Washington Apple Pi Journal, February 1986

$ 2 50
Wa/hington Apple Pi
The Journal of Washington Apple Pi, Ltd.
Volume.. 8
Februar lLl1986
number 2 Hiahliahtl
- Best (III) Picks in '86
Quad Thermometer
'EXCEL'ing With Your Mac
HFS Follies
New Apple Announcements
In This Issue... Officers & Staff, Editorial •• • ••
President's Corner
• Tom Warrick
Event Queue, General Information
New Meeting Format • • • • • •
WAP Calendar, SigNews •
WAP Hotline .
• Adrien Youell
December Meet ing Report • • •
Peter Combes
••• • ••
WAP Bulletin Board Systems.
• • •• ••
Q & A • ••
• •• • • ••• • • Bruce F. Field
Classifieds, Commercial Classifieds, Job Mart ••
Letter to the Editor ••
• •
• • • •••
The Best (III) Picks in '86 • • • David Ottal i ni
GAMESIG News ••• • • • • • • • • Barry Bedrick
Enchanted Scepters:A Review • • • Barry & Ben Bedrick
Mindwheel : A Review . .
••• • • Steven Payne
Steven Payne
Playing "Time Zone"
Beryl Swarztrauber
Wildnerness: A Review
Baron: A Review . • • • • • • • • Chris Klugewicz
Gemstone Warrior : A Review • •• Thomas Johnston
Wizardry Transfer •• • ••• Nicholas G. Carter
80-Column Card & Wizardry •• ••• Steven Pearce
Amy T. Billingsley
Apple Teas
• •
Oldware Has Its Place • • • • • • • Jack Mortimer
••• Jack Mo r timer
Where to Put Your Computer
Quad Thermometer •••
• • • • Tom Riley
"Print Using" for Forth . ••
• Chester H. Page
• • • • Barry Fox
Program Selector Review .
Pascal & Modula-2 Implementations . Robert C. Platt
Oavid Morganstein
The View From Durham • • ••
• Chris Klugewicz
Frede r ick Apple Core
• •
• •
Mac i ntosh & Scientific Environment.Lynn R. Trusal
Macintosh in the News, Etc . •
Lynn R. Trusal
The New Mac - Is It an NBI? ••
Lynn R. Trusal
Book Reviews •• • •
Robert C. Platt
Computer Mail as Entertainment •• Bro . Tom Sawyer
Mac Q & A .
• • • • • •• • Jonathan E. Hardis
OverVUE 2. 0: Problem & Solution • • James J . Derhaag
MacNovice • • • •
• • Ralph J. Begleiter
'EXCEL'ing With Your Mac ••• David Morganstein
Excel Power: Manipulating Cells . .
Tom Warrick
HFS Follies
• • • • • • • Tom Warrick
Review Corner .
• James M. Burger
The Confessions of a Lurker . .
••• Zorro
Musements • • • • • • • • ••
• • • Fred Seelig
Disketeria Dispatch . • • • •
• Jim Little
Apple Mac+ and LaswerWriter+ Announcements •• 67Di sketeria Order Form .
Tutorial Registration , Ad Index , Author Index ••
For info rmat ion on j Oi nin g WA P, see "Gen eral Informat io n", page 5.
25 "
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Washington Apple Pi
February 1986
Clinton Computer -­
Here to Stay and Stronger than Ever
Word from Our President
We want to thank the Washington Apple Pi members
because so many of you shop at ClilltOIl Computer. This
has helped to make 1985 our most successful year ever! This is
important to both of us, especially since 1985 was a "shake out"
year in our industry. You can count on us to be here when you
need us!
In 1986 we will work with your new Dealer Relations
Committee to discuss ways we can better serve your needs. I am
a member of Apple's Dealer Council where I am a strong
advocate of users' groups and consumers' concerns. If you have
issues you would like me to address, please write.
Art Lundquist, President
Clinton Computer
2500 School Installations!
During 1985, Clinton Computer installed an amazing 2500
Apple computers in local area schools! Ginny Stange, a former
teacher, is Clinton Computer's education'll specialist and is
recognized area-wide as an expert in computer-assisted
We are the designated dealer for five Maryland counties -­
Montgomery, Prince George's, Calvert, Charles, and St. Mary's
-- and for four Virginia juri.~dictions -- Alexandria City, and
Arlington, Fairfax, and Prince William Counties. We have also
installed computers in a large number of private and parochial
schools -- including those of the Washington Archdiocese.
Free Desktop Publishing Seminars
"The Quickest Route from Rough to Ready!"
An Apple desktop publi~hing system puts control in your
hands, money in your procket, time on you calendar and quality
within everyone's reach.
All you need is a Macintosh™ personal computer, a
LaserWriter™ printer, and any of a wide variety of software
Get that crisp typeset look in minutes instead of hours -- or
days. And create illustrations, even if you're not artistically
This page, for inslance, was created using l\lacWrite™ and
MacDraw™. All of the advertisements we prepare and use in the
U'lLI'hington Post and other local newspapers and magazines are
prepared in-house with MacDraw -- in camera-ready form. (This
has not made our former ad agency very happy.... ) But it has
given us the flexibility to make last-minute changes and still
meet our deadlines with professional-quality presentations -- a
necessity in this fast-moving industry!
To help you discover what Madntosh Desktop Publishing
could do for your business, \\e are sponsoring a series of Free
Semi liars at our Alexandria, VA Store. Please call 838-9700
for information and registration.
Is AppleCare
a Good Buy?
Have you wondered if an extended warranty on your Apple
computer is a good buy or not? Eric McCullough, shop
foreman of our Service Department, has put together some
figures that illustrate just how good a bargain AppleCare can be.
If, for instance, your /Ie's main logic board needs
replacement, the total cost is $134.40. If the power supply
fails, the total is $125.76. A keyboard replacement is $130.80.
On the other hand, a full year of AppleCare lists for only $60
and covers all costs to fix any or all of the above. In addition, as
an Apple Pi member you receive a 25% discount on the cost of
the AppleCare and pay only $45! Similar savings can also be
illustrated for other Apple product~.
For further information, please call Joan Okeefe at
(301)856-2500. (P.S. Clinton Computer provides AppleCare
services to more customers than any other Apple dealer in the
Specials for Pi Members
List Price Pi Member Prien
Apple Color Monitor lie
Apple lie 256K Memory Exp.
Apple Personal Modem**
Unidisk 3.5, lie and IIc··
Apple Hard Disk 20 for Mac
ImageWriter 11**
Sheet Feeder for ImageWriter 11
··P-8 Cable, required for **
Through the Looking Glass
(for Macintosh)
BPI Software (in stock only)
As f..1arked
PFS Software (in stock only) As Marked
• CLhVTON COMl'ln1;"/~ is pleased 10 offer Washington IIppi .. Pi
members a 25% D1SCOU.NT OFF HIE LIST PRICE on all Apple
brarui peripherals and software and on AppleCare. Discount is
available 10 persons who have been Pi members for al least 3
monthf. Discount applies to cash and certified check purchases
of Apple peripherals Qflll software (no CPU's) Q/Ill may nal be
applied relroaclively. If producl is nol in .~tock. we can take
your prepaid order. Pi members need to present their ID cards
up·front. Discount cannot be used in combination with olher
promolions. Members slImlld primarily utilize Ihe Pi nClwork of
experts for ofler·sole sUl'porl. No "hom! or 1n.lil orders. please.
. ComputC!r
Clinton, MD, 6443 Old Alex. Ferry Road (301 )856-2500
Alexandria, VA, 277 S. Washington St. (703)838-9700
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
'oard of Directors
CP/M Librarian
- Tom Warrick
DOS 3.3 Lib.
301 656-4389
Pascal Lib.
Vice Pres-Pr~ams - Adrien Youell
301 951-0838
Vice Pres-SI
- Bruce Field
ProOOS Lib.
301 340-7038
SigMac Lib.
- Edward Mb:srson
703 759-5479
- Peter Com
Group Purchases
301 251-6369
- J.T. (Tom) DeMay Jr
301 779-4632
Head Reading Lib.
301 490-7484
• Ra~ond Hobbs
Apple Tea Coord. - Bo Platt
806 353-9723
- Leon Raesly
301 460-0754
Bulletm Board Cpr.
202 244-3649
- Jat Thal
Dealer ReI. Comm.
- Jo n V9glewede
301 460-3047
• Rich Wasserstrom
Past President
• David Morganstein
l 972
General Counsel • Bernie Urban
301 229-3458
-4263 Head Software Libr.- Jim Little
301 762-3215
Office Managers - Gena & Bernie Urban 301 654-8060 Journal Staff: Associate Editor
Public elations
- Gena Urban
pOl~ 229·3458
Store Distrbtn.
- Raymond Hobbs
301 490-7484
Apple 11/
- Charlene Ryan
703 836-0463 DisabledSlG
- Jay Thal
02 244-3649
Volunteer Coord.
- peter Combes
301 251-6369
SIG Chairmen:
- B~ Bedrick
703 534-7891
- John Day
301 621-7543
Apple 11/
- Ralph Begleiter
301 340-3296
Pascal (pIG)
• MiKe Hartman
301 445-1583 - Bruce Field
301 340-7038 2:&A
- Jonathan Hardis
301 330-1422 Meeting Reports - Adrien Youell
301 951-0838
- David Morganstein
301 972-4263
Forth SIG
- Dave Harvey
703 527·2704
Review Coord.
Frederick Slice
- Jim Burger
(day) 202 337-7900
Review Coord.
- Raymona Hobbs
301 490-7484
~Review Coord.
- David Morganstein
301 972-4263
UBBS - ~ple
- :::Alexandei301 474-5310
UBBS - ac
• Regina Litman
Pie Ala Mode Slice
301 585-0044
View from Durham- Chris Klugewicz
Disketeria Staff:
- Jim Little
(301) 762·3215
~ac Prog. Grp.
- Dave Weike~ohn Malcolm, J~ Aso,
Pascal (pIG)
- Ed LanofMPat reman. Gordon tubbs,
- John
area Fred Edwards. Andy
- GallantAllen Krlam Shirley Weaver
Telecomm. SIG
- Nancy ittle. Rich Langston IT
Washington Apple Pi, Ltd. 8227 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 201 Bethesda. MD 20814 Business Office (301) 654-8060 Copyright 1986, Washington Apple Pi. Ltd.
- Joe England
(301) 953-1949
- John !)yer
- J.T. (Tom~May Jr. 301 779-4632
- Tony An
301 277-0386
- Ricti Wasserstrom • 03 893-7143
·~venings 7:00-9:30, M- ~
- Walt rancis
(202) 66-5742
- Leon Moore
- Leon Raesly
- John Alden
- Jim Burger
- Rich Wasserstrom
- Jim Bur~er
- Dana Sc wartz
- John Alden
• Hunter Alexander
- Leon Raesly
- Oscar Kramer
- George Sall
- Steve Stem
- Ted Metter
• Sue Ro
- Ian Thal
- David Ottalini &
- Bill Rosenmund
- Chuck Holzwarth
• Charles Franklin
- Jay Thal
- Peter Combes
• Kevin Nealon
- Maj. ~n Trusal
- Ronal Wartow
- John Weld
- John Day
- Tom KrOll
- Don Landing
• Timoth~ Buehrer
- Bernie enson
• I..arry Taborek
- Ra~nd Hobbs
• George Kinal
6-2642 686-1656 337·7900
Users Groups are in at Apple for the moment, and
hopefully for a long time. The 1986 Apple World conference
in San Francisco strongly conveyed that impression. There
were many participants from many different disciplines inter·
mingling for the purpose of generating a team spirit that
should perpetuate the success of Apple, which John Sculley
likes "to be considered the alternative technology corporation".
Dealers, developers, VARs (Valued Added Resalers), corp­
orate accounts, educators, and user groups, Apple Canada and
Apple Japan, were all represented and had ready access to
Apple staff, up to and including Jean-Louis Gassee, John
'-'Sculley and .... of course. the Woz. Based upon words from
these three and many others, Apple is seriously pursuing
means for improved communications with and support of
users groups.
Washington Apple Pi What will come of this for you? Several things. A
published 800 number for identifying the users group nearest
you, guest speakers from Apple at our meetings, improved
relations between dealers and users groups, access to Apple's
extensive stores of product and technical information by
means of Apple Link, and greater availability of Apple's
technical staff at the regional level. '" And the prospects for
more. Monthly conferencing, perhaps.
Assistance from
Apple in obtaining 501c3 status, and in choosing a video
projector. Reference manuals, special course materials. and
.... Let's give Apple and especially Ellen Leanse, the Apple
Users Group Evangelist, a chance.
See pages 67 through 70 in this issue for the latest Apple
information on the new Mac+ and LaserWriter+. Look for a
complete report by our President and others next month. C!D
February 1986
by Tom Warrick
WAP's semi-annual "garage sale" in December was a big
success. We had record attendance, as we have had each
succeeding year, and everyone seemed to have a good time
amidst all the tables, bartering and general confusion. Several
things stand out, though, that are worthy of note. I'm not
talking about the fact that our editor, Bernie Urban, bought a
drill press (yes, a drill press). It's what people were and were
not seIling this year.
Offerings at WAP's garage sales provide an interesting
barometer on the supply side of the aftermarket. High-demand
products never appear, or at least not in numbers. You saw
no copies of "Excel" or "Word Perfect" But you do get a
good idea about what people no longer have a use for.
Surely the year's most-sold item, hardware or software,
was the California Computer Systems 7710 serial card for the
Apple II family. Now, there is nothing wrong with this card-­
it's quite adequate for many purposes. But in the last two
years we have seen the emergence of the Apple Super Serial
Card and its workalikes as the standard in serial cards. Prior to
this time, there was no clear standard among serial cards, and
even the Super Serial Card, Apple's own model, did not have
pre-eminence. The Super Serial Card has its strengths, but-­
speaking realistically--are power and ease of use among them?
Graphics screen dumps? Switch quickly from printer to
modem? And the manual hasn't been revised in years. The
reason for the Super Serial Card's rise is the ImageWriter
printer. Sales of the ImageWriter, which is good enough to
compete in the aftermarket in its own right, have driven
parallel printer card manufacturers almost underground
compared to the visibility tlley had when Epson was king in
tlle Apple printer world. Once the Super Serial Card got a
push from the ImageWriter, it took off. Other serial card
manufacturers tllen wanted "Super Serial Card compatability"
and you know the rest.
The second interesting hardware note was tlle absence of
people selling Apple ][ systems. Last year I believe there
were perhaps half a dozen people selling their )['s; most had
purchased Macintoshes, or were about to. This year I don't
recall seeing more than one or two full systems for sale, and
at least one of those was a Franklin. I would like to believe
this is due to the renaissance of tlle Apple II, thanks to the
new products that Apple and others--particularly Applied
Engineering--have come out witll in the last year or so.
There's life in in Woz's dream yet.
On the software side, there were the usual games one
expects: how many times can you solve "Temple of Apshai"?
It was interesting to note that tllere were quite a few more
word processors for sale tllis year than last--but did you see
any copies of AppleWorks for sale?
The other interesting software note was the many offerings
of Macintosh programs released in 1984, the Mac's first year.
I believe I saw more copies of "1st Base" tllan any other
serious Mac program. Early Mac programming languages
were also out in force--but not, interestingly, Microsoft
BASIC. Did anyone at the garage sale actually sell a copy of
"Mac Advantage: UCSD Pascal"?
Two other trends manifested themselves this year. First,
fewer people had weird accessories they were trying to unload.
(Kevin Nealon was tllere trying to sell a few of his mother's
mouse covers, however.) Second, fewer people were selling
off books and magazines than in years past. This could be due
to tlle realization tllat nobody really wants to buy two-year old
copies of Creative Computing, but it could also be due to
the changes in people's magazine reading tastes. Although
some good magazines have died in the last few years (Sof­
talk, for example), many of the otllers that folded were, well,
unlamented. The computer book market has likewise gone
through an upheaval in 1985, witll publishers printing fewer
and fewer titles. This means, perhaps, that only the better
titles got published. If this is a trend, let's hope it continues.
WAP's next garage sale will be in June. If you are a com­
puter garage sale addict, let me put in an unsolicited plug for
NovApple, which will sponsor semi-annual garage sales three
months out of phase with WAP. The next one will be in
March. Contact Dave Harvey or Mike Ungerman, both of
whom are on the WAP BBS Committee, for more infor­
Excel SIG: WAP is starting an Excel Special Interest
Group. David Morganstein, WAP's immediate past president
and author of the popular "Softviews" column, has agreed to
chair it Watch the Journal for announcements of meetings of
Excel SIG.
The Apple Hard Disk 20 for Macintosh: I took
the plunge and bought an Apple Hard Disk 20 for my
Macintosh. Some of my adventures are recorded elsewhere in
this issue, but there were several unheralded updates that got
lost in the shunle. The Image Writer II printer driver
is now out. There is also a little "v2.0" in the lower right
comer of the print dialog box. The most obvious change is
tllat the paper options "Continuous" and "Cut Sheet" have
been replaced by "Automatic" and "Hand Feed" to take account
of the new Apple sheet feeder. Incidentally, sheet feeders have
to be the most troublesome part of office computer printers.
My brotller, who works as a systems programmer in the word
processing group of a multinational computer company (not
IBM) tells tlle story of a supervisor who pronounced the long
"e" in "sheet feeder" as if it were a short "i". (Pronounce it to
yourself and see why I don't spell it out for you.) This, he
says, is an accurate pronunciation. From preliminary com­
ments I've heard, it appears tllat Apple's sheet feeder is better
than many but not perfect. Expect to have some trouble with
heavy bond stationery.
Also on the Startup disk that comes with the HD20 is
Font/DA Mover 2.5. I have not noticed any differences
with 2.5 as opposed to 2.4, but neither have I tried to use 2.4
with the HD20.
Finally, an unsolicited testimonial: I bought Through
the Looking Gloss, Steve Capps' fabulous game tllat
many of you have seen under the narne "Alice," at Clinton 1"'"""\
Computer for the unbelievably low price of $9.95. If you
have any money left over from Christmas, be sure to pick this
up. It'll drive you mad as a hatter.
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
Washington Apple Pi meets on the 4th Saturday (usually)
'-6f each month, both Apple and Mac. Library transactions,
Journal pickup, memberships, etc. are from 9:00-9:30 AM
and during the Q& A sessions (times for these vary according
to the main meeting topic). The business meeting is from
10:30 to 11:00.
A sign interpreter and reserved seating can be provided for
the hearing impaired, but we need 5 business days notice.
Call the office.
Following are dates and topics for upcoming months:
February 22 - SwyftCard for the Apple /Ie
- Tax Preparation for the Macintosh
March 22 - Dvorak Keyboard for Apple /I and Mac
26 - Education for Apple /I
- Spreadsheet Comparison for Mac
24 - Apple /I open
- Hierarchical File System for the Mac
- Garage Sale
The Executive Board of Washington Apple Pi meets on
the second Wednesday of each month at 7:30 PM at the office.
All members are welcome to attend. (Sometimes an alternate
date is selected. Call the office for any late changes.)
Fast Relief for IBM Sticker Shock by Bud St61ker
Here's good news if you're shopping for an IBM PC-compatible compu­
ter: you can now buy more machine than you eXJlf.Icted to get-for less
money than you expected to pay.
You can, in fact, have your PC custom-tailored to your requirements,
from sollware right down to the circuit board- and chip-level, at a price
less than that of an off-the-shelf PC. And your machine will be not only
cheaper; it will be better.
I can design for you an IBM PCIXT-compatible that adheres fully to IBM
hardware and sollware standards, yet enhances those standards in
ways that do not interfere with conventional operation or future expan­
Your generic version of the IBM PCIXT will come with each component
individually selected for cost-effectiveness, and tested for performance
and quality. My PC's are better systems dollar-for-dollar than any other
IBM clone you'll find .
General Information
, -,
Apple user groups may reprint without prior permission
any portion of the contents herein, provided proper author,
title and publication credits are given.
Membership dues for Washington Apple Pi are $27.00
for the f1l'St year and $20.00 per year thereafter, beginning in
the month joined. If you would like to join, please call the
club office or write to the office address. A membership
application will be mailed to you. Subscriptions to the
Washington Apple Pi Journal are not available. The Journal
is distributed as a benefit of membership.
Mailing Notice: Change of address must be postmarked
at least 30 days prior to effective date of move. Journal issues
missed due to non-receipt of change of address may be acquired
via mail for $2.50 per issue.
Current office hours are:
Monday - Friday - 10 AM to 2:30 PM
7 PM to 9:00 PM
Tues. & Thurs.
12 Noon to 3:00 PM
And now you can get as much as three megabytes offree programs with
the computer! Included is sollware for word processing, project, data
base, and spreadsheet management, investment analysis, telecom­
munications, graphics for design, charting, and advertising, a Sidekick­
like notepad and alarm clock, and even an array of video games. Hard
disk systems have all sollware properly installed and linked by appro­
priate custom help screens.
Prices start at $1240 for a fully warranted, fully supported computer
with 256K RAM, two floppy disk drives, multiple serial and parallel
ports, clock/calendar, monitor, bundled sollware, and lots of room to
grow with you. Each system is customized to your requirements, and
built to the highest standards. Support includes a system analysis so
you don't buy too much or too little, extensive component testing, inte­
gration of a vast array of useful sollware you can use immediately,
personalized instrudion manual, aller-sale checkup, and my firm com­
mitment to quality and client satisfaction.
Check with me when you're ready for a PC, and let's talk about why a
custom-tailored personal computer is the best buy you can make.
Landmark Computer Laboratories Suite 1506 101 South Whiting Street Alexandria, Virginia 22304 Telephone (703) 370-2242 ~ SourceMall TCB076
mM pc, PC'XT. aM PClAT ... r.wt.t.nd '"d.....,.. of lnc.mallaaaJ B...i .... M.chl.... Cofltonllon Sid. kick ,. .
""-'at.ered 'ndema,k or Be,l.nd InL4'rnaUgnal
Washington Apple Pi
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi Schedule Meeting
Beginning In
Apple II
Apple II
.~ Q)
Apple II
Apple lie,
Apple II
Apple lie,
other SIGs
2: 00
10:30 11:00
Apple II
1: 00
12: 00
Most Future W AP Meetings:
10:30 11:00
the Journal
1: 00
12 :00
10:30 11:00
meeting on
the January
1: 00
Mac XL
Apple lie,
other SIGs
Journal Distribution and Disk Sales at All Meetings:
9:00-9:30 and During All Q&A Sessions
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
February 1986
-------- ----------- ----------- ----------- .---------­ ----------- ----------1
No SigMac
Meeting ­
see Feb. 22
----------------------------------------- .---------­
----------- ----------2
4 Applell 5
6 SigMac
Beginning Deadline
Tutorial #1 for Journal
7:3D-9:00PM Articles
of Lourdes;
7:30 Off.->
6 contd.
Tutorial '2
8PM Office;
Apple III
Ctr. Inn ->
13th contd. Templates
FAC Slice Tutorial
7:30 MRIID 9AM-Office
Ft. Detrick
----------------------------------------- --------------------- ----------9
11 Applell 12
13STOCKSIG <-Thursday 15 AW Tax
7:30 PM
------------------------------- ----------- ----------- ----------- ----------16
17 Mac Beg 18 Applell 19
Tutr. #1
7-10PH Off;
PI-SIS 8:00
PM Office
Pascal SIG
8:00 PM
Tutorial #3
22 WAP
Meeting ­
Apple II &
9:30 USUHS
--------------------------------------------------- ----------.---------­
Mac Begin.
Tutorial '2
7-10 PH
7:30 PM
March 1986
No SigMac
Meeting ­
see Mar. 22
17 Mac Beg
7-10PM Off;
PI-SIG 8:00
PM Office
Mac Begin.
Tutorial 12
7-10 PM
4 Applell 5
Beginning Deadline
Tutorial '1 for Journal
7:30-9:DOPM Articles
6 SigMac
of Lourdes;
6 contd.
7:30PM Off.
11 Applell
Tutorial 62
8PM Office;
Apple III
Ctr. Inn ->
13th contd.
FAC Slice
7:30 MRIID
7:30 PM
18 Applell 19
Tutorial 63
Pascal SIG
8:00 PM
Offi ce
7:30 PM
22 WAP
Meeting ­
Apple II &
9:30 USUHS
Apple 1/1 SIG meets on the
second Thursday of the month at 7:30
PM in the Convention Center Inn,
comer of 12th & K NW. The next
meeting will be on February 13.
Apple IIc meets each month after
the regular WAP meeting.
Appleseeds is the special interest
group for our younger members, age 9
and up. They meet during the regular
WAP meeting.
DisabledSIG meets on the fIrSt
Thursday of each month at the Chevy
Chase Community Center, 7:00 PM.
The next meeting will be on Feb 6.
EdSI G - the education special
interest group - meets on the 4th Thurs­
day of the month at the office, 7:30
PM. The next meeting will be on
February 27. See EDSIG News else­
where in this issue.
ForthSIG meets on the third Sat­
urday of the month at the office, 10:00
GameSIG meets on the fIrSt
Thursday of each month at the office,
7:30 PM. The next meeting will be on
February 6. See their news elsewhere
in this issue.
LISAlMacXL SIG meets after
the SigMac meeting on the 4th Satur­
day of the month.
PIG, the Pascal Interest Group,
meets on the third Thursday of each
month at the office, 8:00 PM. The
meeting on February 20 will be a round­
table discussion on Pascal Pro­
gramming tools. On March 20, the
topic will be Apple Pascal and Artifi­
cial Intelligence (AI) programming.
PI-SIG meets on the third Monday
of each month at the office, 8:00 PM.
SigMac meets on the 1st Thursday
of each month (programmer's meeting)
at Our Lady of Lourdes School, 7500
Pearl Street, Bethesda, MO; and on the
4th Saturday (general meeting) at
USUHS at 9:30 AM.
StockSIG meetings are on the
second Thursday of each month at the
office, 8:00 PM.
Telecom SIG meets after the
regular WAP meeting on the 4th Satur­
Washington Apple Pi
February 1986
Have a problem? The following club members have agreed to help other memben. PLEASE, keep in mind that the people listed are
VOLUNTEERS. Respect all telephone restrictions, where listed, and no calls after 10:00 PM except where indicated. Users of the
Hotline are reminded that ca1l3 regardin$ commercial software packages should be limited to those you have purchased. Please do
not call about copied software for which you have no documentation. Telephone numbers are home phones unless otherwise
specified. When requests are made to return calls, long distance will be collecl
John Day
{301} 621-7543
DB contd.- Q-Pr04
John Staples
Dave Harvey
703 527-2704
Leon Raesly
301 460-0754 Robert Marun
301 498-6074
Games - t\pple 1/
Charles Hall
301 3304052 Ron Wartow
301 6544439 Accounting. Packages
Games - Mac
Tom Vier (ABBS)
~301} 986-8085 BPI Programs
Otis Greever
301 262-5607
Jaxon Brown 301 350-3283 Home Accountant
Leon Raesly
301 460-0754
Otis Greever 301 262-5607 Howardsoft (fax)
Leon Raesly
301 460-0754
Languages (A=ApJ'_leson, I=Integer, P=Pascal, Otis Greever
301 262-5607
Bernie Benson
301 951-5294
Louis Biggie
301 967-39TI APPLE SSC
Apple TechNotes
Joe Chelena
703 978-1816
Peter ComDes 301 251-6369 AppleWorks
Jay Jones (Ball)
301 969-1990
Jeff Dillon 301 422-6458 Ken Black
703 369-3366
Richard Langston
301 869-7466 Ken DeVito
703 960-0787
Mark Pankiri 703 524-0937 Communications Packages and Modems-Telecom.
Richard Untied 609 596-8816 Anchor Mark 12
George Kinal (7-10) 202 546-n70
John Love
703 569-2294 Jeremy Parker
301 229-2578
Raymond Hobbs 301 490-7484 John Day
301 621-7543
Donn Hoffman
• 412 578-8905 APJ!le Modems
Dave Harvey
703 527-2704
Bruce Field 301 340-7038 ASCII Express
Jerem.Y Parter
301 229-2578
Fred Nacf 703 471-1479 BIZCOMP Modem
Tom Nebiker
21 867-7463
MS Basic
Ray Hobbs(7:30-10)
301 490-7484 General
Bernie Benson
301 951-5294
Matb/OR Applns.
Mart Pankin 703 524-0937 Hayes Smartmodem
Joe England (7-10)
301 953-1949
Monitor, RGB
John Day
301 621-7543 MDM
Robotics Modem
Joan B. Dunham • 301 585-0989
Operating _Systems
301 869-7466 Joan B. Dunham • 301 585-0989
Apple DOS
Richard Langston
SeriAll Comm. Card
703 569-2294 Harmon Pritchard
301 9n-4667
John Love
609 596-8816 SteVI! Wildslrom
301 564-0039
Richard Untied Visiferm
Bernie Benson
301 951-5294
Ray Hobbs (7:30-10)
301 490-7484 XTALK CP/M Comm.
301 460-0754 Leon Raesly
Computers, Specific
301 869-7466 ProDOS
Richard Langston
Apple IIc
John Day
703 569-2294 John Love
301 TI9-5714
Scott Rullman
301 621-7543
Printers John Day
202 966-5742 Walt Francis
Don Kornreich
!301 292-9225
301 460-0754 MacIntosh: Leon Raesly
SteVI! Hunt 301 262-9080
Joan B. Dunham • 301 585-0989 301 779-5714
AJ 831 series
Joe England (7-10)
301 953-1949 Scott Rullman Donald Schmitt
71 334-3265
John Day
Apple Color Plotter
301 621-7543 804 850-2016
Rob Clark
Apple Daisy Wheel
John Day
301 621-7543 Chart
Terry Monks
703 471-4610
D81sywriter 2000
Bill Etue 703 620-2103 Corom. & Modems
Steve Hunt
301 262-9080
Hel)l}' Greene 202 363-1797 Concertware
Skip Horvath
703 536-4091
IDS 460
Jeff StetekJuh 703 521-4882 Digitizers
JoAnn Stewart
703 527-4072
John Day
301 621-7543 Excel
David Morganstein
301 972-4263
Jeff Dillon 301 434-0405 File Vision
Steve Hunt
301 262-9080
NEC 8023
Bill Mark 301 779-8938 Hard Disk
David Jamison(day)
301 589-8841
Michael Proffitt 301 874-2270 Helix
Dan Robrish 301 5304202 Jim Berry
• 703 662-tJ640
Harvey Levine
301 299-9380
Phil Leber 703 378-4391 Inside Mac
Jon Irardis
301 330-1422
Bruce Field 301 340-7038 Don Landing
703 690-1010
Leon Raesly
30 I 460-0754 Lang,-C,Pascal,XLisp Carolyn Koffiada
703 691-1986
Walt FranCIS 202 966-5742 MacUraw
Tom Berilla
301 434-3256
Lotus 1-2-3
Walt Francis 202 966-5742 MacLion (DBMS)
Mark Miani
202 362-8123
Ray Hobbs(7:30-10)
301 490-7484 MacProject
Jay Lucas 703 751-3332
Terry Prudden 301 933-3065 MacTerminal
Jon Hardis 301 330-1422
Walt Francis 202 966-5742 Multiplan
John Boblitz 301 356-9384
Sprdshl 2.0(MagicCalc) Leon Raesly
301 460-0754 Don Landing
703 690-1010
SuperCaic Ver. 2.0
Leon Raesly
301 460-0754 Steve Hunt
301 262-9080
Stat. Packages
Mark Pankin 703 524-0937 Walt Francis
202 966-5742
David Morganstein
301 972-4263 MusicWorks
Skip' Horvath
703 536-4091
Stock Market
Robert WoOd 703 893-9591 OverVue
J.T.Q:om) DeMaX Jr. 301 779-4632
Dave Harvey
703 527-2704 Spreadsheets
Davul Morganstern
301 972-4263
Word Processors
WaIt Francis 202 966-5742 Spreadsheets&Graphcs Bob PuIEino
202 797-0879
Apple Writer II
Dianne Lorenz 301 530-7881 Sidekick
Ray Hoobs(7:30-10)
301 490-7484
Leon Raesly
30 I 460-0754 Word
Marty Milrod
301 464-2154
Format II
Henry Donahoe 202 298-9107 Data Bases
Neil Muncy Can.
41 298-3964 dBase II
Paul Bublitz
301 261-4124
& Jr.
Harris Silverstone
301 435-3582 John Staples
703 893-5985
Letter Perfect
Leon Raesly
301 460-0754 dBase II & III
Ray Hobbs(7:30-10)
301 490-7484
& Simply Perfect
Jim Kellock (day)
301 986-9522
Magic Window and II
Joyce C. Little
301 321-2989 Leon Raesly
301 460-0754
Peach Text
Carl Eisen
703 354-4837 DB Master
Dave Einhorn
301 593-8420
PIE Writer/A))ple PIE
Jim Graham
703 643-1848 Data Perfect
Leon Raesly
301 460-0754
Peter Combes
301 251-6369 Data Factory
Bob Schmidt
301 736-4698 E. E. Carter
202 363-2342 General Manager
Nomland Bernache
301 935-5617
Supertext II
Peter Rosden
301 229-2288 List Handler
Jon Vaupel
301 977-3054
Word Handler
Jon Vaupel
301 977-3054 PFS
Bill Etue
703 620-2103
Word Juggler lie
Carl Eisen
03 354-4837 Ginny Spevak
202 362-3887
Word Star
Joe England (7-10)
301 953-1949 QuickFile II
JJ. Finkelstein 301 652-9375
Dana Reil 301 350-3283 • Calls up until midnight are ok.
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
Adrien Youell
Thanks to Joe Fuchs' inimitable organization, at least 550
members attended the garage sale. Numbers are accurate to
plus or minus 10 based on the simple method of counting
cash! The entry fee of SI is a great way of recording attend­
ance. The error factor relates to junior family members; the
impromptu decision was not to charge children "shorter than
your waist" - the shortest fee-collecter (my daughter) was
chosen as the yardstick!
The traditional "Santa Fuchs Garage Sale" got off to an
unexpectedly early start despite the first real snow of the
winter. Vendors bedecked with goodies were setting up by
8.30, and selling between each other with considerable gusto
by 9.30. Unfortunately a few members gained early admis­
sion bearing only one or two software programs as their
'passport'. The Club may have to legislate for such border­
line antics which are unfair to the majority of members.
Please respect the policy of maximum benefit to the most, by
being a serious vendor to get in early.
The entry fee system also provided numbered tickets for
claiming numerous valuable Door Prizes donated by the Club
and Ron Wartow, among a few others. I hope the winner of
"Wizardry" enjoyed his Christmas. One unfortunate member
won a SigMac disk. but has an Apple II; he transferred it to
me for cash. Joe made the Distress Sale a joy to behold in
any auctioneer's handbook; "SIS please, no, S10 then, no, OK
~ start at SS, no, allright S3". By shear enthusiasm and skill Joe
managed to obtain $23 in this example. "Distress Sale" is for
those members who were distressed not to have sold their
wares, and some reported better prices than those originally
asked. Thank you Joe and helpers for your efforts to make
this a memorable morning.
The Business meeting was notable for Tom's announce­
ment of customised WAPi lapel pins designed to be presented
to enthusiastic volunteers and officers in recognition of hard
work on behalf of the Club. I shall treasure mine, if I am
deemed to have worked hard enough. To acclamation the first
two pins were presented to Gena and Bernie Urban.
Peter Combes
EDSIG Calendar
Thursday, February 27 at 7:30 PM
Thursday, March 27 at 7:30 PM
All EDSIG meetings are held in the Washington Apple Pi
offices at 8227 Woodmont Avenue, in Bethesda. MD.
Meeting Report There was no EDSIG meeting in December. WASHINGTON APPLE PI BULLETIN BOARD SYSTEMS
Bulletin Board Operator ...........
SYSOP Emeritus ...................
Special Consultant .................
Hard Disk Consultant .............
~rarnminlt Consultant .........
Library fllesl'rqgrammer .........
BBS Files List SYSOP ...........
Group Purchase Files SYSOP...
lndexmg Committee - Chairman.
Member ...........................
Member ...........................
Leon H. Raesly, L.C.S.W.
Tom Warrick
Barry Fox
Dave Harvey Rich Mtodoch
Mike Ungerman
Jack Mortimer Rich Wasserstrom
Emil Levine
Bonnie Walker
Jeff Berger SYSTEM 1 (986-8085) SYSOP.. Joe Chelena
Hardware, Software, General &
Lafayette Park Boards SYSOP.Joe Chelena
CP/M Board Board SYSOP ..... Joe England
dBASE II Board SYSOP ......... Nick Veloz
Apple 1/1 Board SYSOP ......... Carl Bowman
CommentsiSugs. Board SYSOP. Lee Raesly
SYSTEM 2 (986-8086) SYSOP.. Larry Haiff
MAC Hardware Softw~ &
Gossip/Misc. Boards SYSOP.. Larry Haiff
Telecomunications &
Telecom SIG Board SYSOP ... George Kinal
GameslGameSIG Board SYSOP. Ron Wartow
Washington Apple Pi
BASIC ~. Board SySOP...... Mike Ungerman
AppleWorkS Board SYSOP ...... Ken De Vito CommentslSugs. Board SYSOP. Lee Raesly
SYSTEM 3 (986-4715) SYSOP.. Mike Ungerman
Passwords Board SYSOP ......... Mike Ungerman
SYSTEM 4 (871-7978) SYSOP.. Lee Raesly
The Oassified SYSTEM - Hardware, Software,
Misc. & Employment & Pi Officers/Votun. Boards
SYSTEM 5 (890-8984) SYSOP.. Alice Allen
The Journal & Indexes SYSTEM
SYSTEM 6 (703-450-6822) SYSOP
John A. Gersic (The Manassas/Great Falls Slice SYSTEM)
Hardware Board SYSOP .......... Bruce Johnson Sftwr., Misc., Gossip SYSOP.. John A. Gersic
BBS Committee - Charirman ...... Lee Raesly
Members - Joe Chelena, Mike Ungerman, Barry Fox,
Dave Harvey,,_ ~ Halff, MartyMitred. Emil Levine,
Dave Helfric~ Joan Dunham. Tom Warrick
& YOU, if you attend!
February 1986
by Bruce
F. Field
Q. I have a /Ie, a Niceprint interface card from Spies Lab­
oratories, and an Epson MX-80 printer with Graftrax +.
This interface produces near-letter quality print on an MX­
80, and can be activated using embedded printer control
codes within a word-processed document - I am using
Apple Writer /Ie to write this letter. I would like to have
the same print quality when using AppleWorks 1.2.
However I am not able to use the AppleWorks custom
printer option to install my printer codes. This is
because the Niceprint card requires as an enabling (or
initializing) command a sequence that includes a caret (II),
which must be entered before using the printer codes
themselves. Of course AppleWorks recognizes the caret
(II) as the signal to end a sequence of commands or con­
trol codes: therfore I am not able to enter the proper
enabling sequence, so I cannot set up the printer
A. As you are aware, AppleWorks does not allow you to
enter control codes directly into the text of your
document. Instead these printer control codes are entered
via the Custom Printer menus that permit any character
to be entered EXCEPT the caret. One way around this is
to split up the printer control sequence so that all the
control characters are included in the printer setup
sequence, and the carel: is put in the AppleWorks
document itself. I do not know the Niceprint command
sequence you want, but suppose it to be as follows: ESC
IIpl (escape, caret,"Pl"). The only actual control code
here (with an ASCII value between 0 and 31) is the ESC.
The others can be entered as standard text characters in an
AppleWorks document. Therefore set up your custom
printer choosing Boldface Begin (for example) and type
ESC II. (The caret is used only to end the sequence and is
not included of course.) Return to your document and
select Boldface Begin (open-Apple-O, BB) and immedi­
ately after the newly inserted caret (indicating the
Boldface Begin printer option), type IIPI. This second
caret is an actual character and will be sent to the printer
right after the ESC code sent by the Boldface Begin
option. If you have more than one control character you
may need to use two or more printer options with regular
characters sandwiched in between.
This method also provides a shortcut way of extend­
ing AppleWorks versatility in controlling the printer.
For example many of the commands for the Imagewriter
printer start with the ESC code and are followed by
standard text characters. If you define one of the printer
options as ESC you can use this in combination with
text entered in the document to control foward and reverse
line feeds, international character sets, slashed or
unslashed zeroes, unidirectional or bidirectional printing,
as well as the more conventional horizontal character
spacing and print density options. One disadvantage of
this method is that the extra added text characters will
make that printed line too short as AppleWorks assumes
they will be printed, whereas the printer gobbles them up
and prints nothing. Apple Writer has this same problem
too, as all printer codes are entered directly into the text
and counted as printable characters. Thus, if possible,
you should put the commands on a line by themselves.
Version 1.3 of AppleWorks has been released. The
major change is the ability to work with the new 3.S"
disk drives. You can get a mailer from your dealer to
return your original AppleWorks disks (and a check for
$20) to Apple for an upgrade to Version 1.3.
Q. To DRAW a shape using Machine Language many
books give $F601 as the entry point for the Applesoft
DRAW command. When I wrote a machine language
program using $F601 it never worked. By trial and error
I found the entry point is $F60S. I herewith enclose a
listing of the program I wrote. Why is it that so many
books made the error in giving the entry point for
A. The entry point for DRAW depends on how you use it
The entry point at $F601 assumes that the address of the
shape to be drawn, not the start of a shape table, is in the
X and Y registers (low byte in X, high byte in Y) and the
rotation factor is in the accumulator. The flfst two
instructions of this routine store the X and Y registers in
memory locations $IA and $IB respectively. With the
registers set properly it will work fine; thus the books
are not incorrect. Your program on the other hand puts
the address of the start of a shape table in location $E8
and $E9 and calls a routine at $F730 to determine the
start of the desired shape in the table. This routine does
not leave the shape address in the X and Y registers as
required by the routine at $F601 but puts them directly in
locations $IA and $IB. Thus as you found, you should
skip the flfSt two instructions in the DRAW routine
(starting at $F60S) to have it work properly.
Q. I've been having trouble with my power supply. It
sometimes won't turn on. Once I get it to tum on it
seems to run okay, so for now I leave it on all the time.
I read on a local bulletin board that there is some
capacitor, C7 or something that is probably the problem.
Can you tell me how to replace this? Is it difficult?
A. Difficult is in the eye of the beholder. First you tum off
the power and unplug the connector on the motherboard
that comes from the power supply. Tum the Apple over
and remove the four screws from the bottom plate that
hold the power supply and remove it from the Apple.
Now drill out the rivets in the case of the power
supply... Still interested? Actually the power supply in
the Apple is a switching type power supply and is
somewhat more difficult to troubleshoot than a
traditional linear type and has dangerous voltages inside.
Also, aftermarket (non-Apple) power supplies are avail­
able for less than $SO so I recommend you consider
February 1986 Washington Apple Pi
replacing the supply yourself. You just screw the new
supply to the bottom plate of the Apple and plug it into
the motherboard. Check the back pages of BYTE
magazine for ads.
The power cord tends to work loose from the socket
in the back of the power supply, so it's a good idea to
make sure the plug is fmnly seated in the power supply
socket before looking for other problems. It's also
possible that the switch is faulty. Once the computer is
on and working satisfactorily, disconnect the power using
another switch (on a plug strip) or by unplugging the
Apple from the wall. If this cures your startup problem,
consider replacing the switch. That is not too difficult
after you get the power supply case open.
Q. I am working with the 64K version of the Apple Pascal
1.2 language disk set. I am not familiar with Pascal but
need this to copy Tom Woteki's Puffm program to disk
(Call -A.P.P.L.E., Nov-Dec 1981). My problem is that
I am running out of memory with a page or more of
input remaining. Can I split the program up and join
them later? Or, is there a way to get the Pascal 1.2 to
access the 128K memory which my Apple lie has
A. I am a little suprised that you are having problems, since
the source code for Puffm is 28 blocks long and the
editor in Pascal 1.1 will handle up to 34 blocks of text
I don't have the numbers for Pascal 1.2 but expect it
shouldn't be too much less. Anyway, you can gain a
little more room by turning on the swapping option (S)
from the Pascal command line. There are two levels of
swapping, 1 and 2. In Pascal 1.2 level 1 frees up 2262
bytes and level 2 frees up 3084. Both of these options
will cause the system to run somewhat slower as por­
tions of the system are repeatedly loaded from disk as
You can also use the INCLUDE compiler directive to
combine smaller pieces of source code. The Apple
Pascal Reference Manual has a description of how this
works. Basically (pun intended) you put the include
statement in your source with the name of a text file. At
compile time the compiler goes to this file and compiles
the code just as if it were in the original file.
Another option is to use the 128K interpreter that
came with the Pascal 1.2 system instead of the 64K
interpreter you are currently using.
This will
automatically use your 64K extended memory card and
will permit editor files up to something on the order of
60 blocks.
A third option is to purchase the source code already
on disk. This is available on WAP disk 308.
Mike Hartman (to whom I am indebted for the above
information) also recommends that for serious work you
get the Advanced System Editor from Volition Systems.
This is a disk based editor and file size is not limited by
RAM memory.
Q. I have a well-used Apple ][+ with an ALS Smarterm n
80-column card installed. which I use with the Magic
Window II word processor program. The Smarterm II
Washington Apple Pi works reasonably well except for the "one wire shift key"
function which worked at farst, but ceased abruptly one
day. I would like to regain that capability, but have been
hampered by the fact that the ALS company will not
answer my letters or return my phone calls. I wonder if
you can put me in contact with someone who might be
able to help me with the problem.
A. The "one wire shift key" modification involves running a
wire from the shift key on the keyboard to pin 4 of the
game port connector (push button 2) on the motherboard.
It's possible that this wire has worked loose, or you have
recently plugged in a joystick or other device that also
uses push button 2. First unplug anything from the
game port other than the shift key wire and see it that
cures the problem. If not, you can perform a quick test
in Applesoft to see if the modification is working
properly. From the Applesoft prompt type PRINT
PEEK(49251) and hold down the shift key while you
press the return key. The Apple should respond with a
number between 0 and 127. Now do the same PEEK
again but this time do not press the shift key. The
Apple should respond with a number between 128 and
255. If it does not pass both tests then there is a
problem with the wire or the connections to the wire.
Review your Smarterm documentation to see how to
connect it properly.
If the shift key mod is working properly check to see
if you must enable the shift key feature in Magic
Window. Check the documentation for Magic Window
to see if there is some mention of the shift key mod or
look for a configuration setup feature.
Q. I recently encountered an anomaly with the way DOS 3.3
saves TEXT files and I was hoping that you might be
able to make a few comments about it in your column.
The problem is not serious but it is strange. It appears
that when a file is opened for writing, the first compound
print statement encountered (i.e. PRINT W,X,Y;Z)
causes the farst three variables to be concatenated together
in the text file. The elements W,X,Y can be numbers,
numerical or string variables; it doesn't matter.
Subsequent compound print statements work just flOe
with each specified variable separated by a carriage return.
The program and its output on the enclosed page
demonstrate the point more clearly.
A. Sorry, using your program I was unable to exactly
duplicate your problem; I can NEVER get compound
print statements to work. However I was caught in this
trap a little while ago (in print yet!) and I believe I have
at least a partial explanation for you. The first thing to
remember about DOS 3.3 text files is that everything in
the file is stored as ASCII characters. It makes no
difference if you print a number as a number, X=l1 :
PRINT X, or print a string containing numbers,
X$=STR$(X) : PRINT X$, in both these cases the file
contains the two ASCn characters 177, 177. Also the
PRINT statement will put a carriage return (ASCII 141)
after the 177s. If we use a compound print, e.g. PRINT
11,22 the file will contain the ASCII values 177, 177,
February 1986
contd. on pg 66
WANTED: A Big Brother for an Apple! Help a school
for disadvantaged youngsters learn how to use their new,
donated /lc system! Be their special "hotline helper" - or visit
the kids for hands-on teaching. Also, donations of hardware
and software such as educational games and programs would
be greatly appreciated and are tax deductible. Can Richard
Davis (387-1143) at "For Love of Children" (FLOC), 1711
14th Street, NW, Washington DC. Sometimes even an
Apple needs a friend.
HELP: Will the person from whom I bought a book on
dBase n during the WAP garage sale and forgot to take home,
please contact me at 229-3224. Mansur Froozan.
WANTED: Apple][+ or /Ie, disk drive, monitor, print­
er. Tom Davenport, RR I, Box 527, Delaplane, VA (703)
FOR TRADE: MacDraft for MacDraw. The owner
needs the compatability of MacDraw for destop publishing.
FOR SALE: Irnagewriter I, $350. Call Dan Adkins for
information, 822-8052 (home) or 252-5990 (work).
FOR SALE: Neptune 192K extended memory 80­
column card, $125. Micromodem n, $60. Call Paul Lewis at
(703) 352-8519, 8AM-5PM or (703) 378-0750, evenings and
Microsoft MacEnhancer, Assimilation
MacPort, and Hayden's Ensemble. All unregistered, in origi­
nal boxes, and used once. Call Rusty at (301) 565-8007 in
Silver Spring (leave message).
FOR SALE: Unused copy of Howardsoft's Tax Preparer
(1983 edition), send in warranty card for cheap upgrade to 86
version, $25. Echo Plus (music and speech synthesizer), $60.
John Willis, (301) 694-9410 evenings or 353-4924 days.
FOR SALE: 64K Apple ][+ with 2 Apple disk drives,
Videx 80-column card, and 128K Ramcard, $690. Also
available Mountain CPS multifunction card, $85; Microsoft
CP/M board, $95; and AMDEK green monitor, $75. John
Willis, (301) 694-9410 evenings or 353-4924 days.
FOR SALE: Applicard (bum-in only), $175; Words tar
(unregistered), $125; Grapplef+, $65; Videx 8O-column card,
$50; 13" USI green monitor (door broken), $80; Harp 11+
clone with blitzed keyboard, $75. Call William A. Block,
MD at (301) 949-7384.
FOR SALE: Apple 11/ Computer, 256K, single drive,
$750; with printer, monitor and Advanced Version VisiCalc,
$850. Call Stuart Cohen, (301) 774-9182 evenings.
FOR SALE: General Accouting Software Modules
(published by Software Dimensions), latest versions, suitable
for Apple H, ][+, lie and II/ in emulation: I) General Ledger­
Accounting Module, $150; Payroll Module, $150; or both at
$275. This is 55% off list. Call Norm Cohen at (301) 262­
FOR SALE: Macintosh XL (Lisa) 512K memory card
by Apple Computer, $425 (list is $700). Expand your 512K
Mac XL to 1 megabyte and run Switcher or a Ram disk with
plenty of work space. Call Scott weekdays at 223-4700 from
8:30 to 6:00.
FOR SALE: Premium lie Softcard board for $250, or
best offer. New in cellophane wrapper. This board replaces
most all lie boards, opens up slots for new hardware boards,
contains CP/M and extra memory. Open ends your lie and is
a low-cost move to larger-capacity PC. Call Dick (703) 354­
2741 after 7PM.
FOR SALE: Computer books at 20% discount, e.g.
"Apple lie Tech. Ref. Manual" @ $15.95 (list $19.95),
"Apple Roots @ $15.15 (list $18.95), or "Inside Macintosh
@ $19.95 (list $24.95). Most popular titles available.
Shipping $1.25/title (plus 5% sales tax in MO). EARTH­
WORKS/AP, 8135 Ball Road, Frederick, MD 21701.
POSITION OPEN: Computer knowledgeable person
to input Job Costing and dBase II data. Full or part-time at
manufacturing enterprise near Catholic University. Know­
ledge of dBase II programming desirable. can Howard
Stirling, (301) 577-4681.
POSITION WANTED: Apple Macintosh computer
instruction in the general Frederick, MD area. Instruction on
the Macintosh and assorted software. Help with pre-buy
decisions. Personalized service and reasonable rates. Call
Lynn R. Trusal, (301) 845-2561, evenings, with no calls after
10:00 PM.
Dear Editor,
I recently purchased an Epson AP-80 printer from a local
computer store (December 24, 1985).
The ribbon for this printer is new and not available at any
local dealers. A call to Epson America, Inc. in California
conftrmed the fact that the ribbon is different, and local dealers
could order it for me. They further stated that they would not
sell me a ribbon direct
While I am happy with my printer, please advise your
readers not to purchase the Epson AP-80 until the dealer can
supply the purchaser with extra ribbons.
Steven E. Rosner @
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
/ / / MAGAZINE for is
THE source
APPLE / / / owners! THE
-' ......
-. "
Our magazine, successor to THE / / / NEWSLETTER and founded January 1, 1985, is an international
monthly review of Apple /II tips, articles, rumors and news. we have published each and every month
All / / / MAGAZINE subscribers begin their subscription as of the first of each year. You will receive copies
of ALL of the back issues of the magazine for 1986 (copies of the 1985 issues are available). You won't
miss a thing.
Return to: THE / / / MAGAZINE
3201 Murchison Way
Attn: New subscriptions
Carmichael, CA 95608
(916) 485-6525
I want to subscribe to THE / / / MAGAZINE. Enclosed is my check for $40.00 (2nd Class, USA only; Canada / Mexico / USA First Class, $50.00; outside USA, Canada and Mexico, $60.00) for 12 issues (one year). Company Name :__________________________________________
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _State :_ _ _ _Zip :_ _ __ City
Telephone # I am subscnbing as a:
Signed: __________________
Washington Apple Pi
February 1986
THE BEST PICKS IN '86 by David Ottalini, III SIG Co-Chairman My penchant for listing things continues to get out of
hand! This month and next, I'd like to provide you with my
lists of the "best sources" of information, software, hardware,
etc. for the Apple III. I know many of you old-timers will
already be aware of many of these folks. But I am hoping it
will be useful for you, as well as our newer 1/1 users. Some­
times it's nice to have things written down in one central
location, with a few comparisons thrown in for good measure.
That's what I'll be attempting to do this month and next, so
let's get started!
Ahhh. This, you are saying, is a highly selective and
potentially controversial list. But where the 11/ community is
concerned. there really are only a few groups that qualify as
"the best" simply because of their level of activity and
leadership. I'm going to do this listing alphabetically, so as
not to hurt feelings, since I won't pretend to judge one single
"best" group over another. I will say that I am a member of
all these groups and can recommend any of them.
A~ple 11/ Users Grou~ International
H. Joseph Dobrowolski, President
Box 913, Langley AFB, VA. 23665
Apple Three Users of No, CaHfomja Cost:$20.001Year
Chuck Schreiber, President
220 Redwood Highway #184, Mill Valley, CA. 94546
Third Ap~le Users
Cost $15.00lYear
Initiation Fee: $ 5.00
Lavona Rann, President
1113 Wheaton Oaks Dr., Wheaton, IL. 60187
Washington Apple Pi
Cost: $20.OOIYear
Charlene Ryan, //I SIG Secretary
Initiation Fee: $7.00
8227 Woodmont Ave. #201
Bethesda, MD. 20814
Both ATUNC and TAU get high marks from this author
for their efforts on behalf of the Apple III community. Both
are excellent organizations with strong, knowledgable leaders
who are working actively to expand the usability of the 11/ for
all of us. Major Dobrowolski gets his listing here because of
his single-handed efforts to continue getting information out
about our computer. Additionally, he has developed both a
newsletter and huge public domain library that are available at
nominal cost.
As for our own /11 SIG, I was hesitant to mention it at the
risk of sounding self-serving. But I believe we have made
some excellent strides this past year with new members and an
increased level of interest that I think deserves mention. Hav­
ing the backing of a 5000+ member organization like
Washington Apple Pi also hasn't hurt!
I should also mention the Micronet Apple Users Group
(MAUG) on Compuserve a<; one of the "best". Its Apple 11/
section provides a fantastic forum for information exchange,
and its Data Library for the 11/ is full of excellent programs
(which thanks to Bart Cable, will soon be part of our public
domain library). Compuservc must be accessed by modem and
you can purchase a starter kit at reasonable cost from local
discount bookstores.
While I'm mentioning the best..this category also demands
I mention a couple of the "worst" groups. In this case, I refer
to the two big international Apple organizations: International
Apple Core and Apple Puget Sound Program Library Ex­
change. Their level of support and caring for the 11/ commun­
ity is abysmal and I can not recommend either at this point.
Not surprisingly, the groups listed above (with one
addition) also provide the best sources for public domain
software for the Apple III. Costs for the software is minimal
and the selection is good. All have some unique offerings
while selling many of the same programs. You usually get
the best deal by being a member of the respective group.
Apple Three Group International
About 70 disks. $3.00 each for members. No postage &
handling fee. Literally an attempt to offer all available 1/1 PD
software with some unique offerings, like templates in dif­
ferent formats.
30+ disks. Available to non-members at double the cost
($3.00/$6.00). Postage and handling extra. Excellent source
of 11/ documentation at reasonable cost.
45+ disks. Available to all. Includes some programs
licensed exclusively to TAU for use by its members. $3.50
per disk. Postage & handling extra.
The /1/ Magazine
3201 Murchison Way, Carmichael, CA 95608
50+ disks. Available to all. More expensive than others
($10-$15 per disk). P&H extra Customer and Newsletter
mailing lists available.
PO library expected in early 1986. $5.00 per disk.
Postage and handling extra.
As most lifers know, the number of local Apple computer
stores offering software or hardware is rapidly becoming non­
existent. Many are going the "firesale" route we in the
Washington DC area have come to know through the Rasmus
organization (in December it was ten cenle; on the dollar!)
These won't be able to sustain us a whole lot longer,
simply because the universe of Apple 11/ products at the local
level is disappearing. However, there are still some places we
can go to obtain not only the old-line products like VisiCalc,
Apple Writer and IIf EZ Pieces, but new hardware and software
that is still being developed for us. It's those folks, especial- ",.--...,
ly, that deserve our strongest support in the coming years.
You can still get some products and upgrades directly
through Apple, Cupertino, but you would do better with price
by purchasing from one of those organizations listed below.
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
3010 North Sterling Ave., Peoria, IL 61604,
AIM has become a clearing house of III products for its I members. As such, it publishes a catalog and lists the SOft_I APPLE SOFTWARE 5 % OVER COST.. 7 % OVER COST.. ware (and some hardware) that's available. Unfortunately, they I APPLE ADD-ONS
have had to start charging $25.00 for a subscription (" Apple I MONITORS, MODEMS, PRINTERS AND BOARDS. III Is For Me" membership). They offer a wide range of 11/ I ALL ITEMS ADD 5% MD SALES TAX. products all at sale prices. Retail price is also listed for com-I "DISK SPECIAL" BOX NASHUA 20'S $11.75. parison. The only problem is that sale prices vary, even fori the same software (ten listings, all different). Availability iS
limited to what's on hand, so you have to work fast if you I _____________________ J
want something listed in the catalog. Product descriptions are I....
1514 East Edinger, Suite H
Santa Ana, CA 92705, 714-835-2462
Owned and operated by long-time III supporter Charles
McConathy, CMC has shown a penchant for saving 11/ users
a lot of money. And it's not been afraid to develop new pro­
ducts for the III, especially in the hardware realm. Offers some
11/ software at competitive prices. Apple II/'s and peripherals
also offered. Best deals are with new hard disk systems...l0
mb 5 114" drive with cable and card for $495, etc.
D.A. DataSystems
3792 Windover Drive, Hamburg, NY 14075
An excellent source of new software and hardware. $10.00
for 75 page catalog on disk. Products include Power Keys
.,-" Macro utility, MS-OOS co-processor using the PCPI Appli­
card and (has the rights to offer the) Omnis 3 DBMS. Tools
Times 3 package is an excellent deal that includes a number of
Business Basic utilities, Power Keys, and other programs.
4478 Market Street, Suite 701-702, Ventura, CA 93003
Another excellent source of both software and hardware.
They offer a mixture of new and old. These folks have gotten
so-so reviews in the past from the 11/ community, but have
lately been coming on strong. Programs include Draw-On
Three (a graphics program), ONTIME macro utility, and
Selector 11/ (for hard disks). On the hardware front, there's a
512 K upgrade, hard disks, etc. They have also sold used II/s
and peripherals. There's also a 3.5" unidisk offering for the 11/.
P.O. Box 4059, 150 E. 400 N
Logan, UT 84321, 1-800-821-3221
Sun Data has become the "official remainderer" for Apple
where the 11/ is concerned and offers a host of products. They
have a large selection of III commercial software and hardware
at decent prices. Sun Data also offers the Titan III + 2e Card.
Check prices against AIM for best deals. This company also
offers nationwide service for the 11/ community. 256K
reconditioned Ills offered for $749.00 with monitor. Software
prices are reduced if purchased with the computer.
Well, that's about it for this month. Next time around,
'-' I1l discuss my choices for the best newsletters and magazines,
books, utility and commercial programs and best add-ons. ®
Washington Apple Pi F===-================R
~Paragon Technologies, Inc.
February 1986
offers classes in our IBM PC laboratory
and Apple lie laboratory in McLean:
· Getting Started With The Micro
· d Base II
· WordStar
· Programming in BASIC
· Computer assisted SAT preparation
All classes are hands-on with one person
per computer.
or write to us: P.O. Box 6128 McLean, Virginia 22106 TYSONS CORNER CENTER'S
Information on Store Names,
Sales, Events, Restaurants,
Theatres, Gifts, Metrobus
Schedules and Much More
by Barry Bedrick
First. I can only hope that no one read my column in the
January issue attentively enough to notice that I gave the
wrong date for the January meeting. Those of us who wisely
pay no attention to this column showed up as usual on the
first Thursday in January. The February meeting, before
I forget, will be on the 6th.
Two new Origin Systems products--MOEBIUS and
AUTODUEL--were demonstrated using the club's new
projector. The former is a fantasy role-playing game, with
unusual karate and sword combats, and looked most
intriguing. The latter, based on Steve Jackson's board game
CAR WARS, is a strategy role-playing game set in a future
when fantastically-equipped cars battle, and "the right of way
goes to the biggest guns." [AUTODUEL will be reviewed in
next month's Journal.]
I called everyone's attention to the new respectability
conferred on gaming by an anicle in the Sunday New York
Times Magazine for December 29 on a Macintosh game
previously reviewed in the Journal, BALANCE OF POWER
(Mindscape). The article, written by a former Deputy
Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs
features an interview with Chris Crawford, the game's
designer, in which Crawford says "Games are nature's way of
educating." [Note to my son: no, this does not mean you can
play LODE RUNNER in lieu of homework.]
Another interesting reference to Apple and gaming is the
best-selling novel, THE HUNT FOR RED OCTOBER. In
the book, the American nuclear attack submarine carries two
Apple computers for the crew's recreation. The sonarman
plays ZORK, and one feature of American life cited to prove
to the defecting Russians that they have made the right
decision, is the ability of a free society to play CHOPLIFfER
on one's own Apple.
SOLAR SYSTEM (Mindscape) for the Apple /I series--a real­
time simulation of the solar system that requires you to use
your knowledge and pilot skills to locate and land on planets
and moons. Appears to be educationally oriented.
A VIEW TO A KILL (Mindscape) for the Apple /I series-­
an interactive text adventure where you become James Bond.
AUTODUEL (Origin Systems) for the Apple /I series-oSee
GAMESIG News for brief description.
WIZARDRY (Sir-Tech Software) for the Macintosh--See
the December Journal for a detailed description.
These programs will be reviewed in next month's Journal.
Because GAMESIG has a backlog of donated programs
requiring full reviews and due to Journal space limitations
(Even WE read the rest of the Journal.), the following are
short commentaries and excerpts from reviews done on some
recently-released gaming programs. Full reviews of some of
these programs will be published in future Journals as space
ULTIMA IV...Quest of the Avatar (ORIGIN SYS­
.....star of the 1985 games for the Apple /I series ..... very
large fantasy adventure ....takes weeks.... .requires you to keep
track of numerous clues, that send you back and forth among
the towns, castles and dungeons .....not simply a fighting
game..... will become a classic..... [A Macintosh version will
be released in the future.]
THE EIDOLON-- (LucasfJlm Games from EPYX)
An adventure.....through fantasy world of underground
caverns, populated by strange creatures ....drive the Eidolon by
keyboard or joystick.. ...appropriate crystals break down the
barriers that separate you from a guardian dragon, and the
chance to enter the next level..... interesting ....recommend
primarily for real-time adventurers, especially those who like
shoot-ern-up type action games...little strategy....mapping....
THE BARD'S TALE (Interplay Productions)
.....fantasy role-playing....size of WIZARDRY I and IT
combined.....generous supply of "specials": Riddles,
messages, fixed encounters, dark areas, teleporters, and anti­
magic rooms.....harder game than WIZARDRy .... Mapping
is difficult and sometimes tedious .... .little too hard....well
worth buying.....9 out of 10.....
.....long-awaited conclusion to magic trilogy....similar in
structure to previous two games ..... maximum score of 600
points ..... expert-Ievel game .....Unconditionally recommended
.....10 out of 10.....
.....not intensely puzzle oriented.....double-sided disk, req­
uiring 128K..... three "Chapters"...fl1"st is trivial...second is
trivial and boring...third, impossible and boring...2 out of 10.
MOEBIUS (Origin Systems)
.....something completely different in fantasy role­
playing.....beautiful hi-res graphics with 3-0 effect .... arcadish­
type combat system with bare hands or swords..... several
types of magic....real-time..... set aside a lot of time.
AUTODUEL (Origin Systems)
.....ROAD WARRIOR meets ULTIMA.....Review in
next month's Journal.....
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
ENCHANTED SCEPTERS: A Review by Barry and Ben Bedrick
Silicon Beach Software, the AIRBORNE! people, have
released this Macintosh graphic adventure with a typical quest
time (you must find the four scepters [we'll continue with
their spelling] to save the kingdom), but with two unusual
features. One is extensive sound effects. Closing gates, water
dripping, birds chirping, and many other sounds are simulated
These are clever and amusing but not enough to make this
game stand out
The other, more noteworthy, feature is the incorporation
of fantasy role-playing techniques. Specifically, your char­
acter has attributes (spiritual condition and physical condition)
which vary with his/her experience. Your character can ac­
quire and use a variety of magic spells. Many locations hold
either objects which have magic qualities, weapons, or armor.
The mention of weapons brings us to another fantasy role­
playing aspect of this garne--combat There are many
fearsome opponents to vanquish throughout the game. A pull­
down menu lets you choose a weapon or spell. If you decide
to save your spells and slug it out with an opponent, an
information display on the screen keeps you advised of your
and your opponent's conditions through the fight.
Combat, by the way, is one part of this game in which,
depending on your point of view, the sound effects really
come into their own. The sounds include clashing swords and
grunts and cries of pain when blows are struck. When you
kill monsters, their fmal drawn-out death rattles. This may
not be to everyone's taste.
The game does not take advantage of the Mac's features to
the extent that another recently reviewed graphic adventure,
DEJA VU, does. The graphics are fairly ordinary, although
most objects are recognizable. Movement and save game are
convenient but some commands must be typed in. There are
puzzies and mapping, and inventory control is important. We
liked the idea of combining the two genres, graphic adventure
and fantasy role-playing. While there is room for improve­
ment, we enjoyed playing the game.
MINDWHEEL (for Mac and Apple II) · A Review by Steven
Written by award-winning poet Robert Pinsky and
programmers Steve Hales and William Mataga, MIND­
WHEEL (BroderbundlSynapse) is set in the near future, with
the world teetering on the brink of self-destruction ("what,
again?"). The only hope for survival lies in Dr. Virgil's
recently developed "neuro-matrix mind travel," based on his
discovery that all brain activities leave perpetual "synaptic
echoes" in the fabric of the universe. By tapping into these
traces, you the adventurer journey back through a labyrinth of
four powerful, interconnected minds: Bobby Clemon,
assassinated rock star; The Poet, composer of epics that
represent the crowning achievement of earth's literature; The
Generalissimo, dictator and war criminal; and Dr. Eva Fein,
scientist and musician, the "female Einstein." Beyond this
matrix you will encounter The Cave Dweller, a mysterious
figure from the dawn of civilization responsible for the chief
tools of our culture; he guards "the Wheel of Wisdom," the
source of all human creativity and inspiration. By recovering
the wheel and returning to the present you can save the world
MINDWHEEL is like most all-text adventures in its
overall structure and method of play. Once again you must
discover and manipUlate objects, interact with various indi­
viduals, solve puzzles and (naturally!) complete poems. The
fact that other characters come and go, with minds and
motives of their own, is clever but not new. It is neither the
longest nor the most difficult adventure I have seen.
But what makes MINDWHEEL really special is the qual­
ity of the prose and the richness of the imaginary universes
you enter. Each of the "minds" is like a new terrain, a
Washington Apple Pi
landscape filled with phantasmagorical images and events
operating according to a dream-logic of their own. You
encounter an aging baseball team, a talking frog, a woman
made of glass, a bird-headed child, a clever devil, a weeping
soldier turned to stone from the waist down, and much, much
more. The author is Poetry Editor of The New Repyblic. and
here his literary talents are put to excellent use.
MINDWHEEL's parser is very good, comparable to Info­
com's. The game disk itself is unprotected but comes with a
95 page hardback book; the program asks at the beginning for
a given word from a certain line on a particular page. Synapse
and Broderbund should be commended for this "novel"
approach to copy protection, because it discourages theft (too
many pages to copy) while allowing purchasers to make
themselves as many disk backup copies as they might need
without extra charge.
As far as I know, the Mac version I played is not appreci­
ably different from the one already available for the Apple )[
series. In the former there are, of course, the familiar pull­
down menus with certain standard commands (i.e., directions
and inventory) and the possibility of creating your own.
However, for all but the poorest typists I suspect it is usually
faster to enter commands via the keyboard rather than shift to
the mouse and go through the "point, click, drag, and release"
routine. But in one fonn or another, if you have either kind
of computer, MINDWHEEL is worth adding to your gaming
library. Why, it even made GAMESIG's very exclusive list
of recommended all-text adventures in the December 1985
February 1986
Steven Payne
Since I have gained access to a computer only within the
last 10 months, my newly acquired addiction to electronic
adventure games is a belated one, and I have had to do a lot of
"catching up." After cutting my teeth on "Adventure,"
"Transylvania," and the Zork series, I borrowed a copy of
TIME ZONE, a 1982 Sierra On-Line release described by Ron
Wartow in the March GAMESIG column. The following
reflections are offered to other latecomers like myself who
might want to try their hands at what is surely the most chal­
lenging adventure game to date, at least in terms of its size
and complexity.
As TIME ZONE opens, you learn that for eons an
advanced but stagnant civilization from the planet Neburon
has been observing human progress with alarm, afraid that our
technology will soon outstrip theirs. Accordingly, under the
leadership of the evil Ramadu, they have constructed a giant
ray gun to destroy our world. All is not lost, however.
Benevolent forces in the universe have chosen you to save
earth, and have provided a time machine. With it, you can
travel to different periods and places of the past and future,
collecting the items you will net:d to penetrate Neburon, battle
Ramadu, and destroy the ray gun.
Sounds simple enough? It isn't TIME ZONE covers
both sides of six disks, and offers over 35 regions to visit
even before you reach Neburon, with over 1200 separate
scenes of hi-res graphics and tell.t; there are likewise more than
50 objects to be discovered and manipulated, some of which
will disappear forever if taken too far back in time. Many of
the objects serve no real purpose, and nearly half of the
regions need not be visited at all, but it is up to you to dis­
cover which these are. In the course of the game you meet
Cleopatra and Julius Caesar, Robin Hood and Peter the Great,
Christopher Columbus and Ben Franklin, lions, (saber­
toothed) tigers, and (polar) bears; you travel from London to
Tokyo, from Baghdad to Napoleonic Paris. As you soon
discover, the most important interactions with other characters
usually involve buying or trading objects, or getting past
sentries and receptionists; some of the puzzles must be solved
in a specific order, and often the solution to one problem can
only be found in a totally different time and place. The
graphics are bright and colorful, if a bit "cartoonish." The
endgame on Neburon is particularly good, with fresh and
surprising puzzles every few moves. A clever feature through­
out is that while the obstacles encountered in each region
often appear similar (e.g., uncooperative guards, locked doors,
high fences and walls), the solutions in each case are different;
breaking and entry may get you into a building in one setting,
for example, but can get you arrested or killed elsewhere.
This forces the player to deal with each situation in new and
creative ways.
TIME ZONE does have its drawbacks. The parser is
antiquated, often refusing to accept obvious synonyms, or
insisting that you are nat carrying objects which are
nonetheless listed in your inventory. More importantly, there
is no automatic scoring system, so it is difficult to gauge
your progress, and you can waste hours trying to solve
apparent puzzles or explore regions which in fact are only
there for show. Red herrings abound, and you cannot be sure
until the end whether you have found everything you will need
to complete the game. That is why TIME ZONE often takes
3 to 6 months to play, though luckily you can save up to
fifteen game positions on a spare disk. Still, I recommend it
for every serious adventure game fan who wants the ultimate
challenge. The satisfaction of fmishing is worth the effort,
though it may also cure you of the desire to tackle anything
this size again.
Beryl Swarztrauber
WllDERNESS, by Electric Transit for the Apple 1/
series, is the "Flight Simulator" of survival games. It comes
equipped with its own survival manual based on the manual
used by the United States Air Force Survival School. It has
two scenarios: in one you are the sole survivor of a plane
crash in the Sierra Nevadas; in the other you are an
archeologist looking for a "lost city" in search of a golden
idol. In both scenarios you can program the height, weight,
sex, and physical condition of the "player" into the computer
which alters the amount that can be carried and the stamina of
the player. It is necessary for the player to navigate using
compasses, and topographic maps, find food and water after
supplies are depleted, make shelter and administer first aid in
the event of snake bites or wild animal attacks. Besides the
danger of wild animals, the player is also confronted with rain,
snow, disease and poison mushrooms.
WILDERNESS' "Pangraphics" system draws a picture
with mountains, trees, rivers, and lakes for whichever direc­
tion you look. You can actually scan the horizon 360
degrees. The graphics are wonderful on a color T.V. or
monitor but in black and white it is impossible to distinguish
the rivers. Limitless maps can be made in the Sierra Nevada
version but it is also possible to send away for the map disks
of Bolivia, British Columbia, Burma, Chile and New Guinea.
This game is a complicated, real life simulation which might
not hold everyone's attention, but those who venture to test
their survival skills will be rewarded for their efforts by the
terrific views that can been seen from atop a mountain.
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
BARON: A Review '1y Chris Klugewicz '-'
BARON, from Blue Chip Software for the Apple 1/ series
and Macintosh, is the third in the company's market simula­
tion games; it deals with the real estate market. The object of
the game is to turn the $35,000 you start out with into a
million dollars. Unfortunately, Blue Chip sent us a demo
copy, not an actual review copy. The demo only allows you
to play for 6 months, and the save functions are disabled
Thus, quite a few features of the game that are described in the
documentation were not available for testing.
The game itself is not for those seeking instant gratifica­
tion. You must actively search the wealth of information
available in the game (ranging from "The Financial Journal"
to graphs of every market trend imaginable) to find properties
in which to invest. BARON also allows you to invest in
second mortgages, take high-stakes gambles on limited
partnerships, buy and sell options, and otherwise wheel and
deal in the real estate world. Even so, it is remarkably easy to
lose a lot of money!
I found BARON fairly easy to learn, but extremely
difficult to master. There is a game generator routine in
BARON which rearranges events from game to game, and
which generates random happenings within each game.
BARON should, then, be essentially a different game each
time it is played. (The extent of this variability could not,
'nfortunately, be tested, since the demo copy we received gave
''-dle same game each time.) The game is so complex that I
feel that a person who has never played this sort of simulation
before would have a rough time of it.
BARON'S weakness is its complexity. It is a good
simulation, but the amount of data provided by the game is a
little overwhelming. Also, there are quite a few factors that
BARON takes into account in figuring such things as your
net worth that are not explained on-screen. (For instance, taxes
are mentioned only briefly in the Detail windows, but they
figure highly in your monthly cash flow.) I wish that a sort
of spreadsheet window, showing aU the transactions which
affected your net worth, had been provided as an option in one
of the menus.
BARON's strengths are more numerous. The documenta­
tion is excellent and very complete. There is even included a
good introduction to the Mac user interface. (Why is it that
game documentation is always so far superior to that provided
with so-called "power" software"?) As I said, the simulation
of the real estate market is good, as far as I can tell. The
wealth of options and sources of information is amazing, and
the game makes full use of the Macintosh user interface.
Overall, I recommend this game for those interested in
financial simulations, but with the following caveat: Our
copy is not a full-fledged, working copy of the disk sold in
stores. All of the features of the game could not be tested for
this review, though nearly all of those involved in actually
playing the game were. One last remark: it may take you
several games to finally reach Baron status, so if you like fast­
paced, action-packed games, BARON is not for you.
GEMSTONE WARRIOR: A Review by Thomas
Descend into the vast caverns of the underworld, fight your
way through skeletons, ghosts, and shamblers, fmd the five
pieces of the Gemstone, and restore them to the temple above.
GEMSTONE WARRIOR, by Strategic Simulations for the
Apple 1/ and soon for the Macintosh, is an entertaining, two­
dimensional shoot-em-up with action similar to AZTEC. Its
simple graphics portray a vast cavern of interconnecting
passages, containing treasure chests guarded by demons and
ghosts. The warrior carries a crossbow and fireballs and can
fmd and use a variety of magical items. These have special
effects like invisibility, disguise, cures and poisons, shields,
and some of unknown use. You control the warrior with
either keyboard or joystick. A choice of skill levels is offered
between Beginner, Normal, or Kamikaze.
The play consists of fighting your way through one pas­
sage after another, trying to discover the right route of
doorways to the hidden pieces of the Gemstone. The cavern of
some 6 or 7 dozen rooms is vastly complicated to try to
:emember. Once I discovered that I could map it I progressed
'-'much faster. Besides, I enjoy mapping vast caverns.
GEMSTONE WARRIOR is essentially an arcade style
adventure, similar to AZTEC, with simple graphics and a
Washington Apple Pi
simple plot Though like AZTEC, I may have scoffed at its
simplicity; also like AZTEC, I couldn't put it down.
February 1986
Disk Conversion Apple to IBM and Back
Over 90 formats
3-day turnaround
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Nicholas G. Carter
The new Macintosh version of Wizardry is a superb blend
of the now-classic game of Wizardry with the ease and comfort
of the Macintosh technology. While the maze is familiar, the
game is subtly different (when was the last time you had to do
battle at the entrance of the maze, or your level 8 thief guessed
wrong on a fIrst level treasure chest in the Apple] [ version?).
Even the most veteran Apple ][ player will be entranced by the
Macintosh edition, and will find it quite challenging. How­
ever, after I had played it for several days, I began to wonder
how my experienced Wizardry characters on my Apple ][
would fare on the Macintosh version. The question then was,
how to transfer them. Not having a MALOR spell handy, I
had to devise a computer method. Undoubtedly someone will
write a program to do this, but it will not be easy, as character
files on both machines are in binary which would have to be
translated into ASCII for transmission. As I am not a crack
programmer on either machine, I began to search for a means
of making the transfer manually. This article is a description
of how this can be done in a reasonably reliable fashion.
To make the transfer you will need "zap" utilities for both
machines - I used Bag of Tricks and MacTools. In order to
avoid problems, the transfer is accomplished on the hadwJl
files of both versions of Wizardry. You will find the Apple
fIles on tracks 0-2 of your backup disk and the Macintosh mes
under the specific me name you have used for your backup.
You will also need a pencil and paper or a print utility to
record the Apple data you will be transferring.
Start by running your Apple ][ version of Wizardry and
recording the "vital statistics" of the characters you want to
transfer. You will need the ~ (the password is not needed),
the ~ ~ orientation, characteristics (strength, IQ, etc.).
d experience l!!lin1S. hit IlQims. and km. Next, get out
the zap utility and search for sectors on tracks 0-2 of the
backup which have the names of your characters at the begin­
ning. You can identify these easily if your zap provides the
ASCII equivalents of the code you are looking at, otherwise
you will have to look for the codes yourself, noting that the
flI'St byte of the sector will be the number of letters in the
character's name. For example if your character is called
FRED, you would look for the bytes 04 46 52 45 44 at the
beginning if a sector. For reference I will designate the flI'St
byte of the sector as I and count in decimal rather than hex.
The aG of your character will be found in bytes 38 and 39.
Byte 58 contains the IlJJJIlbel: gf ~ that the character
possesses. while bytes 66,74,82,90,98,106,114.and 122 have
the hex codes for the ~ themselves. N.B. if the character
has less than 8 objects. the extIil bytes will be garbage.
Next, move to the Macintosh. and enter the Training
grounds of MacWizardry. Create new characters with the
names, race. class, and orientation of your Apple ][ characters.
Don't worry if you can't create the correct class ( for example
lord). This can be fIxed later. Once created, take them into
Boltac's trading post and buy as many objects as they had in
the Apple. It does not matter what the objects are, the codes
will be changed later, the important thing is to get the
progrnm to make room for the right number. Having done
this, make a backup of your roster and then quit the program.
Now, using the Macintosh zap utility. go into the backup
fIle. You will fmd the names of your characters. coded exactly
as in the Apple ][ version, spread out across the fIle, the big
difference being that the me is measured in blocks and is in
it's entirety smaller than a sector. Thus only the name of the
flI'St character in the roster will be at the beginning of a
screen. As before, let the fIrst byte of the character be called 1
(note that MacTools shows bytes in pairs, in what follows I
refer to lu1es not to pairs). Byte 35 contains the code for the
~ of your character ( O-fighter, I-mage, 2-priest, 3-thief, 4­
bishop, 5-samurai, 6-lord, 7-ninja) if you didn't get the class
correct in the training grounds. then change it now. Put the
gold into bytes 53-56, in hex, right justilled. The coding in
the Apple ][ is different, so it is not possible simply to copy
it; you will have to get out your decimal to hex converter and
work it out The same applies to experience points which are
located in bytes 107-110. The number of objects owned will
be found in byte 58. The hex codes for the objects themselves
should be put into bytes 64,70,76,82,88,94,IOO,and 106.
You will find when you get back to Wizardry that the objects
may have slightly different and usually more colorful names
(for example a long sword+2 has become the Sword of
Slashing) but their function and power is identical. Note that
I have not yet covered level, hit points. age or spells. The
problem is that the spells have a very complex coding (would
you believe that there are at least 128 separate combinations
of known spells for mages alone?) and it will be easier to let
the progrnm do the work.
Return now to MacWizardry, restore your roster from the
backup, and send your characters to the hotel. Now that they
have their real experience points, but only the level (1) that
they got at the training grounds, the program will want to
advance their ~ hit ~ and knowledge of ~.
Unlike the Apple ][ version, when the maximum hit points
are increased on a healthy character, so are the actual hit
points; this means that your character can stay at the hotel for
free! At the end of this process, the level should be correct as
should the spells known. The characteristics are unlikely to
be correct, the same goes for age (which is not even shown on
the Macwizardry display). Thus we will need to go back to to
code, having saved a backup roster once again.
Once into the code, bytes 37 and 38 contain the character's
• . The Apple ][ coding has the two bytes reversed, so put
Apple bytes 39 and 38 into Mac 37 and 38. For reference, a
newly minted 18 year old should have a code of 03A8 (936
weeks) in the Mac version. The six characteristics. in hex
equivalents, go into bytes 41 to 46 (eg. an IQ of 15 requires a
hex code of OF in byte 42). As the Apple ][ coding is quite
different you will have to make the decimal to hex translations
yourself. Finally, the hit llOin.ts and the maximum hit lXliI1ls
are in bytes 115-6, and 117-8 (hex coded, right justified), if
the hotel didn't give you the correct number, then make the
changes at this time. If your character changed classes while
contd. on pg 35
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
'-'by Steven
Several months ago I purchased the first Wizardry disk
("Proving Grounds of the Mad Overlord"), after hearing what a
great game it is. The fIrSt thing 1 found was that it did not
properly use the 80-column card on my /Ie. It turned the 80­
column card on, but then did not use the auxiliary memory.
The result was 40 columns in 80-column mode. After doing
some reading, I found the reason for this. The program uses
the "Run-time" Apple Pascal operating system. This is an
abbreviated version of Apple Pascal 1.1 designed to be used on
machines with only 48K of RAM (i.e. an Apple ][ "minus").
This system would let anyone with an Apple computer (even
without the 16K RAM card) play the game. Normally, Apple
Pascal requires 64K of RAM. The problem occurs because
the operating system "turns on" an 80-column card but does
not use it. With a Videx Videoterm, there is no output on the
screen at all unless the card is physically removed. Since the
disk is copy-protected, it can't (easily) be moved to the
standard Pascal system.
The solution to the problem is to patch the operating
system so that it won't find an 80-column card (you only need
40 columns to play the game). Bill Cook (alternate SYSOP
76703,1030) on CompuServe, came up with this patch: "Use
a disk utility to search the boot disk for the following
'-" sequence of bytes: 03 18 38 48 3C 38 18 38. Change the
fIrSt 38 to either 00 or FF (actually any value will do but
there are some new, strange signature bytes out there and 1
don't know them all, but 00 and FF can't be used). If the
board still turns on then change the last18 as well."
The sequence of bytes is found on block 167 of the boot
side, starting with byte number 218. This occurs in the file
WBV2.l:RTSTRP.APPLE. To make the process automatic,
1 wrote a program (listed below) which will do the patch. 1
assume that the user either has the Apple Pascal operating
system, or has access to it First, make a copy of the
Wizardry disk using any of the standard bit-copy prograrns (I
used Copy ][ Plus). Type in and compile the program, then
insert the Wizardry disk in one of the disk drives and run the
program. The fIrSt byte will be changed If there are still
problems, run the program again and the the second byte will
be changed.
Remember that the boot side or the
disk must have a write-protect tab on it. Part of
the copy-protection scheme used by Wizardry checks to see if
the disk is write-protected and crashes if it isn't
My Wizardry disk works fine in 40-columns now.
Washington Apple Pi
by Amy T.
Washington Apple Pi Apple Tea Wednesday, February 19, 7 - 9 PM 501 Hawkesbury Lane • Silver Spring, MD 20904 Would you like to have a Question & Answer session like
those so helpful at our monthly meetings, only in a smaller
setting within a home atmosphere, with refreshments?
R.S.V.P. to above address or 622-2203 (be prepared to
leave message). Mention what you would like to discuss and
what you're interested in learning more about, what your
expertise is, and what software you are using. Also, if you
can't make this Tea, would you be interested in one another
time? Would you be willing to host an Apple Tea in your
• Directions: Take Route 495 to New Hampshire Avenue
North exit. Drive 4 miles to Randolph Road. Tum left.
Drive to 1st traffic light, Locksley Lane, and tum right.
Drive 112 mile to elementary school (Hawkesbury Lane).
Tum left. 501 is 1st house, righthand side, on comer after
Whittingham Drive.
February 1986
OLDWARE (or LOWTECH) HAS ITS PLACE by Jack Mortimer Through the pages of this or other publications dedicated
to microcomputer news and information, it is very easy to
find many discourses on the latest and greatest software which
has just been released (or will soon be delivered). There is a
vast market for this information. Most of us are quite inter­
ested in reading this information because the latest program
that we have has lost its initial interest to us or won't quite
accomplish a specific purpose that we have in mind. With
some of the recently developed microcomputers, the only
software available is the latest and greatest because these
machines are so new on the market.
Those of us with the Apple /I family of microcomputers
have a relatively long list of software packages available that
span the years. This span had its beginning with the experi­
menters who were learning how to make their machines jump
through hoops. As newer and flashier programs were devel­
oped, the old software that we learned on and grew up with,
were left in the back of the box or collecting dust on the
dealer's shelves. Many of us don't even see the old software on
those shelves as we search for the newest game from our favor­
ite software house. There is no problem with that and in fact.
this keeps the programmers interested in developing more pro­
grams to serve us. But what about the people who are just
now getting into recreational computing? Or more to the
point, what about the next generation of computing hobby­
This group of people can be defined as anyone who is not
now deeply involved with computers. However, probably the
largest group of new Apple 1/ computer users will be the
children. Many of these children can't read or are just learning
to read. Their motor control and eye-hand coordination are
still in the early stages of development How can anyone
expect the average seven-year-old to do anything except
become completely frustrated with the newest arcade game
which taxes the fmely honed reflexes of the best game players
today? Of course they can't use those programs, and in most
cases, the bigger folks in the home seldom release the Apple
so that these youngsters can also enjoy playing with the
computer. What can we do to accommodate the seven-year­
olds in our lives so that they can know the thrills available
through the magic of computers?
On a recent trip to the local shopping mall, I discovered
one answer that seems to fit this need very nicely for me.
While being dragged into one of the chain toy stores (Kay­
Bee) to be shown the newest addition to one of the series of
robot toys, I spied a shelf which contained software for many
microcomputers including the Apple computer. On my first
glance I quickly determined that these were old titles which the
store was dumping. I also noticed that there were no titles or
manufacturers that I remembered hearing of before in the
Apple world like Broderbund or Infocom. Just before I started
for the door to continue with the day's events, I noticed the
discounted prices. I expected them to be low but these were
only $2.99 to $5.99! At that price for software I'll take a
chance. I decided on three different games for this gamble and
paid the cashier less for three programs than what I expect to
pay for one low-priced current program in a computer store.
When was the last time that you got three disks, each with an
operating system and the possibility of a program on them for
under $15.00 total?
When I got home that day, I opened the first package and
read the instructions. There were only 4 paragraphs of instruc­
tions, and two of these were how to insert the diskette and
boot the program but the directions were understandable. I
booted this first diskette on my Apple ][+ and to my surprise,
IT BOOTED AND RAN the program. The actual program
was not much compared to the current software available, but
for $3.00 I had gotten my money's worth. On to the second
This package had only loading instructions on the cover.
The games' instructions were on the diskette. Number two
diskette also booted and ran the program. This game was, at
one time, a high resolution search and catch type game. By
today's standards, it is very slow and has some other problems
that are not in your typical move-your-man type program of
today. Again, for the price, it was a bargain. What about
package three?
I'm glad you asked that question. By now I'm batting
1000 and facing the last pitcher. Will I get thrown a curve?
On opening the package I found an instruction sheet with five
lines of actual instructions. Following these were the usual
warranty and copyright information. This diskette also booted
and ran. A clean sweep! Now, what did I gain in getting
these three old programs?
My seven-year-old has three games that he will log the
most time on and ultimately get the highest score. Being the
best at something is important to everyone and these pro­
grams will be some of the things that fill this need in one
young boy's life this year. The delight in his eyes the first
time that he caught the man in the second program was worth
much more than the small price paid for all three disks. For
me, there doesn't need to be any other reason to haunt the toy
stores for discount software games. There is, however,
another audience that can be served with this type of software.
This audience is the group of people who are just getting
started in computers. Those people need some training
software that will allow them to become friends with their
computer. The U1timas, Zorks, Wizardrys, Flight Simulators
and the rest of the current games are lots of fun and provide
many hours of entertainment However, the current masters
of these games cut their computer games teeth on the old slow
simple programs. Shouldn't future masters be told of these
hidden gems that can lead them to computer games mastery? I
think that they will benefit in the long run. And if there is
some diskette that won't work at all and even the disk zap
programs can't retrieve anything from them? Re-initialize it
and use it for very temporary storage, or better still, give the
diskette to the trash man because that is where any bad apple
(diskette) should wind up.
A footnote to this information is that I have had the
opportunity to shop in Kay-Bee stores in several areas of the
country. In each store I found the same type of display of
these discounted computer software products. I feel that it is
safe to assume that any of the Kay-Bee stores will have these
products. However, at those prices, and in light of this
article, they won't have them for long.
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
.10 DISK STORAGE BOX ...... 2.sn
.36 DISK STORAGE BOX . . . . .. 9.00
DIGITIZER ............... $185.00
• ZOOM TELEPHONICS 300 .. $99.00
• lie MODEM & SOFTWARE . 5139.00
• CENTAURI 300 ........... $125.00
• US ROBOTICS 1200 ...... $219.00
• PROMETHEUS 1200A ..... 5289.00
• US ROBOTICS 2400 ...... 5399.00·
• SSIDD, BOX OF 10 ......... 59.00 • SSIDD, PAK OF 25 . . . . . . . .. $20.00
• SSIDD, CASE OF 100 ...... $70.00
• SSiDD, CARTON OF 500 . .. 5300.00
• 2-NOTCH/DS/DD, BOX OF 10. $10.00
• 2-NOTCH/DSIDD, PAK OF 25. $22.50
• 2-NOTCHOSOD, CASE OF 100 . $80.00
5 for $10.00
STARTER KIT ............ 5125.00
• SS/DD, BOX OF 10 ......... 19.00
• DIGITIZER. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. $299.00
• B & W CAMERA. . . . . . . . .. 5195.00
• COMPUTER EYES ........ $109.00 CHIPS
.70 DISK CASE ............ $11.00
WOOD FILE CABINET . . . . .. $29.00
EPROMS 2716/273212764 .... $4.00
EPROMS 27128127256 . . . . . .. 57.00·
64K, SET OF 8 . . . . . . . . . . . .. $9.60
256K. SET OF 8 ... . . . . . . .. 524.00
• SURGE PROTECTOR ..... 57.00
3 OUTLET . . . . . . . . . . . . .. $11.00
.6-0UTLET POWER STRIP .. 519.00
SURGE PROTECT . . . . . . . .. 525.00
• RF MODULATOR .......... $49.00 • CABLE GENDER
CHANGER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 59.00
PANASONIC Pl091 ....... $259,00'
PANASONIC Pl092 ....... $349.00
CITIZEN 1200 ........... , $199.00·
CITIZEN MSP-l0, 160 CPS. $269.00·
CITIZEN MSP-15, WIDE. . .. $389.00·
CITIZEN MSP-20, 200 CPS . $369.00·
SILVER REED 500, LQ .... 5249.00
STARWRITER AlO-30 ..... $375.00·
PANASONIC P3151, LQ .... 5399,00
TOSHIBA Pl340 OOTilETTER. $449.00
• 2500 SHEETS OF PAPER . .. 531.00
INTERFACE .... ......... $49.00
INTERFACE CARD. . . . . . . .. 559.00
GRAPHICS CARD ........ $109.00
• MICROFAZER BUFFER .... $139.00
• PRINTER STAND .......... 514.00
OR 3 SERIAL PORTS ...... 579.00
• LASER 3000. 80 COL.. 1 DR.. 5475.00
• CH PADDLE STICKS . . . . . .. 533.00
• CH MACH II JOYSTICK ..... 533.00
• CH MACH III JOYSTICK .... 539.00
.10 PORT EXPANDER ...... 525.00
.9·16 OR 16-9 ADAPTER ..... 59.00
• FOURTH DIMENSION ..... $149.00
.DISTAR ................. $109.00
• CONTROLLER ............ $49.00·
• 12-INCH GREEN/AMBER .... 589.00
• AVT AMERICA, 22 Mhz .. " 5149.00
• XTRON COLOR .......... 5149.00
DIAL 800-446-4462 INSTEAD): WAIT FOR
TONE: DIAL 383-1313.
DRIVE STEPPER ......... . $74.00
$19.00 • RF MODULATOR ....... .
ON 11..-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 519.00
• WORDSTAR 3.3 ......... . 599.00 • INCOME TAX PREPARER .. $175.00
539.00 • PRINT SHOP ........ .
.SIDEWAYS ....... .
$48.00 • COpy II + 529.00
• 16K RAM CARD (FOR II +) .. $49.00
• 128K RAM CARD (FOR II! ). 5185.00·
• BO COL CARD . . . . . . . . . . . .. 569.00·
.80/160 COL. CARD ...... $209.00·
• SERI·ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. $99.00
• TITAN ACCELERATOR lie .. 5249.00
• WILDCARD II COPY CD ... $109.00
• PROM BURNER . . . . . . . .
• 64K MEMORY. . . . . .
• 128K MEMORY ........... 5148.00· • 320K MEMORY ........... Sl64.00· • 512K MEMORY ........... 5199.00· • 1 MEG MEMORY
• CLOCK CARD. . . . . . . . .. S109.00
• MODEM CARD . . . . . . . . .
S49.00 •
• Z-BO BOARD. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 549.00·
• CPM FOR lie: Z-BO BD .
5239.00 •
• 512K MEMOR'v
(301) 652.4232
OJ ~
'-'1M I J
STORE HOURSI Monday throu9h Thursday: 12 noon until 8 p.m.
Friday: 12 Noon until 6
February 1986
sa.: ~s
Many of the [me articles in the pages of this journal
discuss the technical aspects of the hardware or software
associated with the Apple family of microcomputers. This is
great because many of us can't spend the time or money to be
able to gain this information on our own. We therefore rely
on others to tell us their reactions and results on these various
items. There is one item on which I have seldom read any
article, an item which is not only useful with most brands of
microcomputers but is required for their efficient use. This
item is a computer desk.
When I got my new Apple computer, I went through all
the standard options trying to find a permanent home for my
newest hobby. I was smart enough to not even suggest using
the kitchen table. There is just enough space at my place for
my food without an extra Apple sitting there. Also in my
house, the kitchen table is the site for many activities such as
sewing, school projects and the occasional repair to some
household device which has decided to malfunction. For a
time I used my regular desk as a computer desk. The top of
this desk has some extra drawers for pencils, stamps, and a
variety of desk type collectables which made the surface too
small for the new Apple to re:it on for very long. Therefore,
this was only a very temporary resting place for the Apple.
During some family expansion, the Apple took over our
folding card table. It seemed to all concerned that this was
likely to be a permanent installation. When the computer
moved from the den, where l;ome construction was in pro­
gress, to the living room ( so the television could be used for
the color graphics of course ) the card table moved with the
computer system.
I started looking for a desk for the Apple shortly after I had
worked through the manuals which came with it. In the dark
ages, Apple computers came with manuals on programming,
the hardware, and all sorts of neat stuff. This search took a
long time, measured in years, and was so fruitless that I was
beginning to consider designing and building my own com­
puter desk. After finding, and then rejecting several computer
desks for various reasons, I finally found one that would not
require me to design and build my own desk.
The desk that I found and am now using is made by Bush
Industries. This company produces three series of desks of
which I am aware; the 120 series, the 140 series and the 170
series. Each of these are good looking pieces of furniture that
would be a positive benefit to most computer systems. The
desk that I bought is the Bush 170 series desk, model CT170.
While I like the looks of the other series from Bush, the 170
series has features which, to me, made it the most attractive of
these three series of desks.
This desk fits the bill for me in the following areas. A
majority of this desk is made of real wood. Many of the desks
in the discount stores use a vinyl covered particle board.
While this can be a sturdy material, I am not interested in
having an important (to me) piece of furniture made entirely
from that material. The construction of the pieces of the 170
series are well finished with rounded edges and a satin finish
on the oak wood. The CT170 desk comes knocked down so it
was easy for me to transport it in my station wagon the 75
miles from the store to my home. Had it been assembled, I
would have needed to use a truck for this transportation.
Oh, it is a kit!?! I know that this has a negative connota­
tion but please hear my comments. There is a minimum of
"tab A into slot B" instructions. There are plenty of pictures
to accompany this easy to assemble desk. The fastening hard­
ware is of the hidden, quarter-tum type fasteners, for the most
part, so the parts will stay together unless you decide to
disassemble them. While I didn't NEED the maximum super­
vision which I had for the assembly of this unit, a helpful
hand is strongly recommended during some of the assembly
This Bush model CT170 desk has a pencil (and almost
everything else) drawer on the right hand half of the desk.
Behind this drawer is a slot in the top through which
continuous form paper for your printer may be fed. The left
side of this desk is designed for the computer. The front 12
inches of the desktop on the left can be adjusted for various
heights (or even tilted). This allows you to set the keyboard
at the proper height for you. This lets you type more
comfortably. Under the desk is a shelf which is handy for
paper storage on the right and feet on the left
Actually, I have the optional locking door kit, model
CTA174, positioned under the left part of the desk. The
instructions and mounting hardware allow you to put the
doors into the hutch or under the desk. If you save the
instructions and extra parts, you can move the doors at a later
time if you want to move your system around. Because these
doors are optional, you may defer buying them until some
later time or you may choose to do without them. If there are
small fingers around that love to explore into computer
materials when the parents are not looking, locking doors may
be required to protect your diskettes, joystick, etc.
I also got the Bush model CTA 171 hutch. A hutch is a
set of shelves like a small book case which sits on top of a
desk. This hutch is divided into two sides with adjustable
shelves on both sides. The monitor shelf on the left side can
be tilted. This would allow a book or other paper to be put
on the shelf, over the monitor (like an Apple /lc monitor). I
have an Apple monitor 11/ and Disk /I sitting side by side on
this shelf in its level position. They do fit although snugly.
There are two adjustable shelves on the right side of the hutch.
In fairness to the particle board industry, the shelves are vinyl
covered particle board. If I get to the point that I want all
wood grain showing, I can buy some oak and replace those
shelves. For now, the contrasting color shelves enhances the
units appearance. Maybe I can come to really like these
shelves in time.
The back of the desk and hutch are open. This allows easy
routing of all interconnection cables. There are even holes
with plastic sleeves in a couple of places so that you can get
cables through some of the shelves. The pieces which come
with the doors include a back so that the space covered bv the
contd. on pg 64
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
by Tam
We have come to rely on our personal computers for a
great many tasks. This article will point out yet another task
at which our computers are very good indeed. With the
addition of the simple device whose construction is described
in this article, your personal computer can be turned into a
powerful tool for doing many scientific experiments. For a
materials cost of about $35, this device will let your computer
read four independent temperatures, log these readings, and
reduce the resulting data so that meaningful conclusions can
be drawn. This device will be most useful to students and
amateur scientists but can also be used to evaluate a home
heating system or could even control an industrial process.
The construction of this device is very simple, if a little
diminutive. The electronic circuit is also simple, but the
software is more sophisticated. There is a reason for this.
This article goes beyond a simple construction project to
become an introduction to a new field. That field is Personal
The personal computer is drastically changing the way
people in science and especially industry run experiments.
Long gone are the days of long hours writing down data by
hand, and soon the days of expensive single purpose experi­
mental apparatus will follow. General purpose computers
with specific attachments for a task are simply taking over all
but the most complicated experiments. Where the special
'-' purpose machines sat gathering dust after the experiment was
over, the personal computer keeps on contributing to every
part of the effort.
A number of personal instrumentation systems are com­
mercially available for the Apple and IBM PC. Some are bare
boards with a spec. sheet or two and others are full blown
systems with hardware, software, and documents but with a
much higher price tag. The Quad Thermometer is an inexpen­
sive starting point, yet one which has practical applications.
A personal instrument system is of course more than just
a few hardware attachments. It must include the software to
support you in every step of the experimental process. A
good personal instrument system must help in the design of
the experiment, the calibration of the sensors, the logging of
data, the reduction of that data into comprehensible form, the
writing of the report, and the generation of supporting
graphics. What's more, at every step along the way it must
encourage good scientific method. A personal computer can
do aU this and do it with style.
Description or the Hardware
The quad themometer can be easily adapted to any personal
computer which has paddle inputs of the timer type. The
prototype was tested on an Apple ][+ but Apple IIc & lie,
Atari, Commodore, and IBM all use similar systems with
only slight changes in component values and cable connec­
tors. The software can be easily adjusted to different machines
by entering the correct parameters into Program #1. This will
be covered later.
The heart of the sensors are four tiny thermistors the size
Washington Apple Pi
of sesame seeds. These devices are ceramic resistors which
change their resistance markedly with temperature. They are
supported by correction caps to adjust the available thermistor
resistance values to the needs of your system.
The Software
The supporting software is not intended as a complete pro­
fessional personal instrumentation system but as an intro­
duction to the field. We invite you to modify the programs
provided to suit your own needs. With only a few personal
touches, this software should however be adequate for a unc!er­
graduate science project, to evaluate a home heating system,
or to run down hot spots in electronic equipment.
The programs use many of the structured Basic techniques
discussed by Arthur Luehrmann in his excellent series of
"Creative Computing" articles (May to July 1984). The
programs are broken down into self contained blocks which
have only one entrance and one exit. The main program is
then an outline of the order in which these blocks are used.
This structure should greatly facilitate your understanding of
the programs and ease your job of adjusting them to your own
Scieptific Method
When properly designed, personal instrumentation sup­
ports correct scientific method. Scientific method is the body
of procedures which insure that an experiment can be repeated
by other workers and yield the same results. This method is
supported by a tradition several hundred years old and is at the
core of science and technology today.
Using scientific method, however, requires a person to do
two very different types of tasks. First the person must dog­
gedly follow an experimental procedure through, even if it
means hours of tedious hand data logging, and then the person
must engage in flights of imagination to envision the under­
lying forces of nature. Few people can do both tasks well.
A good personal instrumentation system relieves the
experimenter of the tedium of data logging and data reduction
while promoting understanding of the phenomena. Such a
system need not however support the running of an experi­
ment when the experimenter does not understand the the under­
lying theory and math.
Experimental Desjgn
In designing an experiment, as in any designing task, you
must first answer the question, "What exactly is it that I am
trying to do?". This question must be answered first by a
general overview and then by tens, if not hundreds, of details.
As you work out your experimental design you should keep
coming back to this simple question.
The experiment we use in this article to demonstrate the
quad thermometer is to measure the temperature of key com­
ponents inside the Apple, ftrst with, and then without a fan, ­
- Doctor heal thyself --. We are trying to determine how
much the fan lowers the temperature of the components and
February 1986
whether the difference is enough to reduce the likelihood of
component failure.
We will need to measure the temperature of the room air
and of the several internal components within the Apple. The
temperature range to be expected is from room temperature
about 76° F (22° C) to 200° F (90° C). and we will need a
resolution of about 1.5° F (1.0° C). The first program
(Program #1. Choosing Thennistors) helps us design the
sensors for the required temperature range. It helps us choose
thermistors from the suppliers catalog and gives us an idea of
what to expect from the finished device.
The thermistors I used were minute glass coated beads
made by Fenwal Electronics (see parts list). They were pur­
chased from Newark Electronics. as this distributor has a
minimum order of $25 and the manufacturer has a minimum
order of $75. We could also order the heat shrink tubing from
them. Our local Newark distributor has since changed its
policy and no longer sells directly to the public. They are
still a good supplier for schools and businesses. and your local
representative may still accept small orders.
You should also be able to obtain a catalog from your
supplier. perhaps for free. or for a few dollars. Newark
includes a few pages of thermistor parameters in its general
catalog and these will do nicely. If you have difficulty
obtaining the thermistors. write to me at the address listed at
the end of this article. I will try to organize a group purchase
but will be able to order only a few types. The thermistors
cost about $5.00 each.
We tried cheaper thermistors without the glass coating but
their readings were affected by moisture even when the units
were covered with epoxy. You may certainly use thermistors
from other manufacturers and of other designs. They should
however be small single thermistors intended for temperature
If you are using an Atari or Commodore computer the
value for the paddle resistance (Program #1. step 105) should
be RX = 1000000 and the internal cap (step 110) CN = .01.
IBM CP's use RX = 100000 and CN = .01. All Apple's use
the values in the listings. The Mac will not, however. accept
the Quad Thermometer since it has no game port. Some
manufacturers of thermistors use different reference tempera­
tures for the resistance ratio (Step 115). so check the catalog
entry for a note on this.
Choose a thermistor from the catalog that you guess is
about right then run Program #1 and answer the questions.
The calculated parameters Beta and Alpha are used to compare
various thermistors.
The next step is to determine the value of correction cap
needed. When thermistors are used in the paddle circuit their
temperature measurement ability has these peculiarities. First
they have a low temperature limit below which they cannot
measure. and second they have their greatest resolution just
above this low limit. They have no high limit except for
what the cabling can thermally withstand. but their resolution
becomes very poor at high temperatures. Typically• .1° C
resolution and accuracy are possible just above the low limit
but 5° C resolution is all that is available at 80° C or higher.
This means that you must carefully choose the low tem­
perature as close to the expected experimental low as possible
but not so close as to lose data. The combination of thermis­
tor parameters and correction cap value set this low limit
Run #1 is a example of the use of Program #1. You may
either give Program #1 a value for the correction cap or give
the low temperature limit and the correct cap will be
A chart of the resistance and pot reading versus tempera­
ture is then calculated. This chart will give you a good idea of
the performance of your chosen thermistor and correction cap
over the range of the experiment. Note the change in
resolution. number of pot reading steps per degree. over the
temperature range.
You will want to try several thermistor values from the
catalog to fmd one requiring ony a small correction cap for
your temperature range. As the numbers on the data sheet are
only about 10% accurate. it is best to plan on a least a .01
microfarad correction cap to give yourself some adjustment
capability. You can now place an order for the thermistors
with confidence.
When the thermistors arrive (3 to 6 weeks). the
construction of the hardware is straight forward and fast
Figure 1 shows the main parts. a game I/O plug. main cable,
circuit board, and thermistors.
The circuit board is 113 of a general purpose circuit board
from Radio Shack with predrilled holes and copper lanes. The
area for the correction caps for each channel were marked with
a permanent marker. The exact caps required will be deter­
mined in an automatic calibration test later. The foam block
around the board was a single piece of shipping foam, flexible
but stiff. and is held on with rubber bands. The foam protects
the board and helps keep the correction caps at a stable
The cables can be of as small a wire size as will mechani­
cally survive your experiment (#24 was used on the proto­
type). The main cable needs a minimum of 6 wires. but you
may wish to double the ground and add +5. or your
experiment may have use for the computer's pushbutton
inputs and annunciator outputs which will require additional
conductors. All the cables on the prototype were 4 feet long.
as this unit was intended for use only on a workbench. The
timer circuit used for reading the paddles is very slow and only
has an accuracy of 8 bits. but it is very insensitive to
electromagnetic noise. We would therefore expect cable
lengths of a few tens of feet to work just as well as the proto­
type. I would not however leave long cables permanently
attached from my computer to the outside world as lightning
surges might enter the computer through them.
The only difficulty in constructing the thermistor sensors
is the very small size of the devices. Figure 2 shows the
detailed steps in the assembly. First separate. trim. strip. and
tin the cable wires. Place a 114 inch piece of heat sink tubing
over the long wire. Wrap either lead of the thermistor around
this wire and solder. Trim off the extra wire. The thermistor
leads sometimes contain platinum, and the trimmed bits may
be worth saving to use as a catalyst in other experiments. A
pair of pointed tweezers proved very helpful at this point
Shrink the tubing with either a small flame or a heat gun.
The second solder joint can then be made and the outer
heat shrink tubing installed. A small amount of epoxy seals
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
the end of the tube but the tip of the thennistor must be
allowed to stick out. The outer heat shrink may be any length
from 114 inch to several inches to serve as a handle. For
,ome experiments you might wish to mount the thermistors
"-'m metal or glass tubes.
Electrical Wjrj02
Figure 3 shows the electrical schematic. Cap C4 is
included to reduce electrical noise. The Apple] [+ connector is
a 16 pin dip header. For computers other than the Apple ][+,
you need to use a different type of connector and different pin
numbers. This information should be in the system docu­
ments or in other magazine articles about your machine. You
may write to me if you have difficulty finding this
The exact value needed for the correction caps is usually
easier to achieve with several small caps in parallel so allow
some room on the circuit board. The caps themselves will be
installed during the calibration procedure.
Correction Cap Adjustment
The thermistors vary about 5% in their electrical proper­
ties, and computer readings in response to a particular resis­
tance will vary at least as much again. The accuracy we need,
about .5% of the absolute temperatures, can however be
obtained despite these limitations by calibrating our sensors
with a simple bench top procedure.
The first step is to set the lowest readable temperature by
choosing the correction cap values. Program #2 lets the
computer instrumentation system calculate the required cap
'-'values from a single temperature reading. To use this pro­
gram you will need a thermos of cold water and a reference
The thermometer I used was a Fisher Scientific 14-983­
lOB glass bulb type costing about $20.00. In the calibration
procedure, which follows the installation of the correction
caps, this thermometer sets the precision of the fmished
thennistor sensors. The computer will be able to test no
more accurately than this referenced thermometer so you want
to use a good one. As you will only need it for a few hours
however, students will wish to try to borrow one from their
school even if this means having to move your computer
system temporarily into the school lab. These glass
thermometers are easily broken so be careful. The correction
cap adjustment and calibration must be done on the computer
which will do the data logging as each computer will read its
paddles a little differently.
To adjust the correction caps, run Program #2, and follow
the instructions. I attached the sensors to the thermometer
with a rubber band and wrapped the assembly in plastic film
closed with another band to keep out the water bath. I then
placed them in the thermos and adjusted the water temperature
by adding wann and cold ice water until the thermometer read
2 degrees below the lowest temperature of interest for our
experiment 76°F (200C). I then waited 10 minutes to be sure
the temperature was stable, then ran the Program #2.
.,-, The computer was then turned off, the 110 cable
unplugged, and small disk caps were installed on the sensor
PC board. Choose the available cap value just smaller than
the value suggested by Program #2. Check your bath
Washington Apple Pi
temperature and run the program again. You can stop with
one cap or add smaller ones to the sensors which need them.
These caps do not affect the accuracy of the fmished sensors.
They only set the lowest temperature that the sensors can read.
The final calibration procedure is a bit involved but
accuracy is what is needed and accuracy always takes work.
Program #3 is the calibration program. It guides you through
the calibration procedure, then calculates calibration parame­
ters for each thermistor and stores them on the disk.
If you are using a computer other than an Apple, you will
need to rewrite the disk storage routine (sub 1400) as well as
all disk routines in Programs 4 and 5. The calibration file
consists of (1) a description of all the thermistors with the
calibrator'S name and the date, (2) the game 110 reading at
2S°C, and (3) the Beta parameter for each of the four sensors.
Instructions are given in this program but let us empha­
size a few points. The procedure is to immerse the thermistor
sensors in a water bath and raise the temperature of that bath
in steps. The reading of the thennistors are taken automatic­
ally but the bath temperature must be taken with a reference
thermometer and entered from the keyboard. As mentioned
earlier, the accuracy of the sensors can be no better than the
accuracy of this thermometer.
The sensors were again rubber banded to the thermometer
and wrapped in plastic film. You will need the reference
thermometer, a container of hot water, a container of cold
water, the thermos, a empty bucket for waste water, and a
towel for spills. I spread the towel on the floor beside the
computer desk and placed the water containers on it. The
program suggests you start with the coldest temperature and
work your way up. You can, if you like, start at any place in
the temperature range of interest and enter the temperature
steps in any order, but cold to wann is easiest With each
step pour a little water from the thermos into the bucket,
replace it with water from the hot or cold supply, and wait for
the temperature to stabilize, at least 2 minutes.
The smallest number of points that will run is 3. The
largest is 50. Any number above 10 should produce accept
able accuracy. Taking many small steps near the cold end of
the range will improve the accuracy.
When you complete the temperature steps (type "E" on the
keyboard to end calibration), the program will fit the points to
an exponential curve and calculate two key parameters for each
sensor. The first is GC (25C) the game control reading for
that sensor at 25°C, and the second is Beta the exponential
parameter. The Betas calculated here should agree with the
Betas from the first program within about 10%. These values
may then be printed out and stored on the disk.
The mathematical procedure for calculating the parameters
of the sensors (Program #3, Sub 800) uses the Least Squares
Fit of an Exponential Function Technique. The data is first
linearized by taking the logarithm of each pot reading. This
step is shown graphically in Figure 4. The linearized data
points are then fitted to a straight line using a least squares fit
The slope of this line becomes Beta and its value at 25°C
becomes the first calibration parameter. Even more sophis­
ticated math may be desired for experiments having large
temperature ranges to insure that the accuracy of the reading is
February 1986
uniform over the entire range.
Data Logging
We are now at a point that we can run experiments.
Program #4 is the data logging program. It allows you to set
up the experiment, record reference data, retrieve the
calibration parameters from disk. automatically read the data,
add running notes. and record the completed data on disk.
Scientific method is supported by the methodical prompting
for information (date. experimenters name, etc.) and by the
inclusion of this information and notes from the keyboard
directly in the data.
In our example experiment. I mounted the 0 sensor on the
Apple's 6502, Number 1 on a central RAM memory chip, and
Number 2 on the center of the power supply. Number 3 was
mounted by its wire so that the sensor was in the room air on
the outside of the computer near the fan intake. The first three
were attached with a small piece of scotch tape and a match
head blob of heat sink grease (Radio Shack #276-1372). The
cables had to be carefully bent with the fingers and taped to
the computers case until the sensors would stay in place. The
heat sink grease helps transfer the heat from the target to the
Program #4 was then run, and its printout is Run #2. For
the ftrst 30 minutes the fan was on, then it was turned off, and
a note to that effect was entered in the data. At the end of
about an hour and a half, 73 data points had been taken at one
minute intervals, the experiment was ended and the data stored
on disk.
This program keeps track of the time between data points
with a FOR/NEXT loop (Program #4, lines 845 to 875)
during which it also looks for the keystrokes of notes to be
entered from the keyboard. The delay constants are set on
lines 120 (Pl%, printer off) and 125 (P2%, printer on) which
will have to be adjusted for your machine. You will have to
set up a simple trial experiment just measuring the air
temperature. Time the taking of 10 data points at one minute
intervals and adjust the delay constants until the time intervals
is correct. Since the printer is slower than the monitor, the
printer constant P2% will be the slightly smaller of the two.
This program begs for a real time clock. The use of the
FOR/NEXT loop for timing is not really satisfactory,
particularly if notes are being typed in from the keyboard
Such clocks are regularly advertised at about $130.00 and we
would certainly recommend this expense for any experiment
which is to be published. A programmable interrupt from the
clock would be a most useful feature for this program.
Data Reductiop
One of the biggest problems with computer aided
experiments is the reams of raw data they output. Until
meaningful conclusions can be drawn from this data, all the
work to this point is for naught. Program #5 is a simple data
reduction program designed specifically for evaluating hot
electronic equipment It reads the data from the disk. prints
out the data, and calculates means for selected sections of the
This Data Reduction program is the program which must
be customized to the needs of your experiment. This is
particularly important for a student where a personally written
data reduction program clearly demonstrates a sound under­
standing of the experiment
The personal computer is capable of quite sophisticated
data analysis, although it is at times a bit slow. I have had
success with fitting several types of equations to data points,
(lines, polynomials, and nonlinear functions), taking a Fast
Fourier Transform for spectral analysis, and drawing contour
charts. The major limitation in addition to the speed is the
number of data points which can be placed in memory and yet
have room for the program and math operations.
Experimental Results
To evaluate my fan experiment. I reviewed all the data
graphically and chose two blocks of data which best
represented steady-state conditions with the fan on and off.
The mean and standard deviation for these data blocks were
then calculated.
The 3-inch fan mounted inside the Apple )[+ (equipped
with 16K memory card, printer card, and disk controller card),
was shown to lower the 6502 and power supply surface
temperatures less than 10 degrees but it lowered the memory
chips by over 20 degrees F. We feel this is a significant tem­
perature reduction, particularly in the memory chips, and
justifies the expense, noise, and dust accumulation associated
with the use of a fan.
The Ideal Personal Instrumept
These programs are a long way from being the ideal
personal instrumentation system. In fact the word processing
and graphic development functions are left to commercial
software. Still these programs should be adequate for learning
and for straightforward experiments. What would the ideal
system be like?
First the system would have to be completely integrated
so that control and data could be passed from one section to
another with ease. This takes a lot of memory and sophis­
ticated programming. Smooth transfer between the data
reduction, word processing, and graphics development capa­
bilities is particularly important. The point of the whole
exercise is to produce the final report with data, graphics,
equations, and explanations in a fast. accurate. and profes­
sional manner.
The system must be fast and accurate. A 32-bit mini with
a 12 meg clock and a math co-processor would of course be
very desirable, but in truth only very sophisticated and
expensive experiments would require this kind of capability.
A common personal computer with well-supported calibration
procedures and less expensive hardware, like real time clocks
and A to D boards, will do wonders.
The system must be easy to learn. easy to use, and easy to
modify to the needs of different experiments. As the
experimenter is released from the monotonous task of writing
down numbers, more effort can be placed on using more
advanced math and better analysis of the data. The experi­
menters must be able to quickly surpass the original functions
supplied with the system and add routines of their own. The
system must be able to grow in complexity as the user's skill
Above all the ideal personal instrumentation system must
support the experimenter at every step of the way and facilitate
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
the use of good scientific method. ~ Note: ~e programs referred to in this article will be
avadable soon 10 the WAP disketeria. Tom's address is 007
Winans Way, Baltimore, MD 21229, phone number (301)
'-' 233-2140.)
enrls Lis'
...Rs:Q. Des~dlltiOD of ~an
Suggested Total
$ 1.50
$ 1.20
$ .50
$ 3.00
$ 1.70
$ 1.10
Thermistor GA45Jl by Fenwal
Glass coated beads
Resistance at 25C - 50K
Ratio OC to SOC - 9.53
Circuit Board #276-157
Cable twin wire #22 stranded
Cable 8 conductor #24 stranded
two runs of #278-365
Heat shrink tubing
polyolefm 1/16 ID
Heat Shrink tubing
polyolefm 1/8 ID
Disk capacitors
(values calculated by program)
DIP Header 16 pin #276-1980
Epoxy, foam, etc.
- Radio Shack
Fenwal - Fenwal Electronics, 63 Fountain Street Framingham, MA 01701
Local - A local electronics store BUD
l!l - Ernmm l!1
Choosing a Thermistor
Note: Give all resistances in Kohms.
-Thermistor parameters from data sheet-
Type Number: GA45Jl RO @ 25 (Kohm) : 50 Ratio (OC/5OC): 9.53 -Calculated Parameters-
Beta '" 3980 Deg.K Alpha (0) = -5.53 %lDeg.C -Temperature units 7 (F or C) : F
-Correction Caps-
Calculate value 7 (Y or N) Y Lowest temp. needed : 60 Maximum resistance", 77 Kohm Correction cap. '" .0206 UP -Temperature & Resistance Chart-
Low temperature: 60 High temperature: 110 Temperature step: 1 Temperature
15.6 C
16.1 C
16.7 C
61 F
77.3 KOHM
75.3 KOHM
73.3 KOHM
Washington Apple Pi Temperature
17.2 C
17.8 C
18.3 C
18.9 C
19.4 C
21.1 C
21.7 C
23.3 C
24.4 C
26.1 C
26.7 C
28.3 C
28.9 C
29.4 C
31.1 C
31.7 C
33.3 C
33.9 C
34.4 C
36.1 C
36.7 C
37.8 C
38.3 C
38.9 C
39.4 C
41.1 C
41.7 C
42.8 C
43.3 C
63 F
65 F
67 F
73 F
74 F
75 F
77 F
78 F
81 F
83 F
84 F
85 F
87 F
88 F
89 F
91 F
93 F
94 F
97 F
98 F
11 OF
- £rQI:IOm
Data Logging
255 248 242 Resjstance
71.4 KOHM
67.8 KOHM
66.1 KOHM
64.4 KOHM
62.7 KOHM
61.1 KOHM
58.1 KOHM
53.8 KOHM
52.5 KOHM
51.2 KOHM
48.7 KOHM
46.4 KOHM
43.1 KOHM
42.1 KOHM
41.0 KOHM
40.1 KOHM
39.1 KOHM
38.2 KOHM
37.3 KOHM
36.4 KOHM
34.7 KOHM
33.1 KOHM
32.4 KOHM
31.6 KOHM
30.9 KOHM
29.5 KOHM
28.8 KOHM
28.2 KOHM
26.9 KOHM
26.3 KOHM
25.7 KOHM
25.2 KOHM
24.1 KOHM
23.5 KOHM
236 230 224 218 212 207 202 197 192 187 182 178 173 169 165 161 157 153 149 146 142 139 135 132 129 126 123 120 117 115 112 109 107 104 102 100 97 95 93 91 89 87 85 83 81 79 78 76 l!~
Data File Name - Apple Fan Test 6 Date - 1129/84
Description of Experiment - Fan OnIFan Off. TO-6502.
It-Memory. T2-Power Supply. TI-Room Air.
Experimenter - J. T. Riley
Time Interval (min) - 1
Temperature Units - F
Thermistor Parameter File Name - T1
Description of Thermistors - 7124/84 JTR 0 - GA45J1 .02
1 1 - GA45J1 .02/2 - F A41J .251 3 - GA45J1 .02 contd. February 1986
60 1229 91.54 104.45 99.52 76.72
61 1230 91.86 104.90 99.52 76.49
62 1231 91.86 104.90 99.85 76.96
63 123292.18 104.90 99.85 77.20
64 123392.18 104.90 99.85 76.96
65 1234 92.18 105.37 100.19 76.72
66 123592.50 105.37 100.19 76.03
67 1236 92.50 105.37 100.19 76.26
68 1237 92.50 105.37 100.19 76.26
69 1238 92.83 105.37 100.53 76.49
70 1239 92.83 105.37 100.53 76.49
71 1240 92.83 105.84 100.53 76.26
72 1241 92.83 105.84 100.53 76.26
Data complete. 73 points taken.
You may enter notes between data points (do not use comma
or quotes).
1169 85.17 79.91
117085.43 80.37
1171 85.70 80.84
1172 85.97 81.08
117385.97 81.32
117486.24 81.32
117585.97 81.56
117685.43 81.56
117785.43 81.56
1178 85.43 81.56
1179 85.70 81.56
11 1180 85.70 81.32
12 1181 85.70 81.32
13 1182 85.70 81.32
14 1183 85.70 81.08
15 1184 85.70 81.08
16 1185 85.70 81.08
17 1186 85.70 81.08
18 1187 85.70 80.84
19 1188 85.70 80.84
20 1189 85.70 80.84
21 1190 85.70 80.84
22 1191 85.70 80.84
23 1192 85.43 80.84
24 1193 85.70 80.60
2S 1194 85.17 80.60
26 119585.17 80.60
27 1196 85.17 80.60
28 1197 84.90 80.60
29 1198 84.90 80.60
30 1199 84.90 82.78
31 1200 85.17 85.37
32 1201 85.43 87.31
33 1202 85.70 89.06
34 1203 85.97 90.89
35 1204 86.24 92.17
36 1205 86.52 93.50
37 1206 86.79 94.88
38 1207 87.07 95.59
39 1208 87.35 96.68
40 1209 87.64 97.42
41121087.92 98.18
42 1211 88.21 98.96
43 1212 88.50 99.75
44 1213 88.50 100.15
45 1214 88.79 100.56
46 1215 89.09 100.97
47 1216 89.39 101.39
48 1217 89.69 101.81
49 1218 89.69 102.24
50 1219 89.99 102.67
51 122090.29 102.67
52 1221 90.29 103.11
53 122290.60 103.11
54 1223 90.60 103.55
55 1224 90.91 103.55
56 1225 90.91 103.99
57 122691.22 103.99
58 1227 91.54 104.45
59 1228 91.54 104.45
4 System & fan on
4 10 min before test
oRoom lights reduced
RUD 3 - Program #5
Data Reduction
Statistical Parameters
Low Limit - 0, High Limit - 28
Number of Points - 29; Elapsed Time - 28 Minutes
4 Fan off
Min.. MM..
86.2 .29
81.6 .41
90.7 .37
74.5 1.55
0 91.7
1 104.5
2 99.5
3 76.7
F' I
Gamo 1/0
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t=-". - ..
...... -..
I. StrIp and lin wi ....
Ilip on hea I Ih.lnk lub •.
CI. cull Boa.d ...s
Ms:an. ..Min... MaL
Statistical Parameters
Low Limit - 50, High Limit - 72
Number of Points - 23; Elapsed Time - 22 Minutes
B 01
2.Sold .. 11111 load.
Corr.cllon Cap I =
.... -. 3
...... ­
3. Hoal Ihrlnk Inn.r lub•.
. .....
4. Solder IOcond load
.;ULJi... v'
RTf ,""., ,. . February 1986
5. H.al Ih.lnk auler lube,
6. EpalY oul .. lub. and •.
Washington Apple Pi
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Apple™ Software
MacOneWrite ea
Back to Basics ea.
Compuserve Starter
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DB Master 4+
Barron's SAT
Create w/Garfield
Straight Talk
Market Mgr Plus
Mind Prober
Word Challenge
Fontrix 1.5
Macintosh™ Software
Apple™ Software
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ReadySetGo 2.0
DaVinci: Interiors
Microleague B'sball
Hitchilcers Guide
Sp[eodsbee t
Spreadsheet Link
PFS: Plan
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Washington Apple Pi February 1986
Chester H. Page
This application provides for right-justified "pictured"
printing of numbers, for example, as tabular output in the
form $ 12.34, or as" 12 dollars and 34 cents", when the data
returned from a calculation is simply the number 1234. The
word .USING can be used in the execution mode, as in
1234 .USING $ ###.##
or in compilation mode
: OOLLARS .USING $ ###.##" ;
to be used in
12345 OOLLARS <CR>
etc. In compilation mode, the picture string Jlll1S1 be
delimited by a quotation mark; in execution, the delimiter is
not necessary if an end-of-line <CR> is entered. If another
command follows on the same line, then the delimiter must
be used to prevent the following word from being interpreted
to be part of the format
For right-justified output. use .USING.R and put the
desired width on the stack. thus
: COLUMNS 20 .USING.R ##,###" ;
For large numbers, present as double-precision numbers,
the words are D.USING and D.USING.R . For example,
: PHONE D.USING (###)###-####" ;
The format picture can include words, as in
: MONEY .USING # dollars and ## cents" ;
which will give outputs like
"12 dollars and 34 cents"
from entering "1234 MONEY".
The columnar outputs can be both right and left justified,
as with
: $COL 30 D.USING.R $ ######.##" ;
which will align the $ signs as well as the decimal points.
Note in some of the abovt: examples that there are fewer
digits pictured than used. The use of #S in the program con­
tinues the digit conversion until aU digits are used. #S always
converts at least one digit, so if there are none left, it will
return a leading O. Similarly, if there are fewer digits than the
picture calls for, leading O's are supplied. To avoid the
annoyance of leading O's, the word lYPE has been modified to
*lYPE which ignores zeros until a non-zero digit has been
encountered. If there is limited space for digits, as when the
leading $ is used, the presence of too many digits gives an
overflow which will be printed ~ the $. Without the use
of IS, such an overflow would be discarded with no warning.
SCR # 1
o \ TYPE without leading zeros
3 : ·TYPE (addr n---)
4 1 OFLAG!
7 DOl C@
8 DUP 48 .. IF OFLAG @
\ if n=O, ignore command
\ calculate limits
\ fetch each character
\ if 0, check flag
9 IF DROP BL ENDIF \ if no prior non-zero digit, change to
\ check for 1 to 9
10 ELSE DUP DUP 48> SWAP 56 < •
\ if 1 to 9, clear flag
\ print character or blank
\ if n .. 0, clear stack
15 ENDIF; ->
SCR # 2
o \ Right-justified pictured output of double number
2: D.WITH.R (d n-)
\ set width aside
3 >R
\ convert to absolute value
5 <#
\ prepare conversion
6 PAD DUP DUP C@ + DO \ set up loop from string-end down
7 I C@
\ fetch a character from picture
8 DUP 35 = IF DROP #
\ if #, compile #, else
\ insert character into output string
10 -1 +LOOP
\ continue down-loop
11 #S SIGN #>
\ finish conversion
12 R> OVER \ recover width, compute padding
\ output formatted number
15 ->
SCR # 3
0\ Runtime picture handling
1 : (PICfURE) (n wi-I d w 0--) \ w is width
2 R \ Copy the pointer to tne next word from the return stack.
\ That location holds count byte of the picture string.
4 DUP C@ 1+
\ duplicate and increment length
\ leave picture address and count on stack
6 R> +
\ add length to next-word pointer, tn skip
\ over inline text (picture string)
8 >R
\ put new next-word pointer on return stack
\ zmve picture to PAD
10 IF >R S->D R> ENDIF \ if single-precision number, convert to
\ double-precision format
12 D.WITH.R ;
\ convert and output number
13 ->
SCR # 4
0\ Store picture string at PAD
( n wI-I d w 0-)
2 34
\ leave ASCII code for" delimiter
3 SfATE @
\ check for compilation vs. execution
\ compile a pointer to run-time
\ routine into the next dictionary location
\ copy picture from input stream into word buffer
7 HERE C@ 1+ ALLOT \ move dictionary pointer to compile
\ executing
\ input format picture
10 HERE DUP C@ 1+ \ find its address and length including
\ move format string to PAD
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
121F >R
13 S->D
\ if single-precision number, set width aside
\ convert number to double-precision fonnat
\ recover width
15 -->
SCR # 5
0\ Store picture string, conL
\ convert digits to ASCII and print
4 ->
SCR # 6
0\ "Print using"
I : .USING.R (n w-)
\ number, width
\ put 1 on stack to indicate single-precision numbers
6 : D.USING.R (d w-)
\ double number, width
\ put 0 on stack to indicate double-precision numbers
10 \ for next two words, width is preset to 0 (left justify)
The words PICfURE and (PICTURE) are patterned after
the familiar ." and (."), to provide the function in execution
mode, or to compile it into a word being defined. Since this
dual execution/compilation use of a single word is rather
complicated, it is worthwhile to explain it. In execution,
lines 9-11 of PIcruRE (Scr # 4) read the format string from
the input stream as a dimensioned string into the word buffer,
then move this string, together with its count byte, to free
RAM starting at PAD.
In compilation mode, with PICTURE used in a colon
definition of <name>, it compiles a pointer to (PICTURE),
then reads the next word in the input stream (the format
picture) andlcompiles that string of text into the parameter
field of <name>Uust as though it were a string of component
word address pointers. When <J1ame> is executed, (PIC­
TURE) is executed as a component. When (PICTURE) is
called, the Generic Execution Procedure common to all colon
words puts the address of the following parameter cell on the
return stack, to be used as the word to be executed when (PIC­
TURE) is finished. But (PIcruRE) (lines 2-8 of Scr #
3)takes this address off the return stack, adds the length of the
string, then puts the increased address back onto the return
stack, so that the first wordlafterlthe string becomes the next
component of <name>. (PIcruRE) also puts the address and
count of the format string on the stack, just as (.") does, for
use in further manipulation of the string. (.") calls TYPE to
output the string; (PICTURE) moves the string to RAM at
PAD: - Thus in both direct use in execution, and indirect use
via compilation, the effect of PICTURE is to put the format
string at PAD at the appropriate time. D.WIllI.R is then
Washington Apple Pi
called for the actual output routine.
The execution/compilation duality of PICfURE gets
passed along to .USING.R because it is compiled into the
defmition of .USING.R by [COMPILE]. [COMPILE] kills
the precedence bit of PICTURE and keeps it from being exe­
cuted when .USING.R is defmed. Similarly, the IMMEDI­
ATE word .USlNG.R is forced to be compiled into the
Thus PIcruRE doesn't get used in the compilation mode
until a formatting word is defined with .USING.R or .USING
; for example in
: DOLLARS .USING $ m.##" ;
given above. The IMMEDIATE word .USING causes
execution of PIcnJRE during compilation of DOLLARS,
with the result that (PIcruRE) is a component of DOL­
LARS (but not of .USING).
In the last screen, .USING.R has to put a 1 on the stack
for PICTURE, in both direct execution mode and in compi­
lation mode. This is the reason for the "tricky" second line.@
The following article is reprinted from the January 1986
issue of WashingtonINorthem Virginia Scanner, a
publication of The Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers, Inc. Dr. Chester H. Page is WAP's Forth
Chester Page Wins IEEE Steinmetz Award
Dr. Chester H. Page (LF), a member of the Washington
Section, has been selected as the recipient of the 1986 Charles
Proteus Steinmetz Field Award by the IEEE Board of Directors
"for contributions to terminology, quantities and units in
national and international standards."
Dr. Page received his A.B. and Sc.M. degrees from Brown
University in 1934 and his Ph.D. in physics from Yale Univer­
sity in 1937. From 1937 to 1941 he was instructor and then
assistant professor of physics at Lafayette College. He joined
the National Bureau of Standards in 1941 and contributed
significantly to the development of the proximity fuze. In 1945
he became chief of the Ordnance Research Section, and in
1947 headed the Electronic Computer Section, where he
helped direct the development of SEAC, one of the first
fully-electronic digital computers. He became electronics con­
sultant in 1948, and from 1953 to 1960 a general consultant
to the Director of the Bureau, and taught in the NBS Graduate
From 1960 to 1973 he was chief of thc Electricity Division,
which establishes, maintains, and disseminates the electronic
units for the USA. Under his leadership NBS was in the
forefront of major advances in the methods of detcrmining
these units. From 1973 until his retirement in 1977, he was
the Institute for Basic Standards Coordinator for International
Standardizati.)n Activities.
Dr. Page has been a leading participant in national and
international standards activities since 1949 in the IRE/IEEE,
the International Committee on Weights and Measures, the
Consultation Committee on Units, the International Electro­
technical Committee, and the International Standardization
February 1986
Fox (This review has been updated to reflect the new 2.0
version of Glen Bredon's ProSEL. Information concerning it
is at the end of the review.)
This is a review of four program selectors available for the
Apple /I series computers. The opinions expressed in this
review are my own and do not reflect approval of any product
by any outside groups. (You know - standard legal disclaimer
type stuft). The programs reviewed are: ProSEL by Glen
Bredon, Mouse Desk by International Solutions, and Catalyst
versions 2.1 and 3.0 by Quark, Inc. All programs have the
capability of using a mouse, but Mouse Desk and Catalyst
3.0 use the mouse and Mac-like pull down menus to work.
Let me start first with a brief listing of the hardware in my
system used to do this review. I have an Apple /Ie, Rev B
motherboard that has been enhanced with the new monitor
ROMs, mousetext ROM and 65C02. Inside it I have a Titan
Accelerator /Ie, parallel printer card and Radix 10 printer,
Ramworks card with 512K RAM, Super Serial Card and US
Robotics Courier 2400 modem, Apple Mouse II, Pro-Clock,
Disk )[ controller and 2 Disk )[ drives, and CMC Computer
Systems Quick 20 - 20 Megabyte hard disk. The following
paragraphs will review the capabilities and limitations of each
of the program selectors mentioned.
The first thing that comes to mind when one mentions
program selectors is what do they do for you and do you need
one? The answer is, if you are only using floppy disks, you
probably don't need one. A program selector uses the QUIT
code in ProDOS to allow you to move easily from one
system program (interpreter) to another. As an example,
when leaving AppleWorks or Filer, you get a 40-column dis­
play that prompts you for the prefix and pathname of the next
application to run. That is the normal unmodified ProDOS
QUIT code. A program selector replaces that with an easier
way to switch to the next program. One note: the next
program has to be a system flIe or run using the Startup capa­
bility of Basic.System 1.1 through the Basic Interpreter. On a
hard disk, such as mine, I have over 30 different system pro­
grams I can use, ranging from AppleWorks, to AE Pro, to
Filer and Backup 1/. I also have about a hundred basic and
binary programs I work with which makes remembering
where everything is a real pain without a selector already set
up to find them. On a Unidisk 3.5 or on a large RAMdisk
you may also want to use the selector for similar reasons.
The first program selector I used (and still use) is
ProSEL by Glen Bredan. This is the least feature-packed,
simplest and least expensive of the program selectors available
today. It is also the most "bullet-proof' since it traps Ctrl­
Reset without dying (more about why that is important later).
It uses a simple 40-column text only display and will allow
the listing of up to 48 programs directly on its main selection
menu. It supports the protocol of redirecting the Startup path
for Basic.System, meaning you can run an application 2 or 3
subdirectories deep from Basic.System on the root directory.
It also doesn't play around with ProDOS (except to install
itself in the QUIT Code) and leaves /RAM alone too! It has
the capability, if you have several system flies in a
subdirectory, of allowing you to "catalog" the subdirectory and
only show the type SYS flies, almost on a sub-menu. Pro­
SEL has two main fIles associated with it. One, Prosel.
System, will install the program selector and bring you to its
select menu, and the other, ProSEL, is the fIle containing the
program information itself and can be run from Basic without
invoking the selection menu but installs itself ready when
needed. This capability allows you to install it and run
another program all from a Basic program. I use this arrange­
ment to allow me to reboot my BBS on loss of power and
still install a program selector.
ProSEL has an editor which allows you to add, delete, edit
or save your list of programs. To add programs you are
prompted for a name to display on the selection menu and
then the prefix, application patbname, and finally startup path
(if you are using, say, the Startup capability to run something
from Basic other than STARTUP). You then save your
entries and away you go. The program will use a mouse if
installed, and if not it will use the cursor keys to highlight the
program to run and then either clicking the mouse or hitting
RETURN will run it. For more information on ProSEL,
contact Glen E. Bredon, he is a "regular" on MAUG, on
Compuserve. His PPN is 72245,636 or you can write to him
at 521 State Road, Princeton, NJ 08540.
The next program selector is Mouse Desk, by Inter­
national Solutions. This is a mouse-based program (although
it can be used from the keyboard) which runs on an enhanced
Apple /Ie with 128K minimum, or on an Apple I/c. It uses
Mac-like pull down menus and icons to run programs. It is
not copy protected, can be run from Basic or from another
program selector (like ProSEL), and if you install a
RAMdrive using Ramworks and lock out at least the lower
64K bank, it will recognize the RAM disk as well. The
version I have was specially modified for use by CMC
Computer Systems with its Quick Series hard disks. The
program takes about 15 seconds to invoke itself when you
quit from an application (using the Accelerator and accessing
the Quick 20 at 3.6 Mhz).
Mouse Desk will recognize any type of fIle present on the
disk selected (you have to click once to select a volume to
work with and then double click the mouse to open a window)
and uses different icons for binary fIles, text fIles, Basic
programs, system flies and .System flies (it uses an Apple
icon for these) and a separate icon for other flIe types. Its
built-in utilities make copying flies easy - you select the
volume, subdirectory or flies to copy and then drag the icon to
the destination volume and it then copies them. Similarly it
will delete fIles by dragging the icon to the trash can and it
will delete files. It also can lock, unlock or rename fIles,
making it an easy to use flIe utility. To run a program, all
that is needed is to select its icon, then double click to run. If
the program is a Basic program, you must have Basic.System
on the subdirectory or volume containing the program. You
can easily swap disks and by pulling down the Check window,
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
you can update the disk on the desktop. It also allows you to
create run lists of programs so you can run them either by
pulling down the Run window or (if in the main run list) by
pressing Open-Apple and the appropriate number. The
program is very easy to use and to master and only contains a
few minor inconveniences - you must have multiple copies of
Basic.System around and if you hit CfRL-Reset, it reboots
the system. For more information contact: International
Solutions, 910 West Maude Ave, Sunnyvale, Ca 940S6,
The last two program selectors are two versions of the
same program - Catalyst - by Quark, Inc. Catalyst 2.1
is a text oriented program selector similar to ProSEL and
Catalyst 3.0 is a mouse- and icon-based program selector
similar to Mouse Desk. Both programs are copy protected and
must boot from the master disk.
Catalyst 2.1 uses an SO-column text display to which you
add new selections in a manner similar to ProSEL. It will
allow you to install some copy protected software (primarily
other Quark products like Word Juggler) and allows you to
group the selections by topic and to add a title to make it
easier to work with. It will display the time on screen if you
have a compatible clock card and will allow the use of the
mouse to highlight a program for running, similar to
ProSEL. The program will allow you to redirect the startup
path like ProSEL but if you hit Ctrl-Reset it will cause a
reboot It is compatible with most software but there are a
few that will not run. This is due to the way that Quark
modifies ProDOS to keep their copy protection intact. One
program that will not run is Universal Bulletin Board System,
which is the BBS program that I use. Quark is sending those
folks copies of Catalyst and the Catalyst technical specifica­
tions in the hope of correcting the incompatabilities.
Catalyst 3.0 is the new mouse- and icon-based program
selector that is being distributed with all new Unidisk 3.5's,
much the same way Catalyst 2.0 was distributed with all
Proflles. It uses special Catalyst desktop flies to create icons
and in most cases requires updated versions of popular soft­
ware (e.g. Appleworks 1.3 and Word Juggler 2.9, both just
released) to install. For user (or custom) installed programs it
uses a generic icon. To use Catalyst 3.0 you must add the
programs to the desktop much like version 2.1 or ProSEL. It
also has the ability to delete and copy flies, but not with the
ease of Mouse Desk. It includes the ability to change the
desktop screens, put up a clock display (if you have a com­
patible clock), use a calculator and future expansion space. It
will recognize a Ram Disk if one has been set up and again
needs to reserve the lower 64K bank of auxiliary memory
since it use double high resolution graphics to create the desk
top. Again due to copy protection it may not support all
programs and if you hit Ctrl-Reset it will reboot. For further
information contact: Quark, Inc, 2525 West Evans, Suite 220,
Denver, CO S0219, (303)-934-2211.
If you are using an Apple ][+ or unenhanced Apple lie, and
need a program selector, then ProSEL is your best choice. If
you have an enhanced lie with 128K or a IIc and need a
program selector, then choose Mouse Desk. If you want to
support the use ofcopy protected software and to lock yourself
Washington Apple Pi
into dependence on booting from floppy, then feel free to
support Quark and its Catalyst programs. Personally I use
both ProSEL and Mouse Desk interchangeably and have been
laughing all the way to the bank!
This paragraph outlines improvements to ProSEL which
now make it superior as a program selector. The new version
2.0 of ProSEL incorporates an option to update an old version
and to install either a 40-column or SO-column version. I
updated to the SO-column version and was pleased with the
results. It allows up to 54 entries in three neatly spaced rows.
If you have a clock card, it will continuously display the time
in the bottom of the screen and, as always, will support a
mouse. You can easily use it to run system files out of other
slots and drives and also easily configure it to run out of
Unidisk 3.5's without taking up much space. The program
loads in about 112 second, making it the fastest of all the
program selectors reviewed. It is still the least expensive and
contains a disk full of useful utilities to manage ProOOS flies
and disks (hard, floppy or Uni). A word of note: If you
intend to run a Basic program that will invoke ProSEL 2.0,
instead use an Exec flIe as ProSEL loads at $OSOO which is
where Basic loads programs. Also include in your Exec file a
POKE 204S,0 after BRUNing ProSEL to allow Basic
programs to work properly. All in all, it is a great improve­
ment and has my full endorsement as the best program
selector available for the Apple today.
If you have any questions or comments leave an Easyplex
on Compuserve to Barry Fox, 75016, 3103 or call my BBS,
TIlE CONNECTION, Harrisburg, Pa, 717-652-4364.
Wizardry Transfer contd. from pg 20
on the Apple ][, the level attained in the previous class will be
found in byte 131; the corresponding location in the Mac is
byte 112.
This should be sufficient to complete the transfer success­
fully. I have assumed that your character is in the castle and
that he or she is not in need of the services of the Temple of
Cant You should remember to equip before venturing forth
into the maze; this will also get you the correct armor class.
The actual coding of characters is somewhat more subtle and
complicated than outlined in this article. The transfer proced­
ure works for ordinary characters, but I can't guarantee it for ex­
otics or for those who have already found Werdna's amulet! @
Excel Power contd. from pg 56
Additional macro commands can virtually eliminate the risk of
changing fields that should not be changed. Another problem
is that the macro shows the user every change as it is made.
This is acceptable on small areas, or when first using the
macro to get an idea how it works. But when you get into
large areas, it is much faster to tum off the screen display
using the =ECHO(FALSE) macro command before entering
the loop now at A4:AS. Also, the macro does not alert the
user that he or she has probably made a serious possible error
if the user selects entire rows or columns and then tries to run
the macro. Doing so makes the macro go through all of
Excel'sI6,3S4 rows or 256 columns--and that can take a long,
long time!
February 1986
Robert C. Platt This month's column will take a step back to provide
Apple 1/ and Mac owners with an overview of the numerous
implementations of Pascal and Modula-2 available. These
two languages have much in common--both were created by
Niklaus Wirth to promote structured programming. If you are
about to learn your first programming language, you are much
better off learning Pascal or Modula-2 than learning BASIC.
(Given that BASIC is not burnt into the Mac, there is no
inherent advantage to using BASIC on the Mac--far more pro­
grams are available in Pascal!)
This column will focus on the different implementations
of these languages on both computers. Because of minor dif­
ferences between different publishers' implementations, trans­
lating a program from one implementation or machine to
another can be tricky. Both past and future installments of
this column cover such translation problems in greater detail.
But this month, I want to point out the lay of the land so that
you will be able to see how the different implementations fit
Pascal on the Apple lL
At least four different Pascals can run on the Apple /I
The latest and the best to learn with is Instant
Pascal by Think Technologies. Apple is publishing this
package for $140. Instant Pascal has excellent debugging
features such as the observe window and breakpoints. Because
Instant Pascal is an incremental compiler. programs can begin
executing at once without the delay caused by compiling the
program into machine language. Instant Pascal follows the
ISO Pascal standard. Apple also publishes Apple Pascal
(version 1.3) which includes the UCSD p-System (an
operating system alternative to DOS 3.3, ProOOS or CP/M.)
Version 1.3 supports the 800K unidisk 3.5 and permits
procedures to be arbitrarily long (earlier versions had a 1200
byte limit). Apple Pascal is based upon the UCSD version of
the language--the one in widest use. List price is $250.
Even though Apple Pascal claims a version number of
1.3, it is based on Version II of the p-System. An.advanced
version of the p-System (Version IV) is offered by Pecan
Software for the Apple II. Pecan's implementation allows
more units and eliminates a number of other artificial
limitations found in Apple Pascal 1.3. Since Pecan acquired
all of UCSD's rights to its Pascal, it is fully UCSD
compatible. Prices start at $79.95 (call 800-63-PECAN.)
The fmal version is Turbo Pascal from Borland
International for $69.95. Turbo requires a CP/M card, and
does not follow either the ISO or the UCSD standard.
Pascal on the Lisa-MacXL
Apple's Lisa Pascal compiler is the standard for all Lisa ­
Mac system development programming.
Both ~
Macintosh and Macintosh Reyealed contain examples written
in Lisa Pascal. Lisa Pascal is a true compiler which generates
"native code" 68000 machine language for execution on the
Lisa or Mac. Lisa Pascal follows the ISO standard. The
Lisa Pascal Workshop 3.0 lists for $395.
for the Mac has been long-promised.)
(A version
Pascal on the Macintosh
The most popular implementation is MacPascal devel­
oped by Think Technologies and published by Apple. It lists
for $125 and follows the ISO standard. MacPascal supports
most of the ROM Toolbox calls either through built-in
procedures or by calling the INLINE function. MacPascal is
virtually the same incremental compiler as Instant Pascal on
the Apple 1/, making conversion of programs just a matter of
translating ROM Toolbox and 110 commands. I covered
conversion between MacPascal and Apple Pascal in the April
1985 WAP Journal p. 56.
Pecan Software offers two versions of UCSD Pascal on
the Mac. The Designer Series is a 68000 implementation of
Version IV of the p-System. Thus. programs can be ported
from the Apple 1/ family without significant modification. (I
understand that the order of storing the high and low byte of
integers are reversed between the Mac and Apple, but that is
the subject of a future article.) Prices begin at $79.95. The
principal drawback to the Designer Series is that it represents
an alternative operating system and its files will not be
recognized by the fmder.
In my view Pecan's more interesting product is Mac­
Advantage version 1.1, which is a UCSD Pascal that
runs under the finder and supports all ROM Toolbox calls. I
have discussed MacAdvantage and conversion of MacPascal
programs to MacAdvantage in the August, October and
December 1985 WAP Journal. I understand that the list price
for MacAdvantage was recently reduced and is worth your
consideration. (Note that although the same compiler is used
in the Designer Series and MacAdvantage, they use different
editors to enter programs--Designer Series uses the familiar
UCSD editor while MacAdvantage uses a Mac-like editor. As
a result a quick conversion program is used to transfer between
source file formats.)
The latest arrival is TML System's MacLanguage
Series Pascal 1.0 which lists for $99.95 (call 305- 242­
1873). TML follows the ISO standard and supports ROM
Toolbox calls in both Lisa Pascal and MacPascal formats.
This is the best of all worlds, because you can work directly
from Inside Macintosh or can port over a MacPascal program
with little translation difficulty. The principal drawback is
that TML does not support separately compiled units. TML
is a true compiler that produces MDS-compatible assembler
source or 68000 machine code. Although I have had it for
only a week, it looks good so far and will be the subject of
future articles.
One final Pascal on the Mac should be noted. but has
priced itself out of the market Step-Lively Software, Inc.
offers On Stage Developer's System Pascal and also a
personal system for $119.95 to $399.95. The ads promise
full Lisa (ISO) Pascal compatibility, MDS-compatible
assembly output and access to all ROM Toolbox routines.
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
Step-Lively includes the new QUED editor for entering
programs from Paragon Courseware. (Call 518-785-7214).
Modula-2 on the Applell
After Wirth conquered the world with Pascal, he perfected
it to create Modula-2. (For a fuller account of Modula-2 see
the January through May 1984 WAP Journals or Knepley &
Platt Modyla-2 Promlmmjn2. Reston Books 1985.)
Only Volition Systems implemented Modula-2 on the
Apple. That compiler ran under the p-System, so Apple
Pascal or Pecan Software's Pascal is a prerequite to using this
compiler. Unfortunately, Volition fell on hard times and I am
not sure how to purchase their compiler. Probably the most
complex program I ever wrote in Modula-2 translates Pascal
programs into Modula-2, but it of necessity must leave 5% of
the converting to human intervention. (Again, wait for a
future article....)
There are at least two versions of Modula-2 on the Mac.
The ETH (Wirth's University back in Switzerland) public
domain version can be downloaded from CompuServe or
copied from other WAP members onto three disks. Although
the price is right, this four-pass compiler is rather slow. At
least two different people have written interfaces that will call
all ROM Toolbox routines.
The most popular commercial compiler is from Modula
Corporation, called MacModula-2.
Both ETH and
MacModula-2 are interpretive compilers which produce M­
code rather than 68000 machine instructions. A book is
'--' about to be published called Macintosh Graphics in ModuJa-2
by Russell L. Snapp (Prentice-Hall, 1986) that is allegedly
based on the MacModula-2 implementation. MacModula-2
supports all ROM Toolbox routines.
Needless to say, it is easier to convert between Modula-2
on the Apple or Mac than to convert between Pascal and
Modula-2 on either machine. Conversion problems would
have been particularly minimized if Volition had released their
Mac compiler. However, internal feuding prevented its
official release. Because inputJoutput libraries differ from each
software publisher, inputJoutput is the principal item that
must be converted when porting a program between ETH,
Volition or MacModula-2.
Although the degree of choice is impressive, the lesson
should be clear that structured languages are now well within
the price level of every Apple or Mac owner.
Rpple II
Rpple Palcal
Uer II of p-Syltom
Dellgner Serlol
Peclln Softwllro
Poclln Softwllro
Think Technology
MlIcPlllul from
Rpple Computer
Series PalclIl by TMl
lila Palcol from
Rpplll Computer
Washington Apple Pi
51. 75
Print it! Interface ••••.•••. 175.00
JVC FORTIS 12" amber monitor. 80.00
XTRON Comcolor 1411 CompOSite monitor
color switchable to green • 150.00
TAXAN COLOR MONITOR ••••••••• 260.00
ShuffleBuffer (64K) .•••••••• 270.00
ShuffleBuffer (128K) .••.•••• 340.00
Printer Stand: short--25.
Disk holder for 3-1/2" ••••••• 10.00
Disk holder for 5-1/4" ••••••• 10.00
Alphabits Card ••••••.••••.••• 75.00
SuperSprite Graphics Pkg .••• 290.00
Koala Pad Touch Tablet ••••.•. 80.00
Koala Pad Adapter for II ••..•• 6.00
Micro-Sci Disk Drive, A2 •.•• 165.00
Mac Enhancer (Microsoft) •••. 186.75
Verbatim diskettes
SSIDD --17.00/10
DSIDD --22.00110
3-1/2" -16.00/5
-- 30.00110
Buy 5 bOKes of 5-1/4 11 disks and
receIve a DataCase ••••••• FREE
Head Cleaning Kits ••.••••.•.•. 1.20
FingerPrint (MX Series) ••...• 45.00
(F X Ser i es ) ••••.• 52 . 50
Record Master
(Complete Data Base
System) ••.••••.•••••••• 40.00
Special on Scholastic Ed. Series;
Story Tree, Agent USA, Mystery
Sentences, Tales of Discovery,
~ Math Man •••••••••••••••• 28.00
COpy II PLUS for II, lIe, IIc 28.00
COpy II MAC •••••••••••••••••• 28.00
DAVID-DOS II ••••••••••••••••• 32.00
DOLLARS & SENSE for MAC ••••• 105.00
MacModula-2 Language System. 100.00
This ad is written a month in
advance. Since prices are subject
to change, please call for current
pricin9' We attempt to meet all
advertIsed prices.
MacModulll-2 by Modulo Corp. '-'
C.Itoh Color L 180 CPS ••••.• $530.00
Panasonic 10~1 •••.••.....•• $245.00
Epson FX-85F/T .••..•••.•.•• $360.00
FX-185F/T •••••••••••• $495.00
JX-80 ••••••••••••••••• $489.00
LQ-1500 w/par. interface ••• $950.00
Ribbons ••• call for discount prices
Paper 20#, 2500 sheets ...•.• 22.50
20#,microperf .••••..•. 26.00
Rainbow Packs ••••..•. call
Grappler + .•..••••.••••••.••. 80.00
Buffered Grappler+ ••.•.•..•• 156.75
Serial Grappler+ (Imagewriter) 83.50
Grappler C •••.••••.••••...•.• 83.50
Hot 1 ink •••••••.•••••••.••.•.•
ModuJa-2 on the Macintosh
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30% or more off on all software for
all APPLE computers, including Mac
Call to order
Sunday - Thursday. 10 A.M. - 9 P.M.
Free·delivery to Crystal City
UPS shipplng
Quantity Discounts Available
February 1986
.. ,
.... ...
This month a few words about Systat, a very complete
statistical package available for both the Apple ][ and the
Macintosh and about Notes for Jazz, a support program for
Jazz users,
SYSTAT (Lee Wilkinson). I consider this program to
be one of the most powerful statistical packages available to
Apple ][ (under CP/M) or Macintosh users. It contains many
characteristics of software found on mainframe systems. The
CP/M and Macintosh versions are identical. Systat consists
of separate modules, amounting to about 900K of code, each
of which uses a surprisingly simple set of commands given
the powerful procedures it supports. Considering the amount
of program code, a hard disk is recommended to avoid swap­
ping disks when switching between modules.
SYSTAT is not a new-comer to the statistical package
market. The current release, version 2.1, contains a much
expanded manual, a full-screen editor with spreadsheet
capabilities and three new procedures. The documentation
contains 373 well-written pages including both a table of
contents and an index. The manual presents examples of runs
using all the commands. This is a nice touch as it will help
to avoid the confusion that often results when trying to learn
what commands are required for what functions.
The package provides all of the commonly used univariate
statistics and analyses including multi-way tables, multiple
regression and ANOVA models. Its graphics displays consist
of two-way plots, histograms, stem & leaf plots, as well as,
box, probability and quantile plots. All of these, as you can
see, come in a "text" format. However, an informative graph
can be provided in this manner. The contour plot, for
example, reveals much of the interaction between three
3 +
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4 H 00001111222222223333333333334444444444
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1111113333333333 5566661111118899 SYSTAT is among the few packages on any personal
computer which test the multiyariate general linear
hypothesis. This module, MGLH, includes multivariate
analysis of variance, profile analysis of repeated measures,
principal components analysis, and canonical correlation. It
also provides modules for factor analysis with rotation and
scoring, and for multidimensional scaling. The TABLES
module permits four-way and larger contingency tables, with
analysis of log-linear models.
The modules are written in compiled Fortran.
Unfortunately, for those using the Mac version, Systat does
not support the Mac interface. There are neither menus nor
desk accessories available. On the plus side, complex trans­
formations of data are possible using an internal BASIC-like
language. The following Systat code generated the data used
to produce the plots shown earlier.
SAVE BIVAR HOLD REPEAT 1260 1 IF CASE = 1 mEN LET X=-4.65 2 IF CASE = 1 mEN LET Y = -2.5 3 LET X = X + .15 4 IF X > 4.5 mEN LET Y = Y +.25 5 IF X > 4.5 THEN LET X = -4.5 6 LET Z = EXP(-(X/\ 2 + Y/\ 2)/4) 7 IF Z<.2 THEN DELETE 8 ElSE IF Z<.4 THEN LET C$=': 9 ELSE IF Z<.6 THEN LET C$='+' 10 ELSE IF Z<.8 THEN LET C$='·' 11 ELSE LET C$ = OX' RUN
The programs can import ASCII text files where each
record is a case terminated by a carriage return and each field is
a variable delimited by at least one space. The output can be
redirected from the screen to the printer or to a text file for
merging with a report.
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
The first of the new procedures is CLUSTER which pro­
vides several cluster analytic techniques falling broadly into
two categories: hierarchical tree or linkage methods and k­
means splitting methods. Several graphical displays provide
the analyst with visual feedback on the effectiveness of the
clustering procedures. The NPAR module contains most of
the commonly used non-parametric procedures including a
sign test, the Wilcoxon signed ranks test, the Kruskal-Wallis
one-way and Friedman two-way ANOVAs based on ranks and
the Kolmogovov-Smimov one and two sample distribution
comparison methods. A very complete time series module
provides for the computation of auto and cross-correlation
coefficients, fourier analysis and ARIMA model fitting and
prediction. To perform necessary transformation, the data can
be smoothed with moving averages, medians or general linear
filters with user supplied weights.
Another nice feature is the speed with which the various
modules execute their calculations. Interestingly, the author
told me that Systat running on a micro-diskette equipped
Macintosh was faster in performing large-scale regressions
than an IBM-XT equipped with a hard disk. Upon exiting
each module all run commands from the current session are
printed automatically to provide permanent documentation.
Its features will be valued by users in professional research and
business environments. Systat, Inc., 603 Main St., Evan­
ston, n.. 60202. Phone (312) 864-5670. Price $495.
Notes ror Jazz. This package provides useful support
of two kinds for users of Lotus' Jazz package. One disk
provides a handy set of on-line notes to assist the Jazz user
while the second disk contains 12 business templates. The
notes contain information that can help both the novice and
the experienced user. The notes are similar to the About"
menus provided with Microsoft products. They consist of
scrolling windows of topics which summarize Jazz' many
InstaJJation. Use & Documentation. Both the Notes and
the templates documentation (called Companion) are accessed
as two desk accessories installed in the System file of your
Jazz start-up disk (or of your hard disk.) You do not use
Apple's FontlDA Mover to install the programs; rather, an
easy-to-use installation program is included on the disk. In
addition to the desk accessories, two data files which contain
the text for the accessories must be moved to the Start-up
disk, all of which is done automatically by the installing
If you should call up either desk accessory while not in
Jazz, you will get a message that you must be running Jazz
(with your serial number) in order to use the programs. Your
Jazz serial number is read from your Master, which must be
inserted during installation of the desk accessories. In addition
to the on-line help, the programs come with a shon manual
containing the installation instructions. Adding the DA's to a
hard disk is a bit trickier, but went smoothly for me. I
successfully installed Notes onto: a Jazz Master diskette, Jazz
moved onto Apple's HD 20 and Jazz moved onto a Lisa.
Description, Since Jazz has no on-line help files, an
omission not suffered by some of its competition, Notes
serves a useful purpose. It provides both introductory and
detailed information. For example, I never remember which
parameters go where in different functions. Take the PMT
Washington Apple Pi function for computing interest payments. It has three param­
eters representing the principal, interest and period of the loan.
Notes provides a quick look-up to remind the user which
parameter is which.
The screen shot below demonstrates what a Notes Help
window looks like. The three topics at the top are part of a
tree, Beginning is the highest level under which Worksheet
and other options presented themselves at the bottom of the
window. Selecting Worksheet brought forth another set of
selections of which Functions was my choice. As you can
see, a selection can now be made of which type of function
Notes are desired. Having clicked on Time & Finance, a
scrolling window listing all the Notes,is displayed.
Notes'" .•• for Jozz'"
. .t
HPY(int ....~) C.1cul.t.s tt..".t pnsMt ....1"" of tlJtllT' cuh f10v (r~) ur1n9 • periodic tnttr"t r.t. (tnt). PIII ...nt PMT(prln,tnt,ttrm) CalculatH tht ptrtodlo ~"nwnt on • loan blstd on prlnoipal (pri'l), i'lt.nst rat. (i'lt), mel numb.r ofpalolmtnts (t.rm). Pnnnt
P\l(pmt,tnt,ttrm) FInd. til. pr.s.nt valuo of a Strlts of p~\Im.nts col1tottng Int.rtst. Yllu.
Math & Logic Hstat & Trig & Log] Time (} Finance
Data Range
Notes provides the useful option of appending your own
notes to the notes data me for later reference.
Companion. The business templates provide help in three
areas: Accounting, Finance and Administration. While I did
not evaluate everyone for accuracy, the ones I used seemed to
perform acceptably. Some of them are a bit simplistic, e.g.,
the Payroll template would serve only the smallest of busi­
nesses and handles only the computation of pay (i.e. multi­
plying hours worked for each of several rates by the rate and
making a few subtractions for taxes and FICA). There are tem­
plates for a Cash Journal, Receivables and Payables. The
finance category includes templates for profit and loss analy­
sis, cash flow, breakeven analysis, loan amortization and
depreciation. I must mention that the accompanying manual
contains only a two sentence, description of each template.
Summary. My overall impression was that the notes were
helpful and the templates well designed. However, I think the
product suffers in several important ways. First, even at an
introductory price of $79, it is a bit expensive for what it pro­
vides. Second, the desk accessories should have been set up to
install into the Jazz program, rather than in the System file
where they take up two precious positions of the fifteen
permissible desk accessories. Since the programs only work
with Jazz, it seems that installation in Jazz is the right place
to be. In this way, they will only be available to you when
you are in Jazz. Third, the installation is awkward and clearly
aimed at the copy protection issue. Apparently, the package
will read your Jazz serial number and write it to the Notes
disk, thereby preventing installations on other Jazz Masters. I
can appreciate Layered's not wanting the program to be used in
an unauthorized way, but there must be a better way. Layered,
85 Merrimac St., Boston MA. 02114. (617) 423-9041. $99.@
February 1986
Tha 'Oiaa:> From OurhC1m
by 'Chrls IKlu!!ewlcz
P. O. Box 22171
Duke Station
Durham, NC 27706
Hello again from Durham! After a two-issue absence, I've
returned to the pages of the Journal. I won't make excuses for
the absence of my December column, but I have a good reason
for missing January's deadline...
Nothing can go wrong wrong wrong wrong•••
When the Mac was ftrst released, part of the rationalizing
concerning the closed architecture of the machine had to do
with reliability: if they closed it up and soldered everything to
the main logic board, failure rates would be very low. Well,
my Mac must have been part of the "very low," because just
before the January Journal deadline, my Macintosh (with Red
Ryder running and me connected to CompuServe) fIZzled. It
was actually rather spectacular: the keyboard suddenly quit
working and the cursor disappeared; annoyed by what I
thought was one of Red Ryder's rumored fatal errors, I grabbed
my mouse to "Quit" --and noticed that parts of the pointer
remained at various places on the screen, while the right hand
side of the screen started to lose pixels at random spots.
Alarmed, I pressed my Reset button. I was greeted with the
"Sad Mac" and the error code 040020 (which the people at
Clinton Computer informed me means "absolutely nothing";
now come on, guys...). I tried another disk, but it seemed
that the problem was in hardware. (I guessed it was the digital
board, and, as it turned out, I was right.) Well, I was in
Durham at the time all this happened, and for those of you
who have been in that part of the South know that it ain't
exactly on the cutting edge of high technology; besides, I had
final exams coming up, so I decided to wait until I got home
to fix it
MacService. When I got home for Christmas break, I
called around to see how much it would cost me to fix the
Mac; my worst fears were realized: the logic board would cost
me about $150, and labor ran about $30. I brought it up to
Frederick Computer Products, which has a very large,
experienced service department, and it took them a half hour to
replace the main board. The total bill? $170.70, including
What's going on here?
In the course of my
researching repair costs for the Mac, I inquired about 512K
RAM upgrades (my machine is still Thin, for reasons I've
mentioned earlier). The price is nearly reasonable now, and
since I needed a new logic board anyhow, I figured I might as
well get one with four times the memory (for only twice the
price). Wrong: it seems that Apple has stopped shipping the
upgrade kits for some reason, and none are available in the D.
C. area. Alack, Thin still is my Mac.
Some mail from way back when:
Mail order blues, continued. From Bob Soule: "In
one of your earlier columns. you raised questions about the
service offered by Programs Plus. Based on my experiences, I
was all set to rush to their defense until my most recent order.
I ordered a software package and two disk holders on
September 13. My feeling [mine, too! --CK] is that the
goods ought to arrive in three or four days unless they tell you
in advance that the item is not in stock. I'm willing to wait a
week before I get really impatient. A week came and went; no
delivery. I called on September 24. A salesman promised
that someone would call me back. No return call. I called
again today [September 25] and was put on terminal hold-­
until I was disconnected. Still no delivery. Tonight I've had
to write a letter to Programs Plus about the problem."
Ordering by mail can be one of the most harrowing
experiences a computer owner ever faces. I'd like to collect all
of your experiences--both bad and good--with various mail
order houses so that I can put together some sort of "consumer
advisory" article to be printed here in the Journal. Write and
tell me what kind of service you've received for your money.
It's so hard to get good help these days. Some
of you may remember the rebate that Verbatim was offering
this summer: if you bought one or two boxes of disks, you
got some money back, and if you bought three boxes, you got
one more box free. Well, I sent my three proofs of purchase
to Verbatim along with my rebate card, on which I had
indicated that I wanted double-sided disks for my free box (1
ftgured that the Mac would soon be using double-sided disks,
so I might as well get started on converting everything to the
new disks). Well, my free box of disks arrived this week
(after four and a half months, I might add): ten brand new,
double-sided 525" disks! One rather hopes that this is an
isolated incident, but I suspect otherwise.
The ruture or the Apple II. Hints from Cupertino
suggest that the Apple /I series is due for a major overhaul
which will make the I/'s more "Mac-like." Apple has begun
calling the Macintosh user interface "the Apple user interface,"
and it has suggested to developers that their software should be
able to work with the AppleMouse /I. Rumor has it that a
"Finder" for the /I will be announced in January, and it
wouldn't surprise me a bit. This seems to me to be a very
intelligent decision on the part of Apple's management (i.e.,
John Sculley), especially if data compatibility between the
Mac and the /I is a goal of this strategy.
Apple's threatened lawsuit
The Apple lawsuit.
against Digital Research concerning the similarity of GEM to
the Macintosh--I mean "Apple"--user interface was recently
settled in Apple's favor. GEM will be substantially modified,
and Apple will receive compensation from DRI. Personally,
I'm glad Apple won this fight; however, my reasons are
completely and absolutely selfish ones: I bought a Mac, and I
don't want cheaper, Mac-like computers around. From a more
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
Operant Systems HARDWARE - ­
Eplan FX-85 1160 CPI, S2 cps NLQ .adel ....•............ 369 FX-286 1200 cps wide carriage upgrade of FX-IBSI. 549 LX-SO 1100 cps, 16 cps NLQ .adel .•...••......•.•. 249 LQ-1500 1200 cps, fan~stic letter-quality 'Ddel. S99 LQ-l000/LQ-B00 Iquality of LQ-1500 for less $1 Icalll Okidata 192 1160 cps replacelent for Oki 921 ••••••••••• 359 193 1132 c:alu.n versiDn Df abDvel ....•......... 519 Toshiba 1340 1144 cps draft, BEST letter-qual .atrixl .. 459 351 1288 c:ps, wide carriage versiDn of abovel. 1149 Texas Instrulents TI-BSS 1150 cps draft, as cps NLQI ... 675 NEC P2/P3/PS Pinwriter 124 wire high quality latrixl Icall I Citizen HSP 20 1200 cps latrix, EpsDn-c:Dlpatiblel ...... S49 PanasDnic 1091 1120 cps, Epson cDDpatiblel ............. 259 DAISYWHEEL &LASER PRINTERS-
EpsDn DX-3S ISS cps daisywheel, DiablD cOlpatiblel ..... 675 Citizen Prelier 35 ISS cps, fastest fDr the IDneyl ..... 449 Canan Laser Printer IB pages/.in, Diablo cOlpatiblel .. 2095 Siluer-Reed sao I~O cps, Diablo-c:olpatiblel ...........• 695 SSO (IS cps daisywheel, wide carriagel ..... 419 NEe Elf 116 cps, par &ser interface, NEC/DiabID eDull. 439 BBSO 155 c:ps daisywheel, built 11ke a tankl ....... 1399 Diablo 630 API I~O cps daisywheell •...•.•............. 1549 QUle LetterPro 20 120 cps daisywheell .................. 419 MODEHS-
Hayes Micro.odel J[e Itone dialing/speaker/Slartcal II. 1~ Slartiodel 2400 12~00/1200/300 baud, RS-232I •.... 599 SlartlDdel 1200 11200 baud, RS-232 , autD-diall ... 389 SaartaodeD 300 1300 baud, as abDvel .......•...... 145 NDvation Apple-Cat II Iw/ COlware; 1200 baud capablel .. 199 Proletheus ProDodel 1200 ISOO/1200 baud, RS-2S2I ....•.. 289 ProDDdel 1200A 1300/1200 card w/ softwarel .. 289 Microcol ERA 2 (300/1200 baud card with softwarel .•.... 345 ZDoaHode. J[e 1300 baud HicrD.ode. cD.pat w/IDftwarel .• 125 US Robotics Password (300/1200 baud, autD-dial/answerl. 229 Courier 2~00 (2400/1200/300, autDdial/ansl. 439 AnchDr Auto.ation Express (SOO/1200 loaded w/ features I 249 Volks.odel 12 (300/1200 baud, RS-232 I 199 DISK DRIVES­
HicroSci A2 drive (100S Apple-co.patiblel ...•.......... 169 A.5 (half-hei~ht, 100S Apple cOlpatiblel ...... 169 A.Sc Ihalf-helght for Apple ][cl ...•..•....... 179 Corvus Winchester drivi5 ••.•..•....••..••........... Icalll CP/H & &S02C SYSTEHS-
Applicard (6 Khz Z-SO, 64K to 192K RAM, 70-c:ol videol .. 125 Hicrosoft Softcard l[e IZ-BO, SO col &64K on one cardl 265 SDftcard II lincludes CP/H 2.2 and HBASICI ... 239 Titan Accelerator ]rE (S.6 Khz 6S02C coprocessorl ...... 229 Speed Delon (&S02C high-speed coprocessorl ............. 195 Applied Engineering Z-Aal (256K, CP/H, Aaldisk for J[cl 32S HONITDRS-
Aldek aOOG/30DA 112" green/aaber anti-glare, lBHhz1.125/1S9
NEC JO-1201/1205 (green/aaber anti-glare screen, 20Mhzl 1~ JO-1260 (12d green, 15Khz, best value for .oney! .... 99 USI PI-2 (12d green anti-glare screen, 20 Khzl ......... 125 PI-3 112" a.ber anU-glare screen, 20 Hhzl ......... 125 INl!RFACES & SUFFERS & a.OCKS­
Pkaso/U printer interface (superior graphics &.ore I!I. 99 Quadra. Hicrolazer 18K to 12SK parallel bufferl .•...... 139 Crappler+ printer interface (parallel wI graphics! ...... as Buffered Grappler+ 116K to 64K buffer plus graphics! ... 149 CCS 7711 Super Serial (for printers &.ode.sl ........... 99 Practical Peripherals Graphicard Iparallel w/ graphicsl. 79 Printerfac:e (std par w/o graphics I S9 PraCloci (PRODOS cOlpa\iblel ..... 109 VIDEO BOAAllS­
Videx Ultrater. (upto 160 coluln/4B line display !II ... 209 HicroSc! 80-c:ol card (w/64K RAIt, AppleWorks-c:olpatiblel. 79 Applied Engineering RaaWorks II (6~ to 3 .eg + 00 call 139 View.aster (SO col for 11+1 ........ 119 HEl10RY EXPANSIDH-
Microtek 16K RAH card ................................... 79 Titan Technologies 12BK RAM card ••.••.•......•.....•... 179 Washington Apple Pi
WORD PROCESSINGWordstar 3.3 lincludes 6 .hz Z-BO Applicardl ....... 149 Word Perfect (BEST IBH prog nou avail for Apple II). 95 Sank Street Writer or Speller ....................... 4S pfs: IIri te J[e ..................................... 79 ScreenWriter II (40/70/S0-c:ol display w/spellerl .... 85 HOlellord I HOlellord Speller...................... 49/35
Sensible Speller IV 1005 Dr PRO005 versionsl ........ 79 The Word Plus (super spelling checker for CP/MI .... 109 5PREADSHEETS­
MUltiplan (state-of-the-art spreadsheetl ............ 70 SuperCalc 3& Ipowerful spreadsheet for the Jeel .... 135 INFDRHATIOH 1WlACEHENT­
dBA5E II (the best Apple database, requires CP/HI .. 289 pfs: File, Report, or Graph ......................... 79 The General Hanager 2.0 ............................ 149 Thinktank (electronic thought organizerl ............ 95 DB Haster 4+ Ilatest versionl ...................... IBS BUSINESS & ACCOUNTING-
Dollars &Sense (ac:c:ounting u/graphicsl ........ 69 &79 Managing Your Money lac:c:ounting + investment Igltl. 115 Peachtree Back to 8asics Accounting (CL/AR/API .. .•. 115 OPI Accounting (GL/AR/AP/PAY/INVEHTORYI ........ each 2~ COHtiIJN ICATIDIl5­
Ascii Express Professional (best DOS/PROOOS prograll 00 Z-ter. PrDfessional (for CP/H! ...................... 90 COlpuServe Starter Kit Ipassuord &5 free hours) .... 25 ODDS &ENDSPrint Shop/Print Shop COlpanion .................. .36/29
Newsroo./Clip Art Collection ..................... . 39/19 Pinpoint ............................................ 42 Typing Tutor III .................................... 36 Flight Si.ulator II................................. 36 Curtis Elerald Surge Protector (6 outlets &cordI ... 4S Kensington Syste. Saver Fan Iw/surge protector I ..... 66 Kraft Joystick I TG Joystick I Hages Mach III. 35/35/39
KoalaPad Graphics Tablet (with graphics softwarel ... as t1
Filevision (graphics database sgstell .............. 119 Ddesta Helix (database for the serious user) ....... 249 Dollars &Sense (accounting w/graphicsl ............. 95 Microsoft liard (what Hacllrite should have beenl .... 125 Excel (best Hac spreadsheet availablel ... 255 Basic interpreter ........................ 99 Chart (presentation business graphicsl .... 85 File ............................... , ..... 125 Hultiplan ......... , ...................... 125 HacEnhancer (has the ports Apple forgotl. 175 Assililation Process Hac HeIDry Disk ................ 24 IOlega Bernoulli Drive (5 leg relovable cartridge) 1395 MacLion (progra.lable database for Hacl ............ 239 HWDrth Level II.................................. 169 Hippo C............................................. 99 Kensington HacModel 1300 baudl ...................... 99 Surge Protector (replaces power cordi .... 39 rzT'""U"m:"n
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February 1986
objective viewpoint, Apple's arguments that theirs is a
proprietary user interface are questionable at best. For one
thing, most of the Mac user interface was taken from research
being done at Xerox Corporation's Palo Alto Research Center
(PARC). This settlement isn't going to help the standard­
ization of a user interface, either. I'm just waiting to see what
happens now that Microsoft's "Windows" has hit the market,
and I'm curious about what's going to happen to the Atari
520ST and the Commodore Amiga, both of which use GEM
as their operating environment.
An answer to "Mac Q & A." I was somewhat
dismayed by Jon Hardis' answer to the opening question in his
December Q & A column. Although a surge suppressor
certainly will not protect your computer's digital components
from nearby lightning strikes or correct ground faults in your
home wiring, I firmly believe that an ounce of prevention is
worth ten pounds of cure. In other words, I'd much rather pay
$30 to $35 for a decent surge suppressor (which is all a
perfectly adequate one costs; Radio Shack carries one for $30,
and SGL Waber makes one for $35) than $170 for a new
digital board. Bernie Urban and Lee Raesly have both written
on behalf of surge protectors in previous Journals, and I, for
one, agree that they are a wOJ1hwhile investment.
Hmm... I got a very interesting phone call the other
morning (just as I stepped out of the shower, of course). It
was from a market research firm in Boston, and they wanted
my opinions on a new product called MacCharlie. (At this
point, all sorts of negative thoughts popped into my mind--I
really don't like MacCharlie, which is a piece of hardware that
you attach to your Mac to enable it to run IBM PC
programs.) However, the product he described sounded very
unlike the MacCharlie that has been advertised in the literature
and that some of us have seen at various computer shows and
the like. This MacCharlie included an internal hard disk and
an external 5.25" disk drive. It would be mounted similar to
the HyperDrive (clamped directly to the 68000 microprocessor
in the Mac), but it would also provide true IBM
compatibility! The suggested retail price was amazingly low
(unfortunately, I've forgotten the exact figure I was given),
with discounts available. 'The chap on the phone had no
expected release date. To me, all of this seems just wonderful
for Mac owners who want a hard disk and a PC XT, but
Jonathan and its slots may eliminate the need for such a
product. It'll be interesting to see what comes of this.
Speaking of bard disks. There's a new internal 20
megabyte hard disk for the Mac. It's called the "Warp 20"
(dumb name--I'm constantly reminded of a certain television
program of the late sixties: "Warp factor ten, Mr. Sulu"), and
it costs $895 (GREAT price!). Like the now-legendary
HyperDrive, it clips onto the 68000 in the Mac to provide
direct memory access, which makes it faster that any external
disk. Best of all, you can install it yourself (if you know
what you're doing) or the people at Warp Nine Engineering
will do it for you. Evidently there's also a 10 megabyte
version, but when you can get 20 megabytes for less than a
10 megabyte HyperDrive...!
In searcb of.. In my never-ending quest for the best pro­
gramming language for the Mac, I've begun to look into C.
(Yes, Ron, the one that's descended from B.) I've borrowed a
friend's copy of the Megamax C compiler, and I've started
playing with it (I'm floundering, mainly; I'm going to have to
borrow her manual, as well). Purely as an intellectual exer­
cise, I'm collecting opinions on programming languages for
the Mac and for the 1/ (and /II). Please send me your
comments, and I'll publish the results in this column.
The Mac Plus. A recent InfoWorld article carried the
new s that a substantially improved Macintosh would be intro­
duced at the MACWORLD Exposition in January. This new
machine will have a megabyte of RAM (expandable to fuw:
megabytes!), a double-sided disk drive, 128K ROM, and a new
keyboard (with numeric pad built in, a la IBM PC). A Small
Computer Systems Interface (a sort of standard peripheral
interface-:llQt a bus connection) will be added as well.
Upgrading is possible, and I'll be one of the first in line!
Jonathan. Or whatever they're calling it now. "Jona­
than," the successor to the Macintosh will be revealed
probably in June or July. Apple will call it a "Mac" of some
sort (I heard "Turbo Macintosh," which 1think is simply hide­
ous), but it will be about as different from an original model
Mac as the Mac was from the Lisa. My most recent informa­
tion has Jonathan with a large screen (taller than wide so that
more of a page can be displayed at a time), a double-sided disk
drive (maybe two), a megabyte of RAM, and a bus connector
on its back (which will give Jonathan the slots that the Mac
should have had). The latest InfoWorld has Jonathan as a
three-piece computer, but I'm not as sure of that as of the
above. More insubstantial rumors concern the processor
(68020?), clock speed (I've heard up to 12 MHz), and price
(rumors about prices are generally wildly inaccurate, reflecting
mainly users' wishful thinking; 1 would be willing to pay
about $3000 for such a machine, but I suspect that Apple will
price it somewhat higher, probably competitive with the IBM
PC AT). Before present Mac owners start looking to sell
their machines, there are many rumors circulating about
Apple's upgrade policy to the equivalent of the Jonathan. I
don't know whether Apple will offer an upgrade, but one
would hope so.
What bappened to the Plastic Diskettes? Due to
massive reader apathy and a lack of time on my part, the
awards were not bestowed upon anyone. I want to thank those
of you who did offer your suggestions (I won't mention any
names for fear of forgetting somebody). Sometime in the
indeterminate future, 1 may try again.
T-t-t-tbat's all, folks! Next month brings the Mac
Plus and the MACWORLD Expo, among other things. It
also brings the opening of "You're a Good Man, Charlie
Brown!", for which 1 am lighting designer; if any of you are
in Durham between the 27th of January and February 8th,
come see the show! Next month's column is going to be
written in between rehearsals!
Post Script. As I finished typing this on my newly­
repaired Mac, 1 reconnected my five month-old Prometheus
Promodem and switched it on in order to call a couple of the
area bulletin boards--and 10, nothing happened. With curses
aimed in the general direction of Silicon Valley, 1 took the
cover off and checked for signs of electronic disaster: there
were none. I then gently pushed on all of the socketed chips
and prayed. A flip of the power switch told me that heaven
was busy elsewhere. More on this rather infuriating
development next month.
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
Vice President
Newsletter Chainnan
Newsletter Editor
SIG MAC Chainnan
Bulletin Board - SYSOP -
Lynn R. Trusal
Kurt Holter
Bruce Taylor
Scott Galbraith
Scott Galbraith
John Lee
Bruce Taylor
John Lee
Lynn R. Trusal
Kathy Kenyon
Lynn R. Trusal
Scott Galbraith
- (301) 845-2651
- (301) 663-4199
- (301) 371-8181
- (301) 865-3035
The above members of the "Frederick Apple Core" (FAC)
have agreed to field questions on Apple computer hardware and
software for FAC members. Please no calls after 10:00 PM.
The Frederick Apple Core meets the second Thursday of
each month in the large conference room of the U.S. Army
Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Ft Detrick,
Frederick, MD 21701-5011 at 7:30 PM.
Frederick Apple Core's BBS System is called the "Cracker
Barrel" and Scott Galbraith is the SYSOP (301) 662-3131.
The BBS has software and bulletins that cover Apple II, Mac­
intosh, IBM, Atari, Commodore and other microcomputers.
The SIG MAC of the Frederick Apple Core meets on the
fourth Tuesday of each month in the same location and at the
same time. MAC owners in the local area are welcome. Call
Lynn R. Trusal at (301) 845-2681 for details.
SIG MAC l1pcQminlr Programs
February 25 - Demo
March 25
- To be announced
by Lynn
R. Trusal (Frederick Apple Core)
In the December issue of the Newsletter, Dr. Peter
Markiewicz of our Institute discussed various uses he has put
the Macintosh to in a scientific environment Since my
article in the September, 1985 Washington Apple Pi Journal,
entitled, "Circle the Macintoshes - Survival in an IBM
Environment: Memories of the First Year", I have received
several phone calls inquiring how we use Macintoshes on a
daily basis. This article is in response to those calls and an
extension of Peter's article on how Macintoshes can be used in
a research environment. Although many of the uses that I
will discuss will refer to specific laboratory applications, the
general principles apply to many working environments.
Word Processinlr of Scientific Manuscripts
We now have about 20 Mac's in our research institute and
most are employed on the desktops of Institute scientists and
administrators. Most of the administrators (Department Heads
and Division Directors) use the Macintosh for word processing
and memo writing. The scientists also tend to start out with
word processing as the primary use, with preparation of scien­
-.......I tific manuscripts and abstracts the main use. Although some
individuals feel that word processing is "secretary's work",
most individuals have found it easy to process ideas directly
Washington Apple Pi
from the brain to the keyboard. The instant editing capability
speeds the process and thoughts can be easily re-organized on
the screen. Most scientific journals accept dot-matrix output,
and I have had no problem with journal editors in this regard.
For those with "letter-quality hangups", we can easily send the
manuscripts by modem to the NBI word processing system
used in the Institute. Once the Apple LaserWriter is installed
on the AppleTalk local area network (LAN), this will no
longer be necessary.
Preparation of Scientific Poster Sessions
Another use under the general category of word processing
is the preparation of scientific posters. Many scientific
meetings employ only poster sessions because of the large
number of people wishing to present their work. It is no
longer possible to afford everyone the lUXUry of a verbal
presentation. Posters are bulletin-board layouts of scientific
data and usually consist of Abstract, Introduction, Materials
and Methods, Results, and Discussion sections. Results are
often presented in table or graphics fonnat. Prior to arrival of
the Macintosh, we used the NBI and an "orator" ball on a
Qume letter quality printer to process these written presen­
tations. The results were often unsatisfactory because the
February 1986
orator ball often did not strike the ribbon properly and only
provided one point size for text. The Macintosh has changed
all that and we now compose text on the screen and print it
out on the LaserWriter. Wtl can use various fonts and point
sizes where, before, we were restricted in this regard. At a
recent international meeting, a scientist from Australia
commented that we had the best posters at the meeting.
Date Notebook Preparation
Word processing can also be used to format scientific
experimental protocols for later inclosure in data notebooks.
Often only minor changes are made in protocols and an
experiment is re-run. Therefore, the protocol may be loaded
into the computer and minor changes made without the need
to re-do it from scratch.
have to be redone each time.
Grapbjn2' of Scientific Data
If data are entered into the spread heet in the proper format,
Switcher may be used in conjunction with the "cut and paste"
technique to quickly switch to Chart for instant graphing of
the data without re-entering the numbers. The resulting
graphs may then be "copied and pasted" into MacWrite for
enclosure in data notebooks. The use of graph paper is now a
thing of the past unless we have a need for certain kinds of log
plots which cannot be done with Chart. Also, I have used
both MacDraw and MacDraft to make needed changes in
graphs prepared with Chart. We use these programs to add
standard error bars to the graphs and to turn the Y-axis label
sideways. We are also starting to use Excel& which combines
the graphics and spreadsheet into one easy-to-use program.
Data Analysis by Spreadsbeet
The Macintosh application used almost as often as word
processing is the spreadsheet. Custom templates are set up to
analyze research data and provide means, standard deviations,
and standard errors. Data that can be analyzed this way include
scintillation counter results, cell counts, viral plaque assays,
enzymatic assays, ELISA's etc. Various custom templates
can be prepared and stored for repeated use. In reality, this is
the real time saver in using the Macintosh in the laboratory.
Again, once the template is prepared and saved, it does not
Scale Drawjngs or Room Layouts
More recently I have had the need to use both MacDraw
and MacDraft to do scale drawings for room layouts. In one
case, we were setting up a Division computer room, and in
the other we needed to determine the best layout for the
Institutes's Graphic Arts Department. Both programs fit the
bill nicely but MacDraft has more options - like rotational
capability and automatic dimension lines (see WAP January,
1986 Journal).
Lynn R. Trusal (Frederick Apple Core)
In the January issue of "High Technology" Magazine
(pp.31-35), Cary Lu has written an article, entitled "The State
of the Micro". Cary is a well-known, microcomputer free­
lance writer and also microcomputer editor of "High
Technology." He is also the author of one of the best-selling
books on the Macintosh but he also writes about a wide
variety of microcomputers.
In his article Cary discusses the current state of the
microcomputer market and capabilities of a wide range of
machines, including the Mac. He says, "The overwhelming
advantages of graphics-based software are evident from the
Apple Macintosh. In virtually every category, Macintosh
software outperforms IBM PC software. Mac programs have
always been easier to learn and use, and now they are getting
more powerful as well. For example, Excel is the best
spreadsheet now available for any computer, far superior to
Lotus 1-2-3 or any other MS-DOS spreadsheet--in power and
ease of use alike. And Macintosh programs can exchange data
(both words and pictures) much more readily than MS-DOS
He points out two major areas that the Macintosh needs
improvement: amount of memory and a better interface for
hard disks. I add double-sided drives to this list It is
interesting that all three of these concerns are evidently being
addressed in the new Macintosh designs.
One additional bit of information of which I was unaware
dealt with the amount of memory that the Macintosh can
address. If you have followed the memory upgrade market,
you know that 4 MB is the largest memory offered by third­
party developers. It is also known that the Motorola 68000
micorprocessor can address 16 MB and, therefore, the obvious
question is why only 4 MB of memory are discussed as the
maximum addressable amount of RAM. According to Cary,
this is due to a design decision that saved the addition of two
wires on the circuit board. Remember that it was not too
long ago that 128K seemed like enough memory for the
ADC J200 Bayd Modem Update
I have received many calls concerning my articles on the
ADC 1200 baud modem in the December and January issues
of the WAP Newsletter. Most people have asked if I have
received the modem and like it. On both counts, I have to say
yes! The only negative factor seems to be the speaker of the
modem. It does not totally cut out once the connection is
made and a static sound is heard. This is in spite of sending it
a software command to cutout once the connection is made. I
turned the speaker volume control down until dialing tones are
just audible and it is not a problem. This appears to be the
only problem, and I think a minor one.
I am told that If you call the phone number listed in the
modem manual you get Prometheus on the other end.
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
Another owner of a Prometheus modem says that the manual
is identical to his Prometheus manual. Therefore, Prometheus
may be the "leading competitor" who makes the modem
iiscussed in the article. By the way, the modem is still being
'-'advertised so it is not too late. There is a full page ad in the
January issue of lb:1c magazine.
As I mentioned, I receive many phone calls about the
articles that I have written for the WAP Journal. I do not
mind the calls and will be glad to help with advice or
hopefully answers to questions, but please call before 10:00
P.M. Also don't be surprised if the voice on the other end of
the phone is a ~ one. I have gotten used to the pregnant
pauses and "I saw the article your wife wrote for the news­
letter" comments when I answer the phone.
Macintosh RAM Upuades
Several people have asked me what RAM upgrade to get
for their Macintosh after my article appeared in the January
Journal. They were having trouble fmding the conclusion in
my article. That may have been because there was no con­
clusion. I couldn't find it either, which is why I am waiting
to see what Apple announces at the 1985 Annual Stockholders
meeting in early January. By the time you read this, Apple's
plans will be known and it may just be best to go with a 1
Megabyte upgrade which should be comparable to existing 3rd
party upgades. It will also eliminate the compatibility prob­
lem with some ROM upgrades and future Apple changes.
20 Meg Internal MocDrjye (or $895
One note in closing deals with an ad in the January issue
of MacWorld magazine. The ad caught my eye because it was
for a 20 megabyte internal hard disk for the Macintosh for
$895 (Warp-Nine, Minneapolis, MN; 612-426-9769). Jcalled
the company and they are offering a Rodine 20 megabyte
internal hard disk. They supply the tools and instructions for
d installation or they will do it for you for $150. The drive
electrically attaches to the motherboard with two solder
connections and includes a fan and its own power supply.
They also uses the identical hierarchical file system used by
Apple for the HD20. Like the Apple drive, it is not self­
booting. This drive is one-half the price and should be
comparable in speed to the 20 M internal Hyperdrive. It is
also $200 to $300 less (wholesale prices) than you can buy
Apple's new external HD20 for and uses Apple's new
hierarchical file system. Can this be the best of all possible
worlds? Only time will tell. As for me, I am holding off on
the purchase of a hard disk until I can check this out more
R. Trusal (Frederick Apple Core)
I was recently invited to see a demonstration of the new
NBI Integrated Work Station (IWS). At first glance, it looked
like the old NBI professional word processor, but then again,
it looked more like a Big Mac (no pun intended). There was a
full size screen with icons, bit-mapped graphics, mouse, and
integrated software. The IWS is based on the Motorola 68010
microprocessor running at 8 MHz. It comes standard with 1.5
megabytes (MB) of RAM memory expandable to 2 MB and
the memory management unit provides access to 4 MB of
virtual memory. In addition, the IWS comes with a 3-button
mouse, a battery back-up for date and time functions, a large
keyboard with numeric key pad and function keys, one 5.25"
floppy disk drive, and one 22 MB Winchester hard disk drive.
A 40 MB hard disk is optional.
The integrated software includes word processing, chart
graphics, design graphics, spreadsheet, data base management,
asynchronous communications, system utilities, and docu­
ment management The system is based on the Unix 4.2
BSD operating system. The screen display is "what you see
is what you get" (WYSIWYG) and screen management func­
tions are similar to a Macintosh with multiple windows,
resizing capability, and split windows within applications.
Unlike the Macintosh, multitasking and print spooling are
also supported.
All in all, I felt that I was looking a one of the several
versions of new Macintoshes talked about in such publica­
____ tions as "InfoWorld." The larger screen, more memory,
68010 CPU, and enhanced keyboard are all features discussed
or rumored to be included in the new Macintosh Plus or a
newer version rumored for release later in 1986. Will IBM
Washington Apple Pi
come on board in 1986 with some of these features in the PC
II? Only time will tell!
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February 1986
Robert C. Platt
Welcome back to the Book Review comer. This month's
column will cover a book on the history of microcomputing
and several books on programming the Macintosh.
Hackers is now available in paperback. Steve Levy has
traced the development of the "hacker ethic" from the late
1950's at the MIT Model Railroad Club, through the fIrst kit
home computers, to the founding of Apple, and fmally the
growth of the microcomputer software industry.
Contrary to recent usage in the press, the word "hacker" is
not a derogatory term applicable to kids who break into the
Pentagon computer. Rather, the term originated at MIT to
mean techincally inclined people who explore and create
innovative systems. Levy identifIes the following key ele­
ments in the hacker ethic:
• The Hands-On imperative - people should have access to
all things which can teach how the world works.
• All information should be free and shared.
• Mistrust authority - promote decentralization.
·Hackers should bejudged by their workproduct, not bogus
creditials such as college degrees, age, race, or position.
• You can create art and beauty on a computer.
• Computers can improve your life.
I believe that Hackers provides insights not only into the
creation and growth of the microcomputer industry, but also
to the mission of WAP. W AP offers a local vehicle for
sharing and learning similar to the Boston and California
environments that spawned the industry. The people presented
in Hackers share the enthusiasm and dedication that I see in
WAP's volunteers. If you want an appreciation of how we
got to the micro's current advanced state or what WAP can
contribute in the future, read this book!
I should note that certain anecdotes are rather explicit and
unsuitable for younger readers (e.g. the marketing of the fU'St
"soft-core" adventure game on the Apple.) Highly Recom­
mended. [Dell, 448 pp. index $4.50]
BASIC Programming on the Mac
The documentation for Microsoft BASIC 2.1 on the
Macintosh (MS-Basic) is almost adequate as a reference tool-­
it presents and summarizes all keywords and commands in
alphabetical order. However, the order of presentation is not
well suited for a novice BASIC programmer. (If you do not
already know BASIC and are looking for a book, I urge you to
stop and learn some other language instead-osee my Pascal
columns.) Hence, a number of step-by-step books have
entered the market to fill the void left by Microsoft
The key to buying a BASIC book is to realize that there
are three different implementations of BASIC for the Mac.
MacBasic, which was to be released by Apple, but is instead
circulating in the underground, offers an excellent debugging
environment. Apple got a number of publishers and authors
to commit to printing books on MacBasic before the project
was buried. (One such book hit the shelves from Osborne!
McGraw-Hill written by WAP's own Richard Norling.)
MacBasic books are only helpful to those with access to an
underground copy of MacBasic. Another BASIC interpreter
was MS-Basic version 1.0 which was hurriedly released by
Microsoft in the spring of 1984. This version does not
support windows or menus. Any book on MS-Basic printed
in 1984 will not address these important features. Check any
book for coverage of the most widely used implementation:
MS-Basic versions 2.0 or 2.1 which came out in 1985 and
which permit access to the Mac's ROM Toolbox.
The Waite Group's track record for producing high quality
computer books is impressive. Microsoft Macinations
by The Waite Group, Mitchell Waite, Robert Lafore and Ira
Lansing [Microsoft Press $19.95] is intended as the
introductory text of the series. It covers what people who
have used BASIC on other machines already should know. I
would recommend skipping Macinations and purchasing
instead the second book in the series: Macintosh
Midnight Madness by The Waite Group, Mitchell Waite,
Dan Putterman, Don Urquhart and Chuck Blanchard
[Microsoft Press, 420 pp. $18.95]. Madness features a
detailed presentation and explanation of 17 different game and
utility programs that were selected to feature most significant
ROM Toolkit routines. These programs are rather lenghty,
and the publisher offers a source code disk for $20. A few of
these programs were reprinted in Nibble Mac last fall.
Among the utilities are 1) a MacPaint graphics mover, 2)~
a cursor editor, 3) a program to convert MS-Basic version 1.0
programs by removing line numbers, 4} a simple animation
editor (ala Video Works), 5) a MacDraw-like drawing con­
struction set, and 6) a music editor (ala Music Works). I
found each program to be well presented both as to use and
design. Waite picked interesting examples. Recommended.
One worthy alternative is Macintosh Game Anima­
tion by Ron Person. The book is intended for programmers
who wish to include graphics and animation in Mac programs
such as games. The book begins with an explanation of
animation and computer graphic techniques. The sample
programs are presented in slightly less detail than in
Madness, but are still adequate and appropriate to a primary
focus on animation. One advantage of Person's book is that
although the text is geared toward MS-Basic version 2.0,
appendices present equivalent techniques in MacPascal and
MacBasic. The author offers a source disk that includes: a
Satellite Interceptor game, an animation of a car engine, a
pattern maker, a cursor editor, a MacPaint to BASIC con­
verter, and an animation editor for $20. Thus, Person's book
overlaps significantly with the Waite Madness book. If
your primary interest is game design or learning about
animation, you may prefer Person over Waite. [Osborne!
McGraw-Hill, 254 pp. $16.95]
Until next month, happy hunting at the local bookstore!@
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
Sawyer, esc My computer mail comes in flurries. The rule here is, if
it's got "computer" on it, it goes in my mailbox. Actually,
it's a mail drawer, and I need it. Once a month the flurries
tum into an avalanche of computer magazines and catalogs.
For me that means six magazines and three software reviews.
I am a glutton for computer digests and like all gluttons often
get indigestion. Everyone is selling something that I would
love to have. I feel gUilty not having the money to fill my
computer with cards and my room with software. I am
embarrassed to have only 128K of RAM. I am perturbed that
the software package (why package?) that I bought last week
has been upgraded beyond recognition and now does
everything it should have done in the first place. Every
month there is an endless procession of word processors,
coprocessors, image processors and data processors. The latter
come in integrated, relational and window flavors and are
liberally sprinkled with "user friendly" commands (yummy).
Some come with mice but never (they say) with bugs.
Every product is either a super, + , II, III, IV or rev 9.4.
"New improved" is okay for detergents but computer wares
must be zowie, wizzbang, superduper, penultimate, and
absolutely awesome. They are final, master, electro, micro,
ultimate, powerful, techno, high-techno and personal (per­
sonal??). They all do what no computer was ever meant to do
,d with the greatest of ease to boot. Soon we will have
......Jftware that will boot itself, do everything in the universe,
and finally shut itself off; all while the user is asleep and
having a nightmare about being attacked by POWERFUL,
user-friendly software. Every product is compatible with the
compatibles, look-alikes and clones. The products all seem to
be clones of other products. Do we really need IS varieties of
RAM boards or umpty-eleven word processors, none of which
is compatible with any of its clones? I'll bet that the
artificially intelligent software won't be smart enough to
recognize its own clone. It will demand the "real thing" or at
the very least, a friendly Sidekick.
All computer wares come enhanced with jargon and it is
now clear that the language has been muddied beyond recogni­
tion. If "software" means "computer program", then what is a
software program? Is it a program that makes software or
software that creates programs? Where are the hardware
drives? Can you get flI1Tlware at a health spa? Microsoft
makes Microsoft and MicroSparc makes Macrosoft Micro­
zine has Wizware and Peachtree has Eduware and Dragonware
which are not to be confused with EZ-Ware, Appleware,
Design-ware, and Stoneware (isn't that some kind of dinner
plate?). Then there's Data Link, Datamost, and Datasoft (is
there a Dataware?). Good Grief! Where do all these wares
come from? As hard disks proliferate will we be subjected to
Microhard, EZ-hard, Softhard, Hardsoft, and Stonehard? How
'Ibout a portable hard drive called "Rock 'n Roll"?
--./ If my lunch hasn't come up the way it went down after
trying hard to digest the wares and softs, it does when I try to
eat the alphabet soup. CP/M, MS-DOS, IBM PC, C, Z80+,
PDQII, 68000, Q-68, UNIX, 8088, 80387, CPU, UCSD, RX­
Washington Apple Pi
80Fff, RS-232, SMHz, HELP. This is from the general
reader magazines. The professional trade mags must include a
grand smorgasbord of indigestible morsels. Menu driven is
one thing but must we also be driven to drink or drowned in
the broth?
At the bottom of the barrel (no, not the Apple barrel) are
those who are trying to be clever andlor cute with the names
they cook up. I actually saw "Egghead Softwear Software"
which gives you "eggsactly" what you want. So sue me
already, but Softwear Software is dumb. There are also many
plays on the word "byte" and every word in the English
language that contains the syllable "mac" has been used to
name a Macintosh software package program (program pack­
age?). How about Nibbleing on some Silicon Salad with
Diskquik Muffins. Wash it down with InCider which is at
least Piracy Prof if not 80 pruf. What's a pruf, an asthmatic
dog's woof! Wouldn't you like to have a Software Automatic
Mouth or take a trip into the Edu-Cave? Can you believe
Software Bane, Plexa-Lok, Dollars and Sense, The Write
Stuff, and all the Trixes. Why not sell Edukashunul Paques
like Spel-Quik, Arith-matic, or Pro-grammar? No wonder
there's a market for word processors with built-in spelling
checkers like Screditor ill and Microsoft MultiTool Word. I'll
give scredit where scredit is due but what's a multitool word,
one with many uses or many meanings or both or neither or
something in between? Does it come with drills or am I
hammering away at the obvious?
So much for the problem. Is there any hope for a solu­
tion? I think not. We might just as well have a good laugh
because the industry is never going to stop babbling. It may
make it easier if we look upon computer advertisements as
light entertainment. It is better to enjoy imaginative but
illiterate jargon than to have everything in the computer world
come in grey and blue packages. So byte the bullet, ware a
smile, keep the extra Mac-Z-Mum strength whatever handy,
and enjoy watching the making of Babel II. Hey, that's a
catchy title...for an Apple II speech synthesizer, perhaps.
• Brother Tom Sawyer, csc is a
• Holy Cross Brother who teaches
• computer programming at
• Bishop McNamara High School
• in Forestville, MD
February 1986
MAC Q&A by Jonathan
E. Hardis
Old business: Due to the tight production schedule of
the December Journal, the bottom lines of four columns of
this column were omitted. On page 57, the left column
should end with the line "have obtained a copy of the new
Finder (5.0) or", and the right column should end with the line
"your most recent backup or repair or remove the offending".
On page 58, the missing lines are, "independent bodies which
fonn standards committees.)" and "there a way I can digitize
sound and music, too." I'm sorry, too that I was unable to
meet the shortened deadline for January. The new date for Mac
meetings should help us a lot
The mails last month brought a letter from Fr. Leo
Sprietsma at the San Antonio Mission in Jolon, California:
"In the Oct Q & A Column, I noticed someone else shared a
problem that I had. When attempting to convert a series of
documents on St. Paul, created with the old MacWrite, so that
I could have a complete Epistle as one document in MacWrite
4.5, I kept getting messages about 'disk full', 'Can't be
opened', or a symbol to switch disks appearing up in the
menu bar which sort of 'locked' the Mac. I had created the
original MacWrite 2.2 [documents on a disk] with the old
Finder [and System File], and the problem seems to be that
the new Finder [and System File] did not recognize it
Luckily, I still had a copy of the old Finder 1.1 on a disk, and
when I put MacWrite 4.5 and the old Finder on a disk
[together], the conversion worked OK. Later, transferring it to
a disk with the new MacWIite and the new Finder on it, it all
opened as expected. Rather tedious, and a lot of switching
disks, but it works." Thanks for your help!
I would also like to amend an answer given in December:
Q: Is HFS worth getting right now?
A: No. Lots of software on the market now, especially those
products written in C, fail under HFS. The reasons are not
profound, and are easy for the programmer to fix. But in
the meantime, it will drive you crazy to find out that your
favorite programs and desk accessories no longer work.
Needless to say, programs specific to the old MFS file
structure, such as FEdit and Copy II Mac & Hard Disk
Utility, will have to undergo major overhaul.
Another troublesome program is MacTracks, which
appears to kill the HD-20. You can recover, however, by
replacing the System File.
Q: How can Apple do this to us?
IBM would
never treat their PC customers this way.
A: IBM did treat their customers this way. When PC users
had to upgrade from version 1 to version 2.0 of PC-DOS,
they had to go through exactly the same thing, for exactly
the same reasons. This is par for the course in order to
bring to you a better product
Q: I have the Apple Hard Disk 20 and I have to
use HFS now. Any suggestions?
A: If you have trouble, tty putting the program and all the
files it uses into the root directory, i.e., not within any
Mac Section
folder. This wPwork around most of the difficulties. If
you have trouble, know that you are not alone. A call to
the software house involved may speed an updated version
to you.
Q: Any hints for the Red Ryder user?
A: Get the latest version, 7.0 (7.1 7).
Q: Amy hints for the MDS programmer?
A: In all the MDS applications (even PackSyms), use FEdit
to change 41EE FFBO to 4E71 4E71. (What you are
doing is removing a test in the filter proc of the standard
fLle package which was there to fix a bug in the older
version, but which causes trouble, itself, now.) Don't
forget to alter spare copies, only! You also have to keep
all fLIes out of folders.
Q: I've been able to get around the copy protec­
tion on the early Microsoft products by also
copying the invisible, protected files to the
target disk.
Will this also work for the HD·
20, under HFS?
A: No, the new HFS Finder (5.0) doesn't like those files at
Q: Do you have any shopping suggestions for a
Mac owner this time of year?
A: I would avoid buying: any disk drive, hard or floppy, any
memory upgrade, Apple's or otherwise, and any software
that doesn't advertise itself as HFS (or HD·20) compatible.
The January announcements promise to make these
obsolete, that is, worth much less than they sell for today.
While it is not the purpose of this column to dwell on
rumors, my remarks on page 75 of the Dec. Journal are
essentially correct The Mac will be getting a SCSI
(Small Computer Systems Interface) port as part of an
upgrade package that will "open up" the Mac to many
more fast and inexpensive hard disks. (The port is a
1.5 MHz, 8-bit parallel interface.)
Q: What is the difference between the Haba 800K
floppy drive and the rumored, upcoming Apple
800K floppy drive?
A: The original Mac floppy drives required the "Integrated
Woz Machine" on the Mac's main circuit board to control
all of its functions, such as speed selection and head seek.
The newer Apple 800K drives (out in January for the Mac,
out now for the II) have a controller built into the drive
itself. This will speed up disk operations considerably,
allowing, for example, both drives to spin at once. The
Haba 800K drives rely on the old, slow method.
What's worse, the new HFS software distributed with
the HD-20 assumes that all 800K drives are of Apple's
new design, and that all 800K disks use HFS, the new file
system. The Haba's don't work with it. Whether Apple
commits this restrictive code to silicon in the new ROMs
February 1986 Washington Apple Pi
remains to be seen. But Haba owners risk incompatibility
with both Apple's new firmware and the disk protection
schemes of software publishers. (I hope that Haba will
supply RAM based HFS software for their customers,
'-'" who will need it)
Q: Now that Apple is providing a SCSI interface,
will there be other internal hard disks (besides
Hyperdrive) marketed?
A: Yes, there are rumored to be a few new entrants to the
market, which can only drive down prices. One in
particular to watch for is from Micah. They will be using
rugged disks manufactured byHewlett-Packard (Hyperdrive
has less expensive Rodime drives, as does the HD-20).
And the software is being written by Steve Brecher, an
extraordinarily talented contributor to both MAUGTM and
MacTutor magazine. Tentative suggested retail prices vary
from $1400 for 10 Megabyte to $2500 for 30 Meg.
Levco is also interested in entering the market at "very
reasonable" prices since GCC won't cooperate with them
on their memory upgrade product If you don't mind an
external disk, 10 Meg SCSI disks go for as low as a few
hundred dollars on other computers. And SCSI disks
meant for engineering workstations are available in many
capacities, even over 100 Meg each. I don't know if
Apple is putting SCSI software into the ROM, or whether
you will have to buy it as a separate item. (Just to avoid
confusion: SCSI is the way the hardware is connected;
HFS software refers to the way the files are stored on the
What is a good way to compare the speed of
different hard disks?
A: I don't have a good answer, but I can tell you what not to
look for. Don't compare data transfer rates, and don't
compare times to launch an application or to return to the
Finder. Data transfer rates take only a small part of the
time of using a hard disk. You also have to consider how
fast the read head moves radially to different tracks (the
seek time), and how fast the motor spins the disk, among
other factors. Launch times can be deceptive because a file
scattered in sectors allover the disk will take longer to
read than one laying on just one track. This demon­
stration is at best random, and at worst, it can be
deliberately skewed to make a product look bad. Disks can
also be made to appear faster by incorporating "caching" as
part of the driver. Caching is a technique which uses a
chunk of RAM memory to hold duplicate copies of
recently accessed parts of the disk.
I haven't seen the January MacWorld, but their
comparison of the Apple HD-20, I'm told, is at best based
on preliminary software, and at worst, totally off-the-wall.
Q: What's new with the HyperDrive?
A: As you know, GeC changed the design a bit when they
started shipping the 20 Meg version. From what I see on
MAUG (not a scientific sampling), lots of people have
been having trouble with them. Not only have there been
...-- hardware failures, but a lot of software failures as well.
Last month I mentioned problems with OverVUE and
ThinkTank. Business Filevision and RMaker fail as well.
Washington Apple Pi The root of the problem is that GeC expanded the area of
memory called the "System Heap" to hold the Hyper­
Drive's cache, but did not make other necessary changes to
tell programs what they had done. Without thoroughly
testing their new software, they began to distribute it. On
the other hand, not all of the fault is with GCC, since
some of these programs shouldn't have been doing what
they were doing, anyway.
One workaround is to boot your system from a floppy
disk, instead of the HyperDrive, to get the standard size of
the System Heap. In the case of ThinkTank, you can
order version 1.2, which is a non-production version that
exists only to fix the HyperDrive problem. Call Living
Videotext at (415) 946-6300. (It also allows ThinkTank
to work with some RAM disks.)
Q: Is there another workaround for RMaker?
A: Andy H. (RMaker's author) suggest that you set the
"System Heap" attribute on the MDEF 0 resource in the
System file. Resource Editor lets you do this easily, in
one of the "Info" dialogs.
Q: Help!
My Apple Hard Disk 20 is totally
messed up.
A: Shift-Option-Tab is a magic combination that somehow
either reformats or cleans up the HD-20. I don't know
precisely what it does, but I offer this as a clue to those
willing to experiment. After they back up their files.
Twice. Holding down Command and Option while
starting the Finder also has been reported to help in clean­
up; and you don't lose your folders under HFS.
Q: Will there be a "Flight Simulator" for the
A: Yes, subLogic is writing it, and Microsoft has bought the
distribution rights. It was demonstrated at COMDEX.
Q: What happened to MacAdvantage Pascal?
A: Pecan Software Systems, Inc., acquired the assets of Sof­
Tech Mircosystems and is now supporting MacAdvantage
Pascal. They can be reached at 1410 39111 Street, Brook­
lyn, NY 11218, or at (718) 851-3100 (800-63-PECAN
for orders). Current owners should be getting a mailing
soon. Because they are starting up and gung-ho, they are
receptive to your ideas about the p-System line of
Q: How well does the new ImageWriter II work?
A: Lofty Becker has been comparing the lmagewriter I and II,
and he still prefers the I. Some of the differences may be
due to the new ImageWriter driver, version 2.0, which
Apple is including on their newer product disks. (See
your dealer if you want a copy.) So, try both the old and
new drivers for best results. The IW-II rocks the platen
back and forth a bit at the top of the paper, tending to
scrunch the top print line. It also doesn't print line fonts
(such as Geneva) as well at standard resolution. (The
bidirectional printing doesn't properly line up.) There
have been reports that it loses the top-of-form position in
the middle of long documents, and it is more prone to
paper jams. On the other hand, it is both faster and
February 1986
sharper than the ImageWriter I.
Harry Starr recommends lubricating the ImageWriter II
rails with light oil to improve the registration on
bidirctional printing, though this has not helped everyone.
dates are expressed as a count of seconds since midnight,
January 1, 1904. So, if your system clock was zero or a
low number the date would appear to be in 1904, the root
of your original problem.
Q: CaD I use a Canon copier cartridge ID a
A: No, but HP LaserJet cartridges fit By the way, the
cartridges can be refllled by third-party suppliers, such as
Toner Distributors of Carlsbad, CA.
month, you explained how to generate
special printing characters. Is there a way to in­
clude "control characters" in my document too?
A: It's iffy whether a particular word processing program can
handle these characters. MDS Edit would be a good first
choice to try. But Lofty Becker suggests two good
workarounds. First, you could generate the control
characters with the same BASIC program given last
month, and keep them either in a special document or in
the Notebook.
Since they would be non-printing
characters, they would all appear the same, as a box, so
you might want to add extra text to remind you which was
which. From the Notebook, you could copy them to the
clipboard and paste them into your work. Secondly, you
could edit a document in the normal way using a rarely
used printing character in place of the control character.
After editing, you could search for and change occurances
of this place holder with FEdit (Note that MacWrite 4.5
encodes the 15 most commonly used characters, but not
the rest.) (If you don't know what control characters are,
don't worry. They are used principally by computers other
than Macs as signals for special functions. Like
characters, they are single bytes, but unlike characters,
they don't have a corresponding printing graphic.)
Q: Help!
My LaserWriter won't print a dark black
when I install a Dew tODer cartridge.
A: Try gently shaking the toner cartridge from side to side,
and then print about 25 copies of the same page to get the
juices flowing.
Q: How do I obtain Apple's Smalltalk?
Q: Where caD I find more inrormation about the
Q: Does Don Brown (or CE Software, the Mock
PostScript language that runs on the Laser­
A: Both the PostScript Lanuage Reference Manual and the
PostScript Language Tutorial and Cookbook are published
by Addison-Wesley and are distributed nationally by B.
This'n-that people) now work ror Borland?
A: No. While he licensed some programs to Borland for the
Sidekick package, he still expects individuals to honor
their shareware obligations.
Q: Are
any more high-resolution rODts ror the
LaserWriter OD the way?
A: Yes. Casady Company (of Fluent Font fame) is develop­
ing a collection of fonle; based on the Fontographer editor,
under development by Altsys (of Fontastic fame). One
hold up is Apple, which is expected to release a new
LaserWriter driver that will better support downloaded (as
opposed to built in) fonts. Century Software has both
new LaserWriter fonts ;md new screen sizes for the original
ones. Harvey Lam reports that they have started working
on a Laser version of the Princeton font Cary Lu reported
at the December SIGMac meeting that Adobe Systems
also has a dozen new font families about ready to ship at
roughly $200 each. He wasn't too confident. however,
that there will be as large a cottage industry in LaserWriter
fonts since it is tough to artistically design high quality,
detailed fonts, and to proportion their differing sizes
correctly. (It isn't simple magnification.)
Q: Last
A: Assuming you have at least a megabyte of memory,
request a Smalltalk order form from Eileen Crombie,
Apple Computer, 20525 Mariani Ave., Cupertino, CA
95014 (408)996-1010.
Q: How do I use Click Art Effects on a Hyper­
A: Mike Boich delivered the "golden master" to Apple on Dec­
ember 6. Expect it at your dealer within the next month.
A: Copy MacPaint to the HyperDrive without the effects
installed. Then reinstall it This prevents a conflict of
DRVR resoun:e numbers.
Q: Where is the "creation date" inrormation about
Q: Is
Q: What's the story OD MacTerminal 2.0?
a file kept? I'd like to change some incorrect
dates that now read 1904.
A: I assume the questioner has honest intentions, and nothing
stops you from mis-setting the system clock, anyway.
Using FEdit (SIGMac disk 21 - pay up!), open the disk
volume and search for the file's name in the disk directory.
To do this, display the sectors in hex. The directory starts
in disk block 4, the fifth sequential block on the disk.
The byte before the file name contains the length of the
file name. The longword (four bytes) before that contains
the date and time the file was last modified. The longword
before that is the date and time the file was created. Both
DEC VT-240 simulation available on the
A: As far as I know, not yet At the Boston Mac show, two
products in development were demonstrated. The one I
remember was from White Pine Software, (603) 673­
8151, and you can phone for current information.
Q: Can you put MacPaint pictures "on the same
line" as text in a MacWrite document?
A: No, not without the help of a page make-up program such ,-..
as Page Maker, Ready-Set-Go, or MacPublisher. At the
meeting, somebody remarked that version 2.0 of Ready­
Set-Go is much better than version 1, but not perfect.
February 1986 Washington Apple Pi
Q: Can you recommend MIDI (Musical Instrument
Digital Interface) software?
A: Not personally, but MacUser magazine had a comparative
article in their December issue.
Q: What is MultiMac, and how can I get it?
A: The second part is easy - you can't get it. MultiMac is an
application that is supposed to make the Mac "multi­
tasking", allowing it to run more than one program at the
same time (as opposed to Switcher, which runs only one
program at a time, while keeping the others in limbo).
Presumably, you could see different programs in different
windows, all doing their work.
MultiMac was (is 7) being developed by a company
called Aubrac Systems. Around the end of November, a
version of MultiMac started making the rounds (illegally)
on the BBS circuit. Many who tried it got what they
In my opinion, the idea is fatally flawed, and you'll
not see MultiMac as a viable product. Considering all the
work Andy Hertzfield put into Switcher, I don't see how
someone, not as familiar with the Mac's workings as
Andy is, can leapfrog beyond Switcher so easily. Andy
splits the Mac's memory up into disjoint pieces so that
each application won't step on the others. He says that
MultiMac, however, tries to share the one "Application
Heap" between all the applications, which causes
problems in memory sizing and out-of-memory situations.
Lots of programs, and combinations of programs, have
apparantly failed to work right, to date, under MultiMac.
However, one can, in principle, build on all the
.~ knowledge gained while writing Switcher. I think that
Apple could enhance Switcher to fulml the goals of
Q: Can you get shared hard disk storage for the
AppleTalk network?
A: Yes, check out MacServe and XUServe from Infosphere.
Also, Corvus' Mac Omninet is now completed, mixing
Macs, Pes, I/s, many kinds of printers (including the
LaserWriter), and other things on one network.
Q: Help! I've written a program in MS Basic, but
the last llne never prints on the printer.
A: A line won't print on the ImageWriter until you are done
sending it to the printer. "Done" means that you linefeed
or formfeed to advance to the next line. Assuming that
you did an Open#1 to the printer, you can either print an
extra, blank line with Print#l, or better, do a Close#1
when you are done with your print routine.
Q: Is it sare to keep secret information, such as
passwords, on my floppy disk?
A: No! Not only then do you have to guard the physical
security of the disk. even after you trash the file, but you
risk hitting a bug in the current ROM. Certain files
(those with resource forks) incorporate a bit of whatever
was previously recorded on their space on the disk when
'-" you first create them. If you copy such a file to another
disk, or send it via modem, that little extra bit of junk
tags along for the ride. There is a very unlikely possibil­
Washington Apple Pi ity of you being unlucky if the recipient looks at the file
with a disk editor, such as FEdit. (As an example look at
the flies that came on the MacTerminal disk. You will see
portions of Mike Boich's terminal sessions on his VAX.)
(By the way, I reported this to Apple a while back.)
If you do like to record private matters on your disk,
be sure to choose "Erase Disk" from the Finder when you
are done with it. Do not just trash the flies.
Addendum: In the November Issue, p. 63, I discussed
the problem of light printing when putting MacPaint pictures
into MacWrite documents. I'm told that a workaround is to
use MacDraw instead of MacPaint. You might try to route
your MacPaint picture through MacDraw first, to see what
happens. Also, try the new Imagewriter Driver (2.0).
Quickies: If your game program displays maps you'd
like to keep, try to print them out with Caps Lock-Cmd­
Shift-4 ... There are many known bugs in Finder 5.0; do not
use it unless you have to with a HO-20 ... The current
FontlDA Mover is version 2.5 ... The current version of
MacDraw is 1.9; your dealer can copy an upgrade disk onto
your old, original diskette ... LaserPrep II, from your Apple
Dealer, allows LaserWriters to better handle manual sheet
OVERVUE 2.0: A Problem and Solution by James J.
This is a report of a problem .lIlli! a solution on OverVUE
2.0. I have a vintage 128K Mac. Among its tasks is keeping
mailing lists, and printing labels when needed.
We have used Habadex--much too slow. We have used
Main Street Filer and have had problems with it. After seeing
the remarkable demo by ProVUE, I felt it would be the answer
to our mailing list problems. I ran a test list of 58 records on
OverVUE. I could get only about one-half of them printed as
mailing labels. As a list, I could get about 33 to print
correctly. Then in both cases, I would get a line or two of
garbage, and printing would stop.
In desperation, I called Steve Hunt to see if he had any
ideas--or if he knew of someone who might have an answer.
His reaction was that it was a printer problem. We tried a few
"fIXes" including substituting a new system folder for the one
on my work copy of OverVue. No luck.
When all else failed, I reverted to the manual. Lo and
behold, in Appendix A, Printer Interfacing, of the OverVUE
Manual, I read: "If your Imagewriter is printing garbage
characters instead of your report, here are two possible solu­
tions ... A number of early Imagewriters were shipped with
switch 3 on SW2 in the closed position ... flip it forward so
that it is facing you in the open position." A diagram on
page 302 shows correct positions of each switch on SWI and
SW2. On my Imagewriter, switch 5 on SWI was "open" and
switch 3 on SW2 was "closed". According to ProVUE, both
should be in opposite positions. I changed them, and the
program and printer worked perfectly.
Quickly, I called Steve and passed on the good word. He
asked if I'd write a little squib for use in the WAP Journal. ®
February 1986
MacN()l'ice C()lumn
by Ralph J. Begleiter
Hot Tips
Many of you are still new to your Macintoshes, so you're
probably still getting to know your computer's capabilities.
There are a number of shortcuts available to you to perfann
often-used small tasks. These shortcuts, while not earth­
shaking, are nonetheless useful if you remember them.
Here's a list of some of the most commonly-used and
most commonly forgotten shortcuts:
• On the desktop, clon't overlook the "Shut Down"
command in the "Special" menu. It can save you time and
mouse-tracks when you're ready to quit a job. Simply choose
"Shut Down" and the Mac will automatically make a note of
any changes you've made to document names, locations
within folders and windows, and messages you've added to the
"Get Info" windows of documents and folders. After recording
those changes on your disks, the Mac will automatically eject
all disks (from external disk drives, too!) and "reset" itself by
turning off its own power and turning it on again. This allows
you to simply turn off the power (if you're leaving the Mac)
or insen a new disk if you decide to keep working. This
shortcut saves the need to choose "eject" for each disk when
you're ready to quit. The command is especially useful when
you're using more than one disk drive, since it cycles through
them all without forgetting to make notes on the changes
you've made on each disk.
• Still on the desktop, clon't forget about using the ~
Startup" command Select an "application" (a computer pro­
gram/tool such as MacWrite), and choose "Set Stanup." The
next time you insen that disk into the Mac at stanup, the
computer will skip the desktop altogether, taking you directly
into the "application" you've selected, saving time and mouse­
steps. "Set Startup" is particularly useful if you set up your
disks with just one application per disk. You'll always move
directly to the desired application, without having to wait for
Mac to draw the desktop to find your documents. (Remember,
you can still open any document you wish from Yli1hin the
application by choosing the "Open" command.)
Incidentally, if you change your mind and want to ~
which application starts up automatically, just "Quit" from
the application (you'll be n:turned to the desktop), open the
"System Folder" and select the "Finder." ~ choose "Set
Startup" again... and the "Finder" (desktop) will become the
"stanup" application!
• Again on the desktop, remember that when you create a
"New Folder" using the command by that name in the "File"
menu (or by typing COMMAND-N), you can begin typing
the ~ of that folder immediately. Mac automatically
"selects" the new folder for you and activates the feature which
allows you to type a name. So, select "New Folder" and
begin typing its new name immediately. Then click outside
the new folder...or press "Enter" and the new name will be
attached to the new folder.
• On the desktop, remember to use the "selection
rectangle" (marquee). When you want to "select" more than
one adjacent item, simply click and drag the mouse over all
the adjacent items you want The "selection rectangle" will
substitute for pointing-and-clicking on ~ item.
The Double-Click
Perhaps the single most useful shortcut of all is the
"double-c1ick." Try it, you'll like it! Whenever you want to
"Open" anythin2 (a document, a folder, an application, or even
a tool (in MacPaint), try the "double click" instead of reaching
with your mouse for the "Open" command in the "File"
menu. (Double clicking saves a lot of steps in the course of
working with a document) Keep in mind that deciding to
"open" something can have a very liberal interpretation:
• "Open" folders, documents, applications, disk icons, the
"trash" by double-clicking on the icon.
• In MacWrite, double-click on a lYQrd to instantly and
automatically select the entire word!
• In Microsoft File and some other applications, double­
click on the window-sjze box in the lower right-hand comer of
your screen to instantly resize the window to full screen!
• In MacPaint, clouble-click on the paintbrush tool icon to
instantly "open" the "brush shape" window! (Saves pulling
clown the "Goodies" menu.)
• In MacPaint, double-click on the "grabber" hand to
instantly open the "show-page" window from "Goodies"
(without having to pull clown the menu).
• In MacPaint, clouble-click on the selection rectan2Ie (the
"marquee") to instantly select the entire drawin2 window.
(Shan cut for drawing the selection rectangle around the entire
• In MacPaint, double-click on the eraser to instantly erase
the entire drawjn2 window.
• In MacPaint, double-click on the ~ tool to instantly
enter "FatBits" (without having to choose it from the
"Goodies" menu). You can also enter or leave FatBits by
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
clicking once on the pencil and holding down the "COM­
MAND" key!)
• In MacPaint, double-click on the "current pattern"
?lin!km: to alter the current pattern, or double-click on ~ of
'-"'the patterns to create your own paint designs!
Other ShQrtcuts
• In MacPaint, choose the "Short Cuts" command from
the "Goodies" menu to see even more hot tips. They include,
for example, being able to switch instantly from using the
pencil to using the grabber hand by simply holding down the
"Option" key while using the pencil. Very handy when you're
doing a detailed drawing larger than the drawing window!
• In MacWrite, don't forget about the "0010 Page #"
command in the "Search" menu. It's a quick substitute for
dragging the scroll bar. Simply type COMMAND-G, the
page number and "Enter." MacWrite will take you there
• Don't forget to use the "Close Box" at the top-left of
every window. It'll save you the trouble of mousing through
the "File" menu to "Close".
Other readers and other information sources may have
discovered more shortcuts. If ~ found one, be sure to
share that "ftnd" with other MacNovices! Read about and
explore your Mac to learn its surprising ability 10 help you
move quickly through your work.
Show Poga
[dlt Pottorn
Bru.h Shope
• In MacWrite, remember to use the shortcut keyboard
commands to make a line of text flush left, flush right,
centered or justified. These commands are in the "Format"
menu, and eliminate the need to insert rulers for just a line or
two of unusually-formatted texL
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February 1986
'EXCEL'ing WITH YOUR MAC by David Morganstein Microsoft's Excel program is just about the most
powerful, yet easiest to use, Spreadsheet program for any
personal computer. In addition to being a spreadsheet, Excel
incorporates both graphics and database functions. While
Lotus' 1-2-3 and Microsoft's Excel can perform many of the
same operations, manipulating data between 1-2-3's three
separate programs is awkward, at best. As one example of its
power, Excel, in just a f{~w keystrokes, allows you to
combine data from many sheets into an automatically updated,
aggregate sheet. It calls upon the Mac's exceptional interface
to make complex tasks easy to perform.
In this article, we will discuss one useful task you can
perform with Excel, obtaining a cross-tabulation from a
database. This kind of operation is usually thought of as
requiring a statistical packages or an intricate database pro­
gram. As you will see, using the DCOUNT function and the
idea of a two-way table, this problem (and others like it) are
"just a piece of cake".
Before getting into the DCOUNT function and the Table
command, let's spend a few seconds on Databases. Say we
have some information consisting of purchases made by
Jan 7
Jan 15
Jan 15
Jan 18
Jan 22
Jan 22
Zenith Ltd.
Acme Inc.
Apex Corp.
Acme Inc.
Best Co.
Apex Corp.
and so forth. Let's enter these items in Excel in five
columns. Your screen will look like this:
Edit formula
Options Macro
the table, let's look at the function which is used to count
records in a subset of a data base.
The DCOUNT function (like the DAVERAGE, DSUM,
DMAX, DMIN, DSTDEV & DVAR functions) requires three
arguments. The first argument is the database under analysis.
If you have used Excel to define a Database, you can type or
Paste in the name "Database" for the first argument. The
second parameter is the variable being counted (averaged, sum­
med, "max"ed, etc.). Since we are just counting records, this
entry can be ignored. If we were averaging, we would enter
the variable being averaged, etc. The last parameter con- tains
the criteria for selection. In the simple case of one count for a
subset of the records, we would have to establish criteria, first,
and then use the Set Criteria function under the Data menu.
At the top of your screen, say in field Cl enter the word
"Company" and in the cell below this, C2, type" Acme, Inc."
Select these two cells (Cl:C2) and then choose Set Criteria
under the Data menu option. You are now ready to have
Excel count all the records in the data base which have the
"Company" field filled with the entry" Acme, Inc." If you are
wondering what "Set Criteria" did, select Paste Name and,
when the list of defmed names appears, select the name
Criteria. Notice that the name "Criteria" has been defined as
the two cells you entered with a field name and a condition
("Company" equal to "Acme, Inc.").
As an aside, Excel can handle some fairly fancy criteria
when selecting, extracting or summarizing. The criteria can
contain wild cards so that you can find all companies
beginning with "A" or ending with "Inc.". They can use
logical checks on values, such as "Price < $9". In addition, it
can work with various conditions which are "and/or"ed togeth­
er, such as companies which bought more than 200 parts at
prices above $10. I guess there is enough to say about criteria
to fill another article! Stay tuned later...
To obtain the count of records with the "Company" field
equal to "Acme, Inc.", select the cell where you want the
answer and issue the command:
If you want to get a count for Zenith Ltd., change the
entry "Acme Inc." that appears in the criteria field C2 to
"Zenith Ltd." and the DCOUNT result will be revised
instantly to reflect sales to the other customer.
To obtain the total number of items purchased by Acme,
you can use:
The second parameter, in this case "Amount", identifies
the variable to be Averaged, Summed, Minimized, etc. When
using DCOUNT to count i records, it is superfluous.
Iahk. With a little bit of time and pencil and paper, you
could build a Criteria consisting of Company and Product,
enter all the different combinations and recompute the
DCOUNT for each one. As Ed Myerson likes to say, that
drudgery sounds like the perfect job for a computer doesn't it?
The Table command can do just that job.
Begin by building as the left-most column and tOp'-most
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
row of the table, the various combinations. In our case, there
are four companies and three products. The table shown
below contains the names of the companies at the left side (in
':A7) and the names of the products along the top (in
'51:03). The criteria will be constructed from two fields,
Company and Product. Set Criteria as the two by two
selection containing these names along the top with a blank
cell beneath each one, in our case select Cl:02 and then issue
the Set Criteria. At this point, we have not given specific
Company or Product names. These will be fed, automatic­
ally, by the Table command into the cells C2 and 02.
!;Ij.!!.!:J.!L........I.~.!.!!.._ ..._........J!;.~.!.!tp.!m.y ........_I.~.!:.~~_".~.t.
t--;--+--"'P'l"!"--.-.t......- .........._...._ ....L.. _................................................................I. 8 e
j er e .g,9.9L...._.._........J.~1~9~.~.-...._...I~p..r.~.~.!!~._....{
. . . . . .. ..
·AC·~~Jii~=::~=L==~:= -r==~=~~~~]:~=·.:~=.::~===T
.~p'ex 91.!.P.:._......L.... _____ ~_.-.... _..J.-...._....___ --I.
~!L~.9.:...___l.-.. . -_........l...---_.....--...L.. __ . ._.--_.. l
Building the Table Area
.;:.~~:~~:.~~.~::?~E! £9.g!·:.~==.:=:;~tW.I~.g~T.L. .::=~t.~:p.~r.9.£~~f~.:.~.;~ I!"
·~m.~Iij£.:.: ~ :.~: . :.:=: ·: : . .:=:=:=::~I4:::.·.=~.:===I?.tl·.:·~=~:.~.:::~:.~=:.I~··.
'~~;i--§;r..P.:. - . . ·-.. .- . . ·-·~i'~r-....·--·..--J..~i ......._.._ .......... ~~I·
----._-- ---_...._---_.. ..-._-_.__..
Completed Table
appears at the right is not included in the standard chart but
only takes a single click to add.
see in the above picture. We are ready for the Table
command, found under the Oata menu. When we pick the
Table option, we will have to tell Excel where the various
combinations of the row and column choices are to be stored
while it does its counting. As you may have guessed, the
answer will be that the column entries (Company) will go
,0 cell C2 and the row entries (Product) will go into cell
"1::12. Select the table area, A3 to 07 and choose "Table". The
following Table window appears requesting the Rowand
Column Input Cells. (If this were a one dimensional table,
we would have to supply only one response). You can either
type in the answer or click in the appropriate cells in the
Criteria area. that is, in C2 and 02.
+=--,....:......_._.1 Row I nput Cell: :=1$=0$=2===11
i'.................._._......1 Column I nput Cell: 1$C$2
1 ( Concel]
Defining the Criteria Locations
When you click OK, Excel will take a few seconds as it
completes its counting process, filling the table counts into
cells B4 to 07.
At this point you can compute percentages, chart the
values or examine the counts to your hearts content..
To chart the values, you need only select the rectangle
'-dom A3 to 07 and click on New from the File menu.
Choosing a "Chart" type of window, you will be greeted with
the following bar chart, nicely labelled. The legend which
Washington Apple Pi
~.r.l!!rl!.............p.!.!!..........._......... ~.!!l.l!!!!.y............~.!::!!~_'!~.L...._.... t! 30
Zenfth LId.
Aano Inc.
"-- Cotp.
Best Co.
Excel Bar Chart
Undocumented "Features" ,
Having learned of the
following "features" the hard way, I encourage you to take
note. Since the program requires one entire disk, many Excel
users tend to store flies on the "Oata" disk containing the
System Folder. By so doing, disk swapping is reduced
dramatically. (As the following experiences of several users
indicates, I would recommend against storing data flies on the
Start-up disk.) The down-side is that, as the Oata disk
becomes filled, you may encounter either of the following
symptoms. When you attempt to print, you get a message
indicating you can't The Mac system writes a "Print file" to
the Start-up disk, assuming there is space on the disk for the
file. If there is not enough space, you will get the error
message. While this difficulty has nothing to do with Excel,
it is a situation exacerbated by the need for three disk drives
while running it (or Jazz, or any other program that practically
fills one disk). As soon as you can, get a hard disk!
The second situation has more dire consequences. It is,
though, precipitated by a similar condition, this time affecting
the data storage disk where you are saving your Excel files. If
you read a previously opened flIe from a disk, then enlarge it
sufficiently such that it will no longer fit on the original disk,
Excel will issue a message that there is inadequate space on
the disk, save to another. Unfortunately, at this point, Excel
has erased your original file! If you should "foolishly" exit
from Excel at this time without re-saving to another disk,
your original work will be lost..a word to the wise.
February 1986
To carry out a formatting operation on a number of cells
in Microsoft's powerful integrated spreadsheet Excel, one
simply selects the desired areas by dragging the mouse or shift­
clicking and then selecting the proper format from the Format
menu. But what do you do when you want to carry out a
mathematical operation on a number of cells? Using Excel's
powerful macro language, this can also be done quickly and
(relatively) simply. This article gives a few preliminaries
about macros and then shows how.
What is a "macro"? A "macro" is a series of pre­
recorded instructions that Excel carries out in a logical
sequence. In many ways, it acts very much the way the user
would in following the instructions of a teacher or book in
carrying out a series of operations. The macro language of
Excel, however, is somewhat more difficult than the rest of
Excel's features. Mastering it is one of the most important
hurdles to becoming a "power user," that fabled species of
spreadsheet guru that holds sway over the American business
computing community.
Why use a macro? Macros are often the only way to
save hours of time and trouble. In my case, I had just finished
transferring several disks worth of data from Apple II VisiCalc
and TIlE Spreadsheet 2.0 files into Excel. (fo do this was
also no easy feat, as Excel does not have the capability to read
VisiCalc or OIF files. I had to write a Microsoft BASIC
program to convert OIF files into the type of text file that
Excel could read, i.e., one with each column separated by a tab
and each row separated by a Return. This program will be
written up in a future issue, but as it is very slow in BASIC,
I'm hoping I can rewrite it in Pascal before next month.)
Many columns of these data were percentages expressed in
0.00 format, e.g., with 25 percent as 25.00. Excel can show
the percent sign with numbers as part of its formatting
options, but it requires 25.00% to be 0.25, not 25.00. This
approach is also more useful for calculations, too. The need
existed to be able to divide the numbers in several columns on
several spreadsheets by the same quantity, 100.
The macro: The macro partially depicted in the screen
shot below does that.
,. •
How does it work? Row 1 just contains some
information about the file; it is not part of the macro proper.
The macro starts at A2. Cell A2 says:
This takes the current row of the active cell, returned by
the function ROW(ACTIVE.CELL(», and stores this in cell
All on the macro sheet. Cell A3 is executed next; it does the
same thing for the starting column:
Now the macro is ready to start looping through all the
selected cells, making adjustments in each cell. Cell A4
stores the value of the currently active cell:
Cell AS then does the actual computation:
To make your own manipulations, you would substitute
other commands in cell A5 or insert additional rows with
commands. Cell A6 then stores the new value, held in AS on
the macro sheet, back into the active cell on the worksheet
Cell A7 then moves the active cell down one position, as
if the Return key had been pressed:
Remember that when you are at the bottom position in a
group of selected cells in Excel, pressing Return moves you"'-'"
to the top of the next column. When you are in the last row
of the last column, pressing Return moves you to the first
cell of the first column. In that way, this one command can
move you through the entire selected area. The trick,
obviously, is to know when to stop. That is why the macro
saved the initial row and column position before beginning.
The test whether the macro is finished is in cell A8:
This rather complicated-looking statement is actually just
like an IF statement from Excel's worksheet. It says, "If the
current active cell's row and column match the numbers stored
in All and Al2 respectively, continue executing the macro
with cell A9. If not, continue executing the macro with cell
A4." Until the last cell has been manipUlated, this function
will return FALSE, and execution will resume at cell A4 on
the macro sheet, which is what fetches the value of the (new)
active cell. When the statement is true, cell A9 is executed:
and the macro is finished. Control retums to the user.
After you enter this macro, you select the first cell of the
macro, A2, choose Defme Name... from the Formula menu,
type the name of the macro (e.g., "Manipulate Cells"), click
"Command," and, if you desire, select an Option-Command
key equivalent. Then click "OK" and the macro is ready to
There are a number of enhancements that could be made to
this macro. Right now it does no error checking to make sure
that the selected area contains only numeric data. As a result,
it will fill non-numeric fields with zeros if not used carefully.
contd. on pg 35
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
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February 1986
Tom Warrick
Apple's new Hierarchical File System (HFS) for the
Macintosh is so unlike the file system Macintosh users are
familiar with (call it MFS, for Macintosh File System) that
many users will experience difficulty running their favorite
applications and desk acce~sories. All the software publishers
WAP contacted said their programmers are working on fixes.
When publishers figure out how to make their programs run
under HFS, it will be a powerful system. For now, though,
it pays to be cautious about jumping on the HFS bandwagon
For old Apple ][ hands, HFS right now is to MFS some­
thing like ProDOS was to DOS 3.3 during ProDOS's early
days. The power is there in HFS, just as in ProDOS, and
eventually HFS will prevail. But there is no reason to rush to
convert all your old data disks to HFS. Unless you get an
HD20, MFS will do just fine for now.
This article is not intended as a full-scale review of HFS
or a description of how it works. Instead, it is an impres­
sionistic report of some of the problems reported by HFS
users working with the Apple's new Hard Disk 20. (Thanks
go to Don Landing, Ed Myerson, David Morganstein and Jim
Burger for their assistance in preparing this article.) Most of
the problems with HFS will be (or have been, by the time
you read this) solved by rewriting the software, but until that
is done, HFS users will have to be patient and learn the
techniques for working around some of the problems. This
may become a monthly column for a while. Please write or
leave BBS messages for ml~ with your own experiences so that
we can share them with our fellow members.
Do you want to use HFS?
Unfortunately, owners
of Apple's HD20 hard disk must use HFS unless they want to
put all their files in the ~k directory rather than in a folder.
Other hard disks, such as the Paradise, can use HFS now, and
many more will in the near future. The new double-sided
floppy disks will use HFS and may require it HFS will also
work with single-sided floppy disks, contrary to the impres­
sion conveyed by the January 1986 MacWorld, although the
advantages of doing so at present are nil. Users with a choice-­
including prospective HD20 purchasers--will want to think
carefully whether you want to use HFS until the software is
ready to work with it. Specifically, you should consider
holding off buying an HD20 until then unless you are
prepared to cope with some inconvenience.
How can you tell if a disk is HFS or MFS?
Macintosh directory windows (the windows on the desktop
that show the contents of an open disk or folder) have, just
below the line of text that indicates the number of items in
each disk or folder, two parallel black lines separated by a one­
pixel wide white line. On MFS disks, this white line runs to
the left edge of the window. On HFS disks, what would be
the left-most white pixel on an MFS disk is black instead
Riilight About the only way to learn the difference is to
open up an HFS and an MFS window at the same time and
compare the two. (Thanks to Don Landing for reporting this.)
Some annoying HFS quirks to expect:
you double click on a document icon under MFS, the cursor
quickly changes to the wristwatch while the Finder locates and
loads the appropriate application. Under HFS you can expect
a noticeable delay before the Finder shows the wristwatch,
particularly when the application is not in the same folder as
the document This is because the program is searching for
the application throughout the various folders on the disk.
Even though this search procedure has been optimized, it is
still long enough to make you wonder sometimes whether
you actually double-clicked on the document If nothing
happens immediately after you double-click on an icon, move
the cursor to the File menu and hold down the mouse button.
If nothing happens, the Finder is searching for the application.
If it turns out that the Finder did not recognize a double-click,
you will already be close to the Open menu command and can
select it quickly.
Another quirk is that the Finder 5.0, ImageWriter, Scrap­
book File, and the System file should be in the same folder.
(Having them all in the disk directory window, ie., not in any
folder, counts as being in the same folder.) If Finder and
System are not in the same folder, HFS will not eject the
HD20 Startup disk. In fact, it will then use the HD20 Startup
disk as the system disk rather than making the HD20 itself the
system disk as you usually would want. If ImageWriter is not
in the same folder as System, you can't print. Similarly,~
Scrapbook File must also be in the same folder as System
Apparently, however, the special fIle Hard Disk 20 can be in
any folder.
Problems--an ove",iew:
Problems seem to occur
most frequently in two situations. The most common
problem occurs with applications that use fIles directly rather
than having them selected by the the user. For example,
Microsoft's Word will automatically load a file called
"Standard Glossary" when Word itself is opened Under HFS,
it will not find the me unless it is in the same folder as Word
itself. This eliminates some of the advantages of a
hierarchical file system, as it requires desktops to be cluttered
with files that are used by the application but never needed by
the user. This is particularly true with program development
tools that require the availability of dozens of files during a
compilation or assembly. Another simple work-around,
particularly if you always open an application by opening a
document rather than the application itself, is to put the
application and all of the files it needs in one folder and all of
your documents in another folder.
The second most common problem is with programs that
do not follow Apple Computer's guidelines for using files.
This is particularly acute with programs written in the C
language, although not all programs written in C have this
problem. To understand this problem a bit of background is
required. There are two ways an application can keep track of
disks after they have been inserted. The first, and easiest, is .--.,
by the disk name. The second is by something that users
never actually see called a volume reference number, which
programmers call vRefNum. This is the "correct" way for the
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
Macintosh. The C language, however, has powerful built-in
file-handling commands that use the equivalent of disk names,
and many C programmers used those techniques or carried over
those habits to the Mac environment
--. The problem arises in the way MFS locates files. It uses
the fonn:
disk name:file name
Note the colon between disk name and file name. This
allows MFS to distinguish between the name of the disk and
the name of the file. MFS ignores folders for the purpose of
locating files.
Under HFS, however, folder names are interposed between
the disk name and the file name, like this:
disk name:folderl:folder2:
folder3:file name
Why this is so is worth another article, as it is the heart of
HFS's advantage over MFS. What it means, though, is that
if the file is located within a folder, using "disk name:file
name" will omit the folder names that are essential to finding
the file under HFS. So long as the file is not within any
folder it can be found using the old convention. One thing to
try, therefore, if your application doesn't work using other
techniques, is to put it and all the files it uses in the principal
disk directory window and not in any folder.
What can you expect problems with?
This is a
partial list of programs with problems running properly under
HFS, as well as--in some cases-- ways to work around those
problems. (A longer list is available on CompuServe.)
S12K Mac Disk Copy won't work, not even if not in
any folder.
......,; Catalog Keeper from Dreams of the Phoenix Quick
and Dirty Utilities volume 1 won't fmd files in folders. A
spokesperson for Dreams of the Phoenix said that Apple does
not regard Finder 5.0 as "official," and that when Apple
releases an "official" Finder, they will update Catalog Keeper.
Click-On Worksheet won't install.
Version 1.3
works, however. Call T-Maker (the number is on the original
documentation) and mention that you are having problems
with HFS. (Thanks to Ed Myerson.)
ConcertWare+: Put "Player" and all the instruments in
the same folder. You can put "Instrument Maker," "Writer"
and the music anywhere.
Copy II Hard Disk version 4.3 won't work. Disklnfo desk accessory won't fmd files in folders. Edit (the Macintosh Development System editor used by many other development systems): You can't double-cIick on
a document to open Edit unless the document is not in any
folder. Opening documents from within Edit will work. The
Transfer menu won't work.
Excel: Resume Excel does not work unless the file to
be loaded is not in any folder.
Fedit won't work unless you have version 3.5 or later.
File: The Help file should be in the same folder as File. I
keep my index files in the same folder as the files they index,
but I wouldn't be surprised if that were required under HFS.
FontlDA Mover bombs if a chosen file is in a folder
and its name is too long. There does not seem to be a hard
'-" and fast rule as to what constitutes "too long."
Font Librarian won't work; it bombs with 10=02
(address error).
Washington Apple Pi
Link won't allow you to open anything. This was my
nemesis for a week, as it is impossible to write any MDS or
TML Pascal applications without Link. Even Consulair's
new Linker has the same problem. Thanks to Don Landing
who (indirectly) found the patch on the Mouse Hole BBS run
by the excellent Macintosh programming magazine MacTutor.
Use Fedit 3.5 to search in Link for the bytes (in hex) 41 EE
FF BO.Replace them with 4E 714E 71. This sequence occurs
only once.Also, keep the .Rel files in the same folder as Link.
MacSpell+ (with Microsoft Word):
This program
invariably bombs for me at around 2,000 words into a
document This may be a program bug, not an HFS problem.
MacTools 4.2 won't fmd files in folders.
MacTracks won't work (reported by David
Megaroids won't work; it bombs with ID=03 (illegal
instruction error).
Microsoft BASIC 2.0 and 2.1:
command will list only those files in the disk directory
Overvue 2.0: Even version 2.Oc won't work. A fiX
may be ready by the time you read this. (Reported and
investigated by Ed Myerson and Jim Burger.)
Red Ryder version 6.2 won't send or receive files.
Get version 7.0; it works with HFS.
RMaker puts the output .Rel file in the same folder as
RMaker itself, rather than in the source document's folder as
you might expect. This is a particularly insidious surprise,
especially if you do as most programmers do and fail to delete
files you expect and want to be overwritten anyway.
Sidekick desk accessories that require the fLIes in the
"DataPhiles" folder, i.e., Area Codes, MacDialer, QuikSheets
and Calendar Book require you to insert a floppy disk with the
appropriate file on it You can get them to work at times by
putting all the DataPhiles files in the disk window. Even
then, however, performance is erratic. I strongly suggest
closing MacDialer after you use it to call up one phone
number, even if you do nothing with that number. Do not
attempt to add to the Phone Book from within MacDialer. A
Borland representative said that they are aware of the problems
and their programmers are working on fixes.
TML Pascal: The Interface files must be in the same
folder as the source file.
Word: Standard Glossary and the Help file should be in
the same folder as Word itself. If you are using version 1.05,
expect to use the key disk.
Another note: There is an application out recently
called Hard Disk Utility that, among other things, has patches
to popular applications that "unprotects' those applications or
otherwise allows them to run from a hard disk. Although this
would seem to be the ideal solution for many, it should be
regarded with extreme caution. (The legal status of such a
solution is somewhat dubious as well.)
Patches to
applications modify the instructions to the application in order
to work, and if one of those patches should be wrong, you
could lose (in order of most-likely-to-least-Iikely) the data in
memory, the application itself, the last saved version of the
data on the disk, other files on the hard disk, or the entire
contents of the hard disk itself. Let someone else experiment
with their hard disk.
February 1986
by James M. Burger
time, Mac still has not made a very large dent into the busi­
ness world. The jury is out on the Atari and Amiga, since
It's hard to believe. Another year gone. It has been a
there is little software available. The open Mac could push
roller coaster year for Apple. It started out with a great, record
the door open further in the business market, particularly if
'84 Christmas selling season. Then, the drastic fall-off in
microcomputer sales throughout the industry. Then dissen­
the 3.5" disk becomes popular in the mM world, and,
someone like Dayna Communications makes a card to fit in a
tion at the top. Steve Jobs, who propelled Steve Wozniak's
super Mac slot that will run MS-DOS programs.
Apple from garage to a billion dollar plus company, was fIrSt
"upmoted" to Corporate Visionary, losing control of the Mac
The information received section is pretty sparse this
division. Jobs quits, sets up NEXT, Inc., and is sued by
month. Most of Silicon Valley was closed over the Holidays.
Apple. Apple lets 1200 employees go and has the first red
Hopefully, the new Apple products and the AppleWorid
Exposition in San· Francisco should produce a number of new
ink quarter ever. But, like the brilliance of the sun after a
product announcements.
storm, Apple goes into the New Vear predicting a record $52
million profit for the last quarter of 1985 and offers an
exciting, new product filled 1986.
What will 1986 bring. If I knew for sure, I would be on
Finally, I got my hands on an UD-20 to review. One
the phone to my stockbroker. But, I cannot resist making
major accomplishment of the HD-20 has been a round of
guesses. By the time you read this, Apple will have made the
lower hard disk drive costs. Before the HD-20, 20 meg drive
first round of announcemenlS: the I-megabyte Macintosh+
prices were $2000+, and 10 meg drives at $1500. With the
with new 800K drive, keyboard with integral keypad, new
HD-20 listing at $1499, and street prices of under $1200,
128K ROMs and Small Computer System Interface (SCSI),
other drive manufacturers have been lowering their prices.
and the new LaserWriter+ with 8 megabyte memory, 20
Techmar offered their 10 meg at $750. With the SCSI port to
embedded fonts, downloadable fonts and full page bit mapping
be available on the Mac+, by next summer, hard disk drives
for speedy graphics. Apple is clearly working on dominating
should be faster and prices should be lower.
the desktop publishing field. For the Apple II, harder to
Performance. Setting up the HD-20 is very easy. The
know. Most rumors have been for the Mac. But, the // will
drive has the same footprint as the Mac. It's a little over 3
most likely get a new, speedier CPU that will address more
inches high, which, on a desk, raises the Mac screen closer to
eye level. The HD-20 is very portable. It weights only seven
But pricing is the question on most of our minds. My
pounds. It is simplicity itself to set up. The HD-20 attaches
prediction for the Mac+ is easy. Apple will probably main­
to the external drive port. An external drive or another HD-20
tain the current list price of $2499. The price for upgrades is
can hook-up behind the first HD-20. It has no separate power
hard. My thought, for a reasonable price to loyal users, would
be $600 for the new drive, ROMs and memory upgrade. But,
The HD-20 holds 20.77 megabytes. From a cold start the
the rumor mill runs prices all the way up to $1200.
drive takes 15 seconds to startup. Launching and quitting
The next machine should be the exciting one which rumor
from programs on the HD-20 is considerably faster than from
has it on the marketplace this Spring (my guess would be
a floppy disk. It exchanges data at 500K bits. From the
next Fall). This is the machine that Lisa should have evolved
desktop (fmder), with five megabytes on the HD-20, compare
into - the open Mac. It wi11 not look anything like today's
the following times:
Mac. It wi11 have larger screen sizes available. It could even
have a full page size screen (talk about going after the desktop
publishing industry). It will have slots, a faster CPU and
To Desktop From Boot
20 memory up to 8 megabytes. Rumor has it with a 68020
Open MacWrite
26 CPU (which can do true multitasking, e.g. running a com­
Quit MacWrite to Desktop
22 munications program receiving data while you manipulate a
Open ThinkTank 512
40 spreadsheet, while printing) with a 12 megahertz clock speed.
Quit ThinkTank
14 Also, there are rumors of color capability. While Apple does
Open MacPaint
15 have color Macs in the lab, color capability doesn't make a lot
Quit MacPaint
of sense until inexpensive color laser printers are available.
So, I would not be surprised if the Mac stayed monochrome
Of course, as I wrote about the Paradise Mac10, it is not
for awhile.
just the access time. The beauty of a hard disk is the ability
1986 is a critical year for Macintosh. It's under attack
to have all your programs and files in one place that are
from both sides. The inexpensive Atari and the Amiga are
quickly accessible. With over 20 megabytes of storage, it
appealing to the home and "hacker" market. At the same
should take a long time to fill up the drive. (&'A~~
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
downloaded a .5 meg data me off an online service; tty that on
floppies and then tty to edit it).
The drive appears to be solid and reliable. With two
~eeks of extensive use, it has performed flawlessly. There is
some fan noise, but not as loud as either the Corvus or the
Paradise. But, I wish someone could work a piezoelectric fan
into a hard disk drive. After a while, almost any fan noise can
be annoying.
Flexibility. Unlike all the other drives, the HD·20 does
not require the creation of volumes. Instead, it comes with
Finder 5.0 which has a Hierarchical File Structure (HFS).
HFS will keep track of all the programs on the Finder. But,
more than twenty or more icons on the desktop can become
confusing (although 5.0 has a new "View" by small icons).
Programs and fIles can be organized by using Folders. In his
article in this issue, Tom Warrick describes some of the
problems with HFS. Some of them are annoying. But, these
problems will be fixed. The ability to do away with volumes
is a significant improvement
Utilities. Unlike the Paradise or the MacBottom. the
HD·20 does not have print spooling. But, like the Paradise, it
does not have a backup utility. Backup for data files would be
extremely useful; particularly a backup that has the ability to
update only changed files. On the HD·20, all backups must
be done manually on the desktop.
Quit ThinkTank
Open MacPaint
Quit MacPaint
Configure offers many alternatives in
using the DASOI.
Copy lIurlng start
181 Copy dlsles during Start
181 Slelp copy during restorts
181 Copy startup dlsle fint
o Copy only startup dlsle
181 Display status window
Initial Settings of Copy parometers
!81 Start copy upon dlsle Insertion
!81 Eject dllk after copy
Ouerwrlte files with same name
The above dialogue boxes allow pon selection and control
over copying during Start. The dialogue box below names
the DASOI disk icon on the desktop. In addition, you can
check for bad memory, set a print buffer size and make
DASCH the startup disk. The latter is imponant if you want
the system disk in RAM to be the DASOI's to give more
Memory, memory and more memory. Western Auto·
mation's DASCH (Disk Acceleration/Storage Control Hard·
,_/are) is an external RAM disk for the Mac. The DASCH
comes in 512K, I, 1.5 and 2 megabyte flavors. The DASCH
permits increasing RAM without surgery on your Mac.
DASCH allows significantly larger RAM disks than on a
512K Mac. It is slightly smaller than the MacWrite/
MacPaint box that came with your Mac (9" deep, 7" wide and
2" taIl).
Performance. Physical setup is simple. The portable
power supply is a small transformer that plugs into the wall
and into the DASOI. The connection to the Mac is hardwired
into the DASCH and plugs into either the printer or modem
pon. It has a small red LED on the front to indicate when
power is on. (Remember, it is RAM. Whenever power is
turned off whatever is in memory will be lost). Western
Automation supplies a startup disk.
The start and
configuration utilities can be copied on a hard disk.
The flfSt time you tum on the DASCH and boot with the
startup disk, the entire contents, including the system folder,
will be copied to the DASCH. A dialogue box then allows
you to continue copying other disks to the DASCH. Since
there are extensive fonts and desk accessories in my hard disk
system folder, after powering up the DASCH I used the
desktop to copy my system folder to the DASCH and other
frequently used applications. Then I don't tum it off, so I
have a permanently (absent a power failure) installed RAM
disk. I just need to run the startup application.
As the following numbers show, the DASOI is fast:
Open MacWrite
Quit MacWrite to Desktop
Open ThinkTank 512
Washington Apple Pi
10 4
13 Disk nome ofter InltlOllze:"-IID_R_SC_"_ _ _-'
o Check DASCH for bod memory
Print buffer size (K):
181 Molee DASCH Stortup Dlsle
I8J Eject stortup Dlsle
Set Startup to: rIF-ln-d-e-r-----,
Just like a RAM disk inside the Mac as long as the power
to the DASCH remains on, the DASCH retains all the
programs and files. Even if the Mac is turned off, as long as
the DASOI remains on it holds everything put into it
Western Automation does not yet sell a battery backup, which
would be useful.
Utilities. DASCH does have a backup utility. The
backup utility will check to see if a me has been modified
since the last time it was backed up. If not, it will ask for the
original disk holding that program. The utility replaces the
old file with the modified version. In the second stage of
backup, the program identifies files previously not backed up
and asks for instructions. At that point you can decide on
which disk to backup the file or instruct the program never to
backup the file. It is a very useful utility for a volatile
storage medium.
Conclusion. The DASOI works well, as advertised. It
is a quick and clean way of adding chunks of extra memory.
The question is one of a price/performance trade off. My only
major criticism is that you cannot add memory yourself
February 1986
without major surgery, since the RAM chips are soldered to
the DASCH's printed circuit board.
Price. 512K - $495. 1 meg - $795. 2 megs - $999.
DASCH by Western Automation, P.O. Box 3438,
Boulder, CO 80307. (303) 449-6400.
ThinkTank 512K 1.20NP. As promised by Peter
Winer of Living Video Text, I have received a copy of the
latest version of one of my favorite programs. One of my big
complaints was that ThinkTank could not be used with RAM
disks (such as DASCH and other RAM disks). Shortly after
Comdex, I received version 1.20NP. Lo and behold, as
promised, it works just fme with both DASCH and all the
RAM disk programs I could try. Now, on my 2 meg Mac
(with another meg in DASCH) I can have Word, Paint, Draw,
AppleLink, ThinkTank and system files all in RAM and
really hurn. Thanks LVT.
are asleep and when I can fmd the time and not get a busy sig­
I visit many BBSs. Late at night usually. When others
Unless otherwise indicated, the products are for the Mac
and the price, if indicated is the suggested retail price.
NEC Information Systems, Inc., 1414 Mass. Ave.,
Boxborough, MA 01719. Colormate. Software to turn
images or text in Mac applications into color output on the
NEC Color Pinwriter printers.
HARDWAREJay Heller, 20315 Grazing Way, Gaithersburg, MD
20879. MacCord. $12.50 + $1.50 shipping. One of our
own members puts together 12' keyboard cords to replace the
short cord supplied by Apple; Jay will also make cords for
peripherals and the external drive.
The- Cobb Group & Microsoft, PO Box 24480,
Louisville, KY 40224.
Hands-On Microsoft Excel.
$50. Workbook of exercises for Microsoft Excel including
exercise disk.
SOFTWAREFingertips, 830 N. Riverside Dr., Renton, Washington
98055. Fingertips. $34.95 (lntro Offer). Desk Accessories
for the 1/: Calculator, Calendar, Notepad, Roladex, Telecom,
Planner, DOS, Help, Display and Quit
Little Green Software, P.O. Box 1190, Columbia, MD
21044. Super Eamon Starter Set. $37.00. For the II.
Set of six of the famous Eamon adventures designed for
beginner adventurers.
Mindscape Inc., 3444 Dundee Road, Northbrook, n..
60062. Rambo. $39.95. For the 1/ and the Mac; It fmally
had to happen, a text adventure game based on Syl Stallone's
shoot 'em up Vietnam MINPOW movie.
Odesta Corporation, 4084 Commercial Avenue,
Northbrook, IL 60082. Helix 2.0. $395.00. Relational
database with extensive query and manipulative functions. @
nal. I prowl around seeing what's available, what people are
talking about: my Mac and I are great listeners. I set my
telecommunication program on "Redial" and wait until I am
admitted Then I move through the BBS quietly and perhaps a
little furtively: I prefer not to be noticed.
I enjoy studying the "feel" of a BBS: the complex organi­
zation of issues and personalities that seems to define a given
board. I like to notice the individuality of the boards, their
Sysops, and their contributors. Generally, I just read what is
available as if I were unobserved. But I know that is not the
Since there is generally a I08-on message from the Sysop
which must be read upon entering a BBS, I have become
familiar with the issues which Sysops think important
enough to stick under your modem's nose. This gives me a
sense of their concerns. I also read the bulletins to fmd out
what other people are interested in talking about I fmd this
interesting because it gives me insights into people and their
concerns, insights I would not be able to get otherwise.
As a visitor to BBSs, I try to be a nice guest (I think of a
BBS as someone else's home and try to act accordingly) but
this is not easy because the rules of etiquette are unlike those
to which I am accustomed. I always observe the rules about
using my real name and telephone number, etc.; that is
straight forward enough. But there is an expectation that I
cannot fulftll: It seems that one must always talk (read
"type"), that one must always have something to say. This is
a real problem, especially when I am new on a BBS, because I
have little or nothing to say or contribute.
I cannot have something intelligent to offer all the time,
especially when I am just learning the system. I try not to be
a "taker", but I am so confused part of the time that I cannot
contribute anything. Perhaps this will change with experi­
ence but I doubt that it will change much because most of the
people who use BBSs seem to be more technically adept than
I am. Thus, the most that I can contribute will be questions ­
- leaving me as a taker of answers.
Call me Reading-Tom if you will. (I always was one, but
in libraries no one complained; there my behavior was
regarded as appropriate.) I find no shame in being an
electronic voyeur because I think that the demands placed on
all users to talk, talk again, talk repetitively, and talk
mindlessly, are unfair and unwise. I wish to contribute but,
as some people are shy in groups, I am shy when my
personality is transmogrified by a modem.
Perhaps that blinking red light intimidates me; perhaps I
don't have what it takes to survive in the rough and tumble
world of telecommunications. Whatever it is, I can't seem to
make the grade with Sysops whose standard is endless babble
from everyone -- or else. And the or-elses are quite real, since
Sysops command quite god-like powers over access and use of
a BBS. Messages from Sysops usually present their title (and
contd on pg 64
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
Fred Seelig
Macintosh PASCAL
loop was a pleasant surprise, as was automatic boldfacing of
MacWrite, MacPaint, Word, and all those games are all
PASCAL key words like begin•••end and if•••then•••
else. A symbolic debugger checked for the existence of
right, but some of us users think that the best software to
come out on the Macintosh is Macintosh PASCAL, by
variables declared in the VAR section, constants in the
CONST section, etc., just before run time. If the symbolic
TIIINK Technologies. Since having bought MacPASCAL a
debugger found anything wrong a tiny hand would point right
year ago I have used it much more extensively than I have
used any other piece of software. The reason is that
to the offending line. Windows for graphics and text were
provided. QuickDraw graphics commands made things like
MacPASCAL is so easy to use. You probably bought your
Mac instead of that other PC for two reasons: ease of use, and
graphs a snap - ideal for scientific applications. (See Figure
1) I found the Observe window especially handy for tracking
great graphics. For the same reasons MacPASCAL offers a
down the values of variables in loops, when things did not go
programming environment superior to other PCs and even
mainframes: ease of use and access to the Macintosh graphics
quite righL (Figure 2 shows an example of using the Observe
window.) When software developers at Linkabit saw this their
reactions were a mixture of delight and jealousy, jealousy
I bought MacPASCAL because I wanted to learn the
because they wished that the VAX had such user-friendly
PASCAL programming language. Learning to program in a
high level language like PASCAL can be a rewarding/confus­
features. Anyone who has suffered through a session with the
ing/frustrating experience on other machines. Programming
VAX debugger for FORTRAN and PASCAL knows that
in PASCAL on the Macintosh is a snap. It is especially
DEC's debugger is positively user-intimidating, and makes a
easy if you use the Macintosh PASCAL programming envir­
very hard job of fixing a sick program. (Pretend that the
onment (as opposed to UCSp· The MacAdyantaee - which is
Greaseman is saying this: "BAP! BAP! Don't! You! Ever!
not recommended for beginners). Its use of multiple win­
Try! To! De! Bug! A! Program! On! The! VAX! Ever!
dows and excellent debugging tools makes Macintosh PAS­
CAL the perfect environment within which to learn PASCAL
by yourself.
Here is how I got started. At the beginning of 1985 I did
HorizontalPoa :. BallRodiua
'tw<> things: bought a Macintosh and vowed that I would learn
Height := Groundlevel - Boll
PASCAL. This was no small resolution. My freshman year
Veloclty:= 0;
in engineering was made especially miserable by having to
HortzontalPo8 :. HortzontalPos • 1;
learn FORTRAN using punched cards. I survived the ordeal
VelClctty ;. Voloctty • Gravity;
and became reasonably proficient at FORTRAN but the purist
Haight ;= Height. VolOClty;
If Height (. 0 thOn
in me was looking for a more structured programming
language, one which was at once more modular and yet at the
Height :. Abs(Helght);
VelOCity :a -(6ounclnoGU • Vnl,.. I1,JlI same time more flexible. Th~ software engineers at Harris
end' •• • I
Corp down in Melbourne, FL., were especially high on
. i
until HortzontD1Pos >= WlndowWldth;
.. It
PASCAL. At the time I didn't care, being a digital hardware
designer. But in the Washington area I have been doing more
simulations using myoid nemesis, FORTRAN. The time
had come to learn a new language. In the middle of a project
Figure 1. The demonstration program Bouncing Ball
involving a 14,000 line FORTRAN simulation program I
shows a ball bouncing in the Drawing window. The anima­
learned PASCAL.
tion is very fast. A Stop sign is placed by the If statemenL
A few days of trying to learn it on the VAX minicomputer
This is a break poinL The program halts execution and the
at work was enough to convince me that there must be a more
instantaneous values of the variables HorizontaiPos, Height
painless way to learn. The diagnostic (the term is used
are shown in the Observe window.
loosely) error messages that the VAX compiler came up with
after looking at my source code left me utterly baffled. I
couldn't even write small 'getting-started' programs.
MacPASCAL is done quite well. It seems absolutely
The Macintosh was to solve the problems of getting
crash-proof at run-time. I have never been able to crash
started in PASCAL. Mter buying the Apple-authorized
MacPASCAL at runtime using the standard MacPASCAL
Macintosh PASCAL for $99 at Clinton I started writing
commands. This from a person who has filled five or six
PASCAL programs almost immediately. It was wonderful, a
disks with PASCAL programs and worn out one of his master
. 'ath of fresh air after the VAX experience. The text editor
Note: MacPASCAL does allow you to have direct access to
~ts line syntactical errors immediately and puts in bold
Toolbox routines, but that·s a different story. When you do
face the portion of the line not correcL This is great for
that, all bets are off. You can crash the system quite easily
beginners, who make syntactical errors more than any other
because there is no type checking going on when you pass
type of error. Automatic indent of lines when in a control
Washington Apple Pi
February 1986
parameters to Toolbox routines. At this point you are really
programming in assembly language, and that is painfully slow
and prone to frequent crashes. If you want to do this, use the
BUDF rule: Back Up Disks FrequenUy!
program GRAPH....POISSON;
(Plots greph of Poisson dlstrlbytlon.)
(Most scellng functions erc eutometlc. )
(fWS 11122/65 - 1_2./:..20~/:..6S=:'}_ _ _~::;:=;===I
PDIsSDD Density Function
N. 10;
)(Mln: 0;
)(Me)(: 10;
dK =0.2;
= 0.2;
Figure 2. This PASCAL program graphs the Poisson
density function, a function which comes up frequently in
mathematics of communications between members of a local
area network. Shown here is the program window which has
the name of the program in its title bar, the Drawing window,
where graphic statements are executed, and the Text window,
used for interactive inputJoutput(IJO). The text window is
handy for giving prompts and asking for program inputs, like
titles or
One thing on which every PASCAL novice who went
through the Class of MacPASCAL Self-Instruction will agree
with me is that the Macintosh PASCAL manuals are written
for Venusians. They were plainly not written for the average
person. It's a perfect Catch-22: You have to already know
PASCAL to be able to read the manuals. But, if you already
know PASCAL, then you don't need to read the manuals. I
was thinking that perhaps Milo Minderbinder coauthored the
manuals. To be fair, the manuals are valuable for describing
the various Macintosh pnx:edures that allow access to the
graphics and text ROM libraries of functions and procedures.
I am only now beginning to appreciate their value, 8 months
later, as I delve into the lower levels of Macintosh operation.
But a beginners' manual the PASCAL manuals are not
If you want to learn PASCAL, and you want to buy
MacPASCAL, you need to supplement your manuals with a
good textbook on PASCAL. Here is one I highly recom­
mend: Macintosh PASCAL, by Lowell A Cannony and
Robert L. Holliday of Lak{: Forest College. It is wonderfully
readable, complete, accurate, nicely laid out, and a bargain at
the twenty-odd dollars thilt Crown Books is charging. My
copy is getting tattered from overuse. This book is ideal for
absolute beginners, yet is so complete that it makes a good
reference book, too. It has lots of examples, and lots of little
mini-program listings. The problems are funny. And most
importantly it is a darn good textbook. Next month I am
going to review the Macintosh PASCAL software pack­
age. Following that a review of Cannony and Holliday's
book of the same name.
There are lots of Macintosh PASCAL books on the mar­
ket right now. Some are quite good. Some are horrible. In the
subsequent months I shall review the following: Mac PAS­
CAL Programming, by Drew Berentes, and The First
Book of Macintosh PASCAL, by Paul A Sand Rela~
Macintosh book reviews will be on: PASCAL Plus Dat...
Structures, Macintosh Assembly Language Pro­
gramming, Programming the 68000, and the Chern­
icoff Bible: Macintosh Revealed, Vols I and
lf someone twists my ann I may reveal my favorite
physics textbook, favorite Mathematics textbook, and favorite
book for laymen on cryogenics and superconductivity. A sort
of "Everything you didn't want to know about Scientific
Textbooks" column. But for now youll just have to wait cID
Conressions or a Lurker conld. from pg 62
only they have a title, all others must use complete names!)
in all capitals: SYSOP. If bold print could be readily tele­
communicated it would be easy to guess how Sysops would
put it to use.
There is an awful frustration in wanting to communicate
with people but not being able to think of anything to say.
It's like a dream where you are in a group of people, listening
to interesting conversation and enjoying yourself.
every time you try to speak, no words come forth from your
mouth; only silence. You move your lips but no one notices.
It is as if you aren't really there.
I am aware that at least some of my problems are of my
own creation but for all that, I would ask for mercy for shy
people. We can't all be talkers, all the time. For those of
you who feel in a silent mood now and again (or even for that
matter, most of the time), don't be downcast; remember Wh2~
Milton (nearly) said: "They also serve, who only lurk and
ISigned! Zo][l['() Tel. No. 800-555-1212.
P.S. I am posting this plaint here because it may be the
only BBS I can still get on. I have been summarily dismissed
from at least one BBS in the very act of attempting to
download the BBS's help files. Is it my fault that I am so
inept that it took me so long just to find them that I was
labeled a "lurker", and cast into the electronic oblivion of "NO
CARRIER" or the more politely phrased "PLEASE HANG
UP" (read "Buzz off banana nose")?
Computer Desk conld. from pg 24
doors will be completely enclosed.
The store where I bought this Bush desk, The Price Club
in Richmond, Va., does not carry the optional casters for this
desk. These are available through companies like Computer
Mail Order or probably directly from Bush. This is one item
which I will get soon because I want to be able to easily
move this desk. A solid I-inch thick oak desk is heavy and
difficult to move without casters.
If you need a desk on which to position your micro­
computer and if you want a good looking, solid piece of
furniture, I recommend that you strongly consider one of the
desks from Bush Industries, Inc., Box 23, Little Valley, New
York, 14755. (716) 938-9101. These desks are also available~
from: Computer Mail Order, 477 E. Third St., Williamsport,
PAI7701, (800) 233-8950 or (800) 242-4215 in PA; and The
Price Club, 1957 Westmoreland Street, Richmond, VA
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
'-..., Jim Little
Happy New Year! This month is the start of the ProDOS library! A beginning, thanks to the efforts of Tom DeMay. Public domain disks are donations by authors whose only reward is a credit line in the program. Some are real gems, rivaling the best of commercial software with extensive test­
ing, example problems and understandable documentation. Others are not quite so good, and some are plainly dogs with faults, bugs and perhaps an infinite loop thrown in (inadvert­
ently). Everyone is not a programmer and it is frustating for the user to see a useful program idea that does not quite work. Speaking from experience, it takes at least three times the effort to debug or fIX a non-functional program that someone else wrote. It is also time consuming. We encourage anyone who finds bugs, crashes and other undesirable results to let us know about it Sometimes a fIX will be easy, but not always. There will be a time lag, even when we fmd a volunteer to get right to it Be understanding that we do not have the resources that a good commercial software operation should have. Disks IW APSOO - 805: ProDOS Disk IW APSOO will be issued later as the catalog or tbe ProDOS collection. Disk IW AP801 is Procmd (THE COMMAND­
ER) utility. This is a set of utilities that Apple left out of I system.
A "donation ware" disk - send the fee to the ',n(thor for validation, and update if this is not the latest
version. Both sides of the disk are used, the reverse contains
the documentation (and the address of the author). New
commands include 'type filename' which lists the file directly
to the screen or printer, date provides timestamps, using
allows numbers to be printed with commas and decimals aU
lined up i.e. 1,234.56. Other routines include dump, sort,
copy, renumber, merge, Mef, find etc. Gold mine for the
ProDOS user.
Disk IW AP802 is Utilities (A). Included are cata­
log listers for a couple of printers, a type command for listing files, 40 and 80 column menus, an Applesoft lister, Mini­
assembler, file cabinet, and last but not least, Freewriter. Try it and see what it's worth to you Disk IW APS03 is Filecabinet. A complete system from lAC disk #49. Exploiting the ProDOS file extensions, this program is an improvement over the similar 3.3 DOS system. Disk IW APS04 is Shareware. Take a test drive using a series of useful additions to the ProooS system. Another Type command usable in a program as well as the keyboard. Diskworks is a sector editor working on 3.3, ProDOS, Pascal or CP/M disk. Sorry not on a ][+. The.Executive will tum any file into an executable text file. With documentation too! Dir will catalog anything in less than 3 seconds. Copy will do just that, file to file, one rectory to another, or one disk to another. Test first, then
~y the modest fee.
Disk IW APS05 is 1985 Tax Templates ror Ap­
pleWorks. The following description is submitted by Paul
Washington Apple Pi
Koskos: "This disk contains two new tax templates for the
1985 Federal Tax Returns. Both are in AppleWorks format
The first, by Rocky Ragano, consists of Form 1040 and
Schedules A and B. It requires about 22K of AppleWorks
Desktop, easily provided by a 64K extended 80 column card,
or equivalent The second, by Paul Koskos, is considerably
longer (80K) and requires a 128K RamWorks card, or equiva­
lent, to provide a large enough AppleWorks Desktop to
accommodate it The long template includes Schedules A, B,
C, D, E, G, SE, W, AND FORMS 1040 AND 6251 (Alter­
native Minimum Tax). Both templates contain the 1985 Tax
Schedules for all combinations of singleness, marriedness and
in between. The various forms in both templates are inter­
linked, so that figures need to be entered only once by the
user, and will then be entered automatically as appropriate in
the other forms. At the end, pressing the re-calculate option
of AppleWorks will cause the tax to be calculated."
On February 15, a tutorial on the use of these templates
is scheduled at the PI office. Please call the office to reserve
your place at this tutorial, if you are interested.
New disks in the DOS 3.3 library are:
WAP Disk 500: Master Catalog Listing.
Almost everything in the 3.3 library (hello's, Eamon
utility names, and menus removed). First is the sequence list
by disk catalog number in three groups. Each group can be
accessed by the master catalog program on disk #43. Four
additional lists contain alphabetic sections of the program
names. This permits the catalog program to contain one sec­
tion in memory. The entire list exceeds 3000 items at
present, and the whole thing won't fit. Work with copies of
these listings so you do not alter the order of the catalog on
the disk. This catalog program allows sorting by volume,
alpha order of name, and type of file. We will update periodi­
cally as disks are added, or you may add your own disks at any
time. Using this program you may fmd that it appears to do
nothing for several minutes. BASIC has to clear out space for
strings when memory runs out This garbage collection is
time consuming with a large number of strings.
WAP Disks 222 - 226: Eamon Adventures
Disk #222 is reserved for Utility IV.
Disk #223 is Temple of the Undead. Joel Crans­
ton has created this new adventure for your enjoyment It's a
take off of a 'Temple of Doom" theme. A map of the area is
a nice touch to begin the quest Good hunting! Thanks to
Disk #224 is Quest for the Holy Grail. Dark­
ness and a howling wind engulf you... and you find yourself
in England in the year 926 A.D. in the time of King Arthur.
A bilingual discourse follows, concluding with the
admonition, "You must find the Holy Grail or never see the
Master Disk again!"
Disk #225 is Caves or the Mondamen. A mes­
sage from the King contains an appeal for help. His Highness
needs a trustworthy, strong, brave adventurer to save the
kingdom. The evil, deposed King Mondamen is building an
February 1986
army to attack the kingdom. He has enlisted the aid of a
wizard to call up the evil spirit "vaprak". A brave warrior will
have to kill the wizard before the spell is cast to animate the
spirit Oh, and the daughter of the neighboring king is
hostage. Rescue her too!
Disk 226 is The Orb of Polaris. As you left the
Main Hall you felt a strange wrenching in your stomach and
something made your vision blur. When you regain your
eyesight you find that teleportation has moved you into the
chamber of a mighty warlock. He relates that his spell was to
get the best and strongest adventurer in the business. That
means l1lIl! His orb has been stolen and you will be rewarded
beyond your greatest dreams if you return it On the other
hand failure could be costly. At the entrance of an ice cave the
air is a bone chilling -20 degrees....
More disks are in pnx:ess for next month!
The following description of this month's new SigMac
disk is taken from the notes of Tony Anderson.
SigMac 33: Desk Accessories n
"Be fruitful and multiply." Well, Macintosh program­
mers seem to live by that statement when it comes to desk
accessories. There are desk accessories to do everything.
Soon I expect to see desk accessories for desk accessories.
Here is an all new collection to help you work better and have
more fun doing it
In the ScrapBook Folder:
Choose Scrapbook - Lets you choose any scrapbook
on any disk.
Multi-Scrapbook - More of the same here. This one
is slightly better.
In the Fun Sturr Folder:
3D Tic-Tac-Toe - As the name says.
Abacus - A working abacus on screen. Learn the
oriental art
AnalogClock - A cleverly designed clock.
Bagels - Guess the four digit number.
Collapse· - That's what it causes your screen to do.
Crabsl· - They start from the menu bar and work their
way down.
Cube - Much more challenging than the puzzle. A cube
~a Rubick's.
Flow· - Watch as the menu flows into the sea of fat
Fun House - Welcome to the Mac hall of mirrors.
Halloween - Don't wony. It's only a trick.
Knockout - A little bit of the the old arcade days right
here on the desktop.
Measles· - At least whatever Mac catches is lost with a
Rays - Draw rays from a common point.
Wrap· - Most annoying. The mouse arrow wraps
around the edges.
(Those DA's with an • after their names will require that
the Mac be rebooted to deactivate them.)
In the Utilities Folder:
Reader 1.06 - Read any text only document.
DAFUe - Delete, rename, etc. from within applications.
DAFont - See samples of all the system fonts.
Freemem - Shows the memory free.
FatMouse - Gives a closer look at what the mouse
Change AppUcation Font 1.03 - Change the font
for general use.
Icon Maker - Make an Icon resource file any time. ,-....,
Procount - Will give the word count for any text 01
Utilities - Set the finder attribute flags and other
SegWatch - Look at the segments allocated in the
system heap.
SegWatch Documentation.
Ruler - Measure in pixels, cm, and inches between any
two points.
RasNIX - A DA that puts a Unix-like interface on the
RasNiX Documentation.
In deAD Folder:
CRAY3P.BIN - An advanced Scientific Calc as a stand
alone program.
CRA Y3A.BIN - Same as above but as a desk
CRA Y3D.BIN - Documentation for above.
In DA Tools Folder:
Install DA KEY - Install this and use command shift
7 to try aDA.
DA Problems - Document describing a common DA
DA Mover 2.S - Apples FontlDA Mover latest
DA Sampler - One of two sampler programs. Great
for a quick look.
Sampler - Here's the other one.
Convert Desk ACC. - Converts from DAM format
to FontIDA Mover.
Q & A contd. from pg 11
160, 160, 160, 160, 160, 178, 178, 141. The 177s are the
l's, the 178s are the 2's, and the 141 is the carriage retum, but
what are all those 160s?? They are spaces equivalent to spac­
ing over to the next tab field on the screen. If you were to
read this back using an INPUT statement with a string as an
argument, e.g. INPUT AS, then AS would contain
If instead you used a numeric argument, INPUT X, then X
would contain 1122, because the string to numeric converter
ignores spaces. The only safe way to use compound print
statements is to explicitly print a delimiter, such as a comma,
between the elements. For example, PRINT X;",";Y, with X
and Y equal to 11 and 22 respectively produces a file con­
taining 177, 177, 172, 178, 178, 141 where 172 is the
comma. This can be read back properly with INPUT X,Y or
by executing INPUT X twice. All the ASCII values in DOS
3.3 text files are stored on the disk with the "high bit on",
this means that if you use a Disk Zap type program to inspect
the disk (as I have done above) you will have to subtract 128
from the values before you can look them up in a standar~
ASCII code table, such as the one in the back of the old
Applesoft Reference Manual. If you read the file with a GET
AS command Applesoft will do the subtraction for you. ®
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
Press Information
PROCESSOR: MC68000, 32-bit internal architecture
7.8336 MHz clock frequency
MEMORY: 1 megabyte RAM
128K ROM
Includes 256 bytes of user-settable parameter memory
DISK CAPACITY: 800K per formatted double-sided disk
31/2-inch, hard-shell media
SCREEN: 9-lnch, diagonal monochrome display
512 by 342 pixels, bit-mapped
INTERFACES: Synchronous serial keyboard bus
Two RS2321RS422 serial ports (230.4K baud maximum)
Mouse interface
External disk interface
SCSI interface (320K bytes per second maximum)
SOUND GENERATOR: 4-voice sound with 8-bit digital-analog conversion using
22 KHz sample rate
INPUT: Line voltage: 105 to 125 volts AC, RMS
Frequency: 50 or 60 Hz
Power: 60 watts
KEYBOARD: 78 key, 2-key rollover, software mapped, detachable, with
built-In numeric keypad and direction keys
MOUSE: Mechanical tracking, optical shaft encoding 3.54 pulse per mm
(90 pulse per Inch) of travel
CLOCK/CALENDAR: CMOS custom chip with 4.5 volt (Eveready No. 523 or
equivalent) user-replaceable battery backup
Main Unit
7.5 kg
16 lb., 8 oz.
13.5 Inches
9.7 inches
10.9 inches
1.2 kg
2 lb., 10 oz.
2.6 inches
15.6 inches
5.8 inches
.2 kg
1.5 inches
2.4 inches
4.3 inches
Operating Temperature:
Storing Temperature:
Apple Computer,lnc.
20525 Mariani Avenue
Cupertino. California 95014
(408) 996-1010
TLX 171576 TWX 9103382054
Washington Apple Pi
Humidity, all conditions:
February 1986
10-40 degrees Centigrade
50-104 degrees Farenheit
-40-50 degrees Centigrade
-40-122 degrees Farenheit
5% to 90% relative humidity
oto 4615 m (0 to 15,000 feet)
•. .\lali 11l0:--iJ I'h l" 1'\ Iii
'~:"e,;.:A A
- ...- - .-u....
~--~ _._--
..... ,
AU~r •• • •• ,... ....
r--. ._
"'-../ -. .
.~~,.,q -
.. , .
The back panel of the Macintosh™ Plus computer includes all of the original Macintosh ports. as well as a high-speed
peripheral port (third from the right) that uses the Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) standard. The SCSI port
transfers data three times faster than the external drive port. and allows up to seven peripherals to be connected
together and operated through this single port.
t-" n' ....
! •.>:;..:. ....'5i'k1
( XI
Apple Computer's LaserWriter™ Plus printer provides seven new font families in addition to the four that are built into the
LaserWriter. The seven new font families are available in a variety of typefaces and pOint sizes, providing Macintosh users
with a sophisticated desktop publishing system for producing typeset-quality text and graphics,
These are the additional typefaces available in the LaserWriter Plus:
ITe Avant Garde Gothic Book
ITC Avant Garde Gothic Book Oblique
ITC Avant Garde Gothic Book Demi
ITC Avant Garde Gothic Demi Oblique
ITC Bookman Light ITC Bookman Light Italic ITC Bookman Demi ITC Bookman Demi Italic Helvetica Narrow
Helvetica Narrow Oblique
Helvetica Narrow Bold
Helvetica Narrow Bold Oblique
New Century Schoolbook
New Century Schoolbook Italic
New Century Schoolbook Bold
New Century Schoolbook Bold Italic
Palatino Italic
Palatino Bold
Palatino Bold Italic
I'IC Zap! Cliancery Medium Italic
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
Software ror Creative Living
This form is 0Tl/Sr ordering disks that you want mailed to you.
5 114" DISKE
: - Members $ 5.00 each; Non-members $ 8.00 each. Plus $1.00 each postage up to a maximum of S 5.00.
'-'3 112" DISKETIES: - Members S 6.00 each; Non·members $ 9.00 each. Plus $1.00 each postage up to a maximum of $ 5.00.
A $1.00 per disk discount on the above prices is offered for oders of 5 or more disks. Postage remains as above.
DOS 3.3 contd.
DOS 3.3 Volumes
ProDOS Volumes
Macintosh (SlgMac)
153 Investments A
41 lAC 25 Mach.Lanll.UtiI.
801 Procmd ([HE CMDR.)
- @$6.00 (see above)
42 One Key JX)S •• ¥ 154 Investments B
802 Utilities (A)
43 lAC 29~Utilities H 155 lAC 33 Miscellaneous
803 Filecabinet
2 Atkinson's GOOdies
804 Shareware •••
156 lAC 35 Applsft-AWile
44 Utilities I 3 FonL~
45 Diversi-Copy ••• 157 lAC 36 ArCade Games
805 '85 Tax Templates-A W
158 Apple Lo~o Programs
orth Volumes
70 BusinesslMathlStatstic. 5 Desk Accessories
159 Recip'e Files
71 Music 700 Assembler/Disassemb.
6 Mac Paintings
160 Utilities & Games
72 Keyboard Games 70 I Full Screen Editor
7 Desk Calendar&MS-Basic
161 Wizard Worker
73 Text Adventure Games 702 GoForth Tutorial
8 MacFORTH Programs
162 Garnes E
74 Paddle Games 703 Fig-Forth
9 Not One Byte
163 Graphs and Displays
75 Color Graphics for Fun 704 Floating Point Arith.
10 Mostly BASIC
164 Games F
ascal Volumes "(See also 133)
76 Education II Macronts! Recommended
165 Happy Holidays
77 Utilities 300 PIGO:AifACH 1.1/BI08 12 MacFonts as a pair.
166 Charts and Graphs
90 Spreadsheet C Gen. Bus. 301 PIGl: 13 RAM Dis &Altid. Finder
167 lAC 40 - Pilot La~nK.
91 Spreadsheet D Investmt 302 PIG2: 14 Filevision Templates
168 lAC 41&47-AW Ulil.
303 PIG3: (PIGO:, PIG2:,
92 Spreadsheet E Bus. Rec. 15 Progammer's PI~yground
169 Hayes Term. Pro.8: •••
93 VisiPlot & VisiTrend 304 PIG4: PIG4~ and 16 New Members Disk 1985
170 Love's Follies (urn.)
305 PIG5: PIGll: are 17 Red Ryder 5.0 •••
100 Utilities A
171 Cat-G~hix
306 PIG6: re-issues)
18 MusicWorks Collectn. I
172 Print Shop Graphics
307 PIG?: 101 Utilities B
19 Mock Accessories .**
500 Master Catalog Listing
102 Games A
308 PIG8: 20 MacPaintings II
amon Series Volumes 104 Business A
309 PIG9: 21 Utilities I (ResEd)
180 Dungeon Designer
106 Science Engineering
310 PIGlO: 22 Desk Tools
181 Begmners Cave 107 Games B
311 PIG11: 23 Fonts III
·182 Lair of Minotaur
312 PIGI2: 108 lAC l~GraPhiCS)
24 Telecom I
109 lAC 11 J\ppleso(t TUIr)
·183 Cave of the Mind
313 PIGl3:Guerilla Guide 25 Util. II (Switcher 4.4)
·184 Zyphur Riverventure
110 Person ~ucation 314 PIGI4: 26 Am. Si&!l Lang. Font
·185 Castle of Doom
III Games C P
27 Cyclan 1)cvelop. Sys.
·186 Death Star
112 Utilities C 401 Master Catalog
28 World Mapping Prog.
·187 Devil's Tomb
113 Business B
402 Utilities 1
29 Fun and Games
115 lAC 12113 Misc.
403 Communications
30 Education I
116 lAC 14 MicromodemIl
404 Utilities 2
31 Dungeon of Doom!
117 Picture Packer
405 Utilities 3
Eliza Talks
·191 The Tomb of Molinar
118 Utilities D
406 ZCPR2 Install
( ) 32 Fun and Games II
119 lAC 15 Misc.
407 ZCPR2 Documentation
( ) 33 Desk Accessories II
120 lAC 16 Misc.
·193 Abductor's QUarters
408 ZCPR2 Utilities
409 Modem 730
121 WAPABBS 1.1
·195 Und~round City
122 lAC 17 Misc.
410 Essential Utilities
·196 Merlins Castle
123 French Vocabulary
411 Text Editor
·197 Horgrath Castle
412 Spreadsheet
124 Utilities E
·198 Deallitrap.
125 lAC 18 Misc.
413 MDM740AB(SSC&Com)
·199 The Black Death
126 Si~hts and Sounds
414 MDM74OCD(77IO&A-Cat)
·200 The Temple of Ngurct
127 Math/Science
415 Orig. 350 Pt Adventure
·201 Black Mountain
128 Games D
·202 Nuclear Nightmare
129 GLAQ
130 Diversl-DOS •••
·203 Feast of Carroll
·204 The Master's Dungeon
131 PersonalJEduc.2
·205 The Crystal Mountain
132 lAC 19-Utilities F
·206 The LOst Adventure
133 lAC 20-Pascal&DOS 3.3
·207 The Manxome Foe
134 New Members Disk
·208 The Gauntlet
135 WAPABBSl.l Disk I"
·209 Caverns of Langst
136 WAPABBSl.l Disk 2"
NOTE: New discount pricing on orders of
·210 Future Quest
137 lAC 21 Spreadsheet A
138 lAC 23 Utilities G
5 or more disks. See above.
·212 Sewers of Chicago
139 lAC 24 Education 3
140 Education 4
·214 Alternate Begin. Cave
141 Special Data Bases
·215 Lifequest
142 lAC 28 Pinball Games
·216 Sworoquest
143 Sports
·217 Priest of Xim!
144 lAC 27 Applesoft Prog.
·218 Heros Castle
145 Apple Logo Tool Kit
·220 Utility II
146 l...Ogo Documentation
·221 Utility. III
147 ApI'. Logo Samp'.Prog.
·223 Temple of the Undead
150 EDSIG 1 (Elem. MaUl)
·224 Quest for Holy Grail
151 1983 Tax Template
·225 Caves of Mondamen
152 lAC 31 Miscel1aneous
·226 Orb of Polaris
DATE: ____________
• Vol. 181 re9uircd with these disks. •• Vols. 121, 135, 136 must be purchased together.
••• Use of thIS disk requires sending money directly to the author.
Note: Allow 2 to 3 weeks for mailing. Total Order =
Disks; Postage $_ _; Total Amount Enclosed $___.
CITY, SfATE, ZIP _______________
Washington Apple Pi
Make check payable and send to: (U.S. funds payable on a U.S. bank.)
Washin~ton Apple Pi, Ltd.
Attn. Dlsketeria 8227 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 201
Bethesda, MD 20814 February 1986
Telephone _ _ _ _ ___ WAP Membership No. _ __ 71
WAP TUTORIAL REGISTRATION The following three WAP tutorials are being offered to Apple II owners on Tuesday evenings from 7:30 to 9:00 PM,
at the office, 8227 Woodmont Ave., Bethesda, MD. (The tutorials start promptly at 7:30; if you bring your
computer please arrive 15 minutes early to set up.) You may sign up for any or all of the series.
They are
designed for the "beginner" and will be repeated monthly. A revised outline of the tutorials was given in t~
October 1985 issue of the WAP Journal. However, the 3rd tutorial has been changed as follows: It will introdur .
AppleWorks, Apple's integrated Word Processor, Database and Spreadsheet, for use with Apple Ilc, lIe and ][+ whe ..
patched by Norwich Plus Works or similar software. An AW Data Disk will be available for use (or copying) during
It contains several small (less than 10K) examples of databases and spreadsheets, in addition to
the tutorial.
instructions in the form of an AW word processor file. The tutorial is designed to guide new AW users through the
procedures for using, adding to, and altering existing files. The particular files used will be chosen in
response to requests from registrants.
- ( ) March 4
- ( ) March 11
( ) February 18 - POPULAR APPLICATIONS FOR YOUR APPLE - ( ) March 18
The fee for each tutorial is $10.00 with an Apple, monitor and disk drive, $15.00 without (monitors available for
1st 5 registrants - call office). Please note that WAP does not have equipment for you to use; if you do not
bring your own, you will have to look over someone's shoulder.
Tutorials at $10.00 (with equipment)
Tutorials at $15.00 (without equipment)
SigMac is sponsoring a series of two monthly tutorials for the beginner. The fee for two tutorials is $30.00.
They will be held at the office, from 7-10 PM on Monday evenings. You are strongly urged to bring your Macintosh.
These tutorials fill up quickly - call the office to verify space before mailing in your registration.
) Monday, March 17 and 24
) Monday, April 21 and 28
The following "non-regular" tutorials are being offered at the office on Saturday mornings at 9:00 AM for the
Apple II family. Attendees should bring their computer, monitor (if one has not been reserved for you) and other
special equipment noted below.
February 15 - 1985 Federal Tax Return AppleWorks Tax Templates - Paul Koskos.
startup disk, a copy program and four blank disks.
( ) $15 with Apple, member
( ) $20 with Apple, non-member
( ) $20 wlo Apple, member
( ) $25 wlo Apple, non-member
128K of memory is needed, plus
Please check the desired tutorials and return this form with feels) made payable to Washington Apple Pi, Ltd. to:
Washington Apple Pi, Ltd.
Attn. Tutorials
8227 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 201
Bethesda, MD 20814
Evening Phone
Daytime Phone
Total Enclosed $
Adaption Electronics
All Hours Consultants
Anderson Jacobson • •
Chesapeake Software.
Clinton Computer Center.
Computer Den Ltd.
Computer Service Center •
Computer Ware Unlimited. • • •
Eastman Kodak ••
• • • •
Landmark Computer Laboratories
MacCorner • • • • • • • • •
Operant Systems • • • • • •
Paragon Technologies Inc
PC Resources ••••
Raedata, Inc.
• ••
The III Magaz ine
Tysons Corner Center
VF Associates •
• •
Voad Systems.
Wheaton Plaza •
• • • • • 53
• • • • • 15
Back Cover
• ••
• 37
•• 1
• • . • • 31
• Inside Back
• 57
• 19
• 13
• 15
• • • • • 23
Inside Front
Bedrick, Barry.
• 16,
Bedrick, Ben •••
• •
Begleiter, Ralph J • • •
Billingsley, Amy T
• •
Burger, James M••
• •
Carter, Nicholas G
Combes, Peter ••
Derhaag, James J •
• •
Field, Bruce F •
• •
FOX, Barry •••••
Hardis, Jonathan E
Johnston, Thomas. ••••
Klugewicz, Chris
• 19,
Little, Jim
Morganstein, David •• 38,
Mortimer, Jack •••• 22,
Ottalini, David
Page, Chester H• • • • • •
Payne, Steven • •• 17,
Pearce, steven • •
Platt, Robert C.
• 36,
Riley, Tom • • • • • • • •
Sawyer csc, Brother Tom ••
Seelig, Fred. • • ••
Swarztrauber, Beryl.
Trusal, Lynn R •• 43, 44,
Warrick, Tom •••• 4, 56,
Youell, Adrien G • • •
• • • • . 12
February 1986
Washington Apple Pi
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