/smash/get/diva2:744089/FULLTEXT01.pdf

/smash/get/diva2:744089/FULLTEXT01.pdf
Impacts of Low Load Operation of Modern
Four-Stroke Diesel Engines in Generator
Configuration
Espen Dalsøren Tufte
Marine Technology
Submission date: June 2014
Supervisor:
Harald Valland, IMT
Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Department of Marine Technology
i
ii
Preface
This report presents my thesis for the degree of Master of Science in Marine
Technology at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU.
The thesis is an integrated part of my specialization in Marine Machinery. The
work is conducted in its entirety by the author and has been carried out during
the spring semester of 2014.
The topic of this thesis is the impacts of low load operations of modern fourstroke diesel engines in generator configuration. The topic has been developed
in collaboration with DNV GL and builds on the work done in my project thesis
during the autumn semester of 2013.
I would like to thank my academic supervisor, Professor Harald Valland, for
providing helpful guidance. In addition I would like to thank the employees I’ve
been in contact with at DNV GL for procuring data and relevant information
and suggestions concerning the topic. Thanks to Jørgen Christian Kadal, Dag
Harald Williksen, Thomas Dirix, Olav Alexander Tage Strøm and Arthur
Iversen for their views and inputs. Thank you very much to Chief Engineer
Karlsvik for sharing your “real time” experiences with low load operation. A
special thanks to my co-supervisor and contact person, Hanne Solum Bentsen at
DNV GL, for good help and motivation throughout the semester.
Trondheim, June 2014
Espen Dalsøren Tufte
iii
Summary
Diesel engines in generator configuration are normally optimized for operations
at medium to high engine loads. It is suspected that operations at low loads may
increase operational problems and thus the damage frequency. It is also
suspected that negative effects off low load operations are aggravated by recent
exhaust emission regulations issued by IMO. This thesis describes an
investigation of the impacts of low load operations on modern four-stroke diesel
engines in generator configuration. The problem has been approached by
reviewing existing literature, studying damage cases, analysis of existing
finding data and by assessing the industry’s experiences with low load
operations.
Low load operations of diesel engines are defined as engine operations below
40% of maximum continuous rating. Low load operations are typical for, but
not limited to, offshore vessels with dynamic positioning systems. Low load
operations of diesel engines cause lower cylinder pressure and thus lower
temperature. Low temperature can lead to ignition problems and poor
combustion which causes increased soot formation and aggregation of unburned
fuel in the cylinder. Low cylinder pressure, soot and unburned fuel deteriorate
the piston ring sealing efficiency allowing hot combustion gases, soot particles
and unburned fuel to leak past the piston rings. This results in increased
lubricating oil consumption and fuel dilution. Fuel dilution of the lubricating oil
reduces the viscosity which can collapse critical oil film thicknesses. This can
cause premature wear of pistons, rings, liners and crank case bearings. The
mechanisms of low load lead to a cycle of degradation which means that diesel
engines that run at low loads for longer periods of time can become irreversibly
damaged. This is illustrated in this paper by an engine damage case. The
damage case presents an engine crankcase breakage initially caused by piston
scuffing from lubrication oil breakdown after excessive low load operations.
v
Most modern diesel engines operate at lower cylinder pressure and thus lower
temperatures to comply with stringent IMO NOX emission requirements. The
IMO Tier I and II standards are met by primary measures which aim at reducing
the amount of NOX formed during combustion by optimizing certain engine
parameters. Modern NOX optimized engines are more exposed to low load
operations than their predecessors due to initially lower cylinder pressures and
temperatures. However, recent developments such as common rail, variable
injection timing and variable valve control permit engine operations at lower
loads than earlier.
Existing finding data from DNV GL’s database have been analysed to determine
whether one can substantiate the impacts of low load operations quantitatively.
The finding data have been analysed by simple frequency measurements. The
results show higher finding frequencies for DP-vessels than non-DP vessels,
which could indicate that low load operations may have a negative impact on
the operational problems and thus the damage frequency. The finding data have
also been evaluated with respect to time to determine whether NOX
optimization aggravates the negative impacts of low load operations. The result
showed generally higher finding frequencies for engines installed after 2000
than the ones installed prior to 2000. This could indicate that the introduction of
Tier I compliant engines have increased operational problems. However, it
could not be determined whether NOX optimized engines have aggravated the
negative impacts of low load operations.
Engine manufacturers that have been interviewed agree that low load operations
affect the engine operation negatively, but they do not want to confirm that low
load operation increases the engine damage frequency. It is consensus among
the engine manufacturers that the engines must be loaded to at least 50% of
rated power regularly during low load operations to prevent operational
problems. The time interval and load requirements can vary from one engine to
another and depending on the engine design.
vi
Sammendrag
Dieselmotorer i generatorkonfigurasjon er normalt optimalisert for å kjøre på
middels til høy motorbelastning. Det er mistanke om at overdreven
lavlastkjøring kan føre til driftsproblemer og dermed økt skadefrekvens.
Samtidig er det mistanke om at de negative konsekvensene som følger av
lavlastkjøring, forverres av IMOs krav til redusert utslipp av NOX. Denne
masteroppgaven
undersøker
hvilke
mekanismer
som
inntreffer
ved
lavlastkjøring og hvilke konsekvenser disse kan ha på motoren. Konsekvenser
av lavlastkjøring har blitt undersøkt ved å studere eksiterende litteratur, studere
skaderapporter og ved å analysere kvantitativt eksisterende funndata i GLs
database. Det har også blitt foretatt en kvalitativ undersøkelse for å kartlegge
motorprodusentenes erfaringer med lavlastkjøring.
Lavlastkjøring er definert som lastforbruk under 40 % av motorens maksimale
ytelse. Lavlastkjøring er typisk for generatorsett om bord i offshorefartøy med
dynamisk posisjonering. Lav motorbelastning medfører lavt sylindertrykk og
dermed lave sylindertemperaturer. Lave sylindertemperaturer fører til
tenningsvansker og ufullstendig forbrenning og dermed øker mengden sot og
uforbrent drivstoff i kammeret. Sot og uforbrent drivstoff kan føre til glasering
av stempelringene og dermed reduseres tetningsegenskapene. Stempelringene er
også avhengige av høyt sylindertrykk for å fungere optimalt. Lavt trykk og
temperatur i sylinderen vil derfor føre til lekkasje av forbrenningsgasser, sot og
uforbrent drivstoff forbi stempelet og ned i oljesumpen. Dette medfører økt
forbruk og forurensing av smøreoljen. Store mengder drivstoff i smøreoljen vil
redusere viskositeten og dermed smøreegenskapene til oljen. Dette vil kunne
medføre at kritiske smøreoljefilmer blir for tynne og dermed utsettes stempler,
stempelringer, sylinderforinger og veivhuslagre for ekstrem slitasje.
vii
Mekanismene som er beskrevet ovenfor er bekreftet av motorprodusentene og
er også illustrert med et skadeeksempel. Skaderapporten som blir presentert tar
for seg et veivhusbrudd på en av generatormotorene om bord på et
offshorefartøy. Årsaken til skaden var ekstrem slitasje på stempelet som følge
av defekte smøreoljeegenskaper på grunn av forurensing av smøreoljen.
Motorer opererer i dag med lavere trykk og temperatur i sylinderen enn
tidligere, for å kunne tilfredsstille IMOs stadig strengere krav til utslipp av
NOX. IMOs Tier I krav kan tilfredsstilles ved å benytte såkalte primærtiltak.
Primærtiltak innebærer å redusere mengden NOX som produseres under
forbrenning. Dette gjøres ved å optimere motorparametere med hensyn til
lavere NOX produksjon. NOX optimaliserte motorer opererer med lavere
sylindertrykk og temperaturer og er i utgangspunktet dermed mer utsatt for
problemer ved lavlastkjøring enn sine forgjengere. Motordesignere har utviklet
teknologi, som for eksempel common rail (fellesrør) og variabel injeksjons- og
ventilstyring, som skal sørge for at motorene kan kjøre mer optimalt også på
lavere laster. Dette har medført at NOX optimaliserte motorer håndterer
lavlastkjøring bedre i dag enn tidlige, men motorprodusentene understreker at
lavlast fortsatt bør begrenses til kortere perioder av gangen.
Eksisterende motorfunn fra DNV GLs database har blitt analysert ved hjelp av
enkle frekvensberegninger for å kunne vurdere konsekvensene av lavlastkjøring
kvantitativt. Analysen viser at lavlastkjøring kan ha en negativ innvirkning på
funnfrekvensene og dermed en negativ innvirkning på operasjonelle problemer.
Motorfunn har også blitt analysert for å undersøke om innføringen av NOX
optimaliserte
motorer
forverrer
driftsproblemer
som
oppstår
under
lavlastkjøring. Analysen viser høyere funnfrekvenser for motorer som er
installert om bord på skip etter 2000. Dette kan være en indikasjon på at krav til
NOX optimaliserte motorer har ført til flere driftsproblemer. Ut i fra de
analysene som har blitt gjort, er det ikke mulig å avgjøre om NOX optimaliserte
motorer forverrer driftsproblemene som er knyttet til lavlastkjøring.
viii
Motorprodusentene er enige om at lavlastkjøring kan medføre driftsproblemer,
men ønsker ikke, av hensyn til sine kunder, å uttale seg om hvorvidt
lavlastkjøring fører til høyere skadefrekvens på deres motorer. Det er enighet
blant motorprodusentene om at motorbelastingen må økes til minst 50 % av
maksimal ytelse med jevne mellomrom under lengre lavlastperioder for å
forhindre at problemer oppstår. Et lastpådrag vil øke trykket og dermed
temperaturen i
forbrenningskammeret.
Trykkøkningen
vil
medføre at
stempelringene igjen vil fungere som normalt og dermed kunne skrape av
avsetninger som har heftet seg på sylinderforingen. Høyere temperaturer
medfører at uforbrent drivstoff og sot kan brennes bort. Krav til lastpådrag og til
tidsintervall mellom hvert lastpådrag varier fra en motor til en annen avhengig
av motorens design. Retningslinjer for lavlastdrift er uten unntak spesifisert i
motorens brukermanual.
ix
Contents
Preface ................................................................................................... iii
Summary ................................................................................................. v
Sammendrag ......................................................................................... vii
Nomenclature ...................................................................................... xvii
1
2
Introduction...................................................................................... 1
1.1
Background .......................................................................................... 1
1.2
Motivation ............................................................................................ 2
1.3
Method ................................................................................................. 2
1.4
Structure of the Thesis ......................................................................... 3
1.5
Low Load Operations........................................................................... 4
1.6
Transient Load Operations ................................................................... 6
1.7
Diesel Engines in Generator Configuration ......................................... 7
Literature Review ............................................................................ 9
2.1
Marine Diesel Engines ......................................................................... 9
2.1.1
Four-Stroke Cycle ............................................................................ 9
2.1.2
Engine Speed.................................................................................. 10
2.1.3
Combustion Process ....................................................................... 10
2.1.4
Combustion Temperature ............................................................... 12
2.1.5
Fuel Injection ................................................................................. 12
2.1.6
Valve Timing .................................................................................. 13
2.1.7
Cylinder Arrangement .................................................................... 15
2.2
Marine Fuels ...................................................................................... 15
2.2.1
Fuel Standards ................................................................................ 16
2.2.2
Low Sulphur Fuels ......................................................................... 16
2.2.3
Fuel Properties ............................................................................... 17
xi
2.2.4
2.3
Fuel Quality.................................................................................... 22
Marine Lubricants .............................................................................. 26
2.3.1
Lubricant Properties ....................................................................... 26
2.3.2
Lubricant Contamination ............................................................... 27
2.4
Marine Emission Regulations ............................................................ 29
2.4.1
Pollution Formation ....................................................................... 29
2.4.2
NOX Emission Control ................................................................... 30
2.4.3
SOX Emission Control ................................................................... 34
2.4.4
Soot Formation ............................................................................... 35
2.5
Cylinder Liner Deposits ..................................................................... 37
2.6
Tribology ............................................................................................ 38
2.7
Marine Engine Maintenance .............................................................. 40
3
Case Study .................................................................................... 41
3.1
Damage Case...................................................................................... 42
3.1.1
Vessel Characteristics ..................................................................... 42
3.1.2
Engine Load Characteristics .......................................................... 43
3.1.3
Observations and Findings ............................................................. 43
3.1.4
Possible Mechanisms of Engine Breakage .................................... 47
3.2
4
Case Discussion ................................................................................. 48
Finding Analysis ............................................................................ 49
4.1
Nauticus Production System .............................................................. 49
4.1.1
Surveys ........................................................................................... 50
4.1.2
Findings .......................................................................................... 51
4.1.3
Entering and leaving class.............................................................. 51
4.2
Calculations ........................................................................................ 52
4.3
Data Quality ....................................................................................... 53
4.4
Data Filtration .................................................................................... 53
4.5
Results ................................................................................................ 54
4.6
Discussion of Results ......................................................................... 63
xii
5
Industrial Experience ..................................................................... 65
5.1
5.1.1
Manufacturers’ Experience ................................................................ 66
5.2
6
7
Specifications for Low Load Operations ....................................... 69
Chief Engineer’s Experience ............................................................. 73
Discussion ..................................................................................... 77
6.1
Low Load Operation .......................................................................... 77
6.2
Transient Load Operation .................................................................. 78
6.3
NOX Optimization .............................................................................. 78
6.4
Marine Fuel Properties ....................................................................... 80
6.5
Lubricating Oil Properties .................................................................. 81
6.6
Maintenance ....................................................................................... 82
6.7
Impacts of Low Load Operations....................................................... 82
6.8
Recommendations for Low Load Operation ...................................... 84
6.9
Qualitative Analysis ........................................................................... 85
Conclusion..................................................................................... 87
7.1
Suggestions for Further Work ............................................................ 90
References ........................................................................................... 91
Appendix .............................................................................................. 95
A1
NPS Data ............................................................................................ 95
A2
Finding Analysis .............................................................................. 105
A3
Interview .......................................................................................... 112
A4
Generator Load Curve ...................................................................... 114
xiii
Figures
Figure 1-1: Typical operational profile for offshore vessels ................................ 5
Figure 1-2: Load increase .................................................................................... 6
Figure 2-1: Combustion phases and the rate of heat release .............................. 11
Figure 2-2: Injection pressure and engine load .................................................. 13
Figure 2-3: Valve timing diagram ...................................................................... 14
Figure 2-4: Load dependency of marine fuels ................................................... 23
Figure 2-5: Marine fuel quality issues ............................................................... 25
Figure 2-6: Trends of emission in terms of equivalence ratio ........................... 30
Figure 2-7: MARPOL Annex VI NOX emission limits...................................... 31
Figure 2-8: MARPOL Annex VI SOX emission limits ...................................... 34
Figure 2-9: Soot and NOX relation ..................................................................... 35
Figure 2-10: Trade-off between NOX and soot .................................................. 36
Figure 2-11: Cylinder lacquer balance .............................................................. 37
Figure 3-1: Piston scuffing and carbon deposits ................................................ 44
Figure 3-2: Cylinder head surface, intake and exhaust valves ........................... 45
Figure 3-3: Broken cylinder liner....................................................................... 45
Figure 3-4: Carbon deposits and polishing wear in cylinder liner ..................... 46
Figure 3-5: Carbon sludge on bearing inner surfaces ........................................ 46
Figure 3-6: Possible processes and mechanisms of the engine breakage .......... 47
Figure 4-1: DNV GL survey regime .................................................................. 50
Figure 4-2: DNV GL survey findings ................................................................ 51
Figure 4-3: DNV GL vessel age ......................................................................... 52
Figure 4-4: Distribution of diesel engines in NPS ............................................. 54
Figure 4-5: Main engines versus auxiliary engines ........................................... 55
Figure 4-6: Main engines versus auxiliary engines ........................................... 56
Figure 4-7: DP class notations ........................................................................... 58
Figure 4-8: Main engines versus auxiliary engines on DP-vessels .................... 58
xiv
Figure 4-9: Supply vessels (DP) versus car ferries (non DP) ............................ 60
Figure 4-10: Installation year versus finding year for main gensets .................. 62
Figure 4-11: Installation year versus finding year for auxiliary gensets ............ 62
Figure 5-1: Viscosity at 100 °C from oil sample analysis .................................. 74
Figure 5-2: Viscosity at 100 °C from oil sample analysis .................................. 75
xv
Tables
Table 1-1: Load levels in percentage of maximum continuous rating ................. 4
Table 2-1: Low sulphur fuel properties and fuel types ...................................... 16
Table 2-2: Fuel requirements according to ISO 8217:2010 ............................... 17
Table 2-3: Primary types of wear ....................................................................... 38
Table 2-4: Engine maintenance categories ......................................................... 40
Table 3-1: History of engine troubles and failures ............................................. 42
Table 3-2: Engine specifications ........................................................................ 43
Table 4-1: Fundamental filters applied in Vadis ................................................ 54
Table 4-2: DNV Class DP class notation ........................................................... 57
xvi
Nomenclature
A/E
Auxiliary engine
AIS
Automatic identification system
AN
Acidity number
BDC
Bottom dead centre
BN
Base number
CAD
Crank angle degrees
CCAI
Calculated carbon aromaticity index
CII
Calculated ignition index
CN
Cetane number
CO
Carbon monoxide
CO2
Carbon dioxide
DP
Dynamic positioning
DPF
Diesel particulate filter
ECA
Emission Control Area
EGR
Exhaust gas recirculation
EGR
Exhaust gas recirculation
EIAAP
Engine International Air Pollution Prevention
EOI
End of injection
EVC
Exhaust valve closing
EVO
Exhaust valve opening
FIA
Fuel ignition analysers
HC
Hydrocarbons
HCO
Heavy cycle oil
HFO
Heavy fuel oil
HPCR
High pressure common rail (Cummins)
HPCR
High pressure common rail
IMO
International Maritime Organization
xvii
IMR
Inspection, maintenance and repair vessel
IVC
Inlet valve closing
IVO
Inlet valve opening
LCO
Light cycle oil
LSFO
Low sulphur fuel oil
M/E
Main engine
MCR
Maximum continuous rating
MCRS
Modular common rail system (Cummins Marine)
MDO
Marine diesel oil
MGO
Marine gas oil
MOU
Mobile offshore unit
NECA
NOX Emission Control Area
NOX
Nitric oxides
NPS
Nauticus Production System
OSV
Offshore supply vessel
OSV
Offshore specialised vessel
ROHR
Rate of heat release
RPM
Revolutions per minute
SCR
Selective catalytic reduction
SiO
Ships in operation
SOI
Start of injection
SOX
Sulphur oxides
TDC
Top dead centre
VIS
Vessel information structure
xviii
xix
Chapter 1
1 Introduction
1.1 Background
The diesel engine has been the workhorse in marine industry for decades and is
continuously being developed for higher efficiencies and reduced emissions.
Diesel engines have long been the preferred choice for direct-mechanical
propulsion systems, but diesel-diesel electric propulsion systems have become
increasingly popular over the last decades. Diesel engines in generator
configuration are normally optimized for operations at medium to high loads. It
is suspected that operations at low loads combined with transient loads may
increase operational problems and thus the engine damage frequency. It is also
suspected that the negative effects of low load operations are aggravated by the
exhaust emission regulations issued by the International Maritime Organisation
(IMO). Of particular significance are the emission standards concerning
emission of nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides.
A number of diesel engine damages has been reported over the last years that
possibly can be linked to low load operations. This issue concerns relatively
new engines from different engine manufacturers of different designs and sizes.
The engine types affected are both in-line and V-engines, with power ranging
from 500–2200 kW and engine speeds ranging from 1500–1800 rpm. All the
damaged engines have been operated as generator drives on ships with dieselelectric propulsion and dynamic positioning systems [1].
1
CHAPTER 1
1.2 Motivation
A number of diesel engine damages has been reported over the last years that
possibly can be linked to low load operations. The motivation for this work is to
better understand the mechanisms that may cause operational problems to the
diesel engines during low load operations. The purpose of this thesis is to
explain these mechanisms and create a comprehensive overview of the engine
damages that can be caused by excessive low load operations. This type of
documentation is lacking today and thus requested by DNV GL.
1.3 Method
The approach to this problem can be divided into four main parts. Much work
has been laid down in advance of this master thesis, where relevant literature
has been reviewed to determine what have already been written about low load
operations of diesel engines. The pre-work proved that there has not been
conducted too many studies on the topic, but that many of the mechanisms that
are thought to affect the engine during low load operations are known from
common diesel engine theory. To get a better understanding and approach to the
problem, is theory that is considered important for the problem reviewed in the
first part of this thesis.
The second part of this thesis presents a damage case which intends to illustrate
mechanisms and damages that may result from extensive low load operations of
diesel engines in generator configuration. Originally, the intention was to
present several damage cases to better the understanding of the mechanisms and
damages that may occur during low load operations. Unfortunately, it has not
been possible to get hold of a sufficient number of damage reports where low
load operation is suspected to be the underlying damage cause. The damage
case presented can thus not be used to establish any general conclusions, but are
very useful for illustration purposes.
2
INTRODUCTION
The third part of this thesis analyses qualitatively diesel engine finding data,
which have been extracted from DNV GL’s database. This analysis is based on
simple frequency measurements of diesel engine findings. The finding
frequency describes the number of findings registered on a component per
thousand component year. The intention is to investigate whether low load
operations increase the damage frequency of diesel engines in generator
configuration and whether the negative effects of low load operations are
aggravated by the NOX emission regulations issued by IMO.
The last part of this thesis examines the industrial experiences with low load
operations of diesel engines in generator configuration. Engine manufacturers
and engine operators have been interviewed to assess the impacts of low load
operations qualitatively. Interesting questions are related to typical mechanisms
occurring at low loads, how these affect the engines, recommended corrective
actions and how stringent NOX emission regulations have influenced on the
modern four-stroke diesel engine.
1.4 Structure of the Thesis
The approach to the problem is described by four main parts. The structure of
this thesis reflects the approach of the problem and includes the flowing seven
chapters:
1. Introduction
2. Literature Review
3. Case Study
4. Finding Analysis
5. Industrial Experience
6. Discussion
7. Conclusion
3
CHAPTER 1
1.5 Low Load Operations
Low load operations of diesel engines are defined by DNV GL [2] as engine
operations at loads below 40% of maximum continuous rating. Engine loads
below 25% are defined as extreme low loads. Engine loads in the range of 40–
80% is defined as regular generator operation load. Definitions of the entire
load range are presented in Table 1-1.
Table ‎1-1: Load levels in percentage of maximum continuous rating [2]
0 – 25%
Extreme low load
25 – 40 %
Low load
40 – 80 %
Regular generator operation load
80 – 90 %
High load
90 – 100 %
Extreme high load
From an engine designer’s point of view, short periods of low load operations
are acceptable given that the engine is brought to full load on regular basis.
Marine diesel engines in generator configuration may experience long periods
of low load operations either because they are left idling as standby power
generating units or serving very low power demands during vessel operation.
Low load operations of medium- and high-speed four-stroke diesel engines
must not be confused with slow steaming. Slow steaming is a process of
deliberately reducing the engine speed of the slow-speed two-stroke engines to
cut down fuel consumption and carbon emissions. According to Sanguri [3],
slow steaming has been adopted by many shipping companies and ship owners
in order to survive in the tough times of rising fuel prices and financial
recession
4
INTRODUCTION
Low load operations of diesel engines in generator configuration are typical for,
but not limited to, offshore operating vessels with dynamic positioning (DP)
systems. Offshore operating vessels may experience a large variation in load
demand as they divide their time between transit and stationkeeping operations.
Statiokeeping operations impose stringent demands to the electrical power
generation system which are given by the International Maritime Organization
(IMO) and thus the classification societies. According to DNV GL [4], the
traditional industry practice for redundant DP systems is typically based on an
approach where the redundancy is based on running machinery and not utilizing
stand-by units or change over mechanisms. These power generation systems
have very high reliability due to multiple engine redundancy which means that
the power capacity often is much higher than the load demand during operation.
A typical operational profile for gensets on board a platform supply vessel
(PSV) is shown in the figure below. The abscissa shows the engine power rating
in percentage of maximum continuous power and the vertical axis shows vessel
operating time in hours. The diagram shows that these gensets are running at
extreme low loads for more than 60% of operation time.
Operation time [hours]
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
Engine power [%MCR]
Figure ‎1-1: Typical operational profile for offshore vessels. Courtesy of [5]
5
CHAPTER 1
1.6 Transient Load Operations
Transient load operations are together with low load operations suspected to
have a negative impact on engine operating conditions. The definition and
possible impacts of transient load operations are presented in the following
subchapter, but transient load operations will not be emphasised further in this
thesis as the main focus are the impact of low load operations of diesel engines.
Diesel engines in general may experience a large variety of operating conditions
that can be classified as transient, but for marine diesel engines operating as
generator drives are transient load changes regarded as the most important
transient condition. Transient load operations of marine diesel engine generator
drives are due to sudden changes in power demand from propulsion or deck
equipment. Figure 1-2 shows stepwise the load increase in a turbocharged diesel
engine used as generator drive. Important stages of the load change are shown
in bold letters.
Figure ‎1-2: Load increase. Courtesy of [6]
6
INTRODUCTION
The load increase that is illustrated in Figure 1-2 can be described as in the
following. Initially the engine and load torque is equal and the air-fuel ratio is
relatively high. When the load increases the engine experiences a loss in net
torque because the engine torque cannot instantly match the increased load. The
torque loss causes the engine speed to drop and thus the governor adjusts to
increase the amount of fuel to compensate. Consequently the air-fuel ratio
decreases because of insufficient air mass flow rate, which is due to delayed
response in the turbocharger. The turbocharger delay can be explained by the
fact that the increased exhaust gas power is not capable of increasing the turbine
power instantaneously because of the turbocharger inertia. During this short
period of delay the engine is running as a naturally aspirated engine and the airfuel ratio may reach values much lower than stoichiometric. Such low air-fuel
values may lead to intolerable smoke emissions and formation of soot. The low
air-fuel ratio increases the temperatures in the combustion chamber, which can
give a higher rate of NOX formation depending on the amount of oxygen
available. Mechanical stresses in form of deceleration are applied to the
crankshaft, as the load torque is larger than the engine torque. The highest value
of deceleration is reached in the first cycles where the torque difference
between engine and load is at its maximum.
1.7 Diesel Engines in Generator Configuration
The work of this thesis focuses on the impacts of low load operations of diesel
engines in generator configuration. Marine diesel engines in generator
configurations are commonly referred to as gensets and can be divided into
auxiliary gensets or main gensets based on the main propulsion principle of the
vessel they are installed on. Diesel-mechanical and diesel-electric propulsions
systems dominate the ship propulsion market today and are described as
follows:
7
CHAPTER 1
Diesel-Mechanical‎Propulsion
Diesel-mechanical propulsion, also referred to as conventional propulsion, is a
direct driven or geared propulsion system. The propellers can be directly driven
by low-speed two stroke engines or geared driven by four stroke medium-speed
engines. The large two-stroke engines remain as the most popular propulsion
alternative for deep-sea cargo ships, while medium-speed engines dominate as
propulsion alternative for smaller cargo ships as well as larger specialised
vessels such as cruise vessels, ferries and RoRo freight carriers [7].
Diesel-Electric‎Propulsion
Diesel-electric propulsion is in this study defined as a form of indirect drive
using electric motors for propulsion and power stations based on multi mediumor high-speed gensets. Diesel-electric propulsion is dominant in cruise ships,
new generations of LNG-carriers, short sea and deep sea chemical carriers,
North Sea shuttle tankers, offshore vessels and ferries [7].
Genset‎Configurations
Gensets on vessels with conventional propulsion is in this study referred to as
auxiliary gensets. These are primarily used to supply electrical power to
electrical consumers on board. Gensets on vessels with diesel-electric
propulsion are referred to as main gensets and are used for propulsion in
addition to supply the electrical power the consumers on board. In case of DPvessels, the gensets must supply additional electrical power to DP-thrusters to
ensure stationkeeping capabilities. DP-systems are found on vessels with
conventional and electric propulsion. Vessels with conventional propulsion
utilize their auxiliary engines to supply electric power to DP-thrusters to ensure
stationkeeping capabilities. DP operations imposes large variations in load
which means that the load profiles for main and auxiliary engines on DP-vessels
most likely will not be as uniform as the load profiles for main and auxiliary
engines on board non DP-vessels.
8
Chapter 2
2 Literature Review
To better understand the mechanisms that can cause operational problems
during low load operations, existing literature have been reviewed. Scientific
literature on impacts of low load operation on modern diesel engines has proved
to be limited. This literature review treats topics concerning marine diesel
engines, marine fuels, marine exhaust formation and restrictions, marine
lubricants, tribology and maintenance. These are all important topics that can be
used to substantiate the discussion of impacts of low load operations on diesel
engines.
2.1 Marine Diesel Engines
The diesel engine has been the workhorse in marine industry for decades and is
continuously being developed for higher efficiencies and reduced emissions.
The following section intends to describe basic diesel engine theory and
important features of the modern four-stroke diesel engine to better understand
mechanisms that can affect the diesel engine during low loads operations.
2.1.1
Four-Stroke Cycle
The four-stroke diesel engine cycle consist of intake, compression, expansion
and exhaust strokes and is completed in two revolutions of the crankshaft.
During the intake stroke, fresh air is inducted into the cylinder through intake
valves. The fresh air is then compressed by the piston in the compression stroke.
Fuel is injected into the cylinder near top dead centre (TDC) and ignites due to
9
CHAPTER 2
the high temperature caused by the high cylinder pressure. Gases expand and
push the piston downwards in the expansion stroke. After reaching the bottom
dead centre (BDC), the burned gases are pushed through the exhaust valves
during the exhaust stroke. The engine cycle is not affected by part loads
directly, but the processes taking place during this cycle is affected in many
ways.
2.1.2
Engine Speed
Marine diesel engines can be categorized by their rotational speed into three
groups named high-, medium- and low-speed engines. High- and medium-speed
engines are predominantly four-stroke engines and are both used for propelling
smaller commercial vessels as well as generator drives. The crossover point
between medium- and high-speed diesel engines is not sharply defined, but for
the purpose of this study engines running at 1000 rpm and above are defined as
high-speed engines. Valid for both high- and medium speed engines driving
generators is that the engine speed has to satisfy the interrelation between the
frequency of an alternator (50 Hz or 60 Hz) and the number of pole pairs. The
high-speed engine operates at higher piston speeds than the typical mediumspeed engine and burns distillate fuels in preference to lower graded heavy fuel
oils. High-speed engines have generally higher specific power outputs and
higher combustion pressures and exhaust temperatures than the medium-speed
engines.
2.1.3
Combustion Process
Fuel ignition in the diesel engine is attained by high temperature resulting from
compression of the cylinder charge air. The combustion of the diesel engine
spray is a combination of partially premixed and partially diffusive combustion.
The combustion process can be described by four stages, including the ignition
delay, which are common to all diesel engines and illustrated by Figure 2-1.
10
LITERATURE REVIEW
Figure ‎2-1: Combustion phases and the rate of heat release. Courtesy of [8]
Ignition delay (a-b) is defined as the period from when the fuel injection starts
(SOI) to the onset of combustion. Premixed combustion phase (b-c) is the first
phase and is the combustion of fuel which has mixed with air to within the
flammability limits during the ignition delay period. This phase occurs rapidly
in a few crank angle degrees and is characterized by high rates of heat release.
The next phase is the mixing controlled combustion (c-d). After the fuel and air
which was premixed during the ignition delay is consumed, the burning rate is
controlled by the rate at which the mixture becomes available for burning. The
injection of fuel ends in this phase (EOI). The last phase is called late
combustion (d-e). The burning continues at a lower rate well into the expansion
stroke. This is combustion of any unburned liquid fuel and soot when no
additional fuel is introduced. The combustion in a diesel engine occurs
throughout the chamber over a range of equivalence ratios dictated by the fuelair mixing before and during the combustion phases. In general most of the
combustion occurs under very rich conditions within the head of jet. This
produces considerable amounts of solid carbon, commonly referred to as soot.
11
CHAPTER 2
2.1.4
Combustion Temperature
The temperatures of the diesel flame are very high and a peak temperature of
2700 K has been measured [9]. Heat loss to engine surface metal and excess air
causes the gas temperature to be significantly lower than the flame temperature.
The gas temperature is also reduced during the piston expansion stroke. The gas
temperature is decisive for high combustion efficiency as well as for the
removal of engine deposits. At reduced load, the fuel/air-ratio is reduced and
thus the gas temperature reduced.
2.1.5
Fuel Injection
Finely atomized fuel is introduced into the compressed air in the cylinder during
the compression stroke. The cylinder pressure at this point can be up to 230 bar
and the pressure at the atomizer can be between 1300–1800 bar in turbocharged
engines [7]. High injection pressures at full load reduces the duration of
injection which is favourable in terms of fuel economy, emissions and the
ability to accept low grade fuels. In a mechanical fuel injection system, the
injection pressure is a function of engine speed and load. During low load
operations the injection pressure drops, which result in very large fuel droplets
that will not ignite. This can be avoided by using a common rail injection
system which ensures that the same high injection pressure is maintained at all
engine loads. Most modern four-stroke diesel engines are using this technology.
Figure 2-2 shows a comparison of the common rail injection system and a
conventional mechanical injection system for different engine loads at constant
engine speed. In contrast to conventional systems, common rail systems allow a
high injection pressure and small fuel droplets to be maintained down to idling
[7]. Electronic fuel injection was first introduced to high-speed engines, but is
today successfully applied to medium-speed engines as well. Electronically
controlled fuel injection is today essential to meet exhaust emission legislation
together with higher injection rates, higher injection pressures, optimized spray
patterns, flow-controlled nozzles and low sac volume nozzles. As well as
12
LITERATURE REVIEW
limiting harmful emissions, electronic fuel injection is said to offer enhanced
reliability, diagnostic capability, optimized timing and fuel control for all load
and speed conditions, including transient operation [7].
Figure ‎2-2: Injection pressure and engine load. Courtesy of [7]
2.1.6
Valve Timing
Exhaust valve opening (EVO) generally occur 40–60 crank angle degrees
(CAD) before BDC during the expansion stroke. EVO is set to minimize loss of
piston expansion work due to EVO before BDC and at the same time minimize
piston pumping work which requires EVO before BDC. These two
requirements are contradictive which means that EVO timing is a trade-off
between lost expansion work and pumping work. Intake valve opening (IVO)
normally takes place before TDC during the exhaust stroke and exhaust valve
closing (EVC) normally takes place after TDC during the intake stroke. The
time when both exhaust and intake valves are open is called the overlap region.
The purpose of this overlap is to increase the scavenging of the residual gases in
the cylinder so that more fresh air can be trapped inside. The length of the
overlap region is in many engines restricted to avoid contact between piston and
valve due to geometric limitations. Intake valve closing (IVC) is generally set to
13
CHAPTER 2
20–60 CAD after BDC during the compression stroke. IVC timing is in most
cases set to maximize the volumetric efficiency. A valve timing diagram is
shown in Figure 2-3. Volumetric efficiency is used as an overall measure of the
effectiveness of a four stroke cycle engine and its intake and exhaust systems as
an air pumping device.
Figure ‎2-3: Valve timing diagram. Courtesy of [8]
Miller timing is a preferable IVC strategy to improve engine efficiency and
reduce NOX emissions. According to Codan and Vlaskos [10], practically every
modern diesel engine is today operated with at least moderate Miller timing.
Miller cycle is achieved by closing the intake valve earlier or later than normal
i.e. early or late IVC. This type of inlet valve timing reduces the effective
compression stroke so it becomes shorter than the expansion stroke. Reducing
the effective compression stroke lowers the combustion temperature which is
one of the key factors to reduce NOX emissions. Shorter compression stroke
must be compensated by higher charge air pressure i.e. increasing demands is
made on the turbocharging system. Thus Miller cycle can give cold start
problems, increased smoke emissions and operating problems at part load and
especially at low load. Such problems can be avoided by switching to a more
beneficial timing by using a variable inlet valve closing system.
14
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1.7
Cylinder Arrangement
The upper region of the piston is called the piston crown. The shape of the
piston crown is important for how swirl and squish are generated which in turn
determines how fuel and air is mixed in the cylinder. The piston bowl can be
relatively flat so that the fuel is injected nearly horizontally towards the cylinder
wall. Some engines have deeper piston bowls where the fuel is injected at lower
angles into the bowl. Piston rings form the seal between the cylinder liner and
the piston, preventing leakage of high temperature combustion gases. The lower
piston ring is the oil ring, which is designed to collect and distribute oil on the
cylinder liner. Removing excess lubricating oil from the cylinder liner prevents
an excessive build-up of carbon deposits around the rings and on the piston
crown. The piston ring sealing efficiency relies on the cylinder pressure, which
can be problematic at low engine loads. The piston pin or wrist pin connects the
piston to the connecting rod. Most modern marine medium- and high-speed
engines are equipped with a carbon-cutting ring, also termed as anti-polishing
ring or fire ring. The ring is inserted in the upper part of the cylinder liner
between the top piston ring turning point and the top of the cylinder liner
specified to eliminate the phenomenon of cylinder bore polishing caused by
carbon deposits. A secondary function is that the carbon-cutting ring helps to
reduce the lubrication oil consumption. The ring causes a compressive effect
that forces excessive lubrication oil away from the combustion zone [7].
2.2 Marine Fuels
Different types of fuel oil applications and environmental considerations have
led to different types of fuel oil specifications. Fuel related operational
problems have been introduced with the upgrade of the refinery process from
straight run to complex refining in the last decades [11]. This subchapter intends
to review relevant marine fuels and fuel properties affecting combustion process
and thus engine operation. Most fuel related problems concern heavy fuel oils,
but some problems also concern distillate fuels.
15
CHAPTER 2
2.2.1
Fuel Standards
The literature often refers to Marine Gas Oil (MGO), Marine Diesel Oil (MDO)
and Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) when describing marine fuel types. MGO and MDO
are marine distillate fuels, while HFO is a residual fuel. These are not
standardised fuel grades, but can be translated into DMA, DMB and RMx
which are defined in the International Standard ISO 8217. Both distillates and
residual fuels are used to fuel modern four-stroke diesel engines in generator
configuration. Most medium-speed diesel engines can run on both residual and
distillate fuels while high-speed diesel engines mostly run on distillate fuels.
2.2.2
Low Sulphur Fuels
The sulphur content of marine fuels depends on the crude oil origin and the
refining process. During the combustion process, sulphur is converted into
sulphur oxides. These oxides are corrosive to engine piston liners and must be
neutralized by the cylinder lubricant. If the correct lubricant is used, the sulphur
content of marine fuels is technically not important, but sulphur oxides do have
environmental implications. Fuels that are within the specification of ISO
8217:2010 are not necessary in compliance with the regulations in force at the
vessel’s location. IMO MARPOL sets limitations regarding the sulphur content
of any fuel oil used on board ships. Low sulphur fuels may have a negative
impact on different fuel properties depending on the fuel type. DNV GL [12]
suggests a relation between fuel properties and fuel types as shown in Table 2-1.
Table ‎2-1: Low sulphur fuel properties and fuel types [12]
Low‎viscosity
MDO
Lubricity
MGO/MDO
Acidity
MGO/MDO/HFO
Flash‎point
MGO/MDO/HFO
Ignition‎and‎combustion‎quality
HFO
Increased‎catalytic‎fines
HFO
16
LITERATURE REVIEW
Fuel Properties
2.2.3
This subsection reviews marine fuel properties that may have impact on the
diesel engine operations. ISO 8217 specifies the required properties for different
fuels at the time and place for custody transfer. According to ISO 8217 [13], the
general requirement is that the fuel shall conform to the characteristics and
limits given in the Standard when tested in accordance with methods specified
in the Standard. Fuel properties reviewed in this subsection are given in
Table 2-2.
Table ‎2-2: Fuel requirements according to ISO 8217:2010 [13]
Limit
MGO/
DMA
MDO/
DMB
HFO/
RMx
max.
6
11
700
min.
2
2
N/A
kg/m
max.
890
900
1010
Cetane‎index
-
min.
40
35
N/A
CCAI
-
max.
N/A
N/A
mass %
max.
1.5
1
1
°C
min.
60
60
60
mg KOH/g
max.
0.5
0.5
2.5
Carbon‎residue
mass %
max.
-
0.3
20.0
Ash
mass %
max.
0.01
0.01
0.15
volume %
max.
-
0.3
0.5
mg/kg
max.
N/A
N/A
60
Characteristics
Viscosity
Density
Sulphur
Flash‎point
Acid‎number
Water
Aluminium‎+‎silicon
Unit
mm2/s
3
2.0
870
S/R 2
1
Notwithstanding the limits given, the purchaser shall define the maximum
sulphur in accordance with relevant statutory limits.
2
Statutory requirements (S/R). The purchaser shall define the maximum
sulphur in accordance with relevant statutory limits.
17
CHAPTER 2
Viscosity
The viscosity at the moment the fuel leaves the injectors must be within the
limits specified by the engine manufacturer to obtain an optimal spray pattern.
The spray pattern is important to obtain sufficient fuel atomization in a very
short time. Viscosity outside the given limits will lead to poor combustion and
thus deposit formations. Excessive formation of deposits may lead to piston
scuffing and piston ring failures. The viscosity of the fuel is controlled by the
preheating system on board the ship and the fuel viscosity decreases with
increased fuel temperature. Too low viscosity affects the lubricating properties
of the fuel, which affects all components that depend on the fuel for lubrication.
This is mainly a problem to high-pressure fuel pumps where low viscosity can
lead to increased wear and even breakage. Low sulphur MDOs has often a
lower viscosity than fuels with “normal” sulphur content. Most marine
equipment designed for the use of MGO or MDO require a fuel viscosity not
lower than about two centistokes at operating temperature. Low sulphur MDO
has typically viscosity in the lower allowable range at 40°C [14]. The fuel
temperature will normally increase between the storage tank and engine because
of pump friction, ambient temperature and recirculation of unused fuel. This
will often lead to fuel temperatures higher than 40°C and hence viscosities
outside the allowable viscosity range [12].
Density
The fuel density gives an indication of the ignition quality of the fuel within a
certain product class. This is in particular applicable to the low viscosity IFOs.
High levels of aromatics increase the density and negatively affect the ignition
quality of the fuel. The fuel density is important for the on board purification of
the fuel. Separation techniques to separate water and fuel are based on the
difference in density between the two substances. Diesel engine fuels should
ideally be free from dissolved water and salts and extra centrifuging is thus
required for high gravity fuels.
18
LITERATURE REVIEW
Ignition‎quality
The cetane number (CN) is a measure of the ignition quality of diesel engine
fuels. The cetane index is a calculated number based on the density and
distillation range of the fuel and is applicable for gasoil and distillate fuels.
High cetane numbers denote a shorter ignition delay period, which is a
necessity for high-speed diesel engines. Other scales used are used for residual
fuels. CCAI is one indicator of the ignition delay which is calculated from the
density and the viscosity of the fuel. CCAI limits are given in ISO 8217:2010.
Some engine manufacturers even specify CCAI limits for their engines
depending on engine type and application [11]. The ignition quality varies
substantially for heavy fuel oils. Low sulphur heavy fuel oils in particular have
poorer ignition quality than others due to the production process. Low ignition
quality may cause trouble at engine start-up and during low loads operations,
particularly if the engine is not sufficiently preheated. Poor ignition quality may
result in late ignition, poor combustion or prolonged combustion. This can lead
to increased soot formation and aggregation of unburned fuel in the cylinders.
Sometimes the soot formation is so excessive that the resulting fouling inhibits
moving parts such as valves. Modern diesel engines have higher compression
ratios and more optimized compression ratios than earlier engine designs and
are not that sensitive to the ignition properties of heavy fuel oils as their
predecessors.
Flash‎point
Flash point is the temperature at which the vapours of a fuel ignite when a test
flame is applied [13]. The lower limit flash point for all fuels to be used in bulk
on board vessels is set at 60°C according to SOLAS. Low sulphur fuel can be
manufactured by mixing a normal sulphur grade fuel with very low sulphur
graded fuels. These lighter fraction fuels have a much lower flashpoint than
“normal” sulphur fuel grades. The flash point of low sulphur fuel grades can be
as low as 43°C [14], which will reduce the flash point of the new fuel blends
significantly.
19
CHAPTER 2
Acidity
Fuels with high acid numbers arising from acidic compounds, occasionally
cause accelerated damage to diesel engines [13]. Such damage is found
primarily within the fuel injection equipment. All fuels have a naturally
occurring acid number which is generally less than 0.5 mg/KOH/g for distillate
fuels and generally less than 2.5 mg KOH/g for residual fuels [13]. Significantly
higher acid number levels may indicate large amounts of acidic compounds and
other contaminants. A decrease in the fuel sulphur content decreases the acidity
hazard. The cylinder lubrication philosophy is based on the principle that the
lubrication oil, which is supplied to the cylinders, contains sufficient alkaline
additives to neutralise the corrosive effect of the acidic sulphur products formed
during combustion [12]. This means that when the amount of sulphur is
decreased in the fuel, the amount of neutralising additives shall be reduced
accordingly. Too high amounts of additives in the oil may lead to build-up of
deposits that can be harmful to the lubricating film that protects the cylinder
liner.
Carbon‎residues
Carbon rich fuels are more difficult to burn and have a combustion
characteristic that can lead to increased formation of soot and carbon deposits.
The carbon residue value is used as an indication of the fuel’s tendency to
deposit carbon [13]. This particular property is independent of combustion
conditions, but still an important mechanism related to the formation of carbon
deposits in the cylinder.
Ash‎content
The ash content is a measure of the metals present in the fuel. Residual fuels
contain some metallic species, where some are naturally present such as
vanadium, sodium, calcium and nickel. Other metallic species are introduced
from external sources such as sodium, aluminium, silicon and iron. During
combustion, these metals are converted into solid particles of oxides, sulphates
or more complex compounds. These particles are collectively known as ash. At
20
LITERATURE REVIEW
certain temperatures, these solid ash particles become partly fluid and adhere to
components in the combustion system. Adhering ash deposits can cause damage
either by a process called hot corrosion [13]. The temperature, at which the ash
particles start to become fluid and to stick to surfaces, is often referred to as the
stiction temperature [13]. This temperature is lowest for ashes that are rich in
vanadium and/or sodium. For this reason is particular attention paid to these
metals in the fuel. Vanadium is a natural component of the fuel and the only
practical way to restrict the metal is by limiting its content in the production.
Unlike vanadium, sodium is not usually present in the fuel. High levels of
sodium are associated with sea water contamination.
Asphaltene‎content
High asphaltene content indicate that fuel is difficult to ignite and will thus burn
slowly. Asphaltenes may also contribute to deposit formation in the combustion
chamber and exhaust gas system [13].
Catalytic‎fines
Heavy cycle oil is used in the complex refining processes as a blending
component for residual fuels. Mechanically damaged catalyst particles cannot
be removed completely in a cost-effective way, and are thus found in blended
residual fuels [11]. Catalytic fines are the main source of potentially abrasive
particles in residual marine fuel. These are controlled by the limitation of
aluminium plus silicon in the fuel. In order to avoid abrasive wear of fuel
pumps, injectors and cylinder liners, it is recommended that the fuel entering
the engine contain less than 15 mg/kg after on board fuel treatment [13].
Water
The percentage of water in the fuel can be translated into a corresponding
energy loss and cause unstable combustion. Water also gives growth conditions
for bacteria, yeast and fungus in the oil-water transition zone commonly
referred to as diesel bugs. Such bacteria contamination can cause to clogged
fuel filters.
21
CHAPTER 2
2.2.4
Fuel Quality
Modern refinery processes have become more efficient at producing as much
distillate products as possible from a given quantity of fuel. This has resulted in
a rapid increase in the number of thermal and catalytic conversion units used in
the refinery technology. Conversion or cracking of the residue increases the
aromaticity of marine fuels which in turn affects the stability, ignition and
combustion quality [11]. Aromatics have high auto ignition temperatures, which
increases with increasing aromaticity. The aromaticity of the fuel can be used as
a measure of the resistance to ignite or ignition delay.
Two empirical formulas, the calculated carbon aromaticity index (CCAI) and
calculated ignition index (CII), can be used as a measure of ignition quality.
Both CCAI and CII are calculated from the density and kinematic viscosity of
the fuel. Ignition characteristics, determined by the CCAI were added to ISO
8217 in 2010. According to Iversen [15], the problem with these empirical
formulas is that they do not consider the effects of modern fuel blending
technics. Fuel ignition analysers (FIA) has been developed, but is not yet
internationally accepted. The most reliable way to establish factual ignition and
combustion properties of fuels is to make use of FIA. This testing method is
however considered too expensive by many operators. Therefore, the less costly
but highly inaccurate empirical formulas CCAI and CII used instead and
accepted as an accurate result.
A CIMAC paper from 2007 [16] reviews the effects of a changing oil industry
on the marine fuel quality. The paper concludes that the fuel composition
significantly affects the ignition performance of the fuels. It further concludes
that it cannot be assumed that generic refinery streams e.g. cycle oils, will have
similar ignition performances. The ignition performance of blends cannot be
predicted, particularly if the streams come from different sources. Figure 2-4
shows the ignition delay as a function of engine load for different residual
blends. High engine load causes high cylinder temperatures and pressures
22
LITERATURE REVIEW
which normally will give shorter ignition delays. Low engine load causes the
cylinder temperatures and pressures to decrease which normally will increase
the ignition delay. The figure indicates that adding light cycle oil (LCO) to a
500 centistoke fuel will increase the ignition delay because of the high
aromaticity and poor ignition quality of the LCO. At low loads, the ignition
delay is shorter than for the 500 centistoke fuel. A 60/40 blend of 500 and 380
centistoke gives a significantly shorter ignition delay than any of the other
blends. This emphasises the complexity of predicting the ignition quality of new
fuel blends.
Figure ‎2-4: Load dependency of marine fuels. Four different fuels blends show
different load dependence. Courtesy of [16]
Beside deteriorated ignition qualities, are problems related to the content of
catalytic fines and fuel stability an increasing concern to fuels produced from
complex refinery processes [17]. Although ISO 8217 have been revised and
amended several times since 1987, the standard does not reflect recent advances
in process technologies. There are marine fuels in the market today that give
problems whilst apparently meeting the ISO 8217 requirements. The
requirements of ISO 8217 specify limits on a number of fuel parameters as
described in subchapter 2.2.3. These do only define the requirements of fuel and
are not necessarily within the requirements of the diesel engine.
23
CHAPTER 2
The first area of increasing concern is the content of catalytic fines in the fuel,
which is the main source of potentially abrasive particles in residual marine
fuel. These abrasive particles are limited by the control of aluminium plus
silicon in ISO 8217:2010, set at a level of 60 mg/kg. According to Iversen [15],
this is equal to the maximum limit of catalytic fines which was accepted by the
shipping company Wilh. Wilhelmsen already in the late 1970s. Ideally, the
separators should reduce the amount of aluminium plus silicon by 80%, but the
separator efficiency highly depends on the effort and the knowledge of the crew
on board. A separator must be cleaned frequently and its capacity monitored
closely. According to Strøm [18], the reduction grade in separators is typically
only around 50-60%. Vessel operators operating their engines on fuels with high
catalytic fines content risk component damage such as the cylinder liner
scuffing. This is shown in picture (a) in Figure 2-5.
The second area of increasing concern is that today’s heavy fuel oils have
challenging stability issues. These problems are said to be increased by the
introduction of SECAs and thus the production of low sulphur fuel oils (LSFO).
This is due to the blending with components that are not fully compatible [18].
The hydroscopic components of these fuels tend to absorb more water and
produce greater amounts of sludge [17]. The fuels are also blended with cutter
stocks to meet the viscosity and density requirements of ISO 8217. Viscosity
reduction of a visbroken fuel with a paraffinic-type cutter stock can make the
fuel unstable because of unstable asphaltenes that can start clogging together.
This can result in fuel sludge precipitation which is slow at first, but
progressively accelerates over time. Stability problems may cause the quality of
heavy fuels and distillate fuels to deteriorate during long term storage. Picture
(b) in Figure 2-5 shows a sludge plugged fuel filter from a diesel engine in
standby generator configuration. Sludge producing fuel incompatibility
problems can become quite aggressive just a few days after bunkering [17].
Picture (c) in Figure 2-5 shows that, like heavy fuel oil, marine gas oil can
24
LITERATURE REVIEW
deteriorate in long term storage and loose ignition quality. The sample of MGO
to the left in picture (c) has begun to stratify.
(a)
(b)
(c)
Figure ‎2-5: Marine fuel quality issues . Picture (a) shows cylinder liner scuffing
caused by catalytic fines in the fuel. Picture (b) shows a sludge plugged fuel
filter. Picture (c) shows fuel deterioration in long term storage. Courtesy of [17]
Fuels resulting from complex refinery processes, i.e. catalytic cracking or
visbraking refinery, have a composition that is very different from fuels
resulting from an atmospheric refinery. The complex refining process has
introduced new blend components to the distillates, which is called light cycle
oils (LCO). According to Vermeire [11], these blends can contain up to 60%
aromatics in which increases the density and decreases the ignition quality of
the distillates. Distillate marine diesel (MDO) has typically a lower cetane index
and higher density than marine gasoil (MGO). Reduced ignition quality due to
high aromaticity content in distillates may lead to ignition problems for diesel
engines that are not designed to run on heavy fuel. In general, there are
according to Strøm [18] significantly less problems when running on distillates
than heavy fuel oil. Although, there are some challenges related to sulphur and
water content. Distillates has very low particle content, normally less than one
mg/kg, but impurities can still cause filtration problems. Too low viscosities and
flash points are also more common to distillates resulting from complex
refining processes.
25
CHAPTER 2
2.3 Marine Lubricants
The functions of cylinder lubricants are the same whether the engine is
operating on distillates or residual fuel oil. As the piston moves in the cylinder,
the lubricant eliminates or minimizes the metal-to-metal contact between piston
rings, piston and liner. The oil also assists in providing a gas seal between the
piston rings and the cylinder liner. In addition, lubrication oil work as a
transportation fluid for the functional alkaline additive system and removes
combustion deposits from the piston ring pack. Minimizing deposit build-up on
all piston and liner surfaces is another important function of the lubricant [7].
2.3.1
Lubricant Properties
Marine lubricants are valuable indicators of the overall functioning and wear of
the engine. The deterioration of a lubricant goes slowly under normal engine
operating conditions, but under abnormal conditions and engine malfunctions,
the lubricants can degrade much faster.
Viscosity
The most important lubricating property is the viscosity. Increased viscosity of
used lubricating oils may be caused by oxidation/nitration or soot
contamination. Dilution with high viscosity heavy fuel oil or the use of a higher
viscosity grade lubricant is other possible causes. A viscosity decrease of used
lubricating oil may be caused by lower viscosity grade lubricants or dilution
with low viscosity fuels.
Base‎number
The Base Number (BN) is an alkaline reserve added to the lubricating oil to
neutralise acidic products of combustion derived from sulphur in the fuel, and
thus protect the components against corrosion [19]. There are mainly two types
of corrosion, namely hot corrosion and cold corrosion. Hot corrosion is caused
by vanadium and cold corrosion is caused by sulphur. BN decreases as acids are
neutralized and it is common to change oil when the BN level is reduced by 50–
26
LITERATURE REVIEW
60% [19]. Excessive piston ring blow-by may accelerate the depletion of the
base number. This is due to the increased amount of acids from the combustion
products entering the oil sump.
2.3.2
Lubricant Contamination
Contamination of the lubricating oil may cause operational problems such as
liner lacquering, piston deposits, increased oil consumption, base number
depletion, hot corrosion of the piston crown, oil scraper ring clogging and
increased piston deposits [11]. Contamination of lubricating oil is a problem
that may arise in medium- and high-speed engines. This is mainly due to
combustion blow-by gasses and fuel dilution. Modern diesel engines have
higher fuel pump pressures which contribute to increased fuel leakage. Heavy
fuel oils contain cracked asphaltenes, which do not dissolve in the lubricating
oil. The asphaltenes coagulate and form particles that are very sticky and thus
form black deposits on all metal surfaces. Lubricant contamination can also be
caused by engine operations outside optimum operating point.
According to Fitch [20], any of the contaminants described below is capable of
causing premature or even sudden engine failure. The article presents four lethal
diesel engine oil contaminants, which the author claims that cause thousands of
diesel engines to fail prematurely every year. These contaminates are glycol,
fuel, soot and water. Problems are known to be more pronounced when
contamination combinations exist, such as high soot content with glycol or high
soot content with fuel dilution.
Glycol
Glycol enters the diesel engine lubricating oil as a result of defective seals,
blown head gaskets, cracked cylinder heads, corrosion damage and cavitation.
Small amounts of coolant containing glycol in the diesel engine oil is enough to
coagulate soot and cause sludge and deposits that can lead to oil flow
restrictions and filter blockage. According to Fitch [20], glycol contamination
can results in wear ten times greater than water contamination alone. Glycol
27
CHAPTER 2
contamination can increase the oil viscosity which impairs lubrication oil
properties and the oil cooling process.
Fuel‎dilution
Frequent engine starts and excessive idling or low load operations can lead to
moderate fuel dilution problems. Severe dilution (excess of 2%) is associated
with leakage, fuel injection problems and deteriorated combustion efficiency.
Fuel dilution can drop the viscosity of the lubricant causing critical oil film
thicknesses to collapse. This can result in premature combustion zone wear
including piston, rings and liner and crankcase bearing wear. Fuel dilution from
defective injectors can cause wash-down of lubricating oil on the cylinder
liners. This accelerates ring, piston and cylinder wear. Severe fuel dilution also
dilutes the concentration of oil additives and hence reducing their effectiveness.
Soot
The soot formation rate is directly related to the combustion efficiency. Poor
ignition timing, low air/fuel ratios and excessive ring clearance can cause soot
contamination of the lubricant. The viscosity increases with increased soot
contamination. High viscosity corresponds to cold-start problems and risk of oil
starvation.
Water
Water is known to be one of the most destructive contaminants in most
lubricating oils. It attacks additives, induces base oil oxidation and interferes
with oil film production. Excessive idling or low load operations prevent water
evaporation and cause water condensation, which can lead to loss of base
number and corrosive attack on surfaces and oxidation of the oil. Emulsified
water can accumulate dead additives, soot, oxidation products and sludge,
which can cause clogged oil filters and consequently restrict the oil flow. Water
contamination also increases the corrosive potential of common acids found in
the lubricating oil.
28
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.4 Marine Emission Regulations
Exhaust gas emissions from marine diesel engines are of great concern due to
their impact the environment and public health. Emissions from combustion of
fossil fuels can be divided into primary and secondary combustion products
[21]. Primary combustion products include carbon dioxide (CO2) and water
(H2O), which affect the environment through greenhouse effects and localized
fog. Their emissions can only be reduced through fuel modifications or by
exhaust gas treatment. Secondary combustion products include carbon
monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), soot, nitric oxides (NOX),
sulphur oxides (SOX) and oxides of metals. These pollutants may cause health
problems and contribute to acid rain. Marine engine designers have in recent
years had to meet the challenges of tightening controls on exhaust gas emissions
imposed by national, regional and international authorities. Engine designers
are continuously working on optimizing their engines for reduced emissions by
tuning engine parameters. Some of these adjustments are suspected to have
negative impacts on engine operation at lower engine loads.
2.4.1
Pollution Formation
Temperature and residence time are two important parameters influencing the
formation of pollutants in a diesel engine. Temperatures affect the onset of
certain chemical reactions and consequently the formation of certain chemical
species. Combustion temperature is strongly related to the equivalence ratio, the
pollutant formation can thus be influenced by controlling the reactant mixture
composition. Residence time is defined as the amount of time reactance reside
in the combustion chamber. To complete chemical reactions sufficient time
must be provided for the reactants to react. The cylinder temperature is regarded
as the most important parameter in the combustion process because of the
reaction rate’s exponential dependence on temperature. Figure 2-6 shows the
trends of emission versus equivalence ratio. NOX formation is strongly
temperature dependant and tends to peak at slightly lean conditions where the
29
CHAPTER 2
temperature is high and there is excess of oxygen. CO and HC levels become
large for very rich and very lean mixtures. In very rich mixtures the oxygen
level are insufficient which results in incomplete combustion and thus high
levels of CO and HC. In very lean mixtures the temperature is too low for
oxidation of CO and HC.
Figure ‎2-6: Trends of emission in terms of equivalence ratio.
Courtesy of [21]
2.4.2
NOX Emission Control
Nitric oxides (NOX) refer to the total content of NO and NO2. NOX are
produced primarily from the nitrogen contained in the air and are the main
cause of smog and acid rain. NOX emissions from ship engines are significant
on a global level. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has adopted a
convention for control of NOX emissions from ships named MARPOL Annex
VI. The legislation sets limits for NOX emissions in standards referred to as Tier
I, II and III. Tier I and II limits are global, while Tier III standards will only
apply in NOX emission controlled areas (NECAs). The NOX control
requirements of Annex VI apply marine diesel engines of over 130 kW output
of power. Different levels (Tiers) of control apply based on the ship keel layer
30
LITERATURE REVIEW
date or engine installation date and rated engine speed. This is illustrated in
Figure 2-7. Tier I (orange) and Tier II (blue) applies to ships constructed on or
after 1 January 2000 and 2011. Tier III (green) will apply to ships constructed
on or after 1 January 2021. To show compliance an engine has to be certified
according to the NOX technical code and be delivered with an Engine
International Air Pollution Prevention (EIAAP) certificate of compliance.
18
16
NOX [g/kW]
14
Tier I
12
10
8
Tier II (global)
6
Tier III (NECA)
4
2
0
0
200
400
600
800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200
Rated engine speed [rpm]
Figure ‎2-7: MARPOL Annex VI NOX emission limits
There are two main methods of reducing NOX emissions in marine diesel
engines, namely primary (in-engine) measures and secondary measures. Tier I
and II standards are met by primary measures. Engine manufacturers are
working with parameters such as fuel injection timing, pressure, rate (rate
shaping), fuel nozzle flow area, exhaust valve timing and cylinder compression
volume. The focus is to lower the concentration of nitrogen, peak temperatures
and the amount of time in which the combustion gases remain at high
temperatures. Compliance with Tier III standards require dedicated NOX
emission control technologies, also referred to as secondary measures.
31
CHAPTER 2
Primary Measures
Primary measures aim at reducing the amount of NOX formed during
combustion by optimizing engine parameters. According to Woodyard [7], NOX
emission levels can be reduced by 30–60% with primary measures.
Water‎addition
Water can be introduced into the cylinder in three different ways; by fuel-water
emulsion, direct water injection or water injection into the intake air. The
introduction of water into the combustion increases the specific heat capacity of
the cylinder gases and reduces the overall oxygen concentration. The NOX
emissions are reduced due to lower cylinder temperatures and less oxygen
available.
Modified‎fuel‎injection
Adjustments in injection timing are one of the fundamental means of achieving
reduction in NOX emissions. Late injection leads to lower peak pressures and
consequently lower temperatures in the combustion chamber. The retarded
injection also reduces the amount of fuel burnt before peak pressure is reached,
thus reducing the residence time and degree of after-compression of the first
burnt gas. The injection period has also become shorter and more distinct by
increasing the fuel injection pressure.
Reducing the fuel spray cone angle decreases the NOX emissions, but slightly
increases the fuel consumption. The reason is that the smaller spray angle
reduces the air entrainment into the spray, which in turn results in less prepared
mixture for the premixed combustion phase. This causes lower peak
temperatures more of the combustion takes place during the mixing-controlled
combustion phase. Increasing the nozzle tip protrusion slightly decreases the
amount of NOX because the fuel spray is injected closer to the cylinder wall
giving lower cylinder pressure and temperature due to quenching.
32
LITERATURE REVIEW
Miller‎cycle
The Miller cycle normally involves early closing of the inlet valve, which
means that the inlet valve is closing before the piston reaches BDC during the
intake stroke. The charge air expands inside the cylinder as the piston moves
downward, which results in reduced charge air temperatures and hence lower
peak temperatures in the combustion chamber. Higher emissions of PM at part
load are suffered, but can be eliminated by a variable valve timing system with
the Miller cycle. To maintain the mean effective pressure, the Miller cycle
requires a higher turbocharger pressure than normal to compensate for shorter
inlet valve opening.
Exhaust‎gas‎recirculation
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system introduces exhaust gas into the charge
air which increases the specific heat capacity and reduces the overall oxygen
concentration of the cylinder gases. EGR can be attained by either internal or
external methods. Internal EGR system utilizes the valve overlap period to
regulate how much exhaust gas that shall remain in the cylinder during the
combustion process. This method is primarily limited to engines with variable
valve timing. External EGR reintroduce cleaned and cooled exhaust in the
combustion chamber. This method requires a separate system, but is more
efficient than the internal EGR.
Secondary Measures
Secondary measures are designed to remove NOX from the exhaust gas by
downstream cleaning techniques. According to Woodyard [7], emission
reductions of over 95% can be achieved by secondary measures.
Selective‎catalytic‎reduction
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is currently the only secondary measure. In
the SCR exhaust gas is mixed with ammonia before it passes a catalyst. The
ammonia is usually supplied as a solution of urea in water. This process
converts NOX into water (H2O) and diatomic nitrogen (N2).
33
CHAPTER 2
SOX Emission Control
2.4.3
Oxides of sulphur from combustion process may consist of SO, SO2 and SO3,
whereof the two major ones are SO2 and SO3. SOX are highly soluble in water
forming acidic sulphurous acid. Annex VI regulations include caps on sulphur
content of fuel oil as a measure to control SOX emissions and thus PM
emissions. Special fuel quality requirements exist for SOX Emission Control
Areas, also called SOX ECAs or SECAs. The sulphur limits are illustrated in
Figure 2-8.
5
Global
Subject to
2018 review
Sulphur [%]
4
3
2
SOX ECA
1
0
2000
2005
2010
2015
2020
2025
Year
Figure ‎2-8: MARPOL Annex VI SOX emission limits
There are currently two methods available to reduce SOX emissions which are
the after-treatment of exhaust gases and the use of fuels with low sulphur
content. Two main types of scrubbers can be used to remove SOX from the
exhaust gas and they are known as wet and dry scrubbers. Scrubbers do not
affect the combustion process and are not discussed further. Low sulphur fuels
can have a negative impact on the fuel properties. This was discussed in
subchapter 2.2.2.
34
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.4.4
Soot Formation
Soot formation in diesel engines results from incomplete fuel combustion. The
distribution of soot directly affects the heat radiation and the temperature field
of the flame. High pressure fuel injectors on modern diesel engines have been
used to decrease the size of the soot particles, but the remaining invisible fine
particles are still a toxicological problem. Figure 2-9 shows a desirable pathway
of the fuel mixture. The mixture moves from rich towards lean during the three
stages of combustion, which include premixed burning, mixing controlled
burning and eventually late combustion.
Figure ‎2-9: Soot and NOX relationin terms of
equivalence ratio and temperature. Courtesy of [21]
The pathway is plotted in an equivalence ratio versus temperature map with
contours indicating the locations where soot and NOX formation occur. The
ultimate goal is to modulate the injection timing of fuel to avoid both soot and
NOX formation. Since NOX and soot are formed in different regions in the (ϕ,T)
plot, the injection timing is a trade-off between formation of NOX and soot
necessary. As illustrated in Figure 2-10, a small soot production is at the
expense of large NOX formation and vice versa.
35
CHAPTER 2
Figure ‎2-10: Trade-off between NOX and sootas a function of
injection timing. Courtesy of [21]
The majority of soot is transported out of the combustion chamber through the
exhaust, but some soot may get past the piston rings and end up in the oil sump.
Periods of excessive idling or low load operations, worn piston rings, injectors
with poor fuel patterns, rich air-fuel ratios and clogged air filters are common
factors that may cause excessive soot levels in the lubricating oil. Individual
soot particles are very small and pose no direct risk to engine parts, but soot
particles often clump together to form large and damaging soot clumps.
Excessive soot levels in the oil can eventually lead to reduced lubrication due
higher oil viscosity and thus impeded oil flow through the engine as well as
through the oil filter. The performance of anti-wear lubricant additives can also
be negatively impacted by soot and lead to increased engine wear. High soot
conditions can lead to formation of carbon deposits in the cylinder and in the
piston ring grooves. This may cause degradation of the oil seal between the
piston rings and cylinder liner, which eventually causes abrasion. As abrasion
widens the gap between the piston rings and the cylinder liner, increasing
amounts of combustion products are blown into the crankcase.
36
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.5 Cylinder Liner Deposits
According to Buhaug [9], there is a general agreement that formation and
accumulation of deposits depend on the interaction between fuel composition,
lubricants, engine design and engine loading. This is illustrated by Allen [22] as
shown in Figure 2-11. Cylinder liner deposits are in the literature generally
referred to as liner lacquering and shall not be confused with soot deposits.
Engine loading
Fuel quality
Combustion
Increased
deposits
Fuel sulphur
Fuel treatment
Lubricant
Decreased
deposits
Figure ‎2-11: Cylinder lacquer balance. Courtesy of [22]
The problem with lacquer formation is mostly found in four-stroke mediumspeed diesel engines [7]. Modern and highly rated engines have very high fuel
injection pressures and shorter time for injection. During a few crank angle
degrees the injection, ignition and combustion have taken place. In this short
time period, thermal cracking of fuel components occur. When these reach the
relatively cool cylinder liner surface, they will condense and form a resinous
lacquer. The build-up of lacquer may result in a smoothed or glazed liner
surface, which negatively affect the lubricating oil consumption rate. Together
with formation of hard carbon deposits, this phenomenon will lead to scoring or
polishing of the liner. According to Woodyard [7] a number of common factors
link engines where liner lacquering has been found. These can be summarised
as follows. Large variation in load i.e. frequent and long periods of idle
followed by full load operations, high mean effective pressure medium-speed
37
CHAPTER 2
designs and low-sulphur distillate fuels. Lacquering has typically been observed
on engines on board offshore supply vessels and short sea ships. The fuel
composition is also known to be a factor in the lacquer formation. It is
suggested by Allen [22] that the formation of liner lacquering is related to high
boiling point and or aromatic fuel fractions. According to Buhaug [9], the
current understanding of the phenomena is that any fuel may contribute to liner
lacquer formation under engine conditions that promote incomplete combustion
and thermal breakdown of fuel.
2.6 Tribology
This subsection intends to give a very brief review of some tribology concepts
relevant for analysing diesel engine damages. Particle contamination can
damage engine components by causing a variety of types of wear. The primary
types of wear are shown in Table 2-3. Each of these wear mechanisms result in
the generation of excessive particulate contamination capable of causing further
damage to the engine components.
Table ‎2-3: Primary types of wear [23]
Abrasive wear
Particles between adjacent moving surfaces
Erosive wear
Particles and high fluid velocity
Adhesive contact
Surface to surface contact (loss of oil film)
Fatigue wear
Particle damaged surfaces subjected to repeated stress
Corrosive wear
Water or chemicals
Abrasive‎wear
Abrasive wear is the loss of material by the passage of hard particles over a
surface and occurs whenever a solid object is loaded against particles of
material that have equal or greater hardness. The particles may remove material
by microcutting, microfracture, grain pull-out or fatigue by repeated
deformations. In bearings the particle sizes causing the most damage are those
equal or slightly larger than the clearance space.
38
LITERATURE REVIEW
Erosive‎wear
Erosive wear is caused by particles that impinge on a component surface or
edge and remove material from that surface due to momentum effects [23]. This
type of wear is typical for components with high velocity flows such as turbine
blades.
Adhesive‎wear
Adhesive wear is a very serious form of wear characterized by high wear rates
and a large unstable friction coefficient. Sliding contacts can rapidly be
destroyed by adhesive wear and most lubricant failures in sliding metal contacts
result in adhesive wear [23].
Fatigue‎wear
When the contact points between two surfaces are well lubricated adhesion
between them can be neglected, but there is still a significant rate of wear. The
surfaces are subject to fatigue failures as a result of repeated stressing caused by
clearance-sized particles trapped between to moving surfaces. At first, the
surfaces are dented and cracking is initiated. The cracks are spread because of
repeated stresses and eventually the surface fails producing spalls. Fatigue wear
is typical for bearings and baring failures caused by fatigue is usually sudden
and highly undesirable [23].
Corrosive‎wear
Corrosive wear is a general term relating to any form of mechanical wear
(adhesive, abrasive, fatigue, fretting etc.) that is combined with chemical or
corrosive processes. Corrosive wear occur in both lubricated and unlubricated
environments. The fundamental characteristics of these types of wear are a
simultaneous reaction between a worn material and a corroding substance, i.e.
chemical reagents, reactive lubricants or air [23].
39
CHAPTER 2
2.7 Marine Engine Maintenance
Overhaul intervals and as well as the lifetime for engine components depend on
operating conditions, average loading of the engine, fuel quality used, fuel
handling system, performance of maintenance etc. According to MTU [24], the
maintenance procedure of marine diesel engines can be divided into nine
categories as listed in Table 2-4. Several parameters such as low load
operations, transient load operations, NOX optimization and low sulphur fuels
will influence on the stipulated time between overhaul for engine components.
Table ‎2-4: Engine maintenance categories [24]
Lubrication
Checking levels, changing oil and oil filters, perform oil sampling
for trending analysis to optimize oil, change intervals and detect
engine wear.
Fuel system
Changing fuel filters and fuel injectors, checking water separators,
do fuel and quality analysis to make sure fuel contains proper
lubricants and additives.
Cooling
system
Fluid level checks, coolant sampling for trending analysis,
draining, flushing and refilling the system when required.
Air intake
system
Inspecting and changing air filters, inspecting the turbocharger to
make sure there is no fouling of the compressor blades from
crankcase gases.
Exhaust
system
Inspecting for leaks, corrosion and wet stacking.
Emissions
system
Inspecting crankcase ventilation systems, selective catalytic
reduction (SCR) systems and diesel particulate filters.
Mechanical
systems
Inspecting resilient engine mounts and torsional couplings,
general inspecting for leaks, wear or deterioration.
Operating
systems
System data upgrade.
40
Chapter 3
3 Case Study
DNV GL suspects that several diesel engine damages over the past years have
been caused by excessive low load operations. These suspicions are mainly
based on verbal statements from surveyors and experienced employees in the
DNV GL Classification and Support department. Several survey reports and
damage investigation reports have been reviewed in order to substantiate the
suspicions regarding low load operations.
Diesel engine damages are reported to the classification society and upon
request from the customer is an occasional survey conducted by a representative
from the Class. A survey report is written by the surveyor after inspection where
findings are linked to the NPS product model. The surveyor is not supposed to
speculate in the cause of the damage, as his or her role is only to witness the
damage and require corrective actions on behalf of the Class. Consequently,
survey reports are often very brief and the cause of damage is rarely specified.
Surveys are sometimes followed up by more thoroughly investigations upon
request from the ship owner or the engine manufacturer. These types of
investigations are often conducted by external consultants. Such reports are thus
not as easy accessible as DNV GL’s own survey reports.
The intention of this chapter was originally to review several damage cases that
are suspected to be caused by low load operations, but due to few well
documented damage reports available only one damage case has been reviewed.
41
CHAPTER 3
3.1 Damage Case
This particular damage case is one of very few well documented damage cases
that are more or less confirmed to be caused from excessive low load
operations. The resulting engine damage is engine crankcase breakage resulting
from severe piston scuffing. The details presented in this case study are taken
from an investigation report composed by representatives from Mitsubishi
Heavy Industries after the incident in 2007. The stricken ship has, according to
the damage investigation report [25], a long history of engine troubles and
failures. Since the vessel was built in 2003 it has virtually had problems every
year. The history of troubles and failures prior to 2007 are presented in
Table 3-1.
Table ‎3-1: History of engine troubles and failures [25]
2003
Replacement of gasket due to exhaust gas leaks
2004
Replacement of nozzle tip and spacer due to damage
2004
Insulator cracks due to exhaust gas leaks
2006
Replacement of piston, liner, connecting rod etc. due to piston scuff
2007
Piston scuff resulting in crankcase breakage
Whether the earlier troubles and failures were caused by low load operations do
not appear from the investigation report. The survey reports of the
abovementioned damages have also been reviewed to investigate the causes of
damage, but without results.
3.1.1
Vessel Characteristics
The stricken vessel is a dedicated IMR, survey and light construction vessel
with diesel-electric propulsion and IMO Class 2 dynamic positioning system.
An inspection, maintenance and repair vessel (IMR) is a highly technical vessel
deployed in the offshore industry. Their primary task comprises the inspection
and repair of subsea facilities and installations. These vessels are designed to
continue operations in harsh weather conditions, which impose stringent
42
CASE STUDY
requirements to the power capacity of the propulsion system. The power plant
comprises four high-speed turbocharged four-stroke diesel engines in generator
configuration. The gensets have been installed after 2000, which means that
they are NOX optimized and comply with the IMO Tier I requirements.
Specifications for the troubled diesel engines are presented in Table 3-2.
Table ‎3-2: Engine specifications
Engine type
Four stroke
Cylinder configuration
V-engine (16 cylinders)
Aspiration
Turbocharged
Engine output
1690 kW / 1800 rpm
Operating hours
15 000 hours
3.1.2
Engine Load Characteristics
The crankcase breakage is suspected to be caused by low load operations. This
is based on load patterns from past records of the ship and the result of an oil
analysis. The engine breakage is assumed to be caused by a series of
mechanisms resulting from longer periods of low load operation. Low load
operations are typical for offshore DP vessels with DP class 2 due to
redundancy requirements, which is based upon running machinery. It has been
attempted to get hold off load data prior to the incident without success.
3.1.3
Observations and Findings
The investigation report is very thoroughly and include more details than
presented in this case study. For the purpose of this work, only observations and
findings that are considered to be relevant have been reviewed in the following
section. This includes observations and findings on the piston and cylinder
arrangement as well as findings on bearings.
43
CHAPTER 3
Piston‎and‎piston‎ring
Observations of the pistons show that the entire circumference on the piston of
cylinder #5 was scuffed and that the scuffing marks were separated into two
parts at the piston boss. This appear from picture (a) in Figure 3-1. Scuffing is
known to occur when the lubrication film is lost between two metallic parts that
moves relative to each other. The lower part of the piston was found broken into
small pieces and had fallen into the oil pan. The upper part of the piston was
found stuck at the top of the cylinder. Large amounts of carbon deposits where
observed on the top land of other pistons. Figure 3-1 (b) shows top land
deposits on piston #4.
(a)
(b)
Figure ‎3-1: Piston scuffing and carbon deposits. Picture (a) shows piston
scuffing on piston #5. Picture (b) shows deposits of hard carbon on the top land
of piston #4. Courtesy of [25]
Head‎combustion‎surface‎and‎gasket
Large amounts of carbon deposits were found on the cylinder head surface of
cylinder #5 as shown in the picture of Figure 3-2 (a). Carbon deposits were also
found on the other cylinder head surfaces. In addition, the combustion surface
of cylinder #5 show stamp marks of the piston. No abnormal wear was found on
the intake and exhaust valves or valve seats of cylinder #5. The valves are
shown in the picture (b) in Figure 3-2.
44
CASE STUDY
(a)
(b)
Figure ‎3-2: Cylinder head surface, intake and exhaust valves. Picture (a) shows
the cylinder head surface of cylinder #5. Picture (b) shows the intake and
exhaust valves of cylinder #5. Courtesy of [25]
Cylinder‎liner
Cylinder liner #5 was found broken into pieces as depicted by Figure 3-3. The
inner surface of the broken pieces showed linear scars. Polishing wear due to
hard carbon particles was observed on the upper part of inner surface of the
cylinder wall. The upper part of all cylinder liners showed vertical streaks of
strong contact which is probably caused by carbon polishing. This is
exemplified by pictures of cylinder #2 in Figure 3-4.
(a)
(b)
Figure ‎3-3: Broken cylinder liner. Picture (a) shows inner surface of broken
liner and picture (b) is an enlargement of the red circle in (a). Courtesy of [25]
45
CHAPTER 3
(a)
(b)
Figure ‎3-4: Carbon deposits and polishing wear in cylinder liner. Picture (a)
shows carbon deposits in cylinder liner and picture (b) shows an enlargement of
the red circle in picture (a). Courtesy of [25]
Bearings
Large amounts of carbon sludge were observed on the plated overlay of the
connecting rod bearings. Picture (a) in Figure 3-5 shows carbon sludge on the
overlay of the connecting rod bearing of cylinder #11. The main bearing of
cylinder #5 was removed and observed as a representative case. A picture of
main bearing #5 overlay wear is shown in Figure 3-5 (b).
(a)
(b)
Figure ‎3-5: Carbon sludge on bearing inner surfaces. Picture (a) shows the
inner surfaces of the connecting rod bearings of cylinder #9-12. Picture (b)
shows the inner surface of the main bearing of cylinder #5. Courtesy of [25]
46
CASE STUDY
3.1.4
Possible Mechanisms of Engine Breakage
The resulting damage was breakage of the engine crankcase, which was initially
caused by severe scuffing of piston #5. The investigation report suggests that
the cause of piston scuffing is extensive engine operations at low loads. This
assumption is based on engine load patterns from past records of the ship and
the results from an oil analysis. Possible processes and mechanisms that may
have caused the engine breakage are shown in Figure 3-6.
Figure ‎3-6: Possible processes and mechanisms of the engine breakage.
Courtesy of [26]
47
CHAPTER 3
The possible processes and mechanisms of the engine breakage, which was
shown in the flow chart of Figure 3-6, can be described as follows:
Low load operation decreases the cylinder pressure and thus the temperature.
Low temperatures lead to ignition problems and poor combustion which
increases the soot formation and aggregation of unburned fuel in the cylinder.
Low cylinder pressure, soot and unburned fuel deteriorate the piston ring
sealing efficiency, which allow hot combustion gases, soot particles and
unburned fuel to enter the oil sump. Fuel dilution reduces the viscosity of the
lubricating oil significantly which causes critical oil film thicknesses to
collapse. This makes the combustion zone (piston, piston rings and cylinder
liner) susceptible to polishing from hard carbon particles resulting from the
incomplete combustion. This results in premature wear of the combustion zone.
Severe fuel dilution causes wash-down of lubrication oil on the cylinder liner
inner wall which accelerates the deterioration of the lubricating oil propeties.
According to Stachowiak and Batchelor [23], does scuffing result from
mechanical contact when there is a breakdown or absence of lubrication. The
scuffing of piston and liner #5 are suggested to be caused by the aforementioned
mechanisms. Excessive piston scuffing eventually causes the lower part of the
piston to break off. The cylinder liner #5 is broken into pieces by the connecting
rod small end and the piston. These loose engine components eventually break
the side covers of #5 and #13.
3.2
Case Discussion
The damage case presented illustrates possible mechanisms and damages
resulting from extensive low load operations. Unfortunately, it has not been
possible to find additional damage cases where the resulting damage is
suspected to be caused by low load operations. This case study can thus not be
used to draw any general conclusions, but can be used to illustrative purposes.
48
Chapter 4
4 Finding Analysis
It is suspected that low load operation of diesel engines increases operational
problems and thus the engine damage frequency. It is also suspected that
operational problems resulting from low load operations are aggravated by
IMO’s increasingly stringent NOX emission regulations. The purpose of this
analysis is to determine whether it is possible to substantiate these suspicions
quantitatively by analysing existing data. The data to be analysed are diesel
engine findings stored in the extensive database of DNV GL.
4.1 Nauticus Production System
Diesel engine findings have been extracted from Nauticus Production System
(NPS), which is the main production support system of DNV GL Maritime. In
NPS, all DNV GL classed vessels are broken down into defined components in
what is referred to as vessel product models. These product models can be
regarded as virtual reflections of the vessels stored in a computer and should
ideally reflect the actual condition of the vessels at any time. The product model
is built up as a hierarchy of functions, components and equipment.
NPS contains more than 20 million nodes across about six thousand vessel
product models. These are mostly used in the reporting of survey findings
during the vessels’ operational lives. These findings are important assets as they
can be used to improve knowledge about damages and other problems ships
may experience throughout their life cycle. The latest version of NPS was
49
CHAPTER 4
launched early in 2005. Since then, all findings from any survey on any DNV
GL classed vessel around the world have been stored in this product model. Due
to the major restructuring of the production system in 2005, only diesel engine
findings from 2005–2014 are available for analysis.
4.1.1
Surveys
Findings used in this quantitative analysis are registered during DNV GL
surveys. For the basic class surveys, there is a requirement to undertake five
annual surveys, including one intermediate survey (somewhere in the middle of
the five year validity period of the certificate) and one renewal survey (at the
end of the five year period). The second or third annual surveys shall coincide
with the intermediate survey and the last annual survey with the completion of
the renewal survey. Surveys shall be carried out within a time window, which is
specific to each of the surveys, ranging from ±3 months to ±6 months.
Occasional surveys will be conducted upon request from the customer to survey
damages and/or repairs following from an incident affecting the class scope.
The DNV GL survey regime can be illustrated as in Figure 4-1.
Figure ‎4-1: DNV GL survey regime. Courtesy of [27]
50
FINDING ANALYSIS
4.1.2
Findings
Findings will be registered from surveys where there are issues that represent
non-conformity with the class or statutory rule requirements. Findings are
directly linked to its component in the vessel product model by the surveyor.
The number of findings is expected to increase with the age of the vessel and a
typical distribution of survey findings at different renewal surveys can be
illustrated as in Figure 4-2.
Figure ‎4-2: DNV GL survey findings. Courtesy of [27]
4.1.3
Entering and leaving class
A large proportion of the DNV GL classed vessels are built to DNV GL class
and remain in DNV GL class until they are scrapped. However, there is a good
share of turnovers where vessels leave DNV GL class to be classed with other
class societies or to be followed up by national authorities. On the other hand,
there are also a number of vessels that for various reasons enter into DNV GL
class during their service lifetime. There are some vessels that are built into
DNV GL class that leave for other societies and then return to DNV GL class
again during their service lifetime. This turnover must be taken into account
when determining the component age which is used to calculate the component
finding frequency.
51
CHAPTER 4
4.2 Calculations
This quantitative analysis is based on simple frequency measurements of diesel
engine findings extracted from NPS. The finding frequency describes number of
findings registered on a component per thousand component year.
The finding frequency is calculated as:
𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑓𝑟𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 =
𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠
× 1000
𝐷𝑁𝑉 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑎𝑔𝑒
The number of findings is defined as the number of findings on a component in
the time period 2005–2014. DNV GL component age is defined as the number
of years the component has been in DNV GL class in the period 2005–2014.
Due to class turnover the calculation of number of findings and DNV GL age
must reflect the five common scenarios, illustrated in Figure 4-3.
Figure ‎4-3: DNV GL vessel age
52
FINDING ANALYSIS
4.3 Data Quality
According to Kadal et. al [27], the data quality that impacts the value of SiO
findings for analytical and statistical use can be summarised as follows:
1.
Completeness and quality of the vessel product model
2.
Quality of SiO reporting
3.
Vessel information structure (VIS) changes and subsequently conversion
of findings
4.
Possible central correction/improvement of quality of findings and their
place in the product model.
For the purpose of this study, the main source of inconsistencies is due to
variations in the reporting from SiO surveyors and operators. Inconsistent
reporting of findings from SiO surveyors makes it difficult to correctly count
findings on the individual components. This restricts this analysis to only count
findings on the main component. Inconsistent naming of engine parameters
such as designer name, model name, engine power, fuel type etc. will also
restrict this analysis. Other issues that may affect the data quality are that new
engines are covered by a one year warranty and that the practices for reporting
to class vary from one vessel operator to another and especially across ship
types. Data cleansing in Excel has been an important tool to improve the data
quality and has made it possible to present the results graphically.
4.4 Data Filtration
Survey findings have been extracted, re-structured and analysed in a program
named Vadis. Vadis is a powerful tool to filter out large amounts of data based
on parameters given in the product model. A wide selection of filters has been
applied in this analysis, but some fundamental filters have been kept constant
throughout this analysis. These are included in Table 4-1. The filter “New
Findings” filters out findings reported before the restructuring of the product
model in 2005. Only survey findings with “Finding Status: Active or Historic”
53
CHAPTER 4
have been considered to prevent findings from appearing in the search result
more than once. NPS follows the vessel through the entire process from precontract to the operation phase, but only survey findings on vessels with
“Current Vessel Operational Status: In Operation” are considered in this
analysis. Some vessels enter and others leave class during their service lifetime,
but only findings on vessels with “Current Vessel Class Status: In class” are
considered.
Table ‎4-1: Fundamental filters applied in Vadis
New‎Findings
Findings‎Status: Active, Historic
Current‎Vessel‎Class‎Status: In Class
Current‎Vessel‎Operational‎Status: In Operation
4.5 Results
NPS contains nearly 30 000 diesel engines that are mainly distributed on
conventional propulsion, main electric power generation, and emergency
electric power generation. An overview of their product model function codes
with corresponding names and distribution is shown in Figure 4-4. All
frequency calculations and charts are included in appendix A1 and A2.
C101
Diesel engines
(100%)
411.1
Conventional
propulsion
(21%)
511.1
Main electric
power
generation
(58%)
521.1
Emergency
electric power
generation
(17%)
Figure ‎4-4: Distribution of diesel engines in NPS
54
431.1, 441.1, ...
Other function
codes
(4%)
FINDING ANALYSIS
In this analysis main engines have been differentiated from auxiliary engines by
filtration of the NPS parameters Main Component Function Code and Vessel
Propulsion Principle. Diesel engines with function code 511.1 installed on
vessels with diesel electric propulsion are assumed to be main engines (M/E).
Likewise, engines with function code 511.1 installed on vessels with
conventional propulsion are assumed to be auxiliary engines (A/E).
NPS contains more than 16 500 diesel engines that can be categorised as main
or auxiliary gensets. As much as 84% of these engines are auxiliary engines,
while the remaining 16% are main engines. Figure 4-5 indicates that main
engines have a higher finding frequency than auxiliary engines. Higher
frequency for main engines is expected as incidents on propulsion engines are
known to be more frequently reported than incidents on auxiliary engines.
Higher frequencies on main engines may also be explained by operational
conditions. In this analysis are issues related to low load operations of particular
interest. To determine if the higher frequency on main engines versus the
auxiliary engines result from low load operation, are these engines investigated
more closely.
35
30
Frequency
25
20
15
10
5
0
M/E
A/E
Figure ‎4-5: Main engines versus auxiliary engines
55
CHAPTER 4
DP-vessels are generally known to be more exposed to low load operations than
non DP-vessels. The finding frequency of generator engines on board DPvessels is an important asset when investigating whether low load operations
have an impact on the finding frequency. The NPS parameter Vessel Class
Notation is used to differentiate DP-vessels from non DP-vessels. Vessels
having DYNPOS in their class notation are categorised as DP-vessels and
vessels missing DYNPOS in their class notation are categorised as non-DPvessels. Figure 4-6 shows the finding frequencies of main and auxiliary engines
on DP- and non-DP vessels. The figure indicates higher finding frequencies for
main and auxiliary engines installed on board non DP-vessels. This shows that
there is not necessarily a correlation between the high finding frequency and DP
class notation even though these engines are more exposed to low load
operations. On the other hand main engines are still representing the highest
finding frequencies for both DP- and non DP-vessels. Main engines are known
to be more exposed to larger load variations than auxiliary engines. This can
explain the higher finding frequencies on these engines.
50
45
40
Frequency
35
30
25
DP
20
Non DP
15
10
5
0
M/E
A/E
Figure 4‎ -6: Main engines versus auxiliary engineson DP- and non DPvessels
56
FINDING ANALYSIS
DP-systems can be divided into different categories according to redundancy
and separation requirements. IMO has categorised dynamic positioning systems
according to redundancy and separation requirements in three equipment
classes. IMO Equipment Class 2 and 3 require redundancy in technical design,
which are based upon running machinery. Running machinery means that the
capacity of standby gensets is not considered to be a part of the redundant
system. Table 4-2 shows the DNV DP class notations that correspond to IMO’s
Equipment Classes.
Table ‎4-2: DNV Class DP class notation
Notation‎Hierarchy
IMO‎Equipment‎Class
DNV‎Class‎Notation
Notation not requiring
redundancy
IMO Equipment Class 1
DYNPOS-AUT
Notation requiring
redundancy
IMO Equipment Class 2
DYNPOS-AUTR
Notation requiring
redundancy and separation
of systems
IMO Equipment Class 3
DYNPOS-AUTRO
Different DP classes and thus redundancy requirements may have different
impacts on the finding frequency. It is suspected that the DP redundancy
requirements cause generator engines to operate more often at low loads for
longer periods of time than vessels without such requirements. This is due to the
running machinery requirement, which do not allow for standby gensets.
Figure 4-7 compares finding frequencies with respect to the different DNV DPnotations listed in the table above. The highest frequencies are found for main
engines on DP-vessels with redundancy requirements. The figure shows no
correlation between the finding frequencies calculated for main and auxiliary
engines. The result indicates that the main engine finding frequency increases,
while the auxiliary genset finding frequency decreases with higher DP class
notation. This could indicate that main and auxiliary engines are operated
differently during DP operations.
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CHAPTER 4
DYNPOS-AUTRO
DYNPOS-AUTR
A/E
M/E
DYNPOS-AUT
0
5
10
15
20
Frequency
25
30
Figure ‎4-7: DP class notations
Dynamic positioning systems are most common within the offshore industry.
According to data from DNV GL, more than 70% of the vessels categorised as
offshore vessels are equipped with DP-systems. The offshore vessel category
can thus be regarded as a representative sample of DP-vessels. A comparison of
the finding frequencies for main and auxiliary engines on DP offshore ships and
MOUs are shown in Figure 4-8.
35
30
Frequency
25
20
M/E
15
A/E
10
5
0
Offshore Ships (DP)
Offshore MOUs (DP)
Figure ‎4-8: Main engines versus auxiliary engines on DP-vessels
58
FINDING ANALYSIS
Figure 4-8 shows that there is a correlation between finding frequencies within
the same vessel category. The result indicates higher finding frequencies for
main and auxiliary gensets on DP-vessels than on non DP-vessels. This
coincides with the result shown in Figure 4-5, but differs from the result shown
in Figure 4-6.
A closer analysis of the engine findings show that certain vessel groups are
represented by extreme finding frequencies. This could manipulate the overall
finding frequency results. Finding frequencies with respect to vessel types can
be seen in appendix A2. Bulk carriers and passenger vessels indicate extreme
frequencies for non DP-vessels. Bulk carriers can be discarded based on the low
number of generator engines installed, which make them susceptible to extreme
frequencies. The passenger category is more interesting as the number of
generator engines is significantly larger. This category includes vessel types
such as passenger ships and ferries, where passenger ships are represented by
very high finding frequencies. The high frequencies may be explained by the
quality of reporting. According to Dirix [28] are cruise companies known to be
among the more laborious operators. The high frequency may also result from
operational conditions. This reasoning leads to that the finding frequencies
shown in Figure 4-8 probably gives a more realistic result than the overall
finding frequencies shown in Figure 4-6.
DP-vessels and non DP-vessels from different vessel groups are compared in
Figure 4-9. This is expected to give a more realistic result than the overall
finding frequency calculations given in Figure 4-6 due to the high finding
frequencies described above. The two vessel types included for comparison are
offshore supply vessels (DP-vessel) and car ferries (non DP-vessels). Offshore
supply vessels and car ferries are characterized by different operational
conditions. The load profile of a supply vessel is commonly characterized by
large load variations during operation with long periods of low load operations.
Offshore supply vessels spend a large percentage of time to wait on the weather
or the opportunity to serve offshore installations resulting in long periods at low
59
CHAPTER 4
engine loads. Car ferries represent a more uniform and predictable operational
profile as they often sail short legs ranging from minutes to hours. During
voyage, the engines loaded are to their optimum. When car ferries calls to port
the engines are typically kept idling, but only for short periods of time.
35
30
Frequency
25
20
M/E
15
A/E
10
5
0
Supply Vessel (DP)
Car Ferry (non DP)
Figure ‎4-9: Supply vessels (DP) versus car ferries (non DP)
The result is shown in Figure 4-9 and indicates higher finding frequencies for
the main and auxiliary engines on board supply vessels than the ones on board
car ferries. The frequencies calculated for generator engines on board supply
vessels, shows similarities to the finding frequencies calculated for offshore
ships. The finding frequencies for generator engines on board car ferries are
lower and more equally distributed compared to the ones on board supply
vessels. This may reflect the fact that car ferries have a more uniform engine
load pattern than offshore supply vessels. Main engines on supply vessels are
found to have the highest finding frequency. These engines are also those who
are more exposed to low load operations. The difference in finding frequencies
of supply vessels and car ferries may indicate that low load operations cause
operational problems which result in higher finding frequencies. This can be
assumed if other operating conditions and thus other engine problems are more
or less similar for the two vessel types.
60
FINDING ANALYSIS
It is suspected that the negative effects of low load operations are aggravated by
NOX emission regulations issued by IMO. The IMO Tier I compliant engines
installed after year 2000 are of particular interest. It is thus interesting to
evaluate finding data with respect to time to see whether emission regulations
have had any impact on the finding frequencies.
There are some issues associated with the presentation of findings with respect
to time. The first issue is due to the restructuring of NPS which prevents the
analysis of findings prior to 2005. Consequently it is not possible to see the
immediate effect of the introduction of NOX optimized engines in 2000. The
second issue is that all diesel engines are covered by a one year warranty from
the engine manufacturer. Typical low load damages are known to occur after
relatively few operating hours, but due to this warranty, very few damages are
reported to class within the first year after installation. The third issue is that the
number of findings is expected to increase with the age of the vessel. The
finding frequency should therefore be corrected for normal age development
when being evaluated with respect to time. A lot of effort and time has been put
down to find a reasonable method to correct the finding frequencies for age
development, but without any particular success. It was therefore decided that
the best way to evaluate the finding frequencies with respect to time is to
compare the finding frequencies of engines installed in specific time intervals.
Thus are findings from 2005–2009 on engines installed in 1995–1999 evaluated
against findings from 2010–2014 on engines installed in 2000–2004.
The result is shown for main engines on board DP-vessels and non DP-vessels
in Figure 4-10. The result indicates higher finding frequencies for engines
installed in the period 2000–2014 than for engines installed in the period 1995–
1999. The highest finding frequency is represented by the engines installed on
or after 2000 on DP-vessels. To evaluate whether NOX optimized engines
aggravate the negative impacts of low load operations, the relative increase in
finding frequencies of DP-vessels and non-DP vessel have been calculated.
Calculations show that the relative frequency-increase is about 1.3 times higher
61
CHAPTER 4
for main engines on DP-vessels than for main engines on non-DP vessels. This
could indicate that the NOX optimization of diesel engines has increased the
operational problems of main engines that operate at low loads.
250
Frequency
200
150
M/E
DP
100
Non DP
50
0
Installation year: 1995 - 1999 Installation year: 2000 - 2004
Finding year:
2005 - 2009 Finding year:
2010 - 2014
Figure ‎4-10: Installation year versus finding year for main gensets
250
Frequency
200
150
A/E
DP
100
Non DP
50
0
Installation year: 1995 - 1999 Installation year: 2000 - 2004
Finding year:
2005 - 2009 Finding year:
2010 - 2014
Figure ‎4-11: Installation year versus finding year for auxiliary gensets
Figure 4-11 shows generally lower finding frequencies for auxiliary engines
than for main engines, but similar to main engines are the highest finding
frequencies calculated for engines installed on or after 2000. However, the
62
FINDING ANALYSIS
finding frequencies for auxiliary engines are more evenly distributed between
DP-vessels and non-DP vessels compared to the main engines. As previously
mentioned, this may reflect a more uniform load pattern for auxiliary engines
than main engines. In contrast to main engines, the relative frequency increase
for auxiliary engines is about 1.5 times higher for non DP-vessels than for DPvessels. Using the same reasoning as for main engines, this result could indicate
that NOX optimization have not increased operational problems of auxiliary
engines that operate at low loads.
The results presented above shows that the highest finding frequencies are
found for engines installed on or after 2000. This applies for both main and
auxiliary engines on board DP- and non DP vessels. These calculations may
indicate that the introduction of NOX optimized engines in 2000 generally have
had negative impacts on operational problems. However, it is difficult to
establish any conclusion regarding how NOX optimized engines impact on
operational problems related to low load operations based on these frequency
calculations.
4.6 Discussion of Results
The intention of this analysis has been to investigate if one quantitatively can
substantiate the suspicion that low load operations of gensets increases
operational problems and thus the finding frequency. It has also been attempted
to determine whether the introduction NOX optimized engines have had any
negative effect on operational issues related to low load operations.
To analyse the impact of low load operations, it has been assumed that low load
operations are most likely to occur to engines on DP-vessels. This appears to be
the only way to differentiate vessels that may operate at low loads from vessels
that probably not operate at low loads. It is further presumed that other
operational problems that could lead to increased finding frequencies are more
or less the same for DP- and non DP-vessels. This means that the difference
found in the finding frequencies of DP- and non DP-vessels may be a result of
63
CHAPTER 4
low load operations. These assumptions do not necessarily reflect the real
world, but this is currently the only known way to analyse these data
quantitatively.
Calculations show that main engines generally have higher finding frequencies
than auxiliary engines. Overall finding frequency calculations show higher
frequencies for non DP-vessels than DP-vessels. The finding frequency of
offshore supply vessels with DP was compared to car ferries. The intention was
to compare one vessel type that operates at low loads with another vessel type
that does not operate at low loads. The result showed higher finding frequencies
for main engines installed on board supply vessels than for the ones installed on
board car ferries. The results may indicate that low load operations increase
operational problems and thus the finding frequency, but this should not be used
to establish any general conclusions without further investigation.
Finding frequencies have also been evaluated with respect to time to determine
whether NOX optimized engines have a negative impact on the finding
frequency. The result showed much higher finding frequencies for engines
installed in the period 2000–2004 than the ones installed in the period 1995–
1999. This indicates that stringent NOX regulations may have increased
operational problems and thus the finding frequency. However, it is difficult to
say whether NOX optimized engines have aggravated the negative effects of low
load operations. The comparison of DP-vessels against non DP-vessels shows
ambiguous results. It is thus difficult to establish any general conclusions
regarding low the impacts of low load operations on NOX optimized engines.
64
Chapter 5
5 Industrial
Experience
This project was initiated by DNV GL based on a suspicion that low load
operations of diesel engines in generator configuration increase the engine
damage frequency. This suspicion is based upon engine damages reported to the
class over the past years. It is therefore interesting to investigate whether the
industry has the same perception. This chapter intends to investigate the engine
manufacturers’ and their customers’ experiences with low load operations on
modern diesel engines in generator configuration.
Several major diesel engine manufacturers have been contacted and asked to
share their views on low load operations. Those who had the opportunity to
contribute were interviewed by phone or in writing by e-mail. The questions
asked are included in‎ appendix A3. The quality and level of detail of the
responses were very different and thus not directly comparable. For this reason,
a general perception of the manufacturers’ views on low load operations is
presented as a whole, rather than each individual manufacturer´s perception.
A chief engineer working on board a Subsea Support Vessel operating in the
North Seas has also been interviewed. The ship operates most of its time on DP
at extremely low engine loads. At request from the interviewee, the ships’ name,
owner and client have been anonymized.
65
CHAPTER 5
5.1 Manufacturers’ Experience
All respondents [29], [30], [31], [32] had experiences with low load operations
of their engines and did agree that low load operation of diesel engines is a
highly relevant issue of today. One of the manufacturers [31] pointed out that
low load operation becomes an issue because gensets too often are over
dimensioned for their actual use. Just dimensioning of gensets shall be of
primary concern in a design phase, but due to class requirements and demands
from ship owners, gensets are frequently oversized. This is particularly relevant
for gensets installed on board vessels with dynamic positioning systems.
The respondents did agree that low load operation of their engines for long
periods of time could lead to operational problems if precautions are not taken.
It is consensus among the engine manufacturers that diesel engines must be
brought to higher load (at least 50% of rated power) after a period of low load
operation to prevent operational problems. Such recommendations are without
exception written in the engine product guides. Two of the manufacturers that
were interviewed, have developed and published special recommendations or
instructions for low load operations of their engines made for internal use and
for their customers.
From the manufacturers´ point of view it was not confirmed that low load diesel
engine operations will lead to increased damage frequency, but it was confirmed
that longer periods of low load operations will affect the engine operation due to
more frequent overhaul intervals. Operational problems that were frequently
mentioned were the formation of soot deposits in the cylinders, wet stacking
and soot deposits in the turbocharger. Soot formation results from incomplete
combustion due to low cylinder pressures and temperatures at lower loads. Most
of the soot particles formed during low load operations are burned away when
the load and thus the temperature is increased, but over time carbon deposits
can build up on the cylinder liner, piston and injection nozzles. Wet stacking is
defined as the presence of unburned fuel or carbon in the exhaust system.
66
INDUSTRIAL EXPERIENCE
Incomplete combustion also results in accumulation of unburned fuel on the
cylinder liner and in the crevices around the top land of the piston. When the
temperature increases due to higher loads the unburned fuel may ignite and
cause local combustion around the piston top land. This can cause small and
local damages to the piston. Piston rings prevent leakage of combustion gases
past the piston sleeve, but depend on high cylinder pressures to maintain proper
sealing efficiency. Low pressures due to low load operations deteriorate the
sealing efficiency and allow combustion gases and unburned fuel to leak into
the oil pan and cause dilution of the lubricating oil. This may deteriorate the
lubricating oil film, which makes the cylinder liner prone to abrasive wear from
hard carbon particles from the incomplete combustion. By increasing the load
and thus the cylinder temperature, the unburned fuel will evaporate and reduce
the possibility of lubricating oil dilution. Low load operation will increase the
amount of return fuel, which will impose greater demands to the fuel cooling
system. The viscosity of modern distillate fuels is lower than before and can be
as low as two centistokes at 40 °C, which is the minimum viscosity limit in
most modern diesel engines. Too low fuel viscosity can cause deteriorated fuel
injection and cavitation in injection plungers and needles.
One of the manufacturers [29] confirms that they have received feedback on the
above-mentioned problems from their customers. One of their customers
operates their generator engines at average loads around 30% of rated power.
According to the customer, this leads to blackening of engine components such
as cylinder tops, liners, injection nozzles etc. This means that they must perform
overhauls much earlier than stipulated in the engine maintenance manuals,
which is somewhere between eight and ten thousand operating hours. The
engine manufactures were asked to provide statistics to support the impacts of
low load operations, but none of the respondents would share their engine
damage statistics in the interest of their customers.
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CHAPTER 5
It is suspected that the negative impacts of low load operations are aggravated
by recent IMO regulations due to lower cylinder pressures and temperatures.
This includes Tier 1 compliant engines installed on ships on or after January 1
2000. The engine manufacturers were asked if they had experienced an increase
in operational problems on their NOX optimized engines. One of the
manufacturers [33] could inform that they had challenges related to their first
NOX optimized engines. The optimum operating point for these engines could
be as high as 85% of rated power, which imposed challenges to operations at
lower engine loads. However, recent developments have provided engine
technologies such as common rail, variable injection timing and variable valve
control that allow engine operations at lower loads than earlier. The common
rail technology maintains the injection pressure and variable valve controls
ensure sufficient time for charge air suction regardless of engine load or speed.
It is emphasized from the manufacturer that low load operations, despite
technological advancements, still are admissible only for shorter periods of
time.
Among other challenges mentioned in relation with NOX optimized engines was
the familiar paradox of NOX, CO2 and combustion temperature. High
combustion temperature leads to higher combustion efficiency and thus lower
CO2 emissions and soot formation, but also results in higher NOX formation
rates. This paradox is more relevant to other operational aspects such as fuel
economy and environmental restrictions. The engine manufacturers must meet
increasingly stringent restrictions on NOX emissions and are today focusing on
both primary and secondary measures, which are described in detail in‎
subchapter 2.4.2. Primary measures include EGR, water injection, Miller timing
and more efficient cylinder and fuel system designs. Secondary measures
include diesel particulate filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR)
systems. Since SCR subsequently removes the nitrogen oxide from the exhaust
gas, the combustion process can be optimized for low fuel consumption while
still remaining within the legal emission limits. The SCR only work efficiently
68
INDUSTRIAL EXPERIENCE
if the exhaust gas temperature is correct. If the temperature is too high, the
ammonia burns rather than forming a compound with nitric oxides. If it is too
low, it forms ammonium hydrogen sulphate and gradually blocks the catalytic
converter. The same also happens if the sulphur content of the exhaust gas is too
high. The minimum temperature required depends on the fuel´s sulphur content.
Low sulphur fuels can thus be an issue when the engines are operated at low
loads.
5.1.1
Specifications for Low Load Operations
Cummins Marine and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries have specified requirements
for operations at low loads. They also briefly describe potential problems
related to excessive low load operations. These specifications are reviewed
more closely in the following subchapter.
Cummins Marine
Cummins Marine has created a document which defines low load limitations for
fixed speed engines used in auxiliary and genset applications [34]. The
document was issued in a marine application bulletin in 2005 and revised in
2014. The limitations reviewed apply to all Cummins Marine auxiliary and
fixed speed diesel engines.
According to Cummins Marine [34], low load operation for extended periods of
time is an issue with fixed speed engines used in auxiliary and genset
applications. The engine manufacturer encourages that engine power must be
properly matched to the load and duty cycle of the intended application, to
prevent extended operation at low load. Cummins Marine has developed
specific installation requirements to minimize low load operations on their
engines. The minimum average load for a fixed speed auxiliary engine or genset
must be greater than 30% of prime power. In general, Cummins Marine claims
that fixed speed engines and gensets must not run for more than eight hours at a
time at less than 30% of prime power, but for the modern four-stroke engines
69
CHAPTER 5
with common rail systems they have less restrictive requirements. Fixed speed
auxiliary engines and gensets with common rail, either modular common rail
system (MCRS) or High Pressure Common Rail (HPCR), should not run for
more than eight hours at the time at less than 10% of prime power or more than
24 hours at the time at less than 30% of prime power. The engine manufacturer
claims that when diesel engines run at extreme low loads the cylinder pressure
will be much lower than normal and incomplete combustion will occur.
Cummins Marine recommend that low load operations (10–30% of prime
power) for longer periods of time (maximum 8–24 hours) depending on engine
type should, be followed by at least 30 minutes of high load operation (higher
than 50% of rated power). The reason for this is to burn off fuel residue and
thus reducing the chance of developing long term engine problems. According
to Cummins Marine [34], longer periods of low load operations can cause
several problems. These are reviewed below.
Wet‎stacking
When diesel engines run below its designed operating temperature for longer
periods, unburned fuel is exhausted and noticed as wetness in the exhaust
system. The aggravation of unburned fuel in the exhaust side of the engine
results in carbon build-up on exhaust valves and turbocharger. Excessive
deposits of carbon can result in loss of engine performance as gases bypass the
valve seats and deposits on the turbo blades. Further this can reduce the turbo
efficiency.
Carboning
Carboning is the result of carbon particles deposited on top of the piston rings
and in the injectors due to incomplete combustion of fuel.
Fuel‎dilution‎of‎lubrication‎oil
The piston rings are designed for optimized sealing efficiency under elevated
combustion pressures. When such pressures are not achieved due to low load
operations, the piston rings do not expand sufficiently to adequately seal the
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INDUSTRIAL EXPERIENCE
space between the pistons and the cylinder walls. This results in unburned fuel
and combustion gases escaping into the oil pan and diluting the lubricating
properties of the oil, leading to premature engine wear.
Water‎contamination‎of‎lubricating‎oil
If the lubricating oil does not attain the desirable operating temperature,
condensation of water may form in the engine oil pan. Water is known to be one
of the most destructive contaminants in the lubricating oil. It attacks additives,
induces base oil oxidation and interferes with oil film production. The water
may aggregate dead additives, soot, oxidation products and sludge that can clog
filters and thus restrict the oil flow to the engine components.
Piston‎detonation
Excessive engine idling or low load operations can cause aggravation of
unburned fuel in the crevices around the top land of the piston. When the
temperature is increased due to higher engine, the unburned fuel is ignited. This
causes localized burning and uncontrolled detonations above the top ring.
After‎treatment‎damage
Engine operations at no load or low loads for extended periods of time can lead
to plugging of the after treatment diesel particulate filters (DPF) due to
extensive soot formation. Another concern is related to the selective catalytic
reduction (SCR) system. The SCR only work efficiently if the exhaust
temperature is correct. Too low exhaust temperature due to low load operations,
can result in formation of ammonium hydrogen sulphates that gradually blocks
the catalytic converter.
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
Mitsubishi has issued specifications for limited engine operations at no load or
low load in an engineering bulletin in 2004 [35]. The bulletin was issued to give
information in case of limited engine operations. It also includes corrective
actions to avoid engine damage.
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The manufacturer advises that minimum allowable load for continuous
operation is 25% of maximum power. Maximum allowable operating time at no
load with high or low idling is set to one or two hours respectively. After a
period of one hour running at 25% of maximum power or below, the engine
must be loaded to 60% or more, for a period of at least half an hour. According
to manufacturer [35], the following possible problems can occur when running
outside the load limits stated above:
Leakage‎from‎the‎exhaust‎system
Continuous operation on no-load or low load causes unburned fuel and oil mist
to condense in the exhaust system, which may result in leakage through the
exhaust connections.
Carbon‎deposits
Unburned fuel, oil mist and soot deposits may pollute the exhaust ports on the
cylinder heads and the exhaust manifold, which lower the performance of the
engine.
Corrosive‎damage
Lower exhaust gas temperature may result in condense of sulphuric acids in the
exhaust system, causing corrosive damage.
Fuel‎dilution‎
Because of decreased combustion efficiency, unburned fuel can dilute the
lubricating oil, resulting in decreased lubrication properties and increased wear
of rotating parts.
White‎smoke
Excessive unburned fuel will appear as white smoke from the exhaust stack, it
smells and irritates the eye.
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5.2 Chief Engineer’s Experience
This subsection describes a chief engineer’s experiences with low load
operations of diesel engines in generator configuration. Karlsvik is working as
chief engineer on board a Subsea Support Vessel operating in the North Sea.
The ship has IMO DP Class 3 and is configured with four main generators
divided into two identical engine rooms. The generator engines are of fourstroke medium-speed type and are rated to about 2600 kW at 720 rpm. At
request from the interviewee are the ships’ name, owner and client anonymized.
The vessel has operated on the same field in the North Sea on contract from a
client since 2003. In 2012 the vessel had some problems with the oil mist
detectors which abruptly stopped the main engines without warning during DP
operation. Prior to the incident the vessel operated with two or three generators
running and, according to Karlsvik [36], the load demand was never a problem
no matter how bad the weather was. When the weather is too bad, the ship is
ordered to stop its operations at the sea floor and go out of DP. Due to the
incident in 2012 the client requires that all four generators shall be running at all
times regardless of the weather conditions.
During DP operations, each generator is loaded to 400–500 kW. This
corresponds to an average engine load around 15–20% of maximum rated
power, which is defined as extreme low load operation. In calm weather the
thrusters must be operated with bias, which in practice means that extra load is
put on the propellers regardless of the actual load demand from the propellers.
This is necessary to ensure that the load distribution is high enough to prevent
that the generators abruptly run in reverse power, which means that the
generators begin to operate as motors instead of generators. A generator that
starts running in reverse power mode is immediately disconnected from the
main switchboard. A typical load curve for the generators during DP operation
is included in appendix A4.
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The ship normally operates continuously on DP in two weeks before it returns
to base for crew change. During DP operations, all four generators are running
constantly at extreme low loads. Normally, the engines will not run at higher
loads until the two week period is over. The only exception is if the ship must
leave DP to wait for the weather. The transit time to the base is about ten hours
and the crew change is normally done within eight hours in port. Then the ship
returns back to the field and continue its DP operation for another two weeks.
A class renewal survey was conducted in 2014, where inspections of the main
engines revealed bearing damages caused by high levels of fuel contamination
of the lubrication oil. This is typical for engines that operate for longer periods
at low load due to the lower cylinder pressure which deteriorate the piston ring
sealing efficiency. The crew had performed oil changes frequently from mid2013 until the stay at the shipyard and were thus not surprised that the engines
were damaged. Figure 5-1 and Figure 5-2 show the viscosity measurements
from oil samples that were taken before the vessel went in dock for its class
renewal survey. The oil analysis showed that the viscosity of the lubricating oil
was lower than the minimum requirement for all four main engines. Too low
viscosity levels can deteriorate critical lubrication oil films which lead to
premature wear of pistons, piston rings, cylinder liners and crankcase bearings.
Such damages were confirmed during the renewal survey inspection.
Figure ‎5-1: Viscosity at 100 °C from oil sample analysis of M/E 1 and M/E 2
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INDUSTRIAL EXPERIENCE
Figure ‎5-2: Viscosity at 100 °C from oil sample analysis of M/E 3 and M/E 4
According to Karlsvik [36], the soot levels inside the engines have also
increased significantly with the new demands of the client. It also appears that
soot more easily deposit on fuel valves and nozzles than earlier. This can be
explained by the fact that low engine loads lead to lower cylinder temperatures
and thus poor combustion efficiency. The rate of soot formation increases with
reduced combustion efficiency.
The maintenance intervals for these engines have not been revised after the stay
at the yard, despite the damages that were found on the engines. The impression
of the crew is that the ship owner does not want to revise the maintenance
procedures because the ship is old and will probably be taken out of service at
the next renewal service in 2019. A second, and perhaps equally big, challenge
is to carry out regular maintenance on the engines as all engines are required to
be running at all times during DP operations. The crew do not have sufficient
time to go over all the necessary maintenance work when the ship is in transit or
in port. In addition, the client has added more stringent restrictions on the
technical operation of the engines while the ship operates at the field.
The stringent operational requirements from the client have introduced a
number of new operational challenges and problems. According to Karlsvik
[36], the operational challenges and problems can be summarised as follows:
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
Extremely high wear rates on the engines due to excessive low load
operations. Low load operations increase the amount of soot and dilute
the lubricating oil, which lead to premature wear of the engine
components.

Higher maintenance costs due to higher numbers of operating hours on
the engines. By running all the engines at all times the number of
operating hours per engine increases significantly.

The time available for maintenance work is very limited. Due to the
clients’ restrictions on the field, maintenance can only be conducted
during transit and in port, which is not sufficient.

The engine operation has negative impacts on the environment. By
running twice as many engines as perhaps necessary, the fuel
consumption increase and thus the emission levels increase.
The chief engineer’s experiences with low load operations is a good example of
why offshore vessels with dynamic positioning systems often operate at low
engine loads during DP operations. In this case, the client puts demands on the
engine operation which is inconsistent with both engine manufacturers’ and
crew’s recommendations. This shows that low load operations is not necessarily
a result of over dimensioning of gensets in the initial design phase, nor
requirements from the Class , but rather a result of decisions made by the client
on-shore.
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6 Discussion
Relevant literature and a damage case have been reviewed, existing finding data
from DNV GL have been analysed quantitatively and experiences from the
industry have been assessed qualitatively. The following discussion intends to
put these pieces together to form an understanding of the impacts of low load
operations of modern diesel engines in generator configuration.
6.1 Low Load Operation
Low load operation of diesel engines is defined as engine operations at load
levels below 40% of maximum continuous rating. This study has mainly
focused on low load operations of generator engines on board offshore vessels
with dynamic positioning systems. The requirement for redundant DP notations,
which correlate with IMO DP guidelines, is that the redundancy shall be based
upon running machinery [4]. This means that one cannot count on the capacity
of standby gensets during DP operations. How this affects the engine operation
depends on the division of redundancy groups within the DP system. There are
no requirements as to how the redundancy groups shall be divided in terms of
capacity, but it is a requirement that the vessel should be able to maintain
position and heading after the loss of any of the redundancy groups. The load
distribution on the gensets depends on how the redundancy groups are designed,
but according to Karlsen [37] it is often the case that gensets runs at low load
during DP operations. This is the reason for why it has been focused on DP-
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vessels to assess the impacts of low load operation of diesel engines in
generator configuration.
6.2 Transient Load Operation
Transient load operations of gensets on board ships are mainly due to sudden
changes in load demands from propulsion or deck equipment. It is suspected
that operations at low loads combined with transient loads increase operational
problems. A sudden load increase causes engine torque deficit and thus a speed
drop. To obtain torque balance and recover speed is more fuel injected into the
combustion chamber. Because of turbocharger lag is the air/fuel-ratio lowered
in which causes combustion deterioration and thus excessive soot formation.
This topic has not been emphasised in this study, but the impacts of transient
load operations may aggravate the negative effects of low load operations due
to increasing amounts of soot.
6.3 NOX Optimization
Most modern diesel engines are operated at lower cylinder pressures and lower
temperatures than their predecessors. This is due to the stringent NOX emission
control requirements of IMO Annex VI. The formation of NOX is strictly
temperature dependant and is controlled by primary measures. Primary
measures aim to reduce the amount of NOX formed during combustion by
optimizing engine parameters. This is the reason for lowered cylinder pressures
and temperatures in most modern diesel engines. Lower temperature reduces
the combustion efficiency, which is known to increase the fuel consumption and
the formation of CO2 and soot. Soot is formed when the temperature is “high
enough” and the mixture is “rich enough”. Soot contaminated lubricants have
shown to produce significant amounts of engine wear through abrasion. High
concentrations of soot also increase the local acidic levels that may lead to
corrosion. Common primary measures to reduce cylinder temperatures are
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DISCUSSION
modification of fuel injectors, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), water addition,
and Miller cycle.
Modification of fuel injectors is one way to reduce the temperature level in the
cylinder. A smaller spray cone angle reduces the air entrainment into the spray,
which results in less prepared mixture during the ignition delay. A reduced
premixed combustion phase means that a larger proportion of the combustion
takes place in the mixing-controlled combustion phase, which is driven by a
diffusion flame. Diffusion flames tend to burn slower and produce more soot
than premixed flames. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is another way to
reduce the cylinder temperatures. According to Hussein et. al [38], it is
observed that EGR reduces the NOX without deteriorating engine performance
end emissions at lower engine loads. However, the exhaust gas which is
introduced to the combustion chamber contains several contaminants, which
may end up in the engine lubricating oil sump. According to Doyle [39],
lubricating oils exposed to the EGR environment show an increase in soot
content, acid number and viscosity. The introduction of water has the same
effect on NOX formation as EGR, but injection of water into the combustion
chamber is a possible source of water contamination. According to Holtbecker
[40], water droplets that reach the cylinder walls can destroy the lubricating oil
film, but water droplets only pose a danger when the water is in liquid phase.
This may be the case when the engine is running at low loads and with low
temperatures. Water cannot affect the oil-film at higher engine loads where it
evaporates before it reaches the cylinder wall. Modification of the engine cycle
is also a way to reduce the cylinder temperatures. The idea of the Miller cycle is
to reduce the effective compression stroke to lower the temperature. Shorter
compression stroke must be compensated by higher charge air pressure i.e.
increasing demands is made on the turbocharging system. Furthermore, Miller
cycle can give cold start problems, increased smoke emissions and operating
problems at low load due to low turbocharger efficiency.
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According to Selle [33], Wärtsilä experienced operational problems on their
earliest NOX optimized engines. The optimum operating point on the first NOX
optimized engines could be as high as 85% of maximum continuous rating due
to the low cylinder pressure and temperature. Selle [33] also mentions that
recent developments have provided engine technologies such as common rail,
variable injection timing and variable valve control. Common rail fuel injection
systems is said to enable precise and flexible control of injection timing and
duration helping the engine performance, emissions and fuel consumption to be
optimized for the entire load range. Selle emphasises that low load operations,
despite the technological advancements, only are admissible for short periods of
time.
6.4 Marine Fuel Properties
According to Lewis [17], fuel related operational problems were introduced
with the upgrade of the refinery process from straight run to complex refining
These problems are mainly related to residual fuels, but are included as most
medium-speed gensets can run on both heavy fuel oil and distillate fuels.
Related to low load operations, the main concern are the increased level of
aromatics in the fuel which originates from the catalytic cracking. Aromatics
have high auto ignition temperature which increases with increasing
aromaticity. High levels of aromatics affect the stability and ignition quality of
the fuel. At low loads, the temperatures are lower than “normal”. Fuels that are
difficult to ignite in the first place can become even more problematic. This may
lead to unstable ignition and combustion characteristics. Higher levels of
aromatics are also more common for modern distillate fuels, but for diesel
engines that can run on both residual and distillates are the ignition quality
normally not a problem. However, high-speed diesel engines are more sensitive
to poor ignition qualities than medium-speed engines. In these engines, the
ignition characteristics will be of importance. A more common problem with
modern distillates is the viscosity. Often low sulphur fuels have lower viscosity
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DISCUSSION
than fuels with “normal” sulphur content. The viscosity of some low sulphur
fuel can be as low as two centistokes at 40°C, which is the minimum viscosity
limit in most modern diesel engines. At low engine loads, the amount of return
fuel increases. If the return fuel is not properly cooled, the viscosity can get too
low. Too low viscosity may lead to deteriorated fuel injection and can cause
cavitation in injection plungers and needles. In addition, it can lead to
lubrication problems for engine components that rely on the fuel to be properly
lubricated as the lubricating properties depend on the viscosity.
6.5 Lubricating Oil Properties
The deterioration of the lubrication oil goes slowly under normal engine
operating conditions, but under abnormal conditions and engine malfunction the
lubrication oil will degrade very fast. At low loads, the amount of unburned fuel
and soot deposits increase in the cylinder due to incomplete combustion. Low
sealing efficiency, due to low cylinder pressure, causes unburned fuel and soot
to leak into the oil pan and dilute the lubricating oil. Fuel dilution can reduce
the viscosity of the oil, which can collapse critical oil film thicknesses in the
engine. This can result in premature wear of pistons, piston rings, cylinder liners
and crank case bearing. Severe dilution (excess of two percent), which is often
associated fuel injector leakage, injection problems and low combustion
efficiency, can cause wash-down of lubricating oil on the cylinder liner. This
accelerates the wear of pistons, piston rings and cylinder liners. Severe fuel
dilution may also dilute the concentration of oil additives and hence reducing
their effectiveness. Liner lacquer formation is also an issue that is known to
occur in medium-speed diesel engines running on distillate fuels. Liner
lacquering has been found in diesel engines with large variations in load,
operating for long periods at idling or extremely low load followed by full load
operations. The build-up of lacquer may result in smoothed or glazed liner
surfaces, which has a negative effect on the lubrication oil consumption.
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6.6 Maintenance
Nominal maintenance intervals and expected component service life time of
diesel engines are worked out based on assumptions like regular high load
operations, operating on fuels with good ignition qualities, that the vessel is
fitted with the engine manufacturer’s recommended fuel treatment plant, correct
engine specifications according to operations etc. These assumptions do not
necessarily reflect the real world, which means that the maintenance intervals
must be customized to the individual diesel engine. Long periods of engine
operations at low loads contradict any of the above-mentioned assumptions.
6.7 Impacts of Low Load Operations
The literature review, analysis of damage cases and the industry’s perceptions,
have formed a basis for understanding the impacts of low load operations of
modern diesel engines. The mechanisms that are suspected to have negative
impact during low load operations are in the following subsection presented as a
sequence of events. This presentation is by no means complete or generally
applicable, but intends to summarise the mechanisms that are believed to cause
operational problems during low load operations.
Low load operations of diesel engines cause lower cylinders pressures and thus
lower temperatures, which can result in ignition problems and incomplete
combustion. Low cylinder pressure has mainly a negative effect on the cylinder
temperature, but also deteriorates the piston ring sealing efficiency as piston
rings rely on the gas pressure in the combustion chamber to work properly.
Incomplete combustion will lead to increased soot formation and aggregation of
unburned fuel in the cylinder. Unburned fuel and soot may glaze the piston
rings and cause a further reduction of the sealing efficiency and worsen the
initial low pressure in the combustion chamber. Deteriorated piston ring sealing
efficiency may cause hot gases and particles to blow past the piston rings and
continue down the piston skirt. Hot combustion gases will ignite the lubricating
oil film on the liner and result in liner glazing. The glaze smoothes out the
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DISCUSSION
honing mark pattern in the liner which is essential to the hold and return
lubricating oil to the crankcase via the oil ring. Hard carbons particles resulting
from the incomplete combustion have an abrasive effect on the cylinder liner
walls. The already glazed honing marks are polished by the hard carbon, which
results in a completely smooth liner surface. The lubricating oil consumption
increases drastically as more oil is burned instead of being led back to the
crankcase. The glazing may also have a negative impact on the cylinder
pressure as the oil film trapped in the honing marks are important to maintain
the sealing efficiency of the piston rings. As previously mentioned,
deterioration of the piston ring sealing efficiency allows for hot combustion
gases, soot and unburned fuel to be pushed passed the piston rings into the oil
sump. This leads to contamination of the lubricating oil which can change the
viscosity of the oil drastically. Soot contamination increases the viscosity of the
oil. Too high viscosity may restrict the oil flow and even clog oil filters. Fuel
dilution of the lubrication oil reduces the viscosity of the oil. Too low viscosity
may collapse the critical oil film thickness.
Excessive fuel dilution seems to be the most problematic oil contaminant
resulting from low load operations. Low viscosity lubricating oil can cause
premature and rapid wear of pistons, piston rings, cylinder liners and crank case
bearings. Severe fuel dilution may also dilute the concentration of oil additives
and hence reducing their effectiveness. Acids are formed from condensed water
and combustion by-products, which normally would boil of at higher
temperatures. During low load operations, cylinder temperatures can be lower
than the boiling point, which can cause acidic build-up in the lubricating oil.
This causes slow, but damaging wear to bearing surfaces. Individual soot
particles are small and pose no direct risk to engine parts, but soot particles may
clump together to form larger and more damaging soot clumps. Clogging of fuel
injectors may have a negative impact on the fuel spray pattern, the injection
pressure and thus the time of injection. Deteriorated fuel injection
characteristics, may lead to further degradation of the combustion process.
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The mechanisms of low load operations lead to a cycle of degradation, which
means that diesel engines running at low loads for longer periods at the time
may become irreversibly damaged. Symptoms of the operational issues
resulting from low load operations can be seen in the exhaust. White smoke
results from unburned fuel, blue smoke from burned lubrication oil and black
smoke from damaged fuel injectors.
6.8 Recommendations for Low Load Operation
If precautions are not taken, engine manufacturers agree that low load
operations of their engines may have negative impacts on operating conditions.
Diesel engines running at low loads for longer periods of time shall be brought
up to higher loads on a regular basis to prevent operational problems. A load
increase will raise the internal pressures and temperatures, allow the piston
rings to scrape glaze off the bores and allow carbon build-up and unburned fuel
to be burnt off. However, if glazing is developed to the stage where the piston
rings are seized this will not have any effect. Once glazing or carbon build-up
has occurred, it can only be removed by re-bore cylinder bores, machining new
honing marks and clean combustion chambers, fuel injector nozzles and valves.
Regular lubricating oil analysis should also be performed to monitor the
contamination levels. Severe fuel contamination of the lubricating oil can be
lethal to the diesel engine and should thus be monitored very closely.
It is consensus among the engine manufacturers that diesel engines must be
loaded to at least 50% of rated power regularly during low load operation, to
mitigate the risk of operational problems. The time interval and the
requirements for load increase vary from one engine to another depending on
the engine design. Recommendations regarding operations at low loads are,
without exception, found in the engine product guides provided by the
manufacturers. Cummins Marine has made specifications for low load
operations depending on the fuel injection systems of the engines [34]. Engines
with conventional injection system shall not be running at less than 30% of
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DISCUSSION
maximum rating for more than eight hours at the time. Every low load sequence
shall be followed by at least 30 minutes of operation at engine loads higher than
50% of rated power. The low load operation requirements are less restrictive for
modern engines with common rail injection systems. The engines shall not be
running at less than 10% of maximum rating for more than eight hours at the
time, but can run at less than 30% engine load for maximum 24 hours at the
time. This shows that modern NOX optimized diesel engines with common rail
are better equipped to handle lower loads than their predecessors.
It shall be emphasised that the recommendations for operations at low load are
based on the assumptions of high fuel qualities and correct fuel treatment. In
most cases these assumptions do not reflect the actual situation on board. Fuels
resulting from complex refining processes may have characteristics that are far
from ideal. This means that guidelines for operations at low load should ideally
be customized for the individual engine given its operational conditions. The
fuel quality and thus the fuel treatment plant is an important factor in this
context. Ideally, all new bunker fuels should be tested and evaluated against
certain engine parameters such as mean effective pressure, charge air
temperature, turbocharger inlet and outlet temperature, exhaust temperature and
pump indexes. This should be done for different loads i.e. 25%, 50%, 75% and
100%. Further, the loads should be evaluated against existing results for ideal
engine operating conditions.
6.9 Qualitative Analysis
The intention of the qualitative analysis was to investigate whether one
quantitatively can substantiate the suspicion that low load operations increases
operational problems and thus the damage frequency. The analysis is based on
simple frequency measurements of diesel engine survey findings extracted from
NPS. Survey findings are not limited to damages, but also include issues that
represent non-conformity with the class. For the purpose of this study, it has
been assumed that these findings will give a realistic picture of the engines’
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damage extent. To be able to analyse the impacts of low load operations, it has
been assumed that low load operations are most likely to occur on vessels with
dynamic positioning systems due to the reasoning discussed in subchapter 6.1.
It has also been assumed that other operational problems that could potentially
lead to increased finding frequencies are more or less similar for DP- and nonDP vessels. Given the abovementioned assumptions, the difference in finding
frequencies for DP- and non DP-vessel could indicate operational problems
caused by low load operations. These assumptions do not necessarily give the
most accurate result, but it is currently the only way to analyse these finding
data quantitatively. The finding frequencies were also evaluated with respect to
time to determine whether NOX optimized engines aggravate the negative
impacts of low load operations. There were some issues related to the
presentation of finding frequencies with respect to time. One issue was that the
only findings from 2005–2014 are available for analyses, which means that the
immediate effect of the introduction of NOX optimized engines in 2000 is not
visible. Another issue was related to the one year warranty of new engines,
which means that very few findings are reported to class within the first year of
operation. The third issue was that the number of findings and thus the finding
frequencies are expected to increase with the vessel age. Finding frequencies
should therefore ideally be corrected for the normal age development.
The results from the quantitative analysis are discussed in detail in
subchapter 4.6. The results show higher finding frequencies for main engines on
DP-vessels, which may indicate operational problems caused by excessive low
load operations. The result also show higher finding frequencies for engines
installed after 2000, which could indicate that stringent NOX regulations have
increased the operational problems. However, from this results it is difficult to
say whether NOX optimization have affected low load operations negatively.
Generally, the results from the quantitative analysis are ambiguous and should
be read with caution.
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7 Conclusion
Low load operations of diesel engines are defined as operations at engine loads
below 40% of maximum continuous rating. Low load operations are typical for,
but not limited to, offshore vessels with dynamic positioning system. This is
mainly due to redundancy requirement and conservative safety requirements
from ship owners or clients. This work has focused on gensets on board
offshore DP-vessels to assess the impacts of low load operations on modern
four-stroke diesel engines.
Low load operations of diesel engines causes lower cylinder pressures and thus
lower temperatures. Lower temperatures can lead to ignition problems and
incomplete combustion which will lead to increased soot formation and
aggregation of unburned fuel in the cylinder. The piston ring sealing efficiency
relies on the gas pressure in the combustion chamber to work properly. Low
cylinder pressure and glazing of piston rings deteriorate the sealing efficiency
and worsen the initially low cylinder pressure. Deteriorated piston rings cause
hot combustion gases and particles to blow past the piston rings and ignite the
lubricating oil film in which will result in liner glazing. Hard carbon particles
resulting from incomplete combustion polish the glazed honing marks and
smooth out the liner. The lubricating oil consumption increases drastically, as
the lubrication oil is burned instead of being led back to the crank case. This
will have negative impact on the cylinder pressure as the oil film trapped in the
honing marks is important to maintain the piston ring sealing efficiency. Hot
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CONCLUSION
combustion gases, soot particles and unburned fuel that are pushed past the
piston rings end up in the oil sump and cause dilution of the lubricating oil. Fuel
dilution may reduce the viscosity of the oil, which collapses the critical oil film
thickness. This results in premature wear of pistons, piston rings, liners and
crank case bearings.
Most modern diesel engines operate at lower cylinder pressures and thus lower
temperatures than their predecessors. The reason is the stringent NOX emission
control requirements of IMO’s MARPOL Annex VI. The engine designers focus
on both primary and secondary measures to reduce the amount of NOX in the
exhaust gas. Primary measures aim at reducing the amount of NOX formed
during the combustion by optimizing certain engine parameters. IMO Tier I and
II standards are met by primary measures. IMO Tier III standard are met by
secondary measures which aim at reducing NOX from the exhaust gases by
downstream cleaning techniques. Primary measures are the reason for lower
cylinder temperatures, which can aggravate the negative impacts of low load
operations. Earlier designs of NOX optimized diesel engines are said to have
had more problems at low load operations than more recent engine designs.
Recent developments have provided engine technology such as common rail,
variable injection timing and variable valve control that allow engine operations
at lower engine loads than earlier.
The mechanisms presented above show similarities to the damage case that
have been examined. The damage case present an engine crankcase breakage
initially caused by piston scuffing. Scuffing results from mechanical contact
when there is a breakdown or absence of lubrication. Excessive low load
operations caused lubrication oil contamination which eventually resulted in oil
film breakdown. Unfortunately, it has not been possible to find additional
damage cases where the resulting damage is suspected to be caused by low load
operations. This case study can thus not be used to establish any general
conclusions, but can be used for illustrative purposes.
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Existing finding data from DNV GL’s database have been analysed to determine
whether one can substantiate the impacts of low load operations quantitatively.
The finding data have been studied by simple frequency measurements. The
results show higher finding frequencies for DP-vessels than non-DP vessels.
This could indicate that low load operations may have a negative impact on the
operational problems and thus the damage frequency. The finding data have
also been evaluated with respect to time, to determine whether NOX
optimization aggravates the negative impacts of low load operations. The result
showed generally higher finding frequencies for engines installed after 2000
than the ones installed prior to 2000. This could indicate that the introduction of
Tier I compliant engines have increased operational problems. However, it
could not be determined whether NOX optimized engines have aggravated the
negative impacts of low load operations.
All the engine manufacturers that were interviewed were familiar with the
impacts of low load operations and did agree that low load operation is a highly
relevant issue of today. According to the engine manufacturers, the impacts of
low load operations are of particular concern if precautions are not taken. Diesel
engines running at low loads shall be brought up to high loads (at least 50% of
maximum power) regularly to prevent operational problems. Increased engine
load increases the pressure and temperature, which allow liner lacquering to be
scraped off and soot deposits and unburned fuel to be burned away. Such
recommendations are without exception written in the engine product guides.
The bottom line is that the impacts of low load operations are severe and will
cause operational problems if precautions are not taken. This is supported in the
literature as well as by engine manufacturers and by reviewing engine damage
reports. However, it has not been possible to substantiate the impacts of low
load operations quantitatively in a satisfying way by frequency measurements.
The results from the analysis indicate that low load operations increase
operational problems, but the results are ambiguous and should not be used to
establish any general conclusions without further analyses.
89
CONCLUSION
7.1 Suggestions for Further Work
This thesis has been investigating the impacts of low load operations by
reviewing existing literature as well as damage reports and finding data
provided by DNV GL.
Further work could focus on the potential that exists in the data base of DNV
GL. For more accurate finding frequency results finding data could be linked to
the ship’s AIS data. AIS data can provide load profiles that can be used to find
vessels that operate at low loads. Findings could also be linked to data from
DNVPS. DNVPS provide fuel quality testing and bunker quality services,
which can be used to link findings to different fuel qualities.
The analysis of the impacts of low load operations could also benefit from a
more theoretical analytical approach. An engine model could be developed for
engine performance analysis of different engine parameters. The engine
simulation software GT-POWER could be used for this purpose.
Further work could also benefit from investigating the impacts of low load
operations with a more experimental approach. This could include laboratory
engine testing and on board measurements.
90
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[1]
A. Iversen, “Drift av dieselmotorer på lav belastning/med lav
effekt,” Det Norske Veritas, 2012.
[2]
H. S. Bentsen, Interviewee, Senior Engineer, Machinery and
Systems, DNV GL. [Interview]. April 2014.
[3]
M. Sanguri, “The Guide to Slow Steaming on Ships,” Marine
Insight, 2012.
[4]
Det Norske Veritas, “Dynamic Positioning Systems, Pt. 6 Ch. 7
Sec. 2B,” in Rules for Classification of Ships, 2014.
[5]
V. Æsøy, “"Green Ship Technology" for Arctic Operations,”
Høyskolen i Ålesund, 2013.
[6]
C. D. Rakopoulos and E. G. Giakoumis, Diesel Engine Transient
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[7]
D. Woodyard, Pounder's Marine Diesel Engines and Gas
Turbines, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2009.
[8]
J. B. Heywood, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals,
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[9]
Ø. Buhaug, Deposit Formation on Cylinder Liner Surfaces in
Medium-Speed Engines, NTNU, 2003.
[10]
E. Codan and I. Vlaskos, “Turbocharging medium speed diesel
engines with extreme Miller timing,” ABB Turbo Systems Ltd.,
2004.
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[11]
M. B. Vermeire, “Everything You Need to Know About Marine
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[12]
Det Norske Veritas, “Low Sulphur Fuels - Properties and
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[13]
International Organization of Standardization (ISO), “ISO 8217:
Petroleum Products - Fuels (class F) - Specifications of Marine
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[14]
Det Norske Veritas, “ISO 8217 Fuel Standard, Fouth Edition
2010,” 2013. [Online]. Available:
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ng/fuelqualitytesting/iso8217fuelstandard.asp.
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A. Iversen, Interviewee, Former Employee, DNV GL. [Interview].
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[16]
K. Steernberg and S. Forget, “Paper No.: 198 The effects of a
chanigng oil industry on marine fuel quality and how new and old
analytical techniques can be used to ensure predictable
performance in marine diesel engines,” CIMAC Congress Vienna,
2007.
[17]
R. E. Lewis, “Beyond ISO 8217,” Bunker Spot, pp. 50-53, 2009.
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A. O. T. Strøm, Interviewee, Senior Aprroval Engineer,
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[19]
“PB Marine,” PB Marine, 2013. [Online]. Available:
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J. Fitch, “Four Lethal Diesel Engine Oil Contaminants,”
Machinery Lubrication, no. 5, 2007.
[21]
S. McAllister, J.-Y. Chen and A. C. Fernandez-Pello,
Fundamentals of Combustion Processes, Springer, 2011.
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[22]
R. Allen, “The Influence of Marine Fuel Quality on Lubricating
Oil Performance,” in 20th CIMAC World Congress, 1993.
[23]
G. W. Stachowiak and A. Batchelor, Engineering Tribology, 4th
edition ed., Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 2013.
[24]
B. Mossey, “MTU - Engines and System Engineering,” 2013.
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Onuki, “Investigation of Engine Breakdown of Electric
Propulsion in North European Sea,” Mitsubishi Heavy Industries,
Ltd., 2007.
[26]
Harada, Fukuzawa and Takimoto, “Investigation Report,”
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 2007.
[27]
J. Kadal, M. Rasmussen, K. Ramsrud and J. Melkeraaen, “Basic
Principle of the Class Findings Benchmark,” 2014.
[28]
T. Dirix, Interviewee, Principal Engineer, Machinery, DNV GL.
[Interview]. May 2014.
[29]
J. Folkedal, Interviewee, Cummins Marine. [Interview]. May
2014.
[30]
T. Humerfelt, Interviewee, Rolls-Royce Marine Bergen.
[Interview]. April 2014.
[31]
M. Mork, Interviewee, Yanmar. [Interview]. May 2014.
[32]
Ø. Skår, Interviewee, Pon Power Scandinavia. [Interview]. April
2014.
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T. Selle, Interviewee, Wärtsilä Norway. [Interview]. May 2014.
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[34]
P. Brooks, “Limitations on low load operation for fixed speed
engines,” Cummins Marine, 2014.
[35]
E. Kok, “Specification for limited engine operation on no-load or
low load,” 2004.
[36]
R. Karlsvik, Interviewee, Chief Engineer. [Interview]. June 2014.
[37]
A. Karlsen, Interviewee, Principle Specialist - DP Systems,
Control Systems, DNV GL. [Interview]. May 2014.
[38]
J. Hussain, K. Palaniradja, N. Alagumrthi and R. Mainimaran,
“Effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on performance and
emission characteristics of a three cylinder direct injection
compression ignition engine,” Alexandria Engineering Journal,
no. 51, pp. 241-247, 2012.
[39]
D. Doyle, “EGR Systems and Lubricating Oil in Diesel Engines,”
Practicing Oil Analysis, no. 7, 2002.
[40]
G. M. R. Holtbecker, “Exhaust Emissions Reduction Technology
for Sulzer Marine Diesel Engines: General Aspects,” Wärtsilä
NSD Switzerland Ltd., 1998.
Appendix
A1 NPS Data
Main propulsion principle
Main component function code
Vessel Type Benchmark Name
BLANK
1099
391.123
411.1
431.1
441.1
499
511.1
521.1
599
699
899
Summary
Combustion engine
Electric motor
Gas turbine
Hydraulic motor
None
Sails
Steam turbine
BLANK
BLANK
Summary
Number Number of Main DNV Main
Main
of
Vessel
Component Component
Findings Components
Age
Frequency
0
3
5,98
0,00
8
166
1452,53
5,51
0
6
18,66
0,00
2684
6133
39239,85
68,40
249
798
4604,22
54,08
10
84
627,64
15,93
2
3
25,59
78,14
2359
16924
100511,85
23,47
315
4889
28792,57
10,94
0
9
67,83
0,00
0
12
91,45
0,00
0
14
102,57
0,00
5627
29041
175540,75
32,06
1829
13481
82971,57
22,04
396
2660
12719,49
31,13
10
78
341,36
29,29
0
17
54,16
0,00
115
596
3969,80
28,97
0
2
1,59
0,00
8
66
381,54
20,97
1
0
0,00
0,00
0
24
72,33
0,00
2359
16924
100511,85
23,47
95
APPENDIX
Auxiliary engines - non-DP-vessels
Auxiliary engines - DP-vessels
Main engines - non-DP-vessels
Main engines - DP-vessels
Vessel Type Benchmark Name
96
Bulk Carriers
Dry Cargo
Gas Carriers
Offshore MOU
Offshore Ship
Oil Tankers
Other
Other MOU
Passenger
Summary
Bulk Carriers
Dry Cargo
Fishing
Gas Carriers
Offshore MOU
Offshore Ship
Oil Tankers
Oil/Chemical Tankers
Other
Other MOU
Passenger
Summary
Bulk Carriers
Dry Cargo
Fishing
Offshore MOU
Offshore Ship
Oil Tankers
Oil/Chemical Tankers
Other
Other MOU
Summary
Bulk Carriers
Container
Dry Cargo
Fishing
Gas Carriers
Offshore MOU
Offshore Ship
Oil Tankers
Oil/Chemical Tankers
Other
Other MOU
Passenger
Summary
Number Number of Main DNV Main
Main
of
Vessel
Component Component
Findings Components
Age
Frequency
0
14
35,46
0,00
0
3
16,62
0,00
0
8
33,30
0,00
26
205
845,99
30,73
164
1373
6025,98
27,22
1
10
88,99
11,24
14
177
849,31
16,48
13
194
872,38
14,90
0
9
30,48
0,00
218
1993
8798,52
24,78
8
36
151,47
52,81
0
3
9,30
0,00
2
21
59,96
33,35
1
60
112,89
8,86
0
2
6,85
0,00
1
26
111,07
9,00
4
25
117,79
33,96
6
36
262,17
22,89
15
171
1059,99
14,15
2
40
347,35
5,76
139
247
1682,13
82,63
178
667
3920,98
45,40
8
8
71,19
112,38
0
4
32,58
0,00
0
7
50,37
0,00
4
66
224,98
17,78
119
1021
6329,79
18,80
16
227
1325,42
12,07
0
4
13,75
0,00
10
122
873,12
11,45
0
40
111,79
0,00
157
1499
9032,99
17,38
231
1964
8941,61
25,83
120
918
4989,09
24,05
312
1563
10032,14
31,10
122
977
7685,87
15,87
43
434
2720,90
15,80
28
35
242,36
115,53
119
558
4179,24
28,47
191
1850
11850,10
16,12
246
1906
11498,10
21,39
149
1051
6636,05
22,45
0
6
16,54
0,00
111
720
5146,57
21,57
1672
11982
73938,58
22,61
NPS DATA
Vessel Type Benchmark Name
Number Number of Main DNV Main
of
Vessel
Component
Findings Components
Age
Passenger
10
1
0
128
139
72
6
2
167
247
450,41
53,39
12,87
1165,47
1682,13
22,20
18,73
0,00
109,83
82,63
Passenger
35
12
8
7
39
0
2
3
5
111
224
133
19
125
170
11
11
21
6
720
1585,84
1009,39
169,13
655,88
1339,19
97,92
97,92
140,99
52,30
5148,55
22,07
11,89
47,30
10,67
29,12
0,00
20,43
21,28
95,60
21,56
Offshore Ships
14
13
5
0
118
5
0
6
3
164
91
287
60
10
875
5
4
23
18
1373
448,51
1266,82
378,35
46,08
3568,72
44,51
35,61
167,34
73,81
6029,74
31,21
10,26
13,22
0,00
33,07
112,34
0,00
35,86
40,65
27,20
Offshore Ships
Main engines non-DP-vessels
Car Ferry
Car-& Train Ferry
Catamaran
Passenger Ship
Summary
Auxiliary engines non-DP-vessels
Car Ferry
Car Ferry/Catamaran
Car-& Train Ferry
Catamaran
Passenger Ship
Passenger Tender
Passenger/General Cargo
Passenger/Ro-Ro Carrier
Surface Effect Ship
Summary
Main engines DP-vessels
Diving Support Vessel
Multi Purpose Offshore Vessel
Pipe Layer
Standby Ship
Supply Vessel
Supply Vessel Anchor Hand.Fire Fight
Supply Vessel/Standby Ship
Supply Vessel/Tug
Support Vessel
Summary
Auxiliary engines DP-vessels
Anchor Handling Tug
Core Drilling Vessel
Diving Support Vessel
Multi Purpose Offshore Vessel
Pipe Layer
Standby Ship
Supply Vessel
Supply Vessel Anchor Hand.Fire Fight
Supply Vessel Anchor Handling
Supply Vessel/Standby Ship
Supply Vessel/Tug
Support Vessel
Summary
Main
Component
Frequency
3
1
13
11
0
0
68
1
1
0
20
1
119
13
7
50
65
11
4
452
23
44
2
347
3
1021
115,52
62,31
411,91
391,28
96,59
9,63
2885,93
137,12
302,02
17,80
1877,06
25,42
6332,59
25,97
16,05
31,56
28,11
0,00
0,00
23,56
7,29
3,31
0,00
10,65
39,34
18,79
97
APPENDIX
Auxiliary engines non DP-Vessels Auxiliary engines DP-Vessels
Main engines non DP-Vessels
Main engines DP-Vessels
Job Completion Year
98
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Summary
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Summary
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Summary
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Summary
Number Number of Main DNV Main
Main
of
Vessel
Component Component
Findings Components
Age
Frequency
7
1997
8814,93
0,79
12
1997
8814,93
1,36
21
1997
8814,93
2,38
9
1997
8814,93
1,02
19
1997
8814,93
2,16
35
1997
8814,93
3,97
35
1997
8814,93
3,97
32
1997
8814,93
3,63
47
1997
8814,93
5,33
1
1997
8814,93
0,11
218
1997
8814,93
24,73
3
667
3922,81
0,76
7
667
3922,81
1,78
21
667
3922,81
5,35
14
667
3922,81
3,57
20
667
3922,81
5,10
20
667
3922,81
5,10
21
667
3922,81
5,35
14
667
3922,81
3,57
58
667
3922,81
14,79
0
668
3922,81
0,00
178
669
3922,81
45,38
8
1499
9037,10
0,89
10
1499
9037,10
1,11
15
1499
9037,10
1,66
14
1499
9037,10
1,55
22
1499
9037,10
2,43
23
1499
9037,10
2,55
18
1499
9037,10
1,99
30
1499
9037,10
3,32
16
1499
9037,10
1,77
1
1499
9037,10
0,11
157
1499
9037,10
17,37
90
11974
73877,23
1,22
71
11974
73877,23
0,96
120
11974
73877,23
1,62
167
11974
73877,23
2,26
207
11974
73877,23
2,80
222
11974
73877,23
3,00
272
11974
73877,23
3,68
265
11974
73877,23
3,59
239
11974
73877,23
3,24
15
11974
73877,23
0,20
1668
11974
73877,23
22,58
NPS DATA
Main engines DP-vessels
Main Component Assigned
Year
1980
1981
1982
1984
1985
1987
1989
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Summary
Number Number of Main DNV Main
Main
of
Vessel
Component Component
Findings Components
Age
Frequency
2
16
143,30
13,96
1
8
71,65
13,96
1
4
35,82
27,91
0
5
43,01
0,00
5
5
44,78
111,65
1
9
80,61
12,41
2
5
44,78
44,66
0
2
17,91
0,00
3
5
44,78
66,99
1
5
44,78
22,33
1
10
89,56
11,17
2
4
35,82
55,83
1
5
4,16
240,13
23
27
239,02
96,23
0
4
35,82
0,00
2
33
293,40
6,82
10
33
295,55
33,83
30
52
465,72
64,42
21
12
107,47
195,40
24
101
871,83
27,53
2
73
575,42
3,48
8
146
992,81
8,06
22
169
976,98
22,52
18
215
1070,24
16,82
21
188
758,20
27,70
9
243
660,60
13,62
8
291
592,55
13,50
0
286
330,85
0,00
0
67
20,15
0,00
218
2023
8987,61
24,26
99
APPENDIX
Main engines non DP-vessels
Main Component Assigned
Year
100
BLANK
1975
1976
1983
1986
1988
1991
1992
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Summary
Number Number of Main DNV Main
Main
of
Vessel
Component Component
Findings Components
Age
Frequency
0
4
31,33
0,00
0
4
34,16
0,00
0
4
35,34
0,00
0
7
62,69
0,00
3
9
75,67
0,00
2
2
14,38
139,05
0
3
24,44
0,00
0
3
26,87
0,00
3
8
71,65
41,87
8
4
35,82
223,31
9
12
104,99
85,73
12
26
225,32
53,26
12
28
250,77
47,85
4
20
179,12
0,00
11
21
188,08
0,00
16
21
188,08
85,07
4
33
280,77
14,25
14
41
329,49
42,49
6
49
364,51
16,46
3
48
316,95
9,47
49
59
301,78
162,37
13
92
401,22
32,40
0
32
111,32
0,00
3
30
123,77
24,24
0
84
67,48
0,00
0
23
4,89
0,00
172
667
3850,92
44,66
NPS DATA
Auxiliary engines DP-vessels
Main Component Assigned
Year
1974
1976
1977
1978
1979
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Summary
Number Number of Main DNV Main
Main
of
Vessel
Component Component
Findings Components
Age
Frequency
1
1
8,96
111,65
0
2
17,47
0,00
0
4
35,82
0,00
2
12
106,96
18,70
0
6
39,61
0,00
2
3
26,43
75,67
1
20
176,93
5,65
5
17
147,50
33,90
10
37
323,51
30,91
14
21
187,21
74,78
4
15
134,34
29,77
0
5
43,10
0,00
1
5
44,78
22,33
3
7
62,17
48,26
1
11
96,45
10,37
1
2
17,80
56,19
8
13
113,05
70,76
0
4
35,82
0,00
0
3
26,87
0,00
2
17
152,25
13,14
1
22
194,02
5,15
10
54
479,61
20,85
11
85
760,98
14,46
7
27
224,30
31,21
6
29
257,22
23,33
5
43
382,62
13,07
3
33
294,28
10,19
0
17
152,25
0,00
14
114
999,74
14,00
16
72
570,33
28,05
6
68
471,35
12,73
7
70
420,48
16,65
7
123
628,33
11,14
7
154
649,55
10,78
3
149
472,40
6,35
1
90
186,18
5,37
0
122
156,91
0,00
0
24
3,79
0,00
159
1501
9101,38
17,47
101
APPENDIX
Auxiliary engines non DP-vessels
Main Component Assigned
Year
102
BLANK
1957
1958
1959
1960
1963
1964
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
Number Number of Main DNV Main
Main
of
Vessel
Component Component
Findings Components
Age
Frequency
28
71
622,35
44,99
2
2
17,91
111,65
0
4
32,30
0,00
0
1
8,96
0,00
0
1
8,85
0,00
0
5
44,78
0,00
0
2
17,91
0,00
0
3
26,58
0,00
0
3
26,80
0,00
4
9
71,06
56,29
0
1
8,96
0,00
0
5
44,75
0,00
0
7
54,12
0,00
7
34
292,70
23,91
1
14
123,96
8,07
8
18
158,82
50,37
16
45
394,42
40,57
4
42
347,16
11,52
2
17
149,52
13,38
3
33
285,12
10,52
9
31
261,26
34,45
14
47
414,64
33,76
27
67
564,19
47,86
29
79
684,35
42,38
24
69
612,99
39,15
10
59
527,07
18,97
33
86
734,94
44,90
52
152
1311,90
39,64
47
103
910,37
51,63
15
79
675,09
22,22
32
111
940,15
34,04
38
103
855,89
44,40
46
165
1447,91
31,77
35
163
1415,97
24,72
23
89
767,36
29,97
44
106
922,07
47,72
51
147
1283,75
39,73
71
214
1866,47
38,04
66
295
2566,46
25,72
53
245
2133,81
24,84
70
326
2884,60
24,27
Auxiliary engines non DP-vessels
NPS DATA
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Summary
54
35
50
33
25
126
44
100
68
84
92
41
27
7
1
1651
243
295
317
298
249
880
573
673
660
716
1115
1043
849
788
193
11945
2133,06
2591,03
2754,71
2599,87
2176,81
7595,96
4454,70
4615,06
3968,19
3709,52
4860,39
3264,88
1899,11
813,41
71,50
74026,47
25,32
13,51
18,15
12,69
11,48
16,59
9,88
21,67
17,14
22,64
18,93
12,56
14,22
8,61
13,99
22,30
103
APPENDIX
Main engines DP-vessels
Main engines ALL vessels
Main Component Instance
Name
104
3516
3516 B DITA
3516 C-HD
3516 C-TA
3516 DITA
3516B
3516B DITA
3516B DITA EL. PROP.
3516B HD
3516B HD DITA
3516B TA
3516C
3516C -HD
3516C HD
3516C MJR 560 M
Caterpillar 3516B DITA
Summary
3516
3516 B DITA
3516 C-HD
3516 C-TA
3516 DITA
3516B
3516B DITA
3516B DITA EL. PROP.
3516B HD
3516B HD DITA
3516B TA
3516C
3516C -HD
3516C HD
3516C MJR 560 M
Caterpillar 3516B DITA
Summary
Number Number of Main DNV Main
Main
of
Vessel
Component Component
Findings Components
Age
Frequency
6
31
234,99
25,53
3
4
35,63
84,20
0
3
17,55
0,00
0
1
5,85
0,00
6
8
71,25
84,20
9
117
636,21
14,15
2
16
117,05
17,09
0
4
35,63
0,00
0
4
34,21
0,00
1
6
27,95
35,78
0
4
25,23
0,00
3
84
205,26
14,62
0
4
12,32
0,00
5
58
274,27
18,23
1
8
1,36
735,89
1
2
17,81
56,14
37
354
1752,58
21,11
6
31
234,99
25,53
3
4
35,63
84,20
0
3
17,55
0,00
0
1
5,85
0,00
6
8
71,25
84,20
9
117
636,21
14,15
2
16
117,05
17,09
0
4
35,63
0,00
0
4
34,21
0,00
1
6
27,95
35,78
0
4
25,23
0,00
3
84
205,26
14,62
0
4
12,32
0,00
5
53
229,74
21,76
1
8
1,36
735,89
1
2
17,81
56,14
37
349
1708,04
21,66
FINDING ANALYSIS
A2 Finding Analysis
Frequency
Function Code
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
411.1
511.1
521.1
Cylinder Configuration
35
Frequency
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
In-line engine
V-engine
Propulsion Principle
35
Frequency
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
M/E
A/E
105
APPENDIX
Survey Year
10
Frequency
8
6
4
2
0
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Vessel Age Group
100
Frequency
80
60
40
20
0
0-4
years
5-9
years
10-14
years
15-19
years
20-24
years
Over 25
years
Engine Category
50
Frequency
40
30
DP
20
Non DP
10
0
M/E
106
A/E
FINDING ANALYSIS
Vessel Type
Bulk Carriers
Fishing
Gas Carriers
Offshore MOU
Offshore Ship
Oil Tankers
Oil/Chemical Tanker
Other
Other MOU
Passenger
M/E DP
M/E non DP
0
20
40
60
Frequency
80
100
Vessel Type
Gas Carriers
Fishing
Oil Tankers
Oil/Chemical Tanker
Passenger
Other
Container
Bulk Carriers
Offshore Ship
Dry Cargo
Offshore MOU
A/E DP
A/E non DP
0
50
100
Frequency
150
107
APPENDIX
Vessel Type
35
Frequency
30
25
20
M/E
15
A/E
10
5
0
Supply Vessel (DP)
Car Ferry (non DP)
Vessel Type
35
Frequency
30
25
20
M/E
15
A/E
10
5
0
Offshore Ships (DP)
Offshore MOUs (DP)
Engine Model
60
Frequency
50
40
30
DP
20
Non DP
10
0
M/E
A/E
Engine model 1
108
M/E
A/E
Engine model 2
FINDING ANALYSIS
DNV Class Notation
DYNPOS-AUTRO
DYNPOS-AUTR
A/E
M/E
DYNPOS-AUT
0
5
10
15
20
Frequency
25
30
Installation Year
60
Frequency
50
40
30
M/E DP
20
M/E non DP
10
0
< 2000
2000-2010
> 2010
Installation Year
60
Frequency
50
40
30
A/E DP
20
A/E non DP
10
0
< 2000
2000-2010
> 2010
109
APPENDIX
Installation/Finding Year (M/E)
250
Frequency
200
150
DP
100
Non DP
50
0
Installation year: 1995 - 1999 Installation year: 2000 - 2004
Finding year:
2005 - 2009 Finding year:
2010 - 2014
Frequency
Installation/Finding Year (A/E)
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
DP
Non DP
Installation year: 1995 - 1999 Installation year: 2000 - 2004
Finding year:
2005 - 2009 Finding year:
2010 - 2014
Installation/Finding Year (ALL)
Frequency
200
150
100
M/E
50
A/E
0
Installation year: 1995 - 1999
Finding year:
2005 - 2009
110
Installation year: 2000 - 2004
Finding year:
2010 - 2014
FINDING ANALYSIS
Installation/Finding Year (ALL)
Frequency
200
150
100
DP
Non DP
50
0
Installation year: 1995 - 1999 Installation year: 2000 - 2004
Finding year:
2005 - 2009 Finding year:
2010 - 2014
111
APPENDIX
A3 Interview
This document contains question regarding low load operations on diesel engines and
will be used in a master thesis with working title as stated below:
«Impacts‎of‎Low‎Load‎Operations‎on‎Modern‎Four-Stroke‎Diesel‎Engines‎in‎
Diesel‎Generator‎Configuration»
The master thesis is written by student Espen Dalsøren Tufte in collaboration with
DNV GL and NTNU Marine Technology.
Background
Diesel engines in generator mode are normally optimized for operation at high and
medium loads. It is suspected that operation at low loads, combined with transient
loads, may increase operational problems and increase the damage frequency. It is also
suspected that the negative effects of low load operations are aggravated by the recent
IMO regulations of exhaust emissions, and in particular NOX emissions.
The questions below mainly concern modern high speed four-stroke diesel engines in
generator configuration.
Low‎load‎Operations
1. What is the engine manufacturer’s experience with low load operations?
2. Does the engine manufacturer regard low load operations as a real issue?
a. If so, what factors make low load operations to a problem?
3. Does the engine manufacturer focus/work on issues regarding low load
operations?
a. In that case, what is done?
4. Does the manufacturer recommend any specific countermeasures when
operating at low loads to prevent wear and/or damage?
5. Does the manufacturer recommend reduced maintenance intervals when
operating at low loads?
a. In that case, what maintenance regime should be recommended?
6. Does the manufacturer have any knowledge of engine damages where low
loads operation is suspected to be the root cause?
a. If so, please specify.
7. Does the manufacturer have any impression of the damage extent on diesel
engines in generator configuration?
a. In that case, are there any statistics available (engine operating hours,
damage types, components, etc.)?
112
INTERVIEW
Environmental‎Measures
8. What challenges has the manufacturer with NOX optimization, low sulphur
fuels (fuel quality) and CO2 reduction?
9. What mitigation measures does the manufacturer focus on? Primary measures
(optimization of the engines) or secondary measures (external systems)?
10. What changes have been made on Tier II engines compared to Tier I engines?
11. Is there any change in the damage frequency for Tier II engines compared to
Tier I engines?
12. What challenges can be related to the combination of low load operations, NOX
optimization and low sulphur fuels?
In addition to the questions above are all existing written material on the subjects low
load operation, transient loads, environmental measures and fuel quality of particular
interest.
Please note that all written/oral material collected may be used in the thesis with
consent from the manufacturer.
Thank‎you‎very‎much!
113
APPENDIX
A4 Generator Load Curve
114
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