' the' measures' of' critical' activities' formulated' in' 1963'

Abstract'Book' had'long'since'been'integrated'in'the'present'network'capitalism.'

Values' like' autonomy,' creativity,' self)realization,' individuality,' and' flexibility' are' part' of' the' new' capitalism’s' value' system' and' have' been' transformed' into' expectations' that' capitalism' itself' aims' at' the' individuals.' Thus' we' question' which' reflexive' potential' can' today'still'be'attributed'to'the'artistic'critique.'Particularly'we'want' to' investigate' whether' elements' of' artistic' critique' on' network' capitalism'still'exist'that'withdraw'from'integration'of'protest.'

INTERACTION!ART?!HOW!„ACTING!TOGETHER“!MAY!

HAVE!BECOME!AN!ART!FORM!

Dagmar'Danko

1'

1

Sociology,'Albert)Ludwigs)Universität'Freiburg,'Freiburg,'Germany

'

Abstract:' In' my' presentation,' I' would' like' to' speak' about' what' I' want' to' call' "Interaction' Art".' During' the' past' decades,' there' has' been'a'predominant'focus'on'the'notion'of'"performance"'in'spe) cific' forms' of' contemporary' art.' Happenings,' body' art' etc.' were' analysed'from'this'perspective'which'goes'with'particular'theoreti) cal' concepts.' I' want' to' propose' to' look' at' these' art' forms' anew,' from' a' sociological' vista' which' puts' the' emphasis' on' interaction.'

Many'well)known'artworks'–'or'rather'art'projects'–'are'constitut) ed'by'the'concerted'action'of'several'people'which'may'or'may'not' include'the'artist.'This'observation'goes'beyond'Howard'S.'Becker’s' idea'of'artworks'as'a'result'of'collective'action,'because'I'am'not' referring'to'the'impact'of'intermediaries'on'the'artwork.'Rather,'I' want' to' concentrate' my' attention' on' artworks' which' are' not' just' produced'by'the'interaction'of'several'people,'but'whose'subject'is' interaction.'This'might'help'gain'a'new'understanding'of'works'of' art'by'artists'such'as'Sophie'Calle,'Ai'Weiwei,'Francis'Alÿs'and'many' more.'

BODY!PIERCING!AND!INSURGENCY:!THE!AESTHETIC!

POLITICAL!EXPERIENCE!

Lisiunia'A.'Romanienko

1'

1

Sociology,'WROCLAW'UNIVERSITY,'Wroclaw,'Poland

'

Abstract:! Piercing' and' other' forms' of' body' modification' among' musicians,' artists,' and' other' aesthetic' bohemians' signifies' mem) bership' in' diverse' oppositional' political' constituencies' that' resist,' undermine,'or'are'otherwise'immune'to'inauthentic'principles'and' practices'needed'to'actively'participate'in'an'exploitative'one'world' systemic' economy.' The' analysis' will' demonstrate' that' continued' alienation'and'disenfranchisement'of'creatively'embodied,'increas) ingly'mobile,'discursively'aesthetic,'migrating'citizens'has'led'to'the' proliferation' of' alternative' methods' of' authenticating' expression' through' the' musical,' visual,' and' performing' arts.' These' resistant' forms'of'cultural'capital'formalized'through'the'arts'upon'and'be) yond' the' tactile' limits' of' the' body' are' fundamental' in' developing' the' fortitude' and' resilience' necessary' to' resist' simultaneous' gov) ernment)exacerbated' social)political)ecological' catastrophes.' Or) ganized'and'disorganized'outrage'creatively'deploying'the'embod) ied' arts' are' an' important' element' in' postmaterial' contestation' efforts,' which' are' becoming' a' powerful' vehicle' to' articulate' out) rage'and'usurp'existing'hegemonic'power'arrangements'in'unprec) edented' ways.' Through' music,' performance,' and' related' creative' activism,'artists'in'bohemian'communities'around'the'world'have,' over' time,' constructed' an' ideologically' diverse' but' powerfully' re) sistant'strategic'network'of'contemporary'communities'of'migrato) ry'defiance;'unified'and'driven'by'the'desire'to'construct'their'own'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' sexual,' political,' aesthetic,' and' organic' utopia' wherever' they' find' themselves.'Intentional'limitations'of'state'power'(Touraine,'1995),' radical' political' agency' (Russinow,' 1998),' the' aesthetic' rise' of' op) positional'transcripts'in'marginalized'culture'(Rose,'1994),'the'role' of'the'arts'in'resisting'totalitarian'regime'(Hamersky,'2002),'and'the' recovery'of'radical'aesthetic'human'agency'(Varela,'1999)'are'some' of'the'aesthetic'and'political'factors'discussed'that'are'contributing' to'the'widespread'resurgence'of'anarchist'thought'and'embodied' outrage' in' contemporary' politics' to' authenticate' utopian' projects' for' sensual,' aesthetic,' and' political' sabotage' of' the' established' world'order.'

IMPROVISING!A!CAREER!IN!MUSIC:!AN!EVALUATION!

OF!THE!REFLEXIVE!WORKER!ARTIST!MODEL!IN!

RECURRING!UNCERTAIN!TIMES!

Allan'James'Sutherland

1'

1

KYUSHU'UNIVERSITY'OF'NURSING'AND'SOCIAL'WELFARE,'Tamana,'

Japan

'

Abstract:'The'concept'reflexivity'has'featured'prominently'in'theo) retical'and'empirical'sociological'work'on'employment,'the'arts'and' culture,'and'is'sometimes'said'to'be'an'entailed'condition'for'indi) viduals'acting'within'increasingly'mobile,'especially'neo)liberal'con) temporary'societies'(e.g.,'Adorno,'Beck,'Bauman,'Bourdieu,'DeNo) ra,' Lash).' However,' there' is' commonly' an' unresolved' tension' be) tween'reflexivity'as'a'hermeneutics'of'suspicion,'and'reflexivity'in' determining'daily'and'irregular'activities,'and'future'practices.'Im) provising'musicians'are'found'among'the'growing'number'of'self) employed'workers,'also'in'the'expanding'arts,'cultural'employment' sectors'within'contemporary'economies.'With'few'exceptions,'im) provising' musicians’' performance' incomes' are' volatile,' partly' as' they' have' historically' depended' upon' venues' such' as' night' clubs,' bars,'restaurants,'etc.,'prone'to'instability'due'to'operating'within' the' highly' competitive' entertainment' sector,' subject' to' amplified' demand'fluctuations'within'economic'cycles'because'dependent'on' discretionary' expenditures.' They' have' intermittently' appealed' to' major'recording'companies,'who'have'ambitiously'signed'and'sub) sequently' dropped' improvising' musicians' from' their' rosters' in' re) sponse' to' low' sales,' inability' to' know' how' to' package' the' musi) cians,'and'seeking'higher'short)term'returns.'This'paper'examines' case'studies'of'musicians’'responses'to'the'difficulty'of'sustaining'a' career' in' repetitively' variable' contexts,' especially' to' advancing' technologies,'seeking'to'assess'the'degree'each'form'of'reflexivity' manifests'in'their'musical'and'career'strategies,'and'explains'their' creative' trajectories.' This' is' done' with' specific' reference' to' the' career' strategies,' musics,' writings' and' interviews' of' Miles' Davis,'

Dave' Douglas,' Brad' Mehldau,' Evan' Parker,' Tim' Berne,' Matthew'

Shipp,' and' Satoko' Fujii,' examining' their' responses' to' turbulent' times.'

Keywords:'Career,'improvisation,'reflexivity,'network'links'

A!VOCATION!FOR!A!MIDDLEGBROW!ART?!SOCIAL!

TRAJECTORIES!TOWARDS!PHOTOGRAPHY!SCHOOL!

Lisa'Marx

1'

1

UNIVERSITE'DE'GENEVE,'Geneva,'Switzerland

'

Abstract:' Photography' is' both' a' widely' practiced' hobby,' a' way' of' recording'social'life,'and'an'art'form,'at'least'to'some'extent.'This' tension'leads'Bourdieu'to'call'it'a'“middle)brow'art”.'Photography’s'

61' status'as'an'art,'and'as'a'profession,'is'still'questioned'despite'its' growing' institutionalization,' and' needs' to' be' continually' reaf) firmed.' This' relative' uncertainty' is' not' without' incidence' on' the' social'recruitment'of'photography'and'photography'schools.'

The' choice' to' pursue' a' career' in' the' arts' is' often' explained' by' «' vocation'»,'a'higher'calling,'not'unlike'the'one'invoked'for'religion.'

However,'the'conditions'of'possibility'for'this'calling'are'located'in' social'space'and'can'be'investigated.'This'paper'will'draw'on'field) work' carried' out' for' my' master’s' thesis' at' a' local' photography' school,'combining'statistical'analysis'of'data'concerning'all'former' students'and'in)depth'interviews'with'current'students,'in'order'to' pinpoint'the'social'conditions'and'the'different'trajectories'leading' students'to'photography'school.'

Two'different'groups'of'students,'with'different'social'trajectories' and' representations' of' photography,' can' be' identified.' A' first' group,'to'which'most'students'belong,'contains'offspring'of'upper)' and' middle)class' families.' Struggling' to' maintain' their' status,' not' having' been' able' to' attain' their' parents’' level' of' education,' they' are'very'technically'inclined.'Photography'school'is'a'“discipline'of' refuge”,' a' gateway' to' a' profession' allowing' them' to' maintain' an' uncertainty'concerning'their'social'status,'because'it'is'incommen) surable'with'their'origins.'A'second,'smaller'group'of'students'hail' from' working)class' families.' They' are' better' students' than' their' peers' and' consider' photography' to' be' art.' Photography' school' is' their'gateway'into'the'arts'scene,'permitting'social'ascension'out) side'of'the'traditional'paths'without'requiring'them'to'break'with' their'origins.'

Going'to'photography'school'does'not'equal'becoming'a'photogra) pher:'one'can'be'a'photographer'without'following'this'path,'and' not'all'graduates'will'end'up'working'in'photography.'My'research' shows'the'impact'of'the'relatively'unstable'position'of'photography' among'the'arts,'as'it'attracts'students'for'whom'it'provides'a'way' of' hiding' their' falling' social' trajectories' or' for' accessing' the' arts' through'a'door'yet'to'be'fully'legitimated.'

LE!«!BON!TRAVAIL!»!AUX!FRONTIÈRES!DES!MONDES!

DE!L'ART!:!LE!RAPPORT!AU!TRAVAIL!ET!À!L'EMPLOI!

DES!CÉRAMISTES!ET!ARTISANS!CRÉATEURS!

Marc'Perrenoud

'1

,'Flora'Bajard

'2

'

1

UNIVERSITE' DE' LAUSANNE,' Lausanne,' Switzerland,'

Pierre'Mendès'France,'Grenoble,'France

'

2

Université'

Abstract:/ Nous' proposons' ici' d’exposer' les' principaux' résultats' d’une' enquête' engagée' avec' le' DEPS' (Ministère' de' la' Culture' en'

France),' portant' sur' la' qualité' de' l’emploi' dans' les' métiers' artis) tiques.'Dans'une'démarche'comparatiste,'nous'avons'mis'en'regard' des' activités' professionnelles' et' des' populations' aux' marges' des' mondes'l’art,'renvoyant'à'des'identités'au'travail'et'à'des'inscrip) tions' (symboliques' et' économiques)' "entre' l'art' et' le' métier".' En' l’occurrence,' cette' communication' s’ancrera' autour' de' deux' des' terrains' enquêtés' :' les' céramistes' et' les' "artisans' créateurs"' (on' verra'que'l'expression'mérite'd'être'discutée).'

Ces' métiers' indépendants' mettent' en' jeu' une' économie' symbol) ique' dont' les' éléments' ne' recoupent' que' très' imparfaitement' les' indicateurs' objectifs' de' la' qualité' de' l'emploi' )' construits' essen) tiellement'pour'le'modèle'du'salariat,'et'ne'sont'pas'non'plus'en) tièrement' justiciables' du' modèle' mengerien' d'analyse' socio)

économique'du'travail'artistique')'se'préoccupant'peu'de'la'subjec) tivité' du' travailleur,' de' sa' satisfaction,' du' sens' qu'il' donne' à' son'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

62' activité.' Au)delà' des' spécificités' du' travail' artistique,' nous' avons' donc' pris' en' compte' le' "rapport' au' travail"' dans' son' sens' le' plus' anthropologique,' autant' que' le' "rapport' à' l'emploi".' Ainsi,' nous' montrerons'que'la'représentation'd’un'«'bon'travail'»'repose'aussi' bien'sur'le'processus'(l’activité'de'travail)'que'le'résultat'(les'objets' et'oeuvres'fabriqués).'En'ce'sens,'la'qualité'et'la'valeur'éthique'et' axiologique' du' travail,' sa' valeur' marchande,' la' trajectoire' bi) ographique' (travail' et' hors' travail),' ou' encore' les' processus' d’inscription' professionnelle' individuelle' (professionnalité)' et' col) lective' (professionnalisation)' constituent' autant' d’éléments' qui' permettent'de'comprendre'le'sens'que'les'acteurs'donnent'à'leur' rapport'à'l'emploi.'

Après' un' an' d’enquête' en' France,' nous' avons' au' final' pu' rap) procher' de' manière' peut)être' inattendue' les' points' de' vue' de' la' théorie' critique' (reconnaissance,' statut' émancipateur' du' travail' social)'et'ceux'de'la'tradition'interactionniste,'pour'mettre'en'avant' cette'dimension'capitale'des'résultats'de'l'enquête':'la'qualité'des' emplois' dans' les' espaces' professionnels' enquêtés' semble' se' con) struire'dans'le'temps'et'l'espace'sur'le'rapport'à'autrui'(publics'et' pairs).'

SHAPING!VIRTUOSO:!‘SCHOOLED’!ROCK!MUSIC!IN!

TAIWAN!

Chi)Chung'Wang

1'

1

Department'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'EDINBURGH,'Edinburgh,'

United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:'What'kind'of'rockers'would'be'produced'in'an'authorita) tive'learning'context?'Contrary'to'classical'music,'popular'music'has' always'been'perceived'as'lacking'formal'learning'mechanisms.'

As'studies'have'shown'that'the'way'popular'musicians'learn'could' be' best' characterized' as' ‘self)learning’,' this' article' aims' to' prob) lematize' this' thesis' through' addressing' ‘schoolled’' rock' music' in'

Taiwan.' During' the' last' twenty' years,' rock' music' has' grown' in' popularity' in' Taiwan,' there' are' two' characteristics' of' this' recent' phenomenon' worth' the' attention' of' the' sociology' of' music.' First,' the'main'population'is'composed'of'students,'and'second,'the'stu) dent' societies' in' high' schools' (aged' 16)18)' have' become' central' places'where'most'musicians'embark'on'their'music'journey.'Dur) ing' this' phase' of' learning,' students' engage' in' competition' with' each' other' in' terms' of' their' playing' techniques.' Whilst' favoring' virtuosic' genres' such' as' heavy' metal' and' hard' rock,' music' genres' that'do'not'contain'virtuoso'element'are'recognized'as'technically' incompetent.' This' paper' draws' upon' semi)structured' interviews' with'musicians'from'school'rock'societies'to'investigate'the'repro) duction' of' virtuoso)oriented' rock' practice.' Drawing' upon' the' cur) rent' development' of' Sociology' of' Scientific' Knowledge' (SSK)' in' terms' of' learning/training,' it' can' be' argued' that' while' there' is' a' tradition'of'a'hierarchical'relationship'between'students'who'are'in' different' grade)levels,' especially' in' academically' prestigious' high' schools,' ultimately' senior' students' play' the' role' of' authoritative' figures'that'pass'on'the'virtuosic'skills'within'the'societies.'By'being' taught'to'listen'and'play'in'an'appropriate'manner'with'reference' to' classic' rock' tunes' that' contain' virtuosic' elements,' junior' mem) bers' are' oriented' to' prefer' and' be' able' to' manipulate' a' virtuosic' style'of'rock'music,'and'the'reputation'of'the'society'and'the'school' are'thus'maintained'and'sustained.'

Abstract'Book'

DISCOURSE!ANALYSIS!OF!THE!NATIONAL!ART!IN!IRAN:!

A!SOCIOLOGICAL!ANALYSIS!OF!THREE!ERAS!OF!

NATIONAL!ART!IN!CONTEMPORARY!IRAN!

Mohammad'Reza'Moridi

'1

,'masoomeh'taghizadegan

'2

'

1 social'communication,'ISLAMIC'AZAD'UNIVERSITY,'BANDAR'ABBAS'

BRANCH,' IRAN,'

2 social' communication,' tehran' university,' tehran,'

Iran,'Islamic'Republic'Of

'

Abstract:'National'art'cannot'be'considered'a'specific'genre'or'style' of'art'because'various'themes'can'be'construed'from'it;'for'exam) ple,'historical,'folklore'and'official'art'of'a'country.'Due'to'different' social'and'political'reasons,'in'different'eras,'each'of'these'themes' becomes' the' centre' of' attention.' It' is' obvious' that' national' art' is' more'than'other'forms'of'art'associated'with'official'power'institu) tions,'therefore,'one'can'use'discourse'analysis'in'order'to'discover' its' semantic' and' ideological' layers.' However,' the' goal' of' the' art' discourse'analysis'is'not'merely'the'analysis'of'the'meaning'of'the' text' (artistic' work),' it' is' rather' the' analysis' of' the' circumstances' within' which' this' meaning' is' produced.' Hence,' in' art' discourse' analysis,' the' institutions' which' produce' meaning' and' reproduce' discourse'are'dealt'with.'This'departure'from'text'to'discourse'pro) ducing'institutions'indicates'the'ultimate'goal'of'art'discourse'anal) ysis'which'is'to'reveal'the'relation'between'text,'power,'and'ideol) ogy'in'the'visual'culture.'

In'this'article,'applying'Michael'Foucault’s'discourse'analysis'meth) od,' we' analyse' four' discourse' rules' in' the' Iranian' national' art:' 1)' unity'of'subject,'2)'unity'of'expressive'styles,'3)'unity'of'concepts' system,' and' 4)' unity' of' strategy.' Iranian' national' art' will' be' dis) cussed'in'three'historical'periods:'the'first'one'is'during'the'rule'of'

Reza'Shah'Pahlavi'(1920'–'1941),'through'which'a'nationalistic,'pre)

Islam' ancient)oriented' discourse' prevails' Iranian' art;' the' second' one' is' during' the' rule' of' Mohammad' Reza' Pahlavi' (1941' –' 1978),' through'which'an'identity'discourse'referring'to'the'domestic'cul) ture'prevails'Iranian'art;'and'the'third'one'is'the'post)revolutionary' period'(up'to'the'present'time)'during'which'an'Islamic'discourse' with' anti)imperialistic,' revolutionary' discourse' has' prevailed' the'

Iranian'national'art.'

The'discourse'analysis'of'the'Iranian'national'art'deals'with'socio) logical'analysis'of'the'creation'of'the'political'and'religious'power' institutions'which'produce'meaning'on'one'hand,'and'reveals'the' social'grounds'of'reproduction'of'power'in'the'meaning'of'the'ar) tistic'works,'on'the'other'hand.'This'approach'will'provide'us'with' new'understanding'in'sociological'examination'of'the'modern'Ira) nian'art.'

Key'word:'national'art,'art'discourse,'Iranian'contemporary'paint) ing.'

ROMANIAN!CONTEMPORARY!VISUAL!ARTS!WORLD!

AFTER!1989:!TENSION!AND!FRAGMENTATION!

Mara'Victoria'Ratiu

1'

1

Theory' Department,' UNIVERSITY' OF' ART' AND' DESIGN,' Cluj)

Napoca,'Romania

'

Abstract:'This'paper'addresses'the'issue'of'the'contemporary'visual' arts' world' in' post)communist' Romania,' with' focus' on' its' institu) tions.' The' reason' for' such' an' endeavor' is' the' finding' that,' more' than'twenty'years'after'the'fall'of'the'Communist'regimes,'the'Ro) manian' contemporary' visual' arts' world' is' still' a' highly' tense' and'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' fragmented' one,' comparing' to' other' Central)Eastern' European' contemporary'visual'arts'worlds.'My'hypothesis'is'that'this'state'of' affairs'is'rooted'in'the'institutional'shifts'generated'by'the'transi) tion'from'a'totalitarian'regime'to'a'democratic'one.'Therefore,'the' reconfiguration' of' the' institutional' system' of' contemporary' visual' arts'after'1989'and'its'impact'on'the'artistic'practices,'as'well'as'its' reception'among'art'professionals,'stand'out'as'a'crucial'object'of' analysis.' The' aim' is' to' highlight' the' structural' features' of' the' Ro) manian'contemporary'visual'arts'world'that'lead'to'the'present)day' fragmentation,'as'well'as'to'explain'the'acute'tension'that'charac) terizes' the' relationships' among' its' actors.' From' a' methodological' point' of' view' I' combine' conceptual' analysis' of' the' topic)related' literature'with'empirical'investigation,'i.e.'personal'observation'and' interviews'with'artists'and'art'professionals.'Additionally,'I'propose' a' brief' comparison' with' the' Hungarian' contemporary' visual' arts' world'in'order'to'emphasize'the'specificity'of'the'Romanian'one.'

Key'words:'art'world,'art'institutions,'Romania,'Hungary,'visual'arts'

EMBLEMS!OF!FREEDOM:!INSIGHTS!INTO!THE!

TUNISIAN!REVOLUTION!

Valerie'Hayaert

'1

,'Valerie'Hayaert

1'

1

English' and' Language' Studies,' CANTERBURY' CHRIST' CHURCH'

UNIVERSITY,'Canterbury,'Kent,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:'This'contribution'to'the'conference'will'present'part'of'an' ongoing'research'project'consisting'of'an'exploration'of'emblemat) ic'structures'relating'to'the'theme'of'liberation.'These'range'from' the'scenes'of'manumissio/per/vindicta,'a'ritual'essential'in'Roman' law'to'the'use'of'iconic'or'vexilollogic'profiles'used'by'young'Tuni) sians'in'the'events'of'January'and'February'2011.'

We'shall'identify'the'element'of'continuity'in'the'gestures'accom) panying'each'of'these'"dispositifs"'and'show'the'comparative'value' of' symbols,' so' as' to' the' broad' epistemological' and' chronological' framework' employed.' A' representation' of' liberation' needs' to' de) ploy'above'all'a'theory'of'"affects".'A'flag'motivates'and'represents' the'essence'of'action;'a'new'symbol'of'recently'acquired'freedom' functions'according'to'modalities'which'we'shall'identify.'

This' paper' involves' analysis' of' several' iconotexts,' trying' to' grasp' the' roots' of' certain' iconic' schemes' and' their' interplay' with' the' tunisian'current'political'and'mediatical'contexts,'reflecting'on'the' ways' and' means' in' which' they' are' used' in' social' networks' (Face) book'and'Tweeter).'

FANTASY!ROLEGPLAYING!GAMES!AS!THE!EXAMPLE!OF!

SOCIAL!AESTHETICS!AND!COMPENSATING!ACTIVITY!

Dominik'Porczyński

1'

1

Institute'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'RZESZÓW,'Rzeszów,'Poland

'

Abstract:' Media' convergence' (Jenkins' 2006)' could' be' treated' not' only'as'the'process'of'combination'of'different'kinds'of'media,'but' also'as'combination'of'cultural'phenomena,'that'so'far'were'treat) ed'as'separate.'An'example'of'this'can'be'role)playing'games'and' massively' multiplayer' online' role)playing' games' (here' treated' as' the'next'step'of'development'of'genre),'which'both'contains'ludic' quality,'however,'by'researchers'(Mackay'2001)'are'also'considered' in' terms' of' aesthetic.' Being' various' types' of' virtual' worlds,' they' make,' according' to' Peter' Berger' and' Thomas' Luckmann’s' work'

(1966)'a'social'constructed'reality'par/excellence.'This'constructiv)

63' ism'can'be'portrayed'as'a'process'consisting'of'two'phases:'objec) tivization,'which'is'literally'creating'a'world,'appereance'of'which'is' the'result'of'work'of'many'people'–'designers,'graphic'artists,'de) velopers,'etc.'–'and'“existing'in'action”'(Blumer'1969)'what'means' maintaining' and' transforming' that' world' by' players' involved' who' are' creating' this' way' a' kind' of' aesthetic' community' (Maffesoli'

2008).'The'latter'aspect'was'called'by'Robert'Boostrom'(2008)'“the' social'construction'of'virtual'reality”.'

As'an'aesthetic'phenomenon'role'playing'games'seem'to'reflect'the' thesis' of' Zygmunt' Bauman' (2000)' that' art' compensates' for' the' shortcomings'of'reality,'reveals'the'truth'which'is'difficult'to'see'in' the' thicket' of' social' interaction,' and' the' universe' created' by' it' is' understandable' and' subjected' to' an' unequivocal' interpretation.'

This'paper'aims'to'show'the'game'universe'as'an'example'and'ef) fect' of' social' artistic' creativity,' a' construction' of' understandable' world' with' clearly' defined' social' roles' and' goals' to' be' achieved,' which' could' be' the' balance' to' the' obscure,' fragmented' reality' of' everyday' life.' An' analysis' of' two' stages' of' this' process' was' con) ducted.'The'first'of'these'was'examined'on'the'basis'of'documents' such'as'manuals,'instructions,'and'websites,'and'the'other'on'the' basis' of' content' analysis' of' forums,' interviews' with' players' and' participant'observation.'

THE!DIGITAL!TURN!IN!EUROPEAN!VISUAL!ARTS:!

CHANGES!IN!THE!MEDIA,!CHANGES!IN!THE!CREATIVE!

PROCESS?!

Dafne'Muntanyola1'

1

Sociology,'UNIVERSIDAD'AUTONOMA'MADRID,'Madrid,'Spain

'

Abstract:'The'goal'of'this'paper'is'to'make'apparent'the'centrality' of'interaction'in'the'creative'process,'moving'away'from'excessive' abstraction'or'empiricist'reductionism.'Specifically,'we'look'at'the' changes' brought' about' by' the' digital' turn' in' Visual' Arts' depart) ments'in'Europe.'Given'the'many'social'factors'in'decision)'making,' the' existing' relationship' between' artists' and' its' instruments' must' take'into'account'both'the'discursive'and'structural'dimensions'of' the'creative'process.'Thus'speech,'gesture,'and'tool'manipulation,' first' mostly' analog' and' currently' digital,' constitute' background' practices' for' visual' artists.' Our' theoretical' stance' allows' us' to' es) cape' the' phenomenological' determinism' of' husserlian' bracketing'

(Cicourel,'2010).'We'define'artistic'creativity'as'a'process'of'distrib) uted' (Hollan' et' al,' 2000),' multimodal' (Alac,' 2005)' and' embodied' cognition' (Clark,' 2008).' Our' working' hypothesis' is' that' the' digital' turn' has' triggered' a' conceptual' transformation' of' intermediate' products:' diagrams,' models' and' other' epistemic' objects' (Knorr)

Cetina,'1999).'The'ethnographical'observation'of'actual'work'allows' for' an' empirical' model' that' compares' artists’' choices.' Interviews' with'45'visual'artists'are'taking'place'in'academic'centers'in'Spain,'

France' and' United' Kingdom.' Through' the' application' of' Critical'

Discourse' Analysis' (CDA)' with' ELAN' software' we' are' putting' to) gether' a' vocabulary' of' tools' and' processes.' Preliminary' findings' show'that'digitalization'defines'the'modality'of'intermediate'prod) ucts,'and'modifies'the'conceptualization,'execution'and'evaluation' phases'from'the'creative'workflow.'

KAFKA’S!TURBULENT!SOCIETY!IN!THE!TRIAL:!A!

DURKHEIMEAN!INVESTIGATION!

Cagatay'Topal

'1

,'Fatma'Umut'Beşpınar

1'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

64'

1

DEPARTMENT' OF' SOCIOLOGY,' MIDDLE' EAST' TECHNICAL'

UNIVERSITY,'ANKARA,'Turkey

'

Abstract:' This' paper' attempts' to' co)read' two' important' figures' from'the'turbulent'times'of'Europe'during'the'late'nineteenth'and' the' early' twentieth' century:' Durkheim' (1858)1917)' and' Kafka'

(1883)1924).' Both' experienced' the' World' War' I' and' its' conse) quences' during' their' last' years.' Both' were' Jewish' suffering' from' the' implications' of' their' minority' backgrounds.' Both' were' subject' to'alienating,'anomic,'and'bizarre'conditions'and'reflected'these'in' their'works.'And'both'were'searching'for'existential'meanings'for' their'life'and'their'environment.'To'our'knowledge,'almost'no'liter) ature'has'been'developed'towards'a'systematic'appreciation'of'the' relation'between'Durkheim'and'Kafka.'

In'the'example'of'Kafka’s'work,'The/Trial,'this'paper'examines'how'

Kafka'conceives'power,'consciousness,'society'and'the'individual'in' a' turbulent' context.' The' paper' asks' what' kind' of' legitimacy' that' society' generates' in' the' consciousness' of' individuals' in' The/ Trial' and' where' this' legitimacy' comes' from.' For' this' investigation,' the' paper' draws' upon' Durkheim’s' methodological' and' sociological' analysis.'The'main'Durkheimean'themes'that'are'used'in'the'paper' are' collective' conscience,' the' external' and' coercive' character' of' society,'morality,'law,'and'finally'collective'effervescence.'

The'paper'argues'that'an'inherent'and'powerful'morality'imposes' itself'throughout'The/Trial.'Similarly,'the'court'that'represents'the' law' has' an' intrinsic' and' coercive' legitimacy.' The' key' character,' K.' seems' to' be' truly' internalized' of' this' legitimacy' even' though' he' does'not'understand'its'proper'nature.'In'fact,'Kafka'never'reveals' the'“true”'nature'of'the'court.'In'this'sense,'the'court'–'and'law'–' remains' an' external' constraining' force.' The' process' of' the' trial' appears'as'the'reflection'of'a'collective'conscience'against'the'indi) vidual'consciousness'of'K.'The'trial'is'an'ongoing'ritual;'and,'more) over,'this'ritual'is'the'story'of'K(afka)'itself.'Finally,'the'trial'gives' way' for' the' moments' of' collective' effervescence.' K.' experiences' the'concrete'effects'of'the'law'during'these'moments'as'well'as'in' his'daily'life'outside'the'court.'In'summary,'law'is'the'main'theme' in'the'text'and'it'represents'the'character'of'society'in'Kafka’s'per) spective.' Consequently,' following' a' Durkheimean' methodology,' this'paper'asserts'that'the'turbulent'nature'of'society'in'The/Trial' can'be'understood'through'the'analysis'of'the'turbulent'nature'of' law'in'The/Trial'again.'

BETWEEN!THE!EYE!AND!THE!MIND!:!THE!TEXT/IMAGE!

OR!THE!IMAGE!AS!TEXT.!FOR!A!SEMIOG

ANTHROPOLOGY!OF!VISUAL!CONSTRUCTION.!

Florent'GAUDEZ

1'

1

EMC2' )' Laboratoire' de' Sociologie' de' Grenoble,' UNIVERSITÉ'

PIERRE)MENDÈS)FRANCE'(GRENOBLE'2),'GRENOBLE,'France

'

Abstract:'Visual'sociology'is'a'new'branch'of'sociology'that'seeks'to' use'the'image'as'a'particular'mode'of'investigation.'This'poses'sev) eral' preliminary' methodological' and' epistemological' problems.'

Indeed'sociology'is,'above'all,'a'matter'of'vision,'of'a'point'of'view,' of'lighting,'of'angle,'of'depth'of'field,'and,'of'course,'of'focus.'Don’t' we'speak'frequently'of'a«'sociological'perspective'»'?'

Therefore,' sociological' understanding' is,' first' and' foremost,' a' fic) tional'construction'of'reality'(itself'a'fictional'construction'of'the'«' real' »)' as' an' intersubjective,' empathic' and' heuristic' process.' To' speak'of'a'sociology'of'the'gaze'requires'us'to'view'both'the'gaze' and'the'«'sociological'perspective'»'through'the'prism'of'sociologi)

Abstract'Book' cal'understanding.'Moreover,'to'posit'the'possibility'of'this'meta) gaze' equally' forces' us' to' question' our' own' methodological' and' epistemological'points'of'view.'Can'visual'sociology'avoid'the'ques) tion'of'the'production'of'the'gaze'?'And'what'vision'does'it'have'of' itself'?'

ART!AS!UNCONVENTIONAL!SOURCE!OF!THE!

SOCIOLOGICAL!SCIENCE!

Angela'Maria'Zocchi

1'

1

Department'of'Communication'Studies,'UNIVERSITY'OF'TERAMO,'

Teramo,'Italy

'

Abstract:' The' paper' is' a' theoretical' reflection' about' the' relation) ship' between' art' and' sociology,' starting' from' Sociology/ as/ an/ Art/

Form/ of' Robert' Nisbet.' First' of' all,' the' paper' analyses' the' text' of'

Nisbet,'examined'in'its'challenges'for'the'sociology'today.'Then'it' focuses' on' the' problematic' knots' of' the' sociology' of' the' art,' ad) vancing'the'proposal'to'consider'the'art'as'unconventional'source' of' the' sociological' science.' In' other' terms,' not' a' sociology' of/ the' art,'but'a'sociology'in/the'art,'such'as'claimed'in'philosophical'field' by'Reinhard'Brandt.'Can'a'work'of'art'be'considered'a'sociological' text?'What'are'the'implications'of'this'perspective'for'the'sociolog) ical'theory?'The'essay'intends'to'answer'to'these'questions'consid) ering,'at'the'same'time,'the'possible'consequences'for'the'future'of' the'sociology.'

HOW!DIFFERENT!SOCIAL!ACTORS!AND!THE!ART!

WORLD!HAVE!REACTED!TO!THE!MARKETGBASED!TURN!

IN!CULTURAL!POLICY?!THE!CASE!OF!FINLAND!G!

DESCRIPTION!OF!A!RESEARCH!PROJECT!

Erkki' Tapio' Sevänen

' 1

Logrén

1'

,' Simo' Häyrynen

' 1

,' Kalle' Lampela

' 2

,' Anne'

1

Department' of' the' Humanities,' University' of' Eastern' Finland,'

Joensuu,'

2

Department' of' the' Arts,' University' of' Lapland,' Rovanie) mi,'Finland

'

Abstract:'In'the'1980s'and'1990s,'the'era'of'the'expansive'Western' welfare'state'and'the'East'European'state'socialism'came'to'a'close' and' these' societies' were' opened)up' to' market' forces' on' a' more' global'scale.'These'societies'have,'therefore,'been'ruled'by'a'neo) liberalist'policy'that'treats'the'whole'of'society'and'the'rest'of'the' world'as'capitalist'markets.'This'shift'has'affected'the'at'world'pro) foundly,'for'phenomena'of'creative'economics'and'commercialized' art'are'typical'of'this'new'phase.'

'In' Finland,' the' state' has' followed' the' market)based' policy;' for' example,'at'the'beginning'of'this'year'all'of'the'Finnish'universities' were' privatized.' Yet,' the' Finnish' state' has' not' been' able' to' apply' this'policy'to'the'art'life'on'the'same'scale.'In'Finland'and'in'other'

Nordic'countries'(Denmark,'Norway,'Sweden),'the'art'life'is'largely' dependent' on' the' state.' In' these' countries,' the' national' art' mar) kets' are' quite' limited' in' seize;' their' art' worlds' cannot,' therefore,' function' properly' without' the' expansive' support' of' the' state.' Alt) hough' the' Finnish' state' and' the' Finnish' economic' life' more' and' more'often'see'artists'and'art'institutions'as'co)actors'in'economic' action,' the' Finnsh' state' also' nowadays' finances' art' institutions'

(theatres,'orchestras,'museums)' )'even'to'the'extent'that'70)80%' of'their'incomes'might'come'from'the'public'section.'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

'The'Nordic'countries'clearly'differ'from'the'Anglo)American'coun) tries' (Great' Britain,' the' United' States)' that' underline' the' im) portance'of'markets,'private'sponsorship'and'donations'in'the'art' life.'Likewise,'Finland'differs'from'the'post)socialist'countries'(Esto) nia,'Russia)'in'which'the'state'is'not'rich'enough'to'give'expansive' financial'support'to'the'art'life,'nor'is'their'private'section'capable' of' effectively' acting' in' a' role' like' this.' In' part,' Finland' resembles'

France,'in'which'politicians'and'ordinary'citizens'still'think'that'it'is' the'duty'of'the'state'and'the'public'section'to'protect'the'sphere'of' art'against'pure'market'forces'and'private'interests.'

'In'our'project,'we'consider'what'kind'of'attitudes'different'social' actors'(the'state,'political'parties,'economic'life,'artists,'art'institu) tions)'take'up'towards'the'market)based'turn'in'social'and'cultural' policy.' At' the' same' time' we' compare' the' Finnsh' art' world' with' other'art'worlds'in'Western'societies.'

MASTER!PIECES!AND!CREATIVE!DESTRUCTION.!THE!

DESTABILIZATION!OF!TWENTIETH!CNTURY!ART!

Feiwel'Kupferberg

1'

1

Culture,'Media'and'Language,'MALMO'UNIVERSITY,'Malmo,'Swe) den

'

Abstract:'When'art'historians'in'the'future'will'look'back'upon'the' twentieth'century,.'the'first'thing'they'will'ask'is'what'actually'hap) pened'here.'Why'was'art'destabilized'to'the'degree'where'it'almost' vanished?'Art'sociologists'will'add'the'question'of'what'social'forc) es'were'at'work'here,'resulting'in'the'destabilization'of'twentieth' century'art.'In'this'paper'I'will'suggest'that'we'do'not'need'to'look' into' the' future' but' can' firmly' place' ourselves' in' the' present' and' compare'it'with'the'past'in'order'to'present'an'analytical'account' of' what' happened.' In' order' to' account' for' the' destabilization' of' twentieth'century'art,'a'good'strategy'would'be'too'start'with'the'

Austrian' economist' Joseph' Schumpeter' who' coined' the' phrase'

“creative' destruction”' as' the' main' driving' principle' of' modern,' entrepreneurial'capitalism.'The'basic'principle'of'creative'destruc) tion'is'the'opposite'of'traditional'art,'it'devaluates'all'previous'in) novations'or'creativity,'replacing'it'with'the'latest'innovation.'Nov) elty'becomes'the'prime'value'in'its'own'right.'This'can'be'contrast) ed'with'traditional'art'which,'as'already'Marx'noted,'aimed'at'mas) ter'pieces'rather'than'novelty,'that'is'art'works'with'perennial'(or' even'increasing)'value.'The'history'of'twentieth'century'art'can'be' conceptualized'as'the'constant'vascillation'between'the'traditional' model'of'artistic'creativity'aiming'at'master'pieces'and'the'entre) preneurial' model' of' creative' destruction.' The' import' of' the' latter' model'into'the'art'world'originated'with'the'impressionists'but'its' corrosive'effect'only'became'visible'around'the'turn'of'the'twenti) eth'century.'In'both'cases'the'pressure'of'technological'inventions'

(photography'and'movies)'seem'to'have'been'the'prime'causes,'as' suggested' already' by' Benjamin' and' not' merely' different' career' patterns'as'asserted'in'Bourdieu´s'over)socialized'model.'

MUSEUMS!IN!TURBULENT!TIMES.!THE!CASE!OF!

SAADIYAT!CULTURAL!DISTRICT!IN!ABU!DHABI.!

Anna'Gruszka

1'

1

Institute' of' Sociology,' ADAM' MICKIEWICZ' UNIVERSITY' POZNAŃ,'

POLAND,'Poznań,'Poland

'

Abstract:'If'it'is'true'that'culture'is'directly'linked'to'the'notion'of' power' (Bourdieu' et' al.)' and' constitutes' an' expression' of' forms' of'

65' social'domination,'then'undoubtedly'museums'are'still'one'of'the' best'arenas'to'examine'those'relations.'

Museums' have' always' demonstrated' power:' of' the' state,' of' the' private' collectors' etc.' (Duncan' 1995)' Still' nowadays,' in' the' late' capitalism,' museums' are' inscribed' in' the' mechanism' of' co) dependancy'of'culture'and'economy,'often'referred'to'as''museum' industry''(Krauss'1990)'and'linked'to'the'cultural'economy'of'cities'

(Scott'2000).'Also,'the'current'shift'of'the''museum'boom''from'the'

West' to' the' East' goes' along' with' the' crisis' of' the' Euro)American' economic'and'symbolic'domination'as'well'as'the'economic'growth' of' such' countries' as' China,' the' latter's' 'museum' fever'' being' the' most'spectacular'illustration'of'this'process'so'far.'(Economist,'Jun'

14,'2007)'Yet,'the'spectrum'of'sociological'causes'and'consequenc) es'of'the'Eastern''museum'boom''is'much'more'complex.'

In'this'paper'I'will'examine'the'case'of'Saadiyat'Cultural'District'in'

Abu'Dhabi'that'comes'in'the'middle'of'all'those'processes.'By'the' end' of' 2018' it' will' comprise' Louvre' Abu' Dhabi,' Guggenheim' Abu'

Dhabi,'Zayed'National'Museum,'Performing'Arts'Centre'and'other.'

These' institutions' will' be' designed' by' the' world's' leading' “West) ern”' architects' (Gehry,' Nouvel,' Foster,' Hadid)' and' often' labeled' with'iconic'brands'of'Western'culture'(Louvre,'Guggenheim).'I'will' try'to'answer'the'question'posed'in'this'context'by'Peter'Aspden:'

“[...]'what'can'it'tell'us'about'the'power'of'culture?”'(FT'Weekend'

Magazine,'Feb'19/20,'2011)'

Analysing' the' current' plans,' concepts' and' interviews' with' people' involved,'I'will'examine'whether'this'creation'of'a'new'“capital'of' culture”' is' a' symptom' of' the' geopolitical' shift' in' Wallersteinian' world)systems' sense' or' is' it' rather' a' mere' illusion' of' a' voluntary' colonialism'and'Bhabhaesque'reversed'self)orientalisation.'To'what' extent' will' those' institutions' enhance' the' local' identity' and' herit) age'and'bridge'the'Eastern'and'Western'art'and'to'what'extent'will' they'obey'the'rules'of'the'art'world'market'and'exhibit'the'Western' art'that'sells'best?'Finally,'who'is'the'target'public'of'these'muse) ums'and'how'will'they'respond'to'the'needs'of'their'communities?'

RETICENT!OBJECTS,!BOUNDARIES,!AND!FIELD!

DYNAMICS!AT!MUSEUM!OF!MODERN!ART!OF!NEW!

YORK!(MOMA)!

Fernando'Dominguez'Rubio

'1,'2*

'

1

Centre' for' Research' on' Socio)Cultural' Change,' Open' University,'

Milton'Keynes,'United'Kingdom,'

States

'

2

Sociology,'NYU,'New'York,'United'

Abstract:' Over' the' last' decades,' the' study' of' the' dynamics' of' the'

‘artworld’' has' motivated' a' great' deal' of' sociological' interest.' This' interest'has'been'very'productive'in'detailing'the'processes'of'ne) gotiation,' cooperation' and' struggle' between' the' different' actors' involved'in'this'field.'However,'there'has'been'very'little'considera) tion' of' the' role' that' artworks' themselves' play' in' mediating' these' dynamics.'In'this'paper'I'explore'how'artworks'intervene'in'these' processes'both're)producing'divisions'within'the'field'of'contempo) rary'art'and're)drawing'boundaries'between'agents'and'fields.'The' study' is' based' on' ethnographic' evidence' from' the' Conservation'

Laboratory'of'the'Museum'of'Modern'Art'of'New'York'(MoMA).'It' shows'how'some'artworks'operate'as'‘reticent'objects’'challenging' and' redrawing' internal' boundaries' and' established' hierarchies' as' well'as'the'institutional'boundaries'that'separate'the'museum'from' other' institutions' and' related' fields.' Tracing' the' trajectories' of' some' of' these' reticent' objects' as' they' travel' through' various' de)

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

66' partments' will' allow' us' to' explore' the' dynamics' of' change' as' the' different' actors' in' the' museum' adapt' to' the' challenges' posed' by' these' objects.' As' I' shall' show,' these' reticent' objects' demand' the' institution'of'a'novel'process'of'judgement'that'redistributes'com) petencies' and' expertise' among' different' actors' and' creates,' in' so' doing,'a'new'cartography'of'power'within'the'museum.'I'will'con) clude'by'exploring'the'role'of'these'‘reticent'objects’'as'vectors'of' transformation'and'change'in'the'field'of'contemporary'art.'

BEAUTY!AND!THE!EYE!OF!THE!BEHOLDER:!

SEGMENTATION!OF!MUSEUM!AUDIENCES!USING!

GEOMETRIC!DATA!ANALYSIS!

Henk'Roose

'1

,'Laurie'Hanquinet

'2

,'Mike'Savage

'2

'

1

Department' of' Sociology,' GHENT' UNIVERSITY,' Gent,' Belgium,'

2

Department' of' Sociology,' The' University' of' York,' York,' United'

Kingdom

'

Abstract:'Views'on'what'the'fine'arts'are/should'be'and'how'they' should' be' appropriated' have' changed' during' the' last' century—in' line' with' Bourdieu’s' conception' of' the' emergence' and' develop) ment' of' a' field.' The' ‘traditional’' view' grounded' in' 19 th

' century' bourgeois' society' with' its' emphasis' on' beauty,' elegance,' balance,' and'emotional'aesthetics'has'been'challenged'by'the'emergence'of' artistic'movements'based'on'transgression,'experimentation,'con) ceptual' forms,' sensuousness.' At' present—anno' 2011—these' dif) ferent' forms' of' art' and' ditto' forms' of' reception' coexist' and' are' more'or'less'similarly'institutionalized.'One'of'the'key'findings'of'La/

Distinction'is'exactly'showing'that'aesthetic'judgment'and'taste'are' socially' anchored.' In' this' paper' we' want' to' contribute' two' things' using'Multiple'Correspondence'Analysis'(MCA):'

(1)' we' use' an' item' battery' specifically' designed' to' measure' the' different'aesthetic'dispositions'and'conceptions.'We'want'to'con) struct'the'space'of'aesthetic'perception'by'means'of'about'twenty' items' describing' how/what' art' should' be' or' incorporate:' e.g.' ‘Art' should'be'beautiful’'versus'‘One'colour'or'one'line'are'enough'to' create'a'piece'of'art’;'

(2)' we' analyze' the' relationship' between' these' different' aesthetic' conceptions' and' the' social' origin' and' environment' of' spectators,/

i.e.' besides' including' the' traditional' socio)demographic' variables,' we'insert'items'that'indicate'perceptions'of'someone’s'social'posi) tion,' and' perceptions' of' what' members' of' his/her' social' network' prefer.'

The'use'of'MCA'has'a'number'of'advantages.'First,'it'allows'for'the' inclusion' of' a' lot' of' variables' simultaneously.' Second,' it' explicitly' visualizes'a'space'in'terms'of'a'relational'logic.'Third,'it'enables'the' inclusion' of' a' number' of' structuring—supplementary—factors' showing'the'homology'or'association'between'aesthetic'perception' and'their'social'embeddedness.'We'rely'on'an'audience'survey'of' about' 1,000' visitors' from' two' art' museums' in' Ghent' (Belgium),' namely'the'Museum/of/Fine/Arts'and'the'City/Museum/for/Contem=

porary/Art'(also'known'as'S.M.A.K.).'

OPENING!UP!MUSEUMS!TO!SOCIETY.!A!TYPOLOGY!OF!

PUBLIC!ORIENTATION!

Volker'Kirchberg

1'

1

Cultural'Analysis,'LEUPHANA'UNIVERSITY'LUENEBURG,'Lueneburg,'

Germany

'

Abstract'Book'

Abstract:' Following' a' declaration' of' the' American' Association' of'

Museums' (AAM' 2002),' most' American' museums' are' nowadays' willing' and' eager' to' reach' out' to' audiences' that' go' beyond' their' typical'and'potentially'exclusionary'visitorship.'However,'the'level' of' outreach' and' inclusion' varies' from' museum' to' museum.' Also,'

'public' orientation'' can' be' defined' in' different' ways,' e.g.' one' can' understand' museums' as' institutions' for' a' civil' society' and' public' culture' (Karp,' Gaither,' Heuman' Gurian),' as' institutions' for' social' identities' (MacDonald,' Bennett),' as' institutions' that' serve' specific' audiences' (Perin,' Tchen)' or' artists' (Zolberg),' as' institutions' that' politically' propagate' the' purpose' of' inclusiveness' (Sandell,' Mes) sage),' as' institutions' that' market)research' and' then' react' to' their' customers''wishes'(Anderson,'Worts),'or'as'institutions'that'act'as' open' arena' and' as' an' intermediary' among' different' public' stake) holders'(Sandell,'Hooper)Greenhill).'Based'on'a'typology'by'DiMag) gio' (patron,' social' and' marketing' museums),' on' the' geographical' focus' (local,' regional,' national),' and' on' different' museum' types'

(art,' history,' and' ethnology' museums)' this' presentation' will' com) pare'and'interpret'these'degrees'and'scopes'of'the'public'orienta) tion' of' different' museums' in' New' York' and' Washington,' D.C.' (in'

New'York'the'Lower'Eastside'Tenement'Museum,'the'New'Muse) um' of' Contemporary' Art,' the' Brooklyn' Museum' of' Art,' the' Ellis'

Island' Immigration' Museum,' and' in' Washington,' D.C.,' the' Ana) costia'Community'Museum'and'the'National'Museum'of'the'Amer) ican).'

POPULAR!MUSIC!AND!CULTURAL!MEMORY!

Andy'Bennett

1'

1

Griffith' Centre' for' Cultural' Research,' GRIFFITH' UNIVERSITY,' Na) than,'Australia

'

Abstract:' In' sociological' research' on' popular' music,' there' is' an' emerging' focus' on' the' generational' impact' of' popular' music' and' the'extent'to'which'questions'of'value,'authenticity'and'transcend) ence,'as'these'coalesce'around'musical'practices'and'resources,'are' becoming' tied' to' collective' articulations' of' cultural' memory.' As' research' across' a' variety' of' popular' music' genres' in' specific' local' and'national'contexts'is'beginning'to'reveal,'ageing'and'biography,' together' with' associated' processes' of' remembering' and' critical' reflection,'must'now'be'considered'key'elements'in'an'analysis'and' interpretation'of'popular'music’s'social'and'cultural'meaning.'Long) term' cultural' investment' in' particular' musical' genres' by' ageing' audiences,' together' with' their' re)presentation' via' the' lens' of' cul) tural'memory,'is'now'articulated'in'a'variety'of'ways,'manifesting' itself'at'both'the'institutional'level'of'the'cultural'industries'and'in' mundane,' everyday' practice.' Drawing' on' the' preliminary' findings' of' an' Australian' Research' Council' (ARC)' funded,' three)year,' five) country'project,'this'paper'outlines'an'approach'to'the'sociological' study'of'popular'music'applying'the'conceptual'framework'of'cul) tural'memory'and'considers'the'value'of'such'an'approach'in'map) ping'forms'of'musical'attachment'grounded'in'generationally'em) bedded'practices'of'remembering.'

TELLING!SOUNDS:!POPULAR!MUSIC!IN!MUSEUMS!

Amanda'Maria'Caterina'Brandellero

'1

,'Susanne'Janssen

1'

1

Department'of'Media'and'Communication,'ERASMUS'UNIVERSITY'

ROTTERDAM,'Rotterdam,'Netherlands

'

Abstract:'The'ways'popular'music'and'related'material'culture'are' used' in' cultural' heritage' narratives' and' representations' are' ex)

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' plored' through' an' analysis' of' Dutch' local' and' national' historical' museums.'This'paper'specifically'addresses'how'local'popular'mu) sic' histories' are' mobilised' and' displayed' in' these' institutions.' Be) yond' the' role' of' music' in' the' construction' of' personal' identities,' the'paper'explores'the'extent'to'which'popular'music'provides'not' simply'a'background'soundtrack'to'local'histories,'but'rather'plays' an' active' role' in' shaping' a' place’s' cultural' heritage' and' a' shared' sense' of' belonging' and' identity' formation.' On' the' one' hand,' the' paper'reflects'on'the'nexus'between'aesthetic'and'artistic'materials' and'the'circumstances'and'contexts'of'their'use.'On'the'other,'the' paper'asks'how'popular'music'is'mobilised'as'part'of'the'museums’' strategies' for' greater' public' engagement.' The' data' is' collected' through'in)depth'interviews'with'museum'curators'and'a'review'of'

(archival'material'on)'collections'and'temporary'exhibitions,'as'well' as' policy' and' strategy' documents.' The' analysis' draws' out' insights' into'the'extent'to'which'popular'music'participates'increasingly'to' conceptualization'of'cultural'heritage'and'finds'a'place'within'the' aims'and'objectives'of'heritage'institutions.'In'doing'so,'the'paper' teases' out' how' institutional' narratives' around' popular' music' are' constructed' and' the' prominent' music' cultures' and' moments' that' emerge.'In'conclusion,'the'paper'reflects'upon'the'contribution'of' popular'music'to'the'construction'and'framing'of'collective'memo) ries'and'their'connection'to'place.'

POPULAR!MUSIC!HERITAGE,!CULTURAL!MEMORY!AND!

CULTURAL!IDENTITY!

Susanne'Janssen

'1

,'Amanda'Brandellero

'1

,'Arno'van'der'Hoeven

1'

1

Dept.' of' Media' and' Communication,' ERASMUS' UNIVERSITY'

ROTTERDAM,'Rotterdam,'Netherlands

'

Abstract:'In'this'paper'we'provide'an'outline'of'our'current'interna) tional' collaborative' research' project' (POPID),' in' which' we' explore' the'relationship'between'popular'music'and'contemporary'render) ings'of'cultural'identity'and'local'and'national'cultural'heritage'in'a' pan)European'context.'Furthermore,'it'explores'how'these'articula) tions'are'negotiated'in'the'business'practices'of'the'global'popular' music'industry.'The'overall'aim'of'the'project'is'twofold:'(i)'to'as) sess' the' role' played' by' local' popular' music' in' the' negotiation' of' cultural'identity'in'a'local,'national,'and'European'context;'and'(ii)' to'specify'how'the'European'music'industry'can'feed'into'Europe) ans'audiences’'ongoing'connections'to'local'popular'music'heritage' in'a'way'that'continues'to'be'meaningful'for'local'audiences.'

The' paper' presents' the' initial' findings' from' extensive' research' among' cultural' heritage' institutions' and' archivists,' music' industry' workers' and' audience' members.' It' also' interrogates' the' situated' articulation'of'popular'music'heritage'in'a'combination'of'localities,' some'of'which'have'rich'musical'histories'and'have'made'a'contri) bution' to' the' national' and' global' music' industries,' and' others' which' are' less' readily' recognized' as' having' strong' local' popular' music'heritage.'Finally,'it'reflects'on'popular'music's'contribution'to' the' narratives' of' cultural' identity' and' representations' of' cultural' memories'

DIVISIONS!IN!ART!ACTIVITIES!BASED!ON!GENDER!

Azam')'Ravadrad

1'

1 communications,' UNIVERSITY' OF' TEHRAN,' Tehran,' Iran,' Islamic'

Republic'Of

'

67'

Abstract:'In'this'article'artists'are'studied'in'terms'of'their'appear) ance' in' different' artistic' fields.' The' main' factor' important' in' this' appearance'is'regarded'to'be'gender.'It'shows'how'rare'are'women' artists' in' some' fields' and' how' common' they' are' in' other' fields.'

Moreover' it' shows' that' even' in' those' fields' which' are' presenting' more'women,'famous'artists'appear'to'be'mostly'men.'

Data'is'collected'from'case'of'Iran'using'documentary'method'and' shows' that' population' of' women' directors' in' film' industry' and' in' theater'is'much'smaller'than'population'of'men'directors.'On'the' other'hand'population'of'women'painters,'musicians'and'writers'is' bigger'in'comparison'to'women'in'film'and'theatre.'

The' question' that' raises' here' is' whether' there' are' social' factors' which' influence' men' and' women' doing' different' artistic' activities' with'different'degree'of'competence?'This'article'is'aimed'to'give' an'analytical'answer'to'this'question.'

YOUTHFUL!CREATIVITY!AND!ARTISTIC!PRODUCTION!

IN!NAPLES!

Enza'Maria'Paolino

1'

1

Department' of' Sociology,' UNIVERSITÀ' DEGLI' STUDI' DI' NAPOLI'

FEDERICO'II,'Napoli,'Italy

'

Abstract:'The'paper'presents'the'empirical'work'carried'out'for'the'

PhD' in' Sociology' and' Social' Research' and' as' part' of' the' last' re) search' by' Osservatorio' Territoriale' sui' Giovani' of' Naples' (OTG,'

2009)2011).' The' research' focuses' on' the' processes' of' youthful' artistic' production' in' Naples,' questioning' the' ways' in' which' new' generations' of' Neapolitan' artists' articulate' their' relationship' with' the'territory.'Art'contributes'to'the'process'of'construction'of'reali) ty'and,'at'the'same'time,'any'practice'is'inseparable'from'the'dy) namics' of' context' (Grossberg' 2002).' The' relationships' of' young' artists' with' their' city,' with' institutions' and' cultural' organizations,' with'the'circuits'of'production'are'some'questions'underlying'the' research'on'the'field.'The'city'is'a'privileged'place'for'observation' of' the' “cultural' complexity”' theorized' by' Hannerz' (1992)' and' the' study'of'creativity'and'analysis'of'the'interplay'between'the'system' and' the' cultural' act,' therefore,' can' provide' a' good' indicator' of' change' (Crespi' 2006).' Following' Melucci's' studies' (1994),' the' em) pirical' research' –' qualitative,' based' on' the' semi)structured' inter) view' and' the' content' analysis' –' is' articulated' around' three' main' levels'of'investigation:'the'subject,'including'social'extraction,'edu) cation'(cultural'capital),'system'of'relations'in'which'the'subject'is' embedded' (social' capital),' motivations' and' expectations;' the' con) texts,'in'which'actions'and'creative'experiences'are'generated;'the' discourses,' which' bring' to' the' content' and' to' creative' forms' of' expression'adopted'by'the'subjects.'The'study'of'cultural'practices' draws'attention'also'to'the'communication'process'and,'specifical) ly,'to'the'analysis'of'the'role'of'media')'both'traditional'and'virtual')' in'the'dynamics'of'cultural'and'artistic'production.'Digital'media,'in' particular,'produce'substantial'changes'in'the'forms'of'perception,' cognition' and' communication' (de' Kerckhove' 1991),' but' also' pro) vide,'in'terms'of'resource,'new'spaces'and'new'ways'of'distribution' of' knowledge' and' skills' (Levy' 1999).' In' addition,' new' media' and'

Internet'offer'new'ways'of'managing'social'networks,'also'acting'as' a' resource' in' the' processes' of' production' of' social' and' cultural' capital.'Finally,'encouraging'the'movement'of'global'cultural'flows' in' a' continuous' exchange' between' the' local' level' and' the' global' one,'Internet'contributes'to'contaminations'and'cultural'hybridiza) tions,'leading'to'creativity'and'cultural'vitality'(Thompson'1998).'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

68'

'

“CRACOW”:!“CITY”:!“ISLAND”.!BIOGRAPHICAL!MYTH!

OF!PLACE!AS!A!PERFORMATIVE!“FICTION”!IN!A!LOCH!

CAMELOT!CABARET!

Anna'Kapusta

1'

1

Jagiellonian'Univesity,'Cracow,'Poland

'

Abstract:'The'main'issue'of'exploration'is'the'contemopraray'pro) cess' of' transformation' the' mythical' narration' into' performative' municipal'“fiction”.'That'is'social'mechanisms'of'“biographical'myth' of'place”'materialising'in'polish,'cracovian'artistic'biographies.'The' case'study'is'based'on'data'from'the'Loch'Camelot'Cabaret'in'Cra) cow.'“Biographical'myth'of'place”'analysed'in'cognitive'categories' and'autodefinitions'of'the'cabaret'artists'as'well'as'symbolic'struc) tures'present'in'the'culture'texts'was'reconstructed'in'the'language' analysis'of'unrestrained'and'profound'interviews,'author’s'observa) tions' and' compiled' audial' documentation' (municipal' cracovian' song,' in' peculiarity' entitled' “On' the' Cracow' Isle”).' The' effect' of' research' is' constatation' that' late)modernity' forms' of' mythical' thinking'establish'new'spiritual'phenomena'of'places,'among'them' function'of'aesthetic'communication'sacrum'mediated'by'the'caba) ret'sender)recipient'act.'One'of'the'dimensions'of'mythical'thinking' constitute' also' occurrence' of' aestheticization' of' biographies' and' symbolic'social'ties,'which'are'integral'feature'of'processual'work' of'art,'whose'example'undoubtedly'is'the'recital'program'“On'the'

Cracow'Isle.”'

Abstract'Book'

HOW!TO!CHARACTERIZE!POLISH!DESIGN!WORLD?!

THEORETICAL!AND!METHODOLOGICAL!SUPPOSITIONS!

Monika'Katarzyna'Rosinska

1'

1

Department'of'Sociology,'ADAM'MICKIEWICZ'UNIVERISTY,'Poznań,'

Poland

'

Abstract:'The'paper'aims'at'both'presenting'the'possible'theoreti) cal' framework' for' the' analysis' of' the' contemporary' young' Polish' design' field' and' adducing' some' methodological' issues' when' it' comes'to'inquiring'such'a'manifold'and'hybrid'phenomenon.'Draw) ing' on' research' (13' Individual' Depth' Interviews)' I' conducted' in'

2009'in'Poland'and'by'briefly'invoking'the'context'I'would'like'to' present'and'sociologically'characterize'the'very'peculiar'designers’' discourse(s).'What'do'designers'say'about'their'role'in'the'modern' world?' What' is' their' task?' How' do' they' perceive' and' define' the'

(Polish)'Design'World?'Who'is'playing'the'most'profound'and'influ) ential' roles?' How' the' power' relations' are' explicated' and' reaf) firmed?' Agreeing' that' the' very' nature' of' definitions' lies' in' their' changeability'may'serve'in'the'presented'theme'not'only'to'under) stand'the'dynamics'of'peculiar'discourses'but'more'importantly'to' acknowledge' that' they' reflect' historical,' socio)cultural' context' in' which' they' occur' and' epitomize' social' relations' which' “produce”' and' ideologically' legitimize' particular' ones.' Keeping' this' in' mind' may' help' to' discover' and' analyse' the' specificity' of' contemporary' young' Polish' field' of' design,' its' culture,' practices,' status,' and' ex) panding'popularity.'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

RN'03'Biographical'Perspectives'on'European'Socie) ties'

69'

BIOGRAPHY,!IDENTITY!AND!THE!CONCEPT!OF!

BIOGRAPHICAL!RESOURCES!

Anne'Juhasz'Liebermann

1'

1

Fakultät' für' Sozialwissenschaft,' RUHR)UNIVERSITÄT' BOCHUM,'

Bochum,'Germany

'

Abstract:'The'relationship'between'biography'and'identity'is'a'very' prominent'and'contested'topic'of'biographical'research.'For'exam) ple,'biography'has'been'described'as'a'‘resource’'in'every'day'life,' which' confirms' ourselves' as' persons' and' provides' us' with' sense' and'self)assurance.'Hence,'biography'is'seen'as'a'resource,'which' helps'dealing'with'life'experiences,'which'forms'and'restores'one) self.'In'other'words,'biography'is'conceptualised'as'a'resource'for' giving' identity,' which' is' summed' up' in' the' term' ‘biographical' re) source’.' The' notion' of' ‘biographical' resources’' is' widely' used' in' biographical' research' but' seldom' defined' and' conceptualized.'

However,' a' closer' look' on' its' use' in' biographical' research' reveals' very' different' understandings' and' meanings.' Given' this' back) ground,' this' paper' addresses' the' following' issues:' How' can' the' term'‘biographical'resource’'be'defined'and'conceptualised?'What' is' the' relationship' between' biography,' biographical' resources' and' identity?'How'can'the'notion'of'biographical'resource'be'theoreti) cally'framed?'It'will'be'argued'that'an'understanding'of'biography,' identity'and'biographical'resources'in'terms'of'processes'of'educa) tion,' crisis' and' the' emergence' of' the' new' helps' to' sharpen' the' comprehension' of' the' named' notions' and' to' better' understand' their'interrelation.'

COPING!WITH!LIFE:!THE!ROLE!OF!PERSONAL!

REFLEXIVITY!ON!INDIVIDUAL!BIOGRAPHIES!

Ana'Caetano

1'

1

CIES)IUL,'ISCTE')'LISBON'UNIVERSITY'INSTITUTE,'Lisbon,'Portugal

'

Abstract:'Throughout'their'lives,'individuals'face'the'need'to'make' choices' and' to' reflect' upon' what' they' should' or' shouldn’t' do' in' diverse'social'circumstances.'Pondering,'deliberating'and'making'a' decision'may'occur'on'a'daily'basis,'but'it’s'even'more'prominent'in' crises' situations,' as' well' as' in' transitions' between' phases' and' spheres' of' life.' That’s' why' it’s' so' important' to' take' into' account' reflexivity' in' the' analysis' of' individual' biographies.' This' paper' is' part'of'a'PhD'research'that'reflects'precisely'upon'the'role'of'social' mechanisms' of' personal' reflexivity' on' the' configuration' of' bio) graphical' pathways.' The' focus' is' placed' on' the' processes' through' which'people'confer'meaning'to'their'actions'and'how'they'choose' to' act' in' certain' ways' in' different' moments' and' social' contexts.'

Special' attention' is' given' to' the' connections' between' societal' structures' of' constraint' and' opportunity,' and' the' social' contexts' that'frame'the'everyday'and'long)term'experiences'of'individuals.'

Multi)session' biographical' interviews' were' carried' out' in' order' to' understand'(i)'how'the'ability'to'think'about'oneself'is'developed' throughout'the'life)course,'(ii)'how'can'these'reflexive'processes'be' characterized,'(iii)'and'what'effects'can'they'have'on'the'definition' of'specific'courses'of'action.'The'analysis'of'the'empirical'material' allows'us'to'understand'how'people'cope'with'social'circumstances'

(such'as'social'change,'economic'crisis,'social'inequalities,'instabil) ity),'as'well'as'with'personal'events'and'situations'(such'as'individ) ual'crisis,'spatial'and'social'mobility,'relationships,'emotions),'and' how'they'define'themselves'and'their'biographies'in'the'process.'

FROM!BIOGRAPHY!TO!THEORY:!CSO!WORK!AND!

EUROPEAN!MENTAL!SPACE!

Markieta'Domecka

'1

,'Anja'Schröder)Wildhagen'

2*

'

1

School'of'Sociology,'Social'Policy'and'Social'Work,'Queen's'Univer) sity,' Belfast,' United' Kingdom,'

2

Institute' of' Sociology,' Otto)Von)

Guericke)Universität,'Magedburg,'Germany

'

Abstract:'Whereas'much'of'the'biographical'research'tends'to'end' up'at'the'descriptive'level,'we'll'demonstrate'the'analytical'process' leading' from' biography' to' theory' building.' Through' the' means' of'

‘pragmatic' refraction’' (Schütze,' 2008),' which' consists' of' text' sort' differentiation'and'sequential'structural'description,'and'thus'pro) vides' the' basis' for' a' systematic' comparison' of' autobiographical' self)theorizing'of'the'informant'and'the'biographical'unfolding'with' its'specific'sequence'of'experiences,'we'can'look'closely'at'the'pro) cess' of' identity' formation' and' its' social' (and' biographical)' condi) tions.'With'it,'we'are'able'to'reach'a'level'of'generalization'(theo) retical'representation)'without'losing'sight'of'individual'cases.'

The'empirical'basis'of'our'analysis'are'the'autobiographical'narra) tive'interviews'with'workers'in'civil'society'organizations,'collected' within'the'7FP'project'‘Euroidentities’.'We'focus'on'two'groups'of'

CSO'activists:'those'originally'coming'from'Europe'and'those'born' on'other'continents,'who'started'their'CSO'work'in'their'countries' of'origin'and'then'continued'it'after'moving'to'Europe.'

The' CSO' work' encompasses' here' reconciliation,' environmental' protection' and' the' rights' of' ethnic' minorities' and' undocumented' migrants' in' Europe.' Through' comparative' analysis' of' these' two' groups' we' will' show' how' and' under' which' conditions' Europe' be) comes'a'frame'of'reference'orienting'CSO'workers.'In'particular,'we' will'stress'the'role'of'personal'experiences'with'(conflicting)'collec) tivities' in' shaping' the' biographical' identities' of' CSO' workers' and' further,'in'supporting'their'commitment'to'the'CSO'work'in'Europe.'

With'it,'we'will'present'the'inductively'developed'concept'of'Euro) pean'mental'space'of'reference'(Schütze'et'al.,'2009;'2010)'and'the' role'it'plays'for'the'unfolding'of'biographies'of'CSO'workers,'their' biographical'decision'making'and'the'shaping'of'their'biographical' work.' We' will' reconstruct' the' process,' in' which' Europe' becomes' biographically'relevant'with'special'attention'to'the'process'of'be) coming'sensitized'to'incisive'experiences'with'collectivities'in'one’s' own'life,'of'one’s'belonging'to'and'of'one’s'distancing'from'these' collectivities' and' of' becoming' oriented' to' a' new' collective' phe) nomenon,'the'European'mental'space.'In'other'words,'we'will're) veal'the'process'by'which'Europe'becomes'embodied'and'then'is' accomplished'by'practical'action.'

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70'

PATCHWORK!IDENTITIES?!BIOGRAPHICAL!

PERSPECTIVES!ON!TURBULENT!TIMES!

Daniela'Schiek

1'

1

INSTITUTE' FOR' SOCIAL' WORK' AND' SOCIAL' POLICY,' UNIVERSITÄT'

DUISBURG)ESSEN,'Essen,'Germany

'

Abstract:'Since'the'1980s'it'has'been'said'to'be'a'sociological'com) monplace,'that'constant'securing'and'‘calming'down’'of'life'has'lost' its' importance' for' the' functioning' of' both:' labour' society' and' the' individual.' Supposedly,' patchwork' identity' compensates' the' van) ished' tripartite' structure' of' the' life' course' and' even' appreciates' turbulent' times.' “In' place' of' life' course' structured' by' expectable' phases'patchwork'biography'occurs.'Consequently,'the'actor’s'per) spective'on'life'has'now'begun'to'change.'Successful'(and'happy)' are'these'individuals,'which'have'developed'into'‘surfers’'of'life.'If' there'is'an'opportunity'they'are'willing'to'throw'away'their'plans' and'‘jump’”'(Rosa'2009,'pp.'34)35).[1]'

There' is' hardly' any' ‘grounded' theoretical’' credit' for' the' insistent' thesis'about'individual’s'appreciation'of'turbulent'biographies'and' their'social'integration.'What'about'the'social'and'individual'rele) vance' of' the' ability' to' plan' or' even' ‘think’' lifetime' and' its' disap) pearance?'The'most'exemplary'cases'for'testing'this'are'individu) als’' responses' to' the' increasing' of' precarity.' The' empirical' under) pinning' of' this' paper' is' a' qualitative' study' about' employees’' bio) graphical'perspectives'on'uncertain'(e.'g.'temporary)'jobs'and'their' social'positioning.'The'study'is'based'on'sequential'analyses'of'nar) rative' biographical' interviews' and' their' contrastive' generalisation' in'terms'of'types.'A'major'result'is'that'the'biographical'perspective' is'the'most'common'view'for'employees'in'an'enduring'uncertain' job'situation.'The'reasoning'is'that'the'biographical'perspective'is' the'one'access'to'individual’s'self'–'or'rather:'it'is'individual’s'self'–' and'now'it'is'threatened'in'its'entirety:'the'ability'to'plan'or'even'

‘think’'lifetime'depends'on'its'constant'securing'and'means'life,'the' only'one'individuals'know.'Reversely,'the'disability'to'plan'or'even' think'lifetime'is'located'outside'of'the'society,'not'as'‘good'life’'or' even'life'at'all.'

Hence,' contrary' to' the' mainstream' discussion' the' present' paper' argues' for' an' ethnomethodological' approach:' In' turbulent' times' the'importance'of'constant'securing'and'‘calming'down’'of'life'for' the'functioning'of'both:'labour'society'and'the'individual'does'not' disappear'but'even'comes'to'light'because'of'its'failure.'

[1]'

Rosa,'H.'(2009):'Jedes'Ding'hat'keine'Zeit?'Flexible'Menschen'in'rasend) en'Verhältnissen.'In:'King,'V.'and'Gerisch,'B.'(Ed.):'Zeitgewinn'und'Selbstver) lust.'Frankfurt'a.'M./New'York:'Campus,'pp.'21–39.

'

RESEARCHING!CAREER!AND!LIFEGWORLD!SELFG

UNDERSTANDINGS:!A!DISCUSSION!ON!THE!MERITS!OF!

BIOGRAPHICAL!INTERVIEWING!AND!ANALYSIS!

Kathryn'Breda'Feehan

1'

1

Sociology,'TRINITY'COLLEGE'DUBLIN,'Dublin,'Ireland

'

Abstract:'Based'on'a'series'of'biographical'narrative'interviews'on' business'graduate'careers,'this'paper'presents'both'a'methodologi) cal'and'theoretical'discussion'on'the'‘how'of'interviewing’,'and'the'

‘how'of'analysing’'biographic'data.'

This'paper'is'situated'within'the'larger'context'of'my'doctoral're) search' that' compares' and' contrasts' biographical' data' from' four' cohorts'of'business'graduates'from'the'1970’s,'1980’s,'1990’s'and'

Abstract'Book'

2000’s.'At'the'core'of'this'research'are'questions'that'ask'whether' careers'have'changed'and'if'we'can'speak'of'career'changes'occur) ring' at' different' points' in' the' life' course' or' at' different' points' in' time.'Its'overarching'concern'is'to'examine'the'extent'to'which'we' can'speak'of'identities'being'made'up'by'aspects'of'work,'lifestyle,' place'and'mobility.'

By'presenting'a'case'for'the'use'of'a'‘biographical'narrative'inter) pretative'method’,'this'paper'explores'to'what'extent'it'is'a'useful' tool'capable'of'examining'different'levels'of'analysis,'such'as:'indi) vidual' self)understandings' of' careers' and' to' what' extent' careers' make' up' identities;' how' decisions' regarding' careers' routes' are' made,'with'whom,'and'at'what'points'in'the'life'course,'and'how'all' this' is' situated' within' the' larger' socio)historical' social' context.' By' investigating'such'questions,'this'paper'opens'a'discussion'on'what' an'analysis'of'biographical'data'using'‘biographical'narrative'inter) pretative'method’'can'accomplish.'

VICTOR!F.!PETRENKO!IS!A!RUSSIAN!FOUNDER!OF!

PSYCHOSEMANTIC!APPROACH!IN!SCIENCE!

Choduraa'Mongush

1'

1

Psychology,'TUVAN'STATE'UNIVERSITY,'Kyzyl,'Russian'Federation

'

Abstract:'Victor'F.'Petrenko'is'a'Russian'psychologist,'an'expert'on'

Psychology'of'Consciousness'and'Psychosemantics'and'a'founder'of' a'new'approach'in'Psychology'named'Experimental'Psychoseman) tics.'He'was'born'in'Leningrad'in'1948.'In'1968'he'entered'Psychol) ogy' Department' at' Lomonosov' Moscow' State' University.' Being' a' student'he'took'an'active'part'in'Summer'Schools'and'conferences.'

His' teachers' and' early' colleagues' Alexander' Luria,' Pyotr' Galperin,'

Vladimir'Zinchenko,'and'Alexei'Leontiev'shaped'his'character'of'a' man' of' science.' In' 1978' and' 1988' he' defended' his' master’s' and' doctoral'thesis'respectively.'His'doctoral'thesis'was'researched'on'

Psychosemantics'of'Consciousness'under'the'supervision'of'Alexei'

Leontiev.'After'graduation'he'remained'at'Psychology'Department' of'Moscow'State'University'to'do'teaching'and'continue'research) ing.' He' is' currently' the' head' of' a' Laboratory' of' Communication'

Psychology' and' Psychosemantics' at' Moscow' State' University.' In'

1993' he' got' a' position' of' a' professor' and' four' years' later' he' be) came' a' member' of' Russian' Academy' of' Science.' A' big' number' of' diploma' works' and' doctoral' thesis' were' successfully' researched' and'defended'under'his'supervision.'He'is'the'first'to'broadly'use'

Experimental'Paradigm'of'Psychosemantics'based'on'Personal'Con) struct'Theory'of'George'Kelly'and'Semantic'Differential'Method'of'

Charles' Osgood.' Psychosemantics' investigates' various' forms' of' existence'of'meanings'in'individual,'ethnic'and'social'consciousness'

(images,' symbols,' colors,' symbolical' actions,' signs,' and' verbal' units).'It'analyses'the'influence'of'motivators'and'emotional'condi) tions'of'the'individual'and'collective'subject'on'meaning’s'systems' which'he'or'she'or'they'have.'It'studies'the'individual’s'representa) tion' in' the' fields' of' Politics,' Economics,' Law,' Art,' his' ideas' about' himself,' other' people' and' his' model' of' the' world.' Using' this' ap) proach'Victor'Petrenko'created'a'new'principle'of'individual'typol) ogy'based'on'his'world'view.'He'is'also'an'author'of'a'big'number' of' research' papers' on' ethnic' stereotypes,' on' the' content' of' con) sciousness' and' its' altered' forms,' cross)cultural' comparisons,' the' reconstruction'of'ethnic,'political,'aesthetic'mentality'of'the'various' groups' and' communities.' In' times' of' turbulence' Psychosemantic' approach'is'essential'being'widely'used'in'different'fields'of'science' and'having'aspects'of'Philosophy,'Culturology,'Linguistics,'Sociology' and'Computer'science.'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

THEORY,BIOGRAPHY!AND!THE!OTHER.!RESEARCHING!

SCIENTIFIC!BIOGRAPHIES!

Feiwel'Kupferberg

1'

1

Culture,'Media'and'Language,'MALMO'UNIVERSITY,'Malmo,'Swe) den

'

Abstract:'Most'biographical'research'so'far'has'been'mainly'meth) odological' and' its' prime' knowledge' interests' or' theoretical' ambi) tions'have'stayed'within'the'discipline'in'which'the'researcher'has' been' trained' (sociology).' The' potentials' of' the' biographical' ap) proach'as'a'research'programme'or'strategy'is'much'wider'in'scope' though.'In'this'paper'I'will'explore'how'researching'scientific'biog) raphies'can'add'to'our'knowledge'of'the'“Other”'which'has'always' been' the' prime' aim' of' sociological' biography' research.' Although' science' itself' is' oriented' towards' a' paradigmatic' or' logically' con) sistent,'transparent,'simplifying'and'conciliatory'mode'of'presenta) tion'(“the'scientific'argument”),'personal'as'well'as'collective'pro) cesses'of'scientific'discovery'itself'seem'to'be'driven'by'a'different' logic'“in'vivo”,'which'can'best'be'captured'empirically'by'the'narra) tive' language' game' (biographical' projects,' turning' points,' self) presentations' and' genres)' before' moving' on' to' the' logic' of' “in' vitro”' where' the' usual' conceptual' apparatus' of' scientific' paradig) matic' thinking' takes' over' and' assumes' control' over' the' emerging' academic' text.' My' renumerations' on' this' topic' will' use' Charles'

Darwin´s'scientific'biography'as'an'exemplary'case/

EUROPEANESS!AND!OTHERNESS:!DIFFERENT!TYPES!OF!

“OTHERS”!AND!DIFFERENT!WAYS!OF!DEALING!WITH!

DIVERSITY!

Antonella'Spanò

'1

,'Elisabetta'Perone

'1,'1

,'Pasquale'Musella

1'

1

Department'of'sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'NAPLES,'Naples,'Italy

'

Abstract:' Identity' formation' process' always' implies' both' self) identification'and'self)differentiation'from'other(s).'In'this'perspec) tive,'also'the'development'of'European'identity'has'necessarily'to' deal'with'the'“otherness”.'

On' the' basis' of' Euroidentities' project' results,' the' paper' aims' to' explore' different' meanings' of' “otherness”' and' different' ways' of' dealing'with'the'“other”.'In'particular,'differences'will'be'highlight) ed' between' “others”' inside' Europe' (i.e.' other' European' nations)' and' outside' Europe;' where' Europe,' following' our' interviewees’' perspective,'is'meant'as'an'imagined'space'rather'than'a'geograph) ical'or'political'entity.'Indeed,'Europe’s'boundaries,'those'that'sep) arates'we)ness'and'otherness,'seem'to'be'“mobile”'and'connected' to'people’s'vision'of'the'“other”.'

The'paper'takes'as'a'basis'one'of'the'main'results'of'the'Euroidenti) ties' project,' that' is' the' existence' of' an' European' shared' space' of' reference,'which'constitutes'a'fundamental'platform'for'comparing' nations,' ethnicities,' value' systems,' institutional' procedures,' politi) cal' cultures,' social' habits' etc.' In' particular,' the' contribution' will' reflect'upon'the'different'ways'of'doing'comparison'(more'or'less' driven'by'stereotyped'categorizations)'when'comparison'concerns' contexts'perceived'as'different'but'at'the'same'time'belonging'to'a' common' imaged' space,' or' when' it' regards' a' reality/culture' per) ceived'as'completely'extraneous.'

The' contribution' identifies' different' ways' of' relating' to' otherness' and'reflects'on'both'personal'characteristics'and'biographical'expe) riences'and'processes'which'on'the'one'hand'effect'the'extension'

71' of' the' imaged' Europe,' and' on' the' other' hand' seem' to' result' ina' different'capacity'to'deal'with'what'is'perceived'as'being'different.'

Unexpectedly,' cultural' capital,' high' level' of' education,' open) mindedness,'prolonged'and'meaningful'cross)cultural'and'or'cross) national'experiences'do'not'prevent'from'getting'caught'in'stereo) typed'visions:'these,'in'fact,'can'be'in'action'though'often'masked' by' “politically' correct”' discourses' and' hidden' by' a' declared' ac) ceptance'of'diversity.'

THE!AMBIVALENT!VIEWS!OF!EUROPE!IN!FARMERS!

BIOGRAPHICAL!NARRATIVES!

Mariana'Draganova

'1

,'Rumiana'Jeleva

1'

1

INSTITUTE'FOR'THE'STUDY'OF'SOCIETIES'AND'KNOWLEDGE,'Sofia,'

Bulgaria

'

Abstract:'The'paper'focuses'on'the'results'of'the'EUROIDENTITIES' project.'In'particular'it'presents'the'findings'about'the'farmers'as'a' group'‘sensitized’'by'Europe'on'the'base'of'biographical'interviews' collected'in'Bulgaria,'Poland,'Germany'and'Wales.'

Compared'to'the'other'groups'studied'in'the'project'that'of'farm) ers'is'not'an'“ordinary”'sensitized'group.'Farmers'are'settled,'im) mobile'and'bound'to'many'features'of'their'material'surrounding' environment' like' land,' family,' locality' and' nature.' In' the' current' paper' we' trace' out' this' embeddedness' of' farmers’' existence' and' work'into'the'material'and'natural'surrounding'world'as'well'as'its' impact' on' the' farmers’' biographical' development' and' transfor) mation'in'the'four'countries'studied.'Our'intention'is'to'present'the' whole' variety' of' ambivalent' views' of' farmers,' when' referring' to'

Europe' in' their' explanations,' interpretations' and' argumentations.'

Significant' for' the' farmers’' narratives' are' the' figurations' (Elias).'

Along' to' the' most' evident' figuration' “old/ member/ states/ versus/

new/member/states”'we'try'to'elaborate'on'other'significant'inter) relations' like' “farmers/ versus/ other/ market/ actors”' (food' chains,' environmentalists,'state'and'national'bureaucracy,'etc)'in'order'to' embrace'both'–'the'variety'of'the'perceptions'about'the'significant'

“others”' in' the' farmers’' social' world' as' well' as' the' ambivalent' views'about'Europe'in'the'farmers''group.'

THINKING!THE!EDUCATIONAL!OTHER:!COMPARATIVE!

DIMENSIONS!OF!BIOGRAPHICAL!EXPERIENCE!OF!

TRANSNATIONAL!MOBILITY!IN!THE!EUROPEAN!

HIGHER!EDUCATION!AREA!

Howard'Davis

1'

1

School' of' Social' Sciences,' BANGOR' UNIVERSITY,' Bangor,' United'

Kingdom

'

Abstract:'Policies'on'education'and'mobility'in'the'European'Higher'

Education'Area'have'promoted'the'structural'convergence'of'quali) fications' frameworks,' cooperation' between' institutions' and' stu) dent'mobility.'The'Euroidentities'project'(2008)11)'collected'auto) biographical' narrative' interview' data' which' can' be' used' to' inter) pret'the'themes'of'education,'mobility'and'Europe'in'comparative' perspective.' The' research' allows' mobility' experiences' to' be' com) pared'across'a'range'of'European'countries:'north'and'south,'east' and'west.'Taking'individuals'who'had'previously'experienced'study' abroad'in'higher'education,'the'project'examines'the'biographical' data' for' evidence' of' how' the' available' opportunities' for' mobility' are'used'as'well'as'the'evidence'of'changes'which'are'reported'at' the' level' of' everyday' life.' Personal' experience' broadens' through'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

72' mobility'but'the'analysis'suggests'that'students'encounter'the'edu) cational' ‘other’' through' strategies' and' frameworks' of' reference' which'are'embedded'in'the'various'educational'cultures'which'can' be' found' in' Europe.' Students' from' contrasting' educational' back) grounds,' with' different' levels' of' commitment' and' skills,' gravitate' towards'different'types'of'student'mobility.'At'the'same'time,'eve) ry'type'of'mobility'develops'new'skills'and'stimulates'further'aspi) rations.'Some'are'transnational'and'others'may'qualify'as'‘Europe) an’.'The'paper'considers'a'number'of'questions.'What'are'the'limits' of' observation' and' experience' in' the' life' stories?' Which' compari) sons'do'narrators'use?'Where'does'the'category'‘Europe’'emerge' in' argumentation' and' reflective' commentary?' How' do' pathways' through' education' influence' life' trajectories' in' periods' of' social' turbulence'and'at'different'stages'of'the'life'course?'The'narratives' provide'insights'into'the'longer)term'impact'of'experiences'in'the'

European'educational'mobility'arena:'the'integration'of'new'learn) ing,' opportunities' for' cultural' contact' and' self)development' into' other'life'experiences.'

TRANSNATIONAL!WORK!IN!TURBULENT!TIMES!

Kaja'Kazmierska

1'

1

UNIVERSITY'OF'LODZ,'Lodz,'Poland

'

Abstract:' Working' abroad' in' Europe' becomes' more' and' more' common' way' of' designing' one’s' professional' biography.' This' con) siders'both'short'term'projects'related'to'goal'oriented'mobility'as' well' as' the' project' of' transnational' professional' career.' From' the' perspective' of' Eastern' Europe' mobility' connected' with' temporal' work'to'save'the'money'or'survive'crisis'on'labour'market'appeared' to'be'an'effective'strategy'for'individual'biography'as'well'as'in'the' context' of' such' social' problems' as' unemployment.' Especially' that' differences'in'wages'seem'to'keep'their'attractiveness.'Yet'this'kind' of' mobility' is' also' connected' with' biographical' costs' related' to' a' transnational'worker'situation'of'Shützian'homecomer'who'at'the' same'time'has'to'reestablish'relationships'in'his'local'environment' and'remains'a'stranger'in'host'society.'I'will'comment'on'this'prob) lem' by' relating' to' biographical' materials' collected' in' EuroIdentity' project.'

"I'M!BUILDING!MY!OWN!'EUROPEAN'!IDENTITY”:!

ASPIRATION!TO!EUROPEAN!CULTURE!IN!THE!

BIOGRAPHICAL!NARRATIVES!OF!THE!RUSSIANG

SPEAKING!YOUTH!IN!ESTONIA!

Aida'Hachaturyan

1'

1

Centre' for' Contemporary' Cultural' Studies,' TALLINN' UNIVERSITY,'

Tallinn,'Estonia

'

Abstract:' In' the' focus' of' current' research' is' a' question' how' the' younger'generation'of'Russian)speaking'community'in'Estonia'rep) resents' and' identifies' itself' after' the' year' 2000,' when' began' the' second'decade'after'the'collapse'of'Soviet'Union'and'Estonia's'‘re) turning'to'the'West’.'We'deal'with'a'peculiar'group'of'young'peo) ple' who' do' not' represent' Russian)speaking' youth' of' Estonia' in' whole,' but' who' have' their' own' interesting' paths' and' messages:' leaders'and'members'of'different'voluntary'organizations.'

Estonia's'joining'the'European'Union'has'ultimately'eliminated'the' border' with' the' West.' At' the' same' time' young' respondents' feel' their'remoteness'from'their'cultural'mother'country,'from'its'men) tality,' Russia' becomes' even' incomprehensible' and' stranger' to'

Abstract'Book' them.' Obviously,' the' whole' complexity' of' the' issue' of' identity' of' young' respondents' is' that' the' question' "who' we' are?"' they' re) spond' while' watching' the' East' and' the' West' simultaneously.' The' purpose'of'the'paper'is'to'show'a''picture''of'represented'identities' of'young'Russian)speaking'intellectuals.'

The'narratives'shows'the'tendency'of'cosmopolitan'attitude'in'self) representations'of'the'respondents'))'border'as'a'geopolitical'phe) nomenon' narrows,' bounds' the' space' of' their' cultural' identity.' In' this'case'respondent'refuse'to'identify'himself'as'a'citizen'of'cur) rent'state.'Is'it'possible'in'case'of'current'study'group'to'talk'about' a' 'traces'' of' such' phenomena' as' a' hybrid' identity,' transcultural' identity?' From' this' point' of' view' it' is' possible' to' consider' repre) sented' desire' of' young' people' to' go' beyond' the' boundaries' of' a' particular' state,' to' move' to' another' space,' where' the' issue' of' boundaries' between' 'own'' and' 'other'' would' be' eliminated.' Ac) cording' to' the' young' respondents'' views,' Europe' meets' these' ex) pectations,'it'is'represented'as'the'most'suitable'space'for'creative' ideas' and' future' prospects.' Multicultural' identity' implies,' on' the' one' hand,' the' maintenance' of' cultural' differences.' On' the' other' hand,' for' the' formation' of' multicultural' identity' is' important' the' existence'of'multicultural'values.'One'of'these'can'be'seen'in'Euro) pean'culture'as'a'phenomenon.'European'identity'as'a'prototype'of' multicultural'identity'(Beck'2000)'seems'to'be'suitable'for'our're) spondents,'who'represent'themselves'as'carriers'of'European'cul) ture,'values,'norms,'traditions,'mentality.'

DISCOURSE!OF!ETHNICITY!AND!NATION!IN!LATVIA:!

POLYPHONIC!CHARACTER!OF!“SELF”!AND!“OTHER”!

Baiba'Bela

1'

1

Institute'of'Philosophy'and'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'LATVIA,'Riga,'

Latvia

'

Abstract:'In'my'paper'I'would'like'to'focus'on'the'construction'of'

“self”'and'“other”'in'the'discourse'of'ethnic'and'national'identity'in' contemporary' Latvia.' There' has' been' 20' years' since' regaining' of' independence' –' sufficient' time' to' adjust' private' and' collective' identities'to'new'situation.'However'situation'is'complicated'–'al) most'half'of'population'is'different'minority'groups'and'in'the'same' time'in'the'society'dominates'discourse'of'national'identity'typical' for' 19 th

' century' Europe' and' still' typical' for' Eastern' Europe' which' identifies'ethnic'and'national'identity.'It'is'still'not'clear,'who'forms'

Latvia’s'nation'–'Latvians'or'others'as'well,'ethnicity'and'language'is' very' important' in' everyday' communication.' How' Latvians' see' themselves' and' other' ethnic' groups' in' Latvia?' How' other' ethnic' groups' experience' belonging' to' Latvia' and' how' they' see' them) selves'and'titular'nation?'

I'would'like'to'focus'on'discourse'of'national'identity'and'place'of' ethnicity' within' it.' Research' is' based' on' interviews' conducted' for' research' grant' “Formation' of' consciousness' of' national' identity' after'the'reestablishing'of'independence'in'Latvia:'tendencies'and' factors”.' Discourse' of' national' and' ethnic' identity' is' interpreted' using'perspectives'of'constructivism'and'postmodernism'–'theories' of'B.Anderson,'A.L.'Epstein,'S.Hall,'Z.Bauman,'M.'Castels.'

ETHNICITY!–!MIGRATION!G!IDENTITY.!BIOGRAPHICAL!

CONSTRUCTIONS!OF!BELONGING!BY!POLISH!

EMIGRANTS!IN!GERMANY!

Thea'D.'Boldt

1'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

1

KWI,'Essen,'Germany

'

Abstract:'This'presentation'summarizes'the'final'results'of'my'PhD' project' on' biographical' constructions' of' belonging' by' Polish' mi) grants'in'Germany.'

The'central'question'of'my'thesis'is'how'the'construction'of'biog) raphies'of'(these)'people'is'related'to'the'experience'of'migration' and' how' this' is' changing' in' the' process' of' life' history.' I' work' out' which'biographical'concepts'and'plots'the'migrants'are'following'as' well' as' what' sort' of' needs,' expectations' and' attitudes' are' ex) pressed'within'the'biographies'and'related'to'migration.'

The'results'of'my'study'show,'that'Polish'belonging'in'Germany'is' constructed' as' an' ethnic' process' embedded' in' the' collective' Ger) man)Polish'history'as'a'space'of'recollection.'In'this,'special'focus'is' made' on' family' members’' experiences' during' the' Second' World'

War.'

My'study'shows'how'the'recollection'and'reinterpretation'of'these' experiences'is'used'biographically'in'order'to'make'sense'of'migra) tion' experience' and' of' life' in' Germany,' and' how' the' meaning' of' being'Polish'is'constructed'in'this'frame.'

The'final'results'of'my'study'will'be'published'by'Campus'Verlag'in'

Germany'in'October'2011.'

FAITH!AND!RELIGION!IN!THE!FORMATION!OF!

IDENTITIES!OF!THE!ETHNIC!MINORITIES!IN!EASTERN!

EUROPEAN!COUNTRIES!

Lyudmila'A.'Nurse

1'

1

OXFORD'XXI,'Thame,'Oxfordshire,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:' The' paper' addresses' the' place' and' role' of' faith' in' the' formation'and'reproduction'of'ethnic'identities'based'on'analysis'of' biographical' accounts' of' ethnic' minorities' in' Lithuania' and' Latvia'

(ethnic'Russian'and'Polish'minorities)'that'were'studied'in'the'FP7'

ENRI)EAST' project:' European,' National' and' Regional' Identities.'

Faith'and'religious'belief'have'been'sidelined'in'studies'of'the'for) mation' of' identities' in' Eastern' European' countries.' The' fall' of'

Communism' in' Eastern' European' countries' was' followed' by' a' re) vival' of' religion' where' it' had' been' banned' or' significantly' op) pressed'by'regimes.'Religious'practices'are'analysed'in'the'context' of'ethnic'self)identification.'Religious'beliefs'are'traditionally'main) tained'in'families'and'can'be'passed'from'generation'to'generation' whereas'in'the'Socialist'atheist'states'this'pattern'of'belief'transfer' became' “withdrawn' from' public' eye”' due' to' the' official' atheist' doctrine'of'the'state'and'society'and'people’s'fear'of'being'discrim) inated'against'on'the'account'of'religious'beliefs'and'practices.'The' states’'position'on'religion'transformed'the'way'people'expressed' their'religious'beliefs.'This'is'reflected'in'the'ethnic'minorities’'life' stories'collected'in'biographical'interviews.'

FROM!‘IMMIGRANTS’!TO!‘MUSLIMS’:!THE!POLITICAL!

MOBILISATION!AND!SHIFTING!IDENTITIES!OF!THE!

SECOND!GENERATION!IN!BRITAIN!AND!FRANCE!

Timothy'Peace

1'

1

Department' of' Sociology,' UNIVERSITÉ' DU' QUÉBEC' À' MONTRÉAL,'

Montréal,'Canada

'

73'

Abstract:' This' paper' demonstrates' the' continuity' of' mobilisation' between'the'first'generation'of' post)colonial'migrants'to'Britain'and'France'and'the'second'genera) tion'that'was'raised'in'these'countries.'It'also'explores'how'activists' from' this' second' generation' gradually' changed' their' self) identification'from'immigrants/children'of'immigrants'to'‘Muslims’.'

The' focus' is' on' the' political' participation' of' second' generation'

North'Africans'in'France'and'those'whose'parents'originated'from' the'Indian'sub)continent'in'Britain.'In'the'latter'case,'activism'in'the'

70s'and'80s'bridged'the'linguistic'and'religious'divides'in'the'South'

Asian'community,'religious'identity'was'in'fact'sub)ordinate'to'an'

‘Asian’' or' ‘Black’' identity.' In' France' too,' an' ‘Arab’' identity' was' much' more' prominent' and' religion' never' entered' their' demands.'

The'‘Asian'Youth'Movements’'in'Britain'and'the'mouvement/beur'in'

France' were' the' most' symbolic' social' movements' of' the' second' generation'and'some'organizations'still'exist'today'as'secular'lega) cies'of'these'movements.'It'was'only'during'the'1990s'in'fact'that' these'‘Asians’'and'‘Arabs’'first'started'mobilising'as'‘Muslims’.'1989' represented'a'watershed'with'the'Rushdie'affair'in'Britain'and'the' first' headscarf' affair' in' France,' and' in' both' countries' a' ‘Muslim’' identity' became' more' prominent.' The' paper' argues' that' despite' both'sets'of'activists'moving'towards'an'Islamic'identity,'in'France' there'was'much'more'continuity'with'the'past.'French'Muslim'ac) tivists'of'the'second'generation'went'on'to'form'their'own'organi) sations' which' later' regrouped' under' the' umbrella' of' the' Collectif/

des/Musulmans/de/France'(CMF).'These'groups'mobilised'on'Mus) lim'issues'but'also'wider'questions'connected'to'global'justice'(po) lice'brutality,'social'and'welfare'issues,'asylum'seekers).'There'was' no'such'development'in'the'UK.'Indeed'the'groups'that'later'estab) lished' themselves' were' founded' by' first' generation' migrants' and' were'almost'exclusively'concerned'with'religious'issues.'This'helps' to'explain'why'today'Muslims'in'France'are'much'more'likely'to'get' involved'in'broader'social'movements'and'why'identities'in'Britain' have'become'much'more'rigid'and'conservative.'

BIOGRAPHY,!COMMUNITY!AND!RESISTANCE!IN!SKID!

ROW!

Maggie'Oneill

'1

,'Philip'Stenning

'2

'

1

Applied' Social' SCiences,' DURHAM' UNIVERSITY,' Durham,' United'

Kingdom,'

2

Griffith'University,'Brisbane,'Australia

'

Abstract:/Taking'a'biographical'and'visual'ethnographic'approach'to' analyse' the' politics' of' community' and' resistance' in' 'skid' row'' we' discuss'the'multiple'ways'of'seeing'the'spaces'and'places'of'‘com) munity’'through'the'narratives'and'photographs'of'residents'in'the'

DTES.' Moreover,' we' reflect' upon' the' theoretical' and' empirical' implications' for' re)thinking' biography,' community' and' resistance' through' participatory' and' arts' based' research' within' socio) economic'conditions'of'sharpening'sexual'and'social'inequalities.'

FRAYED!CAREERS!IN!TURBULENT!TIMES.!INDIVIDUAL!

CHOICES!OR!SITUATIONAL!FORCES?!

Elisabeth'Schilling

1'

1

Social'Sciences,'UNIVERSITY'OF'APPLIED'ADMINISTRATIVE'SCIENCE'

NRW,'Cologne,'Germany

'

Abstract:'Careers'(as'a'part'of'a'biography)'were'originally'under) stood'as'a'linear'individual'development'within'one'stable'employ) ing' organization.' This' conjunction' began' to' disintegrate' with' the'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

74' environmental' changes' and' turbulences.' In' my' research' project' I' analyse'if'the'linear'career'no'longer'has'its'normative'power,'if'the' individuals'freely'choose'to'pursue'non)linear'career'patterns'or'if' they'are'forced'by'their'circumstances'to'this'path.'

The' manifold' barriers' in' women’s' careers' produce' not' only' the' obstacles'to'reach'the'career'goal,'respectedposition'or'acceptance' in'the'working'world.'They'also'cause'interruptions,'downtimes'or' career'breaksin'the'career'development.'Women'in'highly'qualified' professions'are'very'often'forced'not'to'pursue'the'standard'linear' and'cumulative'working'lives'but'to'search'for'unknown'and'unu) sual'side'ways'in'order'to'reach'the'professional'goal.'

Using'the'framework'developed'by'Reiter'(2010)'I'analyse'the'indi) vidual' strategies' which' help' profession)oriented' women' to' deal' with' the' uncertainty' of' their' frayed' biographies.' I' use' this' frame) work'in'order'to'analyse'the'biographicalwork'of'older'profession) als.'They'discover'strategies'to'cope'with'insecurity,'organizational' injustice' or' life' course' stereotypes' such' as' networking,' additional' qualification,'change'over'to'a'self)employed'position'or'working'in' an'interdisciplinary'field.'

In'my'presentation'I'would'like'to'compare'the'biographicalnarra) tives' of' three' older' female' professionals.' I' aim' to' bring' together' empirical'data'about'different'biographical'models'and'the'patterns' of' women's' mental' handling' of' their' own' biographies.' My' special' attention'is'further'directed'towards'the'subjective'notion'of'per) sonal'success.'

The' success' of' their' strategies' is' equivocal' since' they' are' highly' individualistic,' create' additional' transitional' moments' and' hence' additional' risk' in' the' life' course.' It' can' be' stated' that' individual' effort' and' individual' ability' are' not' as' powerful' as' organizational' form' and' organizational' policy' in' order' to' resolve' female' career' obstacles.'

PHOTOGRAPHIC!PORTRAITS!AND!MEMORY!

Brian'Roberts

1'

1

PSYCHOSOCIAL' RESEARCH' UNIT,' UNIVERSITY' OF' CENTRAL'

LANCASHIRE,'PRESTON,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:' The' paper' seeks' to' add' to' the' increasing' interest' and' development' of' visual' materials' in' narrative' and' biographical' re) search' by' exploring,' through' a' particular' interpretive' approach' )' the' photographic' portrait' )' "self)images"' taken' of' us' by' ourselves'

(self)portraits)'or'taken'by'others'(portraits'gained'informally'or'by' professionals),'alone'or'as'part'of'a'group.'The'paper'has'a'strong' auto/biographical'focus:'it'explores'how'we'"look"'at'(and'experi) ence'according'to'our'"senses")'personal'photographs'and'associ) ate'them'with'memories'of'our'past,'our'current'experience,'and' future.'It'takes'as'examples'two'school'photographs'(1956)8)'of'me' aged'6)8'years'old'and'uses'the'idea'of'"time'perspectives"'and'a' range' of' associated' concepts.' Two' connected' narratives' are' out) lined')'firstly,'a'commentary'on'the'two'school'photographs'and'my' childhood' development' (e.g.' sensual,' intellectual)' between' 6)8' years' old,' and' second,' my' current' outlook' and' activities' and' how' the'relate'to'memories'raised'by'the'photographs.'

“CRACOW”:!“CITY”:!“ISLAND”.!BIOGRAPHICAL!MYTH!

OF!PLACE!AS!A!PERFORMATIVE!“FICTION”!IN!A!LOCH!

CAMELOT!CABARET!

Abstract'Book'

Anna'Kapusta

1'

1

Sociology,'JAGIELLONIAN'UNIVERSITY,'Cracow,'Poland

'

Abstract:'The'main'issue'of'exploration'is'the'process'of'transfor) mation' the' mythical' narration' into' performative' municipal' “fic) tion”.' That' is' social' mechanisms' of' “biographical' myth' of' place”' materialising' in' polish,' cracovian' artistic' biographies.' The' case' study'is'based'on'data'from'the'Loch'Camelot'Cabaret'in'Cracow.'

“Biographical' myth' of' place”' analysed' in' cognitive' categories' and' autodefinitions'of'the'cabaret'artists'as'well'as'symbolic'structures' present'in'the'culture'texts'was'reconstructed'in'the'language'anal) ysis'of'unrestrained'and'profound'interviews,'author’s'observations' and' compiled' audial' documentation' (municipal' cracovian' song,' in' peculiarity'entitled'“On'the'Cracow'Isle”).'The'effect'of'research'is' constatation'that'late)modernity'forms'of'mythical'thinking'estab) lish' new' spiritual' phenomena' of' places,' among' them' function' of' aesthetic'communication'sacrum'mediated'by'the'cabaret'sender) recipient'act.'One'of'the'dimensions'of'mythical'thinking'constitute' also' occurrence' of' aestheticization' of' biographies' and' symbolic' social' ties,' which' are' integral' feature' of' processual' work' of' art,' whose'example'undoubtedly'is'the'recital'program'“On'the'Cracow'

Isle.”'

QUEERING!VEGANISMG!ADVENTURES!IN!BIOGRAPHY!

AND!REFLEXIVITY!

Nathan'David'Stephens'Griffin

1'

1

School'of'Applied'Social'Sciences,'DURHAM'UNIVERSITY,'Durham,'

United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:' This' paper' (and' my' broader' research)' reconceptualizes' veganism' in' Queer' terms,' taking' the' vegan' as' its' Queer' subject.'

Biographical'research'is'a'methodologically'diverse'field,'but'gener) ally'its'methods'seek'to'understand'the'experiences'and'outlooks' of' individual' subjects' in' their' broader' social' and' political' context.'

Principles'such'as'respect,'reciprocity,'trust'as'well'as'a'sensitivity' to'the'importance'of'narrative,'are'central'to'many'of'these'meth) ods.' My' research' expands' upon' these' principles,' combining' con) ventional' biographical' interviews' with' the' use' of' comics.' Comics' are' a' narrative' medium' utilizing' visual' and/or' textual' modes' of' communication.' Comics' are' visually' engaging' in' a' way' that' tradi) tional'prose'is'not'and'rather'than'being'a'hindrance'to'complexity,' comics'can'convey'nuanced'ideas'in'a'multi)dimensional'way.'Peo) ple'from'wider'social'and'educational'backgrounds'can'engage'with' and'respond'to'comics.'Hopefully'this'means'that'my'research'can' reach'beyond'the'traditionally'insular'boundaries'of'the'academy.'

TOWARDS!A!PRAGMATIC!APPROACH:!A!STRATEGY!TO!

THE!ANALYSIS!OF!BIOGRAPHICAL!DATA!

Trine'Lund'Thomsen

'1

,'Rasmus'Antoft

'2

'

1

Department'of'Culture'and'Global'Studies,' ogy,'AALBORG'UNIVERSITY,'Aalborg,'Denmark

2

Department'of'Sociol)

'

Abstract:'The'main'purpose'of'this'paper'is'to'develop'on'the'idea' of'a'”pragmatic”'approach'to'the'biographical'method.'In'this'per) spective'the'biographical'research'method'can'be'divided'into'four' main' approaches' and' in' short' they' are' characterized' by;' 1)' the/

agent=oriented/approach'which'main'focus'is'that'the'lives'of'indi) viduals'are'characterized'by'biographical'projects'that'are'constant) ly'revised;'2)'the/institutional/approach'where'the'point'of'depar)

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' ture'is'that'institutions'have'a'significant'influence'on'the'lives'of' individuals'in'terms'of'self)understanding'and'placing'oneself'into'a' broader' context' and' that' this' influence' can' be' traced' in' the' bio) graphical'stories;'3)'the/narrative/approach'is'based'on'the'applica) tion' of' the' narration' from' the' life' story' as' statements' which' are' transformed' into' text' and' that' the' text' has' its' own' reality' as' a' meaning' formatting' construction;' 4)' the/ cognitive/ approach' as) sumes'that'there'exists'a'fundamental'homology'between'the'told' story'and'the'lived'life.'These'four'main'approaches'are'analytical' constructions'that'rarely'are'used'in'a'“straight”'version,'but'rather' that'elements'from'some'of'the'approaches'are'brought'together' in'order'to'fit'with'a'specific'study'at'hand.'

The' introduction' of' this' kind' of' pragmatic' approach' depending' largely'on'the'social'relations'and'processes'explored'in'the'investi) gation'is'based'on'that'they'are'comprehended'better'in'terms'of' context'and'interaction'and'consequently'biography.'In'this'paper' we' seek' to' elaborate' on' the' four' approaches' and' explore' how' a' pragmatic'approach'may'be'an'appropriate'strategy'to'apply'when' conducting'biographical'research.'

INDIVIDUAL!MEMORY!AND!COLLECTIVE!FORGETTING:!

BETWEEN!GRAND!NARRATIVES!IN!LATVIA!

Edmunds'Supulis

1'

1

LATVIA'UNIVERSITY,'riga,'Latvia

'

Abstract:' Restoration' of' independence' and' liberalization' of' re) pressed'historical'memory'forged'new'Grand'narrative'on'Latvia`s' past'to'replace'the'representations'made'under'Soviet'regime.'New' memory'regimes'in'former'Soviet'states'(and'countries'of'Warsaw' pact)' on' one' hand' liberated' repressed' recollections' (of' independ) ence,' occupation,' deportations' etc.),' on' other' hand' each' country' are'experiencing'its'own'kind'of'amnesia'regarding'particular'ques) tions'of'Soviet'experience.'In'my'country'it'is'seen'from'turning'to' both' public' discourses' and' analyzing' various' life' story' interviews' from'the'Latvia'National'Oral'history'collection.'People'in'Latvia'still' have'very'personal'memories'of'Soviet'time'and'certain'problems' to'adjust'them'with'present'biographical'narratives.'Can'those'“so) viet' memories”' and' “Latvian' identity”' be' reconciled?' The' paper' touches' upon' aspects' of' memory' studies' where' power' operated' within' politics' of' memory' is' eliminating' some' recollections' and' supporting' the' others.' What' kind' of' Latvian' historical' vision' and' national'identity'is'offered'to'people'who'are'divided'both'by'lin) guistic'and'mnemonic'practices?'Current'politics'of'memory'in'Lat) via' raises' my' attention' to' the' ways' how' to' deal' with' contestable' past' and' to' the' possibility' to' converge' opposite' communities' of' memory.'

MAKING!SOVIET!PAST!USABLE:!NARRATIONS!OF!THE!

THREE!ESTONIAN!GENERATIONS!

Aili'Aarelaid)Tart

1'

1

Centre' for' Contemporary' Cultural' Studies,' TALLINN' UNIVERSITY,'

Tallinn,'Estonia

'

Abstract:'I'compare'the'narrations'on'Soviet'period'by'three'differ) ent'generations:'1)'born'in'1920s'or'Republican'youth'(RG);'2)'born' in'1945)1950s'or'after)war'children'(AG);'3)'born'1985)1991'or'Kids' of'Singing'Revolution'(SG).'All'these'generations'use'these'memo) ries' as' identity)building' tools' for' more' convenient' interpretations' their' social' positions' in' rapidly' changing' value)reality' in' Estonia.'

75'

The' life' stories' of' RG' are' full' of' comparisons' of' two' independent' periods' cut' by' triple' occupation' years.' Unpleasant' memories' on' long' Soviet' times' are' contrasted' to' very' trusty' pre)war' child) hood/youth' what' was' interrupted' by' deportations,' violence' and' horror'in'1940.'The'restoration'of'independent'statehood'in'1991'is' taken'as'a'happiest'event'in'their'lives.'One'part'from'RG'demand) ed'revenge'for'the'lost'youth,'the'large'part'asks'for'understanding' of' their' double)minded' behaviour' in' the' coercive' circumstances.'

The' members' of' RG' (who' are' over' 80' years' old)' are' the' experi) enced'survivors'in'historical'whirlpool.'AG'had'not'their'own'mem) ories'on'pre)war'state'in'their'formative'years,'that'period'revealed' for'them'as'something'strongly'forbidden'but'desirable.'The'“red”' ideology,' double' mental' standards' and' deficit' for' everyday' goods' were'them'as'taken'for'granted'framing'of'life.'The'collapse'of'the'

Soviet'system'captures'them'in'the'middle'of'their'working'career' demanding'strong'revisiting'of'previous'values.'They'do'not'narrate' this' rapid' change' as' huge' event' in' their' lives' but' estimate' it' as' something' very' normal.' Even' the' loosing' of' high' (nomenclature)' positions' they' narrate' now' as' a' becoming' of' right' time' to' make' some' changes' in' their' working' career.' SG' remembering' of' Soviet' time'is'very'fragmentary'or'absent'at'all.'Their'knowledge'on'Sovi) ets'is'intermediated'by'school'text)books'or'listened'from'relatives.'

The' essence' of' Soviet' ideology' and' repressive' state)machinery' is' quite' alien' for' them,' pure' facts' from' history' only.' They' are' inter) ested'in'the'Soviet'everyday'life'full'of'queues'for'sausage,'butter,' milk,' tights,' underwear,' etc.' They' are' children' of' rising' consumer' society'where'things'are'more'important'than'ideas.'Told'at'homes' fantastic'stories'on'deficit'economy'(no'bananas,'no'jeans,'no'fibre' pens'–'incredible!)'they'take'as'an'adventure,'as'a'fun.'The'archae) ology'of'Soviet'past'opens'to'SG'a'new'framing'to'understand'their' position'in'the'latest'years'of'restricted'consumerism.'

THE!NEGATION!OF!BIOGRAPHICAL!PAST.!THE!

IDENTITY!WORK!OF!ADULTS!GROWING!UP!IN!

CHILDREN’S!INSTITUTIONS!

Agnieszka'Golczyńska)Grondas

1'

1

Institute'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'LODZ,'Lodz,'Poland

'

Abstract:'The'paper'treats'about'the'identity'work'undertaken'by' interviewees'in'the'project'“Institutionalized'identity?'Life'stories'of' adults' who' grew' up' in' state' children’s' homes”' (2010)2011).' The' narrators' come' from' poor,' socially' deprived' families' and' )' due' to' the' family' dysfunctions' )' were' placed' in' institutions.' It' has' been' proved' that' the' economic' poverty' and' low' social' status' are' very' often'connected'with'“biographical'paucity”'(e.g.'Palska'H.,'Bieda'i'

Dostatek.'O'nowych'stylach'życia'w'Polsce'lat'dziewięćdziesiątych,'

Warszawa' 2002).' In' the' case' of' narrators' in' the' project,' the' phe) nomenon' of' biographical' “rooting' out”' regards' hardly' perceptible' resources'of'biographical'memory'about'past'and'older'generations' and' primary' social' environment' of' biography' incumbents.' These' resources'are'limited'also'due'to'the'lack'or'institutionally'restrict) ed'interactions'with'parents'and'other'family'members.'The'possi) bilities' of' developing' individual’s' identity' and' benefiting' from' the' resources'of'biographical'memory'are'confined'not'only'because'of' the' lack' of' information' about' the' personal' past,' but' also' on' ac) count'of'suffering'and'traumatic'events'experienced'by'narrators'in' childhood'and'adolescence.'Moreover'the'interviewees'have'had'to' face' stigmatizing' practices' of' (significant)' others' ascribing' them' intergenerationally' “inherited”' negative' attributes.' Narrators’' atti) tudes'towards'past,'biographical'roots'and'assigned'characteristics'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

76' seem'to'be'crucial'for'their'identity'and'biographical'work'and'sub) sequent'life'course.'

THE!RUSSIAN!MUSEUMS!OF!AFGHAN!WAR!AND!

COLLECTIVE!REMEMBRANCE!STRATEGIES!

Elena'Rozhdestvenskaya

'1

,'Irina'Tartakovskaya

'2

'

1

Sociology,'State'University'Higher'School'of'Economic,'

2

Institute'of'

Sociology,'Moscow,'Russian'Federation

'

Abstract:' The' museums' of' Soviet' War' in' Afghanistan' have' been' organized' by' the' survived' veterans' and' relatives' of' the' perished' soldiers.' Most' important' motivation' was' to' commemorate' their' comrades'killed'in'this'war.'That'means'the'necessity'for'two'things'

(or' objectives):' mourning' and' grief' but' also' giving' sense' to' their' deaths'as'well'as'to'the'War'in'Afghanistan.'The'second'objective' transforms' into' the' “mission”' of' younger' generation' patriotic' breeding.'

The'Museum'fails'to'answer'the'question'of'what'was'the'reason'of' war.'This'is'the'museum'made'for'the'remembrance'of'people'who' performed'their'duty'participating'in'a'tragic'event.'That'event'had' no'personal'meaning'for'them'and'their'state'didn’t'care'to'create' any'clear'frame'of'explanation.'So'the'task'of'giving'sense'is'per) formed' as' the' formation' of' the' sequence' of' participation' in' the' wars'and'with'the'help'of'the'emotional'rituals.'

What' is' important' for' setting' the' intra)museum' space' of' Afghan' theme'are'the'things'which'represent'it'–'discursive'somatizations,' which' localize,' describe' and' personify' military' experience.' These' representations'find'their'expression'in'the'images'of'individual'or' collective'body.'

T.Bennett'in'his'work'‘Birth'of'the'Museum’'describes'museum'as' the'disciplinary'machine'embodying'the'general'standards'of'social' behavior'via'the'enlightenment'tasks.'This'dimension'of'visual'cul) ture' development' serves' executes' the' power' of' interpretation' of' very'certain'way'of'development'and'selection'of'significant'land) marks' (of' knowledge).' But' on' top' of' the' task' of' pathos' transmis) sion,' a' contemporary' museum' must' be' attractive,' entertaining.'

When'we'balance'these'tasks,'we'also'can'trace'the'interplay'be) tween'different'politics'of'memorization'and'representation.'

The'museums'of'war'in'Afghanistan'are'neither'militaristic,'aiming' to'support'the'military'spirit,'nor'pacifistic,'blaming'somebody'for' the'fact'of'war'and'daring'to'say'this'‘never'again’.'Actually,'there' are'museums'of'fatalism,'telling'their'story'about'the'inevitability' of'war'which'harvest'souls'and'bodies'young'and'innocent'victims,' who'should'be'ready'to'participate'in'

MEMORYSCAPE:!BIOGRAPHY!AS!CAPITAL!AND!

MEDIATOR!OF!COMMUNICATION!AND!

HARMONIZATION!OF!EXPERIENCES!

Dace'Bormane

1'

1

INSTITUTE' OF' PHILOSOPHY' AND' SOCIOLOGY,' UNIVERSITY' OF'

LATVIA,'Riga,'Latvia

'

Abstract:'There'are'processes,'things'or'occurrences'that'could'be' understood'only'within'contexts.The'study'of'biography'(in'a'broad' sense)'is'an'example'of'humanistic'sociology.'In'this'context'we'can' speak' about' the' memory/ work' and' controlled' understanding.' The'

Abstract'Book' significant' role' of' memory' in' society' consists' of' the' fact' that' the' past'is'never'the'past.'

The' present' paper' will' analyze' the' mindscape' as' a' space' of' memory,'the'facticity'of'memory'and'the'politics'of'memory,'the'so' called'“hot'memories”,'the'narrative'ethics'…'

Memory'is'creative.'It'forms'the'scene'of'thinking'and'presupposes' the' so)called' “memories' to' be' filled)up”,' the' spheres' of' common' decisions'and'the'logic'of'communication.'Then'the'necessity'of'the' harmonization'of'experiences'as'formation'of'a'certain'capital'aris) es'when'narratives'serve'for'people'for'practicing'to'act.'

The'life)story'texts'were'created'developed'and'they'functions'as'a' dialogue'(in'the'broad'sense'of'the'word)'within'the'communicative/

network' (N.' Luhman).' It' is' a' communication' with' a' nation' in' the' situation' of' the' many)sided,' plural' society,' it' is' a' communication' with'politicians,'with'communities'(in'different'regions,'in'etnoses'

…').'

The'power'of'memory'encompasses'different'structures:'the'men) tal,'traditional,'national,'political'ones,'especially'when'the'collec) tive'memory'is'in'action'opening'the'“doors”'to'the'space'of'identi) ty' of' the' human' being.' It' is' speak' about' the' narrative' aspect' of' unfolding'the'memory'and'the'thematization'of'experience'in'nar) ratives.' In' everyday' praxis' we' speak' about' the' harmonization' of' experiencesd' and,' so' to' say,' about' the' harmonization' of' history,' where'history'is'biographised.'We'found'it'in'the'“reconciliation”'of' people’s' experiences.' A' person’s' experience' obtains' its' meaning' and'plausibility'in'relation'with'the'experience'of'others.'

The' “agent”' of' habitus' is' memory.' Values' without' memory' are' nothing,' likewise' values' without' memory.' It' becomes' especially' actual'in'social'relations'during'turbulent'times.'

The'questions'of'the'present'topic'correlate'with'social'processes'in' the' contemporary' Latvia:' memory' as' ideology' and' memory' as' a' channel' of' communication' in' the' development' of' people' and' communities'and'different'ethnical'communities.The'materials'for' biographical'research'are'gathered'in'the'expeditions'in'Latvia'the) se'results'are'stored'in'the'Oral'History'Archives'in'the'University'of'

Latvia'(Riga).'

BIOGRAPHICAL!CONSEQUENCES!OF!CHILDHOOD!

MOBILITY.!THIRD!CULTURE!KIDS’!CASE!

Agnieszka'Ewa'Trąbka

1'

1

Institute'of'Sociology,'JAGIELLONIAN'UNIVERSITY,'Kraków,'Poland

'

Abstract:'I'would'like'to'analyze'consequences'of'mobility'in'child) hood'(because'of'parents’'work)'for'further'biography'and'identity.'

In'seems'that'such'mobility'(involuntary'and'in'early'stages'of'life)' differs'significantly'from'other'types'of'migrations.'

That'is'why'I'decided'to'devote'my'research'to'Third'Culture'Kids,' i.e.' people' ”who' have' spent' a' significant' part' of' his' or' her' devel) opmental' years' outside' his/her' parents’' culture.' The' third' culture' kid' builds' relationships' to' all' the' cultures,' while' not' having' full' ownership'in'any'(Pollock'2009).'TCKs'are'usually'children'of'busi) nessmen,' diplomats,' scholars' or' missionaries' and,' in' a' way,' they' seem'to'be'privileged'group,'but'very'often'they'experience'serious' problems'in'adapting'to'their'passport'country'and'have'difficulties' in'constructing'cohesive'and'integral'identity.'

In'the'frames'of'my'research'I'conduct'biographical'interviews'with'

TCKs,' or,' to' be' precise' with' adult' TCKs.' I' am' strongly' inspired' by'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' narrative'interview'method'of'Fritz'Schutze.'Its'main'advantage'in' the'context'or'my'subject'is'processual'attitude'towards'one’s'iden) tity:/Following/experiences/gradually/make/an/individual/change/his/

or/ her/ self=definiotions./ Changes/ can/ be/ marked/ by/ turning/ points/

constituted/by/critical/incidents/[…]'The/deeper/the/change/the/more/

elaborated/ the/ biographical/ work/ that/ has/ to/ be/ done/ in/ order/ to/ integrate/one’s/experiences/into/a/more/or/less/coherent/wholeness./

(Kaźmierska,'2003:'5).'As'I'shall'try'to'show'TCKs’'biographies'are' marked' by' such' turning' points' –' moving' from' one' country' to' an) other'–'and'all'the'time'previous'experiences'are'reinterpreted.'

Moving' in' childhood' they' have' contact' with' different' people,' dif) ferent'cultures,'very'often'they'attend'international'schools'which' results' in' cosmopolitan' identity' and' multicultural' competences.'

They' easily' adapt' in' new' environments,' but' often' have' problems' with'identifying'their'home./They'have'sense'of'temporality'in'eve) ry'place'they'live'in'–'after'some'time'they'cannot'imagine'them) selves'living'too'long'in'one'place'and'very'often'finally'they'choose' for' themselves' similar' mobile' lifestyle.' Some' TCKs' suffer' however' from'deep'crisis'because'of'this'sense'of'“homelessness”.'

In'this'paper'I'would'like'to'present'some'preliminary'result'from' biographical'interviews'I'have'conducted.'

BRAZILIAN!IMMIGRANTS!IN!PORTUGAL,!LIVING!

BETWEEN!EQUALS!AND!DIFFERENTS:!LIFE!STORIES!

AND!THE!CONSTRUCTION!OF!THE!THIRD!PERSON!

Cristóvão'Ribeiro'Margarido

'1

,'Ricardo'Neves'Vieira

1'

1 ciid')'Centro'Investigação'Identidades'e'Diversida,'IPL')'INSTITUTO'

POLITÉCNICO'DE'LEIRIA,'Leiria,'Portugal

'

Abstract:'We'will'present'a'biographical'study'about'Brasilians'im) migrants' in' Portugal,' in' order' to' understand' the' process' of'

(re)creating' the' personal' identity' in' people' who' pass' social' and' cultural'frontiers.'

The'people'who'live'with'a'cultural'stability'and'have'few'interac) tions' with' alterations,' tend' to' have' more' monocultural' attitudes' which'are'closer'to'the'type'of'behaviour'belonging'to'the'culture' in'which'they'are'originally'integrated'with'their'peers'and'family.'

Those'that,'for'various'reasons'undergo'a'process'of'social'mobility' whether' ascending' or' descending,' are' subject' to' a' cultural' meta) morphosis' and' therefore' recreate' their' personal' identities:' they' recreate'the'image'that'they'have'of'themselves'and'the'one'they' show' others.' The' immigrant' seeks' to' create' their' new' me' amid' their'culture'of'origin'and'their'newly'found'culture'by'separating' the'two'worlds,'joining'them'or'creating'a'third'identity'dimension,' in' an' attempt' to' find' the' most' secure' way' in' an' ontological' per) spective.'

Contrary' to' what' is' normally' assumed' in' cultural' studies' about' immigrants'which'tend'to'explain'social'and'mental'pathologies'as' a' result' of' emigration,' especially' amongst' children' of' immigrants,' allegedly' tormented' because' of' living' divided' between' different' cultures,'we'believe'that'these'individuals'have'the'capacity'to'live' comfortably'in'different'worlds'without'any'type'of'pathology.'

In' sum,' this' communication' departs' from' the' general' idea' that' immigrant’s'integration'strategies'oscillate'between'an'attitude'of' commitment'and'an'attitude'of'intercultural'evasion.'The'first'case' refers'to'the'immigrants'who'integrate'their'culture'of'origin'into' the' emerging' cultural' identity' both' implicitly' and' explicitly.' The' latter'denies'the'culture'of'origin'and'idealizes'the'target'culture,'

77' leading'to'the'monocultural'immigrant.'Another'strategy'could'be' the' development' of' a' transnational' identity' that' consists' in' living' regularly'in'‘two'worlds’.'

TRANSNATIONAL!MOBILES!AND!THE!QUESTION!OF!

BELONGING.!HOW!OTHERNESS,!TRANSCULTURALITY!

AND!COSMOPOLITANISM!ARE!TAKEN!PART!IN!

BIOGRAPHY!AND!IDENTITY!WORK!

Claudia'Vorheyer

1'

1

Institut'of'Sociolgy,'University'of'Zurich,'Zurich,'Switzerland,'Swit) zerland

'

Abstract:'Migration'and'mobility,'transnationalisation'and'transcul) turality,'become')'in'different'ways'direct'or'indirect')'part'of'the' individual' and' collective' experiences' and' challenges' of' society' members.'From'the'biographical'research'point'of'view'they'can'be' passed'by'individuals'as'an'institutional'schedule'model'or'followed' intentional,' they' can' initiate' processes' of' biographical' transfor) mations' or' trajectories' of' suffering.' On' one' hand' border' and' boundary'crossing,'extend'options'of'action'and'widen'the'experi) ence' realm' and' social' universe' of' individuals.' On' the' other' hand' plurality'and'heterogeneity'as'well'as'uncertainty'and'unsteadiness,' otherness' and' ambivalence' are' prominent' challenges' and' difficul) ties.' Against' this' background' we' need' to' ask' what' kind' of' social' capacities'subjects'provide'to'construct'a'transnational'social'reali) ty,' which' social' dispositions' and' competences' are' required' and' what'kind'of'socialization'and'learning'processes'are'involved.'

As' prototypes' for' current' transnational' socialization' processes' we' centre' on' the' group' so' called' Transnational' Mobiles,' who' were' long)term' living' and' working' in' several' different' countries' and' who`s'social'and'occupational'worlds'are'often'characterized'by'a' combination' of' frequently' traveling' and' periodical' moving.' Based' on' autobiographical' narrative' interviews' we' reconstruct' the' pat) terns' of' their' life' courses' and' transnational' careers.' Thereby' the' research'interest'and'talk'focus'on'the'coherence'of'objective'and' subjective' transnationalisation' processes.' How' transnational' mo) biles' handle' socio)cultural' diversity' and' experiences' of' otherness' on' the' cognitive,' interactional' and' emotional' level?' What' kind' of' specific'patterns'of'perception'and'action'like'for'example'cosmo) politan' perspectives' and' orientations' can' be' seen?' How' the' self' and'own'nationality'and'the'people'from'other'countries'and'cul) tures' are' represented' and' reflected?' In' which' ways' transnational' life' courses' and' career' paths' stimulate' new' forms' of' biographical' and'identity'work?'What'kind'of'post)national'or'post)traditional'or' other' reflexive' forms' of' identity' formation' transnational' mobiles' develop?'

TRANSNATIONALISATION!AND!MIGRANT!

BIOGRAPHIES!

Barbara'Theresia'Schröttner

'1

,'Angela'Pilch)Ortega'Hernandez

1'

1

Department'of'Education,'UNIVERSITY'OF'GRAZ,'Graz,'Austria

'

Abstract:' Transnational' spaces' should' not' be' understood' as' loca) tions'on'a'map'but'instead'as'relational'social'areas.'Contemporary' societies' are' increasingly' heterogeneous,' less' limited' by' physical' boundaries' and' more' spatially' and' socially' spread' out.' Through' migration,' streams' of' people' incorporate' social' connections' into' their'daily'lives'which'go'beyond'national'borders.'It'is'for'this'rea) son'that'transnational'spaces'can'in'no'way'be'regarded'as'a'ho)

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

78' mogeneous'phenomenon'and'thus,'they'cannot'be'conceived'of'as' sealed' containers.' They' are' relational' structures' which' are' com) posed'of'various'relationships'arising'from'global'mobility'and'hav) ing' different' coverage.' Transnationalisation' can' therefore' be' ana) lyzed' as' the' increasing' liberation' and/or' emancipation' from' place' because' the' bond' of' social' relations' to' the' local' environment' is' opened' up.' However' place' does' not' loose' its' relevance' as' an' or) ganizing' and' structural' principle' –' instead' it' gains' relevance' be) cause' social' relations' as' well' as' all' other' interactions' still' have' a' territorial'reference.'Due'to'these'developments'new'‘transit'spac) es’,' ‘asylum)seeker' spaces’,' ‘migration' spaces’,' ‘refugee' spaces’,'

‘tourist'spaces’,'‘intercultural'spaces’'and'also'‘integration'spaces’' emerge.'Biographies'of'global'actors'and'migrants'reference'trans) national' spaces;' within' these' spaces,' experiences' of' transnational' acting' and' interacting' are' biographically' gathered' and' developed.'

Migrants'establish'relationships'in'different'geographical'locations' and' maintain' these' relationships' despite' the' physical' divide.' New' technologies' facilitate' communication' and' allow' for' the' continua) tion'of'these'social'connections;'the'overlapping'social'areas'bring' new'challenges'which'have'to'be'mastered'in'the'everyday'organi) sation'of'life.'The'aim'of'the'paper'is'to'focus'on'transnational'so) cial'relationships'and'the'related'challenges'such'as'diversity,'con) tradictoriness,' inconsistency,' virtual' distance' and' the' proximity' in' daily' life.' This' leaves' the' question:' How' do' humans' create' their' own' transcultural' references' in' their' everyday' lives' and' how' do' these'support'the'transformation'of'regionally'embodied'structures' and'practices?'By'taking'this'question'into'consideration,'it'can'be' concluded'that'the'“irritating'potential”'which'occurs'through'the' confrontation' within' and' among' transnational' spaces' can' be' ana) lyzed'and'dealt'with'in'learning'processes.'

NEW!MATERIAL!OBJECTS!AND!CHANGE!OF!SOCIAL!

PRACTICES!DURING!THE!LIFE!COURSE!OF!THE!ELDERLY!

IN!POLAND!

Joanna'Marta'Zalewska

1'

1

Institute' of' Philosophy' and' Sociology,' Academy' of' Special' Peda) gogics,'Warsaw,'Poland

'

Abstract:'The'aim'of'the'presentation'is'to'discuss'the'perception'of' turbulent' changes' of' social' practices' in' everyday' life,' which' have' taken'place'during'the'life'course'of'the'generations'of'the'elderly' in'Poland.'

The'ethnographic'research'was'inspired'by'multi)sited'ethnography' and'life'course'approach.'It'was'conducted'in'Warsaw'with'eleven' interlocutors'born'between'1918'and'1940.'The'analyzed'materials' come' from' ten' biographical' narrative' interviews,' eleven' in)depth' interviews'on'perception'of'changes'and'eleven'in)depth'interviews' on'social'ties.'The'interlocutors'were'differentiated'on'their'social' characteristics' (family' background,' education,' profession,' income,' moment'of'moving'to'Warsaw).'

The' most' important' change' for' the' interlocutors' was' the' appear) ance'of'huge'amount'of'new'material'objects'with'new'features'in' their'everyday'lives'as'a'result'of'technological'development.'It'was' experienced' as' intense' change' after' the' II' world' war,' and' it' was' perceived'as'gradual'change'in'the'next'decades.'The'appearance' of'new'objects'in'everyday'life'was'connected'with'the'change'of' ways'of'satisfying'needs,'ways'of'sharing'duties'in'families,'change' in'structure'of'time'and'in'social'ties.'

Abstract'Book'

Thus'the'appearance'of'new'objects'in'everyday'life'was'connected' with'the'development'of'new'social'practices.'It'can'be'interpreted' with' the' concept' of' ‘maintenance' regimes’' of' M.' Krajewski.'

‘Maintenance'regimes’'are'social'practices'that'enable'continuation' and' recreation' of' everyday' life' through' operations' on' material' objects.' They' developed' as' a' result' of' changing' organization' of' consumption' (consumption' outside' family,' new' forms' of' services' offered'by'market'and'state,'new'technologies'in'everyday'life).'

Before'the'development'of'‘maintenance'regimes’'the'rules'of'be) havior' in' everyday' life' were' rooted' in' customs' and' norms' of' re) spective'communities.'During'the'life'course'of'the'generations'of' the'elderly'in'Poland'social'practices'in'everyday'life'became'more' driven' by' features' of' material' objects' and' less' by' customs' and' norms.' The' exteriorization' of' rules' of' behavior' has' taken' place.'

Development'of'‘maintenance'regimes’'enabled'the'change'in'so) cial' ties' in' families.' In' patriarchal' families' the' everyday' duties' of' family'members'were'assigned'according'to'age,'gender'and'posi) tion' in' family.' ‘Maintenance' regimes’' )' rooted' in' material' objects' provided' by' market' )' allow' individuals' independently' satisfy' their' everyday'needs.'

DISCOURSE!OF!THE!POWER!AS!A!TOOL!FOR!THE!

COLLECTIVE!CRIMINAL!BIOGRAPHY!CONSTRUCTION!

Alexandra'Dmitrieva

1'

1

ST.' PETERSBURG' STATE' UNIVERSITY,' St.' Petersburg,' Russian' Fed) eration

'

Abstract:' The' process' of' attributing' social' value' to' the' different' kinds' of' drugs' promotes' changes' of' representations' about' social' norms.'It'is'especially'appreciable'in'the'modern'society'where'in' the' major' countries' is' taking' place' the' process' of' reconsideration' consequences'of'certain'drugs'consumption.'In'Russia'at'the'same' time' we' can' find' out' the' opposite' process:' till' 2020' is' “painted”' actually'new'policy'of'not'differentiated'"toughening"'of'the'social' exclusion' of' drugs' consumers.' The' danger' of' such' policy' is' that' it' promotes'criminalization'of'the'social'group'and'creates'a'compul) sion'situation'of'criminal'relations'between'authorities'and'citizens,' if' we' are' taking' into' account' corrupted' militia.' For' example,' con) sidering'the'Note'1'article'228'of'the'criminal'code'of'Russian'Fed) eration,'Russian'law'welcomes'for'calls'for'"unmasking"'drug'users' by'the'other'users'to'avoid'punishment,'but'in'fact'also'by'any'oth) er'people'that'have'similar'information.'That'is'basically'logical,'but' not'in'case'of'taking'into'account'specificity'of'the'further'content' which'is'lead'absolutely'different'cases'to'a'common'outcome.'For' example,'it'is'possible'to'imagine'that'in'one'house'on'the'one'floor' lives' peaceful' marijuana' smoker' growing' up' for' his' private' use' a' couple'of'bushes,'and'in'the'cellar'there'is'an'equipped'"kitchen"' for'synthetic'drugs'manufacture.'In'case'of'any'of'other'inhabitants' of' this' house' will' guess' a' smell' of' marijuana' from' the' neighbor’s' door'and'will'call'to'militia,'punishment'level'in'this'case'and'in'the' second'case'will'be'approximately'the'same.'It'will'occur'because' marijuana'smoker'will'hardly'prove'that'this'couple'of'bushes'isn't'

«illegal'manufacture'with'a'sales'objective»'for'which'in'the'crimi) nal'code'of'Russian'Federation'suppose'to'punish'by'imprisonment' for' the' term' from' 4' till' 8' years' and' it' doesn’t' depend' on' a' drug' kind.'

Thus' drug' use' in' Russia's' representation' will' remain' a' symbol' of' belonging'to'the'socially'excluded'and'criminalized'groups'despite' of'changing'orientations'in'European'societies.'While'the'dialogue' between'Russian'state'and'Russian'society'will'continue'to'remind'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' the'theater'of'the'absurd'where'the'director'of'the'Russian'Federal'

Service' for' control' over' drug' trafficking' Viktor' Ivanov' will' openly' ask' the' readers' of' his' blog' a' hypocritical' question:' "How' can' we' change'the'high'tolerance'of'our'citizens'to'a'drug'use?"'

IDENTITY!IN!THE!CROSSROADS!OF!MIGRATIONS!

Maruta'Pranka

1'

1

Institute' of' Philosophy' and' Sociology,' LATVIA' UNIVERSITY,' Riga,'

Latvia

'

Abstract:' The' paper' presents' analysis' of' materials' of' longitudinal' biographical' case' study,' dealing' with' experience' in' researching' migration'processes.'Life'stories'and'other'biographical'data'(pho) tos,'personal'documents)'have'been'collected'from'the'inhabitants' of' a' single' apartment' building' (38' life' story' interviews' from' 20' apartment’s' dwellers)' in' Riga.' The' data' analysis' of' the' case' study' using' biographical' research' methodology' allows' examining' migra) tion'processes'in'the'period'from'1936'–'when'the'house'was'built'

)'till'the'present'with'focusing'on'actual'migration.'

The' specifics' of' the' research' methodology' lie' in' the' fact' that' the' house'as'the'research'object'gives'the'opportunity'to'organize'rela) tive'borders'of'the'space'and'time'and'thereby'opportunity'to'talk' about'common'experience'of'a'definite'group.'The'research'deals' with' analysis' of' different' kinds' of' the' house' dwellers’' migration' experience' focusing' on' personal' experiences’' contextualization' with'the'particular'historical'phases'and'social'context.'

Migration'being'always'a'biographical'break'in'individual'life'is'con) nected'with'different'risks,'including'the'risk'of'shaping'and'keep) ing' identity.' Migration' also' includes' the' risk' of' stigmatization' of' individual'or'group.'Especially'it'is'attributed'to'the'forced'migra) tion.'–'realized'against'individual'will'and'choice.'The'paper'points' out'also'voluntary'migration'caused'both'by'pull'and'push'factors'–' economical,'political,'kinship'etc.'

The'research'project'is'realized'by'the'researchers'of'Latvian'Oral'

History'Project'in'the'Institute'of'Philosophy'and'Sociology'of'Latvia'

University.'

WOMEN!ENGINEERS’!PROFESSIONAL!IDENTITY!AND!

MIGRATION!

Yves'Jeanrenaud

'1

,'Susanne'Ihsen

1'

1

Gender'Studies'in'Science'and'Engineering,'Technische'Universtität'

München,'Munich,'Germany

'

Abstract:'Following'G.'H.'Mead’s'concept'of'identity,'where'identity' itself' consist' of' a' self' image' incorporating' the' spontaneous' “I”,' which'not'able'to'react'mindfully,'and'multiple'instances'of'“Me”,' reflect'the'individual’s'beliefs'of'what'idea'others'have'about'him' or'her'by'construing'their'reactions'to'the'individual’s'own'actions,' we'must'conceive'the'professional'identity'as'part'of'the'“self”'and' therefore'crucial'for'one’s'identity'as'a'whole.'Hence'we'would'like' to' point' out' empirical' findings' about' the' professional' identity' of' women'engineers'and'effects'of'migration'on'this.'

Our' study,' funded' by' the' Economics' Ministry' of' Baden)

Württemberg,' analysed' the' reasons' and' causes' for' women' engi) neers'to'drop'out'of'employment'corresponding'to'their'technical' education.' It' was' carried' out' by' Gender' Studies' in' Engineering' at' the'TU'Munich'from'mid'2008'to'mid'2009'and'longed'to'answer' the'questions'as'to'why'these'women'dropped'out'and'how'to'win'

79' them'back'into'technological'fields.'Hence,'the'study'primarily'con) sisted' of' 40' biographical' telephone' interviews' conducted' among' women'who'possess'engineering'degrees'(and'comparable'ones'for' the'control'group)'but'are'no'longer'or'have'never'been'employed' in'the'professions'their'education'led'towards.'

Besides'the'interesting'results'on'women’s'employment'factors'in' engineering' professions,' migration' was' not' specifically' in' the' pri) mary'focus'of'the'study,'but'nevertheless'not'neglected.'Some'of' the' women' interviewed' had' a' migration' background,' varying' in' their' country' of' origin,' circumstances,' reasons' and' motives' for' leaving'it.'But'all'of'them'share'one'common'detail:'ever'since'they' left' their' home' country' they' were' not' working' as' engineers' any) more.'However'they'responded'to'our'call'looking'for'women'engi) neers'not'working'in'their'jobs'anymore.'This'is'particularly'curious' because'it'is'pointing'out'that'their'construction'of'their'own'iden) tity'as'an'engineer'is'still'faultless,'even'after'decades'of'leaving'the' job'and'home'country.'

Hence' we' would' like' to' show' empirically' how' migrated' women' construct'their'(professional)'identity'in'their'biographies'and'how' this' may' be' seen' in' comparison' to' the' identities' of' other' former' women'engineers'and'scientists'we'interviewed.'

CONSTRUCTING!IDENTITIES!IN!IMMIGRANT!LIFE!

STORIES!

Sirkku'Varjonen

1'

1

Department'of'Social'Research,'UNIVERSITY'OF'HELSINKI,'Helsinki,'

Finland

'

Abstract:'How'are'identities'and'belonging'constructed'in'the'con) text'of'personal'life'stories'narrated'by'immigrants?'In'this'qualita) tive' study' autobiographical' immigrant' narratives' are' approached' from'a'social'constructionist'point'of'view.'The'analysis'focuses'on' the'immigrant'identities'constructed'as'well'as'on'the'changes'that' take'place'in'the'life'stories'over'the'years'the'narrators'spend'in'

Finland,'their'new'country'of'residence.'

The'unique'longitudinal'research'data'consists'of'46'autobiograph) ical'narratives'by'23'immigrants.'The'study'is'discursively'oriented' and'the'data'is'analysed'from'"narrative'constructionist"'and'"sto) ried'resource'perspective".'This'means'looking'at'narratives'as'so) cial' and' discursive' actions.' It' also' involves' looking' at' the' cultural' narrative' resources' which' the' narrators' draw' on' and' resist' when' constructing'their'life'stories'and'identities.'

The' immigrant' narrators' construct' various' types' of' identities' to' position'themselves'and'other'immigrants'in'relation'to'Finns.'Ex) amples'of'identity'positions'constructed'include:'dependent'child,' underdog,'victim,'outsider'and'participant.'These'constructions'are' used' as' discursive' tools' when' creating' a' functional' space' for' the' narrators' as' individual' actors,' and' also' for' immigrants' in' general,' within'the'Finnish'society.'Immigration'is'discussed'most'typically'in' relation'to'themes'of'otherness,'belonging'and'discrimination.'With' their'life'stories'the'narrators'actively'participate'in'the'public'dis) cussion'regarding'immigration'and'resist'the'marginal'position'of) ten'reserved'for'immigrants.'

LIFE!STORY!TELLING!IN!CHICAGO’S!IMMIGRANT!

RIGHTS!MOVEMENT:!A!SENSEGMAKING,!LEGITIMIZING!

AND!MOVEMENTGBUILDING!PRACTICE!

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

80'

Thomas'Swerts

1'

1

Sociology,'University'of'Chicago,'Chicago,'United'States

'

Abstract:'Over'the'last'decade,'the'immigrant'rights'movement'has' increasingly' mobilized' immigrants' in' the' US.' Regardless' of' legal' status,'immigrants'have'organized'themselves'collectively'to'claim' their'civil'rights.'In'this'context,'people'often'share'their'everyday' life' experiences' in' diverging' social' settings.' Yet,' the' relative' im) portance'of'life'story'telling'is'largely'ignored'by'sociological'studies' of'immigrant'activism.'

Mobilizing'immigrants'does'not'happen'overnight.'In'this'respect,' the'literature'on'social'movements'emphasizes'the'importance'of' framing'efforts'as'a'basic'mechanism'for'mobilization'(Snow'et'al.'

1986,'Snow'and'Benford'1994,'McAdam'1996).'However,'the'focus' on'organizational'discourses'in'framing'studies'overlooks'the'deep) er'significance'and'meaning'that'people'attach'to'their'biographies.'

Recently,'several'scholars'have'begun'to'recognize'the'relevance'of' life'stories'for'social'movements'(Jasper'1999,'Davis'2002,'Polletta'

2006).' In' order' to' gain' a' better' insight' in' the' social' mechanisms' accounting'for'immigrant'mobilization,'I'argue'that'life'story'telling' needs'to'be'studied'as'an'essential'social'movement'practice.'

As'a'case'study,'this'research'investigates'life'story'telling'in'SMOs' in'Chicago:'the'Illinois'Coalition'for'Immigrant'and'Refugee'Rights,'a' coalition'of'120'immigrant'organizations,'and'the'Immigrant'Youth'

Justice'League,'a'self)organization'of'undocumented'youth.'Quali) tative'data'were'gathered'by'organizational'ethnographies,'partici) pant'observation'and'content'analysis'of'primary'documents.'

Based'on'this'empirical'research,'I'show'that'life'stories'are'careful) ly' constructed' to' suit' diverging' purposes' in' different' social' con) texts.'From'an'individual'perspective,'life'story'telling'can'be'seen' as' a' motivational' practice' accounting' for' the' storyteller’s' political' involvement.'From'a'collective'perspective,'life'story'stelling'is'not' only'a'means'of'self)reflection,'but'also'a'political'strategy.'Conse) quently,'I'argue'that'life'story'telling'fulfills'different'functions'de) pending' upon' the' structural' level' of' communication' wherein' life' stories' are' told,' the' types' of' interactions' that' characterize' this' communication' and' the' actors' involved' in' those' interactions.'

Hence,'I'identify'sense)making,'movement)building'and'legitimizing' as' the' three' major' functions' of' life' story' telling' as' a' social' move) ment'practice.'

POWER!OF!BIOGRAPHY!AS!ECOLOGY!OF!IDENTITY:!

LATVIAN!LIFE!STORIES!IN!GERMANY!

Dace'Bormane

1'

1

INSTITUTE' OF' PHILOSOPHY' AND' SOCIOLOGY,' UNIVERSITY' OF'

LATVIA,'Riga,'Latvia

'

Abstract:'Narrative'identity,'creativity,'exile,'structure'of'communi) cation,'sociotopos,'habitus,'and'power'are'conceptual'key'words'in' this'research'topic.'

The'nation'as'subject,'which'gathers/thousands/of/epistles.'In'this' context,' we' can' speak' about' memory/ work.' People' who' became' emigrants' as' a' result' of' World' War' II' have' practised' this' for' dec) ades,'and'the'concept'is'also'familiar'to'21 st

'century'migrants'from'

Latvia.'Locality'and'regionality'are'a'communicative'structure'in'the' context' of' globalisation.' The' following' question' therefore' arose:' what'are'the'paradigms'and'practises'of'individual'and'community' identity?'This'is'a'question'of'commune'and'autonomy,'of'solidari) ty,'of'paradoxes'and'the'history/of/attitudes....'

Abstract'Book'

Life'stories'are'the'“living'material”'used'in'the'analysis'of'this'is) sue.'Life'stories'are'a'modifiable'identity'test'that'reveals'local'and' global'identities,'which'can'also'be'analysed'in'the'context'of'glob) alisation.'

The'Latvian'National'Oral'History'Archives'at'the'University'of'Lat) via'in'Riga'contain'recordings'of'life'stories'of'the'Latvian'communi) ty'(in'the'widest'sense),'which'are'used'as'a'resource'for'this'topic' and'thereby'provide'a'testimony'to'the'above)mentioned'issues.'

COLLECTIVE!MEMORY!AND!THE!MEDIATION!OF!

EXPERIENCE.!HOW!DOES!IT!WORK!IN!POLISH!

SOCIETY?!

Wojciech'Połeć

1'

1

FACULTY' OF' HUMANITIES/' DEPARTMENT' OF' SOCIOLOGY,'

WARSAW'UNIVERSITY'OF'LIFE'SCIENCES')'SGGW,'Warszawa,'Poland

'

Abstract:/In'the'theoretical'part'of'my'paper,'I’m'tryingto'examine' and' compare' the' notions' of' the' different' types' of' the' collective' memory,'and'the'notion'of'the'mediation'of'experience'in'the'con) text'of'the'sociological'theory.'I'ask'some'questions'on'the'compat) ibility'and'differences'of'the'“memory'studies”'and'the'sociological' studies'on'the'socialisation,'self)identity,'national'identity'and'ideo) logies.' I' focus' on' the' comparison' of' the' theory' of' the' “Cultural'

Memory”' presented' by' Jan' Assmann' versus' the' theory' of' self) identity' and' modernity' developed' by' Anthony' Giddens' and' the' classical'theory'of'the'“Social'Construction'of'Reality”'of'Peter'Ber) ger'and'Thomas'Luckmann'(in'the'part'the'theory'of'the'socialisa) tion).'

The'empirical'part'of'my'article'will'be'based'on'survey's'data.'The' presented'data'come'from'two'survey'made'on'the'representative' sample'of'inhabitants'of'Poland'(in'January'and'May'2010)'and'one' survey'on'the'representative'sample'of'inhabitants'of'City'Warsaw'

(in'December'2010).'

In'the'article'I'deal'with'a'study'of'relationships'between'forms'of' collective'memory'and'chosen'Poles''attitudes'toward'Russia.'Social' memory')'communicative'and'cultural')'interests'me'in'this'study,' first'of'all'in'the'aspect'of'her'forms'and'sources.'I'ask'if'according' to'Giddens'it'could'be'assumed'that'cultural'memory'becomes'the' part'of'the'individual's'experience,'which'decides'on'the'individu) al's'direction'of'actions,'defines'its'attitude,'becomes'a'part'of'its' identity.' The' analyses' show' that' this,' what' we' have' in' memory' about' Russia' is,' using' a' metaphorical' wording,' in' an' increasingly' large' degree' knowledge' "from' second' hand".' This' is' knowledge' which' in' large' degree' we' do' not' create' but' which' we' inherit,' re) ceive' in' finished' form,' we' improve' her' so' that' she' fits' us.' In' this' sense,'the'past,'not'the'present,'is'in'essential'degree'what'defines' our'relations'to'Russia'today.'I'made'the'assumption'that'there'is'a' relationship' between' social' forms' of' communication' and' social' memory.' Therefore,' we' treated' different' sources' of' knowledge' about'Russia'and'Russians'declared'by'Poles'as'indicators'of'various' forms'of'reference'to'the'past,'in'other'words'different'categories' of' memory.' One' of' the' more' important' empirical' conclusions' is' that'Poles,'in'their'molding'of'knowledge'on'the'subject'of'Russia,' use'the'resources'of'mediated'experience,'which'is'supplied'by'the'

"experts"'or'using'Assman's'notion')'cultural'memory.'

COLLECTIVE!MEMORY!AND!TRADE!UNION!ACTIVISM!

IN!EASTERN!EUROPE:!THE!BIOGRAPHIES!OF!

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

COMPANYGLEVEL!TRADE!UNION!ACTIVISTS!IN!POLAND!

AND!ROMANIA!

Adam'Mrozowicki

'1

,'Réka'Geambaşu

'2

'

1

Institute' of' Sociology,' University' of' Wrocław,' Wrocław,' Poland,'

2

Faculty'of'Sociology'and'Social'Work,'Babeş)Bolyai'University,'Cluj)

Napoca,'Romania

'

Abstract:' This' paper' explores' the' relationship' between' workers’' collective'memory'of'the'socialist'past'and'the'emergent'types'of' trade'union'activism'in'the'automotive'sector'and'the'retail'sector' in'Poland'and'Romania.'While'in'both'countries'labour'movements' underwent'erosion'after'1989,'research'carried'out'in'the'last'dec) ade' documented' how' new' and' reformed' company)level' union' leaders' had' strived' for' halting' and' reversing' this' negative' trend.'

This' research' adopts' the' actor)centred' approach' to' explore' the' local' practices' of' ‘trade' union' revitalisation’' through' the' biog) raphies' of' company)level' union' leaders.' Considering' culture' as' a' toolkit'of'‘symbols,'stories,'rituals,'and'world)views’'that'actors'use' to' construct' their' life' strategies' (Swidler),' we' explore' the' role' of' the' available' stocks' of' cultural' motives,' including' the' memories' about'the'socialist'past'and'the'discourses'of'capitalist'transition,'in' fostering' and/or' hindering' the' formulation' of' a' new' pro)active' trade' union' agenda' by' union' activists.' Based' on' the' exploratory' analysis'of'over'20'biographical'narrative'interviews'with'company) level' trade' union' activists' (collected' in' 2010)2011),' tentative' con) clusions'are'formulated.'Except'for'the'long)standing'leaders'of'the'

Solidarity'union'in'Poland,'‘grand’'historical'events,'such'as'Revolu) tion'in'1989'in'Romania'or'Solidarity'resistance'in'the'1980s'in'Po) land,'rarely'appear'as'the'core'frames'of'life'stories.'Although'the' silencing'of'the'‘grand'history’'is'a'widespread'biographical'process,' it'is'especially'apparent'in'the'biographies'of'newcomers'to'trade' unions,'who'joined'or'co)established'union'organisations'in'the'last' decade'of'transformation'(regardless'of'their'age).'While'the'biog) raphies'of'long)standing'trade'union'leaders'tend'to'be'framed'by' rich'references'to'the'histories'of'their'work'milieus'and'unions,'the' life' stories' of' newcomers' are' predominantly' constructed' in' the' context'of'their'individual'and'family'experiences.'This'‘neutralisa) tion' of' grand' union' history’' provides' more' space' to' experiment' with'new'meanings'of'trade'unionism'in'the'context'of'radical'so) cial'change.'However,'the'lack'of'coherent'and'collectively'shared' cultural'frames'of'reference'for'trade'union'activity'is'also'an'ob) stacle'for'trade'union'development'in'a'long'run'as'it'reflects'a'very' fragmented'cultural'basis'for'workers’'solidarity.'

'

'

CONSTRUCTING!MEMORISING!INDENTITY:!THE!CASE!

OF!LOCAL!WAR!

Victoria'Vladimirovna'Semenova

1'

1

INSTITUTE'OF'SOCIOLOGY,'ACADEMY'OF'SCIENCES,'Moscow,'Rus) sian'Federation

'

Abstract:'The'paper'is'devoted'to'the'problem'of'identity'construc) tion'process'choosing'between'time'dimension:'past/present'orien) tation' in' situation' of' past' trauma' experience.' The' object' of' the' research'are'former'soldiers'who'went'through'the'experience'of' local'war')Soviet/Afgan'war'in'1979)1989.'

'

81'

According'to'their'attitude'towards'memory'and'towards'past'suf) fering'they'choose'different'strategies'of'remembering'and'differ) ent'types'of'identity'construction'process.'

The'author'discusses'the'problem'of'a'set'of'individual'factors'that' predominate'their'biographical'strategies'as'well'as'their'collective' memory' work' that' connected' their' past' with' present.' The' main' aspect'to'be'discussed'here'is'if'memory'work'in'present'is'a'part'of' present'indentification'or'is'a'link'between'present'and'past.'

THE!GUADIANA!BORDER:!HEAVEN'S!GATE!OR!HELL'S!

DOOR?!THE!EXPERIENCE!OF!THE!SPANISH!CIVIL!WAR!

REFUGEES!(1936/1939)!

Joaquim'Mealha'Silva

1'

1

Departamento' Sociologia' )' ACTAE)NICPRI.UÉ,' UNIVERSIDADE' DE'

EVORA,'Evora,'Portugal

'

Abstract:'In'recent'years'we'have'seen'great'progresses'in'the'field' of' the' preservation' of' the' historical' memory' and' of' individu) al/collective' experiences,' namely' about' the' period' of' the' Spanish'

Civil'War'(1936/1939).'This'renewed'interest'concerning'that'turbu) lent'period'in'the'recent'history'of'Spain,'is'explained'by'the'neces) sity'of'knowing'better'the'traumatic'migrations'imposed'by'war'to' communities' who' lived' near' border' areas' and' tried' to' save' their' lives.'Against'the'will'of'the'countries'involved'(Portugal'and'Spain),' people' used' the' pre)existing' social' linkages' and' the' border' net) works,' created' by' old' border' smugglers,' to' escape' from' war' and'

Nationalist' [and' Republican?]' persecution.' The' memory' of' these' episodes'is'still'traumatic'for'many'residents'near'the'river'Guadia) na’s'border,'and'so'we'often'deal'with'a'strange'and'bizarre'kind'of' amnesia' and' silence.' The' Spanish' refugees' came' into' Portuguese' homes,'trying'to'escape'and'to'save'their'lives,'and'many'of'them' were'hidden'in'attics'and'animal'shelters,'but'great'numbers'were' captured' by' Portuguese' authorities' and' sent' back' to' the' Spanish' side'of'the'border,'where'the'Franquist'troops'executed'them.'

The'Spanish'Civil'War'and'these'border'flows'changed'Guadiana’s' river'border'and'the'lives'of'Portuguese'and'Spanish'communities' in'these'areas,'which'were'invaded'by'many'thousands'of'Spanish' refugees'in'a'very'short'time,'many'of'them'invocating'a'“right'to' escape”'from'death.'All'these'activities'had'very'important'implica) tions' in' everyday' life,' creating' significant' levels' of' risk,' instability' and'insecurity,'changing'perspectives'on'identities'and'social'struc) tures,' challenging' the' constellations' of' power,' in' the' South' of'

Alentejo'and'Algarve,'and'in'the'Spanish'Andalucia'as'well.'In'this' presentation' we' will' approach' the' process' of' construction' and' preservation'of'memories,'both'collective'and'individual,'research) ing' the' forced' migration' flows' of' that' period,' analyzing' the' social' actors’'roles'and'the'strategies'used'by'them,'the'cycles'and'rea) sons' used' by' the' new' generations' to' forget' or' to' remember' this' past.'

The'methodological'approach'adopted'is'qualitative,'crossing'doc) umental' research' and' deep' biographic' semi)directive' interviews.'

We'shall'try'to'enhance'the'complex'relations,'the'belonging'feel) ings,' the' identities,' the' contestation' and' the' opposition,' which' made'remarkable'the'biographical'life'stories'of'the'social'actors'of' those'turbulent'times.'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

82' Abstract'Book'

RN'04'Sociology'of'Children'and'Childhood'

!

IMPLIED!AND!EXPLICIT!THEORIES!OF!ACTION!IN!THE!

FIELD!OF!CHILD!PARTICIPATION.!A!RESEARCH!OUTLINE!

Daniel'Stoecklin

1'

1

Children's'Rights'Unit,'UNIVERSITY'INSTITUTE'KURT'BOESCH,'1950'

Sion'4,'Switzerland

'

Abstract:'The'paper'explores'child'participation'from'the'perspec) tives'of'the'sociology'of'action.'“Participation'rights”'contained'in'

UN'Convention'on'the'Rights'of'the'Child'convey'a'new'legal'status' to' children' viewed' as' subjects' of' rights' with' evolving' capacities.'

Despite' the' important' literature' on' child' participation' in' the' two' decades'following'adoption'of'the'UNCRC,'a'theory'of'child'partici) pation'is'still'missing.'Many'authors'use'concepts'like'“social'actor”' and'“agency”'as'taken'for'granted,'which'are'also'widely'used'by' activists' mostly' unaware' of' the' hidden' frameworks' lying' behind' different' and' conflicting' paradigms.' Specifying' these' concepts' is' possible' only' when' theories' of' action' are' made' explicit.' Our' re) search'outline'highlights'the'importance'of'addressing'the'different' theories'of'action,'whether'implied'or'explicit,'used'in'the'literature' on' child' participation.' Instead' of' relying' primarily' on' dimensions' linked'to'intervention'agendas,'there'is'a'need'for'a'theory'of'ac) tion'that'would'acknowledge'the'cumulative'and'systemic'nature'of' action,' therefore' contributing' to' better' understand' the' link' be) tween'reflexivity'and'capability,'a'central'question'regarding'actors' with'evolving'capacities.'

INFORMAL!CHILDHOODS:!STREET!CHILDREN!

WORKING!IN!ACCRA’S!INFORMAL!SECTOR!

Phillip'Mizen

1'

1 sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'WARWICK,'Coventry,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:' This' paper' explores' children’s' work' within' the' urban' in) formal'sector.'It'does'so'by'drawing'upon'research'examining'the' lives' of' children' looking' to' make' a' living' on' the' streets' of' central'

Accra,' Ghana.' The' paper' considers' these' children’s' work' through' addressing' two' inter)related' themes.' First,' it' considers' the' chil) dren’s'work'within'a'broader'understanding'of'the'work'practices' and'employment'relations'of'other'comparable'groups'of'workers' occupying' the' lower' echelons' of' a' heterogeneous' urban' informal' economy;' and' the' strategies' of' ‘informal' survivalism’' that' they' develop'in'response.'A'second'and'related'theme'is'the'considera) tion' of' these' workers' as' children.' It' is' often' acknowledged' that' children'comprise'a'significant'and'visible'category'of'worker'within' the' urban' informal' economy,' but' there' is' little' understanding' of' how'children'are'integrated'into'(or'excluded'from)'its'competitive' practices.' By' considering' how' these' children’s' work' and' employ) ment' is' regulated' through' ‘institutions' of' identity’' (Harriss)White'

2010),'like'age,'gender'or'ethno)cultural'identity'–'forms'of'social' regulation' that' have' their' basis' outside' of' the' informal' economy' but'which'constitute'important'relations'of'authority'within'it'–'the' paper'will'explore'more'fully'the'nature'of'these'children’s'partici) pation'in'informal'economic'processes.'

IS!WORK!ENNOBLING!AND!EDUCATION!A!SILVER!

BULLET?!CONTRADICTIONS!AND!TENSIONS!WITHIN!

THE!GERMAN!CHILD!POVERTY!DISCOURSE!

Maksim'Hübenthal

1'

1

FACULTY' OF' PHILOSOPHY' III' )' Educational' Science,' MARTIN)

LUTHER)UNIVERSITY,'Halle,'Germany

'

Abstract:'For'more'than'one'decade'child'poverty'is'understood'as' a'relevant'social'problem'in'Germany'and'since'the'end'of'the'con) servative)liberal' era' in' 1998' the' German' Federal' Government' ex) plicitly'identifies'the'fight'against'the'poverty'of'children'and'fami) lies'as'a'central'political'goal'in'the'field'of'child'and'family'policy.'

However,' despite' this' high' attention' for' years' children' form' the' population'group'in'Germany'that'is'affected'the'most'by'poverty.'

As' a' consequence' there' are' public' debates' between' the' Federal'

Government,' childhood' and' poverty' researchers,' non)profit) organisations,'etc.'about'how,'for'what'reasons'and'with'what'goal' child'poverty'in'Germany'has'to'be'abolished.'

At'present'time,'the'state'of'the'art'of'child'poverty'research'allows' us'to'structure'the'German'discourse'about'child'poverty'alongside' two'poles:'a'children’s'rights'perspective'which'criticizes'that'pov) erty'is'violating'the'child’s'rights'on'a'decent'standard'of'living'in' the'present'and'demands'more'state'intervention'in'several'politi) cal'areas'on'the'one'side'and'on'the'other'side'a'social'investment' perspective'which'emphasizes'that'poverty'of'children'is'producing' economic'losses'in'the'future'and'is'primarily'linked'to'investments' in'in)kind)transfers'and'in'the'educational'system.'These'two'ideal' typical'poles'can'be'understood'as'the'expression'and'symbol'of'a' diverted'discourse'on'child'poverty'in'Germany.'

Against' this' backdrop,' it' is' the' aim' of' this' presentation' to' deliver' first' insights' into' the' specific' social' constructions' of' child' poverty' behind'these'two'poles.'Based'upon'this,'it'is'intended'to'discuss' major'contradictions'within'and'central'tensions'between'the'social' constructions'of'child'poverty'in'Germany.'For'this'purpose'I'ana) lyse'the'current'debate'on'reforming'the'German'social'assistance) system'via'a'discourse)analytic'setting'of'qualitative'methods'from' a' child)oriented' perspective' in' the' sense' of' the' “new' childhood' studies”.'

CHILDGFRIENDLY!CITY,!DISTRICT!AND!STREET!

Maria'Sibireva

1'

1

SAINT)PETERSBURG' STATE' UNIVERSITY,' Saint)Petersburg,' Russian'

Federation

'

Abstract:'When'we'study'social'problems'of'city,'it'is'necessary'to' answer'how'can'the'city'become'comfortable'and'safe'for'its'small' inhabitants.' The' decision' is' to' ask' children' by' themselves' what' problems' do' they' face' in' everyday' life' in' the' city.' The' research' which'was'conducted'by'the'author'in'2008'–'2009'in'nine'kinder) gartens' in' six' districts' of' St.' Petersburg' showed' that' 5' )' 7' years' children' can' become' co)researchers' when' we' use' adequate' tech) niques'of'the'collection'and'interpreting'data.'Methods'of'the're) search'included:'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

•!projective'technique'“The'Person'in'the'City”.'The'analysis'of'the' received' 224' pictures' (the' pictures' were' used' as' questionnaires)' and'interviews'allowed'to'define'the'features'of'perception'of'so) cio)spatial'characteristics'of'the'city;'

•'interviews'with'children!according'to'cards'with'the'images'of'the' city.' The' pictures' were' shown' to' 137' children' and' contained' the' description'of'the'most'typical'social'situations'of'city'life'which'can' provoke'children'to'make'a'decision.'

According'to'the'received'results'of'the'research'it'was'possible'to' define' how' many' children' have' potential' to' overcome' difficulties' and'what'must'adults'do'to'make'child')'friendly'city,'districts'and' streets.'

CHILDREN'S!SOCIALGSPATIAL!INCLUSION!IN!

DISADVANTAGED!AND!COMPARISON!AREAS!

Malcolm'Hill

'1,1'

1

UNIVERSITY'OF'STRATHCLYDE,'Glasgow,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:'The'presentation'will'discuss'processes'of'children's'inclu) sion'and'exclusion'with'regard'to'informal'spaces'and'formal'ser) vices.'It'is'based'on'two'studies'carried'out'in'Scotland'with'over) lapping'themes'and'mutually'supportive'findings.'The'first'focused' on' how' children' aged' 8)14' cope' with' being' brought' up' in' areas' with'high'levels'of'income'deprivation'and'neighbourhood'hazards.'

Both'children's'and'parents''viewpoints'were'included'in'the'study,' which'was'based'on'four'different'areas,'all'poor.'The'second'study' examined' children's' perspectives' on' services' and' how' they' ac) cessed'them.'Data'was'obtained'in'three'contrasting'areas,'so'that' the'analysis'was'able'to'take'account'of'relative'affluence'and'the' rural)urban'spectrum.'

The'studies'highlighted'the'many'hazards'faced'by'children'in'nego) tiating'their'local'environments,'especially'when'these'were'disad) vantaged' areas.' Children' displayed' wisdom' about' the' spatial' and' temporal' dimensions' of' risk' and' safety.' The' studies' revealed' a' range'of'techniques'deployed'by'parents'and'children'to'minimise' risk'and'facilitate'children's'movements'and'activities,'but'even'so' fears'and'threats'often'resulted'in'exclusion'from'desired'places'or' restricted'use.'Children'living'in'higher'income'households'in'more' favourable' environments' had' much' more' access' to' safe' private' spaces' and' to' organised' services.' In' addition' to' safety' considera) tions'and'availability'of'formal'services,'children's'access'to'recrea) tional' and' educational' resournces' were' much' affected' by' direct' and'indirect'costs'of'services'and'transport.'

Please' note' that' with' small' modifications,' this' presentation' could' go'equally'well'in'the'section'on'Poverty'and'Children.'

MORE!RELATIONAL!CHILDREN!AND!YOUNG!PEOPLE’S!

PARTICIPATION!TO!IMPROVE!WELLBEING:!HOW!IN!

CHANGING!CONTEXTS!DO!WE!ENCOURAGE!DIALOGUE!

AND!MORE!COLLABORATIVE!APPROACHES?!

Vicky'Johnson

1'

1

Social'Work,'UNIVERSITY'OF'CENTRAL'LANCASHIRE,'Preston,'Unit) ed'Kingdom

'

Abstract:'Exploring'the'links'between'process'and'context'through' case'studies'in'Nepal'and'the'UK'showed'that'decision)makers're) sponded'to'children’s'evidence'in'participatory'processes'depend)

83' ing'on'significant'features'of'context.'Within'this'analysis'different' mechanisms' encouraged' positive' outcomes' for' improving' chil) dren's' wellbeing.' External' drivers,' such' as' political' economy,' cul) tural'beliefs'and'practices,'and'instiutional'setting'were'considered' alongside' internal' processes' including' capacity,' commitment' and' whether'there'were'champions'for'children.'This'paper'argues'that' children'and'young'people'should'be'made'more'visible'in'broader' social'development'processes,'and'that'in'order'to'do'this,'power' dynamics' need' to' be' addressed.' Recent' participation' discourses' suggest'more'relational'approaches'to'participatory'processes'with' children,' mirroring' some' of' the' discourses' in' gender' mainstream) ing.'This'fits'with'both'the'concept'of'improving'children’s'wellbe) ing,'but'also'with'the'kinds'of'mechanisms'that,'in'varying'contexts' in'the'research,'led'to'more'meaningful'participation'and'transfor) mation' at' individual,' institutional' and' broader' societal' levels.'

Mechanisms'included'different'forms'of'collaboration'and'commu) nication,' including' dialogue' between' different' stakeholders.' The' challenge'then'remains'how,'in'such'changing'contexts,'to'convince' those' in' positions' of' power' to' build' on' dialogical' approaches' and' encourage'innovative'and'flexible'participatory'processes'with'chil) dren'and'young'people.'

POVERTY!AND!WELLGBEING!OF!CHILDREN!LIVING!IN!

THE!POVERTY!POCKETS!IN!LODZ!IN!POLAND!

Marta'Petelewicz

1'

1

Department'of'genaral'sociolgy,'UNIVERITY'OF'LODZ,'Lodz,'Poland

'

Abstract:'Living'conditions'of'children,'child'poverty'and'well)being' have'gained'recently'increasing'recognition'of'the'European'Union.'

Underprivileged'children'became'the'target'group'for'the'EU'policy.'

National' (Warzywoda)Kruszyńska,' Wóycicka)' and' comparative'

(UNICEF,'EC)'reports'indicates'that'Poland'face'severe'problem'of' child'poverty.'Child'poverty'cannot'be'treated'as'an'isolated'prob) lem,' there' is' a' growing' body' of' evidence' that' childhood' disad) vantage' has' negative' effects' on' development,' well)being' and' fu) ture' life)chances.' Nevertheless,' there' is' lack' of' in)depth' data' and' analysis,'especially'those'incorporating'children’s,'perspective'con) cerning' the' state' of' the' youngest' Poles.' The' current' study' is' an' attempt'to'address'this'gap.'Life'situation'is'a'complex'issue,'multi) dimensional'perspective'should'be'included,'that'is'why'in'the'tak) en' approach' poverty' and' well)being' are' regarded' as' the' reverse' sides' of' the' same' coin.' Both' concepts' are' to' be' explored' on' the' basis'of'the'empirical'data,'that'were'gathered'among'12)13'year' old' children' living' in' the' areas' of' concentrated' poverty' in' Lodz' in'

Poland.'Self)completed'questionnaires'were'conducted'in'the'ele) mentary'schools'placed'in'the'most'and'least'deprived'parts'of'city.'

In' the' schools,' where' the' field' study' was' conducted' there' is' an' overrepresentation'of'children'coming'from'families'supported'by' the'welfare.'Several'domains'of'the'life'situation'of'the'youngsters' will'be'examined,'contrasted'and'compared:'family'and'peer'rela) tions,' living' conditions,' available' resources,' health,' neighborhood,' education' and' self)perception.' Indexes' of' well)being' )' deprivation' will'be'created'for'three'clusters'representing:'having,/loving,/being' dimensions,'taken'from'E.'Allardt’s'concept'of'the'quality'of'life.'

RESEARCHING!CHILD!POVERTY!IN!RELATION!TO!THE!

FAMILY:!UNCOVERING!DYNAMICS!IN!THE!BLACK!BOX!

Griet'Roets

'1

,'Elisabetta'Ruspini

'2

,'Rudi'Roose

'1,'3

'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

84'

1

Department' of' Social' Welfare' Studies,' GHENT' UNIVERSITY,' Gent,'

Belgium,'

2

Department'of'Sociology'and'Social'Research,'University' of'Milano)Bicocca,'Melano,'Italy,'

3

Department'of'Criminology,'Free'

University'Brussels,'Brussels,'Belgium

'

Abstract:' Internationally,' child' poverty' is' a' persistent' social' prob) lem' and' constitutes' an' important' issue' in' social' policy' and' social' work' research.' In' Western' welfare' states,' social' policy' predomi) nantly'perceives'the'role'of'social'work'as'essential'in'order'to'“ac) tivate”' the' family,' and' mothers' in' particular,' in' the' realisation' of' child' welfare' and' in' the' protection' of' children’s' rights' in' poverty' situations.' This' gives' cause' for' activation' strategies' oriented' to) wards'parents,'and'towards'mothers'in'particular.'Recent'research' findings' indicate' that' mothers/ are/ activated/ into/ employment' to' take'their'responsibility'in'heightening'the'family'income,'and'are/

simultaneously/ activated/ to/ take/ their/ responsibility/ for/ child/ care.'

Nevertheless'there'is'a'lack'of'insight'into'the'implications'of'these' activation' strategies' on' families,' particularly' on' individual' family' members' such' as' both' mothers' and' children.' This' contributes' to' what'we'name'as'a'“black'box”'approach'to'the'family'in'poverty' situations' which' may' have' implications' for' the' way' we' are' re) searching,' and' therefore' tackling,' child' poverty.' Without' any' knowledge' of' its' internal' workings' and' of' the' intra)household' strategies' used' to' distribute' individual' and' social' resources,' the' family'can'easily'be'governed'as'a'self)sufficient'system.'We'tease' out'which'research'approaches'and'methods'may'be'useful'to'un) cover'these'dynamics'and'strategies'in'the'family.'We'argue'that,'in' order' to' unpack' the' black' box' approach,' quantitative' as' well' as' qualitative' research' is' necessary.' Quantitative' research' is' needed' to' measure' both' intra=household/ financial/ management/ and/ re=

source/ allocation,' as' well' as' inter=household/ structural/

(re)distribution/of/resources;'this/in'order'to'consider'the'likelihood' that' variations' in' child)specific' consumption' are' determined' by' variations'in'total'household'consumption'and'variations'by'house) hold'type.'Qualitative'research'is'needed'to'examine'which'strate) gies'are'developed'by'mothers,'fathers'and'children'to'make'use'of' social'resources;'this'is'a'key'element'if'we'want'to'reveal'the'com) plex'relationship'between'adult'(men’s'and'women’s)'poverty'and' child' poverty.' In' relation' to' social' work' activation' strategies,' the' conditions'under'which'interventions'are'interpreted'as'being'sup) portive'for'mothers,'fathers'and'children'need'to'be'identified.'

SILENT!AND!INVISIBLE!IN!THE!MIDST!OF!CRISIS.!THE!

SWISS!PEASANT!CHILDHOODS!BETWEEN!MYTHS!AND!

REALITIES!

Michele'Poretti

1'

1

Children's'Rights'Unit,'UNIVERSITY'INSTITUTE'KURT'BÖSCH'(IUKB),'

Sion'4,'Switzerland

'

Abstract:' While' the' peasantry' has' been' at' the' forefront' of' the'

Swiss' social' and' political' debates' during' centuries,' peasant' child) hood'has'remained'largely'silent'and'invisible.'The'slow'disappear) ance'of'family'farms,'accelerated'by'the'liberalisation'of'agriculture' of' the' past' two' decades,' has' not' changed' this' pattern.' Peasant' children'continue'to'be'subsumed'into'the'patriarchal'family'–'per) ceived' as' the' guardian' of' traditions' and' national' identity' –' and' trapped' into' intertwined' dualist' representations' of' social' reality' such' as' peasant/non)peasant,' rural/urban,' traditional/modern,' backwardness/progress.'

The' paper' will' summarize' the' findings' of' a' recent' empirical' re) search' situated' at' the' crossroads' of' peasant,' rural' and' childhood'

Abstract'Book' studies.'It'is'based'on'field'observations'and'semi)structured'inter) views' with' key' stakeholders' representing' peasant' unions,' govern) mental' bodies' and' non)governmental' organizations.' The' research' highlights' how' different' conceptions' of' childhood' intersect' with' dominant'myths'associating'the'peasants'with'an'idyllic'alpine'Ar) cadia'and'with'the'origins'of'the'Swiss'Confederation.'In'particular,' it'shows'how'discourses'which'idealize'peasant'childhood'serve'to' excise' regional,' class,' age' and' gender' differentiations' and' to' de) politicise' the' slow' disappearance' of' peasant' family' farms' and' childhoods.'

CHILDHOOD!AT!LATITUDE!ZERO!–!THE!GAMES!OF!THE!

AFRICAN!‘GLOBAL’!CHILD!

Sandra'Barra

1'

1

Instituto'de'Educação,'UNIVERSIDADE'DO'MINHO,'Braga,'Portugal

'

Abstract:'This'study'aims'to'dip'into'the'daily'playful'lives'of'African' children'born'in'Sao'Tome'and'Principe,'in'order'to'scan'into'one'of' the'social'and'cultural'worlds'of'childhood'and'reveal'it'in'the'voice' of'children'themselves.'

Through' observation' and' analysis' of' the' practices' and' meanings' associated'with'the'game'and'toy'in'the'life'contexts'of'children'in'

Sao'Tome'and'Principe,'will'seek'to'clarify'how'the'cultures'of'chil) dren'in'its'genesis'and'structure'are'intertwined'on'the'broad'con) text'of'an'ongoing'globalization.'

That' is,' investigate' how' are' reflected' in' the' games' and' toys' that' use'African'children'the'premises'of'a'globalized'world'or'a'"global' child"'is'the'main'cut'of'the'project'to'be'undertaken.'

The'main'objectives'of'this'study'are:'

Contribute'to'enrich'the'studies'of'childhood,'giving'voice'to'Afri) can'children'in'the'natural'context'of'their'existence,'explaining'the' concepts' and' social' practices' of' a' childhood' outside' the' western' standard,'but'in'the'context'of'a'globalized'world.'

Competing' for' the' analysis' of' the' impact' of' globalisation' in' the' contemporary'childhoods,'researching'the'ways'they'relate'global' and'local'in'childhood'cultures'through'the'processes'of'production' and' reception' of' culture' by' the' children' and' their' expression' on' peer'cultures'in'daily'playful'activities.'

Deepen' knowledge' about' the' childhood' cultures,' extending' the' analysis' of' the' play' and' toys,' examining' how' and' whether' the' games'and'toys'from'the'children'in'the'study'express,'accept,'or' reject'the'global'culture'and'the''global'child'.'

‘IT’S!ABOUT!CHANGING!SERVICES!AND!BUILDING!

RELATIONSHIPS’:!THE!DEVELOPMENT!OF!CHILDREN!IN!

CARE!COUNCILS!

Nigel'Thomas

'1

,'Barry'Percy)Smith

'2*

'

1

School' of' Social' Work,' University' of' Central' Lancashire,' Preston,'

2

Faculty'of'Health'and'Life'Sciences,'University'of'the'West'of'Eng) land,'Bristol,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:'Within'a'context'of'economic'austerity'and'the'pressure' on'local'authorities'to'ensure'efficient'and'cost'effective'services,' resources'to'support'the'participation'of'children'and'young'people' are'at'risk'of'being'cut.'Yet,'it'could'also'be'argued'that'participa) tion'is'even'more'important'to'ensure'that'services'deliver'what'is'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' needed.'More'importantly,'ensuring'the'right'of'the'most'vulnera) ble'to'have'a'say'is'imperative'in'ensuring'the'well)being'of'children' during'public'sector'cuts.'This'paper'reports'on'a'recent'evaluation' of'Children'in'Care'Councils'(CiCCs)'in'London,'England.'It'maps'out' the' extent' and' nature' of' such' developments,' but' also' documents' experiences'and'challenges'which'are'at'the'heart'of'the'search'for'

‘meaningful’' participation.' The' paper' discusses' how' the' purpose' and'operation'of'CiCCs'are'understood'before'going'on'to'consider' some' of' the' complexity' at' play' with' respect' to' how' CiCCs' have' sought'to'change'processes'and'relationships'at'the'heart'of'gov) ernance.' The' paper' considers' the' impacts' of' CiCCs' as' well' as' the' barriers' to' their' future' development.' The' paper' concludes' by' re) flecting'on'the'significance'of'Children'in'Care'Councils'in'relation' to'wider'understandings'of'participation.'

RECOGNISING!THE!POTENTIAL!FOR!JUSTICE!IN!THE!

(MIS)BEHAVIOUR!OF!YOUNG!CITIZENS!

Cath'Sarah'Ann'Larkins

1'

1

SOCIAL' WORK,' UNIVERSITY' OF' CENTRAL' LANCASHIRE,' PRESTON,'

United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:' Children' are' citizens,' holding' rights' and' responsibilities' and'participating'as'members'of'local'and'global'spaces.'Children’s' status' as' citizens' is' claimed' in' order' to' recognise' children’s' social' contributions' and' to' link' their' aspirations' to' demands' for' justice' from' institutions' that' affect' their' lives.' Despite' claims' for' citizen) ship,' however,' institutions' do' not' always' provide' justice' for' chil) dren,' as' the' 2011' EU' Agenda' on' Children’s' Rights' illustrates.' To' advance' children’s' achievement' of' the' citizenship' to' which' they' aspire'a'clearer'understanding'is'needed'of'children’s'perspectives' on'justice'and'how'this'can'be'enacted.'

This'paper'presents'the'understanding'of'justice'and'action'devel) oped' in' research' by' groups' of' children' aged' 5)13' in' Wales' and'

France.'I'outline'the'groups’'expressions'of'justice'in'attitudes,'lim) its' and' inclusions' associated' with' citizenship.' I' then' draw' on' this' understanding' to' show' how' some' children' enact' justice' in' ways' that'transgress'the'boundaries'of'dominant'conceptions'of'appro) priate'citizenship.'These'actions'can'be'described'as'(mis)behaviour' or'as'‘acts'of'citizenship’'(Isin'and'Nielsen'2008).'In'these'turbulent' times,'where'governmental'responses'to'financial'crisis'fail'to'pro) vide'citizenship'justice,'recognizing'and'enabling'children’s'citizen) ship'in'(mis)behaviour'has'potential'for'widening'understandings'of' participation.'

REPRESENTING!THE!RELATIONAL!IN!THE!

PARTICIPATORY!PROCESS:!A!NEW!THEORETICAL!

FRAMEWORK!

Victoria'Jupp'Kina

1'

1

School' of' Health' Sciences' and' Social' Care,' BRUNEL' UNIVERSITY,'

Uxbridge,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:' When' reviewing' recent' debates' on' children' and' young' people’s' participation' there' appears' to' be' two' distinctive' contra) dictions.'First,'despite'the'acknowledgement'of'the'positive'impact' that' participation' can' have' on' children' and' young' people' these' impacts' are' rarely' absorbed' back' into' the' various' definitions' and' categorisations.' While' participation' is' regarded' as' a' process' the' dominant' theoretical' frameworks' remain' fairly' static.' Second,' of' the'many'barriers'to'participation'that'have'been'and'continue'to'

85' be'identified'adults'are'viewed'as'the'biggest'challenge.'While'it'is' largely'accepted'that'the'practice,'perceptions'and'preconceptions' of'adults'constitute'one'of'the'primary'barriers'within'children'and' young'people’s'participation'theoretical'frameworks'focus'on'defin) ing'the'act'between'adult'and'child'through'categorising'the'level' or'‘degree’'of'participation.'This'fails'to'incorporate'the'relational' aspect' of' the' act' as' the' focus' is' on' the' final' result' of' the' action' rather' than' the' interrelationships' that' led' there.' This' paper' will' attempt' to' address' these' two' contradictions' through' proposing' a' new' two)dimensional' theoretical' framework' that' recognises' the' fluidity' and' continual' learning' processes' of' all' and' explicitly' chal) lenges'current'dualisms'by'placing'the'adult'alongside'the'child'as'a' subject'of'the'participatory'process.'

BETRAYAL!OF!TRUST:!VICTIMS!OF!MATERNAL!INCEST!

Jackie'Turton

1'

1

Department'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'ESSEX,'Colchester,'Unit) ed'Kingdom

'

Abstract:'The'sexual'abuse'of'children'has'traditionally'been'viewed' as'a'male'crime'(Grubin,'1998;'Cawson'et.al.,'2000;'Bunting,'2005).'

Children' have' few,' if' any,' strategies' of' coping' with' sexual' abuse' and'such'a'betrayal'of'trust'by'an'adult'may'well'affect'their'rela) tionships'with'all'adults,'particularly'if'the'perpetrator'is'a'familiar' figure.' The' difficulties' are' exacerbated' for' child' victims' when' the' offender' is' female' and' even' more' so' in' cases' of' maternal' incest'

(Elliott,'1993;'Turton,'2008).'In'this'paper'I'intend'to'focus'on'the' problems'victims'of'maternal'incest'have'in'disclosing'their'abuse' and'work'towards'understanding'the'dilemmas'these'children'face' when'considering'who'to'trust.'

The' data' for' this' paper' comes' from' a' wider' study' investigating' female' perpetrators.' The' interviewees' included' professionals,' of) fenders'and'adult'survivors'of'female'perpetrators.'This'discussion' will' focus' on' the' survivor' sample' most' of' whom' were' abused' by' their'mother'or'mother'–figure.'

The'analysis'of'the'data'suggests'that'even'after'the'sexual'abuse' has' been' exposed' and' as' adults' the' survivors' had' considerable' difficulty'in'coming'to'terms'with'their'experiences.'I'argue'that'the' mother'figure'is'so'pivotal'that'victims'of'maternal'incest'deny'and' minimise'their'abuse'to'overcome'the'gross'betrayal'of'trust.'

Bunting,' L.' 2005' Females' who' Sexually' Offend' Against' Children:'

Responses'of'the'Child'Protection'and'Criminal'Justice'System,'Lon) don:'NSPCC.'

Cawson,' P.,' Wattam,' C.,' Brooker,' S.' and' Kelly,' G.' 2000' Child' Mal) treatment'in'the'UK:'A'study'of'the'prevalence'of'child'sexual'abuse' and'neglect,'London:'NSPCC.'

Elliott,'M,'ed.'1993,'The'Last'Taboo,'London,'Longman'

Grubin,'D.'1998'Sex'Offending'Against'Children:'understanding'the' risk,'London:'Police'and'Reducing'Crime'Unit,'RDS.'

Turton,' J.' 2008' Child' Abuse,' Gender' and' Society,' London:'

Routledge.'

MAPPING!INDEPENDENT!CHILDREN'S!RIGHTS!

INSTITUTIONS!

Karl'Hanson

'1

,'Brian'Gran

'2

,'Nigel'Thomas

'3

'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

86'

1

Children's' Rights' Unit,' University' Institute' Kurt' Bösch,' Sion,' Swit) zerland,'

2

Department'of'Sociology'and'School'of'Law,'Case'Western'

3

Reserve'University,'Cleveland,'OH,'United'States,' School'of'Social'

Work,'University'of'Central'Lancashire,'Preston,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:' Independent' Children’s' Rights' Institutions' (ICRIs),' also' called'ombudspersons'or'commissioners'for'children,'have'a'man) date'to'bring'about'changes'in'society'in'order'to'improve'respect' for'the'rights'of'children,'who'themselves'play'only'marginal'roles' in' the' political' process' that' determines' Government' responses' to' societal'changes.'Their'work'may'include'influencing'policy'through' contacts'with'executive'and'legislative'bodies,'raising'public'aware) ness' of' children’s' rights,' providing' information' and' advice,' and' assisting'children'to'speak'for'themselves.'In'some'countries'they' also'have'a'mandate'to'investigate'violations'of'children’s'rights'in' individual'cases.'Across'Europe,'ICRIs'encounter'challenges'to'their' independence,'changes'to'their'organizational'structures,'and,'for' some,' dismantlement' of' their' offices,' thereby' relegating' them' as' no'longer'affordable'luxury'institutions'of'the'past.'

Based'on'research'undertaken'within'the'Research'Group'on'Om) budspersons'for'Children,'this'paper'will'provide'a'typology'of'ex) isting' ICRIs' in' Europe' taking' into' account' the' commonalities' and' variations'between'them,'in'particular'in'terms'of'legal'status,'de) grees' of' independency,' functions,' powers' and' funding.' The' paper' will'discuss'the'particular'roles'of'ICRIs'in'turbulent'times'and'also' give'evidence'of'how'these'turbulent'times,'in'turn,'impact'on'their' work.'

URBAN!CHILDHOODS/URBAN!PLAYGROUNDS:!

BETWEEN!SURVEILLANCE,!INVISIBILITY!AND!

PARTICIPATION!

Maja'Brzozowska)Brywczyńska

1'

1

Institute'of'Sociology,'Adam'Mickiewicz'University,'Poznań,'Poland

'

Abstract:' Taking' the' material' culture' of' urban' childhood' as' envi) sioned' in' design' of' playgrounds' and' other' children' spaces' within' the'city'as'its'starting'point'and'inspired'by'Colin'Ward’s'assump) tion'that:'"The'failure'of'an'urban'environment'can'be'measured'in' direct'propotion'to'the'number'of'>>playgrounds<<"'(Child'in'the'

City,'1977:73)'I'would'like'to'discuss'the'complexities'of'children’s'

(negotiating)'autonomy'in'the'urban'space.'The'discipline'and'safe) ty' embedded' in' typical' 4S' (see)saw,' swing,' slide,' sand)box)' play) grounds,' the' "invisibility"' of' children‘s' Temporary' Autonomus'

Zones' (Hakim' Bey)' within' the' otherwise' monomorphic' (Owain'

Jones)'urban'spaces'and'the'potential'of'children‘s'participation'in' designing' their' own' >>playscapes<<' (resp.' junk/adventure' play) grounds)'all'provide'a'basis'for'linking'the'play'(and'the'definition' of' play,' child' and' childhood' assumed' by' each' of' the' above' play) ground' "models")' with' the' problem' of' children’s' "ownership"' of' their' cities' and,' consequently,' the' issue' of' city)as)Lebenswelt‘s' possibility'and'quality.'The'presentation'will'be'supported'by'pho) tographic' data' from' the' ongoing' research' project' "The' Invisible'

City"'(dedicated'to'analysing'different'forms'of'everyday'urbanism' in'major'Polish'cities)'I'am'involved'in.'

WHAT’S!‘NORMAL’,!WHAT’S!A!‘CRIME’!AND!WHAT’S!

‘ABUSE’?!POSITIONING!EXPERIENCES!OF!

MALTREATMENT!AND!VICTIMISATION!IN!

Abstract'Book'

CHILDHOOD.!FINDINGS!FROM!A!UK!WIDE!STUDY!OF!

CHILD!MALTREATMENT!AND!VICTIMISATION!

Lorraine'Radford

'1

,'Debbie'Allnock

'2

'

1

School' of' Policy' Studies,' UNIVERSITY' OF' BRISTOL,' Bristol,'

2 child' protection'research'department,'NSPCC'Weston'House'42'Curtain'

Road,'London'EC2A'3NH,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:'Children’s'experiences'of'violence'and'abuse'in'the'home' are'frequently'described'as'‘hidden’.'This'paper'will'draw'on'find) ings'from'UK'wide'research'into'the'prevalence'and'impact'of'child' maltreatment'and'victimisation'in'the'UK,'to'explore'developmen) tal' aspects' in' naming' victimisation' experiences' as' ‘abuse’.' Inter) views' were' collected' from' 6196' caregivers,' children' and' young' adults,' identified' from' the' post' code' address' files' using' random' probability' sampling' methods.' CASI' and' A' CASI' interviews' were' conducted'asking'caregivers'of'children'under'the'age'of'11'years,' children'aged'11'to'17'years'and'young'adults'aged'18'to'24'years' about'childhood'experiences'of'maltreatment'and'victimisation'and' the'impact'on'wellbeing'and'behavior.'Up'to'39'different'types'of' victimisation'were'assessed,'using'measures'from'the'Juvenile'Vic) timization' Questionnaire' (Hamby,' Finkelhor,' Ormrod' &' Turner).'

Follow'up'and'in'depth'interviews'were'also'conducted'with'over'

60'young'adult'survivors'of'child'maltreatment'to'explore'the'pro) cesses'of'naming'experiences'as'‘abuse’'and'finding'safety.'

CHILDREN’S!RESOURCES!IN!ACTION!–!A!

BOURDIEUSIAN!FIELD!IN!PRESCHOOL!

Mari'Vuorisalo

1'

1

Department' of' Educational' Sciences,' UNIVERSITY' OF' JYVÄSKYLÄ,'

Jyväskylä,'Finland

'

Abstract:' In' this' study,' children’s' activities' in' the' preschool' are' conceptualized' as' a/ social/ practice' within' a' Bourdieusian' frame.'

This'means'to'study'children’s'everyday'interaction'as'their'active' construction.'

The' starting' point' for' a' Bourdieusian' analysis' of' social' spaces'

(fields)'is'the'understanding'of'the'social'world'as'being'both'struc) turing'and'structured.'In'this'study'the'volume'and'the'composition' of'the'resources'that'children'bring'into'preschool'are'seen'to'give' their'interaction'its'objective'structure'as'they'determine'the'inter) related,'reciprocal'positions.'The'empirical'base'of'the'study'is'eth) nography'in'a'Finnish'preschool.'

A' Bourdieusian' field' is' a' dynamic' space' of' positions' taken' and' struggle'for'by'agents'in'the'field,'within'its'existing'power'relations' and'with'resources'that'are'recognized'in'the'field'as'valid'and'val) ued' capitals.' Therefore,' to' be' accepted' as' an' active' participant'

(agent)'to'the'game'in'the'field'requires'that'children'know'how'to' do'play'i.e.'they'have'a'‘feel'for'the'game’.'

This' paper' focuses' on' the' ‘game’' children' play' in' the' field' of' kin) dergarten'and'the'utilization'of'resources'in'these'games.'The'pa) per'is'part'of'a'PhD'study'in'early'childhood'education.'

IS!ANYONE!LISTENING?!CHILDREN’!PARTICIPATION!IN!

PUBLIC!DECISIONGMAKING,!TURNING!‘VOICE’!INTO!

‘INFLUENCE’!

Anne'Catherine'Crowley

1'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

1

SOCSI,'CARDIFF,'Penarth,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:'This'paper'examines'the'impact'of'children’s'participation' on' public' services' in' four' formal' governance' structures' )' a' local' authority'youth'forum'and'primary'school'council'in'Wales,'UK;'a' children’s' advisory' group' of' an' large' international' Non)

Governmental' Organisation' and' neighbourhood' children's' parlia) ments' in' Tamil' Nadu,' India.' A' critical' review' of' the' processes' in) volved' in' turning' children’s' ‘voice’' in' to' ‘influence’' in' these' case' studies,' suggests' that' traditional' constructions' of' childhood' are' alive' and' well' and' work' to' ensure' that' formal' participation' struc) tures'and'mechanisms'established'as'a'result'of'policy'drivers'in'the'

UK,' have' been' much' more' about' providing' opportunities' for' chil) dren'to'practice''good''citizenship,'develop'a'responsible'attitude,' and' to' learn' about' the' complexity' of' public' decision)making' than' about'user'involvement'in'shaping'public'services'or'holding'service' providers'or'policy'makers'to'account.'

Drawing'on'broader'theories'in'political'science'relating'to'citizen' engagement'and'new'governance'as'well'as'the'sociology'of'child) hood,'the'paper'concludes'with'a'summary'of'the'factors'that'show' promise'as'‘enablers’'in'turning'children’s'‘voice’'into'influence'in' formal'participatory'structures'and'deliberative'forums.'

‘STAR!OF!THE!WEEK’!AND!OTHER!FORMS!OF!

GOVERNANCE:!CONSTRUCTING!NORMATIVE!

CHILDHOOD!IN!DAYGCARE!

Anna'Laura'Elina'Siippainen

1'

1

Education/' unit' of' Early' childhood' education,' UNIVERSITY' OF'

JYVÄSKYLÄ,'Jyväskylä,'Finland

'

Abstract:' Generational' relations' between' children' and' adults' are' going'through'changes'(Alanen'2009).'This'has'sparked'off'a'vivid' debate' on' children’s' agency' and' need' for' adult)provided' protec) tion.' In' my' ongoing' dissertation' research' I' examine' intergenera) tional'relationships'in'a'Finnish'day)care'center'and'try'to'answer' to'the'following'research'questions:'What'kind'of'position'do'chil) dren' take' in' intergenerational' relationships' in' day)care?' How' do' children'shape'these'relationships?'How'do'the'relations'between' children'and'adults'affect'children’s'agency'and'well)being?'

Theoretical' ideas' are' adopted' mainly' from' governmentality' re) search' ((Foucault,' Rose,' Dean).' The' data' are' collected' by' ethno) graphic' methods' in' one' kindergarten' group' (children' aged' 3)5) years'old)'by'observing'and'interviewing'the'children'and'the'per) sonnel'during'the'spring'2011.'In'this'presentation'I'will'take'a'clos) er'look'at'some'empirical'cases'from'the'point'of'view'of'govern) ance' and' discuss' the' kind' of' normative' childhood' and' ideal' child' that'the'practices'of'the'day)care'center'help'to'construct?'

My'research'builds'on'my'master’s'thesis'and'is'part'of'the'project'

“Intergenerational' partnerships:' emergent' forms' for' promoting' children’s' well)being”.' The' project' is' funded' by' the' Academy' of'

Finland'(2010)2013).'

THE!SOCIAL!IMPORTANCE!OF!THINGS:!INCLUSION!

AND!EXCLUSION!AMONG!CHILDREN!IN!A!MULTIG

ETHNIC!SUBURB!OF!OSLO!

Mari'Rysst

1'

1

Consumer' culture,' NATIONAL' INSTITUTE' FOR' CONSUMER'

RESEARCH,'Oslo,'Norway

'

87'

Abstract:' Since' the' Second' World' War,' nation' building' in' Norway' has'focused'on'welfare,'quity'and'equality.'From'the'same'period,' immigrants' from' non)western' countries' arrived' in' great' numbers.'

As' a' consequence,' egalitarian' values' regarding' gender,' race' and' ethnicity' are' highly' prioritized' in' kindergarten,' schools' and' else) where.'Children'learn'from'an'early'age'that'"people'look'different,' but' are' similar' inside",' and' that' inner' qualities' count' more' than' appearance,'which'include'physiology'and'clothes.'The'field'site'is' in' an' ethnically' heterogeneous' suburb' of' Oslo' peopled' by' immi) grants'from'all'over'the'world.'Based'on'more'than'six'months'of' ethnographic'fieldwork'in'a'primary'school'consisting'of'95%'pupils' with' immigrant' backgrounds,' the' paper' discusses' inclusion' and' exclusion'in'the'light'of'children's'social'networks'and'social'capital.'

The' paper' discusses' the' following' questions:' How' are' children's' friendship'networks'to'be'understood'in'the'light'of'gender,'ethnic) ity'and'different'proficiencies?'Which'"things",'including'activities,' seem'important'for'children's'inclusion?'How'do'children'and'their' family's'social'networks'relate'to'their'overall'inclusion'and'exclu) sion'in'this'particular'place?'

CHILD!MALTREATMENT!AS!A!MATTER!OF!SOCIALLY!

EMBEDDED!EXPERTS.!THE!COLOURING!OF!

PROFESSIONAL!INTERVENTIONS!THROUGH!

COGNITIVE!AND!ORGANISATIONAL!IDIOSYNCRACIES.!

Lars' Alberth

' 1

Eisentraut

1'

,' Ingo' Bode

' 2*

,' Doris' Bühler)Niederberger

' 1

,' Steffen'

1

Sociology,' BERGISCHE' UNIVERSTAET' WUPPERTAL,' Wuppertal,'

2

Social'Politics,'University'of'Kassel,'Kassel,'Germany

'

Abstract:'Internationally,'maltreatment'of'small'children'is'increas) ingly' viewed' as' a' severe' challenge' to' social' professionalism.' Con) cern' is' widespread' about' imperfections' of' existing' patterns' of' in) tervention,' regarding' the' use' of' organisational' resources' and' re) sistance' to' interprofessional' collaboration.' However,' this' debate' has' shortcomings' concerning' the' way' it' addresses' professional' divides' in' the' societal' response' to' child' maltreatment.' Firstly,' greater'awareness'is'needed'concerning'the'professions’'intrusion' in'the'families’'life'world'as'this'intrusion'is'subject'to'a'bargaining' between'parents'and'professions.'A'crucial'problem'here'seems'to' be' the' invisibility' of' the' child' in' the' process' of' professional' inter) vention,'with'children'ranging'from'a'mere'‘bearer'of'symptoms’'to' being' an' active' participant' in' the' intervention' process.' Secondly,' professional'interventions'are'embedded'in'institutional'and'organ) isational'regulations,'with'a'simultaneous'involvement'of'different' professions' and' organizations,' each' following' a' distinctive' ap) proach'of'how'to'intervene.'In'this'configuration,'particular'trajec) tories' of' professional' interference' emerge' which' entail' case) specific'(chains'of)'reactions.'

The' paper' is' based' on' a' research' project' funded' by' the' German'

Research'Council'(DFG).'It'explores'professional'interventions'in'the' field' of' child' maltreatment' and' neglect.' On' the' basis' of' in)depth) interviews' with' different' professions' (social' workers,' physicians,' midwives' etc.)' as' well' as' reported' cases,' an' analysis' of' the' triage' process'(the'process'leading'to'a'decision'if'the'case'is'to'be'seen' as'maltreatment,'neglect'etc.'or'not)'is'presented.'The'hypothesis' developed'in'this'paper'is'that'professional'interventions'are'sub) ject'to'as'distinctive'social'embeddedness'and,'among'other'things,' contingent' on' a)' the' processing' of' professional' knowledge' and' b)' prevailing'organisational'structures,'with'both'impacting'specifically' on' the' situational' interaction' with' the' family' under' treatment.'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

88'

Thus,' intervention' against' child' maltreatment' risks' being' only' loosely'coupled'to'what'the'needs'of'children'or'their'families'ac) tually'may'require.'At'least,'idiosyncracies'rooted'in'the'knowledge' processing'of'professions'and'organizational'constraints'colour'the' process'of'intervention'makedly.'

SEGREGATION!AND!MIXING!IN!BELFAST:!TEENAGERS'!

PERCEPTIONS!OF!THE!POST!CONFLICT!CITY!

Madeleine'Leonard

1'

1 sociology,'QUEEN'S'UNIVERSITY'BELFAST,'Belfast,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:' Until' recently,' studies' of' modern' cities' and' their' impact' on'the'daily'lives'of'occupants'focused'largely'on'adult'spatial'pat) terns.'This'focus'often'rendered'young'people'as'invisible'inhabit) ants' of' urban' landscapes' and' by' failing' to' incorporate' their' own'

‘ways' of' seeing’' they' were' positioned' as' outsider' groups' (Mat) thews' 1995).' In' attempting' to' redress' this' balance,' research' on' young'people’s'micro)geographies'has'revealed'the'myriad'ways'in' which'they'utilise'street'corners,'shopping'centres,'vacant'spaces,' parks' and' playgrounds' as' places' where' they' can' meet' and' create' their' own' identities' (Matthews' et' al' 1998).' Young' people' often' access'public'spaces'as'members'of'groups'and'this'often'results'in' young' people' making' territorial' claims' over' the' spaces' they' com) monly' use.' In' cities' such' as' Belfast' which' have' historically' been' ethno)nationally' divided' into' parallel' landscapes' whereby' one' group' claims' control' over' space' and' defends' that' space' against' others,'one'would'expect'that'young'people'growing'up'alongside' pre)defined' boundaries' and' barriers' would' be' territorial' in' their' daily' practices.' However,' as' the' paper' will' demonstrate,' while' there' are' some' continuities' between' adults’' and' children’s' per) spectives'on'divided'spaces'there'are'also'likely'to'be'differences.'

Thus,'while'young'people’s'‘ways'of'seeing’'may'support'adult'per) spectives' regarding' traditional' patterns' of' segregation' they' may' also' dilute,' challenge' and' contest' them.' Reflecting' O’Brien' et' al’s'

(2000:'257)'assertion'that'debates'about'children’s'place'in'the'city' need' to' move' away' from' ‘the' unitary' public' child’,' this' paper' ex) plores'the'heterogeneity'of'young'people’s'attitudes'to'growing'up' in'Belfast'and'the'extent'to'which'they'view'Belfast'as'a'divided'or' shared' city.' By' focusing' on' the' contradictory' narratives' produced' by'young'people,'the'research'aims'to'demonstrate'the'diversity'of' their' experiences' of' growing' up' in' a' city' divided' by' physical' and' symbolic'boundaries'and'the'ways'in'which'they'make'sense'of'and' challenge'segregated'urban'landscapes.'

THE!EXPERIENCES!OF!THE!ASYLUM!SEEKING!CHILDREN!

IN!FLIGHT!AND!EXILE!

Minna'Mari'Lähteenmäki

1'

1

Institute'of'Behavioural'Sciences,'UNIVERSITY'OF'HELSINKI,'Helsin) ki,'Finland

'

Abstract:'The'number'of'asylum'seekers'is'rising'sharply'in'the'Eu) ropean'Union.'This'means'the'growth'of'the'child'victims'of'human' smuggling' and' it' also' resulting' in' the' growth' of' the' number' of' those' children' who' have' experiences' of' war' and' flight.' The' own' stories'the'children'and'their'mothers'who'seek'asylum'in'Finland' tell'about'the'fear'of'being'killed,'the'longing;'about'the'silence'and' being' silenced;' the' submission;' the' negligence;' the' witnessing' of' the'violence'and'the'seeking'of'protection'from'it;'the'helplessness;' the' hiding;' the' hunger;' the' coldness;' the' pain' and' the' fear.' They' also' tell' about' the' sense' of' relief' the' children' have' felt' after' the'

Abstract'Book' flight.'From'these'narratives'can'be'found'experiences'of'different' kinds'of'exercise'of'power'and'the'possibilities'of'agency,'but'also' the'lack'of'such'possibilities.'

In'addition'to'the'age'and'gender'of'the'child,'the'length'and'heav) iness' of' the' journey,' the' used' vehicles,' the' need' of' being' hidden' and'it´s'duration'and'the'parent's'condition'and'ability'to'help'her' child,' affected' how' the' child' felt' during' the' flight.' Although' the' child'may'apparently'appear'to'have'managed'the'journey'without' great' difficulties,' it' is' however' both' mentally' and' physically' hard' time' for' all' children.' The' flight' stories' of' asylum' seeking' children' and' their' mothers' will' help' us' to' understand' the' backgrounds' of' the'silence'and'malaise'of'those'children'living'in'exile.'These'back) grounds' are' largely' similar' to' what' the' Finnish' evacuee' children' experienced'during'the'Second'World'War'and'immediately'after'it.'

Silence' and' to' be' silenced' appear' to' be' common' to' families' wounded' by' war,' regardless' of' the' geographical' location' and' the' period'of'time'we'are'examining.'

The' flight' stories' of' the' asylum' seeking' children' and' mothers' are' part'of'an'extensive'research'data.'In'this'doctoral'thesis'I'propose' to'address'the'day)to)day'life'of'children'who'seek'asylum'in'Fin) land'together'with'their'families'in'the'context'of'the'Finnish'refu) gee'reception'centers'and'schools.'I'shall'consider'the'significance' of'the'family,'the'reception'center'and'the'preparatory'education' in'a'situation'where'the'children'are'trying'to'cope'with'their'diffi) cult'conditions.'Another'strain'of'the'study'will'concentrate'on'the' support'provided'by'various'networks'and'the'own'experiences'of' the'children'in'the'midst'of'asylum'seeking'process.'

DAILIY!LIFE!IN!A!ROMANIAN!PRISON!FOR!YOUTH!AND!

MINORS!

Petronel'Mirel'Dobrica

1'

1

Faculty'of'Sociology'and'Social'Work,'UNIVERSITY'OF'BUCHAREST,'

Bucharest,'Romania

'

Abstract:'Daily'life'in'a'Romanian'prison'for'minors'and'youth'

The' aim' of' this' paper' is' to' describe' and' explain' some' aspects' of' everyday'lives'in'a'prison'for'youths'and'minors.'The'paper'shows' the'results'of'a'field'research,'“Deculturation'as'effect'of'detention.'

Resocialization' in' the' context' of' the' progressive' and' regressive' regime' of' prison' sentence' execution”,' financed' by' CNCSIS' –'

UEFISCDI'(project'IDEI'PCE'2008,'ID)1977).'

The' universe' of' young' inmates' exists' as' a' separated' and' in' many' ways'as'a'contrary'world'to'the'official'depiction'of'the'institution' of'prison.'What'are'the'attributes'of'this'world?'What'kind'of'rep) resentations'of'the'prison'and'the'outside'world'are'elaborated'by' the'young'inmates?'What'is'the'inner'social'hierarchy'in'this'envi) ronment'and'what'are'the'elements'that'determine'the'individual’s' inclusion'into'this'world?'My'research'analyses'the'inmate’s'strate) gy'of'adaptability'to'the'official'rules,'on'the'one'hand,'and'to'the' informal'rules'of'prisoners,'on'the'other.'

One'of'the'most'salient'aspects'of'my'research'refers'to'the'evalua) tion'of'the'consequences'of'the'penal'system'for'youth'and'minors,' which' dramatically' diminish' the' social' reintegration' of' former' young'inmates.'

CHANGING!CHILDHOOD,!SHIFTING!PRIORITIES.!

INTERNATIONAL!CHILDREN'S!RIGHTS!ADVOCACY!

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

SINCE!THE!ADOPTION!OF!THE!CONVENTION!ON!THE!

RIGHTS!OF!THE!CHILD!

Karl'Hanson

'1

,'Michele'Poretti

1'

1

Children's'Rights'Unit,'UNIVERSITY'INSTITUTE'KURT'BÖSCH'(IUKB),'

Sion'4,'Switzerland

'

Abstract:'In'spite'of'the'comprehensiveness'of'the'UN'Convention' on'the'Rights'of'the'Child'(CRC),'limited'resources'and'time'inevita) bly' lead' duty' bearers' to' prioritize' some' issues' over' others.' The' international'children’s'rights'agenda'can'therefore'be'conceived'as' a' process' of' meaning)negotiation' between' antagonistic' ideas' of' children’s'rights'and'related'priorities.'

The'paper'will'present'the'findings'of'an'ongoing'interdisciplinary' research' project' which' aims' to' gain' better' insights' into' the' pro) cesses' of' prioritization' in' international' children’s' rights' advocacy.'

The' project' explores,' in' particular,' the' extent' to' which' there' is' space'for'translating'children’s'own'conceptions'of'their'rights'(un) derstood'as'‘living'rights’),'especially'when'these'do'not'correspond' to'dominant'children’s'rights'discourses.'

The'project'findings'are'based'on'data'from'semi)structured'inter) views'with'key'informants'and'from'quantitative'analysis'of'more' than' 300' documents' produced' by' the' United' Nations' system' and' international' NGOs' between' 1989' and' 2009.' The' paper' will' high) light' how' competing' understandings' of' children’s' rights' intersect' with'changing'conceptions'of'childhood,'unequal'power'relations,' established' institutions' and' transnational' advocacy' networks' to' include'childhood)related'themes'in'–'or'exclude'them'from'–'the' global'agenda.'

CHILDREN’S!CITIZENSHIP!IN!EUROPE:!THEORISING!

CURRENT!PRACTICES!

Tom'Cockburn

1'

1

Social' Science' and' Criminal' Justice' Studies,' UNIVERSITY' OF'

BRADFORD,'Bradford,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:'Children’s'citizenship'has'been'the'subject'of'considerable' action'and'debate'across'Europe'in'the'last'10'years'or'so.'These' debates'have'been'occurring'inside'and'between'nation'states'and' within'the'Council'of'Europe'itself.'The'debates'are'extremely'wide' ranging:'covering'as'diverse'issues'as'the'protection'of'children,'the' participation' of' children,' children’s' migrations,' citizenship' educa) tion,' numerous' strategies' around' `youth’' following' the' Lisbon'

Agenda,'and'so'on.'Furthermore,'the'nature'and'condition'of'chil) dren’s' citizenship' is' heterogeneous' if' we' consider' the' contrasting' nature' of' citizenship' between' nation' states' (e.g.' UK' subjects' and'

French'citizens;'or'the'welfare'citizens'of'Sweden'and'Bulgaria).'

Despite'this'there'are'common'issues'around'children’s'citizenship' when'viewed'through'social'and'political'theory.'All'member'states' have'ideologies'of'citizenship'shaped'by'the'enlightenment'and'it'is' these'enlightenment'ideologies'that'have'placed,'or'more'accurate) ly' excluded,' children' from' nineteenth' and' twentieth' century' citi) zenship.' However,' children’s' rights' and' children’s' citizenship' have' been' re)evaluated' in' the' twentieth' century' and' now' all' member' states'are'influenced'by'a'growing'children’s'rights'movement'that' have' challenged' many' of' the' assumptions' of' children' that' have' excluded'them'from'conventional'notions'of'citizenship.'

89'

THE!CHILD!AND!THE!CITY:!CHILDREN’S!CITIZENSHIP,!

PARTICIPATION!AND!THE!RIGHT!TO!URBAN!LIFE!

Gabriela'Pina'Trevisan

'1

,'Manuel'Jacinto'Sarmento

1'

1 institute'of'Education,'MINHO'UNIVERSITY,'braga,'Portugal

'

Abstract:' Contemporary' citizenship' debates' explore' its' subjective' meanings,'new'spheres'of'action'and'identities'by'rejecting'a'mere' and' formal' definition' of' citizenship' as' a' simple' set' of' rights' and' duties.' Children’s' citizenship' implies' a' more' complex' discussion' since'their'political'status'(at'least'until'they’re'16'years'old)'is'not' previewed' or' consacrated.' Yet,' on' the' agency' plan' children' are' political' agents,' intervening' in' the' life' of' cities' and' institutions,' suffering' and' influencing' collective' decisions,' being' the' beginning' but'also'the'agents'(invisible'and'marginal'but,'nevertheless,'real)' of'political'action.'Matters'of'exclusion'and'inclusion'also'contrib) ute' to' the' struggles' of' the' idea' of' children' as' citizens,' since' they' remain'nowadays'as'the'main'excluded'group'of'political'participa) tion.'Participation'in'formal'structures'of'public'decision'making'–' such'as'the'city')'is'seen'as'a'fundamental'tool'for'this'recognition.'

Children's'competences'and'adults'perspectives'on'their'status'as' citizenships'help'to'shape'and'define'their'opportunities'on'partici) pation'structures'and'the'impact'of'those'experiences'in'children's' everyday' life' settings.' Sociological' analysis' of' children’s' participa) tion'challenges'common'notions'of'citizenship'and'questions'inter) pretative'frameworks'proposed'by'sociology'on'social'and'political' participation.' New' ways' and' meanings' of' citizens' participation' in' political'have'been'questioned'and'rebuilt.'This'questioning'will'be' built' from' a' research' in' a' Portuguese' city' –' through' the' Child'

Friendly' Cities' Unicef' Program' –' focusing' particularly' on' its' con) straints'and'inhibitions'but'also'the'possibilities'of'children’s'action' on' the' organisation' of' public' space,' looking' at' children’s' and' city' council'deciders'perspectives.'

OF!INNOCENCE!AND!GUILT:!YOUNG!CHILDREN!

NEGOTIATING!‘RACE’!AND!BELONGING!IN!IRISH!

PRIMARY!SCHOOLS!

Susan'Mcdonnell

1'

1

Applied'Social'Science,'UNIVERSITY'COLLEGE'CORK,'Cork,'Ireland

'

Abstract:' This' paper' presents' some' of' the' findings' from' research' with'young'children'(age'6'to'7)'focusing'on'identity'constructions' and' specifically' the' area' of' racialised' identities.' According' to' Toni'

Morrison,'we'live'in'a'‘wholly'racialised'world’'(1992:4).'Emphasis) ing'the'production'of'inclusion'and'exclusion'as'dynamic'processes' situated' in' particular' cultures' and' contexts,' the' paper' refutes' the' dichotomies'of'childhood'‘innocence’'or'(implied)'‘guilt’'sometimes' associated'with'inquiry'into'areas'considered'sensitive'with'young) er' children.' The' research' engages' with' children’s' narratives' and' embodied'peer'interactions'within'the'‘mainly'white’'and'govern) mentally'Catholic'spaces'of'Irish'schooling.'In'the'context'of'depo) liticised'official'discourses'emphasising'equality'and'belonging'and' eliding'difference,'the'research'demonstrates'children’s'capacities' to' actively' reiterate,' negotiate' and' resist' discursive' hierarchies' of' belonging,' as' well' as' their' knowledge' of' what' may' and' may' not' legitimately' be' said.' The' paper' suggests' that' ‘colour)blind’' and'

‘colour'mute’'educational'policies,'while'endeavouring'perhaps'to' protect' children’s' ‘innocence’' and' ensure' their' inclusion,' do' so' at' the' expense' of' engaging' in' an' effective' manner' with' issues' that' have'real'resonance'and'consequence'in'children’s'everyday'lives.'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

90'

Reference'

Morrison,'T.'(1992)'Playing'in'the'Dark'

WHAT!AFFECTS!CHILD!AGENCY!AND!WELLGBEING!IN!

KYRGYZSTAN?!

Saltanat'Rasulova

1'

1

Social'Policy'and'Intervention,'OXFORD'UNIVERSITY,'Oxford,'Unit) ed'Kingdom

'

Abstract:/What'affects'child'agency'and'well)being'in'Kyrgyzstan?'

The' concept' of' agency' and' how' it' relates' to' wellbeing' are' rarely' defined'by'children'themselves.'And'studies'of'agency'often'lack'an' awareness'of'children’s'connections'with'materiality'and'how'their' role'changes'within'a'specific'society.'This'paper'explores'the'na) ture'of'child'agency'and'the'factors'which'affect'it'in'a'specific'eco) nomic,' social' and' cultural' locality.' In' doing' so,' it' investigates' chil) dren’s' own' understandings' of' child' agency' and' how' it' relates' to' wellbeing.' It' identifies' the' commonalities' and' differences' within' the' wider' social)economic' environment' shared' by' Kyrgyz' children' across' differences' in' age' and' sex' between' them' and' in' material' position'between'their'families.'It'will'draw'on'the'author’s'qualita) tive' fieldwork' carried' out' in' Bishkek,' Kyrgyzstan' in' 2010/2011.' 40' semi)structured' qualitative' interviews' were' conducted' with' chil) dren'aged'12'and'16'at'state'and'private'schools'and'group'discus) sions'were'held'with'both'parents'and'children.'

The' research' objective' was' to' study' how' agency' functions' under' specific'life'circumstances'and'forms'of'social'involvement'of'chil) dren' and' the' personal' meanings' of' agency' for' children' given' the' economic'conditions'and'cultural'demands'of'childhood'in'contem) porary'Kyrgyzstan.'Based'on'the'fieldwork'data,'the'paper'will'ex) plore'two'main'issues:'first,'the'importance'of'the'subjective'views' of' children' in' understanding' what' the' concept' of' child' agency' means'and'how'it'is'exerted'in'Kyrgyz'society;'and'second,'the'im) portance'of'love'and'care'for'children’s'lives'and'the'effects'of'cul) ture,' materiality' and' the' socio)economic' circumstances' in' which' they' live.' This' study' raises' issues' central' to' the' consideration' of' appropriate' policies' to' enable' children' to' lead' satisfying' lives' and' contributes' to' the' quantity' and' quality' of' research' engaging' with' children’s'subjective'views,'in'particular'about'child'agency.'

CHILDREN’S!AND!TEENAGERS’!SOCIAL!ROLES!IN!

FAMILIES!WITH!IMPRISONED!MOTHERS!

Dan'Octavian'Rusu

'1

,'Andrea'Muller)Fabian

'1

,'Maria'Roth

1'

1

FACULTY' OF' SOCIOLOGY' AND' SOCIAL' WORK,' BABES)BOLYAI'

UNIVERSITY,'Cluj)Napoca,'Romania

'

Abstract:'The'objective'of'our'research'is'to'highlight'the'practice'of' children’s' rights' in' families' with' imprisoned' mothers,' and' the' dif) ferences' between' them' and' children' with' parents' not' involved' with' the' justice' system' in' respect' to' the' way' they' can' take' ad) vantage' of' their' rights,' decision' making' in' social' problems,' and' involvement'in'family'tasks,'as'well'as'the'involvement'in'religious' organizations.'The'participation'of'children'in'social'life'depends'on' their' family' situation' and' support.' Families' shape' the' moral' re) sponsibilities' and' practical' duties' of' children,' according' to' their' own'values'and'social'situation.'Involvement'of'children'in'religious' organizations'can'also'depend,'among'other'factors,'on'the'needs' of'children'and'on'the'response'of'religious'organizations'to'these'

Abstract'Book' needs.' Differences' also' depend' on' the' degree' of' autonomy' and' control'of'children,'due'to'their'psycho)social'status'within'a'family' that'lack'the'presence'of'the'mother'because'of'imprisonment.'

Methodology.'The'study'involved'50'children'and'adolescent'with' imprisoned' mothers' and' a' sample' of' 50' children' and' adolescents' living'in'families'not'involved'with'justice.'As'instruments'we'used'a' semi)structured'individual'interview.'The'objectives'are:'1.'to'eval) uate'the'way'children'with'imprisoned'mothers'can'put'into'prac) tice'their'rights'regarding'participation'in'social'life,'and'the'evalua) tion'of'the'frequency'the'children'and'teenagers'participate'to'the' family'decisions'about'the'main'tasks'and'problems'in'the'family;'2.' the' evaluation' of' the' involvement' in' religious' organizations' and' activities.'

Conclusions.' Our' results' highlight' differences' between' the' 2' groups,'but'we'found'a'large'diversity'also'within'both'groups.'The' absence'of'the'mothers'from'children’s'family'environment'impacts' children’s' rights,' increasing' the' vulnerability' to' discrimination,' by' the'risk'of'reducing'their'personal'networks,'pressuring'on'the'de) velopment'of'autonomy'and'their'independence'in'decision'making' and' involvement' in' religious' organizations' and' activities.' We' demonstrate'that'the'absence'of'mothers'puts'a'high'pressure'on' children’s'social'roles,'who'prematurely'overtake'adult'roles,'which' are' experienced' as' heavy' burden' by' several' children.' Mothers’' imprisonment' might' have' for' children' the' meaning' of' a' punish) ment' that' frames' the' space' and' the' quality' of' their' children’s' rights.'

AMBIVALENT!EXPERIENCES!IN!THE!PSYCHOSEXUAL!

DEVELOPMENT!OF!CHILDREN!FOR!PARENTS!AND!

PROFESSIONALS!CHILDREN’S!EXPERIENCES!WITH!

THEIR!BODILY!IMAGES!IN!THE!FAMILY!AND!EARLY!

CHILDCARE!INSTITUTIONS!

Inés'Brock

1'

1

MAGDEBURGER' AUSBILDUNGSINSTITUT' FÜR' PSYCHOTHERAPEU,'

UNIVERSITY' OF' APPLIED' SCIENCE' MAGDEBURG)STENDAL,' Hal) le(Saale),'Germany

'

Abstract:'In'the'presentation'I'will'discuss'the'actual'status'of'my' scientific'work'about'psychosexual'development'in'the'early'child) hood.' The' sexual' education' in' the' family' and' in' early' childhood' institutions' can' be' seen' as' occupated' by' ambivalent' emotions.'

Especially' in' the' first' years,' children' discover' their' bodies' in' an' uncommitted'fashion.'Attention'to'children’s'bodies,'and'how'the) se'function,'are'experienced'and'constructed'by'each'child'individ) ually.'This'is'an'important'presupposition'in'understanding'children' as' social' actors.' We' have' to' bear' in' mind' that' some' effects' are' influenced'by'the'relationships'in'which'the'children'are'involved.'

Infants' and' very' young' children' are' reliant' on' the' habits' of' their' parents,'the'behavior'of'their'peers'and'the'rules'of'professionals.'

My'theoretical'interest'concerns'the'social'practice'and'emotional' circumstances'under'which'children’s'physical'personification'arise.'

The'body'and'childhood'can'be'comprehended'as'complex'entities' in'which'a'mixture'of'cultural'and'natural'factors'influence'the'pos) sibilities.'

A'child’s'body'is'seen'as'one'characterized'by'change'and'growth'–' a' process' of' biological' and' emotional' development' dependent' on' the' quality' and' behavior' of' closely' related' peers' and' adults.' Chil) dren'experience'themselves'simultaneously'in'and'as'their'bodies.'

In' the' early' part' of' an' individual’s' life' course,' personal' and' social'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' relations'are'very'important'in'accepting'the'physical'changes'and' in' finding' the' appropriate' balance' of' personal' well)being' and' the' acceptance'of'social'norms.'

This'theory'is'based'on'childhood'sociology'and'emotional'sociolo) gy,' keeping' in' mind' that' adjoining' disciplines' such' as' psychology' and' anthropology' are' incorporated.' Children' are' limited' by' the' conditions'of'their'social'lives,'but'also'find'ways'of'creatively'man) aging,' negotiating' and' extending' their' possibilities.' The' paper' will' introduce'the'implikations'of'the'development'of'sexual'identity'in' the'family'and'early'child'education,'whilst'focusing'on'the'ambiva) lent'aspects'these'processes.'The'pilot'study'with'expert'interviews' has'been'finished'and'some'nonverbal'data'of'children’s'inner'no) tions'were'collected.'Theoretical'approach'to'interpret'the'empiri) cal'material'is'the'Grounded'Theory.'

TRUST!AND!FACILITATION!IN!ADULTGCHILDREN!

EDUCATIONAL!INTERACTIONS!

Claudio'Baraldi

'1

,'Federico'Farini

1'

1

Scienze' del' linguaggio' e' della' cultura,' UNIVERSITÀ' DI' MODENA' E'

REGGIO'EMILIA,'Modena,'Italy

'

Abstract:' According' to' Giddens,' in' modern' societies' trust' can' be' enhanced'in'two'ways:'a.'through'expertise'and'technological'sys) tems,'b.'through'interpersonal'affective'relationships.'In'the'educa) tion' system,' expertise' is' generally' considered' the' main' source' of' trust'since'adults'are'hold'to'be'the'experts'(educators),'those'who' must'be'trusted'for'their'knowledge'and'competence.'Recent'stud) ies' in' sociology' of' childhood' suggest' that' expertise' can' become' risky'for'children’s'trust'in'educational'activities'and'that'the'lack'of' trust'may'cause'children’s'marginalization'and'self)marginalization.'

Therefore,' educators' should' facilitate' interpersonal' affective' rela) tionships' with' children,' supporting' their' agency.' Following' these' studies,'children'should'trust'primarily'adults'who'show'sensitivity' towards' their' personal' expressions;' therefore,' it' seems' important' to'understand'if'facilitation'of'personal'expressions'can'create'trust' effectively.' This' can' be' understood' through' an' analysis' that' high) lights'those'types'of'actions'that'can'promote'trust'in'a'way'which' is'visible'in'communication'processes'involving'adults'and'children.'

This' presentation' analyses' interactions' that' are' taken' from' re) search' on' activities' of' peace' education' in' international' groups' of' adolescents'and'the'purpose'is'to'highlight'the'cues'for'the'social' construction'of'trust'that'are'made'evident'in'the'organisation'of' the'interaction.'

TRUST!RELATIONSHIPS!BETWEEN!CHILDREN,!YOUNG!

PEOPLE!AND!SOCIAL!WELFARE!PROFESSIONALS!

sharon'pinkney

1'

1 social'sciences,'OPEN'UNIVERSITY,'Milton'Keynes,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:' This' paper' explores' the' dynamics' of' trust' between' chil) dren' and' social' welfare' professionals.' Participation' and' children’s' rights'literatures'tell'us'that'trust'takes'time'to'develop'between'a' child' and' professional.' The' conditions' of' increased' managerialism' and' administration' in' social' welfare' mean' that' time' is' a' scarce' commodity'for'welfare'professionals'charged'with'advocating,'rep) resenting' and' assessing' ‘the' best' interests’' of' children' and' young' people.'

91'

The'importance'of'the'development'of'trust'is'evident'in'all'kinds'of' professional'relationships'but'with'children'who'are'involved'with' welfare'services'it'takes'on'an'elevated'level'of'significance.'These' children'often'have'reasons'to'be'particularly'cautious'about'trust) ing'adults'because'of'experiences'of'abuse'and'violations'of'trust.'

This' makes' it' particularly' important' that' professionals' have' the' time'and'skills'to'build'and'develop'trust'with'them.'

The'paper'assesses'some'of'the'constraints'in'the'process'of'devel) opment'of'trust'by'using'examples'from'social'policy'and'consulta) tion'with'groups'of'children.'The'task'is'for'individual'professionals' as'well'as'institutions'of'child'welfare'to'recognise'the'significance' of'the'process'and'relations'of'trust'within'this'often'fraught'and' contested'arena'of'social'welfare'work'with'children.'

CHILDHOOD!NORMS:!BALANCING!BETWEEN!

VULNERABLILITY!AND!SUCCESS!

Nele'Van'Den'Cruyce

1'

1

VRIJE'UNIVERSITEIT'BRUSSEL,'Etterbeek,'Belgium

'

Abstract:' Childhood' is' part' of' social' life,' it' is' a' social' and' cultural' concept.' Within' social' life,' believes' and' ideas' are' shaped' into' norms.' In' Western' culture' many' forms' of' behavior' are' evaluated' on'the'basis'of'these'norms'rather'than'on'the'direct'observation' of'an'actual'fact.'Cultural'preferences'and'practices'are'the'basis'on' which'one'elaborates'individual'and'collective'identities.'This'is'the' same' with' children' and' child' behavior.' Ideas' about' what' a' child' should'look'like'and'what'a'childhood'consists'of'are'part'of'socie) tal' norms.' It' is' exactly' the' possibility' of' experiencing' childhoods' different'to'these'norms'which'forms'the'basis'of'this'paper.'

The' main' focus' lies' on' contemporary' societal' representations' of' childhood'and'on'how'Belgian'children'in'different'socio)economic' and' cultural' positions' deal' with' these' childhood' norms.' Which' norms' do' they' encounter' and' how' do' they' experience' them?' Do' they'reflect'upon'social'norms'when'positioning'themselves'in'rela) tion'to'other'children?'Which'information'sources'do'they'rely'on' when'posistioning'themselves'and'others?'Do'children'experience' different'socio)economical'or'cultural'status'positions'among'their' peers'and'how'do'they'act'upon'these'differences?'To'what'extend' do'children'consider'childhood'norms'and'their'positions'in'relation' to'these'norms'to'be'determinants'of'their'future?'

Using'creative'methods'(cf'scrapbooks)'Belgian'children'are'actively' involved'in'this'research'whereby'they'themselves'reflect'upon'the' childhood' norms' which' they' experience' in' their' daily' lives,' and' their'own'future'considering'their'position'related'to'these'norms.'

CHILDREN'S!TIME!AND!PARENTS'!CLOCK.!A!

SOCIOLOGICAL!LOOK!BEYOND!CHILDREN'S!BEDTIME!

Rosalina'Pisco'Costa

1'

1

Department'of'Sociology/School'of'Social'Sciences,'UNIVERSITY'OF'

ÉVORA,'Évora,'Portugal

'

Abstract:' Bedtime' is' socially' constructed' as' a' children’s' time.' As' children'become'more'and'more'central'in'contemporary'families,' bedtime'is'idealized'as'a'(the?)'moment'where,'in'a'kind'of'‘stop) ping’'everyday'life,'parents'can'‘recover’'their'children'after'a'day' where'they'stood'apart.'The'parent)child'relationship'can'then'be' constructed'and'enhanced,'namely'by'means'of'providing'comfort,' reliability' and' safety' messages.' But' bedtime' rituals' are' strongly'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

92' shaped' by' parents’' clock.' Participation' in' labor' market,' relations' between'paid'and'unpaid'work,'including'gender'inequalities'inside' family,'as'well'as'family'structure,'are'central'in'shaping'what'bed) time'is,'beyond'what'it'should'be.'

In'this'paper'we'specifically'address'bedtime'rituals'for'young'chil) dren'as'“family'rituals”'(Wolin'e'Bennett,'1984;'Imber)Black'&'Rob) erts,'1992;'Gillis,'1996;'Pleck,'2000).'Methodological'anchored'up) on' empirical' data' from' qualitative' in)depth' interviews' carried' out' to'both'nuclear'and'single)parent'families,'this'paper'purpose'is'to' discuss' bedtime' rituals' as' a' way' of' constructing' contemporary' family.' Through' an' empiric' and' theoretical' analysis' of' collected' data' we' hope' to' critically' highlight' the' sociological' knowledge' on' relations' between' family,' time' and' children,' with' a' special' focus' into'different'family'structures.'Sharing'of'space,'time'and'meaning' are'strongly'valued'by'parents,'especially'in'single)parent'families,' where'the'presence'of'only'one'adult'turns'this'seeming'common) place'into'a'‘special’'moment'in'both'adults'and'children’s'everyday' life.'

EDUCATIONAL!CHOICES!OF!THE!ÉLITES!

Stefania'Fucci

'1

,'Giulia'Maria'Cavaletto

1'

1 department'of'social'science,'UNIVERSITY'OF'TURIN,'Turin,'Italy

'

Abstract:'Inside'a'national'research'project,'a'study'focused'on'the' educational' choices' for' children' 9' and' 12' years' old' (pupils' of' the' fourth' class' of' primary' school' and' the' first' class' of' middle' lower' school)'of'the'élites'(upper'classes)'in'the'Turintown'had'been'real) ised.'The'school'observed'is'equipped'of'some'characteristics:'high' level'courses,'extracurricular'activities'(sports,'music,'chess),'disci) plines' in' foreign' languages.' A' school' attending' by' working' class' families'formed'the'control'group.'

The'theoretical'framework'of'sociology'of'childhood'(James,'Jenks,'

Prout,' 1998;' Qvortrup,' 2004;' Alanen,' Mayall,' 2001;' Hengst,' H.,'

Zeiher' H.,' 2004)' was' connected' to' the' topic' of' the' educational' practices' of' the' families' according' to' the' social' class' (Kellerhals'

J.M.,'Montandon'C.,'1991;'Kellerhals'J.M.,'Montandon'C.,'Ritschard'

G.,'Sardi'Mr.,'1992,'C.'Perregaux,'2002;'P.'Deubel,'J.')'M.'Huart,'Mr.'

Montoussé,' 2007).' The' research' question' was' articulated' in' two' analytical' axes.' The' first' one' inquired' the' relations' between' par) ents'and'children,'with'special'attention'at'school'performance,'the' saturation'of'time'with'additional'formative'activities,'and'the'role' of'the'peers'groups'for'social'capital.'The'second'one'explored'the' relationship'between'school'and'family,'observing'alliances'or'con) trasts'in'the'educational'methods'and'practices'and'the'rules'sys) tem.'

The' aim' of' the' research' is' the' the' reconstruction' of' meanings' of' educational' practices' adopted' by' parents,' involved' in' an' educa) tional'project'which'produces/a/child'in'which'you'can'already'see' the'adult'of'the'future.'

The' school' choices' of' excellence' can' be' interpreted' like' status' maintenance'and'distinction'practices'in'order'to'offer'to'children' educational'and'professional'chances'over'the'average'of'the'chil) dren'of'the'same'age,'attending'other'schools.'

Interviews'with'parents'and'children'(20'upper'class'and'20'work) ing'class'families'involved),'and'focus'groups'with'teachers'(4)'are' realised,' and' then' analysed' through' analytical' dimensions' and' Al) ceste'software.'In'particular,'different'dimensions'emerge'from'the' analysis'such'as'parenting'models'(permissive,'negotiating,'authori) tarian),' positions' with' respect' to' extracurricular' activities' (perfec)

Abstract'Book' tionism/experimentation),' socialization' to' parent' expectations' towards'the'social'evaluation'of'school'and'peers'context.'

EVERYDAY!ANTISOCIAL:!CHILDREN'S!EXPERIENCES!OF!

ANTISOCIAL!BEHAVIOUR!

Emma'Clare'Davidson

1'

1

Centre'for'Research'on'Families'and'Relationships,'UNIVERSITY'OF'

EDINBURGH,'Edinburgh,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:' Over' the' last' two' decades,' UK' governments' have' given' attention' to' antisocial' behaviour' (ASB)' as' a' contemporary' social' problem.' Children' have' been' a' particular' focus' of' this' discourse.'

While'‘youth’'are'symbolic'of'a'declining'social'order,'children'are' innocent'victims.'

This'paper'argues'that'this'dual'conceptualisation'of'children'–'as' victims'or/perpetrators'–'fails'to'take'account'of'the'social'context' in'which'ASB'takes'place.'Using'data'from'an'ethnography'of'chil) dren’s'spaces'in'a'Scottish'housing'estate,'it'is'suggested'that'chil) dren’s'everyday'experiences'of'ASB,'and'policies'designed'to'tackle' the'problem,'are'mismatched.'

The'study'found'that'for'children'growing'up'in'a'‘poor’'place,'ASB' is'a'daily,'and'often'unexceptional,'occurrence.'Normalised'within' their'surroundings,'‘antisocial’'becomes'an'established'part'of'chil) dren’s'walks'to'school,'friendships,'leisure'activities'and'family'life.'

Children’s'experiences'of'ASB,'as'a'victim,'perpetrator'or'observer,' is'thus'rationalised'as'part'of'everyday'life.'

The'paper'concludes'by'stating'that'while'social'policies'define'ASB' as'a'collective'concern,'solutions'are'individualistic.'There'is'a'need' to' move' to' a' relational' approach' to' tackling' ASB,' which' connects' the'problem'to'the'social'spaces'where'it'occurs.'

WHEN!THERE!IS!LITTLE!KNOWN!ABOUT!THE!RULES!

AND!RIGHTS:!YOUTH!RESEARCH!IN!THE!CZECH!

REPUBLIC!

Michaela'Bartosova

'1

,'Beatrice'Elena'Chromková'Manea

Elena'Chromková'Manea

1'

'1

,'Beatrice'

1

IVRIS,'FACULTY'OF'SOCIAL'STUDIES,'MASARYK'UNIVERSITY,'Brno,'

Czech'Republic

'

Abstract:'The'position'of'children'as'independent'actors'and'there) fore'individually'conscious'research'subjects'and'co)researchers'is' more' and' more' acknowledged' by' the' research' practice.' Scholars' point' out' that' younger' members' of' society' are' not' exempt' from' the' general' requirement' of' post)modern' discourse' for' individual' reflection' on' their' own' biography' (Moxnes' 2003,' Greene,' Hogan'

2005,'James'et'al.'1999).'Simultaneously,'it'is'necessary'to'protect' their'rights'as'they'are'still'minors.'

Researchers' who' conduct' research' with' children' must' negotiate' with'parents'or'teachers.'At'the'same'time,'they'must'not'neglect' the' real' subjects' of' the' research' –' children.' Mostly' the' teenagers' have'a'certain'degree'of'independence'(from'parents)'and'life'ex) perience,'and'the'approval'of'a'parent'or'teacher'for'the'research' to'take'place'does'not'necessarily'mean'that'the'adolescent'agrees' with'participating'in'the'research.'

In' the' Czech' context,' there' are' no' official' ethical' rules' or' recom) mendations'for'conducting'research'with'children'and'adolescents,' a' fact' associated' with' the' lack' of' recognition' and' enforcement' of'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' rights' for' children' and' adolescents' in' general.' Researchers' must' individually'find'their'way'and'the'rules'for'conducting'a'research' that' meets' certain' ethical' requirements.' Their' position' is' compli) cated'by'the'tradition'of'authoritarian'approach'of'institutions'and' parents'towards'children'and'teenagers,'who'are'primarily'seen'as' inferior,'subordinated'subjects'without'own'opinion.'The'effort'to' work'with'juveniles'as'independent'subjects'in'the'research,'while' protecting' their' rights,' can' obscure' the' negotiations' with' the' key' actors.'

In'our'paper,'we'intend'to'tackle'the'issue'of'research'experience' based'on'our'own'experience'in'conducting'research'with'children' of'two'age'groups'(8–10,'12)14'years)'in'the'sociology'of'family'and' the'experience'of'other'scholars'from'various'disciplines.'We'want' to'find'out'what'importance'is'assigned'by'each'researcher'to'ethi) cal'values'in'such'a'research'and'which'common'ethical'principles' researchers'agree'with.'We'want'to'understand'how'they'defined' the'most'fundamental'barriers'to'ethical'research'with'children'in' the'Czech'Republic'and'how'they'dealt'with'them'in'their'research.'

AGING!OUT!AS!SEPARATED!MINORS!IN!

SWITZERLAND:!PERSPECTIVES!OF!A!TRANSITION!

Manuela'Scelsi

1'

1

Unité' de' recherche' en' droits' de' l'enfant,' INSTITUT' UNIV.' KURT'

BOSCH/UNIV.'DE'FRIBOURG,'Montreux,'Switzerland

'

Abstract:'Due'to'increasing'migration'flows,'separated'minors'(SM),' which'are'considered'a'particular'vulnerable'minority'group'among' migrants,' have' become' a' permanent' reality' in' most' European' countries.' The' presence' of' SM' in' Switzerland' poses' several' chal) lenges' not' only' for' the' receiving' population' and' institutions,' but' also'for'the'young'people'themselves.'Our'research'aims'to'better' understand' the' transition' period' for' SM' from' childhood' to' adult) hood,'phrased'as'‘aging'out’,'whereby'young'people'leave'a'struc) ture'of'formal'care'because'they'have'reached'the'upper'age'limit.'

The'transition'to'legal'majority'not'only'forces'SM'to'leave'institu) tional'and'welfare'structures'that'provided'special'support'but'also' takes'away'special'protection'rights'contained'in'the'CRC;'neither' do'they'obtain,'in'most'cases,'a'valid'residence'permit.'

The' proposed' paper/poster' will' explore' how' separated' minors' in'

Switzerland'manage'to'face'new'situations'and'challenges'linked'to' their' recently' acquired' legal' status' (majority)' in' the' absence' of' institutional' networks' that' previously' supported' them.' What' re) sources'do'they'use?'Besides'presenting'the'initial'findings'of'our' qualitative'study'into'the'ageing'out'of'SM,'we'will'also'discuss'the' significance' of' visual' research' methods' and' field' interviews' for' obtaining'our'results.'

CHILDREN!IN!TEMPORARY!INSTITUTIONAL!CARE.!A!

LOOK!INTO!THE!DECISION!MAKING!PROCESS.!

Clara'F.'M.'Oliveira

1'

1

CIES/'ISCTE)IUL,'Lisbon,'Portugal

'

Abstract:'According'to'Portuguese'official'records,'there'are'about' ninety' thousand' children' who' are' considered' to' be' at' risk' every' year.' Also' yearly,' the' number' of' children' who' are' currently' not' living'with'their'family'of'origin'due'to'child'services'intervention'is' about'ten'thousand.'Thesenumbers'are'considered'too'high'by'the' authorities,' who' have' implemented' measures' to' reduce' it' by,' for'

93' example,'promoting'adoption'or'improving'the'quality'of'the'social' work' amongst' the' families' of' origin.' Still,' many' of' these' children' linger' in' an' institutional' environment,' many' of' them' transitioning' from'year'to'year'and'some'of'them'without'certainties'about'their' future.' What' are' the' reasons' for' this' to' happen?' With' our' PhD' research,'supervised'by'Prof.'Anália'Cardoso'Torres,'we'propose'to' find'explanations'amongst'the'adults'who'are'in'charge'of'deciding,' from'families'of'origin'who'are'primary'decision'makers'on'the'lives' of'children,'to'judges,'ultimate'decision'makers,'and'also'with'the' technical'staff'of'temporary'placement'facilities.'In'the'present'text' we'take'a'look'at'a'first'stage'of'the'research,'in'which'we'intend'to' study'the'situation'of'children'at'risk'within'the'context'of'a'tempo) rary' placement' facility' (Centro/ de/ acolhimento/ temporário/–/ CAT).'

This'kind'of'institution'represents'the'first'moment'where'the'state' substitutes'the'parents'in'deciding'what'the'child´s'best'interest'is.'

By' analyzing' the' documents' underlying' the' decision,' we' want' to' comprehend' the' paths' of' these' children' and' young' people' in' a' route' marked' by' legal' and' formal' instances,' mandatory' and' time' consuming.' Our' main' goal' is' to' understand' what' reasons' led' the' families'of'origin'to'have'a'child'removed,'how'long'were'the'chil) dren' institutionalized' until' a' decision' was' made' and' what' were' those'decisions.'Thus,'this'text'gives'an'account'of'the'results'of'the' first'data'collected'in'a'Portuguese'CAT,'based'on'the'documental' study'of'171'individual'files'of'children'who'entered'the'institution,' from'1996'to'2009,'its'analysis'and'a'few'preliminary'conclusions.'

Amongst'other'findings,'we'showthat'many'children'remain'institu) tionalized'for'periods'of'time'superior'to'one'year,'well'beyond'the' scope'of'the'temporary'character'of'the'facility;'and'that'half'the' children,' independent' of' the' reason' of' removal' from' their' family,' went'back'either'to'the'family'of'origin'or'the'care'of'another'fami) ly'member.'

THE!VIOLENCE!OF!PUPILS!IN!SCHOOLS!AND!THE!

EMERGENCY!OF!A!SOCIAL!REGULATION!PLAN:!THE!

CASE!OF!GENEVA!

Arnaud'Frauenfelder

'1

,'Geneviève'Mottet

'2

'

1

Haute' école' de' travail' social,' Genève,' UNIVERSITY' OF' APPLIED'

SCIENCES'WESTERN'SWITZERLAND,'

2

Faculté'des'sciences'de'l'édu) cation,'Université'de'Genève,'Genève,'Switzerland

'

Abstract:' How,' during' the' last' two' decades,' has' the' violence' of' pupils'in'school'become'a'public'issue'in'Geneva?'This'contribution' aims'at'describing'the'main'stages'of'such'a'construction.'For'this' purpose,'a'documentary'analysis'of'various'sources'(parliamentary' debates,' print' media' articles,' scientific' reports,' institutional' dis) courses,'and'intervention'protocols)'has'been'conducted.'Whereas' the'existence'of'“youth'violence”'has'been'debated'since'the'early'

1990’s,' we' will' see' how' this' question' led' gradually' to' a' certain' moral'and'political'consensus.'We'will'also'see'that'the'suspicion'of' youth' dangerousness' has' been' emphasized' to' a' level' of' risk' by' school'policies.'In'a'context'that'denies'the'social'matter,'it'is'nec) essary'to'know'and'to'regulate'such'a'risk.'

ROAMING!SAN!SALVADOR.!CAUSES!AND!EFFECTS!OF!

THE!PHENOMENON!OF!STREET!CHILDREN!IN!CENTRAL!

AMERICA!

Raúl'Ruiz)Callado

'1,'2*

'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

94'

1

Sociología'I,'University'of'Alicante,'Alicante,'Spain,'

2

Chaire'de're) cherche'en'immigration,'ethnicité'et'citoyenneté'(CRIEC),'Universi) té'du'Québec'à'Montréal'(UQÀM),'Montréal,'Canada

'

Abstract:' The' paper' presented' here' is' the' result' of' the'

BEST/2010/075/research'project'carried'out'at'the'Latin'American'

Faculty'of'Social'Sciences)El'Salvador'Programme,'funded'by'means' of' a' public' call' by' the' Regional' Government' of' Valencia' (Spain)' during'the'months'of'July,'August'and'September,'2010.'

It' involves' a' detailed' analysis,' which' is' not' merely' descriptive,' of' the'theoretical'approaches'to'knowledge'of'the'variables'explaining' the'processes'by'which'too'many'Central'American'minors'come'to' join' the' group' of' homeless' street' children.' It' makes' a' diagnosis' which'compares'Central'America)European'Union)North'America'in' order'to'understand'and'contextualise'strategic'actions'as'regards' policies' for' the' integration' of' children.' Furthermore,' the' develop) ment'of'the'concept'of'the'family'within'the'Central'American'con) text'has'been'studied,'analysing'local,'regional'and'state'policies'for' the'social'inclusion'and'integration'of'minors'at'risk'of'social'exclu) sion.' It' also' identifies' the' social' changes' that' link' citizens,' group' identity'and'social'integration'with'the'exclusion'of'young'people'in' migrant' societies,' specifically' in' El' Salvador,' keeping' in' mind' the' comparative' viewpoint' with' respect' to' Europe' and,' specifically,'

Spain.'

This' research' project' involves' the' analysis' of' street' children' as' a' social' phenomenon,' that' is' to' say,' with' social' causes' and' conse) quences,'based'on'some'of'the'most'important'sociological'expla) nations'regarding'deviance,'starting'from'the'idea'that'not'all'street' children'show'deviant'behaviour.'The'interpretations'of'social'devi) ance' by' the' modern' sociological' theories' essentially,' with' some' exceptions,'deal'with'seeking'the'causes,'the'aetiology,'of'deviant' behaviour'(Aptekar,'1988).'What'are'the'precipitating'factors'that' cause'adolescents'to'leave'their'homes'and'stay'a'number'of'days' away'from'their'families,'spending'time'on'activities'that'are'mar) ginal'or'which'are'not'characteristic'of'that'age)group?'What'is'the' cause' of' their' behaviour?' These' are' some' of' the' questions' that,' based'on'qualitative'and'quantitative'sociological'research'carried' out'in'Central'America'in'recent'months,'are'answered'here.'

SCHOOL!BULLYING!AND!OTHER!VIOLENCE:!TRAPS!OF!

THE!CURRICULUM!MODEL!CONTRARY!TO!THE!"BODY!

OF!CHILDHOOD"!

Rosana'Coronetti'Farenzena

'1

,'Maria'Beatriz'Pereira

1'

1

Instituto'de'Educação,'UNIVERSIDADE'DO'MINHO,'Braga,'Portugal

'

Abstract:' The' universalisation' of' children´s' formal' education' is' an' unchallenged' societal' advance.' It' guarantees' the' right' of' active' citizenship'to'a'non'dominant'generation'in'areas'of'participation' and' power.' However,' the' massive' and' early' influx' of' children' in' schools' can' contain' paradixical' functions,' if' not' considered' the' specific'features'of'this'generation'group'and'the'increasing'differ) entiation'of'the'curriculum'subjects.'The'playful'body'language'of'a' child'still'raises'eyebrows'considering'the'current'model'of'school' organization.'Little)known'processes'derive'from'the'body'jettison' and'its'various'manifestations'in'the'schooling'of'children.'The'play) ing'has'a'structuring'function,'which'extends'beyond'childhood.'It' must'be'regarded,'from'the'public'policies'to'the'educational'prac) tices,' in' all' dimensions' that' it' can' involve.' The' appropriate' play' culture,'produced'by'children'in'the'formal'education'process,'de) terminant'patterns'of'the'interactions'within'and'between'genera)

Abstract'Book' tions' emerge.' The' violence' made' present' in' this' territory,' and' therefore'bullying,'found'in'almost'all'contexts'where'it'is'searched,' is'linked'to'this'model'of'social'coexistence,'which'must'be'under) stood.'The'school's'educational'project'needs'this'understanding'of' children'so'that'it'can'follow'the'perspective'of'a'single'and'decon) textualized' curriculum.' It' might' be' different,' but' it' has' not' been' this' way.' It' is' important' to' recognize' that' it' is' possible,' from' and' through'school'to'give'childhood'back'to'every'child.'

Keywords:' childhood' )' school' )' curriculum' model' )' play' culture' )' violence')'social'coexistence'

CHILDREN`S!FATE.!THE!WELLGBEING!OF!INMATE!

MOTHERS!AND!THEIR!CHILDREN!

Andrea'Müller)Fabian

'1

,'Dan'Rusu

1'

1

Sociology' and' Social' Work,' BABEŞ)BOLYAI' UNIVERSITY,' Cluj)

Napoca,'Romania

'

Abstract:'The'phenomenon'of'imprisonment'implies'more'than'just' the'prison'(institution).'It'includes'the'effects'of'imprisonment'on' society'and'society’s'interpretation'about'prisons,'the'way'in'which' criminals'think'about'prisons,'their'role'and'effect.'Women'offend) ers'and'their'children'represent'a'severely'disadvantaged'and'mar) ginalized'population.'

Based'on'these'general'considerations,'the'present'study'takes'as' object'of'analysis'the'well)being'of'inmate'mothers'and'their'chil) dren.'

Based' on' the' results' of' our' empirical' researches,' we' have' ap) proached'the'problem'from'two'points'of'view:'on'the'one'hand,' from'the'point'of'view'of'inmate'mothers'(based'on'the'results'of' semi)structured' individual' interviews' made' with' a' sample' of' 120' persons,'as'well'as'standardized'questionnaire),'on'the'other'hand' from' the' point' of' view' of' children,' which' was' revealed' during' a' group'activity'with'50'children.'

The' definite' conclusion' of' the' research' is' that' we' cannot' speak' about'a'“protected'age”'regarding'this'loss,'because'children'are'in' all' cases' negatively' affected' –' irrespective' of' their' age' –' by' the' imprisonment' of' their' mother,' which' is' leading' to' a' situation' in' which'children'are'partially'or'fully'losing'their'parent.'However,'in' most'cases'the'loss'is'not'an'individual'one,'but'a'series'of'losses:' father'is'backing'out'of'child'rearing,'as'well,'because'is'imprisoned' together' with' the' mother' or' is' simply' not' undertaking' the' role,' entrusting' the' child' to' a' member' of' the' wider' family' (mostly' grandparents)' or' various' institutions,' while' himself' is' founding' a' new'family.'The'breakup'of'the'family'is'not'meaning'only'a'change' of' the' structure,' but' is' leading' to' several' psychosocial' modifica) tions.'These'modifications'eventuating'on'multiple'levels'is'gener) ating'for'most'children'the'vulnerability'inherited'through'genera) tions.'This'vulnerability'can'provoke'different'types'of'deviancies'or' eventually'delinquency.'

OUTCOMES!OF!TAKING!CHILDREN!INTO!CARE!

Heidi'Pohjanpalo

1'

1

Department'of'Social'Sciences,'UNIVERSITY'OF'EASTERN'FINLAND,'

KUOPIO,'Finland

'

Abstract:' The'main'objective'of'my'research'is'to'analyse'and'ex) plain'whether'we'get'all'those'good'things'that'we'aim'to,'when'we' take'children'into'society’s'care.'Other'objectives'are,'what'kind'of'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' outcomes'are'attained'by'child'protection'measures'with'used're) sources,'what'are'the'child'protection'processes'like,'which'factors' affect' success' and' what' are' the' preconditions' for' effective' place) ments.'The'research'emphasizes'the'child’s'perspective.'A'random' sample'of'40'cases'(and'additional'4'pairs'of'twins)'of'261'children' in'all'taken'into'care'in'1990)1998'in'a'Finnish'town'are'going'to'be' examined.' Child' protection' processes,' the' course' of' life' from' the' beginning'of'the'custom'in'child'welfare'till'the'time'of'the'research' and' outcome' of' taking' the' child' into' care' are' studied' from' docu) ments'as'a'doctoral'thesis.'The'data'collection'from'the'documents'

(social'workers’'journals,'final'acts'and'different'kind'of'resolutions,' letters,' etc.)' is' now' completed.' The' collected' data' is' going' to' be' analyzed'by'e.g.'qualitative'and'quantitative'content'analysis.'Doc) toral'thesis'will'be'a'beginning'of'a'follow)up'study'as'a'post'doc'– research'made'by'e.g.'interviews'and'Critical'Incident'Technique.'

CHILDREN'S!RIGHTS!AND!PARENTAL!RIGHTS!

Marta'Almeida'Carreira

1'

1

CIES')'IUL,'ISCTE)'UNIVERSITY'INSTITUTE'OF'LISBON,'Lisboa,'Portu) gal

'

Abstract:'The'rights'of'children'are'now'in'the'spotlight'of'adults.'In' a'world'designed'by'and'for'adults,'in'recent'years'alert'voices'for' the' need' to' respect' and' guarantee' the' children’s' rights' began' to' emerge.'Yet,'every'day'we'hear'about'situations'disregarding'those' rights,'both'inside'and'outside'the'family.'

After'presenting'a'new'perspective'on'childhood,'brought'by'Soci) ology,'we'focus'on'the'rising'of'children’s'rights'and'in'the'constitu) tion'of'the'child'protection'system'in'Portugal,'especially'the'Com) missions'for'Protection'of'Children'and'Youth'(CPCY).'

Let’s'look'at'the'speeches'of'those'children’s'parents'whose'rights' have' been' challenged' on' the' needs' and' rights' of' children,' about' the'importance'of'the'CPCY'and'how'they'evaluate'the'contribution' of' this' institution' in' their' family,' trying' to' discern' whether' chil) dren’s'rights'and'parent’s'rights'collide'or'coincide.'

DYNAMICS!OF!REPRODUCTION!OF!TRADITIONAL!AND!

DISSEMINATION!OF!INNOVATIVE!PRACTICES!OF!

CHILDREN'S!READING!

Elena'Kolosova

1'

1

Sociological' department,' RUSSIAN' STATE' UNIVERSITY' FOR' THE'

HUMANITIES,'Moscow,'Russian'Federation

'

Abstract:'Kolosova'E.'

Dynamics'of'reproduction'of'traditional'and'dissemination'of'inno) vative'practices'of'children's'reading'

Children’s'reading'in'the'past'was'one'of'the'most'important'chan) nels'of'education'of'morality,'inculcating'values'of'patriotism'and' internationalism' to' the' younger' generation.' Nowadays' there' is' a' serious'evolution'of'the'content'of'literature'for'children,'and'also' of'the'actual'practices'of'reading.'

All)Russia' research' “Young' Reader' 2010”' was' carried' out' at' the' beginning' of' 2010' year,' which' was' attended' by' 1100' primary' school'children'aged'7)11'years'from'eight'federal'districts.'

The'major'goal'was'to'identify'the'genre'and'thematic'preferences' of' contemporary' Russian' readers,' pupil’s' involvement' in' the' pro)

95' cess' of' "reading' for' the' soul",' the' consideration' of' channels' and' ways' to' get' information' about' books' for' modern' children' and' to' outline'the'dynamics'of'innovation'practices'of'reading'(in'this'case' among'children),'such'as'reading'online,'reading'from'the'screen,' reading'from'the'special'devices'and'so'on.'

The'study'gave'some'insight'into'what'today'is'children’s'reading,' whether' it' is' a' school' program' or' for' pleasure,' whether' today's' children' are' recording' their' thoughts' about' books' they’ve' read,' how'well'they'know'the'preferences'of'their'parents'in'childhood.'

So,'the'conflict'of'modern'children'with'the'book'culture,'of'course,' in' no' small' measure' due' to' the' abrupt' change' in' civilization' and' technological' conditions' of' their' lives.' However,' a' considerable' burden'lies'with'the'society'in'which'the'child'is'brought'up.'Grad) ual' but' steady' destruction' of' the' social' environment' that' encour) ages' reading,' predetermined' mass' rejection' of' books' and' reading' in'the'generation'of'the'twenty)first'century.'But'the'dynamics'of' reproduction' of' traditional' practices' suggests' that' the' situation' is' not'critical'(at'least'for'primary'school'age),'and'use'of'new'tech) nologies' designed' to' quickly' improve,' supplement' and' to' some' extent,'facilitate'the'process'of'reading,'but'not'replace'it'for'enter) tainment'in'its'purest'form.'

FREE!TIME!AS!A!TIME!OF!SOCIAL!LEARNING!FOR!

CHILDREN!

Lourdes'Gaitán

1'

1

GSIA' (SOCIOLOGY' OF' CHILDHOOD' WORKING' GROUP),' NATIONAL'

ASSOCIATION'OF'SOCIOLOGY'AND'POLITICAL'SC,'Las'Rozas'de'Ma) drid'(Madrid),'Spain

'

Abstract:' The' coexistence' of' "modern"' and' "postmodern"' models' in'the'understanding'of'childhood'produce'contradictions'in'peda) gogical'discourse'on'children.'On'one'hand'the'emphasis'on'prepar) ing'them'for'the'future'leads'to'the'strengthening'of'conventional' formulas'of'protection'and'control.'On'the'other'hand,'recognition' of' children's' right' to' autonomy,' to' "agency",' comes' to' consider' them'responsible'for'their'own'learning'and'their'use'of'time'and' space.'Children'are'no'longer'"objects"'of'protection'to'be'recog) nized'as'"subjects"'with'capacities.'

Currently,'new'informal'learning'environments'are'competing'with' the'school'in'time'spent'and'value'conceded'by'children.'The'terms'

"learning"' and' "education"' have' been' expanded' to' include' new' forms' of' knowledge' acquisition.' Learning' can' take' place' almost' anywhere'and'in'connection'with'very'different'kinds'of'activities.'

Furthermore'it'is'something'that'we'all'engage,'regardless'of'age,' which'"education"'no'longer'seen'as'an'exclusive'field'for'children.'

Be'involved'in'this'common'process'of'continuous'learning,'modi) fies'intergenerational'relationships.'

We'present'the'results'of'a'study'conducted'in'the'region'of'Ma) drid'with'the'objective'of'knowing:'the'concept'that'children'have' the'free'time,'how'they'use'and'who'decides'what'is'done.'

GENERATIONAL!PORTRAIT!AS!A!METHOD!OF!

STUDYING!OF!THE!CHILDHOOD!

Pavel'Makeev

1'

1

Department' of' sociology,' RUSSIAN' STATE' SOCIAL' UNIVERSITY,'

Moscow,'Russian'Federation

'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

96'

Abstract:' The' interrelation' of' generations' passes' stages' from' an' inequality,'the'representative'form'(an'imperious'vertical'of'gener) ations)')'to'an'equal'dialogue'in'rights'as'the'higher'form,'peculiar' to'characteristic'of'a'society'of'the'XXI)st'century.'

We' determine' intergenerational' dialogue' as' a' process' of' interac) tion'equal'in'rights'between'representatives'of'two'or'more'gener) ational' groups,' directed' on' transfer,' critical' comprehension' and' reproduction'of'social'experience,'on'its'development'and'modern) ization.'Thus'the'rising'generation'is'the'occurrence'accelerator'in' life' of' new' information' technologies,' that' is' why' as' a' whole' new' technological'and'culturological'processes'because'it'comes'under' influence'of'inertness'of'former'forms'less.'

The' second' aspect' of' intergenerational' interaction' is' connected' with' influence' of' generational' features' of' the' childhood' and' a' youth'on'the'further'course'of'life'at'transition'from'one'stage'to' another.'

At'the'approach'to'rising'generation'as'to'the'subject'of'intergen) erational'dialogue'equal'in'rights'it'needs'a'proper'studying'of'it,'on' the'one'hand,'as'an'integrity,'and'on'the'other'hand')'as'variabili) ties' of' courses' of' life' of' representatives' of' one' generation' (biog) raphyzation'generations).'

For'structurization,'the'description,'forecasting'of'rising'generation' we'together'with'the'philosopher'and'psychologist'S.Tsymbalenko' develop'a'model'of'"a'generational'portrait"'which'includes'statis) tical' (quantitative)' characteristics' of' generation' and' individually) biographic' (qualitative)' characteristics.' The' model' represents' the' structural' layers' considering' age' and' generational' features,' vital' biographies' which' can' be' studied' in' their' dynamics' by' means' of' target' groups.' Inclusion' of' children' and' youth' in' the' self)studying' mechanism.' Model' generational' portrait' will' allow' interpretations' that' are' important' for' assessing' the' qualitative' features' of' the' younger' generation,' analysis' of' social' problems' through' theprism' of'generational'portrait'forecast'the'influence'of'generational'spec) ificity'in'the'development'of'society.'

MOBILITY!AND!MOBILE!COMMUNICATION!IN!THE!

MAKING!OF!PLACE!

Harriet'Anita'Strandell

1'

1

Department' of' Social' Research,' UNIVERSITY' OF' HELSINKI,' 00014'

Helsinki,'Finland

'

Abstract:'Children’s'play'parks'have'emerged'as'an'important'insti) tution' supplying' after)school' care' and' activities' for' 7)9' year' old' children'in'the'Helsinki'region,'Finland.'The'play'park'is'in'the'paper' analyzed'from'a'spatial'perspective.'Conceiving'of'childhood'places' as' “islands”' clearly' bounded,' spatially' separated' from' the' rest' of' society'and'surrounded'by'ideologies'of'protection'has'been'in'the' core' of' modern' childhood.' The' social' geography' of' play' parks,' however,'is'different.'It'is'characterized'by'openness,'mobility,'both' internally'and'across'its'borders,'and'by'the'frequent'use'of'mobile' phones'in'the'organizing'of'children’s'times'and'spaces'across'bor) ders.'

The' children’s' and' the' leaders’' recurrent' mobile' communication' with'parents'and'other'instances'and'places'involved'in'the'organiz) ing' of' children’s' after)school' time,' such' as' hobby' clubs,' is' in' the' paper'conceptualized'as'a'fundamental'spatial'quality'of'the'park.'

Mobile'communication'is'used'by'children,'parents'and'leaders'for' coordinating'children’s'leaving'for'home'or'other'engagements.'By' contacting'their'parents'by'phone'in'situations'in'which'they'need'

Abstract'Book' support,' company' or' comfort,' for' example' in' conflicts' with' other' children'in'the'park,'the'children'create'momentarily'a'family'space' inside'the'park,'which'they'can'use'as'a'means'of'extending'their' own'activity'space.'

'

Theoretically'the'paper'draws'on'mobile'sociology'(John'Urry)'and' the' anthropology' of' place' (Doreen' Massey).' The' data' consist' of' ethnographic'observation'and'interviews.'

THE!“RELATIONAL!TURN”!IN!SOCIAL!SCIENCES!AND!

THE!DIFFERENCE!IT!MAKES!TO!THE!SOCIOLOGY!OF!

CHILDHOOD!

Leena'Alanen

1'

1

Department' of' Education,' UNIVERSITY' OF' JYVÄSKYLÄ,' Jyväskylä,'

Finland

'

Abstract:' The' “long' march' of' relational' sociology”' (Vautier' 2008)' started' with' Weber,' Durkheim' and' Simmel;' they' all' were' partici) pants'in'the'debate'on'where'sociology'should'start:'from'individu) als'in'order'to'understand'the'social'structure,'or'from'structures'in' order' to' understand' individuals’' logic' of' action.' The' debate' has' stayed'on,'also'in'the'sociology'of'childhood'(cf.'micro)'vs.'macro) sociologies;'interactionist'vs.'structural'paradigms).'

Simmel'was'the'first'to'propose'a'relational'solution'to'the'(onto) logical)' problem.' Since' then' the' march' of' relational' sociology' has' not' been' too' vigorous' –' until' the' last' 2)3' decades.' While' Pierre'

Bourdieu'was'developing'his'theory'of'practice' )'undoubtedly'the' best)known'relational'sociology'today'–'also'several'other'relation) al'‘schools’'have'been'building'up:'a'“relational'turn”'is'taking'place' across'social'sciences.'

The'core'idea'in'relational'thinking'is'that'“in'the'beginning'is'the' relation”' (Bachelard),' and' therefore' discrete,' pregiven' units' (such' as'the'individual'or'society)'cannot'be'posited'as'ultimate'starting' points'of'sociological'analysis;'instead,'attention'needs'to'be'shift) ed'towards'relational'structures'and'processes.'

The'paper'will'present'a'range'of'relational'approaches'and'discuss' their'benefits'for'theoretically'and'conceptually'advancing'the'soci) ology'of'childhood.'

CONCEPTUAL,!METHODOLOGICAL!AND!ETHICAL!

ISSUES!IN!CHILDREN’S!RESEARCH!IN!PORTUGAL!

Catarina'Tomás

'1

,'Natália'Fernandes

'2*

'

1

Escola' Superior' de' Educação' de' Lisboa,' Instituto' Politécnico' de'

Lisboa,' Lisboa,'

Braga,'Portugal

'

2

Instituto' de' Educação,' Universidade' do' Minho,'

Abstract:' Methodological' issues' in' research' with' children' have' sparked'a'growing'interest'by'the'Sociology'of'Childhood'since'the' last'decades.'In'Portugal,'this'interest'is'more'recent,'but'it'has'had' a'significant'increase.'

Considering'several'researches,'namely'master'thesis,'oriented'by' the'authors'on'the'framework'of'Sociology'of'Childhood,'this'pro) posal'intends'to'characterize'some'methodological'complexities'in' research' with' children' in' Portugal,' when' we' consider' their' voice' and'agency'in'the'knowledge'producing'about'them.'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

The'goal'of'this'paper'is'to'contribute'to'the'methodological'discus) sion'on'research'with'children'through'the'identification'of'a'set'of' challenges' related' with:' (i)' the' diversity' of' methodologies' uses' in' children’s'research,'(ii)'ethical'concerns'and'(iii)'the'role'of'the're) searcher.'

Keywords:' Methodological' and' Ethical' complexities,' sociology' of' childhood,'academic'research'in'Portugal'

MOBILISING!TRUST!IN!CHILDREN'S!LIVES:!CHALLENGES!

AND!OPPORTUNITIES!

Jo'Moran)Ellis

'1

,'Heinz'Suenker

'2

'

1

Department'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'SURREY,'Guildford,'Unit) ed'Kingdom,'

2

Department'of'Educational'and'Social'Sciences,'Uni) versity'of'Wuppertal,'Wuppertal,'Germany

'

Abstract:'This'paper'examines'the'concept'of'trust'within'intergen) erational' relations' and' institutional' orderings' in' children's' lives.'

Starting'first'with'an'attempt'to'distinguish'trust'from'confidence,' we'note'the'role'of'cultural'semantics'and'discourses'in'these'dis) tinctions.'We'then'develop'a'consideration'of'how'adult'(and'insti) tutional)' perceptions' of' risk' in' relation' to' children' interact' differ) ently'with'ideologies'of'childhood'and'constructs'of'children's'ca) pabilities'in'differing'contexts.'These'contexts'range'from'the'edu) cational' setting,' to' formal' welfare' provision,' across' to' research' encounters'in'the'social'sciences.'Applying'these'considerations'to' the' example' of' the' role' of' trust' in' research' with' children,' and' based'on'examples'of'such'research,'we'explore'how'trust'is'crucial' to'the'project'of'involving'children'in'the'production'of'knowledge' about'their'lives,'but,'how'at'the'same'time,'anxieties'about'chil) dren's' vulnerability' in' inter)generational' relationships' can' under) mine'the'capacity'for'trust'to'be'enacted.'The'paper'concludes'with' a' reflection' on' the' implications' of' how' trust' can' be' enacted' and' mobilised'in'the'range'of'institutional'contexts'in'which'children's' lives'are'located.'

TO!BE!OR!NOT!TO!BE!A!POWERFUL!AGENT!TRUST!AS!A!

CRUCIAL!DYNAMIC!IN!THE!SHAPING!OF!CHILDREN’S!

PARTICIPATION!AND!CITIZENSHIP!IN!COMPLEX!

GLOBALIZED!SOCIETIES!

Hanne'Warming

1'

1

Society'and'Globalization,'ROSKILDE,'Roskilde,'Denmark

'

Abstract:'This'paper'explores'how'sociological'trust'theorizing'can' contribute' to' a' dynamic' and' critical' understanding' of' children’s'

(differentiated)' participation' and' citizenship.' The' point' of' depar) ture'is'the'theoretical'identification'of'trust'as'crucial'to'social'life' and' agency' in' complex' globalized' societies' (Luhmann,' 2005).' The' paper'introduces'different'approaches'to'trust,'exploring'how'the) se' in' various' ways' can' contribute' to' a' dynamic' understanding' of' the'shaping'of'different'aspects'of'children’s'participation'and'citi) zenship.'These'aspects'include'the'children’s'influence'on'decision' making,'other'rights'aspects,'access'to'(cultural,'social'and'econom) ic)'capital'and'citizen'identity.'

WHAT!KIND!OF!TRUST!IN!WHAT!KIND!OF!CONTEXT?!

THE!(LACK!OF)!CONCEPTUALIZATION!OF!TRUST!IN!

CHILDHOOD!RESEARCH!

97'

Michael'Christensen

1'

1

Department' of' Society' and' Globalisation,' ROSKILDE' UNIVERSITY,'

Roskilde,'Denmark

'

Abstract:'If'there'is'one'thing'researchers'dealing'with'the'concept' of' trust' in' general' agree' upon' it' is' that' the' concept' is' confusing,' contested,' multi)faced' and' quite' elusive' to' get' a' hold' on.' Few' scholars'agree'upon'what'to'make'of'the'concept'with'conceptual' confusion'about'trust'as'a'result.'An'often'stated'argument'about' trust' is' that' trust' is' a' subjective' matter' by' which' concrete' trust' formations,'what'constitutes'trust'and'how'trust'can'be'recognised' should'be'empirically'elaborated'and'acknowledged.'On'behalf'of'a' literature)review'of'1008'selected'articles'focusing'on'children'and' trust'(and'mistrust)'the'argument'of'the'paper'is'that'though'trust' is' considered' to' be' of' particular' importance,' trust/distrust' and' trustworthiness' in' childhood' research' is' vaguely' defined' and' is' often' not' conceptualized' explicitly.' The' paper' thus' advocates' an' awareness'of'the'many'faces'of'trust'and'a'more'meticulous'con) ceptualization'of'trust'and'its'associated'concepts'with'the'aim'of' reducing'potential'conceptual'uncertainty'and'thereby'strengthens' explanatory'force'in'childhood'research'dealing'with'trust.'

GOVERNMENTAL!MODES!OF!INCORPORATION!AND!

EDUCATIONAL!OPPORTUNITIES!OF!IMMIGRANT!

CHILDREN:!THE!GERMAN!CASE!

Janina'Soehn

1'

1

SOCIAL'SCIENCE'RESEARCH'CENTER'BERLIN'(WZB),'Berlin,'Germa) ny

'

Abstract:' In' the' last' two' decades,' Germany' experienced' a' large' influx'of'immigrants.'These'new'immigrant'cohorts'not'only'came' from'a'wide'range'of'countries,'but'their'legal)political'situation'in'

Germany'was'very'diverse'as'well.'Thus,'the'German'case'provides' us'with'an'ideal'case'for'an'examination'of'the'more'general'ques) tion'of'how'the'assignment'of'immigrants'to'different'legal)status' categories'and'the'treatment'following'from'that'affect'their'struc) tural' integration' and' the' educational' opportunities' of' immigrant' children' in' particular.' The' presentation' will' present' a' theoretical' framework'of'the'mechanisms'linking'legal'status'and'educational' attainment'and'will'apply'this'framework'to'the'German'case.'The' politically' privileged' ethnic' German' “repatriates”' (Aussiedler)' are' compared' to' other' immigrants' with' less' favourable' modes' of' in) corporation'by'the'government,'with'refugees'being'confronted'by' the'most'exclusive'form'of'reception.'The'hypotheses'derived'from' the'institutional'analysis'of'group)specific'rights'and'policies'will'be' tested'with'data'from'the'German'sample'census'2005'–'the'first' representative' data' set' suitable' for' this' intergroup' comparison.' I' will' demonstrate' the' effect' of' legal' status' on' the' educational' at) tainment' of' immigrant' children' (1.5' generation)' and' its' interplay' with'other'social'determinants'of'educational'opportunities.'

My'proposal'is'based'on'a'recently'finished'PhD'thesis'which'anal) yses' major' groups' among' the' immigrants' cohorts' arriving' in' Ger) many'from'the'end'of'the'1980s'to'the'beginning'of'the'2000s.'

PRACTISES!OF!GLOBAL!AND!GENERATIONAL!

RELATIONS!IN!AN!EARLY!EDUCATION!AND!CARE!

INSTITUTION!IN!NORWAY!

Randi'Dyblie'Nilsen

1'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

98'

1

Norwegian'Centre'for'Child'Research,'NTNU,'Trondheim,'Norway

'

Abstract:' This' paper' is' conceptually' grounded' in' the' Sociology' of' childhoods'and'it'draws'on'field)work'data'from'a'day)care'centre' for'children'(3)6'years)'in'a'multiethnic'neighbourhood'in'Norway.'

Both'ethnic'minority'–'majority'relations'and'generational'relations' are' played' out' in' recurrent' practices' connected' to' global' child) hoods.'In'certain'adult'initiated'events'Global'North'–'South'rela) tions'are'involved;'such'as'marking'the'occasion'of'the'24 th

'of'Oc) tober' (the' United' Nations' day)' and' particular' activities' to' raise' money'for'NGOs'who'are'engaged'in'‘poor'children’'in'the'Global'

South.'In'Norway,'such'practices'have'been'established'as'a'tradi) tion'in'Early'Education'and'Care'institutions'as'analysed'in'an'earli) er'study'with'fieldwork'20'years'ago,'and'it'resembles'practices'in' schools'and'the'wider'society,'including'children’s'initiatives'as'well' as' connecting' to' engagement' of' Global' solidarity' by' the' affluent'

Norwegian'welfare'state.'Analysis'of'certain'situations'among'eth) nic' diverse' children' and' adults' in' the' contemporary' study' illumi) nates'a'complexity'of'relations'between'Us'and'Them,'Global'North'

–' South,' and' generation.' In' analysing' daily' life' interaction' among' children' and' staff' members' this' complexity' will' be' explored' and' different' social' identities' (subject' positions)' for' diverse' children' might'be'illuminated.'

THE!SIGNIFICANCE!OF!CHILDREN!UNDER!SCHOOLGAGE!

IN!THE!PROCESS!OF!SOCIAL!INTEGRATION!

Ullamaija'Seppälä

'1,1'

1

Faculty' of' Social' Science,' UNIVERSITY' OF' HELSINKI,' University' of'

Helsinki,'Finland

'

Abstract:' About' three' percent' of' Finland’s' population' consists' of' immigrants.' The' biggest' ethnic' groups' are' Russian' and' Estonian' people.'A'big'share'of'them'are'families'and'children.'I’m'particu) larly'interested'in'how'children'before'school)age'(in'Finland'under'

7)year'old)'are'integrating'to'society'and'what'is'the'significance')' and'even'stake')'of'small'children'in'the'process'of'social'integra) tion'of'the'whole'family.'Social'integration'is'here'defined'as'a'pro) cess,'where'the'immigrants'take'up'their'position'and'start'partici) pating'in'their'new'environment.'I'study'the'integration'of'children' from' the' both' sites,' the' immigrants' and' the' basic' population' in'

Finland.'

Researching' small' children' has' many' challenges.' The' extra' chal) lenge' in' this' study' is' that' the' researcher' doesn’t' have' a' common' language'with'the'children'she'communicates'with.'For'this'reason'

I' must' give' a' lot' of' attention' in' selecting' and' developing' the' re) search'methods.'In'my'presentation'I’m'going'to'open'the'process' of'building'the'research'positions.'I’m'going'to'tell'how'the'children' with' immigrant' backgrounds' have' been' researched' earlier' and' what'kind'of'results'have'got.'I'also'tell'how'I’m'going'to'study'the' children' in' this' specific' case.' In' autumn)time' this' study' will' be' in' the'position'of'pre)study.'

GENDER!DIFFERENCES!IN!ECONOMIC!SOCIALIZATION:!

DO!FINANCIAL!EDUCATION!PROJECTS!HELP!FILLING!

THE!GAP?!

Lorenzo'Todesco

'1

,'Emanuela'Rinaldi

'2

'

1

Department' of' Social' Sciences,' Università' degli' Studi' di' Torino,'

Turin,'

2

Department' of' Sociology,' Università' Cattolica' del' Sacro'

Cuore,'Milan,'Italy

'

Abstract'Book'

Abstract:' Moving' from' Blood' and' Wolf' (1960)' pioneering' study,' some' scholars' (e.g.' Pahl,' 1989;' 1995;' 2004;' Gambardella,' 1998,'

2004)'show'that'a'fruitful'framework'to'study'gender'inequalities' within'the'household'is'pointing'the'attention'on'the'gender'differ) ences' in' the' control' and' allocation' of' money' and' in' important' fi) nancial' decisions.' Other' studies' (Rabow,' Rodriguez,' 1993;' Rabow,'

Newcomb,' 1999)' also' maintain' that' sons' and' daughters' receive' different'economic'socialization'patterns,'with'the'result'of'devel) oping' gendered' attitudes' towards' money' and' financial' behavior' that'in'turn'reproduce'and'maintain'an'unbalanced'distribution'of' power.'This'study'has'two'main'purposes.'The'first'is'to'shed'light' on'the'gender'dynamics'shaping'the'attitudes'towards'money,'the' financial' behavior' and' the' degree' of' information' on' economic' is) sues' among' Italian' preadolescents.' The' second' is' to' analyze' the' role'played'by'financial'education'in'minimizing'such'dynamics.'The' survey'used'in'this'study'was'conducted'in'2010'by'an'interdiscipli) nary' team' of' scholars' (sociologists,' economists,' statisticians' and' psychologists)'and'consisted'of'a'self)completion'questionnaire'on' a'sample'of'2.103'students'aged'12)14'years'attending'lower'sec) ondary'school.'The'survey'collected'information'on'a'range'of'as) pects'that'can'be'grouped'in'five'main'sections:'family'life'and'pro) gress'at'school,'interest'in'economy'and'sources'of'information'on' the'issues'related,'an'evaluation'test'of'economic'knowledge,'atti) tudes'towards'money'and'economy,'values'and'personality.'A'sub) sample'of'1.476'respondents'has'participated'to'a'financial'educa) tion'project,'while'a'group'of'control'consisting'of'627'respondents' has'not.'The'effect'of'gender'dynamics'and'of'financial'education'is' estimated' using' some' multivariate' statistical' techniques.' Results' are'discussed'with'some'indications'for'policy)makers'in'designing' future'financial'education'projects.'

QUELLE!JUSTICE!JUVÉNILE!DANS!UN!CONTEXTE!DE!

PLURALISME!JURIDIQUE!?!L’ENFANT!LIBANAIS!ENTRE!

ORDRE!ÉTATIQUE!ET!ORDRES!COMMUNAUTAIRES!

Samer'Ghamroun

1'

1

ISP,'ENS'CACHAN,'Paris,'France

'

Abstract:'Longtemps'sous'l’emprise'juridique'et'politique'commu) nautaire' dans' un' pays' où' les' communautés' religieuses' disposent' d’une'autonomie'législative'et'judiciaire'dans'les'affaires'familiales,' le' domaine' de' la' prise' en' charge' de' l’enfance' au' Liban' a' récem) ment' fait' l’objet' d’incursions' institutionnelles' et' normatives' opé) rées'par'l’État'à'travers'la'création'et'l’activation'en'2002'd’un'juge' des'enfants'susceptible'de'modifier'les'pratiques'traditionnelles'des' tribunaux' communautaires.' La' nouvelle' catégorie' «' d’enfant' en' danger'»'constitue'désormais'la'porte'd’entrée'pour'ces'nouvelles' normes' sociales' et' juridiques' dans' les' espaces' communautaires' clos.'

Ces'nouveaux'tribunaux'créés'en'2002'constituent'un'espace'inter) systémique'où'les'échanges'internormatifs'peuvent'être'étudiés'à' travers'des'méthodes'd’enquête'sociologiques'et'ethnographiques.'

L’observation' des' interactions' dans' ces' tribunaux,' complétée' par' des'entretiens'semi)directifs'menés'en'situation'd’enquête,'montre' comment' à' travers' cette' catégorie' spécifique' d’enfant' en' danger' largement'interprétée,'une'nouvelle'génération'de'juges'étatiques,' s’appuyant' sur' de' nouvelles' techniques' socio)judiciaires,' introdui) sent'une'nouvelle'définition'de'la'famille'et'de'la'place'de'l’enfant' et'de'la'femme'en'son'sein,'face'à'des'stratégies'de'résistance,'de' contestation' et' d’adaptation' de' la' part' des' acteurs' communau) taires.'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

SAFEGUARDING!YOUNG!PEOPLE!IN!THE!UK:!

RESPONDING!TO!YOUNG!PEOPLE!AGED!11!TO!17!

WHO!ARE!MALTREATED!

Alison'Jobe

'1

,'Sarah'Gorin

1'

1

Child' Protection' Research' Department,' NSPCC,' London,' United'

Kingdom

'

Abstract:'A'large'number'of'young'people'aged'11)17'are'affected' by'abuse'and'neglect.'Research'in'other'countries'has'highlighted' the'importance'of'acknowledging'the'different'maltreatment'expe) riences' and' needs' of' young' people,' as' compared' with' younger' children.'Yet,'in'the'UK,'the'issue'has'received'very'little'attention.'

This'paper'presents'research'findings'from'the'first'large'scale're) search' study' to' explore' these' issues' in' the' UK' context.' The' study' focused'upon'young'people'(age'11)17)'who'have'been'maltreated' and' explored' their' access' to' appropriate' safeguarding' services' in' the'UK.'The'research'was'conducted'by'the'National'Society'for'the'

Prevention'of'Cruelty'to'Children'(NSPCC),'in'partnership'with'The'

Children’s'Society'and'the'University'of'York,'with'funding'from'the'

Big'Lottery'Research'Grants'Programme.'

Drawing' from' these' research' findings,' this' paper' focuses' upon' young'people’s'(11)17'years)'accounts'of'maltreatment,'help'seek) ing'and'experiences'of'being'referred'to'Children's'Social'Care'Ser) vices'in'the'UK.'The'paper'will'outline'some'key'contextual'factors' concerning'young'people’s'maltreatment'experiences,'which'make' young' people’s' case' histories' distinct' from' younger' children.' The' paper'also'presents'key'themes'concerning'young'people’s'experi) ences' of' seeking' help' and' receiving' help.' Throughout' the' paper' professional'and'system'responses'to'this'age'group'in'the'UK'con) text'will'also'be'explored.'

SEXUALIZED!TECHNOLOGY!–!PORTUGUESE!

YOUNGSTERS!AND!THE!NEW!MEDIA!

Daniel'Santos'Cardoso

'1

,'Cristina'Ponte

1'

1

Communication'Sciences,'FCSH')'UNL,'Lisbon,'Portugal

'

Abstract:' In' 2010,' aiming' to' understanding' how' children' use' the' internet'assessing'both'risks'and'opportunities'and'how'risk'can'be' fought'while'at'the'same'time'increasing'opportunities'and'digital' literacy,' the' EU' Kids' Online' project' interviewed' 25' thousand' chil) dren'(ages'9)16)'in'25'European'countries,'as'well'as'one'of'their' caretakers,'using'a'representative'sample'of'each'country’s'popula) tion' (see' Livingstone,' Haddon' and' Gorzig,' 2011).' Amongst' other' risks,'children'were'asked'several'questions'that'related'to'sexual) ized' uses' of' new' technologies,' from' sexting' to' the' (accidental' or' willful)' viewing' of' pornographic' material,' its' source' and' context,' and'how'they'coped'with'that'experience.'

This'paper'is'focused'on'the'Portuguese'results'of'this'survey,'and' attempts' to' see' how' Portuguese' youngsters' incur' in' a' sexualized' use'of'new'media.'In'this'aspect,'Portugal'comes'out'as'average'in' comparison' with' the' other' countries' when' it' comes' to' the' con) sumption'of'sexualized'images'but'Portuguese'parents'are'also'the' most'prone'to'deny'that'their'children'have'ever'seen'sexual'imag) es'online.'Aiming'to'analyze'more'closely'what'is'seemingly'a'very' residual'practice'(the'usage'of'new'media'in'a'sexualized'manner),' this'paper'tries'to'trace'the'different'kinds'of'sexualized'usages'of' the' new' technologies' and' how' they' are' linked' to' different' socio) demographic'profiles'and'to'different'attitudes'by'parents'in'their' role'as'mediators.'These'results'are'analyzed'in'light'of'the'effects'

99' of' a' conservative' and' religious' culture,' with' a' deep' generational' gap' in' terms' of' education' and' media' literacy,' and' a' paradox' be) tween'an'“unfinished'modernity”'(Machado'&'Costa,'1998)'and'an' ever)growing'bedroom'culture,'fueled'by'the'fact'that'Portugal'has' a' very' high' penetration' rate' of' both' mobile' phones' and' laptop' computers,'creating'a'unique'combination'of'possibilities'and'lack' of'cognitive'and'contextual'resources'to'deal'with'those'possibili) ties.'This'approach'will'attempt'to'see'the'possible'risks'and'harm' that' come' from' these' practices,' but' also' the' opportunities' they' open' up,' as' youngsters' come' to' grips' with' their' changing' bodies' and'seek'autonomy'over'the'usage'of'their'own'desires'and'intima) cy.'

CARE!HOME!CHILDREN’S!PERSPECTIVES!ON!THEIR!

BIOLOGICAL!FAMILIES!IN!BRAZIL!

Fernanda'Müller

1'

1

Faculty'of'Education,'University'of'Brasília,'Brasília,'Brazil

'

Abstract:' The' work' explores' care' home' children’s' conception' on' their'biological'families.'Eight'children'from'care'homes'located'in' deprived'areas'in'Sao'Paulo/Brazil'who'keep'ties'with'their'biologi) cal'families'participated'in'the'research.'Based'on'the'argument'of' family’s'negligence,'these'children'were'separated'from'their'fami) lies'and'taken'to'a'care'home.'The'ethnographic'method'was'used' in'combination'with'others'which'were'produced'with'the'children,' such'as'photographs,'video'recordings,'drawings'and'conversations.'

The'data'collection'took'place'in'the'children'care'homes'and'last) ed' one' year.' Doing' research' on' diverse' familial' dynamics' through' care'home'children’s'points'of'view'could'help'with:'1)'presenting'a' barely' explored' research' object;' 2)' deconstructing' the' negative' idea'about'poor'people’s'familial'dynamics.'Also'the'study'aims'to' contribute'for'the'consolidation'of'childhood'studies'in'Brazil,'pref) erably' with' children' and' not' just' about' them.' The' work' presents' results' that' aim' to' improve' Brazilian' public' policies' in' order' to' guarantee' quality' in' children’s' care' homes' stay' and' in' families`' support.' The' research' shows' that' children' present' alternative' fa) milial'dynamics,'different'from'the'nuclear'and'middle'class'mod) els.' Although' these' familial' dynamics' are' taken' as' hazardous' by' public' policies,' children' are' hopeful' to' go' back' to' their' family' homes.'On'one'hand'obviously'it'is'not'acceptable'that'children'live' in' precarious' conditions' such' as' misery,' parent’s' alcoholism,' ag) gression,'and'insecure'homes,'on'the'other,'the'current'social'poli) cies' for' vulnerable' children' are' a' failure.' They' do' not' solve' the' source' of' poor' families’' problems' and' usually' blame' the' parents.'

There' is' urgency' of' integrated' public' policies' (transport,' health,' education,' home),' which' could' support' families' and' children' in' order'to'avoid'situations'related'to'negligence.'

‘CHILDREN!WITH!(DIS)ABILITIES’!–!PRACTICE!AND!

VALUES!IN!DAYGCARE!CENTERS.!

Karianne'Franck

1'

1

Norwegian'Centre'for'Child'Research,'NORWEGIAN'UNIVERSITY'OF'

SCIENCE'AND'TECHNOLOGY,'Trondheim,'Norway

'

Abstract:'Title:'‘Children'with'(dis)abilities’'–'practice'and'values'in' day)care'centers.'

In'this'paper'I'will'present'some'preliminary'analysis'from'my'PhD' project,' which' focuses' on' practices' and' values' among' staff' mem) bers'(teachers'and'assistants)'in'Norwegian'daycare'centers'in'rela)

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

100' Abstract'Book' tion'to'categorization'processes'and'early'intervention'discussions' of'children'with'possibly'indistinct'and'debatable'(dis)abilities.'The' project'addresses'issues'such'as:'how'is'the'category'children'with' disabilities'constructed?'Which'child)identities'are'used'by'the'staff' in'daycare'centers'and'how'do'they'carry'out'and'reflect'on'prac) tices' in' relation' to' create' borders' between' ‘children' with' disabili) ties’'and'‘children'without'disabilities’'–'between'so'called'‘normal' children’' and' ‘different' children’?' What' kind' of' normativity' and' perspectives'are'explicitly'or'implicitly'interwoven'in'practices'and' values' among' the' staff' regarding' children' with' (dis)abilities?' The' project'is'grounded'in'Sociology'of'childhood'in'combination'with' disability'research.'Qualitative'interviews'of'staff'members'in'four' day)care'centers'and'short'term'participant'observation'are'carried' out.'

A)' efficiency:' residential' care' facilities' are' generally' good,' while' social' services' resources' often' appear' insufficient' to' ensure' an' adequate'work'with'birth'families;'

B)'effectiveness:'children'and'youths’'wellbeing'in'residential'care' facilities'is'high,'but'generally'they'move'from'one'facility'to'anoth) er'never'returning'to'their'birth'family;'

C)' participative/ approach:' rather' lacking' in' terms' of' the' involve) ment'of'children'and'their'families'at'different'path'stages;'

D)'empowerment:'the'most'critical'element'is'the'lack'of'attention' devoted'to'working'with'birth'families.'

The'application'of'the'assessment'frame'of'relational'quality'ena) bled' to' highlight' strengths' and' weaknesses' of' the' network' re) sponding'to'the'needs'of'out)of)home'children'and'youths.'

OUTGOFGHOME!CHILDREN!AND!YOUTHS!CARE!

SERVICES:!TOWARDS!A!“RELATIONAL!QUALITY”!

EVALUATION!

Elisabetta'Carrà

1'

1

Atheneum' Centre' for' Family' Research' and' Studies,' CATHOLIC'

UNIVERSITY'OF'MILAN,'Milan,'Italy

'

THE!TYRANNY!OF!FORMS!IN!PARENTGPRACTITIONER!

INTERACTION!

Maarit'Alasuutari

1'

1

Education,' UNIVERISTY' OF' JYVÄSKYLÄ,' University' of' Jyväskylä,'

Finland

'

Abstract:/THEORETICAL'FRAMING'

In' Italy,' over' the' last' decade' the' percentage' of' out)of)home' chil) dren'and'youths'is'growing,'and'this'makes'increasingly'urgent'to' assess' the' quality' of' services' meeting' this' important' social' prob) lem.'Foster'care'is'spreading'rapidly,'but'there'are'still'many'chil) dren'housed'in'residential'facilities.'Recently,'reflection'on'residen) tial'care'quality'has'greatly'developed,'at'national'and'international' level.'

Abstract:'The'paper'studies'parent)practitioner'meetings'in'Finnish' early' childhood' education' and' care' (ECEC).' In' them' an' individual' educational' plan' (IEP)' is' drafted' for' each' child.' The' plan' aims' at' taking'account'of'the'child’s'individuality'in'ECEC.'The'meetings'are' carried'out'by'using'a'form'that'is'partly'filled'in'by'the'parent(s)' before' the' discussion' with' the' practitioner.' Besides' providing' the' themes'of'the'parent)practitioner'discussion,'the'form'is'also'sup) posed'to'function'as'the'child’s'IEP.'

This'intervention'presents'the'results'of'a'research)assessment'on' residential' care' facilities' for' children' and' youths' in' a' region' of'

Northern' Italy' (Lombardy),' taking' into' account' four' dimensions:' efficiency,'effectiveness,'participation'in'planning'and'intervention,' empowerment' of' children' and' youths' and' their' family' relation) ships.'Their'emerging'effect'is'defined'as'"relational'quality".'

HYPOTHESIS'

The'paper'examines'how'the'use'of'the'form'structures'the'parent) practitioner' interaction' and' especially,' the' talk' about' the' child.' It' studies' how' the' child' is' constructed' and' portrayed' in' the' form) framed' talk' and' what' the' function' of' this' talk' is' in' parent) practitioner' interaction.' Theoretically,' the' paper' applies' a' social' constructionist'approach.'It'approaches'childhood'as'a'thoroughly' social' phenomenon' that' is' historically' and' culturally' produced,' determined' and' negotiated.' In' addition,' it' assumes' that' also' the' forms' have' constructive' functions.' They' pose' various' descriptive' and'interactional'demands'on'their'users'and'hence,'act'as'agents' in'the'human'interface'they'are'part'of.'

A'broad'examination'of'international'literature'shows'that'the're) sponse' to' children’s' needs' is' as' much' more' effective' as' children' themselves' and' their' families' take' an' active' role' in' the' interven) tion,' with' a' network' approach' that' connects' all' services' having' competence'over'the'cases.'The'purpose'of'this'research'is'to'verify' the'effectiveness'of'such'a'network,'which'in'Italy'involves'residen) tial' care' facilities' and' social' services,' with' the' latter' in' charge' of' referring' the' minors' to' residential' care' facilities' and' follow' their' families.'

The' data' of' the' paper' consist' of' recordings' and' IEP' documents' originating'from'21'parent)teacher'meetings'in'ECEC.'The'data'are' analysed' by' using' discourse' analysis' and' categorized' according' to' the'discursive'positioning'of'the'child'and'the'interactional'function' of'the'positioning.'

METHODOLOGY'

Wecarried'out'187'online'self)report'interviews'to'coordinators'of' residential'care'facilities;'30'face)to)face'semi)structured'interviews' to'social'workers;'97'self)report'questionnaires'to'minors'above'10' yrs'living'in'children'homes.'

The'findings'show'that'the'forms'easily'invite'a'pattern'of'interac) tion' which' comprises' reading' of' the' question' and' the' answer' on' the'form,'justification'of'the'answer'and/or'confirmation'of'its'fac) tuality.' Consequently,' the' talk' is' very' much' adult' oriented.' The' child'is'typically'constructed'as'an'object'and'the'child’s'viewpoint' and' perspective' are' only' seldom' taken' under' consideration.' The' demand'to'take'account'of'the'child’s'viewpoint'when'drawing'up' an'IEP'in'ECEC'will'be'discussed.'

RESULTS'

RN'05'Sociology'of'Consumption'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

'

Abstract'Book'

BETWEEN!NETWORKS!AND!MOVEMENTS:!

CONSUMPTION!COLLECTIVES!AS!DYNAMIC!

PHENOMENA!

Kai)Uwe'Hellmann

1'

1

Institut' für' Soziologie,' Technische' Universität' Berlin,' Berlin,' Ger) many

'

Abstract:' Since' the' publication' of' the' article' …Brand' Community”' by'Albert'M.'Muñiz,'Jr.,'and'Thomas'C.'O’Guinn'in'the'year'of'2001' this'kind'of'research'object'got'a'lot'of'attention'manifested'in'an' avalanche' of' subsequent' publications' in' many' different' journals' and'books.'Salient'is'examining'this'bunch'of'articles'that'at'least' the'decision'of'Muñiz'and'O’Guinn'to'define'their'object'of'scien) tific' interest' as' a' “community”' related' with' the' three' properties'

“shared'consciousness,'rituals'and'traditions,'and'a'sense'of'moral' responsibility”' was' more' or' less' fully' accepted' by' all' other' col) leagues' without' further' scrutiny.' Obviously' this' approach' fulfilled' the'need'of'offering'some'fundamental'terms'and'concepts'which' relieve'from'the'duty'to'start'always'again'from'the'scratch'quite' perfectly.' Thomas' S.' Kuhn' called' this' effect' the' career' of' doing' normal'science'implementing'a'paradigm'which'serves'as'a'frame' of'reference'which'becomes'more'and'more'immune'against'criti) cism'from'the'outside'as'well'as'from'the'inside.'

Starting' with' this' consideration' the' intention' of' my' presentation' will'be'to'go'back'to'the'roots'of'this'“brand'community”'paradigm' and'reflecting'the'conceptual'and'empirical'evidence'of'the'defini) tion'of'the'term'“brand'community”'and'its'three'properties'under' sociological'circumstances.'The'scientific'grounded'suspicion'is'that' the'term'“community”'doesn’t'match'the'empirical'phenomenon'in' a'sufficient'way'if'we'compare'the'three'properties'not'only'in'rela) tion'to'the'state'of'the'art'of'the'community'research'since'more' than'100'years'but'moreover'if'we'check'the'empirical'basis'which' is' shown' in' the' articles.' To' say' it' in' a' different' way' the' empirical' material' presented' in' the' articles' often' does' not' suffice' what' the' three'properties'shared'consciousness,'rituals'and'traditions,'and'a' sense' of' moral' responsibility' require' taking' them' seriously.' This' doesn’t'mean'that'there'is'not'all'shared'consciousness,'rituals'and' traditions,'and'a'sense'of'moral'responsibility'in'any'of'these'cases' but'that'whatever'presented'it'lacks'the'evidence'to'label'the'de) scribed' phenomena' as' “communities”' whether' brand' related' or' whatever.' Alternatively' we' observe' instead' of' communities' often' only'social'networks'or'groups'which'set'less'ambitious'conditions' for'their'confirmation'compared'to'communities.'

LOCATING!THE!SENSES!IN!THE!SOCIOLOGY!OF!

CONSUMPTION!

Lydia'Martens

1'

1

Sociology' and' Criminology,' KEELE' UNIVERSITY,' Keele,' Stafford) shire,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:'The'sociology'of'consumption'has'to'date'been'little'con) cerned'with'the'senses'and'the'multi)sensory'nature'of'experience.'

Considering'first'of'all'in'what'ways'the'senses'play'a'crucial'role'in' consumption,'I'think'through'how'recent'developments'in'the'phe) nomenological'anthropology'of'the'senses'and'experience'may'be' brought' into' conversation' with' the' sociology' of' consumption.' At' first' glance,' anthropological' debate' seems' to' have' something' to' offer'in'the'sense'that'it'conceives'of'the'senses'as'culturally'and'

101' environmentally' ‘trained’' and' by' locating' them' broadly' within' a' conception'of'practice'that'interconnects'learning,'habit'formation,' the' body,' memory' and' that' emphasises' the' fundamental' salience' of' tools' (and' thus' objects)' in' the' mediation' of' action.' Moreover,' rather'than'locating'the'senses'on'the'‘sideline’'(as'we'e.g.'did'in' our'eating'out'research,'se'Warde'&'Martens'2000),'we'here'find' an' analysis' that' starts' ‘from’' the' senses' (see' e.g.' Grasseni' 2007,'

2008' on' looking)' and' where' sensory' attention' is' integrated' in' methodology'and'knowledge'development'in'central'and'interest) ing'ways'(Pink'2007;'Harris'2007).'In'this'paper,'I'will'reflect'on'how' and' in' what' manner' these' theoretical' insights' may' be' of' use' to' reflect' on' consumption;' defined' broadly' as' “a' process' whereby' agents' engage' in' appropriation' and' appreciation...' of' goods,' ser) vices,'performances,'information'or'ambience,'whether'purchased' or' not,' over' which' the' agent' has' some' degree' of' discretion”'

(Warde,'2005),'and'on'‘ways'of'knowing’'about'consumption.'

THE!FUTURE!OF!CONSUMPTION:!DECREASING!OR!

POSTGGROWTH?!

Paolo'Corvo

1'

1

UNIVERSITY' OF' GASTRONOMIC' SCIENCES,' Bra)Pollenzo' (Cuneo),'

Italy

'

Abstract:'The'current'global'financial'and'economic'crisis'is'causing' profound'transformations'in'consumption'patterns'and'lifestyles'of' many' Europeans.' Even' sociologists' who' study' the' concept' of' risk' they'are'trying'to'understand'those'changes'and'to'provide'plausi) ble' interpretations.' In' this' perspective,' play' a' significant' role' the' theories,'as'the'‘serene'decreasing’'of'Serge'Latouche,'that'propose' as'a'possible'solution'to'systemic'problems'an'alternative'model'of' development' and' consumption' in' relation' to' the' environment,' energy,'transport,'food,'pointing'to'a'qualitative'and'not'quantita) tive'dimension'of'social'life.'

Other'theories'prefer'use'the'concept'of'post)growth'and'observe' the'worldwide'spread'of'movements'and'associations'that'seek'to' change'the'approach'to'the'consumption'of'natural'resources'ac) cording'to'a'vision'of'economic,'social'and'environmental'sustaina) bility.' It’s' possible' to' prevent' the' risk' of' environmental' disaster,' exhaustion'of'energy'sources,'global'food'crisis,'with'the'demateri) alization' of' economy' and' a' lower' use' of' energy' and' resources,' based'on'a'changed'view'of'the'relationship'with'nature'and'socie) ty.'

Public'policy'could'take'the'opportunity'of'the'crisis'to'determine' and' implement' new' strategies,' involving' citizens' more' directly,' promoting'a'qualitative'lifestyle,'with'attention'to'territorial'devel) opment,'exploitation'of'local'natural'resources,'in'food,'transport,' energy'sources.'It's'important'to'dedicate'more'time'to'sociability' and' community' life.' It' 's' a' delicate' and' complex' challenge,' which' could'lead'to'a'positive'and'renewed'equilibrium'of'ecosystem.'

WHAT!IS!A!PRACTICE:!SPATIOGTEMPORAL,!ABSTRACT!

OR!THEORETICAL?!

Ruth'Rettie1'

1

Business'School,'KINGSTON'UNIVERSITY,'Kingston,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:'The'paper'aims'to'elucidate'the'concept'of'a'practice'by' comparing' the' ways' in' which' various' authors' (Schatzki,' Reckwitz,'

Warde,' Shove,' Halkier,' Gram)' Hanssen,' Ropke)' theorize' the' con)

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

102' cept,'highlighting'their'similarities'and'differences.'In'addition'to'a' discussion'of'different'taxonomies'of'practice'elements,'the'paper' considers'the'following:'what'is'the'ontological'status'of'practice) as)entity:' spatio)temporal,' abstract' or' theoretical?' What' is' the' relationship' between' practice)as)entity' and' practice)as) performance' and' what' are' the' implications' for' practice' change?'

What' is' meant' by' practice' links' and' are' some' links' more' im) portant/stable'than'others?'Finally'the'paper'considers'how'a'prac) tice'perspective'contributes'to'our'understanding'of'consumption.'

The'paper'argues'that'it'is'important'to'clarify'our'understanding'of' practices'in'order'to'employ'the'perspective'both'as'an'analytical' lens'and'as'an'intervention'designed'to'shape'consumption.'

A!MISEGENG!SCÈNE!OF!THE!SHATTERED!HABITUS!THE!

EFFECT!OF!SOCIAL!MOBILITY!ON!AESTHETIC!

DISPOSITIONS!TOWARDS!FILMS!

Stijn'Daenekindt

'1

,'Henk'Roose

1'

1

Department'Sociology,'GHENT'UNIVERSITY,'Ghent,'Belgium

'

Abstract:'This'paper'focuses'on'the'effect'of'social'mobility'on'aes) thetic' dispositions' towards' films.' Central' query' is' whether' Bour) dieu’s'idea'of'a'rather'static,'class)based'habitus—and'its'associat) ed'way'of'appreciating'art'as'voiced'in'La/Distinction—holds'anno'

2010.'Or'is'his'idea'of'the'habitus'as'a'more'permeable,'malleable' entity,' as' argued' in' his' later' work' and' recently' voiced' by' Lahire,' more'accurate?'

Research'on'the'link'between'individual’s'social'position'and'their' taste'uses'a'variety'of' measures' for' taste—usually' someone’s' actual' cultural' participa) tion.'In'this'study'we' want' to' grasp' the' habitus' dispositionally' by' focusing' on' aesthetic' dispositions—i.e./ in' terms' of' attitudes' towards' the' arts;' expecta) tions' people' have' when' being' confronted' with' art.' By' measuring' taste' this' way,' we' try' to' minimize' the' bias' associated' with' using' actual'cultural'praxis'as'an'indicator—certainly'public'participation' is' inherently' conspicuous' and' therefore' it' may' not' only' reflect' sheer'taste.'

Strategy'is'to'investigate'whether'socially'mobile'individuals'adhere' to' the' dispositions' acquired' from' their' social' context' of' origin,' of' whether'they'adapt'to'attitudes'and'dispositions'viable'in'their'new' social'environment.'Building'on'a'large)scale'survey'representative' for' the' Flemish' population' (n/ =' 2,849),' we' consider' innovative,' emotional'and'action'dispositions'towards'films.'Results'show'that' the' effects' of' social' mobility' are' a' complex' matter' and' differ' ac) cording'to'highbrow'or'lowbrow'orientation'of'the'dispositions'at' hand.'Implications'for'the'conceptualization'of'the'habitus'are'dis) cussed.'

FROM!RELIGIOUS!TO!CONSUMPTIONGRELATED!SOCIAL!

ACTIVITIES:!A!LONGITUDINAL!ANALYSIS!OF!THE!

IMPACT!OF!INCREASING!SOCIOCULTURAL!

CONSUMPTION!ON!CHURCH!ATTENDANCE!AMONG!

GERMAN!CATHOLICS!

Jochen'Hirschle

1'

1

Department' of' Sociology,' FERNUNIVERSITÄT' IN' HAGEN,' Hagen,'

Germany

'

Abstract'Book'

Abstract:'This'paper'treats'the'relation'between'economic'modern) ization' and' religious' change.' Following' John' K.' Galbraith' I' argue' that' in' order' to' realize' economic' growth,' companies' in' Western' societies'mainly'have'to'solve'the'problem'of'marketing'consumer' goods'under'conditions'where'original'needs'are'already'satisfied.'

In'order'to'do'this,'consumer'products'are'charged'with'imaginary' values' by' means' of' marketing' measures.' Moreover,' companies' incrementally'supply'commodified'social'practices'and'social'infra) structures'like'holiday'resorts,'theme'parks,'shopping'malls,'clubs,' restaurant'chains,'gyms'etc.,'in'order'to'make'consumption'a'rou) tine'sociocultural'practice.'

Next,'I'argue,'that'this'process'incrementally'puts'consumption'in' competition' to' traditional' religious' practices' and' imageries.' This' argument' follows' Émile' Durkheim’s' conception' of' religion' as'

‘something' eminently' social’.' Durkheim' defines' religion' as' an' in) ventory'of'symbols,'practices'and'beliefs'that'enable'individuals'to' socially'connect.'Consumption,'however,'provides'a'range'of'prod) ucts' and' services' that' equally' work' as' ‘intermediaries’' for' social' activities' and,' therefore,' in' the' long' run,' can' supplant' the' social' functions'of'traditional'religion.'

In'the'empirical'part'of'the'paper'I'test'this'hypothesis'by'analyzing' the'development'of'income,'consumption)related'leisure'activities' and' church' attendance' of' a' sample' of' young' Catholics' from' Ger) many.' Analyses' are' conducted' via' bivariate' and' multilevel' regres) sions' and' rely' on' the' longitudinal' data' of' the' German' Socio) economic'panel'(1984)2009).'

OPERATIONALIZATION!OF!ETHNICITY!AND!

DIFFERENCES!IN!READING!CLIMATE!DETECTED!

Mia'Stokmans

'1

,'Peter'Broeder

'1

,'Carel'van'Wijk

1'

1 cultural'studies,'TILBURG'UNIVERSITY,'Tilburg,'Netherlands

'

Abstract:'It'is'common'knowledge'that'adult,'female,'native'Dutch' read' more' fiction' as' a' leisure' activity' than' adolescent,' male,' mi) grant' Dutch.' Results' about' differences' between' ethnic' groups' in' reading'practices'or'cultural'participation'in'general,'are'of'course' predetermined'by'the'way'ethnicity'is'operationalized.'At'this'mo) ment,' objective' criteria' such' as' country' of' birth' are' used' next' to' more'subjective'criteria'focusing'on'language'use'or'self'identifica) tion.'Since'some'ethnic'groups'have'stayed'for'generations'in'the'

Netherlands,' while' others' move' quite' quickly,' the' correlation' be) tween'the'objective'criteria'and'the'subjective'criteria'is'deteriorat) ing.'In'this'study'we'explore'the'idea'that'the'usefulness'of'an'op) erationalization'of'ethnicity'can'be'derived'by'linking'it'to'cultural' behavoir'such'as'reading'practices'of'fiction.'Since,'in'the'cultural' sociological'perspective,'it'is'believed'that'differences'in'stratifica) tion'go'along'with'differences'in'socio)demographic'characteristics' as'well'as'differences'in'modes'of'conduct'in'cultural'domains.'

Data' for' this' study' originate' from' a' questionnaire' presented' at' a' stratified'sample'(310'native'adolescents,'310'migrant'adolescents,'

310' native' adults,' and' 310' migrant' adults).' In' this' questionnaire,' ethnicity'is'asked'for'by'objective'(country'of'birth,'first'of'second' generation)'as'well'as'subjective'criteria'(dominant'language'used,' self'identification).'Regarding'reading'practices,'the'indicators'used' are'based'on'the'theory'of'planned'behavior'and'encompass:'read) ing' frequency,' reading' attitude,' social' norms' of' important' refer) ence'groups'about'reading,'and'perceived'opportunities'to'read.'

Preliminary'analyses'on'ethnic'groups'defined'by'only'one'indicator' showed'that'there'are'differences'in'reading'climate'however'they'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' go' together' with' differences' in' sex' and' age' (adult' versus' adoles) cents)' and' less' with' differences' in' ethnicity.' Moreover,' analyses' show'that'the'indicators'of'ethnicity'for'native'Dutch'have'a'100%' correspondence,'while'those'for'migrants'show'a'smaller'concord) ance'which'is'not'straightforward'to'describe.'So'it'is'unclear'what' differences'in'reading'climate'go'together'with'ethnicity'when'the' objective' and' subjective' indicators' of' ethnicity' are' combined' to' unravel'differences'in'reading'climate.'Additional'multivariate'anal) yses'will'provide'more'insight'into'this'issue.'

A!VISIT!TO!THE!MEMORY!SITE!ESTABLISHED!ON!THE!

FORMER!DEATH!AND!CONCENTRATION!CAMP!AS!A!

CONSUMPTION!OF!THE!PAST!FOR!THE!YOUNG!

GENERATION!

Karolina'Keler

'1

,'Katarzyna'Stec

1'

1

JAGIELLONIAN'UNIVERSITY,'Kraków,'Poland

'

Abstract:'The'meaning'and'significance'of'the'visit'to'the'memorial' sites' established' on' the' former' death' and' concentration' camps' is' becoming'an'inherent'part'of'a'discussion'about'the'relation'of'the' contemporary'young'generation'to'the'consumption'of'the'history' and'memory'of'the'past.'The'past,'according'to'some'researchers,' is' becoming' an' attractive' tourist' commodity' (e.g.' Seaton' 1996,'

Sharpley' and' Stone' 2009,' Urry' 2007).' However,' there' is' a' lack' of' complex' empirical' studies' which' explore' both' visitor’s' motivation' and'influence'of'the'visit'to'the'Holocaust'sites.'The'aim'of'the'pa) per'is'to'explore'the'experiences,'motivations'and'views'of'young' people' connected' with' their' visit' to' the' memorial' sites' from' the' perspective'of'the'process'of'consumption'of'memory'and'the'dis) cussion' of' commercialization' of' the' past.' In' order' to' explore' this' issue'the'survey'study'(before'and'immediately'after'the'visit)'was' carried'out'in'2009)2010'among'young'visitors'(14+,'N=2355)'to'the' memorial' sites' (Auschwitz)Birkenau,' Majdanek,' Treblinka' in' Po) land).'Additionally,'the'photographic'observation'of'young'visitors' during'visit,'the'focus'group'interviews'with'guides,'personal'inter) views' with' teachers' and' follow' up' qualitative' study' with' survey' respondents' were' made.' In' the' paper,' the' phenomenon' of' dark' tourism' (thanatourism)' is' explored' in' context' of' the' motivations' and' needs' of' contemporary' young' visitors' to' the' memorial' sites' and'how'these'aspects'correlates'to'the'perception'of'the'memori) al'site'as'a'tourist'attraction.'

CHILDREN!SPEND,!CHILDREN!SAVE:!THE!CASE!OF!A!

PRIMARY!SCHOOL!IN!LISBON!

Raquel'Ribeiro

1'

1

CAPP,' SUPERIOR' INSTITUTE' OF' SOCIAL' AND' POLITICAL' SCIENCE,'

Lisboa,'Portugal

'

Abstract:'This'article'examines'consumption'and'saving'representa) tions'and'practices'of'children'aged'8)11'years,'attending'a'primary' school'in'Lisbon,'Portugal.'This'school'is'adhering'to'a'Program'of'

Financial'Education'by'Montepio'Bank'and'our'purpose'is'to'identi) fy'and'understand'perceptions,'behaviours'and'cognitive'outcomes' of' the' children' under' consideration,' before/ and' after/ the' imple) mentation' of' the' program.' Research' has' demonstrated' the' rela) tionship'between'the'development'of'the'concepts'of'money'and' saving' among' children' and' their' subsequent' use' in' adulthood,' as' well'as'the'importance'of'factors'such'as'education'and'social'net) works'in'the'construction'of'these'notions.'But'the'mental'dialogue'

103' that'contextualizes'the'decision'of'whether'to'spend'or'save,'from' the' children´' viewpoint,' is' yet' to' be' further' explored.' While' chil) dren'have'been'increasingly'regarded'as'active'and'influential'con) sumption'actors,'they'are'also'taught'(again)'on'how'to'refrain'and' save' money,' especially' during' recessive' economic' periods.' It' is' therefore'important'to'identify'and'understand'the'representations' and'practices'that'shape'consumption'and'financial'management'of' children' and' what' is' the' contribution' of' parents,' school,' peers,' media' and' other' agents' for' this' process.' The' research' is' quali) quantitative;'focus'groups,'individual'interviews'questionnaires'will' be' applied' to' approximately' 60' children' and' to' their' parents' and' teachers.'Gender'and'socio)economic'effects'will'be'analysed.'The' results'will'serve'to'define'pedagogical'practices'and'to'build'a'fi) nancial'education'program'tailored'to'the'needs'of'children.'

PREGSCHOOLERS!AND!SUPERMARKETS:!LEARNING!

AND!TEACHING!TO!CONSUME.!

Margit'Keller

'1

,'Riina'Ruus

1'

1

Institute' of' Journalism' and' Communication,' UNIVERSITY' OF'

TARTU,'Tartu,'Estonia

'

Abstract:!The'current'consumer'literacy'debate'gaining'momentum' in' Estonia' increasingly' stresses' the' need' to' teach' "sensible' con) sumption“' at' a' pre)school' age.' The' main' responsibility' lies' with' parents.'Earlier'research'shows'that'Estonian'parents'are'relatively' protectionist'in'their'attitudes,'at'the'same'time'lacking'resources'–' mostly'knowledge'and'time,'sometimes'willingness')'to'systemati) cally' educate' their' offpring' in' consumption' matters.' The' present' study' draws' on' focus' groups,' interviews' and' participant' observa) tions'with'pre)schoolers'(aged'3)6)'and'their'parents'conducted'in'

2008)2009.' The' paper' is' inspired' by' practice' theory' (Reckwitz,'

2002;'Warde'2005)'as'well'as'various'recent'practice)based'studies' of' consumption.' The' objective' is' to' track' how' routine' grocery' shopping' with' small' children' is' built' of' sub)practices' of' shopping' and'good'parenting.'Interview'and'focus'group'data'highlight'main) ly'how'practices'are'articulated'as'entities'and'participant'observa) tion'provides'material'to'analyse'how'they'are'enacted'as'perfor) mances.'The'main'foci'are'cases'of'teaching,'i.e.'parental'attempts' to'either'explicitly'or'tacitly'induce'their'children'to'adopt'certain' routines'and'ways'of'shopping'deemed'by'them'as'"sensible“,'"ra) tional“'and'"appropriate".'We'also'look'at'how'problematic'situa) tions,' where' children’s' and' parents‘' wishes' clash,' challenge' the' existing' practices.' The' practice' theory' inspiried' approach' helps' to' study'not'only'the'discursive'and'reflexive'side'of'"teaching'to'con) sume“' but' also' the' bodily' and' material' arrangements' and' moves' used'both'by'children'and'parents'to'achieve'their'particular'ends' in'a'situation'of'shopping.'

CONSUMER!BEHAVIOUR,!BODY!AND!POWER!

Arne'Dulsrud

1'

1

NATIONAL'INSTITUTE'OF'CONSUMER'RESEARCH,'OSLO,'Norway

'

Abstract:'The'idea'of'modern'shopping'spaces'and'supermarkets'as' the' key' arenas' of' the' sovereign' and' empowered' consumer' is' not' only'disputed'by'sociologists,'but'also'by'behavioural'economists.'

Whereas' economists' argue' that' “behavioural' biases”' stem' from' individual' and' cognitive' limitations,' we' argue' that' consumer' and' purchasing'behaviour'is'embedded'in'power.'Inspired'by'Foucault’s' general'thesis'that'the'emergence'of'individual'freedom'coincides' with' new' techniques' of' discipline,' this' paper' explores' consumer'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

104' routines' as' an' outcome' of' governance' structures' embedded' in' modern'retail'marketing'techniques.'First,'the'term'embodiment'of' consumer'choice'is'introduced'to'describe'how'shopping'in'modern' supermarkets' hinges' on' various' techniques' of' bodily' discipline.'

Second,' by' relying' on' a' study' of' in)store' marketing' in' retailing,' these'promotional'activities'are'examined'as'techniques'of'normal) izing'purchasing'behaviour.'We'conclude'by'saying'that'power'and' discipline' are' underestimated' as' explanations' to' the' formation' of' shopping' behaviour' and' consumer' routines.' Our' findings' partly' supplement,' but' also' challenge' basic' assumptions' within' behav) ioural'economics.'

CONSUMPTION,!FETISHISM!AND!TRANSGRESSION!G!

EXPERIENCING!DEATH,!SEX,!AND!INTIMACY!THROUGH!

LADY!GAGA’S!BODY!

Swen'Seebach

'1

,'NATÀLIA'CANTÓ)MILÀ

1'

1

ARTS' &' HUMANITIES,' UNIVERSITAT' OBERTA' DE' CATALUNYA'

(UOC),'BARCELONA,'Spain

'

Abstract:/In'his'book'Eroticism'Georges'Bataille'showed'that'two'of' the' most' elementary' social' taboos' in' religious' societies' concern' sexuality' and' death' and' that' the' moment' of' the' sacred' festivals' gave'the'possibility'to'experience'these'socially'and'morally'forbid) den'zones'in'moments'of'‘liminality’'wherein'the'taboo'was'lifted' and' the' impossible' became' possible.' These' liminal' moments' of' social'disorder,'these'moments'of'transgression'have'been'crucial' for'the'webbing'of'religious'society.'

In'modernity,'related'with'the'secularization'of'society'and'with'the' disenchanting'character'of'capitalism'these'moments'have'changed' their' expression' and' meaning:' We' experience' these' liminal' mo) ments'mediated'through'one'or'some'of'the'various'forms'of'con) sumption.' We' experience' liminal' moments' with' our' partners' by' joined'consumption,'we'experience'death'and'sex'in'movies'and'TV' and'we'experience'it'mediated'by'and'projected'on'the'body'of'our' chosen' others.' Lady' Gaga' is' one' example' for' those' helping' us' to' transgress' social' moral' boundaries' and' making' us' consumptively' experiencing'the'most'important'social'taboos.'

An' analysis' of' Lady' Gaga' and' her' performance' of' Sex,' Death' and'

Intimacy'will'help'us'to'understand'what'these'taboos'mean'in'late' modern' society' and' whether' a' liminal' experience' might' still' be' possible.'

"IT'S!ALL!ABOUT!YOU":!APOTHEOSIS!OF!THE!BODY!IN!

ADVERTISEMENTS!FOR!HYGIENE!PRODUCTS!

Sigal'Barak)Brandes

'1

,'Amit'Kama

'2*

'

1

The' School' of' Media' Studies,' COLLEGE' OF' MANAGEMENT'

ACADEMIC' STUDIES,' Rishon' Lezion,'

2

Communication' Dept.,' Aca) demic'College'of'Emek'Yezreel,'Emek'Yezreel,'Israel

'

Abstract:' Despite' the' recent' burgeoning' of' sociological' interest' in' the' body' as' a' culturally' constructed' project,' little' research' atten) tion'has'been'paid'to'bodily'excretions'(sweat,'urine,'feces,'men) strual'blood,'saliva,'rhinorrhea,'and'skin'fat)'and'their'social'impli) cations.'Furthermore,'studies'of'the'roles'played'by'advertisements' in'the'regulation'of'body'waste'are'even'scarcer.'The'present'study' therefore'addresses'this'lacuna.'Since'advertising'for'hygiene'prod) ucts'can'be'assumed'to'reflect'prevailing'hegemonic'ideas'regard) ing' the' body' and' the' regulation' of' its' excretions' and' smell,' this'

Abstract'Book' research'focused'on'two'major'questions:'What'messages'are'con) veyed'by'advertisements'for'products'that'are'intended'to'regulate' bodily'excretions?'How'is'shame'constructed'and'constituted'in'the' ads?'

One'hundred'and'fifty'nine'ads'that'appeared'in'Israeli'newspapers' between'2005)2010'were'qualitatively'analyzed.'Semiotic'analyses' were'performed'by'the'authors'and'were'also'based'on'categories' developed'in'a'pilot'study'of'five'random'ads.'

Several' common' themes' emerged' from' the' analysis:' pampering' hedonism,' return' to' Nature,' pseudo)science,' and' concealment' of' the'actual'purpose'of'the'product.'Ads'were'also'found'to'consti) tute'mechanisms'of'identity'formation'and'dissociation'of'the'cor) poreal'body'from'the'self.'

The' results' indicate' that' shame,' discipline' and' regulation' of' the' body’s'orifices'and'waste'do'not'constitute'the'overarching'frame' for' promoting' hygiene' products.' On' the' contrary,' the' issue' of' cleaning'one's'body'for'hygienic'purposes'is'covert,'at'best.'Rather,' the'ads'reflect'a'hedonistic'cult'of'the'self.'This'apotheosis'of'the' body'implies'that'pampering'oneself'requires'constant'investment,' including'the'purchase'of'products'that'only'incidentally'take'care' of'unwanted'waste.'

‘MASS!PRODUCTION’!IN!THE!MASS!CONSUMPTION!

SOCIETIES:!THE!CASE!OF!MALE!BODYBUILDING!

Guillaume'Vallet

1'

1

GENEVE/EHESS/GRENOBLE,'TALLOIRES,'France

'

Abstract:'‘Mass'Production’'in'the'Mass'Consumption'Societies:'the'

Case'of'Male'Bodybuilding'

Nowadays,' the' body' seems' to' be' the' perfect' object' of' consump) tion.'People'use'it'to'define'themselves'but'also'as'a'vehicle'that' can'send'signs'to'others'in'the'hope'that'their'body'will'be'a'factor' of'social'integration'and'social'recognition.'That'would'explain'why' people' have' turned' to' their' body,' as' a' support' of' intimacy' and' differentiation.'Hence'we'can'observe'the'development'of'practic) es'of'body'transformations'which'go'along'the'contemporary'phi) losophy'in'which'everything'seems'possible'for'everybody,'with'no' limits' whatsoever.' The' practice' of' bodybuilding' sustains' efforts' in' that'direction:'historically'born'and'developed'along'with'the'con) sumption'society,'it'came'to'embody'its'values.'Particularly,'a'mus) cular' body' symbolizes' for' the' persons' who' practice' this' sport' a' high)performance'body'that'is'highly'valued.'And'as'they'think'this' body' is' nicer' and' stronger' than' the' others,' they' can' exhibit' it' to' attract'people’s'glance.'The'present'research'assumes'that'this'is'a' relevant'strategy'for'those'men'who'have'principally'their'body'as' capital'to'value,'in'particular'to'be'more'“attractive”'and'“competi) tive”'in'a'gender'problematic.'The'analysis'is'based'on'observations' in'2'bodybuilding'settings'and'30'interviews'with'bodybuilders'con) ducted' in' France.' Results' will' show' how' bodybuilding' reflects' the' consumption'society’s'norms,'that'is'a'practice'in'which'the'body'is' in' tension' between' imitation' and' distinction,' hence' showing' the' will'to'be'‘like'others'but'better’'thanks'to'the'production'of'a'nice' and'‘massive’'body.'

EXPLAINING!CONSUMPTION!BEHAVIOUR:!THE!CASE!

OF!HIGHBROW!CULTURAL!CONSUMPTION!IN!EUROPE!

Sebastian'Eduard'Weingartner

1'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

1

Institute'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'ZURICH,'Zürich,'Switzerland

'

Abstract:/ Most' empirical' examinations' of' cultural' consumption' theories' focus' on' the' direct' relationship' between' social' position' and'cultural'consumption'behaviour.'Curiously,'the'underlying'indi) vidual'constructs'such'as'preferences,'orientations'and'opportuni) ties'are'taken'into'account'only'implicitly,'if'at'all.'Accurate'specifi) cations' of' the' individual' mechanism' between' social' structure' and' action' are' rarely' found,' although' essential' for' the' comprehensive' understanding'of'consumption'behaviour.'

In'order'to'fill'this'gap'I'propose'action)based'modelling'of'the'indi) vidual'determinants'of'cultural'consumption'behaviour.'These'de) terminants' include' cultural' preferences' and' situational' opportuni) ties'as'well'as'cultural'orientations'and'embodied'cultural'practices.'

The'former'two'are'rather'consciously'considered'parameters'of'a' rational'choice'whereas'the'latter'two'can'be'characterised'as'au) tomatically'processed'cultural'internalisations.'Therefore'a'model'is' required'which'is'able'to'integrate'both'a'conscious'and'an'auto) matic'logic'of'action.'The'“model'of'frame'selection”'meets'these' demands'by'assuming'two'interactively'connected'modes'of'infor) mation' processing.' Thus,' it' serves' as' a' general' theoretical' core' in' the'explanation'of'cultural'consumption'behaviour.'

Empirically'highbrow'cultural'consumption'behaviour'in'29'Europe) an'countries'is'analysed'using'data'from'the'2007'“Special'Euroba) rometer”'on'cultural'values.'It'can'be'shown'that'preferences,'op) portunities,' orientations,' and' practices' have,' besides' structural' variables,'an'independent'influence.'Moreover,'it'can'be'observed' that'with'cultural'orientations'and'practices'being'strongly'internal) ized'the'effects'of'preferences'and'opportunities'decrease,'which'is' in'line'with'the'interaction'assumed'by'the'theoretical'model.'

HIGH!CULTURE!CONSUMPTION!OVER!TIME:!AN!

EMPIRICAL!STUDY!FOR!GERMAN!

Bettina'Isengard

1'

1

Institute'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'ZURICH,'Zurich,'Switzerland

'

Abstract:'Although'lifestyles'in'general'and'high'cultural'activities'in' particular' are' relatively' robust' over' the' life' course,' they' can' be' subjected'to'certain'transformations'over'time.'Next'to'age'effects' which'are'mostly'close'connected'with'changing'consumption'pat) terns'of'leisure'activities'like'going'to'the'opera'or'theatre'for'ex) ample,' also' cohort' effects' can' stand' behind' these' changes.' While' the' first' connection' could' be' pointed' out' in' numerous' investiga) tions,'the'relation'between'birth'cohort'and'high'cultural'activities' were' examined' only' insufficiently' so' far.' But' also' changing' living' conditions' due' to' socio)economic' reasons' and' family' formation' processes'plays'an'important'role.'Using'the'longitudinal'data'set'of' the' German' Socio)Economic' Panel' Study' (SOEP)' the' contribution' regards'changing'patterns'in'high'cultural'consumption'to'close'the' research' gap.' To' analyse' the' impact' of' age' and' cohort' effects' as' well'as'changes'of'economic'resources'or'family'situation'over'time' random' effects' models' are' estimated' for' a' time' period' between' covering'five'years'between'1990'and'2008.'It'can'be'observe'that' next'to'age'and'cohort'also'other'changing'living'conditions'influ) ence'the'consumption'of'high'cultural'activities'over'time.'Next'to' changes' in' the' individual' socio)economic' situation' due' to' labour' market'changes'also'particularly'family'events'like'changing'house) hold'formations'by'marriage'or'birth'affect'the'probability'of'high' culture'participation.'

105'

NEW!GENERATIONS!DO!NOT!CONTRADICT!RETIREES!

Luc'Champarnaud

'1

,'Trine'Bille

'2

,'Sophie'Dabo

1'

1

Equippe,' EQUIPPE' UNIVERSITY' LILLE/UNIVERSITY' ARTOIS,' Ville) neuve'd'Ascq'cedex,'France,' hagen,'Denmark

'

2

Copenhagen'Business'School,'Copen)

Abstract:' We' look' for' effective' generations,' in' the' spirit' of' Karl'

Manheim’s' work,' i.e.' that' differ' according' to' the' nature' of' their' cultural' expenditure,' not' only' according' to' the' birth' dates.' Thus' datation' of' the' length' of' the' periods' of' generations' is' given' by' structural' changes' in' average' behaviors,' and' not' by' an' abstract' cutting' of' periods.' Our' methodology' is' two' folds.' First' we' found' evidences' of' key' behaviors' for' identifying' generations' living' in'

France' between' 1979' and' 2006.' We' showed' that' on' the' basis' of' the'cultural'spending'declared'by'62247'households'in'six'surveys' extracted' from' the' family' budget' survey' from' the' INSEE' (1979,'

1984,'1989,'1995,'2001,'and'2006).'The'amounts'spent'are'detailed' by' nature' that' differs' according' to' nine' items:' books,' performing' art/cinema,' television' plan,' museum,' gambling,' travels' forfeit,' newspaper,' image' or' sound' supports,' and' stationery.' We' consid) ered'the'age'of'reference'person'in'the'household.'We'were'lucky' because'the'first'dimension'of'a'CA'(Correspondence'Analysis)'on' the'cultural'spending'displays'a'good'ordering'considering'the'gen) erations.'Once'the'CA'has'been'done,'a'hierarchical'ascendant'clas) sification'(or'clusterization)'allows'us'to'assess'each'household'his' effective' generation.' Thus,' we' decomposed' then' age' and' genera) tions'components'in'a'tobit'regression'of'the'spending'coefficients' in' each' item.' We' observed' that' when' spendings' are' negatively' correlated'with'ages'–for'museum'or'books,'for'instance),'succes) sive'generations'tend'to'consume'less'and'vice/versa'–for'newspa) pers,'for'instance).'We'explain'that'by'a'model'of'diffusion'of'the' quality' where' the' quality' of' cultural' products' is' assumed' to' im) prove'the'‘‘productivity"'of'the'household'in'producing'culture.'For' instance,'we'can'think'that'the'quality'of'programs'on'TV'has'been' improved'such'that,'for'the'same'money'spent'on'these'programs,' the'contents'is'more'efficient'in'producing'culture'over'new'peri) ods.'We'showed'that'changes'in'quality'of'goods'can'very'well'ex) plain' why' if' spending' of' elders' are' higher' than' younger’s,' then' spending'of'successive'generations'increases,'and'vice/versa'

.'

THE!HOMOLOGY!HYPOTHESIS!IN!FRANCE,!GERMANY,!

SWITZERLAND,!UNITED!KINGDOM!AND!THE!USA!

Amal'Tawfik

'1

,'Dominique'Joye

'2

,'Julien'Chevillard

'3

'

1

Department' of' Political' Science,' University' of' Geneva,' Geneva,'

2

Research' Center' on' Methodology' Inequalities' and' Social' Change,'

3

Laboratory' for' life' course' studies,' University' of' Lausanne,' Lau) sanne,'Switzerland

'

Abstract:' The' model' proposed' by' Bourdieu' in' La/ Distinction' re) ceived'a'large'echo,'largely'due'to'the'fact'that'it'reflects'a'fruitful' interaction'between'systematic'theoretical'reflection'and'empirical' analysis.' Though' some' scholars' consider' that' this' model' reflects' the'specificity'of'the'French'society'in'the'sixties'and,'therefore,'is' not'applicable'to'other'national'contexts,'this'model'still'remains,' thirty'years'after'its'elaboration,'at'the'heart'of'a'heated'debate'in' the'field'of'the'sociology'of'cultural'consumption'and'social'stratifi) cation.' But' changes' of' tastes' and' cultural' hierarchies,' and,' inter' alia,'the'rise'of'omnivorism,'coupled'to'a'large'extent'with'changes'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

106' in' lifestyles,' seem' to' contradict' the' homology' link' established' by'

Bourdieu'between'social'space'and'lifestyle'space.'

This' presentation' aims' at' testing' systematically' the' homology' hy) pothesis' in' five' countries' :' France,' Germany,' Switzerland,' United'

Kingdom'and'the'USA.'The'comparison'between'these'countries'is' based'on'an'analysis'of'the'data'from'the'2007'ISSP'«'Leisure,'Time' and'Sports'».'

This' comparative' approach' allows' to' determine' whether' the' mo) dalities'and'forms'of'the'relationship'between'the'social'space'and' the'lifestyle'space'are'similar'in'the'five'countries'under'considera) tion,'or'whether'they'differ'in'function'of'national'specificities.'In' the' latter' case,' the' various' forms' of' homology' should' be' able' to' shed'light'on'the'social'and'cultural'divisions'within'each'of'these' countries.' The' microclass' scheme' will' be' used' to' measure' social' position.'

DOES!MADEGINGITALY!STILL!MATTER!FOR!ITALIAN!

CONSUMERS?!

Ariela'Mortara

1'

1

IULM'UNIVERSITY,'Milan,'Italy

'

Abstract:' The' topic' of' country)of)origin' effect' (COO)' gained' the' attention' of' marketing' scholars' in' the' early' ‘60s' (Schooler,' 1965)' and'is'well'documented'in'the'literature'on'consumer’s'evaluation' of'products'since'the'’70'(Bilkey,'Nes'1982).'In'recent'years'some' authors'(Pharr,'2005)'have'argued'on'the'saliency'of'this'concept'in' an'era'in'which'products'and'brands'are'progressively'more'global,' and'multinational'corporations'prefer'not'to'emphasize'the'origin' of' goods' since' they' routinely' delocalize' production' in' countries' with'weaker'quality'image.'Moreover,'nowadays'many'consumers' seem'to'be'unaware'of'the'made)in'of'the'products'they'buy'and,'if' they'are'aware'of'it,'merge'these'information'with'other'clues'as' price,'brand,'point'of'sales.'But'a'large'body'of'research'literature' still' deals' with' this' topic' (Usunier,' 2006)' and' points' out' that,' in' addition'to'its'role'as'a'quality'signal,'COO'has'symbolic'and'emo) tional'meaning'to'consumers,'relating'a'product'to'national'identity'

(Fournier,'1998).'

Although' some' studies' explore' the' role' of' socio)demographics' characteristics,' like' profession,' on' COO' (Chao,' Rajendran,' 1993),' most'research'uses'convenience'sample,'often'groups'of'students,' to'study'the'phenomenon.'The'aim'of'this'paper'is'to'present'some' results'of'an'explorative'research'on'the'perception'of'Italian'con) sumer' of' the' concept' of' Made' in' Italy' based' on' a' more' reliable' sample:' 800' individuals,' representative' of' the' Italian' population,' questioned'through'computer'assisted'telephone'interviews'(CATI).'

HOW!TO!IMPRESS!G!CUSTOMER!COMPLAINT!

MANAGEMENT!

Paul'Eisewicht

1'

1

Departement' of' Sociology,' KARLSRUHE' INSTITUTE' OF'

TECHNOLOGY,'Karlsruhe,'Germany

'

Abstract:'Considering'the'relation'between'customer'and'provider' the' sociology' of' consumption' normally' centres' on' the' purchase' situation' and' the' related' services.' This' presentation' in' contrast' focuses' on' situations' occurring' after' the' purchase' there' the' cus) tomer'is'disappointed'in'his'expectations'of'the'product'and'seeks'

Abstract'Book' to'express'this'disappointment'with'the'formulation'of'a'claim'to) wards'the'provider.'

For' the' presentation' the' strategies' of' customer' complaints' are' analyzed'along'the'dimensions'of'the'i)'expression'of'emotionality,' ii)' anticipation' of' the' modes' of' communication' and' iii)' attitude' towards'the'provider'organization.'Second'the'course'of'complaint) interaction' based' on' the' customer)performed' impression' man) agement' is' examined.' On' this' foundation' consequences' of' com) plaints'for'consumer'behaviour'in'general'can'be'derived'from'the' evaluation' of' the' complaint' interaction' in' regard' to' the' causing' problem,'the'provider'(personal)'and'the'consumer'himself.'

The'research'findings'are'reflected'and'embodied'in'the'context'of' the'discourses'about'i)'complaining'as'a'distinctive'communicative' practice,'ii)'the'recent'acceleration'of'mediatization'processes'as'a' radical'change'in'the'scope'of'action'of'the'actors'and'the'course'of' action'and'iii)'the'role'of'the'consumer'in'relation'to'the'provider' and'other'consumers.'

The' presentation' builds' on' an' empirical' research' project' about' barriers'of'social'action'in'customer'complaints'due'to'online'shop) ping'funded'by'the'German'Research'Foundation'since'April'2008.'

The' empirical' basis' of' the' research' consists' of' focus' interviews,' documents,'self)reports'and'protocols'of'participant'observations.'

PURCHASING!ATTITUDES!OF!ETHICAL!CONSUMERS!IN!

POLAND!

Agata'Kinga'Neale

1'

1

Sociology,'Jagiellonian'University,'Kraków,'Poland

'

Abstract:'Purchasing'attitudes'of'ethical'consumers'in'Poland'

Ethical' consumption' is' a' well' known' and' researched' practice' in'

Western'European'countries'but'in'the'case'of'Poland'it'is'still'not'a' popular'mean'of'purchasing.'The'reasons'for'that'are'among'oth) ers:' materialistically' oriented' mentality' of' the' Poles,' absence' of' ethical'and'sustainable'consumption'related'subjects'in'school'cur) riculum,' dearth' of' eco)friendly' laws' and' regulations.' Despite' this' the'amount'of'consumers'dedicated'to'buying'sustainably'and'ethi) cally' is' slowly'growing'in'number.'The'purpose'of'this'paper'is'to' relate'issues'of'ethical'consumption'in'Poland'(such'as'availability' and'accessibility'of'goods,'sources'of'knowledge,'the'lack'of'a'posi) tive' attitude' to' the' problem' in' the' Polish' society)' to' a' theory' of' attitudes,'situate'ethical'consumption'in'the'specific'economic'and' political'context'of'Poland'and'show'how'such'consumption'is'be) ing'viewed'and'practiced.'

Attitude' will' be' understood' as' a' model' with' three' components:' cognitive,' emotional,' and' behavioral.' Ethical' consumption' will' be' defined' as' ecologically' and' socially' sustainable' shopping' practices' in'using'the'Earth’s'resources.'

The' empirical' data' of' the' study' were' collected' in' two' qualitative' research'projects'done'in'2008'and'2011'among'respondents'who' claimed' to' be' exclusively' responsible' buyers.' This' paper' presents' the' results' of' the' study' of' the' projects' investigating' the' relations' among'the'three'components'of'attitude.'The'study'mapped'rela) tions'among'the'emotion'people'show'towards'the'general'idea'of' sustainability,' ecological' and' ethical' consumption,' producers' and' products' accessible' on' the' stores’' shelves,' the' expert' knowledge' such'consumers'tend'to'have,'and'their'willingness'to'act'in'ethical' ways'while'in'the'market'for'goods.'The'studies'have'shown'a'great' will' of' ethical' Polish' consumers' to' purchase' ethically' and' a' great'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' inability' to' do' so' on' a' large' scale' due' to' a' lack' of' ecological' and' ethical'awareness'of'the'Polish'society'which'explains'lack'of'a'de) sired' variety' of' products.' This' paper' will' answer' the' questions' of' how' consumers' in' Poland' manage' to' continue' ethical' shopping' while' encountering' many' difficulties' and' how' the' three' compo) nents'of'the'attitude'model'interact'with'each'other'during'shop) ping.'

THE!CONCEPT!OF!WELLNESS!IN!MARKETING,!

RETAILING,!TOURISM,!AND!LEISURE!G!A!REVIEW!OF!

MAJOR!JOURNALS!

Miia'Katariina'Grénman

'1

,'Juulia'Räikkönen

'1

,'Heli'Marjanen

1'

1

Marketing,' UNIVERSITY' OF' TURKU,' TURKU' SCHOOL' OF'

ECONOMICS,'Turku,'Finland

'

Abstract:' Wellness' is' seen' as' one' of' the' key' drivers' of' consumer' behavior' as' consumers' pursue' health,' well)being,' and' a' better' quality'of'life.'As'people'are'putting'more'emphasis'on'health'and' well)being,'the'commercial'wellness'market'is'growing'rapidly'(cf.' wellness' revolution),' and' the' wellness' ideology' is' emphasized' in' various'studies'concerning'future'society.'

Besides' wellness' consumption,' consumption' of' experiences' is' in) creasing' as' individuals' function' in' multiple' social' worlds' creating' identities,'seeking'new'ways'to'enjoy'life,'and'taking'care'of'them) selves.' Wellness' consumption' is' considered' as' a' conscious' and' active' pursuit' of' well)being,' whereas' a' wellness' consumer' can' be' viewed' upon' as' an' active,' youthful,' and' healthy' individual' who' takes' responsibly' for' his' own' well)being,' while' making' consump) tion' choices.' In' the' wellness' market,' consumers' construct' their' identities'by'purchasing'images'of'healthy,'beautiful,'youthful,'and' trendy'selves.'

Although'health'and'well)being'are'increasingly'significant'motiva) tors'in'consumer'behavior,'wellness'consumption'is'an'under'theo) rized'and'researched'domain'in'academic'research.'The'purpose'of' this'study'is'to'examine'wellness)related'research'within'the'fields' of' marketing,' retailing,' tourism,' and' leisure.' In' short,' this' article' identifies' the' research' themes' related' to' wellness,' published' in' major'journals'of'each'discipline.'Due'to'the'commercial'nature'of' previous'wellness'studies,'this'article'focuses'on'mapping'the'scien) tific'knowledge'of'the'phenomenon.'Based'on'a'literature'review'of'

108' articles,' 14' research' themes' were' identified.' The' results' pro) vide'an'overview'of'past'scientific'research,'explore'research'gaps,' and'suggest'directions'for'future'research.'

ESCAPING!PRACTICES:!THE!SCHEDULING!OF!'LEISURE'!

PRACTICES!IN!EVERYDAY!LIFE.!

Stanley'Webster

1'

1

SOCIOLOGY,'LANCASTER'UNIVERSITY,'Lancaster,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:'This'paper'uses'social'theories'of'materiality'and'practice' to'help'understand'the'socio)temporal'rhythm'of'everyday'life'and' to'characterise'that'space'in'routine'which'is'often'denoted'as'‘lei) sure’'time.'I'begin'by'asking'how'different'‘leisure’'practices'come' to'be'scheduled'and'organised'within'various'routines.'Do'so)called'

‘leisure'practices’,'often'regarded'as'a'means'of'escaping'the'busy) ness'of'everyday'life,'have'distinctive'temporalities'of'their'own?'

With'this'question'in'mind'I'discuss'the'experiences'of'people'en) gaged'in'yoga'and'computer'gaming'and'analyse'the'various'mate)

107' rials,' skills' and' temporalities' associated' with' each' practice.' Alt) hough' material' aspects' are' important' in' both' cases,' it' is' evident' that' practices' are' not' simply' “scripted”' by' the' material' require) ments' of' participation.' Rather,' routines' are' established' and' changed' through' dynamic' processes' of' interaction' between' the' material'and'the'embodied'skill'of'the'practitioner.'These'interac) tions' are' important' for' how' participation' structures' daily' sched) ules.'

As' I' go' on' to' show,' the' experience' of' doing' yoga' and' computer' gaming'and'their'‘leisurely’'status'also'depends'on'how'these'prac) tices' are' synchronised' and' coordinated' with' other' ‘non)leisure’' activities'and'with'how'they'fit'into'more'comprehensive'systems' of'practice.'

Discussion'of'these'contrasting'cases'leads'me'to'question'the'utili) ty'of'understanding'either'practice'as'an'inherently'‘leisurely’'pur) suit.'In'addition,'comparison'between'them'allows'me'to'develop'a' more' thorough' understanding' of' the' relation' between' materiality' and' embodied' skill,' and' to' demonstrate' the' importance' of' this' relation' in' establishing' and' maintaining' the' multiple' rhythms' and' routines'of'which'daily'lives'are'made.'

FAMILY!(AND)!CULTURE:!THE!EFFECT!OF!EMBODIED,!

INSTITUTIONALIZED!AND!OBJECTIFIED!CULTURAL!

CAPITAL!WITHIN!THE!FAMILY!ON!CULTURAL!

PARTICIPATION!OF!ADOLESCENTS!

Mart'Willekens

1'

1

Sociology,'GHENT'UNIVERSITY,'Ghent,'Belgium

'

Abstract:' Bourdieu’s' theory' of' social' reproduction' states' that' cul) tural'capital'is'passed'down'from'generation'to'generation'through' the'habitus'that'Is'formed'within'the'family'of'origin.'This'cultural' capital'presents'itself'in'three'different'states.'An'embodied'state'

(dispositions' and' practices),' an' institutionalized' state' (educational' qualifications)' and' an' objectified' state' (cultural' goods).' In' this' scheme,' the' presence' of' all' three' forms' of' cultural' capital' in' the' family'should'have'a'great'impact'on'the'educational'careers'and' cultural'participation'patterns'of'adolescents'in'those'families.'This' paper' will' focus' on' cultural' participation' patterns' of' adolescents.'

Using'data'collected'at'the'household'level,'we'construct'a'multi) level' structural' equation' model' with' the' presence' of' the' three' forms'of'cultural'capital'in'the'family'as'“family'level'effects”'(with' cultural'participation'patterns'and'education'level'of'both'parents' and' cultural' goods' in' the' household' as' indicators' of' embodied,' institutionalized' and' objectified' cultural' capital)' and' educational' position'of'the'adolescents'as'a”'mediating'effect”'at'the'individual' level.' This' way' it' is' possible' to' test' the' direct' effects' of' cultural' capital' in' the' household' and' the' indirect' effects' through' educa) tional'position'on'cultural'participation.'Other'individual'and'family' level'variables,'like'gender,'age,'socio)economic'position'and'family' composition'will'also'be'included'in'the'model'as'control'variables.'

We'use'data'from'the'‘Cultural'Participation'Survey'2003)2004’,'a' large)scale' representative' population' survey' (3.144' face)to)face' interviews'supplemented'with'3.757'paper'questionnaires'of'family' members)'in'Flanders'(Belgium).'

GOVERNMENT!FUNDING!OF!CULTURE:!DOES!IT!SERVE!

CONSUMERS!OF!CULTURE?!

Tally'Katz)Gerro

1'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

108'

1

Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'HAIFA,'Haifa,'Israel

'

Abstract:' The' literature' offers' two' main' ways' to' think' about' the' relationship'between'public'funding'of'culture'and'social'inequality.'

One'approach'sees'the'state'as'responsible'for'providing'arts'and' culture'as'merit'goods'that'are'considered'a'basic'right'for'citizens,' and' posits' public' funding' as' an' equalizing' force.' The' other' ap) proach'emphasizes'the'way'public'funding'of'culture'can'reproduce' the'social'hierarchy'by'preserving'or'even'strengthening'inequality' between'social'groups.'

We'maintain'that'public'funding'of'arts'and'culture'is,'at'least'to'a' certain'extent,'responsive'to'societal'demographic,'economic,'and' political'characteristics.'Therefore,'analysis'of'the'way'change'over' time'in'public'funding'of'culture'is'associated'with'change'in'demo) graphic,' economic,' or' political' characteristics' may' provide' insight' into'the'two'cultural'policy'approaches'described'above.'

To' adjudicate' between' the' two' approaches,' we' collected' data' on' public'funding'of'art'bodies'in'Israel'over'the'period'1960)2009.'We' employed' time' series' analysis' to' model' the' ways' GDP' per' capita,' mean'income,'mean'age,'percent'of'individuals'with'higher'educa) tion,'ethnic'heterogeneity,'and'political'affiliation'of'the'minister'of' culture,' are' associated' with' trends' in' public' funding' of' classical' orchestras,'theaters,'opera,'and'dance'companies.'

We'find'that'change'over'time'in'funding'for'the'theater,'classical' orchestras,'and'dance'companies'is'positively'associated'with'level' of' education' and' with' size' of' the' underprivileged' ethnic' group' in'

Israel'(Mizrachi'Jews),'negatively'associated'with'income'level,'and' has' an' insignificant' association' with' the' size' of' the' Ashkenazi' group.'We'interpret'these'findings'in'the'context'of'the'merit'good' and'the'hegemony'theories.'

VEBLEN!WAS!SO!RIGHT!!!ANALYZING!ADVERTIZING!

CAMPAIGNS!OF!THE!CONTEMPORARY!LUXURY!

SECTOR!IN!THE!LIGHT!OF!THE!THEORY!OF!THE!LEISURE!

CLASS.!

Alain'Philippe'Quemin

1'

1

Department'of'sociology,'UNIVERSITÉ'PARIS)EST,'Paris,'France

'

Abstract:'Although'Veblen'published'his'Theory/of/the/Leisure/Class' in'1899,'we'would'like'to'show'in'this'presentation'that'the'analysis' and'concepts'that'he'developed'in'his'brilliant'essay'are'still'most' relevant'to'understand'advertising'campaigns'of'the'luxury'sector.'

Through' a' wide' selection' of' advertisements' published' mostly' in' recent'French'luxury'and'fashion'magazines'or'other'titles'avertis) ing'luxury'brands'such'as'Dior,'Chanel,'Yves'Saint'Laurent,'Vuitton,'

Hermès,'Prada,'Gucci,'Boss,'Michael'Kors'and'many'others,'we'will' show' that,' although' advertising' and' marketing' are' essential' for' creating'the'social'value'that'is'attributed'to'upscale'brands'and'to' push'consumers'to'accept'high'prices,'the'imagination'of'advertis) ing'agencies'seems'very'limited'in'the'luxury'field'and'mostly'refers' to'a'very'limited'number'of'codes'that'express'strong'social'norms.'

Besides,'even'today,'these'norms'that'make'it'possible'to'sell'luxu) ry'goods'are'very'close'to'some'concepts'that'were'central'in'Thor) stein'Veblen’s'Theory/of/the/Leisure/Class.'

Ostentatious' leisure' is' massively' expressed' by' the' archetype' of' extremely' thin' women' wearing' stilettos' (very' high' heal' shoes)' in' front'on'swimming'pools'or'by'the'sea'(when'the'swimming'pools' are'not'located'by'the'sea…),'doing'nothing'and'expressing'obvious' bore.'Ostentatious'spoil'is'also'expressed'in'diverse'ways.'Second)

Abstract'Book' ary'leisure'class'appears'in'a'wide'range'of'situations'showing'serv) ants'serving'their'masters.'However,'the'most'striking'example'will' be' that' of' animals' and' especially' pets.' The' number' of' animals' in' advertisements' for' luxury' goods' is' surprising' and' nearly' always' tends'to'underline'the'master'or'the'mastress’s'power.'As'Veblen' put' it,' no' other' animals' are' more' represented' than' horses' and' especially'dogs,'as'the'latters'are'both'useless'and'perfectly'express' total'obedience'to'their'masters.'

The'communication'will'be'illustrated'with'a'Powerpoint'presenta) tion'of'dozens'of'advertisements'to'try'and'show'both'the'extreme' concentration'of'themes'in'the'campaigns'for'luxury'goods'and'the' striking'relevance'of'the'Veblenian'analysis.'

CLASSGCULTURAL!DISTINCTIONS!ON!THE!DRESSED!

BODY:!A!CASE!STUDY!ON!THE!CONSUMPTION!AND!

EMBODIMENT!PRACTICES!OF!TURKISH!MIDDLE!CLASS!

WOMEN!

Irmak'Karademir'Hazir

1'

1

Sociology,' UNIVERSITY' OF' MANCHESTER,' MANCHESTER,' United'

Kingdom

'

Abstract:'This'research'intends'to'analyze'whether'social'class'and' cultural'capital'structure'taste'patterns'and'consumption'practices' in' the' area' of' the' “dressed' body”' in' Turkey.' While' exploring' the' consumption'patterns'in'relation'to'body'and'clothing,'the'research' focuses'not'only'to'the'point'of'purchase'but'to'the'consumption' practice'as'a'process'including'the'formations'of'taste,'judgment'of' tastes,'transmissions'of'tastes'from'family'and'their'symbolic'pow) er'in'daily'life.'The'analysis'draws'on'the'in)depth'interviews'held' with' 43' women' living' in' three' socioculturally' diverse' middle' class' neighbourhoods' in' Ankara/Turkey.' The' limited' number' of' con) sumption'and'class'studies'in'Turkey'mostly'focuses'on'the'secular' upper'middle'class'and'very'recently'on'the'religious'upper'middle' classes.' However' unlike' them,' the' snowball' sample' of' this' study' reflects' both' the' vertical' (upper)lower)' and' the' horizontal' (con) servative/covered' and' secular/uncovered)' divisions.On' theoretical' grounds,' the' research' reveals' that,' contrary' to' reflexive' embodi) ment' and' individualization' thesis' suggest,' the' impact' of' cultural' capital' and' class' still' persists' in' the' patterning' of' tastes' and' con) sumption'practices'on'the'domain'of'body'and'clothing.'The'narra) tives'of'the'women'prove'that'‘unreflexive’'embodiments'do'have' symbolic' power' and' do' create' cultural' exclusions' and' inequalities' on'other'fields'of'daily'life.'On'the'other'hand,'contextual'conclu) sion' of' the' research' contrasts' to' a' widely' accepted' argument' in'

Turkey' which' suggests' the' religious/secularist' divide' as' the' main' patterning' of' cultural' divisions' and' differential' embodiments' in'

Turkey.' The' analysis' of' the' themes' identified' regarding' the' judg) ments' of' tastes;' such' as' modern' vs.' traditional,' necessity' vs.' aes) thetic,' ordinariness' vs.' originality,' proposes' that,' although' inter) twined'at'certain'points'with'secular)religious'divide,'class'is'a'sali) ent'crosscutting'category'that'shapes'the'cultural'stratification'and' divisions' on' the' dressed' body' which' continues' to' be' one' of' the' most'visible'and'symbolically'value'laden'domain'of'consumption.'

COMPENSATED!DATING!IN!RUSSIA:!THE!

COMMODIFICATION!OF!INTIMACY?!

Christopher'Scott'Swader

1'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

1

Sociology,' NRU' )' HIGHER' SCHOOL' OF' ECONOMICS,' MOSCOW,'

Moscow,'Russian'Federation

'

Abstract:'“Compensated'dating,”'is'an'exchange'whereby'intimacy,' mainly' in' a' sexual' form,' is' exchanged' for' material' compensation,' often'in'the'form'of'gifts.'It'has'been'described'in'detail'in'Japan,' where'it'is'known'by'the'Japanese'term'“Enjo'Kosai.”'Most'often,'it' involves' school)aged' girls' who' engage' in' intimate' acts' with' older' men'in'order'to'receive'payments'or'a'gift.'Evidence'from'Russian' dating'websites,'blogs,'and'forums'shows'that'a'similar'practice'has' begun'to'penetrate'the'Russian'dating'market'as'well.'In'one'ver) sion,' men' are' expected' to' take' their' partners' shopping' on' the' morning'after'a'one)night)stand.'In'another'example,'a'woman'tells' a'man,'“Well,'I'do'not'like'you,'but'I’ll'be'with'you'if'you'take'me'to'

Rome'for'the'weekend.”'In'its'long)term'forms,'it'takes'the'form'of'

“sponsoring,”' where' the' woman' earns' a' regular' income' in' ex) change' for' her' monogamous,' primarily' sexual,' relationship' with' a' man.'This'paper'approaches'the'topic'theoretically'using'the'lens'of' commodification,' whereby' something' previously' not' bought' and' sold'on'the'marketplace'(such'as'intimacy'and'physical'pleasures)' comes' to' be' so.' Yet,' since' compensated' dating' does' not' always' involve'direct'monetary'exchanges,'it'is'rather'a'“grey'area,”'a'qua=

si=commodification'taking'place'as'a'form'of'barter.'It'appears'as'a' spillover'effect'of'the'commercialization'of'sex'into'the'neighboring' sphere'of'dating.'Why'do'such'exchanges'occur'in'lieu'of'a'mone) tary'transaction?'Evidence'from'both'online'sources'and'from'real) world'“speed'dating”'investigations'describes'compensated'dating' as'a'hybrid'practice'located'between'commercial'sex'and'romantic' love,'yet'distinct'from'both.'

MANAGING!OVERWEIGHT:!CLASS!AND!GENDER!

PERSPECTIVES!ON!EMBODIED!EXPERIENCE!AND!

EVERYDAY!PRACTICES!

Lotte'Holm

'1

,'Louise'Hardman'Smith

'2

'

1

Institute' of' Food' and' Resource' Economics,' COPENHAGEN'

UNIVERSITY,' Frederiksberg' C,'

2

National' centre' for' research' in' the' work'life,'Copenhagen,'Denmark

'

Abstract:' Based' on' life' history' interviews' with' twenty' men' and' women' who' have' experienced' overweight' or' obesity,' this' paper' will' discuss' how' the' experience,' the' conceptualization' and' the' managing'of'overeweight'is'differentiated'according'to'gender'and' class'(in'terms'of'educational'background).'The'data'stems'from'a'

Danish' explorative' study,' which' was' part' of' a' project' addressing' social'inequality'of'overweight'and'obesity.'The'analysis'is'inspired' by' Watson’s' dimensions/ of/ embodiment' and' it' highlights' how' the' experience' and' normative' conceptualization' of' such' dimensions' vary'between'different'individuals.'The'study'also'underlines'how' material' and' social' resources' influence' if' and' how' bodily' over) weight'is'considered'a'problem'to'be'addressed'by'the'individual'

CLASS,!CULTURE!AND!EXCLUSION!IN!A!WORKING!

CLASS!NEIGHBOURHOOD!IN!TURKEY!

Meltem'Karadag

1'

1

Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'GAZIANTEP,'Gaziantep,'Turkey

'

Abstract:'This'paper'is'on'the'working'class'and'culture.'It'will'be' based' on' interviews' with' working' class' members' in' the' working' class'neighourhood'of'Gunes'in'Gaziantep,'Turkey.'It'has'been'an' on' going' project,' and' in)depth' interviews' were' used' to' capture'

109' information' on' the' organisation' of' everday' life,' engagement' with' legitimate'culture,'cultural'activities'and'taste.'As'there'are'differ) ent'ethnic'groups'living'in'this'neighbourhood,'the'role'of'ethnicity' on' the' organisation' of' the' cultural' field' is' considered.' Similarly,' there'a'ethnographic'studies'that'highlights'Islamism'among'work) ing'classes'in'Turkey'(White:'2002;'Tugal'2009).'Hence,'the'role'of' religion' on' cultural' practices' of' working' class' is' also' considered.'

Furthermore,'while'the'cultural'practices'of'working'class'is'identi) fied,'the'production'of'subjectivity'in'relation'to'class'will'be'con) sidered.' Indeed,' as' class' is' central' to' how' these' people' live' their' lives,'the'study'considers'not'just'locating'their'everyday'practices,' but' ‘the' emotional' politics' of' class’' (Skeggs' 2001:75).' Drawing' on' the' ethnography,' the' paper' will' show' the' ways' in' which' class' opeartes'subjectively'within'daily'practices'of'the'working'class.'

Key' Words:' working' class,' culture,' subjectivity,' ethnicity' and' reli) gion.'

Skeggs,'B.'2001.'Formations/of/Class/and/Gender,'London:'Sage.'

Tugal,'C.'2009.'Passive/Revolution:/Absorbing/the/Islamic/Challenge/

to/Capitalism,'Stanford:Stanford'University'Press.'

White,'J.'2002.'Islamist/Mobilisation/in/Turkey,'Washington:'Wash) ington'University'Press.'

CONSUMING!COMPETENTLY!IN!POSTGSOCIALIST!

SPACES:!THE!MORAL!ECONOMIES!OF!SOCIAL!

REPRODUCTION!

Jeremy'Bryan'Morris

'1

,'Kathryn'Cassidy

'2

'

1

Centre' for' Russian' and' East' European' Studies,' UNIVERSITY' OF'

BIRMINGHAM,' Birmingham,'

2

School' of' Geography,' Queen' Mary,'

University'of'London,'London,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:'This'paper'adds'to'the'growing'body'of'literature'on'con) sumption' in' post)socialist' Europe.' By' drawing' on' ethnographic' material' from' Russia' and' Ukraine' it' describes' the' processes' by' which' everyday' practices' of' consumption,' initially' developed' as' a' result' of' constrained' economic' circumstances,' have' been' imbued' with'cultural'and'moral'meanings.'We'argue'that'clear'notions'of' what' it' is' to' be' a' ‘competent’' consumer' have' emerged' in' these' contexts' and' are' produced' and' re)produced' through' specific' per) formances'in'both'public'and'private'spheres.'

We'adopt'the'term'‘moral'economy’'(after'Scott'1976,'and'Thomp) son'1991)'to'highlight'a'variety'of'social'and'cultural'values'relating' to'consumption.'After'Graeber'(2002),'the'research'attempts'to'tie' together'different'meanings'of'‘value’'for'social'actors:'‘values’'as' social'and'cultural'dispositions'about'what'is'‘good’'or'‘fitting’'con) sumption,'its'exchange)'and'use)'conceptions,'and'‘value’'in'terms' of'performing'sameness'and'difference'through'consumption.'

We'explore'the'ways'in'which'the'values'linked'to'consumption'are' shared' and' in' a' sense' ‘enforced’' in' both' of' the' fieldwork' sites;' through' ‘performance’' of' consumption,' both' as' an' act' itself' in' spaces'of'consumption,'but'also'in'other'public'and'private'spheres' as'a'social'discourse.'In'doing'so,'we'draw'on'Judith'Butler’s'work' on'the'creation'of'gender'norms,'(1990).'

‘Competent' consumption’' is' understood' as' a' set' of' interrelated' routines'and'dispositions'structuring'a'‘moral'economy’'that'people' take' part' in' through' choices' and' attitudes' towards' produc) ing/consuming'and'the'meaning'of'goods.'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

110'

THE!MORALISATION!OF!CONSUMPTION:!

CONTINUITIES!AND!DISCONTINUITIES!

Jens'Hälterlein

1'

1

Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'JENA,'Jena,'Germany

'

Abstract:'In'my'paper'I'want'to'address'the'relation'between'mo) rality'and'consumption'from'the'perspectives'of'social'theory'and' social'history.'In'public'discourses'as'well'as'in'scientific'discourses'

(Michele'Micheletti,'Paul'Cloke,'Ulrich'Beck,'Nico'Stehr'etc.)'a'cur) rently'occurring'moralisation'of'consumption'is'stated.'In'doing'so,' it'is'often'assumed,'implicitly'or'explicitly,'that'so'far'consumption' has'been'an'amoral'practice'aiming'at'the'pacification'of'needs'or' the'symbolic'expression'of'identity.'Only'now,'due'to'the'ecological' crisis'and'other'“arousing”'events'of'our'turbulent'times,'consump) tion'has'become'a'question'of'morality.'However,'this'diagnosis'is' ignoring' that' consumption' has' been' ever' since' the' objective' of' social'policy'and'its'corresponding'risk'perceptions'and'has'experi) enced'specific'forms'of'moralisation.'

A' reconstruction' of' these' moral' codes,' focussing' on' continuities' and' discontinuities,' can' contribute' to' the' understanding' of' our' present'(consumption).'Thus,'for'example,'the'discourse'of'sustain) able' consumption' can' be' understood' as' an' attempt' to' do' both' initiating'a'transformation'of'patterns'of'consumption'according'to' new' risk' perceptions' and' continuing' the' politics' of' social' integra) tion'through'mass'consumption.'

The'theoretical'background'of'my'paper'is'based'on'the'conceptual' tools,'methods'and'analytical'distinctions'of'governmentality/stud=

ies.' The' empirical' evidence' of' my' paper' is' based' on' a' discourse' analysis'focussing'on'liberalism,'the'welfare'state'and'neoliberalism'

(already'carried'out'in'the'course'of'my'PhD'thesis)'and'findings'of' the'history/of/consumption.'

THE!USE!OF!FOOD!BANKS!AND!THE!EXCLUSION!FROM!

THE!CONSUMPTION!SOCIETY!

Stephan'Lorenz

1'

1

FRIEDRICH'SCHILLER'UNIVERSITY,'Jena,'Germany

'

Abstract:'Food'banks'and'similar'organizations'have'been'becoming' an' increasing' social' reality' in' most' European' countries' in' recent' years.'They'are'working'at'the'edge'of'the'consumption'societies.'

On' the' one' hand,' they' collect' the' food' excess' that' systematically' emerges' from' production,' retail' and' consumption' processes.'

Therefore'and'contrary'to'their'claim'of'fighting'food'waste'and'the'

‘throwaway' society’,' they' are' dependent' on' the' affluent' society.'

On' the' other' hand,' they' distribute' the' collected' goods' to' people' who'are'excluded'from'(work'and)'consumption'to'a'large'extent.'

The' presentation' will' discuss' the' work' of' the' “Tafel”' initiatives' I' have'researched'over'the'last'years.'The'“Tafel”'is'the'biggest'or) ganization' in' Germany' that' works' on' food' bank' principles.' The' initiatives' normally' use' a' market' communication,' e.g.' speaking' about'“Tafel”'users'as'customers'or'referring'to'their'redistribution' outlets' as' shops.' However,' no' one' would' use' the' “Tafel”' if' he' or' she' did' not' have' problems' accessing' the' market' as' a' customer.'

Rather,' using' the' “Tafel”' shows' that' one' is' excluded' from' that.' I' will'argue'that'“Tafel”'initiatives,'while'trying'to'be'helpful,'to'some' extent' carry' the' exclusion' from' the' consumption' society.' Their' market' communication' demonstrates' the' relevance' of' consump) tion' especially' where' it' is' hardly' attainable.' However,' it' just' ne) glects'the'disruption'of'real'market'access'as'a'customer,'and'their'

Abstract'Book' charity' work' doesn’t' bring' people' nearer' to' an' autonomous' con) sumer'status.'

CULTURAL!CAPITAL!IN!ACTION!

Joerg'Roessel

1'

1

Institute'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'ZURICH,'Zurich,'Switzerland

'

Abstract:/Cultural'Capital'in'Action'

There'is'a'twofold'perspective'on'cultural'consumption'in'sociolo) gy.' On' the' one' hand' sociologists' focus' on' specific' social' determi) nants'of'various'forms'of'cultural'participation'and'taste,'e.'g.'class,' gender,'age'or'education.'On'the'other'hand,'there'is'an'emphasis' on' the' relevance' and' the' consequences' of' cultural' consumption' and'taste,'insofar'as'it'has'an'impact'on'educational'success,'labor' market' position,' marital' choice' or' network' formation.' In' these' fields'cultural'participation'and'taste'are'used'as'cultural'capital'to' send'signs'of'high'status'and'to'draw'symbolic'boundaries'against' groups'with'a'lower'status.'A'huge'array'of'survey)based'empirical' studies'has'shown'the'relevance'of'cultural'capital'in'the'aforemen) tioned'fields.'However,'there'is'a'dearth'of'research'that'analyzes' the'impact'of'cultural'capital'on'the'level'of'micro)interactions'and' thereby'elucidates'the'causal'mechanisms'that'link'cultural'capital' on' the' one' hand' and' interactional' outcomes' on' the' other' hand.'

This' study' presents' results' from' group' discussions' about' movie' preferences' with' more' than' 90' apprentices' and' college' students.'

On' this' empirical' basis' it' analyzes' the' interactional' outcomes' of' different'levels'of'cultural'capital:'conversational'dominance,'group' satisfaction'and'individual'mood'after'participation'in'the'conversa) tion.'This'study'insofar'offers'exploratory'results'on'the'relevance' of' cultural' capital' for' micro)level' outcomes' that' might' also' shed' some'light'on'the'findings'of'more'meso)'and'macro)level'studies' on'cultural'capital.'

CULTURAL!CONSUMPTION!OF!POP!MUSIC:!FANS’!

PLEASURE!IN!TEXT!OR!CONTEXT?!

Massimiliano'Nuccio

'1

,'Anna'Sgrina'D'Augusta

'2

'

1 università'Bocconi,'milano,'

2 università'Bocconi,'milan,'Italy

'

Abstract:'Fandom,'after'being'negatively'depicted'as'pathology,'has' been'reconsidered'and'emerged'as'a'complex'emotional,'participa) tive'and'productive'experience.'However,'relevant'spaces'and'gaps' still'remain'to'be'analyzed:'although'what/fans'do'has'been'investi) gated'in)depth,'still'the'role'of'those'practices'in'relation'to'fans’' pleasure'is'not'completely'clear.'If'a'limited'view'of'fandom'as'an' excessive'consumption'of'popular'texts'has'been'challenged,'even' a'limited'idea'of'fans’'pleasure'as'mainly'aroused'by'the'core'con) sumption'of'a'text,'must'be'challenged.'This'work'aimed'at'investi) gating'this'aspect,'specifically'in'reference'to'pop'music'fans:'does' the'source'of'pleasure'lie'in'text,'that'is'in'music,'or'in'context,'in' the'practices'of'fandom?'A'qualitative'analysis'has'been'conducted' on' a' Madonna' fans' virtual' community,' through' netnography,' in) depth' interviews' and' a' focus' group.' A' quantitative' research' fol) lowed,'structured'on'the'basis'of'the'material'collected'through'the' qualitative'analysis:'two'samples'have'been'confronted,'one'to'153' fans,' community' members,' and' one' to' 80' non)fans,' pop' music' consumers.' The' analysis' of' the' data' has' involved' descriptive' and' inferential' statistics' and' revealed' important' differences' between' fans'and'non)fans’'behavior'and'motivations.'In'particular,'the'hy) pothesis'that'fans’'pleasure'is'mainly'excited'by'the'context'of'fan)

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' dom,'rather'than'by'text'(music),'has'been'accepted,'contrarily'to' non)fans,' who' consider' text' as' the' most' important' element' for' their'pleasure'and'satisfaction,'with'important'implications'on'how' to'deal'with'these'two'groups'of'consumers.'

References'

Fiske,' J.' (1995).' Understanding' popular/ culture.' Fourth' impression'

(Original'edition'by'Unwin'Hyman'Ltd,'1989).'London:'Routledge.'

Frith,'S.'(1996).'Music/and/identity.'In'Hall,'S.'and'Du'Gay,'P.'(1996),'

Questions/of/cultural/identity.'London:'Sage.'

Grey' J.' (2007).' Fandom:/ identities/ and/ communities/ in/ a/ mediated/

world./New'York'and'London:'New'York'University'Press.'

Jenkins,' H.' (2008).' Fan,/ blogger/ e/ videogamers:/ l'emergere/ delle/

culture/ partecipative/ nell'era/ digitale/ (Original' edition:' Fans,/ blog=

gers,/ and/ gamers:/ exploring/ participatory/ culture./ New' York:' New'

York'University'Press,'2006).'Milano:'Franco'Angeli.'

Lewis,' L.' (1992).' The/ adoring/ audience:/ fan/ culture/ and/ popular/

media.'London:'Routledge.'

Sandvoss,' C.' (2005).' Fans:/ the/ mirror/ of/ consumption.' Cambridge:'

Polity'Press.'

“HIGH!CULTURE!IS!AN!ARROGANT!NAME”!UNEASE!

WITH!CULTURAL!HIERARCHIES!IN!THE!NETHERLANDS!

Marcel'van'den'Haak

1'

1

Amsterdam' Institute' for' Social' Science' Research,' UNIVERSITY' OF'

AMSTERDAM,'Amsterdam,'Netherlands

'

Abstract:' In' my' PhD' project' ‘Perceptions' of' cultural' hierarchies’' I' researched'to'what'extent'present)day'Dutch'people'rank'cultural' objects'in'a'hierarchical'way,'i.e.'in'terms'of'‘high’'and'‘low'culture’.'

How' do' the' hierarchies' people' perceive' relate' to' their' personal' tastes?' Do' people' look' down' on' other' one’s' taste' (distinction,'

Bourdieu),'do'they'look'up'to'it'(cultural'goodwill,'Bourdieu),'or'do' they' perceive' tastes' as' equal' (which' would' be' a' logical' but' not' necessary'consequence'of'the'rise'of'‘cultural'omnivores’,'e.g.'Pe) terson)?' And' how' do' these' perceptions' and' attitudes' vary' along' education'level,'parents’'background,'age,'and'sex?'Starting'point'is' that'a'cultural'hierarchy'is'no'objective'fact,'but'a'social'construc) tion.'

In'2009'and'2010'I'conducted'semi)structured'interviews'with'nine) ty,' mostly' randomly' selected,' people' from' the' Netherlands' (Am) sterdam' and' surroundings).' These' interviews' dealt' with' people’s' likes'and'dislikes'(in'five'cultural'disciplines:'music,'film'&'TV'fiction,' theater,'visual'arts),'their'knowledge'of'and'opinion'on'other'peo) ple’s'tastes,'and'concrete'concepts'such'as'‘high’'and'‘low'culture’' and'‘good’'and'‘bad'taste’.'All'interviews'ended'with'the'ranking'of' thirty'cards'with'names'from'the'field'of'music'(such'as'composers' and'singers),'according'to'(1)'people’s'own'taste,'and'(2)'their'hier) archical'perception.'

The'quantitative'analysis'of'this'card'ranking'shows'that'most'peo) ple'–'regardless'of'education'or'age'–'recognize'a'cultural'hierar) chy,'and'that'there'is'much'consensus'on'the'nature'of'this'hierar) chy.'In'broad'strokes:'classical'music'is'generally'perceived'as'high' culture;'Dutch'language'music'as'low'culture.'This'hierarchy'is'very' much'similar'to'the'taste'ranking'of'older'higher'educated'people,' and'opposite'to'the'taste'of'younger'lower'educated'people.'

111'

Qualitative' analysis' of' the' interviews' however' shows' that' many' people'are'ambivalent'about'this.'On'the'one'hand'they'recognize' a'hierarchy'and'they'often'openly'distinguish'themselves'from'(or' look' up' to)' other' people,' but' on' the' other' hand' many' downplay' their' own' statements,' resist' the' high/low' distinction,' and' hold' a' relativistic'view'instead.'This'ambivalence'and'unease'with'hierar) chies' might' be' typical' for' a' more' egalitarian' society' such' as' the'

Netherlands'(cf.'Wouters,'Hjellbrekke).'

THE!‘CULTURAL’!AND!THE!‘ECONOMIC’!DIMENSIONS!

OF!POSITIONAL!GOODS:!SUPPLEMENTING!BOURDIEU!

WITH!SEN!

Dean'Curran

1'

1

Sociology,'Queen's'University,'Canada,'Kingston,'Canada

'

Abstract:'There'has'been'a'growing'tendency'to'subsume'the'‘eco) nomic’'within'the'‘cultural’'in'all'fields'of'economic'sociology.'This' paper'argues'that,'unless'the'(relative)'autonomy'of'the'economic' from' the' cultural' is' preserved,' certain' key' dimensions' of' power' relations' in' contemporary' neo)liberal' societies' will' be' neglected.'

This'general,'theoretical'point'may'be'substantiated'through'a'field' of' study' which' has' primarily' applied' a' cultural' approach,' that' of' consumption.' Through' building' upon' Amartya' Sen’s' insight' that' consumption' is' also' ‘productive’' –' and' Sen’s' replacement' of' the' view' that' commodities' simply' yield' “utility”' –' with' an' account' of' what'are'some'of'the'specific'roles'that'material'goods'play'in'ful) filling' one’s' key' ends,' this' paper' outlines' a' renewed' account' of' positional'goods.'By'exploring'the'central'theme'of'Bourdieu’s'So=

cial/ Structures/ of/ the/ Economy,' namely' the' question' of' housing,' through'the'‘economic’'lens,'and'doing'so'specifically'with'regard' to'how'both'the'“exchange'entitlement”'of'one’s'resources'and'the' adequacy' of' one’s' commodities' to' one’s' purposes' are' fundamen) tally'socially'contingent,'key'dimensions'of'the'scope'of'positional' goods,' and' hence' power' relations,' can' be' identified' that' are' not' accounted' for' by' cultural' approaches' such' as' Veblen’s' and' Bour) dieu’s.'Consequently,'in'affirming'the'dual'importance'and'relative' autonomy' of' the' economic' and' the' cultural,' this' paper' suggests' that' only' an' approach' that' retains' the' full' contribution' that' both' the'‘cultural’'and'the'‘economic’'makes'to'contemporary'consump) tion' can' illuminate' the' relation' between' consumption,' stratifica) tion,'and'power'in'contemporary'societies.'

DO!ETHICAL!MOTIVATIONS!FOSTER!ETHICAL!FASHION!

CONSUMPTION?!AN!EXPLORATIVE!RESEARCH!

Ariela'Mortara

'1

,'Simona'Ironico

1'

1

IULM'UNIVERSITY,'Milan,'Italy

'

Abstract:'Fair'trade'fashion,'second'hand,'vintage,'eco)fashion,'and' swapping'represent'different'facets'of'ethical'fashion.'According'to' a' previous' study' carried' out' by' the' authors,' ethical' fashion' con) sumers'are'driven'by'different'motivations'(hedonic,'utilitarian'and' ethical)'often'coexisting'in'the'same'person.'The'relevance'of'each' of'these'motivations'is'different'according'to'the'different'kinds'of' ethical'fashion,'so'that'it'is'not'easy'to'evaluate'to'what'extent'they' influence'consumer'behavior'and'the'purchase'decision.'

This'contribution'presents'the'preliminary'results'of'an'explorative' quantitative' research' aimed' at' understanding' the' reciprocal' im) portance' of' utilitarian,' hedonic' and' ethical' motivations' in' the' dif) ferent'forms'of'ethical'fashion'consumption.'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

112'

The'survey'has'been'conducted'on'a'convenience'sample'of'ethical' fashion' consumers' using' an' on)line' questionnaire' developed' ac) cording'to'the'findings'of'the'previous'qualitative'research’s'phase.'

THE!CONSUMER!BOYCOTT!IN!EUROPE:!AN!EMPIRICAL!

ANALYSIS!FOCUSED!IN!SOME!EUROPEAN!COUNTRIES!

Ramon'Llopis)Goig

1'

1

Department' of' Sociology,' UNIVERSITY' OF' VALENCIA,' Valencia,'

Spain

'

Abstract:'In'the'past,'the'job'provided'the'worker'with'the'central' axis'of'the'formation'of'his/her'identity,'as'well'as'the'ability'to'act' as'a'counterforce'by'withdrawing'the'work'effort'through'the'or) ganized'strike.'But'this'role'played'by'work'as'the'basic'element'in' the' formation' of' the' individual’s' identity' has' been' replaced' to' a' large'degree'by'consumption,'as'the'previous'dialectic'is'being'in) creasingly' impaired' by' the' lost' centrality' of' work,' but' also' by' the' new'trans)border'mobility'of'capital.'Thus,'the'role'of'counterforce' corresponds'more'and'more'to'the'global/civil/society,'and'especial) ly'to'the'figure'of'the'political/consumer,'whose'power'stems'from' the'fact'that's/he'can'refuse'to'purchase'at'any'place'and'time.'This' possibility'of'refusing'to'buy'constitutes'a'form'of'political/consum=

erism'whose'presence'has'begun'to'grow'in'European'societies'in' the'past'few'years.'

This' communication' is' divided' into' three' main' sections,' although' previously,'a'review'is'carried'out'of'the'main'theoretical'proposals' based' on' which' the' study' of' the' consumer' boycott' can' be' ap) proached:'as'a'form'of'political'protest;'as'an'expression'of'reflec) tivity,'as'a'means'of'increasing'the'feeling'of'consumer'sovereignty;' and'as'an'exercise'in'self)expression'and'a'challenge'to'the'charac) teristic'elite'in'a'post)industrial'society.'After'these'theoretical'con) siderations,'we'present'the'results'of'an'empirical'research'based' on'the'last'wave'of'the'World'Value'Survey'which'provides'data'for' the' majority' of' the' countries' of' the' world.' First,' we' quantify' the' share'of'consumer'boycotts'that'people'carry'out'in'the'different' countries'of'Europe.'Second,'we'explore'the'social'profile'of'people' who'is'involved'in'such'behaviours,'analysing'the'influence'of'sev) eral'socio)demographic'and'ideological'variables.'Third,'we'present' several' statistical' analysis' which' test' the' hypothesis' and' assump) tions'introduced'in'the'theoretical'frame.'We'use'various'multivari) ate'statistical'techniques'to'achieve'the'aforementioned'objectives'

UNITED!WE!BUY:!NEW!CONSUMER!ORGANIZATIONS!

FOR!A!SUSTAINABLE!FUTURE.!THE!CASE!OF!THE!GAS!–!

GRUPPI!DI!ACQUISTO!SOLIDALI!(SOLIDARITYGBASED!

PURCHASE!GROUPS).!

Francesca'Forno

'1

,'Cristina'Grasseni

'2

,'Silvana'Signori

'3

'

1

Department' of' Language,' Communication' and' Cultural,'

2

Department'of'Human'Sciences,'

3

Department'of'Business'Admin) istration,'UNIVERSITY'OF'BERGAMO,'Bergamo,'Italy

'

Abstract:'More'and'more'often'consumers'are'considered'as'both'a' cause' and' a' possible' solution' to' consumption)related' problems.'

Within' this' line' of' reasoning' the' growth' of' so)called' "critical' con) sumption"'in'recent'years'has'generated'considerable'interest'(and' hope).'Many'of'the'studies'on'the'subject,'however,'have'analyzed' this' phenomenon' by' focusing' mainly' on' the' individual' consumer' and'on'his/her'motivations.'Little'attention'has'instead'been'placed' on'organized'forms'of'“political'consumerism”'–'such'as'groups'of'

Abstract'Book' citizens'that'promote'consumption'as'a'critical'means'of'achieving' greater'social'and'environmental'justice.'

The'paper'will'focus'on'some'new'grassroots'initiatives'promoting' alternative'forms'of'consumption'as'a'way'to'protect'the'environ) ment'and'the'right'of'workers,'which'have'been'very'successful'in'

Italy'in'the'latest'decade.'Born'in'1994,'according'to'the'census'of' the'National'GAS'network,'“Solidarity)based'Purchase'Groups”'(or'

“Gruppi' di' Acquisto' Solidale”,' GAS),' count' today' more' than' 700' groups.' Their' estimate' is' that' about' 75.000' people' buy' food' and' other'environmentally'friendly'products'collectively'privileging'fair' trade' goods' and' organic' and' local' foods' which' they' buy' directly' form' farmers,' pursuing' the' goal' of' responsibly' collaborating' with' the' producers' and' managing' the' financial' and' logistic' aspects' of' bulk)buying'on'a'voluntary'basis.'Their'criteria'for'selecting'produc) ers' flag' up' respect' for' the' environment' and' solidarity,' both' amongst' group' members' and' with' the' producers.' Nevertheless,' such' criteria' are' interpreted' and' appropriated' on' a' strictly' local' basis.'

From' many' points' of' view,' GAS' are' an' important' case' study' for' understanding' the' mechanisms' and' decisional' processes' through' which' citizens' can' enter' into' a' cooperative' relationship' amongst' themselves' and' with' individual' producers' or' networks' of' produc) ers,'aiming'for'reciprocal'benefit'on'a'concrete'basis,'namely'modi) fying' the' production' processes' towards' a' higher' sustainability.'

GAS’s'purchase'preferences'are'sometimes'determinant'in'provid) ing'a'survival'opportunity'to'small'businesses'or'farms.'

The'paper'will'present'the'results'of'the'first'step'of'a'more'com) prehensive'multi)'and'inter)disciplinary'project.'In'particular'it'will' focus'on'a'quantitative'study'aimed'at'“mapping”'the'GAS'and'their' members.'

VOLUNTARY!SIMPLICITY!AS!A!RESPONSE!TO!SOCIALG!

ENVIRONMENTAL!CRISES!IN!AN!ERA!OF!CAPITALISM!

AND!CONSPICUOUS!CONSUMPTION!

Einat'Zamwel

1'

1

Sociology' and' Anthropology,' BAR' ILAN' UNIVERSITY,' Ramat' Gan,'

Israel

'

Abstract:' This' study' examines' the' choice' of' simple' living' and' ab) stention'from'consumption'as'a'new'type'of'political'consumption' and'as'a'mechanism'of'social'change'and'expression'of'opinion.'By' studying'Israelis'that'have'chosen'a'lifestyle'of'voluntary'simplicity,' the'paper'asks'what'social,'political'and'personal'implications'these' consumers'attribute'to'their'abstention'from'consumption.'This'is'a' work'in'progress'whose'initial'findings'are'presented'here.'

Voluntary' simplicity' is' a' way' of' life' that' offers' an' alternative' to' capitalist' consumption' culture,' whose' basic' tenet' is' to' minimize' consumer'activity'as'much'as'possible.'This'is'a'personal'practice,' done' in' the' private' sphere;' however,' it' belongs' to' a' wider' phe) nomenon'of'alternative'consumption'whose'increased'prominence' is'attributed'to'consumers’'response'to'environmental,'social'and' economic' crises' of' the' past' two' decades,' as' well' as' to' individual' crises'stemming'from'enslavement'to'capitalist'lifestyle.'

This'paper'is'based'on'interpretive'analysis'of'interviews'with'thirty' alterative'consumers'that'have'chosen'different'degrees'of'reduced' consumption.'

The' findings' show' that' these' consumers' employ' a' universal) environmental,'thus'political'rhetoric,'while'the'immediate'consid)

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' erations'for'this'choice'of'this'lifestyle'are'mainly'individualistic.'My' main' claim' is' that' their' consumption' patterns' attest' to' creativity' and' change' compared' to' conventional' consumption' patterns.'

However,'while'the'literature'refers'to'the'choice'of'voluntary'sim) plicity'as'a'means'to'financial,'social'and'environmental'change,'the' consumers'focus'on'the'change'itself'and'see'it'as'an'end'in'and'of' itself.'

FOOD!IN!THE!FAMILY:!BRINGING!YOUNG!PEOPLE!

BACK!IN!

Geoffrey'Hunt

1'

1

INSTITUTE'FOR'SCIENTIFIC'ANALYSIS,'alameda,'United'States

'

Abstract:'This'paper'examines'the'practices'and'beliefs'about'eat) ing'within'the'family'in'the'narratives'of'

30'“at)risk”'adolescent'girls'in'the'San'Francisco'Bay'Area.'We'ex) amine'traditional'notions'of'the'family'meal'and'question'the'liter) ature's'tendency'to'portray'the'family'as'a'single'unit'of'consump) tion.' In' examining' our' respondents'' households,' we' identify' a' di) versity'of'structures,'few'of'which'conform'to'traditional'notions'of' the' nuclear' family.' Household' food' purchasing' and' consumption' activities' are' varied,' and' frequently' rely' upon' extended' family' members'and'non)kin'relations'for'support.'We'identify'two'sets'of' practices' and' meanings' associated' with' eating:' eating' alone,' and' eating'with'others.'For'the'first'group,'eating'alone'is'symbolic'of' independence'from'one's'family'of'origin,'serves'as'an'opportunity' to'satisfy'individual'tastes'and'preferences,'or'can'be'the'result'of' familial'conflict'at'the'dinner'table.'For'the'second'group,'although' eating' with' the' entire' nuclear' family' rarely' occurs,' we' see' that' these'young'girls'and'women'value'eating'with'family'when'it'hap) pens,' and' make' attempts' to' incorporate' family' meals' into' their' daily' lives.' This' active' agency' represents' an' involvement' that' has' been'ignored'in'much'of'available'literature.'

POLARIZING!APPETITES?!STABILITY!AND!CHANGE!IN!

THE!CULINARY!CULTURES!IN!FINLAND,!1995G2007!

Semi'Purhonen

'1

,'Jukka'Gronow

1'

1

Department'of'Social'Research,'UNIVERSITY'OF'HELSINKI,'Helsinki,'

Finland

'

Abstract:'This'paper'analyzes'trends'in'culinary'cultures'in'Finland' since'the'mid)1990s.'Because'the'period'is'characterized'by'a'rapid' socio)cultural' change' of' Finnish' society' that' includes' important' changes'also'in'the'area'of'food'and'eating,'it'is'reasonable'to'sup) pose' that' changes' have' taken' place' in' culinary' cultures' and' taste' patterns'related'to'food.'What'kind'of'culinary'cultures')'if'any')'can' be'detected'in'Finland?'How'these'culinary'cultures'are'differenti) ated' according' to' socio)demographic' characteristics?' Have' the' shape'of'culinary'cultures'and'the'way'they'are'socially'structured' changed'in'recent'years?'Drawing'upon'two'nationally'representa) tive'survey'data'from'1995'(N=2,540)'and'2007'(N=1,388),'this'pa) per' aims' to' answer' these' questions' by' operationalizing' culinary' cultures'through'favourite'foods'and'most'typically'consumed'table' beverages.' Both' data' included' identical' questions' on' favourite' foods:' liking/disliking' for' a' list' of' different' dishes,' ranging' from' global'and'ethnic'items'(Chateaubriand,'Chinese'food,'Greek'salad,' pizza,' Wiener' schnitzel)' to' the' traditional' Finnish' dishes' made' of' meat'("Karelian'hot'pot")'or'fish'("fried'sander").'In'addition,'both' surveys'asked'about'the'most'often'consumed'beverage,'separate)

113' ly'for'a'"normal"'weekday'main'meal'and'for'a'Sunday'main'meal.'

The' identified' culinary' cultures' are' analyzed' according' to' socio) demographic' variables:' age,' gender,' education,' income,' marital' status'and'residential'area.'Finally,'the'main'findings,'reflecting'the' tensions'between'light'and'heavy,'global/ethnic'and'local/national,' modern'and'traditional,'are'illustrated'by'excerpts'from'qualitative' follow)up'interviews'collected'among'selected'respondents'of'the'

2007'survey'(N=28).'

THE!MORALITY!OF!FOOD!CONSUMPTION!

Jonas'Grauel

1'

1

Faculty' of' Philosophy,' Sociology,' UNIVERSITY' OF' SIEGEN,' Siegen,'

Germany

'

Abstract:' In' recent' years,' the' thesis' has' become' widespread' that' everyday' consumption' is' more' and' more' structured' by' moral' or' ethical' decisions.' However,' sociology' has' mostly' studied' splinter' groups' of' self)appointed' “ethical' consumers”' until' now' (e.g.'

FairTrade)activists),' neglecting' the' broad' majority' of' consumers.'

My' paper' deals' with' the' morality' of' consumption' in' two' ways:'

First,'which'forms'of'moralization'in'relation'to'buying'and'consum) ing'food'can'be'found?'Second,'can'types'of'consumption'morali) ties'be'identified'and'how'are'they'grounded'in'social'structure?'

The' empirical' results' presented' can' be' fruitfully' linked' to' Bour) dieu’s' theory' of' distinction:' While' morality' is' highly' fragmented,' ambivalent' and' context)specific,' moral' orientations' towards' food' consumption'can'be'found'for'all'cases'examined'across'different' social' milieus.' On' the' one' hand' it' is' shown' that' moralizations' of' others’' consumption' patterns' can' be' understood' on' the' back) ground'of'social'position'and'capital'structure,'suggesting'that'even' in'the'private'area'of'food'consumption'social'distinction'is'at'work.'

On' the' other' hand,' collective' forms' of' moral' consumption' seem' also'to'be'negotiated'within'households.'These'results'suggest'that'

Bourdieu' was' wrong' to' neglect' the' role' of' morality' within' class' struggles.'Results'also'imply'that'approaches'which'see'ethical'con) sumption' primarily' as' a' search' for' personal' authentic' self) expression'underestimate'the'social'embeddedness'both'of'morali) ty'and'of'everyday'consumption.'

Evidence'is'based'on'a'series'of'semi)standardized'in)depth'inter) views'with'consumers'from'a'medium)sized'town'in'Germany.'

CONSUMPTION!PRACTICES!AND!SOCIAL!MEDIA:!

BARBIE!CONSUMERS’!RITUALS!AND!RESISTANCE!

TACTICS!IN!FLICKR!

Roberta'Bartoletti

1'

1

Department' of' Communication' Sciences,' UNIVERSITY' OF' URBINO'

CARLO'BO,'Urbino,'Italy

'

Abstract:' In' the' debate' regarding' prosumerism,' we' should' recog) nize'that'social'media'play'a'very'important'role.'A'prosumer'(Tof) fler,'Ritzer)'is'a'consumer'who'self'produces'–'symbolically'and/or' materially')'the'products'that'he'consumes.'In'this'paper'our'start) ing'point'is'de'Certeau’s'concept'(1980)'of'“consumer’'tactics”,'in' order' to' evaluate' if' social' media' can' be' considered' as' new' social' places' where' consumers' can' act' as' prosumers,' in' different' ways.'

According'to'de'Certeau,'a'tactic'is'an'invisible'and'irreverent'use' by'consumer'that'cannot'be'capitalized.'Are'social'media'new'so) cial' places' where' consumers' can' capitalize' and' share' with' other'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

114' consumers' meanings,' relationship' styles,' skills' and' tricks,' cultural' and'also'political'forms'of'resistance?'We'attempted'an'answer'to' this'research'question'observing'the'practices'of'Flickr'users,'espe) cially' regarding' those' who' produced' images' of' their' Barbie' dolls,' that'is'to'say'consumers'publishing'and'sharing'them'in'the'social' network'site.'We'analyzed'images'and'comments'in'order'to'reflect' upon'prosumerism'practices'in'a'digital'environment.'

GENDER!IN!THE!KITCHEN:!FOOD!PRACTICES!IN!THE!

LIGHT!OF!ECONOMIC!SOCIOLOGY!

Livia'Barbosa

'1

,'John'Wilkinson

'2

'

1

Center' Advanced' Studies:' Marketing' /' Consumption,' ESCOLA'

SUPERIOR'DE'PROPAGANDA'E'MARKETING,'

2

CPDA'/Graduate'Cen) ter,'Federal'Rural'University,'Rio'de'Janeiro,'Brazil

'

Abstract:/Paper'Proposal:'Summary'

Gender'in'the'Kitchen:'Cooking'Practices'in'the'Light'of'economic'

Sociology'

John'Wilkinson'

Livia'Barbosa'

Economic' sociology' has' identified' two' apparently' opposed' but' in' practice' interdependent' dynamics' to' the' construction' of' markets.'

On' the' one' hand,' much' research' has' shown' the' extent' to' which' markets'are'anchored'in'wider'practices,'often'identified'with'so) cial'networks'and'the'notion'of'embeddedness.'On'the'other,'mar) kets' are' argued' to' be' actively' framed' in' a' process' of' social' con) struction' based' on' the' interests,' values' and' theories' of' engaged' actors' making' them' relatively' immune' to' social' pressures.' We' would'argue'that'it'is'the'mutual'interplay'of'these'two'processes' which'best'explains'market'dynamics.'In'this'paper'we'look'at'the' changing' gender' profile' of' cooking' practices' and' show' how' both' these' processes' are' at' work' in' redefining' gender' partnerships' in' the'kitchen.'The'analysis'is'based'on'a'nationwide'questionnaire'on' food'practices'carried'out'in'Brazil'covering'ten'of'its'principal'cities' and' a' series' of' in)depth' interviews' with' chefs' also' in' Brazil.' Our' research' suggests' that' specific' strategies' of' market' construction' are'continually'redefined'by'broader'social'practices'and'that'these' latter' in' the' case' of' cooking' practices' point' to' the' greater' im) portance' of' more' egalitarian' gender' relations' in' the' domestic' kitchen.'A'similar'tendency'can'be'identified'in'the'increasing'chal) lenge'to'the'male'appropriation'of'the'image'of'the'chef'as'artist' and'star.'

UNDERSTANDING!THE!INTERSECTION!BETWEEN!CARE!

WORK!AND!CONSUMER!SOCIETY,!AS!SHAPING!LOWG

INCOME!MOTHER’S!PERCEPTIONS!ABOUT!THEIR!

CHILDREN’S!NEEDS!

Einat'Lavee

1'

1 sociology,'bar'Ilan'University,'Ramat'Gan,'Israel

'

Abstract:'Capitalist'Western'society'is'a'consumer'society.'Individu) als'living'in'poverty'that'are'unable'to'participate'in'the'consumer' culture'suffer'not'only'from'real'material'depravity'but'from'social' ostracism' as' well,' and' are' considered' ‘disposable’' in' Bauman’s' terms.'This'study'focuses'on'how'single'parent,'low)income'moth) ers'perceive'their'role'as'being'obligated'to'provide'for'their'chil) dren’s' needs,' as' a' combination' between' an' obligation' to' provide'

Abstract'Book' material'support,'and'care'at'the'social'emotional'level.'The'essay' examines'how'in'consumer'society,'low)income'mothers'also'per) ceive' their' children’s' non)basic' needs' as' essential,' and' what' they' do' to' fulfill' these' needs.' The' study’s' findings' are' based' on' 35' in) depth'interviews'with'low)income'mothers.'The'findings'show'that' these' women’s' perceptions' of' their' children’s' needs' are' derived' from'the'concurrent'directives'of'consumer'society'and'the'mater) nal' discourse,' which' requires' her' to' devote' her' entire' being.' The' attempt' to' provide' for' the' children’s' emotional' and' social' needs' often'entails'the'attainment'of'financial'resources'that'will'secure' their' children’s' place' as' equal' and' worthy.' In' order' to' attain' the' resources' that' will' enable' this' equality,' the' women' “stretch' the' limits”' –' attempt' to' gain' financial' resources' in' various' different' ways,' which' appear' to' be' difficult' and' detrimental' to' them.' The' study'elaborates'on'the'phenomenon'of'latent'poverty,'presented' by'Ruth'Lister,'and'examines'how'the'discourses'that'dictate'what' motherhood'provides'in'a'consumer'society'exacerbate'the'wom) en’s' personal' poverty,' and' how' gender' patterns' of' livelihood' and' care'in'such'a'society'are'reshaped'

WHAT!IS!CLEAN?!ENACTING!CLEANLINESS!IN!

KITCHENS!AND!CLOSETS!

Eivind'Jacobsen

'1

,'Ingun'G.'Klepp

1'

1

NATIONAL' INSTITUTE' FOR' CONSUMER' RESEARCH' (SIFO),' Oslo,'

Norway

'

Abstract:/How'is'cleanliness'defined'and'enacted'by'ordinary'peo) ple'with'regard'to'food'related'activities'in'kitchens'and'to'cloths' and'their'cleaning'in'washrooms'and'inspection'in'wardrobes.'How' are' standards' set' and' enacted' in' these' settings?' Are' there' sharp' defining'lines'between'categories'of'cleanliness,'and'if'so,'how'are' they'managed'in'practice?'How'is'gender'enacted,'and'what'roles' and' tasks' are' assigned' to' non)humans' of' different' kinds?' For' in) stance,'are'bacteria'enacted'in'these'processes,'and'if'so,'in'what' ways?'

These'questions'will'be'discussed'taking'on'two'sets'of'qualitative' data,' one' related' to' food' hygiene' practices' in' private' Norwegian' kitchens'and'one'related'to'Norwegians’'private'management'and' cleaning'of'cloths.'Both'the'kitchen'and'the'wardrobe'data'consists' of'interviews'and'a'broad'set'of'handbooks,'surveys,'and'guides'on' how'to'take'care'of'food'hygiene'as'well'as'how'to'wash'clothes.'

Though' the' discussions' are' explorative' in' their' intent' they' are' heavily' inspired' by' literature' on' dirt' and' social' order' (Douglas'

1966),' on' rituals' of' cleanliness' (Shove' 2003)' related' to' ordinary' consumption'(Gronow'and'Warde'2001)'within'everyday'practices'

(Schatzki'1996;'Shove'et'al.'2007),'and'on'the'role'of'artifacts'and' their'enactment'as'discussed'in'the'tradition'of'ANT'and'material' semiotics' (Akrich' 1992;' Law' 2004).' We' discuss' women’s' roles' in' domestic' standard' setting' within' households' (cf.' Bianchi' et' al.'

2000).'Besides,'in'line'with'Halkier'(2001)'we'look'for'moral'ambi) guities'within'everyday'consumption'practices.'

ENJOYMENT!IN!AN!AGE!OF!AUSTERITY:!GUILT,!

CONSUMPTION!AND!THE!END!OF!AFFLUENCE!

Colin'Cremin

1'

1

Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'AUCKLAND,'Auckland,'New'Zealand

'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

Abstract:'The'commodity,'once'celebrated,'has'now'lost'something' of'its'shine.'Instead'of'the'mantra'‘greed'is'good’'there'are'numer) ous'‘talking'heads’'or'what'Antonio'Gramsci'called'organic'intellec) tuals'raising'concerns'about'the'material'effects'of'the'system'on' people'and'planet.'The'evident'concerns'of'prominent'sociologists' about'climate'change,'inequality'or'even'state'violence'is'part'of'a' wider' media' discourse' that' we' see' in' television' documentaries' such'as'Blood,/Sweat/and/Tee=Shirts'about'child'labour'in'India,'high' profile' campaigns' of' NGOs' and' news' coverage' on' anything' from' poverty'in'Africa'to'the'devastation'wrought'by'natural'phenomena' increasingly' linked' to' climate' change.' Fredric' Jameson' once' said' that'‘the'underside'of'culture'is'blood,'death,'torture'and'horror.’'

Today,'the'hidden'relations'of'the'commodity'are'themselves'high) lighted'by'the'very'agents'who'prosper'from'the'unsustainable'and' unconscionable'exploitation'of'nature'and'labour'power.'

Slavoj' Žižek' speaks' of' ‘liberal' communists’' such' as' Bill' Gates' who' disavow'their'role'in'perpetuating'inequality'through'small'acts'of' generosity'towards'those'deemed'worthy'victims'of'capitalism.'But' it'is'not'only'CEOs'who'appear'to'feel'guilty'about'their'relationship' to' capital.' Consumers' too' are' increasingly' made' to' feel' guilty' for' their'habits.'Apart'from'being'self)centred,'superficial'and'narcissis) tic,' the' consumer' is' held' responsible' for' global' warming,' poverty' and'now,'by'‘binging'on'easy'credit’,'economic'crisis.'A'straw'man' has' many' uses,' including' being' ‘part' of' the' solution’' by' reducing'

‘carbon' footprints’,' consuming' ‘more' ethically’' and' tightening' the' proverbial' belt.' ‘Desire’,' Deleuze' and' Guattari' said,' ‘is' shamed,' stupefied…' it' is' easily' persuaded' to' deny' “itself”' in' the' name' of' more' important' interests' of' civilisation’.' Developing' arguments' from' my' 2011' book' Capitalism’s/ New/ Clothes,' the' paper' defends' the' ‘consumer’' against' the' charge' that' it' must' take' responsibility' for'its'own'excessive'desires.'

ORGANIZED!CONSUMPTION:!BUYING!FAIR!AND!THE!

“FAIR!TRADE”!MOVEMENTS!IN!WESTERN!EUROPE!

Sebastian'Koos

1'

1

Universität'Mannheim,'Mannheim,'Germany

'

Abstract:'Fair'trade'commodifies'normative'standards,'by'setting'a'

“just”'price'above'the'market'average'to'support'deprived'produc) er'groups.'Explanations'of'why'consumers'are'willing'to'pay'such'a' premium'have'mostly'focused'on'individual'consumer'motives,'like' consumers’' ethical' identity' or' post' materialist' value' orientations'

(e.g.' De' Pelsmacker' and' Janssens,' 2007;' Shaw' 2005).' This' paper' employs' a' different' perspective' in' highlighting' the' organizational' embeddeness'of'fair'buying.'Fair'Trade'consumption'is'perceived'as' an' organizational' phenomenon,' where' social' movement' organiza) tions' provide' opportunities' for' fair' buying' and' try' to' shape' con) sumers’'understandings'of'fair'market'exchange.'Fair'trade'move) ments'in'Western'Europe'differ'in'the'way'they'organize'and'mar) ket'fair'traded'goods.'Drawing'on'social'movement'theories'of'eco) nomic' opportunity' structures' and' framing,' it' is' elaborated' how' organizations'and'ways'of'organizing'shape'consumption'patterns.'

Hypotheses' are' empirically' tested' using' a' quantitative' multilevel' design.'Organizational'data'on'national'fair'trade'movements'com) piled' from' an' organizational' survey' of' the' European' Fair' Trade'

Association' is' combined' with' individual' level' survey' data' of' the'

1997' Eurobarometer' for' 14' European' countries.' Logistic' hierar) chical'regression'models'reveal'the'crucial'importance'of'the'organ) izational' communication' efforts' as' well' as' the' importance' of' the' distribution'channels'for'individual'fair'trade'consumption.'A'com) plementing'second'analysis'using'aggregate'measures'of'per'capita'

115'

Fair'Trade'consumption'for'the'year'2007'provides'evidence'for'the' persistent'effect'of'organizational'determinants.'

THE!PLACE!OF!ANIMALS!IN!POLITICAL!CONSUMPTION:!

EXPLORING!CITIZENGCONSUMER!POSITIONS!IN!FARM!

ANIMAL!ISSUES!

Saara'Kupsala

'1

,'Pekka'Jokinen

'2

,'Markus'Vinnari

'3

'

1

Department'of'Geographical'and'Historical'Studies,'UNIVERSITY'OF'

EASTERN'FINLAND,'Helsinki,'

2

Department'of'Geographical'and'His) torical' Studies,' UNIVERSITY' OF' EASTERN' FINLAND,' Joensuu,'

3

Department'of'Geographical'and'Historical'Studies,'UNIVERSITY'OF'

EASTERN'FINLAND,'Tampere,'Finland

'

Abstract:'Consumption'has'become'increasingly'an'arena'for'politi) cal' participation,' in' which' everyday' lifestyle' choices' appear' as' a' form' of' protest' and' public' engagement.' At' the' same' time,' the' moral'standing'of'animals'has'become'subjected'to'societal'contes) tation' and' re)evaluation,' and' the' importance' of' animal' ethics' in' consumption'politics'has'increased.'

In' the' scholarly' discussion' on' sustainable' or' ethical' consumption' much'attention'has'been'given'to'identifying'and'characterising'the' green,'ethical'or'political'consumer.'However,'more'research'atten) tion'is'required'to'investigate'what'kinds'of'consumer'orientations' or'segments'can'be'found'related'to'political'consumption'in'repre) sentative'population'level'data.'In'this'paper'we'explore'this'issue' based'on'an'extensive'nationwide'survey.'We'focus'on'farm'animal' welfare'questions,'analysing'which'kinds'of'citizen)consumer'orien) tations' people' take' as' regards' to' animal' ethics' and' livestock' pro) duction.'

Our'research'material'consists'of'survey'data'carried'out'in'Finland' in' 2010.' The' survey' was' based' upon' a' random' sample' of' 18–75) year)old'Finns,'with'a'response'rate'of'47.9'percent'(n=1,893).'Our' results'indicate'that'the'majority'of'Finns'do'not'define'consump) tions' as' an' active' political' arena' through' which' to' influence' farm' animal'conditions,'but'we'also'identified'a'noticeable'proportion'of' active'consumers'taking'a'more'political'role.'We'identified'several' citizen)consumer' orientations' that' differed' from' each' other' with' their' expression' of' trust' in' regulative' institutions,' with' their' atti) tudes'to'knowledge'uncertainties,'with'their'expression'of'consum) er'empowerment'and'with'their'attitudes'to'animal'welfare'stand) ards.'We'conclude'the'paper'by'discussing'the'challenges'involved' in' integrating' farm' animal' concerns' into' everyday' consumption' choices'among'the'different'identified'consumer'groups.'

THE!UTOPIAS!OF!POLITICAL!CONSUMPTION:!THE!

SEARCH!OF!ALTERNATIVES!TO!MASS!CONSUMPTION!

Sophie'Bossy

1'

1

Political' and' Social' Sciences,' European' University' Institute,' Flor) ence,'Italy

'

Abstract:'This'paper'is'a'study'of'political'consumerism'understood' as'a'social'movement'in'which'a'network'of'individual'and'collec) tive'actors'criticize'and'try'to'differentiate'themselves'from'tradi) tional' consumerism' by' politicizing' the' act' of' buying' in' order' to' search' and' promote' other' types' of' consumption.' The' use' of' con) sumption' as' a' political' tool' has' been' increasingly' investigated' re) cently.'However'this'study'offers'an'original'angle:'utopia.'Utopia'is' defined' here' as' both' a' form' of' discourse' and' a' set' of' particular'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

116' practices.' To' be' called' utopian,' a' discourse' has' to' include,' first,' a' rejection'of'the'existing'society,'and'second,'if'not'a'clear'concep) tion' of' what' another' world' might' look' like,' at' least' the' idea' that' another'society'is'possible'and'desirable.'And,'to'be'called'utopian,' practices' need' to' be' an' attempt' to' create' here' and' now' at' least' some' of' the' features' of' this' utopian' discourse,' in' the' hope' of' a' spread'in'the'rest'of'society.'Therefore,'the'goal'is'to'identify'the' utopian' elements' that' can' be' found' within' political' consumerism' and'to'see'what'their'impact'is'on'collective'action.'

The'answers'given'by'political'consumerism'to'the'global'economic' downturn'in'terms'of'anti)consumerism'(that'states'that'de)growth' is' something' that' is' both' necessary' and' desirable)' or' alter) consumerism'(that'promotes'solutions'through'a'more'responsible' consumption)'will'be'the'focus'of'attention.'Indeed,'viewing'politi) cal'consumerism'with'the'lenses'of'utopia'helps'to'understand'how' actors'view'consumption'and'how'they'related'their'acts'of'(non)

)consuming' to' ideals' and' dreams' of' a' better' world.' Utopia' also' helps' to' show' that' the' particular' choices' of' consumption,' of' life) style'or'the'choices'collectively'made'within'the'groups'they'belong' to'are'only'really'understandable'if'one'looks'at'the'logics'behind' them' and' their' articulation' to' the' ideals' and' hopes' actors' have.'

Finally,'the'lenses'of'utopia'allow'the'researcher'to'see'how'actors' articulate'the'individual'and'collective'levels'of'action'since'it'helps' understand'that'for'the'actors'their'everyday'choices'of'living'are' also'done'in'order'to'achieve'some'necessary'changes'within'socie) ty.'In'order'to'illustrate'this'theory,'this'paper'will'be'based'on' a' comparison'of'four'case'studies'done'in'France'and'in'the'United'

Kingdom' with' two' local' groups' of' the' Slow' Food' organization,' a' group' of' de)growth' promoters' and' an' intentional' community' be) longing'to'the'ecovillage'network.'

BEYOND!OMNIVOROUSNESS:!USING!A!SOCIAL!SPACE!

APPROACH!TO!ANALYZE!THE!SOCIAL!STRUCTURING!

OF!LIFESTYLES!

Henk'Roose

'1

,'Koen'van'Eijck

'2

,'John'Lievens

1'

1

Department' of' Sociology,' GHENT' UNIVERSITY,' Gent,' Belgium,'

2

Department' of' Arts' and' Culture' Studies,' Erasmus' University' Rot) terdam,'Rotterdam,'Netherlands

'

Abstract:' By' using' Bourdieu’s' social' space' approach,' this' analysis' maps'the'structure'of'cultural'lifestyles'in'Flanders,'Belgium.'Infor) mation' on' a' broad' range' of' cultural' behaviors' (participation)' and' dispositions' (what' is' important' in' cultural' activities)' from' 2,849' respondents' is' analyzed' and' linked' to' a' set' of' indicators' of' social' position.' By' means' of' Multiple' Correspondence' Analysis' (MCA)' three'structuring'dimensions'are'found.'The'first'is'an'engagement) disengagement' axis,' distinguishing' an' active,' and' open)minded' lifestyle'versus'a'more'passive,'home)bound'way'of'living.'The'se) cond'dimension'contrasts'a'preference'for'contemplation'and'legit) imate' arts' with' a' preference' for' adventure' and' action.' The' third' axis'adds'an'opposition'between'a'pronounced,'reflexive'openness' to'new'things'and'a'more'unreflexive'taste.'Cultural'and'economic' capital' are' primarily' associated' with' axis' one,' age' with' axis' two.'

The' third' dimension' is' linked' to' different' combinations' of' social' categories.'The'findings'show'that'respondents'have'distinct'ways' of' showing' the' underlying' trait' of' openness' depending' on' their' position'in'the'social'space—omnivorousness'is'only'one'of'its'ex) pressions'linked'to'younger'people'with'a'lot'of'cultural'capital.'Our' analysis' demonstrates' the' power' of' MCA' to' reveal' additional' in) sights' in' the' social' structuring' of' lifestyles,' insights' that' comple) ment'results'obtained'via'traditional'correlational'techniques.'

Abstract'Book'

IT!TAKES!TWO!TO!TANGO:!THE!IMPORTANCE!OF!

SOCIAL!NETWORKS!FOR!EXPLAINING!CULTURAL!

PARTICIPATION!

Jef'Vlegels

'1

,'John'Lievens

1'

1

Ghent'University,'Gent,'Belgium

'

Abstract:/ The' social' stratification' of' cultural' participation' is' a' well' studied'topic'in'sociology.'Often'still'inspired'by'Bourdieus’'classical' work:' ‘La' Distinction’,' researchers' try' to' understand' the' ‘field’' in' which' cultural' taste' and' participation' preferences' are' formed' an' internalized.' The' conversion' between' different' forms' of' capital,' and'more'specific'the'relative'importance'of'economic'and'cultural' capital' to' explain' cultural' praxis' still' gets' a' lot' of' attention' in' the' sociology'of'culture.'In'recent'literature,'sociologists'challenge'the' deterministic'class)model'by'exploring'the'effect'of'more'individu) alistic'characteristics.'Research'on'cultural'mobility,'personal'capi) tal' accumulation,' ethnicity,' gender,' etc.' put' Bourdieus’' traditional' class)model'in'a'new'perspective.'

In' this' paper,' we' build' on' these' recent' insights' and' focus' on' the' role'of'an'individual’s'social'network'for'explaining'cultural'partici) pation.'We'test'the'relative'importance'of'personal'social'capital') besides'the'more'traditional'class'effects)'to'predict'participation'in' a'broad'range'of'cultural'domains'(‘highbrow’'as'well'as'‘lowbrow’' activities).'We'expect'that'personal'social'network'structures'offer' important' resources' (or' constraints)' that' can' influence' participa) tion' in' cultural' activities' in' a' substantial' way.' More' specific,' we' focus'on'social'integration'(tie'strength),'network'heterogeneity'(in' terms' of' gender,' role' and' age' composition)' and' network' size' as' explanatory' variables' for' cultural' participation.' Furthermore,' we' pay'special'attention'to'the'causal'direction'of'the'effect'by'using'a' two)stage'least'squares'regression'analysis'to'encounter'potential' feedback'effects.'

DATA:' We' use' data' from' the' ‘Cultural' Participation' in' Flanders'

2003)2004’' survey.' This' is' a' representative' (weighted)' sample' of' the' Dutch' speaking' part' of' Belgium,' with' 2849' randomly' selected' respondents' between' 14' and' 85' year' old.' They' were' questioned' with'a'computer)assisted'face)to)face'interview'about'their'cultural' behavior'and'attitudes'and'we'used'a'name'generator'to'construct' the'ego)centric'cultural'participation'network'of'each'respondent.'

PROFILING!CULTURAL!OMNIVORES!IN!KOREA:!

QUANTITY!AND!BREADTH!OF!CULTURAL!

CONSUMPTION!

Eun)mee'Kim

'1

,'Sae)rom'SUH

1'

1

Communication,' SEOUL' NATIONAL' UNIVERSITY,' Seoul,' Korea,' Re) public'Of

'

Abstract:'Bourdieu‘s'theory'stirred'up'debates'over'its'applicability' to'contexts'other'than'the'1960s'French'society'and'the'omnivore' hypothesis'was'posed'as'one'of'the'complementary'explanation'on' how'cultural'capital'functions.'

Previous'research'on'cultural'omnivores'in'the'U.S'and'Europe'sug) gests' that' the' concept' of' cultural' capital' and' omnivore' should' be' explicated' within' a' specific' context.' What' it' means' to' do' cultural' consumption'and'its'social'utility'differ'in'each'society,'especially'in'

Asian'countries'such'as'Korea'where'most'of'high'cultural'forms'are' western'and'class'mobility'is'high.'Regardless'of'forms'and'genres,' cultural'participation'is'significant'as'a'marker'for'higher'social'sta)

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' tus.'Upward'mobility'is'a'strong'motive'behind'any'cultural'partici) pation'and'therefore'omnivores'who'have'developed'taste'for'di) verse'cultural'activities'and'those'who'want'to'be'visible'in'various' well)known'cultural'events'may'be'differentiated.'In'such'context,' it'would'be'more'sensible'to'consider'both'quantity'and'breadth'of' cultural' participation.' Therefore,' we' focused' on' the' difference' within'omnivores'depending'on'the'quantity'of'cultural'consump) tion:'Active'omnivores'and'inactive'omnivores.'

To'profile'omnivores'in'Korean'context,'Korean'General'Social'Sur) vey'data'of'2007'were'analyzed'by'regression'models.'The'quantity' of'cultural'consumption'as'well'as'the'breadth'had'significant'rela) tionship'with'cultural'capital.'Education,'father’s'education'and'the' total' period' of' arts' education' predicted' both' the' quantity' and' breadth'of'the'cultural'consumption'while'the'influence'of'house) hold' income' and' perceived' class' membership' turned' invalid' after' including'the'cultural'capital'variables'in'the'model.'The'difference' between'active'and'inactive'omnivores'was'as'expected.'We'found' out'that'Active'omnivores'had'higher'cultural'capital'than'inactive' omnivores'and'were'significantly'younger'while'inactive'omnivores' had' lower' cultural' capital' but' higher' income' level' and' lower' per) ceived' class' membership.' The' characteristics' of' active' omnivores' who'harriedly'consume'many'major'blockbuster'events'regardless' of'Opera,'musical,'or'classical'performance'is'further'discussed.'Yet' another'test'of'omnivore'concept'in'a'different'social'context'and' the'differentiation'between'active'and'inactive'omnivores'will'con) tribute'to'systematic'theorizing'on'the'relationship'of'cultural'capi) tal'and'cultural'consumption.'

SOCIAL!STRUCTURE,!FIELDGSPECIFIC!CAPITAL!AND!

YOUNG!PEOPLE’S!CULTURAL!CONSUMPTION!IN!A!

LOCAL!CLUB!AND!DISCOTHEQUE!MARKET!

Gunnar'Otte

1'

1

Sociological'Institute,'UNIVERSITY'OF'ZÜRICH,'Zürich,'Switzerland

'

Abstract:'In'the'last'two'decades,'many'empirical'studies'have'in) vestigated' whether' cultural' consumption' is' structured' by' social' class,'education,'the'life'course,'gender'and'ethnicity,'or'whether'it' takes' place' in' an' individualized,' structurally' decoupled' fashion.'

While'traditional'stratification'dimensions'keep'on'exerting'consid) erable'influence,'it'is'also'evident'that'endogenous'cultural'expla) nations' are' needed' to' enrich' our' understanding' of' consumption' behaviour.'Attempts'to'do'this'in'a'systematic'way'are'rare,'how) ever.' This' paper' locates' field)specific' forms' of' capital' at' an' inter) mediate'level'between'social'structure'and'concrete'consumption' behaviour.'Emanating'from'Thornton’s'notion'of'“sub)cultural'capi) tal”,' two' forms' of' capital' are' assumed' to' guide' young' people’s' moves' in' a' local' market' of' clubs' and' discotheques:' music' capital' and' bodily' capital.' These' concepts' were' operationalized' and' im) plemented'in'a'standardized'questionnaire.'The'survey'is'part'of'a' comprehensive' mixed)method' project' that' intends' to' reveal' the' mechanisms' matching' demand' and' supply' in' the' market' of' clubs' and' discotheques' in' Leipzig,' Germany.' The' questionnaire' was' dis) tributed'among'864'randomly'selected'visitors'of'twelve'clubs'and' discotheques'varying'in'size,'organizational'form'and'musical'genre.'

The'survey'allows'us'to'investigate'audience'overlaps'and'to'map' cultural'niches'of'urban'nightlife.'Multiple'correspondence'analyses' are'used'to'depict'these'market'segments'and'regression'models'to' explain' frequencies' of' attendance' of' specific' locations.' Based' on' these' analyses' the' explanatory' power' of' classic' stratification' con) cepts'and'field)specific'capitals'is'assessed.'

117'

WHAT!IS!“GOOD!TASTE”!IN!POPULAR!MUSIC?!

OPENNESS!AS!A!RESOURCE!IN!THE!PURSUIT!OF!

SUPERIORITY!

Michael'Parzer

1'

1

Department'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'VIENNA,'Vienna,'Austria

'

Abstract:' The' declining' importance' of' social' and' aesthetic' hierar) chies' is' a' great' challenge' for' cultural' sociology.' It' is' not' clear' whether'this'tendency'indicates'an'erosion'of'claims'for'social'and' cultural'superiority'or'whether'new'ways'of'expressing'distinction' are' emerging' instead.' While' the' fragility' of' boundaries' between' high'and'low'culture'has'been'subject'of'extensive'research,'similar' changes'within'popular'culture'have'been'largely'neglected'so'far.'

Drawing'on'discussions'on'musical'preferences'in'online)fora'it'will' be' shown' how' and' to' what' extent' tastes' in' the' field' of' popular' music'are'used'as'a'resource'in'the'pursuit'of'superiority.'

While'the'distinction'between'“authentic”'and'“commercial”'music' still' serves' as' an' important' symbolic' boundary' and' hence' as' the' base'for'defining'“good”'taste'in'popular'culture,'there'is'evidence' that' concepts' of' “authenticity”' are' increasingly' put' into' question.'

Empirical' findings' suggest' that' rhetorics' of' authenticity' conflict' with'a'new'pattern'of'interpretation:'“Openness”'is'promoted'as'a' key'concept'of'musical'taste'in'popular'culture.'This'concept'is'not' only'characterized'by'crossing'boundaries'between'“authentic”'and'

“commercial”' ostentatiously,' but' also' by' being' open' towards' a' broad'range'of'different'musical'worlds.'Consequently,'a'clear'sep) aration' from' consumers' of' music' with' a' rather' limited' taste' is' called' for.' Not' what' is' liked' or' disliked,' but' how' consumers' deal' with' the' diversity' of' musical' genres' has' become' the' criterion' for' symbolic'and'possibly'also'social'distinction'within'popular'culture.'

LOOKING!FOR!CREATIVITY!AND!INNOVATION!IN!

CONSUMPTION!PATTERNS.!THE!DEMOCRATIZATION!

OF!COMPUTER!HACKING!AND!THE!EMERGING!OF!

NEW!CONSUMER!PRACTICES.!

Paolo'Magaudda

1'

1

Dep.'Sociology')'CIGA,'UNIVERSITY'OF'PADOVA,'Padova,'Italy

'

Abstract:' This' contribution' aims' to' show' how' hacking' practices,' and'their'recent'evolutions,'are'becoming'increasingly'relevant'for' consumer' studies.' In' the' last' decade,' the' term' “hacker”' has' lost' their' unique' association' with' digital' criminals' or' countercultural' heroes'and'“hacking'practices”'have'started'to'increasingly'involve' more' ordinary' young' people' and' their' everyday' lives' and' leisure.'

When'we'consider'hacking'practices'in'a'broader'sense,'we'can'see' that'these'practices'are'frequently'appearing'in'the'realm'of'ordi) nary' consumption' patterns' and' therefore' they' became' related' to' understand' the' stability' and' the' innovation' of' consumer' culture' and'practices.'

In'this'presentation'I'will'show'one'of'the'possible'ways'to'concep) tualize' and' analyze' empirically' the' relationship' between' hacking' practices' and' consumption' practices,' by' showing' few' examples' concerning' consumers’' modifications' and' transformations' of' Ap) ple’s' hardware.' More' specifically,' I' will' focus' on' the' examples' re) garding'the'appropriation'of'two'kind'of'digital'Apple'devices:'the' well)known' iPhone' and' the' “Hackintosh”' (a' computer' based' on' non)Apple' hardware,' but' running' Apple' software).' In' both' cases,' people’s'modifications'of'Apple'hardware'does'not'represent'only'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

118' individual' activity' or' the' result' of' esoteric' knowledge,' but' they' rather' represent' the' outcome' of' a' reconfiguration' of' consumer' practices,' in' which' issues' connected' with' «craft' consumption»,'

«cultural' jamming»' and' new' consumers’' skills' and' material' tools' are'involved.'

In'conclusion,'grounding'on'a'“theory'of'practice”'framework,'I'will' argue'that'the'complex'set'of'competences'and'knowledge'original) ity'required'in'hacking'practices'is'today'being'translated'into'cul) tural,' practical' and' material' terms' to' fit' into' contemporary' con) sumer' patterns.' The' interaction' between' socio)material' elements' from' hacking' practices' and' from' ordinary' consumer' behaviors' helps'us'to'highlight'on'of'the'sources'of'creativity'and'innovation' in'contemporary'consumption'patterns.'

THE!CRISIS!OF!INTANGIBLE!IDENTITIES:!FASHION!

BRANDS!AND!SEMIOTIC!SATURATION!

Emanuela'Mora

1'

1 dipartimento' sociologia,' UNIVERSITÀ' CATTOLICA' SACRO' CUORE,'

Milano,'Italy

'

Abstract:' In' the' first' ages' of' modern' fashion,' the' difference' be) tween' fashion' and' clothing' was' rooted' in' the' creative' content' of' the' former,' produced' by' fashion' designer' and' couturier' and' em) phasised' by' advertisers' and' communication' professionals.' After) wards,' during' the' Nineties,' the' difference' between' fashion' and' clothing' has' progressively' evanesced,' as' the' latter' doesn't' exist' almost'anymore,'due'to'the'catching'on'of'brands'even'at'the'mass' market'level.'The'role'of'materiality'had'been'higly'underestimated' during' this' phase,' but' materiality' seems' to' be' going' to' revenge' itself,'because'of'the'progressive'thickness's'lost'of'the'intangible' contents.'

The' paper' presents' and' discusses' the' main' findings' of' a' research' program'that'explores'a'phenomenon'we'call'"semiotic'saturation",' according'to'the'process'Simmel'identified'at'the'beginning'of'the'

XXth'century'as'typical'in'the'diffusion'of'fashion'among'social'clas) ses.'What'makes'different'the'present'occurence'of'the'phenome) non'is'that'it'doesn't'imply'in'principle'the'abandoning'of'the'satu) rated'images'by'the'luxury'brands.'On'the'contrary'it'contributes'to' the'stabilization'of'the'mainstream'fashion's'visual'mood'of'a'cer) tain' period.' The' result' seems' however' to' be' the' lost' of' thickness'

(meaningful'uniqueness'and'exclusiveness)'of'communicated'imag) es' of' brands.' The' research' program' had' been' carried' out' with' a' convenient' (60' people)' sample' of' respondents' balanced' as' far' as' regarding'gender'and'age,'and'showed'that'people'feel'disoriented' when'asked'to'recognize'the'brands'associated'with'blind'submit) ted'images.'More'than'a'half'of'the'intervieweed'couldn't'accom) plish'the'job.'As'a'conclusion'it'will'be'argued'that'the'visual'con) tent' of' brands' isn't' enough' to' communicate' the' identity' of' the' brand'itself'and'that'semiotic'saturation'represents'the'final'stage' of'a'culture'of'fashion'mostly'based'on'a'pure'commercial'imagery.'

UPCOMING!CHANGE!IN!URBAN!LIFESTYLES!IN!2050:!

TOWARDS!A!POST!CONSUMPTION!SOCIETY?!

Michelle'Dobre

'1,'2*

'

1

Département'de'Sociologie/Cerrev,'UNIVERSITE'DE'CAEN,'

2

Centre' d'études'et'Recherches'sur'les'risques'et'les'vulnérabilités,'Univer) sité'de'Caen,'Caen,'France

'

Abstract'Book'

Abstract:'An'important'today’s'concern'with'changing'social'prac) tice'is'the'anticipation'of'changes'in'lifestyles'confronted'to'carbon' constraints'related'to'climate'change'politics.'Is'the'ecological'tran) sition' leading' us' to' post' consumption' societies?' Our' approach' is' based'on'an'ongoing'empirical'research'(PROMOV),'funded'by'the'

CNRS' and' the' Prospective' Board' of' the' French' Ministry' of' Devel) opment'from'2009'to'2011.'While'a'wide'literature'exists'on'eco) nomic'or'general'social'changes'(EEA'2009),'very'few'if'none'deal' with'lifestyles'as/driving/forces'for'change.'Lifestyles'and'consump) tion'are'more'often'seen'as'the'“black'box”'in'other,'over'determi) nant'dimensions.'On'the'other'hand,'contributions'in'sociology'of' consumption'(Lipovetsky'2006;'Galand'&'Lemel'2006;'Dobré'&'Juan'

2009)' have' a' potential' to' be' employed' in' the'field' of' sociological' prospective'on'lifestyles.'

Based'on'the'state'of'the'art'on'statistical'sources,'social'theories,' prospective'literature'and'a'review'of'science'fiction'literature,'this' paper' discusses' the' ways' of' engaging' sociological' diagnosis' and' knowledge' of' cultural' trends,' material' consumption,' urban' life' changes,' in' order' to' build' lifestyles' scenarios' for' future.' The' six' scenarios' here' presented' are' the' outcome' of' an' interdisciplinary' collective' discussion' on' relevant' dimensions' for' change' in' future' lifestyles:'individualism'Vs.community,'religious'renewal'Vs.'laiciza) tion,'simplicity'Vs.'growing'consumption'are'some'examples.'Three' main' dimensions' bound' to' change' in' the' future' delimit' the' con) trasting'scenarios:'relation'to'others'(sociability);'new'technologies;' public' space' (political' participation).' The' relation' to' material' Con) sumption'is'the'common'cross'variable'which'structures'the'archi) tecture'of'the'6'scenarios.'

EEA'2009,'N.'3,'Looking/back/on/looking/forward:/a/review/on/eval=

uative/scenario/literature.'

Dobré' M,' Juan' S.' (eds)' 2009.' Consommer/ autrement./ La/ réforme/

écologique/des/modes/de/vie.'L’Harmattan.'

Galland'O.,'Lemel'Y.,'2006.'La/société/française,/pesanteurs/et/mu=

tations/:/le/bilan,'Armand'Colin.'

Lipovetsky'G.2006./Le/bonheur/paradoxal,'Gallimard.'

BETWEEN!INDIVIDUALIZATION!AND!HOMOLOGY:!

YOUNG!ITALIANS!READING!BEHAVIOR!FROM!1983!TO!

2004!

Ferruccio'Biolcati)Rinaldi

1'

1

Department'of'Social'and'Political'Studies,'UNIVERSITY'OF'MILAN,'

Milan,'Italy

'

Abstract:' According' to' some' globalization' and' individualization' theorists' (Pakulski' and' Waters),' changes' that' are' redefining' con) temporary' societies' eventually' replace' production' with' consump) tion'as'the'ordering'principle'of'social'systems.'Lifestyles'and'con) sumption' patterns' would' then' be' independent' from' traditional' factors' such' as' stratification' of' social' classes,' creating' complex' social' positions' and' more' permeable' boundaries.' This' position' is' opposed' to' the' homology' theory' of' Bourdieu,' according' to' which' lifestyles'vary'depending'on'to'different'combinations'of'economic' capital'and'social'capital'that'distinguish'individuals.'

Linked' to' this' debate' are' those' analyses' that' give' an' account' of' recent' changes' in' the' media' diets.' One' example' can' be' found' in' the'theory'of'omnivorism'of'Peterson'and'Kern'that'holds'that'indi) viduals' who' occupy' top' social' positions' do' not' distinguish' them) selves'for'the'choice'of'activities'and'sophisticated'cultural'genres'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' but'for'the'ability'of'mixing'different'consumptions,'from'the'most' popular'to'the'most'exclusive.'

All' these' and' other' theories' address' two' interrelated' issues:' the' first'is'the'change'in'the'ways'people'mix'different'media'and'me) dia'genres;'the'second'is'the'change'in'strength'of'the'relationship' between' the' traditional' stratification' variables' and' media' con) sumption.' The' presentation' deals' with' these' research' questions' focusing' on' Italian' young' people' reading' behavior' (newspapers,' magazines,' comics,' books).' Multivariate' analysis' techniques' are' applied'to'data'from'IARD'survey'on'Italian'youth'that'covers'the' period'from'1983'to'2004.'

BUYING!TO!DRESS,!DRESSING!TO!MEAN!G!

CONSUMPTION!IN!THE!SARTORIAL!FIELD!AS!AN!

INDICATOR!OF!LATE!MODERNITY!AND!

POSTMODERNITY!IN!CULTURE!

Gabriela'Żuchowska

1'

1

Wydział' Filozoficzny,' Instytut' Socjologii,' Jagiellonian' University,'

Kraków,'Poland

'

Abstract:' Contemporary' individuals' are' now' perfectly' aware' that' goods' are,' as' Mary' Douglas' suggests,' …a' system' of' communica) tion.”'They'tap'into'various'narrations'within'the'market,'media'or' popular' culture' incorporated' by' commercial' objects.' One' of' the' hallmarks' of' late' modern' culture' is' a' coercion' of' constant' choice' between'goods,'with'which'social'actors'are'to'compose'a'coher) ent,'stable'image'of'themselves'Contrary,'the'type'of'identity(ies)' that' postmodern' actors' are' encouraged' to' incorporate' or' diag) nosed' to' have' incorporated' is' heterogeneous,' eclectic' and' incon) sistent.'As'opposed'to'modern'“designers”'of'solid,'original'charac) ters,'postmodern'individuals'are'apparently'role)players'that'have' as' many' contradictory' identities' as' there' are' social' encounters' in' which'they'participate.'Theoretical'background'for'these'ideas'was' provided' by' works' of' Giddens' and' Bourdieu' (questions' of' late' modern' identity' and' taste),' Bauman' (on' postmodernity' or' fluid' modernity)' and' followers.' The' paper' will' challenge' Malcolm' Bar) nard's'claim'that'communication'emerging'from'the'use'of'clothes' may'not'be'voluntary'exchange'of'meanings,'but'is'merely'a'prod) uct'of'pre)existing'set'of'values'and'ideas'of'people'involved'in'the' process.' Questioning' results' obtained' by' Thomas' and' Hayko' (that' sartorial' purchases' of' consumers' express' their' modern' but' not' postmodern' values)' another' aim' will' be' to' show,' basing' on' two' tours'of'small)scale'qualitative'observations'(survey'for'50'partici) pants' in' 2008' and' a' few' in)depth' interviews' in' 2011' that' are' to' serve' as' a' pilot' for' large' PhD' project),' that' consumers' in' fact' do' express'attitudes'that'indicate'postmodernity'in'culture.'

FRENCH!TEACHERS'!CULTURAL!PRACTICES!AT!THE!

TEST!OF!TIME!

Géraldine'Farges

1'

1

Observatoire' Sociologique' du' Changement,' SCIENCES' PO,' Paris,'

France

'

Abstract:'In'our'presentation,'we'propose'to'analyse'French'teach) ers’'cultural'consumption'on'a'long)term'period,'as'regards'cinema,' theatre' and' reading' habits.' We' formulate' the' hypothesis' that' teacher’s' cultural' consumption' has' changed' through' time.' High) brow' culture' is' traditionally' associated' with' teachers’' behaviours.'

For' instance,' according' to' Pierre' Bourdieu’s' Distinction:/ a/ social/

119'

critique/ of/ the/ judgement/ of/ taste/ (1979),' cultural' practices' and' tastes'of'French'secondary)education'teachers'display'a'“sense'of' distinction”,' in' compliance' with' the' dominant' class,' even' though' teachers'are'more'“scholastics”'than'“mondains”.'However,'within' a' few' decades,' the' teaching' population' has' experienced' several' changes,'regarding'recruitment'procedures,'the'desirability'of'their' social' position,' or' within' schools’' public,' which' is' more' socially' diverse.'As'a'matter'of'fact,'in'a'recent'publication,'Philippe'Cou) langeon'has'pointed'out'the'cultural'effects'of'the'massification'of' education.' Considering' reading' and' television' habits,' he' observes' that' highest' diplomas' are' no' more' automatically' associated' with' highbrow' culture.' Our' research' program' consists' in' a' comparison' of'data'from'a'survey'realised'in'1970'on'a'sample'of'French'sec) ondary)education'teachers'with'new'data'provided'by'a'survey'we' carried' out' in' 2008' during' our' doctoral' research.' Thanks' to' our' methodological'procedure,'we'provide'demonstration'of'quantita) tive' changes' within' teachers’' cultural' consumption' from' 1970' to'

2008,'giving'evidence'of'generational'effects.'

“NOT!FOR!SOMEONE!LIKE!ME.”!PERCEPTIONS!OF!

FOUR!CULTURAL!ACTIVITIES.!

Astrid'Van'Steen

'1

,'John'Lievens

1'

1

Ghent'University,'Ghent,'Belgium

'

Abstract:' Cultural' sociology' merely' focuses' on' cultural' practices' and'tastes'to'understand'social'and'cultural'stratification.'However,' culture'functions'also'in'a'less'tangible'way.'Culture'is'for'example' an' important' identity' marker' used' for' the' creation' of' symbolic' boundaries;'it'establishes'social'relations'and'as'a'social'phenome) non,' culture' encompasses' a' wide' variety' of' social' meanings' and' connotations.' These' meanings' and' connotations,' attributed' by' individuals,'are'based'on'experiences'and'practical'knowledge'and' strongly' depend' on' someone’s' social' and' cultural' position' (Bour) dieu,'1984).'

In' order' to' study' this' wide' variety' of' connotations,' we' use' data' from' the' ‘Participation' Survey' 2009’,' a' large)scale' population' sur) vey'(N=3144)'in'Flanders'(Belgium).'By'means'of'a'newly'designed' semantic'differential'scale,'we'examine'the'connotations,'or'more' general,'the'perceptions'of'four'cultural'activities.'This'allows'us'to' understand' how' individuals' perceive' and' experience' culture' and' how' they' position' themselves' and' others' in' cultural' settings.' We' define' perceptions' as' the' complex' of' meanings,' connotations,' as) sociations,'prejudices'and'stereotypes.'First,'differences'in'percep) tions'of'non)attendees,'occasional'and'frequent'attendees'are'de) scribed.' According' to' the' theoretical' assumptions,' we' mainly' ex) pect' differences' for' perceptions' concerning' the' relation' between' the'activity'and'the'individual,'not'between'the'activity'and'its'so) cietal'aspects.'Second,'we'assess'what'determinants'are'associated' with'positive'or'negative'perceptions.'Results'will'show'a'puzzling' effect'of'young'age'on'negative'perceptions.'We'end'the'presenta) tion'with'some'theoretical'remarks'and'discuss'the'advantages'and' limits'of'a'quantitative'approach'of'perceptions.'

THE!DISSECTION!OF!THE!AMATEUR.!AN!EMPIRICAL!

ANALYSIS!OF!THE!DETERMINANTS!OF!ACTIVE!

CULTURAL!PARTICIPATION!

Dries'Vanherwegen

'1

,'John'Lievens

1'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

120'

1

CUDOS,'GHENT'UNIVERSITY'DEPARTEMENT'OF'SOCIOLOGY,'Gent,'

Belgium

'

Abstract:' In' contrast' to' the' amount' of' research' dealing' with' the' causes'and'consequences'of'receptive'highbrow'participation'in'the' arts,'little'research'has'focused'on'active'artistic'participation.'Our' aim' is' to' introduce' active' participation' into' cultural' participation' research'by'analyzing'the'mechanisms'that'influence'active'partici) pation'in'the'arts.'Drawing'on'Bourdieu’s'theorem'of'social'repro) duction'and'DiMaggio’s'claims'on'cultural'mobility,'we'focus'on'the' relative'influences'of'parental'milieu'vs.'personal'accumulated'cap) ital' on' active' participation' in' the' arts.' Additionally,' we' query' the' possible'influence'of'art'education.'Results'based'on'stepwise'mul) tinominal'logistic'regression'analyses'on'representative'population' data'for'Flanders'(N=3146)'yield'support'for'both'Bourdieu’s'theo) rem'on'social'reproduction'and'DiMaggio’s'model'of'cultural'mobil) ity.'We'find'a'clear'influence'of'the'cultural'milieu'in'which'one'was' raised' and' a' net' effect' of' individually' accumulated' cultural' and' social'capital.'Surprisingly,'the'influence'of'educational'capital'dis) appeared,' after' controlling' for' parental' cultural' milieu,' personal' capital'accumulation'and'the'influence'of'taking'art'classes'during' high'school.'Socio)economic'status'of'the'family'in'which'one'was' raised' and' personal' economic' capital' prove' to' have' no' negative' impact'on'the'odds'of'engaging'actively'in'the'arts.'Art'education' during'high'school'has'a'positive'effect'on'the'chances'of'actively' engaging'in'the'arts.'Moreover,'we'observe'a'cumulative'impact'of' both'receptive'and'active'arts'instructing'during'high'school.'Inter) action'effects'between'social'class'indicators'and'art'education'are' examined.' Implications' of' these' findings' for' further' research' are' discussed.'

PUBLIC!PRIVATE!PARTNERSHIPS!(PPP)!AND!THE!

DIFFERENT!PRECONDITIONS!FOR!FIGHTING!OBESITY!

IN!EUROPEAN!COUNTRIES!

Anita'Borch

'1

,'Gun'Roos

1'

1

NATIONAL' INSTITUTE' FOR' CONSUMER' RESEARCH' (SIFO),' Oslo,'

Norway

'

Abstract:'According'to'the'report/‘Health/at/a/Glance:/Europe/2010’,' more' than' half' of' the' adult' population' in' EU' is' regarded' as' over) weight' or' obese,' and' the' rate' of' obesity' has' more' than' doubled' over'the'past'20'years.Drawing'on'Esping)Andersen’s'(1990)'theory' of'‘The/Three/World/of/Welfare/Capitalism’'and'some'of'its'criticism,' this' paper' aims' to' explore' the' rates' and' forms' of' Public' Private'

Partnerships'(PPPs)'related'to'weight'issues'in'European'countries,' and' discusses' the' structural' preconditions' for' implementing' PPPs' to'fight'obesity'in'Europe.'The'European'countries'are'clustered'in' four' categories' representing' the' ‘liberal’,' the' ‘corporative) conservative’,'the'‘Mediterranean’,'the'‘social'democratic’'regimes' respectively,'as'well'as'one'category'representing'the'East'Europe) an'Countries'(EEC).'

Questions'are:'What'are'the'rates'and'forms'of'PPPs'fighting'obesi) ty'in'European'countries?'What'social'groups'are'the'PPPs'target) ing?' The' analysis' is' based' on' reports' from' 28' European' countries'

(27' EU' and' Norway)' collected' in' 2010' as' part' of' the' EU)founded' project'‘Obesity'Governance’'headed'by'National'Institute'for'Con) sumer'Research,'Norway.'One'thesis'is'that'PPP'rates'are'highest'in' liberal' regimes' and' lowest' in' EECs.' Another' is' that' private' busi) nesses' are' more' involved' in' PPPs' in' liberal' countries' and' less' in) volved'in'EECs.'A'third'is'that'most'PPPs'target'social'groups'at'risk' for'developing'obesity.'

Abstract'Book'

"YOU'RE!NOT!JUST!BUYING!COFFEE":!THE!PROMISE!&!

CONTRADICTIONS!OF!ETHICAL!CONSUMPTION!

Nicki'Lisa'Cole

1'

1

Sociology,' University' of' California,' Santa' Barbara,' Santa' Barbara,'

CA,'United'States

'

Abstract:' Ethical' capitalism' and' consumption' have' become' main) stream' in' Western' societies.' Today,' marketplaces' abound' with' ethically'branded'and'certified'goods'that'appeal'to'a'host'of'con) sumer'values,'desires,'and'identities.'The'history'of'the'coffee'mar) ket,'and'consumer'awareness'of'the'struggles'faced'by'producers' make' ethically' coded' coffee' particularly' attractive' and' successful.'

In'the'United'States,'its'product'design'communicates'a'message'of' a'happy'farmer'set'amongst'a'lush'landscape'in'rural'communities' that' are' positioned' as' in' need' of' both' economic' and' ecological' preservation.'Drawing'on'research'of'the'coffee'industry'and'with' consumers'of'ethical'coffee'conducted'along'the'west'coast'of'the'

U.S.,' I' present' an' analysis' and' critique' of' these' phenomena.' The' findings,' based' on' a' survey' of' 180' participants' and' 30' in)depth' interviews,'reveal'that'the'narrative'presented'by'the'industry'via' product' packaging,' marketing' materials,' and' baristas' succeeds' in' interpellating'consumers'as'saviors'of'the'world’s'poor.'Consumers' of'ethical'coffee'express'and'articulate'moral'subjectivities'in'rela) tion' to' the' product' and' its' representation' of' producers,' and' thus' affirm' the' concept' of' consumer)driven' social' change.' I' argue' that' despite' critical' consumer' concerns,' the' ideology' and' discourse' of' ethical'capitalism'ultimately'quell'concern'over'labor'and'environ) mental' exploitation,' fuel' mass' consumption,' and' reproduce' the' dominant' system' of' global' capitalism.' Far' from' a' move' toward' social' change,' ethical' consumption' benefits' privileged' consumers' and'further'binds'laborers'around'the'world'to'a'system'that'offers' them'limited'options'for'survival.'

YOUTH,!CONSUMPTION!AND!CITIZENSHIP:!THE!

BRAZILIAN!CASE!

Fatima' Portilho

Dubeux

'2

'

' 1

,' Livia' Barbosa

' 2*

,' John' Wilkinson

' 1

,' Veranise'

1

CPDA' )' Social' Science' Graduate' Program,' RURAL' FEDERAL'

UNIVERSITY'OF'RIO'DE'JANEIRO,'Rio'de'Janeiro/RJ,'

São'Paulo/SP,'Brazil

'

2

CAEPM,'ESPM,'

Abstract:'There'is'evidence'that'points'to'a'possible'politicisation'of' consumption'in'Brazil,'similar'to'what'has'been'occurring'in'other' countries.' In' this' process,' consumption' attitudes,' behaviors,' and' practices'are'perceived'and'used'as'a'way'of'participation'and'polit) ical'action.'Theories'of'pos)materialism'and'hypotheses'of'mistrust' in'relation'to'political'institutions'have'been'used'as'an'explanation' for' this' phenomenon.' However,' little' is' known' about' the' use' of' these'actions'by'young'adults'in'Brazil.'To'explore'this'question'we' developed'a'quantitative'survey'to'analyze'the'perceptions,'inter) ests,' forms' of' engagement,' personal' and' institutional' trust,' and' political'practices,'including'political'consumption,'of'457'brazilian' young'adults.'Respondents'were'aged'16'to'25,'lived'in'the'cities'of'

Rio' de' Janeiro' and' São' Paulo,' and' were' part' of' the' three' highest' economic'classes'in'the'country'–'A,'B,'and'C.'The'results'obtained' show'that,'in'Brazil,'involvement'in'activities'of'political'consump) tion' are' low,' with' little' variation' regarding' social' and' economic' class,'age'and'school'level.'This'can'be'explained'by'the'important' role' of' the' family' in' Brazilian' culture' and' by' the' presence' of' nu) merous,'active'social'organizations'that'seem'to'be'the'main'actors'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' of'social'changes,'making'individual'action'secondary.'Our'data'do' not'confirm'theories'of'post)materialism'or'lack'of'trust'in'political' institutions' as' the' explanation' of' political' consumption' phenome) non.'

CONTESTED!SCHOOL!FOOD:!FROM!CHILDREN'S!NEEDS!

TO!CHILDREN'S!RIGHT!TO!CHOOSE!

Minna'Ruckenstein

1'

1

Social'and'Cultural'Anthropology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'HELSINKI,'Helsin) ki,'Finland

'

Abstract:'Since'the'1940s'Finnish'children'have'been'offered'a'daily' lunch'at'school.'The'aim'of'the'emerging'welfare'state'was'to'cre) ate' public' services' accessible' to' all' citizens.' Many' everyday' tasks' and' responsibilities' were' outsourced' to' the' state,' including' social' and' health)related' activities,' such' as' providing' nurturing' food' to' pupils.' Today' this' state)designed' mechanism' for' maintaining' chil) dren’s' wellbeing' is' constantly' debated' in' the' public' discourse.'

However,'in'most'debates,'the'voice'of'children'and'young'people' is'not'heard;'it'is'the'experts'on'nutrition'and'childhood'who'define' the' needs' and' the' 'best' interests' of' children'.' This' research' ap) proaches'the'school'meal'as'a'prism'through'which'everyday'inter) ests'and'orientations'of'children'and'young'people'(mainly'13)'to'

15)year' olds)' are' expressed' and' manifested.' The' ethnographic' pi) lot)study' took' advantage' of' a' variety' of' methods,' including' data' gathering' by' children.' The' data' demonstrate' how' school' lunch' is' consumed'and'not)consumed,'how'it'relates'to'conflicting'ideas'of' childhood.'The'school'meal'represents'the'adult'order'and'it'is'an' object' of' evaluation' by' children.' For' instance,' youngsters' skip' school'meals,'because'they'have'money'that'gives'them'the'right' to'choose'other'offerings'from'the'food'market.'Thus'conceptions' of'and'practices'around'school'food'open'for'scrutiny'current'ten) sions'and'contradictions'between'adults'and'children'and'bring'to' the'fore'the'cultural'underpinnings'of'publicly'served'food.'

CONVENIENT!MEDIA!FOOD?!NETWORKING!AND!

CONTESTED!FOOD!CONSUMPTION!

Bente'Halkier

1'

1

CBIT,'ROSKILDE'UNIVERSITY,'Roskilde,'Denmark

'

Abstract:'Convenient'media'food?'Networking'and'contested'food' consumption'

Abstract'for'paper'to'be'presented'at'the'RN'on'Sociology'of'con) sumption,'ESA'Conference,'Geneva,'2011'

By'Bente'Halkier,'Roskilde'University,'Denmark'

Convenience'food'is'a'fast)growing'and'differentiating'consumption' style.'At'the'same'time,'convenience'food'is'a'contested'category' in' society' due' to' its' normative' connotations' with' fast' food' and' industrialized'food.'Hence,'public'information'and'behavior'change' campaigns' on' food' quality,' nutrition' and' health' tend' to' question' the' appropriateness' of' convenience' food.' However,' the' existing' empirical' studies' of' food' practices' and' understandings' of' “proper' food”' do' not' take' into' account' that' food' practitioners' are' also' skilled'social'networkers'and'media'practitioners'who'use'differen) tiated' types' of' convenience' food' and' negotiate' a' multiplicity' of' cross)genre' mediated' constructions' of' convenience' food' in' their' social' network' interactions' while' shopping,' cooking' and' eating' in' everyday'life.'Rather,'understandings'and'uses'of'convenience'food'

121' are'seen'as'results'of'life)historical'experiences,'individual'choice) making'or'socio)material'conditions.'

This'paper'forms'part'of'producing'a'theoretical'framework'for'an' empirical'qualitative'investigation'of'how'food'consumers'use'dif) ferent'material'and'mediated'genres'of'convenience'food'for'navi) gating' and' negotiating' normatively' appropriate' food' practicing' in' their'social'networks.'On'the'basis'of'my'previous'research'on'con) tested'food'consumption'types,'I'suggest'to'combine'the'following' theoretical'elements:'A'practice'theoretical'perspective,'interaction' analysis,'positioning'theory'and'qualitative'social'network'analysis.'

In' the' research' field' of' contested' food' consumption,' there' is' a' long)standing' critique' of' the' deficit)approach' to' public' food' com) munication,'and'an'approach'that'includes'socio)practical'complex) ities'and'networking'is'seen'as'a'potential'analytical'improvement.'

Existing'practice'theoretical'approaches'to'consumption'as'well'as' existing' network' communication' approaches' both' fail' to' address' explicitly' conceptually' the' micro)level' of' social' interaction' and' in) terpersonal'communication.'The'purpose'of'the'paper'is'to'unfold'a' first'attempt'to'make'this'theoretical'combination,'and'to'discuss'it' in'relation'to'the'planned'empirical'study,'“Easy'eating?'Negotiat) ing'convenience'food'in'media'food'practices”.'

EXPLORING!WEIGHT!MANAGEMENT!FROM!A!

PRACTICE!THEORETICAL!POINT!OF!VIEW!

Mari'Niva

'1

,'Mikko'Jauho

'1

,'Johanna'Mäkelä

1'

1

National'Consumer'Research'Centre,'Helsinki,'Finland

'

Abstract:' Our' paper' has' the' dual' objective' of' i)' examining' the' methodological'challenges'of'analysing'weight'management'from'a' practice' theoretical' perspective,' and' ii)' presenting' empirical' find) ings' of' practices' of' weight' management.' The' paper' draws' on' the' recent' line' of' practice' theory' developed' for' empirical' analyses' in' sociology' of' consumption' particularly' by' Bente' Halkier' and' Alan'

Warde.' In' this' version' of' practice' theory,' understandings,' proce) dures'and'engagements'are'conceptualised'as'the'constitutive'ele) ments'of'a'practice.'

The'paper'is'based'on'an'analysis'of'eight'focus'group'discussions'in' which'68'people'(47'women,'21'men,'average'age'55)'participated' in' Helsinki' in' autumn' 2009.' In' six' groups,' the' participants' were' trying' to' lose' weight' at' the' time' of' the' recruitment' and' in' two' groups'they'were'not.'

In'the'paper,'we'first'discuss'our'methodological'solutions'relating' to'the'challenges'of'analytically'distinguishing'the'three'constituent' elements'of'a'practice'in'the'data.'We'present'our'categorisation' scheme'developed'based'on'a'detailed'analysis'of'a'verbatim'tran) script'of'one'focus'group'discussion'and'discuss'the'difficulties'that' we' faced' in' the' analysis.' Second,' we' focus' on' our' findings' on' weight' management' from' the' perspective' of' the' three' elements.'

Our' preliminary' analysis' suggests' that' the' understandings,' proce) dures'and'engagements'of'weight'management'include'a'variety'of' ideals,'activities'and'negotiations'relating'to'why'and'how'to'con) trol'weight.'Third,'we'discuss'the'nature'of'weight'management'as' either'an'integrative,'complex'practice'with'its'own'dynamics'and' socially' recognisable' features,' or' a' dispersed' practice' forming' a' part'of'other'practices,'such'as'eating'and/or'exercise.'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

122'

SCHOOL!MEALS!AND!BIOPEDAGOGIES:!A!CRITICAL!

EXAMINATION!OF!THEIR!EFFECTS!ON!CHILDREN’S!

FOOD!PRACTICES!

Monica'Truninger

3

,'Mara'Miele

'4

'1

,'Ana'Horta

,'José'Teixeira

1'

'1

,'Silvia'Alexandre

'2

,'Vanda'Aparecida

'

1

Institute' of' Social' Sciences,' University' of' Lisbon,'

Lisbon,'

3

CRIA,'ISCTE)IUL,'Lisboa,'Portugal,' ty,'Cardiff,'United'Kingdom

'

2

SOCIUS,' ISEG,'

4

CPLAN,'Cardiff'Universi)

Abstract:'Nowadays'socio)political'discourse'is'mobilized'to'fight'a'

‘war'on'obesity’'in'schools'(Leahy,'2010).'The'way'this'war'is'fought' makes' use' of' devices,' or' biopedagogies' (Wright' and' Harwood,'

2009),' such' as' initiatives' to' improve' eating' practices' amongst' school' children' (changing' menus' contents,' food' education,' BMI' monitoring,'and'more).'In'this'paper'we'talk'about'a'myriad'of'ini) tiatives' and' programmes' that' have' been' recently' put' forward' by' the'Portuguese'health'and'education'governing'bodies,'private'and' voluntary' sectors' in' order' to' encourage' school' meal' changes' and' healthier' children’s' eating' practices.' By' adopting' an' a)humanist' perspective'(Lee,'2008),'inspired'by'a'material'semiotic'sensibility,' we'focus'on'a'critical'examination'of'the'various'effects'that'these' biopedagogies' (assembled' through' a' hybrid' assortment' of' human' and' non' human' elements)' may' have' on' children’s' consumption' seen'as'a'moment'in'most'practices'(Warde,'2005),'on'food'taste' acquisition,' on' children's' social' networks,' and,' ultimately,' on' be) coming' ‘person’' (Allport,' 1955).' Some' of' the' questions' that' guide' this'examination'are:'Are'children'becoming'consumers'or'citizens?'

Do' children' participate' and' have' a' voice' in' assembling' school' meals?' How' do' these' initiatives' affect' parents)children' relation) ships,'namely'regarding'food'control,'choice'and'care?'The'empiri) cal'material'is'based'on'a'thematic'documental'analysis'of'healthier' school'meals'initiatives'in'Portugal'and'on'the'findings'of'a'British' project' on' children' and' parents’' focus' groups' on' school' meals' in' the'UK'and'Italy.It'is'concluded'that'the'British'and'the'Italian'cases' illustrate'children'becoming'consumers'and'citizens'respectively.'In'

Portugal,'the'implementation'of'some'of'these'biopedagogies'may' contribute'to'lessening'what'should'be'a'broader'understanding'of' food'consumption'in'everyday'life,'and'also'to'promoting'a'view'of' children'and'their'families'as'mere'vessels'of'information.'That'is,' voiceless' non)participants' in' the' process' of' constructing' healthier' and'happier'school'food'cultures.'

PERSONAL!NORMS!AS!PREDICTORS!OF!SUSTAINABLE!

CONSUMPTION:!EXTENSION!OF!THE!TPB!

FRAMEWORK!

Jan'Urban

'1

,'Iva'Zverinova

'1

,'Milan'Scasny

1'

1

Environment'Center,'CHARLES'UNIVERSITY,'Praha'6,'Czech'Repub) lic

'

Abstract:'The'main'purpose'of'this'study'is'to'examine'the'role'of' personals'norms'and'environmentally)related'beliefs'in'motivating' organic' food' consumption.' The' study' uses' data' from' a' survey' of' general' population' (N=600)' and' of' the' subpopulation' of' organic' food'consumers'(N=600)'in'the'Czech'Republic'in'2010.'Theory'of' planned'behavior'(Ajzen'1991),'previously'used'is'several'empirical' studies'of'organic'food'consumption'(Kaufmann,'Stagl,'and'Franks'

2009;'Arvola'et'al.'2008),'is'used'as'a'theoretical'framework.'Fur) ther,'we'seek'to'extend'the'framework'of'the'TPB'by'including'per) sonal'norms'related'to'organic'food'consumption.'Personal'norms' have' been' found' in' previous' meta)analytical' studies' to' be' an' im)

Abstract'Book' portant' predictor' of' proenvironmental' behavior,' explaining' as' much'as'52%'of'variation'in'proenvironmental'behavior'(Bamberg' and' Möser' 2007)' and' several' have' attempted' to' include' personal' norms'in'TPB'framework'(see'e.g.'Bamberg'and'Schmidt'2003,'Wall,'

Devine)Wright'and'Mill'2007).'

Based'on'the'literature'review,'we'propose'and'empirically'test'5' models,' using' latent' variable' structural' equation' modeling' with' categorical'data'(due'to'Muthén'1983).'M1'is'a'standard'TPB'mod) el.'M2'is'M1'extended'with'personal'norms'(PN)'and'with'all'effects' of'PN'on'TPB'variables'being'constrained'to'zero.'M3'is'similar'M2' except'that'we'relax'the'zero'constraint'on'the'effect'of'PN'on'atti) tudes.'M4'is,'again,'similar'to'M2,'except'that'we'allow'PN'to'influ) ence'behavioral'intention.'Finally,'in'M5'we'modify'M2'by'relaxing' the'constraint'on'the'effect'of'PN'on'reported'behavior,'i.e.'organic' food'consumption.'

Our' results' suggest' that' conventional' TPB' model' (M1)' performs' decently'well'in'explanation'of'organic'food'consumption.'Interest) ingly,' self)related' beliefs' and' altruistic' beliefs' seem' to' play' much' more'prominent'role'as'indirect'factors'of'organic'food'consump) tion'than'environmentally)related'beliefs.'Further,'personal'norms' seem' to' have' no' direct' effect' on' organic' food' consumption' but' rather,'their'effect'seems'to'be'mediated'by'attitudes.'

SUSTAINABLE!CONSUMPTION:!THE!DILEMMAS!OF!THE!

RELATIONSHIP!BETWEEN!INDIVIDUAL!CHOICE!AND!

THE!SOCIAL,!CULTURAL,!AND!POLITICAL!CONTEXT!

Isabel'Maria'Fernandes'Silva'Cruz

1'

1

Institute'of'Sociology,'UNIVERSITY'OF'PORTO,'Matosinhos,'Portu) gal

'

Abstract:' The' theoretical' and' methodological' approach' that' we' propose'in'order'to'understand'sustainable'consumption'practices' requires:' i)' the' analysis' of' the' relationship' between' consumer' choice'and'welfare,'ii)'the'analysis'of'constrains'resulting'from'gov) ernment' policies' and' actions,' undertaken' by' various' associations' on'the'internalization'of'environmentalists’'dispositions.'The'analy) sis' will' take' place' at' both' the' individual' psychological' and' social' level'as'well'as'at'the'environment'level.'Thus,'the'analysis'focuses' on'the'concepts'of'habitus,'reflexivity,'secondary'socialization,'and' consumer' welfare,' which' we' consider' central' in' order' to' under) stand'these'practices.'

As'Illich'(1977),'Bauman'(2008)'and'Kasser'(2002)'we'also'sustain' that' in' modern' society' the' demand' for' welfare' is' a' difficult' task,' with'damaging'repercussions'in'terms'of'environmental,'social'and' psychological' individual' well)being.' In' this' sense' it' is' considered' that:' i)' the' effects' of' eco)industry' are' insufficient' to' achieve' sus) tainable'development,'ii)'the'need'to'meet'consumer'issues,'such' as'consumption'level'and'pattern,'consumer'expectations'and'be) haviors,' the' nature' of' consumers' decision)making' processes' and' the' importance' of' changing' attitudes,' behaviors' and' expectations' in'favor'of'clean'products,'reducing'environmental'impact,'and'iii)' the'constraints'of'social'and'cultural'context'in'the'definition'and' constraint'of'individual'choice.'Finally,'we'stress'the'importance'of' policy' intervention' in' promoting' moral' and' social' behavior' (Daw) kins,'2001).'

The' empirical' analysis' aims' to' characterize' the' relationship' be) tween'the'government,'the'market'and'society'in'the'definition'of' public'policies'concerning'sustainable'consumption'in'Portugal.'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

WHICH!CONCEPTION!OF!SUSTAINABILITY!FOR!

SUSTAINABLE!PUBLIC!PROCUREMENT?!

Ronan'Le'Velly

1'

1

UMR'Innovation,'MONTPELLIER'SUPAGRO,'Montpellier,'France

'

Abstract:'Sustainable'consumption'does'not'only'concern'individual' consumers.'In'many'countries,'notably'in'France,'“sustainable'pro) curement”' of' local' and' central' governments' is' also' recognized' as' an'important'political'task.'But,'to'which'development'model'does' sustainable'public'procurement'refer?'

To' explore' the' conception' of' sustainability' that' is' associated' to' sustainable'public'procurement,'the'author'has'observed'the'con) tent' of' some' ninety' “normative' documents”' drafted' by' various'

French' entities' (local' governments,' NGOs,' government' agencies,' etc.)'and'international'organizations'(European'Commission,'OECD,' etc.).'These'“normative'documents”'consist'of'regulations,'guides,' manuals,' reports' on' experiences,' and' so' on,' and' have' all' in' com) mon'to'present'the'good'practices'that'should'be'followed'in'the' name'of'sustainable'public'procurement.'

The' author' shows' that' these' documents' envision' a' more' or' less' wide' range' of' good' practices' that' is' related' to' different' concep) tions' of' sustainability.' Three' types' of' justification' for' sustainable' procurement' are' distinguished:' “doubly' winning' purchasing”,'

“overall' winning' purchasing”,' and' “morally' responsible' purchas) ing”.'What'is'at'stake'is'very'concrete.'For'example,'if'the'first'ar) gument' predominates,' notably' because' of' budgetary' tensions,' sustainable' procurement' concentrates' on' energy' efficiency' and' forsakes' fair' trade' goods' or' the' products' of' organic' agriculture.'

Then,'the'identification'of'these'three'justifications'also'strives'to' avoid'having'current'thinking'about'sustainable'public'procurement' refer'only'to'the'first'(or'first'two)'of'them.'

WHAT!CAN!THE!LITERATURES!ON!WELFARE!REGIMES!

AND!VARIETIES!OF!CAPITALISM!TELL!US!ABOUT!THE!

ROOM!FOR!CONSUMER!SELFGREGULATION!AS!A!

STRATEGY!FOR!SUSTAINABLE!CONSUMPTION!IN!

NORWAY!AND!THE!UK?!

Sjur'Kasa

1'

1

CICERO,'UNIVERSITY'OF'OSLO,'OSLO,'Norway

'

Abstract:' Among' current' efforts' to' spur' sustainable' consumption,' there' is' a' bias' towards' various' branding' and' labelling' efforts' that' aim' to' regulate' the' environmental' consequences' of' consumption' through' individual' choice.' I' perceive' this' turn' towards' individual' self)regulation' as' a' regulatory' tool' to' make' consumption' more' sustainable'as'intrinsically'linked'to'the'rise'of'the'regulatory'state.'

In' contrast' to' classical' liberalism,' neo)liberal' forms' of' regulation' put' a' stronger' emphasis' on' markets,' but' do' not' simply' denote' state' withdrawal' and' ”laissez)faire”.' Rather,' the' regulatory' state' differs' from' former' goal)oriented' and' interventiontist' state' forms' by' seeking' to' establish' new' procedural' routines' aiming' to' assist' markets' in' functioning' better' and' thereby' presumably' produce' superior'outcomes.'Modern'self)regulation'takes'place'under'close' state' monitoring' and' with' the' deliberate' use' of' incentives,' infor) mation'measures'and'various'kinds'of'hands)on/hands)off'network' facilitation,'as'we'can'see'many'examples'of'in'the'field'of'sustain) able'consumption.'There/is'a'large'literature'on'the'legitimacy'and' efficiency' of' self)regulation' as' a' tool' for' encouraging/ sustainable'

123' consumption' but' little' research' on' the' factors' that' shape' policies' aimed' at' encouraing' sustainable' consumption.' Such' regulatory' policies' are' strongly' path)dependent,' attributing' different' respon) sibilities'to'state'bureaucracies,'interest'groups,'firms'and'individu) als.'So'far,'consumption'practices'and'regulations'have'had'a'mar) ginal'position'in'broader'typologies'of'welfare'regimes'and'varieties' of' capitalism.' In' this' paper,' I' discuss' to' what' extent' differences' between' the' shape' and' ambitousness' of' government' policies' in' encouraging' sustainable' consumption' through' individual' self) regulation'in'two'different'national'settings'–'Norway'and'the'UK'–' can'be'said'to'be'structured'by'varying'relationships'between'state' and'individual'in'the'two'countries'roughly'similar'to'the'idealtypes' suggested' in' the' literature' on' welfare' regimes' (social)democratic' vs.' liberal)' and' the' production)oriented' literature' on' varieties' of' capitalism'(liberal'vs.'coordinated'market'economies).'

CULTIVATING!OPPORTUNITY!IN!THE!SOIL!OF!CRISIS:!

NEOLIBERALISM,!CONSUMPTION,!AND!THE!LOCAL!

FOOD!MOVEMENT!

Stefanie'Torlai'Stauffer

1'

1

Sociology/Global' Studies,' UNIVERSITY' OF' CALIFORNIA' AT' SANTA'

BARBARA,'Santa'Barbara,'CA,'United'States

'

Abstract:' This' project' is' an' ethnographic' study' of' the' local' food' movement' in' Michigan' and' California' conducted' through' urban' agriculture' experiments' and' participant' observation' of' farmer's' markets,' urban' farming' non)profits,' farmer's' cooperatives,' com) munity'gardens,'school'gardens,'restaurants,'and'local'food'distri) bution' networks.' Building' on' the' work' of' critical' globalization' scholars,' urban' and' environmental' sociologists,' social' movement' theorists,' and' the' Frankfurt' School,' this' project' investigates' how' neoliberalism' has' altered' food' consumption' patterns' and' how' people'have'responded'to'those'changes.'A'main'premise'here'is' that'the'adoption'of'neoliberal'practices'has'encouraged'states'to' deregulate,'privatize,'and'thus'commodify'social'services'once'pro) vided'for'free'(or'at'relatively'low'cost),'creating'a'situation'where' people'without'monetary'means'to'access'these'services'have'gone' into'debt'or'gone'without.'Couple'this'reduction'in'public'services' with' rising' unemployment' rates' and' soaring' fuel' and' food' costs,' and'the'result'is'a'growing'number'of'people'who'are'subsequently' unable' to' consume' healthy,' affordable' food' or' provide' for' other' basic'needs.'This'project'investigates'how'the'local'food'movement' has' subsequently' responded' to' this' crisis' of' access' by' relocalizing' the'economy'and'adopting'more'sustainable'consumption'practices' in'the'face'of'the'economic'inequality,'resource'scarcity,'and'social' fragmentation' exacerbated' by' neoliberal' hyper)production.' We' shall' see' explicitly' that' although' neoliberalism' has' encouraged' many' people' to' consume' the' same' cheap,' mass)produced,' low) quality'goods'available'at'large'retail'chains'across'the'globe,'it'has' encouraged'others'to'do'quite'the'opposite.'

EATING!BOBO!IN!PARIS.!SOCIALLY!TAGGED!LIFESTYLE!

AND!CONSUMPTION!AS!AN!IDENTITY!

Sabine'Bognon

1'

1

ENPC'LATTS,'Paris,'France

'

Abstract:'Created'by'David'Brookes,'the'bobo'phenomenon'(bour) geois'bohemian)'holds'a'slightly'different'meaning'in'France'than'it' does'in'the'United'States.'Thanks'to'the'well)established'bourgeois'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

124' condition,'Bohemian'lifestyle'is'both'the'origin'and'a'consequence' of'the'gentrification'of'French'(and'some'European)'cities.'

If'"there'is'no'tongue'like'one'from'Paris"'(as'mentionned'by'Fran) cois' Villon,' French' poet' of' the' 15th' century),' how' not' to' link' the' emergence'of'this'social'group,'which'claims'to'be'French/vanguard' of'urban'trends,'with'its'eating'habits?'

Ways'and'lifestyles'associated'with'the'bobo'phenomenon'are'both' valued' and' denigrated:' the' analysis' of' bobo's' ways' of' eating,' be) tween' marginality' and' conformism,' denotes' a' highly' interesting' fact'as'it'represents'a'real'social'practice.'

First,' this' article' proposes' to' analyze' the' contemporary' parisian' bobo' eating' habits' through' a' quick' study' of' food' supply' in' the' eastern'Paris.'

Then,'with'a'short'series'of'semi)structured'interviews,'we'demon) strate'the'existence'of'a'specific'identity'expressed'by'a'real'bobo' way'of'eating.'Thus,'we'will'release'common'features'targeted'by' commercial'offer'and'even'urban'settings.'Finally,'by'using'a'food' prism,' we' suggest' a' new' way' of' understanding' the' sociological' meaning'of'the'bobo'model.'

THERE!ARE!NO!BONDS!WITHOUT!HIERARCHY!G!

CONTEMPORARY!CHINA!EATING!AND!DRINKING!

INTERACTION!RITUALS!ANALYZE!

Jaroslaw'Jerzy'Jura

1'

1

LAZARSKI'UNIVERSITY,'Warsaw,'Poland

'

Abstract:'The'paper'draws'on'the'findings'of'a'study'of'eating'and' drinking' behaviour' in' contemporary' Beijing.' The' research' has' a' qualitative'background'and'focuses'on'conventional'actions'during' the'meal,'and'on'the'study'of'verbal'and'non)verbal'interaction.'It' took'place'in'several'dozens'(mainly'gastronomic)'locales'in'Beijing' between'1999'and'2004'and'involved'both'observational'materials' and'data'derived'from'interviews.'Some'comparative'data'has'been' gathered'in'villages'nearby'Beijing'as'well.'

The'whole'work'has'been'conducted'under'the'influence'of'Anselm'

Strauss' grounded' theory' therefore' it' would' be' said' that' research' generally'has'been'aimed'at'creation'of'sets'of'interrelated'theoret=

ical/categories,'together'with'description'of'their'conditional/matrix' and'tracing'conditional/path'between'them.'

The'main'idea'of'the'whole'project'was'to'analyse'eating'and'drink) ing' interaction' patterns' in' the' context' of' their' role' in' creation,' maintenance' and' change' of' social' bonds' and' hierarchy.' One' of' findings'of'research'is'an'observation'that'social'bonds'and'social' hierarchy' are' inextricably' linked.' Author's' aim' is' to' defend' and' explain'this'thesis'with'support'of'gathered'empirical'material'and' with'reference'to'some'concepts'which'can'be'find'in'both'Chinese' and'Western'ritualistic'studies'just'to'mention:'li/(ritual)/=/yue'(joy')' music)' apparent' contradiction' (according' to' Yang' Xiangkui's' ana) lyse),' Goffman's' work' on' "interaction' rituals",' Eibl)Eibelsfeldt's' work'on'aggression,'love'and'rites,'etc.'

RECIPIENT!TYPES!AND!DEFINING!OF!THE!

PARTICIPATION!SITUATION!IN!ARTISTIC!CULTURE.!AN!

ANALYSIS!MODEL!OF!THE!PARTICIPATION!PATTERNS.!

Przemyslaw'Kisiel

'1,'2*

'

Abstract'Book'

1

Department' of' Sociology,' CRACOW' UNIVERSITY' OF' ECONOMICS,'

2

Department' of' Sociology' of' Family,' The' Pontifical' University' of'

John'Pope'II'in'Cracow,'Cracow,'Poland

'

Abstract:'The'question'of'patterns'of'participation'in'artistic'culture' has'been'often'regarded,'but'it'was'usually'considered'in'conjunc) tion' with' the' factors,' which' form' the' general' context' for' cultural' activity.'An'attention'is'then'given'on'the'effect'of'such'factors'as' for'instance:'position'in'social'structure,'cultural'and'social'capital,' social'and'economic'status'or'demographic'variables'(gender,'age,' education'or'education'of'the'spouse).'Undoubtedly,'these'factors' play'a'very'important'role,'as'is'evidenced'by'numerous'empirical' studies.'However,'we'must'to'remember'that'cultural'participation' is'a'social'process'and'every'act'of'participation'is'a'social'action,' and'how'any'such'action'is'subject'to'the'contextual'and'situational' determinants'as'well.'Therefore,'it'is'also'important,'to'look'closer' at'the'situational'factors,'directly'linked'to'the'acts'of'participation.'

Among'them,'one'of'the'most'important'is'the'mode'of'defining'of' the'participation'situation'by'the'recipient'culture.'

In'this'paper'a'theoretical'model'of'the'participation'in'artistic'cul) ture'will'be'presented.'The'model'is'focused'on'efforts'undertaken' by'recipients'of'culture'to'define'the'situation'of'participation'as'a' factor'which'determines'the'participation'process.'To'the'definition' of' the' participation' situation' two' aspects' has' been' distinguished:' the'aspect'of'the'definition'of'a'work'of'culture,'and'the'aspect'of' the'definition'of'its'meaning,'and'then'on'their'basis'a'typology'of' recipients'–'participants'in'the'cultural'activities'has'been'created.'

The' empirical' data' proves' that' suggested' theoretical' typologies' help'capture'highly'significant'differences'in'the'frequency'of'inci) dence' and' also' in' characterisations' of' participatory' behaviour' ex) hibited'by'each'of'the'recipient'types.'Therefore'emphasizing'situa) tional'factors'have'a'real'impact'on'the'process'of'the'participation' in'culture'and'that'they'should'be'regarded'in'the'study'of'the'cul) tural'participation.'

FROM!MYTHS!OF!TRANSCENDENCE!TO!MYTHS!OF!

SUBLIMATION.!MYTHS!IN!LATE!MODERNITY!

Swen'Seebach

'1

,'Isaac'Gonzàlez)Balletbo

'1

,'Natàlia'CANTÓ)MILÀ

1'

1

ARTS' &' HUMANITIES,' UNIVERSITAT' OBERTA' DE' CATALUNYA'

(UOC),'Barcelona,'Spain

'

Abstract:/ It' is' a' constant' in' the' literature' that' human' beings' are' beings'in'need'of'myths,'myths'understood'as'narratives'that'be) stow'human'life'and'experience'with'a'meaning,'ordering'and'regu) lating'their'everyday'life'practices'in'relation'to'this'‘higher’'dimen) sion'of'meaning'that'is'reminded'and'restored'by'the'myth.'

However'myths'have'not'always'worked'the'same'way;'they'have' not'had'the'same'structure,'or'told'the'same'kind'of'narration'in' order'to'work,'and'accomplish'their'more'constant'function.'

In' this' paper' we' will' seek' to' depict' the' transformations' (in' struc) ture'and'consequences)'that'myths'have'undergone'in'modernity;' thus'arguing'at'the'end'of'our'presentation'that,'at'the'moment,'in' late'(or'second)'modernity'we'are'facing'a'new'form'of'myth'which' is' disguised' as' contingent' and' is' exercised' through' an' act' of' con) sumption.' Myths' that' seem' to' be' ‘ad)hoc’,' myths' that' seem' to' break' that' which' myths' are' supposed' to' be,' and' exult' the' most' individual,'his'(normally'his)'authenticity,'the'fluctuating'moment,' but'which,'dressed'up'as'anti)myths,'continue'to'exercise'their'very' old'function,'and'this'is'a'rather'effective'way.'We'will'use'exam)

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' ples'from'the'movies'and'advertisements'in'order'to'illustrate'our' theses.'

ILLEGAL!DRUGG!AND!ALCOHOL!USE!IN!THE!NIGHT!

TIME!ECONOMY!–!AN!EDGEWORK!OF!

OVERCONSUMPTION!

Jakob'Demant

1'

1

Centre' for' Alcohol' and' Drug' Research,' AARHUS' UNIVERSITY,' Co) pehagen'S,'Denmark

'

Abstract:'A' paradox' appears' in' young' adults’' intoxication' on' drug' and' alcohol' in' the' Danish' night' time' economy.' On' the' one' hand' they'strive'for'getting'very'intoxicated,'mostly'with'alcohol,'and'on' the'other'hand'in'keeping'control,'with'drugs'like'cocaine'and'am) phetamine.'Stephen'Lyng’s'concept'of'edgework'grasp'the'paradox' of'control'vs.'loss'of'control'in'the'way'he'describes'the'identities' gained' from' the' skillfulness' of' keeping' control' in' a' self' produced' chaos'(risk).'But'can'the'theory'of'edgework'be'used'to'grasp'drug' use'in'a'controlled'mainstream'consumption'site'of'the'night'club' where'the'behavior'when'intoxicated'on'drugs'is'far'more'restrict) ed'that'in'the'sub)cultural'clubs'or'in'street'drug'scene?'The'paper' argues' that' edgework' can' be' a' fruitful' concept' in' understanding' this' phenomenon' of' overconsumption' if' we' address' the' social' space' that' constitutes' the' setting' for' the' edgework.' The' edge' for' the'young'mainstream'clubbers'is'exactly'produced'in'a'context'of' the'regulated'consumption'site'where'a'high'level'of'intoxication'is' expected.'The'edge'is'as'such'both'social'and'bodily'defined.'Within' this' space' mastering' of' over)consumption' integrates' one' into' an' accepted'consumption'based'youth'society'and'as'such'produce'an' acceptable' identity.' This' reflection' of' drug' and' alcohol' consump) tion' may' be' relevant' also' in' order' to' understand' other' forms' of' overconsumption'–'gambling,'shopaholics'and'compulsive)eating'–' that'is'likewise'placed'on'the'borderline'of'pathologic'consumption' within'spaces'where'high'consumption'is'expected.'

SHOPPING!WITH(OUT)!CHILDREN:!FAMILY!AND!

CONSUMPTION!IN!THE!SUPERMARKET!ARENA!

Rosalina'Pisco'Costa

1'

1

Department'of'Sociology/School'of'Social'Sciences,'UNIVERSITY'OF'

ÉVORA,'Évora,'Portugal

'

Abstract:' Sociological' perspective' on' shopping' time' is' usually' un) dertaken'from'a'gender'point'of'view.'In'this'presentation'we'pros) ecute'a'different'look.'Focusing'specifically'on'shopping'time'with'

(or'without)'children,'we'conceptualize'it'as'a'“family'ritual”'(Wolin' e' Bennett,' 1984;' Imber)Black' &' Roberts,' 1992;' Gillis,' 1996;' Pleck,'

2000).'Family'rituals'are'powerful'tools'to'catch'inner'dynamics'of' both'family'practices'and'representations,'namely'the'ones'related' with'the'central'place'of'children'in'contemporary'families.'Some) times' invisible' in' consumption' practices,' children' indeed' play' a' major'role'in'decision)making'process'of'their'parents.'But'children' are' also' actors' in' context' and' the' supermarket' can' be' the' arena' where' family' presents' itself.' For' the' ones,' to' go' with' or' without' children'is'a'question'of'option;'for'the'others,'there'is'no'option'at' all.' In' this' case,' family' faces' other' families' whose' behavior' is' ac) cepted'or'refused,'but'always'judged.'

In' this' poster' we' specifically' address' shopping' time' involving' par) ents'and'children'in'urban'supermarkets.'Methodological'anchored' upon' empirical' data' from' qualitative' in)depth' interviews' carried'

125' out'to'parents'with'children'within'the'age'of'3)14'years'old,'this' poster'purpose'is'to'present'final'data'and'concluding'remarks'on' both' practices' and' social' representations' surrounding' contempo) rary'families’'shopping'times'and'contexts.'Through'an'empiric'and' theoretical'analysis'of'collected'data'we'hope'to'critically'highlight' the'sociological'knowledge'on'relations'between'family,'consump) tion' time' and' children.' Sociology' of' the' family' and' childhood' in) sights'brought'into'discussion'can'enhance'a'both'original'and'fruit) ful'contribution'to'sociology'of'consumption'debates.'

THE!ROLE!OF!THE!CONSUMER!IN!NATIONAL!MEDIA!

DEBATES!ON!ENVIRONMENTAL!SUSTAINABILITY.!A!

COMPARISON!OF!NORWAY!AND!FRANCE!

Siv'Elin'Ånestad'

1

,'Sophie'Dubuisson)Quellier'

2

,'Unni'Kjærnes1'

1

SIFO' (NATIONAL' INSTITUTE' FOR' CONSUMER' RESEARCH),' Oslo,'

Norway,'

France

'

2

Center'for'the'Sociology'of'Organizations'(CNRS),'PARIS,'

Abstract:' Sustainable' consumption' is' receiving' increasing' political' and'academic'attention'in'policies'for'environmental'sustainability.'

There'is'a'general'call'for'measures'aimed'at'promoting'consumers`' voluntary' engagement' in' sustainable' development,' e.g.' through' product'labelling'schemes.'However,'how'the'notion'of'consumer' responsibilities' is' constructed' depends' on' the' political' system,' market' conditions' and' people`s' everyday' practices.' To' better' un) derstand' the' role' of' consumers' in' relation' to' sustainability' in' dif) ferent'national'contexts,'we'conduct'a'comparative'analysis'of'the' media'discourse'in'Norway'and'France.'In'Norway'the'current'focus' on'consumer'involvement'has'developed'from'a'tradition'of'steer) ing' consumption' through' direct' regulatory' intervention,' whereas'

France' would' be' characterized' by' a' more' recent' tradition' of' sus) tainable'consumption'policies.'Our'discussion'is'based'on'a'content' analysis' of' relevant' articles' published' in' the' five' most' important' newspapers'in'the'countries'over'a'ten'year'period.'We'emphasise' five' main' issues' 1)' how' the' issue' of' sustainable' consumption' is' defined'as'a'public'issue,'2)'the'main'actors'involved'in'the'debates' and'conflict'alignments,'3)'images'and'roles'of'consumers'present) ed,' 4)' the' main' consumption' areas' highlighted' and' discussed' as' problematic' (textiles,' chemicals,' meat,' energy,' housing,' water,' waste,'mobility'etc.)'and'5)'how'consumers'are'presented'in'social' mobilization'and'as'agents'of'change.'Our'study'allows'us'to'assess' the'way'these'different'national'framings'of'consumers`'responsi) bilities' arise' from' the' interlocking' between' public' policies,' provi) sioning'systems'for'various'products,'and'national'issues'emerging' as' key' subjects' for' a' transition' towards' sustainability.' The' paper' describes' what' is' presented' as' unresolved' issues' for' making' con) sumption'more'sustainable,'and'how'these'are'to'be'addressed'–' through'direct'public'regulation'of'pricing'and'legislation,'product' labelling,' education,' local/communitarian' initiatives,' or' so)called'

“partnerships”'between'public,'commercial'and'other'social'actors.'

Keywords:' Sustainable' consumption,' media' debate,' consumer' re) sponsibility,'regulation'

FOOD!POLICY!AND!HEALTH:!ANALISYS!OF!CHANGE!IN!

DIETARY!RECOMMENDATIONS!IN!SPAIN!

Cecilia'Díaz)Méndez

'1

,'Cristobal'Gómez)Benito

'2

'

1

Departamento' de' Sociologia,' UNIVERSITY' OF' OVIEDO,' Oviedo,'

2

Departamento'de'Sociologia,'UNED,'Madrid,'Spain

'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

126'

Abstract:'In'this'paper'our'aim'is'to'analyse'the'way'the'relation) ship'between'health'and'food'has'been'changing'at'the'same'time' as'Spanish'society'itself.'From'the'beginnings'of'the'consumer'soci) ety' until' the' present' day' the' modernization' process' has' made' its' imprint'on'the'guidelines'public'bodies'have'issued'to'the'public'on' caring'for'their'health'and'diet.'Beginning'in'the'sixties'with'a'wel) fare'idea'of'a'healthy'diet,'very'typical'of'the'decade,'and'meant' for' a' population' with' nutritional' problems,' today' we' have' guide) lines'for'an'overfed'population.'The'social'trends'dominant'in'each' historical' moment' are' shown' throughout' this' transformation' pro) cess'and'the'dietary'recommendations'have'been'part'of'the'social' change.' However,' the' perceptions' of' the' administration' itself' on' what'constitutes'a'healthy'diet'have'also'made'their'mark'on'the' criteria.'The'modernizing'nature'of'the'paternalistic'administration' of'the'sixties'can'be'easily'seen'in'contrast'with'the'public'bodies'of' the'eighties'competing'with'the'messages'from'the'food'and'agri) cultural' businesses.' As' the' 20th' century' drew' to' a' close,' dietary' advice'was'in'keeping'with'a'background'dominated'by'considera) tions'on'the'nature'of'social'change'and'in'which'both'public'bod) ies'and'citizens'trusted'in'the'truths'of'science'as'a'reference'point' for' correct' action.' At' the' beginning' of' the' 21st' century' reflexivity' and'questioning'of'scientific'power'appear'and'also'an'increase'in' public'preoccupation'with'food'risks.'Each'stage'is'analysed'relating' historical'background'and'dietary'recommendations.'

MEDIA,!FOOD!&!MORAL.!THE!TRINITY!OF!GOOD!

COOKING!

Sascha'Qvortrup

1'

1

Meal' Science' &' Public' Health' Nutrition' )' MENU,' AALBORG'

UNIVERSITY,'ballerup,'Denmark

'

Abstract:/Media,'food'and'moral.'

This' paper' tend' to' investigate' “good' cooking”' as' a' enactment' of' negotiated' moral' practice.' Methodologically' I' have' combined' tex) tual'discourse'analysis'(Aakerstrøm,'1999;'Foucault,'1984)'of'Dan) ish'food'magazines'published'in'the'period'2000'till'2010'with'par) ticipant' observations' in' 10' families' (Hammersley' and' Atkinson,'

1995)' The' participant' observation' was'experimental/ and/ interven=

ing/ fieldwork/ (Marcus/ &/ Fischer/ 1999)/ through/ the/ use/ of/ cultural/ probes/(photos,/foodstuff/ingredients,/objects/etc;/Gaver,/Dunne/&/

Pacenti/1999).'I'have'observed'“good'cooking”'as'an'enactment'of' practical'morality'in'relation'to'the'level'of'magazines'in'relation'to' the'level'of'users.'Through'the'analysis,'I'investigated'to'what'ex) tend' the' magazines’' showed' knowledge' dissemination' articulate' values'and'norms'and'to'what'extend'the'users'negotiate'and'ac) cept' or' reject' these' values' and' norms.' I' have' focused' on' two' as) pects:'1:'How'is'“good'cooking”'articulated'over'the'period'2000'to'

2010,' and' how' can' the' discursive' strategies' be' localized.' 2.' How' does'the'discursive'strategies'of'magazines'create'different'gener) alized'dispositifs'and'how'do'they'relate'to'the'”good'cooking”'in' the'families.'It'seems'as'the'norms'are'articulated'in'a'modern'ver) sion' of' the' antic' trinity' of' :' the' good,' the' truth/ and' the' beauti=

ful/pretty/ (Platon,' 1975)' transformed' into' :' the' good,' the' healthy' and' the' beautiful/pretty.' The' trinity' is' reflected' in' the' concept' of' negotiated'narratives'of'“good'cooking”'by'the'food'responsible'in' the'family'articulated'in'shopping,'cooking'and'interaction'between' family'members,'food'responsibles'and'articulation'from'the'insti) tutions.'The'good'cooking'as'a'negotiated'moral'practice'is'created' as'a'narrative'the'family'live'by.'

Abstract'Book'

Aakerstrøm' Andersen,' N.' 1999:' Diskursive/ analysestrategier.' Kø) benhavn:'Nyt'fra'Samfundsvidenskaberne'

Foucault,'M.'1984:'‘Nietzsche,'Genealogy'and'History’.'In:'Rabinow,'

P.'(ed.):'The/Foucault/reader.'New'York:'Pantheon.'

Gaver,'B.,'Dunne'T.'&'Pacenti'E.,'1999:'‘Cultural'Probes’'in'Interac=

tions,'Volume'6,'Issue'1,'p.'21)29.'

Hammersley,' M.' &' Atkinson,' P.' 1995:' Ethnography./ Principles/ in/

Practice.'London:'Routledge.'

Marcus,' G.E.' &' Fischer,' M.M.' 1999:' Anthropology/ as/ cultural/ cri=

tique:/ an/ experimental/ moment/ in/ the/ human/ sciences.' Chicago:'

University'of'Chicago'Press.'

Platon'1975:'Staten,'København:'Hans'Reitzels'Forlag.'

STUDYING!THE!"EATING!OUT":!DEFINITIONS,!

RECORDS!AND!RESULTS!

Adrián'Rey'Díaz

'1

,'CECILIA'DIAZ)MENDEZ

1'

1

OVIEDO,'OVIEDO,'Spain

'

Abstract:'Food'consumption'out'of'home'has'increased'significantly' in'the'industrialized'countries'in'recent'decades.'The'study'of'this' food' behaviour' has' been' discussed' widely' in' the' Anglo)Saxon' world,'with'less'intensity'in'countries'like'China'or'Japan'and'it'is' very'little'treatment'in'scientific'Spanish'literature.'

Much'of'the'existing'scientific'analysis'seems'to'agree'on'the'exist) ence' of' two' problems' that' hinder' the' analysis:' on' one' hand,' the' difficulties' of' definition' and,' on' the' other,' deficiencies' of' meas) urement.'

The' difficulties' of' definition' are' given' by' the' lack' of' clarity' about' what'is'understood'as'consumption'out'of'home.'The'alternatives' to'"eating'out")understood'as'opposed'to'household'consumption)' differ'according'to'place'of'consumption'(home'of'friends'or'family,' cafes,'parks,'company),'the'development'of'the'product'(fast'food,' restaurant,'home),'the'consumer'mobility'(take)away,'street'food)' or'the'purpose'of'this'consumption'(leisure,'work).'

The'data'sources'are'very'diverse'in'the'register'of'data'that'pre) vents'a'precise'analysis.'In'addition,'there'is'heterogeneity'in'offi) cial'sources'of'different'countries'that'hinder'comparative'analysis.'

The' increase' in' consumption' outside' the' home' appears' to' be' a' constant'linked'to'the'modernization'of'society'and'it'is'affected'by' the'economic'crisis.'All'invited'to'a'study'in'depth'about'what'it'is,' how' is' recorded' and' how' varies' the' food' consumption' out' of' home.'

A!SUBURBIAN!HOUSE!AS!A!GENDERED!PATTERN!OF!

VALUE!CONSUMPTION.!THE!CASE!OF!PIERĪGA!

Gunta'Darbina

'1

,'Agita'Luse

'2

'

1

Department'of'Social'Work,'

2

Department'of'Communication'Stud) ies,'RIGA'STRADINS'UNIVERSITY,'Riga,'Latvia

'

Abstract:'Before'the'global'economic'crisis,'Latvian'families'strove' for' own' house.' During' the' previous' decade' the' expansion' of' the'

Riga'suburb'Pieriga/was'facilitated'by'easily'accessible'mortgages.'A' life'in'the'suburb'became'a'way'of'consuming'values.'The'middle) class' in' particular,' strove' to' confirm' its' “elective' belonging”' (Sav=

age,'2005).'Belonging'to'a'place'is'related'to'self)esteem'and'rais)

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' ing' and' educating' the' children.' The' orientation' to' these' values' is' markedly'shaped'by'gender.'

For'example,'a'consumption)oriented'economics'affected'women’s' identities'in'Britain'in'the'1920s)1950s'when'development'of'sub) urbs' gave' rise' to' a' concept' of' the' ideal' house' with' its' consumer/

housewife/(Gile,'2007).'

Within'the'framework'of'her'doctoral'research,'1 st

'author'took'part' in'a'study'on'the'Pieriga'inhabitants’'attitude'to'their'place'of'resi) dence' (SKDS,' 2009).' The' survey' showed' that' satisfaction' with' dif) ferent'aspects'of'life'there'was'quite'low.'That'can'be'explained'by' the' specific' pattern' of' the' suburban' development,' strongly' influ) enced'by'an'intensive'land'market'and'resulting'in'scattered'hous) ing'schemes'with'no'common'planning,'nor'infrastructure.'

We' conclude' that' the' new' suburban' zone' failed' to' provide' the' middle'class'of'Pieriga/with'an'“elective'belonging”.'The'high'ratio' of' divorced' families' and' low' average' income' mean' that' women' have'to'balance'their'identity'of'consumer/housewives/with'efforts' to'preserve'their'homes.'

DEINDUSTRIALIZATION!AS!MATERIAL!CULTURE:!FROM!

ABANDONED!OBJECTS!TO!CONSUMPTION!

Liviu'Chelcea

1'

1

Sociology,'University'of'Bucharest,'Bucharest,'Romania

'

Abstract:'As'other'cities'in'many'parts'of'the'world,'Bucharest'un) derwent'substantial'deindustrialization'during'the'last'two'decades.'

This' has' produced' a' large' number' of' abandoned' and' unclaimed' objects.'Some'are'moveable,'while'other'are'immoveable.'Evacuat) ed'as'an'economic'practice'from'the'urban'core,'these'ex)industrial' objects'gained'new'material'and'symbolic'value.'Underclass'fami) lies,'heritage'protection'groups,'artists,'‘urban'explorers’'and'urban'

flanneurs'use'these'objects'in'a'variety'of'ways.'I'will'describe'how' these' groups' transform' these' objects' into' items' of' consumption,' either'as'material'or'immaterial'commodities'(pictures,'scrap'met) al,' art' installations' or' blogs),' heritage' objects' or' new' aesthetic' forms.'The'research,'carried'out'between'2008'and'2010,'is'based' on' observation' of' several' abandoned' industrial' sites' and' partici) pant'observation'among'people'who'visit'and'extract'objects'and' meaning'from'such'sites.'I'engage'with'literature'on'deindustriali) zation'as'material'culture'(Mah,'Alice,'2010,'Memory,/Uncertainty/

and/Industrial/Ruination,'Int.'Jour.'of'Urban'and'Regional'Research,'

34.2:398)413;'Edensor,'Tom,'2010,'Industrial/Ruins/Spaces,/Aesthet=

ics/and/Materiality,'Oxford:'Berg),'the'social'life'of'objects'(Appadu) rai,' Arjun' ed.,' 1986,' The/ Social/ Life/ of/ Things,' Cambridge:' Cam) bridge'UP),'voluntary'risk)taking'(Deborah'Lupton'and'John'Tulloch,'

2002,'Life/would/be/pretty/dull/without/risk,'Health,'Risk'and'Socie) ty,' 4.2:113)124),' sensory' overstimulation' and' tourism' (Simmel,'

Georg,'1906,'The/Metropolis/and/Mental/Life;'Urry,'John,'2002,'The/

Tourist/Gaze,'London:'Sage).'The'research'emphasizes'the'potential' of'abandoned,'residual'objects'to'become'objects'of'consumption.'

TASTE!THE!DIFFERENCE:!SLOW!FOODS!AND!THE!

SOCIALITY!OF!THE!SENSES!

Dana'Bentia

1'

1

Sociology'Department,'LANCASTER'UNIVERSITY,'Lancaster,'United'

Kingdom

'

127'

Abstract:'Taste'has'acquired'an'almost'infamous'status'as'a'marker' of' distinction,' as' a' determinant' of' hierarchical' forms' of' inclusion' and'exclusion,'and'as'a'relatively'stable'reflection'of'identities.'In' this' way,' taste' came' to' occupy' an' uneasy' and' tense' position' in' respect' to' current' social,' political' and' environmental' challenges' posed'to'food'production'and'consumption.'

More'recently,'social'scientists'came'to'devote'a'new'focus'to'the' relationship' between' food' and' taste' in' ways' which' question' the' solidity'of'the'concept'of'taste'and'thus'to'highlight'new'facets'and' understandings' of' what' it' means' to' consume' and' be' a' consumer'

(i.e.'Warde'et'al.'2007'on'the'cultural'omnivore;'Soper'2007'on'the' alternative' hedonist;' Mol' 2009' on' the' normativity' of' good' taste).'

Along' such' developments,' social' movements' and' groups' such' as' the' international' Slow' Food' Movement' provide' ongoing' forms' of' interrogating'the'notion'of'the'eater'in'its'various'roles'as'consum) er,'producer,'citizen,'and'human'inhabitant'of'this'planet.'

Based'on'ethnographic'research'on'the'practices'of'the'Slow'Food'

Movement' pursued' in' Britain,' the' paper' explores' distinctive' as) pects'of'the'nature'of'relationship'between'food'and'taste'by'fo) cusing' on' the' embodied' and' situated' aspects' of' tasting,' dining,' buying'and'crafting'certain'foods'and'dishes.'It'contributes'to'un) folding'debates'(mentioned'above)'in'showing'how'such'slow'food' practices'reveal'taste'as'a'process'of'training'and'formation'of'skills' and'knowledge'and'as'deeply'entangled'with'various'forms'of'soci) ality.' Thus,' relational' and' multi)sensuous' dimensions' of' taste' not' only' undermine' beliefs' regarding' the' difficulty' of' changing' tastes' but' also' uncover' taste' as' a' practice' generative' of' creativity' and' difference.'

VISUAL!SACRIFICES!G!THE!APPEARANCE!OF!THE!BODY,!

DESIRE!AND!FEMININITY!IN!HOLLYWOOD’S!LOVE!

STORIES!

Ana'Rodríguez)Granell

'1

,'SWEN'SEEBACH

'1

,'NATÀLIA'CANTÓ)MILÀ

1'

1

ARTS' &' HUMANITIES,' UNIVERSITAT' OBERTA' DE' CATALUNYA'

(UOC),'BARCELONA,'Spain

'

Abstract:'Since'the'beginning'of'the'last'century'society'has'under) gone' significant' changes.' This' paper' is' based' on' the' assumption' that'these'changes'are'anchored'in'the'social'developments'of'late' modernity,'the'change'from'capitalist'society'based'on'production' to' capitalist' society' based' on' mass' consumption.' In' this' process' towards' a' society' of' mass' consumption,' society' not' just' turned' towards'consumption'as'a'means'to'satisfy'needs'and'desires'but' we'and'our'interactions'with'others'have'changed'into'objects'of' consumption.'One'important'element'shaping'and'channelling'this' transformational' process' has' been' the' cinema.' In' watching' and' identifying'with'images'on'the'screen'and'by'relating'the'projected' images' back' to' ourselves' we' have' slowly' learned' to' perform' the' illusionary' images,' to' speak' using' the' forms' and' shapes' and' phrases' of' visual' cineastic' language' and' to' see' and' perceive' our) selves'and'the'others'like'they'would'be'mediated'by'a'screen.'This' paper' attempts' to' explore' the' hypothesis' that' the' most' crucial' changes'taking'place'in'late'modernity'shaped'by'mass'media'(es) pecially'the'cinema)'have'been'related'to'the'changed'perception' of' our' materiality' (our' human' body)' and' touches' especially' those' spheres' of' social' life' in' which' the' body' plays' a' crucial' role.' Fur) thermore,'the'imaginary'play'on'the'screen'takes'especially'those' dimensions'into'account'that'had'been'foremost'closely'related'to' the'body,'namely'desires'and'emotions.'The'presentation'of'emo)

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

128' tions,' desires' and' the' body' are' therefore' crucial' in' analysing' the' disciplinary'regulative'character'of'movies.'

The' objective' of' this' paper' is' to' examine' the' ways' in' which' the' imageries' of' the' body,' desires' and' emotions' in' movies' have' con) tributed' to' social' developments' in' late' modernity.' This' paper' will' present'a'discursive'text'and'film'analysis'of'5'movies:'Revolution=

ary/Road,'Existenz,'Black/Heaven,/The/Pianist'and'The/Matrix.'

EMBEDED!CONSUMERISM:!TOBACCO,!MOTORBIKE,!

AND!PC!

I)Liang'Wahn

1'

1 sociology,' UNIVERSITY' OF' ESSEX,' Colchester,' Essex,' United' King) dom

'

Abstract:'Rapid'economic'growth'in'East'Asia'brought'specific'con) sumer' revolution' that' is' seldom' examined' in' existing' sociology' of' consumption.' Instead' of' assuming' universal' and' converging' con) sumerism,'this'research'set'out'to'explore'how'development'shape'

East'Asian'consumers.'

By'comparing'consumption'patterns'between'Taiwan'and'the'Unit) ed'Kingdom,'this'research'attempts'to'characterize'the'difference' between'emerging'and'traditional'consumer'society.'And'by'focus) ing' on' three' commodities' featuring' different' historical' stage:' To) bacco,' motorbike,' and' personal' computer,' this' research' examine' developmental' influence' on' consumer' practices.Twenty' semi) structured' interviews' are' carried' out' with' consumers' from' each' society' after' online' forum' observations.' Discourse' analysis' is' ap) plied' on' narratives' thus' collected,' focusing' on' how' consumption' practices'are'learned'and'imitated'from'others.'

This' comparison' discovered' common' ways' consumers' construct' practices'through'institutional'structures'and'attribute'meanings'to' commodities'through'social'networks'in'both'societies.'Yet'memo) ries' of' socio)economic' transformation' played' a' stronger' role' in'

Taiwan'as'consumers'drew'on'history'to'understand'and'recreate' specific' practice.' Personal' history' intersects' economic' history,' transforming'consumption'as'generations'replace'one'other.'Rapid' transformation' thus' facilitated' the' condition' for' the' formation' of' multiple'consumer'cultures.'

HERO!OR!HELPER?!FINNISH!SOCIAL!WORKERS’!

ACTANTIAL!POSITION!IN!ALCOHOLISM!TREATMENT!

Michael'Dieter'Egerer

1'

1

Department'of'Social'Research,'UNIVERSITY'OF'HELSINKI,'Universi) ty'of'Helsinki,'Finland

'

Abstract:'In'Finland'alcoholism'is'considered'traditionally'as'a'social' problem'and'handled'accordingly.'Recent'studies'suggest'a'conver) gence'of'drinking'culture,'alcohol'policies'and'treatment'approach) es'in'the'Western'countries:'Secondary'prevention,'and'a'consider) ation'of'alcohol'consumption'as'an'individual'lifestyle'issue'replac) es' population' based' measures' aimed' at' reducing' total' consump) tion.'

The'purpose'of'this'study'is'to'show'how'social'workers,'not'work) ing' in' institutions' specialized' on' addiction' treatment,' perceive' al) coholism' and' alcohol' problems' and' in' which' position' they' see' themselves'in'its'treatment'in'the'context'of'changing'alcohol'poli) cy'and'treatment'approaches.'

Abstract'Book'

Eight' focus' group' interviews' were' conducted' with' Finnish' social' workers.'Film'clips'serve'as'discussion'stimulus.'The'short'vignettes' show'incidences'of'alcohol'problems'taken'from'fiction'movies.'The' three'clips'follow'thematically'loss'of'control,'harm'of'loved'ones,' and'cue)dependency.'The'transcribed'interviews'were'analysed'by' coding' them' on' biological,' psychological' and' social' contextualisa) tion'of'alcoholism.'By'using'a'Greimasian'actantial'model'onto'this' first' organisation' of' the' interview' narrative' it' is' shown' where' the' social'workers'place'themselves'in'the'treatment'process.'

Social'workers'consider'alcoholism'as'a'social'problem'and'focus'on' the'alcoholic’s'close)ones.'They'consider'themselves'as'the'subject' of'the'fight'against'these'symptoms'of'alcoholism.'Their'sender'is' the' Welfare' State' and' the' receiver' of' their' work' the' alcoholic’s' family'and'society'in'general.'Their'opponents'are'the'social'prob) lems'connected'to'alcoholism,'but'not'alcoholism'itself.'In'alcohol) ism'treatment'they'are'only'helpers.'The'“hero”'of'curing'alcohol) ism'instead'is'specialized'drug'service'and'therapy'there,'in'which' normal' social' workers' are' not' involved.' Therefore,' social' workers' still'follow'the'Finnish'non)medical'approach'and'leave'treatment' of'alcoholism'itself'to'specialized'institutions.'

MORAL!BOUNDARIES!AND!BELONGING:!ATHEISTS!

AND!HOMOSEXUALS!

Murat'Ergin

1'

1

Sociology,'KOC'UNIVERSITY,'Istanbul,'Turkey

'

Abstract:' This' presentation' examines' the' nature' and' limits' of' the' acceptance'of'atheists'and'homosexuals'in'Turkey.'Moral'bounda) ries' delineate' symbolic' distinctions' that' are' based' on' both' inclu) sions'and'exclusion.'Despite'the'relatively'lower'and'declining'lev) els' of' prejudice' against' ethnic' and' religious' minorities' as' well' as' foreigners' in' surveys,' moral' boundaries' drawn' concerning' non) believers' and' homosexuals' remain' strong.' The' data' come' from' a' recent' nationally' representative' survey' collected' in' the' project' entitled' “The' Construction' of' Cultural' Boundaries:' Relations' be) tween' Cultural,' Socio)Economic' and' Moral' Status' Symbols' in' Tur) key”'(2011,'N=1893).'Results'show'that'the'distrust'of'homosexuals' is'significantly'higher'when'compared'with'atheists,'although'both' groups'are'among'the'least'likely'to'be'accepted.'The'existing'liter) ature'on'the'way'in'which'race,'ethnicity,'gender,'social'class,'and' education'are'implicated'in'drawing'social'and'cultural'boundaries' against' the' perceived' “others”' in' different' societies' is' rich.' Alt) hough'the'limits'of'acceptance'toward'both'homosexuals'and'athe) ists' are' driven' by' a' number' of' demographic' predictors' that' are' related' to' education,' social' location,' gender,' and' class,' this' study' also'demonstrates'that'the'hesitance'to'accept'these'groups'is'as' much' rooted' in' symbolic' boundaries' as' it' is' in' cultural' and' con) sumption' patterns.' The' presentation' offers' a' theoretical' view' to' understand' moral' membership' and' exclusion' in' contemporary'

Turkish'society.'

PATHWAYS!AND!SPEEDWAYS!TO!GAMBLING!

ADDICTION!

Pekka'Sulkunen

'1,'1

,'Maija'Majamäki

'1

,'Virve'Pöysti

1'

1 social'research,'UNIVERSITY'OF'HELSINKI,'Helsinki,'Finland

'

Abstract:'Gambling'may'lead'to'addiction.'Several'factors,'including' personality,' availability' of' games,' types' of' stimuli' offered' by' the' game'and'the'social'environment,'have'been'shown'to'be'potential'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' risk' factors.' No' coherent' theory,' however,' currently' explains' how' these'factors'are'related'to'each'other'and'what'forms'of'gambling' and'gambling'behaviour'are'more'prone'to'generate'dependency.'

This' paper' presents' elements' for' such' a' theory' derived' from' the'

IMAGES'approach.'Social'behaviour'is'governed'by'holistic'images' that'structure'our'understanding'of'diverse'material'and'immateri) al' elements.' These' images' make' the' world' significant' and' under) standable'to'us'and'influence'both'the'way'we'perceive'the'world' and'how'we'act'in'it.'It'is'likely'that'the'structure'of'those'images'is' related' to' the' addictive' potential' of' gambling' behaviour.' Using' qualitative' group' interviews' among' active' players' in' Finland' and'

France' as' phenomenological' evidence,' we' hypothesise' that' some' images'of'gambling'are'more'prone'to'lead'to'addiction'than'oth) ers.'We'argue'that'the'insight'and'experience'of'active'gamblers'on' the'images'of'gambling'behaviour'and'potential'risk'factors'leading' to' gambling' addiction' can' be' utilised' to' construct' a' theory' of' po) tential'pathways'and'speedways'to'addiction.'

HYBRID!CONSUMPTION!PRACTICE!A!QUALITATIVE!

ANALYSIS!OF!CONSUMPTION!STYLES!OF!CHILDREN!OF!

IMMIGRANTS!BORN!AND!BRED!IN!ITALY!

Luisa'Leonini

'1

,'Lorenzo'Domaneschi

1'

1 dept.'of'Social'and'Political'Studies,'UNIVERSITY'OF'MILAN,'Milan,'

Italy

'

Abstract:! The' paper' presents' the' main' results' fromtwo' empirical' researches'in'the'urban'area'of'Milan'focused'on'the'teenage'chil) dren'of'immigrants'consumption'styles'and'their'dealing'with'ma) terial'culture.'It'claims'that'sociological'approaches'to'consumption' and'material'culture'in'the'case'of'everyday'life'of'the'children'of' immigrantsreveal' themselves' as' essential' in' both' an' investigation' of'ethnic'identifications'and'a'critical'review'of'actual'consumption' studies.'Consumption'styles'in'Western'country'have,'in'fact,'usual) ly' be' considered' as' a' typical' reference' of' the' white,' bourgeois,' mainstream' culture' (Brewer,' Trentmann' 2006).' Hence' the' con) struction' of' cultural' difference' has' been' developed' also' through' the'claim'of'different'consumption'styles'and'the'rising'of'so)called' ethnic'youth'subcultures.'However'our'research'on'consumption'of' the' children' of' immigrants' shows' that' the' Italian' culture' as' “the' majority'group”,'especially'in'the'area'of'consumption'styles,'is'not' an'established'and'shared'dominant'model'for'these'young'people.'

At'the'end'of'such'a'double'qualitative'analysis'focusing'on'repre) sentations' of' taste' by' a' sample' of' youngsters' from' different' na) tional' origins,' born' or' bred' in' Italy,' new' potential' profiles' of' con) sumers' emerge' as' well.' The' meaning' itself' of' being' a' consumer' appears'in'those'cases'rather'less'as'a'linear'process'of'constantly' approaching'to'a'given'standard'of'national'values,'than'it'is'a'prac) tical'process'of'“learning'by'doing”,'as'much'conflicting'as'creative' in'its'social'effects.Finally,'young'children'of'immigrants'consump) tion'practices'seem'to'be'sociologically'explained'by'empirical'en) counters' between' situated' commodities' and' embodied' agents.' In' this'vein,'the'purpose'is'here'to'pay'attention'on'the'very'ambiva) lent'role'played'by'material'culture'in'structuring'the'relationship' between'consumption'and'identification.'

”NECESSARY”!CONSUMPTION!AND!CONSUMPTION!

NORMS!IN!FINNISH!CONSUMER!CULTURE!

Terhi)Anna'Wilska

'1

,'Riikka'Aro

1'

129'

1

Dept.' of' Social' Sciences' and' Philosophy,' UNIVERSITY' OF'

JYVÄSKYLÄ,'Jyväskylä,'Finland

'

Abstract:'Problems'related'to'consumers’'“real”'needs'and'”neces) sary”'consumption'have'been'under'heavy'debate'both'in'research' and'media'recently.'The'discussion'is'connected'to'larger'issues'of' economic'growth'and'de)growth,'well)being'of'individuals'and'eco) logical'and'ethical'values.'In'this'study,'we'focus'on'the'connection' between' economic' well)being' and' perceived' necessity' of' certain' durable' goods' and' leisure' time' services.' We' also' aim' to' find' out' connections' between' the' perceived' necessities' and' consumers’' attitudes'in'1999,'2004'and'2009.'Our'research'data'is'derived'from'

“Finland'1999)2009”'–lifestyle'surveys.'

In'poverty'research,'in'particular,'consuming'less'and'thereby'not' leading'an'acceptable,'conventional'and'“normal”'lifestyle,'is'usual) ly' regarded' as' a' sign' of' poverty' and' deprivation' in' consumerist' societies.'This'is'the'case'regardless'of'the'fact'that'voluntary'sim) plicity'and'de)growth'are'topics'that'have'been'widely'discussed'for' decades.' However,'the'perceived'”normal”'consumption'level'has' kept'growing'and'simplistic'lifestyles'have'remained'marginal.'De) viations' from' consumption' norms' are' typically' seen' as' abnormal' behaviour.'This'is'why'we'should'focus'on'the'ways'the'connection' between' consumption' and' well)being' in' society' are' talked' about,' as' well' as' how' consumerist' lifestyles' are' being' supported' and' strengthened.'

Previous' studies' have' revealed' that' people’s' perceptions' of' suffi) cient' and' reasonable' consumption' standards' in' relation' to' their' own'economic'situation'are'not'necessarily'related'to'their'actual' income.' Also' experiences' of' reasonability' and' necessities' are' de) pendent'on'people’s'social'background,'age'and'life'course'stage,' values,'attitudes'and'expectations.'

According'to'our'research'results,'almost'all'goods'under'examina) tion'were'regarded'as'necessities'more'often'in'2009'than'in'previ) ous'years'under'examination.'The'changes'were'particularly'nota) ble'in'items'related'to'new'technology.'There'was'not'much'change' in' leisure' time' services,' such' as' travelling' or' culture.' We' also' no) ticed' connections' between' high' subjective' economic' well)being,' high'income'and'perceiving'expensive'goods,'such'as'cars'or'com) puters'as'necessities.'However,'consumerist'attitudes'still'seemed' to'have'decreased'between'1999'and'2009.'

THE!PECULIAR!FEATURES!OF!CONSUMER!BEHAVIOR!IN!

CONTEMPORARY!RUSSIA!

Nikolaj'Narbut

1'

1

Sociology' Chair,' PEOPLES'' FRIENDSHIP' UNIVERSITY' OF' RUSSIA,'

Moscow,'Russian'Federation

'

Abstract:'Transformations'in'Russian'society'have'given'rise'to'the' peculiar' consumer' patterns' which' can' be' described' as' inherently' contradictory.'On'the'one'hand,'the'consumption'patterns'in'con) temporary' Russia' are' set' by' the' Western' model' typical' of' all' the'

“consumer'societies”'which'can'be'described'by'the'proliferation'of' status'consumption'imposed'by'advertising'and'emerging'as'a'cor) nerstone'of'the'socioeconomic'structure'characterized'by'increased' prevalence'of'service'sector'and'marketing'systems'involving'con) sumer'behaviour'patterns'which'are'of'benefit'to'them.'However,' unlike' Western' system' which' has' taken' shape' as' a' result' of' “the' general'welfare'society”,'where'the'problem'of'access'to'basic'con) sumer'goods'is'not'posed'any'more,'the'Russian'one,'on'the'first' hand,' emerged' at' the' time' of' commodity' deficiency' so' that' the'

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130' contemporary'generation,'which'can'afford'most'goods'at'present,' still' remembers' the' time' of' queues' and' is' by' no' means' always' ready' to' develop' rational' choice' patterns' amid' the' contemporary' abundance' of' goods.' On' the' second' hand,' the' context' of' Russian' system'development'does'not'still'involve'the'access'of'the'majori) ty'of'the'population'to'many'commodities'due'to'their'insufficient' income.'

The' first' of' the' above)mentioned' factors' gives' rise' to' the' unre) stricted' consumption,' thoughtless' buying' of' luxury' goods' and' gadgets'by'the'elite'encouraging'the'“middle'class”'to'outrageous' expenditures' to' achieve' the' delusive' feeling' of' belonging' to' the' elite'(sometimes'even'at'the'expense'of'basic'needs'satisfaction).'

As'far'as'the'second'factor'is'concerned,'it'can'entail'not'merely'the' rise'of'consumer'inequality'but'also'social'tension'escalation'affect) ing'in'a'specific'manner'the'consumer'patterns'of'low'classes'who' are'eager'to'“domesticate”'the'images'of'advertising'by'means'of' surrogate'and'counterfeit'consumption'and'other'imitations'of'the' elite'status.'

The' thesis' is' also' confirmed' by' empirical' studies' results' which' show,' for' instance,' that' in' spite' of' lower' living' standards' Russian' females' spend' more' on' their' clothes' than' the' French' ones' (with' due'consideration'of'the'“climatic”'parameters).'

The' application' of' the' concept' of' reflexivity' coined' by' Giddens' seems' to' be' of' heuristic' value' here' to' develop' an' explanatory' model'of'consumer'behavior'in'contemporary'Russia.'

APATHY,!ANGER!AND!AGENCY:!CONSUMER!

RESPONSES!TO!GLOBALIZATION!

Stefanie'Torlai'Stauffer

'1

,'Nicki'Lisa'Cole

'2

'

1

Sociology/Global' Studies,'

2

Sociology,' UNIVERSITY' OF' CALIFORNIA'

AT'SANTA'BARBARA,'Santa'Barbara,'CA,'United'States

'

Abstract:'A'wave'of'discontent'is'spreading'today'across'the'world' in'response'to'the'economic,'political'and'social'externalities'of'the' widespread'adoption'of'neoliberal'policy'and'practice.'As'neoliberal' globalization' has' encouraged' the' automation' and' outsourcing' of' production,'the'downsizing'of'government'function,'and'increasing' rates' of' environmental' degradation,' cultural' homogenization,' and' social'fragmentation,'the'responses'to'this'global'system'have'been' diverse.' Some' responses' have' been' nationalist,' fundamentalist,' regionalist,'or'simply'reactionary,'while'others'have'been'driven'by' a'desire'to'consume'ethically,'or'to'consume'less'altogether.'Here' we' examine' the' ethical' consumption' of' coffee' and' the' local' food' movement' in' order' to' better' understand' what' values' and' experi) ences' encourage' people' to' support' such' projects' for' sustainable' social'and'economic'change.'Through'analysis'of'these'distinct'cas) es'we'highlight'the'striking'similarities'and'key'differences'among' participants'' values,' experiences,' identities,' and' practices' (as' well' as'their'complexities).'Similarities'include'an'ability'to'trace'prob) lems' to' the' dominant' system' of' production' and' consumption,' a' concern' for' environmental' and' economic' sustainability,' and' a' de) sire'to'enact'change'favoring'small,'independent'producers,'while' differences'include'political'sensibilities,'economic'motivation,'and' levels' of' community' support.' Overall,' we' argue' that' class,' race,' demography,' individual' experience' and' community' history' shape' divergent'responses'to'globalization'and'we'conclude'by'offering'a' spectrum'of'consumer'behavior'that'aims'to'more'readily'identify' values' and' practices' associated' with' sustainable' social' change'

(while'noting'which'factors'would'challenge'and'stall'that'change).'

Abstract'Book'

ENERGY!CONSUMPTION!AND!THE!CONSUMERS’!

POINT!OF!VIEW!

Nina'Heidenstrøm

'1

,'Pål'Strandbakken

1'

1

NATIONAL' INSTITUTE' FOR' CONSUMER' RESEARCH' (SIFO),' Oslo,'

Norway

'

Abstract:'Contrary'to'public'beliefs'and'media'focus,'consumption' will'not'necessarily'always'increase.'During'the'last'20'years,'elec) tricity' consumption' in' Norwegian' households' has' stabilised' and' even' decreased.' This' unexpected' development' has' so' far' not' caused' any' headlines;' neither' in' the' scientific' nor' in' the' political' discourse.' Bot' seem' to' cling' to' a' focus' on' fiasco' rather' than' on' success.' But' in' a' time' of' potentially' very' serious' climate' change,' the'occurrence'of'a'decrease'in'domestic'energy'use'in'a'rich'na) tion'like'Norway'is'both'politically'relevant'and'academically'chal) lenging,' most' notably' since' it' has' occurred' during' a' period' of' strong'economic'growth.'

The' paper' will' focus' on' some' of' the' measures' consumers' (or' households)'do'or'wish'they'could'do,'such'as'improving'the'insula) tion,' installing' heat' pumps,' recycling' or' lowering' the' indoor' tem) perature.'By'using'new'results'from'a'national'consumer'survey,'we' are'able'to'investigate'whether'there'are'interesting'discrepancies' between' the' measures' consumers' think' of' as' effective,' and' measures'they'think'of'as'easy/to/implement.'Further,'we'will'con) sider' questions' of' consumers’' expectations' of' how' fast' an' invest) ment'in'energy'saving'measures'should'pay'off.'Survey'results'indi) cate'that'93'per'cent'expect'their'investments'to'pay'off'financially' within' 5' years.' This' means' that' some' of' the' more' advanced,' and' hence'expensive,'heat'pumps'are'probably'not'competitive'in'the' market' place,' without' governmental' price' subsidies.' It' also' indi) cates'that'consumers'as'house'owners'do'not'see'energy'motivated' investments'as'contributing'to'real'estate'value,'but'are'focussing' solely'on'direct'energy'use.'

These' survey' findings' and' questions/themes' will' be' introduced' in' focus' group' interviews' with' consumers' from' different' household' types.'Here,'we'will'try'to'emphasise'some'of'the'challenges'con) sumers' might' meet' when' trying' to' reduce' their' energy' consump) tion;' investment' of' time' and' money,' gathering' information' or' changing'their'habits.'

“UNTIL!IT!BREAKS!OR!I!LOSE!IT,!I’M!NOT!GOING!TO!

CHANGE!IT.”!G!EXPLORING!TEENAGE!CONSUMPTION!

THROUGH!THE!LENS!OF!DIVESTMENT!

Rebecca'Collins

1'

1

Geography,' UNIVERSITY' COLLEGE' LONDON,' London,' United' King) dom

'

Abstract:'Young'people'are'widely'recognised'as'some'of'the'most' committed'consumers.'At'the'same'time,'they'can'be'vocal'citizens,' agents'of'potentially'significant'social'change'and,'frequently,'ready' and'willing'to'act'in'line'with'their'principles.'As'such,'they'inhabit'a' powerful' position' at' the' nexus' of' consumption' and' sustainability.'

Yet' research' with' this' group,' particularly' older' adolescents,' has' remained' sparse' and' has' often' failed' to' connect' with' wider' con) sumption'subthemes.'The'research'presented'in'this'paper'aims'to' address'this'gap'and'reports'on'the'empirical'findings'of'work'with'

26'young'people'aged'16)19,'in'UK'schools.'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

While'consumption'research'with'teens'has'focused'on'processes' of'acquisition,'how'young'people'experience'and'enact'subsequent' phases'of'consumption'has'remained'neglected.'In'this'project'the' aim'has'been'to'explore'young'people’s'attitudes'towards'the'con) sumption' of' material' possessions' through' the' lens' of' divestment.'

By'exploring'how'decisions'about'ridding,'wasting,'giving'away'and' generally'‘getting'rid’'are'made'and'enacted,'I'suggest'that'a'more' nuanced' picture' of' what' consumption' means' and' involves' for' young'people'results.'Further,'since'the'nature'of'divesting'person) al'possessions'necessarily'locates'the'decisions'and'processes'firmly' within'the'context'of'the'home'and'family,'I'explore'the'extent'to' which' teens’' embeddedness' in' close' social' networks' governs' the' choices'they'make,'and'the'extent'to'which'a'family)based'divest) ment'habitus'might'be'reshaped'by'individual'experiences'beyond' the'home.'

ADVERTISING!AND!THE!PERFORMATIVE!

CONSUMPTION!OF!THE!CITIES!

Stefania'Antonioni

1'

1

Department' of' Communication' Studies,' UNIVERSITY' OF' URBINO'

CARLO'BO,'Urbino'(PU),'Italy

'

Abstract:' Contemporary' audiences' can' be' described' as' more' and' more' active' or,' to' be' more' precise,' performative' and' diffused'

(Abercrombie&Longhurst).' Nonetheless' nowadays' we' have' to' ad) dress'to'audiences'as'to'networked'publics'(Ito),'facing'social,'cul) tural' and' technological' shifts' leading' us' to' a' different' amount' of' involvement'by'digital'media.'

So' networked' publics' broaden' their' chance' to' create,' post' and' share'all'type'of'contents'(video,'images,'texts,'etc.)'in'a'new'wider' public' space' that' witness' the' creation' of' a' convergence' culture'

(Jenkins).'In'this'sense'the'amount'of'user'generated'contents,'but' also'the'time'spent'in'producing'them,'arises'the'“new”'character' of'the'prosumer,'an'hybrid'of'productive'consumer'of'material'and' immaterial'goods'(Toffler,'Ritzer,'Fabris).'

Considering' the' new' shape' and' way' of' feeling' of' these' creative' publics,'more'and'more'enterprises,'brands,'companies'and'corpo) rations' are' taking' benefits' of' this' new' frame,' especially' using' the' strategy'of'crowdsourcing'(Brabham,'Howe),'but'also'other'practic) es'of'productive'engagement'in'advertising'and'promotion'at'large.'

Particularly' interesting' is' how' brands' and' companies' use' urban' spaces' to' build' this' sort' of' connections' with' consumers,' but' also' how'people'uses'cities'and'in'the'meantime'construct'and'dissemi) nate'their'personal'meanings'on'them.'In'fact'contemporary'forms' of'advertising'based'on'urban'spaces,'such'as'ambient'advertising,' guerrilla'advertising'and'all'the'so)called'non'conventional'advertis) ing,' reflect' the' logic' of' digital' media,' that' is' to' say' improve' en) gagement,'creativity,'self'expression,'connectivity.'All'of'them'are' subjectively'performed'by'city'users,'that'can'subsequently'dissem) inate'them'further'in'social'network'sites,'with'geolocalization,'etc.'

So' the' aim' of' this' paper' is' to' give' its' contribution' to' the' analysis' and' thinking' on' this' topic,' collecting' several' examples' of' these' practices'taken'in'a'global'scenery.'

BUILDING!LUDIC!TERRITORIES!IN!BARCELONA!AND!

LISBON:!URBAN!TRANSFORMATION,!LEISURE,!

TOURISM!AND!CONSUMPTION!

131'

Patrícia'Pereira

'1

,'Luis'Baptista

'1

,'Jordi'Nofre

1'

1

CesNova,'Faculdade'de'Ciências'Sociais'e'Humanas,'Universidade'

Nova'de'Lisboa,'Lisboa,'Portugal

'

Abstract:' In' most' capitalist' cities,' the' economy' of' leisure' has' be) come' one' of' the' main' strategies' for' the' renewal' of' their' spaces.'

The'celebration'of'great'events'transfigures'urban'everyday'life'and' space'by'creating'ludic'territories.'In'Lisbon'and'Barcelona,'Expo'98' and'Forum'das'Culturas,'respectively,'led'to'the'transformation'of' inner' city' waterfront' areas,' formerly' occupied' by' heavy' industry,' storage' and' working' class' residents.' These' activities' and' inhabit) ants'were'displaced'and'replaced'by'service'activities'and'local'and' global'new'middle'classes.'Focusing'in'both'cases'of'Fòrum'(Barce) lona)'and'Parque'das'Nações'(Lisbon),'this'presentation'highlights' the'role'of'urban'leisure'and'consumption'in'the'renewal'of'former' marginal'urban'spaces.'It'includes'a'description'of'the'main'urban' transformations'and'of'some'aspects'of'day'to'day'life'in'these'new' territories,'but'also'a'debate'on'how'the'concepts'of'Bryman’s'Dis=

neyization,' Ritzer’s' MacDonaldization' and' Hannigan’s' Fantasy/ City' can'be'used'to'analyze'both'study'cases.'The'presentation'contrib) utes' to' the' debate' around' the' path' of' Western' postfordist' cities' towards'becoming'puzzles,'divided'into'distinct/fragmented'neigh) borhoods,' where' intrusions' and' disorders' are' minimized' and' a'

“social' class”)led' environment' is' presented' through' architecture' and' urban' design,' landscape,' costumes,' cultural' practices,' urban' entertainment'and'themed'stores.'

Keywords:' Disnezation,' McDonaldization,' Urban' transformations,' waterfronts,'Lisbon,'Barcelona.'

References'

Baptista'L'V'(2005)'Territórios'lúdicos'(e'o'que'torna'lúdico'um'ter) ritório):'ensaiando'um'ponto'de'partida.'Fórum/Sociológico'13/14:'

47)58.'

Bryman'A'(1999)'The'Disneyization'of'society.'The/Sociological/Re=

view'47(1):'25)47.'

Hannigan'J'(1998)'Fantasy/City:/Pleasure/and/Profit/in/the/Postmod=

ern/Metropolis.'New'York:'Routledge.'

Nofre'J'(2009a)'L’Agenda/Cultural/Oculta./Una/deconstrucció/de/l’oci/

nocturn/de/Barcelona/i/els/seus/suburbis./Premi/Joventut/2009./Bar) celona:'Generalitat'de'Catalunya.'(in'press).'

Pereira'P'(2010)'Urban'renewal'in'global'context:'the'conversion'of' the' Lisbon' eastern' waterfront.' 8th/ European/ Urban/ &/ Regional/

Studies/Conference.'(Available'Online).'

Ritzer' G' (2004[1993])' The/ McDonaldization/ of/ society.' Thousand'

Oaks:'Pineforge'Press.'

KEEPING!COOL!:!CLIMATE!CHANGE!POLICY!AND!THE!

TINY!DETAILS!OF!DAILY!LIFE!

Elizabeth'Shove

1'

1 sociology,'LANCASTER'UNIVERSITY,'Lancaster,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:'This'paper'tracks'one'bit'of'climate'change'policy'from'its' formulation'within'government'through'to'its'consequences'for'the' tiny'details'of'daily'life.'In'the'process,'it'engages'with'a'range'of' more' fundamental' questions' about' how' policies' have' impact' on' what'people'do'and'on'related'patterns'of'consumption'and'prac) tice.'I'consider'the'case'of'Cool'Biz,'a'programme'launched'by'the'

Japanese' government' in' 2005.' Under' Cool' Biz,' the' government’s'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

132' own'buildings'were'not'cooled'until'indoor'temperatures'reached'

28'degrees'C.'Occupants'were'expected'to'adjust'their'clothing'to' suit.' Various' measures' were' taken' to' persuade' businesses' and' companies' to' adopt' the' same' strategy.' Government' ministers' were,' for' example,' shown' wearing' lightweight' clothing.' Ambassa) dors'participated'in'fashion'shows'run'by'the'ministry'of'environ) ment,'and'the'department'stores'were'involved.'

By' any' standards,' this' programme' has' significantly' reduced' the' energy'used'for'air)conditioning.'It'has'also'transformed'social'con) ventions'of'office'life.'In'particular,'male'office'workers'no'longer' expect' to' wear' a' jacket' and' tie' during' the' summer' months.' Alt) hough'this'might'seem'like'a'simple'solution,'conventions'of'cloth) ing' are' embedded' in' traditions' and' institutions' of' power,' respect' and' social' status.' From' this' point' of' view,' adopting' Cool' Biz' was' anything'but'simple.'

Interviews' with' those' involved' in' making' and' responding' to' Cool'

Biz'reveal'the'different'registers'across'which'this'policy'plays'out' and'gives'a'sense'of'the'many'varied'settings'in'which'it'is'enacted' and'resisted'for'real.'

In'reflecting'on'this'case'I'discuss'the'possibility'that'Cool'Biz'repre) sents' an' accidentally' powerful' intervention' that' succeeded' not' because'of'the'ideas'around'which'it'was'designed,'but'because'of' how'it'became'embedded'in'the'tiny'details'of'daily'life.'In'conclu) sion'I'explore'the'wider'implications'of'this'case'for'social'theories' of' behaviour,' consumption' and' practice,' and' for' climate' change' policy.'

SURVEILLANCE!OF!MUNDANE!CONSUMPTION:!

LOYALTY!CARDS!AS!A!CONSTRUCTION!OF!

CONSUMERS!

Abstract'Book'

Sami'Coll

'1

,'Jason'Pridmore

'2*

'

1

The'Graduate'Center,'The'City'University'of'New'York,'New'York,'

United' States,'

Netherlands

'

2

The' DigiDeas' project,' Zuyd' University,' Maastricht,'

Abstract:'Over'the'past'few'decades,'retailers'have'collected'mas) sive'amounts'of'data'on'a'daily'basis'through'loyalty'card'programs.'

These'serve'to'gather'at'the'point)of)purchase'the'identity'of'the' consumer,'date'and'time'of'the'transaction,'and'a'list'of'products' purchased.' As' an' incentive,' these' programs' enable' consumers' to' collect' points' or' miles' for' each' purchase,' which' then' can' be' con) verted'to'rewards'or'access'to'special'offers'only'available'to'card' owners.' They' are' part' of' a' relationship/ marketing' paradigm' that' relies'upon'precise'data'on'consumers'in'order'to'establish'a'per) sonalized'and'long)term'relationship'with'them.'

This'paper'argues'that'loyalty'programs'make'the'mundane,'every' day'practices'of'consumption'into'important'building'blocks'for'the' performance'of'economies.'In'this'process,'consumers'are'‘created’' with' varying' levels' of' significance' through' an' increasing' level' of' surveillance.' That' is,' with' the' (usually)' voluntary' participation' in' loyalty' programs,' consumers' are' deemed' worthwhile' or' not' through' a' “purposeful,' routine,' systematic' and' focused' attention' paid' to' personal' details”' that' exists' to' control,' manage,' influence' and'entitle'consumption'practices'(see'Lyon'2001).'This'surveillance' has'both'significant'social'and'socio)economic'implications'as'well' as' raises' concerns' about' the' usefulness' of' personal' privacy' in' its' current'form.'

The'paper'draws'on'two'significant'studies'of'loyalty'cards,'made'in'

Canada'and'in'Switzerland,'both'of'which'begin'to'demonstrate'the' potentials' and' problems' of' contemporary' marketing' practices' in' general'and'the'issues'and'implications'of'loyalty'card'marketing'in' specific.'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

RN'06'Critical'Political'Economy'

THE!ASYMMETRIES!OF!EUROPEAN!GOVERNANCE!AND!

THE!CRISIS!OF!PORTUGUESE!CAPITALISM!

João'Rodrigues

'1

,'José'Reis

'2

'

1

Centre' for' Social' Studies,'

2

School' of' Economics' and' Centre' for'

Social'Studies,'UNIVERSITY'OF'COIMBRA,'Coimbra,'Portugal

'

Abstract:'The'recent'turn'in'European'integration,'from'a'process' based' on' cohesion' to' another' based' on' competitive' asymmetric' relations,' has' deep' consequences' for' Portuguese' capitalism.' The' structural'imbalances'between'central'and'peripheral'countries,'at' the' core' of' the' recent' eurozone' crisis,' and' the' austerity' policies' now'being'pursued'with'great'intensity'in'the'latter'can'be'seen'as' the' main' expressions' of' the' lack' of' resilience' of' the' asymmetric' configuration' of' the' European' integration' with' important' conse) quences'for'Portugal.'This'asymmetry'refers'to'1)'the'way'the'sin) gle'market'and'monetary'integration'coexist'with'increasingly'het) erogeneous'social,'labour'and'tax'regimes'at'the'national'level,'2)' the'differentiated'impact'of'the'single'market'on'existing'varieties' of'capitalism,'particularly'on'the'peripheral'ones;'3)'the'absence'of' non)deflationary'policy'instruments,'both'at'the'national'and'Euro) pean'levels,'which'might'block'the'transfer'of'the'brunt'of'adjust) ment' to' labour,' particularly' in' a' context' of' pressures' in' financial' markets' and' imbalances' in' the' current' account' positions' of' Euro) pean'countries.'The'question'raised'by'Jean'Monnet'in'1955'–'“is'it' possible'to'have'a'Common'Market'without'federal'social,'mone) tary'and'macro)economic'policies?”'–'must'become'central'in'dis) cussions' about' the' future' of' European' integration' and' the' Portu) guese'economy'therein.'

This'communication'will'analyse'the'Portuguese'variety'of'capital) ism'in'the'context'of'the'crisis'of'legitimacy'affecting'the'European' project'as'the'more'coordinated'and'egalitarian'varieties'of'capital) ism'experience'pressures'for'deregulation'and'peripheral'countries,' with' more' unequal' capitalisms,' experience' the' consequences' of'

IMF)style' policies' of' structural' adjustment.' It' will' be' argued' that' these'policies'run'the'risk'of'perpetuating'a'socioeconomic'regime,' consolidated' with' the' decision' to' join' the' Euro,' marked' by' high' levels'of'inequality,'increased'levels'of'unemployment'and'precari) ous'work,'very'low'growth'rates'and'huge'levels'of'external'debt.'A' critique'of'the'logic'of'austerity'policies'and'an'analysis'of'proposals' to'correct'the'asymmetries'of'European'integration'are'needed'in' order'to'think'about'sustainable'avenues'for'the'Portuguese'econ) omy.'

THE!POLITICAL!ECONOMY!OF!LABOUR!RELATIONS!IN!

THE!EMU:!IRISH!NEOLIBERAL!CORPORATISM!IN!CRISIS!

Aidan'Regan

1'

1

UNIVERSITY'COLLEGE'DUBLIN,'Dublin,'Ireland

'

Abstract:'Ireland'is'a'critical'case'of'embedded'neo)liberalism'that' challenges' many' of' the' functionalist' assumptions' in' the' study' of' varieties' of' capitalism.' It' is' said' to' lack' the' institutional' pre) conditions' for' the' emergence' and' institutionalisation' of' national' corporatist' policy' making' structures.' The' political' party' system' is' not' configured' on' a' left)right' ideological' basis,' it' has' a' pluralist' administrative'state'tradition,'trade'unions'do'not'encompass'the' majority'of'employees'and'it'has'a'voluntarist'collective'bargaining'

133' regime.' It' has' relatively' high' levels' of' income' inequality,' a' liberal' welfare'state'and'an'industrial'policy'premised'on'low'tax'foreign' investment.' However,' between' 1987' and' 2008,' ‘centralised' wage' bargaining’' or' ‘social' partnership’' became' the' default' position' of' both' labour' relations' and' Irish' politics.' Seven' national' income' agreements'were'negotiated'between'the'representative'interests' of'labour,'capital'and'state.'Whilst'wage'bargaining'was'central'to' negotiations'the'‘social'pacts’'covered'a'wide'variety'of'public'poli) cies'including'fiscal,'welfare'and'labour'market'policy.'The'nature'of' the' bargain' was' not' premised' on' a' wide' distributional' agenda' of' social' democracy' but' market' competition.' It' was' an' institution' of' labour' relations,' constructed' by' the' state,' to' manage' the' con) straints' of' Europeanisation' in' a' rapidly' changing' capitalist' econo) my.'But,'despite'twenty'three'years'of''social'partnership','the'gov) ernment' opted' for' a' market' led' rather' than' a' negotiated' adjust) ment'to'the'crisis.'The'paper'will'argue'that'the'diminishing'power' resources'of'organised'labour'and'the'policy'constraints'of'the'EMU' are'central'factors'in'explaining'this'shift'in'strategy.'In'this'regard' we'need'to'bring'power'and'politics'back'into'the'study'of'Europe) an'varieties'of'capitalism.'

"WEST!EUROPEAN!POLITICAL!ECONOMIES!IN!CRISIS:!

WHAT!HAS!CHANGED!SINCE!THE!1970S?"!

Jonas'Pontusson

'1

,'Damian'Raess

1'

1

Political'Science,'UNIVERSITY'OF'GENEVA,'Geneva,'Switzerland

'

Abstract:'Our'paper'will'contrast'the'crisis'of'2007)10'to'the'crisis' of'the'mid)1970s'in'an'effort'to'understand'better'how'advanced' capitalist'political'economies'have'changed.'The'origins'and'nature' of'the'two'crises'were'clearly'different,'following'different'phases' of' capitalist' expansion.' Triggered' by' sharp' oil' price' increases,' the' crisis'of'the'1970s'ended'a'period'of'energy)intensive'Fordist'mass' production'that'boosted'the'union'bargaining'power.'By'contrast,' the' current' crisis' was' triggered' by' bank' failures' and' marked' the' end'of'an'expansionary'period'characterized'by'the'rise'of'finance' capitalism.'Notwithstanding'these'differences,'both'crises'resulted' in' dramatic' recessions' of' the' real' economy.' Emphasizing' trends' that' cut' across' the' distinction' between' LMEs' and' CMEs,' our' ac) count'diverges'from'the'“VofC'approach.”'

A' striking' feature' of' near)term' government' responses' to' the' cur) rent'crisis'is'the'absence'of'many'of'the'non)Keynesian'alternatives' to'orthodoxy'that'governments'relied'on'the'1970s,'notably'protec) tionism,' nationalization,' and' competitive' devaluations.' In' seeking' to'explain'the'universal'but'also'limited'reliance'on'fiscal'stimulus,' we'explore'the'implications'of'European'integration,'the'decline'of' manufacturing'unions,'and'asset'ownership'among'middle)income' voters.'While'the'Euro'eliminates'the'use'of'competitive'devalua) tion,' the' Single' Market' prevents' individual' member' states' from' raising' tariff' barriers' and' prohibits' payment' of' direct' subsidies' to' companies.' In' addition,' the' institutional' set)up' of' the' EU' creates' coordination' problems' that' explain' the' limited' extent' of' fiscal' stimulus.'The'decline'of'manufacturing'unions'represents'another' factor' behind' the' absence' of' alternatives' to' Keynianism.' Unions’' loss' of' members' and' mobilizational' capacity,' particularly' pro) nounced' among' low)income' wage)earners,' accounts' for' why' un) ions'are'less'likely'than'they'were'in'the'1970s'to'pull'Left'parties'in' a'more'egalitarian'direction.'Finally,'we'argue'that'the'policy'pref)

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

134' erences'of'middle)income'voters'have'changed'to'the'extent'that' their'economic'well)being'has'come'to'depend'increasingly'on'as) set' prices.' Private' insurance' via' asset' ownership' yields' political' opposition'to'publicly'provided'social'insurance'and'support'for'tax' cuts'among'the'middle'class,'providing'an'explanation'for'the'prior) ity' given' to' tax' cuts' (over' spending' increases)' by' many' govern) ments.'

EXTENDING!VARIETIES!OF!CAPITALISM?!A!CRITIQUE!

Matthias'Ebenau

1'

1

QUEEN'MARY,'UNIVERSITY'OF'LONDON,'London,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:! Over' the' last' decade,' the' Varieties' of' Capitalism' (VoC)' framework'has'emerged'as'the'paradigmatic'approach'to'compar) ing' political' economies,' especially' in' Anglophone' academia.' Not) withstanding' its' obvious' popularity,' which' manifests' itself' in' the' burgeoning'amount'of'literature'drawing'on'the'framework,'other' scholars' have' developed' an' array' of' critiques.' One' of' the' most' salient' points' concerns' the' inability' (according' to' many' critics)' of' the'basic'distinction'between'so)called'‘liberal'market'economies’'

(USA' etc.)' and' ‘coordinated' market' economies’' (Germany,' Japan' etc.),'to'account'for'both'the'existing'diversity'within'and'the'fun) damental'characteristics'of'modern'capitalism.'

These'weaknesses,'the'critics'contend,'are'a'result'of'the'empirical' focus'of'the'VoC'literature'on'the'Triad'and'its'proponents’'theoret) ical' concern' with' parsimony' and' analytical' neatness.' Partly' re) sponding'to'these'criticisms,'recently'some'authors'have'begun'to' apply' VoC’s' conceptual' apparatus' to' political' economies' outside' the' OECD)group,' such' as' the' ‘mixed' market' economies’' of' the'

Mediterranean,' the' ‘dependent' market' economies’' of' Cen) tral/Eastern' Europe' and' the' ‘hierarchical' market' economies’' of'

Latin'America.'In'the'light'of'the'debates'surrounding'the'VoC'liter) ature,' this' paper' seeks' to' critically' assess' these' extensions' at' a' conceptual'level'and'to'illustrate'the'resulting'criticisms'by'drawing' on'examples'from'the'Latin'American'context.'

It' argues,' first,' that' not' only' the' methodological' nationalism' and' exaggerated' firm)centrism' inherent' in' the' general' framework' do' persist' and' compromise' its' critical)analytical' potentials;' but' also,' second,' that' a' problematic' normative' Eurocentrism' is' introduced' by' reversing' the' rationale' of' the' VoC’s' ‘core’' framework' –' from' explaining'different'paths'to'success'under'conditions'of'globalisa) tion' to' explaining' why' political' economies' fail' to' ‘cope’' with' the' challenges'it'poses'–'which'is'concretised'in'the'notions'of'‘nega) tive' institutional' complementarities’' and' ‘institutional' discomple) mentarities’.'As'a'result,'analyses'building'on'the'VoC'approach'will' underestimate'the'significance'of'transnational'social'and'political) economic'interconnectedness'and'the'dynamics'at'a'world)system' scale'for'the'development'of'nationally'framed'economies.'

MEASURING!THE!STABILITY!OF!THE!STRUCTURE!OF!

THE!WORLDGECONOMY:!THE!CONTINUING!SALIENCE!

OF!REGION!

Salvatore'J'Babones

'1

,'Francisco'J'Morales

1'

1

Department' of' Sociology' &' Social' Policy,' THE' UNIVERSITY' OF'

SYDNEY,'Sydney,'Australia

'

Abstract:' The' general' contours' of' the' global' income' distribution' look'pretty'much'the'same'today'as'they'did'a'century'ago:'Europe'

Abstract'Book' and' North' America' are' rich,' Latin' America' is' in' the' middle,' and'

Africa' and' south' Asia' are' poor.' Only' east' Asian' countries' have' shown'much'mobility,'and'even'then'much'less'mobility'than'most' people' assume.' The' fact' that' the' broad' regional' outlines' of' the' world)economy' haven't' changed' in' over' a' hundred' years' should' provoke'questioning.'Just'how'much'"should"'the'world'be'chang) ing'from'decade'to'decade'based'on'reasonable'models'of'how'the' world)economy'works?'

The'research'reported'here'uses'concepts'from'entropy'theory'to' measure' the' degree' of' structure' in' the' contemporary' world) economy.' Entropy' is' the' concept' that' all' structures' will' tend' to' decay'over'time'unless'energy'is'expended'to'maintain'them.'Left' to'themselves,'the'economies'of'any'world'region'should'tend'to' diverge' over' time' as' individual' countries' pursue' different' policies' or' simply' experience' different' luck.' The' fact' that' the' regional' or) ganization' of' the' world' remain' coherent' decade' after' decade' im) plies'that'strong'systemic'forces'are'continuously'working'to'main) tain'the'regional'structure'of'the'world)economy.'

The'strength'of'these'forces'can'be'measured'(indirectly)'by'com) paring' the' actual' rate' of' decay' in' the' regional' structure' of' the' world)economy' to' the' rate' of' decay' that' would' be' expected' if' countries' were' growing' at' random.' This' null' scenario' of' random' growth'is'operationalized'using'a'Brownian'motion'model.'All'coun) tries'start'at'their'1974'levels'of'income'per'capita.'A'simulation'is' then' run' in' which' countries' grow' at' random' every' year' for' 25' years.'The'simulated'salience'of'region'in'2009'is'then'compared'to' the' beginning' salience' of' region' in' 1974.' After' hundreds' of' itera) tions'it'is'possible'to'estimate'the'degree'to'which'the'salience'of' region'"should"'be'decaying'over'time.'

Preliminary'results'indicate'that'powerful'systemic'forces'are'con) tinually' at' work' maintaining' the' structure' of' the' world)economy.'

These'forces'have'repeatedly'restored'the'regional'structure'of'the' world)economy' after' major' crises' (like' the' Latin' American' debt' crisis,'the'Asian'financial'crisis,'and'the'global'financial'crisis).'This'is' strong' (though' indirect)' evidence' of' the' existence' of' systematic' international'exploitation'in'the'contemporary'world)economy.'

TOP!DOWN!OR!BOTTOM!UP?!A!CROSSGNATIONAL!

STUDY!OF!VERTICAL!OCCUPATIONAL!SEX!

SEGREGATION!IN!EUROPEAN!COUNTRIES!

Andrea'Schaefer

'1

,'Karin'Gottschall

'1

,'Ingrid'Tucci

'2

'

1

Gender'Policy'in'the'Welfare'State,'ZES/UNIVERSITY'OF'BREMEN,'

Bremen,'

2

SOEP,'DIW'Berlin,'Berlin,'Germany

'

Abstract:'Starting'with'a'comparative'assessment'of'different'wel) fare'regimes'and'political'economies'from'the'perspective'of'gen) der'awareness'and'“pro)women”'policies,'this'paper'identifies'the' determinants' of' cross)national' variation' in' women’s' chances' of' holding' a' high)status' occupation' in' twelve' Western' European'

Countries.' Special' emphasis' is' given' to' size' and' structure' of' the' service' sector,' including' public' employment' and' power' resource) related'factors'such'as'union'density.'

The' first' level' of' comparison' between' men' and' women' concen) trates'on'gender'representation'in'the'higher'rungs'of'the'job'hier) archy,'while'a'second'level'comparing'women'extends'the'scope'of' analysis' to' the' degree' of' occupational' sex' segregation' between' women'in'high)status'occupations'and'low)status'work'in'order'to' allow' for' a' more' nuanced' analysis' of' the' interrelation' between' gender'and'class.'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

The'first)level'analysis'is'based'on'European'Social'Survey'data'for' the' years' 2002)08' using' multi)level' random' intercept' models' to' capture'more'recent'trends'in'occupational'dynamics.'Results'indi) cate' that' a' large' public' sector' and' a' high' union' density' enhance' women’s' chances' of' holding' high)status' occupations,' i.e.,' in' the' public'sector.'Furthermore,'equality'at'the'top'can'well'be'paired' with'inequality'at'the'bottom,'as'countries'with'a'highly'polarized' occupational'hierarchy'such'as'the'UK'show.'

VARIETIES!OF!POLITICAL!ECONOMIES!AS!

COMBINATIONS!OF!DIFFERENT!POWER!PATTERNS!

SURROUNDING!WORK!AND!LABOUR!

Jeffrey'Harrod

1'

1

Political' Science,' UNIVERSITY' OF' AMSTERDAM,' NETHERLANDS,'

Amsterdam,'Netherlands

'

Abstract:' The' so)called' variety' of' capitalism' literature' of' the' past' decade' has' used' market' and' institutional' criteria' to' distinguish' different'forms'of'capitalist'economies.'Previous'attempts'with'the' same'objective'were'varieties'of'corporatism,'which'had'a'focus'of' the' role' of' labour' organisations' in' the' institutional' arrangements,' the'regulation'school'in'which'the'total'productive'systems'includ) ing' labour' control' was' incorporated,' and' labour' relations' systems' which'saw'the'core'importance'of'labour'relations'and'labour'mo) tivation' in' general' to' any' particular' economy.' Emerging' from' this' literature' was' the' argument' in' the' late' 1980s' that' the' work' and' labour'relations'identified'in'these'typologies'should'themselves'be' disaggregated'into'distinctive'modes'of'social'relations'or'patterns' of'power'relations'surrounding'work'and'production.'Corporatism,' for'example,'focused'on'organised'labour'and'yet'in'most'political' economies' organised' labour' was' a' minority' pattern' in' the' total' labour'force.'Other'patterns'of'power'surrounding'different'forms' of'work'were'also'important.'Thus'while'almost'all'political'econo) mies'have'a'pattern'which'could'be'labelled'“self)employment”'the' size'of'a'casual'or'“precarious”'pattern'varies'substantially'and'that' variation'to'some'extent'determines'both'national'politics'and'for) eign'policy.'By'identifying'and'naming'eight'different'patterns'and' analysing' them' as' dominate' and' subordinate,' different' combina) tions'and'sizes'create'different'varieties'of'political'economy'with' dramatically' different' social' and' political' outcomes.' This' paper' examines' these' combinations' as' they' appear' in' currently' extant' models' to' illustrate' the' utility' and' appropriateness' of' this' ap) proach.'For'example,'to'unpack'the'imprecise'and'macro'level'no) tions'of'the'models'of'Neo)liberal,'Social'Market'and'Asian'Devel) opment'models'using'these'criteria'identifies'the'central'forms'or' labour'control'and'motivation'and'advances'the'understanding'of' their'less'obvious'differences.'In'conclusion,'the'paper'argues'that' refinements'and'promotion'of'approaches'considering'disciplinary' power' surrounding' work' and' production' within' modern' societies' are'needed'in'the'social'sciences'in'general'as'a'midway'path'be) tween'the'current'excessive'economism'and'promoted'individualis) tic'well)being.'

CURRENT!TRENDS!IN!THE!RUSSIAN!BANKING:!

COMPARATIVE!AND!INSTITUTIONAL!ANALYSIS!

Svetlana'Kirdina

'1

,'Andrei'Vernikov

1'

1

Institute' of' Economics' Russian' Academy' of' Sciences,' Moscow,'

Russian'Federation

'

135'

Abstract:' We' compare' the' functions' performed' by' the' banks' in' different' types' of' economic' systems,' with' regard' to' general' and' specific'functions'of'banks'within'a'monetary'economy'Institutional' matrices' theory' suggests' that' in' an' X)type' redistributive' “non) capitalist”economy'the'banking'system'has'a'different'institutional' design' and' follows' a' different' model' of' banking' than' in' a' Y)type' market' “capitalist”' economy,' namely' we' see' a' “top)down' model”' instead'of'a'“bottom)up'model”.We'suggest'that'for'X)type'econ) omies'private'banking'activity'just'complements'the'institutions'of' centralized' finance' and' credit' allocation.' We' test' this' hypothesis' with' historical' and' contemporary' evidence' from' Russia' as' well' as' from' China' and' the' USA.' Russia’s' experiment' with' bank' de) natiohnalization' did' not' produce' an' efficiently)functioning' system' of'privately'owned'banks.'Current'trends'in'the'Russian'banking'are' consistent'with'the'guideline'of'evolution'of'core'economic'institu) tions' in' the' country' including' state' ownership' of' core' industrial' assets.'The'share'of'state)controlled'banks'keeps'growing'and'may' have' exceeded' 54' percent' of' total' banking' assets.' We' conclude' that' the' complex' and' uncoordinated' nature' of' the' evolutionary' change'of'Russian'banks'in'Russia'after'the'economic'crisis'repre) sents'a'search'for'a'better'balance'between'redistributive'and'mar) ket' instruments' and' an' institutional' model' of' banking' that' would' be'more'natural'to'this'country.'

SOME!POLITICAL!CHANGES!IN!BRAZILIAN!FINANCIAL!

INSTITUTIONALIZING!PATH!

Marcus'Ianoni

1'

1

DEPARTMENT' OF' POLITICAL' SCIENCE,' UNIVERSIDADE' FEDERAL'

FLUMINENSE,'NITERÓI,'Brazil

'

Abstract:'In'the'history'of'industrialization'and'economic'moderni) zation'in'Brazil,'opened'since'the'30s,'the'financing'of'investments' in'major'projects'related'to'development'was'brought'about'main) ly,' or' by' the' state' or' by' foreign' capital,' or' by' the' association' be) tween'capital'and'private'capital.'Medium'and'small'sized'projects' have'had'their'investments'financed'by'the'reinversion'of'company' profits.'The'Brazilian'banking'system,'especially'the'private'sector,' differently,' for' instance,' from' the' German,' traditionally' had' little' involvement'in'the'financing'of'capitalist'investment'in'the'country.'

Moreover,'Brazilian'banks'have'not'been'effective'in'incorporating' the'majority'of'the'population'to'credit'and'other'financial'services.'

Bank'credit'in'Brazil'is'still'scarce'and'very'expensive.'These'charac) teristics'of'the'Brazilian'banking'system'lead'to'the'debate'on'the' model' of' financial' institutionalization' existing' in' the' country.' Eco) nomics'and'political'economy,'as'well'as'the'literature'on'varieties/

of/capitalism,'show'the'importance'of'financial'institutionalizing'in' the'development.'In'Brazil,'one'of'the'most'important'issues'in'the' debate'about'development'is'the'model'of'financial'institutionaliza) tion.' This' paper' proposal' considers' the' institutionalization' of' the'

Brazilian'banking'system'inefficient'in'terms'of'its'ability'to'play'a' more'active'role'within'a'framework'of'financial'institutionalization' aimed' to' maximize' the' development' possibilities.' Brazilian' banks' intermediate' many' businesses' related' to' financial' flows,' via' Na) tional'Treasury'bonds,'and'is'less'engaged'in'financial'intermedia) tion'of'productive'activities,'especially'the'industrial'ones.'The'im) portant'transformations'in'the'Brazilian'banking'industry'since'the' monetary'stabilization'of'1994'has'not'changed'that'situation.'But' since' 2003,' with' the' formation' of' the' Lula' government,' some' changes' started' to' happen.' Although' this' government' has' main) tained'the'macroeconomic'policy'of'its'predecessor,'it'starts'from' the'assumption'that,'since'Lula'has'been'some'incremental'change'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

136' in'the'trajectory'of'relations'between'state'and'financial'interests,' and' they' were' important' to' minimize' the' effects' of' international/

crisis'in'Brazil'and'to'demarcate'possibilities'to'change'the'institu) tionalization' bank' towards' a' greater' state' coordination' of' the' fi) nancial'market.'

VARIETIES!OF!LIBERALISM:!ANGLOGSAXON!

CAPITALISM!IN!CRISIS?!

Gerhard'Schnyder

'1

,'Sue'Konzelmann

'2

,'Marc'Fovargue)Davies

'3

'

1

Management' Department,' KING'S' COLLEGE' LONDON,'

2

Management'Department,'

3

LCCGE,'Birkbeck'University'of'London,'

London,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:' The' recent' financial' crisis' has' raised' doubts' about' the' conventional'wisdom'of'economic'liberalism'and'debate'about'the' appropriate' direction' of' theory' and' policy.' However,' the' sharply' contrasting' experiences' during' this' crisis' of' the' four' main' Anglo)

Saxon' banking' systems' suggest' that' the' crisis' may' not' be' one' of' liberal'capitalism'as'such,'but'of'the'neo)classical'variety'that'char) acterizes' the' British' and' American' systems.' We' investigate' the' factors' which' ensured' that' Canada,' and' Australia,' both' with' well' developed'financial'markets,'emerged'from'the'financial'crisis'rela) tively' unscathed.' This' is' in' sharp' contrast' to' the' other' two' major' liberal' market' economies' –' the' US,' UK' –' which' were' very' badly' affected'by'the'crisis.'Using'the'concept'of'‘varieties'of'liberalism,’' we'assess'how'different'approaches'to'liberalisation'and'different' rules'or'a'more'prudent'application'of'the'same'rules'affect'both' corporate'and'regulatory'behaviour.'We'find'important'differences' in'the'way'that'economic'liberalism'was'theorized'and'implement) ed'in'the'four'countries'during'the'period'preceding'the'crisis,'sug) gesting'that'broad'classifications'of'national'business'systems'into'

‘liberal' market’' and' other' varieties' of' capitalism' do' not' capture' their'inherent'diversity.'Further,'liberalization'of'financial'markets' appears' to' be' viable' only' if' accompanied' by' appropriate' supervi) sion.' In' the' current' crisis,' regulatory' capture,' political' fragmenta) tion'and'the'financial'sector’s'political'and'economic'leverage'are' among'the'most'important'factors'contributing'to'national'banking' system'vulnerability.'

BRINGING!THE!INDIVIDUAL!AND!THE!STATE!BACK!IN:!

VARIETIES!OF!CAPITALISM!IN!THE!BRITISH!AND!

GERMAN!HOUSING!MARKET!

Ben'Jacoby

1'

1

Politics'and'International'Studies,'The'University'of'Warwick,'Cov) entry,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:' The' academic' success' of' the' wider' ‘Varieties' of' Capital) ism’'(VoC)'literature'has'been'extensive,'and'yet'it'seems'that'the' debate' is' not' coming' to' a' point' of' maturation,' the' reason' being' that'by'now'the'critics'of'VoC'hold'at'least'as'strong'a'position'as' their' original' supporters.' Hence' the' question:' is' the' whole' VoC' paradigm'in'crisis?'The'present'paper'takes'distance'from'the'de) bate' and' analyses' its' underlying' assumptions' and' methodological' foundations.' From' such' a' critical' point' of' departure' it' claims' that' many'of'the'VoC'flaws'are'related'to'it’s'neglect'of'the'individual' and' the' state,' hence' the' essence' of' the' political.' Suggesting' a' framework' that' starts' from' an' ontological' position' that' radically' puts'the'individual'into'the'centre'of'politics,'the'paper'builds'upon' constructivist' accounts' that' have' human' indeterminacy' as' their'

Abstract'Book' core.'At'the'same'time,'the'approach'opens'space'for'state'inter) vention'upon'economic'agency'and'advances'a'method'that'moves' towards' the' new' institutionalisms' debate.' By' integrating' the' indi) vidual' into' the' ideational/discursive' variant,' the' argument' is' put' forward'that'capitalist'diversity'must'be'understood'as'differences' in' individual)state' relationships' in' different' institutional' arrange) ments'(polities).'Hence,'it'brings'back'into'VoC'two'quintessentially' political'concepts:'the'individual'and'the'state.'The'paper'then'goes' on'to'showcase'the'approach'with'the'comparative'study'of'British' and' German' state' interventions' upon' economic' subjectivities' in' their' respective' housing' markets.' It' becomes' clear' how' specific' legitimation' regimes' and' interactive' individual)state' processes' in) fluence' socio)economic' internally' consistent' variance' in' the' way' that' the' state' considers' the' economy,' and' how' and' why' policies' are'enacted.'Capitalist'variety'is'thus'a'much'broader'topic'than'the' initial'contributions,'but'also'the'current'critiques'to'VoC'suggest.'

Finally,'VoC'can'only'be'advanced'when'its'critics'are'taken'serious) ly' and' radically' applied' into' an' alternative' perspective' upon' eco) nomic'regimes,'on'that'is'centrally'concerned'with'economic'sub) jectivities,'hence'agency,'and'the'state.'

NEOLIBERALISM!AND!SOCIAL/CHRISTIAN!

DEMOCRACY!

Ian'Bruff

1'

1

UNIVERSITY'OF'MANCHESTER,'MANCHESTER,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:' This' paper' will' focus' on' how' the' last' thirty' years' in' Eu) rope' have' seen' a' gradual' unravelling' of' the' policies,' programmes' and'practices'associated'with'post)1945'christian'and'social'democ) racy.'This'will'be'examined'across'three'key'examples'–'collective' bargaining'practices,'welfare'programmes'and'the'system'of'politi) cal'representation'–'where'the'rights'of'trade'unions,'the'values'of' social'solidarity'and'equality'plus'the'dominance'of'moderate,'cen) trist' politics' have' been' fundamentally' challenged.' Moreover,' the' current' economic' and' legitimacy' crisis' facing' the' eurozone' could' well'accelerate'this'slow)burning'crisis'of'the'political'economy'of' christian' and' social' democracy.' I' will' also' consider' the' extent' to' which' Europe' is' on' the' verge' of' a' fracturing' of' traditional' social' coalitions'into'a'radicalised'social'democracy'on'the'one'hand'and' especially' a' resurgent' neoliberalism' –' recast' along' authoritarian'

(and'sometimes'xenophobic)'lines'–'on'the'other.'

There'is'a'broader'relevance,'too,'for'my'approach'contrasts'with' much'of'the'fast)growing'International'Political'Economy'(IPE)'liter) ature,'which'continues'to'adhere'(even'if'implicitly)'to'a'“states'and' markets”' dichotomy.' That' is,' when' seeking' to' make' sense' of' the' potentially'transformative'developments'associated'with'neoliber) alism,'an'unsatisfactory'“either/or”'methodology'is'still'dominant.'

Structures'and'agents'tend'to'be'defined'by'pre)determined'capa) bilities'and'interests,'which'then'drives'analysis'along'“political”'or'

“economic”'lines.'The'more'detrimental'logic'deemed'inherent'to' markets' rather' than' the' more' benign' logic' viewed' as' inherent' to' institutions' leads' to' a' concentration' of' “critical”' analysis' on' the' former' and' not' the' latter.' IPE‘s' multidisciplinary' and' interdiscipli) nary' potential' is' not' realised' in' consequence,' and' it' ought' to' be' more' open' to' insights' from' other' disciplines' when' attempting' to' make'sense'of'the'complex,'contemporary'era.'

SMALL!NORDIC!COUNTRIES!AND!GLOBALISATION:!IS!

THERE!STILL!A!SPECIFIC!MODEL!OF!CAPITALISM?!

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

'

Andreas'Bieler

1'

1

School' of' Politics' and' International' Relations,' UNIVERSITY' OF'

NOTTINGHAM,'Nottingham,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:'There'has'been'a'large'range'of'literature'on'the'continu) ing'viability'or'inevitable'demise'of'the'Nordic'model'of'capitalism' with'a'specific'emphasis'on'developments'in'the'Swedish'case.'This' paper'will'compare'the'Finnish'and'Norwegian'political'economies,' two' much' less' analysed' case' studies,' through' a' comparison' with' developments'in'Sweden'and'thereby'help'to'fill'a'gap'in'our'un) derstanding'of'the'current'development'of'Nordic'countries.'

Conceptually,' the' paper' will' critically' engage' with' the' varieties' of' capitalism'literature'and'argue'that'its'focus'on'institutionalist'con) tinuities' and' change' implies' that' changes' in' the' underlying' social' relations' of' production' and' the' related' power' balance' between' capital'and'labour'cannot'be'taken'into'account.'Instead,'a'histori) cal'materialist'approach'will'be'put'forward'which'makes'it'possible' to' conceptualise' the' relationship' between' changing' production' structures'and'class'agency'in'both'countries.'Empirically,'the'paper' will'focus'on'the'decision'by'the'Finnish'employers’'association'EK' to'abandon'the'tripartite'TUPO'system'in'2007'and'the'Norwegian'

Campaign'for'the'Welfare'State'to'mobilise'trade'unions'and'social' movements' against' neo)liberal' restructuring' in' the' elections' in'

2005' and' 2009.' It' will' be' argued' that' both' the' failure' of' EK' to' change'the'Finnish'model'drastically'as'well'as'the'success'of'the'

Campaign'for'the'Welfare'State'to'block'neo)liberal'restructuring'in'

Norway' is' partly' due' to' the' fact' that' the' production' structure' in' both'countries'is'comparatively'less'transnationalised'than'in'Swe) den.'Hence,'Finnish'and'Norwegian'capital'are'less'powerful'vis)à) vis' labour' than' Swedish' capital.' Nevertheless,' such' developments' are'not'automatic'but'crucially'depend'on'the'strategies'of'labour' to'retain'their'specific,'more'socially)oriented'model'of'capitalism.'

A!POLITICAL!ECONOMY!ANALYSIS!OF!HUMAN!RIGHTS:!

RESTRUCTURING!OF!STATEGEDUCATION!

RELATIONSHIPS!AND!ITS!IMPLICATIONS!ON!THE!

RIGHT!TO!EDUCATION!IN!TURKEY!

Funda'Karapehlivan'Şenel

1'

1

Sociology,'MARMARA'UNIVERSITY,'Istanbul,'Turkey

'

Abstract:'Consolidation'of'neoliberalism'and'expansion'of'capitalist' relations' in' every' aspect' of' life' have' resulted' in' a' decline' in' the' well)being'of'people'throughout'the'world.'Hence,'the'neoliberali) sation'process'and'increasing'inequalities'between'and'within'the' countries'have'created'a'deteriorating'environment'for'the'enjoy) ment'of'human'rights'especially'for'the'working'classes'and'other' disadvantaged'groups'all'around'the'world.'This'paper'aims'to'con) tribute'to'the'emerging'field'of'sociology'of'human'rights'by'analyz) ing'the'right'to'education'from'a'political'economy'perspective.'A' political'economy'approach'requires'an'analysis'of'power'relations' and' structural' inequalities' in' capitalist' society.' This' paper' has' a' critical' approach' to' liberal)individualist' theory' of' human' rights' which'has'emphasized'civil'and'political'rights'without'considering' the'effects'of'the'economic,'social,'cultural'and'political'inequalities' of' capitalist' societies' on' the' realisation' of' these' rights.' It' argues' that'economic,'social'and'cultural'rights,'on'the'other'hand,'despite' their' formal' recognition,' have' been' reduced' to' ‘consumer' rights’' with' the' withdrawal' of' the' state' from' the' provision' of' the' public' services'and'the'introduction'of'the'market'system'in'these'services' since'the'1970s.'I'will'try'to'disclose'this'gap'in'formal'recognition'

137' and'substantive'enjoyment'of'the'right'to'education'by'drawing'on' the' case' of' Turkey.' The' paper' will' discuss' the' possibility' of' provi) sion'and'enjoyment'of'the'right'to'education'within'the'neoliberal' socio)economic'structure'and'also'asks'how'successful'the'right'to' education'is'in'addressing'the'current'social,'economic'and'political' realities' as' it' is' formulated' in' the' international' human' rights' in) struments.'Its'specific'concern,'in'this'process'of'neoliberalisation,' is'the'introduction'of'market'relations'into'primary'education'and' their'implications'on'the'right'to'education'in'Turkey.'In'this'paper,' it'will'be'argued'that'the'restructuring'of'state)education'relation) ships' has' had' implications' on' the' right' to' education' in' Turkey' by' creating' new' forms' of' inequalities' in' education.' In' order' to' illus) trate'this'point,'I'will'focus'on'the'consequences'of'macro'polices'in' micro' level,' namely' on' individual' schools,' teachers,' parents' and' students' by' drawing' on' the' micro' level' qualitative' research' con) ducted'in'two'primary'schools'in'Ankara.'

INSTITUTIONAL!CHANGE!AND!VARIETIES!OF!

CAPITALISM!

Daniel'Heinrich

1'

1

Geographisches' Institut,' RUHR)UNIVERSITÄT' BOCHUM,' Bochum,'

Germany

'

Abstract:' The' development' of' capitalism' in' western' states' is' not' accurate' classifiable' in' a' dichotomous' convergence)divergence' model.' The' reason' is' that' institutional' complementarities,' differ) ently'than'in'the'VoC'postulated,'need'not'be'coherent.'Despite'the' overall'meaningful'and'comprehensible'classification'in'liberal'and' coordinated'market'economies,'national'institutional'arrangements' are' justified' as' a' social' regime' which' is' determined' by' historical' contexts,'that'can'contain'liberal'as'well'as'coordinated'elements.'

The'affect'of'mega'trends,'such'as'economical'globalization'and'the' increasing' importance' of' knowledge,' are,' according' to' national' historical'contexts,'institutionally'processed.'In'particular,'the'coor) dinated'market'economies'are'in'a'fiscal'pressure'condition.'These' economies'aim'to'optimize'their'national'business'demography'to' face'the'effects'of'the'mega'trends.'In'fact,'institutional'change'for' the'reinforcement'of'the'competitiveness'of'business'demography' is'influenced'by'national'path'dependency.'Thus,'despite'of'conver) sion,'drift,'exhaustion,'layering'and'displacement,'no'hybrid'type'of' market' economy' develops,' but' a' new' more' competitive' form' of' coordinated' market' economy.' There' are' no' competitive' ad) vantages'for'the'liberal'market'economies.Instead,'they'must'deal' with'new'forms'of'dependence'on'their'business'demography.'For' example,'Denmark'and'Ireland'pursued'different'policies'for'chang) ing' their' institutions' to' optimize' their' business' demography.Both' nations'are'not'clearly'marked'by'a'distinct'institutional'trend.'As'a' result,' liberal' institutional' complementarities' will' harmonize' with' coordinated,'if'the'institutional'hierarchy'remains'clear.'

COMMUNICATING!THE!EU!SOCIAL!ECONOMY!AND!

THE!WELFARE!STATE!AFTER!THE!LISBON!TREATY!

Mihaela'Danetiu

1'

1

Communication,' National' School' of' Political' and' Administrative'

Studies,'Bucharest,'Romania

'

Abstract:' The/ main/ goal/ of/ this/ article/ is/ to/ analyze/ how/ are/ the/

European/ social/ economy/ and/ the/ social/ policies/ communicated/ from/the/institutions/to/the/citizens./Are/the/EU/institutions/able/to/ communicate/the/social/responsibility?/Is/the/European/Social/Econ=

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

138'

omy/a/communication/tool/itself?/The/current/EU/strategy/that/was/ adopted/after/the/Lisbon/Treaty/highlights/the/need/of/constructing/ the/European/citizenship/that/can/overcome/the/unilateralist/dimen= sion/given/by/the/national/citizenship./The/social/inclusion/policy/and/ the/social/integration/on/the/market/labor/require/a/communication/ strategy/that/targets/the/European/citizens./Social/economy/obliges/ several/political/actors/such/as/the/EU/institutions,/corporations/and/ states/ to/ take/ part/ in/ forging/ the/ European/ Citizenship./ The/ study/ will/ analyze/ the/ social/ economy/ as/ a/ communication/ tool/ that/ has/ the/ability/to/convert/the/national/interests/and/projecting/them/to/ the/ European/ level./ From/ the/ humanist/ philosophical/ principles/ of/ the/social/economy/to/the/cultural/patterns/of/each/member/state,/ responsibility/and/equal/opportunities/merge/into/a/single/dimension/ of/an/identity/that/can/play/a/key/role/in/consolidating/the/European/ public/ sphere./The/EU/ Barometers,/the/ projects/ that/ have/ been/ al= ready/ implemented/ on/ employment,/ the/ social/ cohesion/ and/ the/ institutional/communicational/products/from/the/EU/institutions/can/ provide/ useful/ data/ that/ can/ indicate/ the/ degree/ of/ implication/ of/ the/ citizen/ in/ the/ EU/ social/ policy./ The/ social/ dimension/ of/ the/ EU/

2020/strategy/can/point/out/the/strengthening/of/the/Welfare/Euro=

pean/states.'

Keywords:social'economy,'citizenship,'corporate'social'responsibil) ity,'Welfare,'social'policy.'

EU!CORPORATE!SOCIAL!RESPONSIBILITY!IN!A!POSTG

LISBON!CONTEXT!

Laura'Horn

1'

1

Political'Science,'VU'UNIVERSITY'AMSTERDAM,'Amsterdam,'Neth) erlands

'

Abstract:'In'its'Europe'2020'strategy,'the'European'Commission'has' made'a'strong'commitment'to'promoting'Corporate'Social'Respon) sibility'(CSR)'‘as'a'key'element'in'ensuring'long'term'employee'and' consumer' trust’.' In' particular' in' the' context' of' the' financial' and' economic' crisis,' CSR' is' increasingly' seen' as' a' policy' instrument' to' address'questions'of'corporate'behaviour'and'societal'change.'

This'paper'puts'the'recent'developments'in'CSR'at'the'EU'level'in' the' Post)Lisbon' period' in' the' context' of' a' broader' perspective' of' how' CSR' emerged' as' a' policy' area' in' the' European' Union.' CSR' is' often'criticised'as'a'non)committal'form'of'social'and'environmen) tal' self)regulation,' avoiding' more' concrete' regulation' on' labour' standards' and' environmental' protection.' Drawing' on' a' neo)

Gramscian'approach'to'European'integration,'the'paper'argues'that'

CSR' initiatives' by' the' European' Commission' have' constituted' a' moment' of' trasformismo,' in' which' contestation' and' opposition' have' been' incorporated' into' a' broad' and' non)binding' process' of' civil'society'dialogue.'Institutionally,'within'the'Commission'there'is' a'strong'bifurcation'of'CSR'and'industrial/social'policy'on'the'one' hand,'and'Internal'Market'and'Financial'Regulation'on'the'other'–' while'inititiaves'in'the'latter'often'have'a'binding'character,'discus) sions' in' the' former' domain' tend' to' be' programmatic' rather' than' offering' concrete' outcomes.' In' light' of' the' recent' financial' and' economic' crisis,' the' paper' then' examines' whether' the' Commis) sion’s'CSR'policy'has'changed'significantly'following'the'regulatory' reactions'to'the'immediate'crisis'and'the'recession,'and'how'these' changes'reflect'a'general'reconsideration'of'social'policy'at'the'EU' level.'

Abstract'Book'

INTEGRATION!IN!CRISIS:!A!REGULATIONIST!

PERSPECTIVE!ON!THE!INTERACTION!OF!EUROPEAN!

VARIETIES!OF!CAPITALISM!

Johannes'Jäger

'1

,'Joachim'Becker

'2

'

1

Economics,'UNIVERSITY'OF'APPLIED'SCIENCES'BFI'VIENNA,'Viena,'

2

Economics,'University'of'Economics'and'Business'Vienna,'Vienna,'

Austria

'

Abstract:'The'present'crisis'in'Europe'affects'national'economies'in' different'ways.'In'addition,'the'whole'pattern'of'European'integra) tion'is'in'crisis'and'important'institutional'transformations'are'ob) served.' It' is' proposed' to' apply' a' theoretical' framework' which' al) lows'focusing'on'the'specific'linkages'between'(national)'regimes'of' accumulation' in' combination' with' a' systematic' analysis' of' institu) tions'at'different'spatial'levels.'This'is'provided'by'a'modified'and' expanded'regulation'approach'which'we'use'as'framework'for'our' paper.'Based'on'this,'we'provide'an'empirical'overview'of'the'dif) ferent'regimes'of'accumulation'and'their'interaction'to'explain'the' crisis'and'its'dynamics.'In'addition,'we'analyse'the'reactions'to'the' crisis'and'the'consequences'in'terms'of'institutional'transformation' at' different' territorial' levels.' This' allows' drawing' conclusions' re) garding'the'dynamics'of'future'political)economic'developments'in'

Europe.'

THE!DISEMBEDDED!GOVERNANCE!OF!THE!EUROPEAN!

UNION!

Maja'Lazo'Savevska

1'

1

Institut' d'Etudes' Europeenne,' Universite' Libre' de' Bruxelles,'Brus) sels,'Belgium

'

Abstract:' I' aim' to' provide' a)' Polanyian' critique' of' the' incomplete' neo)Gramscian' interpretation' of' the' EU' governance' structure,' by' drawing'insights'from'the'neo)Polanyian'scholarship'b)'Constructiv) ist' critique' of' the' pessimistic' accounts' of' Gill' and' Harmes' which' identify'neoliberal'preemptive'measures'in'every'societal'initiative.'

I'am'interested'in'applying'Polanyi’s'concept'of'disembeddedness' to' analyze' the' structural' transformations' of' the' society)economy' relation.' Many' formulations' provide' a' valid' analysis' of' underlying' issues'within'the'EU,'however'they'fail'to'theorize'the'implications' of'the'EU'integration'on'the'society)economy'relation.'Thus,'I'pro) pose'a'return'to'the'concept'of'disembeddedness,'which'can'help' us'assess'the'extent'to'which'the'economy'and'the'policy'are'inte) grated'at'the'EU'level.'Harmes'used'somewhat'redefined'version'of' this' concept' to' signify' the' configuration' of' the' EU.' However'

Harmes' makes' two' mistakes' when' applying' this' tool:' a)' borrows' this' concept' from' Polanyi' without' problematizing' it,' and' b)' pro) claims'that'there'is'disembedded'federalism'within'the'EU'without' making'a'refined'distinction'between'the'different'stages'of'disem) beddedness' that' marked' the' EU' integration.' If' he' engages' in' any' periodization'he'theorizes'only'the'general'transition'from'embed) ded'to'neo'liberalism'i.e.'his'periodization'is'not'EU'specific.'I'argue' that'we'should'question'the'direct'applicability'of'the'grand'neolib) eral' narrative.' Many' critical' thinkers' have' agreed' on' a' common' narrative'of'how'neoliberal'ideas'and'practices'spread'around'the' world.'However,'the'neoliberalization'of'the'EU'did'not'unfold'in'a' linear'manner.'Thus,'we'should'aim'at'an'EU'specific'narrative'that' would' be' more' complete' only' if' we' inspect' the' discrete' transfor) mations' within' it.' I' propose' to' reintroduce' the' concept' of' disem) beddedness'and'exhaust'its'explanatory'potential.'First,'I'would'like' to' theoretically' dissect' the' concept' of' disembeddedness' and' ex)

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

Abstract'Book'

' plain'my'understanding'of'the'concept.'Then'I'will'look'at'the'con) tingent' structural' transformations' that' marked' the' disembedden) ing'within'the'EU.'Not'to'repeat'Harmes'mistake,'I'intent'to'engage' in'more'precise'interpretation'of'the'extent'of'the'asymmetric'gov) ernance,'by'providing'periodization'of'it.'A'closer'look'at'the'insti) tutional'setup'of'the'EU'would'reveal'a'more'complicated'picture' that' disproves' the' thesis' that' the' economy' operates' absolutely' above'the'polity.'

THE!POLITICAL!ECONOMY!OF!THE!

TRANSNATIONALISATION!

Eva'Hartmann

1'

1

Intitute' of' political' and' international' studies,' UNIVERSITY' OF'

LAUSANNE,'Lausanne,'Switzerland

'

Abstract:'The'concept'of'varieties'of'capitalism'has'been'very'influ) ential'in'questioning'the'assumption'that'globalisation'will'lead'to' conversion.' This' paper' wants' to' challenge' the' methodological' na) tionalism' built' into' this' account' without,' however,' substituting' methodological'globalism'for'methodological'nationalism.'It'argues' that' what' is' needed' are' studies' that' examine' whether' the' nation' state'remains'the'main'organising'principle'and'if'so'why.'In'other' words,' the' nation)state' is' no' longer' the' explanans/ but' the' ex=

planandum.'

The'point'of'the'departure'of'the'paper'is'Hall’s'and'Soskice’s'dis) tinction'between'the'two'basic'types'of'capitalism,'i.e.'liberal'mar) ket' economy' and' coordinated' market' economy.' The' empirical' study'examines'vocational'education'and'training'(VET)'whose'co) ordination' differ' significantly' in' market' und' coordinated' econo) mies.'This'domain'thus'illustrates'very'well'the'two'types'of'market' economy.' By' looking' at' the' recent' internationalisation' of' VET' the' paper' analyses' to' which' extend' and' how' the' nation)state' as' the' principle'level'of'coordination'is'undermined.'

REGIMES!OF!SOCIAL!COHESION:!A!COMPARATIVE!

ANALYSIS!

Andy'David'Green

1'

1

Department' of' Lifelong' and' International' Education,' Institute' of'

Education,'University'of'London,'London,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:'This'paper'explores'the'different'meanings'of'social'cohe) sion' in' historical' and' contemporary' societies' and' identifies' some' different'‘regimes'of'social'cohesion’,'and'their'characteristics,'that' can'be'found'in'western'and'east'Asian'societies.'It'adopts'a'mixed) method'and'interdisciplinary'approach,'drawing'on'the'literatures' in'comparative'historical'sociology'and'comparative'political'econ) omy,'and'using'both'qualitative,'logical'comparative'methods,'and' quantitative'statistical'analysis.'In'the'first'section'of'the'paper'we' analyse' the' constituents' of' social' cohesion' which' are' specified' in' different' definitions)in)use' in' policy' and' contemporary' academic' writing.' This' leads' to' a' definition' of' social' cohesion' which' is' non) normative' and' non)exclusive' and' which' can' be' used' in' empirical' analysis.' The' second' section' seeks' to' identify' the' major' historical' traditions'of'writings'about'social'cohesion'and'the'social'order'in' western'sociology'and'political'philosophy'and'the'logics'they'imply' as'to'the'forces'which'bind'society'together.'

Sections'three'and'four'review'some'historical'evidence'for'social' origins' of' different' traditions' of' social' cohesion' in' the' West,' and'

139' their' subsequent' patterns' of' evolution,' based' on' ‘longue' durée’' accounts' of' historical' development' and' on' ‘non)absolute’' notions' of'path'dependency.'Section'five'uses'the'literature'on'‘varieties'of' capitalism’'and'‘welfare'state'regimes’'to'develop'some'provisional' theories' about' different' contemporary' forms' of' social' cohesion' which'may'be'found'in'particular'regions'–'or'clusters'of'countries')' in' the' West' and' east' Asia.' We' call' these' ‘regimes' of' social' cohe) sion’,'in'the'same'way'that'Esping)Andersen'(1990)'refers'to'‘wel) fare'regimes’'and'Michael'Walzer'(1997)'to'‘regimes'of'toleration’.'

The'last'section'of'the'paper'uses'international'data'on'social'atti) tudes' and' institutional' characteristics' to' test' empirically' whether' such'regimes'can'be'identified'in'terms'of'regions'or'country'clus) ters'which'display'particular'sets'of'institutional'characteristics'and' aggregate'social'attitudes.'

VARIETIES!OF!CAPITALISM:!POTENTIAL!WELLSPRING!

OF!THEORETICAL!ROUTES!IN!ASIA!PACIFICGFOCUSSED!

POLITICAL!ECONOMY!RESEARCH!

Lisa'Tilley

1'

1

East'Asian'Studies,'University'of'Leeds,'Leeds,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:' This' paper' argues' that' the' varieties' of' capitalism' (VoC)' approach,'up'to'now'sparsely'applied'in'the'East'Asian'context'in' particular,' represents' a' potential' wellspring' of' related' theoretical' perspectives'for'Asia'Pacific'researchers.'The'developmental'state' model' may' be' exhausted' in' the' sense' that' both' developing' and' industrialised' economies' no' longer' conform' to' its' most' precise' definition,' if' in' fact' they' ever' did;' while' convergence' theories' )' which'anticipate'largely'unidirectional'movements'towards'an'An) glo)American'neoliberal'model'–'have'been'contested'by'numerous' empirical' studies' into' capitalist' diversity.' In' contrast,' the' VoC' ap) proach')'employing'essentially'a'firm)level'analysis'with'particular' focus'on'inter)firm'and'state)business'relational'aspects'in'order'to' identify'core'determinants'of'capitalist'diversity')'offers'more'con) ceptual'density'and'methodological'precision.'

Two'key'examples'are'presented'which'locate'the'VoC'approach'at' an'early'stage'of'its'employment'in'the'Asia'Pacific'rather'than'at' an'end'point'or'in'crisis.'Firstly,'the'VoC'framework'is'proving'useful' in'theoretical'modelling'of'Southeast'Asia’s'developing'capitalisms,' which' may' not' entirely' adhere' to' liberal)' (LME)' or' coordinated' market'economy'(CME)'models,'but'may'show'elements'of'each'or' form'hybrid'types'combining'developmental'state'features'in'addi) tion.'Secondly,'application'of'the'VoC'approach'to'Japan'has'shown' its'use'in'defining'post)developmental'states'and'provided'a'theo) retical'framework'through'which'to'illustrate'divergent'practices'of' firms'in'these'states'from'those'based'in'LMEs.'

Rather' than' expecting' Asia' Pacific' economies' to' conform' to' the'

LME)CME' typologies,' this' paper' expects' their' boundaries' to' be' stretched,'even'to'a'third'or'hybrid'type'of'market'economy.'Relat) ed'to'this,'it'is'anticipated'that'some'of'the'region’s'economies'may' challenge' the' VoC' hypothesis' that' hybrid' regimes' which' approxi) mate'neither'the'LME'nor'the'CME'pole'develop'less'inter)firm'and' firm)institutional' complementarity' than' those' closer' to' the' two' ideal'types'–'Singapore'for'instance,'may'display'both'hybrid)type' capitalism' and' high' levels' of' complementarity.' On' the' whole,' the'

Asia'Pacific'has'much'empirical'substance'to'add'to'the'testing'of'

VoC'theories,'just'as'the'VoC'approach'has'much'to'add'to'theoret) ical'discourse'on'Asia'Pacific'capitalism.'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conference'/'Social'Relations'in'Turbulent'Times'

140'

VARIETIES!OF!CAPITALISM!AND!THE!RESTRUCTURING!

OF!THE!NORDIC!LABOUR!PROCESS!

Markku'Sippola

1'

1

UNIVERSITY'OF'EASTERN'FINLAND,'Joensuu,'Finland

'

Abstract:' The' position' of' the' worker' is' in' a' state' of' flux' in' North'

European'societies.'The'Nordic'countries,'that'is'to'say,'Denmark,'

Finland,'Iceland,'Norway'and'Sweden,'have'been'traditionally'cate) gorised' as' representatives' of' ‘the' Nordic' model’' or' coordinated' market' economies.' This' classification' does' not' satisfactorily' take' the' changing' situation,' based' on' historical' trajectories,' into' ac) count.'According'to'Finnish'and'Swedish'scholars,'the'emergence'of' the'universal'welfare'state'system'in'Nordic'countries,'for'example,' traces'back'to'early'changes'in'institutional'arrangements'that'have' had' great' implications' at' much' later' stages.' Moreover,' the' whole' capitalist'accumulation'is'taking'new'shape'in'the'aftermath'of'the' financial' crisis' 2008)2009,' which' calls' for' a' change' of' the' social/

system/ of/ innovation/ and/ production' (SSIP)' from' a' ‘social) democratic’' SSIP' toward' a' ‘market)based’' one.' New' dynamics' of' division'of'work'and'employment'relations'are'emerging.'The'‘high' road’'to'economic'growth'and'workers’'equal'prospects'in'the'Nor) dic' labour' market' are' giving' way' to' a' greater' variation' in' worker' status'within'a'country,'sector,'and'even'workplace.'New'forms'of' precarious' work' are' gaining' ground.' The' use' of' flexi)time,' agency' and' posted' workers,' typically' of' foreign' origin,' is' becoming' more' widespread.' Simultaneously,' certain' parts' of' manufacturing' and' construction' processes' are' being' standardised' and' relocated' to' abroad.'In'connection'with'the'relocation,'blue)collar'labour'is'un) dergoing' degradation' while' the' white)collar'work'is'being'intensi) fied.' This' study' draws' upon' empirical' data' collected' from' Finnish' manufacturing'and'construction'sites'and'Baltic'and'Russian'subsid) iaries'of'Nordic'manufacturing'companies.'The'analysis'reveals'that' the' employer' utilises' both' in/ situ' and' spatial' strategies' of' labour' control,'under'the'all)encompassing'regime'of'‘hegemonic'despot) ism’.'This'new'regime,'intertwined'with'international'disintegration' of' production,' relies' upon' the' inequality' of' different' parts' of' the' process'for'ensuring'“national”'competitiveness'and'the'“natural”' evolution'of'economies.'Here'capitalists'–'the'Nordic'ones'included'

–'seek'to'maximise'comparative'advantage'through'the'relocation' of'low)cost'labour'manufacturing'operations'that'and'through'en) couraging'work)related'migration.'This'also'provides'the'economic' rationale'behind'the'integration'of'the'Eastern'European'countries' within'the'EU.'

SELFGORGANISATION!AS!A!FOUNDATION!OF!

ECONOMIC!GROWTH:!PAST!AND!CURRENT!PROBLEMS!

OF!RUSSIA!

Vasiliy'Skalon

1'

1

Department' of' Local' Administration,' HIGHER' SCHOOL' OF'

ECONOMICS,'Moscow,'Russian'Federation

'

Abstract:' The' World' economic' crisis' showed' once' again' on' the' example'of'Russia'that'raw)material'orientation,'however'high'raw' commodity'prices'are,'is'not'quite'a'sound'foundation'for'the'eco) nomic'system.'However,'current'economic'policy'in'Russia'doesn't' facilitate'the'increase'of'robustness'of'Russian'economy'in'turbu) lent' environment.' Expansion' of' government' intervention,' greater' concentration' of' power,' populist' growth' of' social' obligations' hin) der'the'diversification'of'Russian'economy'and'produce'steep'level' of'unproductive'institutional'costs.'The'main'thesis'of'our'paper'is'

Abstract'Book' that'Russia,'heading'towards'welfare'state,'skipped'a'crucial'stage:' creation' of' a' robust' institutional' and' economic' foundation.' The' essential'factor'of'creation'of'such'a'foundation'is'a'developed'local' governance'system.'

We'look'at'the'problems'of'Russian'economy'through'the'lens'of' local'governance,'because'this'element'of'public'administration'is' of'key'importance'for'the'functioning'of'extended'order'of'human' cooperation.'It'is'the'level'governed'by'the'local'authorities,'where' the' major' part' of' economic' activity' not' concerned' with' raw) materials'extraction'and'processing'happens.'In'search'of'the'gene) sis'of'the'considered'problems'we'refer'to'the'Russian'history.'

The' high' degree' of' concentration' of' power' has' been' a' distinctive' feature' of' Russian' statesmanship' during' last' four' centuries.' Even' today'Russian'policy'still'bears'marks'of'some'medieval'institutions.'

We'conclude'that'Russian'economy'is'a'prisoner'of'"bad"'institutes,' such'as:'defunct'land'market,'archetypic'bureaucratism,'civil'socie) ty'deficits,'etc.'

Nevertheless,'during'the'reforms'of'later'19th'—'early'20th'century' there'has'been'taken'a'number'of'fundamental'decisions'(removal' of' serfdom,' creation' of' district' councils' ('zemstvo'),' cooperation' support),' which' allowed' the' Russian' economy' to' perform' an' un) precedented'breakthrough,'interrupted'by'the'First'World'War'and' bolshevik's' coming' to' power.' In' our' paper' we' are' going' to' show' that' our' history' provides' some' decisions,' satisfying' the' require) ments' of' Russian' peculiarity' better,' than' uncritical' importation' of' foreign'(particularly'European)'models.'

The'study'is'based'on'field'research'of'local'governance,'conducted' by'the'author'during'last'2,5'years,'and'contains'conclusions,'which' can'be'of'interest'to'anyone,'concerned'with'condition'of'not'raw) commodity' oriented' part' of' Russian' economy' and' Russian' local' governance.'

THE!STATE!GOVERNANCE!OF!CRISIS!WITHIN!THE!

CONTEXT!OF!A!CRISIS!OF!STATE!GOVERNANCE:!TWO!

VERSIONS!OF!(POSTGFORDIST)!NEOGLIBERAL!

RESTRUCTURING!IN!SPAIN!AND!THE!UK!

Nagore'Calvo'Mendizabal

'1

,'Ivaylo'Vassilev

'1,'2

'

1

European'Studies'/'SPLAS,'King's'College'London,'London,'

2

School' for' Community' Based' Medicine,' The' University' of' Manchester,'

Manchester,'United'Kingdom

'

Abstract:'While'the'main'concerns'surrounding'the'on)going'global' crisis' have' primarily' focused' on' addressing' the' causes' and' conse) quences'of'the'crisis,'we'argue'that'it'offers'a'useful'context'within' which'to'explore'arguments'about'the'on)going'restructuring'of'the' state'as'well'as'examining'specific'strategies'of'adaptation.'In'de) veloping'this'analysis'we'will'draw'on'the'regulation'approach'and' state'theory'and'will'compare'Spain'and'the'UK.'More'specifically,' we' will' explore' the' nationally' specific' articulations' of' the' global' crisis' as' the' unfolding' of' a' set' of' specific' economic,' political' and' social'crises'in'Spain'and'the'UK.'Our'main'focus'however'will'be'on' the'political'system'and'the'strategies'and'political'rhetorics'devel) oped' in' response' to' these' different' crises,' and' the' ways' in' which' they'contribute'to'an'on)going'cycle'of'partial'resolution,'displace) ment,'and're)emergence'of'crisis.'In'developing'our'arguments,'we' will'analyse'official'government'documents'and'reports'as'well'as' coverage'and'discussion'in'major'national'newspapers'in'order'to' identify'key'issues,'adopted'policies,'controversies,'and'alternative' agendas,' alliances,' strategies' and' rhetorics.' Within' the' context' of'

Geneva'2011'/'ESA'10th'Conferen