HEAT STORAGE APPLICATION IN ELECTRIC MOTOR COOLING SYSTEM Smoke Ventilation Motors

HEAT STORAGE APPLICATION IN ELECTRIC MOTOR COOLING SYSTEM Smoke Ventilation Motors
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
HEAT STORAGE APPLICATION IN ELECTRIC
MOTOR COOLING SYSTEM
Smoke Ventilation Motors
Prathibha Chinthana Rajapakshe
01/2014
Master’s Thesis in Sustainable Energy Engineering
M.Sc. in Sustainable Energy Engineering
Examiner: Prof. Viktoria Martin
Supervisor: Prof. Viktoria Martin & Ms. Iresha Atthanayake
Heat Storage Application in Electric
Motor Cooling System- Smoke
Ventilation Motors
Prathibha Chinthana Rajapakshe
Declaration of Authorship
I hereby certify that the work submitted in this Masters Thesis
“Heat Storage Application in Electric Motor Cooling System- Smoke
Ventilation Motors”
is the result of my own work only with the referred literature stated.
This has not already being accepted or submitted for any other degree.
R.G.P.C. Rajapakshe
Date: 20.11.2013
We/I endorse declaration by the candidate
……………………………………………..
iii
Master of Science Thesis EGI 2010:2013
Heat Storage Application in Electric Motor
Cooling System- Smoke Ventilation Motors
Prathibha Chinthana Rajapakshe
Approved
Examiner
Supervisors
Date
Prof. Viktoria Martin
Prof. Viktoria Marin
Ms. Iresha Atthanayake
Commissioner
Contact person
iv
Dedicated to
My beloved wife
&
My ever caring parents
v
Abstract
One application of three phase motors is in fire smoke extraction systems to run smoke
extraction fans. These smoke ventilation motors operate an atmosphere of 200 oC to 400 oC
temperature range. Typically these motors are not provided with a cooling fan. But if the motor
is not cooled properly, it has the possibility to be damaged during the operation. Phase change
materials are the materials which exchange extensive amount of heat as latent heat within a
narrow temperature range of phase transformation. Due to the phase change materials’ property
of heat abortion, there is a possibility that these materials could be applied to smoke extraction
motors to improve cooling of the motor.
In this M.Sc. thesis, the possibility of implementing phase change materials in motor cooling
application is investigated. A 3D model of a smoke ventilation motor was created and a transient
thermal analysis was carried out for assumed smoke temperatures up to 350 oC. NaNO3 and
KNO3 were used as phase change materials in two different temperature scenarios.
It was found that certain motor components such as end winding region had high temperature
values. In the simulation results it was also visible that the heating of the motor is taking place
from the outer core of the motor to the inner core of the motor. It is assumed that cause may be
because of the existing high temperature in the outer environment and because of less cooling
of the stator iron core. It is observed that the inclusion of all the heat sources and all heat
transmission methods in the motor model may improve the accuracy of the results. It is also
observed that the rotor windings are kept at a lower temperature, with relate to stator windings
and stator iron core. That is, rotor windings were always cooler than the stator. The main results
obtained in the thesis work were the temperature behaviours of the phase change materials and
temperature behaviour of the motor model. As per the results, phase change materials were
absorbing a considerable amount of heat during its phase transition. Both phase change
materials showed stagnant temperature during their phase transition temperature regions. The
temperature plots from simulations with phase change materials were referenced with the
temperature plots taken from simulations which were carried out without phase change
materials. With these comparisons, it was found that the cooling effect for the motor elements
was positively affected by the introduction of phase change materials. In the model with PCM, it
is seen that all the temperatures of the motor parts were low compared to the simulation
without any phase change material implemented. As the conclusion it can be stated that the
implementation of phase change materials in the motor has a positive impact on the cooling
system performance. But for more accurate results, analysis consisting of more details with full
motor model is recommended to be carried out.
vi
Acknowledgement
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to KTH for offering DSEE programme to
Sri Lanka which opened the door to study sustainable energy engineering. I am very
much thankful to Associate Professor Anders Nordstrand of the Department of Energy
Technology for accepting me as his student for the thesis work.
I would like to express my gratitude to my examiner and supervisor from KTH,
Professor Viktoria Martin for accepting my thesis work for supervision and her
guidance for the thesis work. Then I would like to thank Senior Lecturer at Open
University of Sri Lanka (OUSL) Ms. Iresha Atthanayake for being my local supervisor,
guidance and the support given towards the completion of the assignment.
I would also like to thank Ms. Saman and Ms. Chamindie at KTH for the support and
co-ordination given by them while carrying out the thesis work. I would like to thank
Nuwan, Nadeera, Amila and all other colleagues who were following DSEE with me for
their support and helps throughout the DSEE programme. I also like to thank Dr.
Primal Fernando for the advices given by him while following the DSEE programme. I
also like to give my thanks to all my relatives for being with me whenever needed.
Without all these, I would not have achieved the completion of the M.Sc. degree.
Finally I also like to thank to my beloved wife Narmada for the support she given at the
time of difficulties, the encouragements given by her and especially for the patience
shown until the end of the thesis work. I also like to thank my father, mother, brother
and my two sisters who were always behind me encouraging me at every difficulty in my
life in every means. Without these supports and people I would never have been
completed my work at such level.
vii
Table of Contents
Abstract
......................................................................................................................................vi
Acknowledgement .......................................................................................................................... vii
Table of Contents........................................................................................................................... viii
Table of figures ................................................................................................................................. x
List of tables..................................................................................................................................... xi
Nomenclature ................................................................................................................................. xii
1
Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1.1 Smoke ventilation .............................................................................................................................. 1
1.1.2 State of the art .................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1.3 Typical operation of a smoke ventilation system ......................................................................... 2
1.2 Motivation and objectives ......................................................................................................................... 3
2
Literature Survey ........................................................................................................................5
2.1 Electric motors............................................................................................................................................ 5
2.1.1 AC motors .......................................................................................................................................... 5
2.2 Motor cooling............................................................................................................................................ 14
2.2.1 Losses in induction motors ............................................................................................................ 15
2.2.2 Heat dissipation in induction motors ........................................................................................... 16
2.2.3 Relation between cooling and efficiency ..................................................................................... 17
2.2.4 Present motor cooling standards .................................................................................................. 19
2.2.5 Present cooling technologies ......................................................................................................... 22
2.2.6 Methods to improve motor cooling systems .............................................................................. 26
2.3 Phase change materials (PCM) ............................................................................................................... 27
2.3.1 Introduction to phase change materials ....................................................................................... 27
2.3.2 Classification of PCM ..................................................................................................................... 29
2.3.3 Selecting a phase change material ................................................................................................. 34
2.3.4 Different PCMs, their properties and applications .................................................................... 36
2.4 Motor thermal modelling techniques .................................................................................................... 37
2.5 Conclusions from the literature survey ................................................................................................. 37
3
Methodology ............................................................................................................................ 39
3.1 Motor selection ......................................................................................................................................... 39
3.2 Development of 3D model ..................................................................................................................... 40
3.2.1 Stator core design ............................................................................................................................ 40
3.2.2 Rotor design ..................................................................................................................................... 40
3.2.3 Method of using PCM in the motor............................................................................................. 41
3.3 PCM selection criteria .............................................................................................................................. 42
3.3.1 Amount of PCM to be used .......................................................................................................... 44
viii
3.4 Simulation method ................................................................................................................................... 46
4
Results ..................................................................................................................................... 48
4.1 PCM selection and analysis ..................................................................................................................... 48
4.1.1 Properties of KNO3 and NaNO3.................................................................................................. 48
4.2 3D Model of the Motor ........................................................................................................................... 48
4.2.1 Mesh .................................................................................................................................................. 51
4.3 Thermal behaviour ................................................................................................................................... 51
4.4 Temperature behaviour ........................................................................................................................... 52
4.4.1 Simulation for NaNO3.................................................................................................................... 52
4.4.2 Simulation for KNO3 ..................................................................................................................... 57
5
Discussion and conclusion ...................................................................................................... 61
References ..................................................................................................................................... 63
Appendix
A ................................................................................................................................... 67
Appendix B ..................................................................................................................................... 68
Appendix C ..................................................................................................................................... 70
Appendix D ..................................................................................................................................... 71
Appendix E ..................................................................................................................................... 79
Appendix F ..................................................................................................................................... 87
Appendix G ..................................................................................................................................... 89
Appendix H ..................................................................................................................................... 90
ix
List of figures
Figure 1.1 Typical operation of a smoke ventilation system (3)........................................................................... 3
Figure 2.1 Classification of electric motors .............................................................................................................. 5
Figure 2.2 Classification of ac motors for industrial applications (5) ................................................................... 6
Figure 2.3 A squirrel cage rotor (7) ........................................................................................................................... 7
Figure 2.4 A wound rotor (45) .................................................................................................................................... 7
Figure 2.5 A Classification of synchronous motors ................................................................................................ 8
Figure 2.6 Cross Section of a reluctance motor (10) ............................................................................................... 9
Figure 2.7 Rotor of a hysteresis motor (11)............................................................................................................. 9
Figure 2.8 Interior of an induction motor (13) ...................................................................................................... 10
Figure 2.9 Typical induction-motor torque-speed curve for constant-voltage, constant-frequency
operation (41) ................................................................................................................................................. 12
Figure 2.10 A classification of induction motors (10) (15) ................................................................................. 13
Figure 2.11 Vector diagram of appetent power, reactive power and true power describing the power
factor (17) ........................................................................................................................................................ 18
Figure 2.12 Explanation for operation of phase change material operation (27) ............................................. 27
Figure 2.13 Classification of phase change materials ............................................................................................ 29
Figure 2.14 A phase diagram for a fictitious binary chemical mixture (with the two components denoted
by A and B) used to depict the eutectic composition, temperature, and point. (L denotes the liquid
state) (30). ........................................................................................................................................................ 33
Figure 3.1 PCM selection process ............................................................................................................................ 42
Figure 3.2 Number of simulations required for the selected PCMs ................................................................... 46
Figure 3.3 Simulation process ................................................................................................................................... 47
Figure 4.1 Outer look of 3D model of motor ........................................................................................................ 49
Figure 4.2 Exploded view of the 3D model of the motor ................................................................................... 49
Figure 4.3 Exploded view of 3D model of the motor .......................................................................................... 49
Figure 4.4 : 15 degree part of motor used for the simulation .............................................................................. 50
Figure 4.5 Generated mesh for the analysis............................................................................................................ 51
Figure 4.6 Results of simulations - without NaNO3 and with NaNO3 as PCM ............................................... 53
Figure 4.7 Temperature behaviour of NaNO3 ....................................................................................................... 54
Figure 4.8 Simulation results - temperature variation of rotor windings with time with NaNO3 as PCM .. 54
Figure 4.9 Simulation results – temperature variation of stator iron core with NaNO3 applied as PCM .... 55
Figure 4.10 Simulation results – temperature variation of stator windings with NaNO3 applied as PCM .. 55
Figure 4.11 Simulation results – temperature variation of end winding region with NaNO3 applied as
PCM ................................................................................................................................................................. 56
Figure 4.12 Simulation results – without PCM and with KNO3 as the PCM................................................... 57
Figure 4.13 Simulation results – temperature variation of KNO3 ...................................................................... 58
x
Figure 4.14 Simulation results – temperature variation of rotor windings with KNO3 applied as PCM ..... 59
Figure 4.15 Simulation results – temperature variation of stator iron core with KNO3 applied as PCM.... 59
Figure 4.16 Simulation results – temperature variation of end windings with KNO3 applied as PCM ....... 60
Figure 4.17 Simulation results – temperature variation of stator windings with KNO3 applied as PCM .... 60
List of tables
Table 2.1 Description for first digit of IEC cooling notifications (24) (25) ...................................................... 19
Table 2.2 Second digit meaning of IEC standard (24) (25).................................................................................. 21
Table 2.3 The coolants used in the cooling systems in motors (24) (25)........................................................... 22
Table 2.4 Advantages and dis advantages of paraffins as PCMs (29) ............................................................... 30
Table 2.5 Advantages and disadvantages of none paraffin PCMs (29) .............................................................. 31
Table 2.6 Advantages and disadvantages of salt hydrates as PCMs (29) ........................................................... 32
Table 2.7 Advantages and disadvantages eutectic materials as PCMs (28)........................................................ 33
Table 3.1 Details of the selected motor for the study (48)................................................................................... 39
Table 3.2 Possible PCMs to be used in the selected motor ................................................................................. 43
Table 3.3 Results of assigning points for the PCM ............................................................................................... 44
Table 3.4 Results of allocation of points for PCM selection ............................................................................... 44
Table 4.1 Thermal properties of KNO3 and NaNO3............................................................................................ 48
xi
Nomenclature
List of Abbreviations
3D
Three Dimensional
AC
Alternative Current
ASTM
American Society of Testing and Materials
am
Fraction melted
B
Flux density
Bav
Average flux density
CFD
Computational Fluid Dynamics
Cos Φ
Power factor
Co
Output coefficient
ClP
Average specific heat between melting temperature and final temperature
CP
Specific heat (kJ/kg K)
CSP
Average specific heat between Ti and Tm (kJ/kg K)
D
Diameter of the stator,
DC
Direct Current
F(f)
Frequency function
f
Frequency
hf
Specific heat
Ir
Rotor current
Is
Stator current per phase
In
Nominal current
I'r
Equivalent rotor current in terms of stator current
Iph
Phase current
J
Moment of inertia
Kw
Winding factor
Kws
Winding factor for the stator
Kwr
Winding factor for the rot
L
Gross core length
ODP
Open Drip Proof
mmf
Magneto motive force
m
Mass of heat storage medium
NEMA
National Electrical Manufacturers Association
Ns
Synchronous speed in rpm
ns
Rotational speed of stator magnetic field
nr
Rotational speed of rotor
xii
p
Number of poles
Pelect
Electrical power
PCM
Phase Change Materials
Plosse
Losses in the motor
Pmech
Mechanical power
v
Voltage
q
Specific electric loading
Q
Quantity of heat stored/absorbed
R1
Resulting resistance
R1,o
Winding resistance at a reference temperature
Ss
Number of stator slots
T
Temperature
TEFC
Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled
TEC
Thermo Electric Cooling
TEN
Outside temperature (temperature of the environment)
Tf
Final temperature
Ti
Initial temperature
Tm
Melting temperature
TPC
Temperature of the phase change material
TPCM
Phase change temperature
Tph
No of turns/phase
Vph
Phase voltage
Zph
No of conductors/phase
Z's
Number of conductors / stator slots
Z'r
Number of conductors / rotor slots
∆hm
Heat of fusion per unit mass
A
Ampere
0C
Degree Celsius
J/kg
Joules per kilogram
kg
Kilogram
kJ/kg
Kilojoules per kilogram
kg/s
Kilogram per second
kPa
Kilopascal
K
Degree of Kelvin
kJ/kgK
Kilojoules per kilogram per degree Kelvin
Units
xiii
m
Meter
mm
Millimetre
m2
Square meters
Nm
Newton meters
rpm
Revolutions per minute
rps
Revolutions per second
s
Seconds
V
Volts
kW
Kilo Watt
W
Watt
Wb
Weber
W/m2K
Watt per square meter per Kelvin
W/m.K
Watt per meter per Kelvin
kg / m3
Kilogram per cubic meter
Greek symbols
Φ
Air gap flux/pole
η
Efficiency
ƞmotor
Motor efficiency
δ1
Angle of rotor magneto motive force
α1
Resistance – temperature coefficient
∆
Difference of two values
ρ
Density
Γ
Torque
Γmax
Nominal torque
Γn
Maximum torque
Γs
Shaft torque
xiv
1 Introduction
1.1 Overview
1.1.1
Smoke ventilation
Evolution of mankind made lots of improvements for human lives and life style. Today, people live in
mega cities full with sky scrapers. All these constructions are accompanied with advance technologies. No
matter how high-tech, aesthetic, valuable and marvellous a construction is, if in an emergency situation
there is loss of lives in these constructions, it is a total failure since human lives are the most valuables
among all. One of these emergency situations is “an uncontrolled fire in the building”.
When there is an uncontrolled fire in an artificial environment, it may take only about ten or fifteen
minutes for the fire to spread. But the smoke generated by the fire spreads rapidly. Within few minutes it
would spread throughout the building blocking sight in evacuation routs such as staircases, corridors and
doorways. The smoke from a fire in a building is more dangerous than the heat at the beginning of the fire
because the smoke spread more easily and quickly carrying toxic fumes with it. Sometimes smoke cause
deaths due to toxic matters carried along with and also due to suffocation. Even a small can produce a
thick smoke which may spread rapidly and block the sight of escape routes which makes the occupants
panic and ultimately lead them for injuries. To prevent such incidents due to smoke, special ventilation
systems have been introduced to building environments. They are “smoke ventilation systems” which can
be identified as a main safety feature in modern building architectures.
1.1.2
State of the art
Smoke ventilation systems are also known as smoke extraction systems. These systems are most common
in modern high rising building environments. Smoke ventilation systems are also found in long road
tunnels, shopping complexes, luxurious residencies, single stair buildings, apartment buildings, covered
offices, laboratories, car parks with less ventilation, etc… They are growing in numbers of implementation
as well as in technology. There are various researches going on smoke ventilation systems in various
places. Most of those researches involve computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and thermal analysis. The
components in the smoke extraction systems are being continuously upgraded as well. Their performance,
characteristics and operation are improved day by day. Recently “smart” components are also introduced
in which electronics and computer programming also appeared in smoke venting systems. So, electrical
and electronic researches are also progressing apart from CFD and thermal analysis researches for
producing “smarter” systems.
1
1.1.3
Typical operation of a smoke ventilation system
In order to save lives in an emergency fire situation, evacuation of people from the building on fire is an
important procedure to follow. For safe routes of evacuation and for safe paths for fire fighters to get in,
smoke is an obstruction. Therefore, smoke ventilation system is very essential as main objectives of a
smoke ventilation system are,
1. Keeping evacuation routes free from smoke. (1) (2)
2. Creating smoke free passages for firefighting. (1) (2)
3. Preventing fire spreading throughout the building (1) (2)
4. Supporting life in the fire environment by effectively extracting the toxic fumes (1) (2)
5. Reducing the damages occurred by heat and fire (1) (2)
The Figure 1.1 shows how an operation of smoke ventilation system takes place. In the Figure 1.1, only
floor B is on fire. The smoke is extracted by means of smoke ventilation fans installed at the top of the
smoke ventilation shaft. Fire dampers at the place of fire in the air conditioning system in the floor B are
supposed to be automatically closed in order to prevent the smoke being spread to other floors as well as
to stop smoke being entered to the building ventilation system. The stair case is positively pressurized.
Therefore fresh air is entered from the door openings to the floor which has the fire. So, smoke is
extracted through the smoke extraction system and the occupants can safely run for safe place through the
passage created by the flow of fresh air towards the smoke ventilation shaft. Also fire fighters can enter
the floor to extinguish the fire. It is the explanation of a typical smoke ventilation system operates (1)(2).
In smoke ventilation systems the smoke is extracted by means of fire extraction fans which are driven by
electric motors. The electric motors specially designed for smoke extraction purpose are called “Smoke
Ventilation Motors”. Smoke ventilation motors operate at the time of fire about one or two hours. In
most cases, these motors are readily available in the market from different suppliers. These motors are
induction motors which are specially designed for the application of driving smoke ventilation fans at
elevated temperature atmospheres.
2
Smoke
ventilation motor
Smoke ventilation
shaft
Fire dampers
Figure 1.1 Typical operation of a smoke ventilation system (3)
1.2 Motivation and objectives
Three phase induction motors are used in fire smoke extraction systems as smoke venting motors to run
smoke ventilation fans. Most motors available in the market for smoke extraction purpose are designed to
operate in an atmosphere of temperature ranging from 200 0C to 400 0C. Usually these motors have one
hour to two hour of operational period within a defined temperature range. Generally, these motors are
not provided with an external cooling fan. Metallic cooling fans are available on request from the
manufacturers which is rotated by the same shaft that drives the smoke extraction fan. The reason for not
providing a cooling fan as a default feature is because of the elevated ambient temperature which the
motor operates. Since the surrounding air is hot, the cooling of the motor difficult. Trying to cool the
motor by means of hot air would heat up the motor more rather than cooling it. Due to absence of
3
cooling, smoke ventilation motors have limited time of operation within its defined temperature range. If
the motor is not cooled properly, it is sure to be damaged during the operation. It will lead the fire
situation to a catastrophe because smoke may block the evacuation paths for the occupants and also
disturb the fire fighters.
Phase change materials (PCM) are the materials which exchange extensive amount of heat as latent heat
within a narrow temperature range at phase transformation. During the liquefying transformation (heating
process), the PCM absorbs lot of heat as latent heat. When the PCM recrystallizes (cooling process) it
releases absorbed heat. On the other hand there have been different kinds of PCMs used in heat storage
applications successfully. Due to the phase change materials’ property of latent heat absorption and latent
heat rejection, these materials are possible to be applied to smoke extraction motors for cooling purposes.
The concept is that the heat generated inside motor enclosure could be absorbed by the PCM during
motor operation time. Then the motor coils will not be over heated during the operation. When internal
cooling of the motor is available, the operation period may be extended within a defined temperature,
which is now within one to two hours. Therefore it could be expected a stable operation. And moreover,
the reliability of the motor will be increased because of reduced chance of damage or malfunction of
motor due to heat which would lead to a much safer environment in a fire situation. If PCM can be
applied in these motors, PCMs will be able to be used in other types of motors as well because there are
many numbers of PCMs available in low temperature ranges.
It is necessary to identify the present cooling systems in various electric applications and motors for better
understanding of how to implement PCM in cooling system. For the application of the PCM in smoke
venting motors, it is essential to know the present cooling methods of these motors. It is also necessary to
know the various types of phase change materials and their properties for selecting the appropriate PCM.
By analysing various methods to improve cooling systems, methods to implement PCM can be identified.
When these are known, a model could be created and could be analysed or simulated for transient and
steady state conditions for the performance. Therefore the main objective of the thesis is to carry out a
thermal analysis on 3D model of a smoke ventilation motor to observe improvements of motor cooling
system after application of PCM in the motor enclosure.
Specific objectives:
Identify present cooling systems in electric applications and present cooling systems by PCM in the real
world and their operation through a literature review.
Create a three dimensional (3D) model of a selected smoke ventilation motor for thermal analysis.
Transient thermal analysis on created model for investigating the improvement of cooling system by
means of applying PCM to the motor cooling system.
4
2 Literature Survey
2.1 Electric motors
The idea of section 2.1 was to get a thorough idea about electric motors, smoke ventilation motors, their
theory of operation, motor types, motor construction and different applications. Since smoke ventilation
motors are induction motors, study about smoke ventilation motors means study about induction motors
as well. So, in section 2.1 of literature survey it was focused mainly on operation of alternative current
motors and operation of induction motors
Electric motors are extensively used in various industrial and domestic applications. Using motors is a key
method of transforming electrical energy to useful outputs. Motors are also a major part in actuator
systems and building services systems, robotics, etc… The selection of right type of electric motor for the
specific application is an imperative task. Otherwise it may lead to energy losses, drop of efficiency in
production lines and many other problems. There for different types of electric motors have different
applications. Electric motors can be mainly divided in to Alternative Current (AC) motors, Direct Current
(DC) motors and other types of motors (Figure 2.1).
ELECTRIC MOTORS
AC MOTORS
DC MOTORS
OTHER TYPES
Figure 2.1 Classification of electric motors
Subsequently these types can be sub divided into various sub categories which can be further divided in to
categories based on their power, rotational speed, application, physical size, etc… Mainly these types of
categorization are done by motor manufacturers.
2.1.1
AC motors
AC motors are basically consists of two parts. They are,
1. Stator
2. Rotor
AC current is supplied to the coils in the stator. It produces a rotating magnetic field on the stator which
results induction of a rotating magnetic field in the rotor. Then rotor gives an output torque which is a
result of interaction of these rotating magnetic fields (4). AC motors can be classified in to several
categories. Figure 2.2 shows a classification of AC motors based on the type of current being used
5
followed by type of operation principle and the type of rotor. Smoke ventilation motors belong to
“Squirrel cage – induction – polyphase – AC motors.
WOUND ROTOR
INDUCTION
SINGLE PHASE
SQUIRREL CAGE
SYNCHRONOUS
AC MOTORS
WOUND ROTOR
INDUCTION
SQUIRREL CAGE
POLYPHASE
WOUND ROTOR
SYNCHRONOUS
SQUIRREL CAGE
Figure 2.2 Classification of ac motors for industrial applications (5)
2.1.1.1
Single phase and poly phase motors
AC motors can generally be classified in to two categories as is single phase motors and poly phase
motors. Furthermore above two types can be subdivided in to two types namely as induction motors and
synchronous motors. Single phase motors has only one phase supply in their current supply to windings.
Polyphase motors have current supply with more than one phase supplied to windings. Three phase
motors fall in to the category of poly phase motors.
2.1.1.2
Squirrel cage motors
The name is given to these motors based on the rotor type. The rotor used in these types of motors is
constructed like a squirrel cage. It is a cylinder with conductive bars along its longitude connected by short
rings (Figure 2.3). In order to reduce the noise and to smooth the torque, the conductors are often
skewed slightly along the length of the rotor. There is an iron core for the conductance of magnetic field.
To minimize the eddy current losses the core is made of thin laminations and separated by varnish
insulation. Materials are also selected to full-fill the requirement of minimizing the hysteresis losses and
eddy current losses (6).
6
Figure 2.3 A squirrel cage rotor (7)
2.1.1.3
Wound rotor motors
A wound rotor is shown in Figure 2.4. In a wound rotor motor, rotor windings are connected through slip
rings to the current supply of the rotor. By adjusting the current supply to the rotor, the control of
speed/torque characteristics of the wound rotor motors is achieved. These motors are designed to start
with low current. Comparing to squirrel-cage rotor, these rotors have more windings, induced voltage is
higher and current is low. Normally these motors have high start-up torque. At start, rotor three poles are
connected to the slip ring. Every pole is connected in series with a variable power resistor. When the
motor grasps the full speed, the rotor poles are short circuited. It allows the inrush current to be reduced
(42).
Figure 2.4 A wound rotor (45)
2.1.1.4
Synchronous motors
Synchronous motors are the motor type in which the rotor is supplied from DC source or by the
permanent magnet (PM) (9). When the stator is energized, it creates a rotating magnetic field. When the
rotor is energized it also creates a magnetic field. When these two magnetic fields interacted together, the
stator magnetic field makes the rotor magnetic field also a rotating magnetic field. This phenomenon
makes the rotor rotation at the same speed of the stator magnetic field. The synchronous speed is given
by,
....................................................................................................................................................... (eq.1)(9)
7
Where,
Ns = Synchronous speed in rpm
f = frequency of the current supplied in Hz
p = number of poles in the stator winding
Synchronous motors can be further divided in to categories on excitation method of the magnets and
magnetic fields as shown in Figure 2.5.
RELUCTANCE
MOTOR
NONE EXCITED
HYSTERISIS
MOTOR
PERMANENT
MAGNET MOTOR
SYNCRONOUS
MOTORS
DC EXCITED
Figure 2.5 A Classification of synchronous motors
2.1.1.4.1
None excited synchronous motors
In non-excited motors rotor is made of high retentivity steels. At Synchronous speed, it rotates in step
with the rotating magnetic field of the stator. So, it has almost constant magnetic field through it. External
stator fields magnetize the rotor, inducing the required magnetic fields to turn it. (40)
2.1.1.4.2
Reluctance motors
Reluctance motors consist of a steel rotor with projecting toothed poles towards the stator. When the
motor is in operation, as these poles align with the rotating magnetic field of the stator poles, it has the
minimum air gap in between the stator and the rotor poles. So, the reluctance is lowest at that time. When
the rotor poles are moved away, reluctance is increased creating a torque which tries to align the rotor
poles to the nearest stator pole of the stator field. So the synchronous speed is same as the rotating stator
field. However, these motors cannot start rotating with those phenomena. Therefore the rotor poles have
squirrel-cage windings embedded in order to provide torque below synchronous speed. The motor is
started as an induction motor as it reaches the synchronous speed. A cross section of a reluctance motor is
shown in Figure 2.6 (40).
8
Stator and stator windings
Rotor and rotor windings
Figure 2.6 Cross Section of a reluctance motor (10)
2.1.1.4.3
Hysteresis synchronous motors
In these types of motors the rotor is a smooth cylindrical casting (Figure 2.7). The material of construction
of rotor has a high coercivity and it has a wide hysteresis loop. That is if the material is once magnetized
in a certain direction, it needs a strong reverse magnetic field in order to reverse that magnetization. The
rotating stator field causes the rotor to experience a reversing magnetic field. Because of the hysteresis, the
phase of the magnetization lags behind the phase of the applied filed. As a result, the axis of the magnetic
field induced in the rotor lags behind the axis of the stator field by a constant angle which produce a
torque as the rotor tries to catch up the stator field. Until the rotor is below synchronous speed, the rotor
experiences a reversing magnetic field at the slip frequency which drives it around its hysteresis loop
which causes the rotor field to lag and create the torque. The rotor has a two pole low reluctance bar
structure. When the rotor gains the synchronous speed and the slip is zero, the bar structure is
magnetized and aligned with the stator field and keep the rotor at same speed as the rotating stator field.
Hysteresis motor is self-start and does not need induction windings since the lag angle is independent of
the speed. So, it builds up constant torque from the start up to the synchronous speed (40).
Figure 2.7 Rotor of a hysteresis motor (11)
2.1.1.4.4
Permanent magnet synchronous motor
Permanent magnet motors have permanent magnets in rotor to create a constant magnetic field. These are
self-start motors. Only stator windings are externally excited. Most of the times these motors are
controlled by frequency control of the stator drive (40).
9
2.1.1.5
Induction motors
Induction motors are the motor types in which the rotor is supplied with power through a method of
electromagnetic induction. So, these motor types involve no slip rings and commutators. These types of
motors are used extensively both in poly phase and single phase applications because they are rugged in
design and have a long life. The speed of the motor can be controlled by controlling the frequency of the
supply current. Induction motors mostly used in constant speed applications. But variable speed
applications are also available (12).
2.1.1.5.1
Construction of an induction motor
Stator of an induction motor has poles that are supplied with electricity to induce magnetic field which
penetrates the rotor. The windings are circulated around the stator with the magnetic field having equal
number of south and north poles to optimize the distribution of the magnetic field. Induction motors are
available as single phase and multiple phase motors. Single phase motors are commonly used in building
services engineering. Since single phase motors cannot generate a rotating magnetic field, they are
incorporated with mechanisms to generate the rotating magnetic fields. The rotor construction can be
either wound rotor or squirrel cage type (12). Figure 2.8 shows interior of an induction motor.
Figure 2.8 Interior of an induction motor (13)
2.1.1.5.2
Stator winding & rotor winding
The stator winding of the motor has number of coils in adjacent slots. The same phase coils are connected
in series constructing a phase group. For example, in three phase motors, there are three groups of phase
group coils. Due to these coil groups a rotating magnetic field is induced in the stator, penetrating the
rotor when alternating current is supplied.
The rotor winding type depends on whether it is a wound rotor or squirrel cage motor. Rotors are made
of a good conductor material. Aluminium or/and copper is used as rotor materials for the rotor winding.
But there is a big theory behind the rotor material selection for efficiency increase (41).
10
2.1.1.5.3
Operation principle of induction motors
Induction motors operate accordance with Faraday’s law and the Lorentz force. The stator windings are
supplied with alternating current. With the oscillations in the current a rotating magnetic field is generated
penetrating the rotor.
The synchronous speed for induction motors is same as given by eq.1.
The difference between
synchronous speed and the rotor speed is called “slip” speed which is given by eq.2.
..................................................................................................................................................... eq.2 (14)
Where,
s – Slip of the induction motor
ns – Rotational speed of stator magnetic field, rpm
nr – rotational speed of rotor, rpm
With the relative speed of rotor and the magnetic field, according to the Faraday’s law a voltage is induced
in the rotor which is equal to,
E= - B.L.v .................................................................................................................................................... eq.3 (14)
Where,
E - Induced voltage (V)
B - Magnetic field (T)
v - Velocity (m/s)
L – Length (m)
The operating speed cannot be as same as the synchronous speed. Because there should be a relative
velocity not equal to zero between the rotor and the stator field to induce voltage in the rotor windings.
Only then there will be a torque generated. The frequency of the voltages induced are given by,
fr = s.fe ........................................................................................................................................... eq.4 (14)
Where,
fr – frequency of the voltage (Hz)
s – Slip
fe – frequency of the current supply (Hz)
With the induced voltage, a rotor current is also generated and circulated within the short circuited rotor
conductor loops in the rotor windings. These induced currents again generate a magnetic field in the
rotor. This magnetic field’s direction is to oppose the change in current through the rotor windings. So the
11
rotor magnetic field and the stator magnetic field react against each other (12). Since the rotor is also in
the rotating magnetic field, the rotor experiences the Lorenz force which is described by eq.5
F = q (E + v. B)............................................................................................................................ eq.5 (14)
Where,
F – Induced force (N)
q – Charge of the particle(C)
E – Electric field (N/C)
v – Velocity of the rotor (m/s)
B – Magnetic field (T)
The integral form of the equation eq.5 gives the full force induced in the rotor. The rotor starts to rotate
in the same direction as the stator magnetic field in order to oppose induced currents in the rotor. The
rotor accelerates until the magnitude of induced rotor current and torque balances the applied load (12)
(13). The torque prevails for rotor speeds other than the synchronous speed. So, these types of torques are
called asynchronous torque (41). The torque can be expressed as,
T = - K. Ir. Sin (δ1) ...................................................................................................................... eq.6 (41)
Where,
T – Torque (Nm)
K – Constant
Ir – rotor current in (A)
δ1– the angle by which the rotor magneto motive force (mmf) wave leads the resultant airgap mmf wave (degrees)
Break Down Torque
Locked rotor torque (starting torque)
Figure 2.9 Typical induction-motor torque-speed curve for constant-voltage, constant-frequency
operation (41)
12
From Figure 2.9 it can be understood that when the slip is zero, there exist no rotor torque. When the slip
is around 0.2 of the synchronous speed, the motor gives the maximum torque. After this point, the torque
drops gradually. The maximum torque is called the break down torque. With the change of rotor
resistance depending on various types of motors, these characteristic curves change.
2.1.1.5.4
Classification of Induction motors
Induction motors can be classified based on power supply method, power output, operating environment,
mechanical characteristics, electrical characteristics, construction, efficiency, controllability, etc... Figure
2.10 shows an induction motor classification mainly based on electrical and mechanical characteristics.
Capacitor start
motor
Two value
capacitor motor
Permanent split
capacitor motor
Single Phase
Capacitor run
motor
Resistance split
phase motor
Induction
Motors
NEMA type A
NEMA type B
NEMA type C
Poly Phase
NEMA type D
NEMA type E
NEMA type F
Figure 2.10 A classification of induction motors (10) (15)
Figure 2.10 shows induction motor classification according to National Electrical Manufacturers
Association (NEMA). Further description is as follows.
13
NEMA type A: (high torques, low slip, high locked amperes) Starting torque as same as type B motors.
These are commonly applied in machines like injection moulding machines. (10)(15).
NEMA type B: (normal torques, normal slip, normal locked amperes) Type B motors are used commonly
in most applications such as drive pumps, fans, machine tools, etc… The motor has a
high power factor and a high efficiency. They can be started with most of the loads
without excessive current. (10)(15).
NEMA type C: (high torques, normal slip, and normal locked amperes) Type C motors have a higher
starting torque than class A and B under certain conditions. Common application of
NEMA type C motor is to hard-starting loads which need to be driven at constant speed.
For example these motors are applied in situations like conveyors, crushers, and
reciprocating pumps, compressors (10) (15).
NEMA type D: (high locked-rotor torque, high slip) NEMA type D motor has a high staring torque and
small starting current due to high slip. Example application is in an elevator (10) (15).
NEMA type E: These motors are a higher efficiency version of class B. (10) (15).
NEMA type F: These motors have much lower starting torque and starting current. The break down
torque is higher than in type B. These motors are used in easily started type of loads (10)
(15).
2.2 Motor cooling
The main consideration in section 2.2 is on cooling methods in different electric motors. Both alternative
current and direct current motors’ cooling methods has been taken in to consideration while keeping
special emphasis on alternative current motor cooling methods, induction motor cooling methods, cooling
standards for motors and special methods for motor cooling.
When motors are in operation, heat dissipation is a normal phenomenon. Because of dissipated heat, the
temperature inside the motor rises. If motor is not cooled properly, the motor may get over heated and
cause damage due to the high temperature thermal stresses developed on windings and rotating parts.
Further heating may cause material properties of the component to change and deform. All these may
affect for the inefficient operation of the motor and ultimately fail the motor as well. The cooling of the
motor also has a relation to the efficiency of the motor. To prevent bad situations due to overheating and
improper cooling, motor must be constantly cooled during its operation. Only then it will be operated
properly and safety.
14
2.2.1
Losses in induction motors
Losses in a motor should be minimized for a better cooling and improved efficiency. Lower the losses,
more efficient the motor is. Sources of heat generation are the losses in the motor. At the end, losses are
the source for temperature increase in the motors. So, reducing losses also prevents unnecessary
temperature rise. To analyse temperature increases, a good knowledge of sources of the heat generation is
an asset.
There are two major types of losses in motors (19) (16).
1. Fixed losses which are independent of the motor load
a.
Friction & windage losses
i. Friction losses due to rotating parts
ii. Aerodynamic losses associated with ventilation
b. Magnetic core losses
i. Hysteresis losses
ii. Eddy current losses
2. Variable losses which are dependant of the load
a.
Losses due to the material resistance to the current flow in stator and rotor (i2R).
b. Stray losses due to various reasons
These losses can be subdivided in to main five losses based on where and how they are generated. (19)
1. stator core losses (iron losses)
2. stator coil losses (copper losses)
3. rotor coil losses (copper losses)
4. friction and windage losses (mechanical losses)
5. stray load losses
All these losses contribute more or less in increasing the temperature of motor. But it is stated that stator
core losses stator coil losses, rotor coil losses do the major contribution for the losses. So they are the
losses that contribute mainly for the motor temperature distribution. Therefore it is important to focus
more on these losses than other losses while conducting a thermal analysis (19) (16).
Losses can be approximated as a function of supply voltage frequency which can be experimentally
estimated which is shown in equation eq.7 (19).
Plosses = F (f)................................................................................................................................... eq.7 (19)
For reduction of losses following points can be considered (34).
1. Use of higher conductive copper in the windings
2. Increasing conductor cross section area
3. Better grades and thinner gages for steel laminations
15
4. Improved fans
5. Better bearings
6. Reduced air gap between stator and rotor
7. Introduction of adjustable speed drives can be practiced while constructing a motor.
For further efficiency increases following practices can be implemented.
1. Application of demand side management
2. Introduction of adjustable speed drives
3. Optimum design for the application.
2.2.2
Heat dissipation in induction motors
Every motor dissipates certain amount of heat due to losses. Induction motors dissipate excessive heat
mainly,
1. In situations such as normal start. Because induced current in the rotor is high and more heating
happen when the motor is started with a rotor load
2. during a breaking of a motor
3. due to overloading of a motor
4. because of frequency and voltage control for speed control
2.2.2.1
Heat dissipation due to frequency and voltage control of a
motor
In normal operation conditions also there is heat generated due to the armature resistance. The heat
dissipation is equal to i2R where i is the armature induced current and R is the resistance of the armature
(14). Heat developed due to the frequency and voltage control can be explained by referring to equation
eq.8. The flux density of the motor is given by,
.......................................................................................................................................... eq.8 (11)
Where,
B – Flux density
k – Constant
f – Power supply frequency (Hz)
v- Applied voltage (V)
For maximum efficiency, most of the times motors are designed to operate just below the saturation point
of flux density. According to the eq.8, when the frequency is kept constant and voltage is increased, the
rotor flux gets saturated. So, excessive heat will be dissipated and ultimately the motor will fail. If the
16
frequency is controlled without controlling the voltage simultaneously, at one point same result may
happen. Therefore cooling systems of the motors are significantly important for the proper control and
the operation of induction motors (11).
Recently the rotor current is also controlled using of electronic controllers. But when rotor current is
controlled, it takes much longer period for acceleration and to build up the required torque. So, due to
long time of low current, it is again possible for heating the motor (11).
2.2.3
Relation between cooling and efficiency
The efficiency of the motor is the ratio between mechanical power output delivered by the rotor shaft and
the electrical power input given to the motor through the terminals of the motor which is given by the
equation eq.9
.......................................................................................................................... eq.9 (16)
ƞmotor - motor - efficiency of the motor
Where,
Pmech – mechanical power available at the rotor end
Pelect – electrical power supplied at the motor input terminal
There are several efficiencies described with regard to motors describing the above equation.
i.
Tested efficiency: the efficiency obtained by testing the motor (31)
ii. Nominal or average expected efficiency: Average value of efficiency obtained after testing a
simple population of the motor model (31)
iii. Nameplate efficiency: It is what appears in the name plate of the motor which is actually with
regard to the standard used for that motor. (31)
iv. Minimum efficiency: These values are intended to represent the lowest point of the motor
curve of motor efficiency distribution. (31)
v. Apparent efficiency: Product of efficiency and power factor. (31)
In an induction motor, the efficiency is closely related to the power factor. If the power factor is close to
unity, more efficient the motor is since the losses are less because the i2R loss is reduced. When the power
factor is far more less than unity, the losses in the wires are more due to the reactive power. The true
power is the power which does the useful work. It is measured in Watts (W). Reactive power is the power
stored and discharged in induction motors. It is measured in Volt-Amperes, Reactive (VAR). Apparent
power is the value given by multiplying voltage of a system by all the current that flows in it. It is the
vector summation of the true and the apparent power. It is measures in Volt-Amperes (VA) (17).
The power factor of an induction motor is the ratio of true power used in to the apparent power used
which is given by the equation eq.10. The cosine value of the angle between apparent power and the true
power is equal to the power factor (Figure 2.11).
17
W
VA
- True power
VA - Apparent Power
VAR
VAR - Reactive power
W
Figure 2.11 Vector diagram of appetent power, reactive power and true power describing the power factor (17)
..................................................................................... eq.10
It is stated that squirrel cage motors are efficient than slip ring motors. Higher speed motors are more
efficient than lower speed motors and totally enclosed fan cooled (TEFC) motors are more efficient than
screen protected, drip-proof (SDDP) motors (17).
-Efficiency of Electric Motor Systems (SEEEM) prevails in European Union. And also institutions like
IEEE, BS, NEMA, IEC, etc… have produced various standards (e.g. IEEE 112, BS 269, IEC- 34-2, JEC
– 37, etc...) for electric motor efficiencies and their measurements.
Energy efficiency can be improved by improving cooling performance. The coil temperature variations
have a large effect on the efficiency of the motor. It is stated that efficiency decreases with the increasing
coil temperature. When the motor is overloaded, the efficiency drops rapidly. More cooling of windings is
required when the motor is overloaded. Primary losses increase when the winding temperature is increased
(34).
Relationship of resistance to the temperature of the windings is given by;
.............................................................................................................. eq.11 (34)
Where,
R1,o – winding resistance at a reference temperature T1,0 = 25 oC
α1 – the resistance-temperature coefficient of the windings which is 0.0043
∆Tc1- temperature rise
According to the equation eq.11, stator coil losses increase when the winding temperature is increased
since resistance-temperature coefficient is positive (0.0043).
Rotor coil losses also rise as they are
associated with the rotor bar temperature. If the rotor is constructed using lower resistance – temperature
coefficient material, the efficiency increases much and the amount of copper losses increased with the
temperature would be lesser. It shows that the motor temperature rises, losses increase. That means
temperature rise leads to less efficiency. So, the cooling of motor increases the efficiency.
18
2.2.4
Present motor cooling standards
Cooling the motor is important for its operation, efficiency and prolonged life. There are several methods
in motor cooling. All the motor manufacturers follow motor cooling methods in their products. There are
standard cooling procedures and methods which are described by various standards such as IEC, BS,
NEMA, IEEE, etc....
In table 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3, characters and their meanings for cooling of motors as per the IEC 34-6 standard
are given. The equivalent list of other standards British Standards, ASTM are attached in appendix A.
Example motor type: IC 8 A1 W7
IC – Index of Cooling;
8 – circuit layout;
A1 – primary circuit of cooling;
W7 – Secondary circuit of cooling
IC stands for Index of Cooling. It is followed by two characteristic numerals. The first numeral is the
cooling arrangement and the second is the method of supplying power for the circulating of coolant (24).
Table 2.1 Description for first digit of IEC cooling notifications (24) (25)
COOLING ARRANGEMENT/COOLING CIRCUIT LAYOUT
Digit
0
Designation
Free circulation
Description
The coolant enters and leaves the machine freely. Coolant is
taken from and returned to the fluid round the machine.
1
Inlet duct ventilated
The coolant is taken up elsewhere than from the fluid round the
One inlet duct
machine, brought into the machine through an intake pipe and
emptied into the fluid round the machine.
2
Outlet duct ventilated
The coolant is taken up from the fluid round the machine,
One outlet duct
brought away from the machine by an outlet pipe and does not
(Machine with an outlet pipe)
3
Inlet and outlet duct ventilated
(Machine with
intake and outlet)
two pipes,
go back into the fluid round the machine.
The coolant is taken up elsewhere than from the fluid round the
machine, brought to the machine through an intake pipe, then
taken away from the machine through an outlet pipe and does
not go back into the fluid round the machine.
19
Table2.1 Continued….
COOLING ARRANGEMENT/COOLING CIRCUIT LAYOUT
Digit
4
5
6
7
Designation
Description
Frame surface cooled machine
The primary coolant circulates in a closed circuit, transferring its
(Surface cooled machine using
heat to a secondary coolant (the one surrounding the machine)
the fluid around the machine.
through the machine casing. The casing surface is either smooth
Usually the coolant is air flow)
or finned to improve heat transmission.
Integral heat exchanger
The primary coolant circulates in a closed circuit, transferring its
( coolant is air flow from the
heat to a secondary coolant (the one surrounding the machine)
surrounding environment)
in an integral heat exchanger inside the machine.
Machine mounted heat
The primary coolant circulates in a closed circuit, transferring its
exchanger (coolant is air flow
heat to a secondary coolant (the one surrounding the machine)
from the surrounding
in a heat exchanger that forms an independent unit, mounted on
environment)
the machine.
Integral
mounted
heat The primary coolant circulates in a closed circuit, transferring its
exchanger (coolant is not air heat to a secondary coolant (which is not the one round the
flow
from
surrounding machine) in an integral heat exchanger inside the machine.
environment)
8
Machine
mounted
heat The primary coolant circulates in a closed circuit, transferring its
exchanger (coolant is not air heat to a secondary coolant (which is not the one round the
flow
from
surrounding machine) in a heat exchanger that forms an independent unit,
environment)
9
Machine
with
mounted
heat
mounted on the machine.
separate The primary coolant circulates in a closed circuit, transferring its
exchanger heat to the secondary fluid in a heat exchanger that forms an
(using or not using the air independent unit, away from the machine.
from
surrounding
environment as the coolant)
20
Table 2.2 Second digit meaning of IEC standard (24) (25)
METHOD OF SUPPLYING POWER FOR COOING / METHOD OF CIRCULATION OF
COOLANT
Second
Designation
Description
Digit
0
Free convection
The circulation of the coolant is due only to differences in
temperature. Ventilation caused by the rotor is negligible
1
Self-circulation
The circulation of the coolant depends on the rotational
speed of the main machine, and is caused either by the action
of the rotor alone, or the device mounted directly on it.
2
Integral component Mounted Not defined yet
3
on separate shaft
Dependent
component Not defined yet
4
Mounted on the machine
-
5
Integral
independent The coolant is circulated by a built in device which is powered
component
(independent independently from the rotational speed of the main machine
Not defined yet
device which is built in the
6
motor)
Independent
7
Independent
component The coolant is circulated by a device mounted on the machine
which is powered independently from the rotational speed of
Mounted on the machine
the main machine.
and
separate The coolant is circulated by a separate electrical or mechanical
device or cooling system
device, independent and not mounted on the machine, or by
the pressure in the coolant circulation system.
8
Relative displacement
e. g. through airflow
The circulation of the coolant is produced by the relative
movement between the machine and the coolant, either by
displacement of the machine in relation to the coolant, or by
the flow of the surrounding coolant.
9
Any other device
The coolant is circulated using a method other than those
defined above: it must be described in full.
21
Table 2.3 The coolants used in the cooling systems in motors (24) (25)
Characteristic letter
A
F
H
N
C
W
U
S
Y
COOLANT
Type of fluid
Air
Freon
Hydrogen
Nitrogen
Carbon dioxide
Water
Oil
Any other fluid (must be identified separately)
The fluid has not yet been selected (used temporarily)
According to the above classification, standard coding for certain models such as IC0A6, IC1A6, IC2A6
are provided and are attached in the appendix B. One classification of a manufacturer for cooling of
motors which is prepared according to DIN EN 60034-1 standard is mentioned in the Appendix C.
2.2.5
Present cooling technologies
Main technologies used in cooling electric motors include forced air cooling, direct water cooling,
alternative cooling fluids, immersion cooling, heat pipes, phase change materials, vapour compression
refrigeration, thermo electric cooling and Stirling cycle cooling. The novel cooling systems such as Malone
refrigeration, pulse tube refrigeration, thermo ionic cooling, thermo acoustic refrigeration, magnetic
refrigeration and ejector expansion refrigeration are still being studied or at research status. These
methods are specially implemented in large scale linear motors. But there is adoptability for other motors
such as induction motors (8).
Most of the times forced air cooling; direct water and alternative fluid cooling require direct contact of the
fluid and the surface which needed to be cooled. Forced air cooling is widely used in motor cooling
applications (e.g. TEFC motors, ODP motors, etc…). Immersion cooling, heat pipes, PCM and vapour
compression refrigeration use change of state in the working fluid. Thermo electric cooling (TEC) uses
the natural solid state heat transfer by application of potential among different conductors. The Stirling
engine is a mechanical cooling method which uses gas as working fluid (8).
2.2.5.1
TEFC and ODP motor cooling methods
ODP motors and TEFC motors use two different methods for cooling. In ODP motors there is an
internal fan which drives outside air from intake vents at one end of the motor. The air flows through the
windings and then exits from the other end of the motor. It is called open type ventilation. The ventilation
ducts inside the motor are arranged such a way that the falling water is prevented from directly entering
the motor enclosure. But in wind conditions, it is possible for rain to enter in to the motor enclosure. In
TEFC motors, there is an external fan which is covered by a shroud. It blows air on to the motor cover
22
and the air is blown across the motor enclosure surface which is equipped with cooling fins. The blown air
removes the heat from the motor enclosure. The heat transfer is taken place from windings to the
surrounding air inside the motor, from inside air to the motor stator windings and stator laminations.
After that heat flux transferred from stator laminations to the motor cover and cooling fins. Finally it
flows from motor cooling fins to the outside air. More often TEFC motors consist of inside radial fans to
make the heat transfer more efficient by means of swirling the inside air. However, most of the times
cooling in TEFC motors is poor compared to ODP motors. Therefore, TEFC motors are less efficient
than ODP motors as cooling is connected with motor efficiency (32).
End winding cooling has drawn attention of most of the researchers. In a particular situation of analysis of
heat transfer in a motor, it is stated that the end winding heat transfer coefficient is changed with the rotor
speed. And transverse ribs on the core surface in the stator frame have given a net increase in the net heat
transfer coefficient (33).
Air flow pattern inside the TEFC motor is also affected by the porosity of the motor end winding. When
the air flow passes through the end winding, the tangential momentum is lost and the ventilation loss is
affected by it. The biggest ventilation losses are at when windings are 65% open due to the combination
of the maximum mass flow rate and minimal tangential momentum of the flow returning to the rotor.
Ventilation losses depend on flow rate through the rotor, volume of air entrained in the recirculation and
the amount of angular momentum lost by the air when circulating through the end region (43).
2.2.5.2
Forced air cooling
Forced air cooling is present in TEFC motors and most of other motor types. This method is common
because it is simple and less expensive application method. Fins are used in order to improve the cooling
and thus to achieve the effective cooling rate (8).
2.2.5.3
Water cooling
Water cooling is mainly cooling the motor directly by water. With water cooling method successful
cooling rates can be achieved. Especially in ship industry and in hybrid and electric vehicles these types of
motors are used. Although there are many other fluids to replace water, they are not much economical as
water (8).
2.2.5.4
Vapour compression refrigeration
Vapour compression refrigeration is a common method for cooling, especially for food preservation.
Vapour compression refrigeration is also utilized to cool certain types of motors with latest technology. It
is also used in high speed electronics for cooling purposes (8).
23
2.2.5.5
Immersion cooling
Originally immersion cooling is practiced mostly in manufacturing industry for tools and dye making. The
immersion cooling is more practical in the electronics. When the component is immersed in a dielectric
fluid, high heat transfer rates can be achieved. Therefore cooling of the immersed item can be done (8).
2.2.5.6
Heat pipes
Heat pipes are static heat pumps which are capable of transporting thermal energy. It is an enclosed
structure where working fluid absorbs heat energy and evaporates. Then the working fluid is transferred to
the condenser where it is condensed. The capillary action moves the working fluid between the condenser
end and the evaporation end. Heat pipes needs an external cooling system such as a fan in order to
remove heat from the working fluid. (8)
2.2.5.7
Cooling by phase change materials (PCM)
Phase change material cooling is taken place by means of absorbing the thermal energy by the phase
change material at its phase transformation. The PCM changes its phase by absorbing the thermal energy
and it needs an external cooling system in order to re-gain its earlier state (8). Applications of PCM in
electronics industry already exist. However, utilization of PCM in motor cooling applications is still at
research level.
2.2.5.8
Thermo electric cooling (TEC)
Thermo electric cooling (TEC) is a solid state cooling method. It functions as a small heat pump and
mostly used in electronics. Heat transfer is carried out by applying a voltage between two dissimilar
semiconductors (8).
2.2.5.9
Sterling cooler
A sterling cooler is a Sterling cycle run in reverse. Helium is used as the gas. There are two constant
temperature processes and two constant volume processes. Efficiency can be achieved nearly to the
Carnot efficiency. But it is more difficult to maintain. (8).
2.2.5.10
Malone cooling systems / refrigeration systems
Malone cooling/refrigeration method uses same concepts as in the Stirling cooling except that the
working fluid is a liquid which makes it more compact because liquid can absorb more heat. It is also
possible to achieve higher pressure ratios since liquids are incompressible in nature. The heat exchanger
also becomes smaller due to the high heat transfer coefficient. Disadvantage of these systems is that it is
very difficult to achieve high temperature difference for operation due to the high heat capacity of the
liquids (8).
24
2.2.5.11
Pulse tube cooling
Pulse tube cooling method is also similar to sterling cooling. It uses a gas as the operating medium.
Cooling is achieved by compression and expansion of the gas. The gas is typically helium. In a pulse tube
cooling system the gas is compressed, then flown through the compressor and subsequently through aftercooler where heat is rejected to a water-cooling loop. Gas is then flown through a regenerator, conserving
cooling from one cycle to the next. The gas enters to the cold heat exchanger where heat is added. In the
final stage, the gas enters the pulse tube, orifice, and reservoir, which produces the phase shift of the mass
flow and pressure necessary for cooling. The gas moves repeatedly between the hot and cold ends rather
than circulating continuously around a loop as in conventional types of refrigeration systems. Heat is
rejected by the hot heat exchanger (8).
2.2.5.12
Thermo ionic cooling/refrigeration system
A vacuum separates a cathode (cold side) to the anode (hot side). The concept is based on the fact that the
Electrons that travel between the anode and cathode require the least amount of energy. These electrons
have the highest heat content. Each time the hot electron leaves the cathode, the temperature of the
cathode is reduced. The discovery of a new class of materials, called electrides that emit electrons at lower
temperatures made the technology viable. Electrides require only small amounts of energy to detach
electrons. An external heat sink is used to remove heat from the anode (8).
2.2.5.13
Thermo acoustic cooling /refrigeration systems
In thermo acoustic cooling systems, thermal energy is converted to sound energy. It uses a plate stack,
resonator, and a loudspeaker. The advantage of the method is the development of a cooling system that
has no moving parts. When a sound wave is introduced into a tube, the gas compresses and expands as it
travels back and forth in the medium. As the gas compresses, it heats up; when it expands, it cools. The
plates in the system capture the heat produced by the compressing wave and distribute it as the wave
expands. It causes the heat to propagate across the plates where it can be removed by an external heat
exchanger (8).
2.2.5.14
Magnetic cooling system / refrigeration systems
It is a technology that has been evolving over the last thirty years. Magnetic cooling concept utilizes
magneto caloric materials, which heats up when magnetized and cools down when demagnetized. The key
to this technology is the material selection. For most magneto caloric materials, the temperature change is
roughly around 15 0C. Magnetic cooling concept has a higher efficiency than conventional vapourcompression systems and has the ability to operate efficiently over a wide temperature range. The biggest
disadvantage is the high cost of materials (8).
25
2.2.5.15
The ejector expansion cooling system / refrigeration system
It is a modification of the vapour-compression cycle to improve efficiency. An ejector replaces a standard
throttling or expansion valve that controls refrigerant flow. The compressor will do less work because the
action of the ejector increases the suction pressure over the vapour-compression cycle. Modelling data
indicates that ejector expansion refrigeration can increase efficiency of the vapour compression cycle by
20%. However, prototypes have yielded increases closer to 5%. Nevertheless, ejector expansion cooling
technology is regarded to be still in its primitive stage for real world applications (8).
2.2.6
Methods to improve motor cooling systems
2.2.6.1
Innovations in motor cooling systems
There are large numbers of innovative analyses and researches are going on motor cooling. For example in
one innovation an induction motor was fixed with a cooling fan which is rotated by the motor rotor and
special guide ribs to support the cooling fluid flow were designed (22). The motor casing had slots for
cooling air to enter the motor, cool the motor parts by absorbing heat from them and then the cooling air
is flown out of the motor.
In another innovative model the motor is cooled by supply of external cooling fluid (26). The cooling
fluid is supplied by external pump or by the same power of the rotor, due to the pressure and temperature
difference. The flow and the temperature of the cooling fluid are controlled in order to maintain the
viscosity of the cooling fluid for better cooling. The rotor is also cooled by supplying the cooling fluid to
the air gap between the stator and the rotor. The coolant is also cooled by natural convection by giving
heat to air. The temperature of the coolant in the air gap between the stator and rotor is monitored and
controlled for better viscosity and to reduce frictional losses. In one case in the same model, the motor is
cooled by latent heat rather than sensible heat by converting the cooling liquid to gas. In this occasion the
cooling fluid has been used as a phase change material in the motor.
The major methods for improving the motor cooling and reducing the motor heating are,
1. Improving the heat removal rate from the stator core
2. Improving the heat removal rate from the rotor core
3. Improving the heat removal rate from the motor housing
4. Minimizing the internal heat generation
While considering any improvement of the motor cooling system, it should be emphasised on improving
of one of above methods.
26
2.3 Phase change materials (PCM)
2.3.1
Introduction to phase change materials
Materials which exchange extensive amount of heat as latent heat within a narrow temperature range of
phase transformation are called phase change materials (PCM). Large amount of latent heat is the
advantageous property of the phase change materials. Initially PCMs were used in aerospace industry.
Then they were used as a heat storage material and various experiments were carried out. Later, these
materials emerged almost in every area where energy is used or related. In areas such as solar energy, heat
storage technologies, energy efficient buildings, military applications, electronic applications, thermal
energy storages, cooling of electrical equipment, cold storages, climate controlled vehicles and vehicle
thermal comfort, waste heat recovery technologies, aerospace technology, textiles and textile industry,
industrial heat applications, passive cooling in rural sites (e.g. Telecom site buildings in tropical areas),
etc... Phase change materials are being used extensively. But use of phase change materials are not limited
to these areas mentioned and it is still growing (27) (28) (29).
Although there is a huge amount of latent heat absorbed when materials transform from liquid phase to
gaseous phase comparative to solid phase – liquid phase transformation, only solid phase - liquid phase
transformation and solid phase-solid phase transformations of PCMs are used for applications. It is
because gaseous phase take more space and also due to other technical difficulties and complexities. Until
solid phase becomes liquefied PCM is almost isothermal. When the surrounding temperature is lower than
the liquid phase PCM, it dissipates the absorbed heat and solidifies again which is a major characteristic
which is significant while using PCMs since it is important to keep the equipment in the desired
temperature while heat conduction is kept as it is. Due to the latent heat, PCMs can store 2 to 14 times of
heat compared to the conventional materials’ heat storage at same temperature, depending on the selected
material (27)(28)(29).
Heating
PCM Temperature (oC)
TEN > TPC
Cooling
TEN < TPC
TEN – Environment temperature
TPC – Phase change temperature
TPC
Latent Heat
Latent Heat
M
Sub cooling / super cooling
Sensible Heat
Sensible Heat
Time
Figure 2.12 Explanation for operation of phase change material operation (27)
27
Figure 2.12 shows the operation of a PCM. When the outside temperature (TEN) is above the PCM
temperature (TPC), the PCM absorbs heat and temperature increases. At the phase change temperature
(TPCM), the PCM absorbs large amount of latent heat at constant temperature. After the phase change, if
further heat is supplied, again the temperature increases with sensible heat. When TPC is above TEN, the
PCM releases the heat to the surrounding and cools down. Initially it releases sensible heat. However, at
TPC the PCM has to be further cooled in order to start the phase reversal. This is known as sub-cooling or
super cooling. It is required in order to overcome the energy barrier required for nucleation of second
phase (27).
Some of the frequently used terms of PCMs and their definitions are given below.
1. Congruent melting: Freeze repeatedly without phase segregation and consequent degradation of
their latent heat of fusion (29).
2. Self-nucleation: Crystallise with little or no super cooling (29).
3. Super cooling: Phase change materials have to be cooled below the phase change temperature. It is
called super cooling or sub cooling.
4. Fusion temperature: The temperature at which the PCM starts melting. That is the temperature at
which PCM starts to absorb latent heat.
5. Crystallization temperature: The temperature at which the PCM starts to release the latent heat
while cooling.
6. Heat of fusion: Amount of heat required to melt one kilogram of material. Measured in kJ/kg
7. Duration index: Comparison of how long PCM will remain during phase change.
Measured in J/ (cm2 oC)
D.I = hf ρ/∆T
where,
hf = specific heat, ρ = density, ∆T = temperature change
8. Eutectic system: It is a mixture of chemical compounds or elements that has a single chemical
composition that solidifies at a lower temperature than any other composition made up of the same
ingredients. The composition is called the eutectic composition and the temperature is eutectic
temperature (30).
9. Peritectic transformations: These are also similar to eutectic reactions. Here, a liquid and solid
phase of fixed proportions reacts at a fixed temperature to yield a single solid phase. Since the solid
product forms at the interface between the two reactants, it can form a diffusion barrier and causes
such reactions to proceed much more slowly than eutectic or eutectoid transformations (30).
28
2.3.2
Classification of PCM
Practically there are various types of phase change materials available for different temperature ranges and
for different applications (29). A classification of PCM is given in Figure 2.13.
Phase Change
Materials
Organic
Materials
Paraffin
compounds
Inorganic
Materials
Non-paraffin
compounds
Fatty acids
Eutectic
Materials
Salt
Hydrates
Organic Organic
Metallics
Inorganic Inorganic
Hygroscopic
Materials
Inorganic Organic
Other
Figure 2.13 Classification of phase change materials
2.3.2.1
Organic PCMs
Organic materials can be paraffin and none paraffin (29) .Organic materials could have one or more of
following properties within them which are considered as advantageous.
1. Congruent melting(29)
2. Self-nucleation (29)
3. None corrosive (29)
4. Freeze without much super cooling (28)
5. No segregation (28)
6. High heat of fusion (28)
In addition to above properties, organic materials have advantages of freezing without much super
cooling. Most of the organic materials found are safe to be used and are chemically inert and also they are
recyclable.
29
Organic materials could have one or more of the following disadvantageous properties as well. (28)
1. Low thermal conductivity in their solid state : when freezing, high heat transfer rates are required
for better operation (28)
2. Low volumetric latent heat storage capacities compared to other type of PCMs (28)
3. Low fusion temperature (flammable) (28)
To overcome above disadvantages methods such as proper container usage, paraffin mixtures are used.
2.3.2.1.1
Paraffin
Paraffin mostly consists of straight chain alkanes. So, it can be written in a common formula as CnH2n+2
where n is an integer. The crystallization of CH3 chain is an exothermic process which releases a huge
amount of latent heat. Paraffins are available in a large temperature range of fusion temperature. But
considering the cost, only technical grade paraffins are used as PCMs. (28) (29).
Advantage and disadvantages of paraffins are shown in table 2.4.
Table 2.4 Advantages and dis advantages of paraffins as PCMs (29)
Advantages
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
2.3.2.1.2
Disadvantages
Reliable
Predictable
Less expensive
Non-corrosive
Chemically inert
Stable below 500 0C
Only little volume changes on melting
Low vapour pressure in melt form
1. Low thermal conductivity
2. No compatibility with plastic containers
3. Moderately flammable
None paraffins
Among the various categories of PCMs such as esters, fatty acids, alcohols and glycols, none paraffins can
be further identified as types of fatty acids (CH3 (CH2)2nCOOH) and types of other non-paraffin organic
materials. Advantages and disadvantages of non paraffins are shown in table 2.5.
30
Table 2.5 Advantages and disadvantages of none paraffin PCMs (29)
None Paraffins
Advantages
Disadvantages
1. High heat of fusion
2. In flammability
1. Low thermal conductivity
2. Varying levels of toxicity
3. Instability at high temperatures
Fatty acids
1. Reproducible melting & freezing 1. High cost than paraffins
2. No need of super cooling
2.3.2.2
2. Mild corrosiveness
Inorganic phase change materials
Inorganic phase change materials can be mainly classified as Metallics and Salt Hydrates Salt hydrates
Salt hydrates can be considered as alloys of inorganic salts and water, forming a typical crystalline solid of
general formula of AB.nH2O (29). The solid-liquid transformations of salt hydrates are dehydration and
hydration of the salts. It can be written in formulas as,
AB∙nH2O
AB∙.mH2O + (n-m) H2O............................................................................ eq.12 (29)
or in its anhydrous form,
AB∙nH2O
AB + nH2O ................................................................................................. eq.13 (29)
In most of the salt hydrates, when there is not enough released water of crystallization to dissolve all the
solid phase present, incongruent melting occurs. Due to the increased density of the lower hydrate or
anhydrous salt created, they are sunk to the bottom of the container. Because of this reason, there is a
tendency of the reverse process might not happen correctly. To overcome the problem, it could be
mechanically stirred, maintaining a reserve of nuclei or adding nucleating agent can be done.
Advantageous and disadvantageous of salt hydrates are mentioned in the table 2.6.
31
Table 2.6 Advantages and disadvantages of salt hydrates as PCMs (29)
Advantages
Disadvantages
1. High latent heat of fusion per unit volume
1. Poor nucleating properties
2. High thermal conductivity than paraffins
2. Tendency to melt incongruently
3. Small volume changes on melting
3. Tendency of irreversible melting-
4. Not very corrosive
freezing
4. Need
of super cooling
5. Compatible with plastics
5. Reduced toxicity
6. Comparatively cheap
7. Non- flammable
Metallics
These are the metals with low melting point and metal eutectics. Since these are metals, the weight is
higher. But have higher heat of fusion per unit volume. Properties of these are,
1. Low heat of fusion per unit weight
2. High heat of fusion per unit volume
3. High thermal conductivity
4. Low specific heat
5. Relatively low vapour pressure.
These types of PCMs are still in development and not used much in the industries. Still scientists and
engineers are experimenting and researching for the solutions for the problems currently prevailing in
these types of PCMs while they are practically applied. And also data for these types of materials are not
commonly available.
2.3.2.3
Eutectics
A eutectic is a minimum melting composition of two or more components, each of which melts and
freeze congruently forming a mixture of the component crystals during crystallization (29). It can be
understood by looking at the Figure 2.14.
32
Figure 2.14 A phase diagram for a fictitious binary chemical mixture (with the two components denoted
by A and B) used to depict the eutectic composition, temperature, and point. (L denotes the
liquid state) (30).
Reaction for the eutectic can be written as,
eutectic temperature
Liquid
cooling
α Solid solution + β Solid solution ..................... eq.14 (30)
Most of the time eutectics melt and freeze without segregation since they crystalize to an intimate mixture
of crystals that results only a little opportunity for components to separate. While melting, all the
components of eutectics melt simultaneously (29). Some segregation PCM compositions have sometimes
been incorrectly called eutectics, since they are less melting. Since the components undergo a peritectics
reaction during phase transition, they should more properly be termed as peritectics (29).
These eutectic compounds exist in organic - organic, organic – inorganic and inorganic – inorganic forms.
Table 2. 7 show advantages and disadvantages of eutectic materials.
Table 2.7 Advantages and disadvantages eutectic materials as PCMs (28)
Advantages
Disadvantages
1. Has a sharp melting point
1. Limited data exist on thermo-physical
properties
2. Volumetric
storage
density
is
above 2. New to the area of thermal storage & cooling
organic PCM
2.3.2.4
Hygroscopic materials
Most building materials are hygroscopic materials. That is water is absorbed and released. When water
condenses on the material, water is transformed from gas phase to liquid phase and the enthalpy of the
material decreases and it cools down. It is an exothermic process. When water is released, the enthalpy of
33
the water is increased. Water transforms from liquid to gas phase which is an endothermic process. So, the
material is cooled. But these processes involve only small amount of energy. If a large area is considered, a
large amount of energy and a large cooling can be gained. Examples aer wool insulation, earth, clay, etc....
(27).
2.3.3
Selecting a phase change material
Selection of the PCM can be done with the help of calculation of the heat that the PCM needed to be
absorbed in its application. The sensible heat stored in the PCM is given by,
................................................................................................................................ eq. 15 (29)
The latent heat storage capacity of the PCM is given by,
∫
∫
..................................................................................... eq. 16 29)
Equation 16 can be integrated to the following formula.
(
) .......................................................................... eq. 17 (29)
Where,
am - fraction melted
ClP - average specific heat between Tm and Tf (kJ/kg K)
CP - specific heat (kJ/kg K)
CSP - average specific heat between Ti and Tm (kJ/kg K)
∆hm - heat of fusion per unit mass (kJ/kg)
m - Mass of heat storage medium (kg)
Q - Quantity of heat stored/absorbed (kJ)
T – Temperature (oC)
Tf -final temperature (oC)
Ti - initial temperature (oC)
Tm - melting temperature (oC)
As mentioned above, with these equations it is possible to calculate the energy absorption by the selected
PCM. Still it is important to select the quantity of PCM for the application. To select a PCM for a
particular application one has to consider facts such as thermodynamic properties, kinetic properties,
chemical properties and economic properties.
34
2.3.3.1
Thermodynamic properties
While selecting a PCM, the operating temperature of the application must be considered and matched to
the transition temperature of the PCM. The latent heat capacity should be kept high as possible, especially
in volumetric basis. This consideration will minimize the physical size of the application. High thermal
conductivity will increase efficiency in cooling and heating of the PCM (charging and discharging).
Following are the main consideration in thermodynamic properties. (27)(29)
(i) Suitable phase transition temperature which match the operation temperature and
melting temperature of the PCM in the same desired operating temperature range
(27)(29)
(ii) High latent heat of fusion per unit volume (27)(29)
(iii) High specific heat (27)(29)
(iv) High density and high thermal conductivity (27)(29)
(v) Small volume changes after phase changes (27)
(vi) Small vapour pressure at operating temperatures (27)
(vii) Congruent melting (27)
2.3.3.2
Kinetic properties
Super cooling has been a major drawback in phase change materials. So, it is a main concern. Super
cooling can alter how the PCM cools back and crystallization is carried. Following are the main kinetic
properties to be considered while selecting a phase change material.
(i) High nucleation rate (to avoid super cooling of the liquid phase) (27)(29)
(ii) No super cooling (29)
(iii) High crystallization rate (27)(29)
2.3.3.3
Physical Properties
Phase stability during freezing and melting helps to improve the performance of the PCM. High density
helps to reduce the volume occupied by the PCM. Small volume change is desirable for reducing the size
of the container. So, the major concerns are,
(i) Favourable phase equilibrium (29)
(ii) High density (29)
(iii) Small volume change (29)
2.3.3.4
Chemical properties
PCM undergoes cycles of melting and crystallization. During these cycles, chemical stability is a must and
it should not malfunction due to loss of water or must not react and alter to another type of material for
35
proper operation. Therefore, it must be chemically inert with the other materials around it in both phases.
Furthermore, for safety reasons, it should not be toxic or flammable or corrosive. The considerations are,
(i) Long term chemical stability (27)(29)
(ii) Complete reversible freeze - melt cycle (27)
(iii) No altered performances after a large number of freeze - melt cycle (27)(29)
(iv) Non-corrosiveness (27)
(v) Non-toxic (27)(29)
(vi) Non-flammable and non-explosive (27)(29)
2.3.3.5
Economic properties
The application must be realistic. It is useless if PCM is excellent but extremely expensive since the
applications will not be practical. And also if the material is not commonly available or cannot be
produced in large quantities as required, the material is inappropriate. The main economic considerations
are the low cost and the availability.
2.3.4
Different PCMs, their properties and applications
2.3.4.1
Cooling systems by PCM
PCM technology is still expanding. Yet the technology has been used in many applications and there have
been a large number of researches and innovations as well. So, PCM technology is a versatile technology.
A major application area can be identified in the solid state silicon industry and electronics industry. There
had been researches in which PCM materials were embedded in to silicon layer of the chip. The thermal
composite capacitor had placed near the hot spots in the silicon chip. With composite thermal capacitor
integrated with PCM had been successful in providing regenerative cooling and improvement of the
operating times over 100%. (35)
There are random access memories developed with PCM technology. And these technologies are used in
compact disc technology in the information technology for making a layer capable of writing – rewriting
data in the discs (27). In telecommunication industry PCM materials has been used to slow down the
heating of equipment installations and shelters for telecommunication equipment when the air condition is
not available. Even battery covers with PCM materials have been developed in order to absorb the heat
generated and keep the batteries in the desired temperature. In a telecom shelter, a cylinder (Heat pack)
made out of PCM material was kept inside the shelter. At the day time PCM absorbs heat and keep the
enclosed environment at desired temperature and at night PCM is cooled down by blowing outdoor cool
air on to the PCM. In certain experiments even after 650 cycles of melting and solidifying, PCM
properties had not changed (36) (37).
36
There are also wallboards used in the construction field which are with PCM for cooling purposes in the
summer. PCM had been used in honeycomb structures inside the wall boards. However it is mentioned
that only 45% of the latent heat capacity of the wallboards were used in cooling. So that it is obvious in
these cooling systems with PCM embedded wallboards, efficiency improvements have to be carried out
through research (39). There are also heat sinks developed for cooling electronics. In these heat sinks the
fins are submerged in a PCM. The exposed area of the heat sink dissipates the heat when convective
cooling is available. When air cooling is reduced, the temperature of the heat sink is increased to the PCM
operating temperature range. Then the heat is absorbed by PCM hence the equipment is cooled. (44)
It is seen that still the cooling systems by PCM are developing. Other than in electronics, in construction
and in solid state silicon industries, PCM is not much widely used in cooling. In all above mentioned
methods either micro encapsulation or macro encapsulation is used. Some of the PCMs found in the
market and in data lists are listed in the appendix D, which are prepared considering their physical
properties and the applications.
2.4 Motor thermal modelling techniques
There are different methods available for modelling and for analysing a motor. These methods are
differently effective in different evaluations. Following are some of the methods used for motor modelling
and analysing.
1. Coupled circuit methodology: Effective when a detailed analysis of windings is required under
different conditions (Figure 2.15) (19).
2. Equivalent circuit methodology: Effective in analysing the induction motor with relate to the
currents in the motor. Can be used for magnetic field analysis as well as thermal analysis (19) (20).
3. Finite element method: There are several finite element analysis methods for analysing the motors.
Especially with different software packages. With these methods it is possible to model motors and
numerically analyse and to carry out the graphical representations. These methods are effective in
analysing induction motor temperature distribution and thermal stresses. Furthermore, with these
methods it is capable to analyse complex problems with details (20) (21).
2.5 Conclusions from the literature survey
The type of smoke ventilation motors belong to squirrel cage polyphase AC induction motors. This is
valuable information for finding further required data and calculation for the modelling of the motor.
According to the literature survey the material properties of the motor are important to reduce the heating
of the motor. There are many kinds of motors other than the induction motors. But their basic design is
not so rugged to be applied as smoke ventilation motors. Therefore the most suitable motor type is the
induction motors. There are many types of classification for induction motors such as NEMA. Depending
on these classifications selecting a suitable motor for application is easy.
37
The construction of induction motor is mainly of stator iron core, stator windings, rotor iron core, rotor
windings. Rotor core is made out of laminations to minimize the eddy current losses and there are slot
holes for better circulation of internal air for cooling purposes. There are different types of cooling
methods for AC and DC motors. Interchanging these methods may lead to in-efficiency. Therefore
certain cooling standards are there. In the thesis modelling, these standards were helpful to determine
which cooling system is implemented in the smoke ventilation motor. The selected motor for the
simulation has the circulation of the coolant depending on the rotational speed of the main machine, and
is caused either by the action of the rotor alone, or the device mounted directly on it and the primary
coolant in the motor (air) circulates inside the motor which transfers the heat to the secondary coolant
which is air. It is almost similar to IC410 cooling system. But, after implementation of PCM, the cooling
system will change to IC410Y.
For the modelling of the motor cooling system, the heat generating regions and the amount of heat
generated in these regions should be identified correctly. In the literature there were equations for
calculation for the losses of the motor which ultimately result in the heating of motor. According to
reviews, the mostly heating regions are the end winding region and the stator core. Comparatively the
rotor region is less heat generating. An important fact which found was that fixed losses such as friction
and windage losses and magnetic core losses contribute more to the heating. Therefore special emphasis
should be kept on these while creating the model. To improve the cooling system of the motor by means
of PCM application, mainly two methods of cooling should be focused. They are improving the heat
removal rate from the stator core and improving the heat removal rate from the rotor core.
In the literature survey, it was identified that main technologies used in cooling electric motors include
forced air cooling, direct water cooling, alternative cooling fluids, immersion cooling, heat pipes, phase
change materials, vapour compression refrigeration, thermo electric cooling and Stirling cycle cooling. The
novel cooling systems such as Malone refrigeration, pulse tube refrigeration, thermo ionic cooling, thermo
acoustic refrigeration, magnetic refrigeration and ejector expansion refrigeration are still being studied or
at research status. Although these methods are prevailing, most of these methods are only acceptable in
motors which are in applications other than smoke ventilation. Therefore researching on application of
PCM on smoke ventilation is novel and important.
There are many types of PCMs. But for the smoke ventilation motor application all of these are not
suitable. The suitable type should have the property of high melting temperature, none corrosiveness, less
need for super cooling, high heat of fusion, good thermal conductivity, reduced toxicity, cheap and high
latent heat fusion per unit volume. Among all these properties the matching temperature is a must. Usually
inorganic PCM candidates found full fill most of these requirements. Most PCMs candidates for
application are in the appendix D.
38
Finite element method (FEM) was selected for the modelling and analysing of the motor, because it is
more advantageous in analysing and it is convenient to conduct. The results can be obtained with software
for analysis.
3 Methodology
At the beginning a motor had to be selected to start the generation of motor model. After the motor
selection, required calculations were carried out. With the result of the calculations, the 3D model was
generated. Then the PCMs were selected for the simulation and finally the simulation was carried out
using ANSYS software.
3.1 Motor selection
An ABB smoke ventilation motor was selected. Reasons for the selection of selecting the brand are
availability of data, access to online product brochures, and availability of motors in various temperature
ranges. Table 3.1 shows the manufacturer specifications of the selected motor.
Table 3.1 Details of the selected motor for the study (48)
Manufacturer
Model
Number of
Bearing type
poles
D-end
N-end
Operating
Temperature
Cooling
Frame size
Length of
Size of cable
flying lead
Terminal box
gland
Description
class
Standard
Starting
method
Frequency
Output
Full model
Normal
Efficiency at
speed
power factor
full load
Current
Current ratio
Torque
Torque ratio
Torque ratio
Moment of
Weight
inertia
rpm
Cos Φ
In(A)
Is/In
Γ (Nm)
Γs/ Γn
Γmax/ Γn
J=1/4 GD2
ABB
M3BPW280
6
6316/C4
6316/C4
300 C , 1 hour
cooling fan/no cooling fan at end
shaft driven
axial cool fins
280
3m
M63
with gland or cable box
Totally enclosed , cast iron stator frame
F300
EN 12101-3
Direct Start type
220,330 V/delta connection
380,400,415, VY connection
50 Hz
55kW @ 1000 rpm
55 M3BPW 280 SMB 3GBP 283 220-••G
990
94.4
0.84
101
7
531
2.7
2.6
2.2 kgm2
645 kg
39
By means of the above details of the motor, re-engineering calculations were carried out for the proper
sizing of the motor. The calculation is attached in the appendix E. With the resulting values for the
dimensions and parameters, 3D model was created in the software environment.
3.2 Development of 3D model
For the creation of the motor in 3D many data was not available on brochures. Therefore reengineering
was carried out with the available data for the sizing of the motor. After designing the stator core, then the
rotor core design was done.
3.2.1
Stator core design
The first thing to be done is designing the rotor core of the motor. To re-design the stator core, following
formula were used. (For full calculation, please refer the appendix E)
Output of motor = Input x efficiency
But it is given that,
Output (kW) = Co D2 L ns ....................................................................................................................... eq. 18(51)
Co = 11 Bav q Kw η Cos (ø) x 10-3 ............................................................................................................ eq. 19(51)
With eq. 18 a relation between stator length and core diameter is given. Therefore with few assumptions,
D and L were selected. To determine D and L, eq. 18 and eq. 19 were used which results the eq. 20.
D = 0.135P√L ............................................................................................................................................. eq. 20 (51)
The stator core size determining was followed by a calculations for number of slots, size of the slots,
number of turns per phase, area of the stator slot, width of the slot, depth of the slot, slot pitch, resistance
of stator winding, flux density in stator tooth, depth of stator core below the slots and outer diameter of
the stator core.. All these calculations are included in the appendix E.
3.2.2
Rotor design
The motor is assumed to be squirrel cage type. Initially the rotor bar current was calculated using eq. 21.
Ib = ( Kws x Ss x Z's ) x I'r / ( Kwr x Sr x Z'r ) .......................................................................................... eq. 21 (51)
Where,
Kws – winding factor for the stator
Kwr – winding factor for the rotor
Ss – Number of stator slots
Sr – number of rotor slots
Z's – number of conductors / stator slots
Z'r – number of conductors / rotor slots
I'r – equivalent rotor current in terms of stator current (I'r = 0.85 Is where Is is stator current per phase.)
40
With relative to the rotor bar current which was calculated, the shape and size of the rotor slots were
determined with the calculation of losses.
Stator and the rotor are the main two parts of the motor. Therefore, after doing re-engineering
calculations for these two major parts, other data such as the casing data were taken from the catalogues.
3.2.3
Method of using PCM in the motor
There are several hypotheses which are proposed in the thesis work.
1. Applying PCM for the heat sink around the motor including cooling plate.
The hypothesis is derived from the literature survey. There had been heat sinks which are submerged
in a PCM. The objective of the proposed method is to stop external heat entering the motor
enclosure and absorbing heat from inside to cool internal motor parts. However, it needs micro
encapsulation of PCM which is a costly process and other techniques needed for application for large
surfaces such as motor cooling fins which are also expensive.
2. Using a ring made of a good conductors, to macro encapsulate the PCM
Second hypothesis is also adaptation from the literature survey. In the literature survey it was found
that there are techniques for micro encapsulation of PCM and using to cool large spaces such as
telecom shelters. Therefore, it can be proposed to macro encapsulate the PCM in a good thermal
conductive material and place them inside the motor. Purpose of these rings is to absorb heat from
the motor parts and the internally circulating air.
These rings could be placed in front and behind the rotor core inside the motor. One reason for
proposing mentioned place to put the rings is that the position intersects the internal air circulation
path. Internal air circulation fans will be just ahead of these rings. There for it is possible to have good
contact with the internal circulating air which is good for heat exchange. Other reason is it is the
nearest position to the end winding region, which is found to be the most heat generating part in the
motor. Advantage of the macro encapsulation is low cost for implementing PCM in systems.
3. Application of PCM to laminations’ coating
PCM could also be added to the laminations’ coatings of the motor. Idea is to absorb the heat from
coils. But again it will be costly to do in practical means because it needs micro encapsulation. And
also it will not cool the stator core. And there will be many practical issues such as how to implement
the PCM encapsulation in the laminations, how the rotation of PCM will effect and if PCM is
completely dissolved the motor will be damaged.
Considering pros and cons in the above mentioned methods of PCM implementation, it was decided to
follow the option two which is using two rings of macro encapsulated PCM in the motor.
41
3.3 PCM selection criteria
PCM selection has to be done with care. Figure 3.1 shows the proposed PCM selection criteria for the
application.
Figure 3.1 PCM selection process
Once a PCM is selected its phase transition temperature was considered. If the phase transition
temperature is near desired temperature, the PCM is selected by considering about the other
thermodynamic properties. After finding out other thermodynamic properties, the PCM is applied for the
simulation. If the phase transition temperature is not matching, material is rejected. With selection
process, PCM with most appropriate thermodynamic properties is selected for the simulation. So, the
PCMs are filtered by the operating temperature to match the motor operating temperature. The selected
motor operating temperature is 300 0C. Therefore the PCM has to withstand the operating temperature
around 300 0C.
42
Based on the literature survey section 2.3.3., the possible PCMs are listed in the table 3.2. Initially the key
limiting factor is the required operating temperature of the PCM. It was decided to look in to high
temperature PCM above 275 0C and below 350 0Cconsidering the following reasons.
1. Usually thermal conductivity of the PCMs is low. When the temperature of is high, thermal
conductivity is increased. Therefore PCMs’ thermal conductivity is expected to be high at high
temperatures.
2. The selected motor is capable of operating for one hour at 300 0C temperature. But temperature inside
motor enclosure may go above 300 0C. So, having PCM with transition temperature above 300 0C will
increase the reliability of the motor at elevated temperatures because cooling system consisting PCM is
will cool the motor at the transition temperature of the PCM.
3.
Although motor is rated for 300 0C, it is not possible to predict the temperature of the fire or smoke
which it might have to with stand. Therefore the upper limit of PCM temperature was set to 350 0C.
With these considerations, the PCMs which may be applied to the motor cooling system are shown in the
Table 3.2, which is filtered for above 300 0C operation.
Table 3.2 Possible PCMs to be used in the selected motor
No
Type
0C
Heat
of
fusion
kJ/kg
Thermal
Conductivit
y
W/m.K
307
172
0.5
308
174
2257
333
116
1900 (solid)
336
380
266
149.7
0.5 (liquid)
0.5
1890 (liquid)
2044
449
n.a.
n.a.
2160(liquid)
68.1% KCl + 31.9%
ZnCl2
235
198
n.a
2480
38.5% MgCl + 61.5%
NaCl
435
328
n.a.
2160
Description /
Formula
NaNO3
M1
Inorganic
M2
Inorganic
M3
Inorganic
M4
M5
M6
Inorganic
eutectics
None-eutectic
mixtures of
inorganic
substances
None-eutectic
mixtures of
inorganic
substances
KNO3
KOH
11.8% NaF + 54:3%
KF + 26:6% LiF +
7:3% MgF2
Melting
Temperature
Density
kg/m3
2260
To determine the most suitable PCM from above list of PCMs, the point system which is given in table
3.3 was introduced. After points were allocated for each property, multiplication of each point was taken
as the final point for the PCM. Then the PCM with most points was selected as the most suitable
candidate for the simulation.
43
Table 3.3 Results of assigning points for the PCM
Property
Melting temperature range
(oC)
Heat of Fusion(kJ/kg)
Condition
below 275
above 350
Between 275 and 350
below 150
between 150 - 175
Points
0
0
1
0
1
between 176 - 200
2
above 200
above 2000
1500 - 2000
0 to 0.5
3
2
1
1
Above 0.5
2
Density ( kg/m3)
Thermal conductivity
Remarks
Melting point of PCM
should be in the range of
operating temperature
Heat of Fusion should be as
high as possible
Density should be as high as
possible
Thermal conductivity should
be as high as possible
Based on the points system on the table 3.3, points were allocated for the each material in table 3.2 and
the table 3.4 was prepared as the result. According to the table 3.4, the most scoring PCM is M2 which is
KNO3. Therefore KNO3 was selected for the simulation. Properties of KNO3 were fed in to the
simulation software for simulation. The second most scoring PCM is M1 which is Na NO3. It was also
selected for the simulation and all the properties were fed to the software for FEM simulation.
Table 3.4 Results of allocation of points for PCM selection
No
Melting
Temperature
Points
0C
M1
M2
Heat of fusion
kJ/kg
307
1
308
333
Points
1
0.5
1
174
1
336
3
1
116
380
0
149.7
449
0
n.a.
M5
235
0
198
M6
435
0
328
Total
Points
2
2
1900 (solid)
1
3
1890 (liquid)
1
2260
2257
266
M4
Points
Density
kg/m3
W/m.K
172
M3
3.3.1
Thermal
Conductivity
Points
0.5 (liquid)
0
2044
2
0
n.a.
0.5
1
2160 (liquid)
2
0
2
n.a
2480
2
0
3
n.a.
2160
2
0
Amount of PCM to be used
It is necessary to know how much PCM is needed for to be applied for the motor. Following calculation is
to estimate how much PCM should be used in the cooling system.
Weight of the motor
= 645 kg
Assumption: Material of the motor is cast iron
Based on above information the amount of the PCM needed was calculated. The complete calculation is
in the appendix F.
44
3.3.1.1
Calculation summary for the mount of NaNO3
Following is the summary of the calculation which was done to calculate how much NaNO3 should be
used as PCM in the motor. Full calculation is included in the appendix F.
Total heat stored in the motor (using equation Q = m.Cp.∆ T) = 85449.6 kJ
Assumption: half of the heat stored by motor should be absorbed by the PCM
Heat supposed to store by PCM = 42724.8
kJ
Sensible heat stored by PCM = 3946.38kJ
Required PCM quantity = 8.85592335 kg
PCM Volume = 0.00391855 m3
PCM Volume =3918550.155 mm3
Assumption: Operation time will be one hour
Latent heat stored by PCM = 38778.42344
kJ
Latent heat /volume = 0.009896115 kJ/mm3
Latent heat / volume = 9.89611512 J/mm3
3.3.1.1 Calculation summary for the amount of KNO3
Following is the summary of the calculation which was done to calculate how much KNO3 should be
used as PCM in the motor. Full calculation is included in the appendix F.
Total heat stored in the motor (using equation Q = m.Cp.∆ T) = 95834.1 kJ
Required quantity of PCM
Assumption: Motor only operates for one hour
Heat supposed to be stored by PCM in melting process = 5043.9 kJ
Stored sensible heat in PCM = 4689.97845 kJ
Expected heat storage by PCM =47917.05 kJ
Required PCM quantity = 10.46714818 kg
PCM Volume required = 0.004960734 m3
PCM Volume = 4960733.735 mm3
Assumption: Operation time will one hour
Latent heat = 43227.07155
kJ
Latent heat /volume =0.008713846 kJ/mm3
Latent heat /volume = 8.71384635 J/mm3
Above amounts were fed in to the FEM model for analysis along with the other parameters required.
45
3.4 Simulation method
Firstly data was collected on PCM and smoke ventilation motors. Then the 3D model of the motor was
created and the simulation was done in ANSYS software. For the analysis, the model had to be exported
to form SolidWorks to ANSYS. In simulation software all the other conditions such as mesh generation
and boundary conditions were carried out. Figure 3.2 shows number of simulations required for the
analysis and figure 3.3 shows the simulation process as a flow diagram. For each selected PCM, two
simulations were to be carried out. First simulation was carried out with all boundary conditions applied
for the motor model and without PCM. It was used later as the reference to compare the effect of PCM.
Second simulation was carried out with PCM applied to the motor model with the same boundary
conditions as of the simulation without PCM. Finally, the comparison of the above two simulations was
carried out.
PCM SIMULATION
SIMULATION FOR
KNO3
SIMULATION FOR
NaNO3
WITHOUT PCM
WITHOUT PCM
WITH PCM
WITH PCM
Figure 3.2 Number of simulations required for the selected PCMs
46
Figure 3.3 Simulation process
47
4 Results
4.1 PCM selection and analysis
According to the table 3.4, the most scoring PCM are M1 and M2 which are KNO3 and NaNO3
respectively. Properties of KNO3 and NaNO3 were fed in to the simulation software database, after
required calculations which are shown in appendix F.
4.1.1
Properties of KNO3 and NaNO3
4.1.1.1
Thermodynamic and chemical properties
It is important to know the properties of the material being used. Following chart was prepared to
describe properties of Potassium Nitrate.
Table 4.1 Thermal properties of KNO3 and NaNO3
Type
Description / Formula
Inorganic
KNO3
Inorganic
NaNO3
Melting
Temperature
Heat of
fusion
Thermal
Conductivity
0C
kJ/kg
116
W/mK
307
266
172
0.5 (liquid)
0.5
308
174
333
336
Density
kg/m3
1900 (solid)
1890 (liquid)
2260
2257
According to the table 4.1, the melting of KNO3 takes place from 333 oC to 336 oC. The heat of fusion of KNO3 is
226kJ/kg at 333oC and 116kJ/kg at 336 oC. By using the PCM it is expected that the temperature rise will be reduced
for a certain period of time especially from 333 to 336 oC. The boiling point of KNO3 is 400 oC.
The melting of NaNO3 takes place from 307 oC to 308 oC. The heat of fusion of NaNO3 is 172kJ/kg at
307oC and 174kJ/kg at 308 oC. The boiling point of NaNO3 is 380 oC (49). The variation of thermal
conductivity of NaNO3 with temperature is shown in the appendix G.
4.2 3D Model of the Motor
The 3D model of the motor was created as per the calculations carried out with relate to the section 3.2.
Figure 4.1 shows the outer look of the modelled motor. It is the model which was created on software
environment. The cooling fins along with the front and rare cover were modelled with all the components
inside. The material selection and material properties for the motor model are given in the appendix H.
PCM containing rings were assumed to be made of copper because copper has good thermal conductivity.
48
Figure 4.1 Outer look of 3D model of motor
Figure 4.2 shows an exploded view of the motor with all the components which form the motor. Since
heat generation is mainly accomplished in the rotor winding and stator windings, they were modelled
clearly.
Front PCM ring
Motor housing
Rotor core and
laminations
Front bearing
Rear PCM ring
Rear cover
Figure 4.3 Exploded view of 3D model of the motor
Front cover
Rotor
shaft
Front internal fan
Rear internal fan
Rear bearing
Figure 4.2 Exploded view of the 3D model of the motor
Figure 4.3 shows a sectional view of the motor which shows how the components are arranged in the
motor model. Although the full motor is modelled, the motor is symmetrical along the centre axis of the
shaft along any plane. Therefore, 15 degree part of the motor was used for the simulation which is shown
in the figure 4.4.
49
Rotor core and laminations
PCM ring
PCM ring
Stator core
Housing
Bearing
Rotor
End windings
PCM
Internal Fan
Figure 4.3 Sectional view of the assembled 3D model of the motor
End windings
Stator core
End windings
Front PCM
Motor cover
Rear PCM
Front bearing
Rotor core
Motor shaft
Rear bearing
Figure 4.4 : 15 degree part of motor used for the simulation
50
4.2.1
Mesh
Generating a mesh is one of the primary tasks of the analysis. Figure 4.5 shows the generated mesh for the
analysis.
Figure 4.5 Generated mesh for the analysis
The mesh was manually edited for efficiency of the operation. When small spherical curvatures such as
bearing balls were present, the mesh was smoothened. Where ever the mesh was needed no complexions,
coarse mesh was used. The final mesh generated for the execution is shown in figure 4.5. The material
selection for the each part of the motor is shown in appendix H.
4.3 Thermal behaviour
Following pictures show the transient thermal analysis temperature distribution of the motor. At the
beginning, the cover is heated up because of the hot smoke. While the motor operates, due to the internal
heat generation, the rotor and the stator windings gradually get heated. As a result the temperature of the
motor rises. Meanwhile PCM absorbs the heat and melts. Therefore the heat is absorbed by the PCM. But
with the high temperature outside, the PCM seems not enough to carry out the cooling of the motor. The
heat from outside is conducted in to the motor and heat up the motor inside parts such as rotor and
stator.
Heat is generated in all parts of the motor where current is flown. After 1200 seconds, the outer part of
the motor is not heated much. But heat flux goes from middle of the motor to the outside of the motor.
The outside of the motor is much more heated. The temperature of the outer core increases with the time.
So do the inner core temperature. When the system reaches 333 0C, the phase change of PCM takes place.
The temperature curve is slightly slanted at this point.
51
4.4 Temperature behaviour
4.4.1
Simulation for NaNO3
Figure 4.6 shows the results of the simulation which were done with boundary applied 3300C as the smoke
temperature. The Left hand side pictures show the simulation results without NaNO3 and right hand side
pictures show the results obtained with NaNO3 applied as PCM. It is seen that the parts of the motor
such as rotor core, stator core and end windings are at lower temperature levels in the simulation with
PCM applied compared to the simulation without PCM. In both cases the core temperatures rise gradually
and the end winding region becomes the hottest spot. In the simulation without the PCM, temperature
rises were recorded as, from 230 0C to 300 0C for the rotor core, from 27 0C to 264 0C ~ 300 0C in the
stator core and from 27 0C to 368 0C for the end winding region. When simulation was done using
NaNO3 as the PCM, the temperature rises were, from 27 0C to 133 0C for the rotor core, from 27 0C to
169 0C in the stator core and from 27 0C to 240 0C for the end winding region. The PCM temperature
varies from 27 0C to 346 0C.
52
TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION WITHOUT PCM
TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION WITH NaNO3 AS PCM
257 SECONDS
257 SECONDS
1031 SECONDS
1031 SECONDS
1546 SECONDS
1546 SECONDS
2062 SECONDS
2062 SECONDS
2320 SECONDS
2320 SECONDS
Figure 4.6 Results of simulations - without NaNO3 and with NaNO3 as PCM
53
Figure 4.7 shows the temperature behaviour of NaNO3 which was obtained as a result of the simulation.
According to the figure, the transition temperature is roughly from 304 0C to 310 0C, where the latent heat
is absorbed by the PCM. From the literature survey, it is known that the transition temperature is from
3070C to 308 0C.
Temperature
C
Phase transition of NaNO3
Time (s)
Figure 4.7 Temperature behaviour of NaNO3
Figure 4.8 shows the temperature variation of the rotor winding which was obtained from the simulation.
According to the figure 4.8, the temperature rises almost linearly. Figure 4.9 shows the temperature
variation of the stator iron core with time. According to figure 4.9, there is a temperature spike at the start
of the simulation and the temperature rise is an exponential rise. Comparing figure 4.8 and figure 4.9,
Temperature (C)
there it can be seen that always the rotor has kept in a lower temperature than the stator iron core.
Time (s)
Figure 4.8 Simulation results - temperature variation of rotor windings with time with NaNO3
as PCM
54
Temperature (C)
Time (s)
Figure 4.9 Simulation results – temperature variation of stator iron core with NaNO3 applied as PCM
Figure 4.10 shows the temperature variation of stator windings which is obtained from the simulation with
NaNO3 as the PCM. According to the figure 4.10, there is a small temperature spike at the beginning of
the simulation and the stator temperature also rises linearly with time. Figure 4.11 shows the temperature
variation of end winding region of the motor, which is also obtained from the simulation results. The
Temperature (C)
temperature rise in the end winding region is not linear with time according to the figure 4.11.
Time (s)
Figure 4.10 Simulation results – temperature variation of stator windings with NaNO3 applied as PCM
55
Temperature (C)
Time (s)
Figure 4.11 Simulation results – temperature variation of end winding region with NaNO3 applied as PCM
In the figure 4.11 it can be seen that the final temperature at end winding region had been 265 oC after
implementation of PCM. As per figure 4.6, the temperature of end winding region had been over 300 oC.
Due to the PCM, the temperature has reduced.
56
4.4.2 Simulation for KNO3
TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION WITHOUT PCM
TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION WITH KNO3 AS PCM
257 SECONDS
257 SECONDS
1031 SECONDS
1031 SECONDS
1546 SECONDS
1546 SECONDS
2062 SECONDS
2062 SECONDS
2320 SECONDS
2320 SECONDS
Figure 4.12 Simulation results – without PCM and with KNO3 as the PCM
57
Figure 4.12 shows the resulting temperature distribution of the simulation keeping the boundary
condition; outer temperature as 350 0C without PCM and with KNO3 as PCM. The Left hand side
pictures show the simulation results without KNO3 and right hand side pictures show the results obtained
with KNO3 applied as PCM. It is observed that the parts of the motor such as rotor core, stator core and
stator are at lower temperature levels in the simulation with PCM compared to the simulation without
PCM. In both cases the core temperatures rise gradually and the end winding region is the hottest spot. In
the simulation without the PCM temperature variations are recorded from 27 0C to 242 0C ~291 0C at the
rotor core, from 27 0C to 242 0C ~ 291 0C at the stator core and from 96 0C to 388 0C at the end winding
region. When simulated with KNO3, the temperature rises were, from 27 0C to 134 0C for the rotor core,
from 27 0C to 170 0C in the stator core and from 27 0C to 278 0C for the end winding region. The PCM
temperature varies from 27 0C to 350 0C.
Figure 4.13 shows the temperature variation of KNO3 which is obtained from the simulation. According
to figure 4.13, the phase transition takes place from330 0C to 335 0C. At phase transition, the temperature
is stagnant due to the latent heat absorption.
Temperature (C)
Phase transition of KNO3
Time (s)
Figure 4.13 Simulation results – temperature variation of KNO3
58
Figure 4.14 shows the temperature variation of the rotor windings which is obtained from the simulation.
The temperature rise is almost linear to with time. However the maximum temperature of rotor windings
had been as low as 116 0C at the end of simulation. In figure 4.15, the temperature variation of stator iron
Temperature
core is shown. It is almost linear as figure 4.14 except that the maximum temperature is higher.
Time (s)
Temperature (C)
Figure 4.14 Simulation results – temperature variation of rotor windings with KNO3 applied as PCM
Time (s)
Figure 4.15 Simulation results – temperature variation of stator iron core with KNO3 applied as
PCM
59
Figure 4.16 shows the temperature variation of end windings with KNO3 as PCM. Compared to the
Temperature (C)
simulation without PCM, it shows a low temperature value.
Time (s)
Figure 4.16 Simulation results – temperature variation of end windings with KNO3 applied as PCM
Figure 4.17 shows the temperature variation of stator windings with KNO3 applied as PCM. Compared to
Temperature (C)
the simulation without PCM, the maximum reached temperature is low.
Time (s)
Figure 4.17 Simulation results – temperature variation of stator windings with KNO3 applied as
PCM
60
5 Discussion and conclusion
The objective of the study was to develop a 3D model of smoke ventilation motor and carry out a
transient thermal analysis to observe improvements in the motor cooling system after implementing PCM
in the motor. The model created on software platform was capable of simulating the thermal behaviour of
the motor without and with the PCM. A transient thermal analysis was carried out on the 3D model of the
smoke ventilation motor. Although a full 3D model was created for the analysis, only a portion of the 3D
model was used because of the limited resources available for the programme execution. With the created
model, four simulations were carried out for two PCMs (KNO3 and NaNO3). Since the melting
temperatures were 307 0C for NaNO3 and 333 0C for KNO3, two hypothetical smoke temperature
scenarios were defined. For the analysis with KNO3, smoke temperature was assumed to be reaching 350
0C
and for the analysis with NaNO3 smoke temperature assumed to be reaching 330 0C. With these
conditions, transient thermal analysis was carried out and certain results were obtained.
It was observed when a PCM was used in the system; the temperature rise in motor components is
reduced with respective to motor without PCM which is clearly visible when looking at figure 4.6 and
figure 4.12. In both figure 4.6 and figure 4.12, simulation without PCM section shows a higher
temperature than the simulation with PCM section. In figure 4.7 and figure 4.13 the behaviour of the
PCMs is visible. At the melting point the temperature is constant in both figure 4.7 and figure 4.13 by
which it can be determined that the PCM melting process is taking place. Combining these results it is
evident that the heat generated within the motor is absorbed by the PCM enhancing the cooling in the
motor. It is seen that the hot spots in the simulation without PCM is differed in the simulation with PCM.
Cause may due to the heat absorption by the PCM allowing the motor elements to cool down.
The maximum temperature recorded in the simulation with PCM is approximately 265 0C which is on end
winding region. The maximum temperature of end winding region without PCM is approximately 400 0C.
Therefore it is a significant that the operating time will be more when PCM is applied because PCM acts
as a cooling agent for motor enclosure.
An important aspect of the simulation is finding the most suitable PCM. Although the PCMs used in
these simulations are suitable, they are not 100% suitable for particular application. It is because the
melting temperatures of the selected PCMs are quite high for the application and many other facts which
are described in the literature survey such as the economic factors are omitted in selection of PCM.
Although the simulation is valid up to certain extent, it is not totally accurate due to the fact of the
simplification of the motor model. Analysis would have generated a much accurate result if the full motor
model was used for the analysis without considering a combined rotor core (keeping the laminations as
they were at the original 3D model) and using every single data for the motor without assumptions. For
more accurate results, these results can be used to perform a CFD analysis. Then the air circulation inside
the motor could be simulated which could be integrated with the convection effect.
61
In the simulation, it was observed that certain components (such as end winding region) give
extraordinary heat fluctuations and peaks. It is due to an un-investigated error in the model. It is very
difficult to quantify this effect of on the model. It is also seen in the results that there is a certain
temperature elevation at the start of the simulation (Figures 4.9, 4.10 and 4.17). These elevations are due
to the high step time applied at the beginning of the solver. If the initial step time could be made smaller,
the spike would not appear. But, it will take longer time to solve the model.
One of the important part of the study was determining the types of heat generation within the motor and
the type of heat transmission which hast to be conduction, convection or radiation. In the simulation
radiation was omitted and conduction and convection used where necessary. Since the simulation
consume much resource and take much longer time to solve, the model was simplified by considering the
rotor winding as one block of copper and stator winding as another set of blocks. The intermediate
insulations were omitted as well. Then much coarse mesh was used for the larger parts such as rotor and
smaller mesh was used for the parts such as bearings which helped to reduce the solving time and save
resources.
After analysing the results, it could be concluded that PCM application in the motor cooling system keeps
the motor elements at a lower temperature without overheating. There are some further studies that can
be recommended to obtain better and more accurate results.
Apply of encapsulated PCM should also be studied to get a better idea about the best method to apply
PCM in the motor cooling system. It can be recommended that the full motor should be analysed as a
further study which may give more precise results. It is further recommended that the model could be
analysed without simplifications such as omitting the radiation, omitting electric insulation and considering
rotor as a compound one block of copper which may lead for a more accurate prediction of the results.
Another effect which can be analysed is the application of PCM embedded in the motor casing. PCM
embedding method was omitted from simulation. As a future investigation, it can be recommended to be
carried out. The final recommendation which could be done is to analyse the motor with computational
fluid dynamics which I believe to have greater accuracy because of the internal air flow simulation. Further
the enclosure material used for containing PCM should be analysed for reactions with each other and
possibility of corrosion.
62
References
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Appendix A
Table A.1 Correspondence of IEC norms with other norms (47)
67
Appendix B
Table B.1 International motor cooling codes
68
Table B.2 Examples for international motor cooling codes
69
Appendix C
Table C.1 An example of induction motor cooling methods according to DIN EN 60034-1 (23)
Code
Drawing
Description
70
Appendix D
Table D.1 Different inorganic materials potential as PCMs and their properties (46)
Description /
Formula
H2O
Melting
Temperature
Heat of
fusion
Thermal
Conductivity
Density
0C
kJ/kg
W/mK
kg/m3
0
333
0.612
998 , liquid, 20 0C
334
0.61
996, 30 0C
917, solid, 0C
LiClO3.3H2O
8.1
ZnCl2 . 3H2O
10
K2HPO4 . 6H2O
13
NaOH . 3 1/2 H2O
15
253
1720
231
1447, liquid, 200C
15.4
Na2CrO4 . 10H2O
KF . 4H2O
18
18.5
1455, Solid, 180C
CaCl2 . 6H2O
Mn (NO3)2 .6H2O
29
190.8
0.540( liquid,38.7 0C)
1562, liquid, 320C
29.2
171
0.561(liquid, 61.2 0C)
1496 (liquid)
29.6
174.4
1.088 (solid, 23 0C)
1802 (solid, 240C)
29.6
174.4
1.088(solid,230C)
1802(solid,240C)
29.7
192
1710 (solid, 250C)
30
1634
29–39
1620
25.8
125.9
n.a.
1738 (liquid, 200C)
1728 (liquid, 400C)
1795 (solid, 50C)
LiNO3 . 3H2O
Na2SO4 .10H2O
30
296
n.a.
n.a.
32.4
254
0.544
1485 (solid)
Na2CO3 . 10H2O
32
32–36
251.1
246.5
n.a.
1458
1442
33
247
34
115.5
n.a.
1956 (liquid, 350C)
CaBr2 . 6H2O
2194 (solid, 240C)
Na2HPO4 . 12H2O
35.5
265
n.a.
1522
36
280
35
281
146.9
0.464 (liquid, 39.9 0C)
1828 (liquid, 360C)
147
0C)
1937 (solid, 24 0C)
35.2
Zn(NO3)2 . 6H2O
36
36.4
0.469 (liquid, 61.2
2065 (solid, 14 0C)
KF .2H2O
41.4
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
K(CH3COO) . 1 1/2
42
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
K
H32PO
O 4 .7H2O
45
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
71
Table D.1 Different inorganic materials potential as PCMs and their properties (Continued…)
Description / Formula
Melting
Temperature
0C
Heat of
fusion
Zn(NO3)2 . 2H2O
54
kJ/kg
n.a.
NaOH . H2O
58
Na(CH3COO) . 3H2O
Thermal
Conductivity
Density
W/mK
kg/m3
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
58
264
n.a.
1450
58.4
226
Cd(NO3)2 . 4H2O
59.5
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
Fe(NO3)2 . 6H2O
60
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
NaOH
64.3
227.6
n.a.
1690
Na2B4O7 . 10H2O
68.1
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
Na3PO4 . 12H2O
69
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
Na2P2O7 . 10H2O
70
184
Ba(OH)2 . 8H2O
78
265.7
0.653 (liquid, 85.7 0C)
1937 (liquid, 84 0C )
267
0.678 (liquid, 98.2 0C
2070 (solid, 24 0C )
280
1.255 (solid, 23 0C )
2180 (solid)
n.a.
AlK(SO4)2 . 12H2O
80
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
Kal(SO4)2 . 12H2O
85.8
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
Al2(SO4)3 . 18H2O
88
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
Al(NO3)3 . 8H2O
89
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
Mg(NO3)2 . 6H2O
0C
89
162.8
0.490 (liquid, 95
)
1550 (liquid, 94 0C)
90
149.5
0.502 (liquid, 1100C )
1636 (solid, 25 0C)
0.611 (solid, 37 0C )
1640
0.669 (solid, 55.6 0C )
(NH4)Al(SO4) . 6H2O
Na2S . 5 1/2 H2O
95
269
n.a.
n.a.
97.5
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
72
Table D.1 Different inorganic materials potential as PCMs and their properties ( Continued…)
Melting
Description / Formula
Thermal
Heat of fusion
Temperature
0C
Density
Conductivity
kJ/kg
W/m.K
n.a.
kg/m3
CaBr2 . 4H2O
110
n.a.
Al2(SO4)3 . 16H2O
112
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
MgCl2. 6H2O
117
168.6
0.570 (liquid, 120 0C)
1450 (liquid, 120 0C
115
165
0.598 (liquid, 140 0C)
1442 (liquid, 78 0C )
900C)
1569 (solid, 20 0C )
0.704 (solid, 1100C)
1570 (solid, 200C )
116
0.694 (solid,
n.a.
Mg (NO3) . 2H2O
130
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
NaNO3
307
172
0.5
2260 (solid)
308
174
2257 (liquid)
199
KNO3
333
266
336
116
KOH
380
149.7
0.5
2.044
MgCl2
714
452
n.a.
2140
NaCl
800
492
5
2160
2
2.533
802
466.7
Na2CO3
854
275.7
KF
857
452
K2CO3
897
235.8
0.5 (liquid)
1900 (Solid)
1890 (liquid)
2370
2
2.29
Table D.2 Inorganic eutectics with potential use as PCM and their properties (46)
Description / Formula
Melting
Temperature
0C
66.6% CaCl2 . 6H2O + 33:3% MgCl2 .
48%
6H2OCaCl2 + 4:3% NaCl + 0:4% KCl +
Heat of fusion
kJ/kg
Thermal
Density
Conductivity
W/mK
kg/m3
25
127
n.a.
1590
26.8
188
n.a.
1640 (solid)
1530 (liquid)
47:3% H2O
47% Ca(NO3)2 . 4H2O + 33% Mg(NO3)2 .
30
136
n.a.
31.5
226
n.a.
CO(NH2)2
30
200.5
61.5% Mg(NO3)2 . 6H2O + 38:5%
52
125.5
6H2ONa(CH3COO) . 3H2O +40%
60%
NH4NO3
0.494(65 0C)
0.515 (liquid, 88.0
0C)
n.a.
1515 (liquid)
1596 (solid, 20 0C)
0.552 (solid, 36.0 0C)
58.7% Mg(NO3) . 6H2O +41:3% MgCl2 .
59
132.2
0.510 (liquid, 65.00C)
1550 (liquid,
6H2O
58
132
0.565 (liquid, 85.0 0C)
1630 (solid, 24
500C)
0.678(solid,38.0
0C)
0.678(solid,53.0 0C)
53% Mg(NO3)2 . 6H2O+47% Al(NO3)2 .
61
148
n.a.
n.a.
14%
9H2OLiNO3 +86% Mg(NO3)2 . 6H2O
72
>180
n.a.
1590 (liquid)
1610 (solid)
73
Table D.2 Inorganic eutectics with potential use as PCM and their properties ( continued…)
Description / Formula
Melting
Heat of
Thermal
Temperature
fusion
Conductivity
0C
kJ/kg
W/mK
66.6% urea + 33:4% NH4Br
76
161
Density
kg/m3
0.331 (liquid, 79.8 0C)
1440 (liquid, 85 0C)
0C)
1548 (solid, 24 0C)
0.324 (liquid, 92.5
0.649 (solid, 39.0 0C)
0.682 (solid, 65 0C)
11.8% NaF + 54:3% KF + 26:6% LiF +
449
n.a.
n.a.
2160 (liquid)
7:3% MgF
35.1%
LiF2+ 38:4% NaF +26:5% CaF2
615
n.a.
n.a.
2225 (liquid)
2820 (solid, 25 0C)
32.5% LiF + 50:5% NaF +17:0% MgF2
632
n.a.
n.a.
2105 (liquid)
2810 (solid, 250C)
51.8% NaF + 34:0% CaF2 + 14:2% MgF2
645
n.a.
n.a.
2370 (liquid)
2970 (solid, 250C)
48.1% LiF + 51:9% NaF
652
n.a.
1930 (liquid)
2720 (solid, 25 0C)
63.8% KF + 27:9% NaF + 8:3% MgF2
685
n.a.
n.a.
2090 (liquid)
45.8% LiF + 54:2% MgF2
746
n.a.
n.a.
2305 (liquid)
2880 (solid, 25 0C)
53.6% NaF + 28:6% MgF2 + 17:8% KF
809
n.a.
n.a.
2110 (liquid)
2850 (solid, 25 0C)
66.9% NaF + 33:1% MgF2
832
n.a.
n.a.
2190 (liquid)
Table D.3 None-eutectic mixtures of inorganic substances with potential use as PCM and their properties (46)
Description / Formula
Melting
Heat of
Thermal
Temperature
fusion
Conductivity
Density
0C
kJ/kg
W/mK
kg/m3
0
292
0.486 (300C)
1047 (30 0C)
50% Na(CH3COO) . 3H2O + 50%
40.5
255
n.a.
n.a.
HCONH2
Mg(NO3)2 . 6H2O/ Mg(NO3)2 . 2H2O
55.5
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
99
n.a.
n.a.
68.1% KCl + 31.9% ZnCl2
235
198
n.a.
2480
38.5% MgCl + 61.5% NaCl
435
328
n.a.
2160
500–850
415.4
5
2.6
H2O + polyacrylamide
KOH. H2O / KOH
Salt-ceramics NaCO3–BaCO3/MgO
74
Table D.4 Organic substances with potential use as PCMs and their properties (46)
Description / Formula
Melting
Heat of
Temperature
fusion
Thermal Conductivity
Density
0C
kJ/kg
W/mK
kg/m3
Paraffin C14
4.5
165
0.21 (solid)
760 (liquid, 200C)
Paraffin C15
10
212
n.a.
770 (liquid, 20 0C)
paraffin C16
18
210, 238
n.a.
n.a.
8
99.6
38.60C)
1125 (liquid, 25 0C)
0.185 (liquid, 69.9 0C)
1228 (solid, 3 0C)
Polyglycol E400
Dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMS)
0.187 (liquid,
16.5
85.7
n.a.
1009 (solid and liquid)
Paraffin C16–C18
20–22
152
n.a.
n.a.
Polyglycol E600
22
127.2
0.189 (liquid, 38.6 0C)
1126 (liquid, 25 0C)
67.00C)
1232 (solid, 40C)
0.21 (solid)
0.760 (liquid, 70 0C)
0.187 (liquid,
Paraffin C13–C24
22–24
189
0.900 (solid, 20 0C)
1-Dodecanol
26
200
n.a.
n.a.
Paraffin C18
28
244
0.148 (liquid, 40 0C)
0.774 (liquid, 70 0C)
27.5
243.5
0.15 (solid)
0.814 (solid, 20 0C)
0.358 (solid, 25 0C)
1-Tetradecanol
Paraffin C16–C28
38
205
42–44
189
0.21 (solid)
0.765 (liquid, 70 0C)
0.910 (solid, 20 0C)
Paraffin C20–C33
48–50
189
0.21 (solid)
0.769 (liquid, 700C)
0.912 (solid, 200C)
Paraffin C22–C45
58–60
189
0.21 (solid)
0.795 (liquid, 70 0C)
0.920 (solid, 200C)
Paraffin wax
64
173.6
266
0.167(liquid,63.5 C)
0.346 (solid, 33.6
790 (liquid, 65 0C)
0C)
916 (solid, 240C)
0.339 (solid, 45.7 0C)
Polyglycol E6000
66
190
n.a.
1085 (liquid, 70 C)
1212 (solid, 25 C)
Paraffin C21–C50
66–68
189
0.21 (solid)
71
119.2
n.a.
0.830 (liquid, 70 C)
0.930 (solid, 20 C)
Biphenyl
991 (liquid, 73 C)
1166 (solid, 24 0C)
Propionamide
79
168.2
n.a.
n.a.
Naphthalene
80
147.7
0.132 (liquid, 83.8 0C)
976 (liquid, 84 0C)
0C)
1145 (solid, 20 C)
0.341 (solid, 49.9
0.310 (solid, 66.6 0C)
Erythritol
HDPE
118
339.8
0.326 (liquid, 140 0C)
1300 (liquid, 1400C)
0.733 (solid, 20 0C)
1480 (solid, 200C)
100–150
200
n.a.
n.a.
145
144
n.a.
n.a.
Trans-1,4-polybuta- diene
(TPB)
75
Table D.5 Organic eutectics potential as PCMs and their properties (46)
Description / Formula
Melting
Heat of
Densit
Temperature
fusion
Thermal Conductivity
y
0C
kJ/kg
W/mK
kg/m3
37.5% Urea + 63:5% acetamide
53
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
67.1% Naphthalene +32:9% benzoic acid
67
123.4
0.136 (liquid,
78.50C)
n.a.
0.130 (liquid,
1000C)
0.282 (solid, 38 0C)
0.257 (solid, 52 0C)
76
Table D.6 Fatty acids with potential use as PCMs and their properties (46)
Description / Formula
Propyl palmiate
Isopropyl palmiate
Capric–lauric acid +pentadecane (90:10)
Isopropyl stearate
Caprylic acid
Melting
Heat of
Temperature
fusion
Thermal Conductivity
Density
0C
kJ/kg
W/mK
kg/m3
10
186
n.a.
n.a.
11
95–100
n.a.
n.a.
13.3
142.2
n.a.
n.a.
14–18
140–142
n.a.
n.a.
16
148.5
38.60C)
901 (liquid, 30 0C)
16.3
149
0.145 (liquid, 67.7 0C)
862 (liquid, 80 0C)
0C)
981 (solid, 13 0C)
0.149 (liquid,
0.148 (liquid, 20
1033 (solid, 10 0C)
Capric–lauric acid (65 mol%–35 mol%)
18
148
n.a.
n.a.
17-21
143
n.a.
n.a.
Butyl stearate
19
140
n.a.
n.a.
Capric–lauric acid (45–55%)
21
143
n.a.
n.a.
Dimethyl sabacate
21
120–135
n.a.
n.a.
34% Mistiric acid + 66% Capric acid
24
147.7
0C)
888 (liquid, 25 0C)
0.154 (liquid, 61.2 0C)
1018 (solid, 1 0C)
123–200
Vinyl stearate
Capric acid
0.164 (liquid, 39.1
27–29
122
n.a.
n.a.
32
152.7
0.153 (liquid, 38.5
0C)
878 (liquid, 45 0C)
31.5
153
0.152 (liquid, 55.5
0C)
886 (liquid, 40 0C)
0.149 (liquid, 40 0C)
1004 (solid, 24 0C)
Methyl-12 hydroxy-stearate
42–43
120–126
n.a.
n.a.
Lauric acid
42–44
178
0C)
862 (liquid, 60 0C)
44
177.4
0.147(liquid, 50
870 (liquid, 50 0C)
1007 (solid, 24 0C)
Myristic acid
Palmitic acid
Stearic acid
49–51
204.5
54
187
844 (liquid, 80 0C)
58
186.6
990 (solid, 24 0C)
64
185.4
0.162 (liquid, 68.4 0C)
850 (liquid, 65 C)
61
203.4
0C)
847 (liquid, 80 0C)
63
187
0.165 (liquid, 80 0C)
989 (solid, 240C)
69
202.5
0.172 (liquid, 70 0C)
848 (liquid, 70 0C)
60–61
186.5
77
n.a.
0.159 (liquid, 80.1
861 (liquid, 55 0C)
965 (solid, 24 0C)
Table D.7 Common PCMs available in the market and their properties (46)
Description / Formula
Type
Melting Temperature
Heat of fusion
Thermal Conductivity
0C
kJ/kg
W/mK
TH-31
n.a.
-31
131
n.a.
SN29
Salt solution
-29
233
1.15
SN26
Salt solution
-26
268
1.21
TH-21
n.a.
-21
222
n.a.
SN21
Salt solution
-21
240
1.12
STL-21
Salt solution
-21
240
1.12
SN18
Salt solution
-18
268
1.21
TH-16
n.a.
-16
289
n.a.
SN15
Salt solution
-15
311
1.02
SN12
Salt solution
-12
306
1.06
STLN10
Salt solution
-11
271
1.05
SN10
Salt solution
-11
310
1.11
TH-10
n.a.
-10
283
n.a.
STL-6
Salt solution
-6
284
1.07
SN06
Salt solution
-6
284
1.07
TH-4
n.a.
-4
286
n.a.
STL-3
Salt solution
-3
328
1.01
SN03
Salt solution
-3
328
1.01
ClimSel C 7
n.a.
7
130
n.a.
RT5
Paraffin
9
205
n.a.
ClimSel C 15
n.a.
15
130
n.a.
ClimSel C 23
Salt hydrate
23
148
1.48
RT25
Paraffin
26
232
STL27
Salt hydrate
27
213
1.09
S27
Salt hydrate
27
207
1.47
RT30
Paraffin
28
206
n.a.
TH29
Salt hydrate
29
188
n.a.
ClimSel C 32
Salt hydrate
32
212
1.45
RT40
Paraffin
43
181
n.a.
STL47
Salt hydrate
47
221
1.34
ClimSel C 48
n.a.
48
227
1.36
STL52
Salt hydrate
52
201
1.3
RT50
Paraffin
54
195
n.a.
STL55
Salt hydrate
55
242
1.29
TH58
n.a.
58
226
n.a.
ClimSel C 58
n.a.
58
259
1.46
RT65
Paraffin
64
207
ClimSel C 70
n.a.
70
194
1.7
RT80
Paraffin
79
209
n.a.
TH89
n.a.
89
149
n.a.
RT90
Paraffin
90
197
n.a.
RT110
Paraffin
112
213
n.a.
78
Appendix E
Table E.1 Motor re-engineering calculations
Description
selected
value
Remarks
Symbol
unit
Phase Voltage
Vph
V
230
Catalogue data
Phase Current
Iph
A
101
Catalogue data
No of phases/conductors
Zph
Nos.
No of turns/phase
Tph
Nos.
Synchronous Speed in rpm
Ns
rpm
990
Catalogue data
Synchronous speed in rps
ns
rps
16.5
No of poles
p
Nos.
6
Catalogue data
Specific electric loading
q
ac/m
26000
Catalogue data
air gap flux/pole
ø
Tesla
0.48
Catalogue data
0.995
Catalogue data
94.2
Catalogue data
Average flux density
Bav
winding factor
kw
efficiency (full load)
ƞ
%
Diameter of the stator
D
m
Gross core length
L
m
Output coefficient
Co
no of phases
m
Nos.
3
Catalogue data
frequency
f
Hz
50
Catalogue data
Sss
Nos.
36
cos (ø)
-
0.84
Catalogue data
Torque
T
Nm
531
Catalogue data
Stator slot pitch at the air gap surface
τss
Flux / Pole
Φ
Number of conductors per slot
Zs
Number of stator slots
Power factor
79
Table E.1 Motor re-engineering calculations (Continued…)
Stator Design
Description
Output of motor = Input x efficiency
Symbol
unit
Q
kW
kW
Input for motor = m x Vph x Iph x Cos (ø) x 10-3
selected
value
Remark
55
58.5396
V
Assuming Vph = Eph, Vph = Eph = 4.44 f Tph x Kw
= 2.22 x f x Zph x Kw
Nos.
No of turns / phase = Tph = VPh/(4.44fKw)
1.041242247
f = PNS/120 = Pns/2
Output = 3 x 2.22 x Pns/2 x ZphKw Iph Cos (ø) x 103
Output = 1.11 x P x 3Iph Zph x ns Kw Cos (ø) x 10-3
Q
kW
Q
kW
P = Bavπ DL, and 3Iph Zph/ π D = q
Q = 1.11 x Bavπ DL x πDq x ns Kw Cos (ø) x 10-3
kW
Q = (11 π2Bav q Kw Cos (ø) x 10-3) D2L ns
kW
Q = (11 Bav q Kw Cos (ø) x 10-3) D2L ns
kW
Q = Co D2L ns
Co = (11 Bav q Kw Cos (ø) x
D2L
10-3)
114.738624
= Q/Cons
m3
0.029051537
m
0.194550974
Reducing iron loss
flux density in teeth <1.8 Tesla
flux density core 1.3-1.5 Tesla
Bav , 0.35 to 0.6 Tesla
ac loading (q) normal range 10000 ac/m to 450000
ac/m
Pole pitch = no of slots/ no of poles
τp
Pole pitch = perimeter per pole = π D/p
Pole pitch / core length = 0.18/pole pitch
(π D/p)/L = 0.18/ (πD/p )
80
Catalogue data
Table E.1 Motor re-engineering calculations (Continued…)
Description
Symbol
D=0.135P√L (D & L in meters)
unit
x √L m
0.81
m2
0.6561
xL
D2=
L2 =
selected
value
m2
0.044279129
L=
L
m
0.210426066
inner diameter D=
D
m
0.37156499
mm
slot pitch
Stator slot pitch at the air gap surface =τss=π
D/Sss
32.42516228
Remark
No. of poles x 0.135
E53 cell/E65 cell
circumference / no of
slots
Turns Per Phase
Assumption delta connection while running.
So, Eph = 415 V
Eph
V
Tph
Nos.
Φ
Wb
415
Catalogue data
EMF equation for induction motors
Eph=4.444f Φ Tphkw
So, Turns per phase Tph=Eph/4.44f Φ kw
96
EMF is assumed to be equal to the applied voltage
per phase
Flux / pole , Φ = Bav x πDL/p
0.019650526
assumption kw = 0.955 for winding factor
Number of conductors /phase
Zph = 2 x Tph
Total no of stator conductors Z=6 Tph
conductors/slot Zs = Z/Sss or Zs = 6Tph/Sss
Zph
Z
Zss
192
1152
32
Zs is an integer for single layer winding
Zs is an even number for double layer winding
Assumption: No or stator slots/pole/phase =3
No of Stator slots Sss= 3x 3x 6 = 54 (3* phase *
poles)
Assumption
Sss
36
81
Assumption
Table E.1 Motor re-engineering calculations (Continued…)
Description
Stator Current per phase Is = Q / (3Vph cos (ø) )
Symbol
unit
Is
A
selected
value
Remark
94.89302968
Area of stator slot:
mm2
25% is insulation
4.75
Slot space factor = copper area in the slot/area of slot
Sot space factor usually between 0.25 and 0.4
0.35
Assumption
Size of the slot:
Generally full pitched double layer windings are used
Stator slots should not be too wide
slot depth / slot width = 3 to 5
Assumption
slot pitch at the air gap between 1.5 cm and 2.5 cm
Slot Pitch
conductors per slot
increased amount of conductors per slot with safety
conductors 2
Nos
number of layers
Nos
2
Assumption
matrix of one layer, no of conductors in a row , 1st layer
Nos
2
Assumption
matrix of one layer, no of conductors in a column, 1st layer
Nos
5
Assumption
matrix of one layer, no of conductors in a row , second layer
Nos
2
Assumption
matrix of one layer, no of conductors in a column, second layer
Nos
6
Assumption
Nos
coil separator thicknesses 0.5mm to 0.7 mm
slot insulation 0.5 mm to 0.7 mm
wedge thickness 3.5 to 5 mm
lip of slot 1 to 2 mm
82
32
24
Table E.1 Motor re-engineering calculations (Continued…)
Description
Symbol
unit
selected
value
Remark
Width of the slot
space by conductors (width x number of conductors)
mm
12.6
Slot liner
mm
0.4
clearance
mm
0.9
Total width
mm
13.9
Sectional area of the stator conductor
as = Is/δs
δs - current density in stator winding (3 to 5 Amps)
as
mm2
δs
A/m
m2
Depth of the slot
Space by insulated conductors (cross section length x no of
conductors)
mm
19
5
36
slot liner
mm
0.6
coil separator
mm
1
Top liner
mm
1
Lip
mm
1.5
Wedge
mm
3
clearance
mm
1.3
Total depth
mm
44.4
slot depth / width ratio
3.523809524
slot depth / slot width should be 3 to 5
Length of the mean Turn
Imt
lmt = 2L + 2.3 τp+ 0.24 ( empirical formula)
m
14.46085213
τp-pole pitch in meter, L gross length of the stator
Resistance of stator winding
Resistance of stator winding per phase ,
Ω
1.534372521
W
41449.63325
Wb
0.019650526
=( 0.021 x lmt x Tph) / as
lmt is in meters
Copper losses in stator winding = 3 x Is2 rs
Flux density in stator tooth
Φ
Φ Flux / pole
83
Assumption
Table E.1 Motor re-engineering calculations (Continued…)
Description
Symbol
unit
selected
value
Remark
Diameter at 1/3 rd height from narrow end
D' = D+ 1/3 x hts x 2
Slot pitch at 1/3 rd height = 'τp =π D'/Ss
Tooth width at this section = b't = τ's-bs
Area of one stator tooth = a't=b'tx li
Area of all the stator tooth per pole
A't = b't x li x no of teeth per pole
Mean flux density in stator teeth b't =Φ / A't
Maximum flux density to be less than 1.5 time above
Depth of stator core below the slots
stator core flux density Bc assumed 1.2 to 1.4 Tesla
Bc
Flux in the stator core section Φc = 1/2 Φ
Area of stator core Ac = Φ / 2Bc
Tesla
Φc
Wb
Ac
m2
1.3
0.009825263
0.012772842
Area of stator core Ac = Li x dcs
m
Depth of core = Ac/ Li
Outer diameter of the stator core
Do = D+ 2hss = 2 dcs
Do
m
lg
mm
Dr
mm
0.46036499
hss is the height of the stator slot
Rotor Design
Type: Squirrel Cage
Air gap length lg = 0.2 + 2√DL
Outer diameter of rotor = D-2lg
Criteria.
i. to avoid cogging & crawling (a) Ss≠ Sr (b)Ss-Sr ≠ 3P
ii. To avoid synchronous hooks and cups in torque speed
characteristics
Ss-Sr ≠ P., 2P, 5P
iii. To avoid noisy operation Ss-Sr ≠ 1,2,P+1,P-1,P+2
84
0.759238621
281.2465125
Assumption
Table E.1 Motor re-engineering calculations (Continued…)
Description
Rotor Bar Current
Current per rotor bar Ib = (Kws x Ss x Z's) x I'r/ (Kwr x Sr x
Z'r)
Symbol
unit
Ib
A
Kws
Winding factor for stator
number of stator slots
Ss
Number of conductors/ stator slot
Z's
winding factor for the rotor
Kwr
Number of rotor slots
Sr
Number of conductors/ rotor slots
Z'r
equivalent rotor current in terms of stator current I'r = 0.85
Is
I'r
selected
value
Remark
7704.55486
5
0.995
Nos
36
32
1 Assumed
Nos
12 Assumed
1 Assumed
A
80.6590752
2
Is - stator current
rotor slot pitch = πDr/Sr
δb
rotor current density assumption 4 to 7 A/mm2 ,
Ab
sectional area of rotor bars , Ab = Ib/δb
mm
A/m
m2
mm2
mm2
cross sectional area of one rotor bar conductor
73.6301648
7 Assumed
1100.65069
5
91.7208912
6
circular rotor conductor bar selected
mm
10.8066028
8
length if rectangular one used
mm
15.4
width if rectangular one used
mm
6
nos
12
0.22042606
6
0.00420564
6
diameter
Shape and size of the rotor slots
Copper loss in rotor bars
No. of rotor bars
Length of rotor bar lb = L + allowance for skewing
Rotor bar resistance = 0.021 x lb / Ab
Copper loss in rotor bars = Ib2 * rb x no of rotor bars
85
lb
m
rb
1/m
m
qc
W
2995774.23
9
Table E.1 Motor re-engineering calculations (Continued…)
Description
Symbol
unit
selected
value
Remark
End ring current
Maximum end ring current Ie_max=1/2 (no of rotor
bars/pole) x Ib, av
0.19858204
1
Ie_max
= 1/2 x sr / p x lb / 1.11
rms value of Ie = 1/π x Sr/P x Ib/1.11
δe
Area of end ring Ae = Ie/δe
current density between 4.5 to 7.5 amp / mm2
Copper loss in end rings
mean diameter of rotor (Dme) assumed 4 to 6 cm less of
rotor
mean length of current path = π x Dme
re = 0.021 x lme / Ae
Total copper loss in end rings = 2 x Ie2 x re
equivalent rotor resistance r'r = total rotor copper loss /
(3Ir2)
86
A/m
m2
7 Assumption
Appendix F
Table F.1 Thermal calculations for NaNO3 (calculation for amount of PCM and heat load)
Thermal load calculation
Type of PCM
Weight of the motor
Motor Material
Cp of cast iron
NaNO3
Final Temperature
Initial temperature
PCM Melting Temperature
Heat of fusion in NaNO3
Heat stored in the motor
m.Cp.∆ T = Q
Cp of NaNO3 (solid)
Cp of NaNO3 (liquid)
density ofNaNO3
645
Cast Iron
0.46
kg
315
27
307
172
0C
85449.6
1665
1518
2260
kJ/kgK
0C
0C
kJ/kg
kJ
J/kg.K
J/kg.K
kg/m3
Required quantity of PCM
Assumption: PCM used to store heat from 307 deg. To 308deg
Heat supposed to store by PCM in melting process
(half of the motor total heat)
% storage of heat
2373.6
kJ
2.777777778
%
Sensible Heat Storage
Q = m. Cav. (Tm-Ti)
Ti
T_m
m
Cav (solid) of PCM
Q_sensible
27
307
8.85592335
1591.5
3946.376563
0C
307
27
1
149.7
16.65
1.5915
315
4824.432
0C
0C
kg
J/kg.K
kJ
Latent Heat Storage
Mass of PCM = m
Q=m[C_SP (T_m-T_i )+ a_m ∆h_m+ C_lP (T_f-T_m )]
Tm - melting temperature (0C)
Ti - initial temperature (0C)
a_m - fraction melted
∆h_m- heat of fusion per unit mass (kJ/kg)
C_sp - average specific heat between Ti and Tm (kJ/kg K)
C_lp - average specific heat between Tm and Tf (kJ/kg K)
Tf - final temperature (0C)
Q/m = [C_SP (T_m-T_i )+ a_m ∆h_m+ C_lP (T_f-T_m )]
0C
kJ/kg
kJ/kgK
kJ/kgK
0C
kJ/kg
Expected heat storage by PCM, q = Q/2
Required PCM quantity, m = q/(Q/m)
PCM Volume
PCM Volume
Assumption: Operation time will be one hour
42724.8
8.85592335
0.00391855
3918550.155
kJ
kg
m3
mm3
Q_latent
Q_latent/volume
Q_latent/volume
38778.42344
0.009896115
9.89611512
kJ
kJ/mm3
J/mm3
87
Table F.2 Thermal Calculations for KNO3
Thermal load calculation
Type of PCM
Weight of the motor
Motor Material
Cp of cast iron
KNO3
645
Cast Iron
0.46
Final Temperature (Assumption)
Initial temperature
PCM Melting Temperature
Heat of fusion in KNO3
Heat stored in the motor
m.Cp.∆ T = Q
Cp of KNO3 (solid)
Cp of KNO3 (liquid)
density of KNO3
kg
kJ/kgK
350
27
333
116
0C
kJ/kg
95834.1
1439
1480
2110
kJ
J/kg.K
J/kg.K
kg/m3
0C
0C
Required quantity of PCM
Assumption: PCM used to store heat from 334 deg. To 335 0C
Heat supposed to store by PCM in melting process
( half of the motor total heat)
% storage of heat
5043.9
kJ
5.263157895
%
Sensible Heat Storage
Q = m. Cav. (Tm-Ti)
Ti
T_m
m
Cav (solid) of PCM
Q_sensible
27
334
10.46714818
1459.5
4689.97845
0C
0C
kg
J/kg.K
kJ
Latent Heat Storage
Mass of PCM = m
Q=m[C_SP (T_m-T_i )+ a_m ∆h_m+ C_lP (T_f-T_m )]
Tm - melting temperature (oC)
Ti - initial temperature (oC)
a_m - fraction melted
∆h_m- heat of fusion per unit mass (kJ/kg)
C_sp - average specific heat between Ti and Tm (kJ/kg K)
C_lp - average specific heat between Tm and Tf (kJ/kg K)
Tf - final temperature (0C)
Q/m = [C_SP (T_m-T_i )+ a_m ∆h_m+ C_lP (T_f-T_m )]
333
27
1
149.7
14.39
1.4595
350
4577.8515
kJ/kg
kJ/kgK
kJ/kgK
0C
kJ/kg
Expected heat storage by PCM, q = Q/2
Required PCM quantity =q/(Q/m)
PCM Volume
PCM Volume
Assumption: Operation time will one hour
47917.05
10.46714818
0.004960734
4960733.735
kJ
kg
m3
mm3
Q_latent
Q_latent/volume
Q_latent/volume
43227.07155
0.008713846
8.71384635
kJ
kJ/mm3
J/mm3
88
0C
0C
Appendix G
Figure G1. Thermal properties of NaNO3
Reference : T. Bauer, D. Laing, U. Kröner, R. Tamme; “SODIUM NITRATE FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE LATENT HEAT
STORAGE”,Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, German Aerospace Center (DLR) , Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, 70569 Stuttgart,
Germany.
89
Appendix H
3
468
3
0.14
Rotor
AISI 316
Stainless Steel
13.4
3
468
3
0.14
AISI 316
Stainless Steel
13.4
3
468
3
0.14
83
5
460
5
0.65
Fans
Outer
Casing
Cast Iron
Laminat
ions
AISI 4340,
annealed steel
44.5
1
475
1
0.1
conduct
or slots
Laminat
ion
insulatio
n
Conduct
or
seperati
on
End
rings
Conduct
or Bars
Conduct
ors
PCM
holding
rings
AISI 4340,
annealed steel
44.5
1
475
1
0.1
PCM
7
8238
3
1510
7
8238
3
1510
7
8238
3
4
5, assumed
polished mild
steel
5, assumed
polished mild
steel
1200
7210
5
7850
1
1200
7
assu
mpti
onassu
mpti
on-
1084
7
8933
3
1084
7
8933
3
1084
7
8933
3
1084
7
8933
3
1084
7
8933
3
335
7
1200
Reference
1510
4, assummed
machined
steel
4, assummed
machined
steel
4, assummed
machined
steel
Density kg/m3
Reference
13.4
Melting
Temperature oC
Bearings
AISI 316
Stainless Steel
Reference and
material
assumption
Emissivity
Reference
Heat of Fusion
kJ/Kg
Specific Heat
J/(kg.K)
Reference
Thermal
Conductivity
W/(m.K)
Material
Component
Table H1. Material properties used for the motor 3D model and simulation
Resin F
available in
ansys
hard rubber
0.94
Copper
401
3
385
3
0.023
Copper
401
3
385
3
0.023
Copper
401
3
385
3
0.023
5
4, polished
copper
4, polished
copper
4, polished
copper
Copper
401
3
385
3
0.77
5, cuprous
oxide
KNO3 solid
0.5
6
1439
KNO3 liquid
NaNO3 Solid
NaNO3
Liquid
100.19
1480
0.5
6
6
6
90
6
2110
Table H2: References for the above chart values
References:
1 = SolidWorks materials library
2 = ANSYS materials library
3 = http://www.customthermoelectric.com/MaterialProperties.htm
4 = http://snap.fnal.gov/crshield/crs-mech/emissivity-eoi.html - accessed on 16th April 2013
5=http://www.omega.com/literature/transactions/volume1/emissivitya.html#b acceesed on 16th
April 2013
6 Review on thermal energy storage with phase change materials and applications. Sharma, Atul, et al., et al. 2, s.l. :
Elsevier, 2009, Renewqable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 13, pp. 318-345.
7 http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/melting-temperature-metals-d_860.html
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