Marketing opportunities for companies back- shoring to France COGNE Edouard

Marketing opportunities for companies back- shoring to France  COGNE Edouard
UPPSALA UNIVERSITY
Department of Business Studies
Master Thesis
Spring Semester 2012
Marketing opportunities for companies backshoring to France
Authors:
COGNE Edouard
GUYARD Arnaud
Supervisor: OLSSON Ulf
Date of submission: May 25th 2012
Abstract
Purpose of this paper: This paper aims at studying which marketing opportunities companies
back-shoring to France can leverage through Mass Media communication.
Design/methodology/approach: 2 analyses are performed: a Media analysis studies the
message that is sent to consumers. A survey is then carried out to discover how consumers
perceive what is broadcast. Hypotheses are designed based on the former, and guide the
design of the survey. The discussion and analyses are made under a marketing approach.
Findings: The phenomenon is globally understood, but Media are not always necessarily the
most appropriate tool for back-shoring companies to communicate about the three marketing
dimensions identified during Media analysis: Made-in-France, Social issues related to
Sustainable Development and the Impact of Political Messages.
Research limitations/implications: The analyses are restricted to a study of French Mass
Media, and of French consumers. Therefore, this study cannot be generalized to other
countries.
What is original/value of paper: This paper helps complete the limited literature on backshoring, especially in the area of Marketing. This study intends to benefit back-shoring
companies willing to develop their marketing strategy.
Keywords: Back-shoring; Marketing communication; Media; Country of origin; Sustainable
development; Political intervention
Table of Contents
Abstract ......................................................................................................... 0
Acknowledgments.......................................................................................... 0
Introduction ................................................................................................... 1
Chapter 1: Media study .................................................................................. 5
1.1
Theory Media studies .................................................................................................. 5
1.1.1 Choice of the communication framework.............................................................................. 5
1.1.2 The dimensions of the message: Frame and connotation ..................................................... 6
1.1.3 Media influence and its impact on consumers ...................................................................... 7
1.1.4 Summary of key points ........................................................................................................... 8
1.2 Methodology Media study ............................................................................................... 9
1.2.1 Definition: .............................................................................................................................. 9
1.2.2 Research method of articles.................................................................................................... 9
1.2.3 Information regarding the sources:...................................................................................... 10
1.2.4 How was the analysis designed? .......................................................................................... 10
1.2.5 Final nodes ........................................................................................................................... 13
1.2.6 Evaluation system................................................................................................................. 14
1.2
Results of Media analysis .......................................................................................... 15
1.3.1 Quantifying media analysis .................................................................................................. 16
1.3.2 Node analysis........................................................................................................................ 16
1.3.3 Key findings of the analysis .................................................................................................. 19
Chapter 2: Hypotheses derived from Media analysis .....................................21
2.1 Preliminary hypothesis ................................................................................................... 21
2.2 Hypothesis 1 (general perception of the phenomenon) ................................................ 22
2.3 Hypothesis 2 (opportunities from Made-in-France) ...................................................... 23
2.4 Hypothesis 3 (opportunities from societal issues) ......................................................... 23
2.5 Hypothesis 4: (opportunities from impact of political messages) ................................. 24
Chapter 3: Survey among consumers ............................................................26
3.1 Literature review ............................................................................................................ 26
3.1.1 Country of Origin and back-shoring ..................................................................................... 26
3.1.2 Sustainable Development and Corporate Social Responsibility........................................... 27
3.1.3 Impact of political messages and back-shoring.................................................................... 28
3.2 Methodology of the survey for consumer analysis ........................................................ 30
3.2.1 Purpose of the questionnaire for the thesis......................................................................... 30
3.2.2 Choice of methods and strategies for operationalization .................................................... 30
3.2.3 Design of questions .............................................................................................................. 33
3.3 Results customer analysis ............................................................................................... 34
3.3.1 Results for the verification of Media analysis ...................................................................... 34
3.3.2 Results for hypothesis 1 ....................................................................................................... 35
3.3.3 Results for hypothesis 2 ....................................................................................................... 37
3.3.4 Results for hypothesis 3 ....................................................................................................... 38
3.3.5 Results for hypothesis 4 ....................................................................................................... 39
Chapter 4: Discussion and analysis ................................................................41
Conclusion ....................................................................................................45
Further researches ........................................................................................46
References ....................................................................................................47
References directly related with the body of the thesis ...................................................... 47
References used for compilation of the appendixes ............................................................ 52
References used for Media analysis ..................................................................................... 55
Appendix.......................................................................................................70
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Acknowledgments
We are particularly grateful for the help from
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Virpi Havila (professor whose advises guided us in the definition of the problematic),
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Anna Tyllstrom (for the technical advice regarding qualitative analysis),
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Ulf Olsson (supervisor) and the seminars partners who guided us,
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Gwenaël Guillemot (CESI researcher and author of researches on back-shoring),
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Costanza Giancola (for her very professional and wise advices),
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The friends who gave us advices on our thesis
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French people surveyed,
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Uppsala University, for the access to its facilities and literature database.
Introduction
The political campaign for 2012 French presidential elections raised debates on the
back-shoring phenomenon. Media were frequently broadcasting news and opinions. It
attracted our attention: if so much noise is made about companies bringing production back to
France, what does it mean for firms’ marketing strategies? Henceforth, we decided to
investigate this matter in order to better understand the phenomenon, and to discuss
consequent implications for firms. We begin by presenting back-shoring in itself, before
explaining the scope of the thesis, and detailing how we conceptualized and operationalized
our study.
What is back-shoring? This thesis will refer to the French concept of “relocalisation”;
we first need to accurately translate it into English. The word “relocation” in English seems
phonetically the closest to be chosen from; however, this word both describes a company
outsourcing its production or services abroad and, a company moving it back. It therefore
does not perfectly fit with the thesis’ intent; another solution would be to strictly limit it to the
meaning of companies coming back to their country of origin. Jacques Belbenoit-Avich
(2009) used the word “back-shoring”; it appears to be more appropriated to describe this
phenomenon for it excludes outsourcing companies. (we provide more detail in Appendix1).
Consequently, the following historical introduction, and the whole thesis, will use “backshoring” to refer to this concept.
Historically, “Relocalisation” is far from being a new phenomenon: Mouhoud (2011),
in his analysis, of the phenomenon described several waves of back-shoring. We noticed that
France was not involved into the process of back-shoring until the 1990s.
A glance at an international perspective is useful to fully understand the phenomenon.
In the late 1970s, leading U.S. multinationals, especially in the electronics and semiconductor
industries, decided to backshore mostly in the United States (Appendix2). German firms
followed American companies a few years later, during 1980-1990. The factors that drove
those back-shoring cases range from reduction of unit costs (through the automation of
manufacturing segments), to a decrease in transportation and transaction costs (Appendix3).
In France, “relocalisation” occurred during mid-1990s; it translated into an
optimization strategy in the product cycle in computer, telecommunications and mobile phone
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industries. A fourth wave started with companies of services, partially back-shored their
activities like call centers at the beginning of the 2000s.
Scope and purpose of the study: The literature does not extensively cover the
phenomenon of back-shoring; publications mostly concern the reasons why companies come
back to their respective countries of origin; a summary of this literature is provided in
Appendix4. This preliminary study was an opportunity to identify that the Marketing aspect
of back-shoring had not been dug into by researchers. We found this gap interesting: more
specifically, our purpose is to identify core issues that may interest and benefit companies
coming back to France, and provide suggestions on whether these firms should rely on Media
in order to leverage the core issues identified.
An original approach was chosen: In order to assess the abovementioned core issues
for companies back-shoring to France, we studied the messages that Media broadcast to
consumers. We first verify if there may be potential marketing opportunities conveyed by
Media that would make sense for consumers; then, we can retroactively assess for each
selected opportunity whether Media are an efficient channel of communication.
Thus, although we seek to find solutions for companies, the empirical study is not
focused on firms themselves, but on how Media could affect their marketing strategies.
Media Analysis
Media
Message
Consumers
Marketing
opportunities?
Companies
Figure 1: research aim of the thesis
More specifically, we divide the study in 2 parts. First, an explanatory research
permits to highlight trends and topics that may interest companies from a marketing
perspective; it takes of the form of a Media analysis under which articles are weighted,
connoted, and commented. Then, hypotheses are designed according to the findings: they aim
at comparing what is broadcast by Media to what is really perceived by consumers of the
back-shoring companies. Secondly, once the Media side has being covered, a survey is
designed to perform this comparison: its questions are based on the hypotheses we want to
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verify, so that the research problem can be answered. The findings of the survey are then
analysed under each hypothesis.
What message is sent by
Media ?
Media analysis
Hypotheses development:
Do consumers receive the same message that what is sent by Media?
Are they favourable to marketing opportunities identified during Media Analysis?
What message is
received by consumers ?
Discussion
Analysis among consumers (Survey)
Figure 2: Explanatory model of the thesis’ research problem
Finally, after that each analysis has been independently presented, we confront them in
the discussion. Then, we analyse how consumers perceive what is broadcast by media to
answer our research problem.
Research problem: The way Mass Media frame their messages related to backshoring can be used to identify key topics and dimensions that could be leveraged by firms as
marketing opportunities. In the context of the thesis, a marketing opportunity is embodied by
the dimensions that a firm can use to promote its products and services to consumers. In
addition, we are also interested in assessing if Mass Media stand as an efficient channel to
communicate those topics and dimensions.
This leads us to investigate the following research question: Which Marketing
opportunities can companies back-shoring to France efficiently leverage through Mass Media
communication?
We need to answer two sub-questions: First, are Media an efficient channel of
marketing communication for companies? In other words, we seek to understand if companies
should use other means to send messages to people. Second, what are the key marketing
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opportunities that back-shoring companies could benefit from? Behind this, we want to know
if it is worth investing in marketing strategies, which concepts focus on, and to which extent.
Limitations: This thesis is focused on companies back-shoring to France. Henceforth,
both analyses are limited to an analysis of France’s Media and consumers. It is risky to
generalize the findings to other countries, since contexts are different. In order to increase
clarity, we chose to present the other limitations of this study under each relevant part.
Outline: Since the study was a two-step process, separated by hypotheses, we faced a
dilemma: should we merge all literature, methodology and results, or would it be clearer to
separate both stages. Saunders, based on Philips and Pugh (2005)’s recommendation, suggests
that general sections may be “subdivided into one or more general chapters depending on the
topic and the way in which [we] want to present [our] particular storyline”.
In this regards, we articulate this thesis around 4 chapters. Chapters 1 presents all the
parts for Media analysis: after a critical review of the literature, we explain which method we
use and detail the results. Based upon the latter, we design the hypotheses (Chapter 2) in the
light of the research question we seek to answer. Chapter 3 (the survey to consumers) allows
to answer those hypotheses; to do so, we critically review the relevant bodies of literature
according to Chapter 1’s outcomes; we also detail methodology and results. Chapter 4 allows
us to step back and draw a synthesis of combined results from chapters 1 and 3. We draw
managerial implications in the conclusion, and suggest further researches.
Finally, the body of the thesis is addressing a business subject; however, we also
covered key literature points related to various subjects like communication, in order to
ensure the reliability of our studies. For purposes of clarity and transparency, we enclosed
those items in the appendix. Links to those sections are made where relevant throughout the
thesis.
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Chapter 1: Media study
1.1 Theory Media studies
The message is transmitted through Media channels to consumers (Figure2). In order to
ensure whether our research model is reliable and could benefit companies, our original
approach must rely on theoretical bases.
First, we critically review the communication framework we use in our research model.
Secondly, we cover theories and limitations to understand how consumers are impacted by
messages, and how Mass Media modify their perceptions. Finally, we study if and how Media
influence the consumers who receive this message.
1.1.1 Choice of the communication framework
Mass Media is defined as “sources of information and news like newspapers,
magazines, radio and television, that reach and influence large numbers of people” (Oxford
dictionary). In this thesis, we will use “Media” to refer to Mass Media.
We selected a framework of communication to support our research problem. It shows
how messages are transmitted from Media (the source) to consumers (receivers). Figure 3
shows a simplified version of the Berlo (1960)’s communication model. We detail more
precisely the framework and its dimensions in Appendix5.
SOURCE
Media, Politicians,
Companies’ executives
MESSAGE
CHANNEL
RECEIVER
Consumer
Figure 3: Simplified framework derived from Berlo(1960)
How is it relevant for the Media study? Compared to other frameworks,
Berlo(1960)’s framework conceptualized a feed-forward flow of information composed by
the Source, the Receiver, the Message and the Channel; we purposely excluded feedback. In
the present study, the source is embodied by both Media and the actors that journalists
interview (for example, experts). The receiver is the potential consumer of the back-shoring
company.
Furthermore, dynamic frameworks suit Communication projects but may mislead the
design of a thesis in the field of Business Studies.
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We provide precisions on the source and channel in Appendix6.
Limitations and implications for our study
First, Berlo (1960)’s framework only takes into account the feed-forward dimension of
communication: it implies that some elements like feedback cannot be studied. Nontheless,
the quality of the study will not be directly affected by this characteristic, since the focus is set
on a one-way communication process (Media-to-Consumer, Figure2).
Secondly, the framework does not take into account indirect biases like context
(political influence). However, such noise may affect final interpretations of results. To offset
those limitations, specific biases that address our subject, framing and connotation, will be
reviewed.
1.1.2 The dimensions of the message: Frame and connotation
The following Media analysis investigates nuances of broadcast messages.
Berlo(1960)’s framework sets the emphasis on emotional aspects of messages; in this thesis,
we use frame and connotation to study the emotions sent by journalists.
Frame: Media may focus on what public demands, like social issues. Press messages
may even coincide with public opinion (Kisicki, 1993); in particular, journalists tend to select
information they broadcast, which may influence audience behavior (Reese, 1996).
Categorization of messages may capture it.
Furthermore, Levy (1959) proposed that perception and purchase decision involved
“implicit or explicit” assessment of a particular symbolism. In our thesis, journalist may
impact receivers by choosing words or images (symbols). The Media analysis should allow
encoding key patterns of what is broadcast.
To better understand frames and symbols’ nuances, connotations may be applied.
Connotation: Mick (1986) proposed that latent rules may alter interpretative
responses. In this thesis, noise may bias the message in itself. Thus, the way messages are
framed may influence consumer perception. Consequently, the analysis of messages needs to
assess nuances in order to identify the relevant frames. Connotation is defined as “an idea or
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feeling which a word invokes for a person in addition to its literal or primary meaning”
(Oxford dictionary). Categorizing those ideas or feelings into positive, negative and neutral
nuances allows revealing key trends that could be compared to the responses that consumers
give, to find marketing opportunities.
Furthermore, different channels have different impacts on both the consumers and
marketing aspects: print media are more used for informative purpose than television (Katz
and al.,1973). It follows that information will tend to be pushed to consumers through
television and radio rather than by newspapers and the Internet – where people can select
more easily the data they consume. Moreover, Danaher and Rossiter (2006) found that
television and similar media tend to raise “top of mind” recognition of companies. In this
perspective, and in line with Berlo (1960)’s Channel dimension, messages do not have the
same consequences nor the same weigh depending on how they are broadcast. The core of the
message interests us more than the sender: thus, only discussion, and not coding, will consider
it; we encourage further researches on it.
1.1.3 Media influence and its impact on consumers
Can Media influence consumers so that companies can use messages to modify their
perception and behaviour?
Hirschman and Thompson (1997) argued that television and press articles “act as
informal advertisements persuading consumers to adopt particular lifestyles”. In addition, Cho
and Krasser (2011) found that people interested in news-related Media are more sensitive to
social and ethical issues when buying a product. Henceforth, it can be derived that there is
room for Media to influence consumers.
In addition, is the influence equal among consumers? Entman (1993) argues that
different issues may be interpreted by receivers. The context in which consumption occurs
impacts social groups' emotional reactions (Richard Elliot, 1998). More specifically, “cultural
capital endowment” of consumers has an impact on their preferences (Wallendorf, 2001); the
interpretation of meaning by consumers is determined by factors like rules, and context (for
instance: cultural and social knowledge). Media analysis’ categories should reflect them.
Moreover, Since a particular message can be understood differently by people, the survey
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should be refined by subcategorizing population by variables like professional status, age, and
district of origin.
As a limitation, people’s behaviours may be affected by other elements than what is
broadcast by Media. Indeed, communities share social bonds (Muniz and O’Guinn, 2001);
moreover, consumers build their identity through the goods they acquire (Arnould and
Thompson, 2005), and may indirectly influence their group members. Since communities can
exchange opinions between them, Media may not be the unique way of communicating;
consequently, a preliminary hypothesis to assess how influent Media are could be drawn in
order to understand how much people rely on messages.
1.1.4 Summary of key points
We based our system of analyses on Berlo(1960)’s communication framework: the
message is sent by several types of actors to the consumers. Moreover, journalists tend to
frame and connote messages. Therefore, coding should take into account those feedback and
noise.
In addition, Media is the only influential channel of communication. Moreover, each
group of individual is likely to interpret messages under its own filter. A preliminary analysis
should be drawn to understand how people rely on Media.
In addition, the framework highlighted that the importance of channels should not be
underestimated.
Finally, theory guides our understanding of the general picture: it means identifying
broad trends and connotations, and more specific themes as framed by Media. Those themes
may lead to marketing opportunities for back-shoring companies.
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1.2 Methodology Media study
This analysis was conducted as an exploratory research within press articles, videos
and blogs regarding the Back-shoring phenomenon. At first, this research should provide a
good overview about what messages are sent by media and assess which topics are related to
back-shoring. The analysis of topics should allow us to extract valuable marketing
opportunities for the companies. A verification through a survey should be conducted later on
to double-check if media are a good way to convey marketing messages toward potential
customers.
The content of the message sent by the media will be analysed through key main
themes: context, comments, perception of the phenomenon, politics and social comments.
Each of these main themes will be then subdivided in nodes by using the template analysis
(based on King’s researches, 2004).
1.2.1 Definition:
Categories: We predetermined categories in order to produce an efficient coverage of
the press articles. Four categories have been used (Appendix7): context, perception of the
phenomenon, politics and social implication and commentaries. These categories shaped the
whole media analysis.
Coding: Inside each articles, media discussion was subdivided into 16 different nodes,
these nodes provide a deeper understanding of the messages sent by media. Further, each code
were analysed individually to make observations about the content of the nodes (Appendix8).
The template analysis method, in accordance to King’s researches (2004), allowed us to
change nodes depending on its suitability with media's articles.
1.2.2 Research method of articles
We first checked the archives of newspapers and media's (radio and television)
website. Specific articles about back-shoring were reviewed. Key words about
“relocalisation” were used during our research. In order to generate keywords, “back-shoring”
was used as a reference word, to which other concepts were associated, investigation
techniques like brainstorming, and tools like Google Adwords, were also leveraged. For audio
and video contents, both web browsers and specialized websites were used.
We selected articles published from 2005 to 2012. This time-line allow us to get a
substantial and representative set of data. Indeed, the number of available articles before 2005
was limited; we thus set the aforementioned time restriction: Taking the few articles before
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2005 would have been risky since it would have mixed the current vision of back-shoring
with former waves as stated by Mouhoud (2011) – (Appendix2 and 3).
In order to optimize coverage and accuracy, we read and watched 349 articles linked to
back-shoring. This amount of data allows for a quantification of the qualitative analysis:
However, some articles were considered non-representative – and were consequently
discarded – due to their small length or inspired by others press articles and just repeating a
similar argumentation. In addition, some articles were not focused on back-shoring companies
issues, but referred to alter-globalist concepts (Appendix1). Finally, this set of 349 articles
was reprocessed into a subset of 150 articles that were considered as more representative;
more specifically, “neutral” articles were discarded.
1.2.3 Information regarding the sources:
1.Date: press articles written during the past 8 years have been taken into account. The
aim was to see how communication was evolving over the years, and whether communication
about back-shoring as a phenomenon was reducing or increasing.
2. Sources: various types of sources were used:
Main channels: general press articles and TV news. For example: « Le monde », « OuestFrance », « TF1». « Le point », « l'Usine Nouvelle », « les Echos ».
Blogs: written by experts on politics, environment, and economics.
Information was stored in accordance, taking into account both sources and day of
publication. Specific folders were created for each article in order to personalize the
codification process. For example, a database of hyperlinks was built for each article found on
the Internet.
1.2.4 How was the analysis designed?
The software we used: Nvivo
Although being a professional software, Saunders advised to use Nvivo (Research
Method for Business Student, 2009). In addition, We have been advised by Anna Tyllstrom
from Uppsala University in order to make our analysis, in particular regarding the use of the
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software. Nvivo was particularly interesting since it allowed a double coding of each articles.
We proceeded as follow:
Both of us separately coded content (articles and audio files), and every 50 articles, we
compared our findings and evaluation system, through memo writing and methodology
assessments, based on Saunders’ recommendations. This double-coding technique enabled us
to limit articles’ interpretation flaws, and readjust nodes.
Furthermore, Pearson coefficient could be generated out of NVivo. It constituted a
decisive criterion for choosing this software: we used this coefficient to assess the strength of
correlation between two nodes; thus, we found this coefficient useful to deepen the analysis.
The Pearson coefficient assesses positive and negative correlation between nodes. A
correlation below 0,0 shows a negative correlation. A correlation between 0 and 0,5 shows a
small positive correlation. Above 0,5, is it a positive strong correlation. This tool will be
further used in this analysis to confirm our observations.
Besides the main themes, we aimed at:
-Achieving an efficient coverage of the press articles.
-Interrelating nodes among themselves when links were being identified.
Template analysis
“A template is essentially a list of the codes or categories that represent the themes
revealed from the data that have been collected” (Saunders, Lewis and thornhill, 2009).
We found the flexible structure of the template analysis useful to gradually adapt
nodes and categories according to empirical findings. It enabled us digging into backshoring’s main topics, and identifying them accurately. Most importantly, the system of
categories used in the template analysis allows identifying Media’s way of framing messages.
Dominant connotation
Two different tools were used to deepen the analysis: a connotation evaluation system
and a structured evaluation.
Connotation was made for each node. By reading each elements coded within the
articles, and based on our observations, a connotation was given to each nodes individually.
Green observations have a positive connotation and red observations mean a negative
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connotation (Appendix13). The connotation is highly dependent on our interpretation, but we
believe the process we implemented should limit biases in the evaluation system.
Observations: we use the structured observation system (Saunders, Lewis and
Thornhill, 2009, Chapter 9) in order to generate comments out of what we observed. This
structure uses frequency (how often was this observation made?) We need to take into
consideration the following limitation: some nodes are bigger than others (they are coded in
more articles than others); in order to offset this, we decided to apply the following
proportional rules:
Frequency are used to identify which observation is relevant to identify key trends.
The way the articled were encoded differed from the traditional structured interviews:
the latter have recurring patterns (questions of the interview), and answers can be compared
the ones with each other; on the opposite, the structure of each press article differs, and each
of them stress different sets of arguments. Hence, each observation was then compared with
all the other observations in order to find similarities within each node.
Quantifying a qualitative analysis:
“It is indeed a supplementary means of achieving this, and there is clearly only limited
purpose in collecting qualitative data if you intend to ignore the nature and value of these data
by reducing most of them to a simplified form.” (Saunders and al, 2009, p.497). Accordingly,
we intend to draw a picture out of the data we collected, so that we could make sense of it
within the scope of our research problem.
Word frequency:
Nvivo allows for a word frequency analysis. We used this tool to generate main trends.
This ranking system enabled us to spot which topic was directly related to back-shoring
companies.
Days of publication:
An increase or decrease of the phenomenon can be observed through the days of
publication. This information can be used as a trend. We used them in order to take out trends
regarding the evolution of the phenomenon: does it increase or decrease? When does it takes
off or lessen?
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1.2.5 Final nodes
Very importantly, and in line with Kisicki’s (1993) findings, final nodes allow framing
the message broadcast by media. They include Context, Social and political issues, Perception
and Comments.
Context:
Ambition of the project: This item takes into account the amount of money invested
into a back-shoring project. We considered topics like fixed cost, including items like the
purchase of a factory or investments in an automation process. This category also takes into
account future investment-related items.
Company background: we selected under this category companies’ historical
information until the back-shoring process.
Reasons of back-shoring: Under this category, we categorized all reasons why
companies would back-shore; each reason was first separately analysed. However, we found
out that this topic was already covered by literature and did not bring any value to the
analysis. The data was gathered in Appendix-4 (4.2).
Discussion about outsourcing phenomenon: This node aggregates the effects of
outsourcing within French society.
Social and political issues:
Political intervention: Related items were coded when local authorities or the
government were involved in the decision of companies to back-shore. It also included
expected help from government. Our purpose is to check how far public authorities were
involved into the back-shoring phenomenon.
Made-in-France concept: This node allows to better understand what was linked to the
Made-in-France concept into media talks. Quality was coded only in relation with Made-inFrance, and not with what was link with the intrinsic flaws of products.
Protectionism: It was encoded every time the article suggested that rules should be
made to favor companies back-shoring to France, or would punish those outsourcing.
Ecology: This node was encoded every time the article mentioned environmental
issues, within the frame of back-shoring.
Reasons for outsourcing: This node aggregates the reasons why France is not
competitive, or factors influencing company’s decision to offshore.
Employment issue: This node aggregates all references to employment in the articles.
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Perception:
Over-communication: This node was encoded after reading the first 50 articles. The
self-perception of over-communication coming from journalist is relevant information while
analyzing the content of Media messages.
Partial phenomenon: Two codes have been used: one was used for complete backshoring and the other one for partial back-shoring. However, after reading 50 articles, we
decided to discard the “complete back-shoring” node. We only kept “partial back-shoring” as
a node in order to evaluate journalists’ perception.
Positive impact of back-shoring: It was coded every time that the positive effect of
“relocalisation” was mentioned.
Small Phenomenon: It was coded every time that the phenomenon was considered as
“negligible”.
Comments:
Executives’ comments: These comments were made by CEO or representatives from
the company.
Political comments: This node includes all comments made by politicians talking
about back-shoring.
Specialist comments: This node includes all comments made by Professors, experts or
professionals like employees of consulting companies.
1.2.6 Evaluation system
Finally, we also self-criticized the way we made the analysis, according to Saunders,
Lewis and Thornhill’s (2009) recommendations.
The analysis of qualitative analysis dimensions may be evaluated as follow:
Figure 4: dimensions of qualitative analysis, Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2009)
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Structure: The analysis was structured by themes; it is not the highest level of
structure since the nodes were determined after reading articles. By doing so, we kept to some
extent a certain level of interpretation in deciding which nodes would better fit the analysis.
The template analysis allowed a structure flexible relevant for our analysis.
Interpretation: The way of coding relies on our own interpretation; however, using a
double coding allowed decreasing the degree of interpretation of the analysis.
Process: Finding relevant nodes for the analysis is more a deductive process than an
inductive one.
Other limits:
The most relevant limits of the analysis, other than the ones previously stated, are
written in this section. First of all, in line with the interpretation issue as previously described,
we are conscious that another system of categorization, especially regarding connotation,
could have been used. The choice was made according to the final purpose.
Another problem was raised by Olivier Bouba-Olga (2012): journalists tend to
influence each other; this implies that the same ideas, or ideas framed under the same way (as
previously stated in the literature review) may be dealt with in several articles. This may
affect the overall analysis.
Finally, an idea or feeling is subjective; therefore, there is no one perfect way of
assessing the connotation of messages. This has strong implications on the present study since
those patterns will be compared to what consumers perceive. Accordingly, great care must be
put on how Media analysis is designed.
1.2 Results of Media analysis
Media analysis is composed of 2 parts: Before digging into the analysis of the written,
audio and video content, we use the large number of articles of the comprehensive database
(before reprocessing it into 150 articles) in order to take out key relevant trends. In the first
part – with all articles –, we start by quantifying the analysis to grasp a general picture; in the
second part – with the reprocessed database –, we go deeper by analyzing the content of
nodes. We finish this section by summarizing the key findings of the analysis in order to draw
relevant hypotheses.
15
Please note that percentages (…%) refer to the frequency codes or categories were
encoded in all articles; figures with decimals (…,…) refer to the Pearson coefficient (see
Appendix9).
1.3.1 Quantifying media analysis
First of all, the numbers of articles related to back-shoring increased over the years.
Even if back-shoring companies were a sensitive issue during the political campaign, it cannot
be the only explanation since we observed an increase from 20071: this phenomenon cannot
be considered as a political “buzz” effect. (Appendix10 )
A word frequency analysis was driven to extract key words related to back-shoring
(Appendix11). “Quality” (mentioned 371 times) and “cost” (340 times) highlight two
important dimensions of the back-shoring strategy of companies. Moreover, “Employment”
(291 times) is strongly related to back-shoring.
In addition, the companies most often mentioned in the articles (Appendix12a) will be
compared with the top-of-mind companies mentioned in the survey (Chapter 3). A fullydetailed table (Appendix12b) was built in order to provide a better understanding of the
phenomenon, and will be used during the discussion.
1.3.2 Node analysis
In this section, a deeper analysis is carried out in order to understand the messages sent
by Media. As abovementioned, this analysis only takes into account 150 articles. In addition,
each node is individually analysed to extract relevant marketing opportunities for companies
back-shoring to France (Appendix14).
The back-shoring context category
This part is useful not to identify potential marketing opportunities, but to better
understand the phenomenon, and the way journalists frame general information.
”Reasons of back-shoring” is the most coded node. More than 82% of the coded
articles are providing a list of reasons pushing companies to back-shore. From our
observation, companies' decisions to back-shore are made in order to shed costs with the aim
to increase the efficiency of the production processes (Appendix4).
1
The French presidential elections took place in May 2012.
16
The articles mainly mentioned that France developed a specific advantage to attract
investments or that outsourcing may back-fire for companies. Moreover, putting in parallel
the nodes of “background of the company” (30% of codification of all articles) and
“discussion about outsourcing” (30%), it revealed a link between outsourcing and backshoring decision.
Based on our observation under the node “background”, Media pictured out backshoring as a relief decision after a problematic outsourcing process. However, the observation
made under the discussion about outsourcing revealed that back-shoring phenomenon does
not reflect the economic impact of the outsourcing phenomenon.
Finally; the node “investment prospect” (42%) show that back-shoring companies
strongly commit themselves in investing into new infrastructure and automation process.
Comments category
This category coded who says what. Actors may convey marketing opportunities.
All nodes are neutral. 17.93% of all articles have a quote on comments: journalists
seem to use quotes to justify their argumentation.
The three main nodes’value are unequal. The main node “executive comments”, is
mentioned in 62% of all articles. Based on our observations, the executives comments are
focusing on back-shoring reasons (confirmed by the Pearson coefficient, Appendix9, showing
a positive relation between “executives comments” and “reasons of back-shoring” (0,26) and
“investment prospect” (0,21)). Message conveyed by executives does not reveal marketing
opportunities: Journalists only mention them to describe context for their company.
Experts (33% of all articles) describe back-shoring as a small phenomenon, confirmed
by Pearson coefficient (0,50). In general, experts’ quotes are focused on the back-shoring
phenomenon: less significant relations with the nodes “over-communication” (0,12) and
“potential growth of back-shoring” (0,17) was found. Experts, contrary to executives, tend to
observe the phenomenon from a macro-economic perspective (they describe general trends).
Message conveyed by experts does not reveal marketing opportunities.
Finally, political comments represent a smaller node (18,67% of all articles); we would
had thought this node to be bigger due to the political campaign. From our observation,
political comments seem to refer more to the Made-in-France dimension and not directly to
the back-shoring phenomenon in itself. In addition, political support is coming from both left
and right political wings, hence revealing a political consensus.
17
If, experts are not very useful for marketing opportunities since they relay backshoring’s negative points, political actors are interesting to relay messages like Made-inFrance.
Perception of the phenomenon category
Is the phenomenon described positively? If negative, companies may face difficulties
in leveraging back-shoring as an efficient strategy.
It does not represent an important part of messages sent by journalists (12. 34% of all
coding, Appendix15).
“Small phenomenon” was the most coded node (32%) with a negative connotation
(Appendix13). Since the phenomenon is perceived as small and is negatively connoted,
people may be informed of its negative sides. From our observation, the limited enthusiasm of
executives and the limited job creation may explain it. However, this negative connotation of
the phenomenon can be balanced by the positive connotation of the node “potential growth of
the phenomenon” (Appendix13): based on our observation, we noticed that the current wave
of back-shoring is considered as a recent phenomenon; it contradicts theory (Mouhoud, 2011).
The node “over-communication” was also negatively connoted. People may feel
harassed by over-communication, especially due to the increase in the number of articles. In
other words, this may reduce the interest of companies in using Media in their Marketing
strategy. However, this absolute observation needs to be relativized: this node was coded in
only 6,67% of all articles.
Two observations should be verified among consumers: first, most of the companies
(Appendix12b) are those providing goods (93%). Second, the reasons why companies are
back-shoring is most of the time related to cost.
Finally, back-shoring is much more described by articles as partial back-shoring
(16%). Media do not extensively refer to complete back-shoring (the node was canceled since
less than 10 codes were found). From our observation, companies tend to keep simple tasks in
emerging countries, and skilled labour in developed ones.
Politics and social category
This interesting and significant category (37.49%) should highlight topics to be used
for marketing purposes.
18
Made-in-France (48.67% of all articles) is one of the biggest nodes within this
category. Almost 50% of articles related to back-shoring also refer to Made-in-France. In
addition, Made-in-France appears to be positively connoted (Appendix13). From our
observation, Made-in-France positively impacts company image. Strongly related to highquality standard and specific know-how, those last 2 dimensions may be exploited as
marketing opportunities.
“Protectionism talk” is quite small (14,67%) and negatively perceived (Appendix13).
It is related to Made-in-France not as a corporate strategy, but as a political issue in which
political actors try to keep companies producing in France. Hence, it is not a marketing
opportunity, but a threat: Companies may face a risk using patriotic feeling in their
communication.
“Political intervention” node is strongly inter-related to back-shoring companies
(46,67%). Indeed, there is an important political discussion on whether companies should
receive a financial support or advantages from public authorities. Based our observation,
government aids (Assemblée Nationale, Appendix13a) is often mentioned. However, political
intervention was not positively connoted (Appendix13b): it may appear to be an unmerited
assistance for companies.
Finally, people’s perception about the following sensitive issues may lead to
marketing opportunities and is worth investigating.
Employment appears to be a major theme within the articles (78%), confirmed by
word frequency (291 times, Appendix16). More jobs were destroyed through outsourcing than
re-created through back-shoring (Mouhoud, 2011). It matches Employment’s negative
connotation (Appendix13).
“Ecological issue” is not very linked to back-shoring (12,67%). However, some
companies (Majencia, Appendix13a) use it as a marketing strategy.
1.3.3 Key findings of the analysis
Media analysis provided us with knowledge about back-shoring to be compared with
people’s perception. a better understanding of the phenomenon: it may indicate whether media
are an efficient channel of communication. Minor threats were identified: Media analysis also
revealed marketing opportunities that back-shoring companies may leverage: First, Made-inFrance. Secondly, sensitive issues under a sustainable development strategy both in term of
19
employment and ecological perspective. Thirdly, the impact of political comments that can
influence people's perception regarding other issues.
20
Chapter 2: Hypotheses derived from Media analysis
In this section, hypotheses are designed based on both literature and Media analysis’
results (based on our research model, figure 2).
A short written explanation is provided for each of them. In addition, a table
summarizes how each hypothesis will be validated: “Theory” column presents the area of the
literature that was critically reviewed in order to 1) ensure that the hypothesis makes sense for
the companies and 2) to have a frame to guide the analysis and design of questions. In this
perspective, this step is crucial to accurately design the questions of the survey. “Media
analysis” column (the messages transmitted by Media) shows the items that can be compared
to the “Survey” column (what consumers perceive). In this last column, we designed
questions according to the hypotheses we want to test; those questions are then ordered into a
survey to consumers (Appendix17).
First of all, we draw a preliminary hypothesis to verify if Media is the main channel of
communication through which consumers receive the information. Then, two sets of
hypotheses are designed: hypothesis 1 aims at knowing whether the phenomenon of backshoring is known by consumers. Then, hypothesis 2, 3 and 4 dig into the dimensions
identified during Media analysis; by assessing them, the aim is to identify marketing
opportunities for back-shoring companies, respectively related to Made-in-France, social
issues related to sustainable development, and the impact of political messages.
2.1 Preliminary hypothesis
Is Media the main channel through which consumers receive the information
related to Back-shoring? First and foremost, it is important to assess to what extent people
rely on Media; the answers will affect how reliable the study is in the end.
To do so, both theory and analysis of consumers’ answers can be used. First, it is
important to theoretically verify that Media does have influence on consumers; this was in
part done when reviewing the main literature. Second, a double-check process can be carried
out through a survey in order to assess that Media is not only theoretically, but also
empirically a predominant way of communicating messages to the surveyed consumers.
21
Media are the main communication channel able to influence consumers through the lens
of the 3 criteria under study.
2.2 Hypothesis 1 (general perception of the phenomenon)
Before analyzing the three aforementioned dimensions in detail, understanding
whether people fully understand the phenomenon is crucial.
Based on theory previously identified, we compare the key trends identified during
Media analysis with what do consumers understand about the phenomenon.
Hypothesis: People’s perception of back-shoring corresponds to what is broadcast by the
media, and to the broad features stated by the theory.
Hypotheses 2, 3 and 4 allow diging into the problematic: After ensuring that Media
does have an influence on consumers, and that people broadly understand the phenomenon,
each dimension that may lead to marketing opportunities is then analysed. Each time, the
22
relevant categories and connotations identified during Media analysis are compared to
questions asked in the survey.
2.3 Hypothesis 2 (opportunities from Made-in-France)
First, as for the first hypothesis, awareness and perception of each criterion are tested.
The patterns of connotations will be compared to people’s perception about the topic.
The following items should be asked to consumers: First, Media analysis revealed a
relation between perception of Made-in-France products and quality. Second; Made-in-France
was positively connoted. Finally, what may be the implications for purchasing behaviours.
The final aim is, consequently, to understand whether the image of Media is consistent
with the theory, and if consumers’ answers are consistent with what is broadcast by Media.
Hypothesis: People’s perception about Made-in-France is favourable and fits with what is
broadcast by Media
2.4 Hypothesis 3 (opportunities from societal issues)
Social interest issues, connected to sustainable development, were identified during
Media analysis. We draw the reader’s attention on this connection with sustainable
development: not all social interest issues are concerned. Therefore, we must begin by
defining what we intend by those two concepts; each definition will be developed in the
literature review.
Two themes and their connotation were clearly identified during Media analysis:
employment and ecology. In the scope of the present thesis, they can be used by back-shoring
companies in their Corporate Social Responsibility policy, as a comparative advantage
23
(Ingenhoff and Sommer, 2011). In addition, a firm’s positive image may turn purchasing
behavior into favorable actions for the company (Sen and Bhattacharya, 2001).
Hypothesis: People are conscious and favourable about social issues related to sustainable
development in the context of back-shoring
2.5 Hypothesis 4: (opportunities from impact of political messages)
Political connotations may influence consumers’ perception (Noelle-Neumann, 1973,
Gerbner and Gross, 1974). The present study was carried out under the context of a political
campaign; Media analysis revealed that the number of messages regarding back-shoring
increased over recent years; among them, politically-motivated arguments like Made-inFrance label or government measures for encouraging back-shoring were identified.
Frequency, connotations and trends can hence be compared to what consumers think.
The hypothesis must lead to managerial implications, in line with the capacity of the
company to use political messages in some way – if the hypothesis is confirmed.
Hypothesis: People are conscious and favorably sensible to the political messages and
arguments
24
In Chapter 2, we used Media analysis to design four hypotheses; The first one
addresses how the phenomenon is generally perceived; answering to the three last hypotheses
will allow us to analyse the marketing opportunities identified during chapter 2, through a
survey based on hypotheses (see figure 2). In the next Chapter, theory related to these 3
identified opportunities, as well as methodology and results of the survey, are presented.
25
Chapter 3: Survey among consumers
The hypotheses drawn upon Media analysis will now be verified among consumers
through a survey. After reviewing literature, we present how the survey was conducted.
Finally, results of questions that are relevant to answer each hypotheses are disclosed.
3.1 Literature review
We first review Made-in-France (under Country-of-Origin); secondly, societal issues
and Corporate Social Responsibility; Finally, key researches on the impact of political
messages within the context of our thesis.
3.1.1 Country of Origin and back-shoring
Country of Origin will then be referred to as “COO”.
Made-in-France refers to the concept of producing goods in France; since literature
that interests is limited, we linked it with the concept of “Country-of-Origin” (the country in
which goods are produced, sold and shipped). Previous studies were carried out in several
countries and may not apply here (for example, Bangladesh and China). The following
literature review serves 2 purposes: a) understand previous studies in order to better design
the analysis, and b) understand Made-in-France implications in the context of back-shoring.
First, we assess how consumers perceive it. Then, we review how consumers associate
Made-in-France with quality, and their purchasing behaviour. It may affect companies’
marketing communication, and their strategic choice of emphasizing the know-how as a
comparative advantage.
Consumer perception of home-made products
Is there a general trend regarding Made-in-France? Consumers tend to prefer products
manufactured in the country-of-origin (Elliott and Cameron,1994 ; Samiee,1994); we are
aware those perceptions vary between products categories (Roth and Romeo,1992).
Consumer perception and quality
Several studies showed that product quality may influence consumer perception;
however, they were carried out in specific countries: Bengladesh (Biswas, Chowdhury and
Kabir,2011), Australia (Dagger,Raciti, 2011) and US, China and India (Fetscherin and
Toncar,2009) and should not be generalized. We can take out that a product from
26
industrialized countries are better perceived than those from developing countries. Thus, we
expect French-made products to be perceived as better quality than Asian-made products.
Effects on purchasing decision making
Researchers like Usunier (2006, 2008), and Samiee (2011) disagree on whether COO
really influences consumer behaviour. Nontheless, Koschate-Fischer, and al.(2012) found that
“COO cues influence not only consumers' perceptions but also their actions”: the more
favourable the country image, the more likely they will choose the related product.
3.1.2 Sustainable Development and Corporate Social Responsibility
Social issues linked to Sustainable Development can impact companies’ image and be
leveraged through a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) strategy. First, we define both
concepts; then, we ensure that they are relevant for companies (consumers’ perception);
finally, we study how it can benefit firms (perception; purchasing behaviour).
Definition of CSR
CSR is largely covered by authors like Carroll (1991); the ethical part of the identity is
the most likely to affect corporate image: it is defined by Balmer and al.(1999, 2007) as “a
relationship between parties within a community of business and social exchange” and fits
with Berlo(1960)’s framework. Very interestingly, Argenti (2007) argued that business is now
an important topic covered by Media.
Definition of the selected issues for Sustainable Development
Sustainable development is constituted by 3 inter-related pillars (social, environmental
and economic) defined by Durif and al.(2009): The economic pillar is defined as the capacity
of executives to allow a sustainable performance in sales for the company; in other words, the
company must produce efficiently and respectfully; it is company-centered and will be
indirectly referred to through the 2 other pillars. The environmental pillar may concretize
itself through companies’ internal processes and quality standards with respect to the
environment. The social pillar ensures the well-being of all stakeholders. Employment and
ecology are linked to sustainable development strategies: employment refers to social and
economic pillars; ecology refers to the environment and economic pillars.
Comparative advantage of social issues
How can social issues benefit companies? First, Johnston (2007) argues that messages
may reflect societal issues. In parallel, Ingenhoff and Sommer (2011) argue that competitive
27
advantage could stand as a reason for CSR activities. Developing a competitive advantage
from issues broadcast by Media may benefit CSR.
In addition, Ingenhoff and Sommer’s empirical researches revealed that companies
believed to be most effective at communicating CSR messages through direct company
information (45%) and TV (41%).
CSR and consumer perception
Corporate messages and reputation influence consumers’ perception on product
quality (Brown and Dacin, 1997); they may also impact their perception on other products of
the company (Biehal and Sheinin, 2007).
CSR and purchasing behavior
Reputation and trust can greatly influence the decision of a buyer to consume a
particular good (Stanal, and al.,2011). Furthermore, corporate messages can affect purchasing
intentions (Sen and Bhattacharya, 2001). Even if we cannot affirm that what is broadcast will
influence what is bought, it seems interesting to understand back-shoring companies’
potential consumers purchasing intentions.
Finally, frame can influence decision-making (Price and al.,1997). Henceforth,
assessing consumers’ perception and purchasing behavior may lead to interesting managerial
implications.
3.1.3 Impact of political messages and back-shoring
In this section, rather than a detailed analysis of the common bodies of political
communication theories, we critically review the basic theories of political communication
mechanisms in order to understand the role of politics in our research problem (figure 2).
Political influence and consumer perception
In the context of politics, Media has an impact on public (Noelle-Neumann’s, 1973;
Gerbner and Gross, 1974). Moreoever, people’s main considerations and judgments about
issues may be influenced by journalists (Iyengar & Kinder’s, 1987); therefore, political
agenda may influence public perception. The opposite is true: audiences’ opinions are often
correlated with issues broadcast by Media (McCombs and Shaw, 1972).
28
Limitations:
However, on cannot affirm that politics does manipulate public opinion: receivers’
could interpret messages differently from what was emitted by journalists and politicians
(Wettstein, 2012). In this regards, we need to assess consumers perceptions on this topic
regarding back-shoring.
Political messages and Third Party influence
Media influence is further amplified by the concept of third party influence.
“Communities of critics” (Chen and al.,2011,p.131) can greatly influence consumers’
perception about companies. Political actors stand as an example of third-party actors.
Third Party principle also impact purchasing decisions: “both the content and context
of product ratings were found to significantly influence consumer perceptions” (De Mayer
and Estelami, 2008, p.1072). The role of third parties (be customers' reviews or political
comments) seem to influence consumers' cognitive perceptions and choices.
Political messages and efficient channels of communication
Through the concept of “applicability” applied to how journalists frame the news,
Price and Tewksbury (1997) advance the idea that messages may suggest connections
between two issues: in other words, the receiver may connect two particular concepts in a
same message according to its own interests, even if there were not directly linked together.
How is it relevant for companies? People watching a Mass Medium (such as Television,
perceived as a powerful tool for communicating wide-range messages, Oates, 2008), they may
connect a particular connotation broadcast by politicians to the phenomenon about backshoring. To sum it up, it is important to know how people receive the information, and who
they think are at the origin of the information, to assess the impact of political messages.
29
3.2 Methodology of the survey for consumer analysis
In this section, we detail the way we designed the survey to answer the questions
raised by the previous hypotheses. We used Saunders’ “Research Methods for Business
Students” as a reference book: all the assumptions on which the tests and design of the
analysis tools and methods are based on its recommendations.
First, we explain our choice of surveying consumers. Then, the methods and strategies
used for collecting data are detailed. A specific focus is set on how the questions were
designed, as it stands as a major risk of receiving inaccurate information. Finally, we draw
some limitations that should be considered during the discussion.
3.2.1 Purpose of the questionnaire for the thesis
We intend to generalize to France key results from a subset of French population. The
design of the survey is based on 1) the findings of the qualitative analysis and 2) the reviewed
literature.
The aim is to perform a descriptive research in order to understand the underlying
trends among customers. Special care was brought to the covering letter: the aim was to
induce people to answer questions, and at the same time not to trigger in their mind any cue
that could influence or bias their responses.
Limitations:
The questions asked are dependent to what was previously observed, through both
theory and our Media analysis. It means that the survey is bound to the hypotheses.
3.2.2 Choice of methods and strategies for operationalization
Channels
We chose two ways of collecting data: On a total of 457 ‘valid’ answers, half of it was
collected through self-administered questionnaires (Intranet-mediated), and the other half
through “structured interview” (on-the-street survey). We initially set a target number at 384
answers (according to a 5% significance threshold as proposed by Saunders), and collected
16% more (457 answers, excluding the one we discarded).
30
Such a method was chosen since each channel targets specific sets of audiences:
asking questions through the Internet requires computer-literate individuals; hence, it must be
completed by a channel that can reach any other individuals.
Other factors were affecting the choice of our channels. In particular, the time
available for data collection, due to the logic of our analysis, was optimized as much as
possible. In accordance to Saunders' recommendations, we allocated 4 weeks in order to
collect and process data. We flied back to France in order to carry out the on-the-street
survey, while collecting the data on the Internet.
We are aware of the limitations of such process: First, duplicating the channels of
collection doubles the risk of biases during the data collection. In order to offset it, the survey
was a two-step process: first, after designing the questions, we checked the relevance and
biases we could have missed by submitting it to our supervisor (Ulf Olsson) as well as to
other third parties (close friends – this point is further developed under the title ‘primary
network’). The official version, launched after corrections, has been adjusted based on the
received feedback. Secondly, it complicates the compilation of data for the analysis. To avoid
any mistake, we rejected all answers that would be incomplete: We only kept what we called
“valid answer”.
Representativeness
The representativeness of the sample has been checked to ensure as reliable results as
possible. Similarly, we discarded every questionnaire that was either incomplete, or with
flaws. The graphs and tables are available in Appendix18.
SPSS was used in order to ensure that the population basic variables (age, professional
status, gender and districts) would ensure a safe interpretation of the results:
-
Regarding age, it appeared that people aged 20-25 were more represented than the
other strata. With a mean of 38.64 and a standard deviation of 16,05, the distribution is
slightly right-skewed: it does not perfectly follow a normal curve distribution. This
may be explained by 2 facts: first of all, we chose to gather half of the answers
through Internet-mediated surveys; second, by the structure of our networks, even if
great care have been put on discarding potentially-biasing groups of respondents.
31
-
Regarding professional status, executives and entrepreneurs are under-represented,
whereas employees and students represent the majority of respondents. The other
strata are more balanced. This limitation needs to be kept in mind in case of
discrepancies between status’ answers. Moreover, we decided to follow the INSEE
classification of activities in order to categorize the status of the respondents. This
classification did not perfectly fit with the purpose of our study; we therefore slightly
modified it: one category (farmers) was included into employed people, and one was
added (students), in order to better fit with the characteristics of the target population
-
Regarding gender, the sample is well balanced.
-
The District variable will be further detailed; the two selected regions for comparing
some questions, Pays de la Loire and Nord-Est, respectively represent 33% and 39%
of the sample (154 and 176 answers).
Characteristics of the respondent:
The surveyed population was French people: they are the potential consumers of backshoring companies.
Regarding geographic repartition: A perfectly representative sample would have
been either to gather as many answers in two regions, or to gather the same number of
answers in all regions. Regarding the first case, there is no proof that people who are living in
one region had grown up in it; for example, students and workers may have moved very
recently from another place. In this case, the basic assumption would have flawed the
analysis; the second case was, obviously, not possible for a practical point of view. Therefore,
a compromise was made.
On-the-street surveys have been equally split in two regions. Lorraine (comprising
Moselle, Meurthe-et-Moselle) and Nord districts (Appendix19) were chosen for their greater
exposure to outsourcing compared to Pays de la Loire districts of Mayenne, Maine-et-Loire
and Loire Atlantique (Appendix19). Such method aims at identifying potential biases that
people could have if closely-related companies would have back-shored. As a limitation, it
relies on the assumption that people are more sensitive to events happening in their close
environment.
Other limitations and potential biases
32
In order to avoid biases, the respondents that could be influenced – like close friends
and related groups - have been methodically discarded. The links to the Internet survey were
broadcast through targeted e-mails; it helped ensure that people belonging to the “external
networks” (see below) would be the ones answering the questions. As said earlier, even if an
online collection tool would have been easier, it would not have permitted a real quality in
answering the open questions.
We also put great care in not targeting a particular stratum of respondent (for example,
only turning to students from their university through mailing lists, which would have eased
the collection of data), with the aim to collect as representative a sample as possible.
3.2.3 Design of questions
Appendix17 shows how we designed the questionnaire. We followed the Dillman's
(2007) classification of variables: “Attributes”, “Opinion” and “Behaviour”. Indeed,
“attribute” questions are used as a basis of comparison to understand how opinions evolve
among the surveyed sample population. 20 questions were asked to respondents
(Appendix17). In order to carry out as objective a test as possible, we used several types of
questions:
Open-ended questions: they allowed to understand deeper underlying thoughts of the
respondents regarding the dimensions under study. Two open-questions were asked and
aimed at:
-
Gathering the name of companies having back-shored to France
-
Understanding which association were the respondent making with Made-in-France
Closed-ended questions: list and category questions were used. Rating and scales
were not adopted for the aim was to verify assumptions, and not to assess their depth. In order
to offset this limitation, special attention on designing unbiased questions was set, notably
through the aforementioned preliminary questionnaire testing.
33
3.3 Results customer analysis
In this section, the results to the survey questions are analysed under the frame of each
hypothesis. The number under parenthesis next to each question refers to the order it was
asked in the questionnaire. As stated earlier, this order is important to avoid potential biases
during the collection of data. Each result’s graphs and tables are available in Appendix20; the
relevant graphs and tables are ordered by question.
The results are presented independently from Media analysis. Both results are
compared, analysed and discussed in the 3rd chapter (discussion and analysis). We provide
results for each question under the frame of the hypothesis under which we designed it, as we
mentioned in the hypotheses derived from Media analysis (end of Chapter one).
3.3.1 Results for the verification of Media analysis
Are Media the main communication channel able to influence consumers through the
lens of the 3 criteria under study? Theory showed that new-content Media can impact
consumers’ actions and perceptions (Hirschman and Thomson, 1997; Cho and Krasser, 2011).
We also wanted to assess it in the context of the present thesis: the scope is to verify if and to
which extent our sample’s respondents are influenced by Media. The following questions
intend to assess 1) how people receive information about the back-shoring phenomenon and
2) who do they think is really at the initiative of the message.
By which type of channel have you heard about back-shoring phenomenon? (9)
In aggregate, respondents declared mainly having heard related news through
television and radio (34%) and written press (44%, comprising blog, written and web
newspapers), word-of-mouth channels (comprising professional relations, family and friends).
Within written press, first come web newspapers (24%), then written ones (18%) and finally
blogs (2%).
This analysis was then filtered by age: surprisingly, young people do not tend to
inform themselves online more than other age ranges (Appendix20). All other perspectives,
filtered by gender, professional status and district, revealed a general coherency of results. In
other words, it reveals that no specific channel is preferred by one specific segment.
Henceforth, television has the best reach for all segments. This general coherency was not
34
previously assumed by us, especially regarding the Internet channel, which we had expected
to be much more favored by younger people.
Which actor do you think predominantly communicates on this phenomenon? (10)
59% of respondents declared that Media were predominantly communicated on the
phenomenon. It was then followed by political institutions (21%) and companies themselves
(20%). It therefore confirms the legitimacy of Media. In addition, there is no clear trend
showing if political actors or companies’ executives are at the initiative of the phenomenon.
3.3.2 Results for hypothesis 1
The following questions aim at investigating if people’s perception of the phenomenon
corresponds to what is broadcast by the media, and to the broad features stated by the theory.
In order to more precisely assess how people perceive back-shoring, questions 5 and 7
were used to cross-tabulate other questions.
Do you follow economic news? (5)
79% of people declared following economic news. We had expected such results:
people show an interest in economic news; if people who follow news-content Media are
more sensible to social and ethical issues (Cho and Krasser, 2011), it confirms that the three
Marketing dimensions may be impacted by the Source of the message.
Are you in favour of back-shoring? (6)
In accordance to our expectations, a striking 97% of people declared being in favour
of back-shoring. In other words, people perceive back-shoring companies in a positive way.
People are likely to be sensible to social and ethical issues, and if people are in favour of
back-shoring.
Have you previously heard about the phenomenon of back-shoring? (7)
we assume that there are several levels of understanding of the phenomenon:
superficial and deeper stages. The deeper the knowledge, the more accurate the answers to the
following questions. This is the first level of understanding.
81% of people declared having previously heard about the phenomenon of backshoring. Among the people who followed economic news, approximately 85% declared
having heard about the phenomenon. 65% declared so when not following economic news. It
may indicate a broader coverage in the economic press, but likesumption is risky due to the
35
presence of many lurking variables (for example, people may be more aware of the
phenomenon since they are economy-savvy). In any case, the results are coherent with the
expectations following the question “do you follow economic news”.
It can be extended that 85% people who are likely to be more sensible to ethical and
social issues have previously heard about this phenomenon.
Which actor do you think predominantly communicate on this phenomenon? (10)
The aforementioned results can be presented under another perspective: the majority
of people (40%) declared that neither companies nor politicians were communicating directly.
Altogether, this majority is not striking, since it is then subdivided to political actors and
companies’ executives.
Do you know at least one company having back-shored to France? (11)
Only 24% of people declared knowing companies having back-shored to France.
Among them, the top 6 top-of mind companies – out of the 41 mentioned – are Rossignol
(22%), Renault (12%), Atol (10%), Décathlon (8%), Smobby (4%) and Geneviève Lethu
(3%). Both graphical representation of this selection, and the complete list, are available in the
appendix.
These results will fully make sense when compared to the qualitative analysis ones, in
the discussion. It is interesting to note that at the exception of Geneviève Lethu which
employs 45 people, the other ones are large companies (Smoby, Renault, Atol, Décathlon,
Rossignol – the smallest being Rossignol which employs around 1600 people).
Do you think this phenomenon mostly concerns companies providing goods or services?
(12)
79% of people primarily associate the phenomenon to companies providing goods.
People, although they do not know the details of the phenomenon, still have a pretty good
view of the phenomenon. This statement may also indicate that back-shoring would more
benefit companies of goods. It may be explained by the fact that the latter are producing
tangible products, which are easier to conceptualize in daily life.
Putting this in the light of the question “do you know companies having back-shored
to France”, 83% who had declared knowing companies were considering them mainly
producing goods, against 78% for those not knowing companies. In other words, people who
know companies tend to consider companies mainly producing goods back-shoring slightly
36
more (5% difference) than those not knowing companies. Although it may indicate that the
companies who sell goods are more mediatized than those producing services, it is too risky
to infer anything from this comparison for such a small difference.
Do you think companies partially or completely relocate their activity? (13)
86% of people declared that companies do not back-shore completely. People seem to
be conscious that they do not completely relocate their activities.
85% of the people who declared following economic news perceived companies as
partially back-shoring, against 89% for those declaring not following them. Despite the fact
that people following the economic news tend to less consider partial back-shoring then those
not following it, the difference is not striking.
The difference is more significant when cross-tabulated with the question “have you
previously heard about the back-shoring phenomenon”: while 85% people having answered
positively considered more partial back-shoring as really occurring, it was the case for 92% of
people who had answered negatively to the question. Although the difference is not striking,
the combination of both results may indicate a trend showing that people who are more aware
of the phenomenon and of the related social and ethical issues tend to consider relatively less
companies as partially back-shoring.
Do you think that there is over-communication on the subject? (20)
92% of people think that there is no over-communication on the subject.
3.3.3 Results for hypothesis 2
The following questions aim at investigating the following statement: People’s
perception about Made-in-France fits with what is broadcast by Media.
Why do you think companies back-shored to France? (15)
Quality (26%) was predominantly stated, directly followed by Made-in-France (19%).
The following stated reasons are Problems (18%), Delivery time (16%), Government help
(15%) and, Costs (6%).
Very interestingly, it fits with the literature on Country of Origin which correlated the
Made-in-France concept with quality (Fetscherin and Toncar, 2009).
37
In spite of slight differences, further analyses refined by district, age and professional
status proved to be homogeneous. In particular, differences between Nord-Est and Pays-de-laLoire region range from 1 to 4% (Appendix20).
Do you relate this phenomenon to the Made-in-France concept? (17)
70% of people declared having associated the phenomenon of back-shoring with the
concept of Made-in-France. It confirms the positive connotation from Media analysis.
Interestingly, there is no significant difference when comparing both regions of reference
(Nord-Est: 68% declaring “yes”; Pays-de-la-Loire: 69% declaring “yes”).
Price being equal, would you buy a product from companies having back-sourced or not?
That never outsourced? Not important? (18)
41% of people declared favoring companies that never outsourced, and 40% declared
favoring companies that had back-sourced. Interestingly, 16% declared that it did not matter.
Hence, 80% of people declared favoring products Made-in-France. People do not consider
companies back-shoring to France as old "traitors": Companies who never left (41%) are
almost at the same level as those having back-shored (40%).
3.3.4 Results for hypothesis 3
The following questions aim at investigating this statement: People are conscious and
favorable to the concept of sustainable development in the context of back-shoring.
What do you associate the concept of back-shoring with? (8)
50% of people associated the phenomenon of back-shoring with companies
themselves. Then, 21% of them stated “employment”. Ecology came at a fourth position with
8%, followed by local with 7%. Other reasons occupied the remaining 15%.
Very interestingly, those results are in line with the themes previously identified under
sustainable development issues.
Which type of jobs do you think can be generated out of this phenomenon? (14)
A majority of people (78%) perceived that companies back-shoring to France can
generate jobs. Only approximately 22% people feel that this phenomenon does not truly
benefits employment.
38
According to you, does a company back-shoring to France impact general interest at the
local, national, both levels, or negligible? (16)
Approximately 27% of people considered that back-shoring phenomenon is negligible
on both cases. Therefore, a majority of people (73%) felt that it is important at either local or
national, and both levels. Among them, around one third of each group believed it is either
important in a local, national, or both cases: no real trend can be taken out of this majority.
One could have thought that following economic news may have influenced this
factor. Overall, the analysis shows that the results are equilibrated (28% percent of people
who follow economic news considered the phenomenon as negligible, compared to 24% for
those not following it). The same results are observed with "have you previously heard about
the phenomenon?" (29% for yes, 23% for no). Both cross-tabulations’ results may indicate
that those more aware of the back-shoring phenomenon tend to associate it less with the real
benefits on the French territory.
Finally, it is interesting to notice that Nord-Est Region tends to favour "important in
both cases" (32%) over the other factors (local 21%, national 23%, negligible 24%), while the
Pays de la Loire region tends to favour the "negligible in both cases" (29%) over the other
factors (important in both cases 25%, local 21%, national 25%). More generally, Nord-Est
region tend to believe that Made-in-France is meaningful to general interest (76%) compared
to Pays de la Loire (71%). The observed difference is in line with the characteristics of the
regions (Nord-Est having witnessed more back-shoring cases) and with our original
assumptions. People who are living in the most affected regions seem to be more sensible to
the lack of job creation.
3.3.5 Results for hypothesis 4
People are conscious and favorably sensible to the political messages and arguments.
Which actor do you think predominantly communicate on this phenomenon? (10)
People perceive that politicians are not the ones who first emit the message (21%).
However, it does not prove nor shows that they do not perceive any political connotation in
the message. It does shows that politicians, if not primarily associated with communication
about back-shoring, still take part in the debate.
39
Why do you think companies back-shored to France? (15)
Quality (26%), Made-in-France (19%), Problems (18%) and delivery time (16%) are
not directly related to political talks. However, Made-in-France was one argument largely
dealt with during the political campaigns, as stated in the introduction.
Government help (15%) comes as the fifth most mentioned criteria; it does not
represent the major share of the group. However, this dimension should be put in perspective
with the comments related to Made-in-France (19%) and problems (18%): political actors
seem indirectly involved in a substantial amount of factors.
What do you think politicians and political institutions should do about back-shoring
companies? (19)
Among the 94% of people who would like political actors to take position about backshoring, 68% of people would like politicians to encourage it, and 26% would like them to
support companies financially. Only 6% would like them not to do anything.
40
Chapter 4: Discussion and analysis
In this section, we put in perspective both analyses’ findings in order to answer the
four hypotheses, and discuss marketing opportunities for back-shoring companies.
People generally tend to be aware of back-shoring; they are mainly informed through
Television and Radio (34%) and those channels tend to raise awareness (Danaher and
Rossiter, 2006). The survey confirmed it (81% heard about the phenomenon). Surprisingly,
cross-tabulations (Annexe 20) revealed that all people shared similar patterns of receiving
information about back-shoring. Two key points can be derived from those findings: First, the
Internet is not the most appropriate tool for back-shoring companies willing to communicate
on their actions. Second, there is no need for companies to segment their targets of
communication through using different channels, since people tend to behave similarly when
looking for back-shoring information.
Moreover, even if Media do not extensively explain the phenomenon (12.34%), people
know its basic structural features: they perceived that companies were only partially backshoring, and were mainly producing goods, in line with our Media analysis’s findings.
However, people do not have deep knowledge about back-shoring: journalists
broadcast it as a recent phenomenon; but theory proved the opposite. In parallel, only 24% of
people spontaneously know at least one company. However, interestingly, top-of-mind
company names are similar both in the survey and Media analysis. Those names generally
referred to large companies (Appendix12b): although benefits from Media communication are
limited, it favours larger companies. Nonetheless, the fact that Genevieve Lethu (45
employees) was cited shows that there is room for SMEs to take benefit from communication
generated by larger companies.
In addition, even if it is not a burning topic, people perceive the phenomenon very
positively (97%). Since people mainly watch television or read newspapers, companies could
push the information (in line with Katz and al.’s findings, 1973) and leverage topics to which
people are sensible. In particular, Made-in-France, Social Issues related to Sustainable
Development and Political messages. Finally, the fact that 92% perceived that there is not
over-communication about back-shoring opens the way for companies to push information
without fearing back-firing effects.
41
To answer the first hypothesis: People’s perception about back-shoring corresponds to
what is broadcast by media only to a certain extent; marketing opportunities can be safely
discussed.
Made-in-France:
Journalists extensively talk about Made-in-France (48.67%). Moreover, 70% of people
directly relates it to back-shoring, and almost one out of five people thinks companies backshore for Made-in-France. Thus, companies can communicate about it in all regions, where
results are consistent (in particular, Nord-Est with 68% and Pays-de-la-Loire with 69%).
Would people favour products of a company that back-shored over a company that
never outsourced? Firms are not considered as traitors (41% preferred companies who never
left, compared to 40% for those who had come back); thus, a company can communicate
without guilt on the fact that it had back-shored. People may even encourage them.
Supported by both Media analysis and theory (Fetscherin and Toncar, 2009), Made-inFrance is related to quality; interestingly, 26% of surveyed people consider quality as a main
reason for back-shoring. Other factors like know-how and production label can be related to
Made-in-France.
However, companies should beware not communicating too much about Made-inFrance: Media analysis revealed it could be associated with protectionism. A nationalistic
position may damage the whole image of the company.
To answer the second hypothesis: people tend to consider Made-in-France as
important and valuable, in line with Media. This opportunity can be leveraged.
Social issues related to sustainable development: Media analysis put in light two items:
employment and ecology.
Media talk extensively about Employment (78%) and tend to frame it under a negative
perspective (few jobs created, lack of recreation of jobs…). However, only 22% of people
perceived that back-shoring did not directly benefit employment. Therefore, people seem
more optimistic than what was broadcast in Media. Although positive, companies should be
very careful in communication about this aspect.
42
Ecology was less coded (12,67%), and was stated as the fourth concept to which
people would associate back-shoring (8%). Both Media analysis and the survey show that it is
not a top-of-mind topic among people. This opportunity would therefore be less easy to
leverage by firms. However, some companies already use it as a strategy. For example, a
company using transportation costs as an argument to back-shore could directly use Ecology
in its communication.
More generally, people tend to consider that social issues related to sustainable
development are meaningful (73%) at both local and national levels. This point shows that
companies should integrate them in their CSR policies. This is especially true for companies
in regions that suffered more from outsourcing.
Most importantly, people did not consider the phenomenon as small as Media do.
To answer the third hypothesis: people are not fully favorable about the concept of
sustainable development in the context of back-shoring. In particular, employment should be
used with great care. However, issues like Ecology may be leveraged.
Impact of political messages: political intervention should be distinguished from political
comments.
First of all, people do not perceive politicians as predominantly communicating about
the phenomenon (21%) even during the political campaign. Political comments represent only
18,67% of total coding. We were expecting more implication or perceived implication of
political actors, and more “buzz” effect from them.
Media analysis revealed that political comments are more related to Made-in-France
than back-shoring phenomenon in itself. Moreover, people are sensible to both Made-inFrance label and products of quality. In this line, companies can take benefit of this added
advertisement.
People are not in favour of a direct financial intervention from government, confirmed
by the negative connotation of “political intervention”. Hence, companies should avoid it. On
the contrary, people would like political actors to encourage companies to back-shore; in
parallel, all political parties tend to support back-shoring and Made-in-France. Firms may
leverage this general consensus.
43
Finally, the fact that 94% of people would like political actors to take positions about
back-shoring reinforce the importance of this dimension.
To answer the fourth hypothesis: people are not very conscious about political
messages and unfavorable to intervention, but are very favorable to their arguments.
Companies may leverage support, but not more.
After answering each hypothesis in the discussion, several managerial implications are
suggested in the conclusion.
44
Conclusion
Can companies back-shoring to France efficiently leverage Marketing opportunities
through Media communication?
The present thesis was carried out with the purpose to discover if marketing
opportunities could be leveraged by back-shoring companies through Media communication.
In addition, we intended to complete literature and empirical data on back-shoring in the area
of Marketing.
Key trends can be taken out: the phenomenon is superficially understood and seems to
favour larger companies; still, smaller firms can generate a comparative advantage. Thus,
Media are an efficient channel to a limited extent: other communication tools could be used to
address specific issues, like the three dimensions we identified.
Firstly, Made-in-France, is a powerful argument that not only serves back-shoring
companies, but also all other firms producing in France; therefore, managers could focus on
this powerful argument, not necessarily through Media. Secondly, only companies with a
long-term perspective should leverage Employment through Media: it risks to back-fire. In
general people are very sensitive to social and ethical issues; in particular, Ecology offers a
small added advantage that all companies could use in their CSR strategies. Thirdly, political
comments can reinforce the impact of Made-in-France, perception of quality and social issues
– especially in television and newspapers. However, managers should avoid triggering
political intervention for its negative marketing consequences.
Finally, large companies can clearly develop a CSR strategy benefitting their brands.
Smaller companies can also benefit from it by focusing on local levels or leveraging core
arguments like Made-in-France.
45
Further researches
First, since the phenomenon is recent, it would be interesting to know if this trend is
likely to reinforce after presidential elections; recent arguments from researches like the one
from Olivier Bouba-Olga (2012) may fit with this assumption. Secondly, we encourage a
refined analysis by regions. In addition, Herbert Simon (1970) demonstrated the limits of
Media over-communication: how does it affect back-shoring companies’ marketing
strategies? Fourth, we focused on France, and encourage extending it for other countries and
cultures. Finally, since Media turned out not being the optimal channel of marketing
communication for every dimension, other means, like advertising, could be investigated.
46
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http://www.lefigaro.fr/societes/2011/08/12/04015-20110812ARTFIG00397-coq-sportifinnove-en-france.php
52
Bartnik,M (2011), Le coq sportif innove en France, Le Figaro. Available at
http://www.lefigaro.fr/societes/2011/08/12/04015-20110812ARTFIG00397-coq-sportifinnove-en-france.php
Belbenoit-Avich J. (2009), “De la notion de relocalisation”, Université lyon3
Belbenoit-Avich J. (2009), Proximité et relocalisation: de l'importance des réseaux. Université
Lyon 3
Bianchi, F (2011), Le Made-in-France tente le non-alimentaire, Isa. Available at
http://www.lsa-conso.fr/le-made-in-france-tente-le-non-alimentaire,120434
Bouba-Olga (2007), histoire de relocalisation, blog. Available at http://obouba.overblog.com/article-5541065.html
Boutary Martine (2010), « Des PME face à la délocalisation : accepter, refuser, calculer,
innover », Edition InfoPME
Capital (2011), Pourquoi les entreprises commencent à relocaliser, Capital. Available at
http://www.capital.fr/carriere-management/actualites/pourquoi-les-entreprises-commencent-arelocaliser-567599
Dasch B., Ebersberger B., Kinkel S., Waser B. (2006), Offshoring of Production : a European
perspective, European Manufacturing Survey, Bulletin n°2, mai
El Mouhoub, (2011), Mouhoud third edition Mondialisation et délocalisation des entreprises
p47, edition repère.
Etude CEDRE/Ifop (2011), “Made-in-France”, published on www.asso-lecedre.fr/
France implementation (2009), Les relocalisations, France-implementation.fr . Available at
http://www.france-implantation-entreprises.fr/idees-orientations-nouvelles/les-relocalisations/
France info (2010), Après être revenu en France, la société Risc groupe se délocalise de
nouveau, France info. Available at http://www.franceinfo.fr/france-social-2010-05-19-apresetre-revenue-en-france-la-societe-risc-group-se-delocalise-de-443632-9-44.html
Gallego V. (2010), Après les relocalisations...Les entreprises doivent-elles relocaliser?,
Université de Montpellier
53
Géraud, A (2010), Rossignol quitte Taiwan et revient au nid, Libération. Available at
http://www.liberation.fr/economie/01012299612-rossignol-quitte-taiwan-et-revient-au-nid
Gouzik,A (2011), Nicolas Sarkozy ambassadeur du savoir-faire français chez Rossignol,
Usine
nouvelle.
Available
at
http://www.usinenouvelle.com/article/nicolas-sarkozy-
ambassadeur-du-savoir-faire-francais-chez-rossignol.N164750
Guillem,A (2009), Et si on relocalisait les entreprises parties à l'étranger ? , Rue 89. Available
at
http://www.rue89.com/passage-a-lacte/2009/08/14/et-si-on-relocalisait-les-entreprises-
parties-a-letranger
INSEE (2006), Délocalisations et réductions d’effectifs dans l’industrie Française,
L’Economie Française 2005-2006
Jego,
Y
(2012),
Délocalisation
et
relocalisation,
blog.
Available
at
http://yvesjego.typepad.com/la_fabrique_sociale/2012/02/d%C3%A9localisation-etrelocalisation.html
Journal du net (2008), Le textile chinois fait revenir La Mascotte de Roumanie, Le journal du
net.
Available
at
http://www.journaldunet.com/economie/tendances/entreprises-qui-
relocalisent/1-la-mascotte.shtml(2008)
KPMG (2006), Innovation plutôt que délocalisation : le choix des PME, Étude réalisée pour le
Medef
L’Expansion (2010), Les relocalisations en France restent très marginales, L'expansion.
Available at http://lexpansion.lexpress.fr/economie/les-relocalisations-en-france-restent-tresmarginales_240934.html
Le Parisien (2009), Des entreprises n'hésitent plus à se relocaliser en France, Le Parisien.
Available at http://www.leparisien.fr/une/des-entreprises-n-hesitent-plus-a-se-relocaliser-enfrance-11-02-2009-406693.php
Mercier-Suissa C. (2009), Délocalisation ou innovation organisationnelle dans le pays
d’origine? Université Jean Moulin – IAE Lyon 3
Mercier-Suissa C. (2011), Entre Délocalisation et Relocalisation: Mobilité des Entreprises et
Attractivité du Territoire” Edition Karthala p21-31
54
Môme
de
terre(2010),
Meccano
relocalise,
môme-de-terre,com.
Available
at
http://blog.momes-de-terre.com/post/2010/12/13/Meccano-relocalise
Mortensen D. (1972), Communication: The Study of Human Communication, McGraw-Hill
Book Co., Chapter 2, “Communication Models”
Ratgemini (2010), Compétitivité ou aveu d'échec ? La relocalisation, Ratgemini. Available
at http://ratgemini.wordpress.com/2010/04/06/competitivite-ou-aveu-dechec-la-relocalisation/
Stassi, F (2011), Délocalisations, off-shoring : la fin de l'eldorado, Economie et société.
Available
at
http://www.economieetsociete.com/Delocalisations-offshoring-la-fin-de-l-
eldorado_a725.html
Talmon V (2011), Les adeptes de la relocalisation, blog. Available at http://blog-economiqueet-social.blogspot.se/2011/05/les-adeptes-de-la-relocalisation.html
Trendeo (2009), “study about investment and divestment”, published on www.trendeo.net/
Villeroy S (2010), Les limites de la relocalisation, France soir. Available at
http://www.francesoir.fr/pratique/emploi/limites-relocalisation-en-france-58842.html
Villeroy S, (2010), Les limites de la relocalisation en France, France soir. Available at :
http://www.francesoir.fr/pratique/emploi/limites-relocalisation-en-france-58842.html
Visseyrias, M (2008), Les chaussures de Decathlon prennent pieds a Lille, Le Figaro.
Available
at
http://www.lefigaro.fr/societes-francaises/2008/04/29/04010-
20080429ARTFIG00331-les-chaussures-de-decathlon-prennent-pied-a-lille-.php
References used for Media analysis
Note: all references to Internet websites have been checked and could be accessed on May 24th 2012
For purposes of clarity, only the 150 sources that were coded under the second system of connotation
are listed below.
a. Press articles
20Minutes (2010) Le coq sportif et Rossignol rapatrient une partie de leur production,
20Minutes. Available at http://www.20minutes.fr/economie/602884-economie-le-coq-sportifrossignol-rapatrient-partie-activites-france
55
24heures (2011) Après sa relocalisation, Rossignol remonte la pente, 24heures.ch. Available
at http://archives.24heures.ch/actu/economie/relocalisation-rossignol-remonte-pente-2011-1212
Achetons français (2012) patriotisme économique : que disent les principaux candidats,
achetonsfrançais.fr. Available at http://achetons-francais.net/2012-patriotisme-economiqueque-disent-les-principaux-candidats/
Acuité.fr (2009) Atol poursuit son effort de relocalisation avec la collection AK, Acuité.fr.
Available at http://www.acuite.fr/articles.asp?REF=5949
Amiel, O (2011) Nos emplettes sont nos emplois, Olivieramiel.fr. Available at:
http://www.olivier-amiel.fr/article-nos-emplettes-sont-nos-emplois-2-87406126.html
Assemblée nationale (2011) Mission d’information sur la compétitivité de l’économie
française et le financement de la protection sociale, compte rendu. Available at
http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/13/cr-micompetitivite/10-11/c1011008.asp
Autopros.fr (2010), Peugeot SIASO se relocalise à Lormont, autopros.fr. Available at
http://www.autopros.fr/actualites/3063/Peugeot-SIASO-se-relocalise-a-Lormont.html
Azam et al (2009) La relocalisation de l'économie, DPHinfo. Available at http://base.d-ph.info/en/fiches/dph/fiche-dph-8685.html
Azimut, A (2011) Relocalisation, une amorce timide mais réelle des industriels du sport,
azimut-innovation.fr.
Available
at
http://www.azimut-
innovation.fr/blog/2011/08/relocalisation-une-amorce-timide-mais-reelle-des-industriels-dusport/
Bartnik, M (2011) Majencia préfère dépenser en salaires plutôt que en pétrole, Le Figaro.
Available
at
http://www.lefigaro.fr/societes/2011/08/04/04015-20110804ARTFIG00543-
majencia-prefere-depenser-en-salaires-plutot-qu-en-petrole.php
Bartnik, M (2011) L'impact des relocalisations sur l'emploi reste marginal, Le Figaro.
http://www.lefigaro.fr/societes/2011/07/11/04015-20110711ARTFIG00570-l-impact-desrelocalisations-sur-l-emploi-reste-marginal.php
56
Bartnik,M (2011) Atol mise plus que jamais sur le Made-in-France, Le Figaro Available at:
http://www.lefigaro.fr/societes/2011/08/26/04015-20110826ARTFIG00406-atol-mise-plusque-jamais-sur-le-made-in-france.php
Bartnik,M (2011) Rossignol se rapproche de sa clientèle, Le Figaro. Available at
http://www.lefigaro.fr/societes/2011/07/22/04015-20110722ARTFIG00607-rossignol-serapproche-de-sa-clientele.php
Bartnik,M (2011), Le coq sportif innove en France, Le Figaro. Available at
http://www.lefigaro.fr/societes/2011/08/12/04015-20110812ARTFIG00397-coq-sportifinnove-en-france.php
Batiactu (2005) Sullair Europe opèreune relocalisation en France, Batiactu. Available at:
http://www.batiactu.com/edito/sullair-europe-opere-une-relocalisation-en-france-19483.php
Bembaron E (2008) Les relocalisattions ont le vent en poupe, Le Figaro. Available at
http://www.lefigaro.fr/societes-etrangeres/2008/03/28/04011-20080328ARTFIG00342-lesrelocalisations-ont-le-vent-en-poupe-.php
Beugin, S (2011) Veloscoot, l'entreprise qui relocalise en France, sud-ouest. Available at
http://www.sudouest.fr/2011/12/02/veloscoot-l-entreprise-qui-relocalise-en-france-568927757.php
Bianchi, F (2011) Le Made-in-France tente le non-alimentaire, Isa-conso.fr. Available at
http://www.lsa-conso.fr/le-made-in-france-tente-le-non-alimentaire,120434
Biosphère
(2011)
Acheter
Français,
Acheter
local,
biosphère
.
Available
at
http://pdf.bretagne.over-blog.com/article-acheter-francais-acheter-local-96044530.html
Bottois,P (2007) Sphère relocalise des productions sur un site français, L'Usine Nouvelle.
Available at http://www.usinenouvelle.com/article/sphere-relocalise-des-productions-sur-unsite-francais.N16942
Bouba-olga (2007) Des relocalisations qui pèsent, obouba.overblog.fr . Available at
http://obouba.over-blog.com/article-13879535.html
Bouba-Olga, O (2010) Les centres d'appels priés de se relocaliser, obouba-overblog.fr.
Available at http://blogs.univ-poitiers.fr/o-bouba-olga/page/11/
57
Bouba-Olga, O(2007) histoire de relocalisation, obouba.overblog.com . Available at
http://obouba.over-blog.com/article-5541065.html
Cahuzac Adrien (2011) Bleu-Forêt embauche et augmente sa production, l'Usine Nouvelle.
Available at
http://www.usinenouvelle.com/article/bleu-foret-embauche-et-augmente-sa-
production.
Cahuzac, A (2009) Eugène Parma relocalise pétrole Hahn, Usine nouvelle. Available at
http://www.usinenouvelle.com/article/eugene-perma-relocalise-petrole-hahn.
Cahuzac, A (2011) La méthode Rossignol pour relocaliser, L'Usine Nouvelle. Available at
http://www.usinenouvelle.com/article/la-methode-rossignol-pour-relocaliser.
Cahuzac,A (2010) le pari du « Made-in-France » pour sauver Olympia, l'Usine Nouvelle.
Available at http://www.usinenouvelle.com/article/le-pari-du-made-in-france-pour-sauverolympia.N131200
Capital (2011) Pourquoi les entreprises commencent à relocaliser, Capital. Available at
http://www.capital.fr/carriere-management/actualites/pourquoi-les-entreprises-commencent-arelocaliser-567599
Cartiaux, M (2011) Relocalisation … la déception! Vireux Gauche. Available at
http://www.vireux-rive-gauche.fr/index.php?post/2011/01/23/Relocalisation...la-grandeillusion-!
Challenges
(2012)
La
France
qui
ressucite,
Challenges.fr
.
Available
at
http://www.challenges.fr/economie/20120105.CHA8779/la-france-qui-ressuscite.html
Clemens, C (2005) Atol rapatrie de Chine dans le Jura la fabrication de ses lunettes Ushuaïa,
Les
Echos n° 19530 page 20.
Available
at
http://archives.lesechos.fr/archives/2005/LesEchos/19530-88-ECH.htm
Cognasse, Olivier (2011) Les recettes de chaussettes « Made-in-France » L'Usine Nouvelle
number 3243. Available at http://www.usinenouvelle.com/article/les-recettes-de-chaussettesmade-in-france.N153468
58
Côté Môme (2010) Industrie du jouet: La fin des délocalisations? Côté Môme. Available at
http://www.cote-momes.com/fil-d-infos/industrie-du-jouet-la-fin-des-delocalisationsc3134.html
Côtémômes (2010) Meccano relocalise, côtémomes.fr. Available at http://blog.momes-deterre.com/post/2010/12/13/Meccano-relocalise
Davesne Solène (2011) Eric Besson milite pour la réindustrialisation, Usine Nouvelle.
Available
at
http://www.usinenouvelle.com/article/eric-besson-milite-pour-la-
reindustrialisation.
Decision Achats, (2007) Samas relocalise sa production en France, décision achats. Available
at http://www.decision-achats.fr/Decision-Achats/Article/Samas-relocalise-sa-production-enFrance-20895-1.htm&t=Samas-relocalise-sa-production-en-France
Detilleux, G (2008) Des entreprises n'hésitent plus à se relocaliser en France, Knowkers.org.
Available at http://www.knowckers.org/2008/05/relocalisations/
Di Rosa, M (2008) Geneviève Lethu change de recette, stratégie magazine. Available at
http://www.strategies.fr/actualites/marques/105684W/genevieve-lethu-change-de-recette.html
Dubois, J (2011) Les relocalisations sont un épihénomène, LCI. Available at
http://lci.tf1.fr/economie/social/les-relocalisations-concernent-0-1-des-emplois-crees-par-uninvestissement-6872375.html
Europe1 (2009) Dans les Vosges, Gantois relocalise, French broadcaster radio. Available at
http://www.europe1.fr/Emploi/Dans-les-Vosges-Gantois-relocalise-81181/
Fairise A, (2010) Relocalisation la grande illusion Liaison sociales Magasines. Available at
http://www.wk-rh.fr/actualites/detail/25358/relocalisations-la-grande-illusion.html
Faure, S (2007)Des meubles qui reposent pied en France, Libération. Available at
http://www.liberation.fr/economie/010190096-des-meubles-qui-reposent-pied-en-france
Fouquet, C (2009) Ces entreprises qui reviennent produire en France, Les Echos. Available at
http://archives.lesechos.fr/archives/2009/LesEchos/20414-83-ECH.htm
France implementation (2009) Les relocalisations, France implementation . Available at
http://www.france-implantation-entreprises.fr/idees-orientations-nouvelles/les-relocalisations/
59
Franceinfo (2010) Après être revenu en France, la société Risc groupe se délocalise de
nouveau, Franceinfo.fr . Available at http://www.franceinfo.fr/france-social-2010-05-19apres-etre-revenue-en-france-la-societe-risc-group-se-delocalise-de-443632-9-44.html
Géraud, A (2010) Rossignol quitte Taiwan et revient au nid, Libération. Available at
http://www.liberation.fr/economie/01012299612-rossignol-quitte-taiwan-et-revient-au-nid
Géraud, A (2010) Rossignol quitte Taiwan et revient au nid, Libération. Available at
http://www.liberation.fr/economie/01012299612-rossignol-quitte-taiwan-et-revient-au-nid)
Gless,
E
(2011)
Privilégier
le
Made-in-France,
L'express.
Available
at
http://lentreprise.lexpress.fr/developpement-et-innover/privilegier-le-made-infrance_29868.html
Gouzik,A (2011) Nicolas Sarkozy ambassadeur du savoir-faire français chez Rossignol, Usine
nouvelle. Available at http://www.usinenouvelle.com/article/nicolas-sarkozy-ambassadeurdu-savoir-faire-francais-chez-rossignol.N164750
Guillem,A (2009) Et si on relocalisait les entreprises parties à l'étranger ? Rue 89. Available
at
http://www.rue89.com/passage-a-lacte/2009/08/14/et-si-on-relocalisait-les-entreprises-
parties-a-letranger
Guimard E (2012), Ledpower maintient son projet malgré la révocation de son PDG, Usine
Nouvelle. Available at http://www.usinenouvelle.com/article/ledpower-maintient-son-projetmalgre-la-revocation-de-son-pdg.
Havyarimana, R (2009) Legras relocalise pour maintenir l'emploi, Lunion-presse. Available at
http://www.lunion.presse.fr/article/a-la-une/legras-relocalise-pour-maintenir-lemploi
Heulard,L (2011) Le coq sportif poursuit sa relocalisation en France, Usine Nouvelle.
Available at http://www.20minutes.fr/economie/602884-economie-le-coq-sportif-rossignolrapatrient-partie-activites-france
Jaxel Truer et al (2011) Les candidats se disputent le Made-in-France, Le monde. Available at
http://www.lemonde.fr/election-presidentielle-2012/article/2011/12/13/les-candidats-sedisputent-le-made-in-france_1617779_1471069.html
60
Jego,Y (2012) Délocalisation et relocalisation, yvesjego.typepad.com. Available at
http://yvesjego.typepad.com/la_fabrique_sociale/2012/02/d%C3%A9localisation-etrelocalisation.html
Journal du net(2008) Le textile chinois fait revenir La Mascotte de Roumanie,
Lejournaldunet.com
.
Available
at
http://www.journaldunet.com/economie/tendances/entreprises-qui-relocalisent/1-lamascotte.shtml
Kerdraon, D (2011) ledpower est prêt pour le décollages, La tribune. Available at
http://www.latribune.fr/journal/edition-du-1101/pme-en-croissance/1093544/ledpower-estpret-pour-le-decollage.html
La Croix (2009) La belle histoire de Smoby qui retrouve le Jura, La Croix. Available at
http://www.la-croix.com/Actualite/S-informer/Economie/La-belle-histoire-de-Smoby-quiretrouve-le-Jura-_NG_-2009-01-23-530376
La Fabrique hexagonale, (2010) Les chaussettes Olympia changent de main, La Fabrique
hexagonale. Available at http://www.lafabriquehexagonale.com/2010/05/les-chaussettesolympia-changent-de-mains/
La voix du Nord (2007) Le siège mondial de la marque de vélos de Décathlon s'installe à
Lille,
La
voix
du
Nord.
Available
at
http://www.lavoixeco.com/actualite/la_une/2007/06/23/article_le_siege_mondial_de_la_marq
ue_de_velos_d.shtml
La voix du Nord (2008) Avec Yves Claude, Decathlon relocalise autour de Lille, La voix du
nord.
Available
at
http://www.lavoixdunord.fr/Locales/Metropole_Lilloise/actualite/Secteur_Metropole_Lilloise
/2008/12/23/article_2-avec-yves-claude-decathlon-relocalise.shtml
Lagoutte,
C
(2009)
Le
retour
du
Made-in-France,
Le
Figaro.
Available
at
http://www.lefigaro.fr/emploi/2009/01/19/01010-20090119ARTFIG00505-le-retour-dumade-in-france-.php
61
LCP (2011) La ruée des politiques à l'usine ne freine pas la désindustrialisation, LCP.
Available at http://www.lcp.fr/actualites/politique/45091-la-ruee-des-politiques-a-l-usine-nefreine-pas-la-desindustrialisation
Le Bagousse, B (2009) Decathlon: ouverture du magasin en juin 2010, Le Telegramme.
Available at http://www.letelegramme.com/local/morbihan/vannes-auray/vannes/decathlonouverture-du-nouveau-magasin-en-juin2010-10-10-2009-603221.php
Le journal du net (2008) Pour produire plus, Elonex rejoint... les Bouches du Rhône, le
journal du net. Available at: http://www.journaldunet.com/economie/tendances/entreprisesqui-relocalisent/9-elonex.shtml
Le Parisien (2009) Call Marketing se recentre à Toulouse, Le Parisien. Available at
http://www.leparisien.fr/economie/call-marketing-se-recentre-a-toulouse-11-02-2009406686.php
Le Parisien (2009) Des entreprises n'hésitent plus à se relocaliser en France, Le Parisien.
Available at http://www.leparisien.fr/une/des-entreprises-n-hesitent-plus-a-se-relocaliser-enfrance-11-02-2009-406693.php
Le Parisien (2009) Des entreprises n'hésitent plus à se relocaliser en France, Le Parisien.
Available at http://www.leparisien.fr/une/des-entreprises-n-hesitent-plus-a-se-relocaliser-enfrance-11-02-2009-406693.php
Le Parisien (2009), Des entreprises n'hésitent plus à se relocaliser en France, Le Parisien.
Available at http://www.leparisien.fr/une/des-entreprises-n-hesitent-plus-a-se-relocaliser-enfrance-11-02-2009-406693.php
Le
Parsien
(2009)
Quatre
Raisons
de
Relocaliser,
Le
parisien.
Available
at
http://www.leparisien.fr/economie/quatre-raisons-de-relocaliser-11-02-2009-406690.php
Le pays
(2012) Depuis
sa reprise, Smoby relocalise,
Le pays.
Available at
http://www.lepays.fr/actualite/2012/01/31/jura-depuis-sa-reprise-smoby-relocalise
Le Point (2012) Dans le Jura, les jouets Smoby renaissent, Le Point. Available at
http://www.lepoint.fr/societe/dans-le-jura-les-jouets-smoby-renaissent-terrains-de-campagne23-01-2012-1422501_23.php
62
Lespch,
L
(2010)
Renault:
relocalisation
en
France,
JDD.
Available
at
http://www.lejdd.fr/Economie/Entreprises/Actualite/Renault-Relocalisation-en-France196681/
L'expansion (2010) Les relocalisations en France restent très marginales, L'expansion.fr .
Available at http://lexpansion.lexpress.fr/economie/les-relocalisations-en-france-restent-tresmarginales_240934.html
Libération,
(2009)
Le
gouverment
dérape
en
Clio,
Libération.
Available
at
http://www.liberation.fr/economie/0101556748-renault-relocalise-en-france-assure-legouvernement
Lion
V
(2007)
Atol
relocalise,
L 'express.
Available
at http://www.lexpress.fr/informations/atol-relocalise_678210.html
L'or et l'argent (2008) La relocalisation des industries, L'or et l'argent. Available at
http://www.loretlargent.info/reflexions/la-relocalisation-des-industries/326/
Marianne
(2010)
La
relocalisation,
ça
existe!
Marianne.
Available
at
http://www.marianne2.fr/La-relocalisation-ca-existe_a197952.html
Maudieu, M (2008) A comme Atol, Antoine et Adriana aussi, stratégie magazine. Available at
http://www.strategies.fr/actualites/marques/r48544W/a-comme-atol-antoine-et-adrianaaussi.html
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b. Television and Radio
Actu and Co : Guillaume Gomez et QOOQ (2010), CAP 24, Specialized Television channel,
September 20th 2010
65
Ce sont des décisions politiques qui nous sortirons de la crise (2012), Région Rhône Alpes
TV Channel, Public Regional Channel, March 3th 2010
De la délocalisation vers la relocalisation (2012), JT France 2, Public Television news
broadcast, January 2nd 2011
Débat Bayrou – Montebourg” (2011), Des Racines et des Ailes – France 2, Public Television
broadcast, December 8th 2011
Délocalisation – La France sans usine” (2011), France 2, Public Channel news broadcast,
December 6th 2011
Des hauts et des bas (2011), France culture, Public Radio, November 11th 2011
Désindustrialisation et relocalisation (2011), JT 20 Heures, Public Television news broadcast,
December 15th 2011
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Television channel, March 24th 2012
Edito Mars 2012 – Alain Gazo (2012), Magazine Conquérir, Private Television broadcast,
March 2012
Finance, emploi, relocalisations (2010), Groupe Xerfi Canal, Private Television channel,
October 14th 2010
Inauguration du site de production de la tablette QOOQ, Chaîne LCI, Private Television
channel, October 28th 2011
Intervention du chef de l’Etat de Janvier 2012 (2012), BFM TV, Private Television news
broadcast, January 29th 2012
Interview Erick Mejean (2011), BFM TV, Private Television channel, December 16th 2011
Journal 19/20 du 7 décembre 2011 (2011), France 3, Public Television news broadcast,
December 7th 2011
Journal de l’économie – Délocalisation Chine (2008), France 24, Public Television news
broadcast, September 3th 2008
66
JT du 20h – Prime PME pour les délocalisations (2010), France 2, Public Television news
broadcast, April 4th 2010
Kindy Fabrication Française (2011), France 3, Public Television news broadcast, December
13th 2011
L’incroyable retour du Made-in-France (2011), Direct 8, Private Television channel, January
14th 2011
La colère des ouvrières de Lejaby (2012), iTele, Private Television news broadcast, Jaunary
19th 2012
La difficile relocalisation des entreprises françaises (2010), France Info, Public radio,
September 29th 2010
La fiscalité anti-délocalisation est indispensable” (2012), Chaîne UMP, Private Political
Television broadcast, January 11th 2012
La région a le devoir d’anticiper (2012), Région Rhône Alpes TV Channel, Public Regional
Channel, March 29th 2012
La relocalisation de l’opticien Krys contrarie les élus locaux (2012), BFM TV, Private
Television channel, March 10th 2012
La relocalisation, c’est quoi (2011), Youtube, Internet broadcast, December 2011
La vie un an après (2011), France culture, Public Radio, January 7th 2011
le 16 septembre 2010 (R) (2011), France culture, Public Radio, March 11th 2011
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broadcast, September 30th 2010
Le Coq Sportif est de retour dans l’Aube (2010), BFM TV, Private Television news
broadcast, September 29th 2010
Le dernier jour (2011), France culture, Public Radio, January 12th 2011
Le sort de l'entreprise Lejaby (2012), France culture, Public radio, January 1st 2012
67
Les aides à la relocalisation ou la course mondiale à l’emploi (2010), France Inter, Public
Radio, August 6th 2010
Les limites des politiques de relocalisation (2011), Groupe Xerfi Canal, Private Television
channel, January 31th 2011
Mélenchon veut une relocalisation de productions (2012), France Info, Public radio, April 2nd
2012
Mots croisés : Sarkozy et sa bande dégagez (2012), France 2, Public Television broadcast,
March 16th 2012
Pas de compétitivité sans industrie” (2011), Groupe Xerfi canal, Private Television broadcast,
November 15th 2011
Place Publique : Jean-Yves, le pari du Made-in-France (2011), France 3, Public Television
broadcast, December 5th 2011
Pourquoi les entreprises commencent à relocaliser (2011), France Inter, Public Radio, January
2011
Relocalisation Alex Munslow (2007), Youtube, Internet broadcast, June 28th 2007
Relocalisation d’entreprise de Chine vers la France à Dreux (2012), Public Regional
Television, Chaîne de l’agglomération de Dreux, January 9th 2012
Relocalisation de l’entreprise Meccano à Calais (2010), Journal 19/20 France 3, Public
Television news broadcast, November 8th 2010
Relocalisation… à la marge (2011), France Inter, Public Radio, May 1st 2011
Renversement du phénomène des délocalisations (2010), France 2, Public Television news
broadcast, March 24th 2010
Romilly-sur-Seine : un espoir pour l’emploi (2011), Canal 32, Regional Public Television
news broadcast, February 27th 2011
Rossignol relocalise la production de ses skis (2010), BFM TV, Private Television channel,
September 29th 2010
68
Rossignol veut rester le numéro 1 (2009), TV8 Mont Blanc, Regional Public Television news
broadcast, December 16th 2009
Rossignol, Le Coq Sportif relocalisent partiellement (2010), Chaîne Française de l’AFP,
General news agency – television branch, October 29th 2010
Salariés de Still inquiets d’une delocalization” (2011), BFM TV, Private Television news
channel, August 26th 2011
Société Rivalin Quimper. Concours Produit en Bretagne. En Bretagne, on relocalise (2012),
Youtube, Internet broadcast, February 15th 2012
Télématin Rubrique Nouveau – QOOQ (2010), France 2, Public Television channel,
September 17th 2010
UMP Degauchy Bertrand – Relocalisation d’entreprises (2012), Public Sénat – Chaîne de
l’Assemblée Nationale, Public Television broadcast, January 12th 2012
69
Appendix
Appendix1
1.1 Definition:
The concept of back-shoring was tackled in French due to the chosen sample and covered
literature; in this perspective, the concept was approach from a French cultural perspective,
both in term of vocabulary and definition. Therefore, some explanation is needed. The word
“relocalisation” in French is used to define the process of a company moving back to its
country of origin after an outsourcing process.
A first issue can be found in translating the French word “relocalisation” to English. The word
“relocation” in English seems phonetically the closest to be chosen from; however, this word
both describes a company outsourcing its production or services abroad and, a company
moving it back. It therefore does not perfectly fit with the thesis’ intent; another solution
would be to strictly limit it to the meaning of companies coming back to their country of
origin. Jacques Belbenoit-Avich (2009) referred to the word “back-shoring”; it appears to be
more appropriated to describe this phenomenon since it excludes outsourcing companies.
The word near-shoring can also be found; however, near-shoring does not take in account the
fact that a company would come back to its former location. For example, a company
producing in China and selling in Sweden could decide to relocate the company to Latvia.
Thus, the authors excluded the word near-shoring since the production's location is a
determinant criterion in this thesis. The scope is to analyze the benefit that a company may
take out from a back-shoring strategy within its country of origin.
Mouhoud (2011) had made two different definitions about back-shoring.
On one side, he strictly defined the phenomenon: according to him, relocation means that
companies bring back to their country of origin productive units, assembly or installation
projects that had previously been outsourced to low-wage countries. We choose not to follow
this definition for two reasons.
First, we conducted a preliminary analysis in which they discovered that some companies had
previously outsourced not only to low-wage countries, but also to areas like England or the
USA. Therefore, choosing such definition would narrow too much the analysis.
70
Secondly, Mouhoud (2011) excluded services companies from his definition; the authors
thought that it would have restricted too much the analysis.
On the other side, Mouhoud (2011) also considered a broader meaning of “relocalisation” as a
concept. He considered the relocation concept as a slowdown in the rate of outsourcing
towards low-wage countries. Being too broad, it cannot be taken into account by the authors:
they only considered companies that moved their facilities.
Indeed, we will base our analysis on a mid-way definition suggested by Jacques BelbenoitAvich (2009): he took into account the corrections above-mentioned. Jacques BelbenoitAvich considers two crucial items: at first, he did not make any distinction from the size of
the companies; on the contrary, the authors mixed large, middle-sized and small companies.
Secondly, this definition also takes into account a broader dimension, since we included both
companies having partially and completely relocated.
We are interested into companies back-shoring more than the alter-globalist phenomenon in
itself (Jacques Belbenoit-Avich 2009). One must distinguish these two different visions of
“relocalisation”. From the alter globalist perspective, back-shoring is a crucial element but
only within the specific frame of local production. It therefore diverges from our aim.
1.2 “Relocalisation” and “outsourcing”
First of all, to explain clearly why companies are back-shoring, one needs to understand why
companies are outsourcing. This phenomenon is defined, in the study Katalyse (2005), by the
transfer of business activities into another country; this transfer of activities may involve an
entire business, or only a part of its activity.
The main reason why companies outsourced was to reduce costs (Boutary 2010). It is usually
a reaction to competitor's moves in order to preserve competitiveness. It can also be a
strategic move to come closer to new markets, take advantages on specific know-how or to
benefit from better infrastructures.
Indeed, outsourcing is often a cost-driven decision. Similarly, it appears from the theory that
most of the reasons why a company would relocate are also cost-driven.
71
Offshoring and outsourcing are macro-economically marginal phenomena. However, the
back-shoring / outsourcing ration is not to be ignored: practically, one back-shoring operation
out of ten outsourcing can be observed; in addition, back-sourcing allows for the creation of
one job position for twenty destructions when outsourcing. Offshoring and back-shoring
generally do not weigh so much, but back-shoring appears to represent a significant share in
case of considering only outsourcing. (Olivier Bouba-olga 2007).
Another criterion may be used to differentiate companies: size. Nowadays, the outsourcing of
small companies is common knowledge. But companies need to reach a critical size (30
employees) before outsourcing (study from Katalyse documents delivered to the French
senate, 2005; KPMG, Innovation plutôt que relocalisation: le choix des PME, 2006). This
would means that the authors should find a little amount of smaller back-shoring companies.
Empirical studies of back-shoring are much scarcer. An European investigation (European
Manufacturing Survey, Dasch and al., 2006) showed however that back-shoring did not
represent a negligible share of divestitures abroad. To illustrate it, data on Germany showed
that a ratio of 15 % of offshoring companies had relocated later on.
Several reasons may explain why companies would back-shore. As developed by Catherine
Mercier-Suissa 2011, one may distinguish reasons justified from a cost-driven choice like cost
of transportation, time delivery, quality problems, higher wages, flexibility, innovation, and
networking. The ranking established by the authors of this study also take in account hosted
countries issues like political trouble or industrial spying. However, authors' attention is
focused on another set of reasons that does not depend on either cost issues or hosted
countries issues, since they are considered as a societal phenomenon. Among them, one can
enumerate: Made-in-France, sustainable development and impact of political messages. Each
of them provides interesting marketing opportunities for companies.
72
Appendix2
First wave of back-shoring:
company
outsourcing country
Back-shoring country
Fairchild Camera and Inst
Mostec
National semi conductor
Motorola
Control data
Gerneral motors
Dow chemical
Indonesia
Malaysia
Malaysia
South-east Asia
South-east Asia
South-east Asia
Asia
USA
USA
USA
USA
USA
USA
USA
company
Outsourcing country
Back-shoring country
AEG
AEG
Bosch
Bosch
Bosch
Bosch
Grundig
Siemens
Paul Dau and Co
Dratwerke
Mexico
Filipino
Taiwan
Mexico
Venezuela
Guatemala
Taiwan
Mauritius
Brazil
Brazil
Germany
Germany
Germany
Germany
Germany
Germany
Germany
Germany
Germany
Germany
Appendix3
Second wave of outsourcing:
Appendix4
4.1 Why do companies back-shore?
Companies mainly outsourced in order to reduce costs (Gallego, 2010). This is usually a
reaction to competitor's move in order to preserve competitiveness but it can also be a
strategic move to get closer to new market.
Indeed, outsourcing is often a cost-driven decision. Similarly, it appears from the theory that
most of the reasons why a company relocates is also cost-driven.
4.2 Reasons
73
In the following part, we list up the main reasons why companies are back-shoring
(taken from Catherine Mercier-Suissa, 2011).
Cost of transportation: the price of oil has more than doubled since the 1990s, resulting in
higher prices. It consequently generated higher costs of transportation, affecting the
phenomenon.
Problem of internal communication: first, the problem might be due to a lack of
infrastructures like phone line cut. Secondly, the problem may come from cross-cultural
differences or language barriers. Such communication issues may affect relations between
companies (for example, sizes are different if expressed in inches or centimeters, Gallego,
2010). Solving mistakes may end up costing more than what could have been saved for
outsourcing.
Time delivery: the high distance between manufacturers and places of consumption result in
higher delivery times. Insufficient infrastructures contribute to increase such costs and
delivery time issues.
Quality problems: quality and safety standards differ between developed countries and
developing countries. In particular, developed countries are generally stricter and it can cost a
lot to the companies
Higher wages: on one side, wages in developing country are increasingly higher. On the
other side, productivity per employees is higher in the developed countries. This creates a
negative correlation for back-shoring companies.
Flexibility: lack of flexibility in the production process, not enough adapted to the demand.
Innovation: a company can generate value through innovation, in order to improve
productivity or to create a competitive advantage. For instance, automating a process can both
improve quality and reduce cost.
Network: it refers to the concept of emulation through geographical proximity. Clusters can
benefit companies through network-leverage opportunities and resulting gain of
competitiveness.
Political issues: they can occur in host countries. Examples include removal of government
subsidies, or risk of instability within the country.
Industrial spying: Some outsourcing cases turned out to be dangerous for companies.
Outsourcing may lead to lose intellectual property, especially when outsourcing companies do
not respect rules.
74
Appendix5
5.1 Berlo’s communication model
Source: www.communicationtheory.org
5.2 Selection of the model items and implications for the analysis
Source: it is intuitively embodied by journalists, politics, experts and companies. However,
there is no firm evidence that is at the initiative of the message. Thus, it highlights the need
for encoding the source of information during Media analysis, in order to precise who actually
is the source. The authors do not intend to detail in depth the five dimensions that are
“communication skills”, “attitude”, “knowledge”, social system”, and “culture”; on the
opposite, their analysis will implicitly follow the assumptions that journalists have a
professional writing style, and therefore quite efficient communication skills allowing the
message to be clearly understood by the receiver, independently from his level of knowledge;
on the other hand, this dimension provides an additional reason to encode the source into the
analysis, since biases, writing styles and opinions may influence the interpretation of the
message by the receiver.
75
Appendix6
6.1 Precisions on the source and channel - developed
Source: It is too early to affirm that journalists, politics, experts and companies are at the
source of the information. Thus, it highlights the need for encoding the source of information
during Media analysis, in order to precise who actually is the source.
Message: First of all, the form and content of the message may influence the perception of the
receiver; therefore, the authors will exclusively take in account from the model the “content”
and “treatment” elements of the message in itself. It implies that categories must be updated
in a symmetric fashion when new elements are discovered: old coding and classification
should be updated in order to fit the analysis of the content with the subsequent analysis of the
treatment. A detailed description of the elements taken into account is described in the
qualitative analysis’s methodology part.
Channel: The only senses taken into account are “seeing” and “listening”. Through written
articles, video and audio podcasts analysis. A deeper analysis of the Berlo (1960)'s model of
communication drew the attention of the authors on the high number of biases from imagerelated channels. The support of the media is static, and does not influence the receiver of the
information through biases like non-verbal communication. On the other hand, the writing
style and political orientation of the newspapers (the channel and – possibly – the source), are
subject to other types of biases, notably based on the interpretation of audiences, as stated
earlier in the theory. Word-related channels are not enough to provide a complete picture,
even if it would have given more secured way of analyzing the content and treatment of
information from the sender to the receiver by not adding an additional bias. The choice of
including listening and hearing Media is also motivated by the will of the authors to
understand how people would receive the information.
Receiver: in the context of the present study, the receiver is clearly defined as the consumer of
the written-mediated information.
6.2 Limitations of the model and implications for the study:
Berlo (1960)’s model does not take into account the feedback dimension of communication;
the quality of the study will not be directly affected by this characteristic, since the focus is set
on a one-way communication process (sender – receiver, based on our research model figure
2). However, there is an intuitive belief, confirmed by theory as covered earlier, that articles
76
are designed according to the needs of the consumers of information; it implies that some
information the sender may not be broadcast to the receiver for some reason. This goes
beyond the scope of the present study, but needs to be kept in mind when analyzing the
results.
A second limitation is related to noise: the model does not take into account any potential
indirect bias like political influence. In this regards, this model fits with the scope of the
studies, which does not measure the potential noise at the individual level. However, one must
remain aware that potential noises may affect the final interpretation of the results by the
consumer of information.
Finally, a third limitation deals with the method used in the analysis (inspired by the grounded
theory, as detailed in the methodology section). The model helped the authors precise the
“coding” dimension (how does the message is broadcast). The present study focuses on a
restricted set of features, as detailed earlier. Thus, the potential direct biases that may emerge
from the manipulation of the message due to the encoding process are therefore limited to the
sole source (journalists) and receiver (reading consumers of information). In this regard, the
coding process of the chosen qualitative method in this study is selected with great care, as
detailed in the methodology part: as said before, this choice implies indirect biases that are
consequent to the choice of a particular audience. Finally, coding implies simplification in
order to categorize the data: it entails that the theory - which will emerge from the coding in
the qualitative analysis -, will not perfectly grasp all the details picturing the reality; therefore,
the reader should keep in mind that the scope of the following analysis is limited to
understanding the studied phenomenon.
Appendix7
Categories created for Media analysis.
Context: This category was required for an efficient coverage of the articles since media are
writing about companies with a clear story-line. Therefore, we need to take into account the
past of the company to understand its decision.
Perception of the phenomenon: This category should answer this question: Which is the big
picture given by media about back-shoring? This category considers back-shoring at a macroeconomic perspective.
77
Politics and social: Within this node, we look for topics indirectly related to back-shoring
that could provide interesting marketing opportunities.
Comments: This category highlights the quotes within articles. Who speak about backshoring and what do they say? This category could answer these two questions.
Appendix8
Example of coding process on a press article
Each comment is made on a specific box. Each color corresponds to a different coding.
The company « Le Coq Sportif » innovates in France
Source:
http://www.lefigaro.fr/societes/2011/08/12/04015-20110812ARTFIG00397-coq-
sportif-innove-en-france.php
Key words: back-shoring, outsourcing, industry, France, Coq Sportif
Written by Marie Bartnik, updated on 18/08/2011 at 16.04/Published on 12/08/2011 at 12.46
Why back-shoring ? The sport equipment manufacturer began its coming-back to the Aube
district in September 2010. The setting up of a new production unit is forecast for this year.
Le Coq Sport is progressively reinvesting in its district of origin, the Aube, capitalizing on its
French image. Last year, the sport equipment manufacturer reinstalled its facilities in
Romilly-sur-Seine close to Troyes – several kilometers far from Sodimedical, a company
threaten by outsourcing – in the industrial birthplace that saw its growth 30 years ago.
Comment: Discussion about outsourcing phenomenon and background of the company
If production still remain to a large extent in Portugal, the group implemented, with the help
of the city council, a research and development center for its ranges of textile in September
78
2010.
Comment: Partial back-shoring and political intervention from local authorities
“In the present economic context, each job is valuable!”, states Eric Vuillemin, the mayor of
the city, who invested up to 700.000 euros to the premises’ renovation. The products of the
brand are now manufactured there, and 15 jobs have been created for this purpose.
Comment: Politic quote from the mayor, talking about employment. The second part is related
to the subvention which is a political intervention in order to create jobs
Increased flexibility
In the same way as Rossignol, another French brand of sport products that back-shored, this
step was carried out in the context of the group’s recovery, facing tough times after being
bought
by
Adidas
in
the
years
1970s.
22
years
after
leaving
France,
Comment: Background of the company
the new owner of Le Coq Sportif from 2005, the Swiss investment fund Airesis, chose to
base its strategy on French high-standard and qualitative products.
Through rejecting to subcontract, as other brand had done, the creation and development of its
products, Le Coq Sportif estimates to have gained in quality and uniqueness.
Comment: These two elements are related to Made-in-France and quality products
“Now, we control from the inside our R&D, which allows us to differentiate from
competitors », executives say. As many companies that back-shored, the brand is proud of
having shorten its production time, with positive consequence on its flexibility.
Comment: Quote from the executives talking about the reason why the company back-shored
79
Creation of 15 new jobs
Two advantages that the firm is likely to put forward next year. Indeed, the group plans from
now on to reinstall for the first time a production unit in France, still in Romilly-sur-Seine.
This new plant, which should be operational at the beginning of year 2012, is going to
manufacture the brand’s high-standard ranges. 15 new positions are likely to be created.
Comment: The article mentioned the investment prospects made by the company and the jobs
created.
The firm benefitted from this shift in positioning. In the green from 2009, the brand had
recorded in 2010 a turnover of 89.8 million euros, 8% higher compared to the previous year.
Even if Le Coq Sportif remains a small players in the sport equipment manufacturing
industry, compared to the giants Nike, Adidas or Puma, Airesis highlights that its market
share in the shoe industry in France is rising: last year, it increase from 6% to 9%.
Appendix9
Pearson correlation (only positive correlations are taken into account)
80
Appendix10
Overall publication of articles about back-shoring per year.
81
Appendix11
Top 20 words mentioned in the overall articles
Note:
-
The word “China” (mentioned 411 times) did not surprise us, since half of the
companies most mentioned back-shored from China (Appendix12b). This shows that China –
“the world factory” – is the most cited country for outsourcing by Media.
-
In addition, the word outsourcing (410 times) is logically in the top 20, since back-
shoring often results from a non-efficient outsourcing strategy (Catherine Mercier-Suissa,
2011).
82
Appendix12
12a. Top 10 companies mentioned within the articles.
83
12b. Table with full details
Appendix13
Media analysis with structured observations, connotations and nodes.
Through double-coding, we assigned a connotation to each node, either positive, negative or neutral.
We first disclose the observations, then a table synthesizing the nodes’ connotation.
Note: Our observations were implemented within several tables during our analysis, however the
current format of this thesis did not allow us to keep those boards. Therefore, we divided the
structure in two, with on one side, the observations for each node and on the other side a board with
figures related to nodes.
84
13.1 Observations :
Reasons for Back-shoring:
-France has specific advantages in terms of infrastructure and productivity.
-Back-shoring decisions are mostly process-centered.
-Flexibility and reactivity are new requests from the market.
-Companies are disappointed by the outcome of the outsourcing process.
“Among the frequent causes of failure of back-shoring, might include:
- A failure of management (absence of strategy)
- Negligence in evaluating cost
- Inexperience in managing offshore teams "
Ratgemini (2010) Compétitivité ou aveu d'échec ? La relocalisation, Ratgemini. Available
at http://ratgemini.wordpress.com/2010/04/06/competitivite-ou-aveu-dechec-la-relocalisation/
“The quality of services and hidden costs are at the origin of the phenomenon (back-shoring).
Stassi, F (2011) Délocalisations, off-shoring : la fin de l'eldorado, Economie et société. Available at
http://www.economieetsociete.com/Delocalisations-offshoring-la-fin-de-l-eldorado_a725.html
Investment prospects :
-The investment prospect provide various observations: how big is the factory (in square meter), jobs
created and amount of money invested.
-The back-shoring companies spend a large amount of money for an automation process.
"The sporting goods company (the Coq Sportif) began its return to Aube in September 2010. The
implementation of a new production unit is scheduled for its part in early 2012 with the manufacture
of high quality collections.”
Azimut,A (2011) Relocalisation, une amorce timide mais réelle des industriels du sport,
Azimut.fr Available at http://www.azimut-innovation.fr/blog/2011/08/relocalisation-une-amorcetimide-mais-reelle-des-industriels-du-sport/
“For Decathlon it is an investment of 10 million euros. The goal is to relocate the shoes’ production.
The site produces only 300,000 pairs a year, on a total of 3.7 million in 2007. "
85
Visseyrias, M (2008) Les chaussures de Decathlon prennent pieds a Lille, Le Figaro.
Available at http://www.lefigaro.fr/societes-francaises/2008/04/29/04010-20080429ARTFIG00331les-chaussures-de-decathlon-prennent-pied-a-lille-.php
Background :
-The former outsourcing strategy of back-shoring companies were justified by economical trouble.
-Back-shoring in France is considered as a « happy-end » for the companies (positively connoted).
“Founded in 1907 by Abel Rossignol, carpenter passionate about skiing, the company had suffered a
severe restructuring after its acquisition in July 2005 by the American Quicksilver, which sold it three
years later. "
The new boss Bruno Cercley, supported by the Australian funds Macquarie and the american Jarden
Corporation, chooses the preservation of the industrial tools "
24Heures (2011) Après sa relocalisation, Rossignol remonte la pente, 24heures. Available at
http://archives.24heures.ch/actu/economie/relocalisation-rossignol-remonte-pente-2011-12-12
"Atol has back-shored its production from the China to the foothills of the Jura, in Morbier, historic
capital of eyewear. "
Lion V (2007) Atol relocalise, L 'express. Available at http://www.lexpress.fr/informations/atolrelocalise_678210.html
Outsourcing phenomenon :
-Outsourcing is not considered as a massive phenomenon.
-Outsourcing is perceived as something negative for working condition in both emerging countries
and developed economy.
-Back-shoring phenomenon does not reflect outsourcing in terms of impact on the society.
"Outsourcing more or outsourcing less? In 2001, Georges Lustigman, CEO of La Mascotte knitting
workshops didn’t see any other choice to resist the arrival of Chinese textiles sold up to ten times
cheaper than its own. "
Journal du net (2008) Le textile chinois fait revenir La Mascotte de Roumanie, Le journal du net.
86
Available at http://www.journaldunet.com/economie/tendances/entreprises-qui-relocalisent/1-lamascotte.shtml(2008)
"Offshoring slow down for three years,notices Mark Gladys, Phone Marketing President. The reason?
Offshoring has shown its limits. It increases the French political and social pressure. "
Talmon V (2011) Les adeptes de la relocalisation, blog. Available at http://blog-economique-etsocial.blogspot.se/2011/05/les-adeptes-de-la-relocalisation.html
Comments: General observations
The comments were not especially framed in a particular way within the text. However, we noticed
that not all the articles have comments.
Executives comments
-The executives of companies are focused on problems they had with foreign subcontractors : delay,
communication.
-reactivity and flexibility are specific advantages when back-shoring to France.
-Sustainable development is not mentioned by executives while Made-in-France is taken into
account by executives for a back-shoring decision.
" It’s easier to adapt the production tool in Europe than in Asian factories. ”The argument was raised
by Mimmo Salerno, Director of Rossignol Sallanches "
Gouzik,A (2011) Nicolas Sarkozy ambassadeur du savoir-faire français chez Rossignol, Usine nouvelle.
Available at http://www.usinenouvelle.com/article/nicolas-sarkozy-ambassadeur-du-savoir-fairefrancais-chez-rossignol.N164750
“The savings, done on transport and customs make it just 10% cheaper than produce in France,
"Stephane Nitenberg says, the Aston general Director “
Bianchi, F (2011) Le Made-in-France tente le non-alimentaire, Isa. Available at http://www.lsaconso.fr/le-made-in-france-tente-le-non-alimentaire,120434
Experts comments :
-The back-shoring phenomenon is considered by experts as a marginal phenomenon.
87
-Back-shoring companies realized that not every units of business should be outsourced (business
units linked to high quality product should remain in France).
-The gap in terms of cost saving is decreasing between emerging economy and developed economy.
"For a company that back-shore, other dozen leave the territory," El Mouhoub says, professor at
Paris-Dauphine and author of "Mondialisation et délocalisation des entreprises" (La Découverte).
(2011) Pourquoi les entreprises commencent à relocaliser, Capital. Available at
http://www.capital.fr/carriere-management/actualites/pourquoi-les-entreprises-commencent-arelocaliser-567599
"The Back-shoring in France remains too marginal" Olivier Bouba-Olga, conferences reader at the
Faculty of Poitiers and professor at Sciences-Po.
(2010) Les relocalisations en France restent très marginales, L'expansion. Available at
http://lexpansion.lexpress.fr/economie/les-relocalisations-en-france-restent-tresmarginales_240934.html
Political comments :
-Politics are discussing Made-in-France and not back-shoring in itself.
-Political quotes are either from the right or the left wings (positively connoted).
-Politics want to increase attractiveness of France.
-Politics support back-shoring at both regional and national level (positively connoted).
"My aim is to make the Made-in-France the focus of industrial policy," explained Christian Estrosi”
Villeroy S, (2010) Les limites de la relocalisation en France, France soir. Available at :
http://www.francesoir.fr/pratique/emploi/limites-relocalisation-en-france-58842.html
"In the actual economy, every job counts!" notes Eric Vuillemin, mayor, who participated to the tune
of 700,000 euros to renovate the site for the company. "
88
Bartnik,M (2011), Le coq sportif innove en France, Le Figaro. Available at
http://www.lefigaro.fr/societes/2011/08/12/04015-20110812ARTFIG00397-coq-sportif-innove-enfrance.php
Politics and social
This part has revealed almost no correlation (within Pearson correlation system with back-shoring in
itself (categories perception of the phenomenon ).
Employment issue:
-Few jobs are created through back-shoring (negatively connoted).
-Jobs created by back-shoring do not match former jobs destroyed after an outsourcing (negatively
connoted).
-A back-shoring company does not necessarily create jobs (negatively connoted).
-Jobs created by subcontractors are also taken into account, back-shoring companies do not create
only direct employment.
"The local authorities in Orléans paid 28,000 euros in economic aid in return for creating 110 jobs.
Only half of these jobs have been created. The municipality could seek reimbursement of this
amount. "
France info (2010) Après être revenu en France, la société Risc groupe se délocalise de nouveau,
France info. Available at http://www.franceinfo.fr/france-social-2010-05-19-apres-etre-revenue-enfrance-la-societe-risc-group-se-delocalise-de-443632-9-44.html
"In Sallanches, the announcement of back-shoring is a powerful symbol. Even though everyone
knows that the consideration in terms of jobs is very low. "
Géraud, A, Rossignol quitte Taiwan et revient au nid (2010), Libération. Available at
http://www.liberation.fr/economie/01012299612-rossignol-quitte-taiwan-et-revient-au-nid
89
Political intervention :
-The political intervention is not pushing companies toward a back-shoring strategy (negatively
connoted).
-companies can have subvention under the conditions to invest a certain amount of money and
creating at least 25 jobs.
-The subventions from the state are non-adapted solutions that company may use to have financial
support without long-term perspective (negatively connoted).
-Made-in-France is considered as a core value that should be protected.
"The aid granting to support research and development is only interesting if it permits the creation of
new jobs. In this case, there is a certain logic to back-shore, including for industrial itself. "
Assemblée nationale (2011) Mission d’information sur la compétitivité de l’économie
française et le financement de la protection sociale, Assemblée-nationale.fr. Available at
http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/13/cr-micompetitivite/10-11/c1011008.asp
Made-in-France concept :
-Back-shoring companies take advantage of the French Know-how in some particular field like
cosmetic.
-The Made-in-France marketing approach from companies focus on higher quality standard.
-Brand image is affected positively by a production Made-in-France (positively connoted).
-The customers are sensible to Made-in-France label (positively connoted).
"The trend of" Made-in-France "comes back with full force, as consumers are increasingly aware that
buying local preserves the planet and jobs close to their home. "
Guillem,A (2009) Et si on relocalisait les entreprises parties à l'étranger ? , Rue 89. Available
at http://www.rue89.com/passage-a-lacte/2009/08/14/et-si-on-relocalisait-les-entreprises-parties-aletranger
90
"Meccano invests in the "Made-in-France" and we hope that consumers will appreciate this
approach."
Môme de terre(2010) Meccano relocalise, môme-de-terre,com. Available at http://blog.momes-deterre.com/post/2010/12/13/Meccano-relocalise
Reasons for outsourcing:
-Labor cost in France is too high especially for highly requiring workforce industry like call center.
-Companies are near shoring to gain in term of cost of transportation and time delivery, but these
companies invest in low-wages countries like Turkey and not in France (negatively connoted).
-France remains uncompetitive in particular fields like textile and call center services (negatively
connoted).
"The Maghreb cities, for their geographical and linguistic proximity, are actually preferred for call
centers. "
Stassi, F (2011) Délocalisations, off-shoring : la fin de l'eldorado, Economie et société. Available at
http://www.economieetsociete.com/Delocalisations-offshoring-la-fin-de-l-eldorado_a725.html
"Jeanneau company, manufacturer of high-quality boats, decides to outsource 30% of its production
in Poland, due to the labor cost, eight times lower. "
Bouba-Olga (2007) histoire de relocalisation, blog. Available at http://obouba.overblog.com/article-5541065.html
Ecological issue :
-Pollution is related to long-distance transportation .
-Ecology and employment are related to sustainable development of the economy.
-A limited ecological impact can be a strategic choice for companies.
91
Apart from the social aspect, the environmental consideration is not absent since buying "local" also
permits to reduce pollution within the life cycle of products.
Amiel, O (2011) Nos emplettes sont nos emplois, blog. Available at: http://www.olivieramiel.fr/article-nos-emplettes-sont-nos-emplois-2-87406126.html
"The company at that time in full lifting, places itself on sustainable development. From this
perspective, Back-shoring the production is clearly relevant: it is a CO2 saving, and a social progress
for the company's employees who see their jobs secured. "
Bartnik, M (2011) Majencia préfère dépenser en salaires plutôt que en pétrole, Le Figaro available at
http://www.lefigaro.fr/societes/2011/08/04/04015-20110804ARTFIG00543-majencia-preferedepenser-en-salaires-plutot-qu-en-petrole.php
Protectionism talks:
-Politics are discussing legal rules to push companies to produce in France (negatively connoted).
-Important political talks about protectionism since Made-in-France is a sensible issue.
-Protectionism in France creates political tension with foreign countries (not compatible with
European Union rules)(negatively connoted).
"She (Marine Le Pen, French politician actor) declared that she was" convinced that France is not
bound to become a giant brownfield ", arguing for an" economic patriotism ", support for small and
medium enterprises (SMEs) and further protectionism. "
Achetons français (2012) patriotisme économique : que disent les principaux candidats,
Achetons-Français.fr . Available at http://achetons-francais.net/2012-patriotisme-economiqueque-disent-les-principaux-candidats
Perception of the phenomenon
In this part, the way Media describe the phenomenon had been coded.
Small phenomenon:
-Few enthusiasm from the executives for a back-shoring strategy (negatively connoted).
92
-Few jobs created and few companies concerned by back-shoring (negatively connoted).
-Articles discussing the back-shoring phenomenon are shared between an hopeless phenomenon
and an interesting trend.
"The phenomenon seems to reach already its limits when the government launched in August, an
assistance plan for back-shoring companies."
Villeroy S (2010) , Les limites de la relocalisation, France soir. Available at
http://www.francesoir.fr/pratique/emploi/limites-relocalisation-en-france-58842.html
Potential growth of the phenomenon:
-Interesting phenomenon but remain more a symbol.
-Back-shoring is a new phenomenon that was not existing some years ago (positively connoted).
-Back-shoring is a growing phenomenon (positively connoted).
"For the symbol, the back-shoring process is interesting. "
France implementation (2009) Les relocalisations, France-implementation.fr . Available at
http://www.france-implantation-entreprises.fr/idees-orientations-nouvelles/les-relocalisations/
"Examples of French companies leaving Asia and Eastern Europe to return in France are increasing.
The group Parisot furniture and Decathlon have already taken the plunge. "
Le Parisien (2009) Des entreprises n'hésitent plus à se relocaliser en France, Le Parisien. Available at
http://www.leparisien.fr/une/des-entreprises-n-hesitent-plus-a-se-relocaliser-en-france-11-02-2009406693.php
Partial back-shoring :
-Most of the companies back-shoring keep simple task in emerging economy.
-Almost all the companies are making a partial back-shoring which mean that few companies are
making a complete back-shoring.
-Back-shoring activities are related to high-quality product or strategic specific advantage for the
company.
93
"If production is largely carried out in Portugal, the group is established with the support of the
mayor, a development center for its textile lines in September 2010"
Bartnik,M (2011), Le coq sportif innove en France, Le Figaro. Available at
http://www.lefigaro.fr/societes/2011/08/12/04015-20110812ARTFIG00397-coq-sportif-innove-enfrance.php
Over-communication:
-Journalists are considered as responsible for over-communicating on back-shoring (negatively
connoted).
-Journalists and politics' interest for back-shoring companies can be used as a marketing strategy by
companies (negatively connoted).
- Back-shoring is perceived as a trend supported by journalists and politics (negatively connoted).
"So therefore, even if they are over-publicized, traditional back-shoring should slow down. "
Jego, Y (2012) Délocalisation et relocalisation, blog. Available at
http://yvesjego.typepad.com/la_fabrique_sociale/2012/02/d%C3%A9localisation-etrelocalisation.html
94
13.2 Table of synthesis
Most frequent
number of nodes nodes (in%)
percentage of
nodes on the
overall set of
articles (150
articles)
category
nodes
connotation
context
Reasons for back-shoring
neutral
124
14,44%
82.67%
context
Investment prospects
neutral
63
7,33%
42.00%
context
Background
rather positive
45
5,24%
30.00%
context
Discussion about outsourcing
phenomenon
neutral
45
5,24%
30.00%
comments
Executives' comments
neutral
93
10,83%
62.00%
comments
Experts comments
neutral
33
3,84%
22.00%
comments
Political comment
rather positive
28
3,26%
18.67%
social and political
issues
Employment issues
rather negative
117
13,62%
78.00%
social and political
issues
Political intervention
rather negative
69
8,03%
46,67
social and political
issues
Made-in-France concept
rather postive
73
8,50%
48.67%
social and political
issues
Reasons for outsourcing
rather negative
22
2,56%
14.67%
social and political
issues
Ecological issues
neutral
19
2,21%
12.67%
social and political
issues
Protectionism talks
rather negative
22
2,56%
14.67%
perception of the
phenomenon
Small phenomenon
rather negative
48
5,59%
32.00%
Potential growth of back-shoring rather positive
24
2,79%
16.00%
Partial back-shoring
neutral
24
2,79%
16,00%
Over-communication
rather negative
10
1,16%
6.67%
859
100,00%
perception of the
phenomenon
perception of the
phenomenon
perception of the
phenomenon
total
95
TV coding (overall 40 articles)
category
nodes
connotation
context
Reasons for back-shoring
neutral
38
context
Investment prospects
neutral
25
context
Background
neutral
11
context
Discussion about outsourcing
phenomenon
negative
comments
Executives' comments
neutral
34
comments
Experts comments
neutral
5
comments
Political comment
neutral
7
social and political
issues
Employment issues
negative
29
social and political
issues
Political intervention
neutral
9
social and political
issues
Made-in-France concept
positive
24
social and political
issues
Reasons for outsourcing
neutral
6
social and political
issues
Ecological issues
neutral
3
social and political
issues
Protectionism talks
neutral
8
perception of the
phenomenon
"Small phenomenon"
negative
16
perception of the
phenomenon
Potential growth of backshoring
positive
5
perception of the
phenomenon
Partial back-shoring
neutral
8
Over-communication
negative
perception of the
phenomenon
total
nodes
8
1
237
96
context
Investment prospects
neutral
30
context
Background
neutral
25
context
Discussion about outsourcing
phenomenon
negative
22
comments
Executives' comments
negative
47
comments
Experts comments
neutral
19
comments
Political comment
neutral
11
social and political
issues
Employment issues
neutral
67
social and political
issues
Political intervention
neutral
44
social and political
issues
Made-in-France concept
positive
35
social and political
issues
Reasons for outsourcing
neutral
12
social and political
issues
Ecological issues
neutral
10
social and political
issues
Protectionism talks
negative
11
perception of the
phenomenon
"Small phenomenon"
negative
22
perception of the
phenomenon
Potential growth of backshoring
positive
12
perception of the
phenomenon
Partial back-shoring
neutral
12
Over-communication
negative
7
406
perception of the
phenomenon
total
97
radio (overall 10 articles)
category
nodes
connotation
context
Reasons for back-shoring
neutral
8
context
Investment prospects
neutral
6
context
Background
positive
3
context
Discussion about outsourcing
phenomenon
neutral
6
comments
Executives' comments
neutral
4
comments
Experts comments
negative
7
comments
Political comment
neutral
6
social and political
issues
Employment issues
negative
6
social and political
issues
Political intervention
negative
6
social and political
issues
Made-in-France concept
positive
5
social and political
issues
Reasons for outsourcing
neutral
2
social and political
issues
Ecological issues
neutral
1
social and political
issues
Protectionism talks
neutral
1
perception of the
phenomenon
"Small phenomenon"
negative
8
perception of the
phenomenon
Potential growth of backshoring
positive
4
perception of the
phenomenon
Partial back-shoring
neutral
2
Over-communication
not coded
perception of the
phenomenon
total
nodes
0
75
98
blogs (overall 30 articles)
category
nodes
connotation
nodes
context
Reasons for back-shoring
neutral
11
context
Investment prospects
neutral
2
context
Background
neutral
2
context
Discussion about outsourcing
phenomenon
negative
8
comments
Executives' comments
neutral
7
comments
Experts comments
neutral
2
comments
Political comment
neutral
4
social and political
issues
Employment issues
negative
11
social and political
issues
Political intervention
neutral
10
social and political
issues
Made-in-France concept
positive
9
social and political
issues
Reasons for outsourcing
neutral
2
social and political
issues
Ecological issues
neutral
10
social and political
issues
Protectionism talks
neutral
2
perception of the
phenomenon
"Small phenomenon"
negative
2
perception of the
phenomenon
Potential growth of backshoring
positive
3
perception of the
phenomenon
Partial back-shoring
neutral
2
perception of the
phenomenon
Over-communication
negative
2
99
Appendix14
Categories and nodes used for Media analysis.
Categories
Context
Context
Context
Context
Comments
Comments
Comments
Social and political issues
Social and political issues
Social and political issues
Social and political issues
Social and political issues
Social and political issues
Perception of the phenomenon
Perception of the phenomenon
Perception of the phenomenon
Perception of the phenomenon
Themes
Reasons for back-shoring
Investment prospects
Background
Discussion about outsourcing phenomenon
Executives' comments
Experts comments
Political comment
Employment issues
Political intervention
Made-in-France concept
Reasons for outsourcing
Ecological issues
Protectionism talks
"Small phenomenon"
Potential growth of back-shoring
Partial back-shoring
Over-communication
Appendix15
Nodes per category
100
Appendix16
Appendix17
Order of the questions in the survey: We ensured to set the questions so that people
would not be influenced by a potential inference in thinking (for example, asking question 1
may lead to interpret question 2 in another way). To do so, the order of questions did not
respect the order of hypotheses, which could have induced people to a particular answer. In
addition, we did not abruptly asked a question to get the answer to the point they wanted (for
example: do you believe that politics can influence people); we preferred to design the survey
so that people could provide the same answer without being conscious to answering this
particular question.
As a limitation, we are conscious that this would make the interpretation of results
more difficult; however, we chose to favor this rather than being able to interpret an answer
that would have been biased, and would not have brought any reliable feedback on what
people really perceive.
101
17.1 Questionnaire translated into English, with link to studied dimension and
potential biases
Question
Suggested answers
Studied dimension
1) What is your gender?
Male/Female
Cross-tabulation and
statistics (Attribute)
2) How old are you?
Rating
Cross-tabulation and
statistics (Attribute)
3) What is your
professional status
Single choice list:
Cross-tabulation and
statistics (Attribute)
-
-
Potential biases
Other
Executive
Entrepreneur
Student
Civil-servant
Worker
Retraité
Employee
4) Which department do
you come from?
Rating
Cross-tabulation and
statistics (Attribute)
The person may live more
in one department than in
another (for example:
students)
5) Do you follow
economic news?
Yes/No
Cross-tabulation and
statistics (Attribute)
The appreciation is
difficult to assess. In order
to have a clear trend, a
binary answer is preferred
to a scale
Hypothesis 1
6) Are you in favor or
back-shoring?
Yes/No
Hypothesis 1
7) Have you previously
heard about the
phenomenon of
backshoring?
Yes/No
Cross-tabulation and
statistics (Attribute)
8) What do you associate
relocation with?
OPEN QUESTION
Hypothesis 3
In order to avoid lack of
information, or influence
from too many
information, we place this
question in the middle of
the questionnaire
9) By which type of
channel have you heard
about back-shoring?
Multiple choice list
Preliminary hypothesis
In order not to mislead
people regarding
newspapers, we
distinguished web and
written ones.
Same bias
Hypothesis 1
-
Blog
Web newspapers
Written newspapers
Television/Radio
Friends
Family
Professional relations
102
10) Which actor do you
think predominantly
communicate on this
phenomenon?
Single choice list:
-
Territorial
collectivities and
government
Medias
Companies
themselves
Preliminary hypothesis
Hypothesis 1
Hypothesis 4
Since Media may appear
as top of mind, it should
be placed in the middle of
the questionnaire
11) a. Do you know at
least one company having
back-shored?
Yes/No
Hypothesis 1
11) b. If yes, which one?
OPEN QUESTION
Hypothesis 1
We should not induce
anyone to provide a
particular answer
12) Back-shoring is more
concerned with goods or
services-related
companies?
Single choice list:
Hypothesis 1
We voluntarily set a
binary choice in order to
understand the perception
of the phenomenon, not
for an accurate
representation
13) Do you think
companies relocating
back to France are
carrying a
Single choice list:
Hypothesis 1
.We voluntarily set a
binary choice in order to
understand the perception
of the phenomenon, not
for an accurate
representation
-
-
Goods
Services
Complete backsourcing
Part back-sourcing
.We are also aware of the
potential bias of this
question, which may
orientate people to choose
a part back-sourcing
14) Companies relocating
back to France allow for
the creation of
15) Why would
companies relocate back
to France?
-
Mainly direct jobs
inside the company
- Mainly indirect jobs
- Both
- Few jobs created in
both cases
Multiple choice list:
-
Quality of the
production
“Made-in-France”
attribute
Time-to-delivery
performances
Local or government
financial helps
Problems met in the
country where the
company had
previously
delocalized
Hypothesis 3
Hypothesis 2
Hypothesis 4
The purpose of this
answer is to understand
which connotation do
consumers have. Multiple
interpretations can be
drawn from the answers.
We decided to restrict and
close the number of
reasons to 6 factors in
order to compromise
between the quality of the
answer and the potential
omission bias.
103
-
16) Do you think this
phenomenon is more
important at the:
Single choice list
-
The answers were based
on both theory and
empirical findings.
Cost cutting
Hypothesis 3
National level
Local level
Important in both
cases
Not important in
either case
17) Do you link the
phenomenon with the
Made-In-France label?
Yes/No
Hypothesis 2
We set this question at the
end in order to influence
as little as possible the
other questions. By this,
we make the assumption
that the respondents will
treat the questionnaire in a
linear way.
18) Price being equal,
would you prefer to buy a
product manufactured by
Single choice list
Hypothesis 2
We set this question at the
end in order to influence
as little as possible the
other questions. By this,
we make the assumption
that the respondents will
treat the questionnaire in a
linear way.
-
Company having
back sourced
Company that never
outsourced
Not important
Furthermore, we are
aware of the bias that such
a question may have,
especially when coming
after the previous
questions like on job
creation.
19) Do you think that
political actors should
- Financially support backshoring
Hypothesis 4
- Politically support backshoring
The context of the
political campaign may
bias the answer of the
respondents.
- Do nothing
20) Do you think that
there is overcommunication on this
subject?
Yes/No
Hypothesis 4
104
17.2 Questionnaire in French, as sent to people
Question
Suggested answers
1) Quel est votre genre?
Homme/Femme
2) Quel âge avez-vous?
Echelle
3) Quel est votre status professionnel?
Liste à choix unique:
-
Autre
Cadre
Entrepreneur
Etudiant
Fonctionnaire
Ouvrier
Retraité
Salarié
4) Quel est votre department d’origine ?
Echelle
5) Suivez-vous l’actualité économique?
Oui/Non
6) Êtes-vous en faveur des relocalisations?
Oui/Non
7) Avez-vous déjà entendu parler des relocalisations?
Oui/Non
8) A quoi associez-vous le phénomène des
relocalisations?
QUESTION OUVERTE
9) Comment avez-vous entendu parler des
relocalisations?
Liste à choix multiple
-
10) Qui pensez-vous est principalement à l’origine de la
communication?
Blog
Journaux internet
Presse écrite
Television/Radio
Amis
Famille
Relations professionnelles
Liste à choix unique:
-
Collectivités territoriales
Média
Les entreprises elles-mêmes
11) a. Connaissez-vous au moins une entreprise ayant
relocalisé?
Oui/Non
11) b. Si oui, laquelle?
QUESTION OUVERTE
12) Associez-vous le phénomène des relocalisations
plutôt à des entreprises de biens ou de services ?
Liste à choix unique:
-
13) Pensez-vous que les entreprises relocalisent plutôt de
manière partielle ou complète ?
14) Quel type d’emploi permettent de recréer les
Entreprises de biens
Entreprises de services
Liste à choix unique:
-
Relocalisation complète
Relocalisation partielle
Principalement des emplois directs dans
105
entreprises relocalisant en France?
l’entreprise
Principalement des emplois indirects
Les deux
Peu d’emplois créés dans les deux cas
Liste à choix multiple:
-
15) Pour quelles raisons pensez-vous que les entreprises
relocalisent?
-
16) A quelle échelle les entreprises relocalisantes ontelles le plus d’impact?
Qualité
Attribut “Made-in-France”
Performances réactivité, délais de livraison
Aides financières locales ou gouvernementales
Problèmes rencontrés dans le pays de
délocalisation
- Réduction des coûts
Liste à choix unique:
-
Nationale
Locale
Important dans les deux cas
Négligeable dans les deux cas
17) Associez-vous les relocalisations avec le label Madein-France?
Oui/Non
18) A prix égal, achèteriez-vous plutôt un produit ou
service en provenance de…:
Liste à choix unique
-
19) Pensez-vous que les politiques devraient… :
Entreprise ayant relocalisé
Entreprise n’ayant jamais délocalisé
Sans importance
Liste à choix unique:
- Supporter financièrement les entreprises
- Soutenir politiquement les entreprises
- Ne rien faire
20) Pensez-vous que l’on communique trop sur le sujet?
Oui/Non
106
Appendix18
Extracted from SPSS
Representativeness for AGE
Graphical analysis
107
108
Data Summary for Age
Bootstrap Specifications
Sampling
Method
Simple
Number of
Samples
1000
Confidence
1,0
Interval
Level
Confidence
Percentile
Interval Type
Descriptive Statistics
Bootstrapa
95% Confidence Interval
Age Age:
Statistic
457
N
Range
81
Minimum
18
Maximum
99
Mean
Valid N
(listwise)
38,64
Std. Error
,751
Bias
0
Std. Error
0
Lower
457
Upper
457
,00
,73
37,25
40,05
Std.
Deviation
16,050
-,012
,500
15,092
17,037
Variance
257,607
-,148
16,081
227,770
290,276
-,001
,103
,450
,862
0
0
457
457
Skewness
,647
N
457
,114
DATA VALIDITY FOR AGE
Bootstrap Specifications
Sampling
Method
Number of
Samples
Simple
1000
Confidence
1,0
Interval
Level
Confidence
Percentile
Interval Type
109
Statistics
Age Age:
Bootstrapa
95% Confidence Interval
N
Valid
Missing
Statistic
457
Bias
Std. Error
0
0
Lower
457
Upper
457
0
0
0
0
0
Mean
38,64
,04
,75
37,26
40,17
Median
36,00
-,36
1,75
32,03
39,00
Mode
21
Std. Deviation
16,050
-,022
,481
15,077
17,026
257,607
-,475
15,432
227,325
289,899
Skewness
,647
-,010
,107
,429
,857
Std. Error of Skewness
,114
Variance
Range
81
Minimum
18
Maximum
99
Percentiles
10
21,00
-,11
,32
20,00
21,00
20
23,00
,11
,51
22,00
24,00
30
25,00
,22
,54
24,00
26,00
40
29,00
,31
1,18
27,00
32,00
50
36,00
-,36
1,75
32,03
39,00
60
42,00
,14
1,35
40,00
46,00
70
49,00
-,15
1,34
46,00
51,00
80
54,00
-,18
1,11
52,00
55,40
90
61,20
-,31
1,42
58,00
63,00
110
Representativeness for PROFESSIONAL STATUS
Graphical analysis
Professional status data summary
Bootstrap Specifications
Sampling
Method
Stratified
Number of
Samples
1000
Confidence
1,0
Interval
Level
Confidence
Percentile
Interval Type
Strata
Variables
Age:
Statistics
What is your professional status?
Bootstrapa
95% Confidence Interval
N
Valid
Missing
Statistic
457
0
Bias
0
Std. Error
0
Lower
457
Upper
457
0
0
0
0
111
What is your professional status?
Valid
Bootstrap for Percenta
95% Confidence
Interval
Cumulative
Std.
Percent
Bias
Error
Lower
Upper
9,4
,0
1,2
7,0
11,8
Frequency
43
Percent
9,4
Valid Percent
9,4
Executives
14
3,1
3,1
12,5
,0
,7
1,8
4,6
Entrepreneur
16
3,5
3,5
16,0
,0
,8
2,0
5,0
118
25,8
25,8
41,8
,0
,8
24,1
27,4
Civil servant
59
12,9
12,9
54,7
,0
1,3
10,1
15,5
Worker
47
10,3
10,3
65,0
,0
1,3
7,9
13,1
Retired
53
11,6
11,6
76,6
,0
,6
10,5
12,9
Employed
107
23,4
23,4
100,0
,0
1,6
20,6
26,7
Total
457
100,0
100,0
,0
,0
100,0
100,0
Other
Student
Statistics
What is your professional status?
N
Valid
Missing
457
0
What is your professional status?
Valid
Frequency
43
Percent
9,4
Valid
Percent
9,4
Cumulative
Percent
9,4
Executives
14
3,1
3,1
12,5
Entrepreneur
16
3,5
3,5
16,0
118
25,8
25,8
41,8
Civil servant
59
12,9
12,9
54,7
Worker
47
10,3
10,3
65,0
Retired
53
11,6
11,6
76,6
Employed
107
23,4
23,4
100,0
Total
457
100,0
100,0
Other
Student
112
Representativeness per DEPARTMENT
Graphical analysis
Data summary
Statistics
What is the numero of the Department (district) you are living
in?
N
Valid
457
Missing
0
What is the numero of the Department (district) you are living in?
01-Ain
1
,2
,2
Cumulative
Percent
,2
02-Aisne
2
,4
,4
,7
06-AlpesMaritimes
2
,4
,4
1,1
13-Bouchesdu-Rhone
2
,4
,4
1,5
14-Calvados
1
,2
,2
1,8
Frequency
Valid
Valid
Percent
Percent
113
16-Charente
1
,2
,2
2,0
18-Cher
1
,2
,2
2,2
21-Cote d'or
2
,4
,4
2,6
22-Cote
d'armor
4
,9
,9
3,5
27-Eure
1
,2
,2
3,7
29-Finistere
3
,7
,7
4,4
29-Finistère
2
,4
,4
4,8
31-HauteGaronne
4
,9
,9
5,7
33-Gironde
7
1,5
1,5
7,2
34-Herault
1
,2
,2
7,4
35-Ille-etVilaine
13
2,8
2,8
10,3
41-Loir-etCher
1
,2
,2
10,5
44-LoireAtlantique
17
3,7
3,7
14,2
45-Loiret
1
,2
,2
14,4
47-Lot-etGaronne
1
,2
,2
14,7
47
10,3
10,3
24,9
50-Manche
1
,2
,2
25,2
51-Marne
3
,7
,7
25,8
53-Mayenne
90
19,7
19,7
45,5
54-Meurtheet-Moselle
62
13,6
13,6
59,1
55-Meuse
1
,2
,2
59,3
56-Morbihan
4
,9
,9
60,2
57-Moselle
20
4,4
4,4
64,6
59-Nord
94
20,6
20,6
85,1
60-Oise
1
,2
,2
85,3
61-Orne
3
,7
,7
86,0
62-Pas-deCalais
5
1,1
1,1
87,1
64PyrénéesAtlantiques
64-Pyrénés
Atlantiques
1
,2
,2
87,3
4
,9
,9
88,2
66PyrénéesOrientales
69-Rhone
1
,2
,2
88,4
10
2,2
2,2
90,6
72-Sarthe
4
,9
,9
91,5
73-Savoie
1
,2
,2
91,7
74-HauteSavoie
1
,2
,2
91,9
49-Maine-etLoire
114
75-Paris
10
2,2
2,2
94,1
77-Seine-etMarne
1
,2
,2
94,3
78-Yvelines
8
1,8
1,8
96,1
80-Somme
1
,2
,2
96,3
83-Var
1
,2
,2
96,5
85-Vendee
2
,4
,4
96,9
86-Vienne
2
,4
,4
97,4
92-Hauts-deSeine
6
1,3
1,3
98,7
93-SeineSaint-Denis
2
,4
,4
99,1
94-Val-deMarne
1
,2
,2
99,3
95-Vald'Oise
2
,4
,4
99,8
974-La
Reunion
1
,2
,2
100,0
457
100,0
100,0
Total
Appendix19
Region One
(From North to
South)
Nord
Moselle
Meurthe-et-Moselle
Region Two
(From North to
South)
(From Left to Right)
Mayenne
Loire Atlantique
Maine-et-Loire
115
Appendix20
Graph’s translation from French to English is provided under each of them, after the mention “note”.
Question 5: Do you follow economic news
Statistics
Do you follow economic
news?
No
94
21%
Yes
363
79%
Total
457
Question 6: Do you have a favorable opinion about back-shoring?
Yes
No
3%
97%
116
Do you have a favorable
opinion about backshoring?
Yes
97%
No
3%
Total
100%
Question 7: Have you previously heard about the back-shoring phenomenon?
Statistics
Have you previously heard about the backshoring phenomenon?
No
86
Yes
371
Total
457
117
Question 7 cross-tabulated by “have you previously heard about the phenomenon of back-shoring?”
have you
previously
heard about the
phenomenon of
back-shoring?
Statistics
Non
Yes
Total
No
33
53
86
Yes
61
310
371
Total
94
363
457
Have you previously heard about the
phenomenon of back-shoring?
Cross-tabulated with « do you follow
economic news? »
Avez-vous entendu parler des
relocalisations?
Non
Yes
Total
No
35,11%
14,60%
18,82%
Yes
64,89%
85,40%
81,18%
94
363
457
Total
118
Question 8: What do you associate back-shoring phenomenon with?
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Item
Frequency
Companies
50%
Employment
21%
Other
reasons
15%
Economy
8%
Local
7%
Question 9: Through which media have you heard about back-shoring?
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
Medium
Answers
Frequency
119
Blog
19
2%
Written
newspapers
145
18%
Web newspapers
195
24%
Television
280
34%
Friends
44
5%
Family
55
7%
Professional
relations
80
10%
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
Written press
TV and Radio
Word-of-mouth
Note:
-
Written press = Blog + Written newspapers + Web newspapers
Word-of-mouth = Family + friends + professional relations
Medium type
Answers
Frequency
Written press
359
44%
TV and Radio
280
34%
Word-ofmouth
179
22%
120
Question 9 filtered by region
100
Blog (yes)
Web newspapers (yes)
80
Journaux papier (yes)
60
TV (yes)
40
Friends (Yes)
20
Family (yes)
Professional relations (yes)
0
Pays de la Loire
Region
Web
newspapers
Blog
Pays de la Loire
Nord-Est
Nord-Est
Written
newspapers
TV/Radio
Friends
Family
Professional
relations
5
39
54
92
16
17
23
10
58
68
98
12
21
21
150
Press
100
Mass Media
Word-of-mouth
50
0
Pays de la Loire
Region
Press
Nord-Est
Word-ofmouth
Media
Pays de la
Loire
98
92
56
Nord-Est
136
98
54
121
Question 9 filtered by gender
160
Blog (yes)
140
Web newspapers (yes)
120
Journaux papier (yes)
100
80
TV (yes)
60
Friends (Yes)
40
Family (yes)
20
Professional relations (yes)
0
Femme
No/Yes
Female
Homme
Web
newspapers
Blog
Written
newspapers
TV/Radio
Friends
Family Professional
relations
3
42
79
133
17
24
38
Male
16
103
116
147
27
31
42
TOTAL
19
145
195
280
44
55
80
122
250
200
Press
150
Mass Media
Word-of-mouth
100
50
0
Femme
Homme
Note:
No/Yes
Femme = Female
Homme = Male
Press
Word-ofmouth
Media
Female
124
133
79
Male
235
147
100
123
Question 10: Which actor do you think predominantly communicate on backshoring?
Note:
-
Les collectivités territoriales ou gouvernement = Government institutions or government
Les entreprises elles-mêmes = Companies themselves
Médias = Media
Statistics
Which actor do you
think predominantly
communicate on backshoring?
Government institutions or government
96
21%
Companies themselves
90
20%
Media
271
59%
Total
457
124
Question 11)a: Do you know any company having back-shored?
Statistics
Do you know any company
having back-shored?
Non
346
0,757111597
Yes
111
0,242888403
Total
457
125
Question 11)b: if yes, which one?
Top 6 top-of-mind back-shored companies
top 6 top-of-mind back-shored companies
Frequency (out of 106 answers)
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
Rossignol
Renault
Atol
Décathlon
Smobby
22%
12%
10%
8%
4%
Série1
Full list
Companies
Survey
Geneviève
Lethu
3%
Frequency
Rossignol
23
22%
Renault
13
12%
Atol
11
10%
Décathlon
9
8%
Smobby
4
4%
Geneviève Lethu
3
3%
Chantal Thomas
3
3%
Vuitton
3
3%
Fiat
2
2%
GYS
2
2%
Lejaby
2
2%
126
SEB
2
2%
Electrolux
2
2%
Alcatel
1
1%
Amora
1
1%
Aqua Production
1
1%
Arcelor Mittal
1
1%
Archos
1
1%
Citroen
1
1%
Etam
1
1%
Gantois
1
1%
Gruau
1
1%
La Mascotte
1
1%
Labadis
1
1%
Le Coq Sportif
1
1%
Maille
1
1%
Majencia
1
1%
Moulinex
1
1%
Nathan
1
1%
Olympia
1
1%
PSA
1
1%
Samas
1
1%
Toyota
1
1%
La redoute
1
1%
Pergent
1
1%
Salomon
1
1%
Packard Bell
1
1%
127
Michelin
1
1%
Orange
1
1%
Gaz de France
1
1%
Question 12: Back-shoring is more concerned with goods or services-related
companies?
Note:
-
Entreprises de services = companies providing services
Entreprises de biens = companies providing goods
Statistics
Companies providing goods
Companies providing services
Total
Back-shoring is more concerned
with goods or services-related
companies?
363
94
457
128
Question 12 cross-tabulated with “Do you know companies having back-shored?”
Back-shoring is more concerned with goods or
services-related companies?
Cross-tabulated with
“Do you know
companies having
back-shored?”
Non
Companies providing goods
Companies providing services
Total
Yes
Total
271
92
363
75
19
94
346
111
457
129
Question 13: Do you think companies relocating back to France are carrying a
complete or partial back-shoring?
Statistics
Complete back-shoring
Do you think companies relocating
back to France are carrying a
complete or partial back-shoring?
63
Partial back-shoring
394
Total
457
130
Question 13 cross-tabulated by “Do you follow economic news”?
Do you think
companies
relocating back to
France are carrying
a complete or
partial backshoring?
cross-tabulated by “Do
you follow economic
news”?
Statistics
Non
Yes
Total
Complete backshoring
10
53
63
Partial back-shoring
84
310
394
Total
94
363
457
Statistics
Non
Yes
Total
Complete backshoring
11%
15%
63
Partial back-shoring
89%
85%
394
94
363
457
Total
131
Question 13 cross-tabulated by “Have you previously heard about the back-shoring phenomenon”?
Do you think
companies
relocating back to
France are carrying
a complete or
partial backshoring?
Cross-tabulated by
“Have you previously
heard about the backshoring phenomenon”?
Statistics
Non
Complete backshoring
Yes
Total
7
56
63
Partial back-shoring
79
315
394
Total
86
371
457
Statistics
Complete backshoring
Partial back-shoring
Total
Non
Yes
Total
8%
15%
63
92%
85%
394
86
371
457
132
Question 14: Companies relocating back to France allow for the creation of which
type of job?
Statistics
Companies relocating
back to France allow
for the creation of
which type of job?
Both
185
40,48%
Mainly direct jobs inside the company
117
25,60%
54
11,82%
Very few jobs created in both cases
101
22,10%
Total
457
Mainly indirect jobs
133
Question 14 cross-tabulated by professional status
Note:
-
-
Professional status
o Autre = other
o Cadre = executive
o Etudiant = student
o Fonctionnaire = civil servant
o Ouvrier = worker
o Retraité = retired people
o Salarié = employee
Answers of the question
o Les deux = both
o Principalement des emplois directs au sein de l’entreprise = Mainly direct jobs inside
the company
o Principalement des emplois indirects = Mainly indirect jobs
o Très peu d’emplois créés dans les deux cas = Very few job created in both cases
134
Companies relocating back to France allow for
the creation of which type of job?
Cross-tabulated by
professional status
Statistics
Other
Executive
Entrepreneur Student
Both
11
8
7
49
Mainly direct jobs inside the company
16
1
4
28
2
2
3
17
Very few jobs created in both cases
14
3
2
24
Total
43
14
16
118
Mainly indirect jobs
Question 15: Why do you think companies would back-shore to France?
Why do you think companies back-shored to
France?
Qualité
MIF
Délais livraison
Aides gouv
Problèmes
Coûts
TOTAL
Note:
-
Qualité = Quality
MIF = Made-in-France
Délais de livraison = Delivery time
Aides gouv = Government help
Problèmes = Problems
Coûts = Costs
135
Factors
Frequency
Quality
26%
Made-inFrance
19%
Problems
18%
Delivery
time
16%
Government
help
15%
Costs
6%
Question 15 filtered by region
120
Qualité
100
MIF
80
Délais livraison
60
Aides gouv
40
Problèmes
20
Coûts
0
Pays de la Loire
Nord-Est
Note:
-
Qualité = Quality
MIF = Made-in-France
Délais de livraison = Delivery time
Aides gouv = Government help
Problèmes = Problems
Coûts = Costs
136
MadeinDelivery
Government
Region
Quality France time
help
Problems
Costs
Pays de la Loire
100
73
67
55
67
Nord-Est
107
92
62
72
89
Region
Pays de la Loire
Nord-Est
MadeinDelivery
Government
Quality France time
help
Problems
Costs
26%
19%
18%
15%
18%
24%
21%
14%
16%
20%
TOTAL
16
24
378
446
TOTAL
4%
5%
Table for all departments
Department
(district)
01-Ain
02-Aisne
06-AlpesMaritimes
13-Bouches-duRhone
14-Calvados
16-Charente
18-Cher
21-Cote d'or
22-Cote d'armor
27-Eure
29-Finistere
29-Finistère
31-HauteGaronne
33-Gironde
34-Herault
35-Ille-et-Vilaine
41-Loir-et-Cher
44-LoireAtlantique
45-Loiret
47-Lot-etGaronne
49-Maine-etLoire
MadeinDelivery
Government
Quality France time
help
Problems
Costs
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
2
0
0
1
2
3
1
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
2
0
0
1
0
1
0
2
0
2
1
1
0
1
0
2
1
0
1
2
2
1
0
1
2
2
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
4
6
0
7
1
2
4
1
6
0
1
1
0
8
0
1
3
0
6
1
0
5
0
8
1
2
1
0
3
0
14
1
8
0
7
1
7
0
11
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
37
25
20
19
22
7
137
1
1
50-Manche
51-Marne
53-Mayenne
54-Meurthe-etMoselle
55-Meuse
56-Morbihan
57-Moselle
59-Nord
60-Oise
61-Orne
62-Pas-de-Calais
64-PyrénéesAtlantiques
64-Pyrénés
Atlantiques
66-PyrénéesOrientales
69-Rhone
72-Sarthe
73-Savoie
74-Haute-Savoie
75-Paris
77-Seine-etMarne
78-Yvelines
80-Somme
83-Var
85-Vendee
86-Vienne
92-Hauts-deSeine
93-Seine-SaintDenis
94-Val-de-Marne
95-Val-d'Oise
974-La Reunion
1
2
63
1
1
48
0
1
47
1
1
36
0
1
45
0
1
9
36
0
3
14
57
1
1
4
36
1
1
14
42
0
2
1
34
0
3
5
23
1
3
3
27
1
0
6
39
0
0
1
38
1
2
15
36
0
2
1
7
0
1
1
16
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
3
2
3
2
2
0
1
5
4
0
1
8
0
7
1
1
0
5
1
5
2
1
1
8
1
7
3
1
0
1
0
4
4
0
1
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
6
1
1
2
2
0
5
1
0
2
2
1
3
1
1
0
0
0
4
0
0
1
0
1
2
0
1
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
2
2
4
1
1
1
2
1
0
0
1
1
2
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
138
Question 15 filtered by gender
200
Qualité
150
MIF
Délais livraison
100
Aides gouv
Problèmes
50
Coûts
0
Femme
Gender
Femme
Homme
Total
Quality
Gender
Femme
Homme
Total
Quality
Homme
Made-inDelivery
Government
France
time
help
Problems
Costs
144
122
82
83
105
167
111
116
100
127
311
233
198
183
232
26
31
57
Made-inDelivery
Government
France
time
help
Problems
Costs
46%
52%
41%
45%
45%
46%
54%
48%
59%
55%
55%
54%
1
1
1
1
1
1
139
Question 16: Do you think this phenomenon is more important at which level:
Note:
-
Important dans les deux cas = Important in both cases
Locale = Locally
National = Nationally
Négigeable dans les deux cas = Negligible in both cases
Statistics
Important in both cases
Locally
Do you think
this
phenomenon
is more
important at
which level
118
99
Nationally
114
Negligible in both cases
126
Total
457
140
Comparison important/negligible:
both
case/important
35,65%
local/important
29,91%
national/important
34,44%
Negligible
27,57%
Question 16 cross-tabulated by “do you follow economic news?”
Do you think this
phenomenon is more
important at which level
Cross-tabulated by “do
you follow economic
news?”
Statistics
Non
Yes
Total
Important in both cases
20
98
118
Locally
24
75
99
Nationally
27
87
114
Negligible in both cases
23
103
126
Total
94
363
457
141
Do you think this
phenomenon is more
important at which level
Statistics
Non
Yes
Total
Important in both cases
21%
27%
118
Locally
26%
21%
99
Nationally
29%
24%
114
Negligible in both cases
24%
28%
126
1
1
457
Total
Question 16 cross-tabulated by “have you previously heard about the back-shoring phenomenon”?
Do you think this
phenomenon is more
important at which level
Cross-tabulated by
“have you previously
heard about the backshoring phenomenon”?
Statistics
Non
Yes
Total
Important in both cases
20
98
118
Locally
26
73
99
Nationally
20
94
114
Negligible in both cases
20
106
126
Total
86
371
457
142
Do you think this
phenomenon is more
important at which level
Cross-tabulated by
“have you previously
heard about the backshoring phenomenon”?
Statistics
Non
Yes
Total
Important in both cases
23%
26%
118
Locally
30%
20%
99
Nationally
23%
25%
114
Negligible in both cases
23%
29%
126
1
1
457
Total
Question 16 filtered by region
Important dans les deux cas
45
39
32
38
Pays de la loire
Locale
Nationale
Négligeable dans les deux cas
43
40
37
56
Nord-Est
143
Pays de la
loire
Job creation
Nord-Est
Important in both cases
38
56
Locally
32
37
Nationally
39
40
Neglibible in both cases
45
43
154
176
Meaningful
70,78%
75,57%
Negligible
29,22%
24,43%
Meaningful = Important in both cases + locally + nationally
Question 17: Do you link the phenomenon with the Made-In-France label?
Statistics
Do you link the phenomenon with the MadeIn-France label?
Non
137
Yes
320
Total
457
144
Question 17 cross-tabulated by professional status
Do you link it with Made-in-France?
90,00%
80,00%
70,00%
60,00%
50,00%
40,00%
30,00%
20,00%
10,00%
0,00%
Yes
Note on professional status:
-
Autre = other
Cadre = executive
Etudiant = student
Fonctionnaire = civil servant
Ouvrier = worker
Retraité = retired people
Salarié = employee
145
Statistics
Other
Executives Entrepreneur
Student
Civil servant
Worker
Retired
Empl.
Non
14
4
3
43
11
18
14
30
Yes
29
10
13
75
48
29
39
77
Total
43
14
16
118
59
47
53
107
Statistics
Other
Executives Entrepreneur
Student
Civil servant
Worker
Retired
No
32,56%
28,57%
18,75%
36,44%
18,64%
38,30%
26,42% 28,04%
Yes
67,44%
71,43%
81,25%
63,56%
81,36%
61,70%
73,58% 71,96%
Question 17 cross-tabulated by region
Do you link it with Made-in-France?
80,00%
75,00%
70,00%
Yes
65,00%
60,00%
55,00%
50,00%
Pays de la Loire
Made-inFrance
Pays de la
Loire
Nord-Est
Nord-Est
No
49
54
Yes
105
122
TOTAL
154
176
146
Empl.
Made-inFrance
Pays de la
Loire
Nord-Est
No
31,82%
30,68%
Yes
68,18%
69,32%
Question 18: Price being equal, would you prefer to buy a product manufactured
by…?
Note:
-
Entreprise ayant relocalisé = company that back-shored
Entreprise n’ayant pas relocalisé = company that did not back-shore
Jamais partie = company that never outsourced
Sans importance = not important
147
Statistics
Price being equal, would you prefer to
buy a product manufactured by…?
company that back-shored
183
40%
company that did not back-shore
11
2%
company that never outsourced
188
41%
75
16%
not important
Total
457
Question 19: Do you think political actors should…
Note:
-
Encourager les relocalisations = politically support back-shoring
Ne rien faire = do nothing
Supporter financièrement les relocalisations = financially support back-shoring
148
Statistics
Do nothing
Financially support backshoring
Politically support backshoring
Total
Do you think that
political actors should
25
5,47%
119
26,04%
313
68,49%
457
Question 20: Do you think that there is over-communication on this subject?
Statistics
No
Yes
Total
Do you think that there
is over-communication
on this subject?
35
8%
422
92%
457
149
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