Creative | 0404 PCIe | Owner`s manual | Creative 0404 PCIe Owner`s manual

Owner’s Manual
E-MU 0404 PCIe
Digital Audio System
Owner’s Manual
© 2009 E-MU Systems
All Rights Reserved
Software Version: 2.10
E-MU World Headquarters
E-MU Systems
1500 Green Hills Road
Scotts Valley, CA USA
95066
Europe
Creative Labs
Ballycoolin Business Park
Blanchardstown
Dublin 15
IRELAND
2
E-MU Japan
Creative Media K K
Kanda Eight Bldg, 3F
4-6-7 Soto-Kanda
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0021
JAPAN
E-MU Digital Audio System
Table of Contents
1- Introduction ................................................................. 7
Welcome! ............................................................................................................................... 7
The System Includes: .......................................................................................................... 7
Notes, Tips and Warnings ...................................................................................................... 8
Legacy Sync Daughter Card.................................................................................................... 8
2 - Installation .................................................................. 9
Setting Up the Digital Audio System....................................................................................... 9
Notes for Installation ...................................................................................................... 9
Safety First! .................................................................................................................. 10
Connector Types .............................................................................................................. 10
Installing the E-MU 0404 PCIe Card .................................................................................... 11
Software Installation ............................................................................................................. 12
Installing the E-MU 0404 Drivers ................................................................................. 12
Windows XP, Windows XP x64, Windows Vista, Windows Vista x64 .......................... 12
Note About Windows Logo Testing .............................................................................. 12
Uninstalling all Audio Drivers and Applications ........................................................... 12
3 - PCIe Card & Interfaces ................................................ 13
The E-MU 0404 PCIe Card .................................................................................................. 13
DB-9 & DB-15 Connectors ........................................................................................... 13
Analog Breakout Cable ..................................................................................................... 13
Digital Breakout Cable ...................................................................................................... 14
S/PDIF Digital Audio Input & Output .......................................................................... 14
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer ............................................. 17
PatchMix DSP....................................................................................................................... 17
Overview of the Mixer .......................................................................................................... 17
Mixer Window ................................................................................................................. 18
Mixer Block Diagram ........................................................................................................ 18
Pre Fader or Post Fader ................................................................................................ 18
E-MU Icon in the Windows Taskbar .................................................................................... 19
The Toolbar.......................................................................................................................... 19
The Session .......................................................................................................................... 20
Creative Professional
3
New Session ..................................................................................................................... 20
Open Session .................................................................................................................... 21
Save Session ..................................................................................................................... 21
Session Settings ................................................................................................................ 22
System Settings ............................................................................................................. 22
Using External Clock .................................................................................................... 22
I/O Settings .................................................................................................................. 23
Input Mixer Strips ................................................................................................................ 24
Input Type ................................................................................................................... 24
Mixer Strip Creation............................................................................................................. 25
Multichannel WAVE Files ................................................................................................ 26
Insert Section ................................................................................................................... 27
Working with Inserts .................................................................................................... 27
The Insert Menu ........................................................................................................... 28
ASIO Direct Monitor Send/Return ................................................................................ 29
Meter Inserts ................................................................................................................ 30
To Set the Input Levels of a Strip ...................................................................................... 31
Making the Best Possible Recording .................................................................................. 32
Trim Pot Insert ............................................................................................................. 33
Test Tone/Signal Generator Insert ................................................................................. 33
Aux Section ...................................................................................................................... 35
Sidechain Diagram ....................................................................................................... 35
Pre or Post Fader Aux Sends ......................................................................................... 36
Level, Pan, Solo & Mute Controls .................................................................................... 37
Main Section ........................................................................................................................ 38
TV Screen & Selectors ...................................................................................................... 39
Effect ............................................................................................................................ 39
Input ............................................................................................................................ 40
Output ......................................................................................................................... 40
Auxiliary Effects & Returns .............................................................................................. 41
Sidechain Diagram ....................................................................................................... 41
Sync/Sample Rate Indicators ............................................................................................. 41
Output Section ................................................................................................................. 42
Main Inserts .................................................................................................................. 42
Main Output Fader ....................................................................................................... 42
Output Level Meters ..................................................................................................... 42
Monitor Output Level ................................................................................................... 42
Monitor Balance Control .............................................................................................. 42
Monitor Output Mute ................................................................................................... 42
5 - Effects ....................................................................... 43
Overview.............................................................................................................................. 43
The Effects Palette ................................................................................................................ 43
FX Insert Chains ............................................................................................................... 44
The Order of Effects ......................................................................................................... 45
Creating, Renaming & Deleting Categories or Presets ................................................... 45
88kHz, 96kHz, 176kHz & 192kHz Operation ..................................................................... 45
Importing and Exporting Core FX Presets and FX Insert Chains .................................. 46
FX Edit Screen...................................................................................................................... 47
User Preset Section ........................................................................................................... 48
Core Effects and Effects Presets ........................................................................................ 49
WDM Recording and Playback Behavior .......................................................................... 49
List of Core Effects ............................................................................................................... 50
DSP Resource Usage ......................................................................................................... 50
4
E-MU Digital Audio System
Core Effects Descriptions...................................................................................................... 51
1-Band Para EQ ................................................................................................................ 51
1-Band Shelf EQ ............................................................................................................... 51
3-Band EQ ....................................................................................................................... 52
4-Band EQ ....................................................................................................................... 53
Auto-Wah ........................................................................................................................ 54
Chorus ............................................................................................................................. 54
Compressor ...................................................................................................................... 55
Basic Controls ............................................................................................................... 55
Distortion ......................................................................................................................... 57
Flanger ............................................................................................................................. 57
Freq Shifter ...................................................................................................................... 58
Leveling Amp ................................................................................................................... 59
Lite Reverb ....................................................................................................................... 60
Mono Delays - 100, 250, 500, 750, 1500, 3000 ............................................................... 61
Phase Shifter ..................................................................................................................... 62
Rotary .............................................................................................................................. 62
Speaker Simulator ............................................................................................................ 63
Stereo Delays - 100, 250, 550, 750, 1500 ........................................................................ 63
Vocal Morpher ................................................................................................................. 66
Gate ................................................................................................................................. 67
Applications ................................................................................................................. 67
Parameters .................................................................................................................... 68
Threshold ..................................................................................................................... 68
Release Time ................................................................................................................. 68
Max Gain Reduction ..................................................................................................... 68
Lookahead .................................................................................................................... 68
Level Meter ................................................................................................................... 69
Gain Reduction Meter ................................................................................................... 69
Reshaper .......................................................................................................................... 69
Applications ................................................................................................................. 69
Multimode EQ ................................................................................................................. 72
Applications ................................................................................................................. 72
Parameters .................................................................................................................... 73
Lowpass ....................................................................................................................... 73
Highpass ...................................................................................................................... 73
Highpass -> Lowpass .................................................................................................... 74
Highpass || Lowpass ..................................................................................................... 74
Band Pass ..................................................................................................................... 75
Band Cut ...................................................................................................................... 75
RFX Compressor .............................................................................................................. 76
Signal Flow ................................................................................................................... 76
Parameters ........................................................................................................................ 77
Threshold ..................................................................................................................... 77
Gain Reduction Meter ................................................................................................... 77
Ratio ............................................................................................................................. 77
Attack ........................................................................................................................... 77
Release ......................................................................................................................... 77
Gain ............................................................................................................................. 78
Advanced Parameters ................................................................................................... 78
Soft Knee ...................................................................................................................... 78
Gate .............................................................................................................................. 80
Comp Lookahead/Delay ............................................................................................... 80
Auto-Release ................................................................................................................. 81
Max Compression ......................................................................................................... 82
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Neg Compression ......................................................................................................... 82
Input Mode .................................................................................................................. 83
Example Settings .......................................................................................................... 84
Connections and EQ Settings ....................................................................................... 86
Compressor Settings ..................................................................................................... 86
E-MU PowerFX .................................................................................................................... 87
Automating E-MU PowerFX ............................................................................................. 89
E-MU PowerFX Resource Availability ............................................................................... 89
E-MU PowerFX Compatibility Chart ............................................................................ 90
Rendering Audio with E-MU PowerFX ................................................................................. 91
General Tips for Rendering using E-MU PowerFX ........................................................ 91
Tips for using Freeze Mode on Cubase LE .................................................................... 91
Using E-MU PowerFX with WaveLab and SoundForge .................................................... 91
E-MU VST E-Wire................................................................................................................ 92
E-Delay Compensator ....................................................................................................... 93
E-Delay Compensator Use ............................................................................................ 94
E-Delay Units Parameter ............................................................................................... 95
Grouping Tracks .......................................................................................................... 95
6 - Appendix .................................................................. 97
Getting in Sync..................................................................................................................... 97
Useful Information ............................................................................................................... 98
AES/EBU to S/PDIF Cable Adapter ................................................................................... 98
Digital Cables ................................................................................................................... 98
Grounding ........................................................................................................................ 98
Appearance Settings in Windows ................................................................................. 98
Technical Specifications........................................................................................................ 99
Internet References ............................................................................................................. 101
Forums ....................................................................................................................... 101
Index ............................................................................ 103
6
E-MU Digital Audio System
1- Introduction
Welcome!
1- Introduction
Welcome!
Thank you for purchasing the E-MU 0404 digital audio system. Your computer is about to be
transformed into a professional quality audio processing workstation. We’ve designed your
E-MU Digital Audio System to be logical, intuitive and above all, to provide you with pristine
sound quality. This system offers unprecedented value by providing studio-quality, 24-bit/
192kHz multi-channel recording and playback at an astounding price.
E-MU Digital Audio System Components
E-MU 0404
• E-MU 0404 PCIe Card
• Analog Breakout Cable (1/4”(1)
Analog Breakout Cable (RCA))
• RCA Jack Breakout Cable
• Digital Breakout Cable
• E-MU Digital Audio System
Software/Driver Install CD-ROM
• Production Tools Software Bundle
CD-ROM
• Quick Start Guide
Inputs & Outputs
(2) Ch. S/PDIF Optical In
(2) Ch. S/PDIF Optical Out or
(2) Ch. S/PDIF Coaxial In
(2) Ch. S/PDIF Coaxial Out
(1) MIDI Input & Output (16 ch.)
(2) 24-bit unbalanced Line Inputs
(2) 24-bit unbalanced Line Outputs
The System Includes:
The E-MU 0404 PCIe Card provides 2 line level, unbalanced analog inputs, 2 line level, unbalanced analog outputs, plus MIDI input and output. This is a finely-tuned audio interface, using
high performance 24-bit/192kHz A/D - D/A converters to deliver an unbelievable 111dB of
dynamic range. Check out the complete specs on page 99.
The PCIe card contains a powerful hardware DSP processor which allows you to use over 16
simultaneous hardware-based effects, which place minimal load on your computer’s CPU. The
E-MU 0404 PCIe Card also provides a S/PDIF stereo digital input and output with either
optical or coaxial connections. A built-in MIDI interface allows you to connect external MIDI
instruments or keyboards directly to your computer.
The PatchMix DSP mixer application is included in all the systems. PatchMix DSP delivers
unmatched flexibility in routing your audio between physical inputs and outputs, virtual
(ASIO) inputs and outputs and internal hardware effects and buses—no external mixer
needed. You can add digital effects, EQs, meters, level controls and ASIO sends anywhere you
like in the signal chain.
Because the effects and mixing are hardware-based, there is no latency when you record. You
can even record a dry signal while monitoring yourself with effects! Mixer setups can be saved
and instantly recalled for specific purposes such as recording, mixdown, special effect setups
or general computer use.
You’ll want to keep up with the latest software and options for your E-MU digital audio system.
You can find all of this, plus other helpful information, at the E-MU Website: http://
www.emu.com.
E-MU Digital Audio System
7
1- Introduction
Notes, Tips and Warnings
Notes, Tips and Warnings
Items of special interest are presented in this document as notes, tips and warnings.
Notes provide additional information related to the topic being discussed. Often,
notes describe the interaction between the topic and some other aspect of the
system.
Tips describe applications for the topic under discussion.
Warnings are especially important, since they help you avoid activities that can
cause damage to your files, your computer or yourself.
Legacy Sync Daughter Card
The legacy Sync Daughter Card is NOT compatible with the 0404PCIe card. The Sync
Daughter Card was an option for the 0404 PCI card that provided Word Clock in and out,
SMPTE in and out, and MIDI Time Code output.
8
Creative Professional
2 - Installation
Setting Up the Digital Audio System
2 - Installation
Setting Up the Digital Audio System
There are five basic steps to installing your E-MU system:
1. IMPORTANT - Remove any other sound cards you have in your computer.
(Once you are sure that the E-MU card works properly, your old sound card can be
reinstalled if desired. Bear in mind that depending on your computer system, multiple
sound cards do not always work together.)
2. Install the 0404 PCIe card in your computer. Go there.
3. Attach the Analog and Digital breakout cables to the rear of the 0404 card.
4. Install the PatchMix DSP software onto your computer.
5. Connect audio and MIDI cables between the 0404 PCIe and your other gear.
Notes for Installation
• IF AT ANY TIME DURING THIS INSTALLATION YOU SEE NO RESPONSE:
Use the Alt-Tab feature to select other applications. One of them may be the Microsoft
Digital Signature warning. It is possible for this warning to appear behind the installation screen.
• Make sure you have the latest Windows Service Packs from Microsoft
(Windows XP - SP 2 or higher, Vista - SP 1 or higher).
• Disable onboard sound and uninstall all other sound cards. (If you wish to try using
multiple sound cards in your system, do so after you have confirmed that your E-MU
Digital Audio System is operating normally.)
• InstallShield “IKernel Application Error” on Windows XP: When installing this software
on Windows XP, you may be confronted with a “kernel error” at the very end of installation. This is an issue with the InstallShield program, which is what we use to install
software on your computer. Please do not be alarmed by this, as the error is innocuous.
To read more about this error, and obtain instructions on how to avoid getting the
message, please visit this website: http://support.installshield.com/kb/
view.asp?articleid=q108020
• Multiple Digital Audio System sound cards are currently not supported.
Please read the following sections as they apply to your system as you install the E-MU 0404,
paying special attention to the various warnings they include.
E-MU Digital Audio System
9
2 - Installation
Setting Up the Digital Audio System
Safety First!
• To avoid possible permanent damage to your hardware, make sure that all
connections are made to the E-MU 0404 PCIe card with the host computer’s power
off. Unplug the computer’s power cable to make sure that the
computer is not in sleep mode.
As you install
hardware components,
observe the following
general precautions to
avoid damage to your
equipment and yourself.
• Take care to avoid static damage to any components of your system. Internal
computer surfaces, the E-MU 0404 PCIe board and the interfaces are susceptible to
electrostatic discharge, commonly known as “static.” Electrostatic discharge can
damage or destroy electronic devices. Follow these procedures when handling
electronic devices in order to minimize the possibility of causing electrostatic
damage:
• Avoid any unnecessary movement, such as scuffing your feet when handling
electronic devices, since most movement can generate additional charges of static
electricity.
• Minimize the handling of the PCIe card. Keep it in its static-free package until
needed. Transport or store the board only in its protective package.
• When handling a PCIe card, avoid touching its connector pins. Try to handle the
board by its edges only.
• Before installing a PCIe card into your computer, you should be grounded. Use a
ground strap to discharge any static electric charge built up on your body. The
ground strap attaches to your wrist and any unpainted metal surface within your
computer. If you don’t have a ground strap, you can ground yourself by touching
the metal case of another piece of grounded equipment.
• Before connecting a cable to your interface or between PCIe cards, touch the
connector sleeve of the cable to the sleeve of the jack to which you’ll be connecting
the cable in order to discharge any static build-up.
Connector Types
These connector types are used to connect the E-MU 0404 hardware components. They will be
referred to by the name shown in the first column of the following chart:
Name
Description
Connects
DB-15 Digital
Digital Cable Connector
0404 PCIe card and Digital I/O
DB-9 Analog
Analog Cable Connector
0404 PCIe card and Analog I/O
1/4” Jacks
1/4” Breakout Cable
2 channel analog input/output
RCA Jacks
RCA Breakout Cable
2 channel analog input/output
S/PDIF In
RCA Connector
S/PDIF digital audio devices
S/PDIF Out
RCA Connector
S/PDIF digital audio devices
S/PDIF Optical In
TOSLINK Optical Connector S/PDIF digital audio devices
S/PDIF Optical Out TOSLINK Optical Connector S/PDIF digital audio devices
10
Creative Professional
2 - Installation
Installing the E-MU 0404 PCIe Card
Installing the E-MU 0404 PCIe Card
Note: This installation is very simple, but if you are not familiar with the installation of
computer peripherals and add-in boards, please contact your authorized E-MU Systems
dealer or an approved computer service center to arrange for the installation.
To install the 0404 PCIe card into your computer
1. Make sure that the power switch on your computer is off.
IMPORTANT: Unplug the power cord from the wall outlet!
2. Touch a metal plate on your computer to ground yourself and to discharge any static
electricity.
3. Follow the computer manufacturer’s recommended procedure for opening the case.
4. Remove the metal bracket from one PCIe x1 slot as shown in figure 1 below. (PCIe x1 slots
are the smallest of the PCIe slots.) Put any screws you removed (if applicable) aside for later.
Figure 1
Figure 2
Note: Some
computer cases don’t use
screws to secure PCIe
cards. In this case, follow
the instructions that
came with your
computer.
PC
Ie
Ie
PC
x1
6
6
x1
Ie
PC
x1
s t
ot sen )
Sl re er
I be p put
PCnot com
r
ay ou
(m n y
o
x1
Ie x1
PC Ie
PC
s t
ot sen )
Sl re er
I be p put
PCnot com
r
ay ou
(m n y
o
5. Align the E-MU 0404 PCIe card with the slot and press gently but firmly down into the
slot as shown in figure 2.
6. Do not force the E-MU 0404 card into the slot. Make sure that the gold finger connector of
the card is aligned with the PCIe bus connector on the motherboard before you insert the
card into the PCIe slot. If it doesn’t fit properly, gently remove it and try again.
7. Secure the card into the slot using one of the screws (if applicable) you placed aside
earlier.
8. Attach the Analog and Digital breakout cables to the rear of the 0404 card.
9. Connect your audio cables to the breakout cables.
E-MU Digital Audio System
11
2 - Installation
Software Installation
Software Installation
Installing the E-MU 0404 Drivers
The first time you restart your PC after installing the E-MU 0404 PCIe card, you will need to
install the PatchMix DSP software and E-MU 0404 PCIe card drivers.
Windows XP, Windows XP x64, Windows Vista, Windows Vista x64
The software is not compatible with other versions of Windows.
1. After you have installed your audio card, turn on your computer. Windows automatically
detects your audio card and searches for device drivers.
2. IMPORTANT: When prompted by Windows for the audio drivers, click the Cancel button.
3. Insert the E-MU software Installation CD into your CD-ROM drive. If Windows AutoPlay
mode is enabled for your CD-ROM drive, the CD starts running automatically. If not, from
your Windows desktop, click Start->Run and type d:\setup.exe (replace d:\ with the
drive letter of your CD-ROM drive). You can also open the CD and double-click
Setup.exe.
Serial Number During the registration
process, you will be asked
to enter your serial
number. The serial
number is located on the
back of the box and on
the 0404 PCIe Card.
4. The installation splash screen appears. Follow the instructions on the screen to complete
the installation.
5. Choose “Continue Anyway” when you encounter the “Windows Logo Testing” warning
screen. See note below for more information.
6. When prompted, restart your computer.
Note About Windows Logo Testing
When you install the Digital Audio System drivers, you will see a dialog box informing you
either that the driver has not been certified by Windows Hardware Quality Labs (WHQL), or
that the driver is signed by Creative Labs, Inc, and you will be asked if you would like to
continue with the installation.
The Digital Audio System audio drivers are not certified by WHQL because the product does
not support some of the features that the Microsoft Windows Logo Program requires, most
notably Universal Audio Architecture (UAA) and Digital Rights Management (DRM).
Despite this, the Digital Audio System audio drivers have been rigorously tested using the same
test procedures that a WHQL qualified driver requires, and it passes in all of the other
important categories, including those that measure the relative stability of the driver. So, it is
perfectly safe to install these drivers on your computer.
Uninstalling all Audio Drivers and Applications
At times you may need to uninstall or reinstall some or all of the audio card's applications and
device drivers to correct problems, change configurations, or upgrade outdated drivers or
applications. Before you begin, close all audio card applications. Applications still running
during the uninstallation will not be removed.
1. Click Start -> Settings -> Control Panel.
2. Double-click the Add/Remove Programs icon.
3. Click the Install/Uninstall tab (or Change or Remove Programs button).
4. Select the E-MU 0404 PCIe card entry, or the application entry and then click the Add/
Remove (or Change/Remove) button.
5. In the InstallShield Wizard dialog box, select the Remove option.
6. Click the Yes button. Restart your computer when prompted.
7. You may now re-install existing or updated E-MU 0404 PCIe card device drivers or appli-
cations.
12
Creative Professional
3 - PCIe Card & Interfaces
The E-MU 0404 PCIe Card
3 - PCIe Card & Interfaces
The E-MU 0404 PCIe Card
The E-MU 0404 PCIe card contains E-MU’s powerful E-DSP chip which leaves more power
free on your CPU for additional software plug-ins and other tasks. Bit depth is controlled by
your recording or audio application. The 0404 PCIe card always sends and receives 24-bit
audio.
DB-9 & DB-15 Connectors
Connects the analog and digital breakout cables to the 0404 PCIe card. Connect the 1/4”
Analog Breakout Cable to the DB-9 connector and the Digital Breakout Cable to the
DB-15 connector.
Analog Breakout Cable
The 0404 PCIe card provides one pair of 24-bit unbalanced analog inputs and one pair of 24bit unbalanced analog outputs. The analog breakout cable is designed to accommodate 1/4”
plugsRCA (phono) plugs. Use 1/4” to RCA adapter cables to connect to consumer audio gear.
Note: You may have to combine adapters to connect desktop computer speakers. An adapter
with two male 1/4” phone plugs to 1/8” stereo female adapter is available directly from E-MU
Systems in the US, or from your local electronics shop in other countries.
The outputs can feed any line level input such as a mixing board, the auxiliary input on your
stereo, or a set of powered speakers. They are not designed to drive headphones directly. Use a
mixer, home stereo receiver, or headphone amplifier to monitor with headphones.
Analog Output Connections
To Mixer
Inputs
Analog
Breakout
Cable
Mixer &
Powered Speakers
1/4" male to 1/4" male
(balanced or unbalanced)
or...
L
Aux Inputs
Out
R
Mono 1/4" male to
male Cinch (RCA) adapter
Integrated
Amp & Speakers
or...
Powered
Desktop
Speakers
Stereo
Mono 1/4" male to
Stereo 1/8" female adapter
E-MU Digital Audio System
13
3 - PCIe Card & Interfaces
The E-MU 0404 PCIe Card
The inputs can be connected to any line level stereo signal from keyboards, CD-players,
cassette decks, etc. Use 1/4” to RCA adapter cables to connect to consumer audio gear.
Analog Input Connections
Analog
Breakout
Cable
Audio Component
Mixer/Preamp
Electronic Keyboard
L
In
REAL
TIME
Microphone
(must be pre-amped)
CONTROLLERS
ASSIGNABLE
KEYS
PRESET
LEVEL
EXIT
ENTER
SAMPLE
PAGE
SEQUENCER
PRESET SELECT
1
2
3
4
5
6
RETURN
7
8
9
0
.
EMULATOR
R
Electric Instrument
Instr. Preamp
Digital Breakout Cable
S/PDIF Digital Audio Input & Output
ANALOG
Connect to
Analog
Breakout Cable
DIGITAL
Connect to
Digital
Breakout Cable
RCA phono jacks are the standard coaxial connectors
used for S/PDIF (Sony/Philips Digital InterFace) connections. A single jack carries two channels of digital audio.
The E-MU 0404 receives digital audio data with word
lengths of up to 24-bits. Data is always transmitted at 24bits.
S/PDIF digital I/O allows you to receive and/ or transmit
of digital data from external digital devices such as a DAT,
external analog-to-digital converters or external signal
processors equipped with digital inputs and outputs.
S/PDIF can also be transmitted and received via the
TOSLINK optical connectors on the Digital Breakout
Cable. Optical connections have certain advantages such
as immunity to electrical interference and ground loops.
Make sure to use high quality glass fiber light pipes for
connections longer than 1.5 meters.
The optical S/PDIF and RCA coaxial S/PDIF Inputs
cannot be used simultaneously, however BOTH
S/PDIF Outputs are available simultaneously (carrying the
same signal). See System Settings.
The S/PDIF out can be configured as either Professional
or Consumer mode in the Session Settings menu. The
14
Creative Professional
3 - PCIe Card & Interfaces
The E-MU 0404 PCIe Card
0404 PCIe card can be connected to AES/EBU digital audio systems through the use of a cable
adapter. See AES/EBU to S/PDIF Cable Adapter for details.
The S/PDIF input and outputs are usable at the 44.1kHz, 48kHz and 96kHz sample rates. The
word clock contained in the input data stream can be used as a word clock source.
See Using External Clock.
Digital Connections
Out
Digital
Breakout Cable
S/PDIF
(Optical)
In
Optical
DAT or CD
Any Digital Audio Device with S/PDIF
In
Out
Out
Coaxial
S/PDIF
(Coax)
Portable
Digital Recorder
Important: When
using any type of digital
I/O such as S/PDIF, you
MUST sample sync the
two devices or clicks and
pops in the audio See
Using External Clock
In
Audio out
MIDI Keyboard
In
MIDI Out
Out
R E A L
T I M E
C O N T R O L L E R S
A S S I G N A B L E
K E Y S
P R E S E T
L E V E L
EXIT
ENTER
S A M P L E
P A G E
S E Q U E N C E R
P R E S E T S E L E C T
1
2
3
4
5
6
RETURN
7
8
9
0
.
EMULATOR
In
Audio out
MIDI Sound Module
MIDI
Out
SAMPLE
I
TRANSPOSE
MASTER/GLOBAL
SAMPLE MANAGEMENT
MULTIMODE
PRESET MANAGEMENT
PRESET DEFINITION
TRIGGERS
DIGITAL PROCESSING
INC/YES
ABC
1
O
DEC/NO
PRESET
DYNAMIC PROCESING
ENTER
VOLUME
MIDI In
DRIVE SELECT
LOAD
SAVE
AUDITION
TRIGGER MODE
ESCAPE
GHI
DEF
2
3
JKL
MNO
4
5
6
PRS
TUV
WXY
7
8
9
QZ
0
MIDI
MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is a standard specification for networking two or
more devices together. Connect MIDI Out to external MIDI instruments and connect MIDI In
to a controller such as a MIDI keyboard.
Unlike S/PDIF, the MIDI cable does not carry audio data. In its most basic application, MIDI
tells a synthesizer when to start and stop playing specific notes. MIDI also carries other information such as how hard the note was played, what sound to play, the channel volume and
many other commands. The most important thing to remember is that MIDI contains
CONTROL information, not the sound itself.
Information on the MIDI cable can be assigned to any one of sixteen channels so that different
musical lines can be assigned to play specific sounds or MIDI instruments.
To connect more than one MIDI instrument to the 0404 PCIe card, the MIDI Thru port on
your synthesizer can be used. MIDI Thru carries an exact copy of the data on the synthesizer’s
MIDI input port.
MIDI Cable
Out
Using MIDI Thru
E-MU Digital Audio System
MIDI Sound Module
MIDI Thru
MIDI In
MIDI Sound Module
MIDI In
15
3 - PCIe Card & Interfaces
The E-MU 0404 PCIe Card
16
Creative Professional
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
PatchMix DSP
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
PatchMix DSP
The PatchMix DSP Mixer is a virtual console, which performs all of the functions of a
typical hardware mixer and then adds a few new tricks of its own. PatchMix DSP greatly
simplifies audio operations such as ASIO/WAVE routing, volume control, stereo
panning, equalization, effect processing, effect send/return routing, main mix
and monitor control, without getting in the way of your other software. It’s easy
and it works…beautifully!
To Invoke the PatchMix DSP Mixer
on the Windows System Tray. The PatchMix DSP
mixer window appears.
1. Left-click once on the E-MU icon
Overview of the Mixer
Physical Input Strips
Click on the buttons
and knobs in the mixer
screen below to jump to
the description of the
control.
Toolbar
ASIO Strip
Add New
Strip
Display
Select
Buttons
Delete
Strip
“TV”
Screen
Channel
Insert
Section
Pan
Controls
Aux
Effects
Section
Aux
Sends
Volume
Fader
Sync/
Sample
Rate
Indicators
Solo/Mute
Buttons
Monitor
Volume/Balance
/Mute Controls
User
Definable
Scribble Strip
WAVE Strip
Controls Windows Source Audio
(Direct Sound, Windows Media, etc.)
E-MU Digital Audio System
Main
Inserts
Current
Session
Name
Main Mix
Output Volume
& Meters
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4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Overview of the Mixer
Mixer Window
The Mixer consists of four main sections.
Application Toolbar
Lets you manage sessions and show/hide the various views.
Main Section
Controls all the main levels, aux buses, and their inserts. This
section also has a “TV” which shows parameters for the
currently selected effect and the input/output patchbay. It
also shows the session’s current sample rate and whether
the Digital Audio System is set to internal or external clock.
Mixer Strips
This section is located to the left of the Main Section and
shows all the currently instantiated mixer strips. Mixer strips
can represent Physical analog/digital inputs, or Host
inputs such as ASIO or Direct Sound. Mixer strips can be
added or deleted as necessary. This section can be resized
by dragging the left edge of the frame.
Effects Palette
This popup window is invoked by pressing the FX button in
the toolbar. Effects presets are shown here, organized by
category. From this window, you can drag and drop effect
presets into the insert slots available on the mixer strips and
main section aux buses and main inserts.
Tip: Study the
diagram below to
understand how the
PatchMix DSP Mixer
A simplified diagram of the mixer is shown below.
Input
Input
Post-Fader Strip
Pre-Fader Strip
Insert
Chain
Insert
Chain
Mixer Block Diagram
Panning
Fader
Meter
MUTE
Aux 1
Aux 2
Aux
Bus 1
Aux
Bus 2
Aux 1
Send
Amount
Aux
Effects
Return
Amount
Insert
Chain
Aux 2
Fader
MUTE
Main Bus
Monitor
Out
MUTE
Return
Amount
Send
Amount
Insert
Chain
Main Bus
Effects
Insert
Chain
Monitor
Level
Main
Level
Main
Out
Pre Fader or Post Fader
When creating a new Mixer Strip, you have the option for the Aux Sends to be Post Fader
(both Aux Sends come after the channel fader) or Pre Fader (both Aux Sends come before the
channel fader). The Pre-fader option allows you to use either Aux Send as another mix bus,
which is unaffected by the channel fader. More Information.
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Creative Professional
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
E-MU Icon in the Windows Taskbar
E-MU Icon in the Windows Taskbar
Right-clicking on the E-MU icon in the Windows taskbar calls up the following window.
Right-Click Here
Opens the PatchMix DSP Mixer.
Calls the PatchMix DSP help system.
Disables the splash screen that appears at
boot-up.
When unchecked, FX are not loaded until
needed, resulting in faster computer boot.
Restore Defaults:
Always try this option
first if PatchMix is
crashing or if you are
having any other
strange audio problems.
Restores the default PatchMix DSP and
driver settings.
Closes the PatchMix DSP background
program, disabling use of all audio I/O
from the E-MU hardware. Open the PatchMix DSP application to start audio again.
Click the buttons in
the toolbar to learn about
their function.
The Toolbar
New
Session
Save
Session
Open
Session
“About”
PatchMix DSP
Show/Hide
Effects
Session
Settings
Global
Prefs
New Session
Calls up the “New Session” dialog box. New Session.
Open Session
Calls up the standard “Open” dialog box, allowing you to
open a saved Session.
Save Session
Calls up the standard “Save” or “Save As…” dialog boxes,
allowing you to save the current Session.
Show/Hide Effects Toggle button that shows or hides the FX palette.
Session Settings
Calls up the Sessions Settings window. Session Settings.
Global Preferences Calls up the Global Preferences window.
About PatchMix
DSP
E-MU Digital Audio System
Right-Click on the E-MU logo to view the “About
PatchMix DSP” screen, which provides the software and
firmware version numbers and other information.
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4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
The Session
The Session
The current state of the PatchMix DSP mixer (fader settings, effects routings…everything!) can
be saved as a Session. Whenever you create or modify a mixer setup, all you have to do is Save
it to be able to recall it at a later time.
Before you begin using PatchMix DSP, you need to set it up to be compatible with the other
software applications you may be running. The most important consideration is your system
sample rate. PatchMix DSP and any applications or other digital gear you are using must
be set to the same sample rate. PatchMix DSP can run at 44.1kHz, 48kHz, 88.2kHz, 96kHz,
176.4 kHz or 192kHz sample rates, but the effect processors are only available at the 44.1kHz
or 48kHz rates.
When you start a new PatchMix DSP Session, the first choice you make is to select the sample
rate. Once set, you can only easily switch between 44.1kHz and 48kHz. You cannot switch
between 44/48kHz and 88k/96k/176k/192k. With a change to these higher sample rates,
you must start a new session.
You can also set up an external sync source, thereby obtaining the sample rate from some other
device or application. External sync can be obtained from the S/PDIF input. If the session is set
at 44.1kHz or 48kHz and the external source is coming in at 96kHz, the Sync Indicator will be
extinguished (off), but PatchMix will attempt to receive the external data. if the Sync Indicator
is Off, the two units are NOT sample locked and you should correct this condition to avoid
intermittent clicks in the audio. Always check for the presence of the “LOCKED” indicator
whenever you are using a digital interface.
PatchMix DSP comes with several session templates to choose from so when you create a new
session you can either create a “blank” session based around a designated sample rate, or select
from a list of template starting points.
In a PatchMix DSP session the number of strips in the mixer is dynamically configurable. See
Pre Fader or Post Fader. This allows you to create only those strips you need up to a maximum
number determined by available DSP resources and available inputs.
Important: When
using any form of digital
input, you MUST
synchronize the Digital
Audio System to the
external digital device.
See Using External Clock
New Session
You create a new session by clicking the “New Session” button in the PatchMix DSP main
Toolbar. The following dialog box appears.
Select a Template or new
Session at the desired
sample rate
Session Description
Add your own comment
or note about the Session
Check this if you want to
edit the New Session.
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4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
The Session
You can now select one of the factory template sessions. The factory templates are preprogrammed with specific setups such as audio recording or mixing. The selector tabs
categorize Template Sessions into three groups based on sample rate, 44.1k/48k, 88k/96k or
176k/192k.
You can create your own templates by simply copying or saving sessions into the “Session
Templates” folder (Program Files\Creative Professional\Digital Audio System\E-MU PatchMix
DSP\Session Templates).
The “Session Path” allows you to choose the destination for your Session. The default location
is in the “My Sessions” folder within the “My Documents” folder.
There is also a Comment area that you can use to give yourself some clue as to what you were
thinking when you created the session.
Open Session
To Open a saved session, click on the Open Session button. A dialog box appears allowing you
to choose one of your saved Sessions to open. Choose one of your saved sessions and click on
the Open button.
Save Session
To Save a session, click on the Save Session button. A Save dialog box appears allowing you to
choose a location in which to save the current Session. The “My Sessions” folder is chosen by
default.
Get in the habit of saving the session whenever you have created a special mixer setup. This
will make your life much easier as you can recall a setup for many different audio modes such
as: recording, mixing, special ASIO routings, etc.
E-MU Digital Audio System
Saving a session
“defragments” the effect/
DSP resources. If you
have used all your effects
and need another, try
saving the session.
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4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
The Session
Session Settings
System Settings
Pressing the Session Settings button on the toolbar brings up the System Settings window
shown below. Click the tabs to select System or I/O options.
The System Settings include the following choices:
• Internal/External Clock Selects between internal or external clock source
as the master clock source for the system
• Sample Rate
Selects the sample rate when using internal clock.
Your choices are: 44.1kHz, 48kHz, 88.2kHz,
96kHz, 176.4kHz, 192kHz
• External Clock Source
(ext. clock only)
Select S/PDIF as an external sample clock source.
Note: if set to
“External” without an
external clock present,
PatchMix DSP defaults to
the internal 48kHz clock
rate.
Using External Clock
Whenever you are connecting two or more devices using digital I/O such as S/PDIF, one of the
digital devices MUST supply the master clock to the others. This master clock runs at the
system sample rate and can be distributed using a dedicated cable (word clock) or embedded
into a data stream such as S/PDIF. Common symptoms of unsynced digital audio include,
random clicks or pops in the audio or failure of the digital stream to be recognized. Always
check for the presence of the “LOCKED” indicator whenever you are using a digital
interface.
If an External Clock is interrupted or switched after the Session has been created (except
between 44.1k <-> 48k), the “LOCKED” indicator will extinguish and PatchMix will attempt to
receive the external data. The two units are NOT sample locked however, and you should
correct this condition to avoid intermittent clicks in the audio.
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4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
The Session
I/O Settings
The 0404 PCIe card is optimized for signal levels of -10dBV (consumer standard) for the
analog inputs and outputs. -10dBV levels are compatible with most consumer audio gear.
Setting correct input and output levels is important! You can measure the level of an input
by inserting a meter into the first effect location in the strip. Adjust your external equipment
outputs for the optimum signal level. See “To Set the Input Levels of a Strip” for details.
Optical
Input Select
S/PDIF
Output
Format Select
(Sets S/PDIF-AES
status bit, but
doesn’t affect
level.)
The optical digital TOSLINK input and output on the Digital Breakout Cable can be used to
transmit and receive stereo S/PDIF.
• PCIe Card S/PDIF Input
Selects between coaxial or optical S/PDIF input.
S/PDIF out is always transmitted on both the
coaxial and optical outputs.
• S/PDIF Output Format
Selects between S/PDIF or AES/EBU format for
S/PDIF. This sets the S/PDIF-AES status bit, but
does not affect the signal level.
E-MU Digital Audio System
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4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Input Mixer Strips
Input Mixer Strips
PatchMix DSP Line Input Mixer Strips are mono. The WAVE and S/PDIF strips are stereo. Each
input mixer strip can be divided into four basic sections.
• Insert Section
Effects, EQ, External/Host Sends and Returns can be inserted into the
signal path.
• Pan Controls
This control positions the signal in the stereo sound field.
• Aux Sends
Used to send the signal to sidechain effects or create separate mixes.
• Volume Control Controls the output level of the channel.
Input Type
Mono/Stereo
Input Type
The very top of the strip is labeled mono
or stereo and displays the type of the
assigned input. Input mixer strips can be
added as desired and can be configured to
input the following:
• Physical input
(Analog/SPDIF)
• Host Input
(Direct Sound, WAV, ASIO
source)
Insert Section
Pan Controls
Inserts
The Input Type will
turn RED if the input is not
available.
Physical input strips are
shown with BLUE text.
Host input strips are
shown with WHITE text.
You can drag and drop effects from the
Effects Palette or Right-click to insert a
Physical or ASIO Send or Send/Return A
Peak Meter, Trim Control or Test Signal
can also be inserted by Right-clicking.
Pan Controls
Aux Sends
These controls allow to you position the
channel in the stereo sound field. Dual
controls on stereo strips allow you to
position each side independently.
Aux Sends
Channel
Volume
Control
These controls send the signal to
sidechain effect processors such as reverb
and delay. They can also be used to create
separate mixes for the artist or for
recording.
Volume Control
Mute/Solo
Buttons
Controls the output level of the strip into
the main/monitor mix bus.
Mute/Solo Buttons
Scribble Strip
These convenient buttons allow you to
solo or mute selected channels.
Scribble Strips
This screen shows a mono strip on the left and a
stereo strip on the right.
24
Click inside the scribble strip and type a
name of up to eight characters.
Creative Professional
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Mixer Strip Creation
Mixer Strip Creation
PatchMix DSP is a dynamically configurable mixer. Each mixer session can contain an arbitrary
number of channel strips up to a limit set by the number of available input sources and
available DSP resources.
You must create a strip for each mono or stereo audio input, and for each ASIO stream you
wish to use in your software application. This is important because outputs will not appear in
your software application until you have created ASIO strips in PatchMix.
To Add a New Strip:
1. Click on the New Mixer Strip button. See Overview of the Mixer
2. The Assign Mixer Strip Input Dialog appears:
Physical
Sources
ASIO
Sources
3. Select the desired input to the mixer strip from the following choices:
• Physical Source:
Stereo analog or digital card input (Analog or S/PDIF)
• Host - ASIO Source input Streaming audio from an ASIO software application.
• Host - WAVE input
Mixer Strip Type
Windows sound sources—WAVE, Direct Sound,
WDM, CD
Function
Physical: PCIe Card Analog 24-bit mono or stereo analog inputs.
Physical: PCIe Card S/PDIF 2 channel digital audio from the S/PDIF input.
HOST SOURCE
Function
Host ASIO Output Source Mono or stereo digital audio from an ASIO source
From software application (i.e. a recording or other software app).
ASIO Out 1-32, ASIO Out 1/2. 3/4, etc.
Host Windows Source
From Windows
Direct Sound, WDM, Windows Media
(Sound generated or handled by Windows.)
WAVE 1/2 - Default stereo source such as game sound,
CD player, beep sounds, etc.
WAVE 3/4 - Additional WDM channels
4. Select Pre-Fader Aux Sends or leave the box unchecked for Post-Fader Aux Sends.
CDs & MP3s: The
WAVE 1/2 strip is used
to playback CDs,
Windows Media Player,
and Direct Sound.
2 channels of
WAVE recording and
4 channels of
multichannel WAVE
playback are supported.
• Classic MME
• DirectSound
• Direct WDM /
Kernel Streaming (KS)
192kHz/96kHz
DVD-Audio disks are
protected against digital
copying. Most DVDAudio disks contain
duplicate 48kHz audio
tracks which will play
back on the 0404.
5. Click OK to create a new strip or Cancel to cancel the operation.
E-MU Digital Audio System
25
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Mixer Strip Creation
To Delete a Mixer Strip:
1. Click the top of the mixer strip you wish to delete. A red border appears around the strip,
indicating that it is selected.
2. Click on the Delete Mixer Strip button or right-click and choose Delete, or use the Delete
key on the PC keyboard. See Overview of the Mixer
Multichannel WAVE Files
The 0404 PCIe supports 2 channels of WAVE recording and 4 channels of multichannel
WAVE playback. The WAVE channels are available for the following types of WDM devices:
• Classic MME
• DirectSound
• Direct WDM / Kernel Streaming (KS)
DirectSound and the WDM/KS interfaces allow up to four channels of Wave Out while the
classic MME interface only exposes 2 channels.
The WAVE channels operate at all sample rates. For additional information about WDM
behavior at high sample rates, see page 49.
192kHz/96kHz DVD-Audio disks are protected against digital copying. Most DVD-Audio
disks contain duplicate 48kHz audio tracks which will play back on the 0404.
Select DirectSound as the output format when using Windows Media Player and other DVD
player applications.
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4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Mixer Strip Creation
Insert Section
The Insert Section is next in line. PatchMix DSP effects can be selected from the Effects Palette
and dropped into the insert locations. See “The Effects Palette”. Any number of effects can be
inserted in series. The signal flow through the insert section is fromTop to Bottom.
If a DSP effect is above a Send, the effect will be applied to that Send. If the DSP effect is placed
below the Send, the send will be dry (no effects).
The Inserts also have the unique ability to patch into ASIO/WAVE and external equipment.
Special inserts, ASIO/WAVE Sends, External Sends and External Send/Returns can be dropped
into the insert section to route the signal anywhere you want.
The Insert/Patch Bay is incredibly flexible. Want to send the strip to your audio recorder? Just
insert an ASIO send into the insert section and select the ASIO pair you want. That’s it! That
input is available in your ASIO software.
Suppose you wanted to record a submix of your voice mixed with a CD? Simply place a HOST
ASIO SEND into the Aux Insert section and turn up the Aux Sends on the input channels you
want in the mix. (This patch is actually shown in the Mixer Overview on page 18.) Note that
the WAVE L/R Strip and the I/O Card In L strip are routed to Aux Send 2, which has a HOST
ASIO SEND insert to the recording application.
The following types of inserts can be selected.
You have to create an
ASIO strip or ASIO Send in
order to activate these
ASIO channels in your
software.
Hardware Effect Reverb, EQ, Compressor, Flanger, etc. using PatchMix DSP’s effects
which do not load your CPU.
ASIO Send
Splits off the signal and sends to an ASIO host input such as a
software audio recorder or anything that uses ASIO.
ASIO Direct
Monitor
Sends the signal to a selected ASIO host input, then returns a
selected ASIO host output to the chain. Use for recording with
“ASIO Direct Monitor Send/Return”
Ext. Send/Return Sends the signal to a selected external output, then returns it to
the chain via a physical input.
External Send
Sends the signal to an external output. See “To Add a Send Insert:”.
Peak Meter
Peak meters allow you to monitor the signal level anywhere in the
chain. See “Meter Inserts”.
Trim Pot
You can insert a gain control with up to 30 dB of gain or attenuation. A peak level meter and phase inverter are also included.
See page 33.
Test Tone
This special insert outputs a calibrated sine wave or noise source,
which can be used to track down audio problems. See page 33.
Working with Inserts
The Inserts are one of most powerful features of the PatchMix DSP system as they allow you to
configure the mixer for a wide variety of applications.
To Add an Effect to an Insert Location:
1. Press the FX button. The effects palette appears.
2. The effects are organized into categories. Click on a folder to open it.
3. Select the effect you want, drag it over the insert section, then drop it into an insert
location.
4. To rearrange the order of effects, simply drag and drop them into the desired order.
E-MU Digital Audio System
Problem: You are
not able to select analog
return when using the
Send/Return Inserts.
Reason: The 0404
Digital Audio System only
supports Stereo I/O in
the Send/Return Insert
section. The analog
inputs on the 0404 are
mono.
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4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Mixer Strip Creation
Note: The Physical Output & Input option is “grayed-out” when using the default Session
Reason: The 0404 Digital Audio System has only 4 physical inputs and 4 physical outputs. The
Send/Return option is grayed-out because all the physical I/O resources available for send/
return have been used in this Session. If S/PDIF I/O is not being used elsewhere, it becomes
available in the Send/Return list.
The Insert Menu
Right-Clicking over the insert section brings up a pop-up selection box containing various
insert options to help you control and manage your inserts.
Note: The order of
the inserts is important
since the signal flows
from Top to Bottom.
From Left Input
To
Recording
Application
For example, if an ASIO
Insert is placed above an
reverb effect, the ASIO
signal will be sent to your
recording app without
reverb. If the reverb was
placed above the ASIO
Send, the ASIO signal to
your recording app will
have reverb applied.
To connect an input to your recording
software: Add a Host ASIO Insert.
To Add a Send Insert:
This type of insert send splits the signal at the insert point and sends it out to the selected destination. (An “ASIO Send” becomes an input on your recording application, a “Physical Out”
goes to a pair of output jacks. the signal also continues down the strip to the Aux Sends and
main mixer outputs.)
1. Right-Click over the Insert section. A pop-up dialog box appears.
2. Select “Insert Send (to ASIO/WAVE or other)” from the list of options. The following
dialog box appears.
Input
To ASIO, WAV or
Physical Output
Insert
Send
Panning
Fader
Aux 1 Bus
Aux 2 Bus
Main Output Bus
3. Choose one of the Send Outputs. Click on a destination to select it.
4. Click OK to select the output or Cancel to cancel the operation.
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4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Mixer Strip Creation
To Add a Send/Return Insert:
This type of insert send breaks the signal at the insert point and sends it out to the selected
destination such as an external effect processor. A return source signal is also selected which
returns the signal to the channel strip after processing.
1. Right-Click over the Insert section. A pop-up dialog box appears.
2. Select “Insert Send/Return” from the list of options. The following dialog box appears.
Input
To Physical Output
From Physical Input
Insert
Send/Return
Panning
Fader
If the source or
destination you want to
use is not available in the
list, they are probably
already being used
elsewhere. Check the
input Strips, Inserts and
Output Assignments.
Aux 1 Bus
Aux 2 Bus
Main Output Bus
3. Choose one of the Send Outputs. Click on a destination to select it.
4. Choose one of the Return Inputs. Click on a source to select it.
5. Click OK to select the Send and Return or Cancel to cancel the operation.
ASIO Direct Monitor Send/Return
This type of insert send breaks the signal at the insert point and sends it out to the selected
ASIO Host Input destination (such as Cubasis). A return source signal is also selected which
returns the signal to the channel strip from an ASIO Host Output.
The ASIO Direct Monitor Send/Return is unique in that it utilizes ASIO 2.0 zero-latency
monitoring. In order to utilize this feature, Direct Monitoring must be enabled in the
audio recording application.
While recording, the Direct Monitor Send/Return routes the signal to the recording application, but monitors directly from the input to eliminate latency. During playback, the
recording application automatically switches the Direct Monitor Send/Return to monitor the
recorded track.
Input
Direct Mon
Recording
E-MU Digital Audio System
Input
Recording
Software
Direct Mon
Recording
Software
Playback
29
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Mixer Strip Creation
The Direct Monitor Send/Return also allows the recording application to control volume and
pan. Normally when using direct monitor recording you’ll want to control the volume and pan
from the recording application. In this case, set the PatchMix DSP stereo pan controls hard left
and right, mono pan controls to center, and the fader to 0dB.
To Add an ASIO Direct Monitor Send/Return:
1. Right-Click over the Insert section. A pop-up dialog box appears.
2. Select “Insert ASIO Direct Monitor” from the option list. The following dialog box appears.
3. Choose one of the Send Outputs. Click on a destination to select it.
4. Choose one of the Return Inputs. Click on a source to select it.
5. Click OK to select the Send and Return or Cancel to cancel the operation.
Meter Inserts
Keeping track of signal levels is important in any audio system, be it analog or digital. You
want to keep the signal levels running as close to maximum in order to achieve high resolution
and low noise. On the other hand, you don’t want the signal level so high as to cause clipping.
To help you maintain optimum signal levels, we have included Peak Level Meters, which can
be dropped into any insert location.
The insert meters are of the “peak hold” type. The topmost bar in the meter holds its highest
level for a second to let you see transients that would otherwise be too quick for the eye. A
numeric readout above the meter shows the peak-hold level in dB.
The peak meters are also color-coded to indicate the signal strength. The chart below outlines
the meanings of the colors. Avoid lighting the topmost red bar, as this indicates distortion of
the signal. Click on the clip indicator to turn it off.
Meter Color
Indicates
Red
Indicates signal clipping.
Yellow
Good strong signal level.
Green
Signal is present.
One of the most obvious uses of the insert meters is to set input levels. On the analog inputs,
the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is one of the most critical points in the signal path. You
want the input signal level to drive the 24-bit ADCs into their optimum range without
clipping. A reading of 0dB on an input meter indicates signal clipping.
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4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Mixer Strip Creation
Level
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
--12dB
Each bar of the meter equals 1dB. The yellow bars begin at -12dB below full scale.
The insert meters are also useful to monitor incoming digital signals such as ASIO or
S/PDIF to make sure the mixer is receiving a proper signal level. They’re also great for troubleshooting, since you can place them virtually anywhere in the mixer.
To Insert a Meter
1. Right-Click on an Insert location of the mixer strip. A pop-up dialog box appears.
2. Select “Insert Peak Meter.” A stereo peak meter appears in the insert location.
3. Select FX in the Main Section, then Left-Click on the meter insert. The meters are now
shown in high resolution in the TV screen.
To Set the Input Levels of a Strip
1. Select the topmost Insert location on a mixer strip and insert a meter (see above).
2. Left-click on the meter insert to see the meter in the TV screen.
3. Feed your audio signal to the input of the mixer strip. The meter should now show the
signal level.
4. Adjust the output level of the external device (synthesizer, instrument, preamp, etc.)
feeding the 0404 Card. The meter should be in the yellow region most of the time with
occasional forays into the red. If the clip indicator ever comes on, reduce the signal level.
Comparison of -10dBV & +4dBu Signal Levels
Consumer
Professional
(unbalanced)
(balanced)
}
+20 dBu
Clipping -->
Headroom
+ 6 dBV = +8 dBu
+ 2 dBV = +4 dBu
-10 dBV = -8 dBu
{
0 dBV = 1V RMS
E-MU Digital Audio System
<-- Clipping
Headroom
0dBu = .777V RMS
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4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Mixer Strip Creation
Making the Best Possible Recording
Making a good digital recording is easier than ever thanks to the high resolution 24-bit A-D
converters on your Digital Audio System. These converters are much more forgiving than the
12-bit or 16-bit converters of the past. Even so, to get the best performance possible, you'll
need to follow a few basic guidelines.
First, whenever you input an analog signal to the Digital Audio System, make sure that you're
feeding the A-D converters with an optimum signal level. The quality of a digital recording is
directly related to the signal level you feed into the A-D converters. If the analog input level is
set too low, you lose resolution—if it's set too high, the A-D converters will clip.
To measure the input level, simply add an insert meter to the channel strip in PatchMix DSP.
These meters are accurately calibrated to display 1dB for each bar on the meter. You can
enlarge the meter view by clicking on the insert meter in a strip and selecting the “Effect”
button at the top of the TV screen.
In order to supply the correct input level, you’ll need to adjust the output of your analog
source (electric instrument or preamp) so that the input level comes close to 0dB without ever
going over.
Play your input source signal while watching the insert meter in the strip. The signal should go
into the yellow area frequently, but never into the red. Adjust the level of your source until you
have a good level.
Digital audio has NO headroom past 0dBFS (FS = Full Scale) and will “hard clip” if the signal
exceeds 0dB. Hard clipping sounds bad and will ruin your recording. Hard clipping occurs
because at 0dBFS, all 24 bits are turned on and the A-D cannot measure any higher level.
Analog tape, unlike digital, can be driven past 0dB, although with some degradation of the
signal.
The Digital Audio System includes Insert “Trim Pot” controls, but they adjust the signal level
after the signal has been digitized and will not recover any lost resolution. It’s far better to set
the input level correctly in the first place. Trim Pots can be used in emergency situations if
there's no other way to get a hot signal in, but they were designed to adjust levels feeding effect
plug-ins.
32
Creative Professional
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Mixer Strip Creation
Trim Pot Insert
The Trim Pot Insert allows you to adjust the level of a signal in an insert location. The trim pot
provides up to ±30dB of gain or attenuation and a phase inverter. The trim pot also has a builtin stereo peak meter after the control.
Gain/Attenuation
Phase Invert
Meters
You might use a trim pot to boost or attenuate a signal send or return from an external effect,
or use it to drive an effect device. Certain effects such as the Compressor, Distortion, or AutoWah are very level dependent and like to see a good strong input signal. If you are working
with a weak signal, you can improve the performance of these effects inserting a trim pot and
boosting the gain.
Trim pots can be used to boost the level of analog line level inputs, but it’s much better to boost
the signal level before the A/D converters in order to get maximum resolution and signal-tonoise ratio.
The phase invert switch inverts the polarity of the signal. It is generally used to correct for mics
that are wired backwards.
Test Tone/Signal Generator Insert
The test tone/signal generator insert is a handy troubleshooting aid which outputs a calibrated
sine wave, white noise or pink noise. This tool, in combination with an insert meter, allows
you to accurately measure the signal gain or attenuation of an internal or external device. The
test tone can also be quite handy for tuning up musical instruments.
The sine wave oscillator frequency is variable from 20Hz-20kHz. The level is variable from off
to +30dB.
White noise is a mixture of all frequencies in the audio spectrum at the same average level
(analogous to white light in the visible spectrum).
Pink noise provides equal power distribution per octave. (White noise has more power in the
higher octaves.) Pink noise and white noise are useful as wideband sound sources.
E-MU Digital Audio System
Musical Note Freq.
A = 440 Hz
B = 493.88 Hz
C = 523.25 Hz
D = 587.33 Hz
E = 659.26 Hz
F = 698.46 Hz
G = 783.99 Hz
33
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Mixer Strip Creation
Managing Your Inserts
To Delete Effects from an Insert:
1. Right-Click over the Insert Effect you wish to delete. A yellow line around the insert
location indicates that it is selected. A pop-up dialog box appears.
2. Select Delete Insert to remove the selected insert or select Delete All Inserts to remove
all inserts.
Tip: Select the Plug-in
and press the Delete key
to delete the plug-in from
the strip.
3. The insert(s) are deleted from the insert chain.
To Bypass an Insert:
Inserts can be bypassed if you want to temporarily hear the audio without the effect or insert.
Bypass can also be used to turn off a Send Insert.
Method #1
1. Click on the Effect (in the Insert section) and select FX in the TV display.
2. Click the Bypass button.
Method #2
1. Right-Click over the Effect you want to bypass (in the Insert section). A pop-up dialog box
appears.
2. Select Bypass Insert from the list of options.
To Bypass All Inserts:
All Inserts in a strip can be also be bypassed with a single command.
1. Right-Click over the Effect you want to bypass (in the Insert section). A pop-up dialog box
appears.
2. Select Bypass All Inserts from the list of options.
To Solo an Insert:
Inserts can also be soloed. Solo bypasses all the other inserts in the strip and allows you to hear
only the soloed effect. This feature is very useful when adjusting the effect parameters.
Method #1
1. Click on the Effect (in the Insert section) and select FX in the TV display.
2. Click the Solo button.
Method #2
1. Right-Click over the Effect you want to Solo (in the Insert section). A pop-up dialog box
appears.
2. Select Solo Insert from the list of options.
34
Creative Professional
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Mixer Strip Creation
Aux Section
The Auxiliary Sends tap the signal from the channel strips and sum them together before
sending the mix to the Auxiliary Effects section. In a traditional mixing console, aux sends are
used to send part of the signal to outboard effect devices, then return the effected signal back
into the mix using the effect returns. This is called a sidechain routing because the aux signal
takes a detour through the effects before being summed back into the main mix. Sidechain
effects are usually effects that you might want applied to several channels, such as reverb.
Incidentally, the wet/dry mix of effects in the Aux Sends should normally be set to 100% wet.
This is because you will be adjusting the effect amount using the Aux Return control. If you
have more than one effect in an Aux Bus, ignore the preceding advice as the wet/dry controls
can be used to mix the amounts of your multiple effects.
The Aux 1 & 2 buses can also be used as additional submix output buses just like the main
output. Simply drop an ASIO or External Send Insert into the chain and the stereo bus is sent.
Turn down the Return Amount if you don’t want the submix to be combined into the main
mix.
Aux Send and Return values can also be changed by typing directly into the displays.
Input
Sidechain Diagram
(Post-Fader Aux Sends)
Pan
Fader
Mute
Send
Amount
Amt
Aux Bus 1
Return
Amount
Side
Chain
Send
Amount
Amt
Aux Bus 2
Return
Amount
Side
Chain
Main / Monitor Bus
Output
Submixing
You can think of the Aux Sends as two extra mixing buses because that’s exactly what they are.
These two mixes can be routed anywhere, such as to a physical output or an ASIO pair. You
could route one of the Aux buses to the Monitor out to create a monitor mix while sending the
main mix off to your audio recording software.
E-MU Digital Audio System
35
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Mixer Strip Creation
Pre or Post Fader Aux Sends
When you create a New Mixer Strip you have the option to place both Aux Sends after the
channel volume fader and mute control or you can place them before the fader and mute. PostFader turns down the send level as you lower the volume of the strip. With Pre-Fader selected,
you may still hear the effected signal returning from one of the Aux Buses with the volume
fader turned down.
With the Pre-Fader box selected, the Aux Send levels are completely unaffected by the Level
Fader and Mute settings. The Pre-Fader setting allows you to create two completely different
mixes using the Aux Buses since the signal levels of this mix won’t be affected by the fader
settings.
Pre-Fader Aux Send
Input
Volume Fader & Mute does NOT affect Send Levels
Pan
Send
Amount
Aux Bus 1
Send
Amount
Return
Amount
Side
Chain
Aux Bus 2
Fader
Return
Amount
Side
Chain
Amt
Amt
In order to change
a strip from pre-fader to
post-fader or vice-versa,
you have to delete the
strip and create a new
one.
Mute
Main / Monitor Bus
Output
Post-Fader Aux Send
Input
Volume Fader & Mute affects both Aux Send Levels
Pan
Fader
Mute
Send
Amount
Amt
Aux Bus 1
Return
Amount
Side
Chain
Send
Amount
Amt
Aux Bus 2
Return
Amount
Side
Chain
Main / Monitor Bus
36
Output
Creative Professional
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Mixer Strip Creation
Level, Pan, Solo & Mute Controls
Pan Controls
Aux Send
Amount
Controls
Level Control
Mute & Solo
Buttons
Scribble Strip
E-MU Digital Audio System
The Pan control comes before the Level Control and
Aux Sends in the signal flow. On stereo strips we use
an unconventional pan section with two pan pots –
one for the left part of the signal and one for the right
part of the signal. This feature allows you to independently position both sides of the stereo signal. A
conventional stereo balance control only allows you to
turn down one side or the other.
The Mute button does just what you would expect—
press the button and the sound from that channel is
cut off. Pressing the Solo button while the Mute button
is pressed allows you to hear the channel until solo is
turned off.
The Solo button allows you to listen to only that
channel while muting the rest of the mixer’s output. If
multiple solo buttons are pressed, you will hear all
soloed channels and the non-soloed channels will all
be muted.
The mute status is remembered if a muted channel is
soloed. When the channel solo is turned off, the
channel reverts to being muted.
The Level Control for the strip is an attenuation
control that can also provide up to +12dB of gain. 0db
is the unity gain setting. You can also type numeric
values into the displays to set the level.
At the very bottom is the Scribble Strip text area, into
which you can type any short piece of text, thus
naming the strip, i.e. “vocals”, “bass”, “drums” and so
on.
37
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Main Section
Main Section
Physical/Host
Select Buttons
View
Selection
Buttons
“TV” Screen
Aux
Insert
Section
Master
Aux Send
Amounts
Main
Insert
Section
Master Aux
Return
Amounts
Sync &
Sample Rate
Indicators
Monitor Controls
Output
Fader &
Meters
Session Name
The main section contains all controls for controlling the main mix elements as well as a “TV
screen” for viewing the parameters of the current selected insert.
The three buttons across the top of the main section select what is shown on the TV display.
Input and output routings are graphically displayed. When an insert is selected (by clicking on
the insert), the screen shows the available parameters for the currently selected insert.
Below the TV screen is the Aux Bus section where effects, effects chains or other inserts can be
assigned to the two aux buses. Send and return levels can be individually controlled for each of
the two Aux Buses.
The Aux 1 and Aux 2 buses are fed by the two Aux Sends on each mixer strip. The Master
Send Level control on Aux bus 1 and 2 can be used to attenuate or boost the signal going into
the Auxiliary Inserts. There is also a Master Return Level to control the amount of the effected
signal that will be returned into the main mix.
The Main Bus can also have a chain of effects inserted. (You might put an EQ effect here to
equalize your entire mix or add an ASIO or WAVE send to record the mix.) Note that the Main
Output level control comes before the Monitor Level so that you can control the monitor level
without affecting the level of your recording mix or main mix. There is a stereo peak meter that
indicates the signal strength for the main mix.
The Monitor section has a volume, balance, and a mute control to cut off the monitor output.
38
Creative Professional
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Main Section
TV Screen & Selectors
The “TV screen” at the top of the main section is a multi-function display and control center for
the input and output routings and effect controls. The three buttons at the top of the display
select the current function of the display—Effect, Inputs or Outputs.
Effect
Select the Effect display view in the main section, then click on an Effect Insert to display the
effect parameters. If an insert effect is not selected, the display will read “No Insert”.
Most effects have a wet/dry mix parameter to control the ratio of effect-to-plain signal. The wet/
dry setting is stored with the FX preset. The parameter set varies with the type of effect. See
“Core Effects Descriptions” for detailed information about the individual effects.
FX Display
View Button
Note: Effects have to
be placed into an insert
location before you can
program them.
Effect Location
Effect Bypass &
Solo Buttons
Wet/Dry Mix Control
Effect Parameters
User Preset Section
When a Send or a Send/Return insert is selected with the FX display enabled, the TV screen
shows you where the Send is going and where the Return is coming from. The buttons at the
top of the display allow you to bypass or solo the Send/Return insert.
Send Destination
Return Source
E-MU Digital Audio System
39
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Main Section
Input
Selecting the Input display view shows a graphic representation of the PatchMix DSP Mixer
inputs. This screen is only a display unlike the Effects and Outputs screen, which allow you to
make routing changes. Input routing changes are made by adding mixer strips. See Mixer Strip
Creation.
The input routings are divided into two categories: Physical Inputs and Host Inputs. Select
either category by clicking on the Physical or Host button. Clicking on any of the input
routings in the TV display highlights the corresponding mixer strip.
Physical Input Display
Host Input Display
The Input and Output
displays make it much
easier to understand the
signal routings of a
complex mixer setup.
Tip: Clicking on any
of the input routings in
the TV display highlights
the corresponding mixer
strip.
Output
Selecting the Output display view shows a graphic representation of the PatchMix DSP Mixer
outputs. The output routings are divided into two categories: Physical Outputs and Host
Outputs. Select either category by clicking on the Physical or Host button.
Physical Output Display
Host Output Display
The Host Output display shows all the Insert Routings in addition to the Main Mix and Monitor
out routings. Click on the desired row to make or break a physical output connection.
The Physical Output screen displays and allows you to connect the Main and Monitor outputs
of the mixer to “physical” analog or digital outputs. Click on the box in the mix or monitor
area to make (or break) a connection.
The Host Output screen displays and allows you to view the Host (ASIO or WAVE) outputs of
the mixer. See “Insert Section” for information on how to connect the inserts.
40
Creative Professional
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Main Section
Auxiliary Effects & Returns
The section immediately below the TV Screen is where you assign the Auxiliary Effects. In a
traditional mixing console, auxiliary effects sends are used to send part of the signal to
outboard effect devices, then return the effected signal back into the mix using the effect
returns. This is called a sidechain routing because the aux signal takes a detour through the
effects before being summed back into the main mix.
Sidechain effects are usually effects that you might want applied to several channels, such as
reverb. Effects such as EQ and compressors are usually NOT used as sidechain effects because
they can cause unpredictable results when returned to the main bus.
Input
Input
The Wet/Dry mix
setting in the effect
should normally be set to
100% when the effect is
inserted as a sidechain
effect. This is because the
Aux Return Amount will
control the wet/dry mix.
Sidechain Diagram
(Post-Fader Aux Sends)
Pan
Fader
Mute
Aux
Amt
Aux
Amt
Send
Amount
Aux Bus
Return
Amount
Side
Chain
Main Bus
Output
You can also use the Auxiliary Sends as two extra mix buses. By turning the Aux Return
amount all the way down and dropping an Insert Send into the chain, you can send the
Auxiliary bus to any output you wish. See “Insert Section” for more information.‚
Sync/Sample Rate Indicators
The Sync/Sample rate Indicators show the current session’s sample
rate and whether it is internal or slaving to an external source. The
LEDs indicate which sample rate is currently in effect. If an
external source is being used, the Source display reads
“EXTERNAL”.
When slaving to an external master source, the clock may drift
slightly or change dramatically (i.e. abrupt sample rate change or
unplugging of physical master source). PatchMix DSP is tolerant to
minor drifting within the supported rates of 44.1k, 48k, 88.2k,
96k, 176.4k, but if the sample rate drifts out of this range the
“LOCKED” LED will extinguish.
If the external clock source makes a radical sample rate change from the lower rates of 44.1k/
48k to a higher rate or between the rates of 88k/96k and 176k/192kHz, the hardware automatically switches to internal 48kHz clock until the proper external clock is restored. The
“LOCKED” LED will be off and the two units are NOT synchronized. Always check the
“LOCKED” LED when using an external clock source.
E-MU Digital Audio System
41
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Main Section
Output Section
Main Output Level Fader
Main
Insert
Section
Sync/Sample
Rate Indicators
Monitor
Mute
Monitor
Balance
Output Level
Meters
Monitor
Volume
Main Inserts
The main inserts allow you to apply effects to the main stereo signal coming out of the mixer
(both mains and monitor). You might want to apply EQ or a compressor here. These inserts
work just like the other effect locations—just drag and drop effects from the palette or rightclick and add Sends, Sends/Returns. etc. Refer to the Mixer Block Diagram
Main Output Fader
MAIN MIX
0dB
10
10
20
20
30
30
Output Level Meters
40
40
This stereo bar-graph meter reflects the digital level at the output of the mixer. The topmost red
bar represents 0 dB or a full-scale digital signal. The peaks hold for a moment so that short
transients can be monitored. Each bar = 1dB.
50
50
L
R
The main output fader controls the level of the main output (and the Monitor output as well
since it is downstream from this control). The normal setting for this control is at unity or 0dB,
but the control allows you to add up to +12dB of gain. High output levels may cause clipping
on outboard amplifiers or other equipment.
-12dB
Monitor Output Level
This control adjusts the monitor output level. Keep in mind that since the monitor level
control comes after the Main Output Fader, nothing will be heard from your monitors if the
main level is turned down.
Monitor Balance Control
This control sets the relative volume of the stereo monitor outputs and works just like the
balance control on your home music system. This control is primarily used to make the
volume from each speaker sound equal if you are not sitting exactly in the center of the two
speakers.
Tip: The System
Volume Control on your
Mac or PC can be used to
control the Monitor
Output Level on
PatchMix.
Monitor Output Mute
This button completely cuts off the monitor output and provides a convenient way to instantly
kill all sound without having to re-adjust the monitor level later. When the telephone rings,
just hit the monitor mute to cut the noise.
42
Creative Professional
5 - Effects
Overview
5 - Effects
Overview
PatchMix DSP comes complete with a host of great core DSP effects including Compressors,
Delays, Choruses, Flangers and Reverb. Each 32-bit effect has various parameters for editing,
as well as factory presets. You can also create and save as many of your own effect presets as
you wish.
Since the effects are implemented in hardware, they don’t place any load on your host
computer. This allows your valuable CPU cycles to be used for other applications or software
plug-ins. The effects are only available at the 44.1 and 48kHz sample rates.
There is a finite limit to how many effects you can use at the same time. As you use up the
PatchMix DSP resources, certain effects will appear “grayed out” and cannot be added to the
mixer. Complex effects such as reverb use more DSP resources than say, a 1-Band EQ. If you
continue to add effects, all of the DSP resources will eventually be used up.
Saving a session
“defragments” the effect/
DSP resources. If you
have used all your effects
and need another, try
saving the session.
The Effects Palette
Click the FX button on the toolbar to bring up the Effects Palette. The Effects Palette contains
two types of folders. The “Core Effects” folder contains the effect algorithms themselves. This
folder cannot be modified. The other folders contain “Effects Chains”, consisting of two or
more effects grouped together. You can also add, delete, or modify Effects Chains and the
folders that contain them. For more information on Effects Chains, see More Information.
New Folder Icon
Import/Export FX
Effect Categories
Core Effects
Multi-Effects
Distortion Lo-fi
Drums & Percussion
Environment
Equalization
Guitar
Morpher
Multi Effects
Reverb
Synths & Keys
Vocal
E-MU Digital Audio System
43
5 - Effects
The Effects Palette
To Select an Effect
1. Click the FX button to bring up the Effects Palette. The effect palette contains numerous
folders containing effects presets. Click on any folder to open it.
2. Select the effect you wish to use by clicking on it with the left mouse button and while
continuing to hold the mouse button, drag the effect into the desired location on the
PatchMix DSP mixer screen and release the mouse button. Multi effects contain several
effects along with their parameter settings.
3. If you want to change the order of effects, simply Left-click and drag the effect to the
desired location. Drag the effect to the area above or below the final destination and
release the mouse button to move the effect.
The order of effects in
a chain can have a big
effect on the sound.
This icon will
appear when you drag
an effect to a new
location.
To Edit an Effect
1. Click on the Insert Location containing the effect you wish to edit. The effect controls now
appear on the TV screen.
2. Edit the effect parameters as desired.
To Delete an Effect
1. Right-click on the Insert location containing the effect you wish to delete and a pop-up list
appears.
2. Select “Delete Insert(s)” from the top of the list. The effect will be deleted.
FX Insert Chains
FX Insert Chains can be used to save one or several effects and their settings into a single
multi-effect. When an effects chain is selected and placed into an insert location, all the effects
with control settings are copied as a single entity. Once dropped into an insert location, the
effects are totally separate just as if you had placed them individually.
To Save FX Insert Chains
1. Select one or more effects and place them into any insert location in the mixer.
2. Set the effect parameters the way you want them, including wet/dry mix settings.
Trim pots, peak meters
and test tone generators
will also be included in
the FX chain.
3. Right-click to bring up the list of options.
4. Select “Save FX Insert Chain”. The New FX preset dialog box appears.
5. Select a category folder where your preset will be placed, and enter a new preset name for
your FX Chain.
6. Select a folder where your new preset will be placed, then type in a new preset name and
click OK. Your preset is now saved.
44
Creative Professional
5 - Effects
88kHz, 96kHz, 176kHz & 192kHz Operation
The Order of Effects
PatchMix DSP allows you to record your tracks without effects (dry) and monitor with effects
enabled (wet). It works like this: If the effect is inserted BEFORE the ASIO send in the signal
path, it will get recorded; if the effect is inserted AFTER the ASIO send, it will not be recorded.
Recording dry allows you
to hear your performance
with effect (to get the
proper feel), but gives you
the flexibility to add or
modify effects later during
mixdown. This way if you
don’t like the way the effect
sounds, you can change or
modify the effect without
having to perform the part
again.
Input
L/R
If you want Effects
to be recorded,
insert them Above
the ASIO Send.
To ASIO
From ASIO
ASIO
Send
To monitor Effects,
but not record them,
insert them Below
the ASIO Send or
in a Sidechain.
Panning
Fader
Send
Amount
Aux 1 Bus
Return
Amount
Reverb
Output
Main Output Bus
To Monitor Speakers
Creating, Renaming & Deleting Categories or Presets
There are several utilities to help you organize your effects presets.
To Create a New Preset Category
You can create your own category folders to help organize your effects presets.
1. Left-click on the New Folder icon at the top of the Effects Palette. A pop-up dialog box
appears asking you to “Enter the Name of the New Category.”
2. Type in a name for your new folder.
3. Click OK to create a new folder or Cancel to cancel the operation.
To Delete an Effect Category or Preset
1. Right-click on the category folder you wish to delete. A pop-up selection box appears,
warning you that this action will delete all presets in the folder.
2. Select “Delete Category”. A popup selection box appears.
3. Click OK to delete the folder or Cancel to cancel the operation.
To Rename an FX Category
1. Right-click on the category folder you wish to rename. A pop-up selection box appears.
2. Select “Rename Category”. A pop-up dialog box appears, asking you to “Enter New
Category Name.”
3. Click OK to rename the folder or Cancel to cancel the operation.
88kHz, 96kHz, 176kHz & 192kHz Operation
When operating at 88kHz 96kHz, 176kHz and 192kHz sample rates, the effect processors are
completely disabled. However, the Inserts, Send/Returns, Meters, Trim Controls, Test Tones
and ASIO Direct Monitoring ARE fully functional.
E-MU Digital Audio System
45
5 - Effects
88kHz, 96kHz, 176kHz & 192kHz Operation
Importing and Exporting Core FX Presets and FX Insert Chains
These utilities make it easy to import or export your FX Presets and FX Insert Chains. You can
share presets with your friends or download new presets from the Internet.
To Import Core FX Presets
This option imports complete folders of Core FX presets into the E-MU PatchMix DSP folder
(normally located here: “C:\Program Files\Creative Professional\E-MU PatchMix DSP\Core
Effects”). If the name of an imported FX preset exactly matches a preset you already have, a
number will be appended to end of the imported preset name.
1. Click the Import/Export FX Library button
from the FX Palette.
2. Select Import FX Library. The “Browse for Folder” window appears.
3. Choose the folder where the Core FX presets you wish to import are located.
4. The selected folder of Core FX presets will be copied into the Core Effects folder of
PatchMix DSP.
To Import FX Category Folders
This option imports complete category folders of FX Chains into the E-MU PatchMix DSP
folder (normally located here: “C:\Program Files\Creative Professional\E-MU PatchMix
DSP\Effect Presets”). If the name of an imported FX preset exactly matches a preset you already
have, a number will be appended to end of the imported preset name.
1. Click the Import/Export FX Library button
from the FX Palette.
2. Select Import FX Category. The “Browse for Folder” window appears.
3. Choose the folder where the FX Chains you wish to import are located.
4. The selected folder of FX Chains will be copied into the Effect Presets folder of PatchMix
DSP.
To Export your Core FX Presets
This option exports your Core FX presets to a folder of your choice.
1. Click the Import/Export FX Library button
from the FX Palette.
2. Select Export FX Library. The “Browse for Folder” window appears.
3. Choose a destination location for the Core FX presets, then press OK.
4. The Core FX presets will be copied to the selected destination.
To Export your FX Category Folders
This option exports a single category of FX chains to a folder of your choice.
1. Click the Import/Export FX Library button
from the FX Palette.
2. Select Export FX Category. A pop-up dialog box appears asking you to “Choose the FX
Category to be exported”.
3. Choose the desired FX Category to export. Press OK to continue or Cancel to cancel
the operation.
4. The “Browse for Folder” window appears. Choose a destination location for the Core FX
presets, then press OK.
5. The FX Chains will be copied to the selected destination.
46
Creative Professional
5 - Effects
FX Edit Screen
FX Edit Screen
Click on an FX Insert to display the parameters for that effect. If an insert effect is not selected,
the FX display will read “No Insert”.
Most effects have a wet/dry mix parameter to control the ratio of effect-to-plain signal. The wet/
dry setting is stored with the FX preset. The effect parameters vary with the type of effect.
Generally if an effect is placed in an Aux Send, the wet/dry mix in the effect should be set to
100% wet since the Aux Return amount controls how much effect is applied.
The User Preset section is located at the bottom of the FX Edit screen. User presets are variations of the main effect and can be edited, deleted, renamed or overwritten as you wish.
Effects Display
View Button
Note: Effects have to
be placed into an insert
location before you can
program them.
Effect Location
Effect Bypass &
Solo Buttons
Wet/Dry Mix Control
Effect Parameters
User Preset Section
To Bypass an Insert:
Inserts can be bypassed if you want to temporarily hear the audio without the effect or insert.
Bypass can also be used to turn off a Send Insert.
Method #1
1. Click on the Insert (in the Insert section).
2. Click the Bypass button in the TV display.
Method #2
1. Right-click over the Insert you want to bypass (in the Insert section). A pop-up menu
appears.
2. Select “Bypass Insert” from the list of options. The effect name will “gray-out” to indicate
that the effect is bypassed.
To Solo an Insert:
Inserts can also be soloed. Solo bypasses all the other inserts in the strip and allows you to hear
only the soloed effect. This feature is very useful when adjusting the effect parameters.
Method #1
1. Click on the Insert (in the Insert section).
2. Click the Solo button in the TV display.
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5 - Effects
FX Edit Screen
Method #2
1. Right-click over the Insert Effect you want to Solo (in the Insert section). A pop-up menu
appears.
2. Select “Solo Insert” from the list of options. The other Insert Effect names in the strip will
“gray-out” to indicate that they are bypassed.
To Bypass ALL
All the inserts in a strip can be bypassed with a single command.
1. Right-click over any Effect in the Insert section. A pop-up menu appears.
2. Select “Bypass All Inserts” from the list of options. All the insert names will “gray-out” to
indicate that they are bypassed.
To Un-Bypass ALL
All the inserts in a strip can also be un-bypassed with a single command. This command works
even if only some of the effects are bypassed.
1. Right-click over any Effect in the Insert section. A pop-up menu appears.
2. Select “Un-Bypass All Inserts” from the list of options. All the insert names will light to
indicate that they are active.
User Preset Section
Each core effect has a set of User Presets, that you can use to store your favorite effect
parameter settings. We’ve included a good collection of user presets to get you started. The
user presets are accessed from the bar at the bottom of the TV screen. The user preset edit
menu allows you to select stored presets, create new presets, rename or delete existing presets,
or overwrite existing presets with your modified settings. User presets stay with the Mixer
application regardless of which Session is open.
To copy or share User
Presets, you must save
them as FX Palette
effects.
Click here for Edit Menu
Click here to Select Presets
To Select a User Preset
1. Select the FX display in the TV screen.
2. Select the desired insert effect, highlighting it. The effect parameters appear in the TV
screen.
3. Click on the
icon on the preset menu. A drop-down preset list appears.
4. Select a preset from the list.
To Create a New User Preset
1. Select the FX display in the TV screen.
2. Select the desired insert effect, highlighting it. The effect parameters appear in the TV
screen.
3. Click on the Edit button. A pop-up menu appears.
4. Select New. A pop-up dialog box appears asking you to name the new preset.
5. Name the preset and click OK. Your new preset is now saved.
48
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FX Edit Screen
To Delete a User Preset
1. Select the user preset you wish to delete from the user preset menu.
2. Click on the Edit button. A pop-up menu appears.
3. Select Delete. A pop-up dialog box appears asking you to confirm your action.
4. Click OK to delete the preset or No or Cancel to cancel the operation.
To Rename a User Preset
1. Select the user preset you wish to rename from the user preset menu.
2. Click on the Edit button. A pop-up menu appears.
3. Select Rename. A pop-up dialog box appears asking you to rename the preset.
4. Type in the new preset name, then click OK to rename the preset or Cancel to cancel the
operation.
To Overwrite or Save a User Preset
This operation allows you to overwrite an existing preset with a newer version.
1. Select the user preset you wish to modify from the user preset menu and make any
changes you wish.
2. Click on the Edit button. A pop-up menu appears.
3. Select Overwrite/Save. The current preset will be overwritten with the new settings.
Core Effects and Effects Presets
The Core Effects cannot be removed or copied. Effect presets (stored in “C:\Program
Files\Creative Professional\Digital Audio System\E-MU PatchMix DSP\Effect Presets”) can be
copied, e-mailed or shared like any other computer file.
Hint: Open with “NotePad” or other word processor to view and edit the name and parameters.
WDM Recording and Playback Behavior
WDM record and playback is now supported at all PatchMix sample rates. The behavior of the
driver with respect to PatchMix sample rate is described below.
When PatchMix and the WDM audio content (.WAV file format, record and playback settings
in WaveLab. etc.) are both running at the same sample rate, and when a Wave strip or send is
present in the PatchMix mixer configuration, WDM audio will be played or recorded “bit
accurate” without sample rate conversion or bit truncation.
When running PatchMix at 44kHz/48kHz, if there is a mismatch between the WDM record or
playback audio content and the PatchMix sample rate, sample rate conversion is performed, so
that WDM audio will always be heard or recorded. Also, such non-native-sample-rate audio is
truncated to 16-bits.
When running PatchMix at 88.2kHz/96kHz or 176.4kHz/192kHz, WDM record or playback
audio content must be running at the same sample rate as PatchMix. If the sample rates are
mismatched, NO AUDIO will be recorded or played back. In other words, the WDM driver
does not perform sample rate conversion of any kind when PatchMix is running at 88.2kHz/
96kHz or 176.4kHz/192kHz.
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5 - Effects
List of Core Effects
List of Core Effects
Stereo Reverb
Rotary
Mono Delay 250
Lite Reverb
Phase Shifter
Mono Delay 500
RFX Compressor
Frequency Shifter
Mono Delay 750
Compressor
Auto-Wah
Mono Delay 1500
Reshaper
Vocal Morpher
Mono Delay 3000
Gate
1-Band Para EQ
Stereo Delay 100
Leveling Amp
1-Band Shelf EQ
Stereo Delay 250
Chorus
3-Band EQ
Stereo Delay 550
Flanger
4-Band EQ
Stereo Delay 750
Distortion
Multimode EQ
Stereo Delay 1500
Speaker Sim
Mono Delay 100
DSP Resource Usage
There are two main factors which determine the total number of effects available for use at any
given time: Tank Memory and DSP Instructions. Using too much of either resource will cause
effects to be unavailable (grayed out) in the FX menu. In addition, the strips themselves use
DSP Instructions, so only create strips that you actually need.
Tank memory is the memory used by delay-based effects such as reverb and digital delays. All
the reverbs and delays aside from the Mono Delay 100 and Stereo Delay 100 use varying
amounts of tank memory.
The DSP instructions are used by all the effects. Effects with multiple stages, such as multiband EQs or the speaker simulator use more DSP instructions than a 1-Band EQ.
Tank memory tends to get used first, and so we’ve provided many delay line effects to allow
maximum conservation of this precious resource. Use only the longest delay you actually need.
Tip: Saving a session
“defragments” the effect/
DSP resources. If you
have used all your effects
and need another, try
saving the session.
The chart below shows three possible effects combinations. These were created by using up the
reverb resources first. Even more simultaneous effects are possible if fewer reverbs and shorter
delays are used.
Examples of Effects Usage (with a WAVE, ASIO Return & 2 Inputs)
Example 1
No.
Example 2
No.
Stereo Reverb
2
Lite Reverb
5
Stereo Reverb
1
4-Band EQ
4
3-Band EQ
5
Lite Reverb
2
3-Band EQ
2
1-Band EQ
4
Stereo Delay 1500
1
1-Band EQ
6
Compressor
1
Mono Delay 250
1
Compressor
6
Mono Delay 1500
1
Compressor
6
Chorus
1
Mono Delay 250
1
Chorus
2
Mono Delay 1500
1
Auto-Wah
1
Flanger
2
4-Band EQ
3
3-Band EQ
3
Total Effects
21
Total Effects
50
22
Total Effects
18
Example 3
No.
Creative Professional
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Core Effects Descriptions
Core Effects Descriptions
1-Band Para EQ
This single band parametric equalizer is useful when
you just want to boost or cut a single range of
frequencies. For example, if you just want to
brighten up the lead vocal a bit, you might choose
this EQ. This EQ offers up to ±15dB cut or boost.
+15dB
Boost
Width
Gain
+
Cut
-15dB
Center
Frequency
Parameter
Description
Gain
Sets the amount of cut (-) or boost (+) of the selected frequency
band. Range: -15dB to +15dB
Center Frequency
Sets the range of frequencies to be cut or boosted with the Gain
control. Range: 80Hz to 16kHz
Bandwidth
Sets the width of the frequency range for the Center Frequency
band that will be cut or boosted by the Gain control.
Range: 1semitone to 36 semitones
1-Band Shelf EQ
This single band shelving equalizer is useful when you just want to boost or cut a single range
of frequencies at the high or low end of the spectrum. For example, if you just want to add a
little more bass, there’s no need to waste a 3-band EQ. Just choose low shelf, then adjust the
gain and frequency. This EQ offers up to ±15dB cut or boost.
Low Shelf
Corner
Freq
Boost
+
Cut
+15dB
Gain
or…
-
-15dB
High Shelf
Corner
Freq
Frequency
Parameter
Description
Shelf Type
Allows you to choose either low shelving or high shelving EQ.
Gain
Sets the amount of cut (-) or boost (+) of the shelf.
Range: -15dB to +15dB
Corner Frequency Sets the frequency where the signal begins getting cut or boosted
with the Gain control. Range: -15dB to +15dB
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Core Effects Descriptions
3-Band EQ
This versatile equalizer provides two shelving filters at the high and low ends of the frequency
range and a fully parametric band in the center. Up to ±24 dB of boost or cut is provided for
each band.
Low Shelf
High Shelf
Corner
Freq.
Boost
+
Cut
+24dB
Gain
Mid Band
-
Corner
Freq.
Note: The Wet/Dry
Mix control on an
equalizer should normally
be set to 100% wet or
unpredictable results may
occur.
Width
Center
-24dB
Frequency
Setting up a Parametric EQ
1. Turn up the gain on the band you are working with. This allows you to easily hear the
effect of the filter.
2. Reduce the bandwidth if you are working with a mid-band.
3. Now adjust the Center Frequency to “zero-in” on the frequencies you wish to boost or cut.
4. Set the Gain to a positive value to boost frequencies or to a negative value to cut out
frequencies.
5. Widen the Bandwidth to create a more natural sound.
6. Adjust and tweak as needed.
Parameter
Description
High Shelf Gain
Sets the amount of cut (-) or boost (+) of the high frequency shelf.
Range: -24dB to +24dB
High Corner Freq. Sets the frequency where the signal begins getting cut or boosted
with the High Gain control. Range: 4kHz to 16kHz
Mid Gain
Sets the amount of cut (-) or boost (+) of the mid frequency band.
Range: -24dB to +24dB
Mid Center Freq.
Sets the range of frequencies to be cut or boosted with the Mid
Gain control. Range: 200Hz to 3kHz
Mid Bandwidth
Sets the width of the frequency range for the Mid Center
Frequency band that will be cut or boosted by the Mid Gain
control. Range: 1 semitone to 1 octave
Low Shelf Gain
Sets the amount of cut (-) or boost (+) of the low frequency shelf.
Range: -24dB to +24dB
Low Corner Freq. Sets the frequency where the signal begins getting cut or boosted
with the Low Gain control. Range: 50Hz to 800Hz
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Core Effects Descriptions
4-Band EQ
This 4-band equalizer provides two shelving filters at the high and low ends of the frequency
range and two fully parametric bands in the center. Up to ±24 dB of boost or cut is provided
for each band.
Note: The Wet/Dry Mix control on an equalizer should normally be set to 100% wet or
unpredictable results may occur.
For more information on setting up a parametric EQ, see page 52.
Low-Shelf
Mid 1-Band
Mid 2-Band
Corner
Frequency
Boost
Cut
Gain
Corner
Frequency
+
-
High-Shelf
Width
Width
Center
Frequency
Center
Frequency
Frequency
Parameter
Description
High Shelf Gain
Sets the amount of cut (-) or boost (+) of the high frequency shelf.
Range: -24dB to +24dB
High Corner Freq.
Sets the frequency where the signal begins getting cut or boosted
with the High Gain control. Range: 4kHz to 16kHz
Mid 2 Gain
Sets the amount of cut (-) or boost (+) of the Mid 2 Frequency
band. Range: -24dB to +24dB
Mid 2 Center Freq.
Sets the range of frequencies to be cut or boosted with the Mid 2
Gain control. Range: 1kHz to 8kHz
Mid 2 Bandwidth
Sets the width of the frequency range for the Mid 2 Center
Frequency band that will be cut or boosted by the Mid 2 Gain
control. Range: .01 octave to 1 octave
Mid 1 Gain
Sets the amount of cut (-) or boost (+) of the Mid 1 Frequency
band. Range: -24dB to +24dB
Mid 1 Center Freq.
Sets the range of frequencies to be cut or boosted with the Mid 1
Gain control. Range: 200Hz to 3kHz
Mid 1 Bandwidth
Sets the width of the frequency range for the Mid 1 Center
Frequency band that will be cut or boosted by the Mid 1 Gain
control. Range: .01 octave to 1 octave
Low Shelf Gain
Sets the amount of cut (-) or boost (+) of the low frequency shelf.
Range: -24dB to +24dB
Low Corner Freq.
Sets the frequency where the signal begins getting cut or boosted
with the Low Gain control. Range: 50Hz to 800Hz
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5 - Effects
Core Effects Descriptions
Auto-Wah
This effect creates the sound of a guitar wah-wah pedal. The “Wah” filter sweep is automatically triggered from the amplitude envelope of the input sound. Auto-wah works well with
percussive sounds such as guitar or bass.
The Auto-Wah is a bandpass filter whose frequency can be swept up or down by an envelope
follower, which extracts the volume contour of the input signal. The Envelope Sensitivity
setting allows you to properly set up the envelope follower to receive a wide variety of input
signals. This ‘envelope’, or volume contour, controls the frequency of the bandpass filter so
that it sweeps up and down with each new note. The Attack controls the rate of the note-on
sweep. As the input sound fades away, the filter sweeps back at a rate determined by the
Release setting.
The wah direction allows the filter to be swept either up or down in frequency. Use a higher
Center Frequency setting when the wah direction is down.
Auto-Wah Filter
Center
Frequency
Bandwidth
Envelope
Sensitivity
Sweep Range
Input
Wave
Attack
Release
Envelope Follower
Parameter
Description
Wah Direction
Allows you to sweep the wah up or down.
Env. Sensitivity
Controls how closely the wah sweep follows the input signal.
Range: -12dB to +18dB
Env. Attack Time
Sets the starting rate of the “wah” sweep.
Range: 0ms to 500ms
Env. Release Time
Sets the ending or release rate of the “wah” sweep.
Range: 10ms to 1000ms
Sweep Range
Controls the amount of “wah” sweep. Range: 0% to 100%
Center Frequency
Sets the initial bandpass filter frequency.
Range: 80Hz to 2400Hz
Bandwidth
Sets the width of the bandpass filter. Range: 1Hz to 800Hz
Chorus
An audio delay in the range of 15-20 milliseconds is too short to be an echo, but is perceived
by the ear as a distinctly separate sound. If we now cyclically vary the delay time in this range,
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Creative Professional
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Core Effects Descriptions
the illusion of multiple sound sources is created. A slight amount of feedback serves to increase
the effect. A very slow LFO rate is usually best for a realistic effect, but a faster LFO rate can
also be useful with minimal LFO depth (.2). Since this is a stereo chorus, an LFO phase
parameter is included which can be used to widen the stereo image.
Parameter
Description
Delay
Sets the length of the delay. Range: 0ms to 20ms.
Feedback
Sets the amount of delayed signal that will be recirculated through
the delay line. Range: 0% to 100%
LFO Rate
Sets the frequency of the low frequency oscillator.
Range: .01Hz to 10Hz
LFO Depth
Sets how much the LFO affects the delay time. Increases the
animation and amount of the chorus effect. Range: 0% to 100%
LFO Waveform
Selectable between Sine or Triangle wave.
LFO L/R Phase
Controls the stereo width by adjusting the phase difference of the LFO
waveform between left and right channels. Range: -180° to +180°
Compressor
In its simplest form, an audio compressor is just an automatic gain control. When the volume
gets too loud, the compressor automatically turns it down. Compressors are useful in musical
applications because they allow you to record a “hotter” signal without overloading the
recording device.
Since the compressor turns down the gain of the signal, you might wonder how can it make
the signal level stronger. A Post Gain control allows you to boost the output gain of the
compressor in order to make up for the gain reduction. The overall level is higher and only
turned down when the signal level gets too loud. This level is called the Threshold, which just
happens to be the most important control on the compressor.
In
Signal path = Stereo
Delay
VCA
Out
Level
Control
Threshold
Ratio
Post Gain
Release
Attack
Basic Controls
The three main controls of a compressor are the Ratio control, the Threshold control and the
Gain control.
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5 - Effects
Core Effects Descriptions
If the signal level falls below the Threshold, no processing will take place. Signals exceeding
the Threshold will have gain reduction applied as set by the ratio control. This important
control allows you to dial in the range of amplitudes you want to tame. For example, if you’re
trying to trim off just the loudest peaks, set the threshold so the gain reduction meter only
shows compression during these peaks. One of the biggest mistakes in using a compressor is
having the threshold set too low. This adds noise as the compressor will always be reducing the
volume.
The Ratio control determines how strongly the compressor will affect the signal. The higher
the ratio, the more reduction will be applied. If the ratio is high enough, (above 10:1) the signal
will effectively be prevented from getting any louder. In this situation, the compressor will be
acting as a Limiter, placing an upper limit on the signal level. In general, ratios from 2:1 to 6:1
are considered compression and higher ratios above 10:1 are considered limiting.
The Post Gain control amplifies the signal after it has been compressed to bring it back up in
volume. If you don’t increase the gain, the compressed signal will be much lower in volume.
Two other important controls are Attack and Release. Attack controls how quickly the gain is
turned down after the signal exceeds the threshold. Release controls how fast the gain is
returned to its normal setting after the signal has fallen below the threshold again. An attack
setting of about 10 milliseconds will delay the onset of compression long enough to preserve
the attack transients in guitar, bass or drums while allowing the sustain portion of the sound to
be compressed. Longer release times are generally used to reduce the so called “pumping”
effect as the compressor turns on and off. Don’t make the release time too long, however, or the
compressor won’t have time to recover for the next pluck or hit. In general, the attack and
release controls are used to smooth out the action of the compressor, but they can also be used
to create special effects.
The Pre-Delay parameter lets the level detector “look into the future” up to 4 milliseconds in order to anticipate upcoming peaks in the signal. This is accomplished
of course, by inserting delay into the signal path. This lookahead technique
allows the use of slower attack times without missing signal peaks. This
parameter is especially effective on drums and percussion.
The Input Meter allows you to monitor the strength of your input signal. Always try to boost
the signal before the compressor if you can.
The Compression Meter shows the amount of gain reduction being applied. Since this meter
displays how much the gain is being turned down, the meter moves from right to left, instead of
left to right like a normal meter.
Parameter
Description
Threshold
Threshold sets the input signal level above which dynamic range
compression takes place. Everything above the threshold will be
brought down in volume. Range: -60dB to +12dB
Ratio
Sets the ratio of input signal level to output signal level, or “how
much” compression will be applied. Range: 1:1 to ∞:1
Post Gain
Amplifies the signal after it has been compressed to bring up the
volume. Range -60dB to +60dB
Attack Time
Controls how quickly the gain is turned down after the signal
exceeds the threshold. Range .1ms to 500ms
Release Time
Controls how fast the gain is returned to its normal setting after
the signal has fallen below the threshold.
Range: 50ms to 3000ms
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Creative Professional
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Core Effects Descriptions
Parameter
Description
Pre-Delay
Allows the use of slower attack times without missing signal peaks.
Range: 0ms to 3 ms
Input Meter
Allows you to monitor the strength of the input signal.
Gain Reduction
Meter
Shows the amount of gain reduction being applied.
Distortion
Most audio processors aim to provide low distortion, but not this one! The sole purpose of this
effect is to add distortion, and lots of it. This effect provides “fuzz box” style, clipping
distortion which is particularly effective on guitar, bass, organs, electric pianos or whatever.
The input signal first passes through a lowpass filter. The Lowpass Filter Cutoff Frequency
allows you to control the number of new harmonics that will be generated by the distortion
element. The distortion element has an Edge control which controls “how much” distortion
will be added. A bandpass filter follows the distortion generator. The EQ Center control lets
you select a particular band of frequencies to be output. The EQ Bandwidth controls the width
of the center frequency band. Finally, a gain control allows you to make up for any gain loss
through the effect.
Use the Wet/Dry mix control in conjunction with the Edge control to reduce the amount of
distortion, or go crazy and turn everything to 11!
Lowpass
Filter
Bandpass
Filter
Distortion
In
Out
Signal path = Stereo
LP Filter
Cutoff
Edge
EQ BW
Gain
EQ Center
Parameter
Description
Pre EQ LP Cutoff
Controls the amount of high frequency audio admitted to
the distortion. Range: 80Hz to 24kHz
Edge
Sets the amount of distortion and new harmonics
generated. Range: 0-100
Gain
Sets the output volume of the effect. Range: -60dB to 0dB
Post EQ Center Freq.
Sets the frequency of the output bandpass filter.
Range: 80Hz to 24kHz
Post EQ Bandwidth
Sets the width of the output bandpass filter.
Range: 80Hz to 24kHz
Flanger
A flanger is a very short delay line whose output is mixed back together with the original
sound. Mixing the original and delayed signals results in multiple frequency cancellations
known as a comb filter. Since the flanger is a type of filter, it works best with harmonically rich
sounds.
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5 - Effects
Core Effects Descriptions
A low frequency oscillator is included to slowly change the delay time. This creates a rich,
sweeping effect as the notches move up and down across the frequency range. The amount of
feedback deepens the notches, intensifying the effect. You can invert the feedback signal by
choosing a negative feedback value. Inverting the feedback signal creates peaks in the notch
filter and deepens the effect.
Feedback
In
Flanger
Out
Signal path = Stereo
Delay
LFO
Phase
Waveform
Parameter
Description
Delay
Sets the initial delay of the flanger in 1/100th millisecond increments. This parameter allows you to “tune” the flanger to a specific
frequency range. Range: .01ms to 4ms
Feedback
Controls how much signal is recirculated through the delay line
and increases resonance. Negative values can produce intense
flanging with some signals. Range 0% to 100%
LFO Rate
Sets the speed of the flanger sweep. Range: .01 Hz to 10Hz
LFO Depth
Sets how much the LFO affects the delay time. Increases the
animation and amount of the flanging effect. Range 0% to 100%
LFO Waveform
Selectable between Sine or Triangle wave.
LFO L/R Phase
Controls the stereo width by adjusting the phase difference
between the left and right sweeps. Range: -180° to +180°
Freq Shifter
This unusual effect is sometimes called “spectrum shifting” or “single sideband modulation.”
Frequency shifting shifts every harmonic in the signal by a fixed number of Hz which causes
the harmonics to lose their normal relationship. The more common pitch shifter, in contrast,
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Creative Professional
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Core Effects Descriptions
preserves the harmonic relationships of the signal and so is better suited to creating “musical”
harmonies.
This isn’t to say that the frequency shifter can’t be used musically. Small intervals of frequency
shifting (1 Hz and below) can produce a wonderful, lush chorusing or phasing effect. For
bizarre frequency shifting effects, simply crank up the frequency knob. Frequencies can be
shifted up or down by any specified amount from .1 Hz to 24 kHz. You can also shift pitch up
on one side and down on the other if you wish.
You can also type in
exact frequencies to a
resolution of 1/10 Hz.
Comparison between Pitch and Frequency Shifting
Original
(Hz)
Pitch Shifted
(100 Hz)
Frequency Shifted
(100 Hz)
1
200
300
300
2
400
600
500
3
600
900
700
4
800
1200
900
5
1000
1500
1100
6
1200
1800
1300
7
1400
2100
1500
8
1600
2400
1700
Harmonic
Parameter
Description
Frequency
Sets the number of Hz that will be added or
subtracted with every harmonic in the signal.
Range: .01Hz to 24kHz
Left Direction
Sets pitch shift up or down for the left channel.
Right Direction
Sets pitch shift up or down for the right channel.
Leveling Amp
The first compressors developed in the 1950’s were based on a slow-acting optical gain cells
which were able to control the signal level in a very subtle and musical way. This effect is a
digital recreation of the leveling amps of yesteryear.
The leveling amp uses a large amount of “lookahead delay” to apply gentle gain reduction.
Because of this delay, the leveling amp is not suitable for applications which require realtime
monitoring of the signal. This smooth and gentle compressor is designed to be used in situations where delay does not pose a problem, such as mastering a mix or compressing prerecorded stereo material.
Post Gain is the only control on the leveling amp. This control is used to make up the volume
lost by the compression. The Compression Ratio is fixed at about 2.5:1. If a large peak is
detected, the effect will automatically increase the compression ratio to keep the audio output
controlled.
The gain reduction meter shows you how much gain reduction is being applied. Since the gain
reduction meter displays how much the gain is being turned down, the meter moves from right
to left, instead of left to right like most meters.
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59
5 - Effects
Core Effects Descriptions
Post Gain
Amplifies the signal after it has been compressed to bring up the volume.
Lite Reverb
Reverberation is a simulation of a natural space such as a room or hall. The Lite Reverb
algorithm is designed to simulate various rooms and reverberation plates while using fewer
DSP resources than the Stereo Reverb. Up to five Lite Reverbs can be used at once.
Decay time defines the time it takes for the reflected sound from the room to decay or die away.
The diagram below shows a generalized reverberation envelope.
Early Reflections
Reverberation
Time
After a short pre-delay period, the echoes from the closest walls or ceiling are heard. These first
echoes, or Early Reflections, vary greatly depending on the type of room. Some time after the
early reflection cluster ends, the actual Reverberation (a dense cloud of complex wall reflections) begins and decays according to the time set by the Decay Time parameter. The Reverberance parameter controls the density and smearing of both the early reflections and the
reverberation cloud.
High frequency energy tends to fade away first as a sound is dissipated in a room. The High
Frequency Decay Factor adjusts the time it takes for the high frequency energy to die away and
thus changes the characteristics of the room. Rooms with smooth, hard surfaces are more
reflective and have less high frequency damping. Rooms filled with sound absorbing materials,
such as curtains or people, have more high frequency damping.
The Low Frequency Decay Factor parameter adjusts the time it takes for the low frequencies to
die away. This control adjusts the “boominess” of the room.
Parameter
Description
Decay Time
Sets the reverb decay time. Range: 0% to 100%
HF Decay Factor
Sets the rate at which high frequencies die away. The high
frequencies last longer as the percentage is increased.
Range: 0% to 100%
LF Decay Factor
Sets the rate at which low frequencies die away. The low
frequencies last longer as the percentage is increased.
Range: 0% to 100%
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Parameter
Description
Early Reflections
Sets the volume of the initial wall reflections.
Range: 0% to 100%
Reverberance
Sets the amount of scattering of the early reflections and
the reverberation cloud. Range: 0% to 100%
Mono Delays - 100, 250, 500, 750, 1500, 3000
A delay line makes a copy of the incoming audio, holds it in memory, then plays it back after a
predetermined time. The delay number refers to the maximum delay time that can be
produced by the delay line. The six lengths, from 100 ms to 3 seconds, allow you to make the
most efficient use of the effect memory resource.
Long delays produce echoes, short delays can be used for doubling or slapback effects. Very
short delays can be used to produce resonant flanging and comb filter effects or create
monotone robotic-sounding effects (Hint: use feedback). Stereo signals are summed together
before entering the Mono Delay.
There is also a feedback path to send the delayed audio back through the delay line. When
creating echo effects, the feedback controls how many echoes will be produced. With short
delays, the feedback control acts as a resonance control, increasing the amount of comb filtering
produced by the delay line. Comb filtering: See page 57.
A High Frequency Rolloff filter in the feedback path cuts some of the high frequency energy
each time the audio goes through the delay line. This simulates the natural absorption of high
frequencies in a room and can also be used to simulate tape-based echo units.
The Wet/Dry mix controls how loud the echoes are in relation to the original signal.
Feedback
HF
Rolloff
L Out
L In
Delay
R In
R Out
Delay Time
Parameter
Description
Delay Time
Sets the length of the delay in milliseconds.
(.01ms. minimum increment between settings)
Mono Delay 100 Range: 1 millisecond to 100 milliseconds
Mono Delay 250 Range: 1 millisecond to 250 milliseconds
Mono Delay 500 Range: 1 millisecond to 500 milliseconds
Mono Delay 750 Range: 1 millisecond to 750 milliseconds
Mono Delay 1500 Range: 1 millisecond to 1.5 seconds
Mono Delay 3000 Range: 1 millisecond to 3 seconds
Feedback
Sets the amount of delayed signal that will be recirculated through
the delay line. Range: 0% to 100%
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Parameter
Description
High Freq. Rolloff
Damps high frequencies in the feedback path.
Range: 0% to 100%
Phase Shifter
A phase shifter produces a fixed number of peaks and notches in the audio spectrum which
can be swept up and down in frequency with a low frequency oscillator (LFO). This creates a
swirly, ethereal sound with harmonically rich sound sources of a type of pitch shift with
simpler sounds. The phase shifter was invented in the 1970’s and the characteristic sound of
this device evokes emotions of that musical era.
By setting the LFO Depth to zero and tuning the LFO Center, a fixed multi-notch filter is
created.
Feedback
In
Phase
Shifter
Signal path = Stereo
LFO Center
Out
LFO
LFO Rate
Parameter
Description
LFO Center
Sets the initial offset of the LFO and changes the position of the
peaks and notches. Range: 0% to 100%
Feedback
Increases the depth of the notches and height of the peaks.
Range: 0% to 100%
LFO Rate
Controls the sweep rate of the Low Frequency Oscillator.
Range: .01Hz to 10Hz
LFO Depth
Controls how much the Center Frequency is swept by the LFO.
Range: 0% to 100%
Waveform
Selects a Sine or Triangle wave for the LFO
LFO L/R Phase
Controls the stereo width by adjusting the phase difference
between the left and right sweeps. Range: -180° to +180°
Rotary
This is a simulation of a rotating speaker used on organs. The rotating speaker was invented to
give static organ tones a pipe organ type of animation, but this distinctive sound became a
legend in its own right. Spinning a sound around the room creates a doppler pitch shift along
with many other complex and musically pleasing sonic effects.
The Rotary incorporates acceleration and deceleration as you switch between the two speeds.
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Parameter
Description
Speed
Switches between slow or fast rotor speeds with
acceleration and deceleration as the speed changes.
Speaker Simulator
The Speaker Simulator provides realistic guitar speaker responses and is designed for use with
guitar, bass or synthesizer. Twelve popular guitar amp speaker cabinets are modeled.
There is only one parameter on this effect. Just select the speaker you want and listen.
Normally this effect should be used with the Mix control set to 100%.
Speaker Type
Description
British Stack 1 & 2
Modeled from a British 8-speaker high power amplifier stack.
British Combo 1-3
Modeled from a British 2-speaker combo amplifier.
Tweed Combo 1-3
Modeled from an American, 1950’s era, 2-speaker combo amplifier.
2 x 12 Combo
Modeled from an American, 1960’s era, 2-speaker combo amplifier.
4 x 12 Combo
Modeled from an American, 1960’s era, 4-speaker amplifier set.
Metal Stack 1 & 2
Modeled from a modern era, power amplifier stack.
Stereo Delays - 100, 250, 550, 750, 1500
The Stereo Delays are true stereo delay lines in that the left and right channels are kept entirely
separate from each other. The delay number refers to the maximum delay time that can be
produced by the delay lines. The five different lengths, from 100 ms to 1.5 seconds, allow you
to make the most efficient use of the effect memory resource.
Because the left and right channels can have different delay times, you can create a panning
effect by setting one delay long and the other short. Very short delay times combined with a
high feedback amount can be used to create monotone robotic-sounding effects. Using the
longer stereo delays, you can “overdub” musical lines one on top of the other with the feedback
control turned up.
Feedback
HF
Rolloff
In
Delay
Out
Signal path = Stereo
L Delay R Delay
Time
Time
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Parameter
Description
Left Delay Time
Sets the length of the delay for the left channel in milliseconds.
Right Delay Time
Sets the length of the delay for the right channel in milliseconds.
Delay Time (L & R)
Stereo Delay 100
Stereo Delay 250
Stereo Delay 550
Stereo Delay 750
Stereo Delay 1500
(.01ms. minimum increment between settings)
Range: 1 millisecond to 100 milliseconds
Range: 1 millisecond to 250 milliseconds
Range: 1 millisecond to 550 milliseconds
Range: 1 millisecond to 750 milliseconds
Range: 1 millisecond to 1.5 seconds
Feedback
Sets the amount of delayed signal that will be recirculated through
the delay line. Range: 0% to 100%
High Freq. Rolloff
Damps high frequencies in the feedback path. Range: 0% to 100%
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Stereo Reverb
Reverberation is a simulation of a natural space such as a room or hall. The stereo reverb
algorithm is designed to simulate various halls, rooms and reverberation plates.
Decay time defines the time it takes for the reflected sound from the room to decay or die away.
The diagram below shows a generalized reverberation envelope.
Early Reflections
Late Reverb
Time
After a short pre-delay period, the echoes from the closest walls or ceiling are heard. These first
echoes, or early reflections, vary greatly depending on the type of room. Some time after the
early reflection cluster ends (late reverb delay), the late reverberation (a dense cloud of
complex wall reflections) begins and decays according to the time set by the Decay Time
parameter.
Diffusion is the amount of scattering and density of the late reverberation cloud. Rooms with
many complex surfaces have more diffusion than bare rooms.
High frequency energy tends to fade away first as a sound is dissipated in a room. The High
Frequency Damping parameter adjusts the time it takes for the high frequency energy to die
away and thus changes the characteristics of the room. Rooms with smooth, hard surfaces are
more reflective and have less high frequency damping. Rooms filled with sound absorbing
materials, such as curtains or people, have more high frequency damping.
The Low Frequency Damping parameter adjusts the time it takes for the low frequencies to die
away. This control adjusts the “boominess” of the room.
Parameter
Description
Decay Time
Sets the length of the Late Reverb. Range 1.5 to 30seconds
Early Reflections Level
Sets the volume of the initial wall reflections.
Range: 0% to 100%
Early/Late Reverb Bal
Adjusts the balance between early refections and late reverb.
Range: 0% to 100%
Late Reverb Delay
Sets the time between early reflections and the onset of the late
reverb cloud. Range: 1ms to 350ms
Diffusion
Sets the amount of scattering of the late reverb cloud.
Range: 0% to 100%
High Freq. Damping
Sets the rate at which high frequencies die away.
Range: -10.0 to +3.0 damping factor
Low Freq. Damping
Sets the rate at which low frequencies die away.
Range: -10.0 to +3.0 damping factor
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Vocal Morpher
This unique effect allows you to select two vocal phonemes and morph between them using an
LFO. Phonemes are the consonants and vowels we use in articulating speech sounds and these
sounds are very distinctive and evocative. 30 different phonemes are available and these can be
shifted up or down in pitch for even more effects.
To use the Vocal Morpher, you just select Phoneme A and Phoneme B from the list of thirty.
Now the LFO automatically morphs back and forth between the two selected phonemes,
creating interesting vocal articulations. The rate of the LFO is adjustable and you can select
between Sine, Triangle or Sawtooth waveforms. The sine and triangle waves fade smoothly. The
sawtooth wave gradually fades, then jumps abruptly back.
When the frequency of the A or B Phonemes is shifted up or down, entirely new effects can be
produced. These frequency controls can also be used to tune the phoneme frequencies to the
range of audio you are processing.
Phoneme B
Frequ
Tim
e
ency
Phoneme A
List of Available Phonemes
A
E
I
O
U
AA
AE
AH
AO
EH
ER
IH
IY
UH
UW
B
D
F
G
J
K
L
M
N
P
R
S
T
V
Z
Parameter
Description
Phoneme A
Select any of the available Phonemes for Phoneme A.
Phoneme A
Tuning
Adjusts the frequency of Phoneme A up or down 2 octaves in
semitone intervals. Range: -24 semitones to +24 semitones
Phoneme B
Select any of the available Phonemes for Phoneme B.
Phoneme B
Tuning
Adjusts the frequency of Phoneme B up or down 2 octaves in
semitone intervals. Range: -24 semitones to +24 semitones
LFO Rate
Controls how fast the phonemes morph back and forth.
Range: .01Hz to 10Hz
LFO Waveform
Selects the waveform for the morph: Sinusoid, Triangle, Sawtooth
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Gate
This stereo noise gate is useful both for background noise reduction applications and also for
special effects.
The gate uses an envelope follower and threshold detector to turn on its output when the input
signal is above the turn-on threshold, and shut down its output when the signal falls below the
shut-off threshold. When “turned on” the Gate passes the input signal through to the output at
unity gain and when “shut off” the Gate silences the output or attenuates it by an adjustable
gain factor. While the Gate is a stereo effect, the left and right signals are gated in unison, with
the envelope follower defaulting to the louder of the two signals.
In normal operating mode, Gate turn-on is nearly instantaneous when the input signal exceeds
the Threshold level, while Gate Release time is an adjustable parameter. The effect of the fast
turn-on can be enhanced by using an optional 1 millisecond lookahead in the Gate's envelope
detector.
Together with the Threshold setting, tuning the Release time parameter is very useful in order
to achieve the least-obtrusive, most natural-sounding gating effect, which is highly dependent
on the specific program material being processed.
The gate does not offer an adjustable wet/dry mix parameter but does supply a Bypass switch
for effectively removing the effect from the signal path.
Applications
• Basic Gating - reduce background noise during periods of low signal level
• Re-Enveloping - extreme release time/attenuation can be used to re-sculpt the signal
envelope
• Punch Enhancement - high threshold+fast shuttoff+modest attenuation perform an
expander-like function that accentuates transients
In
1mS
Delay
Signal path = Stereo
Gate
Out
Lookahead
Envelope Follower/
Threshold Detector
Release
Threshold
Max Gain
Reduction
The Gate behaves exactly as a straight wire, except when activated by a signal level below the
Threshold (with Lookahead Off).
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Parameters
Threshold
When the input signal rises above the level set by the Threshold parameter, the Gate is
triggered to turn on and go from its maximum gain reduction level up to 0dB gain. The turnon threshold is adjustable anywhere between -70dB and 0dB (below the PatchMix nominal
operating point of -12dBFS.)
One of the keys to the smooth operation of the Gate is that the input Threshold level that turns
on the Gate is always higher than the level that shuts off the gate. This means that the input
signal level must descend substantially below the Threshold in order to turn off again.
This difference between turn-on and shut-off levels, or the hysteresis, is 10dB. That means that
if the Threshold is -30dB, the signal level must fall to -40dB before the Gate will begin to shut
off.
Release Time
This parameter controls the time, in milliseconds, that is required for the Gate to shut off. More
specifically, this is the time that will be required for the Gate control signal to go from unity
gain at 0dB down to the Max Gain Reduction level.
The optimum value for the Release time is dependent on the program material as well as the
effect you're trying to achieve. Optimum Release time is also highly dependent upon the
settings of the Threshold and Max Gain Reduction parameters.
In general, times less than about 10 msec are prone to cause clicks in the output, while times
longer than 30 msec may make the gating effect obvious if the background signal being gated
out is very noisy.
Max Gain Reduction
This parameter sets the attenuation that will be applied to the signal when the Gate is shut off.
The Gate control signal will swing between 0dB and this value as the Gate turns on and shuts
off.
To perform a strict “gating” operation, Max Gain Reduction would normally be set to -infinity
in order to completely silence the output of the Gate.
However, there are good reasons to set Max Gain Reduction to something less drastic than
infinite attenuation. Sometimes the silence between gated signals is “too quiet” - especially
when the signal represents a solo vocal or instrument, where the complete lack of any sound
between voiced segments sounds unnatural. For these applications, setting Max Gain
Reduction somewhere between -20dB and -40dB is more appropriate.
In tandem with a high Threshold, Max Gain Reduction can also be set to very modest values
like -5 or -10dB in order to add a subtle “punch” enhancement to transients. This has an effect
similar to an expander, where the attack transients which exceed the Threshold stand out by 5
or 10dB above the normal signal (you can make up for that 5 or 10dB attenuation by using a
trim pot or boosting the channel strip gain after the Gate.)
Lookahead
By default, the Gate effect uses a fixed 1 millisecond lookahead to avoid clipping off the leading
edge of signal transients when the Gate turns on. However, this is actually implemented by
adding a 1 millisecond delay to the signal through the gate. For applications where this
additional 1 millisecond latency is a problem, the Lookahead can be turned Off.
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Level Meter
This meter represents the input signal level in dB, and is in fact the output of the Gate's
envelope follower. Since the envelope follower is driven by the greater of the left or right
channel, this monophonic meter represents the greater of the two input signals.
Gain Reduction Meter
This meter shows the value in dB of the gate control signal which is used to boost or attenuate
the input signal. Its most-rightward maximum value of 0dB represents a unity gain path
through the Gate in its turn-on state. Except for the possibility of the 1 millisecond lookahead
latency, the Gate behaves exactly as a straight wire in this turned-on state. Values less than 0dB
represent the amount by which the input signal is being attenuated as the Gate shuts off.
The most-leftward gain shutoff value achieved by the Gain meter is set by the Max Gain
Reduction parameter (values from -70dB to -infinity are off the meter.) The speed with which
the Gain signal decays from 0dB to the shutoff value can be observed to change according to
the Release time parameter.
Reshaper
The Reshaper effect is a special purpose dynamics modification program, designed to
“resculpt” the amplitude envelope of an audio signal. The effect uses an envelope follower and
threshold detector to drive an ADSR-type gain stage, which can impose new attack, decay,
sustain and release profiles on the signal's original envelope.
Applications
• “Punch” Reducer - slow turn-on with added lookahead trims attacks off signals
• “Punch” Enhancement - fast turn on with high thresholds and release gain expands
signal attack transients
• Auto Volume Pedal - long attack times with Attack Retrigger can automatically
simulate use of a guitar volume pedal for gently fading in each note.
• Ambience Reduction - can be used like a gate to suppress ambient reverberations that
below a certain threshold.
When the input signal exceeds an adjustable Threshold, the Attack phase begins and continues
until the gain reaches unity (0dB). After the Attack peaks, the gain stage immediately transitions into the Decay phase, which continues until the gain falls to the Sustain level. During the
Sustain phase, the gain stage holds a constant level until the input signal passes below the
Release Threshold. During the Release Phase, the gain returns to the Release Level where it
remains until the another input transient triggers the next Attack phase.
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0 dB
Threshold
Release Threshold
Original
Waveform
0 dB
Sustain
Level
Release
Level
Attack
Time
Decay
Time
Hold Release
Time Time
Reshaped
Waveform
Attack, Decay and Release times are all adjustable, and the shape of each of these segments is
selectable between exponential, linear, or logarithmic. An additional Hold Time can be used to
extend the Sustain phase past the point where the signal has passed the Release Threshold.
If the Sustain Level is set the same as the Release Level, then the Reshaper effectively becomes a
two-phase “transient catcher” where the Release Threshold, Hold Time and Release Time are
ignored.
While the peak Attack gain level is always fully turned on, note that the Release Level is not
necessarily completely off, but can be adjusted upward so that the Reshaper retains a nominal
minimum gain. This allows the Reshaper to resculpt only the louder transients of a signal while
maintain a nominal output signal level the rest of the time.
The Release Threshold is always expressed relative to the Attack Threshold so that they will
automatically track each other when the Attack Threshold is adjusted.
Parameter
Description
Attack
Threshold
When the input signal rises above the level set by the Attack
Threshold parameter, Reshaper's ADSR engine begins the Attack
phase. The turn-on threshold is adjustable anywhere between
-40dB and 0dB (below the PatchMix nominal operating point of
-12dBFS.)
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Parameter
Description
Attack Time
This parameter controls the time, in milliseconds, that is required
during the Attack phase for the gain rise from its quiescent Release
Level to unity gain, or 0dB.
Decay Time
This parameter controls the time, in milliseconds, that is required for
the gain to fall from 0dB down to the attenuated Sustain Level.
Note that if the Sustain Level is set to 0dB this decay time becomes
simply a delay before entering the Sustain phase.
Release Time
This parameter controls the time, in milliseconds, that is required for
the gain to fall from the Sustain Level down to the Release Level.
Level Meter
This meter represents the input signal level in dB, and is in fact the
output of the Gate's envelope follower. Since the envelope follower
is driven by the greater of the left or right channel, this
monophonic meter represents the greater of the two input signals.
Sustain Level
This sets the gain level applied to the input signal when the ADSR
engine is in the Sustain phase.
Release Level
This sets the final gain level applied to the input signal when the
Release phase is fully decayed. When set to the minimum (-70dB)
the effective Release Level is -infinity, i.e., fully turned-off.
Hold Time
This parameter allows additional time to be added onto the Sustain
phase after the input signal falls below the Release Threshold before
transitioning to the Release phase. This extension of the Sustain
phase is useful for altering the tail dynamics of the sound.
Attack
Lookahead/
Delay
This parameter is adjustable in milliseconds to allow the Reshaper to
either “look ahead” and advance (negative values) or “delay”
(positive values) the response of the envelope detector relative to
the dynamics of the input signal.
For example, negative lookahead values can cause the envelope
detector to start the ADSR's Attack phase before the actual attack of
the signal so as not to miss any audible transients. Likewise, positive
delay values can be used to start the Attack “late”, so that signal
transients are intentionally missed by the Attack.
Release
Threshold
This parameter controls the level in dB below the Attack Threshold
at which the Release phase of the ADSR will begin.
Attack
Retrigger
By default, when the value of this parameter is Disabled, the
Reshaper's ADSR engine will wait until at least the Release phase of
a cycle before restarting a new Attack phase.
By setting Attack Retrigger to Enabled, however, the Reshaper
becomes sensitive to new input signal transients during any phase
of the ADSR cycle. In addition, enabling this parameter will also
cause the attack to restart at the Release Level instead of whatever
gain was being applied when the new attack arrived.
Attack Curve
This parameter allows the gain during the Attack phase to follow
one of 3 curves: linear, logarithmic, or exponential. Because the
ADSR computes gain using linear coefficients, the exponential curve
comes the closest to being a “constant in dB” gain ramp. A linear
curve provides a somewhat more immediate turn-on, while the
logarithmic curve presents a very abrupt turn-on.
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Parameter
Description
Release Curve
This parameter selects gain curves exactly as for the Attack Curve
parameter, except that the selected curves apply to both the Decay
and Release phases of the ADSR.
Multimode EQ
The Multimode EQ is a flexible stereo filter that is capable of implementing a range of powerful
filter topologies. It is useful both for utility EQ applications and also for special effects.
The Multimode EQ is built from an array of filter sections that can be configured to support:
• Lowpass filters with up to 48dB/octave rolloff
• Highpass filters with up to 48dB/octave rolloff
• Highpass + Lowpass series or parallel combination with up to 24dB/octave rolloff
• Bandpass filters with up to 24dB/octave rolloff
• Bandcut filters with up to 24dB/octave rolloff
In addition to cutoff or center frequency parameters, each of the above filter types also has a
switchable rolloff rate and adjustable resonance.
A Filter Edit parameter controls whether the Multimode EQ operates in Stereo, where filter
parameters are adjusted identically for both channels, or split Left and Right, where the left
and right channels support completely independent filter types and parameter values.
In addition to a standard Bypass switch, the effect offers an adjustable wet/dry mix parameter.
While not normally found on EQ sections, adjustable wet/dry mixtures can be useful for
generating phase cancellation and other special effects.
Applications
• Basic Tone Control - for fidelity enhancement
• Rumble Filter - use the highpass configuration with 48dB/octave rolloff below 50Hz.
• Subwoofer Support - use the lowpass configuration with 48dB/octave rolloff below
100Hz.
• Lo-Fi Effect (telephone, walkie-talkie, guitar mini-amp, distance simulation)
• Extreme Spectral Shaping - use Highpass+Lowpass, Bandpass or Bandcut with
independent hi/lo resonance
• Pseudo-stereo Effect - apply slightly different EQ to left and right channels to broaden
the spread of a mono signal
• Cross-over - left and right channels split a mono signal between highpass and lowpass
with a sharp transition region.
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Parameters
While the Multimode EQ has many parameters applicable to the various possible configurations of channels and filters, it selectively enables or hides parameters depending on their
applicability to the current configuration. As a result, not all of the parameters listed below
appear on-screen at the same time.
Parameter
Description
Filter Edit
This parameter controls whether the filter editing parameters apply
to both left and right channels in tandem (Stereo), only to the left
channel (Left) or only to the right channel (Right).
Filter Mode
This parameter selects one of 5 different filter types: Lowpass,
Highpass, Lowpass+Highpass, Band Pass or Band Cut.
Lowpass
The frequency response of the lowpass filter looks something like the diagram below:
In this mode, the Lowpass filter can have up to a 48dB/octave rolloff slope. In this mode the
Lowpass Rolloff, Lowpass Frequency and Lowpass Resonance parameters are available for
editing the filter response.
Highpass
The frequency response of the highpass filter looks something like the diagram below:
In this mode, the Highpass filter can have up to a 48dB/octave rolloff slope. The Highpass
Rolloff, Highpass Frequency and Highpass Resonance parameters are available for editing the
filter response.
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Highpass -> Lowpass
In this mode, the Lowpass and Highpass filters are connected in series and both sets of
Lowpass and Highpass parameters are exposed and independently editable to create the overall
filter response. The maximum rolloff slope of each filter is limited to 24dB/octave in this mode.
In Highpass -> Lowpass mode, the effect does not place any limitations on the Frequency
parameters of one filter relative to the other. In normal use, the Highpass Freq parameter will
be less than the Lowpass Freq parameter, creating a bandpass-type response:
However, if the Highpass Freq parameter is greater than the Lowpass Frequency parameter, the
passband effectively disappears, since the part of the spectrum which is above the highpass and
below the lowpass is non-existent. As a result, you'll hear a rapidly attenuating bandpass
response as the corner frequencies diverge.
Note that while the Highpass -> Lowpass combination appears the same as the Band Pass filter,
this mode is different in several important respects:
• The rolloff points are independently adjustable as individual frequencies rather than
specified as a combination of center frequency and bandwidth.
• The rolloff slope of each High and Low filter can be specified separately while the
Bandpass and Band Cut filters use the same slope.
• The Resonance of each High and Low filter can be specified separately while the
Bandpass filter uses the same Resonance at high and low corner frequencies.
Highpass || Lowpass
In this mode, the Lowpass and Highpass filters are connected either in parallel, and both sets
of Lowpass and Highpass parameters are exposed and independently editable to create the
overall filter response. The maximum rolloff slope of each filter is limited to 24dB/octave in
this mode.
In Highpass || Lowpass mode, the effect does not place any limitations on the Freq parameters
of one filter relative to the other. In normal use, the Highpass Freq parameter will be higher
than the Lowpass Freq parameter, creating a bandcut-type response:
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However, when the Highpass Freq parameter is lower than the Lowpass Freq parameter, the
combined filter response is basically flat, since the passbands of each filter combine to admit
the entire spectrum. An exception occurs when there is resonance added to the filters - you'll
hear the resonant peaks as increased gain above the otherwise flat spectral response.
Note that while the Highpass || Lowpass combination appears the same as the Band Cut filter,
this mode is different in several important respects:
• The rolloff points are independently adjustable as individual frequencies rather than
specified as a combination of center frequency and bandwidth.
• The rolloff slope of each High and Low filter can be specified separately while each side
of the Band Cut filter uses the same slope.
• The Resonance of each High and Low filter can be specified separately while the Band
Cut filter uses the same Resonance at high and low corner frequencies.
Band Pass
In this mode, the Lowpass and Highpass filters are connected in series to form a bandpass
filter, whose Center Freq and Bandwidth parameters are used to generate the rolloff
frequencies for the underlying Lowpass and Highpass filters. In this mode the rolloff slope on
the high and low sides of the passband is symmetrical and is limited to a maximum of 24dB/
octave. The Resonance is also common to both filter sections .
12 6dB
dB /o
/
c
18d oct t
B/o
ct
24dB
/oct
Resonance = 0
Band Cut
In this mode, the Lowpass and Highpass filters are connected in parallel to form a band-cut
filter, whose Center Freq and Bandwidth parameters are used to generate the rolloff
frequencies for the underlying Lowpass and Highpass filters. In this mode the rolloff slope on
the high and low sides of the cut-band is symmetrical and is limited to a maximum of 24dB/
octave.The Resonance is also common to both filter sections .
6
12 dB/
dB oc
/ t
18d oct
B/o
ct
24dB
/oct
Resonance = 0
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RFX Compressor
The RFX Compressor is a full-featured stereo compressor effect which features the standard
parameters available on most compressors as well as a collection of additional advanced parameters that are useful for more sophisticated applications and special effects:
• Threshold, Ratio, Attack and Release w/gain metering
• Auto-makeup gain
• Adjustable soft knee
• Adjustable lookahead/delay
• Noise gate (downward expander)
• Compressor “tail” expansion
• Program-dependent release
• Negative compression ratios
Signal Flow
The block diagram of the RFX Compressor is shown below.
Input
Mode
Gain
Cells
In L
Out
L
Compressor
Lookahead
0-100mS
In R
R
Out
(& Sidechain)
SIGNAL PATH
Threshold
Compressor
Delay
Compressor
Delay
0-50mS
Level
Detector
Attack
SIDECHAIN
Release
Ratio
Gain
Gain
Control
Soft Max. Neg. Gate
Knee Comp. Comp.
Auto Release
Note that the effect is split between a signal path and a sidechain path that contains the
compressor's level detectors and gain computation. The signal path of the RFX Compressor is
very close to a “straight wire”, with only a delay line and one gain control element inserted in
it. The sidechain contains the bulk of the compressor algorithm and is responsible for
computing the gain control signal. Signal multiplexers at the front of the signal path and
sidechain allow linked stereo compression or split signal path/sidechain processing.
The RFX Compressor does not have the input gain control that is found on some compressors.
These are typically used to align the input signal range to the compression threshold. Instead,
we've allowed the RFX Compressor's Threshold parameter to operate over an exceptionally
large range of 0-60dB so that it can be “steered” to the appropriate range of the input signal.
The output Gain parameter also operates - either manually or automatically - over the
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Creative Professional
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Core Effects Descriptions
unusually large range of -60dB to +60dB in order to renormalize the compressor's output for
the next stage of the signal path.
The wide dynamic range of the RFX Compressor aside, it's generally a good idea to maintain
the hottest signal levels possible without clipping at the input to any audio processor.
Parameters
Threshold
Threshold sets the input signal level above which dynamic range compression takes place.
Everything above the threshold will be brought down in volume. The compression threshold
ranges from -0 to -60dB, relative to full scale (0dBFS) input.
Setting the Threshold to 0dB disables normal compression, since no signal can exceed the
maximum possible input level. A Threshold setting of 0dB is still useful, however, when using
soft-knee compression or gating, since these actions occur below (and their thresholds are set
relative to) the Threshold parameter.
Gain Reduction Meter
As input signals exceed the Threshold, the rightness character in the bargraph is lit, and
successive characters are lit for each approximately 3dB in gain reduction imposed by the
compressor on the input signal. Because this is a compression meter and not a level meter, the
same input signal level will show widely varying meter readings depending on the setting of
the Ratio parameter.
Ratio
Sets the ratio of output signal to input
signal levels, selectable in 16 steps from
1:1.1 to 1:INFINITY.
1.1:1
-30dB
1.5:1
2:1
3:1
10:1
:1
Threshold: -30dB
8
When Neg Compression is set to
Enabled, the range of compression ratios
extends beyond INFINITY to encompass
negative compression ratios from 1:-100
down to 1:-1, which can be useful for
applications like ducking and other
special effects.
See the discussion of the Neg
Compression parameter on page 82.
0dB
Tip: A ratio of
Infinity:1 combined
with high threshold and
fast attack/release
results in an effective
peak limiter.
-80dB
Attack
Sets the amount of time that the compressor's level detector will take to respond to an increase
in signal level. The Attack range is adjustable from Instantaneous (essentially a peak detector
that follows individual samples) to 10 seconds (useful for long-term leveling or automatic
mixing applications.)
Release
Sets the amount of time that the compressor's level detector will take to respond to a decrease
in signal level. The fastest Release time is 100 microseconds, useful for some special effects but
highly prone to distortion; more typical release times are in the range of 70 milliseconds to 1
second. Release times up to 10 seconds are available for long-term leveling or automatic
mixing applications.
When the Auto-release parameter is in its signal-dependent settings, the Release time shown
represents the shortest possible release time. In Auto-release modes the displayed Release time
will be automatically extended depending on the dynamics of the input signal.
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Core Effects Descriptions
Gain
Sets the compressor's output gain in dB, from +60dB boost to-60dB cut. This control follows
all of the other elements in the compressor's signal path, so positive gain boost can be used to
make up for the gain reduction normally applied to signals above the compression threshold.
Alternatively, negative gain cut can be used to make up for the gain increase that is applied to
signals below the threshold in Soft Knee mode.
Auto Makeup Mode: When adjusted downward past the -60dB cut, the Gain parameter
begins operating in Auto Makeup mode. Auto Makeup mode is used to compensate for the
drop in output level normally resulting from the gain reduction actions of the Threshold and
Ratio parameters. Auto Makeup makes it much easier to adjust these parameters since there is
no need to switch back and forth to the Gain parameter in order to perform the gain compensation manually.
Auto Makeup looks at the gain reduction implied by the setting of the Threshold and Ratio
parameters and automatically applies a complementary gain increase so that an ideal 0dB input
signal results in a 0dB - or lower - output signal. In this mode, indicated by the Threshold
legend,
the Gain parameter adjusts the output level from that 0dB input signal
to fall anywhere in the range of 0dB down to -60dB.
Caution! The Gain
control can increase the
signal level to the point of
clipping. Excessive signal
levels can damage
speakers as well as your
ears!
Auto Makeup
should not be used when
in negative compression
ranges (see the Neg
Compression parameter
on page 82. Use manual
Gain control instead.
Advanced Parameters
This parameter controls whether the “Advanced Parameters” listed in this section are hidden or
exposed on the screen. For simple applications, quick edits or for novice users, these advanced
parameters can be hidden to minimize screen clutter and preclude erroneous operation. For
special and exotic applications and for experienced users, these parameters can be exposed to
allow access to all the gory details of the compressor's operation.
Note that even when this parameter is set to “Off”, the settings of the advanced parameters are
still active; the only effect of this parameter is to hide them from the screen.
Soft Knee
This parameter sets the depth of the compression transition region, giving an adjustable hard
or soft “knee” to the compressor's gain curve. Setting the depth of this region results in a knee
shape that can be varied from a sharp transition to one that is imperceptibly gradual.
With the default value of Off, the Soft Knee parameter causes the gain curve to switch immediately at the Threshold point from no compression (1:1) to full compression (1:Ratio), representing the hard knee effect. By adjusting the parameter value, an additional knee threshold
can be created 1dB to 60dB below the regular compression Threshold. Between these two
thresholds the effective compression ratio increases smoothly along the curve of a circular arc,
from 1:1 at the lower knee threshold to the full compression of 1:Ratio at the upper Threshold.
Both the Soft Knee depth and the Ratio will affect the particular shape of the knee: shallower
depths and higher Ratios will create a sharper knee, while greater depths and lower ratios
create a softer knee.
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Core Effects Descriptions
Soft Knee
(Varying the Soft Knee Threshold)
0dB
Threshold: -20dB
Ratio = 4:1
-20dB
Knee
Threshold -10dB
Threshold -20dB
Threshold -30dB
-80dB
This diagram shows the effect of varying the Soft Knee Threshold.
Compression is 1:1 (no compression) at the Knee Threshold and smoothly transforms
into the selected compression ratio at the Compression Threshold. The upward arrow
shows the additional gain added to signals below the Threshold.
Soft Knee
(Varying the Compression Ratio)
0dB
-20dB
Ratio = 1.5:1
Ratio = 4:1
Ratio = 10:1
Threshold: -20dB
-35dB
Soft Knee:
Threshold -15dB
-80dB
This diagram shows the effect of varying the Compression Ratio
with a fixed Soft Knee Threshold. The knee transforms from a linear slope to the
slope of the compression ratio over the Soft Knee Threshold area. The upward
arrow shows the additional gain added to signals below the Threshold.
In the region between the lower knee and upper Threshold, a variable amount of gain
reduction is applied depending on the signal level and Ratio setting. To keep this gain
reduction from “dragging down” the signal levels at the Threshold point, a complementary
gain boost is automatically applied to all signal levels below the Threshold when the Soft Knee
is enabled. This gain increase with depth and Ratio is illustrated by the upward arrows in the
diagrams, and is similar to the action of the Auto Makeup Gain parameter. Thus signal levels
below the Threshold increase as the Soft Knee depth and/or Ratio is increased (but see the Gate
parameter, below.)
E-MU Digital Audio System
Tip: Setting a high Ratio
with the Threshold at 0dB
and the Soft Knee at -60dB
creates a compressor
whose ratio varies smoothly
from gentle compression at
lower signal levels to peak
limiting at maximum signal
level
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Core Effects Descriptions
Gate
This parameter enables automatic gain reduction on signals that fall from 1 to 120dB below the
Threshold point (or Soft Knee threshold, if enabled.) This can act effectively as a “noise gate”
on low-level signals that have been boosted by the action of the Gain or Soft Knee parameters.
The gating action follows a somewhat soft-kneed contour of its own so that turn-on and turnoff at the gate threshold is not too abrupt.
Gate
0dB
-10dB
-20dB
Threshold: -20dB
Ratio = 4:1
Gain = +15dB
Gate
Threshold
-30dB
-30dB
-40dB
-50dB
-60dB
-70dB
-80dB
In this example, the Gain has been boosted by +15dB. The Gate cancels out the +15dB Gain
boost below the Gate Threshold. Signal levels above the Gate Threshold will be boosted;
signal levels below this point will not be boosted and will be 15dB lower in volume.
Note that, strictly speaking, the term “gate” is a misnomer in this context, since the action of
this parameter is simply to cancel out gain increases that resulted from the settings of other
parameters. This can be seen by the arrows in the diagram as the gain is reduced below the
Gate threshold back down to the dotted line representing unity gain. The result is that if the
Gain parameter is set negative or the Soft Knee parameter is disabled, the Gate parameter will
have no effect.
Comp Lookahead/Delay
This parameter controls compressor
lookahead or delay by setting the
relative time offset, in milliseconds,
between the compressor's signal path
and its sidechain path.
At negative values, this parameter lets
the level detector in the compressor's
sidechain “look into the future” up to
100 milliseconds in order to anticipate
upcoming peaks in the signal - accomplished of course, by inserting delay into
the signal path. This lookahead
technique allows the use of slower attack
times without missing signal peaks.
Lookahead
Delay
Sharp waveform peak is missed by compressor.
Add Lookahead (neg values) to compress peak.
Add Delay (pos values) to allow peak through.
At positive values, the signal path delay
is zero; instead, a delay of up to 50 milliseconds is inserted into the sidechain path containing
the level detector. This delay can be used intentionally to cause the compressor to miss signal
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Core Effects Descriptions
peaks, retaining the “punch” and “bite” of signal attacks while subsequently compressing the
sustained portions of the sound.
In general, both positive and negative values of this parameter are useful for applications where
the normal envelope of a signal is being creatively manipulated to achieve special effects.
Auto-Release
This parameter causes the effective Release time to be extended automatically based on the
dynamics of the input signal. This parameter emulates the program-dependent release characteristics found on some classic analog compressor/limiters.
When not set “Off”, the Auto-release parameter treats the Release parameter value as a
minimum release time, extending it by as much as a factor of 10 depending on different,
selectable characteristics of the input signal:
In Program-dependent mode, release times are increased depending on how often, how long
and by how much the input signal (“program material”) exceeds the Threshold. Release times
increase slowly under sustained excursions of the input over the Threshold, and typically
return back to normal within a few seconds after the signal level has fallen below it. This
emulates the signal “memory effect” exhibited by some electro-optical compressors.
In Compression-dependent mode, the release extension characteristics are similar, but in
addition depend on the amount of gain reduction being applied to the signal. Thus the same
signal will cause more release-time extension at higher compression Ratio settings than at
lower ones.
Uncompressed Waveform
Short Release
Longer Release
Program-Dependent Release
With Auto-release turned on, the release time becomes longer after an extended period of
compression.
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Core Effects Descriptions
Max Compression
This parameter is used to limit the amount of gain reduction that the compressor can apply.
The limit is set as a maximum number of dB of gain reduction, from 3dB to UNLIMITED.
Max. Compression
0dB
Max. Comp. = 6dB
Max. Comp. = 15dB
-30dB
Max. Comp. = 24dB
Threshold: -30dB
Ratio = 4:1
-80dB
This feature emulates the phenomenon of the compression “tail” found in the gain curves of
some classic analog compressor/limiters. The phenomenon results from the inability of these
devices to apply more than a certain amount of compression to the input signal. When the
device “runs out” of enough gain reduction to compress a very high level signal, it resumes a
1:1 gain curve again. This “deficiency” has the unexpected sonic benefit of restoring some
dynamics to the compressed signal - but only on the highest input peaks - thus adding some
“life” back into otherwise over-compressed signals.
Unlike analog compressors, the Max Compression parameter allows you to adjust the amount
of gain reduction before the compressor returns to a 1:1 gain curve. The diagram shows three
settings of the Max Compression parameter; the compressor “gives up” and returns to 1:1 after
6, 15 and 24dB of compression have been exhausted, respectively.
The parameter is most useful at higher compression ratios, allowing the gain curve to be
carefully tailored to the dynamics of the signal as well as the Threshold and Ratio parameters.
The limit set by the Max Compression parameter does not apply to gain reduction performed
in the Soft Knee region of the gain curve.
Note: You may need
to use the Gain
parameter to keep these
restored peaks from
clipping the compressor
output since Auto
Makeup gain doesn't
automatically take the
compressor tail into
account.
Neg Compression
When the Neg Compression
parameter is Enabled, the range of
compression values available to the
Ratio parameter extends beyond
INFINITE to encompass negative
compression ratios from 1:-100
down to 1:-1. Using negative
compression ratios results in an
output signal that actually gets
quieter as the input signal rises above
the threshold. This action can be
useful for applications like ducking
and for other special effects.
0dB
Threshold: -30dB
Neg. Comp: Enabled
-30dB
Ratio
-10:1
-5:1
-3:1
-2:1
-1.5:1
-1:1
-80dB
The diagram above shows the gain
curves using a Threshold at -30dB
and a range of negative compression ratios.
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Core Effects Descriptions
At just past 1:INFINITE, the setting of 1:-100 causes input signals approaching 0dB to be only
slightly decreased below -30dB. In contrast, the compression ratio of 1:-1 causes a 2dB gain
reduction for each 1dB of additional input signal level, resulting in an output signal level that is
folded down over the Threshold.
Input Mode
The Input Mode parameter allows the compressor signal path and sidechain to be driven in
common or by separate inputs. This is a feature of many compressors and is useful for a range
of applications and special effects.
By default, the Input Mode of the compressor is Stereo. In this mode the two independent left
and right signal paths are gain controlled by a parallel sidechain path common to both inputs
that contains the compressor's level detector. This single level detector works on the higher of
the two input signal levels, so that signal peaks are properly compressed and no L/R image shift
results from compression operations.
When the Input Mode is set to L In/R Sidechain, the signal path is fed exclusively from the left
channel and the sidechain is fed exclusively from the right channel. This allows dynamics
control between two completely independent signals. In this mode both the compressor's left
and right outputs are fed by the mono signal from the left input channel's signal path.
Splitting the signal path and sidechain makes possible applications where the two signals may
be completely unrelated, such as ducking. Other split-sidechain applications result from situations where a stereo input signal has had different processing applied between left and right
channels. One example would be to place a stereo equalizer ahead of the compressor in order
to implement a version of de-essing or “de-booming”. See page 86.
Create a Ducker
To create a ducker, in which a background signal's level is reduced in the presence of a
foreground signal, first set the Input Mode parameter to L In/R Sidechain. Then send feeds
from the background signal to the left input, and from the foreground signal to the right side
input. Set the Ratio parameter to -1:1 (or lower for less background reduction), and dial in a
low Threshold such as -50, so any foreground signal above -50dB will cause gain reduction in
the background signal. This technique works best with slow Attack and Release times — use a
liberal amount of Compression Lookahead to keep the background from masking the
beginning of foreground sounds.
Creating a Ducker
Ducker
Background Signal
Pan -90 (L)
L
L
Gain
Cell
Stereo Strip
Foreground Signal
Pan +90 (R)
E-MU Digital Audio System
R
Out
R
Sidechain
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5 - Effects
Core Effects Descriptions
Example Settings
Here we have provided a few examples to show the varied uses of this useful tool. Bear in mind
that these examples are simply starting points and that you will undoubtedly need to fine tune
the parameters to fit the program material and to suit your own taste.
Increase Drum Punch:
Adjust the Threshold control to control the amount of compression.
• Threshold: Adjust so that all hits are being compressed.
• Ratio: 4:1
• Attack: 8 msec (Increase the time to hear more “stick” sound.)
• Release: 60 msec (Adjust according to the tempo of song.)
• Gain: Adjust to make up for lost volume.
• Soft Knee: Adjust as desired.
• Comp. Lookahead: This can be used instead of the Attack control.
• Max. Compression: Unlimited
Smoothing out the Bass Guitar Level:
This setup evens out the volume and prevents the bass guitar from wandering in and out of the
mix.
• Threshold: -24dB (adjust according to the sound)
• Ratio: 4:1
• Attack: 8 msec
• Release: 70 msec
• Gain: +4dB (adjust according to the sound)
• Soft Knee: Threshold -8dB
• Gate: Off
• Comp. Lookahead: 0 msec
• Auto-release: Comp-dependent
• Max. Compression: 18dB
Peak Limiting:
This setup trims only the very loudest peaks, leaving most of the signal intact.
• Threshold: -37dB (adjust according to the sound)
• Ratio: 2:1 or 3:1
• Attack: Instantaneous
• Release: 30 msec
• Gain: 0dB
• Soft Knee: Off
• Gate: Off
• Comp. Lookahead: -5 msec
• Max. Compression: Unlimited
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Core Effects Descriptions
Vocal Compression/Spoken Word:
This setup compresses the entire dynamic range of the vocal. Whenever there is a signal
present, there is some compression taking place.
• Threshold: Adjust so that the first bar of the meter comes on even on soft
passages.
• Ratio: 2:1
• Attack: 0.1 msec
• Release: 100 msec
• Gain: Set to compensate for lost gain.
• Soft Knee: Off
• Gate: Off
• Comp. Lookahead: 0 msec
• Auto-release: Off
• Max. Compression: 12dB
Backwards Drums & Cymbals:
This is a special effect which reverses the volume envelope of cymbals and drums.
• Threshold: -37dB (adjust according to the sound)
• Ratio: -1:1 (Neg. Compression enabled)
• Attack: Instantaneous
• Release: 200 msec
• Gain: +19dB
• Soft Knee: Off
• Gate: Off
• Comp. Lookahead: -24 msec
• Auto-release: Off
• Max. Compression: Unlimited
E-MU Digital Audio System
85
5 - Effects
Core Effects Descriptions
Creating a De-esser:
A de-esser reduces the sibilance or “sss” sound in a vocal part. The sidechain feature of the RFX
Compressor makes it possible to create a effective de-esser using the compressor and an
external highpass filter or graphic EQ. The idea is to boost the high frequency content going to
the sidechain (R input) so that the compressor will turn down the volume in the presence of
sibilance.
Creating a De-esser
RFX
Compressor
L
L
Gain
Cell
Stereo
Strip
Y-Cord
or Mixer
R
Sidechain
Hi Pass
R
Outboard
EQ
Connections and EQ Settings
1. Connect an outboard highpass filter or equalizer to the Right Input.
2. Connect your preamplified vocal signal to the outboard EQ and the Left Input.
Compressor Settings
You can boost the low
frequencies in the right
channel to create a “deboomer”.
Lookahead gives the compressor time to react to the vocal sibilance.
• Input Mode: L In/R Sidechain
• Threshold: -32dB (adjust to control amount of de-essing)
• Ratio: 2.5:1
• Attack: Instantaneous
• Release: 40 msec
• Gain: 0dB
• Soft Knee: Off
• Gate: Off
• Comp. Lookahead: -20 msec
• Auto-release: Off
• Max. Compression: Unlimited
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E-MU PowerFX
E-MU PowerFX
The hardware-accelerated effects of t
w you to use PatchMix DSP effects from within Cubase, Sonar, or other host application with
minimal load on your CPU.
Note: PowerFX is not supported in Vista. While many users are abble to use E-MU PowerFX
under Vista with little or no problems, we are unable to offer support to those using PowerFX
with Windows Vista.
E-MU PowerFX are
not available at the
96kHz or 192kHz sample
rates.
E-MU PowerFX incorporate smart time alignment technology which automatically compensates for system latencies and ensures proper synchronization of audio throughout the VST
chain (if the host application supports this feature).
E-MU PowerFX On/Off
Input Signal Present
Cubase SX/SL/LE 2.0,
Nuendo and Sonar (using
the Cakewalk VST
adapter 4.4.1) implement
VST 2.X auto delay
compensation.
FX Parameters
When using Cubase
LE with the 0404, turn
Multiprocessing OFF in
Cubase LE (Device Setup,
VST Multitrack, Expert).
FX Palette
FX Inserts
Output Signal Present
FX Presets
Preset Editing
Parameter
Description
PowerFX On/Off
Enables or bypasses E-MU PowerFX.
FX Palette
Select from a single “Core” effect or a Multi-Effect.
FX Inserts
Drop Effects from the FX Palette here.
Signal Present LEDs
These indicators turn blue to show the presence of input and
output signals.
FX Parameters
Select the desired effect in the center insert section, then adjust
the wet/dry mix and parameters for the effect.
FX Presets
Select from the list of preprogrammed effect presets here.
E-MU Digital Audio System
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5 - Effects
E-MU PowerFX
Parameter
Description
Preset Editing
Click here to Save, Delete, Rename or Overwrite a User Preset.
See the “User Preset Section” for more information
Preferences
The Preferences menu allows you to:
• Toggle the Tooltips On or Off
• Extra Buffers - Check this box if excessive stuttering occurs when
using E-MU PowerFX in your VST Host application. This box
should be checked when using Fruity Loops.
• Render Mode - Induces realtime rendering in applications
which do not support realtime rendering.
(WaveLab, SoundForge)
To Setup & Use E-MU PowerFX:
Setup Cubase LE
1. Launch Cubase LE
2. Instantiate E-MU PowerFX in an Insert or Aux Send location within Cubase.
3. Press the Insert Edit button
in Cubase to bring up the E-MU PowerFX plug-in
window shown on the previous page.
Using any driver
other than “E-MU ASIO”
may produce undesirable
results when using E-MU
PowerFX.
Setup E-MU PowerFX
4. Make sure the Insert Enable button
is illuminated, indicating that E-MU Power FX
is on. The blue “Signal Present” indicators will be illuminated if E-MU PowerFX is
properly patched into a signal path.
5. Drag the desired effects from the Effects Palette to the center Insert strip.
6. Click on the Effect you wish to edit in the center Insert Strip (it will highlight in yellow),
then adjust the effects parameters in the right section of the window.
7. You can also select or edit User Presets from the section below the FX parameters. See the
“User Preset Section” for more information.
Add Delay Compensation (if needed)
If you are using Cubase VST 5.1, or another older sequencer without automatic delay compensation, you will have to insert an E-Delay Compensator into any other audio tracks to keep
them time-aligned.
8. Simply insert an E-Delay Compensator plug-in into the same insert location you used for
E-MU PowerFX on any other audio tracks. That’s it.
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E-MU PowerFX
Automating E-MU PowerFX
E-MU PowerFX can be automated in Cubase LE (or other recording host) just like any other
VST effect. When “Write Automation” is activated in Cubase, control changes made in the
PowerFX window during playback will be recorded on a special “Automation Subtrack”. When
“Automation Read” is activated, the recorded control changes will be played back.
Steinberg Cubasis
does not have the control
automation feature.
To Record E-MU PowerFX parameter changes in Cubase LE
1. Add E-MU PowerFX as a Channel Insert.
2. Rewind the song and enable “Automation Write” by pressing the WRITE button
on,
illuminating it. (Refers to Cubase LE. If you are using another application, refer to the
documentation.)
3. Bring the E-MU PowerFX window to the front and select the Effect you want to automate.
The effect parameters appear in the TV screen. Make sure the blue “On” button is lit.
4. Press the Play button on the Cubase Transport control. The song begins playing.
5. Adjust the E-MU PowerFX controls to achieve the effect you want. Rewind the song when
finished.
6. Disable “Automation Write” and enable “Automation Read”
. Playback the song to
hear and view your changes.
7. To edit Automation, first enable both “Automation Write” and “Automation Read” and
press Play. Cubase LE begins overwriting as soon as you change a control.
8. If you don’t like the results and want to try again, select Show Used Automation from the
Project menu. The Automation Subtrack appears. Next, click in the Parameter Display and
select Remove Parameter.
Once you have
recorded or drawn
automation, do not
delete or move effects
from the Insert Strip.
Doing so will result in
unpredictable behavior.
Note: This only erases one automation parameter from the Automation Subtrack. To erase
multiple control edits, repeat the procedure above. See the Cubase LE manual for more
specific information about automation editing.
E-MU PowerFX Resource Availability
Because different collections of VST plug-ins and PatchMix Sessions can be run simultaneously,
it is possible to load a new plug-in for which resources are not available. If DSP resources are
NOT available for an existing setup:
• E-MU PowerFX loads a Hardware I/O Path and simply passes audio through without any
effects. The effects insert slot(s) in PowerFX will be “redded out”.
• If no Hardware I/O Paths are available, the plug-in will be disabled and run in a soft passthrough mode. The effects insert slot(s) in PowerFX will be “grayed out”.
• If DSP resources ARE available, but no Hardware I/O Paths are available, the plug-in will
run in soft pass-through mode.
• If the sample rate is changed in the middle of a PowerFX session, E-MU PowerFX plugins will be bypassed, since the hardware effects cannot operate at 96kHz or 192kHz.
E-MU Digital Audio System
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E-MU PowerFX
E-MU PowerFX Compatibility Chart
Application Name
Compatible?
Note
Render
Extra
Buffers
Steinberg Cubase VST 5.1
Yes
Off
Off
Steinberg Cubase SX 1
Yes
Off
Off
Steinberg Cubase SX 2
Yes
Off
Off
Steinberg Cubase LE
Yes
Off
Off
Steinberg Cubase SL
Yes
Off
Off
Steinberg WaveLab 4
Yes
On
Off
Steinberg WaveLab Lite (ver 4)
Yes
On
Off
Steinberg WaveLab 5
No
On
Either
Sony Acid 4
Yes
On
Off
Sony Vegas 5
Yes
On
Off
Sony SoundForge 7
No
Power FX
crashes when
launched.
On
Off
Adobe Audition 1.5
No
Audio distortion
& immediate
lockup.
Any
Any
FruityLoops Studio 4.5
Yes
Off
On
Ableton Live 3.5
No
On
Off
Cakewalk Sonar 3
Yes
Off
Off
90
Instrument
Freeze triggers
error if
not in render
mode.
Pops & clicks
may occur.
(Try 8 buffers at
1024)
Distortion when
FX parameters
are changed.
Creative Professional
5 - Effects
Rendering Audio with E-MU PowerFX
Rendering Audio with E-MU PowerFX
Rendering (sometimes called Export) is a mixdown process performed by the host application,
which creates a new digital audio file from a multitrack song. Rendering allows a virtually
unlimited number of VST effects to be used because the audio processing is performed out of
realtime.
E-MU PowerFX and the PatchMix DSP effects are strictly realtime processes. When E-MU
PowerFX are used while rendering audio, the rendering process must proceed at realtime rate.
Some host applications are not designed to handle realtime rendering and this can cause
problems. E-MU PowerFX can be used with these applications if you are willing to follow
certain guidelines.
General Tips for Rendering using E-MU PowerFX
• If an error message occurs, increase the “ASIO Buffer Latency” setting located in
the device Setup dialog box. Depending on your setup, you may have to
increase or decrease the Buffer Latency settings to find the setting that works.
• Instead of rendering with E-MU PowerFX, bounce the E-MU PowerFX processed
tracks to another track in realtime.
• Check “Realtime Render” in the Render dialog box when using Cubase LE,
Cubase SX2 or Cubase SL2. This setting will give the best results.
Tips for using Freeze Mode on Cubase LE
• Make the project length as short as possible. Freeze always renders the entire
project length, even if the MIDI track being rendered is shorter.
• Great Tip: Temporarily bypass E-MU PowerFX (and any other effects) even
when “Freezing” another track. This will allow the track to Freeze faster than
realtime.
Using E-MU PowerFX with WaveLab and SoundForge
Stuttering in the audio can occur when rendering with SoundForge or any version of Steinberg
WaveLab. This problem is caused by discontinuities in the first few audio buffers as they are
fed by WaveLab to E-MU PowerFX. The problem can be eliminated by following these guidelines.
• Check “Render Mode” box in the E-MU PowerFX preferences. See page 88.
• We recommend that you only use the MME/WAVE E-DSP Wave [xxxx] drivers.
• Reduce the “Buffer Size” in the WaveLab, Audio Preferences dialog box. This
moves the stuttering to beginning of the file.
• Pad the beginning (and/or end) of your audio file with silence (.5 to several
seconds depending on the file). This action causes the buffer discontinuities to
occur before the song begins.
E-MU Digital Audio System
91
5 - Effects
E-MU VST E-Wire
E-MU VST E-Wire
E-Wire is a special VST/ASIO Bridge which allows you to route digital audio via ASIO to
PatchMix and back again.
E-Wire VST incorporates smart time alignment technology that automatically compensates for
system latencies and ensures proper synchronization of audio throughout the VST chain. In
addition, E-Wire also allows you to insert outboard audio gear into the VST environment.
E-Wire has three main components:
• A VST plug-in which handles the audio routing to PatchMix DSP.
• An ASIO mixer strip in PatchMix DSP configured to route audio to the E-Wire plug-in.
You simply drop the effects you want to use into this strip.
• For hosts that don’t support automatic delay compensation, a manual delay-compensation plug-in can be inserted in Cubase tracks or channels that don’t use E-Wire to
compensate for ASIO delay.
The diagram below may give you a better idea of how E-Wire works:
Note: It’s easier to use
E-MU PowerFX instead of
E-Wire if you just want to
use the hardware effects.
(E-Wire was the precursor
to E-MU PowerFX.)
However, E-Wire can be
very useful because it
allows you to route VST
inserts or Sends to
Physical Inputs and
Outputs via PatchMix DSP.
E-Wire VST plug-in
Send to Strip
Stereo Reverb
Return to VST
ASIO Send
PatchMix DSP
Strip configured
for E-Wire
E-Wire bridges the gap between hardware I/O and the VST world. The E-Wire VST plug-in sends
audio to a strip containing the desired effect. An ASIO Send routes the audio back to E-Wire VST.
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5 - Effects
E-MU VST E-Wire
To Setup and use E-Wire:
Setup PatchMix DSP
1. Open PatchMix DSP application.
2. Insert an ASIO Input mixer strip into PatchMix DSP. (Alternately, you can select “New
Session”, select “E-Wire Example” and skip to step 6.)
3. Mute the strip or turn the Fader all the way down.
4. Insert an ASIO Send plug-in into one of the inserts on your ASIO strip.
5. Name your ASIO strip as an E-Wire strip.
6. Insert the desired PatchMix DSP effects into slots above the ASIO Send.
7. Save the Session.
Setup Cubase
8. Launch Cubase.
9. Instantiate E-Wire in an Insert or Aux Send location within Cubase.
10. Edit the E-Wire plug-in and activate the plug-in by pressing the blue button.
11. Set the ASIO Send and Return on the E-Wire plug-in to match the strip you set up for E-
Wire.
12. Done.
E-Delay Compensation
An E-Delay Compensator must be inserted into any other audio tracks that are not using
E-Wire in order to keep them time-aligned.
13. Simply insert an E-Delay Compensator plug-in into the same insert location you used for
E-Wire on any other audio tracks. That’s it.
E-Delay Compensator
As audio is transferred back and forth between the VST host application and the E-MU sound
hardware, a delay in the audio stream is incurred. Normally this delay is compensated for
automatically by the host application, but not all VST host applications support this automatic
compensation.
A host will support PowerFX and E-Wire’s plug-in delay compensation if it supports the SetInitialDelay feature of the VST 2.0 specification.
E-MU Digital Audio System
93
5 - Effects
E-MU VST E-Wire
Currently automatic delay compensation is supported by the Steinberg 2.0 family (Nuendo
2.x, Cubase SX 2.0, Cubase LE 2.0,), Magix Samplitude 7.x, and Sonar (using the Cakewalk
VST adapter 4.4.1), but not by Steinberg Cubase VST 5.1 and Cubasis.
The E-Delay Compensator utility plug-in is used to manually compensate for the transfer
delay for hosts that DO NOT support plug-in delay compensation.
The E-Delay Compensator plug-in is used to delay the “dry” tracks (tracks without a PowerFX
or E-Wire as an insert effect) or auxiliary (send) channels. For each dry track or send, add an
E-Delay Compensator plug-in to re-align the track. The E-Delay Compensator is automatic and
requires no user interaction to operate.
For example, consider a Cubasis session with two audio tracks. If PowerFX or E-Wire is
applied as an insert effect to the first audio track, but not to the second, the first track will be
delayed in relation to the second track. The E-Delay Compensator should be added as an insert
effect on the second track in order to provide delay compensation.
Cubase VST or Cubasis
Track 1
Track 2
Track 3
Insert
Insert
Insert
E-Wire
E-Delay
E-Delay
PatchMix
DSP
E-Delay Compensator Use
For host applications that don’t support automatic
delay compensation.
1. An E-Delay Compensator should be used
when unprocessed audio tracks are played
alongside tracks using a PowerFX or E-Wire
plug-in.
2. Simply insert an E-Delay Compensator into
each track that doesn’t use a PowerFX or
E-Wire send.
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Creative Professional
5 - Effects
E-MU VST E-Wire
E-Delay Units Parameter
The Units value in the E-Delay dialog box should be set for the number of times you send
ASIO down to the PatchMix DSP mixer and back in a single track. A single PowerFX insert
chain with any number of effects only requires one delay unit because there was only one trip
to the hardware and back. If you use two Cubasis inserts in series on a track both using
PowerFX or E-Wire, you would set the number parameter to 2 on all other audio tracks. Each
trip down to PatchMix DSP and back to Cubasis equals one unit.
In practical use, however, you’ll probably never need to use more than one E-Wire VST on a
single track since PowerFX effects can be placed in series. We have included this feature “just
in case” you need it.
Here’s one more example of how to use the E-Delay Compensator with different numbers of
PowerFX/E-Wire sends on each track. The delay compensation on each track must equal the
track with the maximum number of PowerFX/E-Wire sends. See the diagram below.
Cubase VST or Cubasis
Track 1
Track 2
Track 3
Insert
Insert
Insert
Insert
Insert
PowerFX
or E-Wire
PowerFX
or E-Wire
PowerFX
or E-Wire
E-Delay
1
E-Delay
2
PatchMix
DSP
Since track 1 uses two PowerFX/E-Wire inserts, the delay of all the other tracks must equal
two. Track 2 has one PowerFX/E-Wire insert and so adding one unit of E-Delay keeps it time
aligned. Track 3 doesn’t use a PowerFX/E-Wire insert and so needs two
E-Delay Units to remain in alignment.
Grouping Tracks
When several tracks require E-Delay Compensation, you can send the output of each track to a
group or bus and use a single E-Delay Compensator on the output of the group or bus.
• E-MU Digital Audio System and PatchMix DSP must be installed.
• E-Wire is compatible with Cubase SX/SL/LE, Cubase VST, Wavelab, and Cakewalk
Sonar (via DirectX-VST adapter) among others.
E-MU Digital Audio System
95
5 - Effects
E-MU VST E-Wire
96
Creative Professional
6 - Appendix
Getting in Sync
6 - Appendix
Getting in Sync
Whenever you connect external digital audio devices together, you need to be aware of how
they are synchronized to each other. Simply connecting digital out to digital in doesn’t
guarantee that two digital devices are synced, even if audio is being passed. Unless you have set
one to be the Master and the other a Slave, they are probably NOT synchronized and the
quality of your audio will suffer.
S/PDIF is probably the most common digital audio format. S/PDIF carries an embedded word
clock which can be used to synchronize the digital equipment. You must enable “External
Clock” on the slave device to have clock sync!
The diagrams below show two ways to synchronize an external A/D converter to the
E-MU Digital Audio System using the S/PDIF connection.
In the first example, the external A/D converter is the master clock for the system. Only one
S/PDIF cable is needed (optical or coaxial) as long as PatchMix is set to receive its word clock
signal from the external device. The external A/D is the Master and the E-MU DAS is the Slave.
PatchMix DSP
S/PDIF
(Optical)
External Device supplies Master Clock
(via S/PDIF)
The S/PDIF cable carries two
channels of audio data and
an embedded clock.
In
Out
or
S/PDIF Out
In
Out
Master
S/PDIF
(Coax)
External A-D Converter
Slave
Set PatchMix DSP to receive:
External S/PDIF Sync
PatchMix DSP supplies Master Clock
(via S/PDIF)
PatchMix DSP
S/PDIF
(Optical)
This S/PDIF cable carries two
channels of audio data.
In
Out
S/PDIF Out
Set External Device to receive:
External S/PDIF Sync
or
In
Slave
S/PDIF In
Out
External A-D Converter
S/PDIF
(Coax)
Master
This S/PDIF cable carries an
embedded clock signal.
In the second example a second S/PDIF cable is used to supply “embedded word clock”. The
external device MUST be set to receive external clock via S/PDIF or the units will not be
synchronized. The E-MU Digital Audio System is the Master and the external A/D is the Slave.
E-MU Digital Audio System
97
6 - Appendix
Useful Information
Useful Information
AES/EBU to S/PDIF Cable Adapter
This simple adapter cable allows you to receive AES/EBU digital audio via the S/PDIF input on
the E-MU 0404 PCIe card. This cable may also work to connect S/PDIF out from the 0404
digital breakout cable to the AES/EBU input of other digital equipment.
From AES/EBU
Device
1
2
N.C.
+
To S/PDIF
In
3
-
Digital Cables
Don’t cheap out! Use high quality optical fiber and low-capacitance electrical cables when
transferring digital I/O to avoid data corruption. It’s also a good idea to keep digital cabling as
short as possible (1.5 meters for plastic light pipes; 5 meters for high quality glass fiber light
pipes).
Grounding
In order to obtain best results and lowest noise levels, make sure that your computer and any
external audio devices are grounded to the same reference. This usually means that you should
be using grounded AC cables on both systems and make sure that both systems are connected
to the same grounded outlet. Failure to observe this common practice can result in a ground
loop. 60 cycle hum in the audio signal is almost always caused by a ground loop.
Appearance Settings in Windows
Adjusting the “Performance Options” in Windows will improve the screen appearance when
moving the mixer around on the screen.
To Improve the Appearance Settings:
1. Open the Windows Control Panel. (Start, Settings, Control Panel).
2. Select System. Select the Advanced Settings tab.
3. Select Settings in the Performance section.
4. Under Visual Effects, select Adjust for Best Performance. Click OK.
98
Creative Professional
6 - Appendix
Technical Specifications
Technical Specifications
GENERAL
Sample Rates
44.1 kHz. 48 kHz, 88.2 kHz, 96 kHz, 176.4 kHz and
192kHz derived from internal crystals. (No sample rate
conversion is performed.)
Externally supplied clock from S/PDIF.
Bit Depth
16-bit or 24-bit (depending on the setting of your
recording or audio application)
Hardware DSP
100MIPs custom audio DSP.
DSP - 32-bit integer math with a 67-bit accumulator
Zero-latency direct hardware monitoring with effects
PCIe Specification
• PCIe base specification 1.1 compliant
• Form Factor: Universal Keyed, PCIe x1 card
• 3.3V I/O
• PCIe Bus-mastering DMA subsystem reduces
CPU use
Converters & OpAmps
ADC - PCM1804 (TI/Burr-Brown)
DAC - AK4395 (AKM)
OpAmp - NJM2068M (JRC)
ANALOG LINE INPUTS
Type
Unbalanced, low-noise input circuitry
Level
Consumer: -10 dBV nominal, 6.4 dBV maximum
Frequency Response
20 Hz - 20 kHz: +0.20/-0.10 dB
THD + N
-100 dB (.001%) 1kHz at -1 dBFS
SNR
111 dB (A-weighted 22kHz BW)
Dynamic Range
111 dB (1kHz, A-weighted, 22kHz BW)
Channel Crosstalk
< -120 dB, (1 kHz signal at -1 dBFS)
Input Impedance
3.3K ohm
ANALOG LINE OUTPUTS
Type
Unbalanced, low-noise circuitry
Level
Consumer: -10dBV nominal, 6.4dBV maximum
Frequency Response
+0.05/-0.10 dB, (20 Hz - 20 kHz)
THD + N
-100 dB (.001%) 1kHz signal at -1dBFS
SNR
116 dB (A-weighted, 22 kHz BW)
Dynamic Range
116 dB (1 kHz, A-weighted, 22 kHz BW)
Stereo Crosstalk
< -109 dB, (1 kHz signal at -1 dBFS)
Output Impedance
560 ohms
E-MU Digital Audio System
99
6 - Appendix
Technical Specifications
DIGITAL I/O
S/PDIF
• 2 in/2 out coaxial (transformer coupled output)
• 2 in/2 out optical
• AES/EBU or S/PDIF (switchable under software
control)
MIDI
1 in, 1 out (16 MIDI channels)
SYNCHRONIZATION
Internal Crystal Sync:
44.1kHz, 48 kHz, 88.2 kHz, 96 kHz, 176.4 kHz,
192 kHz
• S/PDIF (optical or coaxial)
SRSync SourceRMS jitter in picoseconds
RMS JITTER @ 44.1K
44.1 Internal Crystal 596ps
(Measured via Audio Precision 2)
44.1 Optical Input
795ps
Dimensions & Weight
0404 PCIe Card
Weight:
0.25lb / 0.10kg
Dimensions:
L: 156mm H: 107mm
100
Creative Professional
6 - Appendix
Internet References
Internet References
The internet contains vast resources for the computer musician. A few useful sites are listed
here, but there are plenty more. Check it out.
Software Updates, Tips & Tutorials.................http://www.emu.com
Setting up a PC for Digital Audio .....................http://www.musicxp.net
MIDI Basics........................................................Search for “MIDI Basics” (many sites)
MIDI & Audio Recording..................................http://www.midiworld.com
MIDI & Audio Recording..................................http://www.synthzone.com
ASIO, Cubase & Digital Audio.........................http://www.steinberg.net
ASIO, Cubase & Digital Audio.........................http://www.steinbergusers.com/cubasele/
le_support.php
Cubase Users Group .........................................http://www.groups.yahoo.com/group/
cubase/messages
Forums
Unofficial E-MU Forum ..............................http://www.productionforums.com/emu/
KVR Forum .................................................http://www.kvr-vst.com/forum/search.php
Driver Heaven Forum.................................http://www.driverheaven.net/search.php?s
MIDI Addict Forum.................................. http://forum.midiaddict.com/search.php
Home Recording Forum .............................http://homerecording.com/bbs/
search.php?s=d866b60193933eb726660e7bd90
dfb27
Sound-On-Sound Forum ............................http://soundonsound.com
Studio-Central Cafe Forum........................http://studio-central.com/phpbb/search.php
Sound Card Benchmarking ........................http://audio.rightmark.org
E-MU Digital Audio System
101
6 - Appendix
Internet References
102
Creative Professional
Index
Numerics
Index
Numerics
1-Band Para EQ 51
1-Band Shelf EQ 51
3-Band EQ 52
4-Band EQ 53
88kHz, 96kHz, 176kHz & 192kHz Operation 45
A
A-D, D-A Converters, used in 0404 99
ADSR, reshaper effect 70
Advanced Parameters, RFX compressor 78
AES/EBU to S/PDIF Adapter 98
Ambience Reduction, using reshaper effect 69
Appearance, improving 98
ASIO
direct monitor 29
send 27
Attack
curve, reshaper 71
threshold, reshaper 70
Attack, compressor 56
Auto Makeup, RFX compressor 78
Auto Volume Pedal, using reshaper effect 69
Automating PowerFX 89
Auto-Release, RFX compressor 81
Auto-Wah 54
Aux Bus 35
Auxiliary Effects Assignment 41
Auxiliary Returns 41
Auxiliary Sends 35
used as extra mix busses 41
B
Background program, disabling 19
Backward Cymbal Effect 85
Balance Control, monitor 42
Band Cut Filter 75
Band Pass Filter 75
Block Diagram, mixer 18
Bypass
all inserts 48
effect insert 47
send/return insert 39
E-MU Digital Audio System
C
Category
create new preset 45
delete effects 45
rename effects 45
CDs, playing 25
Chorus 54
using freq. shifter 59
Clicks & Pops, in the audio 15
Clock, external 22
Comb Filter 57
Compressor 55
RFX 76
Connectors, interface 10
Core Effects
descriptions 51
listing 50
Core FX Presets, importing/exporting 46
Cross-over, creating with multimode filter 72
D
Damping, high frequency 60, 65
Decay Time, lite reverb 60
Decay Time, reverb 65
De-esser, creating 86
Delete
effect 44
folder 45
FX user preset 49
mixer strip 26
Diffusion 65
Digital Cables 98
Digital Interface, S/PDIF 14
Dimensions of Unit 100
Direct WDM 25
DirectSound 25, 26
Distortion 57
Doppler, effect using Rotary 62
Drivers, installing 12
Drum Punch 84
DSP 27
DSP Resource Usage 50
Ducker 83
DVD-Audio 25
E
Echo, creating 61
E-Delay Compensator 93
Edge, distortion 57
Effects
1-band para EQ 51
1-band shelf EQ 51
3-band EQ 52
4-band EQ 53
103
Index
F
auto wah 54
chorus 54
compressor 55
create new folder 45
descriptions 51
disabled at high sample rates 45
distortion 57
edit 44
flanger 57
frequency shifter 58
gate 67
leveling amp 59
list of 50
lite reverb 60
mono delay 3000 61
multimode eq 72
order of 45
overview 43
palette 43
phase shifter 62
placing into an insert location 27
preset
create new 48
delete 49
overwrite 49
rename 49
recording 45
reshaper 69
RFX compressor 76
rotary 62
selecting 44
stereo reverb 65
using in VST host application 87
vocal morpher 66
E-MU 0404 PCIe Card
description 13
installing 11
E-MU Icon 19
E-MU PowerFX 87
Envelope, reverberation 60, 65
E-Wire 92
Exit PatchMix DSP Services 19
Exporting Core FX Presets & FX Insert Chains 46
External Clock 22, 97
External Sync Source 22
Extra Buffers 88
F
Factory Templates 21
Flanger 57
Frequency Shifter 58
FX Display 39
FX Edit Screen 47
FX Insert Chains 44
FX Insert Chains, importing/exporting 46
104
G
Gain Reduction Meter, gate effect 69
Gain, compressor 56
Gate
RFX compressor 80
Ground Loop, preventing 98
Grounding 98
H
Help System 19
High Frequency Decay Factor, lite reverb 60
High Frequency Rolloff, mono delay 61
High Sample Rates 45
Highpass Filter 73
Hold Time, reshaper effect 71
Host Input Display 40
Host Output Display 40
Host Windows Source Strips 25
Hum, in the audio 98
I
Importing Core FX Presets & FX Insert Chains 46
Increase Drum Punch 84
Input
display 40
level setting 31
type
mixer strip 24
red color 24
Insert
add effect 27
add send 28
add send/return 29
bypass 34, 47
delete 34
menu 28
meter 31
mixer strip 27
order of 28
solo 34, 47
types 27
Installing, E-MU 0404 PCIe card 11
Interface
S/PDIF 14
Invert, polarity 33
J
Jitter Specification 100
K
Kernel Streaming 25
Creative Professional
Index
L
L
Label, scribble strip 37
Latency, monitoring without 29
Level Fader 37
Level Meter, gate effect 69
Level, setting proper input 31, 32
Leveling Amp 59
LFO
flanger 58
phase shifter 62
vocal morpher 66
Limiter 56
Limiting Peaks 84
Lite Reverb 60
Lookahead
gate effect 68
reshaper effect 71
RFX compressor 80
Low Frequency Damping 65
Low Frequency Decay Factor 60
Lowpass Filter 73
M
Main
bus 38
inserts 42
output fader 42
section 38
Master
clock 97
return level 38
send level 38
Master Volume Control 42
Max Compression, RFX compressor 82
Max Gain Reduction, gate effect 68
Meter
insert 33
using to measure input level 32
main output 42
setting input levels using 31
MIDI
connections 15
thru 15
Mixer
block diagram 18
overview 17
strip 24
aux send 35
delete 26
fader 37
insert 27
label 37
mute button 37
new 25
E-MU Digital Audio System
solo button 37
type 25
viewing 17
MME 25
Monitor 42
balance control 42
mix 38
mute 38
output
level control 42
mute 42
Monitoring with PatchMix Effects 27
Mono Delay 3000 61
Multichannel WAVE Files 26
Mute
mixer strip 37
monitor 38
N
Neg Compression, RFX compressor 82
New
mixer strip 25
session 19, 20
Noise Gate 67
Notes, Tips & Warnings 8
O
OpAmps, used in 0404 99
Optical Cables 98
Order of Effects 45
Output
fader, main 42
level
meters 42
monitor 42
routing display 40
section 42
P
Palette, effects 43
Pan 37
Pan Controls 24
Parametric EQ, setting up 52
PatchMix DSP, disabling 19
Peak Limiter 77
Peak Meters 30
Phase Invert 33
Phase Shifter 62
Phattening, using chorus 55
Phoneme 66
Physical Input Display 40
Physical Output Display 40
Physical Source 25
105
Index
R
Playing CDs 25
Post Gain, leveling amp 59
PowerFX 87
Pre-Delay, compressor 56
Pre-Fader Aux Sends 38
Preset
create new 48
delete 49
overwrite effects 49
rename effects 49
select user 48
Punch Enhancement
reshaper effect 69
using gate effect 67
Punch Reducer, using reshaper effect 69
R
Rack Mounting, Audio Dock 12
Ratio, compressor 56
Ratio, RFX compressor 77
Record Dry, Monitor Wet 27
Recording Effects or Recording Dry 28, 45
Recording with PatchMix effects 27
Recording, how to make a good one 32
Red Strip 24
Reducing Noise 98
Release Curve, reshaper effect 72
Release Time, gate effect 68
Release, compressor 56
Render Mode 88
Reshaper 69
Reverb, envelope 60, 65
Reverberation 65
RFX Compressor 72
Robot Voice Effects, creating 63
Rotary, effect 62
Rumble Filter, using multimode filter 72
Session 20
creating new 20
path 21
templates 21
Setting Up, E-MU Digital Audio System 9
Settings
I/O 23
S/PDIF 23
sample rate 22
system 22
Sibilance, reducing 86
Sidechain
creating a de-esser 86
creating a ducker 83
Sidechain Effects 41
routing 35
Signal generator, insert 33
Signal Level Indicators, meters 42
Smooth Bass Guitar Level 84
Soft Knee, RFX compressor 78
Software Installation 12
Solo
button 37
insert 47, 48
send/return insert 39
Stereo Delay 100 63
Stereo Reverb 65
Strip
add new 25
input type 24
mixer 24
Subwoofer Filter, using multimode filter 72
Sync Daughter Card 8
Sync/Sample Rate Indicators 41
Synchronization
source 22
using S/PDIF 97
System Settings 22
System Volume Control 42
S
S/PDIF 14
S/PDIF to AES/EBU Adapter 98
Sample Rate, setting 20
Save
FX Insert Chains 44
session 21
user effect preset 48
Scribble Strip 37
Send
/return insert 29
bypass or solo 39
auxiliary 35
insert 28
Send/Return Levels 38
Send/Return, greyed out or unavailable 28
106
T
Templates, session 21
Threshold
gate effect 68
RFX compressor 77
Threshold, compressor 56
Toggle Tooltips 88
Tutorial
automating PowerFX 89
getting in sync 97
making the best possible recording 32
setting up & using E-Wire 88, 93
setting up and using PowerFX 88
TV Screen 38, 39
Creative Professional
Index
U
U
User Preset, effect 48
V
Vista, PowerFX under 87
Vocal Morpher 66
Volume Control 24
W
Wah-Wah 54
WAVE Strips 25
WDM
multichannel 25
recording & playback behavior 49
WDM/KS 26
Weight, of card 100
Wet/Dry Mix, effects 47
Windows Media Player 25
Windows Taskbar, E-MU icon 19
Z
Zero-Latency Monitoring 29
E-MU Digital Audio System
107
Index
Z
108
Creative Professional
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