E

E
EVALUATION OF MICROBIOLOGICAL
ACTIVITY DURING THE
DEAMMONIFICATION PROCESS FOR
NITROGEN REMOVAL
Weronika Wójcik
September 2011
TRITA –LWR Degree Project
ISSN 1651-064X
LWR-EX-11-26
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
© Weronika Wójcik 2011
Degree Project at Masters Level
Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering
Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)
SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden
Reference should be written as: Wójcik, W. (2011) ―Evaluation of microbiological activity
during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal‖. TRITA LWR Degree Project,
11:26.
ii
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
S AMMANFATTNING
Detta examensarbete baseras på egna studier. En studie genomfördes
under en fyra månadersperiod vid Hammarby Sjöstadsverk, som är
belägen i Stockholm. Enstegs teknik utvärderades för deammonifikation
för två systemutföranden i pilotskala.
Den teroretiska bakgrunden för detta examensarbete presenteras i en
första del och härvid beskrivs negativa miljökonsekvenser av
kväveföreningar liksom myndighetskrav för renat avloppsvatten i
Europeiska Unionen (Polen och Sverige). I nästa del av examensarbetet
beskrivs kvävecykeln med fokus på biologiska reaktioner för
kväveavskiljning. Speciellt behandlas nitrifikations-/denitrifikations- och
anammoxprocesser med tonvikt på olika faktorer som påverkar
anammoxprocessen samt för- och nackdelar att använda denna process.
Experimentella resultat för fyramånadsstudien liksom utvärdering av
mikrobiell aktivitet beskrivs i examensarbetets sista del.
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TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
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Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
A CKNOWLEDGMENTS
This Master Thesis was carried out thanks to the Erasmus Program
between the Department of Environmental Engineering at Cracow
University of Technology (PK) in Kraków (Poland) and the Department
of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of
Technology (KTH) in Stockholm (Sweden).
At the beginning and primarily I would like to extend my thanks for my
supervisor Professor Elżbieta Płaza for the opportunity to cooperate and
opportunity to take part in research. Thank you for you help, advices,
suggestions and your time!
I would also like to thank PhD Jerzy Mikosz for help, friendly
cooperation, and engagement to "Erasmus Students" and support, which
I can always count on!
Special thanks go to Jingjing Yang, PhD Student at KTH. Thank you for
everything: .for excellent cooperation and helpful advices, suggestions,
nice time in the lab, submitted knowledge and experience and …
friendship. Thanks to you, time spent in the lab was nice and interesting
experience for me.
I would like to acknowledge PhD Józef Trela, the leader of the
―Deammonification project‖ for his help and knowledge.
I am also thankful PhD Christian Baresel and Lars Bengtsson from
Swedish Environmental Research Institute IVL for their help,
cooperation, friendliness and atmosphere which they create at the
research station.
Thanks parents Marta and Bogusław, and brothers Mateusz and Łukasz,
who supported me during all my stay in Stockholm, and who supported
me in moments of weakness during the five years of study. Heartfelt
thank you!
Finally, I want to thank my family and friends, for any help ... for that
you are!
Thank you – without You all this work could not have been
accomplished!
Kraków, September 2011
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Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
T ABLE OF CONTENT
Sammanfattning ......................................................................................................................... iii
Acknowledgments ........................................................................................................................v
Table of content ......................................................................................................................... vii
Abbreviations and symboles ...................................................................................................... ix
Abstract ........................................................................................................................................ 1
1.
Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 1
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
1.1. Negative impact of nitrogen on the environment ..................................................... 1
1.2. Requirement for nitrogen removal from wastewater................................................. 1
1.2.1. Polish standards ..................................................................................................... 1
1.2.2. Requirements in the European Union (Sweden)..................................................... 1
1.3. Forms of nitrogen in the environment ....................................................................... 2
1.4. Nitrogen cycle .............................................................................................................. 2
Conventional process: Nitrification /Denitrification ..................................................... 4
2.1. General description of nitrification process ............................................................... 4
2.2. General description of denitrification process ........................................................... 4
2.3. Operational parameters ............................................................................................... 4
ANAMMOX® process description .................................................................................. 5
3.1. Parameters affecting ANAMMOX® process performance ...................................... 5
3.1.1. Dissolved Oxygen.................................................................................................. 5
3.1.2. Temperature .......................................................................................................... 5
3.1.3. pH and alkalinity .................................................................................................... 5
3.1.4. Organic matter....................................................................................................... 5
3.2. Superiority of the ANAMMOX® process .................................................................. 6
3.2.1. Deammonification ................................................................................................. 6
3.3. MBBR with deammonification in MBBR.................................................................. 6
Aim of the Study ................................................................................................................ 8
Methodology ...................................................................................................................... 8
5.1. Short description of the research station Hammarby Sjöstadsverk ......................... 8
5.2. Description of experimental installation .................................................................... 9
5.3. Physical parameters measurements and chemical analysis ................................... 10
5.3.1. Physical parameters.............................................................................................. 10
5.3.2. Chemical analyses ................................................................................................ 10
5.4. Microbial activity tests............................................................................................... 11
5.4.1. Specific Anammox Activity (SAA) ....................................................................... 11
5.4.2. Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR) ................................................................................ 13
5.4.3. Nitrate Uptake Rate (NUR) ................................................................................. 17
Results and discussions .................................................................................................. 20
6.1. Evaluation of microbiological activity...................................................................... 20
6.1.1. Specific Anammox Activity.................................................................................. 20
6.1.2. Oxygen Uptake Rate ............................................................................................ 21
6.1.3. Nitrogen Utilization Rate ..................................................................................... 22
6.2. Evaluation of microbiological activity for Short Term Test ................................... 23
Conclusions...................................................................................................................... 24
References ........................................................................................................................ 25
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Appendix I. Data from Nitrate Uptake Rate test for lab-scale reactors during
February 1st 2011 – may 31th 2011. ............................................................................. I
Appendix II. Data from Specific Anammox Activity test for lab-scale reactors during
February 1st 2011 – may 31th 2011 .......................................................................... VII
Appendix III. Comparison of the test results, according to frequency of samples
control ............................................................................................................... XXXI
Appendix IV. Oxygen Uptake Rate test data ................................................................... XXXII
Appendix V. Data necessary for OUR calculations ............................................................ XLII
Appendix VI. Data, Results and calculations for SAA short term test, Pilot reactor 2 .... XLIV
Appendix VII. Data necessary for OUR Short Term Test calculations ............................... LV
Appendix VIII. Graphs necessary for OUR Short Term Test calculations ......................... LVI
viii
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
A BBREVIATIONS AND SYM BOLES
ATU
AOB
ANAMMOX
BOD
DO
HT
kg
MBBR
NOB
NH3
NH4+-N
NO2--N
NO3--N
NO
NO2
NUR
OUR
ORP
p.e.
R1
R2
SAA
T
VSS
WWTP
Allylthiourea C4H8N2S
Ammonium Oxidizing Bacteria
ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Dissolved Oxygen
Heterotrophs
Kilogram
Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor
Nitrite Oxidize Bacteria
Free ammonia
Nitrogen in Ammonium form
Nitrogen in Nitrite form
Nitrogen in Nitrate form
Nitrous oxide
Nitric dioxide
Nitrate Uptake Rate
Oxygen Uptake Rate
Oxidation Reduction Potential
Population equivalent
Lab-scale Reactor 1
Lab-scale Reactor 2
Specific Anammox Activity
Temperature
Volatile Suspended Solids
Waste Water Treatment Plant
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Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
A BSTRACT
This master thesis is based on own studies. A four-month study was performed at
Hammarby Sjostad Research Station, which is located in Stockholm. One-stage
deammonification process was evaluated in two different system configurations in
pilot plant scale.
The theoretical background for this thesis works is presented in the first part and
where is presented negative impacts of nitrogen compounds in environment and
requirements for purified wastewater in European Union (Sweden and Poland). In the
next part of the thesis the nitrogen cycle is described and with focus on biological
reactions for nitrogen removal. Especially, nitrification/denitrification and anammox
processes are described with special focus on parameters affecting the anammox
process performance and its advantages and disadvantages of using this process.
Experimental results from the four-month study and evaluation of the microbial
activity are described in the last part.
Key words: Anammox, Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor, nitrogen removal, batch
test, Specific Anammox Activity, Oxygen Uptake Rate, Nitrate Uptake Rate.
1. I NTRODUCTION
1.1. Negative impact of nitrogen on the environment
Nitrogen is a nutrient and it mean, that this substance allow and intensify
biomass process growth. When there is a excessive amount of nitrogen
in water, we can observed a disorder the natural balance in the tank. If it
is delivered 1 kg Nitrogen – (Nitrogen embedded in cells) we receive
increase in biomass on 16 kg and it gives charge 20 kg O2 extra organic
substances. This process is very unprofitable and we can observe it
especially in the lakes. In the water receivers, where is constant supply of
nutrients it is possible to observe vigorous plant growth and progressive
overgrowing of the tank. The nitrogen is also nourishment for the algae.
At the beginning it is only nourishment, but in the next steps we can
observe expansion of the algae and ―water bloom‖. There are very
negative and dangerous situations. An increased volume of ammonia and
nitrite in the water is very toxic (Dymaczewski, 1997).
1.2. Requirement for nitrogen removal from wastewater
1.2.1. Polish standards
Polish is a member of the European Union since 1 May 2004. Signing
the Accession Treaty on 16 April 2003, the government committed itself
to respect and implement EU legislation into national law. This is due to
the transposition of EU directives into Polish legislation. It should be
noted that although the Directives is the overarching legislation in
relation to the law, they shall appoint only a goal to be achieved. Specific
legislation is left to the legislature of the country concerned. In Poland,
current legislation is Minister of Environment Regulation: Dz. U. 2006
nr 137 poz. 984. This regulations specify details for wastewater treatment
for example references methods of wastewater sample analysis.
Regulation also defines the standards for nitrogen in treated wastewater.
1.2.2. Requirements in the European Union (Sweden)
Council Directive 91/271/EEC concerning urban waste-water treatment
was adopted on 21 May 1991. Its purposes to protect the environment
from the adverse effects of urban waste water discharges and discharges
from certain industrial sectors the collection, treatment and discharge
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Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Table 1. The highest value of pollution indicators or minimum percentage
reductions of contaminants for treated wastewater of domestic and communal,
made to the water and to the ground (www.isap.sejm.gov.pl).
Nr
4.
Name
pollution
indicator
Total
Nitrogen
The highest value of pollution indicators or minimum percentage
reductions of contaminants depend on p. e.
of
Unit
mg N-l
min.
red.
%
<2000
2 000 9 999
10 000 14 999
15 000 –
99 999
>100000
301)
151)
151)
15
10
2)
80
85
-
-
35
1)
required only in the effluent entering the lakes and inflows and directly to the reservoirs located in the
flowing waters
2)
The minimum percentage reduction is not used in example when the wastewater is entering in to the lakes
and lakes inflows directly to the artificial water reservoirs located in the flowing waters and to the ground.
domestic waste water, the mixture of sewage and wastewater from
certain industrial sectors (Fig. 1).
1.3. Forms of nitrogen in the environment
Nitrogen is one of the most important elements: it takes part in many
processes, is utilization by plants and it is a component of many bio
molecules such as amino acids, nucleotides and nucleic acids. In the
environment there are two forms of nitrogen (Fig. 2): unoxidized and
oxidized forms.
1.4. Nitrogen cycle
This chapter shows only very short and general nitrogen cycle and
Anammox process. All reactions, parameters and details will be
presented in more detail in next chapters of this master thesis. The
(Fig. 3) shows the microbial relationships between nitrification and
denitrification, and shows Anammox process in this cycle.
The first step of traditional nitrogen cycle is microbial conversion of
molecular nitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH4). In the deamination process
there is producing ammonia, because organic molecules containing
nitrogen are deaminated during the decomposition of organic materials.
Next step of nitrogen cycle is nitrification. This process is
Fig. 1. Review of Directive 91/271/EEC. (http:/ /ec.europa. eu/
environment/water/water-urbanwaste/index_en.html)
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Fig. 2. Forms of nitrogen in the environment
a biological process of transformation ammonium form nitrogen to
nitrate and nitrite form. At the beginning of nitrification bacteria of the
genus Nitrosomonas oxidize NH3 to nitrites (NO2­), then bacteria of the
genus Nitrobacter oxidize the nitrites to nitrates (NO3­). Last step of
traditional nitrogen cycle is denitrification. Denitrification is the process
of biological reduction. During denitrification nitrate is reduced to
dinitrogen gas (N2). The heterotrophic bacteria are responsible for
quality of this process (Malovanyy, 2009).
The red line in the (Fig. 3) shows Anammox process. In this process –
biological process, nitrite (NO2­) and ammonium (NH4) are converted
directly to dinitrogen gas (N2).
Fig. 3. Nitrogen cycle with Anammox process (www.paques.nl).
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Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
2. C ONVENTIONAL PROCESS : N ITRIFICATION
/D ENITRIFICATION
2.1. General description of nitrification process
Nitrification is a first part of transformation ammonium to the
dinitrogen gas, and it consists .of two different steps. The first step of
nitrification process is called nitritation and it is transformation of
ammonium to nitrite (Wiesmann, 1994). Nitritation is performed mainly
by Nitrosomonas bacteria in aerobic conditions. The simplified equation
of nitritation process is:
The second step of nitrification process is called nitratation and it is
transformation of nitrite .to nitrate. Nitratation is performed by bacteria
of genera Nitrobacter in aerobic conditions. The simplified equation of
nitratation process is:
Both Nitrosomonasand Nitrobacter, that are responsible for nitrification
process are autotrophic bacteria, called nitrifying bacteria (Malovanyy,
2009).
2.2. General description of denitrification process
Second part of transformation ammonium to the dinitrogen gas is
denitrification. During this process, nitrite and nitrate are reduced to
dinitrogen gas, by heterotrophic bacteria mainly from gram-negative
alpha and beta classes of Proteobacteria in anoxic conditions. Nitrate
and nitrite are using oxygen as an electron acceptor. Heterotrophic
bacteria in this process use external carbon as a carbon source for
gaining energy and building cells. Usually easily degradable organic
substances that come with wastewater are used as a carbon source but
often an additional external carbon source (mainly methanol) has to be
added in order to reduce all the nitrite and nitrate. The simplified
equation of nitritation process is (Malovanyy, 2009):
2.3. Operational parameters
Knowledge about nitrification and denitrification is very important .in
wastewater technology. But by knowledge about processes very
important is knowledge about operational parameters. It helps to achieve
the maximum efficiency of process and minimal costs (Cema, 2009).
When we are talking about nitrification, we must know, that about
efficiency of this process decide a lot of factors such as: temperature,
pH, concentration of nitrogen in effluent, dissolved oxygen (DO), age of
sludge, alkalinity and toxic substances. The optimal temperature for
nitrification is above 20 degrees. When the temperature drops, the
intensity of nitrification process drops too. Less than 5 degrees process
stops. The optimum pH ranges between 7.5÷8.5, but process can be
carried in different pH (for example 6.5) if value of pH is constant.
Concentration of dissolved oxygen should be about 2 mg O2/l. When
concentration of DO drops to 1 mgO2/l, nitrification becomes very
slow, in the case, when DO rise above 2 mg O2/l, the efficiency of the
nitrification is at the same level as efficiency in 2 mg O2/l. Nitrifying
bacteria are very sensitive for toxic substances. Toxic substances are
inhibitors for nitrification process. Denitrification runs most efficiently
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Weronika Wójcik
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while keeping several conditions. First, in wastewater must be carbon
compounds and nitrates. Then, as for nitrification, optimal temperature
for denitrification is above 20 degrees. The optimal pH for
denitrification ranges between 6.5÷7.5. Concentration of DO in
denitrification chamber should be as low as it is possible and lower than
0.5 mg O2/l.
All these factors have strange influence for nitrification and
denitrification. When one or more of these factors are not running
correct, the nitrification or denitrification process have disturbed
efficiency (Dymaczewski, 1997).
3. ANAMMOX® PRO CESS DESCRIPTION
Wastewater treatment, especially nitrogen removal is currently interest
many of research groups. We are looking for ―a new way‖ for nitrogen
removal. One of this ways can be ANAMMOX®. ANaerobic
AMMonium Oxidation is biological oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen,
and this process seems to be promising alternative for traditional
nitrogen removal. During this process, under anoxic conditions,
ammonium is directly oxidized to dinitrogen gas using nitrite as the
electron acceptor (Jetten et al., 1999).
3.1. Parameters affecting ANAMMOX® process performance
3.1.1. Dissolved Oxygen
Dissolved oxygen has an impact on efficiency of nitrogen removal by
deammonification. On the one hand has a negative impact on the
Anammox process, on the other hand, remember, that it is necessary for
the nitritation process. For one-stage partial nitrification/anammox
process, dissolved oxygen is parameter influencing the nitrogen removal
rate in the system. DO concentration should stay at a certain level, to
allow ammonium oxidizers to produce a sufficient amount of NO2--N
for anammox reaction but also not to high NO2--N level to cause
anammox inhibition effect or increasing Nitrite Oxidizer’s Bacteria
growth (Cema et al., 2007).
3.1.2. Temperature
The correct temperature for ANAMMOX® process is in the range of
20-43 degrees, and the optimal temperature is 40 degrees. Negative
impact has in temperature change and situations, when temperature
drops below 20 degrees, which was observed in Waste Water Treatment
Plant in Hattingen. As a result of drops temperature observed decrease
in efficiency of nitrogen removal in MBBR from 70-80% to 16-40%
(Żubrowska et al., 2010).
3.1.3. pH and alkalinity
pH is very important parameter, which has influence for anammox
process. Different groups of researchers tried to provide anammox
process in various pH. But in partial nitritation/anammox process,
performance efficiency could be inhibited by free ammonia, when pH is
above 8 and nitrous acid when pH is below 7.5.
3.1.4. Organic matter
In different studies were used different groups, kinds of organic matter,
used as inhibitors. Among the most important inhibitors of the process
anammox is oxygen and other compounds such us methanol and
ethanol. But methanol and ethanol are irreversible inhibitors for
anammox process (Ahn, 2004).
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Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Table 2. Factors influencing deammonification process (Hernando et al., 2010).
Deammonification process
Partial nitritation
Anammox process
Oxygen supply
Oxygen-limited supply
Supernatant composition
Nitrogen load in the inflow
Ratio nitrite/ammonium in the outflow
Ratio nitrite/ammonium in the inflow
Hydraulic Retention Time
Hydraulic Retention Time
pH decrease
pH increase
Consumption of alkalinity
Nitrite concentration inside the reactor
Free nitrous acid and free ammonia concentrations
SAA of bacterial culture
Temperature
Temperature
3.2. Superiority of the ANAMMOX® process
After
analysis
Anammox
process
and
traditional
nitrification/denitrification, we can observe a lot of advantages, and
superiority ANAMMOX® over the traditional methods of nitrogen
removal for wastewater:
High nitrogen removal,
No external carbon source needed,
40% reduction in oxygen demand,
Reduced production of sludge,
Reduced nitrous oxide emission,
Reduced carbon dioxide emission,
Reduction of energy demand and power consumption up to 60-90%,
3.2.1. Deammonification
Deammonification process consists of two steps process: Partial
Nitritation and Anammox reaction. During the first step of
deammonification process - Partial Nitritation, about 50-60% of
ammonium is oxidized to nitrite:
During the second step, anammox reaction, bacteria use ammonium and
nitrite as substrates to produce nitrogen gas:
Deamonification process can be realised in two different strategies: in
one-stage or two-stage strategy. In situation, when process is carried in
two separate reactors, in the first reactor is carried a partial nitration, and
in the second reactor Anammox stage. In one-stage reactor both partial
nitritation and anammox process are realised in the same time. Both in
one-stage and in two-stage strategies, nitritation and anammox are
carried out by different microorganisms. In the first step, the ammonium
is partially oxidized by aerobic autotrophic ammonia oxidizers (AOBs)
and in the second stage the remaining ammonium is oxidized to nitrogen
gas by anaerobic autotrophic ammonia oxidizers (Anammox) (Hernando
et al., 2010).
The same as nitrification and denitrification, there are factors which have
decisive for deammonification process (Tab. 2).
3.3. MBBR with deammonification in MBBR
Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor is a high technology wastewater treatment,
which becomes increasing recognition in the word.
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Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Fig. 4. Samples of Kaldness carriers.
MBBR process is based on the principle of biological membrane:
biofilm, which grows on specially designed elements (Fig. 4) of material
immersed in the entire volume of the reactor.
MBBR elements were designed to present largest possible active surface
area (from 200-1200 m2/m3) for biological membrane and optimal living
conditions for different cultures of microorganisms.
Biofilm starts to grow within minutes/hours after start of the
purification process. Microorganisms that are involved in the treatment
process produces sticky substances attach themselves to the media and
begin to create a high performance biofilm (Dosta et al., 2008).
In this technology, biofilm suspended on the tubular profiles is mixed .in
the biological reactor chamber using: compressed air (aerobic reactors)
and mixer (anaerobic reactors). In characterized pilot-plant we have two
reactors: R1 – based on aeration strategy and R2 – based on temperature
effects. Each of these reactors has a working volume 200 litres and
Kaldness carriers 80 litres, which is about 40% reactors volume.
Biofilm, covering the surface of the fittings, has optimal conditions for
development and provided an optimal supply of oxygen and organic
matter to bacteria and higher microorganisms. Biofilm, located in the
middle of Kaldness carrier consists of two very important and depend
on each other zones. The zone, which directly adjacent to the Kaldness
carriers anaerobic zone, and in this part of biofilm, we can observed
anammox process. Then, in the second zone, which contacted with
anaerobic zone and liquid we can observed nitritation process, and it is
aerobic zone.
Conditions conductive to the growth of bacteria, high levels of biofilm
and high concentration of oxygen in Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor
technology cause the removed several times more pollution per day than
in the traditional technology.
According
to
INWATEC
Industrial
Waste
Technology
(www.inwatec.pl), using movable bed guarantees:
stable wastewater treatment plant work,
possibility to adopt more pollutant loads,
approximately five times smaller bioreactors cubature,
BOD5 removal rate about 5000 BZT5/g/d m3 for 15 degrees,
nitrogen removal rate about 400 NH4-N/d m3, 670 NOx-N g/d m3
for 15 degrees,
no need to recycled sludge,
no clogging and self-cleaning,
high resistance for pH and temperature changes,
possibility of using technology to each shape of the reactor,
high durability carriers (up to 20 years),
reduction of excess sludge up to 50%.
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Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
4. A IM OF THE S TUDY
This Master Thesis is a part of ―Anammox technology nitrogen
reduction‖ project and it is focused on the one-step partial
nitrification/Anammox process in the moving bed biofilm reactor
(MBBR) with Kaldnes carriers.
The aim of this study was evaluation of microbiological activity during
the deammonification process for nitrogen removal under different
operation strategies (long term study):
Aeration strategy (DO 3.0 mg/l)
Temperature (190C)
The main goal of short term test was evaluate the influence of
temperature on different groups bacteria:
Anammox Bacteria Activity: 35 - 50C, step: 3 degrees
Ammonium Oxidizing Bacteria Activity
Heterotrophic Activity
35 - 170C, step: 3 degrees
Nitrate Oxidizing Bacteria Activity
To achieve goals, during the research, was necessary:
Review literature and publications about nitrogen removal from
wastewater;
Evaluation of the process performance by chemical analyses, physical
parameters monitoring and biomass measurements;
Perform calibration and cleaning of the portable and on-line
instruments;
Assess the Nitrate Uptake Rate (NUR) test by the biofilm and its
evolution;
Monitor the evolution of Anammox bacteria activity though SAA
tests;
Assess the evolution of Heterotrophic bacteria, Nitrosomonas and
Nitrobacter bacteria activity in the biofilm though Oxygen Uptake
Rate tests;
Try to find correlations between chemical analyses results and
physical parameters.
5. M ETHODOLOGY
5.1. Short description of the research station Hammarby Sjöstadsverk
The Hammarby Sjöstadsverk is located on the top of Henriksdal
underground Waste Water Treatment Plant (Fig. 5) which is the biggest
WWTP in Stockholm.
The Hammarby Sjöstadsverk is one of the most popular institutions in
Sweden, where are conducted research in the field of wastewater
treatment. The objects which are located on the facilities were held in
October 2003 and they were constructed by Stockholm Water AB.
Today it is a facility where are prepared projects of the Royal Institute of
Technology (KTH) and IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
Furthermore, it is a place that gives the opportunity to develop for many
Swedish and international students, PhD students and many scientists.
Currently, the station carries the following major projects
(www.sjostadsverket.se):
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Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Hammarby
Sjöstadsverk
Fig. 5. Location of research station (http://maps.google.com).
Reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from Swedish wastewater and
sewage sludge management
Removal of pharmaceuticals from the wastewater
More efficient biogas production
Anammox technology: nitrogen reduction
Energy and resource management facility
Algae for water treatment and Biofuel production
5.2. Description of experimental installation
One of the projects, which are realized in Hammarby Sjöstadsverk is
called “Anammox technology: nitrogen reduction”. And it is
experimental installation (Fig. 6), which allowed the implementation of
the experiments and research to support this work. The
deammonification process is conducted by KTH since 1999. The
experiments for this project are conducted by PhD students and Master
Students, who are preparing their Master Thesis at KTH, under the
leadership of Professor Elżbieta Płaza and PhD Józef Trela from KTH
(Bertino, 2010).
The technical-scale pilot plant reactor, which is the main element of
installation, was designed as a continuous aerated and stirred Moving
Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) with Kaldnes carriers. The biocarriers,
which is filled technical-scale pilot plant reactor were brought from
Himmerfjärden Wastewater Treatment Plant (Bertino, 2010).
In addition to pilot reactor, in to the installation comes a lot of elements.
First of them is storage tank, holding about 26 cubic meters, with reject
water from Bromma Waste Water Treatment Plant. This tank is
connected with smaller one, with holding about 1.3 cubic meters. From
bigger to smaller tank, the reject water is regularly, twice per week,
pumped.
Fig. 6. The one-stage pilot plant scale reactor for partial
Nitratation/Anammox with equipment.
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Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Fig. 7. Fulfillment of pilot plant scale reactor.
From a small tank reject water is continuously pumped to the stirred and
aerated reactor. The pilot reactor is filled by Kaldnes carriers (Fig. 7). At
the beginning, where is reject water connected with reactor, there is
conductivity and ORP measured. At the end of process, are measured:
DO, pH, ORP, T and conductivity. All parameters are continuously
recorded on the computer. Purified reject water is transmitted to the
outflow tank (Bartino, 2010).
5.3. Physical parameters measurements and chemical analysis
5.3.1. Physical parameters
At the research station physical parameters are monitored every day. The
physical parameters measurement such as:
Dissolved Oxygen
pH
Conductivity
Temperature
Redox Potential
can be done off-line or on-line. On-line equipment provides a more
efficient control of the process, with more reliable and accurate values
than the manual measurements (Ridenoure, 2004). Off-line
measurements are performed the verify on-line measurements.
5.3.2. Chemical analyses
Chemical analyses is another group of measured parameters. Chemical
analyses are carried out in influent and effluent, regularly to follow up
and monitor the process. The most important group is the analysis of
nitrogen forms: Ammonium, Total Nitrogen, Nitrate, Nitrite, that allow
processes evaluate quality. To accurately assess process in lab .is carried
out COD and Alkalinity (or Acid Capacity) analysis. Samples taken from
outflow and inflow are always filtrated with a 1.6 μm pore size prefilter
and 0.45 μm pore size filter. For these analyses was applied
spectrophotometric method (Fig. 8): Dr. Lange cuvettes and Dr. Lange
Xion 500 spectrophotometer. To carried out the analysis were used
cuvettes:
COD LCK 314 (15-150 mg/L O2) and LCK 514 (100-2000 mg/L O2)
Acid Capacity Ks 4.3 LCK 362 (0.5-8.0 mmol/l)
NH4-N LCK 303 (2-47 mg/L) and LCK 302 (47-130 mg/L)
NO3-N LCK 340 (5-35 mg/L)
NO2-N LCK 342 (0.6-6 mg/L)
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Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Fig. 8. Dr. Lange Xion 500 spectrophotometer and Dr. Lange
cuvettes (LCK 340).
5.4. Microbial activity tests
5.4.1. Specific Anammox Activity (SAA)
To evaluate microbiological activity we are using batch tests, such as
SAA. By Specific Anammox Activity test is measured Anammox
Bacteria Activity. This batch test is based on the measurement of the
increment of pressure inside a closed volume, proportional to the
production of nitrogen gas by ANAMMOX bacteria which use nitrite
and ammonium as their substrates (Strous et al., 1999).
At the beginning of each test is prepared equipment (Fig. 9) and test
material. The rings were washed three times with phosphate buffer.
(0.75 g/L K2HPO4 and 0.14 g/L KH2PO4) with a pH 7.8 manually
prepared.
In the next step of experiment 15 Kaldnes rings with attached bacteria
were put to the Pyrex vial with buffer solution until a volume of 24 mL
was reached. For each reactor were prepared three vials. Then, the vials
were closed and a needle connected to the nitrogen gas line. Nitrogen
(N2) gas was inoculated for a few minutes (about 3 minutes) to remove
all the oxygen inside the vial (Fig. 10).
Fig. 9. Equipment for SAA test.
11
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Fig. 10. SAA sample during the N2 gas inoculated.
When the samples for experiment were ready, they were put to the water
bath, where the samples were kept during the whole experiment. Before
substrates were dosed, the samples stayed in water bath (in 25 degrees)
about 10-15 minutes until the desired stable temperature were reached.
When sample reached 25 degrees the substrates 0.5 mL of NH4Cl and
0.5 mL of NaNO2 to fix initial concentrations of ammonium and nitrite
inside the vials in 70 mg N/L, were added by needle and syringe. At the
beginning of this part, the gas inside the vial was equalized to the
atmospheric, and appropriate measurement was started at this time. The
pressure was measured every 20-30 minutes with a pressure transducer.
Transducer used in this experiment (produced by Centrepoint
Electronic) displayed a value in mV. This value can be converted into
mmHg multiplying by 2.65.
Below shows calculations used to estimate the SAA on the biocarriers:
N2 gas production rate:
SAA (Specific Anammox Activity):
SAA (Specific Anammox Activity):
.
α – slope of the pressure increase inside the vial plotted versus time
(atm/min), VG– volume of the gas phase (0.013 l), calculated by
subtracting the volume of liquid with 15 biocarriers (25 ml) from the
total volume of the vial (38 ml), R – ideal gas constant
0.0820575 (atm l mol-1 K-1), T – temperature (K) 28 – molecular weight,
of N2 (g N/mol), 60 and 24 – unit conversion factors from min to days
Sbiofilm – surface area of 15 biocarriers = 7.00935∙10-3m2, calculated as a
product of the specific area of Kaldnes media and the volume occupied
by 15 rings (calculated by proportion on the base of the measurement
that 107 rings occupy 100 ml), X – grams of biomass attached on 15
rings. Calculations for the activated sludge have been calculated similarly:
12
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
N2 gas production rate:
SAA (Specific Anammox Activity):
.
α – slope of the pressure increase inside the vial plotted versus time
(atm/min), VG– volume of the gas phase (0.013 l), calculated by
subtracting the volume of liquid with 15 biocarriers (25 ml) from the
total volume of the vial (38 ml), R – ideal gas constant
0.0820575 (atm l mol-1 K-1), T – temperature (K) 28 – molecular weight
of N2 (g N/mol), 60 and 24 – unit conversion factors from min to days,
X – biomass concentration inside the vial (g VSS/l), VL– volume of the
liquid phase in the vial (approximately 18.97 ml). It has been calculated
as difference between 25 ml and the equivalent volume occupied by
carriers, based on the measurement that 4 l of rings occupy
approximately a volume of 1.72 l.
5.4.2. Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR)
The principle of OUR test is to monitor the rate of dissolved oxygen
uptake by bacteria and selectively inhibit different bacterial populations
during the test. During this test we measure three kinds of bacteria:
Measure Ammonium Oxidizing Bacteria Activity (AOB)
Measure Heterotrophic Bacteria Activity
Measure Nitrate Oxidizing Bacteria Activity (NOB)
The tests and methodology were performed on the base of the
methodology described by Gut et. Al. (2005).
At the beginning of this experiment it was necessary to prepare diluted
with reject water approximately 1:10 in order to have a NH4+-N initial
concentration of about 100 mg/l. This value was measured before
starting the test (Fig. 11).
Fig. 11. Equipment for dilution concentration control.
13
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Fig. 12. Equipment for OUR test.
The glass water with volume of 1.56 l with dilution was placed in the
water bath until the temperature measured had reached about 25°C.
Than, water was supplied in the reject water to reach a DO
concentration over 6.5 – 7 mg/l. Then in to the bottle was thrown
magnetic stirrer and 107 Kaldnes carriers. A deal od magnetic stirrer is
very important, because 107 Kaldnes carriers correspond to a volume of
approximately 100 ml. At this stage of experiment, bottle was completely
closed with rubber corks and parafilm, and the test was started. The
dissolved oxygen was measured by YSI Model 57 Oxygen Meter with
YSI 5905 BOD probe, and data were recorded every second by TESTO
Comfort – Software 2004 v 3.4.
During the first 5 minutes total oxygen uptake was measured (Fig. 13).
After 5 minutes were added 4 ml of sodium chlorate (NaClO3, solution
470 g/L) in order inhibit NO2-N oxidation by Nitrite Oxidizing Bacteria.
Dose and inhibitor concentration is determined by previous studies of
the research group (Yang J., personal information, not published).
After 5 minutes, were added another inhibitor: 4 ml of Allylthiourea
(ATU: C4H8N2S, solution 3.9 g/L). This inhibitor operates for Nitrate
Oxidizing Bacteria and Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria. The inhibitors
Fig. 13. First stage of OUR experiment.
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Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Fig. 14. Dosing the first inhibitor.
were added by two needles in the rubber corks (Fig. 14). The
temperature was around 25°C during the whole test. The value in output
from the recorder was in mV and it was converted to mg O2/L by the
calibration done before starting that specific OUR test.
Below shows calculations used to estimate the OUR on the biocarriers:
Dissolved oxygen uptake rate:
OUR – Nitrobacter:
.
Fig. 15. Inhibitors: NaClO3 and ATU.
15
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Fig. 16. Test record on the computer.
OUR Nitrosomonas:r
OUR – Nitrobacter:
α – slope of the dissolved oxygen concentration decrease inside the
bottle plotted versus time (mg O2 l-1s-1). The values of the three slopes
are the average of the three OUR tests performed, VL– volume of the
liquid phase (about 1.517 L) calculated by subtracting from the total
volume of the bottle (1.56 L), the equivalent volume of liquid displaced
by 107 Kaldnes biocarriers (calculated by a simple proportion, on the
base of the measurement that 4 L of biocarriers occupy approximately an
equivalent volume of water of 1.72 L). The volume of the liquid phase
VL was slightly different during the three steps of the test because of the
stepwise additions of inhibitors (4 ml). This was kept into account in the
calculations and the volumes are approximately 1.509 L, 1.513 L and
1.517 L, Sbiofilm– surface area of 107 biocarriers = 0.05 m2, calculated as
the product of the specific area of Kaldnes media and the volume
occupied by 107 rings, 60, 60 and 24 – unit conversion factors from
second to days, 1000 – unit conversion factors from mg to g.
Calculations for the activated sludge have been calculated similarly:
Dissolved oxygen uptake rate:
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Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Fig. 17. Equipment for NUR test.
OUR – Nitrobacter:
OUR – Nitrosomonas:
OUR – Nitrobacter:
α – slope of the dissolved oxygen concentration decrease inside .the
bottle plotted versus time (mg O2 l-1s-1). The values of the three slopes
are the average of the three OUR tests performed, X– biomass
concentration inside the bottle (mg VSS/l), the biomass concentration
inside the bottle was slightly different during the test because of the
stepwise dilution, 60, 60 and 24 – unit conversion factors from second to
days.
5.4.3. Nitrate Uptake Rate (NUR)
The NUR test has the aim to assess the NO3-N removal rate from the
liquor. The bacteria responsible for nitrate removal are essentially
denitrifying bacteria. This test was carried out in a 1.5 L plastic contained
(Fig. 17). To this test was used 1 L reject water diluted with tap water,
with concentration about 350 – 450 mg NH4-N/L, and the process was
performed in 25°C.
Fig. 18. Another part of experiment: dropping Kaldness carriers to
the plastic container.
17
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Fig. 19. First part of NUR test.
In the first part of this experiment, nitrogen gas was supplied into the
liquor to decrease the dissolved oxygen concentration under the
0.5 mg/L. The plastic container with liquor was all time covered by
parafilm and the dissolved oxygen was measured by YSI Model 57
Oxygen Meter with YSI 5905 BOD probe.
When dissolved oxygen concentration dropped below 0.5 mg/L (Fig. 18)
400 ml of Kladnes carriers were cast into the plastic reactor.
The next step of this experiment were added 10 ml NaNO3 solution
(6 g NaNO3/100ml). After this step waited about 1 minute, to be sure,
that all solution was distributed through the all volume of the liquor and
the first sample was taken. The sample was filtered with 0.45 and
1.6 μmfilter, and inserted into the fridge in the special marked and closed
by parafilm plastic bottle.
The samples were taken one each hour, for four hours. So after whole
experiment were five bottles with samples. In the first and last samples
were analysed COD, and in all five samples were analyses NO3-N.
Fig. 20. Dissolved Oxygen measurement.
18
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Fig. 21. The first sample collection.
The dissolved nitrogen uptake rate was calculated by linear regression
from the slope of the curve (straight line) of the nitrate uptake plotted
versus time. The calculations for the biocarriers and activated sludge are
similar, and look like this:
NUR (biocarriers):
NUR (activated sludge):
α – slope of the nitrate concentration consumption inside the container
plotted versus time (mg NO3—N l-1min-1), VL– volume of the liquid
phase equal to 1l, X –biomass concentration inside the container (mg
VSS/l), 60 and 24 – unit conversion factors from minutes to days, 1000
– deriving from conversion from mg to g and from ml to m3.
Fig. 22. Samples after the NUR experiment.
19
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Fig. 23. Dr. Lange Cuvette and NUR samples ready for chemical
analyses.
6. R ESULTS AND DISCUSSIO NS
6.1. Evaluation of microbiological activity
6.1.1. Specific Anammox Activity
Specific Anammox Activity tests were prepared for each reactor once
per week. After three months we received eleven values, which define
activity of Anammox Bacteria. As we see at (Fig. 24), the values of
Anammox Bacteria for Pilot Reactor 1 is between 2.46 – 3.05 g N/d∙m2,
and as we see at (Fig. 25), the values of Anammox Bacteria for Pilot
Reactor 2 is between 2.23 – 2.87 g N/d∙m2. It means, that activity of this
kind of bacteria is at similar level. But 20% difference between the
lowest and highest value for Pilot Reactor 1, and 22% difference
between the lowest and highest value for Pilot Reactor 2 evidence of
disturbance. As we can noticed, the activity of Anammox Bacteria is
higher in Pilot Reactor 1 in nearly all studies (only in 8/03/2011 the
activity of Anammox bacteria was higher in Pilot Reactor 2).
At the beginning of this studies partial measurements were provided with
frequency 30 minutes. The Anammox bacteria activity had a linear trend.
At the end of March the frequency of checking pressure was changed
from 30 minutes to 20 minutes. And during this experiment observed,
that bacteria activity did not have linear trend. Consequently, research
was conducted in one day, at the same time: 3 bottles with frequency
30 minutes, 3 bottles with 20 minutes. This experiment helped draw a
conclusion, that during the Specific Anammox Activity test, it is
important the frequency of sampling. The research was carried out at a
constant temperature 25 degrees. We did not find a factors, which can
proceed to the differences in the results.
20
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Fig. 24. Specific Anammox Activity test results for Pilot Reactor 1.
Fig. 25. Specific Anammox Activity test results for Pilot Reactor 2.
6.1.2. Oxygen Uptake Rate
Oxygen Uptake Rate test allow for evaluation three groups of bacteria:
Heterotrophic, Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter. This kind of experiment
was carried out once per two weeks for each reactor, so as a result we
have a data for five experiment for each reactor. (Fig. 26 and 27) shows,
that the largest group are bacteria Nitrosomonas. And for each reactors
bacteria Nitrosomonas are at the similar level. The similar situation is for
Heterotrophic bacteria. Heterotrophic bacteria in Pilot Reactor 1 are at
the similar lever during the whole three months. And group of
Nitrobacter bacteria in Pilot Reactor 1 is related to Heterotrophic. The
Nitrobacter in Pilot Reactor 2 are at the lower level than in Pilot Reactor
1. The values of Heterotrophic bacteria .in Pilot Reactor 2 are totally
irregular, and show problems: with Pilot Reactor or with experiment.
The OUR experiment is very complicated, requires great accuracy and
attention, and even small problems for example with mixing, or small
―bubble air‖ under the cap have a strange influence for whole
experiment, because finally values are based on seconds measurements.
In summary, more stable situation exists in the Pilot Reactor 1.
21
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
5
g O2 / m2 ∙ d
4
Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR) - Pilot Reactor 1
3.8
4.54
4.15
4.41
3
1.56 1.73
2
1
1.04 0.95
0.91 1.04
2011-03-10
2011-04-07
1.3
1.3
1.04
1.3
0
OUR (Heterotrophic)
2011-05-19
OUR (Nitrosomonas)
Fig. 26. Oxygen Uptake Rate test results for Pilot Reactor 1.
5
g O2 / m2 ∙ d
4
Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR) - Pilot Reactor 2
4.41
3.63
3.76
3.63
0
2.15
1.81
2
1
3.03
2.68
3
0.78 0.78
0.78
0.52
2011-03-02
2011-03-30
OUR (Heterotrophic)
1.04
0.78
0.52
2011-05-12
OUR (Nitrosomonas)
Fig. 27. Oxygen Uptake Rate test results for Pilot Reactor 2.
6.1.3. Nitrogen Utilization Rate
These tests, like OUR, were carried out once per two weeks. Nitrogen
Utilization Rate test is very sensitive of mixing: even small problems with
mixing have a large impact for the final results. And during two
experiments we had a problems with mixing. So two data are not
representative – unlucky both for the same reactor - Pilot Reactor 1. So
it is a reason why we have four data for Pilot Reactor 1 and six data for
Pilot Reactor 2 (Fig. 28 and 29). Nonetheless, we can notice that the
nitrogen removal process was more stable for the Reactor 1. NUR result
for this reactor is between 0.90 – 0.75 g N/m2∙d, and for Pilot Reactor 2
between 1.03 – 0.58 g N/m2∙d. Nearly 50% of the difference in value (in
Pilot Reactor 2) probably shows a technical problem (for example not
noticed problems with mixing), because other studies carried out in this
period did not reveal any specific changes (disturbances).
22
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Fig. 28. Nitrogen Utilization Rate test results for Pilot Reactor 1.
Fig. 29. Nitrogen Utilization Rate test results for Pilot Reactor 2.
6.2. Evaluation of microbiological activity for Short Term Test
Next to the normal study, during May, was carried out Short Term Test
for Specific Anammox Activity (Fig. 30) and Oxygen Uptake Rate (Fig.
31). The main goal of this experiment was checking the temperature
effect on the results of the study. Specific Anammox Activity tests were
carried out only for Pilot Reactor 2, for temperature between
35 to 5 degrees (with step 3 degrees). With decreasing temperature, was
observed decreased of Anammox bacteria activity. Anammox bacteria
activity dropped with linear trend from 2.10 g N/d∙m2 (for 35 degrees),
to the 0.16 g N/d∙m2 (for 5 degrees). For temperatures close to zero was
observed inhibition Anammox bacteria. Oxygen Uptake Rate tests were
carried out for temperatures between 35 degrees to 17 degrees, with step
3 degrees (because in this sample were used a huge value of sample and
inhibitors, having a negative impact on bacteria. It was observed, that in
high temperature, in 35 degrees the activity of three groups of bacteria:
Heterotrophic, Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter were at the same level:
close to 4.0 g O2/m2∙d. With decreasing temperature decreases the
activity of bacteria. Bacterial activity decreases linearly, but with a
different speed (Fig. 34). The Oxygen Uptake Rate Short Term Test was
carried out the same like Specific Anammox Activity Short Term Test –
for Pilot Reactor 2.
23
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Fig. 30. Specific Anammox Activity Short Term Test results for
Pilot Reactor 2.
Fig. 31. Oxygen Uptake Rate Short Term Test results for Pilot
Reactor 2.
7. C ONCLUSIONS
The research for this master thesis were carried out on the Kaldness
rings from pilot-plant scale reactor for a period of four months. All
analyses are based on own research – batch tests such as SAA, NUR and
OUR carried out regularly every week. This allowed the conclusions
drawn:
General:
Aeration conditions at pilot plants (mixing and aeration) affected
the process performance.
Temperature has a strong influence on microbiological activity.
The highest effects of temperature were observed for Anammox
Bacteria.
The optimum temperature for high efficiency of the
deammonification process should be higher than 25°C.
Specific Anammox Activity:
Specific Anammox Activity test shows, that activity of Anammox
Bacteria increases with the increase temperature.
24
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
During the Specific Anammox Activity test, it is important the
frequency of sampling.
Short Term Test for Reactor 2 showed that after 8 degrees activity
of Anammox Bacteria is close to zero.
Nitrogen Utilization Rate:
Denitrifies activity is more stable for Reactor 1 with intermittent
aeration strategy.
Nitrogen Utilization Rate test is very sensitive of mixing: even
small problems with mixing have a large impact for the final
results.
Oxygen Uptake Rate:
Oxygen Uptake Rate test shows, that both in Reactor 1 and
Reactor 2, the main role have Bacteria Nitrosomonas.
Short Term Test for Reactor 2 showed, that in high temperature
(35°C), activity of different groups of bacteria is similar (OUR).
Drop of temperature caused the significant decrease of Nitrate
Oxidizing Bacteria activity (NOB).
8. R EF ERENCES
Ahn Y. H., Hwang I. S., Min K. S., 2004, “ANAMMOX and partial
denitritation in anaerobic nitrogen removal from piggery waste”, Water Science
and Technology. 49(5-60):145-53
Bertino A., 2010, ―Study on one-stage partial nitritation - anammox process in
moving bed biofilm reactors: a sustainable nitrogen removal”. Master Thesis,
Department of Land, Environment and Geo-Engineering – DITAG,
Politecnico di Torino, Italy. 144 p.
Cema G., 2009, “Comparative study on different Anammox systems”, Doctoral
Thesis in Land and Water Resources Engineering, KTH Architecture
and the Built environment, Stockholm, TRITA-LWR PhD 1053,72 p.
Cema G., Płaza E., Surmacz-Górska J., 2007, „Activated sludge and biofilm
in the Anammox reactor – Cooperation or competition?”, Proceeding of
Polish-Swedish seminars, Cracow March 17-18, 2005. Integration and
optimization of urban sanitation systems. Eds: Plaza E., Levlin E.,
Report 13: 129-138
Dosta J., Fernandez I., Vazquez-Padin J., Mosquera-Corral A., Campos J.
L., Mata-Alvarez J., Mendez R., 2008, “Short- and long-term effects of
temperature on the Anammox process”, Journal of Hazardous Materials
154: 688-693
Dymaczewski Z., Oleszkiewicz J. A., Sozański M. M., (red)
1997,“Poradnik eksploatatora oczyszczalni ścieków”. PZIiTS, Poznań,
LEM s.c., Kraków. 223 p.
Dz. U. 2006 nr 137 poz. 984
Gut L., Płaza E., Długołęcka M., Hultman B., 2005, “Partial nitritation
process assessment”, Vatten 61: 175-182, Lund
Hernando Z., Martinez S., 2010. “Evaluation of Deammonification process
performance for supernatant treatment”, Master Thesis, Department of
Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of
Technology, Sweden. TRITA LWR Degree Project, 10(12): 79 p.
Jetten M.S.M., Strous M., van de Pas-Schoonen T., Schalk J., van
Dongen U.G.J.M., van de Graaf A.A., Logemann S., Muyzer G., van
25
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Loosdrecht M.C.M., Kuenen J. G., 1999. ―The anaerobic oxidation of
ammonium”, FEMS Microbiology Reviews 22:421-437
Malovanyy A. 2009, “Monitoring and application of anammox process in one stage
deammonification system”, Master Thesis, Department of Land and
Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology,
Sweden. TRITA LWR Degree Project, 09(20): 74 p.
Malovanyy A., Płaza E., Trela J., 2009, „Evaluation of the factors influencing
the specific Anammox activity (SAA) using surface modeling”, Department of
Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of
Technology (KTH). Research and application of the new
technologies in wastewater treatment in Ukraine, Sweden and Poland
(Polish-Ukrainian-Swedish seminar)
Ridenoure, J. 2004, “Optimization of nitrogen removal from anaerobically
pretreated swine wastewater (APTSW) in intermittent aeration reactors”,
Master of Since Thesis, North Carolina State University
Strous M., Kuenen J. G., Jetten M., 1999, “Key physiological parameters of
anaerobic ammonium oxidation”, Applied Microbiology and
Biotechnology, 65:3248-3250
Wiesmann U., 1994, „Biological nitrogen removal from wastewater”, Advance in
Biochemical Engineering. Ed. Flatcher A. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
113-154
Żubrowska-Sudoł M., Trela J., 2010, “Proces Anammox jako alternatywna
metoda intensyfikacji usuwania azotu ze ścieków”, Gaz, Woda i Technika
Sanitarna., September, 22-25
Other references:
Hammarby Sjöstadsverk main website
AnoxKaldnes AB main website
Paques bv main website
Internetowy System Aktów Prawnych
INWATEC main website
www.sjostadsverket.se
www.anoxkaldnes.com
www.paques.nl
www.isap.sejm.gov.pl
www.inwatec.pl
Yang, Jinjjing: PhD Student, Stockholm. Personal communication June
2011
26
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TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
A PPENDIX I. D ATA FROM N ITRATE
U PTAKE R ATE TEST FOR LAB - SCALE
REACTORS DURING F EBRUA RY 1 S T
2011 – MAY 31 T H 2011.
02-03-2011
Table 4. NO3-N and COD results during the NUR test for Reactor 2.
120
180
240
NO3-N (mg/l)
102.0
91.6
88.1
80.2
74.0
COD (mg/l) filtr. 0.45 μm
-
-
-
-
-
Time (min)
0
60
120
180
240
NO3-N (mg/l)
100.8
92.0
82.4
77.6
73.2
COD (mg/l) filtr. 0.45 μm
274
-
-
-
256
Time (min)
0
60
120
180
240
NO3-N (mg/l)
105.2
93.2
86.8
80.0
74.4
COD (mg/l) filtr. 0.45 μm
309
-
-
-
280
Time (min)
0
60
120
180
240
NO3-N (mg/l)
89.6
81.2
90.0
86.0
82.4
COD (mg/l) filtr. 0.45 μm
287
-
-
-
217
17-03-2011
60
30-03-2011
0
14-04-2011
Time (min)
28-04-2011
05-05-2011
07-04-2011
24-03-2011
10-03-2011
Table 3. NO3-N and COD results during the NUR test for Reactor 1.
Time (min)
0
60
120
180
240
NO3-N (mg/l)
97.6
87.6
81.2
76.8
71.6
COD (mg/l) filtr. 0.45 μm
268
-
-
-
246
12-05-2011
19-05-2011
Technical problem with mixing, data are not reliable!
I
Time (min)
0
60
120
180
240
NO3-N (mg/l)
103.6
98.8
90.8
87.2
66.4
COD (mg/l) filtr. 0.45 μm
314
-
-
-
289
Time (min)
0
60
120
180
240
NO3-N (mg/l)
95.2
91.6
85.2
79.2
68.8
COD (mg/l) filtr. 0.45 μm
263
-
-
-
234
Time (min)
0
60
120
180
240
NO3-N (mg/l)
96.8
93.6
92.0
79.2
66.8
COD (mg/l) filtr. 0.45 μm
293
-
-
-
254
Time (min)
0
60
120
180
240
NO3-N (mg/l)
100.0
92.0
87.6
86.4
78.8
COD (mg/l) filtr. 0.45 μm
-
-
-
-
-
Time (min)
0
60
120
180
240
NO3-N (mg/l)
99.6
92.8
79.2
81.6
68.4
COD (mg/l) filtr. 0.45 μm
274
-
-
-
225
Time (min)
0
60
120
180
240
NO3-N (mg/l)
105.6
97.2
87.2
80.8
79.2
COD (mg/l) filtr. 0.45 μm
293
-
-
-
240
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Table 5. Nitrate Uptake Rate test results of 02-03-2011.
Table 6. Nitrate Uptake Rate test results of 10-03-2011.
Pilot Reactor2, 02-03-2011
400 ml
Kaldness
Pilot Reactor 1, 10-03-2011
Starting
DO
COD
(mg/l/min)
COD
(g COD/m2 d)
NO3-N
(mg/l/min)
NO3-N
(g N/m2 d)
0.4 mg/l
0.1042
0.75
0.1433
1.0320
400 ml
Kaldness
Starting
DO
COD
(mg/l/min)
COD
(g COD/m2 d)
NO3-N
(mg/l/min)
NO3-N
(g N/m2 d)
0.4 mg/l
-
-
0.1135
0.8172
Fig. 33. NUR results of 10-03-2011.
Fig. 32. NUR results of 02-03-2011.
II
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Table 7. Nitrate Uptake Rate test results of 17-03-2011.
Table 8. Nitrate Uptake Rate test results of 24-03-2011.
Pilot Reactor 2, 17-03-2011
400 ml
Kaldness
Pilot Reactor 1, 24-03-2011
Starting
DO
COD
(mg/l/min)
COD
(g COD/m2 d)
NO3-N
(mg/l/min)
NO3-N
(g N/m2 d)
0.4 mg/l
0.1208
0.87
0.1087
0.7824
400 ml
Kaldness
Fig. 34. NUR results of 17-03-2011.
Starting
DO
COD
(mg/l/min)
COD
(g COD/m2 d)
NO3-N
(mg/l/min)
NO3-N
(g N/m2 d)
0.4 mg/l
0.0750
0.54
0.1160
0.8352
Fig. 35. NUR results of 24-03-2011.
III
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Table 9. Nitrate Uptake Rate test results of 30-03-2011.
Table 10. Nitrate Uptake Rate test results of 07-04-2011.
Pilot Reactor 2, 30-03-2011
400 ml
Kaldness
Pilot Reactor 1, 07-04-2011
Starting
DO
COD
(mg/l/min)
COD
(g COD/m2 d)
NO3-N
(mg/l/min)
NO3-N
(g N/m2 d)
0.4 mg/l
0.1750
1.26
0.1240
0.8928
400 ml
Kaldness
Fig. 36. NUR results of 30-03-2011.
Starting
DO
COD
(mg/l/min)
COD
(g COD/m2 d)
NO3-N
(mg/l/min)
NO3-N
(g N/m2 d)
0.4 mg/l
0.1208
0.87
0.1247
0.8976
Fig. 37. NUR results of 07-04-2011.
IV
Weronika Wójcik
Table 11. Nitrate Uptake Rate test results of 14-04-2011.
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Table 12. Nitrate Uptake Rate test results of 28-04-2011.
Pilot Reactor 2, 14-04-2011
400 ml
Kaldness
Pilot Reactor 2, 28-04-2011
Starting.
DO
COD
(mg/l/min)
COD
(g COD/m2 d)
NO3-N
(mg/l/min)
NO3-N
(g N/m2 d)
0.4 mg/l
-
-
0.0800
0.5760
400 ml
Kaldness
Fig. 38. NUR results of 14-04-2011.
Starting
DO
COD
(mg/l/min)
COD
(g COD/m2 d)
NO3-N
(mg/l/min)
NO3-N
(g N/m2 d)
0.4 mg/l
0.2042
1.47
0.1227
0.8832
Fig. 39. NUR results of 28-04-2011.
V
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Table 13. Nitrate Uptake Rate test results of 12-05-2011.
Table 14. Nitrate Uptake Rate test results of 19-05-2011.
Pilot Reactor 2, 12-05-2011
400 ml
Kaldness
Pilot Reactor 1, 19-05-2011
Starting
DO
COD
(mg/l/min)
COD
(g COD/m2 d)
NO3-N
(mg/l/min)
NO3-N
(g N/m2 d)
0.4 mg/l
0.2208
1.59
0.1153
0.8304
400 ml
Kaldness
Fig. 40. NUR results of 12-05-2011.
Starting
DO
COD
(mg/l/min)
COD
(g COD/m2 d)
NO3-N
(mg/l/min)
NO3-N
(g N/m2 d)
0.4 mg/l
0.0967
0.66
0.1047
0.7536
Fig. 41. NUR results of 19-05-2011.
VI
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
A PPENDIX II. D ATA FROM S PECIFIC A NAMMOX
A CTIVITY TEST FOR LAB - SCALE REACTORS DURIN G
F EBRUARY 1 S T 2011 – MAY 31 T H 2011
Table 15. Specific Anammox Activity test results for Reactor 1 and 2.
2011-03-08
R1
R2
1
2
3
4
5
6
0
10.5
13.0
12.0
12.4
18.4
6.0
20
14.1
16.7
15.4
16.6
21.5
9.2
40
18.3
20.2
18.5
20.6
24.6
12.8
60
22.0
23.4
21.4
24.0
27.1
14.2
80
23.8
26.2
23.1
25.7
29.2
16.6
100
27.0
28.2
25.3
29.6
32.4
19.6
120
29.0
30.5
27.2
30.7
34.1
20.3
2011-03-09
R1
R2
1
2
3
4
5
6
0
3.8
6.4
6.8
3.5
3.0
3.2
2 & 5 we add 0.5 ml methanol
20
8.9
12.3
12.9
7.1
7.6
6.5
3 & 6 we add 1 ml methanol
40
12.1
15.8
17.3
11.4
12.0
10.6
60
16.3
19.1
20.6
12.8
14.6
11.8
80
18.6
22.1
24.8
16.2
17.2
15.1
100
18.9
23.0
26.1
17.0
19.2
17.4
120
22.0
25.8
29.3
19.5
22.3
20.0
2011-03-15
R1
R2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
0
3.2
3.2
3.1
3.6
6.2
5.0
3.6
4.8
3 & 7 we add 0,5 ml methanol
20
7.9
7.0
7.0
7.5
9.9
9.3
7.7
9.0
4 & 8 we add 1 ml methanol
40
12.9
10.2
10.8
10.8
12.9
12.0
10.8
11.7
60
16.7
13.0
13.7
13.9
16.3
14.8
13.9
14.2
80
20.8
15.9
17.3
17.0
20.4
19.0
18.2
17.0
100
24.6
18.5
19.4
19.7
23.4
21.9
20.8
19.4
120
25.3
19.2
20.5
20.4
25.2
23.2
22.3
20.9
2011-03-17
R1
R2
1
2
3
4
5
6
0
3.4
3.4
4.4
3.3
3.3
3.3
2 & 5 we add 0.5 ml methanol
20
10.2
9.3
11.3
9.6
8.5
10.0
3 & 6 we add 1 ml methanol
40
13.2
12.4
13.5
11.3
10.3
11.5
60
16.8
15.7
18.0
15.7
13.7
14.8
80
19.4
18.6
20.2
17.8
16.4
17.2
100
21.5
21.1
22.5
20.1
18.6
19.9
120
23.3
22.6
23.8
21.9
19.6
21.0
2011-03-22
R1
R2
1
2
3
4
5
6
0
4.2
3.8
4.4
3.2
3.8
3.3
20
8.2
7.3
8.3
9.6
8.7
6.7
VII
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
40
11.7
12.3
11.9
13.6
14.1
10.3
60
14.1
14.8
16.6
18.0
15.9
11.4
80
17.7
18.0
19.7
19.2
16.4
13.6
100
18.5
18.3
20.7
23.4
19.2
15.1
120
19.9
20.1
22.4
25.9
22.0
16.9
2011-03-29
R1
R2
1
2
3
4
5
6
0
3.5
3.7
3.9
3.9
3.2
2.0
20
9.0
8.1
8.8
7.1
8.0
6.8
40
12.5
11.3
11.9
8.0
11.0
9.6
60
16.6
15.6
15.8
9.5
13.9
12.9
80
17.2
16.4
16.0
11.4
16.0
15.3
100
14.8
17.1
14.0
15.0
19.7
18.6
120
15.7
17.2
14.9
16.7
21.5
21.4
2011-04-05
R1
R2
1
2
3
4
5
6
0
2.8
3.3
3.3
2.6
2.4
2.0
20
7.5
5.8
7.7
6.2
5.5
5.8
40
12.8
10.4
14.4
12.4
11.7
12.2
60
14.3
12.9
17.6
14.0
13.3
13.0
80
15.6
13.2
15.4
16.8
16.0
16.5
100
13.4
14.2
16.5
17.0
16.7
16.8
120
15.1
15.9
18.4
17.5
18.6
17.1
2011-04-12
R1
R2
1
2
3
4
5
6
0
1.9
1.7
1.8
2.3
1.9
1.9
20
3.0
2.8
4.0
7.0
7.6
8.3
40
12.0
12.9
12.7
10.3
11.0
10.9
60
13.0
12.5
12.9
12.7
12.9
12.5
80
12.8
15.6
13.2
13.7
16.8
17.1
100
15.0
15.9
17.2
14.9
14.0
13.0
120
15.0
16.6
17.9
14.0
15.0
14.7
2011-04-19
R1
R2
1
2
3
4
5
6
0
2.7
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3.0
30
8.9
8.2
8.5
6.9
7.0
6.9
60
15.7
14.7
15.2
9.8
10.5
90
18.7
17.8
18.5
12.4
13.4
120
22.2
21.2
22.2
17.3
10.4
R1
2011-04-26
16.9
R2
1
2
3
4
5
6
0
3.3
2.9
3.3
3.3
3.4
3.3
30
8.6
9.8
10.0
9.2
6.3
8.4
60
12.2
14.3
13.9
12.3
8.3
12.5
90
16.4
19.0
18.3
17.5
16.0
16.8
VIII
Weronika Wójcik
120
2011-05-03
0
20.0
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
21.8
25.0
21.0
16.8
R1
19.8
R2
1
2
3
4
5
6
2.8
2.9
3.1
2.9
2.7
2.8
30
8.4
8.9
9.5
7.8
7.8
8.3
60
12.2
12.4
13.6
11.7
12.7
13.3
90
16.6
15.6
17.5
14.7
16.3
16.6
120
18.3
17.6
20.5
19.1
19.6
19.4
0
2.6
2.7
2.7
20
6.1
5.9
6.2
40
2.1
2.2
2.1
60
11.2
11.0
11.3
80
14.0
13.9
13.6
100
15.3
14.8
14.4
120
17.9
17.1
16.5
R1
2011-05-17
R2
1
2
3
4
5
6
0
4.6
4.0
4.0
3.5
3.8
3.1
30
9.4
8.1
8.9
5.3
5.4
6.0
60
14.3
13.2
14.5
9.2
9.3
10.3
90
19.7
17.7
19.7
12.8
12.0
13.0
120
22.0
20.2
23.1
16.4
15.4
16.1
2011-05-24
R1
R2
1
2
3
4
5
6
0
2.0
2.0
2.1
1.9
2.2
1.9
30
8.0
7.8
7.5
7.2
8.1
7.0
60
13.5
13.5
13.0
11.6
13.0
11.0
90
17.7
17.5
16.9
15.7
17.4
14.5
120
20.9
20.2
19.0
18.2
20.2
17.2
IX
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Table 16. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, Pilot Reactor 1, March 8, 2011.
t (min)
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
0
10.5
13.0
12.0
20
14.1
16.7
15.4
40
18.3
20.2
18.5
60
22.0
23.4
21.4
80
23.8
26.2
23.1
100
27.0
25.3
120
P(mV) / min
0.164714286
0.1655 0.132142857
P(mmHg) / min
0.436492857
0.438575 0.350178571
8.545E-06
8.58576E-06 6.85527E-06
g N / min
Biofilm area
SAA
g N / d·m2
SAA
g N / d·m2
0.007009346
1.755483872
1.763857819 1.408345691
1.642562461
Fig. 42. SAA results, Pilot Reactor 1, March 8, 2011.
X
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Table 17. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, Pilot Reactor 1, March 15, 2011.
t (min)
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
0
6.2
3.6
4.8
20
9.9
7.7
9.0
40
12.9
10.8
11.7
60
16.3
13.9
14.2
80
20.4
18.2
17.0
100
23.4
20.8
19.4
120
25.2
22.3
20.9
P(mV) / min
0.163392857
0.160178571
0.132857143
P(mmHg) / min
0.432991071
0.424473214
0.352071429
g N / min
8.47644E-06
8.30969E-06
6.89232E-06
1.707143358
1.41595837
Biofilm area
SAA
g N / d·m2
SAA
g N / d·m2
0.007009346
1.741400415
1.621500714
Fig. 43. SAA results, Pilot Reactor 1, March 15, 2011.
XI
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Table 18. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, Pilot Reactor 1, March 22, 2011.
t (min)
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
0
4.2
3.8
4.4
20
8.2
7.3
8.3
40
11.9
60
14.1
14.8
16.6
80
17.7
18.0
19.7
100
18.5
120
P(mV) / min
0.147616279
0.1795
0.1945
P(mmHg) / min
0.39118314
0.475675
0.515425
g N / min
7.65799E-06
9.31204E-06
1.00902E-05
1.913066336
2.072932603
Biofilm area
SAA
g N / d·m2
SAA
g N / d·m2
0.007009346
1.573257572
1.853085504
Fig. 44. SAA results, Pilot Reactor 1, March 22, 2011.
XII
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Table 19. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, Pilot Reactor 1, March 29, 2011.
t (min)
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
0
3.5
3.7
3.9
20
9.0
8.1
8.8
40
12.5
11.3
11.9
60
16.6
15.6
15.8
80
16.4
100
120
P(mV) / min
0.214
0.1645
0.194
P(mmHg) / min
0.5671
0.435925
0.5141
1.11018E-05
8.53388E-06
1.00643E-05
1.753200068
2.067603728
g N / min
Biofilm area
SAA
g N / d·m2
SAA
g N / d·m2
0.007009346
2.280758751
2.033854182
Fig. 45. SAA results, Pilot Reactor 1, March 29, 2011.
XIII
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Table 20. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, Pilot Reactor 1, April 5, 2011.
t (min)
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
0
2.8
3.3
3.3
20
7.5
5.8
7.7
40
12.8
10.4
14.4
60
14.3
12.9
17.6
80
15.4
100
120
P(mV) / min
0.199
0.167
0.1705
0.52735
0.44255
0.451825
g N / min
1.03237E-05
8.66357E-06
8.84514E-06
Biofilm area
0.007009346
SAA
g N / d·m2
2.120892484
1.779844446
1.817146575
SAA
g N / d·m2
P(mmHg) / min
1.905961168
Fig. 46. SAA results, Pilot Reactor 1, April 5, 2011.
XIV
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Table 21. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, Pilot Reactor 1, April 12, 2011.
t (min)
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
0
1.9
1.7
1.8
20
3.0
40
12.0
12.9
12.7
60
13.0
12.5
12.9
80
12.8
15.6
4.0
100
120
P(mV) / min
0.159
0.169285714
0.21
0.42135
0.448607143
0.5565
g N / min
8.24855E-06
8.78215E-06
1.08943E-05
Biofilm area
0.007009346
SAA
g N / d·m2
1.694582437
1.80420502
2.238127747
SAA
g N / d·m2
P(mmHg) / min
1.912305068
Fig. 47. SAA results, Pilot Reactor 1, April 12, 2011.
XV
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Table 22. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, Pilot Reactor 1, April 19, 2011.
t (min)
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
0
2.7
2.6
2.7
30
8.9
8.2
8.5
60
15.7
14.7
15.2
90
18.7
17.8
18.5
P(mV) / min
0.182666667
0.173666667
0.180333333
P(mmHg) / min
0.484066667
0.460216667
0.477883333
g N / min
9.47632E-06
9.00942E-06
9.35528E-06
Biofilm area
0.007009346
SAA
g N / d·m2
1.946815881
1.850896121
1.921947795
SAA
g N / d·m2
120
1.906553266
Fig. 48. SAA results, Pilot Reactor 1, April 19, 2011.
XVI
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Table 23. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, Pilot Reactor 1, April 26, 2011.
t (min)
0
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
3.3
2.9
3.3
30
9.8
60
12.2
14.3
13.9
90
16.4
19.0
18.3
120
20.0
P(mV) / min
0.140285714
0.176
0.177428571
P(mmHg) / min
0.371757143
0.4664
0.470185714
g N / min
7.2777E-06
9.13047E-06
9.20458E-06
1.875764207
1.890989566
25.0
Biofilm area
0.007009346
SAA
g N / d·m2
1.495130236
SAA
g N / d·m2
1.753961336
Fig. 49. SAA results, Pilot Reactor 1, April 26, 2011.
XVII
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Table 24. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, Pilot Reactor 1, May 3, 2011.
t (min)
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
0
2.8
2.9
3.1
30
8.4
60
12.2
9.5
12.4
90
13.6
15.6
120
P(mV) / min
0.156666667
0.143571429
0.175
P(mmHg) / min
0.415166667
0.380464286
0.46375
g N / min
8.1275E-06
7.44815E-06
9.07859E-06
1.530148561
1.865106456
Biofilm area
0.007009346
SAA
g N / d·m2
1.669714351
SAA
g N / d·m2
1.688323123
Fig. 50. SAA results, Pilot Reactor 1, May 3, 2011.
XVIII
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Table 25. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, Pilot Reactor 1, May 17, 2011.
t (min)
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
0
4.6
4.0
4.0
30
9.4
8.1
8.9
60
14.3
13.2
14.5
90
19.7
17.7
19.7
120
P(mV) / min
0.167333333
0.154
0.175666667
P(mmHg) / min
0.443433333
0.4081
0.465516667
g N / min
8.68087E-06
7.98916E-06
9.11318E-06
Biofilm area
0.007009346
SAA
g N / d·m2
1.78339703
1.641293681
1.872211623
SAA
g N / d·m2
1.765634111
Fig. 51. SAA results, Pilot Reactor 1, May 17, 2011.
XIX
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Table 26. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, Pilot Reactor 1, May 24, 2011.
t (min)
SAA
SAA
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
0
30
60
90
120
2.0
8.0
13.5
17.7
2.0
7.8
13.5
17.5
2.1
7.5
13.0
16.9
P(mV) / min
P(mmHg) / min
g N / min
Biofilm area
0.175333333
0.464633333
9.09589E-06
0.007009346
0.174
0.4611
9.02672E-06
0.166333333
0.440783333
8.62899E-06
g N / d·m2
g N / d·m2
1.868659039
1.854448704
1.831949007
1.772739279
Fig. 52. SAA results, Pilot Reactor 1, May 24, 2011.
XX
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Table 27. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, Pilot Reactor 2, March 8, 2011.
t (min)
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
0
12.4
18.4
6.0
20
16.6
40
20.6
24.6
60
24.0
27.1
14.2
32.4
19.6
9.2
80
100
120
P(mV) / min
0.194
0.139423077
0.134067797
P(mmHg) / min
0.5141
0.369471154
0.355279661
g N / min
1.00643E-05
7.23295E-06
6.95513E-06
Biofilm area
0.007009346
SAA
g N / d·m2
2.067603728
1.485936462
1.428861217
SAA
g N / d·m2
1.660800469
Fig. 53. SAA results, Pilot Reactor 2, March 8, 2011.
XXI
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Table 28. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, Pilot Reactor 2, March 15, 2011.
t (min)
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
0
3.8
3.2
3.2
20
8.9
7.9
7.0
40
12.1
12.9
10.2
60
16.3
16.7
13.0
80
18.6
20.8
15.9
P(mV) / min
0.144821429
0.192142857
0.136964286
P(mmHg) / min
0.383776786
0.509178571
0.362955357
7.513E-06
9.96793E-06
7.10539E-06
2.047810761
1.459731277
100
120
g N / min
Biofilm area
0.007009346
SAA
g N / d·m2
1.54347075
SAA
g N / d·m2
1.68367093
28.0
P (atm∙10-3)
24.0
y = 0.185x + 4.54
R² = 0.9857
20.0
y = 0.157x + 3.58
R² = 0.996
16.0
y = 0.22x + 3.5
R² = 0.9972
12.0
8.0
4.0
0.0
0
30
60
90
Time (min)
Fig. 54. SAA results, Pilot Reactor 2, March 15, 2011.
XXII
120
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Table 29. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, Pilot Reactor 2, March 22, 2011.
t (min)
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
0
3.2
3.8
3.3
20
9.6
8.7
6.7
40
13.6
14.1
10.3
60
18.0
15.9
11.4
80
100
13.6
23.4
19.2
P(mV) / min
0.198108108
0.151554054
0.1265
P(mmHg) / min
0.524986486
0.401618243
0.335225
g N / min
1.02774E-05
7.86227E-06
6.56253E-06
Biofilm area
0.007009346
SAA
g N / d·m2
2.111386922
1.615225398
1.348205524
SAA
g N / d·m2
120
1.691605948
Fig. 55. SAA results, Pilot Reactor 2, March 22, 2011.
XXIII
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Table 30. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, Pilot Reactor 2, March 29, 2011.
t (min)
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
0
3.9
3.2
2.0
20
7.1
40
8.0
6.8
60
11.0
9.6
13.9
12.9
80
100
15.0
19.7
120
P(mV) / min
0.1075
0.164230769
0.1775
0.284875
0.435211538
0.470375
g N / min
5.57685E-06
8.51991E-06
9.20829E-06
Biofilm area
0.007009346
SAA
g N / d·m2
1.145708251
1.750330674
1.891750833
SAA
g N / d·m2
P(mmHg) / min
1.595929919
Fig. 56. SAA results, Pilot Reactor 2, March 29, 2011.
XXIV
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Table 31. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, Pilot Reactor 2, April5, 2011.
t (min)
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
0
2.6
2.4
2.0
20
6.2
5.5
5.8
40
12.4
11.7
12.2
60
14.0
13.3
13.0
80
100
120
P(mV) / min
0.202
0.1945
0.197
P(mmHg) / min
0.5353
0.515425
0.52205
g N / min
1.04793E-05
1.00902E-05
1.02199E-05
Biofilm area
0.007009346
SAA
g N / d·m2
2.152865737
2.072932603
2.099576981
SAA
g N / d·m2
2.108458441
Fig. 57. SAA results, Pilot Reactor 2, April 5, 2011.
XXV
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Table 32. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, Pilot Reactor 2, April 12, 2011.
t (min)
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
0
2.3
1.9
1.9
20
7.0
7.6
40
10.3
11.0
10.9
60
12.7
12.9
12.5
80
17.1
100
120
P(mV) / min
P(mmHg) / min
g N / min
0.1725
0.182
0.184571429
0.457125
0.4823
0.489114286
8.9489E-06
9.44174E-06
9.57514E-06
1.939710714
1.96711636
Biofilm area
0.007009346
SAA
g N / d·m2
1.838462078
SAA
g N / d·m2
1.915096384
Fig. 58. SAA results, Pilot Reactor 2, April 12, 2011.
XXVI
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Table 33. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, Pilot Reactor 2, April 26, 2011.
t (min)
0
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
3.3
3.4
3.3
30
8.4
60
12.3
8.3
12.5
90
17.5
16.0
16.8
120
21.0
16.8
P(mV) / min
0.15
0.120666667
0.148666667
0.3975
0.319766667
0.393966667
g N / min
7.78165E-06
6.25991E-06
7.71248E-06
Biofilm area
0.007009346
SAA
g N / d·m2
1.598662676
1.286035308
1.584452341
SAA
g N / d·m2
P(mmHg) / min
1.489716775
Fig. 59. SAA results, Pilot Reactor 2, April 26, 2011.
XXVII
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Table 34. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, Pilot Reactor 2, May 3, 2011.
t (min)
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
0
2.6
2.7
2.7
20
6.1
5.9
6.2
60
11.2
11.0
11.3
80
14.0
13.9
13.6
40
100
120
P(mV) / min
0.1395
0.1375
0.1345
0.369675
0.364375
0.356425
g N / min
7.23694E-06
7.13318E-06
6.97755E-06
Biofilm area
0.007009346
SAA
g N / d·m2
1.486756289
1.465440786
1.433467533
SAA
g N / d·m2
P(mmHg) / min
1.461888203
Fig. 60. SAA results, Pilot Reactor 2, May 3, 2011.
XXVIII
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Table 35. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, Pilot Reactor 2, May 17, 2011.
t (min)
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
0
Bottle 3
3.1
30
5.3
5.4
6.0
60
9.2
9.3
10.3
90
12.8
12.0
13.0
120
P(mV) / min
0.125
0.11
0.113333333
0.33125
0.2915
0.300333333
g N / min
6.48471E-06
5.70655E-06
5.87947E-06
Biofilm area
0.007009346
SAA
g N / d·m2
1.332218897
1.172352629
1.207878466
SAA
g N / d·m2
P(mmHg) / min
1.237483331
Fig. 61. SAA results, Pilot Reactor 2, May 17, 2011.
XXIX
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Table 36. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, Pilot Reactor 2, May 24, 2011.
t (min)
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
0
1.9
2.2
1.9
30
7.2
60
11.6
90
7.0
13.0
11.0
17.4
120
P(mV) / min
0.161666667
0.17047619
0.151666667
P(mmHg) / min
0.428416667
0.451761905
0.401916667
g N / min
8.38689E-06
8.84391E-06
7.86812E-06
Biofilm area
0.007009346
SAA
g N / d·m2
1.723003107
SAA
g N / d·m2
1.816892819
1.616425595
1.71877384
Fig. 62. SAA results, Pilot Reactor 2, May 24, 2011.
XXX
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
A PPENDIX III. C OMPARISON OF THE TES T RESULTS ,
ACCORDING TO FREQUEN CY OF SAMPLES CONTROL
Table37. Comparison of the results Specific Anammox Activity test according to frequency
of samples control, Pilot Reactor 2.
NORMAL SAA, R2, every 20 minutes
NORMAL SAA, R2, every 30 minutes
Time (min)
1
2
3
4
5
6
0
2.6
2.7
2.7
2.9
2.7
2.8
6.1
5.9
6.2
7.8
7.8
8.3
11.7
12.7
13.3
14.7
16.3
16.6
19.1
19.6
12.0
10
20
30
40
2.1
2.2
2.1
11.2
11.0
11.3
14.0
13.9
13.6
50
60
70
80
90
100
15.3
14.8
14.4
17.9
17.1
16.5
110
120
SAA = 1.461888203
SAA = 1.611688816
XXXI
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
A PPENDIX IV. O XYGEN U PTAKE R ATE TEST DATA
Fig. 63.OUR results, Pilot Reactor 2, March 2, 2011, Rep. I.
Fig. 64. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 2, March 2, 2011, Rep. II.
Fig. 65. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 2, March 2, 2011, Rep. III.
XXXII
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Fig. 66. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 1, March 10, 2011, Rep. I.
Fig. 67. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 1, March 10, 2011, Rep. II.
Fig. 68. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 1, March 10, 2011, Rep. III.
XXXIII
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Fig. 69. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 2, March 17, 2011, Rep. I.
Fig. 70. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 2, March 17, 2011, Rep. II.
Fig. 71. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 2, March 17, 2011, Rep. III.
XXXIV
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Fig. 72. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 1, March 24, 2011, Rep. I.
Fig. 73. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 1, March 24, 2011, Rep. II.
Fig. 74. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 1, March 24, 2011, Rep. III.
XXXV
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Fig. 75. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 2, March 30, 2011, Rep. I.
Fig. 76. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 2, March 30, 2011, Rep. II.
Fig. 77. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 2, March 30, 2011, Rep. III.
XXXVI
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Fig. 78. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 1, April 7, 2011, Rep. I.
Fig. 79. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 1, April 7, 2011, Rep. II.
Fig. 80. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 1, April 7, 2011, Rep. III.
XXXVII
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Fig. 81. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 2, April 14, 2011, Rep. I.
Fig. 82. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 2, April 14, 2011, Rep. II.
Fig. 83. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 2, April 14, 2011, Rep. III.
XXXVIII
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Fig. 84. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 1, April 21, 2011, Rep. I.
Fig. 85. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 1, April 21, 2011, Rep. II.
Fig. 86. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 1, April 21, 2011, Rep. III.
XXXIX
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Fig. 87. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 2, May 12, 2011, Rep. I.
Fig. 88. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 2, May 12, 2011, Rep. II.
Fig. 89. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 2, May 12, 2011, Rep. III.
XL
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Fig. 90. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 1, May 19, 2011, Rep. I.
Fig. 91. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 1, May 19, 2011, Rep. II.
Fig. 92. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 1, May 19, 2011, Rep. III.
XLI
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
A PPENDIX V. D ATA NECESSARY FOR OUR CALCULATIONS
2011-03-02
2011-03-10
2011-03-17
2011-03-24
2011-03-30
Temperature 19.9 109 mg/l NH4-N
Temperature
Temperature
Temperature
Temperature
21
21
21
20
101 mg/l NH4-N
107 mg/l NH4-N
104 mg/l NH4-N
105 mg/l NH4-N
107 mV
101 mV
86 mV
94 mV
92 mv
DO 9.2 mg/l
1
2
3
540
347
371
880
670
706
Pilot reactor 2
DO 9.3 mg/l
1
2
3
592
342
318
1073
703
667
Pilot reactor 1
DO 9.3 mg/l
1
2
3
360
324
327
699
660
642
Pilot reactor 2
DO 9.3 mg/l
1
2
3
328
330
319
648
646
641
Pilot reactor 1
DO 9.2 mg/l
1
2
3
316
316
327
654
631
643
Pilot reactor 2
378
332
313
733
667
635
Pilot reactor 1
267
322
683
644
Pilot reactor 2
2011-04-07
Temperature
105 mg/l NH4-N
98 mv
DO 9.3 mg/l
1
2
3
2011-04-14
Temperature 20.5 102 mg/l NH4-N
96 mv
DO 9.1 mg/l
1
2
20
XLII
Weronika Wójcik
2011-04-21
2011-05-12
2011-05-19
Temperature 21.2 100 mg/l NH4-N
Temperature
Temperature
23
21
90.3 mg/l NH4-N
95.2 mg/l NH4-N
97 mv
103 mv
98 mv
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
3
318
657
DO 8.5 mg/l
1
2
3
431
379
330
770
647
590
Pilot reactor 1
DO 8.7 mg/l
1
2
3
345
320
342
714
638
684
Pilot reactor 2
DO 9.0 mg/l
1
2
3
431
332
353
802
702
574
Pilot reactor 1
XLIII
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
A PPENDIX
VI.
D ATA ,
R ESULTS
AND
CALCULATIONS FOR SAA SHORT TERM TEST ,
P ILOT REACTOR 2
Table 38. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, 35°C.
t (min)
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
Bottle4
0
2.6
3.9
3.0
2.9
30
13.1
12.0
14.4
11.4
60
19.0
17.3
20.6
17.1
90
24.4
23.0
25.8
22.4
120
28.8
27.4
30.2
25.6
P(mV) / min
0.212333333
0.193333333 0.219333333 0.188000000
P(mmHg) / min
0.562683333
0.512333333 0.581233333 0.498200000
g N / min
1.06579E-05
Biofilm area
SAA
g N / d·m2
SAA
g N / d·m2
9.7042E-06 1.10093E-05
9.4365E-06
0.007009346
2.189557707
1.993631821 2.261740928 1.938635082
2.095891385
Fig. 93.SAAresults, 35°C.
XLIV
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Table 39. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, 32°C.
t (min)
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
Bottle4
0
2.8
4.1
3.5
3.7
30
11.0
12.2
13.6
12.4
60
16.6
16.6
18.6
17.4
90
21.2
19.0
22.6
22.6
120
24.6
23.3
27.0
24.8
P(mV) / min
0.179333333
0.150666667
0.186666667
0.174666667
P(mmHg) / min
0.475233333
0.399266667
0.494666667
0.462866667
g N / min
9.08998E-06
7.63694E-06
9.46169E-06
8.85344E-06
1.568932271
1.943809894
Biofilm area
SAA
g N / d·m2
SAA
g N / d·m2
0.007009346
1.867445933
1.818850686
1.799759696
Fig. 94. SAA results, 32°C.
XLV
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Table 40. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, 29°C.
t (min)
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
Bottle4
0
3.5
2.9
3.7
4.0
30
7.6
6.2
7.2
10.1
60
13.4
12.3
13.7
13.9
90
17.0
15.6
17.1
18.4
120
19.8
17.8
19.3
21.8
P(mV) / min
0.140000000
0.130666667
0.137000000
0.146333333
P(mmHg) / min
0.371000000
0.346266667
0.363050000
0.387783333
g N / min
7.16673E-06
6.68894E-06
7.01315E-06
7.49094E-06
1.374176774
1.440782281
1.538937765
Biofilm area
SAA
g N / d·m2
SAA
g N / d·m2
0.007009346
1.472332258
1.45655727
Fig. 95. SAA results, 29°C.
XLVI
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Table 41. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, 26°C.
t (min)
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
Bottle4
0
3.2
4.0
3.8
4.5
30
7.2
8.6
8.5
8.9
60
10.8
11.8
12.2
12.6
90
14.1
14.9
15.2
15.3
120
17.9
17.9
17.5
18.7
P(mV) / min
0.121000000
0.113666667
0.113666667
0.116000000
P(mmHg) / min
0.320650000
0.301216667
0.301216667
0.307400000
g N / min
6.25622E-06
5.87705E-06
5.87705E-06
5.99769E-06
1.207381473
1.207381473
1.23216643
Biofilm area
SAA
g N / d·m2
SAA
g N / d·m2
0.007009346
1.285277052
1.233051607
Fig. 96. SAA results, 26°C.
XLVII
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Table 42. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, 23°C.
t (min)
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
Bottle4
0
2.2
2.4
3.2
2.2
30
6.6
5.2
6.2
5.7
60
9.5
8.5
8.5
8.2
90
12.1
11.0
10.9
10.3
120
16.9
14.5
14.1
13.3
P(mV) / min
0.116333333
0.100000000
0.088333333
0.089333333
P(mmHg) / min
0.308283333
0.265000000
0.234083333
0.236733333
g N / min
6.07586E-06
5.2228E-06
4.61348E-06
4.6657E-06
Biofilm area
SAA
g N / d·m2
SAA
g N / d·m2
0.007009346
1.248224853
1.072972653
0.94779251
0.958522237
1.056878063
Fig. 97. SAA results, 23°C.
XLVIII
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Table 43. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, 20°C.
t (min)
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
Bottle4
0
1.9
1.8
1.9
2.0
30
2.0
1.9
2.0
2.1
60
6.7
7.7
9.5
8.9
90
9.7
11.1
12.1
11.3
120
12.0
13.3
14.2
13.8
P(mV) / min
0.093000000
0.107333333
0.115666667
0.109333333
P(mmHg) / min
0.246450000
0.284433333
0.306516667
0.289733333
g N / min
4.90691E-06
5.66318E-06
6.10286E-06
5.7687E-06
1.163442994
1.253772419
Biofilm area
SAA
g N / d·m2
SAA
g N / d·m2
0.007009346
1.008076383
1.185122056
1.152603463
Fig. 98. SAA results, 20°C.
XLIX
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Table 44. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, 17°C.
t (min)
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
Bottle4
0
1.9
1.9
1.9
2.2
30
3.5
3.2
3.8
3.8
60
8.3
7.4
8.2
6.6
90
9.6
9.5
12.7
10.0
120
13.6
13.4
15.4
13.4
P(mV) / min
0.098333333
0.097666667
0.119666667
0.095333333
P(mmHg) / min
0.260583333
0.258816667
0.317116667
0.252633333
g N / min
5.24196E-06
5.20642E-06
6.3792E-06
5.08203E-06
1.069606863
1.310542198
Biofilm area
SAA
g N / d·m2
SAA
g N / d·m2
0.007009346
1.076907934
1.044053116
1.125277528
Fig. 99. SAA results, 17°C.
L
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Table 45. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, 14°C.
t (min)
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
Bottle4
0
2.1
2.0
2.0
1.9
30
3.9
3.9
2.1
1.5
60
5.9
5.6
5.1
4.8
90
9.2
9.9
8.5
8.0
120
11.2
11.9
10.2
9.4
P(mV) / min
0.078333333
0.086000000
0.076000000
0.071666667
P(mmHg) / min
0.207583333
0.227900000
0.201400000
0.189916667
g N / min
4.21942E-06
4.63239E-06
4.09374E-06
3.86032E-06
0.95167798
0.84101775
Biofilm area
SAA
g N / d·m2
SAA
g N / d·m2
0.007009346
0.866838471
0.793064984
0.863149796
Fig. 100. SAA results, 14°C.
LI
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Table 46. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, 11°C.
t (min)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
120
2.0
5.6
7.3
11.7
9.8
2.6
4.8
8.0
7.7
11.6
2.3
4.6
6.1
8.5
10.4
P(mV) / min
P(mmHg) / min
g N / min
Biofilm area
0.072333333
0.191683333
3.93737E-06
0.007009346
0.069666667
0.184616667
3.79221E-06
0.067000000
0.177550000
3.64706E-06
g N / d·m2
g N / d·m2
0.808893246
0.779072296 0.749251347
0.779072296
0
30
60
90
SAA
SAA
P (mV)
Bottle4
Fig. 101. SAA results, 11°C.
LII
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Table 47. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, 8°C.
t (min)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
Bottle4
120
1.4
2.9
3.0
7.0
8.2
1.5
2.8
2.9
6.6
8.0
1.4
3.1
3.3
7.2
8.4
1.5
2.9
3.1
5.9
6.7
P(mV) / min
P(mmHg) / min
g N / min
Biofilm area
0.059000000
0.156350000
3.24586E-06
0.007009346
0.056000000
0.148400000
3.08081E-06
0.060333333
0.159883333
3.31921E-06
0.044666667
0.118366667
2.45732E-06
g N / d·m2
g N / d·m2
0.666828747
0.632922201 0.681898323
0.621620018
0.504830803
0
30
60
90
SAA
SAA
P (mV)
Fig. 102. SAA results, 8°C.
LIII
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Table 48. Specific Anammox Activity test calculations, 5°C.
t (min)
P (mV)
Bottle 1
Bottle 2
Bottle 3
Bottle4
0
2.0
2.4
1.5
1.4
30
1.7
1.7
1.5
1.3
60
1.8
1.8
1.6
1.5
90
3.0
2.3
1.8
1.7
120
3.5
3.6
4.6
2.5
P(mV) / min
0.014333333
0.010000000
0.021666667
0.008666667
P(mmHg) / min
0.037983333
0.026500000
0.057416667
0.022966667
g N / min
7.97046E-07
5.56079E-07
1.20484E-06
4.81935E-07
0.114240824
0.247521785
Biofilm area
SAA
g N / d·m2
SAA
g N / d·m2
0.007009346
0.163745181
0.099008714
0.156129126
Fig. 103. SAA results, 5°C.
LIV
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
A PPENDIX VII. D A TA NECESSARY FOR OUR S HORT T ERM T EST CALCULATIONS
Temperature
35
432.5mg/l NH4-N
105 mV
DO 8.8 mg/l
1
2
371
321
670
640
Pilot reactor 2
Temperature
32
430 mg/l NH4-N
103 mV
DO 8.8 mg/l
1
332
640
Pilot reactor 2
409
407
322
742
739
702
Pilot reactor 2
Temperature
29
457.5 mg/l NH4-N
103 mV
DO 8.5 mg/l
1
2
3
Temperature
26
437.5mg/l NH4-N
104 mV
DO 8.8 mg/l
1
323
644
Pilot reactor 2
Temperature
23
430 mg/l NH4-N
103 mv
DO 8.8 mg/l
1
310
623
Pilot reactor 2
Temperature
20
410mg/l NH4-N
105 mv
DO 8.8 mg/l
1
2
331
340
682
687
Pilot reactor 2
Temperature
17
430 mg/l NH4-N
103 mv
DO 8.8 mg/l
1
330
664
Pilot reactor 1
LV
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
A PPENDIX VIII . G RAPHS NECESSARY FOR OUR S HORT
T ERM T EST CALCULATIONS
Fig. 104. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 2, Temp. 35°C, 2011, Rep. I.
Fig. 105. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 2, Temp. 35°C, 2011, Rep. II.
Fig. 106. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 2, Temp. 32°C, 2011, Rep. I.
LVI
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Fig. 107. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 2, Temp. 29°C, 2011, Rep. I.
Fig. 108. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 2, Temp. 29°C, 2011, Rep. II.
Fig. 109. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 2, Temp. 29°C, 2011, Rep. III.
LVII
Evaluation of microbiological activity during the deammonification process for nitrogen removal
Fig. 110. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 2, Temp. 26°C, 2011, Rep. I.
Fig. 111. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 2, Temp. 23°C, 2011, Rep. I.
Fig. 112. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 2, Temp. 20°C, 2011, Rep. I.
LVIII
Weronika Wójcik
TRITA LWR Degree Project 11:26
Fig. 113. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 2, Temp. 20°C, 2011, Rep. II.
Fig. 114. OUR results, Pilot Reactor 2, Temp. 17°C, 2011, Rep. I.
LIX
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