/smash/get/diva2:563005/FULLTEXT01.pdf

/smash/get/diva2:563005/FULLTEXT01.pdf
Effective Use of Excess Heat in a Cement Plant
Ulrich Terblanche
860108-8779
Master of Science Thesis
KTH School of Industrial Engineering and Management
Energy Technology EGI-2010-MJ218X
Division of Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration
SE-100 44 STOCKHOLM
Master of Science Thesis EGI2012:MJ218X
Effective Use of Excess Heat in a Cement
Plant
Ulrich Terblanche
860108-8779
Approved
Examiner
Supervisor
19/10/2012
Rahmatollah Khodabandeh
Rahmatollah Khodabandeh
Commissioner
Contact person
Fred Grönwall
Fred Grönwall
Abstract
The report investigates the feasibility of accessing waste heat at kiln 7 in the Cementa AB cement plant in
Slite, Gotland. The background is provided, with a description of the cement manufacturing process.
Most of the report concerns itself with the heat transfer capabilities of the plant, therefore a short
description of the heat flow within the most essential equipment is provided.
The investigation follows a set of steps to derive the conclusion. The first step investigates previous
studies to obtain the three most feasible heat sources. The second step investigates the available heat of
the selected sources. In the third step, accessing the source is discussed and investigated for both
convection and radiation heat transfer methods. It also includes the sizing of the required heat exchangers.
Using the new sources, the connection possibilities to existing infrastructure and its benefits are
investigated in step four. The connections were made to the existing infrastructure used at kiln 8 for
electrical generation and district heating supply. The selections of the most feasible solutions are provided
based on heat recovery, payback period and practicality. The final step in the study provides for the final
design, which consists of three possible connections or all of them combined.
In the conclusion, the final design would provide for a reduction in oil burned, fuel consumption and CO2
emissions and an increase in electricity generated by the existing system. It is recommended that only one
of the three connections be installed.
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Acknowledgement
Special thanks to: Fred Grönwall, Thomas Gullin and Per-Ole Morken for allowing me to conduct this
thesis as well as assisting and supporting me throughout the duration of my time in Slite.
Additional thanks go out to: Johan Bering, Kjell-Arne Lundin, Håkan Bohman, Ronny Enderborg,
Kerstin Nyberg, Marie Naéssen Gustafsson and the rest of the staff at Cementa AB in Slite, for assisting
me throughout their busy schedules. Their support, assistance and guidance throughout the project were
of great importance to the completion of this study and are greatly appreciated.
I would also like to thank Gunnar Klintström from GEAB and Anders Lyberg from Cementa AB and
Vindin AB for assisting me with information related to the district heating and steam turbine installations.
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Table of Contents
Abstract ........................................................................................................................................................................... 1
Acknowledgement ......................................................................................................................................................... 2
List of Tables.................................................................................................................................................................. 6
List of Figures ................................................................................................................................................................ 7
1
2
Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................... 8
1.1
Motivation .................................................................................................................................................... 8
1.2
Aims .............................................................................................................................................................. 8
1.3
Exclusions and limitations .........................................................................................................................9
Cement Plant Overview ....................................................................................................................................11
2.1
Company profile........................................................................................................................................11
2.1.1
3
History of the Slite plant .................................................................................................................11
2.2
Production process ...................................................................................................................................13
2.3
Heat flow Source to outlets .....................................................................................................................14
2.3.1
Burner ................................................................................................................................................14
2.3.2
Rotary kiln .........................................................................................................................................14
2.3.3
Bypass air...........................................................................................................................................16
2.3.4
Preheating cyclones .........................................................................................................................16
2.3.5
Cooling tower ...................................................................................................................................16
2.3.6
Clinker cooler ...................................................................................................................................17
Heat Recovery.....................................................................................................................................................18
3.1
Establishing the system boundaries .......................................................................................................18
3.1.1
Method for determining the system boundaries .........................................................................18
3.1.2
System description ...........................................................................................................................19
3.2
Data and measurements ...........................................................................................................................21
3.2.1
System Audits ...................................................................................................................................21
3.2.2
Measurements ...................................................................................................................................22
3.3
3.2.2.1
Atmospheric conditions .............................................................................................................23
3.2.2.2
Kiln 7 measurements ..................................................................................................................23
3.2.2.3
Kiln 8 measurements ..................................................................................................................26
3.2.2.4
District heating and steam measurements ...............................................................................26
Available Heat Sources.............................................................................................................................28
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3.3.1
Assumptions .....................................................................................................................................28
3.3.2
Available Energy ..............................................................................................................................28
3.3.2.1
Cooler vent air .............................................................................................................................29
3.3.2.2
Kiln heat losses ............................................................................................................................31
3.3.2.3
Preheater raw gas.........................................................................................................................35
3.3.3
3.4
Discussion of results .......................................................................................................................39
Using the heat ............................................................................................................................................41
3.4.1
Existing equipment for new connections ....................................................................................41
3.4.1.1
Electrical generation ...................................................................................................................42
3.4.1.2
Heat exchanger 1 description ....................................................................................................43
3.4.1.3
Heat exchanger 2 description ....................................................................................................44
3.4.1.4
Heat exchanger for district-heating description .....................................................................45
3.4.2
Financial benefits .............................................................................................................................45
3.4.2.1
Electricity ......................................................................................................................................46
3.4.2.2
District heat ..................................................................................................................................46
3.4.2.3
Regulations and certificates .......................................................................................................47
3.4.3
Availability .........................................................................................................................................47
3.4.4
Calculating the heat transfer rates .................................................................................................48
3.4.4.1
Capturing heat from kiln surface ..............................................................................................49
3.4.4.2
Capturing heat from vented gasses...........................................................................................52
3.4.4.3
Sizing of heat exchangers ...........................................................................................................54
3.4.5
Connection requirements and types .............................................................................................54
3.4.5.1
Steam generation using kiln 7 ....................................................................................................55
3.4.5.2
Preheating of feedwater..............................................................................................................57
3.4.5.3
Heating of District Heating water ............................................................................................58
3.4.5.4
Gas diversion to heat exchangers .............................................................................................62
3.4.6
Other uses .........................................................................................................................................63
3.4.6.1
3.4.7
3.5
Drying of fuels .............................................................................................................................64
Preliminary discussion .....................................................................................................................64
Final system and conclusion....................................................................................................................66
3.5.1
Setup ..................................................................................................................................................66
3.5.2
Layout ................................................................................................................................................68
3.5.3
Heat recovery....................................................................................................................................71
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3.5.4
Environment.....................................................................................................................................71
3.5.5
Finance ..............................................................................................................................................72
3.5.6
Recommendations ...........................................................................................................................74
Bibliography .................................................................................................................................................................76
Appendices ...................................................................................................................................................................78
A: Cementa AB heat recovery estimation ..........................................................................................................78
B: Calculations ........................................................................................................................................................78
B-1: Single tube radiation heat transfer ..........................................................................................................78
B-2: Concentrated tube .....................................................................................................................................81
C: Equipment and installation costs ....................................................................................................................83
D: Equipment and instrumentation diagrams ...................................................................................................84
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List of Tables
Table 1: Inputs - Heat added to the system, from previous studies. ..................................................................22
Table 2: Outputs - Heat lost from the system, from previous studies. ..............................................................22
Table 3 : The calculated annually available heat and average heat transfer rate for the clinker cooler gas...31
Table 4 : Heat losses from the kiln shell, relative to the atmosphere. ................................................................35
Table 5 : The volume fraction of the molecules in the gas before the cooling tower......................................37
Table 6 : The volume fraction of the molecules in the gas after water injection. .............................................38
Table 7 : Energy, annual and average heat transfer rate of the preheater cyclone gas. ....................................38
Table 8: Summary of the results from the three largest heat sources. ................................................................40
Table 9 : Design and historical conditions of the existing electricity generating system. ................................43
Table 10 : Heat recovery of secondary kiln shell....................................................................................................52
Table 11 : Energy from connecting kiln 7 to HE-1 steam drum.........................................................................57
Table 12 : Energy from connecting kiln 7 to HE-2 steam drum.........................................................................57
Table 13 : Energy from connecting kiln 7 to Feed water line. .............................................................................58
Table 14 : Energy and returns from connecting to the district heating system. ...............................................61
Table 15 : Energy from connecting kiln 7 to HE-2 using only gas and separated systems. ...........................62
Table 16 : Heat from connecting kiln 7 to district heating using only gas .........................................................63
Table 17 : Summary of the costs, savings and payback period for all possible connections. .........................65
Table 18 : Cost estimation for final setup, projected for 2004. ...........................................................................74
Table 19 : Simple analyses of final recommended solution. .................................................................................78
Table 20 : Cost and heat comparison for various sized tubes..............................................................................81
Table 21 : Cost and heat comparison for various size and distance for thermal concentrated tubes. ..........82
Table 22 : Cost estimate sources. ..............................................................................................................................83
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List of Figures
Figure 1: Rotary kiln number 7 with indicated tyre (1), roller (2) and air nozzles (3). .....................................16
Figure 2: Diagram indicating the heat flow, including the losses and gains in the system. .............................17
Figure 3: Diagram indicating the system boundaries and the nearby connections...........................................20
Figure 4 : Heat losses from the kiln surface. ...........................................................................................................23
Figure 5 : Preheater gas flow and sensor locations. ...............................................................................................24
Figure 6 : Heat loss through air movement and sensor locations for the clinker cooler gas. .........................25
Figure 7: Temperature measurements for the clinker cooler gas (sensor TK703) over one year. .................30
Figure 8: Temperature graph with thermal image of the rotating kiln surface at two time instances. ..........32
Figure 9: Measured surface temperatures for rotary kiln number 7....................................................................33
Figure 10 : Kiln 7's sheltered position in its concrete structure...........................................................................33
Figure 11: Temperature measurements for sensor TU707 and TU710 over a one year period. ....................35
Figure 12 : Current and proposed preheater gas outlet, before the raw mill. ....................................................36
Figure 13: Simplified diagram of kiln 8, showing steam turbine and district heating connections. ...............42
Figure 14 : Layout of heat exchanger 1 and connections. ....................................................................................43
Figure 15 : Layout of heat exchanger 2 and connections. ....................................................................................44
Figure 16 : Layout of heat exchanger for district heating, and connections. .....................................................45
Figure 17 : Single tube proximity approach. ...........................................................................................................49
Figure 18 : Concentrator and tube approach. .........................................................................................................50
Figure 19: Illustration of possible secondary shell with tubes setup (not to scale)...........................................51
Figure 20 : Layout of new kiln heat exchanger connected to HE-1 steam drum. ............................................56
Figure 21 : Layout of new kiln 7 heat exchanger connected to HE-2 steam drum. .........................................56
Figure 22 : Layout of kiln 7 heat exchanger connected to feedwater line. .........................................................58
Figure 23. : Layout of kiln 7 heat exchanger connected to district heating system ..........................................59
Figure 24 : Annual district heating production profile. .........................................................................................59
Figure 25 : Simple diagram of new system layout and connections. ...................................................................68
Figure 26 : Top view of kiln 7 and 8, with new heat exchangers and piping. ...................................................70
Figure 27 : Reflector size calculation drawing. .......................................................................................................82
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1 Introduction
1.1 Motivation
The cement industry is an energy intensive industry. The cement manufacturing process demands large
amount of energy, with a large amount of this energy lost due to inefficiencies. Throughout history,
various new design and equipment improvements have been made in order to increase efficiency, while
maintaining good quality products. Most of the energy losses occur in the form of heat loss, with
improvements relating to the combining and reusing of heat for drying and other production purposes
within the plant.
Cementa AB recognized the potential for reusing lost heat outside the production process at their cement
plant in Slite, Gotland, and together with Vattenfall AB and Gotlands Energi AB (GEAB), undertook
projects in order to tap into the heat lost from certain parts of the heat intensive processes. The projects
focused on the newest section of the plant, kiln number 8. Heat exchangers were connected to two of the
hot gas outlets in order to use the heat for steam generation, which is used to generate electricity from a
steam turbine. The other project also used one of the same gas outlets, and Cementa AB together with
GEAB, installed a system that uses the heat from the gas for supplying heat to the district heating system
in Slite. These projects managed to benefit the plant through reducing electrical costs by generating
electricity from excess heat, as well as obtaining additional income and providing benefit to the
community through the supply of heat to the district heating system.
Although the planning pointed to good returns, the desired outcomes were never achieved, with average
electrical production in 2011 only reaching about 55 % of the design values. Additionally, the combination
of district heating and electrical generation on the same gas outlet line, has led to prioritization of heat.
The consequence was that the prioritization of the district heating has led to lower electrical production,
with the overall shortcomings of the equipment also leading to lower heat production. To make up for the
lack of heat for district heating, oil burners are used as backup. Identifying the problem and improving the
existing system became an important aspect of this study.
1.2 Aims
At the same cement plant, they have an older and smaller cement manufacturing section, kiln number 7.
In an effort to replicate and improve on the system at kiln number 8, Cementa AB intended to investigate
the feasibility of installing a similar heat recovery system in kiln number 7. This task was handed down to
a student completing a master’s degree at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), as part of the students
master’s thesis.
The nature of the study and the field required the student to conduct the study in different parts, each
with different objectives and outcomes. Firstly, the student had to familiarize with the processes involved
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and the heat flow within the cement manufacturing plant. Secondly, the student had to evaluate the
specific conditions and available potential for accessing the heat at kiln number 7. Thirdly, the student had
to investigate the possible improvements that could be made with the new system and uses for the heat,
allowing for the identification of the most suitable connection and ending with a detail discussion of the
final solution and savings it can contribute.
The first part of the study required the student to develop an understanding of the cement manufacturing
process. This understanding extends to the equipment used and the purpose thereof. The reader is made
aware of the basic concept and steps behind the manufacturing process, which would lead to a better
understanding of the proposed solutions. The flow of heat could then be evaluated in detail through using
the available sources.
The next step was to use the available information in order to determine the system boundary for the
study. Using previously conducted studies of the system, accurate assumptions could be made for the
available heat sources. The feasible heat sources were identified and compared to newly calculated values.
Accessing the heat is the priority for the analyses. The student had to investigate possible ways for
collecting the heat and the size of the heat exchangers required, which would allow for more realistic
generating estimates. As part of the investigation, initial estimations had to be made on the required
equipment and connections that would be required.
Ultimately, the aim was to determine a cost effective solution, with a good payback period and a reduced
environmental impact. Investigation of the current uses by the other installed system had to be made to
evaluate the possible saving contributions that could be made by the new system. Each of the equipment
and connection possibilities had to be investigated, followed by all the possible connections that could be
made to the existing systems. The various connection possibilities had to include an accurate financial
gains and capital cost analysis and an improved heat recovery analysis in order to identify the most suitable
setup. The final setup could then be discussed in more detail, providing for the conclusion and best
solution for the company.
The financial gain or savings for the plant had to be calculated for its future implementation, allowing the
student to identify the highest return on investment. The investigation therefore had to include a detailed
investment analysis, which could be used by Cementa AB to request funding for conducting the project
from its parent company, Heidelberg Cement Group, together with a recommendation on the options
available.
1.3 Exclusions and limitations
Cementa AB intended to obtain maximum benefit, while minimizing the cost as well as the impact on the
existing processes. In complying to these requirements, the design had to exclude any modification to
existing process equipment, other than simple tie ins for diverting non-process related flows, such as
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heated gas being vented. It also excluded the acquisition of any high cost equipment, such as a new steam
turbine, and limited the sources to heat not used by any existing processes, hence previously lost heat. It
did allow for the acquisition of new heat exchangers.
The sources of heat losses were limited to kiln 7 and the highest level losses from that kiln. The study
allowed for connecting to the existing systems, but excludes the studying and modifications of any of the
kiln 8 systems or processes.
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2 Cement Plant Overview
The plant has a long history which is discussed briefly in this chapter. The company profile provides for
the background to how the plant came to be and the current setup came to exist.
Various equipment and methods exist for manufacturing cement, of which many different volumes of
books and papers have been written. In order to avoid excessive discussion into the processes involved
and equipment that could be used, this section will only focus on the most relevant equipment and
processes used by the current setup found at kiln number 7, located at the Cementa AB plant in Slite,
Gotland.
2.1 Company profile
Cementa AB is part of the global Heidelberg Cement Group (Heidelberg). Heidelberg has about 75 000
employees globally. Cementa AB has 3 cement production plants and 15 distribution centers in Sweden.
The production plants are located in Slite, Degerhamn and Skövde, with Slite being the largest. The Slite
plant has about 400 permanent and subcontracted personnel and produces about 2 million tons of cement
a year, of which 50 % are exported. The plant also incorporates an electrical generator and is also the
supplier of heat to the Slite district heating system (Ahlberg & Udd, 2009).
Throughout the years, Cementa AB’s environmental improvement program has resulted in a 90 %
reduction in emissions of nitrogen-oxides and sulphur. Further improvements include the reduction of
fossil fuels by replacing it with alternative fuels. The Slite cement plan is one of the most modern and
energy efficient cement plants. (Grönwall, 2010)
2.1.1 History of the Slite plant
In 1916 a company previously manufacturing lime, Slite Cement och Kalk AB, started the construction of
its first cement plant in Slite. The plant started producing cement in 1919, with its design allowing for
multiple extensions. The first of such extensions were completed in 1929, through installing an additional
kiln, adding a 200 ton per day production capacity. (Ahlberg & Udd, 2009)
In 1931, another company, Skånska Cement AB, acquired majority shares in the Slite company and started
adopting a new marketing strategy. Under the new ownership, kiln number 1 was modernized in 1935,
together with a storage capacity increase through the construction of additional cement silos. (Ahlberg &
Udd, 2009)
The company realized that having two kilns at the plant opened up the possibility of manufacturing two
different types of cement at the same time. In order to achieve this, in 1936, the company installed an
additional cement mill and two more sludge silos. During this time, bulk cement shipping started to
become popular, adding to the demand for large storage facilities. (Ahlberg & Udd, 2009)
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An increase in capacity was required, which was added in 1939, through the construction of the third kiln.
The new kiln increased the production capability of the plant by 400 ton per day. The upgrade occurred at
a bad time, with the onset of World War 2 a few years later. (Ahlberg & Udd, 2009)
The onset of World War 2 forced the cement industry into low production and restrictions, with some
years only producing for 7 months in a year. Only after the war could the production return to its normal
values. (Ahlberg & Udd, 2009)
Further capacity increase of 600 tons per year came about in 1950, with the construction of the fourth
kiln. During the mid-1950’s the company adopted a long term strategy, which would see to drastic
changes within Sweden’s cement industry. (Ahlberg & Udd, 2009)
The company decided that all increases in demand will be met by a few large plants, which would be
gradually expanded. One of these plants being the Slite plant, which started undergoing major expansions.
The aging kiln number 2 was replaced with a new kiln number 5 in 1961. Shortly after, in 1963, kiln
number 1 was taken out of service. In 1964, a new dry mill process was introduced and new equipment
installed to support the process. This happened together with the installation of the sixth kiln, which
added a capacity of 1 000 ton per day, making the Slite plant the largest cement manufacturing plant in the
company. This capacity was increased even further with the installation of kiln number 7 in 1970.
(Ahlberg & Udd, 2009)
Cementa used to be the marketing branch of Skånska Cement AB. In 1969, it was decided to rename the
company Cementa AB. The ownership changed soon afterwards, in 1973, when Eurec Industri AB
acquired the majority shares in Cementa AB. (Ahlberg & Udd, 2009)
During the 1970s, the cement industry in Sweden underwent a period of difficulties, due to lack of
demand and rising fuel costs. As a consequence, the plant had to become more efficient and competitive.
Kiln number 5, still using the old wet method, was decommissioned in 1973. The energy intensive wet kiln
technology was completely replaced across the rest of Sweden in 1979 by the dry kiln technology. Shortly
afterward kiln 5, in 1977, both kiln 3 and kiln 4 were also decommissioned. Keeping with the original
strategy of fewer larger plants, the company started closing down all the smaller cement plants in the
country. The only remaining plants were the three large upgraded plants in Slite, Degerhamn and Skövde.
(Ahlberg & Udd, 2009)
The production capacity of the Slite plant was increased significantly with the addition of kiln number 8 in
1979. The project was undertaken following the required approval of mining near the plant, as well as the
connection to the electricity grid and the availability of a bulk carrier vessel. Kiln number 8 had a capacity
of 4 700 tons per day, which was increased to 5 700 tons per day after the installation of a calcining system
in 1991. Kiln 6 stopped operation in 1991, but is still located in its original position, northwest of kiln 7.
(Ahlberg & Udd, 2009)
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The new owners managed to acquire the Swedish government’s shares of Cementa AB in 1992. Following
the acquisition, the company was renamed Eurec AB. In 1996, the company was acquired by Skanska AB,
which incorporated the company with Scancern AB. This new management lasted until 1999, when
Heidelberg Cement AG took over Scancern AB and Cementa AB. (Ahlberg & Udd, 2009)
2.2 Production process
Various production methods and equipment exist, all of which achieves the same chemical processes. The
focus of this discussion will be on the specific process and methods used at kiln number 7.
Mineral compounds containing the main components of cement are mined on site. These components are
lime, silica, alumina and iron oxide, which when combined with specific auxiliary materials are used in
manufacturing the most common type of manufactured cement, Portland cement (Duda, 1985). The next
process involves reducing the raw material through crushers. The Slite plant uses a large hammer crusher,
reducing the size to maximum of 80 mm. The crushed raw material is transported to storage piles, where
mixing of the raw material takes place in order to achieve an optimal quality mixture. The storage piles
also acts as a buffer supply for the raw mill (Grönwall, 2010).
Simultaneous grinding and drying of the crushed material occurs in the combined dryer-roller mill. The
crushed material is fed from the top into the roller mill, which lands on the grinding table. Centrifugal
forces throw the material in the path of the grinding rollers which crush it. Hot air, sourced from the kiln,
is used to push the fine particles (referred to as raw meal) up through a classifier, separating and returning
the large particles to the grinding table. The hot air simultaneously also dries the incoming raw material,
which increases the efficiency of the grinding process. (Duda, 1985)
The dust (raw meal) filled gas is sent to an electrostatic precipitator filter, which separates the dust
particles from the gas. The gas also carries with it some unwanted acidic particles, which are washed away
in a wet scrubber and later neutralized using ground limestone in the scrubber slurry. Following the
filtration, the raw meal is then transported and stored within raw meal silos. (Grönwall, 2010)
The raw meal is then ready for undergoing the various processes necessary to form clinker. The first part
of this process involves pre-heating and drying of the raw meal, which is conducted using a suspension
preheater at temperatures below 700 ºC (Kiln Performance Tests Task Force, 1992). This is a tall structure
containing a vertical arrangement of five cyclones in series. Heated gasses from the kiln is passed upwards
through each cyclone, heating the raw meal which is fed from the top down, exposing it to hotter
temperatures as it moves to lower cyclones (Ibrahim, 1986). The starting composition consists of calcite
(CaCO3), quartz (SiO2), clay minerals (SiO2-Al2O3-H2O) and iron ore (Fe2O3) (Kiln Performance Tests
Task Force, 1992). The raw meal then enters the rotating kiln, where it slides and roles counter to the hot
gasses at the other end (Taylor, 1997), exposing itself to three main phases within the process.
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Kiln number 7 is a large steel cylinder fitted with refractory and tilted slightly towards the burner, with a
4,4 meter outer diameter and spanning a length of 60 meters. The dried raw meal undergoes calcination of
CaCO3 and concurrent binding of Al2O3, Fe2O3, activated SiO2 and CaO, in the range of temperature
between 700 ºC and 900 ºC (Kiln Performance Tests Task Force, 1992). Transition to Belite (C3S) occurs
between 900 ºC and 1 300 ºC and as soon as the new compounds reach the burner, they experience
sintering above 1 300 ºC (Boateng, 2008). These temperatures are achieved through a direct firing burner,
using coal as primary fuel, situated at the end of the rotating kiln line. Newly formed clinker leaves the kiln
at very high temperatures.
Rapid cooling down of the clinker is followed in the clinker cooler. During the cooling stage, the molten
phase, 3CaO—Al2O3, forms, and if the cooling is too slow, alite may dissolve back into the liquid phase and
appear as secondary belite (Tahsin & Vedat, 2005), reducing the quality of the final product. The cooling
is needed in order to improve the quality, allow for transportation and to reuse the heat within the
previous processes (Taylor, 1997). Within the clinker cooler, cold air is pumped from the atmosphere
through the clinker. The convection heats up the air, which in turn is partially used to supply fresh air to
the burner and partially vented through a filter, after which the heat is dissipated to the atmosphere via a
chimney.
The newly formed clinker is stored within clinker silos, followed by the grinding process in the cement
mills which, together with additives such as Gypsum, forms the final cement product. From here the
cement is stored in silos until collected by trucks or ships for further distribution (Grönwall, 2010). The
plant has its own truck loading facilities and harbour on location.
2.3 Heat flow Source to outlets
Studying the heat source and the flow from it, are the focus of this section. The report is concerned with
the heat flow in kiln 7 only, therefore only kiln 7 will be discussed. It describes the flow of heat up to
major outlets or processes requirements. The description of heat flow through the system should be read
together with Figure 2 for improved understanding.
2.3.1 Burner
Energy is added to the system, through the direct firing burner (A) situated at the lower part of the rotary
kiln. The burner in kiln number 7 is currently being fuelled by coal, although future developments will add
a mixture of alternative fuels (Stover, 2011).
2.3.2 Rotary kiln
The rotary kiln is made out of a layer of refractory bricks surrounded by a steel shell. The high
temperature used inside of the kiln is transferred through conduction to the outer shell, which is exposed
to the surroundings. The wheels on which the rotary kiln rotates are called “tyres”. They are constructed
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from steel and are loosely connected to the kiln shell, while supported by the rollers, which rotates the kiln
and carries the weight of the kiln, as can be seen in Figure 1.
Fuel from the burner ignites and burns the oxygen in the supply air, which is a combination of secondary
air and dust from the clinker cooler (B) and air and dust from the atmosphere (C). Air is also known to
infiltrate through openings between the equipment and is referred to as false air (D) (Stover, 2011). Large
openings at the hot end of the rotary kiln cause air to displace the hot secondary air from the clinker
cooler. The false air increases the energy requirements in the system, by increasing the energy required to
heat up the false air to the gas temperature (Duda, 1985).
The heat allows for the necessary chemical reactions (E) to occur within the rotary kiln. A large amount of
heat is absorbed by the material entering the kiln (T) which undergoes the various chemical reactions.
These reactions include endothermic reactions, such as evaporation, decomposition of clay and
dissociation of MgCO3 and CaCO3. It also includes exothermic reactions, such as the formation of
organic clay components, dissociation of FeS2 and formation of clinker. (Stover, 2011)
The shell loses large amounts of heat through radiation and convection (F). Additionally, air is pumped
over the shell surface using nozzles (see Figure 1), on the burner side. This is done in order to cool the
outer shell to create material build-up, which in turn protects the refractory used inside the kiln. The
build-up is a consequence of the material melting at the high temperatures and cooling down against the
surface. It is known that cooling of the kiln shell can increase the refractory’s lifetime by up to two times
that of refractory without cooling (Duda, 1985). Air forced over the kiln shell, together with wind, causes
convection losses (Stover, 2011).
Heat also enters the system through the machinery used (G), such as the motors used for rotating the kiln.
Heat finally leaves the kiln in the form of hot air (H) and dust being transferred to the pre-heating
cyclones.
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Figure 1: Rotary kiln number 7 with indicated tyre (1), roller (2) and air nozzles (3).
2.3.3 Bypass air
If excess volatile particles are present in the feed or fuel, such as sulphur or chloride, they will vaporize in
the burner and condense in the preheater, causing build-up (Alsop et al., 2007). In order to avoid the
plugging of the cyclones from this build-up, a bypass system is installed which removes a portion of the
kiln exhaust gasses, thereby reducing the amount of harmful materials from the process (Duda, 1985). The
system experiences heat loss caused by the bypass air and dust (I) escaping via the bypass system.
2.3.4 Preheating cyclones
Colder air and raw meal (J) is conveyed to the cyclones, which absorbs much of the heat coming from the
rotary kiln, which then exits the system at a much higher temperature into the rotary kiln. Additionally, air
infiltrates (K) through gaps in the equipment.
The heated cyclones lose heat to the surroundings through radiation and convection (L). The heat in the
air and dust (M) which exits the system at the top of the cyclone tower is pumped through the cooling
tower. More heat is also lost through movement of raw meal (T) from the preheater to the kiln.
2.3.5 Cooling tower
Hot gas and dust enters the cooling tower from the preheater cyclone. Cold water (U) is pumped directly
into the gas, in order to cool it to the desired temperature, as per the raw mill requirements. The cooling
tower also experiences some convection and radiation losses (V), due to its exposure to the environment.
The cooled gas (W) is then pumped via a fan directly into the raw mill, where it is used for drying and
transportation of small particles.
-16-
2.3.6 Clinker cooler
Cooling of the clinker is required in order to influence the structure, composition and grindability, which
would improve the quality of the resulting cement. Cooling is also necessary to allow for easier conveying
and reclamation of the clinker heat. (Duda, 1985)
The hot clinker (N) enters the clinker cooler from the rotating kiln. Cold air form the atmosphere (O) is
then pumped over the clinker to cool it down. The clinker is cooled down through convection, with a
large portion of the heated air leaving the cooler into the rotating kiln. A portion of the air is diverted to a
filter (P), after which it is exhausted to the atmosphere. (Stover, 2011)
The clinker is conveyed out of the clinker cooler in a cooled down state, causing some heat within the
clinker (Q) to be lost to the next system. The elevated temperature of the clinker cooler shell allows for
heat losses, through convection and radiation (R), to the environment. The mechanical equipment used,
contribute to adding heat to the system through its electrical motors (S). (Stover, 2011)
Figure 2: Diagram indicating the heat flow, including the losses and gains in the system.
-17-
3 Heat Recovery
This chapter describes the system boundaries in which the study will be conducted and explores the
possible sources of accessible heat through investigating previously conducted studies. By using the
studies and analysing the results, it is possible to establish which of the heat sources can be considered
“lost heat”, and also determine whether the accessing of this heat could influence the process, rendering it
as an unacceptable source. The possible uses were explored followed by a connection with each source.
Studying the costs, energy recovery and returns, a final setup was achieved. This section ends with the
detailed discussion of the final setup and the conclusion.
3.1 Establishing the system boundaries
The first part of analysing a system is to determine which parts constitute the system in question.
Identifying the limits of the system allowed for a clearly defined boundary for which the energy and heat
flows passing through this boundary can be analysed, providing results which can be used within the rest
of the study. It is important to take into account that heat is added to the system by the coal fired burner,
with much of the heat used within the processes and a large amount of heat is also recycled through to
other processes, such as for preheating and drying.
3.1.1 Method for determining the system boundaries
The system boundary used in heat flow studies within the cement plant will be adopted, with the addition
of the cooling tower, as can be seen in Figure 2 and Figure 3. The cooling tower is added due to its
importance in analyses conducted further in the study.
The source of the heat, will have the boundary cut off at the inlet of the fuel, thereby the study excludes
the flow of fuel to the burner and only include the heat caused by the burning of the fuel. The boundary
will be located at the outer shells of the equipment and machinery involved. Any non-mechanical flows,
such as electrical wiring and sensors, are excluded from the system. Equipment contained within
machinery will have the boundary on the outer surface of the machinery, i.e. on surfaces exposed to
atmosphere. The boundary will exclude any unnecessary equipment from the study by closing off the
boundary at any exit of heated gasses or material which leads to direct venting or cooling into the
atmosphere or surroundings, also excluding any equipment used for the purpose of venting. In the case of
air being pumped into the system, the cut off boundary will be located at the outlet of the equipment.
Any heat absorbed and used within this system will be considered necessary for the process and operation
of the plant and excluded as a possible source. The sources that will be considered will therefore only be
heat that is lost, through whichever means, out of the boundary of the system.
-18-
3.1.2 System description
With the previously mentioned boundary description, it is possible to establish the equipment involved at
kiln number 7. The primary system will therefore consist of the kiln, burner inlet, clinker cooler,
suspended preheater, cooling tower and bypass line.
For the system, the boundary will form around the equipment, with cut off at the top of the cooling tower
where the gas exits to the rawmill. It also cuts off at the raw meal inlets into the cyclones. The bypass line
will be cut off before entering the bypass filter. The kiln will be fully included, with exception of the
motors used on the outside for rotation. The clinker cooler will be cut off at the venting exit, which leads
to a filter and consequently the venting tower. The outlet points at the bottom of the clinker will be the
boundary limit for the system.
The boundary established allowed for an accurate assessment of the heat which flows from the source and
the losses occurring across the defined boundary. The boundary described applies to the study of
establishing and quantifying the available sources of heat lost to the atmosphere, with the special case
related to the cooling tower situated at the preheater cyclone gas exit. The inclusion of the cooling tower
allowed for more accurate results related to the preheater cyclone gasses and the requirements of the raw
mill.
-19-
Figure 3: Diagram indicating the system boundaries and the nearby connections.
-20-
3.2 Data and measurements
In order to establish an accurate evaluation of the heat losses and their magnitude, it is important to access
historical data. Such data is available from various sources, including previous studies, measurement
equipment and records from other companies.
Exploring similar studies provides a good starting point for further evaluation. First the studies need to be
investigated for relevancy. After found relevant, they could be used to identify the location and type of
heat losses. Measurement instruments found on site, could be used to obtain more accurate and relevant
quantities, which were used to improve on the values of the studies, based on the new requirements and
restrictions. These measurement instruments therefore needs to be identified and their locations
established.
To obtain quantifiable values for the final analyses, calculations based on the available measurements were
required. The sources vary, depending on the type of variable investigated and the availability of the
measurement instruments.
3.2.1 System Audits
Data on previous energy studies (system audits) conducted on kiln 7 has been made available by Cementa
AB. Three system audits on the heat balance of kiln number 7 have been identified as applicable, which
will be discussed in more detail.
The first audit was conducted in June 2006 in order to highlight areas of improvements and to create a
reference of the state of the kiln. The second and more recent audit was conducted in April 2011, in order
to record the performance of the kiln before replacing the burner. The third and latest audit was
conducted in September 2011, in order to compare the performance before and after the replacement of
the burner.
The latest two studies are considered more accurate, due to modifications and adjustments made to the
plant and to the cement being manufacture from 2006. The studies were conducted in a period lasting two
days each, using the measurements of that period. Both these studies can be considered accurate, with
only 15,5 % and 6,6 % (respectively) of the heat calculated to be unaccounted for . (Stover, 2011). The
outcome of the studies provides for a good and reliable guideline for reducing the heat source selection.
The results from the system audit for September 2011 indicate a significant amount of energy (64,4 %)
that was not used by the processes (within the period of data collection), part of which has the potential to
be used for other purposes.
It would be more productive to only investigate the largest sources of heat lost. The largest sources will
provide the best location for capturing heat and if the heat source is found unfeasible, all smaller sources
will immediately be eliminated. The calculated values provided by these reports, narrows down the
possible selection of heat sources to heat from radiation and convection of the rotary kiln, cooler vent air
-21-
and raw waste gas and dust from cyclone towers with some additional operational restrictions (discussed
later). The breakdown of the heat added to the system can be seen in Table 1, and the heat lost from the
system in Table 2.
Table 1: Inputs - Heat added to the system, from previous studies.
Study
Designation
Fuel from main burner
Sensible enthalpy
Kiln feed
Air
Mechanical equipment
Balance remainder (Error)
Total
2011-04-14
Total Heat
Quantity (kW)
84,4%
48 178
0
6
1,4%
788
-1,8%
-1 044
0,7%
422
15,3%
8 728
100%
57 079
2011-10-19
Total Heat
Quantity (kW)
92,3%
54 115
0
10
1,9%
1 100
-1,5%
-853
0,7%
422
6,6%
3 855
100%
58 649
Table 2: Outputs - Heat lost from the system, from previous studies.
Study
Designation
Reaction enthalpy
Raw waste gas and dust losses
Bypass gas and dust losses
Cooler vent air
Incomplete combustion
Hot clinker
Radiation & convection losses from
preheater
Radiation & convection losses from
rotary kiln
Radiation & convection losses from
clinker cooler
Total
2011-04-14
Total Heat
Quantity (kW)
37,8%
21 576
23,8%
13 557
6,3%
3 609
10,1%
5 771
0,1%
62
2,3%
1 319
2011-10-19
Total Heat
Quantity (kW)
35,5%
20 812
23,7%
13 867
4,8%
2 797
13,1%
7 707
0,1%
64
2,5%
1 471
4,3%
2 448
4,0%
2 338
14,7%
8 375
15,3%
8 986
0,6%
362
1,0%
606
100%
57 079
100%
58 649
3.2.2 Measurements
Historical and real time data has been made available through software, “Process Explorer”, which
measures and records the input of all the installed sensors belonging to Cementa AB. Only a limited
amount of these sensors are of concern to this study.
The company adopted a numbering system used across the plant, identifying its installation location and
the sensor type. These numbers will be used throughout the calculations in order to simplify the
referencing and usability of the report by Cementa AB. The sensors measuring the properties for more
accurate calculations are therefore identified and discussed further.
-22-
3.2.2.1
Atmospheric conditions
The wind speed and air temperatures are mostly used for calculating the relative heat and convection
losses of the sources. The air temperatures were obtained from Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological
Institute (SMHI), and were taken from the Fårö weather tower near Slite. It provides the temperature in
degree Celsius for each hour, from 9 March 2011 until 9 March 2012.
3.2.2.2
Kiln 7 measurements
The studies conducted in 2011 were used to identify the largest sources of heat loss. These sources were
identified as the cooler vent air, radiation of the kiln and the preheater gas. The measurements used to for
calculating the heat losses (calculation found in Section 3.3.2) is described in more detail in this section,
with copies of the piping and instrumentation diagrams found in the Appendix.
The combined radiation and convection losses from the rotating kiln surface are the largest amount of
heat loss. These losses were estimated using temperatures measured with the help of a thermal camera, the
details of the estimations can be found in Section 3.3.2.2. The steel outer surface of the kiln reaches high
temperatures, due to heat transfer from the burner, causing it to dissipate heat through convection, caused
by wind and other forms of air movement, and radiation to the surrounding structures and environment.
Figure 4, illustrates the heat loss mechanism in a basic manor.
THERMAL CAMERA
RADIATION LOSSES FROM THE EXPOSED SURFACE
ROTATING
KILN SHELL
AIR MOVEMENT CREATING CONVECTION LOSSES FROM THE EXPOSED SURFACE
Figure 4 : Heat losses from the kiln surface.
The preheater gas refers to the heated gas exiting the cyclone tower. The 2011 studies show that the gasses
leaving the cyclone tower is the second highest source of heat loss. The process and equipment related to
this section are described in Chapter 2.3.4. After the heat is absorbed from the gas into the raw meal, the
gas is drawn out through the ducting into the cooling tower, after which it is transported to the rawmill.
-23-
The heat loss is estimated using temperature sensors inside the ducting. The gas flow and locations of the
measurement instruments are illustrated in Figure 5.
FU711
WATER
WATER INJECTED
INTO COOLING
TOWER
RAW WASTE GAS
EXITING THE
CYCLONE TOWER
FU710
TU707
TU710
HIGHEST
CYCLONE
COOLING TOWER
GAS TO
RAWMILL
FAN
Figure 5 : Preheater gas flow and sensor locations.
The heated air, vented from the clinker cooler to the filter (cooler vent air), has been identified as the third
largest heat loss. The heated air is currently not used in any process and is pumped into the atmosphere.
Two measurement possibilities exist, before and after the filter as can be seen in Figure 6. The
measurements from the sensor located before the filter were used by the 2011 studies and also in Section
3.3.2.1, for calculating the available heat. The measurements from the sensor located after the filter were
used for the final calculations in Section 3.4.5.
-24-
HEATED AIR
TO BURNER
AND KILN
CHIMNEY STACK
OPEN TO
ATMOSPHERE
COOLER VENT
AIR (HEATED)
ROTATING
KILN
TU707
TK703
FAN
FAN
CLINKER
COOLER
FILTER
COLD AIR
FROM
ATMOSPHERE
AIR VENTED TO
ATMOSPHERE
MATERIAL (CLINKER)
FLOW
Figure 6 : Heat loss through air movement and sensor locations for the clinker cooler gas.
The temperatures of the vented gasses are measured using Pt100 sensors installed on site. The following
temperature sensors have been identified as important for calculating the heat in the clinker cooler and
preheater gas:
•
TK702, located in the ducting of the clinker cooler exit gasses, after the filter and fan and used
for calculating the heat in the gas which can be accessed using a heat exchanger;
•
TK703, located in the ducting of the clinker cooler exit gasses, before reaching the filter and used
for calculating the heat in the gas in order to compare with the 2011 studies;
•
TU707, located between the cyclone tower’s gas exit ducting and the water cooling tower and
used for calculating the heat contained in the gas before cooling occurs;
•
TU710, located on the exit ducting of the water cooling tower and used for calculating the heat in
the gas after water injected cooling has occurred.
The kiln surface temperatures are not measured in the same way. Real time data can be viewed from the
control room, but no spread sheet containing all the data was available. The data for a specific point in
time were requested and received in the form of a graph as seen in Figure 8.
The cooling tower at kiln number 7 preheater cyclone gas outlet forms an intricate part of the heat
calculation for the cyclone tower gasses. Water is pumped directly into the gas by the tower which would
affect the output values. The volume flow added by the water is obtainable through the flow
measurements conducted at the tower. The flow of cooling water occurs through a pump which is
constantly operational and circulates the water in a loop. Water is extracted from this loop and is
-25-
calculated based on the difference in the volume flow before and after the water nozzles. The water flow
measurement devices used can be seen in Figure 5 and numbered as:
•
FU711, located before the cooling tower nozzles;
•
FU710, located after the cooling tower nozzles.
These measurements are combined with both the system audit results and the kiln 8 measurements,
depending on the variables being calculated.
3.2.2.3
Kiln 8 measurements
The sensors at kiln 8 are used mostly during the study of the possible connections to kiln 7. They provide
for more insight into possible operating times and calculating the possible contributions from kiln 7 tieins. Most of the variables used were obtained from “Process Explorer”.
The temperature sensors were mostly used to establish the operating times, such as for determining the
hours in a year for which the gas temperature is too low. The sensors that were used were:
•
TK813, located at the ducting running parallel to the district heating bypass, before the chimney;
•
TK814, located directly after the clinker cooler, inside the heated gas ducting.
The flow of gas to the various heat exchangers at kiln 8’s clinker cooler outlet was also an important
variable for estimating operation times and possible contributions from kiln 7. The gas flows are regulated
using dampers, for which each has a motor and a sensor indicating the level of openness. The damper
sensors used in the calculations were:
•
GK808, located on the main gas duct, running parallel to heat exchanger 2;
•
GK809, located directly after heat exchanger 2, regulating the flow to the main duct.
The contributions of these measurements were essential for determining accurate operation times. More
data was however required for the calculations, which were obtained from sensors not belonging to
Cementa AB, although they are located on the plant.
3.2.2.4
District heating and steam measurements
Due to the ownership of the heat exchangers and the control of the hot gasses being the responsibility of
other companies, Vattenfal and GEAB, the instruments located near them are not part of the same system
used by Cementa AB. The measured data used for those calculations were obtained from a separate
source.
The electrical generation system, together with heat exchangers 1 and 2, are monitored 24 hours per day.
Unfortunately, the data has not been stored electronically. All data measured were recorded by the
operator on duty on a daily report filled in every 6 hours. This is done at the operators own discretion,
resulting in many unrecorded time periods. It was also found that data are not recorded during a standstill,
reducing the accuracy of the results even more. None the less, the data was filled in a spreadsheet, ranging
-26-
from January 2011 until January 2012, and the averages were used for conducting calculations. The data
used included the following:
•
Steam pressures, used for both heat exchangers;
•
Steam and water temperatures, used for both heat exchangers;
•
Electrical power output, generated by the steam turbine;
•
Steam and water flows, for the steam line after heat exchanger 1 and before heat exchanger 2.
The district heating calculations were mostly related to the quantity of oil burned and demand available.
These values were obtained from GEAB in the form of yearly energy reports. The reports indicate the
total amount of heat used by the Slite community for each month of the year, with an indication of how
much of the heat is obtained from burning oil. The supplied data sheets only contained the values for
2006 up to 2010. The total yearly values for 2011 were made available by Cementa AB’s records.
-27-
3.3 Available Heat Sources
An important step in establishing the effective use of excess heat in the plant is to identify and investigate
the largest heat losses within the defined system. The sources can then be refined and combined with
possible uses within the next chapter.
The aim was to identify the sources with the largest heat losses with the aid of previously conducted
energy balances. It was then possible to improve on the identified sources using new calculations,
historical measurements and more accurate assumptions. The historical measurement data were selected
within a specific time frame, allowing for comparative results over a period of one year, which provides a
new heat value which can be compared to the previous energy audits.
The newly calculated values provide for a good reference for further calculations. It also confirms the heat
potential in the sources, minimizing the possibilities.
3.3.1 Assumptions
The assumptions made and listed here are for the all three sources. The gas flow assumptions apply to all
calculations for gas flows. The kiln shell assumptions apply to the rotating kiln shell only.
In order to calculate the energy lost through the gas flow of both the preheater gas and the clinker cooler
gas, we had to assume:
•
The air duct to be a steady flow system, with a constant mass flow rate;
•
The pressures to be constant throughout the ducting;
•
Air leaks and heat losses are considered to be negligible;
•
The dust concentration in the gas is constant and equal to the latest (2011) study.
The kiln shell calculations are made simpler through excluding the effects from the air blasting nozzles
from the calculations. It is assumed that the air nozzles are vital for the operation of the kiln, and that the
removal of these air nozzles will only be considered if it was found that a significant temperature drop
would occur from a proposed heat exchanger, discussed in the next chapter.
3.3.2 Available Energy
Energy can be transferred to or from a given mass by heat and work (Ҫengel, 2003). The energy transfer
considered for the calculations were heat transfer, for which the driving force is temperature difference. In
order to analyse the heat potential for each source, it was necessary to look at the most suitable form of
heat transfer (convection or radiation) for each those sources. As per the 2011 study results, only the three
largest sources of heat loss have been investigated.
The calculations used were similar to the previously conducted audits. The previous audits were based on
a specific document, “Execution and evaluation of kiln performance test”, containing information for
-28-
carrying out performance tests on the production part of the cement manufacturing plant (Kiln
Performance Tests Task Force, 1992). Many methods and estimations are adopted from this document, in
order to ensure comparable values and due to the established nature and accuracy this document provides.
The losses are considered to be potentially useable sources, placing importance on the heat transfer rate of
each source. The heat transfer should be reflected as obtainable energy relative to the environment, which
would give more realistic values for calculation purposes. The availability is also an important factor, to
which the yearly available energy has been analysed. The relative energy of the sources were used to
establish the relevance for further investigations.
There is also the question of availability, with a multitude of shutdowns occurring in the year, this aspect
was considered important and therefore had to be included. The lack of availability in many time periods
(down times) could influence the feasibility of using the source. In order to obtain a realistic and
comparable figure of lost energy, the energy availability was calculated for each hour and summed
together in order to obtain the available heat in kWh per year. The one year period1 stretches from 9
March 2011 to 9 March 2012, which was selected purely from the starting time of this section of the work.
This allows for comparable and up to date figures for each of the sources and incorporates the down
times experienced during the year.
3.3.2.1
Cooler vent air
According to the 2011 studies (Table 2), heat lost due to venting of clinker cooler air to the atmosphere
has an estimate heat loss of 5,7 MW (study 2011-04-14) or 7,7 MW (study 2011-10-19). These values will
be compared to the newly calculated values (using Equation (1)) in this section, with comments on why
the calculations deliver different results from the previously conducted studies.
The calculations in this section were made using the temperature measurements from the TK703 sensor,
seen in Figure 7. The temperature changes a significant amount over time, with shutdown times
amounting to weeks and the temperature measures around the range of 200 ºC to 350 ºC during normal
operation.
1
The period used stretches over a leap year, therefore the amount of days is 366, as used in the calculations.
-29-
01/03/2012
09/03/2012
01/02/2012
01/01/2012
01/12/2011
01/11/2011
01/10/2011
01/09/2011
01/08/2011
01/07/2011
01/06/2011
01/05/2011
01/04/2011
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
09/03/2011.
Temperature of gases [ºC]
TK703 Measurements
Measurement period between 09/03/2011 - 09/03/2012, at 20 minute intervals
Figure 7: Temperature measurements for the clinker cooler gas (sensor TK703) over one year.
The clinker cooler air (gas) is vented to the atmosphere, the heat contained in the vented gas relative to
the atmosphere is considered to be the heat loss from the system. The rate of heat lost relative to the
atmosphere ( ) was calculated using the energy balance formula (Ҫengel & Boles, 2002). The temperature
difference is taken as the difference between the measured gas temperature ( ) and the measured
atmospheric temperature ( ).
= − (1)
According to the standard industry guide for calculating heat losses, it can be assumed that the specific
heat of the clinker cooler gas ( ) can be approximated as a function of the gas temperature in degree
Celsius (), by using the specific thermal capacity of dry air (, ) calculation (Kiln Performance Tests
Task Force, 1992). This estimation was used in order to incorporate the equation with the measured
values (over 26 000 measurements), as well as constraints on the availability of practically feasible software
resources.
≈ , = 1,297 + 5,75 ∙ 10
∙ + 8,06 ∙ 10
∙ − 2,86 ∙ 10
∙ (2)
The specific heat were calculated for each time step, of which the average value calculated is 1,3 kJ/m3 K,
which is similar to the results from the 2011 studies and the value obtained from using average values with
related software (EES). Equation (2) provides the specific heat in the unit form kJ/m3 K, which requires
the above equation to use the volume flow () instead of the mass flow (). There are no devices
currently installed to measure the volume flow of the heated air, such measurement instrumentation
cannot be installed without taking the plant out of operation and has not been done. The only source for
the volume flow was from the studies conducted in 2011, in which the volume flow for the clinker cooler
-30-
gas was provided as an average value of 21,66 m3/s. The most recent study has been used with the volume
flow assumed to be constant.
The annual heat lost through the cooler vent air was calculated using the specific heat for each time
instance, combined with the fixed value for the volume flow and the available air temperatures. This
approach incorporates the periods to which the kiln is offline. The sum of the heat lost for each hour
provides for the amount in one year. The total annual heat lost from the gas is calculated using equation
(3), with the average heat transfer rate obtained by dividing the total annual heat by the amount of hours
in a year (the results for both can be found in Table 3).
= ∙ . ∙ − (3)
Table 3 : The calculated annually available heat and average heat transfer rate for the clinker cooler gas.
Heat
Clinker cooler gas
3.3.2.2
Average heat transfer rate
5,78 MW
Total annual heat ( )
50,74 GWh/year
Kiln heat losses
The largest significant losses are through radiation and convection from the outer shell surface, which is
estimated from the 2011 studies to be between 8,3 MW and 9 MW (Stover, 2011). Heat is lost through
both convection and radiation. The convection losses are from the forced air blasting of the shell, at the
location between 0 and 20 meters, and the wind blowing across the entire shell, although the wind effect is
the only effect considered during the calculations. The lost heat will be calculated separately for the
convection and the radiation heat available from the shell surface.
It is known that the temperature of the surface is dependent on the type of fuel used, type of clinker
manufactured, duration of operation from previous maintenance, atmospheric conditions, among other.
The surface temperatures are monitored constantly by the plant control room. The student requested two
printouts of normal operating conditions for the rotating kiln, as can be seen in Figure 8.
-31-
Figure 8: Temperature graph with thermal image of the rotating kiln surface at two time instances.
The surface temperature is influenced by various factors which causes the graphs in Figure 8. The red
graph indicates the maximum temperature, blue the minimum temperature and the green the mean
temperature at the specified distance over the entire circumference.
The surface area closest to the burner (on the left) is constantly being blasted with cold air, in order to
generate a build-up of material on the inside. This creates the cooling effect which can be seen on the
thermal image as blue marks. The temperature is not only affected by the build-up, but also from the
method for controlling it. The burner flame is adjusted to burn with a broader or thinner flame, this
together with the driver power adjustment will cause a significant and continuous change in the surface
temperature. The last significant feature is the blue bands running vertically across the thermal images,
these are caused by the “tyres”, described in the previous chapter.
The calculations were made difficult due to the lack of available surface temperature data. The
temperature measurements in Figure 8 are only measured up to 40 meters of the 60 meter kiln. The
available historical data and studies, with exclusion of “2011-10-19” due to insufficient data, were used to
derive the shell temperature. The averages of the available measurements were used to estimate the
temperature of the surface for each meter of kiln (see Figure 9).
-32-
Surface Temperatures of Kiln number 7
450
Temperature [ºC]
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
0
10
20
30
40
Distance from the burner [m]
Study 2006-06-01
Study 2011-04-14
Normal data #2
Averaged data
50
60
Normal data #1
Figure 9: Measured surface temperatures for rotary kiln number 7.
The first effect to calculate was the effect of convection. Although the town of Slite is prone to strong and
constant winds, the wind speeds supplied by the weather service were not used. Following continual site
visits during strong winds, it was clearly visible that the effect of the wind on kiln number 7 will be
minimal. The kiln’s outside surface area (A) is largely sheltered by a concrete structure (see Figure 10),
which together with the surrounding structures and abandoned equipment (kiln 6), protects it from the
wind and other atmospheric conditions. Some wind does get through, although it is reduced significantly.
Figure 10 : Kiln 7's sheltered position in its concrete structure.
-33-
The temperatures used for the calculations were the average temperature (in Kelvin) of the kiln shell for
each meter ( ), as well as the average atmospheric temperature (, ). The convection heat transfer
coefficient ( ) were approximated using the industry based calculation, and consequently convection
losses ( ) were could be calculated. According to the industry based calculation, the following
requirements had to be met in order to use Equation (5): the wind speed is less than 2 m/s; the
temperature in degrees Celsius ( ) is between 100 ºC and 500 ºC; the kiln diameter is between 2m and
8m; the atmospheric temperature is between 10 ºC and 30 ºC. (Kiln Performance Tests Task Force, 1992):
= ∙ ∙ ( − , )
= ∙ 0,3 + 4 + 3,5 ∙
− 0,85 ∙ + 0,076 ∙ 100
100
100
(4)
(5)
The convection heat transfer coefficient ranges between 12,65 W/m2.K and 26,09 W/m2.K, depending on
the location on the kiln surface. These values correspond to the upper range of free convection of gasses
(Ҫengel, 2003). The approximation (Equation (5)) is used throughout the cement industry with accuracy, it
has therefore been assumed to be sufficient to use in these estimates.
By summing together the convection losses from each meter of kiln for different locations, and
multiplying with the fraction of operating hours (n) the kiln experience in a year, it is possible to derive an
estimate for the yearly losses (, ) from convection.
, = ∙ 8760ℎ/ ∙ ,
(6)
The next loss to calculate was the radiation loss from the kiln surface. The maximum rate of radiation
( ) of a real surface that can be emitted from a surface at an absolute temperature ( ) is determined
using the surface area, surface emissivity (ε) and the Stefan-Boltzmann constant (σ), as given by the StefanBoltzmann law (Ҫengel, 2003).
= (7)
ℎ: = 5,67 × 10
; = × × ! "; = 0,9
In order to achieve an accurate estimate for the radiation, the heat available relative to the average
atmospheric temperature (, ) was used to calculate a new value for the radiation heat transfer
( ). This equation was repeated for each meter of kiln, which was then summed together and
multiplied by the availability () and the hours in a year to obtain the heat lost due to radiation (, )
for the entire kiln in the period of one normal year. The total heat ( ) can be calculated by summing
together radiation and convection:
= ( − ,
)
-34-
(8)
, = ∙ 8760ℎ/ ∙ ,
(9)
= , + ,
(10)
Table 4 : Heat losses from the kiln shell, relative to the atmosphere.
Availability
83,64 %
Kiln shell
3.3.2.3
ܳ௞௜௟௡,௖௢௡௩
17,77 GWh/year
ܳ௞௜௟௡,௥௔ௗ
35,77 GWh/year
ܳሶ௔௩௘௥௔௚௘
5,11 MW
ܳ௞௜௟௡
44,78 GWh/year
Preheater raw gas
After the gas from the kiln has been used to preheat the raw meal, it is dissipated at the top of the cyclone
tower to the cooling tower. The gas is then cooled before being sent to the raw mill. Some of the heat is
used within the raw mill for drying, and therefore cannot be used without influencing an existing system.
The temperature measurements can between the inlet (TU707) and outlet (TU710) of the cooling tower
can be found seen in Figure 11.
TU707 and TU710 Measurments
Temperature of gasses [ºC]
600
500
400
300
200
TU707
100
TU710
01/03/2012
09/03/2012
01/02/2012
01/01/2012
01/12/2011
01/11/2011
01/10/2011
01/09/2011
01/08/2011
01/07/2011
01/06/2011
01/05/2011
01/04/2011
09/03/2011.
0
Measurement period between 09/03/2011 - 09/03/2012, at 20 minute intervals
Figure 11: Temperature measurements for sensor TU707 and TU710 over a one year period.
In order to ensure minimal influence on the operation, yet obtain some measure of energy from the gas,
the amount of energy dissipated by the cooling tower was considered a possible source. The cooling tower
-35-
works by cooling down the gasses through injecting water directly into the gas. This causes a change in the
mass flow and the energy content of the gas.
In order to access the heat through a heat exchanger, the air will have to be diverted from the cooling
tower. The effect of this is the removal of the water added by the cooling tower. It has been requested
that the amount of energy contained in the gas after the cooling tower should remain the same, after
modifications to the system, due to the requirements of the rawmill further downstream. It is therefore
necessary to first calculate the energy after the water tower, in order to establish the required outlet
conditions of the heat exchanger. The gas exiting the new heat exchanger should have the same amount of
energy as the cooling tower exit gas, although at a different mass flow rate.
CURRENT SYSTEM
PROPOSED SYSTEM
NEW HEAT
EXCHANGER
ENERGY IN THE
DRY PREHEATER
GAS (‫ܧ‬௚௔௦ )
ܳ௚௔௦
(‫ܧ‬௚௔௦ )
COLD WATER
INJECTED INTO
GAS (݉ሶ௪௔௧௘௥ )
(݉ሶ௢௨௧ )
(݉ሶ௚௔௦ )
HIGHEST
CYCLONE
COOLING TOWER
(݉ሶ௚௔௦ )
COOLING TOWER
(DISCONNECTED)
HIGHEST
CYCLONE
ENERGY IN THE OUTLET GAS
(‫ܧ‬௚௔௦,௢௨௧ )
ENERGY IN THE GAS = (‫ܧ‬௚௔௦,௢௨௧ )
Figure 12 : Current and proposed preheater gas outlet, before the raw mill.
The difference between the cooling tower gas’s in- and outlet conditions, allowed for the calculation of
the available energy (# ) that can be removed using a heat exchanger.
# = # − #,
(11)
The energy into the cooling tower through the dry gas (# ) was calculated using the industry guide (Kiln
Performance Tests Task Force, 1992), with the given concentrations based on the previously conducted
studies. The energy out of the cooler (#, ) was calculated using the same equations, but for a
different concentration and temperature values, due to the added water.
-36-
The specific thermal capacity (, ) of the gas leaving the preheater, calculated in J/K.m3 , can be
estimated as the sum of the individual particles (CO2, H2O,O2,N2) multiplied by their volume fraction (x)
in the gas, obtained from the 2011 studies and listed in Table 5. The thermal capacity of the particles was
estimated using the gas temperatures () in ºC, as per the formulas provided by the available guidelines.
(Kiln Performance Tests Task Force, 1992)
,
!మ
= 1,633 + 9,631 ∙ 10
∙ − 4,606 ∙ 10
∙ + 8,9 ∙ 10
∙ ,"మ ! = 1,489 + 9,52 ∙ 10
∙ + 2,021 ∙ 10
∙ + 7,35 ∙ 10
∙ ,#మ = 1,301 + 3,05 ∙ 10
∙ + 9.65 ∙ 10
∙ − 3,22 ∙ 10
∙ ,!మ = 1,304 + 1,916 ∙ 10
∙ − 9,4 ∙ 10
$ ∙ − 1,01 ∙ 10
∙ , =
!;"!;#;!
, ∙ $
(12)
(13)
(14)
(15)
(16)
Table 5 : The volume fraction of the molecules in the gas before the cooling tower.
Particle
Volume fraction (x)
CO2
0,2355
H 2O
0,0910
O2
0,0388
N2
0,6350
The specific thermal capacity together with the fixed volume flow () from the 2011 study and the
measured exit temperatures (%& ) in Kelvin, allowed for the calculation of the energy of the gas (# )
before the cooling tower. Repeating this equation for every measured hour in the year and summing it
together, provides for the total energy in one year.
#
= ∙ ,, ∙ %&,
(17)
In order to calculate the energy in the gas after the cooling tower (#, ), the mass flow added to the
system by the water sprinklers (' ) had to be added to the mass flow of the gas ( ) from
measurements. Volume flow change caused by the cooling tower is calculated using the mass flow of the
gas ( ) together with the mass flow added by the water (' ).
= + '
(18)
) before the cooling tower, times the
The gas mass flow was derived from the assumed volume flow (
concentration (x) of the gas and the density at the given temperature.
∙%
= !;"!;#;!
-37-
& ∙ $ '
(19)
The density of the water added (&"! ) was obtained from the saturated water condition at the average
water temperature of about 16 ºC, before injection into the gas. The volume flow of water was obtained
from the difference between the measured volume flow before the exit nozzle ((&) and after the exit
nozzle ((& ).
' = &"! ∙ ((& − (& )
(20)
The new volume flow of the gas with water vapour leaving the cooling tower ( ) was calculated in
order to use together with the specific heat to determine the energy at the output. It was calculated using
the cooling tower outlet mass flow ( ) with the concentration of molecules from the inlet conditions
calculated to include the added water molecules from the sprinkler and the density of each molecule
obtained from EES software, calculated for the average measured gas temperature on the outlet. The
concentration change caused by the added water required the calculation of a new concentration ratio
after the cooling tower, as can be seen in Table 6.
Table 6 : The volume fraction of the molecules in the gas after water injection.
Particle
Volume fraction (x)
CO2
0,2263
H 2O
0,1264
O2
0,0373
N2
0,6101
Each of the molecule’s densities and concentrations were multiplied separately and then summed together
for calculating the outlet volume flow.
= / %
!;"!;#;!
& ∙ $ '
(21)
The measured temperatures allowed for new specific thermal capacity values (, ) to be calculated
using standard equation used previously. Using these values the energy inside the gas at the exit of the
cooling tower were calculated.
#
= ∙ ,, ∙ %&,
(22)
The heat lost was obtained as the difference between the energy before and after the heat exchanger. The
rate of heat transfer was estimated using the heat lost divided by the hours of the year.
= # = # − #
(23)
Table 7 : Energy, annual and average heat transfer rate of the preheater cyclone gas.
Pre heater gas
‫ܧ‬௚௔௦
236,54 GWh/year
‫ܧ‬௢௨௧
200,29 GWh/year
-38-
Heat transfer rate
4,1 MW
ܳ௚௔௦
36,18 GWh/year
3.3.3 Discussion of results
The heat values have been calculated using historical measurements obtained from the period stretching
from March 2011 to March 2012. These values indicates the heat lost from the clinker cooler gas, heat
from the preheater gas lost through the cooling tower and the heat lost through convection and radiation
from the kiln shell. All of the energy sources are discussed further, comparing the results with the most
recent system audit, “2011-10-19”.
The values differ from the previously conducted system audits. Many reasons could be associated with
this difference, of which the most important relates to the method of calculation. Lower values are
expected form the calculated results due to the calculation of the average heat lost, which includes the
offline periods, resulting from an operating period of 83,64 % for one year. The system audits were only
calculated for a specific two day period, using the conditions of that period only. Additionally, other
differences related to the assumptions made were also identified for each source.
The heat available from the clinker cooler gas was calculated using the same methods used during the
system audit. The average rate of heat loss were calculated to be 5,77 MW, which is less than the 7,71 MW
obtained in the audits. Part of the reason could be associated to the change in atmospheric temperatures
that occur throughout the year, which was not taken into account by the audits.
The kiln shell radiation and convection losses also used the same calculation methods as per the audit, but
with different assumptions. The calculated heat loss of 5,11 MW is less than the 8,99 MW obtained from
the audit. Assumptions made with respect to the environmental conditions are assumed to be largely
responsible for this difference. The audit assumed high average wind speed conditions over kiln number
7, over 2 m/s, as measured by the weather station in the region. Under closer investigation, these
assumptions were found to be inaccurate. Kiln number 7 is enclosed to a large extent. The entire kiln is
located inside a large partially closed concrete structure with a roof. Additionally, the North facing side of
the kiln is sheltered by the unused kiln number 6 and workshop buildings further away. After visiting on
site during strong winds and winter conditions, it was found that the kiln is very well protected from the
outside environment. The new, lower wind speed assumptions were therefore assumed, reducing the
calculated convection losses.
The preheater gas calculations were much different from the audits, due to the presence and inclusion of
the cooling tower. The audits only calculated the heat in the exit gas, not taking into account that a large
amount of gas and heat is used by the raw mill further down the line. The newly calculated values takes
this into account, delivering a lower heat loss rate of 4,12 MW, compared to the audit’s 13,87 MW. Even
with the large reduction, the preheater gas is still considered one of the three largest sources of lost heat.
The newly calculated values were assumed to be much more accurate for use in this study, due to reasons
explained above. The largest source of heat loss is considered to be the kiln shell, with the clinker cooler
gas being a close second with a lower temperature range. The preheater gas is the lowest source of heat
-39-
loss, but at the highest temperature range. The results are considered sufficient to use for further analyses,
which explores the possible connections and methods for capturing the heat.
Table 8: Summary of the results from the three largest heat sources.
Energy Source
Clinker cooler gas
Kiln shell
Preheater gas
Total
Heat transfer type
Convection
Radiation
Convection
Convection
Average temperature
212,5 ºC
322,7 ºC
355,8 ºC
-40-
Average Heat lost
5,78 MW
3,42 MW
1,69 MW
4,12 MW
15,01 MW
Annual heat lost
50,74 GWh/year
35,77 GWh/year
17,77 GWh/year
36,18 GWh/year
140,46 GWh/year
3.4 Using the heat
The intention was to evaluate the possible heat sources and determine the most effective use for each
source. The setup between the possible use and the source is considered and effective use of heat when it
is recovered and uses the highest amount of heat at the smallest capital cost and highest financial savings
possible, the relation determined through the payback period, in a practical and realistic way.
With the three possible sources established in the previous section, this chapter aims at establishing the
uses and comparing the calculated heat recovery and costs of each source. The uses were limited to what
is available on site, taking into account that the processes used for cement manufacturing should not be
influenced.
Inclusion of the existing district heating and electrical system found at kiln number 8 was of great
importance to Cementa AB. The existing setup has therefore been discussed and evaluated in order to
determine possible was to which kiln number 7 can be improve these systems.
Such an evaluation allowed for the identification of the most feasible connection, through comparing each
use connected to each source. It was decided to only evaluate one connection per source, causing the final
result to contain the most feasible connection to each of the tree sources. The chosen setups could then
be evaluated in more detail and discussed further in the final chapter.
3.4.1 Existing equipment for new connections
The first heat recovery project involved the district heating connection to the clinker cooler gas outlet at
kiln number 8. The second heat recovery project involved connecting a steam turbine to an economizer
and boiler at the clinker cooler outlet, and a boiler and superheater to the preheater gas outlet.
The clinker cooler gas had to supply heat to two different systems at the same time. The disadvantage of
this setup is that, during winter months, the demand for district heating and electricity is very high. The
consequence is that the system is not large enough to meet the demand of both, with most of the heat
being diverted to the district heating.
To meet the demand of the district heating, oil burners are used to heat up the water, elimination of these
burners will be beneficial, environmentally and economically, to the company. The opportunity therefore
exist for connecting the district heating to the new kiln number 7 system, which would allow the
elimination of the oil burners at kiln number 8. This is achieved by analysing each heat exchanger and
discussing the possible improvements from kiln 7.
-41-
Figure 13: Simplified diagram of kiln 8, showing steam turbine and district heating connections.
3.4.1.1
Electrical generation
The existing electrical generation system is connected to kiln number 8, and was completed in 2001. Water
is heated in an economizer and boiled in a boiler which connects to the clinker cooler gas outlet. The
steam generated is transferred to the second boiler, connected to the raw gas outlet on top of the cyclone
tower. The steam is superheated to the desired temperature and then pumped to the steam turbine in
order to generate electricity to the grid.
Since its completion, the system has been unable to deliver on the design values, as can be seen in Table 9.
The information derived from the measured results indicates that the mass flow of steam is much lower
than the designed value. The causes of this had to be identified before attempting to connect to the
system from kiln number 7. After closer investigation and discussion with the operators, the following was
found:
•
The heat exchanger’s heat transfer capabilities are much lower than initially calculated.
•
The low mass flow of the steam is a consequence of the reduced steam production.
•
The turbine capability is 15 MW, therefore much higher than designed for.
•
The pump capacity is also much higher than the given design values.
•
The current control system is optimized for working under the lower conditions.
This reveals that the possibility exists for kiln number 7’s heat to be used in order to improve the existing
system. How it should be used can be investigated by discussing the current operation and setup of each
heat exchanger.
-42-
Table 9 : Design and historical conditions of the existing electricity generating system.
Electrical generation
Heat Exchanger 1
Heat Exchanger 2
Mass flow (steam)
Pressure before turbine
Temperature before turbine
Temperature after turbine
3.4.1.2
Unit
12 May 2003
Average 2011
(MW)
(MW)
(MW)
(kg/s)
(bar)
(ºC)
(ºC)
5
15
3,5
6,7
30,1
396
110
4,87
19,5
3,63
6,56
26
400
108
Maximum recorded
power 2011
7,17
21,8
5,9
10
26
373
108
Design
conditions
8,8
20
10
11,3
35
380
120
Heat exchanger 1 description
Heat exchanger 1 (HE-1) is a cross flow heat exchanger located at the preheater cyclone’s raw gas exit,
above the cyclone tower, and consists of a boiler and a super-heater. The heat exchanger receives two
inlets merge together, one for each cyclone tower for the kiln, which will be modelled as one. The heat
exchanger removes the heat from the raw gas, reducing the cooling requirement of the cooling towers and
also using the heat to generate steam used by the steam turbine.
The hot gasses from the cyclone tower are forced through the heat exchanger, transferring the heat to the
boiler and superheater. Depending on the conditions at HE-2, either water or steam is transferred to the
steam drum. The water and steam are separated and used for different functions. The water is pumped
from the bottom of the steam drum through the boiler, which generates more steam. The steam is taken
from the steam drum and superheated by the superheater, located in front of the boiler, in order to access
the higher gas temperatures. The superheated steam is then pumped to the steam turbine for electricity
generation (see Figure 14).
STEAM/WATER
FROM HE-2
STEAM
DRUM
HE-1
GAS TO
RAWMILL
BOILER
SUPERHEATER
WATER DIVERTED
FROM HE-2
HOT GAS FROM
CYCLONE TOWER WITH
BYPASS TO COOLING
TOWER
STEAM TO
TURBINE
Figure 14 : Layout of heat exchanger 1 and connections.
-43-
The low efficiency of HE-1 creates the effect that the temperature of the gas leaving to the raw mill is
much too high for the rawmill. It is therefore required to divert some of the hot gasses to the cooling
towers. The towers spray cold water into the gas, which cools it down, before connecting up to the rest of
the vented gas for transportation to the rawmill. Lower steam production from HE-2, together with low
steam production at HE-1, reduces the mass flow of the steam and also the heat transfer efficiency in HE1. The less heat transferred the more cooling required and the more energy used and wasted through
water cooling in the cooling towers.
3.4.1.3
Heat exchanger 2 description
Heat exchanger 2 (HE-2) is a shell tube heat exchanger consisting of an economizer and boiler. The first
of two heat exchangers connected to the clinker cooler gas outlet. There is a bypass system installed
around the heat exchanger, this allows for diversion of the hot gasses to the second heat exchanger, used
by the district heating system (see Figure 15).
HOT GAS TO
DISTRICT HEATING
HEAT EXCHANGER
HOT GAS FROM
CLINKER COOLER
STEAM/WATER TO HE-1
HE-2
WATER DIVERTED
TO HE-1
WATER FROM FEEDWATER TANK
Figure 15 : Layout of heat exchanger 2 and connections.
This heat exchanger is considered second priority in the system. When the demand for district heating is
high, the control vents are manually closed and the hot gas is bypassed to the district heating heat
exchanger. The system is designed such that when the temperature of the water inside the heat exchanger
is reduced to less than 240 ºC, it is redirected directly to HE-1.
The reduced heat transfer rate of HE-2 caused the operators to reduce the pressure of the water entering
the system. The reduced pressure will have the effect of reducing the temperature required for generating
steam, increasing the steam mass flow. During winter months the colder temperature requires less air for
cooling the gas, this reduces the waste heat gasses, which in effect reduce the heat transfer even more and
consequently the electrical production.
-44-
3.4.1.4
Heat exchanger for district-heating description
The district heating heat exchanger (HE-DH) uses a shell tube cross flow heat exchanger, which heats the
district heating water to a relatively low heat compared to the previously discussed heat exchangers. Water
used for district heating is directly heated using the clinker cooler outlet gasses. The heat exchanger also
has a bypass system for venting to the cooling tower, in case the demand is too low or temperature too
high.
This heat exchanger is considered first priority for heat. This is due to the requirements of the district
heating system, which does not allow for interruptions in the heat supply. To prevent interruptions two
additional oil burners are connected in parallel to the system, as can be seen in Figure 16. As soon as the
temperature drop, one of these oil burners will be activated, if the temperature continues dropping, the
second one will also be activated. The reduction of this oil consumption is the reason for prioritizing the
heat exchanger. The operations use a rule of thumb, which states that the burning of oil will not occur
unless the temperature of the gas drops below 176 ºC, when this happens, the operator will manually
activate the oil burners.
HOT GAS FROM
CLINKER COOLER
FAN
GAS TO CHIMNEY
HE-DH
DISTRICT HEATING
BACKUP OIL BURNERS
Figure 16 : Layout of heat exchanger for district heating, and connections.
Demand is at a peak in winter time, when the least amount of heated gas is available. The gas is therefore
diverted from electricity generation to the district heating in order to prevent the burning of oil. With
these attempts the oil consumption is still very high, 400 m3 for 2011. Oil is mostly consumed during a
shutdown of kiln number 8, which stops the flow of hot gasses and maximizes the dependence on oil.
3.4.2 Financial benefits
In order for the heat sources to become feasible, it has to provide a form of financial savings or gains.
Due to limitations, no additional infrastructure can be installed to increase on the possible gains that could
be made. As a consequence, most benefits are in the form of savings. There was one source of financial
-45-
gains though electricity certificates supplied each year, which inevitably changed due to a change in
regulations.
The improved generation of electricity will reduce the amount of electricity to be purchased, resulting in
financial savings based on the electricity savings. This is made more complicated by the relationship
between the companies, but will be discussed further in the next section.
The district heating is limited to the demand, as a consequence no additional earnings could be made. Any
savings related to the district heating would be the reduction of the oil burned and electricity saved
through reducing the bypassing of HE-2. The financial savings would be from the reduced costs due to
the reduction in oil purchases and the reduced cost through electricity savings.
3.4.2.1
Electricity
Cementa AB, together with Vattenfall AB, worked on connecting kiln 8 with the steam turbine. In this
partnership, a specific cost sharing relationship was established. Both companies paid for the capital costs
of the equipment. Vattenfall is the owner of the equipment, including HE-1 and HE-2, and is responsible
for managing and maintaining it. Cementa AB supplies the steam to the turbine for no costs, although the
contract intended to provide Cementa AB with the benefit of lower electricity rates for the electricity
generated by the turbine, this does not always occur.
When this report was written, Cementa AB and Vattenfall were to have a discussion to relook at the
contract. One of the possible outcomes was that Cementa AB buys out the equipment and responsibility
from Vattenfall, which would benefit Cementa AB directly.
This report considered the scenario of Cementa AB being the owner of the turbine system. With costs
related to the operation and maintenance of the equipment, already incurred. This assumption allowed for
each kWh of electricity recovered or improved by the new system to be a direct cost benefit relative to the
average paid price for buying electricity. The cost of electricity in 2011 was at 520 SEK per MWh, which
would be used in all the calculations related to electricity gains.
3.4.2.2
District heat
Another partnership undertaken by Cementa AB is one with GEAB related to the supply of district
heating. The Cementa AB plant in Slite, is the only source of district heating in the area. The heat is
supplied largely to the local ice rink and the local greenhouse. The two companies shared the cost of
installing a heat exchanger at kiln number 8 and have developed a contractual agreement for the sharing of
profits.
GEAB is the owner of the equipment, and is responsible for the management and maintenance thereof.
The only backup is the oil burners mentioned in previous sections. The agreement stated that all profits
made from district heating are shared 50/50 between the two companies. The effect was that for each
-46-
kWh saving incurred by the new system, 50 % of the savings will benefit Cementa AB. The reduction in
oil burning will therefore translate to a cost saving to both companies, divided equally between them.
The type of oil burned was stated by Cementa AB to be mixed diesel oil, which was rated at a cost of 7
000 SEK per cubic meter. For each kroner saved, half of the savings will be incurred by the company in
the calculations that follows in the next section.
3.4.2.3
Regulations and certificates
The Swedish energy authority (Energi Myndigheten) currently operates a certificate scheme, in which
certificates are provided to electricity suppliers who choose to use biomass based fuels (biofuel). In
previous years Cementa AB was able to benefit from this scheme. This changed when Energi
Myndigheten changed the policy.
In December 2011, the Swedish authorities released an amendment (SFS 2011:1480) to the regulations
surrounding the issuing of electricity certificates (“elcertifikat”). The new amendment revised the
definition for “Biofuels”. The new definition excludes unsorted waste, irrelevant of the content, from
being classified as biofuel . If the fuel is sourced in a mixed state, such as the case for Cementa AB, they
do not qualify for the certificate.
The Swedish environmental protection agency (Naturvårdverket) has a different definition for the term
“biomass fuel” which would allow Cementa AB to qualify for a certificate. The regulation has the
potential to change, due to conflicting definitions between the two departments, which would allow for
additional benefit for Cementa AB. Although this possibility exists, it is currently not in favour of the
company and it was therefore not considered for this report. The estimated benefit for 2011 was 1 million
Swedish krona (SEK).
3.4.3 Availability
Connections to other systems and the benefits derived therefrom are dependent on the availability of both
sources. If the shutdown times of two interconnected and interdependent systems occur at different
durations, the output of the product will be reduced greatly, irrespective of the magnitude of the outputs.
The contrary is also possible, for two interconnected but independent systems, the output can be
improved. In order to account for this, the operational period for each connection has been estimated and
included in the calculations.
In the case of connecting to the existing electrical system using kiln 7, the contribution from kiln 7 will be
limited to the availability of the electrical system. Thus, kiln 7 can only contribute to the electrical system if
kiln 8 is operational and the turbine is generating electricity. Kiln 7 will only be able to contribute heat if
its temperature exceeds the temperature requirement of the steam or water. The contribution of a specific
setup was therefore estimated by comparing the data for each hour for the duration of one year, the sum
-47-
of the yearly data incorporates the availability into the equation. In cases where the data for each hour is
not available, average values had to be used and the availability had to be estimated as a percentage value.
The percentage availability for electricity generation was calculated by using the temperature of the source
( ) from kiln 7 at a point in time (() (hourly values for the year), minus the temperature required
() ) for contribution (such as steam or water temperature). This value will be aligned with the
availability of kiln 8, through its measured gas temperature () minus arbitrary lower temperature for the
same time instance. If both deliver positive results, contribution to the system will take place at that time
instance. The percentage availability (( ) of the connection is calculated as the total amount of hours
available to contribution divided by the total amount of hours in a year.
) − ) > 0* − ) > 0,
$+(, = 1, -.$(() = 0
(24)
= $(() ; / = 8784ℎ/
*
( = ∙ 100%
/
(25)
(26)
The opposite approach is true for the district heating. The district heating system is dependent on any
source of heat, therefore if the kilns are not operational, another source is required, such as oil. Kiln 7 can
be connected as the primary source of heat, with kiln 8 as the secondary and the oil burners as tertiary
sources. Such a connection will free up more heat for kiln 8 to use for electricity generation and less oil
will be burned. The availability was not calculated as above, instead it was included in the energy
calculations for each time step.
3.4.4 Calculating the heat transfer rates
The two largest sources of heat loss have been found to be from the gas outlets and the kiln shell. The gas
outlets will rely on convection heat transfer, while the kiln shell will rely on radiation and convection heat
transfer.
For convection heat transfer, various heat exchangers and dedicated manufacturers and suppliers exist.
The science behind its design is much more established and this chapter will not go into the details
thereof. The specifications for the specific operating requirements will be stated with a discussion on the
existing heat exchangers.
Radiation based heat exchangers are more academic with less industrially available options. The possibility
of using tubes and concentrators has been investigated using basic analyses tools. An approach using a
secondary shell with tubes as a form of heat recovery from the kiln shell has been investigated in other
studies. The data and properties surrounding this technology have been estimated from previous studies,
and are described in more detail.
-48-
The heat transfer capabilities provides for a good estimate for the amount of heat that can be obtained. A
more accurate estimation can be made for each source, allowing for comparisons to establish the best heat
recovery.
3.4.4.1
Capturing heat from kiln surface
Radiation can be captured through the presence of a collector surface within proximity from the kiln
surface. Various equipment exist for this function in other industries, such as solar collectors, and some
still under investigation, such as a secondary shell for the kiln.
Solar thermal technology specializes in the capturing the radiation heat of the sun for heating a liquid. For
most solar energy application, only thermal radiation is important (Duffie & Beckman, 1991). In theory
the radiation of the kiln can replace the radiation obtained from the sun to support the same function.
Borrowing from the basic concept, the student investigated possible collector tubes and concentrating
reflectors. The comparison of these solutions has been kept simple to merely get an estimate. Cost
estimation was based purely on equipment costs, with heat transfer and savings based on published
papers.
3.4.4.1.1
Solar design considerations
In order to investigate a lower cost simpler solution, the student first investigated the effects on a single
tube running parallel to the kiln shell (Figure 17) and its heat absorption capabilities. The water inside the
tube will gain heat through radiation from the kiln shell, but also loose heat through radiation and
convection to the environment. This method did not prove to be feasible and the calculations have
therefore been added to the appendix.
RADIATION
KILN
TUBE
WATER FLOW
Figure 17 : Single tube proximity approach.
It was clear that the larger the tube, the more energy per unit cost is achieved, peaking with the 100mm
pipe. The use of fewer larger tubes was found to be a slightly more cost effective approach than using
many smaller tubes. The temperatures were within a small margin of difference, increasing slightly with
-49-
increasing pipe size. The losses can be significant, but can also be reduced through insulating the
unexposed section of the pipe.
Secondly the student intended to improve on the above setup, by borrowing an idea from solar power. It
is possible to improve the radiation exposure on the tube by concentrating more radiation onto it (Figure
18). The exposed area will thereby increase and consequently the radiation heat transfer. Such exposure
requires a highly reflective surface, to reflect the radiation onto the tube. By enclosing the tube, additional
convection and radiation losses are reduced or even eliminated.
KILN
TUBE WITH WATER
PARABOLIC
REFLECTOR
Figure 18 : Concentrator and tube approach.
The concentrator added increased radiation heat to the tube. With increasing reflector size and increasing
tube size, the transfer increased, unfortunately the cost also. The cost of a reflector proved to be very high
and the setup in itself became unfeasible economically.
3.4.4.1.2
Secondary shell with tubes
A proposed solution is the secondary shell solution (Tahsin & Vedat, 2005). The secondary steel shell
envelopes the kiln within a close distance from its surface, a layer of insulation with reflective surface can
be found on the inside to reduce the heat transfer to the outside. Between the insulation and the kiln
surface heat exchanging tubes can be found.
-50-
Figure 19: Illustration of possible secondary shell with tubes setup (not to scale).
The given setup not only reduces lost heat from radiation, it has the added benefit of reducing the heat
lost due to convection (Tahsin & Vedat, 2005). The amount reduced heat will depend on the area covered
and also the heat transfer capability.
The secondary shell will have to conform to some basic and specific requirements of the cement plant in
Slite: surface contact should be avoided to prevent additional heat transfer from the kiln (Söğüt et al.,
2010); the operator’s capabilities to measure the surface temperature via the existing system should not be
affected.
It is estimated that a secondary shell and tube system can recover about 73 % (η) of waste heat from the
shell (Söğüt et al., 2010). The average heat ( ) of the kiln shell calculated previously will be used for
the estimation purposes, divided by the length of the kiln ( ), which can be compared to the estimate
cost per meter of the kiln.
=
∙ 0
(27)
A fully enclosed setup can only be used in the area not currently monitored by the operations department.
The only such area that exists, are within the distance of 40 meters and 60 meters from the burner. The
temperature at this region is also much lower than the rest of the kiln and a correction of 0,93 had to be
added to the above equation to account for the average differentiation.
-51-
The restriction mentioned above, has the possibility to be overcome through correct design of the kiln
shell. Estimation will also be made for the covering of the entire shell, assuming that all the operational
requirements can be met.
The cost is a combination of the cost of pipes, large flat steel plate to be used as the shell, insulation and
reflective lining. An installation cost estimate, together with the cost of support has been provided by one
of the experienced consultants on site. The estimates supplied by him are considered more accurate than
any estimation the student could make, due to the experience and knowledge the consultant has within the
field.
The secondary shell heat exchanger poses an interesting result, Table 10, even though it is a tried and
tested type of heat exchanger. It will be considered as the only radiation heat exchanger to be used and
included in the calculations that follows. It has a size limitation which will limit its contribution
Table 10 : Heat recovery of secondary kiln shell.
Maximum length
Part length – 20 m
Full length – 60 m
3.4.4.2
Cost of Equipment
4 786 k.SEK
14 358 k.SEK
Average Heat
0,98 MW
5,11 MW
Recovered Heat
8,57 GWh/year
32,69 GWh/year
Water Temperature
300 ºC
300 ºC
Capturing heat from vented gasses
There are two ways for capturing the heat that can be explored. The first is to acquire new heat
exchangers for each of the gas outlets, which can then transfer the heat to water for one of the existing
purposes. The second way is to divert the hot gas to some other purpose, such as drying, or to one of the
existing heat exchangers, eliminating the cost of new equipment.
The most common type of heat exchanger used for this function is a shell and tube type heat exchanger.
Shell and tube heat exchangers consist of a large amount of tubes packed together inside a shell (Ҫengel,
2003). The existing heat exchangers used a cross flow setup, designed for dust filled gas. There are many
other heat exchangers, but due to the current equipment suppliers, availability and requirements, only the
existing type found on site were considered.
The size of the heat exchanger will differ, depending on the purpose. For electrical generation, the
estimated heat lost, based on atmospheric conditions, will not be sufficient. Different methods exist for
analysing heat exchangers, each dependent on the available data. With the lack of measuring instruments
and data, many assumptions had to be made (Ҫengel, 2003):
•
Heat exchangers are steady flow devices;
•
All fluid and gas streams experience very little change in velocity and elevation, thereby assuming
negligible kinetic or potential energy changes;
-52-
•
The outer surface of the heat exchangers was assumed to be perfectly insulated, allowing for no
heat exchange to the environment.
The two methods considered were the “log-mean temperature difference method” (LMTD) and the
“effectiveness number of transfer units” (effectiveness-NTU) method. The LMTD requires all the
temperatures of the gas and liquids into and out of the heat exchangers, this was not available. Only the
inlet conditions could be obtained, resorting to the use of the effectiveness-NTU method instead. (Ҫengel,
2003)
The effectiveness-NTU method was developed by Kays and London in 1955. It is based on a
dimensionless parameter called the heat transfer effectiveness (1), which is defined as the actual heat
transfer rate ( ) divided by the maximum possible heat transfer rate (+ ). (Ҫengel, 2003)
1 = /+
(28)
In order to simplify the calculations, two convenient parameters were defined. The heat capacity () has
been defined as the mass flow () times the specific heat ( ) for the fluid or gas. The capacity ratio (2)
has been defined as the minimum heat capacity ( ) over the maximum heat capacity (+ ).
= ∙ 2 = /+
(29)
(30)
The maximum heat transfer rate will occur at the fluid with the smallest heat capacity. It is also limited to
the difference of the inlet temperature of the water (', ) and the gas (, ). The maximum
possible heat transfer rate is therefore defined as: (Ҫengel, 2003)
+ = ∙ (, − ', )
(31)
The number of transfer units (NTU) are defined as the overall heat transfer coefficient ( ) times the
surface area ( ) divided by the minimum heat capacity.
34 = 4 ∙ /
(32)
The effectiveness of a heat exchanger is a function of the NTU and the capacity ratio. It can be calculated
using the formula for a cross-flow heat exchanger with the one fluid mixed and one unmixed. The mixed
fluid will be water and the unmixed fluid will be gas. It can be calculated mathematically based on more
than 4 tubes: (Navarro & Cabezas-Gómez, 2007)
∈=
1
∙ (1 − exp{1 − 2[1 − exp(−34)]})
2
(33)
In the case of a boiler, the above calculation cannot be used and have to be simplified to:
∈= 1 − exp(−34)
(34)
The district heating heat exchanger was found to be a counter flow heat exchanger, which changes the
effectiveness calculation to the following:
-53-
∈=
1 − exp[−34 ∙ (1 − 2)]
1 − 2 ∙ exp[−34 ∙ (1 − 2)]
(35)
With the maximum possible heat and effectiveness calculated, it is possible to derive the actual heat
transfer which can be expected from Equation .These calculations were applied to each gas source and
each connection type to those sources.
3.4.4.3
Sizing of heat exchangers
The size of the heat exchangers was dependent on the possible uses they may have. The sizes were
selected based on the maximum heat transfer rate, calculated using the Effectiveness-NTU method, which
also influenced the availability of the heat exchangers.
The inlet water temperatures from the condenser will be about 107 ºC, changing the possible energy gains.
In the case of district heating, the return temperature of the water is normally in the range of 62 ºC and 70
ºC in Winter time. The heat transfer will be calculated as above, using the new reference temperature of 62
ºC for maximum demand. The annual heat supplied will be dependent on the demand, any heat produced
above that will not be of any financial benefit. In order to allow for the sizing of the heat exchanger, the
annual production will be calculated the same as above.
The gas temperature measurements ( ) used in the previous chapter for the clinker cooler gas will not
be sufficient. The location of the measurements assumed the energy from the gas exiting the cooler can be
used. In reality the dust content is much too high. The filter following the clinker cooler will therefore be
required to reduce the dust content., which causes the use of the sensor in the venting tower (TK702)
instead.
The preheater cyclone gas will use the previously calculated values, due to its dependence on the outlet gas
temperature requirements and not the water temperature of the heat systems.
The sizing of the heat exchanger will be based on the maximum achievable value. The results of the
connections and the contributions will be based on the effectiveness-NTU method. The average heat
transfer rate has been estimated as the average rate during operation only (no zero values included in
average). This provides for the size requirement during normal operations.
3.4.5 Connection requirements and types
The identified heat sources have the possibility to be connected to the existing electricity generating and
heating systems. The connection possibilities considered were for the preheating and boiling of water for
steam generation using new heat exchangers at kiln 7, direct heating of district heating water and
increasing the heat at an existing heat exchanger at kiln 8.
-54-
In a heat exchanger, the fluid with a small heat capacity rate (caused by a low mass flow) will experience a
small temperature change, and vice versa (Ҫengel, 2003). The increased steam mass flow will benefit the
system through increased power output. Some problems will occur, such as increased mass flow through
the superheater, which would reduce the outlet temperatures of the superheater. Due to a lack of
measured data in this region, it was not possible to calculate this effect, the effect has therefore not been
considered.
The steam to electricity conversion efficiency (0) of the steam turbine is assumed to be 22 %, as per
Cementa AB’s recommendation for that specific turbine. There are no losses assumed within the system,
as well as no conversion losses of heat to steam. The pressures (P) throughout the calculations are also
assumed to be constant.
3.4.5.1
Steam generation using kiln 7
One of the methods for connecting to the existing system, is to connect heat exchangers at kiln 7 with the
steam drums at kiln number 8. Water from the steam drum at HE-1 and HE-2 can then be diverted to
this source for additional steam generation. The steam could be pumped back to the steam drum, which
would allow for higher mass flow going through the super heater to the turbine. This setup would allow
for steam generation directly from kiln 7 which contributes to the existing mass flow of steam used for
electrical generation by the steam turbine.
The connection will allow the electrical system to continue operating normally if kiln 7 is not operational.
The disadvantage of the system is that the power generated will be zero for any time that kiln number 8 is
not operational, irrespective of kiln number 7’s contribution. It is also important to note that kiln 7 will
not contribute if the gas temperature is less than the steam drum water temperature.
Steam generation of this kind is only possible if the gas temperature ( ) at kiln number 7 is higher than
the temperature of the water (' ) in the steam drum. The contribution to the system will be through
increased steam generation () and can be estimated through conducting an energy balance across the
new heat source at kiln number 7. The heat supplied (", ) will be dependent on the source. The steam
pressure (5) has been taken as the average value of measurements recorded by the operator. The same
method can be applied to both HE-1 and HE-2.
∙ ℎ,' + ", = ∙ ℎ, ;
(36)
) > ' *5.26.; ℎℎ.7*26*6.)65
The mass flows were calculated by rewriting the energy balance across the heat exchanger:
=
",
ℎ, − ℎ,' (37)
In the case of HE-1, the setup has a combined boiler and superheater. The increased mass flow through
the turbine will cause the mass flow to increase through heat exchanger 2, connected directly to the
-55-
system. Fortunately, a bypass exists past the heat exchanger 2, allowing the same mass flow as normally
required. It was assumed that this bypass could be used in the way intended, allowing for any new steam
generated to affect the super heater and turbine only. The calculations will be based on a pressure of 2,8
MPa, as obtained from the available data.
STEAM TO TURBINE
SUPER HEATED STEAM
(ℎ௦௨௣,௦௧௘௔௠ )
SUPER HEATER
STEAM (ℎ௦௔௧,௦௧௘௔௠ )
ܳுா
GAS
HOT (ܶ௚௔௦ )
STEAM
DRUM
HE-1
HE-KILN 7
WATER (ܶ௪௔௧௘௥ , ℎ௦௔௧,௪௔௧௘௥ )
STEAM/WATER FROM HE-2
Figure 20 : Layout of new kiln heat exchanger connected to HE-1 steam drum.
In the case of HE-2, the water is heated and boiled using the integrated economizer and boiler. The steam
generated will directly increase the mass flow of steam running to HE-1 and consequently to the
superheater and the turbine. It will be calculated in the same way, using a pressure of 3 MPa, as obtained
from the available data.
STEAM (ℎ௦௔௧,௦௧௘௔௠ )
STEAM/WATER TO HE-1
ܳுா
GAS
HOT GAS
(ܶ௚௔௦ )
STEAM
DRUM
HE-2
HE-KILN 7
WATER (ܶ௪௔௧௘௥ , ℎ௦௔௧,௪௔௧௘௥ )
WATER FROM FEED WATER TANK
Figure 21 : Layout of new kiln 7 heat exchanger connected to HE-2 steam drum.
The data available were based on the entire heat exchanger, with no data for the various parts, such as the
super heater on its own, it was not sufficient for calculating the effect of the changing mass flow.
-56-
The GEAB data indicated a constant temperature output irrespective of the conditions around the
superheater, as required by the steam turbine. The increased mass flow will increase the heat transfer rate
of the superheater, due to the higher temperature difference between the gas and the steam. Under normal
circumstances, it will also reduce the output temperatures. The effect could not be analysed due to
insufficient data. It has been assumed that the capacity of heat exchanger 1 has not been met and as a
result the temperature of the steam after leaving the superheater are assumed to be constant, irrespective
of the increasing mass flow.
Assuming all the mass flow is in the form of steam, with no losses, the mass flow is assumed to directly
contribute to the electricity generation. This allowed the estimation of the increase in percentage added by
the new heat exchanger and the effective increase in the electrical power production (#-). The amount of
electricity added, calculated for each source and at the two steam drums, are shown in Table 11 and Table
12. The sizes of the heat exchangers were estimated as per Chapter 3.4.4.3, with the availability referring to
the yearly percentage of hours that electricity could be produced.
#- = ∙ 0
(38)
Table 11 : Energy from connecting kiln 7 to HE-1 steam drum.
Source
Clinker cooler gas
Kiln shell – 20m
Kiln shell - full
Pre-heater cyclone gas
Heat exchanger size
(MW)
0,85
0,98
5,11
4,42
Availability
(%)
36,63
71,54
71,54
60,51
Electricity added
(kW)
68,9
138,0
426,8
648,1
Annual elec. added
(MWh/year)
603,26
865,09
2 674,82
5 677,03
Table 12 : Energy from connecting kiln 7 to HE-2 steam drum.
Source
Clinker cooler gas
Kiln shell – 20m
Kiln shell - Full
Pre-heater cyclone gas
3.4.5.2
Heat exchanger size
(MW)
0,83
0,98
5,11
4,40
Availability
(%)
31,46
71,54
71,54
58,56
Electricity added
(kW)
60,29
100,22
309,87
646,05
Annual elec. added
(MWh/year)
528,11
877,92
2 714,50
5 659,40
Preheating of feedwater
By preheating the water, a similar outcome can be expected as per steam generation at HE-2, although at
higher contribution rates. Preheating the water before HE-2 will increase the temperature, allowing for
higher amount of steam to be generated at HE-2 or HE-1. The same effect would be to connect the heat
exchanger directly to the saturated water for HE-2, with the only difference being the amount of piping
required. The effect on the mass flow from adding additional heat to the system can be calculated using
-57-
equation the same method as for steam generation, for the given average pressure of 3 MPa and an inlet
temperature of 107 ºC:
The minimum temperature requirement for contributing will be much less for water heating than for
steam generation. Consequently, more energy contribution will occur. This setup will work for gas
temperatures higher than the feed water temperature.
∙ ℎ(- + ", = ∙ ℎ,' ;
(39)
) > (- *5.26.;
HOT WATER TO HE-2 (ℎ௦௔௧,௪௔௧௘௥ )
ܳுா
HE-2
HOT GAS
FROM SOURCE
(ܶ௚௔௦ )
GAS
HE-KILN7
WATER FROM FEEDWATER TANK (ܶிௐ , ℎிௐ )
Figure 22 : Layout of kiln 7 heat exchanger connected to feedwater line.
Calculating the mass flow using average values for the temperatures and pressures for each source allowed
us to calculate the energy added to the steam turbine.
Table 13 : Energy from connecting kiln 7 to Feed water line.
Source
Clinker cooler gas
Kiln shell – 20m
Kiln shell – Full
Pre-heater cyclone gas
3.4.5.3
Heat exchanger size
(MW)
3,53
0,98
5,11
4,45
Availability
(%)
70,85
71,54
71,54
70,56
Electricity added
(MW)
0,322
0,140
0,433
0,349
Annual elec. supply
(MWh/year)
2 002,04
877,92
2 714,50
2 315,97
Heating of District Heating water
The aim of such a connection would be to eliminate the dependence on oil for supplying district heat and
to allow for more heat going to HE-2 for electricity generation. The connection at kiln 7 can run in series
or parallel to the connection at kiln 8. The best approach would be to dedicate kiln 7 to supplying district
heat, and use kiln 8 as backup.
-58-
HOT GAS FROM
KILN 8 CLINKER
COOLER
FAN
GAS TO CHIMNEY
HE-DH
BACKUP OIL
BURNERS
DISTRICT HEATING
HOT GAS
FROM KILN 7
CLINKER
COOLER
GAS
HE-KILN7
ܳ‫ܧܪ‬
Figure 23. : Layout of kiln 7 heat exchanger connected to district heating system
The demand for oil has changed significantly over the years, with constant reduction from 800 m3 in 2007
to 400 m3 in 2011. GEAB confirmed plans to reduce the use of oil even more through operational
control. In order to prevent any unnecessary cost due to oversizing of the heat exchanger, the heat
requirement for district heating first needed to be investigated. Data from the period 2007 until 2010 has
been made available by GEAB, which indicates the heat in MWh for each month, from both the heat
exchanger and the oil burners. This allows the creation of the yearly trend, seen in Figure 24, providing a
useable yearly demand profile using the average values for each month.
Average heat for district heating, 2007-2010
Average heat produced (MWh)
3500
3000
2500
2000
Heat exchanger
1500
Oil
1000
500
0
Jan
Feb Mar Apr May Jun
Jul
Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Figure 24 : Annual district heating production profile.
-59-
As expected, the highest demand for heat would be in winter time, with very little heat demand in
summer. The oil burning is dependent on the shutdown periods, so will vary from year to year. The oil is
owned and operated by GEAB. Replacing it would increase the heat supplied and reduce the large costs
associated with oil, which would provide for some benefit. The maximum replaceable heat will be limited
by the demand.
During maximum demand, the required heat supply needs to be met. By extrapolating the total for 2011
over the average trend, the monthly demand can be estimated. The average heat transfer rate required
() ) for each period was calculated as the amount for a given month (. ), divided by the days of
the month (*) and the 24 hours in a day.
) = . /(* ∙ 24ℎ)
(40)
The amount of heat that can be supplied by connecting kiln number 7 with kiln number 8 district heating
was estimated using 20 minute intervals (summed together for each hour) for the one year period covered
by the study. Kiln 7’s maximum supply is limited by the total demand and transfer rate for 2011. The
temperature requirement is much lower, allowing for higher heat transfer possibility.
The calculated heat supplied by each source ( ) minus the required transfer rate for each month at
the same time step, will give positive and negative values. The positive values represents sufficient supply,
the negative represents insufficient supply by kiln 7. For each positive value, the heat used for district
heating (/" ) is taken as the required rate, for each negative value, the heat used is taken as the supply
rate. The total heat covered by kiln 7 ( ) was calculated based on the sum of the heat for each time
instance for the whole year.
)6 − ) ≥ 0, /" = ) ;
)6 − ) < 0, /" = ;
(41)
= (/" )
(42)
Most of the heat supplied by kiln 7 will take the load off kiln 8, allowing it to produce more electricity. In
order to estimate the amount of electricity saved (#-) by this connection, the above contribution is
multiplied by the availability of kiln 8 (%() and also the heat to electricity transfer rate, estimated at 9,14
% from data figures available from the plant control room.
#- = ∙ %( ∙ 9,14%
(43)
The heat supplied by kiln 7 alone is not enough to reduce the oil consumption. Kiln 8 is therefore still part
of the system, but as secondary backup. When kiln 7 is unable to supply, kiln 8 will step in. According to
the control centre staff at GEAB, burning of oil is avoided for as long as the gas temperature at kiln 8 is
above 180 ºC. The amount of heat supplied, by either kiln 7 or kiln 8, to the district heating system is
-60-
estimated for each time step. For any time step that the heat used is lower than the required heat, kiln 8
will add its contribution. The entire heat requirement was assumed to be satisfied whenever kiln 8’s clinker
cooler gas temperature ( ) is above 180 ºC, setting the heat used for district heating to the required
heat. The sum of the heat used for district heating will provide the total heat covered by both kilns
(&) for district heating. Following through on equation:
)6/" < ) * ≥ 180℃, /" = )
(44)
& = (/" )
(45)
The amount of heat still supplied by oil ( ) will therefore be the difference between the heat demand
for 2011 ( ) and the heat supplied by both kilns. The volume of oil burned ( ) was estimated
from the heat supplied by the oil times the heat contained in the oil, 8,736 MWh/m3.
= − &
=
(46)
8,736
(47)
The financial savings from oil (8 ) can therefore be calculated as the volume of oil burned, times the cost
of oil (±7000 SEK/m3) and the percentage of ownership (50 %).
8 = ∙ 6. ∙ 50%
(48)
The savings from increased electrical production at kiln 8 (8 ) will therefore be the amount of
electricity increased times the cost of electricity (±520 SEK/MWh).
8 = #- ∙ 5208#/9ℎ
(49)
The total saving will be the sum of the electrical and oil savings. Although the values below seem
rewarding, it is important to remember that the savings are dependent on the demand, which has been
reducing. The oil consumption could also be reduced through using different operational and distribution
strategies.
Table 14 : Energy and returns from connecting to the district heating system.
Source
CC gas
Kiln shell – 20m
Kiln shell - Full
PHC gas
Heat exchanger size
(MW)
4,73
0,98
5,11
4,53
ܵ௢௜௟
(k.SEK/year)
1 059
524
1 620
804
-61-
ܵ௘௟௘௖
(k.SEK/year)
312
81
253
237
ܵ௧௢௧௔௟
(k.SEK/year)
1 372
605
1 873
1 041
Heat recovery
(MWh/year)
17 289,18
9 951,47
17 392,27
17 806,00
3.4.5.4
Gas diversion to heat exchangers
Heated gas, which would normally be vented to atmosphere, has the potential to be diverted to one of the
existing heat exchangers. The diversion of the gas, avoids the installation of a new heat exchanger through
using the existing one at kiln 8. Such a connection does have potential, but many limitations also exist,
such as property differences, process requirements and operation restrictions.
Preheater gas are used largely by the raw mill, therefore diverting it would directly influence the process.
Connecting to kiln 8’s HE-1 will also not be considered, due to the possible negative effects on kiln 8’s
rawmill. The only connection possibility would be to connect the clinker cooler gas from kiln 7 to either
HE-2 or the district heating heat exchanger from kiln 8.
The best setup will have the gasses separated and controlled independently. Mixing the gasses has the
problem of pressure and temperature differences. The gas from kiln 7 has a lower temperature, which
would reduce the heat of the mixture. The pressure difference could create problems upstream, due to the
changes in gas flows caused by this pressure difference. The connection could also prove difficult due to
the fluctuating heat demand and the control thereof through partially open vents.
Contribution by kiln 7 will only be made when HE-2 is being bypassed, or when district heating demand
is sufficiently low. Sensors connected to the vents provide data for when HE-2 is completely bypassed.
It is possible to estimate the benefit to the electrical system during complete bypass of HE-2 and the use
of kiln 7 gas for supplying heat directly. The maximum heat supplied (. ) by kiln 7 was calculated
from the average volume flow () of the gas. The specific heat and temperatures (, ) of the gas were
obtained from hourly values for the entire year, with the steam temperature (, ) taken as the
average required by the boiler. The electricity supply was calculated using the previous sections equations,
with the requirement that the vent opening for kiln 8 is less than 10 % open.
.
= ∙ , ∙ , − , (50)
)( < 10%*. > 0
It is important to note that no benefit will be achieved during a complete shutdown of kiln 8. It is required
that the outlet temperature of the gas will be no less than the desired output temperature of the steam,
therefore if the steam temperature exceeds the gas temperature, no heat transfer will take place.
Table 15 : Energy from connecting kiln 7 to HE-2 using only gas and separated systems.
Source
Clinker cooler gas
Usability
22,75 %
Power added
10,12 kW
-62-
Annual electricity supply
88,63 MWh/year
Another potentially beneficial connection would be to connect the gas to the district heating heat
exchanger directly. The aim is not to deliver as much heat as possible, but instead to deliver enough heat
to avoid the burning of oil. The heated gas from kiln 7 clinker could be used as soon as kiln number 8 is
taken off line, or to prevent the bypassing of HE-2 during low heat requirements.
The district heating heat exchanger is a cross flow heat exchanger consisting of two sections, for which
both will be modelled as one section. It was possible to initially analyse the heat exchanger using the
LMTD method. This was done in order to determine the overall heat transfer coefficient (4) and the
surface area ( ).
The temperature and heat transfer readings for a specific point during operation were made available. The
first step was to calculate the value of 4 ∙ using the calculated mean temperature difference (∆ ) and
heat transfer rate ( ).
4 ∙ = /∆
(51)
The 4 ∙ –value were found to be 80,5 kW/ºC.
A change in inlet temperatures will result in new outlet temperatures. This eliminated the possibility of
analyzing the heat exchanger for new kiln 7 gas inlet conditions using the LMTD-method. Assuming a
constant 4 ∙ –value, it was possible to evaluate the effects of changing inlet temperatures using the
Effectiveness-NTU method. The estimated heat requirement could be compared to the calculated heat
transfer rate of the new inlet gas. As per the previous calculations, the values were calculated for each time
step, using the 4 ∙ –value, allowing for the calculation of the NTU. The results obtained can be seen in
Table 16.
By evaluating the gas temperature at specific times, it was possible to determine the amount of oil burning
that can be avoided. The oil burning reduction savings (8 ) was calculated using the volume of oil
burned in 2011 (,), amounting to 400 m3, minus the newly calculated value (,' ), amounting
to 127,57 m3, times the cost of oil at 7 000 SEK/m3 and the 50 % company share.
8 = , − ,' ∙ 7000
8#
∙ 50%
(52)
Table 16 : Heat from connecting kiln 7 to district heating using only gas
Source
Clinker cooler gas
Electricity recovered
2,61 MWh/year
ܵ௧௢௧௔௟
738 k.SEK/year
District heating
1 653,52 MWh/year
3.4.6 Other uses
Many other uses for heat exist, but few of them can be considered sufficiently beneficial to the cement
plant or the community. Studying the energy losses within the cement manufacturing process allowed for
-63-
the identification of a major loss in the process, wet fuels. Large amount of energy is used for the
combustion of wet fuels. The opportunity therefore exists for preheating the fuels, which would reduce
the moisture content and improve the efficiency of the burning process.
3.4.6.1
Drying of fuels
Part of many measures to reduce carbon emissions has been related to the use of alternative fuels.
Currently, kiln 7 uses coal only, although alternative fuels are being combined and mixed in the burner of
kiln number 8.
Alternative fuels can vary between tyres, animal residue, sewage sludge, waste oil and solid fuels recovered
from industry and municipalities (Schneider et al., 2011). The use of these fuels can be limited due to
equipment, chemical processes, regulations and availability. Kiln number 8’s burner currently uses coal,
wood pellets and waste which consist of shredded paper, plastics, textiles and rubber. One of the features
currently related to the use of alternative fuels is the high moisture content. The increased moisture
requires more energy for proper burning, which can be reduced through low temperature drying.
The low temperatures (<100 ºC) from the gas vented after heat removal in the heat exchangers is a perfect
source for low temperature drying. Exposing the alternative fuels to the gas will reduce the moisture
content, which in turn will improve the burning efficiency of the fuels.
Alternative fuels form a significant part of future strategies and will possibly become an important
investment opportunity in the future. For the sake of this study, which focuses more on the existing
system, a detailed study will not be done.
3.4.7 Preliminary discussion
The results indicates generally, long term investment opportunities. The intention was to maximize the
heat recovered with added importance to cost effectiveness (estimated using payback periods). The results
of each connection type are listed in Table 17. Comparing the values of each connection allowed for the
selection of the most feasible setup, taking into account that each source can only be used for one separate
connection type.
The clinker cooler gas indicates the best heat recovery when used for district heating directly, followed by
the use for feed water heating. The difference between the two values is most likely from availability of
the system. The most suitable connection for both heat recovery and payback would be the district
heating connection.
The fully covered kiln shell has the expected advantage of greater heat recovery than that of the partially
covered (20 meter) shell. Only one can be selected for the purpose of heat recovery. The highest heat
recovery occurs by connecting the secondary shell to the district heating system, followed closely by the
feed water connection and steam generation. The closeness of the values and the conflict arising from one
-64-
the clinker cooler connection, leads to the selection based on the payback period. The most suitable use
for the secondary kiln shell would be to heat the feed water of the steam turbine system.
The preheater cyclone connection has the highest heat recovery for connecting to the district heating,
although at a very high payback period. It also conflicts with using the clinker cooler as the source.
Without reducing the heat recovery too much, the connections to the steam drum at HE-1 shows to be
the best connection type in this regard.
The results indicate high payback times with low heat recovery relative to its potential. Any smaller
sources would not be considered due to the expected poor heat recovery and increased payback periods.
Table 17 : Summary of the costs, savings and payback period for all possible connections.
Connection
Steam at HE-1:
Clinker cooler
Kiln shell – 20m
Kiln shell – Full
Pre heater
Steam at HE-2:
Clinker cooler
Kiln shell – 20m
Kiln shell – Full
Pre-heater
Feedwater:
Clinker cooler
Kiln shell – 20m
Kiln shell - Full
Pre-heater
District heating:
Clinker cooler
Kiln shell – 20m
Kiln shell – Full
Pre-heater
Clinker cooler gas to HE-2
Clinker cooler gas to district heating
Capital cost
(k.SEK)
Savings
(k.SEK/year)
Heat recovery
(MWh/year)
Payback period
(Years)
4 002
5 630
15 146
22 970
2 895
5 752
15 233
24 093
10 247
5 332
14 848
24 085
13 674
5 332
14 848
24 493
9 669
10 843
313
449
1 390
2 952
274
456
3 398
2 942
1 918
456
3 398
2 614
2 925
835
1 614
3 117
216
738
2 742,11
9 607,05
29 704,78
25 804,96
2 400,51
9 607,05
29 704,78
25 724,55
16 773,94
9 607,05
29 704,78
22 855,77
17 241,81
9 951,47
17 392,27
17 158,77
402,87
13 816,39
12,76
12,52
10,89
7,78
10,54
12,60
4,48
8,19
5,34
11,68
4,37
9,21
4,67
6,38
9,19
7,86
209,81
14,66
-65-
3.5 Final system and conclusion
The most feasible connections, established in the previous section, were based on rough estimations. The
connections required more detailed and inclusive analyses before recommendations could be made. An
additional simple analysis was also requested by the company and can be found in the Appendix.
The new setup of connections allowed for the selection of a possible site layout. The new layout serves as
references for improved material estimations and structural requirements. Previously ignored requirements
and benefits, such as reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, were also investigated. All the new
information allowed for improved financial estimates for each connection.
The additional information and improved results of all three sources and connections, as a whole and as
separate installations, proved for the most effective use of excess heat in the Slite cement plant. Final
recommendations could be made, based on the results, informing the reader and Cementa AB on the best
course of action.
3.5.1 Setup
The most significant restriction was the availability of one source per function. This has led to the
selection of connections for the clinker cooler gas, kiln shell and preheater gas. The final solutions were
investigated as separate entities and as one system. For lower cost installations, separate installation will be
most beneficial, but the possibility exists to benefit from reduced contractor rate and higher returns if the
connections are installed under a single contract.
Clinker cooler gas should be utilized through the installation of a 5,41 MW cross flow heat exchanger,
designed for dust filled gas. The heat exchanger should be connected to the district heating system
directly, before it connects to the heat exchanger at kiln 8. All the heat requirements will be provided by
the clinker cooler gas. In case the clinker cooler at kiln 7 cannot deliver enough heat, the existing heat
exchanger at kiln 8 should serve as backup or booster. Such a setup will reduce the bypassing of HE-2,
which in turn would improve the steam generation for electricity. A large amount of the oil burned for the
district heating would also be reduced. The change in operation and setup of the system will have minor
effects on the equipment involved.
Additional minor benefits from the clinker cooler gas connection might occur, but these would be counter
acted by added requirements and was therefore assumed to be negligible. With less demand placed on the
heat exchanger at kiln 8, the requirement on the fan operating with this heat exchanger would be reduced.
This reduction would lead to energy savings through reduced electrical needs. This saving would be
counteracted by the increased pressure drop which would occur at kiln number 7. The presence of a new
heat exchanger would put more demand on the fans used at the clinker cooler to maintain the same
volume flow, increasing the electricity consumption. No additional pumps are required, with the control
still maintained through using the existing equipment.
-66-
The secondary shell, which would completely cover kiln number 7, would be ideal for connecting to the
feed water line. The secondary shell has the potential to provide an additional 4,74 MW of heat to the feed
water, raising the temperature and reducing the requirement on HE-2. The effect will be an increased
amount of steam generation at the existing heat exchangers, adding to the electricity generation.
A secondary effect of such a setup would be the reduced heat loss from the kiln shell. The reduced heat
loss would have the effect of reducing the heat requirement from the burner, thereby adding to fuel
savings. The added pressure drop that will occur can be remedied through increasing the pressure of the
existing feedwater pump.
The preheater cyclone heat exchanger would benefit the electrical generating system though increased
steam generation. By diverting water from the steam drum of HE-1 and adding heat, additional steam will
be generated. The steam is returned to the steam drum from where it would be sent through the super
heater and finally the steam turbine. An increase in the generated electricity will occur.
The connection has some added benefit through the exclusion of the cooling tower. The heat exchanger
would have to be controllable to allow for the raw mill operation requirements. The savings will relate to a
reduction in water consumption and minor electrical savings from equipment such as pumps. By
bypassing the cooling tower, additional heat would also be made available for the manufacturing of white
clinker. Such a system would require its own loop, connecting the water to the heat exchanger and then
sending the steam back to the steam drum. An additional pump will therefore be required in order to
maintain this loop.
Connecting all three of the connections is also a possibility which would maximize the heat recovery. A
foreseeable negative effect is from the connection of the secondary kiln shell and the fuel reduction this
may cause. By reducing the amount of fuel burned and consequently the air requirement, the gas flow
exiting the preheater cyclones and possibly the temperature could be reduced. The consequence would be
a reduced amount of steam production from the heat exchanger and reduced electricity generation. A
diagram indicating the new connections and how it integrates, derived from Figure 13, can be seen in
Figure 25.
-67-
Figure 25 : Simple diagram of new system layout and connections.
3.5.2 Layout
An overall layout of the new system, indicating the location of the new heat exchangers and piping in a
scaled figure, will provide for a better understanding of the impacts and requirements. Understanding the
location will also provide insight into possible positive and negative infrastructural issues that might exist.
The general layout can be seen in Figure 26 with the estimated positions of the new equipment.
The new clinker cooler heat exchanger has the advantage of being located next to one of the main district
heating pipes, as can be seen in the north-eastern section of kiln 6 in Figure 26. Additional cost saving can
therefore be achieved through connecting the heat exchanger directly to the district heating line. The hot
water pipes run underground mostly, but appears above ground before running towards the East, where it
would be ideal for a new connection.
The new pre heater cyclone gas heat exchanger has been found to be more problematic, as seen in the
north-western part of kiln 7, next to the preheater cyclone tower. The best location to install it is currently
occupied by redundant equipment, which would have to be removed. There is an additional requirement
for constructing a new pipe bridge, in order to connect to HE-1. There are also some elevation
differences. The top of equipment elevation for HE-1 is 49 meters which will have to be connected to the
new heat exchanger, estimated at 70 meters elevation.
-68-
The kiln shell can potentially be connected from one side only. It has the benefit of having a low
elevation, almost equal to the steam pipes’, and relatively close proximity to the steam pipes. The
connection could be made as the piping runs across kiln 7’s tower, before it lifts over the road and enters
HE-2.
-69-
Figure 26 : Top view of kiln 7 and 8, with new heat exchangers and piping.
-70-
3.5.3 Heat recovery
The energy recovery calculated for the sources are considered to be sufficient. The heat recovered, refers
to the heat which is recovered from the source and excludes any secondary contributions. The uses may
vary in size and function. The net energy from gains and losses through removal of existing or adding of
new equipment are assumed to be negligible. Energy savings are expected to remain as per calculated
values.
Connecting the district heating to the clinker cooler gas will allow for the recovery of 17,24 GWh of heat
per year or 34 % of the available heat. The heat recovered will mostly benefit the district heating system,
replacing the heat exchanger at kiln 8. The clinker cooler gas from kiln 7 will be able to supply 87 % of the
district heating requirements, with the remainder supplied by kiln 8 and the oil burners. The bypassing of
kiln 8’s district heating heat exchanger will increase the amount of electricity generated at the steam
turbine by 3,79 GWh per year, or a total increase of 15 % of the electricity generated.
The preheater gas connected to HE-1 will provide 25,80 GWh of heat per year. This amount of heat
indicates a recovery of 71 % of the available heat. The heat will produce steam which will increase the
electricity generated by 5,68 GWh per year, or 23 % of the total electricity generated.
The secondary shell heat exchanger will reduce heat losses, but also remove heat from the shell. The
radiation heat losses to the environment would be replaced largely by radiation heat losses to the
secondary shell tubes, although at a lesser extent (due to higher inlet temperatures). The amount of heat
recovered from the shell will amount to 29,70 GWh per year, or 57 % of the total kiln losses. The heat
recovery provides for increased electricity generation of up to 6,54 GWh per year, or a total of 27 %,
through the preheating of feedwater, while the reduction in heat losses will translate to fuel savings.
Assuming that all the convection losses are translated to fuel savings, it would result in 19,75 GWh per
year reduction in heat requirement from fuel.
The total amount of heat recovered will amount to 72,75 GWh per year, which amounts to 52 % of the
heat lost through the three sources. The additional electricity generated through all the connections are
estimated at 16 GWh per year, or 65 % of the total electricity generated.
3.5.4 Environment
The environmental improvement of the setup only focuses on the current concerns of Sweden, the
amount of CO2 emissions, water savings are not yet of concern and were not considered. Due to the
complexity of determining the source of electricity, with Sweden using a large amount of nuclear and
hydro power, only the direct emission reductions at the plant were considered.
The reduction in oil burned for district heating, due to the clinker cooler connection, will save a significant
amount of CO2 emissions. Due to the mixture of oils, the average emissions factor (#6 ) of the two fuels
-71-
(Eo1 as 74,3 and Eo7 as 77,4) had to be used. The emission reduction was calculated using an estimated
heating value (ℎ ) of 40 MJ/kg and a density (& ) of 0,9 kg/m³. The estimated volume savings ( )
are 272,42 m3 of mixed diesel grade oil per year.
:;. < = #6 ∙ & ∙ ∙ ℎ
(53)
The reduction in CO2 emissions are estimated at 348,36 ton per year. This value can be improved further
through improved operating conditions.
The other source of CO2 emissions reduction would be from the reduction in fuel demand. A 19,75 GWh
per year reduction in heat lost from the kiln would amount to 2 896 ton of coal per year, which is about
4,8 % of kiln 7’s current consumption. With a conversion factor, 2,4 ton CO2 per ton of coal, for the coal
used on site, the amount of CO2 emission reduction would be 6 950,4 ton.
The reduction in CO2 emission will improve the company’s environmental standing, allowing it to benefit
from future regulations and maintain a good name within the industry. The possibility also exists for the
future participation in carbon trading, which might see large financial benefit go to the cement plant.
3.5.5 Finance
The project cost and payback period were important features within the project. The project had to
deliver on possible returns within an acceptable amount of time. The costs were estimated for each
installation and adjusted for improved accuracy. The costs, especially the returns and savings, are highly
dependent on the installation date, which will be discussed in brief in order to establish a more accurate
payback time.
Financing of projects occur through the parent company, Heidelberg Cement Group. Each year, Cementa
AB issues Heidelberg with a list of projects, to which Heidelberg approves and provides for the requested
budget. The list for 2013 has been completed and consequently, the possibility of including the project
related to this report has shifted to 2014. The current estimations for the capital costs will be adjusted by
two years, taking into account the projected inflation rate.
The inflation rate was estimated from using the yearly average Consumer Price Index (CPI) of Sweden.
The composite inflation rate () was calculated based on a 16 year historical trend (Kandpal & Garg,
2003), from 1996 until the end of 2011, obtained from Statistics Sweden (Statistics Sweden, 2012). The
composite inflation rate was found to be 1,23 % for the given period.
=
5= /
−1
5=$$
(54)
The capital costs calculated in the previous chapter were based on rough estimations. The final results
were adjusted for the new setup. Previous calculations also did not include for additional equipment costs,
such as pumps and fans, which were added in this section.
-72-
The savings obtained through electricity (8 ) and oil (8 ) reduction were estimated as per previous
chapter, adjusted for the projected future costs. The savings (8 ) are projected for 2014 for each year
(), such as were done for inflation. (Kandpal & Garg, 2003)
8 = 8 ∙ +1 + >, + 8 ∙ (1 + )
(55)
Oil and electricity savings (financial) are dependent on the expected growth rate in the price of the two.
The growth rate of the electricity price () and the growth rate of the oil price (>), increase the oil savings
and electricity savings each year and reduces the payback period. This growth rate was calculated as a
geometric series between the period 2008 and 2012, increasing annually by 0,71 % for electricity and -3,03
% for oil. The sum of these values provide for the expected accumulated saving (8 ) after a certain
amount of years (). (Kandpal & Garg, 2003)
1 − +1 + >,
1 − (1 + )
8 = 8 ∙ ?
@ + 8 ∙ −>
−
(56)
An additional annual loss has been added to account for possible maintenance costs of 1,5 % of
equipment and installation costs. This cost will increase at the same rate as inflation for each year,
increasing the payback period. (Kandpal & Garg, 2003)
= 1,5% ∙ 5 ∙ (1 + )
-73-
(57)
Table 18 : Cost estimation for final setup, projected for 2004.
Clinker cooler
Full Kiln Shell
Preheater Cyclone
District heating
Preheating feed water
Steam HE-1
Investment Costs
Items
Pipes
Bridge
Heat exchanger
34 m
Costs
(k.SEK)
122
0m
0
0m
0
25,37 m
104
1 piece
13 845
1 piece
Quantity
123 m
Costs
(k.SEK)
440
138,15 m
Costs
(k.SEK)
496
Quantity
Quantity
14 714
1 piece
23 092
Equipment destruct
0
0
1 piece
2 049
Electrical equipment
0
0
102
13 967
15 154
25 844
Total
Earnings
(MWh/y)
(k.SEK/y)
(MWh/y)
(k.SEK/y)
(MWh/y)
(k.SEK/y)
Electricity
3 793
2 001
6 535
3 447
5 677
2 994
Oil
2 379
925
n.a
0
n.a
0
Total
2 925
3 447
2 994
Expenses
Maintenance
1,5%
210
1,5%
227
1,5%
348
Payback
(years)
Payback period
Date
(years)
(years)
5,6
5,0
10,9
01/2020
06/2019
06/2025
The planned budget is usually finalized midyear, allowing for project planning to occur from mid-2013
until the beginning 2014. All tie-ins required for the project can only occur during a planned shutdown,
which occurs in Spring. The start of operation for the equipment has been based on the current shutdown
and has been assumed for 1 June, 2014.
3.5.6 Recommendations
The feasibility of the evaluated connections will be reduced due to planned changes in production, as well
as design concerns. These issues make it less attractive for the company to undertake the project. In order
to provide the company with a project that is economically valid which fits into future planning,
installation of only part of the above project will be recommended.
The preheater connection has proven to be insufficient. The high equipment and installation costs
increase the payback period to more than 10 years, which will increase even more with lower availability.
The preheater gas can only be used for heat recovery when normal clinker is being manufactured. Low
alkali clinker requires the maximum amount of heat from the gas, preventing the removal of heat for
-74-
steam generation. The plant has future plans to increase the manufacturing of low alkali clinker, reducing
the heat recapturing from this source. It is therefore recommended that the company exclude the
installation of the preheater gas connection.
The secondary kiln shell has a large amount of potential, although mostly theoretical. It has not yet been
implemented within industry and first needs to be tested before implementation. The design of the
secondary shell needs to be improved and perfected to incorporate the requirements, such as monitoring
and cooling abilities, for use in this specific cement plant. The plant has the additional potential of
connecting to kiln 8’s shell, allowing for even more heat recovery and loss reduction. It is therefore
recommended that more detail design work first be done on the secondary shell before consideration. Its
installation will therefore be moved further by a few years, until the detailed design has been completed.
The plant intends to increase its use of alternative fuels in the next few years, increasing the feasibility of
using low heat for drying of alternative fuels. It is recommended that further studies should be done,
investigating the feasibility of using low heat for drying of these fuels, especially if sewerage sludge
becomes one of the alternative fuels.
Another source of income would be from electricity certificates. More effort should be placed into
addressing the current shortcomings caused by the changes in regulation. The benefit previously derived is
estimated at 1 million SEK per year from the certificate scheme.
Based on the above recommendation, only the clinker cooler gas connection should be installed at this
moment. It will provide for reduced CO2 emission, an acceptable payback period, increased electricity
generation and is relatively low cost compared to the other options. No conflicting events or projects
could be foreseen, based on the future outlook of plant, and it would therefore be the most effective use
of excess heat at the cement plant.
-75-
Bibliography
Ahlberg, S.O. & Udd, L.K., 2009. Slite cementfabrik: Industri- och kulturhistorisk dokumentation. Lidköping and
Edsbro, Gotland, Sweden: Länsstyrelsen Gotland, Cementa AB/Heidelberg Cement.
Alsop, P.A., Chen, H. & Tseng, H., 2007. Cement Plant Operations Handbook: For dry process plants. Surrey:
Tradeship Publications Ltd.
Boateng, A.A., 2008. Rotary Kilns: Transport Phenomena and Transport Processes. Burlington, United States of
America: Butterworth-Heinemann Publication.
Duda, W.H., 1985. Cement Data Book - International Process Engineering in the Cement Industry. 3rd ed.
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Duffie, J.A. & Beckman, W.A., 1991. Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley &
Sons, Inc.
Grönwall, F., 2010. ISSN 1654-9392 Optimization of Burner kiln 7 Cementa Slite. Masters of Science thesis.
Uppsala: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
Howell, J.R., 2010. A catalog of radiation heat transfer configuration factors. [Online] The University of Texas AT
Austin Available at: http://www.engr.uky.edu/rtl/Catalog/index.html [Accessed 20 April 2012].
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Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Kandpal, T.C. & Garg, H.P., 2003. Financial evaluation of renewable energy projects. India: Macmillan Publishers
India Ltd.
Kiln Performance Tests Task Force, 1992. Execution and Evaluation of Kiln Performance Tests. Work
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Translators.
Navarro, H.A. & Cabezas-Gómez, L.C., 2007. Effectiveness-NTU computation with a mathematical
model for cross-flow heat exchangers. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 24(4), pp.509-21.
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http://www.scb.se/Pages/TableAndChart____33896.aspx [Accessed 07 June 2012].
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Ҫengel, Y.A., 2003. Heat Transfer: A Practical Approach. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Ҫengel, Y.A. & Boles, M.A., 2002. Thermodynamics - An Engineering Approach. New York: McGraw-Hill.
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Appendices
A: Cementa AB heat recovery estimation
The company additionally requested a basic heat recovery analyses focusing on the final recommendation
and not based on existing measurements. This analysis assumes exactly 2 weeks downtime in March and
full operations throughout the year. The heat recovery of the heat exchanger is assumed to be equal to its
size.
With the above assumptions, the clinker cooler connection will provide all the heat for district heating,
with exception of the two week period. By assuming the oil consumption from Figure 24, the average
energy obtained from oil over the 2 week period is 1 194,23 MWh, with the remainder supplied by the
heat exchanger. As per described in Section 3.4.5.3, the savings are shared 50/50 between Cementa AB
and GEAB.
The electricity savings at kiln 8, due to the prevention of bypassing HE-1, were estimated as per described
in Section 3.4.5.3. It was based on the projected 2011 district heating demand, excluding the 2 weeks
downtime assumed for March. These values can be seen in
The cost and payback period were calculated as per Section 3.5.5. Delivering a payback period as per
Table 19.
Table 19 : Simple analyses of final recommended solution.
Description
Heat exchanger size plus installation costs
Oil reduction savings
Electricity production savings
Maintenance cost
Energy amount
5,41 MW
2 300 MWh
3 587 MWh
Payback Period
Financial Saving/Cost(-)
(-)13 967 000,00 SEK
921 542,50 SEK/year
1 865 178,00 SEK/year
(-) 210 000,00 SEK/year
5,9 years
B: Calculations
B-1: Single tube radiation heat transfer
For calculation purposes, the rotary kiln and the cylinder has been assumed as infinitely long parallel
surfaces. This allowed for the calculation of the heat gained by first determining the shape factors (A)
(Ҫengel, 2003):
A ∙ = A ∙ -78-
(B.1)
1
arcsinB C
ℎ ; ℎ = D *);6$>6.*.
=
E
A
(B.2)
The exposed areas of each cylinder ( , ) can be calculated as the circumference of the exposed section,
for one meter of length, using the angles of the radial lines (F , F) connected to the tangent, the distance
of the centers (D) and the outer radii (E , E ) of the cylinders.
ܴଵ
ܴଶ
KILN (#1)
z
ߠଶ
ߠଵ
TUBE (#2)
H
F = cos
= +2 ∙
E − E
; ℎF = F
D
= 2 ∙ F ∙ E
− 2 ∙ F , ∙ E ; )62ℎ6)ℎ:-
∴ A
1
arcsinBℎC
=
∙
(B.3)
(B.4)
(B.5)
(B.6)
Due to the above relation, the shape factor improves with reduced proximity from the shell. The closest
workable value of 100mm surface to surface has been assumed and used throughout the calculations. The
heat transfer ( ) was calculated using a resistance equation, with the shape factor and the absorptivity
of the tube, assumed to be equal to the emissivity ( ) which is estimated at 0,79 for oxidized steel.
=
ℎ ∶ G = 2 ∙ ൬
1 − ߝଶ
൰
‫ܣ‬ଶ ∙ ߝଶ
൬
1 − ߝଶ
൰
‫ܣ‬ଶ ∙ ߝଶ
∙ ∙ ( − )
;
G
(B.7)
1 − 1 − 1
+
+
∙ ∙ ∙ A
൬
1
൰
‫ܣ‬ଵ ∙ ‫ܨ‬ଵଶ
TUBE (#2)
൬
1 − ߝଵ
൰
‫ܣ‬ଵ ∙ ߝଵ
KILN (#1)
-79-
As the tube and the water inside heats up, it will also experience radiation and convection losses to the
surroundings. The radiation losses were estimated by multiplying the radiation loss of a complete tube
with the shape factor of the surroundings, using various temperature intervals for the tube temperature,
summed together. A point will be reached where the radiation gains will be equal to the losses to the
surroundings. The inlet temperature was assumed to be the same as the atmosphere.
, = (1 − A ) ∙ ∙ ∙ ∙ ( − )
(B.8)
Losses due to convection also occur, although at a lower level. No accurate wind data on site exists,
therefore a fraction of the overall losses (0,53) will be used, as experienced by the kiln shell.
, = 0,53 ∙ ,
(B.9)
An important feature to the technology is the capital cost. The simplicity of the design allowed for an
estimation using the cost of the material only. It was assumed that steel pipes of 5mm shell thickness
would be used, with the prices per meter length taken from one of the regular suppliers to the plant, Stena
Stål.
The heat recovered annually ( ) has been derived from the difference between the absorbed and lost
heat for each meter of kiln shell. The sum of the net heat transfer for each meter of kiln shell was then
divided by the length of the kiln shell ( ) to obtain the average yearly heat transfer per meter of pipe
( ).
= ( , − , , − , , )
(B.10)
= 8760
ℎ67.
∙ ⁄
(B.11)
The use of the source will also be dependent on the achievable temperature of the water. Using the
calculated heat received by the tube, it is possible to calculate the amount of heat supplied to the water
and the maximum obtainable water temperature using a heat balance.
, = , + ,
(B.12)
∙ + − ,
,;
.: I
J = 1,53 ∙ +1 − A , ∙ ∙ ∙ + − G
.:K =
; L = 1,53 ∙ (1 − A ) ∙ ∙ G
∴ =
K ∙ + L ∙ K+L
(B.13)
The effect of all the related properties has been investigated in order to determine the optimal tube size.
The highest amount of energy obtainable for the lowest cost should be the defining factor for selecting
the correct size.
-80-
Table 20 : Cost and heat comparison for various sized tubes.
Tube size
(mm)
30
50
100
130
Cost of Equipment
(SEK/m)
166,80
279,90
595,20
902,30
Recovered Heat
(W/m)
138,13
251,14
577,63
796,80
Net heat per Kroner
(W/Kr)
558,22
618,72
705,48
655,25
Water Temperature
(ºC)
211
213
219
221
B-2: Concentrated tube
The tube will experience all the radiation received as per calculated in the previous chapter, with additional
radiation from the reflection of a parabolic concentrator.
= , + 1
(B.14)
The cost will also increase, with the material cost dependent on the surface area of the reflecting material.
The reflector material will consist of highly reflective surface, such as polished aluminium, which can be
modelled as covering the area of a parabolic trough with the shape, = ∙1 (Duffie & Beckman, 1991).
+మ
1 =
$ ∙ √N + $ + N ∙ ln$ + √$ + N N
(B.15)
ℎ:N = 2 ∙ )
In order to avoid interfering with the thermal cameras located at an angle above the kiln, the concentrator
and pipe should ideally fit bellow and on the opposite side of the kiln shell. The distance between the kiln
shell and the structure below it is vast and the size of the reflector should be compared to the amount of
radiation captured. Assuming that all the reflected radiation will be concentrated to the tube, the increased
amount of heat captured from the kiln can be modelled the same as previously, but with an additional
reflection resistance component and a new shape factor. Assuming a highly reflective polished metal is
used, the reflectivity can be estimated at 0,9. The new exposure area can be modelled as a flat plate at a
distance equal to the distance of the tube.
A =
+tan
/1 − tan
/2,
ℎ: /1 =
O1
O2
*/2 = -81-
(B.16)
APERTURE AREA (Surface 2)
f
b2
KILN (Surface 1)
x-axis
y-axis
b1
PARABOLIC
REFLECTOR
a
Figure 27 : Reflector size calculation drawing.
After testing various sized tubes, it was found that the best achievable result was for the same sized tube
as per the results above, 100 mm. The cost ratio is greatly affected by the reflector, reduced cost
effectiveness for increasing reflector size. It could be assumed that the reflector protects the tube from the
surroundings, with loss reduction of an arbitrarily assumed amount of 80%.
The costs were sourced the same as from the previous chapter and consists of piping and a flat aluminium
plate. The heat recovery was calculated using the same approach, with the temperature calculated in a
similar manner.
Table 21 : Cost and heat comparison for various size and distance for thermal concentrated tubes.
Tube size
(mm)
30
30
50
50
100
100
130
130
Cost of Equipment
(Kr/m)
263,37
373,82
376,47
486,91
691,77
802,22
998,97
1 109,32
Recovered Heat
(W/m)
261,42
299,09
417,81
454,34
859,59
896,12
1 157,53
1 194,06
-82-
f
(mm)
300
500
300
500
300
500
300
500
Heat per Kroner
(W/Kr)
0,998
0,798
1,107
0,932
1,242
1,116
1,159
1,076
Water Temperature
(ºC)
254
242
258
251
255
252
255
250
C: Equipment and installation costs
The cost estimates used in the report were derived in a linear fashion from the listed costs and sizes
below:
Table 22 : Cost estimate sources.
Description
Heat exchanger – Cross flow
type for preheater gas
Installation for preheater gas
heat exchanger
Heat exchanger – Cross flow
type for clinker cooler gas
Installation for clinker cooler
gas
Heat exchanger – Secondary
kiln shell structural installation
and equipment costs
Destruct of existing equipment
from killn 7 cyclone tower
structure
Steam/water pipe equipment
and installation
Steam/water pipe bridge
structure and installation
Air duct equipment and
installation
Appendix item costs:
Steel pipe
Aluminium sheet
Steel plate
Industrial insulation
Aluminium foil
Size/QTY
Price
3 MW
6 126 539,05 SEK
9 167 317,65 SEK
3 MW
4 507 190,52 SEK
4 061 573,53 SEK
20 m
length
4 786 000,00 SEK
Total
destruct
2 000 000,00 SEK
Source
Heidelberg Cement Group’s estimate for
a similar installation conducted in 2008,
Turkey.
Heidelberg Cement Group’s estimate for
a similar installation conducted in 2008,
Turkey.
Estimates provided by a Cementa
contractor, 2012.
Cementa project cost estimate, 2012.
3 500,00 SEK/m
Ø 80 mm
Estimate provided by a Cementa
contractor, 2012.
4 000,00 SEK/m
56 m
30x5 mm
50x5 mm
100x5 mm
130x5 mm
1000x1000
x0,5 mm
6040x2500
x8mm
1000x1000
x50mm
1000x1000
mm
3 399 184,00 SEK
166,80 SEK/m
279,90 SEK/m
595,20 SEK/m
902,30 SEK/m
90,18 SEK/m^2
Estimated from the new clean gas duct
line at kiln 7 project at Cementa, Slite,
2012.
Stena Stål price list.
63,97 SEK/m^2
80,96 SEK/m^2
7,00 SEK/m^2
-83-
Alibaba, online industrial shopping
website.
Alibaba, industrial shopping website.
D: Equipment and instrumentation diagrams
The equipment and instrumentation diagrams contain all the information required for the analysis. The
instrumentation numbers and locations were identified, as well as the operation, based on these diagrams.
The diagrams2 for kiln 7 appear in the following order:
•
Raw mill (“Råkvarn”) and surrounding connections;
•
Preheater cyclones layout;
•
Rotary kiln (“Ugn”) number 7 and burner;
•
Burner layout;
•
Clinker cooler (“Klinkerkylare”) layout;
•
Filter and chimney, located after the clinker cooler;
•
Preheater gas, cooling tower (“Kyltorn”) piping layout.
The diagrams for kiln 8 appear in the following order:
•
Clinker cooler gas, filter with heat exchanger 2 for electricity generation (“Avganspanna elgenerering”)
and the district heating heat exchanger (“GEAB Spillvärme”) layout;
•
Double cyclone towers at kiln 8’s layout;
•
Heat exchanger 1 (“Panna 1”) connection to the ducting of the cyclone tower.
The diagrams are directly sourced from Cementa AB and are therefore all in Swedish. Swedish words are added in
brackets to aid in understanding the diagrams.
2
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