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REMOVABLE BOLLARD DESIGN
for the Royal Parks in London
Bachelor Degree Project in Product Design Engineering
Undergraduate, 30 ECTS
Spring term 2014
Saeunn Rut Saevarsdottir
Supervisors: Lennart Ljungberg, Ivar Inkapööl
Industry Supervisor: Ruth Holmes
Examiner: Peter Thorvald
Certificate of Originality
Submitted on August 14 2014 by Saeunn Rut Saevarsdottir to the University of Skövde as a Bachelor
Degree Project in Integrated Product Development/Product Design Engineering at the School of
Engineering Science.
I certify that all material in this Bachelor Degree Project, which is not my own work has been identified
and that no material is included for which a degree has previously been conferred on me.
Sæunn Rut Sævarsdóttir
2
3
Abstract
This report describes a Bachelor Degree project in product development completed in co-operation with
the Royal Parks in London and submitted to the University of Skövde. The aim of the project was to design
and develop a removable bollard intended to separate traffic in a bi-direction cycle lane in central London.
The goal was to develop a lightweight yet robust removable bollard that complimented the historical
surroundings and had a simple storage solution.
With thorough background research, established ideation methods and strategic evaluation a suitable
solution was found. The final design was an innovative bollard made out of recycled plastic and specially
adapted for simple removal and storage. It is a bollard that would successfully mark the cycle lane and is
both lightweight and stackable.
4
Sammanfattning
Denna rapport beskriver ett examensarbete i produktutveckling som utfört var i samarbete med the
Royal Parks i London och inlämnat till Högskolan i Skövde. Syftet med projektet var att utforma och
utveckla en borttagbar pollare tilltänkt för att separera trafik i en dubbelriktad cykelbana i centrala
London. Målet var att utveckla en lätt men samt robust borttagbar pollare som passar in i Londons
historiska miljö och har en enkel lagringslösning.
Genom en detaljerad förstudie, kända idégenereringsmetoder och strategisk utvärdering hittades en
lämplig lösning. Den slutliga designen var en innovativ pollar gjord av återvunnen plast och speciellt
anpassad för enkel flyttning och förvaring. Pollaren är både lätt och stapelbar samt kan användas för att
markera cykelbanor.
5
Table of Contents
1.
2.
Introduction
1.1
Royal Parks
10
1.2
Project Description
10
1.3
Strategy
11
Research
13
2.1
Bollards
14
2.1.1 Materials
15
2.1.2 Manufacturing
16
2.1.3 Fastening Mechanisms
16
2.1.4 Bollard Installation
17
2.1.5 Bollard Comparison
18
User Analysis
19
2.2.1 Survey
20
2.2.2 Contractors
21
Cycle Lanes
22
2.3.1 London Cycle Lane Standards
22
2.3.2 Separating Cycle Lanes from Traffic
23
2.4
St James’s Park and Surrounding Area
24
2.5
Objectives
25
2.6
Product Design Specification
27
2.2
2.3
3.
6
9
Ideation
31
3.1
Brainstorming
32
3.2
Mood Board
32
3.3
Brainwriting
34
3.4
Sketches
35
3.5
Mock-ups
36
3.6
Concepts
36
3.6.1 Concept 1 - The Half-Pipe
39
3.6.2 Concept 2 - The Basalt Columns
40
3.6.3 Concept 3 - The Modern Classic
41
4.
5.
Selection
43
4.1
Evaluation
44
4.2
Discussion with the Royal Parks
45
Development
47
5.1
Bollard Design
48
5.1.1 Functionality
50
5.1.2 Dimensions
51
5.1.3 Safety
53
Socket Design
54
5.2.1 Functionality
54
5.3
Material Considerations
55
5.4
Model Building
56
5.2
6.
7.
Results
59
6.1
Final Design
60
6.1.1 Environment and Maintenance
61
6.1.2 Objectives
62
6.1.3 Further Development
62
Conclusion
65
7.1
66
Discussion
References
68
Appendices
76
7
INTRO
DUCTION
NOUN
“The action of introducing something.”
(Oxford Dictionaries, 2014a)
N
The number of urban commuters travelling by bicycle is growing. In inner London there
was an increase of 155% in cycling to work over the past decade alone (Burgess, 2013). By
adding more dedicated cycle lanes the number of commuter cyclists can be increased even
further. As has been proven in Camden, which has seen a 49% increase in cyclists since
installing segregated bicycle lanes on main roads (Laker, 2014). In addition segregated cycle
lanes provide more safety for cyclists. London recently expanded their protected bicycle lane
scheme following some roadway accidents and the city announced that ideally bike lane
segregation will be done wherever possible (Walker, 2013). In order to protect the cyclist
there is a need for barrier of sort to successfully segregate the cycle lane from vehicular traffic.
The Royal Parks are looking to develop removable bollards to protect a bi-direction cycle lane
that will be on the road that passes in front of Buckingham Palace. These bollards need to fit
aesthetically into the historical surroundings yet also meet security demands and standards.
1.1
Royal Parks
The Royal Parks is an executive agency of the Department for Culture, Media and Sport, which is
a ministerial department of Britain’s government. There are eight Royal Parks in London to which
millions of Londoners and tourists visit every year. The Royal Parks manage and maintain these eight
parks and almost everything in them (Royal Parks, 2012). The parks are:
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
Bushy Park
The Green Park
Greenwich Park
Hyde Park
Kensington Gardens
The Regent’s Park
Richmond Park
St James’s Park
The Royal Parks are, collectively, the most visited attraction in the UK. The Royal Parks’ Corporate
Objectives include conserving and enhancing the parks sustainably, maintaining and improving the
park environment and biodiversity, for the enjoyment of this and future generations (Royal Parks,
2013). St James’s Park and its surrounding areas are of specific interest in this project since that is
where the bollard will be placed.
1.2
Project Description
The main objective of this final year project was to design a removable bollard that would separate
traffic from cyclist in a bi-direction cycle lane on the road that passes in front of Buckingham Palace.
In a brief provided by Ruth Holmes at the Royal Parks and Zoe Wright at Transport for London
(personal communication, 2014) some of the following requirements (the brief in its entirety can be
found in Appendix A):
t Lightweight and easy to remove and replace.
t Robust enough to withstand regular removal and storage. A good stacking system would be
beneficial.
t Easy to maintain, considering road grit and tarnishing/staining.
t A reflective element should be considered to ensure visibility at night.
t Meet manual handling standards for one user (Max 25kg, ideally 20kg).
t Meet standards set by the Department of London and Transport for London.
t Aesthetically in keeping with the English Heritage Grade 1 listed landscape and surrounding
buildings and structures.
t Once removed there should be minimal indicators of the bollard having been there and the
bollard socket needs to be level with the road surface but covered securely and filled appropriately.
t Considerations for security issues due to sensitive location, hollow features not advisable.
The goal in this project was to design a lightweight, easily maintained removable bollard that
successfully separates traffic in a cycle lane yet also compliments the historical surroundings.
10
1.3
Strategy
In order to successfully complete this project a strategy was devised early. The project started
with a thorough research to establish a knowledge basis for the project. The information gathered
in the research stage was then translated into requirements and a specification was created. Once
the specification was ready the design process could begin using various creative methods. Ideas
were turned into concepts, which were then evaluated and final concept was selected for further
development. After much hard work a final design was ready. Figure 1.1 shows a simple flowchart of
the strategy devised for the project.
Bachelor Degree Project
Preparation
t Discussion with the Royal Parks
t Identify goals and clarify problem
Research
Literature
Empirical
t Existing bollards (types,
usage, design, materials,
manufacturing)
t Cycle lanes (London standards,
ways of separating traffic, etc.)
t English Heritage Grade 1 listings
t User analysis (surveys and
interviews)
t Observe surroundings
Specification
t Clarify objectives
t Create Product Design Specification
Design
Idea Generation
t
t
t
t
t
Brainstorming
Brainwriting
Mood Boards
Combination tables
Model building
Selection
Development
t Compare to PDS
t Discuss with Royal
Parks
t Focus group
t Detail design
(aesthetics,
dimensions,
material,
functionality, etc.)
t Model building
Evaluation
t Compare to PDS
t Testing
t Opinions from future users, the Royal Parks, etc.
Final Design
Figure 1.1
A flowchart showing the strategy of the project.
11
RE
SEARCH
NOUN
“The systematic investigation into and study of materials and
sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.”
(Oxford Dictionaries, 2014b)
H
Before contemplating a solution some background research was conducted. This was done
in order to get a fundamental understanding of the requirements set as well as getting
information on existing solutions.
Information was gathered on existing bollards such as what they are used for, how they
are made and what materials are used to make them as well as how they are fastened and
installed. In addition a comparison table of existing bollards was created to get an overview
over the competitive products. To get the opinions of possible future users a user analysis was
conducted. Furthermore information was gathered on cycle lanes and the standards London
has for cycle lanes as well as existing ways of separating cycle lanes from vehicular traffic.
Additionally St James’s Park and the surrounding area was researched and observed. To get a
clear view of the purpose of the project the objectives were clarified and detailed. At the end
of the research stage the information gathered as well as the requirements set by the Royal
Parks and Transport for London were translated into a Product Design Specification, which
was a vital tool throughout the entire design process.
2.1
Bollards
The project description calls for a bollard to separate cycle lane traffic. To gain a better understanding
of existing bollards, how they are used, what they are made of and how, some research was done.
A bollard is a short post that is used to create a visual or protective perimeter (Reliance Foundry,
2013a). Bollards are a common type of street furniture that have been used in urban environments
since at least the eighteenth century to prevent vehicles entering certain roads as well as providing
protection around the base of statues and gateways (Brandon and Brooke, 2010). According to Brandon
and Brooke (2010) the muzzles of cannons on many captured ships were repurposed as bollards in
eighteenth century London.
According to Reliance Foundry (2013a) bollards originally served solely as a place to berth ships until
ancient Romans used them as mile markers along their roads. Today bollards serve a wide range of
purposes, their usage generally falls into three categories: security, traffic guidance and architectural.
However they are also used in landscaping, lighting and for bicycle parking (Reliance Foundry, 2013a).
Bollards come in various forms and materials. Most commonly bollards are concrete filled steel pipes
(Reliance Foundry, 2013a) but they can also be made of solid metal, solid concrete, wood or even
plastic. Figure 2.1 shows some bollards made out of different materials.
Figure 2.1
Example of bollards made of different materials. From top left: Swansea steel bollard
(Broxap, 2013a), Manchester cast iron bollard (Broxap, 2013b), Sheffield stainless steel bollard (Broxap,
2013c), aluminium bollard (Reliance Foundry, 2014), Edinburgh polyurethane bollard (Broxap, 2013d),
Edlington concrete bollard (Broxap, 2013e), timber bollard (Broxap, 2013f) and Aldridge recycled plastic
bollard (Broxap, 2013g).
14
2.1.1 Materials
Bollards can be made in a variety of materials. Choosing the correct material for intended usage plays
a big part in the bollards durability and aesthetic value. The following materials are commonly used to
make bollards and could be suitable materials for a removable bollard:
Steel
Steel is generally used to create security bollards or bollard covers. Steel is an economic, highly durable
material that is less likely to dent than other commonly used bollard materials. It is ideal for use where
a high level of structural integrity is required and in areas where corrosion is less of a concern (Reliance
Foundry, 2013b). Moreover steel can be recycled infinitely and all steel used has the potential to be
recycled (World Steel Association, 2014).
Cast Iron
The flexibility and elasticity of cast iron allows for intricate designs while still maintaining a significant
measure of strength. Ductile iron is ideal for balancing durability and aesthetics while still being
economical (Reliance Foundry, 2013b). According to WBW (2012) cast iron can be recycled indefinitely
without any lessening in properties.
Stainless Steel
Its sleek appearance makes stainless steel ideal for creating functional bollards with a simple modern
design. Stainless steel is highly corrosion resistance and is therefore the top choice for wet environments
(Reliance Foundry, 2013b). Grades 304 and 316 are most commonly used to make stainless steel
bollards (Reliance Foundry, 2013b, Logic, n.d.). According to Logic (n.d.) grade 316 is particularly
suited for waterside locations. According to Sustainable Stainless (2012) stainless steel has a long life
and can be recycled indefinitely.
Aluminium
Due to its light weight, aluminium is often used in removable bollards. Aluminium is easily machined
and cast and is therefore ideal to create decorative bollards that do not require a high level impact
resistance. The aluminium can be made with different levels of hardness and endurance depending on
the heat treatment used (Reliance Foundry, 2013b). According to the Aluminium Association (2014)
aluminium can be recycled infinitely and has a 20% smaller life cycle CO2 footprint than steel.
Polyurethane
Polyurethane is a lightweight, economical material that combines the best properties of plastic and
rubber. Polyurethane is most commonly used in bollards where functions such as bending or flexing
are more important than aesthetics. It is ideal for flexible bollards and is commonly used in traffic and
parking applications (Reliance Foundry, 2013b). However according to Logic (n.d.) polyurethane can
be cast in order to replicate cast iron but resulting in a lighter non-corroding bollard.
Timber
Timber can be used to make simple bollards where the material itself is the decorative element.
According to Furnitubes (2014a) timber bollards are naturally very durable and extremely strong as
well as being environmentally friendly. Timber bollards do however require maintenance.
Recycled Plastic
Many manufacturers offer bollards made out of 100% recycled plastic. According to Furnitubes (2014b)
the bollards are environmentally friendly, low maintenance, robust and long lasting. In addition the
bollards have excellent weather resistance properties.
15
2.1.2 Manufacturing
The manufacturing method chosen for bollards depends highly on the desired material. According
to Done and Chusid (2010) iron and aluminium bollards are frequently manufactured using sandcasting, which is economical and well suited for objects of this size. However sand-casting does leave
surface irregularities and therefore if a high-finish is desired machining is recommended. Bollards are
often placed in aggressive environments where painted finishes can be compromised by petrochemical
residues and splashes of diluted road de-icing salts. Therefore a factory applied powder coating, which
can be used on iron and aluminium, is recommended as it is more durable (Done and Chusid, 2010).
Broxap (2014), who manufacture a range of street furniture, use casting for iron and concrete bollards
and moulding for polyurethane and recycled plastic bollards. Furthermore bending, forming,
fabrication and welding is often a part of the bollard making process. The bollards are then often surface
treated, metals with zinc dip galvanizing and polyester powder coating, stainless steel is polished and
wood is stained. In addition bollards are often wet painted and fitted with reflective banding (Broxap,
2014).
2.1.3 Fastening Mechanisms
Bollards can be root fixed, bolted, telescopic or removable depending on intended usage. Since this
project calls for a removable bollard the focus will lie there.
Fixed bollards are embedded in the concrete in order to provide optimum strength and impact
resistance (Leda, 2013). Bollards can also be bolted onto the concrete using fixed base plates. However
according to Leda (2013) using a fixed base plate lowers impact resistance significantly. Telescopic or
retractable bollards can be lowered into the ground when not in use.
There are a number of different methods of fastening removable bollards (see Figure 2.2). Reliance
Foundry (2013c) has a removable bollard adapter that is embedded in the concrete and then locked
into the bollard using a pin and a padlock. Leda (2013) has a special patented Locking and Removable
bollard mounting system where the bollard is locked in place with a key at hip level. Broxap (2011)
offers a removable mounting system where a socket is embedded in the concrete. The socket has
a protective lid that is fastened to the bollard with a padlock once mounted. NAL (2014) offers a
retention socket that can be used for bollards. The socket is embedded in the concrete and when
mounting the lid is removed and the bollard is locked in position using an Allen key.
Figure 2.2 Example of different removable bollard fastening mechanisms. From left: Reliance Foundry
Economy and Premium removable mountings (Reliance Foundry, 2013c), Leda Locking and Removable
mounting system (Leda, 2013), Broxap removable mounting system (Broxap, 2011) and NAL retention
socket for street furniture (NAL, 2014).
16
2.1.4 Bollard Installation
The installation procedure of a bollard is more or less the same no matter what kind of bollard is being
installed. In addition to gathering literary information, the procedure was observed first-hand.
Bowles & Wyer, a UK based landscaping company, was on site in Hyde Park London from January
to April 2014 doing various contract work for the Royal Parks, one of which was removable bollard
installation. The procedure was observed and the contractors were asked various questions about the
installation, any difficulties involved and any suggested improvements. In this section the installation
process is detailed, for the questions please refer to 2.2 User Analysis.
In a few simplified steps a bollard is installed in the following way:
1.
2.
3.
4.
The location for the bollard is determined.
A square cube is marked and excavated, width and depth depends on the bollard being installed.
Loose gravel is placed at the bottom of the hole to allow for drainage.
The bollard socket is placed at the bottom, level to ground, and fixed in place with some
additional gravel.
5. Bollard is placed in the socket to make sure it is vertical, it is then fixed in place with some
additional gravel.
6. Rapid cement is placed around the bollard, set with water and allowed to dry.
7. A final layer of cement is added to the top, the cement is dyed black to match the tarmac.
Figure 2.3 shows some pictures of the bollard installation process.
Figure 2.3 The bollard installation process. From left: The bollard and socket before installation, a
square cube is marked, the cube is excavated, the bollard socket is placed in the hole and set with gravel,
the bollard is placed in the socket and cement is placed around it, the cement is set with water, the cement
sets in about 5 minutes.
The length of the process depends on the terrain and the thickness of the tarmac that has to be broken.
On average it takes between 30-45 minutes to install one bollard from start to finish. According to the
contractors the hardest part of the installation is breaking through the concrete as well as handling the
heavy bollard.
17
2.1.5 Bollard Comparison
Information must be gathered on competing products in order to determine a new products place
on the market (Ulrich and Eppinger, 2008). Since there are a lot of different types of bollards the
competitive analysis was focused on removable bollards with both classic and modern design. Table
2.1 compares three classic bollards, Manchester, Hexham and Hanchurch, which are already used
in the area as well as three more modern designs. As can be seen in the table removable bollards are
most often made of metals. The bollards with a more modern design offer less optional extras than the
classic design and more often than not no extra visibility assistance.
Table 2.1 A comparison of existing removable bollards and their various and features, both classic and
modern designs.
Removable Bollards - Comparison Table
Bollard
(Broxap,
2013b)
(Broxap,
2013h)
(Broxap, 2013i) (Broxap,
2013c)
(Furnitubes,
2014c)
(Furnitubes,
2014d)
Style
Manchester
Hexham
Hanchurch
Sheffield
Wharf
Linx100
Cost
From £99
From £100
From £119
From £62
-
-
Material
Steel / stainless Steel / PU /
steel / PU /
cast iron
cast iron / aast
aluminium
Ductile iron
Grade 304 or
316 stainless
steel
Grade 304 or
316 stainless
steel
Steel / cast
iron/ grade
304 or 316
stainless steel
Fixing
Root fixed /
base plated /
removable
Root fixed /
removable
Root fixed /
base plated /
removable
Base plated /
removable
Base plated /
removable
Weight (kg)
12 (steel), 22
16 (PU)
(PU), 42 (iron)
69
-
10
22-26
Height (mm)
940, 985, 1000
1080
750, 1000
850
1135-1275
Visibility
Optional
Optional
reflective
reflective
banding, glow- banding
in-the-dark
top
Optional
reflective
banding
Optional
reflective
banding
-
-
Optional
Extras
Anti-ram,
decorative
highlighting,
custom crest,
cycle parking,
flower basket
adaptation,
post/railing
conversion
Anti-ram,
decorative
highlighting
Anti-ram,
decorative
highlighting
Flat top,
sloped top,
semi-domed
top, mirror
polished
-
Different cap
options
Stackable
No
No
No
No
No
No
Broxap
Broxap
Furnitubes
Furnitubes
Root fixed /
base plated /
removable
897
Manufacturers Ex: Broxap,
Ex: Broxap,
Furnitubes and Marshalls and
Glasdon
Autopa
18
The bollards in Table 2.1 are all made and sold in the UK now but there are also a number of concept
bollards that are either new to the market or not yet on the market. These concept bollards tend to
have a more innovative design but might not be suitable for all uses or locations. Figure 2.1 shows a
few alternative bollard designs.
Figure 2.4 A few contemporary designed bollards. From top left: Gatic StreetWise concept 4 bollard
(Gatic, 2012), Roger Pradier Bamboo bollard (Voltex, 2014), Citysi VIC steel bicycle rack bollard
(Archiproducts, 2013), Knights bollards (Forms+Surfaces, 2014), Mata Garcilaso concrete bollard (Public
Spaces, 2014).
There are in fact a lot of different bollard designs, both modern and classic. They can be made of a
variety of materials and can have many different features. The choice all depends on where and how
the bollard will be used.
It is important to be familiar with the function, usage and innovation of existing products before
attempting a design improvement. Although bollards come in a variety of shapes, sizes and materials
there are no bollards that offer stackability without being hollow.
2.2
User Analysis
It is very important to identify the target market and the customers in it when developing a new
product (Ulrich and Eppinger, 2008). Whilst in this case the only intended customer is the Royal
Parks and the number of potential users is extremely large. According to Bridger (2008) a user is
anyone that comes into contact with the product during its life cycle. The users can then be divided
into primary, secondary, side and co-users. A primary user is someone who uses the product for its
primary purpose. A secondary user is someone who uses the product but not for its intended purpose.
A side user is someone who is affected by the product without using it and a co-user is someone who
cooperates with a primary or secondary user without using the product (Bridger, 2008).
19
The primary purpose of the bollard is to separate traffic from a cycle lane on a busy road in central
London. Therefore the primary users would be the cyclists on the cycle lane and the drivers on the
road. The secondary users would be the contractors installing, removing and replacing the bollards.
The side users would be pedestrians, tourist and other visitors in the area. This broad range of users
would all be affected in one way or another by the bollard therefore it was decided to do a survey
through the internet which allowed communication with a vast and broad array of potential users.
In addition a bollard installation was observed and discussed with the contractors (to read about the
installation please refer to “2.1.4 Bollard Installation”).
2.2.1 Survey
A survey was created using the online survey software SurveyMonkey (SurveyMonkey, 2014). The
survey was sent out via both email and social media. This was done to get the thoughts and opinions
of as many potential users as possible. The survey included questions about the safety of bollards,
aesthetical preferences and the importance of visibility. 85 people who were a mix of cyclists, drivers
and pedestrians participated in the survey.
The survey revealed that most people want street furniture to compliment the environment they are
situated in (see Figure 2.5).
Figure 2.5 The majority of the participants felt that street furniture, such as bollards, should
compliment the surrounding environment.
The majority of the participants felt that street furniture such as bollards should have a design aspect.
According to the survey the most appreciated design aspects were simple designs (see Figure 2.6). In
20
addition the participants preferred either rounded design or a mix of rounded and rectangular design.
Figure 2.6
The majority of the participants appreciate street furniture with a simple design.
The majority of the participants said they would feel safer having cycle lanes separated from other
traffic with bollards and that the visibility of said bollard is important. The results of the entire survey
are in Appendix B.
2.2.2 Contractors
The cyclists, drivers and pedestrians aren’t the only ones affected by bollards, the contractors that install,
remove and replace the bollards are greatly affected as well. Employees from UK based landscaping
company, Bowles & Wyer, were installing a bollard in Hyde Park. While observing the installation the
contractors were asked a variety of questions about the installation and any suggested improvements
that they had. The main points that the contractors made were:
t The bollards are heavy (about 20 kg) and difficult to handle.
t When the bollards have been in place for a long time they tend to get stuck due to road grit etc.
Therefore some sort of handle would be appreciated to make the bollard easier to grasp and help
pull the bollard out of the bollard socket.
t In order to avoid damaging the road if hit, the bollard socket would need to go further down
into the ground. The bollard that was installed in Hyde Park only went 450 mm deep.
The contractors even mentioned the difficulties involved with breaking the concrete to be able to
install the bollard. However that is not something that can be tackled under the design brief but could
be assessed in future projects
21
2.3
Cycle Lanes
Since the main objective of the bollard is to separate traffic from cyclists in a bi-direction cycle lane some
information was gathered on cycle lanes, how they are separated and relevant cycle lane standards.
Cycle lanes are special designated areas of carriageway that are marked for cyclists (Whiltshire Council,
2011). According to Transport for London (n.d.) the benefits of cycle lanes include:
t
t
t
t
t
Drivers are more aware of cyclists.
Drivers are more inclined to leave space for cyclists.
Helps to confirm a route for cyclists
Legitimises cyclists overtaking of slow moving or stationary traffic.
In addition cycle lanes provide greater confident for cyclists (Whiltshire Council, 2011).
According to Transport for London (n.d.) there are two main types of cycle lanes, mandatory and
advisory. Mandatory cycle lanes are exclusively for cyclists and require Traffic Regulation Order.
Advisory lanes are only used to show indicated area for cyclists and other traffic can enter the lane
(Transport for London, n.d.).
Cycle lanes should not be confused with cycle paths, which are on footways and are used when it is
unsafe or inappropriate to designate areas of carriageway for cycle lanes (Whiltshire Council, 2011).
2.3.1 London Cycle Lane Standards
When designing cycle infrastructure there are many standards that need to be met in order to ensure
cyclists safety. According to Department for Transport (DfT) (2008) the type of cycle facilities chosen
depends highly on traffic volume, number of road junctions, level of on-street parking and amount of
pedestrian traffic. When the appropriate cycle facility has been chosen there are a number of design
parameters to consider. However only a fraction of these standards are relevant to this project. The
relevant standards include clear space and signage.
The space a cyclist needs in order to feel safe and comfortable is dependant on a few things one of
which is the distance from fixed objects. The minimum distance required is measured between the
wheel and the object. As can be seen in Figure 2.7 the minimum clearance required between a bollard
and the wheel is 0.75 m (DfT, 2008). Therefore the bollards should not take up unnecessarily much
space on the cycle lane in order to easily accommodate the required clearance.
Figure 2.7 Minimum clearance from fixed objects
(DfT, 2008).
Cycle routes need to be marked correctly. According to DfT (2008) cycle infrastructure can be quite
sign-intensive and therefore wherever possible signs should be mounted on walls, posts or other street
22
furniture. Which is why the bollard should be able to incorporate cycle route marking 955 in the
recommended bollard size, 150 mm (see Figure 2.8).
Figure 2.8 Diagram 955 for routes exclusively for pedal cycles, recommended
diameter for bollards is 150 mm (TfL, n.d.b)
There are many other standards that need to be complied with when designing cycle facilities but that
concerns the cycle infrastructure and not the design of a bollard.
2.3.2 Separating Cycle Lanes from Traffic
There are many ways to emphasise the cycle lane in order to give a clear separation from vehicular
traffic. According to Whiltshire Council (2011) mandatory cycle lanes are normally marked with a
continuous white line whereas advisory lanes are marked with a broken white line. Both mandatory
and advisory lanes can be coloured to emphasise their presence (Whiltshire Council, 2011). There are
however ways to protect the cycle lanes even further, this can be done by using for example bollards.
Vanderkooy (2013) mentions bollards, curbs, fences and potted plants among others in his article
Beautiful Ways to Protect Bike Lanes. Figure 2.9 show some of the cycle lanes featured in Vanderkooy’s
(2013) article. As can be seen there are many creative ways of protecting cycle lanes.
Figure 2.9 A few examples of ways to protect cycle lanes using trees, bollards, half-wheels, a low fence
or parked bicycles (Vanderkooy, 2013).
23
2.4
St James’s Park and Surrounding Area
The location of the bollard plays a big part in the design of it since it needs to be aesthetically in
keeping with the historical surroundings. The bollards will be placed near key locations in London
such as St James’s Park and Buckingham Palace. Therefore some research was done into the area and
the buildings it contains. Figure 2.10 shows a Google Earth shot of St. James’s Park, Buckingham
Palace and the area that will surround the bollard.
Figure 2.10
A Google Earth shot of the area where the bollard will be placed (Google Maps, 2014).
St. James’s Park is a public park owned by the Queen and managed by the Royal Parks. The park
is located in Central London and neighbours historical sites such as Buckingham Palace, Clarence
House, The Wellington Barracks, Downing Street and The Green Park (Royal Parks, 2009). St. James’s
Park and nearby buildings, monuments and landscapes are listed as Grade 1 by English Heritage. This
means that the buildings and landscapes are of special historical and architectural interest often on an
international scale (Department of Culture, Media and Sport, 2010).
Figure 2.11 From left: Aerial photograph of the road that passes in front of Buckingham Palace (Getty,
n.d.), where the bollard will be placed. Front view of the road and Buckingham Palace (Fanpop, n.d.).
The listed buildings, monuments and landscapes are not all from the same period and therefore
can vary in architectural style. Buckingham Palace (see Figure 2.11) is the official London residence
of Britain’s sovereign and has seen some architectural changes through the years but it retains the
French neo-classical influences added by architect John Nash in 1826 (The British Monarchy, 2009).
24
Figure 2.12 A few images of the environment the bollards would be in and some inspirational
architectural images. All photos taken by the designer.
Other historical architectural styles in London include Gothic, Victorian, Tudor, Baroque and more
(Tinniswood, 2011). Because of the varied architectural styles it was decided that the surrounding
area would best be observed first hand and photographed for inspiration further along in the design
process rather than a thorough research into each style. Figure 2.12 shows a few images of the historical
surroundings were the bollard will be placed along with some detail shots of buildings and street
furniture close by. The images give an idea of the architecture and design that the bollard will need to
compliment.
The facts and photographs collected about the historic area that would surround the bollard were a
constant source of inspiration throughout the project.
2.5
Objectives
According to Cross (2010) the goal of an objective tree is to clarify the design objectives and subobjectives established in the brief as well as through discussions and then determining the relationship
between them. First a list of design objectives is made which are then grouped roughly into hierarchical
levels and then drawn as a diagrammatic tree of objectives (Cross, 2010).
25
A form of an objective tree was made for this project, where the four main objectives and their subobjectives were listed. The bollard needs to be safe, it has to protect the cyclists and leave no marking
on the road once removed. The bollard has to have a design that compliments the surrounding. It also
has to be robust enough to withstand regular removal and storage as well as the environment while
in use. Furthermore it is important that the bollard is easy to handle for quick instalment. Figure 2.13
shows the objectives tree created for the project.
Removable Bollard - Objectives
Design
Safe
t Protect cyclists
t Visible at all times
t Minimal marking
on road
t Avoid clogging
t No trip hazard
t Aesthetically
in keeping
with historical
surroundings
t Be able to
incorporate cycle
route marking
Robust
t Withstand regular
removal and
storage
t Withstand
environment
t Chemical stability
t Lightweight
t Quick instalment
t Simple locking
mechanism
t Preferably
stackable
t Include handle for
removal
t Effective locking
mechanism
Figure 2.13
Easy to handle
t Socket easily
maintained
An objectives tree for the design project.
In order to clarify the goals even further it was decided to do a similar tree for the functions and
goals depending on the stage of usage. There are four main stages that the bollard needs to be able to
handle. The first stage is the placement and instalment where the bollard needs to align correctly and
be locked in place. After instalment the bollard is in use on the road were it has to guide the cyclists
as well as withstand the environment. The bollard then needs to be quickly and easily removed and
leave minimal marking on the road. Finally when the bollard has been removed it has to be stored so
a storage solution would be welcome. Figure 2.14 shows the goals and functions required in each stage
of usage that the bollard will go through.
Removable Bollard - Usage
Placement
On road
t Easy alignment
t Guide cyclists
t Locked in place
t Withstand
environment
t Fast and easy
t Visible at all times
t Protect cyclists
Figure 2.14
26
Removal
t Quick and easy
to remove and
replace
t Leave minimal
marking on road
Storage
t Preferably
stackable
t Lightweight
t Space-saving
t Manual handling
A tree to clarify the goals and functions required in each stage of usage.
By creating these trees the goals and objectives of the project were clarified, which made making the
product design specification much simpler. In addition creating a more visual representation of the
goals gives a different perspective on the problem.
2.6
Product Design Specification
A product design specification, or PDS, is a document that should be created before designing a
product to fully detail exactly what will be required of the product. A PDS is essential in order to be
fully in control of the product (The Design Society, 2011). According to Ulrich and Eppinger (2008) a
specification is used to translate customer and project provider’s needs into achievable requirements.
In a specification as little room as possible should be left for subjective interpretation. Which is
why a measurable value should be set to the requirements wherever possible (Ulrich and Eppinger,
2008). However this is not always possible, which is why some requirements are given the value “yes”,
meaning that these are requirements that need to be fulfilled but cannot be given a measurable value.
The requirements are also rated as necessary (N) or wished (W) where the necessary requirements
must be met but the wished are preferably met. Not all the requirement must be met by the entire
product, which is why the relevant part for each requirement is listed. Table 2.2 shows the PDS created
for the project.
Table 2.2 The PDS for the removable bollard design.
Nr
Performance
Removable Bollard Product Design Specification
Requirement
Part
N/W
Value
1.
Separate traffic from cyclists in bi-direction cycle lane
Bollard
N
Yes
2.
Quick removal and replacement
Bollard
N
≤ 5 min
3.
Easy alignment
Bollard/Fastening
N
Yes
4.
Robust enough to withstand removal and storage
Bollard
N
Yes
5.
Withstand environmental factors (see Environment)
Bollard/Fastening
N
Yes
6.
Impact resistant - handle impact force of a cyclist travelling 30 km/h Bollard
N
1000 N
7.
Minimal marking on road once removed - few bumps
Fastening
N
≤ 5 mm
8.
Avoid clogging - few openings
Fastening
N
≤3
9.
Effective locking mechanism
Fastening
N
Yes
10. Visible at all times - visibility elements
Bollard
W
≥1
11. No trip hazard - few bumps
Fastening
W
≤ 5 mm
12. Storage solution
Bollard
W
Yes
13. Able to incorporate cycle route marking on first bollard (see Size)
Bollard
N
Yes
14. Suitable for all Royal Parks locations
Bollard/Fastening
W
Yes
15. Include a handle to allow for easy removal
Bollard
W
Yes
≤ −10°C
Environment
1.
Withstand minimum temperature (Met Office, 2014)
Bollard/Fastening
N
2.
Withstand maximum temperature (Met Office, 2014)
Bollard/Fastening
N
≥ 40°C
3.
Withstand rainfall and even flooding (Met Office, 2014)
Bollard/Fastening
N
≥ 1000 mm pa
4.
Withstand snowfall (Met Office, 2014)
Bollard/Fastening
N
≥ 50 cm
5.
Withstand wind gales (Met Office, 2014)
Bollard/Fastening
N
≥ 100 knots
6.
Withstand ground vibrations (Watts, 1990)
Bollard/Fastening
N
≥ 15 Hz
7.
Withstand dirt, dust and insects
Bollard/Fastening
N
Yes
8.
Withstand petrochemical residue
Bollard/Fastening
N
Yes
27
9.
Withstand diluted road de-icing salts
10. Withstand regular removal and storage
Bollard/Fastening
N
Yes
Bollard
N
Yes
Size and Weight
1.
Diameter (to accommodate cycle route marking)
Bollard
W
≥ 150 mm
2.
Bollard - Lightweight
Bollard
N
≤ 25 kg
Material
1.
Materials shall be sourced sustainably
Bollard/Fastening
W
≥ 75%
2.
Materials shall be recyclable
Bollard/Fastening
W
≥ 75%
3.
Exposed metals shall be protected against corrosion
Bollard/Fastening
N
All
4.
Any materials chosen should withstand environment
Bollard/Fastening
N
Yes
N
Yes
Appearance
1.
Aesthetically in keeping with historical surroundings
Bollard
2.
Colour matching road surface
Fastening
N
Yes
3.
Design compliments environment
Bollard
W
Yes
4.
Simple design, few intricate details
Bollard
W
≤5
5.
Rounded design
Bollard
W
Yes
Ergonomics
1.
Meet manual handling standards
Bollard
N
≤ 25 kg
2.
Simple locking mechanism
Fastening
N
Yes
3.
Manageable by one person
Bollard/Fastening
N
Yes
Safety
1.
No hollow features
Bollard
N
Yes
2.
Lockable
Fastening
N
Yes
3.
Minimise sharp edges
Bollard
N
Yes
4.
No trip hazard
Fastening
N
Yes
5.
Visibility - Reflective element/bright colour/lights
Bollard
N
Yes
Bollard/Fastening
W
Minimal
Bollard/Fastening
N
Yes
Bollard/Fastening
N
16.5.2014
Maintenance
1.
Required maintenance
Manufacturing
1.
Manufacturing outsourced
Design Time
1.
Design modelled and ready for presentation
According to the Design Society (2011) the PDS has to be a written document but it can be changed.
The design should follow the PDS but if the design differs from the PDS for a good reason the PDS
can be revised. The important thing is to keep the PDS and the design in correspondence throughout
the design process. That way the PDS not only specifies the design but the product itself (The Design
Society, 2011). Therefore the PDS was kept up to date throughout the entire design process.
In order to give a clearer image of the requirements for each individual part a tree was created. The
slightly simplified requirements are visually represented in Figure 2.15.
28
Removable Bollard - Requirements
Fastening
Bollard
t Lightweight
t Withstand environment
t Robust
t Manageable by one
person
t Easy to remove and
replace - include some
sort of handle
t Preferably stackable
t Visible at all times
t Aesthetically in
keeping with historical
surroundings
t Easily aligned
t Suitable for all locations
t Fasten and lock bollard
quickly and safely
t Leave minimal marking
on road when bollard is
removed
t Avoid clogging
t At level with road surface
t No trip hazard
t Able to incorporate cycle
route marking on first
bollard
Figure 2.15
A visual representation of the requirements depending on the individual parts.
The PDS as well as the trees were referred to throughout the design process in order to make sure that
the product met the set requirements.
The research phase gave a good informational base about bollards, cycle lanes, potential users and
future surroundings. With the help of thorough research it was possible to identify the primary
objectives and determining the project’s goals. In addition the research highlighted the importance
of safety in the design of the bollard, especially in terms of visibility. As well as making sure that the
shape of the bollard would not cause serious harm if cycled into, that is by minimising sharp edges.
29
IDE
ATION
NOUN
“The formation of ideas or concepts.”
(Oxford Dictionaries, 2014c)
N
After the subject had been researched thoroughly the idea generation process, or ideation,
was kick started with a number of creative methods such as brainstorming, mood board
creation, sketching and modelling. The ideas were then refined, developed and turned into
concepts.
3.1
Brainstorming
According to Cross (2010) brainstorming is one of the most recognized creative methods. It is a
method used to generate a large number of ideas without any rational limitations. Subsequently most
ideas will be discarded but there might be a few that can be developed into real concepts. Ideally
brainstorming is performed in a group of 4-8 people with a wide range of expertise. All ideas should
be kept short and snappy and no criticism is allowed (Cross, 2010).
A few brainstorming sessions were held with the designer along with an industrial designer, a
mechanical engineer, a business intelligence manager and a computer science student. The first session
focused on as many solutions as possible for the fastening and the visibility of the bollard. The session
was kept short and the focus was kept on one topic at a time and all ideas were welcome. Figure 3.2
shows the ideas generated at the first brainstorming session.
After approximately 20 minutes of brainstorming the ideas were discussed and many were subsequently
ruled out. However many of the ideas were kept for further development and inspiration.
3.2
Mood Board
A mood board is a type of collage where images, materials, text, etc. are gathered from various sources
and assembled into an inspirational board intended to evoke a particular style or concept (Oxford
Dictionaries, 2014g). According to Inkapööl (2011) a mood board can contain images that can inspire
both colour as well as function and form.
Figure 3.1 shows the mood board created for the removable bollard design project. The mood board
was intended to inspire solutions for the various sub-objectives as well as design, form and colour.
Figure 3.1 A mood board created for the project (from top left: BBC, n.d., envato, n.d., Glittermenyc,
2012, Hypespec, 2013, Ntoll, n.d., Dreamstime, n.d., Wallpaper4me, n.d., Dezignwithaz, n.d.).
32
FASTENING
screw
bolts
key
clamp
USB
magnet
foam
zipper
puzzle
laces
lock
pop-out
cork
expansion
LEGO
quad lock
jubilee clip
belt (buckle)
elastic
push
snap
glue
nails
joint
friction
suction
VISIBILITY
lights
bright colours
blinking
movement
neon
glowsticks
sequins
the sun
symbols
UV paint
size
mirrors
noise
glow-in-the-dark
Figure 3.2 A list of the ideas generated in the first brainstorming session for different fastening
mechanisms and means of visibility.
33
3.3
Brainwriting
Brainwriting is an ideation technique often referred to as the 6-3-5 method and it is all about generating
and circulating ideas. The method calls for six participants that come up with three ideas in the span of
five minutes. After the five minutes have passed the paper is passed on to the next person. The person
receiving the paper can then build upon the previous ideas as well as contribute with their own. Once
the ideas start to run dry the ideas are discussed and evaluated (Inkapööl, 2011). Although brainwriting
is a similar technique to brainstorming there are benefits to doing both. According to UCO(2003)
there can be potential problems with brainstorming that include one or two people dominating the
session and more quiet individuals might have less tendency to contribute ideas. Brainstorming is a
quiet idea generation method that encourages a more uniform participation within the group (UCO,
2003).
In some circumstances the method has to be modified slightly when it comes to the number of
participants, as was the case in this project where only four individuals were able participate in the
session. However the premise of three ideas in the span of five minutes was kept the same. The ideas
generated in the first brainstorming session were used as inspiration and built upon in this stage of
the ideation.
Figure 3.3
34
A few of the ideas for the fastening mechanism. From top left:
Figure 3.4
3.4
A few of the ideas for the design of the bollard.
Sketches
According to Eissen and Steur (2007) sketches and drawings are a powerful tool that can be used in
the early stages of design, in brainstorming session, to explore concepts and in presentation. They are
an essential part of the decision-making process. Freehand drawings can be expressive and therefore
often communicate a design or idea efficiently and is often preferable to a more time-consuming
rendering (Eissen and Steur, 2007).
Sketching was a big part of the ideation process and used as a tool both in the brainstorming and the
brainwriting sessions. Figure 3.3 shows some ideas generated for the fastening mechanism. Figure 3.4
shows some ideas generated for the design and form of the bollard.
35
3.5
Mock-ups
A mock-up is a form of rough model that can be used in early stages of ideation to complement
sketches. A number of rough mock-ups can create discussion and help with evaluation and selection
in the ideation process (Inkapööl, 2011). In addition mock-ups can give a better three-dimensional
feel of the idea as well as encourage different ideas.
A number of mock-ups were created using air-drying clay to get a better sense of the ideas as well as
inspire new ideas. Figure 3.5 shows a few of the mock-ups created.
Figure 3.5
A few of the mock-ups created as part of the ideation process.
Mock-ups of the most promising ideas from the brainstorming and brainwriting sessions were created.
In addition the clay was used to experiment with new ideas as well as to develop improvements upon
preexisting ideas.
3.6
Concepts
According to Ulrich and Eppinger (2008) a product concept describes the approximate technology,
principles and form of the product. The concept should be a brief description of how the product will
satisfy the product design specification. Sketches, and/or rough models as well as text descriptions are
usually used to express a concept (Ulrich and Eppinger, 2008).
To create concepts the ideas generated in the ideation were discussed, combined and developed. This
was done by looking at the sketches already created and highlighting the pros and cons of each idea.
Pros were highlighted in yellow and cons in pink. In addition some notes and suggestions were added
to the sketches. The ideas were then developed further by combining the pros of different ideas to
create a new one. The ideas where the cons outweighed the pros were set aside. Figure 3.6 shows a
photograph taken during the evaluation session.
36
Figure 3.6 The pros of the ideas generated in the ideation phase were highlighted in yellow and the cons
in pink. In addition notes where made about each idea as well as suggested combinations or improvements.
A concept combination table can be used as a systematic approach to combine sub-solutions to create
a solution that perhaps would otherwise not be considered. A table is created where the columns
represent the sub-problem and each column has a number of sub-solutions. A potential solution is
created by combining one sub-solution from each column. The concept combination table is a simple
way to organize and guide creative thinking. More often than not several of these tables are created
in the ideation process (Ulrich and Eppinger, 2008). A few tables were created where one column had
various designs for the form of the bollard and another column with different fastening mechanisms.
Table 3.1 shows a possible combination of the sub-problems.
Throughout the entire ideation process the ideas are reflected on and explored. The ideas were
developed and clarified and then turned into three main concepts.
37
Table 3.1 One of the concept combination tables created for the project
showing a few of the possible sub-solutions and a potential combination.
Bollard Design
Column
design
Block
twist
fastening
Half pipe
design
Lift up
fastening
Laser
etched
design
Lift up
fastening
Pyramid
design
Anchor
bolt
fastening
Ultra thin
design
38
Fastening Mechanism
3.6.1 Concept 1 - The Half-Pipe
Concept 1 was a half circular pipe shaped bollard featuring smooth lines and a rounded shape. The aim
with this concept was to create a design that emulates classic bollard design but with a modern twist.
By differing from the classic cylindrical shape it was possible to create a stackable bollard without any
hollow features. The design is simple, which according to the user analysis is the most aesthetically
pleasing, yet also intriguing since it changes depending on the viewers position. In addition the bollard
incorporates a handle to make the bollard easier to remove.
The bollard socket is cylindrical with a half circular pipe shaped slot at the top and features a half
circular plate underneath the surface. The bollard is easily located into the base through the slot and
locked in place with the plate. The plate is operated with a key and has three positions: open slot, lock
bollard and close socket, see Figure 3.5.
Figure 3.7
Concept 1, the Half-Pipe.
Benefits:
t Less material
t Lightweight
t Stackable
t Lockable
t Handle for easy removal
t Simple manufacturing
Application:
Possibilities:
1. Unlock/open socket using
t Could easily be fit with a
the keyed locking system
reflective element
2. Easily locate bollard into
t Royal insignia could
base
be etched, engraved or
embossed
3. Lock into place using key
t Royal insignia could be
replaced/covered with
cycle route marking on
first bollard
This concept would result in less material and it would be simple to manufacture. The bollard would
have an easy application and the socket not leave any grand markings on the road surface. This concept
offers many possibilities for further development.
39
3.6.2 Concept 2 - The Basalt Columns
Concept 2 was a nature inspired bollard with a twist locking base. The design is modern and sturdy
yet resembles the naturally occurring basalt columns. The aim with this concept was to incorporate
the socket lid in the design of the bollard itself. This was done in order to avoid having the lid simply
resting on the side of the bollard which is common in existing bollards. This feature could be adapted
to any bollard design with a rectangular base.
The bollard is guided into the base and then twisted to fasten in place. Once the bollard is in place the
lid is locked into its side therefore concealing the lid within the design, see Figure 3.8.
Figure 3.8
Concept 2, the Basalt Columns.
Benefits:
Application:
t Modern design
1. Open lid
t Effective socket
2. Locate bollard in base,
twist whole assembly to
t Wide surface for markings
fasten into position
such as cycle route sign
3. Lid flips up into
t Sturdy
recess, locking bollard
t Incorporates socket lid in
permanently and
the design
remaining in-keeping
with the design
Possibilities:
t Could be designed to
incorporate handle or slot
for easier removal
t Could be made to fit any
existing bollard socket
t Could easily be fit with a
reflective element
This concept offers a way to successfully incorporate the socket lid in the design of the bollard keeping
the design streamlined and simple. The idea could be adapted to fit a more classic looking bollard.
This design would offer plenty of surfaces for cycle route markings and reflective elements. However
stackability is not an option without making the bollard hollow.
40
3.6.3 Concept 3 - The Modern Classic
The aim with Concept 3 was to get a modern take on classic bollard design. The concept features a
simple rounded bollard with laser etched surface creating the illusion of a more intricate design. The
design is simple yet classic and according to the user analysis simple design is the most appreciated.
To fit the bollard in place the socket cap is lifted up and the bollard then placed over it and into the
ground and then locked in place with a pin.
Figure 3.9
Benefits:
t A new take on a
recognisable design
t Simple manufacturing
t Sturdy
Concept 3, the Modern Classic.
Application:
1. Pull socket fastening up
2. Place bollard over socket
fastening and into the
ground
3. Lock bollard in place
using pin
Possibilities:
t Could be made to fit any
existing bollard socket
t Could be designed to
incorporate handle or slot
for easier removal
t Could easily be fit with a
reflective element
This bollard could be made to fit any existing socket as well as the twisting lock from Concept 2.
The design could be adapted to include a handle and is easily fit with a reflective element. However
stackability is not an option without making the bollard hollow.
The ideation process consisted of a number of creative methods that were used to produce ideas that
were then developed and improved. At the end three main concepts remained that were presented to
the Royal Parks.
41
SEL
ECTION
NOUN
“The action or fact of carefully choosing someone or something
as being the best or most suitable”
(Oxford Dictionaries, 2014d)
N
Once all possibilities had been explored through ideation the selection process could begin.
The concepts were presented and discussed with the Royal Parks. The pros and cons of
the concepts were identified and their performance was compared to the Product Design
Specification. After much contemplations and discussion a decision was made on a final
concept for further development.
4.1
Evaluation
According to Ulrich and Eppinger (2008) all teams use some method in the concept selection process,
whether it is explicit or not. There are various methods that can be used to choose among concepts
one of which is to assess the strengths and weaknesses of each concept through a pros and cons lists
(Ulrich and Eppinger, 2008).
A pros and cons table was created for the concept where they were judged on how well they performed
against the Product Design Specification, see Table 4.1.
Table 4.1 A pros and cons table created to evaluate the concepts.
Concept
The Half-Pipe
Pros
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
The Basalt Columns
t
t
t
t
t
t
The Modern Classic
t
t
t
t
t
Cons
Stackable design
Lightweight
Includes handle for easy
removal
Easy to handle
Lockable
Simple manufacturing
Sleek, simple design
Can be fitted with reflective
element
t
Effective socket
Incorporated lid in design
Sturdy design
Wide surface for cycle route
markings
Could be made for any
design with a rectangular
base
Can be fitted with reflective
element
t
t
Innovative yet classic design
Simple manufacturing
Sturdy
Could fit any existing bollard
socket
Can be fitted with reflective
element
t
t
t
t
Difficult to reach bottom
of socket for cleaning
purposes
Perhaps not as sturdy as
other concepts
Heavy
Design may be too modern
for location
No effective storage solution
Might be difficult to
incorporate handle without
loosing the simplicity of the
design
No effective storage solution
Out of the three concepts only one offers a suitable storage solution, the Half-Pipe. The concept also
saves on material and would be easy to handle and install.
In addition to the pros and cons list a concept screening matrix was made. In a concept screening
matrix the concepts are compared to a benchmark product or a reference concept and given a relative
score of + for “better than”, 0 for “same as” and - for “worse than” (Ulrich and Eppinger, 2008). Table
4.2 shows the concept screening matrix made for the project where the concepts were compared to
the Manchester bollard already used in the Royal Parks and given a score based on their performance
against key requirements from the PDS.
The concept screening matrix proved that Concept 1, the Half Pipe, met most requirements and
that it was a concept worth developing further. However the other concepts were still presented and
discussed with the Royal Parks.
44
Table 4.2 Concept screening table where the concepts are given a score based on their performance
against the Manchester bollard already used in the Royal Parks.
Concept Screening Matrix
Performance
Concept 1
Concept 2
Concept 3
1.
Separate traffic from cyclists in bi-direction cycle lane
0
0
0
2.
Quick removal and replacement
+
-
-
3.
Easy alignment
0
0
-
4.
Robust enough to withstand removal and storage
-
0
0
5.
Withstand environmental factors (see Environment)
0
0
0
6.
Impact resistant - handle impact force of a cyclist
travelling 30 km/h
-
0
0
7.
Minimal marking on road once removed - few bumps
0
0
0
8.
Avoid clogging - few openings
0
0
0
9.
Effective locking mechanism
+
+
-
10. Visible at all times - visibility elements
0
0
0
11. No trip hazard - few bumps
0
0
0
12. Storage solution
+
0
0
13. Able to incorporate cycle route marking on first
bollard (see Size)
0
+
0
+
0
0
0
0
0
14. Suitable for all Royal Parks locations
15. Include a handle to allow for easy removal
Appearance
1.
Aesthetically in keeping with historical surroundings
2.
Colour matching road surface
3.
Design compliments environment
4.
Simple design, few intricate details
+
0
+
5.
Rounded design
+
0
+
Safety
1.
No hollow features
+
0
0
2.
Lockable
+
+
0
3.
Minimise sharp edges
0
-
0
4.
No trip hazard
0
0
0
5.
Visibility - Reflective element/bright colour/lights
Score
4.2
0
0
0
6
1
-1
Discussion with the Royal Parks
Before deciding on a final concept the concepts along with some additional design ideas were
introduced and discussed with the Royal Parks. The concepts were presented in an informal setting
and the pros and cons of each concept were examined.
The Basalt Columns, although interesting, were considered too extreme design wise but incorporating
the socket lid in the design was definitely considered a pro. But because of its storage solution and
many other pros the Half-Pipe stood out. However the Royal Parks expressed their interest in the use
of laser etching to create the illusion of a more intricate design. Therefore it was decided to work on
adding some laser etching details to the Half-Pipe concept.
The Royal Parks also expressed their concern for removing dirt out of the bollard socket. Consequently
it was decided to work on incorporating some sort of lid in the design of the socket that would make
it easier to clean out if necessary.
45
DEVEL
OPMENT
NOUN
“The process of developing or being developed”
(Oxford Dictionaries, 2014e)
T
Once a final concept had been selected that concept needed to be developed further. The
final aesthetic appearance needed to be decided and the functionality honed. In addition
considerations had to be made for dimensioning, safety and materials. This was done
through various sketches and models along with the help of a focus group.
5.1
Bollard Design
At the meeting with the Royal Parks it was decided to work with the Half-Pipe concept but add some
laser etching inspired by Concept 3, the Modern Classic. Therefore it was back to some ideation
methods where designs that incorporated laser etching in the Half-Pipe concept were generated.
Figure 5.1 and Figure 5.2 show some of the ideas generated for the shape and form of the Half-Pipe
including laser etching
Figure 5.1 A few ideas generated to incorporate laser etching in the design of the HalfPipe concept as well as the shape and form of the bollard.
48
Figure 5.2
A few more ideas for the combination of the Half-Pipe with laser etching.
Many of the ideas were then considered further and it was experimented with different dimensions,
curves and design of the laser etching. This was done in order to fully explore every possibility with
the ideas generated.
Figure 5.3 A few ideas generated when experimenting with dimensions and different
designs and placement for the laser etching.
The designs were evaluated based on functionality and aesthetics. A small focus group was assembled
and asked to evaluate the designs based on aesthetics but keeping in mind the historical location. A
focus group is a small group of individuals assembled to discuss a certain topic and are often used in
the exploratory phase of product development (MRA, 2014). In general the group appreciated the use
of negative space as well as the laser etching. However in order to avoid weakening the structure it was
decided to keep the cut-outs to a minimum. The majority of the group felt that it was best to strike a
balance between classic and modern.
49
5.1.1 Functionality
To test the placement, locking and stackability of the bollard a simple mock-up was made. It was
established that by making the bollard slightly less than half-circular they could easily be stacked
within each other. Therefore accounting for any irregularities caused by manufacturing or material
thickness. As long as the bollard curve is not bigger than half-circular, does not exceed 180°, the
bollard is stackable. As for the bollard placement in the socket the mock-up revealed that the bollard
can easily be placed in the socket and locked in place using a half-circular disk. The half-circular plate
slides into a small slot in the side of the bollard and thus locks the bollard in place. Figure 5.4 shows
how the functionality of the bollard was tested with the simple mock-up.
Figure 5.4 A functionality test was performed using a simple mock-up. From top left: The bollards are
stacked within each other and the socket is closed. The socket is opened by twisting the half-circular plate
underneath the lid using a key. The bollard is easily located in the base. The bollard is then locked in place
with the half-circular plate using a key.
The functionality test revealed that the basic idea behind the bollard design worked as expected. The
bollards can easily be stacked within each other and the bollard slides easily into the base.
The design was modelled in the CAD program PTC Creo. Figure 5.5 shows how the bollard slides
easily into the socket and is then securely locked in place.
50
Figure 5.5 Placing the bollard. From left: The bollard is inserted into the open slot, bollard slides easily
into the socket and the bollard is then locked in place.
5.1.2 Dimensions
To determine the most desirable bollard height a few mock-ups were made out of cardboard. The
mock-ups were made at three different heights 900, 1000, 1100 mm and they had markings on the side
to measure handle height (see Figure 5.6). The focus group was then asked to evaluate the mock-ups
and choose a preferred bollard height as well as a preferred handle height.
Figure 5.6
Mock-ups created to determine the most preferable bollard height and handle height.
51
The majority of the group felt that the lowest
bollard, number 3, was the most preferred
height. A few people said that they would
feel safer with a higher bollard separating
traffic. However a good point was made
about not having the bollard higher than the
bicycle handlebar. Thus minimising the risk
of bumping into the bollard. Therefore it was
decided to compare the mock-ups to an adult
bicycle. The only bollard that was not higher
than the handlebar was mock-up number
3. According to FHWA Safety (2013a) the
average adult handlebar height ranges between
0.9-1.1 m (see Figure 5.7). It was decided to
only compare with adult bicycle since children
are uncommon on commuter lanes. Therefore
the bollard height should preferably be 900
mm or less.
Figure 5.7 The typical
(FHWA Safety, 2013b).
bicyclist
dimensions
In order to determine the ideal handle height
a test was performed using the mock-ups. The
focus group along with a few additional people
were asked to show how the would pick up the
bollard and where on the bollard they would
grasp. The user was asked to demonstrate
where they would grasp the bollard in order
to lift it out of the ground. The distance between the middle of the users palm to the ground was then
measured and documented in a table (see Table 5.1). This was done to achieve a better understanding
of user preferences. However aesthetics played a part in the final decision as well.
Table 5.1 The data documented in the user test about preferred handle height.
User height Palm width
Gender
(mm)
(mm)
Preferred handle
height Mock-up
nr 1 (mm)
Preferred handle
height Mock-up
nr 2 (mm)
Preferred handle
height Mock-up
nr 3 (mm)
f
1570
67
500
500
660
f
1770
78
460
400
380
m
1830
82
960
880
700
f
1750
72
480
500
320
m
1800
90
1020
960
740
f
1720
76
740
640
480
f
1680
71
680
680
520
m
1780
83
880
840
560
m
1810
79
940
880
720
m
1850
84
980
960
760
Average
1756
78,2
764
724
584
52
The test revealed that the preferred handle height varied significantly between users. Therefore it was
decided to calculate the average preferred handle height and work from there. However aesthetics
played a part in the final decision as well. To see how the handle height affected the aesthetics of the
bollard a few different handle heights were drawn in the scale 1:10 (see Figure 5.8).
Figure 5.8 Variations in handle height affect the overall aesthetic appearance of
the bollard.
As can be seen in Figure 5.8 the height of the handle greatly affects the overall appearance of the
bollard. In the previous discussion with the focus group the majority of the group members felt that
an elongated design was more aesthetically preferable. The user test showed a significant variation in
preferred handle height and therefore it was decided to base the handle height partly on aesthetics.
The average preferred handle height for mock-up nr 3 was 584 mm but in order to keep the elongated
shape that the focus group preferred it was decided to have the handle height at 550 mm.
In the user test the width of the users palm was measured in order to get an idea of the appropriate
handle width. The palm width ranged from 67 to 90 mm. Since a smaller palm would not be affected
by having a too wide handle but a bigger palm would it was decided to set the handle width to 100 mm.
By having the handle 100 mm wide it accommodates a bigger palm and compliments the aesthetical
appearance of the bollard.
The bollard needs to be able to incorporate a cycle route marking that is 150 mm in diameter, which
means that the bollard itself needs to be equal to or wider than 150 mm.
5.1.3 Safety
To ensure the safety of primary users a fillet was added to the bollard. Thereby rounding the edges and
minimising the risk of injury in the event of an impact. To minimise the risk of an impact occurring
the bollard needed to be visible at all times. Therefore it was decided to fit the bollard with a reflective
strip around the handle indentation. Considerations were also made for fitting the entire inside
of the bollard with reflective material. However this was considered too modern for the historical
surroundings. In addition it was decided to paint the bollard white in order for it to stand out even
more in the otherwise grey street environment without being overly bold.
53
5.2
Socket Design
The meeting with the Royal Parks revealed that there was a need for a lid on the bollard socket that
made it possible to clear out any dirt that might possibly travel inside the socket and clog it. Therefore
some different socket solutions were brainstormed and evaluated.
Figure 5.9 shows two of the socket variations brainstormed. One was a socket that had a threaded lid
whereas the other socket is locked down using the same half-circle that locks the bollard in place.
Figure 5.9 Two of the ideas brainstormed for incorporating a lid in the socket design. From the left: A
bollard socket featuring a threaded lid. A bollard socket that uses the existing half-circular plate to lock
the lid down.
The socket with a threaded lid would be good since a blanking plate could be used when the bollard is
not in the socket. However having loose pieces can be a disadvantage both when in comes to storage
as well as runs the risk of pieces getting lost. In addition the socket would still require the half-circular
plate to lock the bollard in place. Therefore it was decided to work further on the socket that utilises
the half-circular plate to lock the lid.
5.2.1 Functionality
To test the functionality of the socket a simple mock-up was made and tested. The mock-up was
made with a movable half-circular plate that both locks the bollard in place and locks the lid down.
Figure 5.10 illustrates how the socket can be opened and locked depending on the location of the halfcircular plate.
Figure 5.10 A functionality test performed with a simple mock-up. From left: Socket lid is closed and
locked, the half-circular plate is twisted using a key and can then be opened.
54
The functionality test revealed that having a hinged lid and using the half-circular plate to lock the lid
would in fact be possible.
Figure 5.11 shows how the socket can be opened by turning the half-circular plate and then lifting
the lid. In Figure 5.11 the different components of the socket were made in different colours to better
distinguish between them. The socket that goes into the ground is grey, the socket lid is blue and the
locking plate is red.
Figure 5.11 The socket can easily be opened to clear out any debris. From left: Socket is locked, the halfcircular plate is turned to unlock the socket lid, the lid can then easily be opened.
The half-circular plate would be operable with a two lock system. One turn locks the bollard and two
turns close the socket and when it’s unlocked the socket lid can be opened. The plate itself is two tiered
in order to be able to lock the socket lid down and to minimise dirt and grit entering the socket.
The socket includes an open slot at the bottom in which the bollard slides into. This was done to
provide structural support and prevent below ground bending.
5.3
Material Considerations
Since the bollard would essentially use less than half the material used to produce a regular bollard
the material used would have to be durable enough to withstand any impacts. Therefore polyurethane
was ruled out since it is most commonly used for flexible bollards (see 2.1.1 Materials). Regular steel
was also ruled out due to corrosive environmental factors. Additionally timber was ruled out due to
manufacturing difficulties and maintenance requirements. The remaining materials to be considered
were therefore cast iron, stainless steel, aluminium and recycled plastic.
According to Thompson (2007) metals have a higher perceived value than plastic equivalents and
typically last longer. However mining and extracting metals uses a lot of energy and produces a lot of
waste as well as hazardous by-products (Thompson, 2007). In addition to the environmental factors of
metals there are economical factors as well. The rough cost of metals can go from £500 per tonne for
cast iron to about £2600 for stainless steel (Beardmore, 2010) whereas recycled plastic goes for roughly
55
£230 per tonne (MRW, 2013). Therefore it is both more economical and more environmentally friendly
to use recycled plastic to create the bollards. In addition by using recycled plastic the bollard can be
made slightly thicker to get the required structural integrity without much additional cost. Also by
making the bollard thicker the risk of injury on impact is minimised whereas a thinner metal bollard
could have posed a greater risk.
According to British Recycled Plastic (2013a) bollards made out of recycled plastic are high strength
and crack proof with minimal maintenance. In addition they are weatherproof as well as frost
and UV resistant. Recycled plastic bollards are manufactured out of 100% recycled mixed British
plastic that would otherwise have ended its life in a landfill. Therefore making recycled plastic both
a highly environmentally friendly as well as a cost effective choice (British Recycled Plastic, 2013a).
Furthermore according to ASF (2014) recycled plastic bollards are pigment dyed throughout rather
than being painted meaning that any small scratches or minor damage will not be visually apparent. In
addition their lighter weight makes them extremely suitable for removable applications (ASF, 2014).
Recycled plastic is very suitable for the bollard but for the socket a form of metal such as mild steel
would be better suited. According to Broxap (2013j) mild steel is a suitable option for the sockets used
for removable recycled plastic bollards.
5.4
Model Building
According to Ulrich and Eppinger (2008) modelling and prototyping is an important part of the
concept development process. Building various models to test functionality, form and feasibility at this
stage gives the team the possibility to feel, touch and test in a different way than visualising sketches
alone. Therefore a non-functional model of the bollard was built to scale in order to visualise and feel
the design. The model was made by building a rough frame out of cardboard and chicken wire. The
skeleton was then covered in several layers of modelling plaster. Once dried the model was sanded
down and painted. Figure 5.12 shows the model from the first frame to the finished painted model.
Figure 5.12
56
The various stages of the model building.
Figure 5.13
The finished model in an outdoors environment.
The finished model gave a better feel for the concept than sketches and renders alone. The handle was
at a comfortable height and was easy to grasp. Furthermore despite the model being quite rough, the
design looked sleek and was generally well liked at an exhibition held at the University of Skövde.
Figure 5.13 shows the finished model.
With the help of research, mock-ups and the focus group the original idea was turned into a functioning
final concept with much potential.
57
6
RE
SULTS
NOUN
“A thing that is caused or produced by something else; a
consequence or outcome”
(Oxford Dictionaries, 2014e)
6
S
Once the final concept had been developed further a final design was ready for presentation.
A design that is simple, functional and efficient as well as offers many possibilities.
6.1
Final Design
The final concept consists of an innovative bollard and a socket with four major parts, see Figure 6.1.
The socket is a circular open-ended tube to allow for drainage and has a receiver at the bottom to
secure correct alignment and placement of the bollard. The socket has a lid with a half-circular locking
plate that locks under an edge on the socket and into a slot on the bollard. Therefore the locking plate
can both lock the bollard in place as well as lock the socket when not in use. The socket lid can also be
opened in order to clean out any dirt and grit that might gather.
Bollard
Lock lid
Socket lid
Locking plate
Socket
Figure 6.1
The assembly of the socket along with different views of the bollard.
Figure 6.2 The bollard with the standard cycle
route marking mounted.
The bollard has a functional and innovative
design that offers many possibilities. The bollard
can successfully separate traffic in a cycle lane
and has space for cycle route marking, see Figure
6.2. Additionally the bollard is stackable, see
Figure 6.3, without being hollow and therefore
poses less of a security threat in such a sensitive
location. The bollard has an effective locking
mechanism where it slides easily into the socket
and is securely locked in place. The edges of the
bollard are rounded to minimise risk of injury in
case of impact and is fitted with a reflective strip
to ensure visibility to prevent impact. In addition
the bollard has a smooth surface suitable for
laser etching that can be customised to suit each
location. Figure 6.4 shows the bollard placed in a
row in a street environment.
There are many benefits with the final concept. The socket is simple yet efficient and allows for both
locking and cleaning. The design of the bollard with the incorporated handle not only allows for
efficient removal and storage but also saves on material. In addition the sleek design makes it suitable
for a number of locations as well as the possibility of customisation with laser etching and reflective
strips.
60
Figure 6.3
The bollard is stackable and therefore especially suited for regular removal and storage.
Figure 6.4 The bollard has a smooth simple front that can be customised with various laser etching.
The addition of the Royal Insignia along with lines that create the illusion of panels would make this
modern design look more classic.
6.1.1 Environment and Maintenance
Instead of using new raw material to make the bollard it will be made out of 100% recycled postconsumer plastic that otherwise would have ended its life in a landfill. Recycled plastic is not only
cost effective and environmentally friendly but it is also high strength and weatherproof, giving it a
long life. In addition recycled plastic requires minimal maintenance, is crack proof and dimensionally
stable (British Recycled Plastic, 2013a). Furthermore bollards made out of recycled plastic are fully
recyclable at the end of their useful life. However recycled plastic bollards are extremely durable and
have a high life expectancy. In addition recycled plastic materials are fully inert and will not leak any
chemicals into water or soil (British Recycled Plastic, 2013b).
This means that the bollard is not only made out of recycled material but it is also fully recyclable at
its end of life and requires minimal maintenance during its life. In addition the socket was designed
with the required cleaning maintenance in mind. It is easily opened in order to clean out any dirt or
grit that might gather at the bottom.
61
6.1.2 Objectives
At the end of the research stage a number of objectives were set in order to define the goal of the
project. These objectives needed to be fulfilled for the end product to be considered successful.
Removable Bollard - Objectives
Design
Safe
t Protect cyclists
t Visible at all times
t Minimal marking
on road
t Avoid clogging
t No trip hazard
t Aesthetically
in keeping
with historical
surroundings
t Be able to
incorporate cycle
route marking
t Effective locking
mechanism
Figure 6.5
Robust
t Withstand regular
removal and
storage
t Withstand
environment
t Chemical stability
Easy to handle
t Lightweight
t Quick instalment
t Simple locking
mechanism
t Preferably
stackable
t Include handle for
removal
t Socket easily
maintained
The objectives set at the end of the research stage were all met with the final design.
The final design is not only innovative and efficient it also fulfils the objectives set (see Figure 6.5). The
results are therefore in keeping with the original goals of the project. The bollard is safe, robust and
easy to handle in addition to having a sleek aesthetically appealing and functional design.
6.1.3 Further Development
The final design would still need to be tested in terms of collision resistance and some definite strength
calculations and FEM analysis would have to done before the bollard can be put on the streets.
Figure 6.6
62
A render of the final bollard design.
Even though some work is still to be done the final design is innovative and has many benefits over
existing products. Benefits such as:
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
Only removable bollard with a stackable design.
Design with incorporated handle that allows for efficient removal and storage.
Bollard requires significantly less material than other bollards on the market.
Functional socket that allows for locking, drainage and cleaning.
The white dyed bollard and the addition of reflective strips ensures visibility at all times
Bollard is made out of 100% recycled post-consumer waste plastic.
The bollard is high strength and weatherproof in addition to requiring minimal maintenance.
The bollard has a sleek simple design with rounded edges which can be customised to suit
different locations with the addition of laser etching.
All in all the final design is promising.
63
CON
CLUSION
NOUN
“The end or finish of an event, process, or text”
(Oxford Dictionaries, 2014f)
N
At the end of a project it is important to assess the work done and discuss the paths chosen.
In a sizeable project one is often faced with multiple choices that will determine the course
of the project. It is important to evaluate and debate these choices and consider whether the
goal could have been achieved better, or perhaps only differently, if other choices had been
made.
The final design as well as the work that led to the final design was examined in a critical
manner and the results discussed. In addition problems and limitations with the projects
were discussed as well as further possibilities and recommendations for future development.
7.1
Discussion
The result of this project was an innovative removable and stackable bollard designed to ease the
removal and storing process yet still remain aesthetically pleasing and safe. The project did not go off
without a hitch but overall the results are satisfactory.
The research phase may have taken longer than intended due to the vast variety of relevant users as
well as the amount of time it took to identify relevant information. During this stage the need for a
partner or a team was definitely present, specially for a project this size.
During the ideation phase some assistance was required in order to get a better flow of ideas and to
fulfil the number of participants required for certain idea generation methods. The ideation methods
used were mainly brainstorming based methods and in retrospect using more varied methods would
have generated more and perhaps different ideas. Despite using perhaps limited idea generation
methods in the beginning of the ideation phase a more systematical approach was taken to eliminate
and narrow down ideas once closing in on concepts with the use of concept combination tables and
mock-ups. The ideation phase resulted in three major concepts which where evaluated and in the end
only one concept remained for development. The final concept chosen was considered most suitable
and it fulfilled the PDS well. However there is always room for improvement and had the project been
done over again it would have been preferable to use more varied methods which could have produced
more varied ideas.
The development and detail design of the final concept took up a big part of the project but there is still
some work to be done before the bollard can be produced and installed. A final design was reached
through research, mock-ups and focus groups which gave very good results. The final design takes
dimensioning, safety, functionality, aesthetics and material into consideration. However no prototype
was built so the final design remains untested. In addition some strength calculations would need
to be done, both computer-aided FEM as well as tests performed on a prototype, before it could be
manufactured and installed. In addition a prototype would need to be tested in terms of safety and
durability. Although it would have been preferable to do some further development such as strength
calculations, environmental impact analysis, estimated production cost, etc. the project was taken as
far as time allowed and the results are more than satisfactory.
The project had its ups and downs and working alone far away from classmates and the resources
offered by the University of Skövde was difficult at times. But it was a rewarding challenge and the end
results are worth being proud of.
The design is now in the hands of the Royal Parks where its future is being discussed but the practicality
of the bollard in terms of lifting and stacking makes for a promising future endeavour.
66
67
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Appendix A
Removable Bollard Brief
Removable Bollard for the Royal Parks Brief
A product design is required for a removable bollard for the road that passes in front of
Buckingham Palace.
1. Main purpose of the bollard should be to separate traffic from cyclists in a bi-direction cycle
lane. This would need to meet Department of Transport Standards and the London Cycle
Design Standards published by Transport for London.
2. Bollard should be light weight, easy to remove and replace in a short period of time and robust
enough to withstand regular removal and storage.
3. It would be beneficial to develop a good stacking system / storage solution.
4. Bollard should meet manual handing standards for one person to handle (Max 25kg, ideally
20kg).
5. Aesthetically it needs to be in keeping with this English Heritage Grade I listed landscape and
appropriate for the setting of the listed buildings and structures.
6. It should be able to incorporate a 150mm diameter face on the first bollard for cycle route
marking.
7. The bollard needs to be easy to maintain – particularly difficult with removable products due
to road grit clogging mechanisms and also tarnishing/staining.
8. Consideration should be made for security issues in this sensitive location. Hollow features
would not be advisable as they would be difficult for Police to inspect sufficiently.
9. When removed, the bollard socket (e.g. NAL sockets) needs to be level with the road surface
but covered securely and filled appropriately – in a colour that matches the surrounding
surface area (e.g. black to match black asphalt surfacing - or red if it was on The Mall etc).
10.
When removed, there must be limited marking to the carriageway.
11. A reflective element should be considered to ensure that motorists can see the bollards at
night.
12. It should be suitable for all relevant locations in the Royal Parks (e.g. Birdcage Walk, Spur
Road and the road around Queen Victoria Memorial) to try to achieve a degree of uniformity
and consistency, without it appearing that there are lots of different types of bollard.
13. There are several examples of bollard in the area that can be used as a reference for
dimensions and style (e.g. Manchester, Hexham or Hanchurch). A slimmer version would also
be welcome.
14. There are several cast iron bollards within the Parks and some of these have been replaced
with a non-ferrous alternative (e.g. polyurethane) which are lighter and require less painting.
15. There are also flexible bollards under Admiralty Arch at the end of the Mall near Trafalgar
Square, but these are not favoured by the Parks Manager. Consideration may be given to
recycled extruded plastic bollards.
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Appendix B
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Survey Questions and Answers
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