http://pro.sony.com/bbsccms/ext/Broa...mats_Guide.pdf

http://pro.sony.com/bbsccms/ext/Broa...mats_Guide.pdf
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The Inside Guide to HD Formats
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Freedom of Choice
If every HD production had the same needs, one HD production format could
satisfy them all. In fact, there is a familiar pyramid of professional applications,
from Hollywood studios to high school sports. Each layer in the pyramid has
distinct performance, work style, workflow, budgetary, media and archival
requirements. In response to this broad range of customer needs, Sony has
created a range of HD solutions.
Digital Betacam®
XDCAM®
(MPEG IMX® codec)
XDCAM®
(DVCAM™ codec)
Major
Studio
Film
HDCAM SR™
Hi-End Indie Film,
Episodics, Brdcast
& Cable Production
HDCAM®
Indie Film, ENG, EFP,
Natural History,
Documentary
XDCAM MPEG HD422™
XDCAM® HD
Corporate, Government & Religious Video
DVCAM™ (shoulder)
XDCAM EX™
Event Video, Prosumer Video
DVCAM™ (handheld)
HDV™
Just as in standard definition, Sony delivers a range of high
definition solutions to meet customer requests and match
customer requirements.
Sony's range of HD production solutions mirrors the breadth of products that Sony
created in the SD world. Sony now offers a choice of HD bitrates, from an
awesome 880 Mbps to an affordable 25 Mbps. There's a choice of media,
including tape, optical disc, hard disk and flash media. And there's a choice of
production solutions from a cine-style camera with a single, Super 35mm image
sensor to shoulder-mount cameras with 2/3-inch type image sensors to compact
cameras with 1/4-inch type sensors.
Now Sony invites you on a tour of how and why those systems came to be.
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High Definition. It's in our DNA.
1985
High Definition Video System. Sony's first HD recorder was the HDV-1000,
which captured analog signals onto 1-inch tape. It was based on the
BVH-2000 Series Type C recorders.
1985
HDC-100 Camera used 1-inch electrostatic deflection tubes.
1988
HDC-300 Camera used 1-inch Saticon™ pickup tubes.
1989
World's first digital HD recorder. The HDD-1000 uncompressed digital HD
recorder and HDDP-1000 processor weighed 367 pounds (167 kg),
consumed 1750 Watts and cost roughly $350,000.
1990
HD videocassette recorder. The HDV-10 UNIHI recorder used half-inch
tape, was a "lightweight" 110 pounds (50 kg) and a "compact" seven
rack units.
1992
World's first CCD HD camera. The HDC-500 used the world's first high
definition CCDs, with 2 million pixels and HAD technology.
1997
World's first HD camcorder. The HDW-700A HDCAM® camcorder was
97% smaller, 96% lighter, and 98% less power hungry than Sony's previous
digital HD recording system.
2000
World's first 24P HD camcorder. High definition at the same 24-framesper-second rate as 35mm film: the HDW-F900 CineAlta™ camcorder.
2003
4:4:4 RGB HD recording. For high-end bluescreen/greenscreen
compositing, digital intermediate and telecine transfer, Sony created
the HDCAM SR™ system.
2004
Digital Super 35mm camera system. The result of joint development
between Panavision and Sony, the Panavision Genesis™ camera is
quickly adopted for major motion pictures.
2005
HDV™ 1080i recording. With affordable HD based on the ubiquitous 25
Mbps DV infrastructure, Sony's HVR-Z1U became an instant classic.
2006
XDCAM® HD recording. For mainstream ENG and EFP, Sony created
the XDCAM HD Professional Disc™ system and the PDW-F350 and
PDW-F330 camcorders.
2007
World's first handheld 1920 x 1080 camcorder. The PMW-EX1 is also the
world's first to feature XDCAM EX™ recording and SxS Pro™ flash media.
2008
XDCAM MPEG HD422™ recording. An extension of the XDCAM HD
optical disc solution, the PDW-700 camcorder provides full 1920 x 1080
recording, robust 4:2:2 color and long loads on Sony's dual-layer
Professional Disc media.
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Every Link in the Chain Matters
Sony's HD formats each offer distinct advantages for specific work styles and
applications. To appreciate the differences, it's important to remember that in
every HD format, reproduction is a chain.
Lens
Sensor
Quanti zation
Color
Sampling
Compres - Recording
sion
Media
Exchange
Media
Display
The chain is "only as strong as its weakest link." And ideally the
entire chain should be tailored to the specific recorded bit rate.
Not only is a chain only as strong as its weakest link, but it also makes no sense to
give one link of the chain super quality when the other links can't take
advantage. Even if you could fit a Mack Truck engine into a Honda Civic, it
wouldn't make the driving experience any better—and could make it worse.
Simply stated, all the links in the chain are contingent on the recorded bit rate.
One secret behind Sony's success in professional video is our ability to balance
all the links, finding the sweet spot for a given bit rate. We understand the lenses,
image sensors, sampling and compression necessary to feed the format. And of
course, we have the ability to build many of these links in-house. To understand
HD formats, it pays to examine each link in the chain. When we do, we'll see
how the links connect to form a successful HD format.
Link 1: Lens
Because lenses are so vital to telling a story in pictures, Sony works in close
collaboration with lens manufacturers. Whenever a new Sony camera arrives, it
is either mated to an appropriate lens or compatible with a set of appropriate
interchangeable lenses. When you think of HD lenses, think of these
considerations:
•
Focus is even more important. Because HD formats have so much higher
resolution than SD, focus is more critical. This also means even tiny
imperfections that might be acceptable in the SD world become offensive in
HD. Sony has responded with high-resolution viewfinders, focus assist, color
peaking and, in our small-format camcorders, Auto Focus.
•
Lens size and cost scale to the image sensor. Big image sensors require big,
expensive lenses. Small image sensors can use inexpensive lenses.
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o
But lens performance doesn't scale. Thanks to the laws of physics, you
can't simply shrink a big lens down for a smaller image format and expect
the same resolution. In addition, when using smaller sensors, diffraction
can cause a loss of resolution as the iris aperture is stopped down.
o
Depth of focus doesn't scale. Lenses for small image sensors tend to have
huge depth of focus. That can be great for event videographers and runand-gun documentarians. Everything tends to be sharp. But movie
makers depend on selective focus, the ability to focus on the actress and
blur the background. Selective focus also plays a familiar role in
storytelling, as when a rack focus move first puts the focus on a beautiful
woman in the foreground, and then shifts the focus to reveal a mysterious
stranger in the background who is watching her. These depth of focus
effects are much easier to achieve with a large sensor.
Lens functions differ dramatically.
o
Digital cinema requires a full manual lens with direct, mechanical linkages
for zoom and focus, aperture in T-stops, and easy accommodation for
follow focus controls. In addition, cinematographers are less tolerant of
lens imperfections like breathing and ramping that might be acceptable
in other applications.
o
ENG and low-cost production requires a full manual lens with aperture in
F-stops and flexible zoom with extreme wide angle as well as rear lens
control capability. Also important: ruggedness for run-and-gun shooting
and low flare for uncontrolled exterior day lighting.
o
Compared to shoulder-mount shooting, handheld is a different animal.
Because HD focus is more critical, and more difficult to achieve in the
viewfinder, auto focus is much more desirable. And because compact,
lightweight handheld camcorders are less stable than shooting on tripods
or shoulder mount, image stabilization is also an attractive option.
Clearly, the lens is more than something to hang off the front of a camera. It's
the key to image making. And it sets the table for everything that follows.
Link 2: Sensor
Every image sensor must strike a balance between pixel count and pixel quality.
Pixel count comes from putting as many pixels as you can onto a sensor. It gives
you resolution. Other things being equal, pixel quality comes from making each
pixel as large as possible.
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Super 35mm image sensor
2/3-inch image sensor
1/2 -inch image sensor
1/3-inch image sensor
1/4-inch image
sensor
Relative sizes of image sensor types. Other things being equal,
bigger sensors mean higher image quality.
Of course, "other things" are not always "equal." In fact, Sony has continually
discovered new ways to improve pixel quality without sacrificing resolution. Sony
has improved the light-capturing features of the image sensors themselves.
Advancements like Hyper HAD, Power HAD™ and Power HAD EX image sensors
have achieved ever higher sensitivity with ever smaller pixels!
Sony's success in high definition cameras results in part from our ability to see the
big picture. We can match the image sensor pixel count to the capabilities of
the recording format, the resolution of the lens, the sensor size and the specific
performance characteristics of the sensor itself.
•
HDCAM SR™ recorders are sometimes used with cameras like the Sony F35,
which features a single Sony Super 35mm sensor with 12.4 million subpixels
and an RGB stripe color filter array yielding 1920 x 1080 resolution. Other
cameras like the Sony F23 use three Sony 2/3-inch CCDs with 1920 x 1080
pixels.
•
HDCAM® and XDCAM MPEG HD422™ solutions use Sony 2/3-inch CCDs with
full 1920 x 1080 pixels.
•
Sony's XDCAM HD and XDCAM EX™ camcorders use smaller, 1/2-inch image
sensors. In the case of the XDCAM EX PMW-EX1 camcorder, the three CMOS
image sensors have 1920 x 1080 pixels to match the 1920 x 1080 recording. In
the case of XDCAM HD camcorders, the three CCD sensors have 1440 x 1080
pixels to match the 1440 x 1080 recording.
•
Sony's HDV 1080i camcorders generally use 1/3-inch image sensors. The
HVR-Z1U uses three CCDs with 960 x 1080 pixels. A half-pixel horizontal shift
effectively increases luminance (Y channel) resolution by about 20%.
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The HVR-S270U and HVR-Z7U both use three 1/3-inch ClearVid™ CMOS sensors
with a diamond pattern and 1 million pixels. The Enhanced Image Processor
uses an interpolation technique to generate 1920 x 1080 pixels. The HVR-V1U
uses three 1/4-inch ClearVid CMOS sensors.
Link 3: Quantization
Each photosite on the image sensor turns incoming light into an electric charge.
The image sensor then converts the charge into an analog voltage. To be useful
in the digital world, the voltage needs to be turned into a binary number. This is
quantization.
A major challenge to quantization is that today's best CCDs have tremendous
dynamic range, which film photographers call "exposure latitude." The CCD in
Sony's F35 digital cinema camera can sense meaningful detail up to 800% of
nominal peak white. An exterior daytime wedding scene, for example, will retain
the texture of the lace pattern in the bride's white gown without losing the
difference between the black wool and the black silk in the groom's tuxedo.
PCM quantization assigns a fixed number of bits to every sample. Each
additional bit of quantization adds roughly 6 dB of dynamic range and doubles
the number of distinct tonal values available. For example, quantization at 12
bits yields 4,096 distinct values, while 14 bit quantization produces 16,384 values.
Quantizing typically occurs in two distinct stages. In the initial analog-to-digital
(A/D) conversion, a high level of quantization is used prior to the camera's signal
processing. This high quantization (12 or 14 bit) enables the camera to conduct
signal processes such as White Balance, Gamma Correction, Skin Tone Detail
and Knee at very high precision. In the broadcast environment, cameras use
Knee and Gamma to fit the signal within the 100 IRE limitation of video. In the
digital cinema environment, features like Sony's Hypergamma and S-LOG
encoding help accomplish this task. In effect, the camera pre-conditions the
signal with high numerical precision for recording at practical quantization levels
and data rates.
Unfortunately, 12- or 14-bit quantization is too high to carry forward into
recording and does not conform to current broadcast and distribution
standards. In addition, high bit rates can impose a crushing burden on
equipment size, cost and power consumption. For all these reasons, recording
systems use three strategies for bit rate reduction: judicious choices in quantizing,
sampling and compression.
Prior to recording, signals are requantized with fewer bits per sample. In most
cases, HD signals are recorded at 8-bit quantization. However, the HDCAM SR
system records with the superior dynamic range of 10-bit quantization.
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14-bit_16,384
Pre knee dynamic
range compression
12-bit_ 4,096
10-bit_ 1024
Pre knee curve
8-bit_ 256
Linear quantization
curve
CCD dynamic range
0
100%
200%
400
600%
High performance CCDs can still capture meaningful detail far
beyond the 100% nominal peak white. In the broadcast
environment, pre-knee and gamma keep the peak brightness
values within a recording format's quantization range.
Link 4: Color Sampling
Pixels from the image sensor are quantized for processing by the camera DSP.
But not every quantized sample is necessarily recorded to tape or disc. In fact,
only one of our formats, the HDCAM SR system in RGB HQ mode, actually records
a sample for every active pixel on the Red, Green and Blue CCDs. Since the
human eye has a relatively limited ability to resolve color, it usually makes sense
to record channels for chrominance (Y), blue color difference (Cb) and red
color difference (Cr) with relatively fewer samples on the Cb and Cr channels
than on the Y channel.
Color sampling structures are conventionally referred to the number 4 as in 4:4:4,
4:2:2, 4:2:0, 4:1:1 and other sampling structures. In the days of standard
definition, this nomenclature served the industry quite well as the "4" was an
absolute. But today, the "4" has become a relative term. It could refer to a
sampling structure of 720 x 480 or 1920 x 1080 or possibly 1280 x 720 or even
1440 x 1080. Unfortunately, without a clear understanding of what the "4" means
in each case, ambiguities and misunderstandings abound.
To eliminate these ambiguities, this discussion will dig beneath the "4:4:4"
nomenclature to show the underlying color sampling of Sony HD formats. As the
following chart demonstrates, the high-end formats store more color information.
In their efforts to push the recorded bitrate substantially below the 140 Mbps of
HDCAM recording, some manufacturers have abandoned the 1920 x 1080 high
definition raster and sacrificed both the number of scanning lines and the
numbers of samples per line. Sometimes but not always, this smaller raster size is
offset by a higher frame rate. In other cases, for example when all formats are
operating at 24P, smaller is just plain smaller.
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Formats
Samples per
Frame
(% re 4:4:4)
HDCAM SR
RGB HQ
(4:4:4)
6,220,800
(100%)
R: 1920 x 1080
HDCAM SR
4:2:2 and
XDCAM MPEG
HD422
4,147,200
(66.67%)
Y: 1920 x 1080
XDCAM EX
HQ Mode
3,110,400
(50.00%)
HDCAM
2,592,000
(41.67%)
XDCAM HD,
XDCAM EX SP
mode and
HDV 1080i
2,332,800
(37.50%)
Recorded H x V Samples, by Channel
G: 1920 x 1080
Cb: 960
x 1080
Cr: 960
x 1080
Cb: 960
x 540
Y: 1920 x 1080
Cr: 960
x 540
Y: 1440 x 1080
Y: 1440 x 1080
Cb:
Cr:
480 x 480 x
1080 1080
Cb:
720 x
540
Cr:
720 x
540
The sampling structures of Sony HD formats. The second column shows the
total recorded samples on all three channels and that number as a percent of
the 6,220,800 samples recorded in the HDCAM SR RGB HQ format. In the third
column, each rectangle represents a recorded channel. The width and
height of each rectangle is proportional to the number of horizontal and
vertical samples recorded on that channel. Bigger rectangles mean more
samples.
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B: 1920 x 1080
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Link 5: Compression
At this point, we've already had two stages of bit rate reduction. In quantizing,
we went from the camera's 12- or 14-bit signals to 10- or 8-bit signals for
recording. In sampling, we went from the camera's native pixel count, often
1920 x 1080, to what is often a smaller sampling structure for recording. But we
still have too much data for typical, on-camera long-form program recording.
That's where video compression comes in.
To appreciate the bit rate reduction required for the video signal, consider the
arithmetic of recording a 10-bit 4:4:4 HD signal at 29.97 frames per second:
1920 pixels H x 1080 pixels V = 2,073,600 pixels per frame.
Times 3 channels = 6,220,800 samples per frame.
Times 10 bits per sample = 62.2 Megabits per frame.
Times 29.97 frames/second = 1,864 Megabits/second
= 233 MegaBytes/second
= 13.98 GigaBytes/minute
= 839.0 GigaBytes/hour
In 1994, as they contemplated the development of the HDCAM system, Sony
technologists recognized that such high bitrates would impose crushing penalties
in equipment size, weight, power consumption and cost. HDCAM recording
made high definition practical by lowering the recorded bitrate to 140 Megabits
per second.
The cost penalties of high bitrates still apply today. A glance at Sony's range of
HD recording systems reveals dramatically different bitrates. And these bitrates
are in almost lockstep proportion to system prices.
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1000
880
Video Bit Rate, Mbit/sec
800
600
440
400
140
200
50
35
35
25
0
HDCAM SR
HDCAM SR
RGB HQ
4:2:2/RGB
MPEG
SQ
HD422
HDCAM
XDCAM
XDCAM EX, XDCAM HD, HDV 1080i,
HQ Mode
60i @ 35
60i
Mbps
Recorded video bitrates. HDCAM SR HQ mode recording
captures more than 30 times as much information as HDV 1080i
recording.
$250,000
System Price
$200,000
$150,000
$100,000
$50,000
$0
HDCAM SR
HDCAM
HDCAM 60i
24P
XDCAM
XDCAM HD XDCAM EX HDV 1080i
MPEG
HD422
System prices for an HD shoot and capture system. Note
how closely this chart resembles the recorded video bitrate
chart above. This is not a coincidence.
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This wide range in recorded video bitrates is also mirrored by a wide range in
compression ratios. With its massive bitrate, the HDCAM SR system is lightly
compressed, while the affordable HDV and XDCAM HD systems require
correspondingly higher compression ratios.
25
19.9
21.3
22.4
22.4
Compression ratio
20
15
10
5
4.4
2.1
2.8
0
HDCAM SR
HDCAM SR
RGB HQ
4:2:2/RGB
MPEG
SQ
HD422
HDCAM
XDCAM
XDCAM EX, XDCAM HD, HDV 1080i,
HQ Mode
60i @ 25
60i
Mbps
Compression ratios of HD formats. The intra-frame approach works
well for the mildly compressed HDCAM SR and HDCAM formats at left.
The higher compression ratios on the right take advantage of the
inter-frame efficiency of MPEG Long GOP encoding.
Just as a single format cannot meet the expectations of all customers, a single
compression scheme cannot support compression ratios as diverse as 2:1 and
22:1. That's why Sony, a charter member of the Moving Pictures Experts Group
(MPEG) and a world leader in video compression technology, chose a range of
compression systems.
•
HDCAM SR recording uses MPEG-4 Studio Profile. Unlike MPEG-4 low bitrate
compression, the MPEG-4 Studio Profile was created for top-quality systems
operating at bitrates up to 2 gigabits per second and beyond. The system
uses intra-field compression for interlaced signals and intra-frame
compression for progressive signals. The system also demands extraordinary
processing power. HDCAM SR recorders devote no fewer than 32 million
transistors to the codec chipset.
•
HDCAM recording uses proprietary compression. As with other DCT based
codecs, it takes advantage of redundancy within a video frame—each pixel
of blue sky is almost exactly like the pixel next to it. The HDCAM codec is
optimized for recording both interlaced and progressive HD signals.
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Other Sony systems use MPEG-2 Long GOP compression. Already ubiquitous
in DVDs, HDTV broadcasting and Blu-ray Disc™ packaged media, MPEG-2
brings unique benefits to professional HD production. Thanks to the added
power of interframe processing, the MPEG-2 codec is supremely efficient,
providing exquisite picture quality at modest bitrates. MPEG-2 is also broadly
compatible with the most popular nonlinear editors and other systems from
33 third-party suppliers. Compared to some recently-proposed codecs,
MPEG-2 is mature, which means that the full benefits are realized by presentday production systems. Finally, MPEG-2 is practical. Conventional PCs can
perform MPEG-2 processing at faster than real time.
o
XDCAM MPEG HD422. 422 Profile at High Level; 50 Mbps
o
XDCAM EX HQ Mode. Main Profile at High Level; 35 Mbps
o
XDCAM EX SP Mode. Main Profile at High Level (1440); 25 Mbps
o
XDCAM HD. Main Profile at High Level (1440); 35, 25 or 18 Mbps
o
HDV 1080i. Main Profile at High Level (1440); 25 Mbps
Link 6: Recording Media
Sony hardware and media are co-developed. For example, the laser optical
blocks of Sony XDCAM gear are tailored to the optical properties of Sony
Professional Disc media. This close alliance between recording hardware
development and recording media development has enabled Sony to offer a
full range of HD media, including tape, optical disc, the HVR-DR60 external hard
disk unit for HDV 1080i recording as well as SxS Pro™ and CompactFlash®
memory. Each recording method has relative strengths and weaknesses in terms
of cost, random access, speed of ingest into nonlinear editing systems, and
suitability for program exchange and archiving.
Format
HDCAM
SR
HDCAM
XDCAM
MPEG
HD422
XDCAM
HD
XDCAM
EX
HDV
1080i
HDV
1080i
Media Type
Tape
Tape
Optical
Optical
Tape
Representative Media
BCT-40SR
BCT-40HD
PFD-50DLA
PFD-23A
Flash
Memory
SBP-16
Flash
memory**
NCFD16GP
Media Cost per minute*
$1.49 @ SQ,
24P***
$0.70 @
24P***
$0.62
$0.28 @ 25
Mbps
$17.50 @
HQ mode
Program exchange
•••
•••
••
•••
•••
•
-
•••
•••
••
••
-
-
•••
•••
••
••
Archiving
Speed of NLE Ingest
Instant Random Access
•••
Excellent
•
Good
••
Very Good
PHDVM63D
M
$0.25
•••
•••
•
-
•••
•••
-
Not Applicable
* Based on the average retail selling prices of Sony recording media as of March, 2008.
** CompactFlash memory recording on selected models only.
*** Tape costs per minute vary by recording length, decreasing as length increases.
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$5.09
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Link 7: Exchange Media
At the end of a day's shoot, can you simply give the producer the original
camera master? After Hollywood production studios complete a TV episode,
how do they deliver it to the broadcast networks? These are cases where
exchange media becomes a vital part of the workflow. In the first case,
affordable, removable camcorder media can keep the workflow simple and
direct. In the second case, Hollywood studios, broadcasters and cable networks
are increasingly turning to HDCAM SR 4:2:2 tapes. No matter what the
origination format, HDCAM SR exchange media protects the picture from visible
concatenation errors and transfer losses.
Link 8: Display
Your audience will ultimately watch your finished production on a display. If that
display is a 40-foot movie theater screen, any picture flaws and artifacts will be
visible for all to see. HDCAM SR and HDCAM acquisition is widely accepted for
motion pictures. If the intended display is a 40-inch widescreen television, both
XDCAM HD and HDV 1080i will deliver a subjectively pleasing picture.
Home television itself represents a moving target. Modern TV screens look like
giants compared to their predecessors from the 1950s and 60s. And the triumph
of HD is triggering a mass migration to ever larger TV screens. This trend is likely to
continue. At CES 2008, manufacturers were showing prototype flat-screen TVs
over 100 inches, diagonal.
The resolution of HD televisions is also evolving. In the early years of HD, industry
analysts complained about the absence of home televisions that could actually
display a full 1920 x 1080 picture. Now 1920 x 1080 televisions, marketed as
"1080p," are available at mainstream screen sizes and price levels. The current
crop of 1080p televisions includes LCD flat panels, rear projection televisions and
even a few plasma panels. The list of models and brands of 1080p television
continues to grow. And CES 2008 saw the unveiling of prototype home
televisions with 4K resolution, roughly four times the pixels of 1080p television.
These two trends—bigger screens and full 1080p resolution—will continue to fuel
the demand for high definition content of exceptional quality.
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Choosing an HD Format
The bits, pixels and compression ratios of production tools are only part—and not
the most important part—of telling stories with moving pictures. More depends
on the vision, talent and resourcefulness of the artists who use these tools. Sony
learned long ago that there are no absolute rules about when to use which
equipment. For example, we never recommended the DVCAM™ format for
theatrical release movies. But when three famous Hollywood directors made
movies with the DVCAM format, we were delighted. And when movies are shot
on Sony HDV camcorders, we are also happy. Of course, if anyone does ask our
advice, we have definite recommendations about which formats are best suited
to which applications on the pyramid.
Format
HDCAM
SR 4:4:4
HDCAM
SR, 4:2:2
HDCAM
Digital Intermediate
3D Productions
TV program exchange
Mastering
Major Studio Film
Nat'l TV Commercials
High-end Indie Film
Scripted Episodic TV
Cable Production
Indie Film
Documentary
Natural History
Local TV Commercials
Corporate Video
Religious Video
Government Video
News (ENG)
Reality TV
Event Video
Wedding Video
Unobtrusive Recording
Crash Cam
Personal Video
••••
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••
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••••
••••
••••
••••
••••
••••
•••
•••
•••
-
••
••
••
••
•••
•••
•••
•••
•••
••••
••••
••••
••••
••••
••••
••••
-
••••
•••
••
•
-
XDCAM
MPEG
HD422
•••
•••
•••
•••
•••
•••
••••
••••
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••••
••••
-
Best
Very Good
Good
Adequate
Not Recommended
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XDCAM
HD
XDCAM
EX
HDV
1080i
•
••
••
••
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SONY54212_HDFormGuide
4/8/08
1:46 PM
Page 16
Formats and Representative Cameras
Format
HDCAM SR format,
4:4:4 mode*
F23**
Cine style with T-stops,
follow focus, fully
manual
HDCAM SR format,
4:2:2 mode*
F23**
Cine style with T-stops,
follow focus, fully
manual
Image Sensors
Sensor Resolution
Recorded samples, Y
Channel
Recorded samples, Cb
Channel
Recorded samples, Cr
Channel
Video quantization
Video bitrate after
compression
Compression Type
Three CCDs, 2/3-inch
1920 x 1080
Red: 1920 x 1080
Compression Ratio
Representative camera
Typical Lens
Frame Rates
1080/59.94P
1080/50P
1080/29.97P
1080/25P
1080/24P
1080/23.98P
1080/59.94i
1080/50i
720/59.94P
720/50P
Audio channels
HDCAM format*
XDCAM MPEG
HD422 format*
PDW-700
Interchangeable with
f-stops, fully manual
Three CCDs, 2/3-inch
1920 x 1080
1920 x 1080
HDW-F900R
Cine style with Tstops or ENG style
with f-stops, fully
manual
Three CCDs, 2/3-inch
1920 x 1080
1440 x 1080
Three CCDs, 2/3-inch
1920 x 1080
1920 x 1080
Green: 1920 x 1080
960 x 1080
480 x 1080
960 x 1080
Blue: 1920 x 1080
960 x 1080
480 x 1080
960 x 1080
10-bit
SQ: 440 Mbits/sec.
HQ: 880 Mbits/sec.***
10-bit
SQ: 440 Mbits/sec.
X2: 880 Mbits/sec.***
8-bit
140 Mbits/sec.
8-bit
50 Mbits/sec.
MPEG-4 Studio Profile,
intra-frame / Intra-field
MPEG-4 Studio Profile,
intra-frame / Intra-field
Proprietary
SQ: 4.2:1
HQ: 2.1:1***
2.8:1
4.44:1
MPEG-2 422 Profile
at High Level, Interframe Long-GOP
20:1
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
12 channels
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
12 channels
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
4 channels
PCM
PCM
PCM
24 bits
24 bits
20 bits
48 kHz
48 kHz
48 kHz
1/2-inch fine-grain MP
1/2-inch fine-grain MP
1/2-inch MP tape
tape
tape
* Features vary by model. Not every camera or camcorder in each format has the features
shown here.
** The HDCAM SR portable recorder also docks to the F35 and Genesis™ cameras.
*** Restrictions apply.
Audio Coding
Audio quantization
Audio Sampling Rate
Recording Media
16
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
8 ch. (format)
4 ch. (camcorder)
PCM
24 bits
48 kHz
Professional Disc 12
cm blue laser disc
SONY54212_HDFormGuide
4/9/08
3:38 PM
Format
Page 17
Representative camera
Typical Lens
XDCAM HD
format*
PDW-F355
Interchangeable with fstops, fully manual
with auto focus option
XDCAM EX format,
HQ mode*
PMW-EX1
Fixed lens with full
manual focus, zoom,
iris; auto options,
image stabilization
XDCAM EX format,
SP mode*
PMW-EX1
Fixed lens with full
manual focus, zoom,
iris; auto options,
image stabilization
Image Sensors
Three CCDs, 1/2-inch
Sensor Resolution
1440 x 1080
Three Exmor™
CMOS, 1/2-inch
1920 x 1080
Three Exmor™
CMOS, 1/2-inch
1920 x 1080
Recorded samples, Y
Channel
Recorded samples, Cb
Channel
Recorded samples, Cr
Channel
Video quantization
Video bitrate after
compression
Compression Type
1440 x 1080
1920 x 1080
1440 x 1080
HVR-Z7U
Interchangeable lens
with full manual focus,
zoom, iris; auto
options, image
stabilization
Three ClearVid CMOS,
1/3-inch
960 x 1080 diamond
pattern
1440 x 1080
720 x 540
960 x 540
720 x 540
720 x 540
720 x 540
960 x 540
720 x 540
720 x 540
8-bit
35, 25 or 18 Mbits/sec.
8-bit
35 Mbits/sec.
8-bit
25 Mbits/sec.
8-bit
25 Mbits/sec.
MPEG-2 Main Profile
at High Level (1440),
Inter-frame Long-GOP
16:1 @ 35 Mbps
22:1 @ 25 Mbps
31:1 @ 18 Mbps
MPEG-2 Main Profile
at High Level, Interframe Long-GOP
21:1 @ 35 Mbps
MPEG-2 Main Profile
at High Level (1440),
Inter-frame Long-GOP
22:1 @ 25 Mbps
MPEG-2 Main Profile
at High Level (1440),
Inter-frame Long-GOP
22:1
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
4 channels
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
2 channels
59.94i with 2-3 pulldown
Yes
Yes
2 channels
Compression Ratio
Frame Rates
1080/59.94P
1080/50P
1080/29.97P
1080/25P
1080/24P
1080/23.98P
HDV 1080i format*
Yes
4 ch. (format)
2 ch. (camcorder)
PCM
PCM
PCM
MPEG-1 Audio Layer II
Audio Coding
16
bits
16
bits
16
bits
16
bits
Audio quantization
48 kHz
48 kHz
48 kHz
48 kHz
Audio Sampling Rate
Professional Disc 12
SxS Pro flash memory
SxS Pro flash memory
1/4-inch ME tape or
Recording Media
cm blue laser disc
CompactFlash
memory
* Features vary by model. Not every camera or camcorder in each format has the features
shown here.
1080/59.94i
1080/50i
720/59.94P
720/50P
Audio channels
17
SONY54212_HDFormGuide
4/2/08
Sony Electronics Inc.
1 Sony Drive
Park Ridge, NJ 07656
sony.com/professional
1
Version 4.1; March 26, 2008
10:44 AM
Page 1
© 2008 Sony Electronics Inc. All rights reserved.
Reproduction in whole or in part without written permission is prohibited.
Features and specifications are subject to change without notice.
Sony, CineAlta, ClearVid, DVCAM, HDCAM, HDCAM SR, MPEG IMX, Power HAD, Professional Disc,
Saticon, SxS Pro, XDCAM, XDCAM MPEG HD422 and XDCAM EX are trademarks of Sony.
CompactFlash is a trademark of SanDisk Corporation. HDV and the HDV logo are trademarks
of Sony Corporation and the Victor Company of Japan, Limited.
Genesis is a trademark of Panavision, Inc.
Printed in USA (3/08)
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