Copley Controls | Serial Encoder | User guide | Copley Controls Serial Encoder User guide

CME 2 User Guide
P/N CC95-00454-000
Revision C
July 2012
CME 2 User Guide
TABLE OF CONTENTS
About This Manual ................................................................................................................................................................................ 5
1:
Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................. 9
1.1: Host Computer Requirements .............................................................................................................................................. 10
1.2: Amplifier Commissioning Software ....................................................................................................................................... 11
1.3: Servo Operating Modes and Control Loops .......................................................................................................................... 11
2:
Installation, Startup, and Interface Tour .................................................................................................................................. 13
2.1: Install CME 2 Software ......................................................................................................................................................... 14
2.2: Start CME 2 Software ........................................................................................................................................................... 15
2.3: Configure Serial Port Parameters ......................................................................................................................................... 16
2.4: Configure CAN Network Parameters .................................................................................................................................... 18
2.5: Configure EtherCAT Network Parameters ............................................................................................................................ 19
2.6: Connect to an Amplifier in CME 2 ......................................................................................................................................... 20
2.7: Rename an Amplifier ............................................................................................................................................................ 21
2.8: CME 2 Interface Tour ........................................................................................................................................................... 22
3:
Amplifier Setup Procedure........................................................................................................................................................ 27
3.1: Warnings and Notes ............................................................................................................................................................. 28
3.2: Setup Procedure................................................................................................................................................................... 29
4:
Basic Setup ................................................................................................................................................................................ 33
4.1: Change Basic Setup Settings ............................................................................................................................................... 34
4.2: Motor Options ....................................................................................................................................................................... 35
4.3: Feedback Options ................................................................................................................................................................ 36
4.4: Operating Mode Options ....................................................................................................................................................... 37
4.5: Miscellaneous Options.......................................................................................................................................................... 38
4.6: ServoTube Setup .................................................................................................................................................................. 39
5:
Motor/Feedback ......................................................................................................................................................................... 41
5.1: Motor/Feedback Screen Overview ........................................................................................................................................ 42
5.2: Load Motor/Feedback/Brake Settings from a File ................................................................................................................. 43
5.3: Rotary Motor Setup Parameters ........................................................................................................................................... 44
5.4: Linear Motor Setup Parameters ............................................................................................................................................ 45
5.5: Feedback Parameters, Rotary .............................................................................................................................................. 46
5.6: Feedback Parameters, Linear............................................................................................................................................... 50
5.7: Feedback Notes ................................................................................................................................................................... 52
5.8: Brake/Stop Parameters ........................................................................................................................................................ 53
5.9: Brake/Stop Notes ................................................................................................................................................................. 53
5.10: The Calculate Function ....................................................................................................................................................... 54
6:
Digital Inputs and Outputs ........................................................................................................................................................ 55
6.1: Digital Inputs......................................................................................................................................................................... 56
6.2: Digital Outputs ...................................................................................................................................................................... 59
6.3: Synchronizing PWM Switching Frequency............................................................................................................................ 66
6.4: Analog I/O ............................................................................................................................................................................ 66
7:
Command Inputs ....................................................................................................................................................................... 69
7.1: Analog Command Settings ................................................................................................................................................... 70
7.2: PWM Input Settings .............................................................................................................................................................. 73
7.3: Digital Position Input Settings ............................................................................................................................................... 76
7.4: Software Programmed Input Settings ................................................................................................................................... 78
8:
Network Configuration .............................................................................................................................................................. 81
8.1: CAN Network ........................................................................................................................................................................ 82
8.2: MACRO Network .................................................................................................................................................................. 83
8.3: EtherCAT Network ................................................................................................................................................................ 85
9:
Faults.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 87
9.1: Fault Configuration Parameters ............................................................................................................................................ 88
9.2: Fault Latching Notes ............................................................................................................................................................. 89
9.3: Position and Velocity Error Notes ......................................................................................................................................... 90
10: Motor Phasing ........................................................................................................................................................................... 93
10.1: Phase Motor with Auto Phase ............................................................................................................................................. 94
10.2: Guidelines for Choosing Auto Phase Current and Increment Rate Values ........................................................................ 103
10.3: Troubleshoot the Auto Phase Process .............................................................................................................................. 103
10.4: Phase Motor Manually ...................................................................................................................................................... 104
10.5: Troubleshoot Manual Phase w/ Encoder and Halls ........................................................................................................... 109
11: Control Loops .......................................................................................................................................................................... 111
11.1: Current Loop Setup and Tuning ........................................................................................................................................ 112
11.2: Current Loop Auto Tune ................................................................................................................................................... 115
11.3: Notes on the Current Mode and Current Loop .................................................................................................................. 118
11.4: Velocity Loop Setup and Tuning ....................................................................................................................................... 120
11.5: Notes on the Velocity Mode and Velocity Loop ................................................................................................................. 122
11.6: Position Loop Setup and Tuning ....................................................................................................................................... 124
11.7: Notes on the Position Mode and Position Loop................................................................................................................. 131
11.8: Auto Tune all Loops for Linear Motors .............................................................................................................................. 133
12: Stepper Controls ..................................................................................................................................................................... 139
12.1: Stepper Motor Support ..................................................................................................................................................... 140
Copley Controls
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Table of Contents
13:
14:
15:
16:
17:
A:
B:
C:
D:
E:
F:
G:
H:
4
CME 2 User Guide
12.2: Position Limits (Stepper Amplifier) .................................................................................................................................... 140
12.3: Encoder Correction ........................................................................................................................................................... 142
Homing ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 145
Control Panel ........................................................................................................................................................................... 147
14.1: Control Panel Overview .................................................................................................................................................... 148
14.2: Status Indicators and Messages ....................................................................................................................................... 148
14.3: Control Panel Monitor Channels ....................................................................................................................................... 149
14.4: Control Functions ............................................................................................................................................................. 150
14.5: Jog Mode .......................................................................................................................................................................... 151
Scope Tool ............................................................................................................................................................................... 153
15.1: Scope Tool Overview........................................................................................................................................................ 154
15.2: Function Generator and Profile Tabs ................................................................................................................................ 155
15.3: Trace Channel Variable Parameters ................................................................................................................................. 156
15.4: Trigger Setup .................................................................................................................................................................... 157
15.5: Trace Time, Sample Rate and Single Trace ..................................................................................................................... 158
15.6: Scope Display Parameters ............................................................................................................................................... 158
15.7: Auto Setup........................................................................................................................................................................ 159
15.8: Measurement Tab ............................................................................................................................................................ 160
15.9: Control Loop Parameters .................................................................................................................................................. 161
15.10: Scope Files ..................................................................................................................................................................... 164
Data, Firmware, and Logs ....................................................................................................................................................... 167
16.1: Amplifier RAM and Flash Memory .................................................................................................................................... 168
16.2: Disk Storage of Amplifier and Motor Data Files ................................................................................................................ 168
16.3: Data Management Tools .................................................................................................................................................. 169
16.4: Amplifier Firmware ............................................................................................................................................................ 170
16.5: Error Log .......................................................................................................................................................................... 172
16.6: Communications Log ........................................................................................................................................................ 173
Virtual Amplifier ....................................................................................................................................................................... 175
Copy Amplifier Data................................................................................................................................................................. 177
Lock/Unlock CME 2 Controls .................................................................................................................................................. 179
Filters ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 181
C.1: Setting Parameters ............................................................................................................................................................ 182
C.2: Filter Configuration Windows ............................................................................................................................................. 182
C.3: Standard Filter Types ......................................................................................................................................................... 184
C.4: Standard Filter Families ..................................................................................................................................................... 186
C.5: Input Shaping ..................................................................................................................................................................... 187
I2T Time Limit Algorithm ......................................................................................................................................................... 191
D.1: I2T Algorithm ...................................................................................................................................................................... 192
D.2: I2T Scope Trace Variables ................................................................................................................................................. 195
Homing Methods ..................................................................................................................................................................... 197
E.1: Homing Methods Overview ................................................................................................................................................ 198
E.2: Legend to Homing Method Descriptions ............................................................................................................................. 198
E.3: Homing Method Descriptions ............................................................................................................................................. 199
Regen Resistor Configuration ................................................................................................................................................ 213
ASCII Commands/Serial Control ............................................................................................................................................ 217
G.1: Copley ASCII Interface ...................................................................................................................................................... 218
G.2: CME 2 ASCII Command Line Interface Tool ...................................................................................................................... 218
G.3: Single-Axis Serial Connection ............................................................................................................................................ 219
G.4: Multi-Drop Serial Connection ............................................................................................................................................. 219
Gain Scheduling ...................................................................................................................................................................... 221
H.1: Configure Gain Scheduling ................................................................................................................................................ 222
H.2: Set Up the Gain Scheduling Table(s) ................................................................................................................................. 223
H.3: Gain Scheduling Table Guidelines ..................................................................................................................................... 227
Copley Controls
ABOUT THIS MANUAL
Overview and Scope
This manual describes the installation and use of Copley Controls CME 2 software.
Related Documentation
CANopen-related documents:
 CANopen Programmer’s Manual
 CML Reference Manual
 Copley Motion Objects Programmer’s Guide
Also of related interest:

Copley Indexer 2 Program User Guide (describes use of Indexer 2 Program to create
motion control sequences)
 Copley ASCII Interface Programmer’s Guide (describes how to send ASCII format
commands over an RS232 serial bus to control one or more amplifiers)
 Copley Camming User Guide (describes the use of the Copley Controls Camming
feature, and its setup through CME 2)
 Copley Amplifier Parameter Dictionary (describes the parameters used to program
and operate Copley Controls amplifiers)
Links to these publications, along with hardware manuals and data sheets, can be found
under the Documents heading at:
http://www.copleycontrols.com/Motion/Downloads/index.html
Copley Controls software and related information can be found at:
http://www.copleycontrols.com/Motion/Products/Software/index.html
Comments
Copley Controls welcomes your comments on this manual. See
http://www.copleycontrols.com for contact information.
Copyrights
No part of this document may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or
mechanical, including photocopying, without express written permission of Copley
Controls.
CME 2, Copley Virtual Machine, CVM, Xenus, Accelnet, Stepnet, Accelus, and Junus are
registered trademarks of Copley Controls.
Windows 7, 2000, XP, and Vista are trademarks or registered trademarks of the Microsoft
Corporation.
Document Validity
We reserve the right to modify our products. The information in this document is subject
to change without notice and does not represent a commitment by Copley Controls.
Copley Controls assumes no responsibility for any errors that may appear in this
document.
Copley Controls
5
About this Manual
CME 2 User Guide
Product Warnings
Observe all relevant state, regional and local safety regulations when installing and using
Copley Controls amplifiers. For safety and to assure compliance with documented system
data, only Copley Controls should perform repairs to amplifiers.
Hazardous voltages.
!
DANGER
Exercise caution when installing and adjusting Copley amplifiers.
Risk of electric shock.
On some Copley Controls amplifiers, high-voltage circuits are connected to mains
power. Refer to hardware documentation.
Risk of unexpected motion with non-latched faults.
After the cause of a non-latched fault is corrected, the amplifier re-enables the PWM
output stage without operator intervention. In this case, motion may re-start
unexpectedly. Configure faults as latched unless a specific situation calls for nonlatched behavior. When using non-latched faults, be sure to safeguard against
unexpected motion.
Latching an output does not eliminate the risk of unexpected motion with nonlatched faults.
Associating a fault with a latched, custom-configured output does not latch the fault
itself. After the cause of a non-latched fault is corrected, the amplifier re-enables
without operator intervention. In this case, motion may re-start unexpectedly.
For more information, see Faults (p. 87).
When operating the amplifier as a CAN or EtherCAT node, the use of CME 2 or
ASCII serial commands may affect operations in progress. Using such commands to
initiate motion may cause network operations to suspend.
Operation may restart unexpectedly when the commanded motion is stopped.
Use equipment as described.
Operate amplifiers within the specifications provided in the relevant hardware manual
or data sheet.
FAILURE TO HEED THESE WARNINGS CAN CAUSE EQUIPMENT DAMAGE,
INJURY, OR DEATH.
6
Copley Controls
CME 2 User Guide
About this Manual
Revision History
Revision
Date
Applies to
Comments
1
February 2006
ECO #
CME 2 Software version 4.1.
Firmware version 4.66 or
higher.
Initial publication. Adapted from Xenus
User’s Guide v2.0.
2
August 2006
CME 2 Software version 4.2.
Firmware version 5.04 or
higher.
Various changes.
3
June 2007
15383
CME 2 Software version 5.0.
Changes include new Auto Tune all
Loops for Linear Motors (p. 133) and a
new way to Change Basic Setup Settings
(p. 34).
4
June 2008
16709
CME 2 Software version 5.1.
Changes include the new scope tool
Measurement Tab (p. 160), Gain
Scheduling (p. 221), and Velocity Gains
Shift (p. 123).
A
June 2009
33392
CME 2 Software version 5.2
Various changes.
B
February 2011
39783
CME 2 Software version 6.0
Changes include Plus family of products
functionality information, screen shot
updates, Encoder Correction theory of
operation (p. 142), and EtherCAT Network
setup information (p. 85).
C
July 2012
45807
CME 2 Software version 6.1
Changes include updated screen shots,
information updates, and filter data.
.
Copley Controls
7
About this Manual
8
CME 2 User Guide
Copley Controls
CHAPTER
1: INTRODUCTION
This chapter describes the basic functions and operational theory of CME 2. Topics
include:
1.1: Host Computer Requirements .............................................................................................................................................. 10
1.1.1: Computer and Operating System ............................................................................................................................. 10
1.1.2: Special Notes for Windows 7 and Vista Users ......................................................................................................... 10
1.1.3: Default File Locations .............................................................................................................................................. 10
1.1.4: Software .................................................................................................................................................................. 10
1.1.5: Serial Communications ............................................................................................................................................ 10
1.1.6: CAN Communications ............................................................................................................................................. 10
1.1.7: EtherCAT Communications ..................................................................................................................................... 10
1.2: Amplifier Commissioning Software ....................................................................................................................................... 11
1.3: Servo Operating Modes and Control Loops .......................................................................................................................... 11
Copley Controls
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Introduction
CME 2 User Guide
1.1: Host Computer Requirements
1.1.1: Computer and Operating System
Minimal hardware requirements:
 CPU: 1 GHZ.
 RAM: 512 MB.
Operating Systems Supported: Windows 2000, XP, Vista, and Windows 7.
1.1.2: Special Notes for Windows 7 and Vista Users

When the installer starts, Windows 7 or Vista displays a message stating that an
unidentified program is trying to access the computer. Click the button to allow the
installer to continue, and CME 2 will be installed properly.
1.1.3: Default File Locations
For Windows 2000 and XP:
 The default file locations for CME 2's data files in Windows 2000 and XP (ccx, ccm,
etc.) are in the "Program Files/Copley Motion/CME 2" folder.
For Windows Vista and 7
 All of CME 2's data folders in Windows Vista and 7 will be under this path:
C:\Users\Public\Documents\Copley Motion\CME 2.
1.1.4: Software
Copley Controls CME 2 software, Version 6.1 or higher.
1.1.5: Serial Communications
For each PC-to-amplifier connection via serial port:


One standard RS-232 serial port or a USB port with a USB-to-RS-232 adapter.
One serial communication cable. See amplifier data sheet for part numbers.
1.1.6: CAN Communications
(Xenus, Accelnet, and Stepnet only.)

One Copley Controls CAN PCI network card (part number CAN-PCI-02).
CME 2 also supports CAN network cards made by these manufacturers: KVaser,
IXXAT.
 One PC-to-amplifier CANopen network cable. See amplifier data sheet for part
numbers.
See the amplifier data sheet for CAN network wiring instructions.
1.1.7: EtherCAT Communications


10
One Ethernet adapter.
One EtherCAT network cable, (see data sheet).
Copley Controls
CME 2 User Guide
Introduction
1.2: Amplifier Commissioning Software
Copley Controls CME 2 software allows fast and easy commissioning of Copley Controls
amplifiers. It provides access to all amplifier configuration controls. It supports all Copley
Controls amplifiers, including Copley’s CANopen amplifier lines and stepper amplifiers.
CME 2 communicates with amplifiers via RS-232, CAN or EtherCAT connections. On
Xenus, Accelnet, and Stepnet amplifiers, the multi-drop feature allows CME 2 to use a
single RS-232 serial connection to one amplifier as a gateway to other amplifiers linked
together by CAN bus connections.
Motor data can be saved as .ccm files. Amplifier data is saved as .ccx files that contain all
amplifier settings plus motor data. This makes it possible to quickly set up amplifiers by
copying configurations from one amplifier to another.
CME 2 also provides access to Copley Virtual Machine (CVM), a program that is set up in
CME 2 and downloaded to the amplifier to provide on-board control. When a CVM
program is running, the amplifier receives its input commands from the CVM program. For
more information, see the Copley Indexer 2 Program User’s Guide.
NOTE: The feature descriptions in this manual may not apply to all Copley Controls
amplifiers under all configurations. Significant differences between amplifier models are
noted. See the relevant hardware manual or data sheet for more information.
1.3: Servo Operating Modes and Control Loops
Copley Controls amplifiers use up to three nested control loops - current, velocity, and
position - to control a motor in three associated operating modes. (Stepper amplifiers
operated in stepper mode function as traditional open position loop stepper drives.)
Control Loops Model
In position mode, the amplifier uses all three loops. As shown in the typical system
illustrated below, the position loop drives the nested velocity loop, which drives the nested
current loop.
Limits
Position
Command
Target
Position
Actual Position
Velocity
Limiter
Current
Command
Velocity
Loop
Derived Velocity
FILTER
Position
Loop
Limited
Velocity
FILTER
Trajectory
Generator
Velocity
Command
Limited
Current
Current
Limiter
PWM
Command
Current
Loop
Motor/
Sensors
Actual Current
In velocity mode, the velocity loop drives the current loop. In current mode, the current
loop is driven directly by external or internal current commands.
Copley Controls
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Introduction
CME 2 User Guide
Basic Attributes of All Servo Control Loops
These loops share several common attributes:
Loop
Attribute
Description
Command
input
Every loop is given a value to which it will attempt to control. For example, the velocity loop
receives a velocity command that is the desired motor speed.
Limits
Limits are set on each loop to protect the motor and/or mechanical system.
Feedback
The nature of servo control loops is that they receive feedback from the device they are
controlling. For example, the position loop uses the actual motor position as feedback.
Gains
These are constant values that are used in the mathematical equation of the servo loop. The
values of these gains can be adjusted during amplifier setup to improve the loop
performance. Adjusting these values is often referred to as tuning the loop.
Output
The loop generates a control signal. This signal can be used as the command signal to
another control loop or the input to a power amplifier.
For more information on using CME 2 to set up and tune control loops, see Control Loops
(p. 111).
12
Copley Controls
CHAPTER
2: INSTALLATION, STARTUP, AND
INTERFACE TOUR
This chapter shows how to install, start, and set up communications for CME 2. Verify that
the system on which you will install CME 2 meets the Host Computer Requirements (p.
10). Topics include:
2.1: Install CME 2 Software ......................................................................................................................................................... 14
2.2: Start CME 2 Software ........................................................................................................................................................... 15
2.3: Configure Serial Port Parameters ......................................................................................................................................... 16
2.4: Configure CAN Network Parameters .................................................................................................................................... 18
2.5: Configure EtherCAT Network Parameters ............................................................................................................................ 19
2.6: Connect to an Amplifier in CME 2 ......................................................................................................................................... 20
2.7: Rename an Amplifier ............................................................................................................................................................ 21
2.8: CME 2 Interface Tour ........................................................................................................................................................... 22
2.8.1: Tool Bar Overview ................................................................................................................................................... 22
2.8.2: Main Menu Overview ............................................................................................................................................... 23
2.8.3: Functional Diagram .................................................................................................................................................. 25
2.8.4: CAN Information and Status Bar .............................................................................................................................. 26
Copley Controls
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Installation, Startup, and Interface Tour
CME 2 User Guide
2.1: Install CME 2 Software
Optionally download software from the Web
1
Choose or create a folder where you will download the software installation file.
2
In an internet browser, navigate to:
http://www.copleycontrols.com/Motion/Downloads/index.html
3
Under Software Releases, click on CME 2.
4
When prompted, save the CME2.zip file to the folder chosen or created in Step 1.
The folder should now contain a file named CME2.zip.
5
Extract the contents of the zip file to the same location.
The folder should now contain the files CME2.zip and Setup.exe.
6
If desired, delete CME2.zip to save disk space.
Install CME 2 Software
14
1
If installing from a CD, insert the CD (Copley Controls part number CME2).
Normally, inserting the CD causes the installation script to launch, and a CME 2
Installation screen appears. If so, skip to Step 3.
2
If the software installation file is on a hard drive, navigate to the folder and then doubleclick on Setup.exe
OR
if you inserted the CD and the CME 2 Installation screen did not appear, navigate to the
root directory of the installation CD and then double-click on Setup.exe.
3
Respond to the prompts on the CME 2 Installation screens to complete the installation.
We recommend accepting all default installation values.
NOTE: Vista users see Special Notes for Windows 7 and Vista Users (p. 10).
Copley Controls
CME 2 User Guide
Installation, Startup, and Interface Tour
2.2: Start CME 2 Software
1
Double-click the CME 2 shortcut icon on the Windows desktop to start CME 2.
2
If communications were set up
already…
If communications were not set up…
…the CME 2 Main Screen opens. If there are
multiple ports, the Copley Neighborhood root will be
selected as shown below:
…see the screen below:
Select the desired amplifier. For instance:
In this case, proceed to Configure Serial Port
Parameters (p. 16), Configure CAN Network
Parameters (p. 18), or Configure EtherCAT Network
Parameters (p. 19).
After an amplifier has been selected, the CME 2 Main Screen looks similar to this:
If the Basic Setup options have not been chosen, the Basic Setup screen opens.
Copley Controls
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Installation, Startup, and Interface Tour
CME 2 User Guide
2.3: Configure Serial Port Parameters
One or more serial ports on a PC can be used to connect amplifiers. Use the following
instructions to add ports for amplifiers, to choose baud rates for those ports, and to
remove ports for amplifiers.
1
Double-click the CME 2 shortcut icon on the Windows desktop to start CME 2.
If communications has not been set up, the Communications Wizard Select device
screen appears.
2
If the CME 2 Main screen appears instead of Select device,
choose ToolsCommunications Wizard.
3
Choose Serial Ports and click Next to open the Communications Wizard Select
Ports/Serial Ports screen.
4
From the Available Ports list, choose the serial ports that will be used for amplifiers.


To allow an amplifier to connect through a port, select the port name and click Add.
To remove a port from Selected Ports, select the port name and click Remove.
Continued…
16
Copley Controls
CME 2 User Guide
Installation, Startup, and Interface Tour
...Configure Serial Port Parameters, continued:
5
Click Next to save the choices and open the Communications Wizard Configure Serial
Ports screen.
6
Configure the desired ports.



7
Highlight a port in the Selected Ports list.
Choose a Baud Rate for that port.
Repeat for each selected port.
Click Finish to save the choices.
Copley Controls
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Installation, Startup, and Interface Tour
CME 2 User Guide
2.4: Configure CAN Network Parameters
A CAN port can be used to connect the host PC to one or more amplifiers. Use the
following instructions to configure CAN network settings.
1
Double-click the CME 2 shortcut icon on the Windows desktop to start CME 2.
If communications has not been set up, the Communications Wizard Select device
screen appears.
18
2
If the CME 2 Main screen appears instead of the Select device screen,
choose ToolsCommunications Wizard.
3
Choose CAN Network and click Next to open the Communications Wizard Configure
CAN Network screen.
4
Choose the appropriate CAN Card, Channel, and Bit Rate, and click Finish.
NOTES:
1) The CAN Card list shows the manufacturer names of all supported CAN cards that
have been connected to the PC and for which drivers have been installed.
2) All amplifiers must be set to the same bit rate (default is 1 Mbit/s).
Copley Controls
CME 2 User Guide
Installation, Startup, and Interface Tour
2.5: Configure EtherCAT Network Parameters
1
Double-click the CME 2 shortcut icon on the Windows desktop to start CME 2.
If communications has not been set up, the Communications Wizard Select device
screen appears.
2
If the CME 2 Main screen appears instead of Select device,
choose ToolsCommunications Wizard.
3
Choose EtherCAT and click Next to open the Communications Wizard Network
Adapters screen.
4
Choose the appropriate Network Adapter, and click Finish.
NOTE:
Do not choose Microsoft if it appears as a choice in the Network Adapters drop down
screen.
Copley Controls
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Installation, Startup, and Interface Tour
CME 2 User Guide
2.6: Connect to an Amplifier in CME 2
Choose an amplifier by clicking on its name in the Copley Neighborhood. The
neighborhood organizes amplifiers according to the connection method.
One serial port:
Multiple serial ports:
CAN network:
Multi-drop: CAN
EtherCAT network:
When there is only one amplifier available for connection, the software will connect
automatically on startup.
20
Copley Controls
CME 2 User Guide
Installation, Startup, and Interface Tour
2.7: Rename an Amplifier
Each amplifier represented in the Copley Neighborhood amplifier tree has a name. The
default name for an amplifier is unnamed. Use this procedure to rename an amplifier.
1
Choose Main Menu AmplifierRename to open the Rename Amplifier screen.
2
Enter the new name and click OK to close the screen.
Copley Controls
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Installation, Startup, and Interface Tour
CME 2 User Guide
2.8: CME 2 Interface Tour
CME 2 features are called out in the diagram below. Screen details vary depending on
amplifier model and mode selection. Details follow in the chapter.
2.8.1: Tool Bar Overview
Click on any of the tools in the toolbar to access the tools described below.
Icon
22
Name
Description
For More Information
Basic Setup
Opens Basic Setup screen.
Basic Setup (p. 33)
Control Panel
Opens Control Panel.
Control Panel (p. 147)
Auto Phase
Opens Auto Phase tool.
Motor Phasing (p. 93)
Auto Tune
Opens Auto Tune for Linear
Servo Motors.
Auto Tune all Loops for
Linear Motors (p. 133)
Scope
Opens Scope.
Scope Tool (p. 153)
Error Log
Opens Error Log.
Error Log (p. 172)
Amplifier Properties
Displays basic amplifier
properties.
Save amplifier data to disk
Saves contents of amplifier
RAM to a disk file.
Restore amplifier data from disk
Restores an amplifier file
from disk to amplifier RAM.
Save amplifier data to flash
Saves contents of amplifier
RAM to flash memory.
Restore amplifier data from flash
Restores contents of flash
memory to amplifier RAM.
Data, Firmware, and Logs
(p. 167)
Copley Controls
CME 2 User Guide
Installation, Startup, and Interface Tour
2.8.2: Main Menu Overview
The CME 2 Main Menu choices are described below.
Menu
Selection
Description
For More Information
File
Save MACRO File
(MACRO amplifiers only.) Saves
amplifier setup and tuning
parameters in a format that can
be read by Delta Tau controllers.
Save MACRO File for Delta Tau
Controllers (p. 170).
Save Amplifier
Data
Saves contents of amplifier RAM
to a disk file.
Data, Firmware, and Logs (p.
167).
Save AsV4.1
Format
Saves amplifier data file in format
usable by CME 2 Version 4.1.
RestoreAmplifier
Data
Restores contents of an amplifier
file from disk to amplifier RAM.
RestoreCVM
Control Program
Prompts for a Copley Virtual
Machine program file. The
program in this file will replace
the current program in flash.
This procedure also results in the
setting of the Indexer 2 Program
option: Enable Control Program
on Startup. This configures the
program to auto start when the
amplifier is powered up or reset.
Copley Indexer 2 Program User
Guide.
RestoreCam
Tables
Prompts for a saved Cam Table
file (.cct file). All tables in
amplifier flash will be replaced by
the ones in this file.
See Copley Camming Users
Guide.
RestoreGain
Scheduling Table
Prompts for a saved Gain
Scheduling Table (.ccg file).
Gain Scheduling (p. 221).
Exit
Closes CME 2.
Basic Setup
Opens Basic Setup screen.
Basic Setup (p. 33)
Control Panel
Opens Control Panel.
Control Panel (p. 147)
Auto Phase
Opens Auto Phase tool.
Motor Phasing (p. 93)
Scope
Opens Scope Tool screen.
Scope Tool (p. 153)
Error Log
Opens Error Log screen.
Error Log (p. 172)
Amplifier
Properties
Displays basic amplifier
properties.
Network
Configuration
Opens the CAN Configuration
screen.
CAN: Network Configuration
(p. 81).
Rename
Prompts for new amplifier name.
Rename an Amplifier (p. 20)
Auto Tune
Opens Auto Tune for Linear Servo
Motors.
Auto Tune all Loops for Linear
Motors (p. 133)
Gain Scheduling
Opens Gain Scheduling screen.
Gain Scheduling (p. 221).
Amplifier
Continued…
Copley Controls
23
Installation, Startup, and Interface Tour
CME 2 User Guide
...Main Menu Choices, continued:
Menu
Selection
Description
For More Information
Tools
Communications
Wizard
Starts sequence of prompts to set
up communications.
Configure Serial Port Parameters
(p. 16) and Configure CAN
Network Parameters (p. 18).
Communications
Log
Opens Communications Log.
Communications Log (p. 173).
Download
Firmware
Starts prompts to download
firmware from disk to amplifier.
Download Firmware to the
Amplifier (p. 170).
Download CPLD
Program
Starts prompts to download PLD
code from disk to amplifier.
Manual Phase
Opens Manual Phase tool.
Phase Motor Manually (p. 104).
View Scope Files
Opens Trace Viewer window.
Scope Files (p. 164).
I/O Line States
Opens I/O Line States window,
showing high/low status of the
amplifier’s inputs and outputs.
Digital Inputs and Outputs (p. 55).
CME 2
Lock/Unlock
Opens screen for locking and
unlocking CME 2 functionality.
Lock/Unlock CME 2 Controls
(p. 179).
ASCII Command
Line
Opens screen to accept ASCII
format commands.
CME 2 ASCII Command Line
Interface Tool (p. 218).
CME 2 User Guide
Opens this manual.
All Documents
Opens the Doc folder in the CME 2 installation folder
(typically c://Program Files/Copley Motion/CME 2/Doc).
This folder contains all of the related documents that were installed with
CME 2.
Downloads Web
Page
Opens default web browser with pages from Copley Controls’ website.
Help
Software Web
Page
24
View Release
Notes
Opens latest CME 2 release notes in a text viewer.
About
Displays CME 2 version information.
Copley Controls
CME 2 User Guide
Installation, Startup, and Interface Tour
2.8.3: Functional Diagram
The functional diagram, shown below, provides button-click access to most of the screens
used to configure an amplifier. It also indicates the flow of control from input, across all
active control loops, to motor/feedback. Only those control loop buttons that are
appropriate to the amplifier and operational mode appear on the diagram.
Name
Description
For More Information
Input/
Output
Opens Input/Output screen.
Digital Inputs and Outputs (p. 55)
CVM
Control
Program
Opens Copley Virtual Machine screen.
Copley Indexer Program User’s
Guide.
Input
Command
Opens screen for configuring the input command.
Button label varies depending on the selected control
loop input.
Command Inputs (p. 69)
Control
Loops
Each opens a control loop configuration screen.
Control Loops (p. 111)
Motor/
Feedback
Opens the Motor/Feedback screen.
Motor/Feedback (p. 41)
Home
Configure and test homing.
Homing (p. 145)
Configure
Regen
Opens Regen Settings screen.
Regen Resistor Configuration
(p. 213)
Configure
Faults
Opens Fault Configuration screen.
Faults (p. 87)
Configure
Filters
Opens Filter Configuration Screen
Filters (p. 181)
Encoder
Correction
(Stepper amplifier with encoder only.) Opens
Encoder Correction screen.
Encoder Correction (p. 142)
Detent
(Stepper amplifier only). Opens stepper amplifier
Advanced Tuning screen.
Detent Compensation Gain
(p. 143)
Position
Limits
(Stepper amplifier with encoder only.) Opens Position
Limits screen.
Position Limits (Stepper Amplifier)
(p. 140)
Copley Controls
25
Installation, Startup, and Interface Tour
CME 2 User Guide
2.8.4: CAN Information and Status Bar
CAN Information
The Main screen displays the basic CAN information. The example below shows CAN
information:
The Address field shows the amplifier’s present CAN address. For more information, see
Network Configuration (p. 81). When the Position Loop Input is set to CAN, the State field
shows the state of the amplifier’s CANopen state machine (for more information, see
Copley Control’s CANopen Programmer’s Manual).
Status Bar
The status bar describes the present commutation mode, motor type, and amplifier
control status as shown below. It also includes a reminder that pressing the F12 function
key while CME 2 is running disables the amplifier.
26
Copley Controls
CHAPTER
3: AMPLIFIER SETUP PROCEDURE
Perform the steps listed below, in the order presented, to set up and tune an
amplifier/motor pair. Details follow in the chapter.
1
Prepare for setup (p. 29).
2
Start CME 2 and enter Basic Setup parameters (p. 29).
3
Enter Motor/Feedback/Brake Stop parameters (p. 30).
4
Use Calculate to automatically set initial gains and limits (p. 30).
5
Configure digital I/O (p. 30).
6
Configure the command input (p. 30).
7
Configure faults (p. 31).
8
Configure an optional regen resistor (p. 31).
9
Phase and jog the motor (p. 31).
10
Tune the control loops (p. 31).
11
Set gains and limits for stepper mode (stepper only) (p. 31).
12
Configure Homing (p. 31).
13
Test with load attached (p. 32).
NOTE: ServoTube motor setup steps are included within this procedure.
Copley Controls
27
Amplifier Setup Procedure
CME 2 User Guide
3.1: Warnings and Notes
NOTE: To immediately software disable the amplifier at any time while running CME 2,
press function key F12. Also, the amplifier’s enable input can be used to disable the
amplifier.
DANGER: Hazardous voltages.
!
DANGER
Exercise caution when installing and adjusting.
Do not make connections to motor or drive with power applied.
Risk of unexpected or uncontrolled motion with CME 2 in CAN mode.
CME 2 can be used while the amplifier is under CAN or EtherCAT control.
However, some extreme changes made with CME 2 could cause unexpected
or uncontrolled motion.
Failure to heed these warnings can cause equipment damage, injury, or
death.
Spinning motor with power off may damage amplifier.
!
WARNING
28
Do not spin motors with power off. Voltages generated by a motor can
damage an amplifier.
Failure to heed this warning can cause equipment damage.
Copley Controls
CME 2 User Guide
Amplifier Setup Procedure
3.2: Setup Procedure
1
Prepare for setup

Understand this procedure’s Warnings and Notes (p. 28).

Verify that amplifier power is OFF.

Verify wiring and connections.

Make sure motor is securely fastened with no load connected.

Apply power to the amplifier.
For off-line amplifiers apply 24V only.
For DC amplifiers apply AUX HV only.
2
Start CME 2 and enter Basic Setup parameters

Double-click CME 2 icon on the Windows desktop to start CME 2.

If necessary, Connect to an Amplifier in CME 2 (p. 20) from the list in the Copley
Neighborhood tree.

If the Basic Setup screen does not appear, click the Basic Setup button.

Choose:
In most cases, click Change Settings to Change Basic Setup
Settings (p. 34).
Then proceed to Step 3 of this Setup Procedure,
Enter Motor/Feedback/Brake Stop parameters (p. 30).
OR
To load a .ccx file that was prepared for the amplifier/motor
combination, see Copy Amplifier Data (p. 177). Then proceed to
Step 13 of this Setup Procedure, Test with load attached (p. 32).
OR
To complete the setup for a ServoTube motor, click ServoTube
Setup and see ServoTube Setup (p. 39).
Continued…
Copley Controls
29
Amplifier Setup Procedure
CME 2 User Guide
...Setup Procedure, continued:
3
Enter Motor/Feedback/Brake Stop parameters

Click Motor/Feedback to open the Motor/Feedback screen.

To optionally load data from an existing motor data file,
see Load Motor/Feedback/Brake Settings from a File (p. 43) and then skip to
Step 4, Use Calculate to automatically set initial gains and limits (p. 27).
OR

On the Motor tab, modify the appropriate Rotary Motor Setup Parameters (p. 44) or
Linear Motor Setup Parameters (p.45).

On the Feedback tab, as appropriate for each encoder or resolver, verify the parameters
described in Feedback Parameters, Rotary (p. 46) or
Feedback Parameters, Linear (p. 50).

4
If using a brake, click the Brake/Stop tab to verify Brake/Stop Parameters (p. 52).
Use Calculate to automatically set initial gains and limits

Click Calculate to have the software calculate and display initial loop gains and limits.
See The Calculate Function (p. 54).

5
Load the calculated values into amplifier RAM by clicking OK.
Configure digital I/O

Click Input/Output on the Main screen to open the Input/Output screen.
Verify the I/O settings described in Digital Inputs and Outputs (p. 55).

On the Input/Output screen, click Close.
6
Configure the command input

or
or
or
Click the appropriate button to configure the amplifier’s command input.
For more information see Command Inputs (p. 69).
NOTE: If the amplifier is to run CVM programs or in Camming mode see the relevant
documents.

After setting command input parameters, Click Close.
Continued…
30
Copley Controls
CME 2 User Guide
Amplifier Setup Procedure
...Setup Procedure, continued:
7
Configure faults

Click Configure Faults to open the Fault Configuration screen and set latching faults as
needed. See Faults (p. 87).

Click OK to close the Fault Configuration screen.
8
Configure an optional regen resistor

If the amplifier is equipped with a regen resistor, click Regen Settings to open the Regen
Settings screen. See Regen Resistor Configuration (p. 213) for regen resistor
parameters.

Click OK to close the Regen Settings screen.
9
Phase and jog the motor

Apply AC or HV power.

Phase Motor with Auto Phase (p. 94).

To verify Auto Phase results, Phase Motor Manually (p. 104).

Run a move in jog mode (p. 151) to verify that the amplifier can drive the motor.
10

Tune the control loops
Starting with the Current Loop set up and tune all applicable Control Loops (p. 111).
If you are setting up a linear motor, you can optionally
Tune All Loops with Auto Tune (Linear Motors) (p. 133) instead.
11

Set gains and limits for stepper mode (stepper only)
If tuning a stepper amplifier in stepper mode:



12

Set Position Limits in Stepper Mode (p. 140).
If using Encoder Correction, Set Encoder Correction Gain (p. 142).
Tune Stepper Detent Gain (p. 143).
Configure Homing
Configure Homing (p. 145).
Continued…
Copley Controls
31
Amplifier Setup Procedure
CME 2 User Guide
...Setup Procedure, continued:
13

Test with load attached
On the CME 2 Main screen, click Save to Flash.

Remove amplifier power.

Attach load.

Reconnect amplifier power.

If necessary, re-tune velocity and position loops.



On the CME 2 Main screen, click Save to Flash.
On the CME 2 Main screen, click Save to Disk (for backup or duplication).
The amplifier tuning procedure is complete.
NOTE: To copy the results of this setup to other amplifiers,
see Copy Amplifier Data (p. 177).
32
Copley Controls
CHAPTER
4: BASIC SETUP
This chapter describes the Basic Setup screen. Perform the basic steps outlined below to
access and enter the Basic Setup options. Details follow in the chapter.
1
Click to open the Basic Setup screen.
2
3
Review settings.
4
Choose:
If necessary, click Change Settings to Change Basic Setup Settings
(p. 34).
OR
If you have a .ccx file that was prepared for the amplifier/motor
combination, click Load ccx File and see Copy Amplifier Data (p.
177).
OR
To change Basic Setup settings for a ServoTube motor, click
ServoTube Setup and see ServoTube Setup (p. 39).
OR
To accept the displayed settings, click Cancel.
Copley Controls
33
Basic Setup
CME 2 User Guide
4.1: Change Basic Setup Settings
1
On the Basic Setup screen, click Change Settings to start the Basic
Setup wizard. Use the Back and Next buttons to navigate screens.
Screen details vary depending on amplifier model and mode selection.
2
Set Motor Options (p. 35).
3
Set Feedback Options (p. 36).
Continued…
34
Copley Controls
CME 2 User Guide
Basic Setup
…Change Basic Setup Settings, continued:
4
Set Operating Mode Options (p.37).
5
Set Miscellaneous Options (p. 38).
6
When satisfied with the settings, click Finish on the final screen.
4.2: Motor Options
View or change the settings described below. Options vary with amplifier model.
Setting
Description
Motor Family
Select motor family: Brushless or Brush.
Motor Type
Select motor type: Rotary or Linear.
Copley Controls
35
Basic Setup
CME 2 User Guide
4.3: Feedback Options
View or change the settings described below. Options vary with amplifier model.
Setting
Description
Hall Type
Select Hall type: None, Digital, or Analog (Analog is used with Copley
Controls ServoTube motors).
Hall Phase Correction
If selected, will enable error checking between Hall switches and
encoder based phase angle. See Faults (p. 87).
Motor Encoder
Select type and source of motor feedback.
 None: No motor encoder.
 Primary Incremental: Incremental encoder on primary feedback
connector.
 Secondary Incremental: Incremental encoder on multi-mode port.
 Panasonic Incremental A Format
 SSI
 EnDat
 BiSS
 Absolute A
 Tamagawa Absolute A
 Panasonic Absolute A Format
 Analog: Analog encoder on primary feedback connector.
 Low Frequency Analog: Copley ServoTube motor on primary
feedback connector.
 Resolver: Resolver (–R) version of a Copley Controls amplifier on
primary feedback connector.
Additional encoder types are supported by certain Copley Controls
amplifier models. See the amplifier data sheet for more information.
Position Encoder
Select type and source of Position (load) feedback.
 None: No position encoder
 Primary Incremental: Incremental encoder on primary feedback
connector.
 Secondary Incremental: Incremental encoder on multi-mode Port.
 Analog: Analog encoder on primary feedback connector.
Position Encoder
Type
Select the type of Position (load) encoder:
 Rotary
 Linear
Use Position Encoder
in Passive (Monitor)
Mode
When this is checked, the position of the position encoder will be
reported by the passive load position variable but it will not be used to
control the position of the axis.
Continued…
36
Copley Controls
CME 2 User Guide
Basic Setup
…Feedback Options, continued:
Stepper Amplifiers Only
Motor Encoder
Select the encoder type:
 None
 Primary incremental
Run in Servo Mode
(With encoder only.) Amplifier operates as a true, closed loop, servo
amplifier controlling a stepper motor.
Enable Encoder
Correction
(With encoder only.) Amplifier runs as a stepper drive; encoder
feedback is used to correct positional errors. See Encoder Correction
(p. 142).
For more information see Motor/Feedback (p. 41).
4.4: Operating Mode Options
View or change the settings described below. Options vary with amplifier model.
Setting
Description
Operating Mode
Choose the mode of operation: Current, Velocity, or Position.
See Servo Operating Modes and Control Loops (p. 11).
Command Source
Choose the command input source:
 Analog Command: Analog voltage provides command input.
See Command Inputs (p. 69).
 PWM command (current and velocity mode only): Digital pulse-width
modulated signal provides command input.
See Command Inputs (p. 69).
 Function Generator: Internal function generator provides command
input.
 Software Programmed: The amplifier is controlled by software
commands from either the Copley Virtual Machine (CVM) or an external
source. See Copley Indexer Program User’s Guide or the Copley ASCII
Interface Programmer’s Guide.
 Camming: Runs in Camming Mode. See Copley Camming User Guide.
 Digital Input: Command input is provided via the chosen Input Source
(below). See Digital Position Input Settings (p. 76).
 CAN: Command input is provided over the CANopen network. See the
CANopen Programmer’s Guide.
Input Source
Choose the input source for PWM or Digital input commands:
 Single-ended Inputs: Command input is provided via two of the
amplifier’s programmable digital inputs.
 Multi-mode Port: Command input is provided via differential inputs on the
amplifier’s multi-mode port.
 Differential Inputs: Command is provided via differential inputs.
 High Speed Inputs. Command is provided via two of the amplifier’s high
speed inputs.
Copley Controls
37
Basic Setup
CME 2 User Guide
4.5: Miscellaneous Options
View or change the settings described below. Options vary with amplifier model.
Setting
Description
Commutation
Commutation method: Sinusoidal, Trapezoidal, or Estimated Sinusoidal.
Use back EMF for
Velocity
If selected, will use the motor’s measured back EMF to determine motor
velocity. Recommended only for medium- to high-speed. Accuracy
depends on the accuracy of the programmed Back EMF value, and may
be affected by factors such as cable resistance.
Use Halls for
Velocity and
Position
If selected, will use transitions of the Hall switches to determine motor
velocity and position. Recommended only for medium- to high-speed
applications (may run roughly at low speeds).
Multi-mode Port
Selects the mode for the amplifier’s multi-mode port:
 Buffered Motor Encoder. The multi-mode port functions as a buffered
digital encoder output based on the digital encoder input.
 Emulated Motor Encoder. The multi-mode port functions as an emulated
digital encoder output based on the motor analog encoder or motor
resolver.
 Emulated Position Encoder. The multi-mode port functions as an
emulated digital encoder output based on the position analog encoder.
 Differential Input. The multi-mode port functions as a differential
command input.
38
Copley Controls
CME 2 User Guide
Basic Setup
4.6: ServoTube Setup
The ServoTube Setup tool sets up the amplifier for use with the chosen ServoTube motor.
After the user selects the motor series and model, CME 2 performs the following actions:
 Sets motor-specific values for all feedback options in the Basic Setup screen.
 Provides motor-specific values for all settings in the Motor/Feedback screens.
 Performs the Calculate function to set initial gains and limits.
 Sets the appropriate programmable digital input as Motor Over Temperature.
 Phases the motor.
 Saves all values to flash.
 Opens the Control Panel so the user can Run a move in jog mode (p. 151).
Set Up a ServoTube Motor
1
On the Basic Setup screen, Click ServoTube Setup to start the Basic
Setup wizard. Use the Back and Next to move from screen to screen as needed.
2
Choose the appropriate Series and
Model. Optionally choose to Invert
Motor Direction. Optionally choose
the Additional Encoder Option
(available with certain motor series)
and choose the appropriate
resolution for the optional encoder
(1 um or 5 um).
3
Set Operating Mode Options (p. 37).
Continued…
Copley Controls
39
Basic Setup
CME 2 User Guide
…Set Up a ServoTube Motor, continued:
40
4
Set Miscellaneous Options (p. 38).
5
When satisfied with the settings, click Finish.
The control panel opens.
6
To test basic move capabilities, Run a move in jog mode (p. 151).
7
Test with load attached (p. 32).
Copley Controls
CHAPTER
5: MOTOR/FEEDBACK
This chapter describes motor, feedback, and brake parameters, and the Calculate
function. Access these features as described below. Details follow in the chapter.
1
Click Motor/Feedback to open the Motor/Feedback screen.
2
Load Motor/Feedback/Brake Settings from a File (p. 43).
OR
2
Enter settings manually:

Click the Motor tab to view or change Rotary Motor Setup Parameters (p. 44)
or Linear Motor Setup Parameters (p. 45 ).

Click the Feedback tab to view or change Feedback Parameters, Rotary (p.46) or
Feedback Parameters, Linear (p. 50). Read the Feedback Notes (p. 52) for important
related information.

Click the Brake/Stop tab to view or change Brake/Stop Parameters (p. 53). Read the
Brake/Stop Notes (p. 53) for important related information.


Use The Calculate Function (p. 54) to calculate initial gains and limits.
On the Main screen, click Save to Flash to avoid losing the changes.
Copley Controls
41
Motor/Feedback
CME 2 User Guide
5.1: Motor/Feedback Screen Overview
A typical Motor/Feedback screen is shown below. Parameters vary with amplifier model.
Choose default units for screen.
Choose specific units for field.
Motor Data Controls
Calculate Function
The Calculate function is described in The Calculate Function (p. 54).
Data on the Motor/Feedback screen can be saved to and restored from disk files using
the controls described below.
Icon
Name
Description
Save motor data to
disk
Saves motor/feedback/brake settings from PC to a disk file with .ccm
name extension.
Restore motor data
from disk
Restores contents of a .ccm file from disk to PC.
Save motor data to
flash
Saves motor/feedback/brake settings from PC to amplifier permanent
flash memory.
Restore motor data
from flash
Restores motor/feedback/brake settings from flash memory to the
PC.
For more information see Data, Firmware, and Logs (p. 167).
42
Copley Controls
CME 2 User Guide
Motor/Feedback
5.2: Load Motor/Feedback/Brake Settings from a File
1
If needed, download a motor data file from the Copley Controls website:






2
In an internet browser, navigate to
http://www.copleycontrols.com/Motion/Downloads/motorData.html
Click on the appropriate motor name.
When prompted, save the file to the MotorData folder in the CME 2 installation
folder. For default information see Default File Locations, p 10.
Extract the contents of the zip file to the same location.
The folder should now contain the new motor data file (with a .ccm filename
extension).
If desired, delete the .zip file to save disk space.
Load the motor data into the amplifier:


Click Motor/Feedback to open the Motor/Feedback screen.
On the Motor/Feedback screen, click Restore Motor Data from Disk.
When prompted, navigate to the folder containing the file,
then click on the file name, and then click Open.


Copley Controls
Calculate initial gains and limits with The Calculate Function (p. 54).
On the Main screen, click Save to Flash to avoid losing the changes.
43
Motor/Feedback
CME 2 User Guide
5.3: Rotary Motor Setup Parameters
View or change the settings described below. Options vary with amplifier model. Metric
units are shown here.
Setting
Description
Manufacturer
Motor manufacturer’s name. Saved for reference in the motor data file.
Model Number
Motor model number. Saved for reference in the motor data file.
Units
Selects whether the parameters entered in this screen are in Metric or English units.
Motor Inertia
The rotor inertia of the motor. Used for calculating initial velocity loop tuning values.
2
2.
Range: 0.00001 to 4,294 kg cm . Default: 0.00001 kg-cm
Number of Poles
(Brushless only.) The number of magnetic poles in the motor. Required for correct
commutation of the motor. If the number of poles is not known,
Verify the motor’s pole count (p. 109). Range: 2 to 200. Default: 4.
Peak Torque
The peak torque that the motor can produce. Peak Torque divided by torque constant =
motor’s peak current limit. Range: 0.0001 to 2,100 Nm. Default: 0.0001 Nm.
Continuous
Torque
The continuous torque that the motor can produce. Used with the torque constant to
calculate continuous current. Range: 0.0001 to 1,000 Nm. Default: 0.0001 Nm.
Velocity Limit
Maximum speed of the motor. Used to calculate the velocity and acceleration limits for
the velocity loop. Range dependent on encoder resolution.
Torque Constant
Relates the motor's input current to torque produced. Sometimes abbreviated as Kt.
Range: 0.001 to 1,000 Nm/Apk. Default: 0.001 Nm/Apk.
Back emf
Constant
Relates the motor's input voltage to speed. Sometimes abbreviated as Ke. Used for
calculating the maximum velocity for a given amplifier bus voltage.
Range: 0.01 to 21,000,000 V/Krpm. Default: 0.01 V/Krpm.
Resistance
Motor resistance line-to-line. Used for calculating the initial current loop tuning values.
Range: 0.01 to 327 . Default: 0.01 .
Inductance
Motor inductance line-to-line. Used for calculating the initial current loop tuning values.
Range: see the hardware documentation.
Stepper Amplifiers Only
44
Rated Torque
Motor’s rated operating torque. Min: .001. Max: 1000.
Rated Current
Motor’s rated continuous current. Min: 0.001. Max: 1000.
Basic Step Angle
Fundamental stepper motor step, in degrees. Min: 0.225. Max: 22.5. Default 1.8.
Microsteps/Rev
Number of microsteps per revolution of the motor.
Min: 4. Max: 100,000,000. Default 4000.
Full Steps/Rev
This read-only value can be used after entering Basic Step Angle to cross-check
against motor data sheet.
Copley Controls
CME 2 User Guide
Motor/Feedback
5.4: Linear Motor Setup Parameters
View or change the settings described below. Options vary with amplifier model. Metric
units are shown here.
Setting
Description
Manufacturer
Motor maker’s name. Saved in the motor data file. Choose from list or enter manually.
Model Number
Motor model number. Saved in the motor data file. Choose from list or enter manually.
Units
Selects whether the parameters entered in this screen are in Metric or English units.
Mass
The mass of the motor. Used for calculating initial velocity loop tuning values.
Range: .0001 Kg to 100,000 Kg. Default: .0001 Kg.
Peak Force
The peak force that the motor can produce. Peak Force divided by Force Constant =
motor’s peak current limit. Range: 0.00001 to 2,000 N. Default: 0.00001 N.
Continuous Force
The continuous force that the motor can produce. Used with the force constant to
calculate continuous current. Range: 0.00001 to 1,000 N. Default: 0.00001 N.
Velocity Limit
Maximum speed of the motor. Used to calculate the velocity and acceleration limits for
the velocity loop. Range dependent on encoder resolution.
Force Constant
Relates the motor's input current to force produced. Sometimes abbreviated as Kf.
Range: 0.00001 to 2,000 N/Amp. Default: 0.00001 N/Amp.
Back emf
Constant
Relates the motor's input voltage to speed. Sometimes abbreviated as Ke. Used for
calculating maximum velocity for a given amplifier voltage. Range: 0.01 to 1,000
V/M/Sec. Default: 0.01 V/M/Sec.
Resistance
Motor resistance line to line. Used for calculating the initial current loop tuning values.
Range: 0.01 to 327 . Default: 0.01 .
Inductance
Motor inductance line to line. Used for calculating the initial current loop tuning values.
Range: see the hardware documentation.
Magnetic Pole
Pair Length
The length of a pair of magnets which equals the distance moved in one electrical
cycle of the motor.
Stepper Amplifiers Only
Rated Force
Motor’s rated operating force. Min .001 N. Max 1000 N.
Rated Current
Motor’s rated continuous current. Min: 0.01 A. Max 1000 A.
Full Step
Fundamental stepper motor step distance. Min: 0.0001mm. Max: 5000 mm.
Microsteps/
Full Step
Number of microsteps per full step. Min: 1. Max: 100,000,000.
Copley Controls
45
Motor/Feedback
CME 2 User Guide
5.5: Feedback Parameters, Rotary
As appropriate for each encoder or resolver, enter the parameters described here.
Options vary with amplifier model.
Feedback
Type
Parameters/Actions
Incremental
In the Motor Encoder lines or Position Encoder lines field, enter the number of encoder
lines (see encoder or motor data sheet). As indicated by the counts field, the number of
encoder counts per revolution is equal to 4 x the number of lines. Enable Encoder Loss
Detection and/or Index Loss detection if desired.
Panasonic
Incremental
A Format
In the Bits text field, enter the number of bits (see encoder data sheet). In the counts per
rev text field enter the counts per revolution (see encoder data sheet). Check Ignore
Battery Error when needed.
!
WARNING
Analog
When a battery error exists, absolute position may not be true (whether
the Ignore Battery Error option has been checked or not).
FAILURE TO HEED THIS WARNING CAN CAUSE EQUIPMENT
DAMAGE, INJURY, OR DEATH.
In Fundamental Lines, enter the number of fundamental encoder lines (see encoder or
motor data sheet). As indicated by the Fundamental Counts field, the number of
fundamental encoder counts per revolution is equal to 4 x the number of Fundamental
Lines.
Optionally modify the encoder resolution by changing the Interpolation value. The
interpolated resolution (Interpolated Counts Per Rev) is the product of Fundamental
Counts value and the Interpolation value.
46
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CME 2 User Guide
Motor/Feedback
SSI
In the counts per rev text field, enter the number of counts per revolution, (see data sheet).
In the Number of Encoder Bits text field enter the number of encoder bits, (see data sheet).
Choose Binary or Gray.
BiSS
In the Bits text field specify the number of bits used for single turn Resolution (see encoder
data sheet). In the Number of Revolutions text field specify the number of turns (see
encoder data sheet). Optionally, specify the number of alignment bits text field if required
else set to 0. Select code format BiSS B or BiSS C.
In the BiSS Advanced Settings window click any of the listed choices and
choose Ok.
Copley Controls
47
Motor/Feedback
Absolute A
CME 2 User Guide
In the Bits text field specify the number of bits used for single turn resolution (see encoder
data sheet). In the Number of Revolutions text field specify the number of turns (see
encoder data sheet). Optionally, enter a number of counts per rev bits to ingnore in the
specified box. Choose bit rate.
!
WARNING
Tamagawa
Absolute A
and
Panasonic
Absolute A
Format
48
When a battery error exists, absolute position may not be true (whether
the Ignore Battery Error option has been checked or not).
FAILURE TO HEED THIS WARNING CAN CAUSE EQUIPMENT
DAMAGE, INJURY, OR DEATH.
In the Bits text field specify the number of bits used for single turn resolution (see encoder
data sheet). In the Number of Revolutions text field specify the number of turns (see
encoder data sheet). Optionally, enter a number of counts per rev bits to ignore in the
specified box. The bit rate defaults to 2.5 MB/s. Zero encoder in the specified box when
needed.
Copley Controls
CME 2 User Guide
EnDat
Motor/Feedback
In the Bits text field specify the number of bits used for single turn resolution (see encoder
data sheet). In the Number of Revolutions text field specify the number of turns (see
encoder data sheet). Optionally, check Enable Incremental 1Vpp sin/cos.
If your encoder has an analog output, select Enable Incremental.
Select line count, interpolation number and interpolated counts.
!
WARNING
When a battery error exists, absolute position may not be true (whether
the Ignore Battery Error option has been checked or not).
FAILURE TO HEED THIS WARNING CAN CAUSE EQUIPMENT
DAMAGE, INJURY, OR DEATH.
Resolver
Optionally modify the feedback resolution by changing the value in Counts Per Rev.
Default: 16384.
Halls
With amplifier set to Use Halls for Velocity/Position, optionally increase the counts per
rev ratio by incrementing the Halls Count Multiplier.
If two feedback devices are installed, verify that the values of Motor Turns to Position
Turns correctly represent the ratio of motor encoder turns to position encoder turns. The
details of the following screen may vary depending on the types of feedback devices
present.
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Motor/Feedback
CME 2 User Guide
5.6: Feedback Parameters, Linear
As appropriate for each encoder installed, enter the parameters described below. Options
vary with amplifier model.
50
Feedback
Type
Parameters/Actions
Incremental
Choose units and then enter the Encoder Resolution (see encoder or motor data sheet).
Enable Encoder Loss Detection and/or Index Loss detection if desired.
Analog
Enter the Fundamental Pitch (distance between encoder lines; see encoder or motor data
sheet). As indicated by the Fundamental Resolution field, Fundamental Pitch divided by
four gives Fundamental Resolution. The interpolated resolution is the dividend of
Fundamental Resolution value/Interpolation value. Optionally modify the Interpolated
Resolution by changing the Interpolation value.
Low
Frequency
Analog
Normally used with ServoTube, Pole Pitch is the distance between poles in a pole pair, as
entered in the Magnetic Pole Pair Length field on the Motor tab. The interpolated resolution
is the dividend of Pole Pitch/Counts per pole value, expressed in micrometers. Optionally
modify the resolution by changing the Counts/Pole value. Click Restore Default to restore
default Counts/Pole.
Copley Controls
CME 2 User Guide
Motor/Feedback
SSI
Choose units and then enter the Encoder Resolution (see encoder or motor data sheet).
In the Number of Encoder Bits text field enter the number of encoder bits, (see data sheet).
Choose Binary or Gray.
BISS
Choose units and then enter the Encoder Resolution (see encoder or motor data sheet).
In the Bits text field specify the number of bits used for single turn Resolution (see
encoder data sheet). Select code format BiSS B or BiSS C.
In the BiSS Advanced Settings window click any of the listed choices and
choose Ok.
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Motor/Feedback
CME 2 User Guide
5.7: Feedback Notes
5.7.1: Encoder and Resolver Support
Some Copley Controls amplifiers are offered in multiple versions to support different types
of encoder or resolver feedback. Some encoder versions support digital quadrature
encoders, some support analog sin/cos encoders, and others support both. Encoder
versions normally require Hall switches for the commutation of brushless motors. The
resolver versions support standard, single speed, transmit-type resolvers.
5.7.2: Dual Feedback Amplifiers
Some Copley Controls amplifiers can receive position feedback from sensors on the
motor, the load, or both, through the Primary Feedback channel, a Secondary Feedback
channel (multi-mode port) or both. (Some amplifiers can also operate in certain modes
without encoders or resolvers.)
When the amplifier is configured with a multi-mode port (see Miscellaneous Options, p.5)
the multi-mode port can:


Provide a buffered digital encoder output based on the digital encoder input.
Provide an emulated digital encoder output based on the analog encoder or resolver
input.
 Provide a second digital encoder input to be used in the dual encoder position mode.
In this mode, an encoder attached to the load provides position loop feedback, and
the motor encoder or resolver provides velocity loop feedback.
A dual-feedback setup is shown below. The amplifier receives feedback from an
incremental motor encoder through the Primary feedback channel. Position (load)
encoder feedback comes through the multi-mode port. The ratio of motor turns to position
encoder turns is 1 to 10.
52
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CME 2 User Guide
Motor/Feedback
5.8: Brake/Stop Parameters
Enter the following parameters as appropriate.
Parameter
Description
Brake/Stop Delay Time
Range of accepted values: 0 to 10,000 mSec
Brake Activation Velocity
Range of accepted values: 0 to encoder resolution dependent limit rpm (mm/s
for linear motor)
PWM Delay Brake/Stop
Response Time
Range of accepted values: 0 to 10,000 mSec
5.9: Brake/Stop Notes
Many control systems employ a brake to hold the axis when the amplifier is disabled. On
brake-equipped systems, disabling the amplifier by a hardware or software command
starts the following sequence of events.



The motor begins to decelerate (at Abort Deceleration rate in position mode or Fast
Stop Ramp rate in velocity mode). At the same time, the Brake/Stop Delay Time count
begins. This allows the amplifier to slow the motor before applying the brake.
When the motor slows to Brake/Stop Activation Velocity OR the Brake/Stop Delay
Time expires, the brake output activates and PWM Delay Brake/Stop Response Time
count begins.
When response time has passed, the amplifier’s output stages are disabled. This
delay ensures the brake has time to lock in before disabling the power section.
This sequence is not available in the current mode of operation. Instead, in current mode,
the amplifier output turns off and the brake output activates immediately when the disable
command is received.
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Motor/Feedback
CME 2 User Guide
5.10: The Calculate Function
The Calculate function uses programmed motor and encoder values to calculate initial
gains and limits. These can be modified to fine-tune the amplifier. Follow the steps below:
1
2
Click Calculate to calculate and display the settings.
Verify the peak current limit, continuous current limit, and velocity loop velocity limit.
If one or more of these values seems inappropriate, click Cancel and check: Peak
Torque (or Force), Continuous Torque (or Force), Velocity Limit, and Torque (or Force)
Constant. Correct them if needed. See Rotary Motor Setup Parameters (p. 44)
or Linear Motor Setup Parameters (p. 45).
If the Motor/Feedback values were correct but the peak current limit, continuous current
limit, or velocity loop velocity limit values are not optimal for the application, change
these limits during the tuning process.
3
Load the values into amplifier RAM by clicking OK.
NOTE: When loading motor data from a file, if the motor wiring configuration in the
motor file does not match the configuration currently stored in the amplifier, CME
prompts for verification on which configuration to use. Select the file configuration by
clicking Yes. The configuration will be tested as part of Motor Phasing (p. 93).
4
54
On the Main screen, click Save to Flash to avoid losing the changes.
Copley Controls
CHAPTER
6: DIGITAL INPUTS AND OUTPUTS
This chapter shows how to configure the amplifier’s digital inputs and outputs. Perform the
steps outlined below. Details follow in the chapter.
1
Click Input/Output to open the Input/Output screen.
2
As needed, set Digital Inputs (p. 56).
3
As needed set Digital Outputs (p 59).
4
Click Close to close screen and save changes to amplifier RAM.
5
On the Main screen, click Save to Flash to avoid losing the changes.
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CME 2 User Guide
6.1: Digital Inputs
6.1.1: Digital Inputs Screen Overview
A typical Input/Output screen is shown below. Features vary with amplifier model and
configuration.
Red light: inhibited motion or active input depending on input function.
Grey light: motion not inhibited.
No light: not configured.
Lo/Hi: indicated state of input.
Hold position setting.
Indicates input is used as a CAN address bit.
Parameter
Description
Pull up +5 V
Pulls up the group of inputs up to internal +5 V.
Pull down
Pulls the group of inputs down to internal signal ground.
Debounce Time
Specifies how long an input must remain stable at a new state before the amplifier recognizes the
state. Increase to prevent multiple triggering caused by switch bounce upon switch closures.
Range: 0 to 10,000 mSec.
Debounce does not affect inputs that have been configured as PWM, Pulse and Direction, or
Quadrature control inputs.
IN1- IN12
Select the function for the input. See Digital Input Functions (p. 57) for input function descriptions.
*Hold position
when limit
switch is active
Available in position mode when one or more inputs are configured as a limit switch (NEG Limit-HI
Inhibits, NEG Limit-LO Inhibits, POS Limit-HI Inhibits, or POS Limit-LO Inhibits). The *Hold
position option prevents any motion while a limit switch is active. This option uses the Abort
Deceleration rate to stop the motor as described in Trajectory Limits (p. 131).
CAUTION: If the amplifier is switched back to current or velocity mode with this option selected,
the limit switches will no longer function.
Restore Defaults restores all inputs and outputs to factory defaults. Close button closes the screen.
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Digital Inputs and Outputs
6.1.2: Digital Input Functions
The programmable digital input functions are described below.
Input Function
Description
AMP EnableLO Enables with clear faults
A low input will enable the amplifier.
Any transition will clear latched faults and outputs.
AMP EnableHI Enables with clear faults
A High input will enable the amplifier.
Any transition will clear latched faults and outputs.
AMP EnableLO Enables with reset
A low input will enable the amplifier.
AMP EnableHI Enables with reset
A High input will enable the amplifier.
AMP Enable-LO Enables
A low input will enable the amplifier.
AMP Enable-HI Enables
A High input will enable the amplifier.
Not Configured
No function assigned to the input.
NEG Limit-HI Inhibits*
A High input will inhibit motion in negative direction.
NEG Limit-LO Inhibits*
A low input will inhibit motion in negative direction.
POS Limit-HI Inhibits*
A High input will inhibit motion in positive direction.
POS Limit-LO Inhibits*
A low input will inhibit motion in positive direction.
Reset on LO-HI Transition
A low to Hi transition of the input will reset the amplifier.
Reset on HI-LO Transition
A High to low transition of the input will reset the amplifier.
Motor Temp HI Disables
A High input will generate a Motor Over Temperature fault.
Motor Temp LO Disables
A low input will generate a Motor Over Temperature fault.
Home Switch Active HI
A High input indicates the home switch is activated.
Home Switch Active LO
A low input indicates the home switch is activated.
Motion Abort Active HI
A High input causes the amplifier to stop motion, using the Abort
Deceleration rate described in Trajectory Limits (p. 131). The amplifier
remains enabled.
Motion Abort Active LO
A low input causes the amplifier to stop motion, using the Abort
Deceleration rate described in Trajectory Limits (p. 131). The amplifier
remains enabled.
Hi Res Analog Divide Active HI
A High input causes the firmware to divide the level of the analog
input signal by 8.
Hi Res Analog Divide Active LO
A low input causes the firmware to divide the level of the analog input
signal by 8.
High Speed Position Capture on
LO-HI Transition
Position will be captured on the low to high transition of the input.
High Speed Position Capture on
HI-LO Transition
Position will be captured on the high to low transition of the input.
PWM Sync Input
PWM synchronization input. See Synchronizing PWM Switching
Frequency (p. 66). (For high-speed inputs only.)
Copley Controls
A low to High transition will reset the amplifier.
A High to low transition will reset the amplifier.
57
Digital Inputs and Outputs
CME 2 User Guide
6.1.3: Standard Input Function Assignments
Enable Input: On some Copley Controls amplifiers, IN1 is dedicated to the enable
function.
Other inputs can be programmed as additional enables. If there is more than one input
programmed as an enable then all the inputs must be in the enabled state before the
amplifier PWM output stage will be enabled.
Motor Over Temperature: On most Copley Controls panel amplifiers, the last input is located
on the motor feedback connector and is intended to be used for Motor Over Temperature.
Other: Other inputs may have predefined functions depending on mode of operation.
58
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Digital Inputs and Outputs
6.2: Digital Outputs
6.2.1: Screen Overview
A typical Digital Outputs screen is shown below. Options vary with amplifier.
Red light: inhibited motion or active input, depending on input function.
Grey light: motion not inhibited.
No light: not configured.
Lo/Hi or On/Off indicates state of input.
Parameter
Description
Configure Custom
Opens screen to display custom digital output settings.
Available only when function is set to Custom.
Restore Defaults
Restores all inputs and outputs to factory defaults.
Close
Closes screen and saves changes to amplifier RAM.
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Digital Inputs and Outputs
CME 2 User Guide
6.2.2: Digital Output Functions
Copley drives can have either opto-isolated or non opto-isolated digital outputs, or both.
Opto-isolated digital output states are said to be On or Off. All others are said to be Hi or
Low.
The output functions are described below.
60
Output Function
Description
Not Configured
No function. Output remains Hi/Off.
Fault Active Hi/Off
Output goes Hi/Off when one or more faults are detected.
See Faults (p. 87).
Fault-Active Lo/On
Output goes Lo/On when one or more faults are detected. See Faults
(p. 87).
Brake-Active Hi/Off
Output goes Hi/Off to activate the brake.
See Brake/Stop Parameters (p. 53).
Brake-Active Lo/On
Output goes Lo/On to activate the brake.
See Brake/Stop Parameters (p. 53).
PWM Sync Output (OUT1 only)
The PWM synchronization output.
See Synchronizing PWM Switching Frequency (p. 66).
Custom Event
See Custom Digital Output Settings: Custom Event (p. 61).
Custom Trajectory Status
See Custom Digital Output Settings: Custom Trajectory Status (p. 64).
Custom Position Triggered
Output
See Custom Output Settings: Position Triggered Output (p. 65).
Program Control Active Hi/Off
Output state controlled by CVM or external program.
Program Control Active Lo/On
Output state controlled by CVM or external program
Copley Controls
CME 2 User Guide
Digital Inputs and Outputs
6.2.3: Custom Digital Output Settings: Custom Event
Any of the amplifier’s digital outputs can be programmed to respond to a combination of
events including faults, warnings, and status indications. The output goes active when one
or more of the selected events take place.
Configure a Custom Event output
1
Choose Custom Event for an output and then click Configure Custom to open the
Event Configuration screen.
2
Select one or more Custom Event Functions (p. 62).
Multiple functions are OR’ed together, so any event activates the output.
3
Choose Output Active Hi/Off or Output Active Lo/On.
4
To latch the output, set the Latch Output option.
The Clear button clears all check marks.
Latching an output does not eliminate the risk of unexpected motion with
non-latched faults.
!
DANGER
Associating a fault with a latched, custom-configured output does not latch the
fault itself. After the cause of a non-latched fault is corrected, the amplifier reenables without operator intervention. In this case, motion may re-start
unexpectedly.
Failure to heed this warning can cause equipment damage, injury, or death.
5
Click OK to save changes to amplifier RAM and close the screen.
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Custom Event Functions
Select any combination of events to configure a custom event output:
Event
Description
Amplifier Fault
A latched fault is active.
Amp Over Temperature
For descriptions of these fault events, see Fault Configuration Parameters
(p 88).
Motor Phasing Error
Feedback Error
Motor Over Temperature
Under Voltage
Over Voltage
Short Circuit
Current Limited
Voltage Limited
Positive Limit Switch
Negative Limit Switch
Amp Disabled by Hardware
Amp Disabled by Software
Attempting to Stop Motor
Motor Brake Active
PWM Outputs Disabled
Positive Software Limit
Negative Software Limit
Following Error
Following Warning
Position has Wrapped
Velocity Limited
Acceleration Limited
Pos Outside of Tracking
Window
Home Switch Active
In Motion
Vel Outside of Tracking
Window
Phase not Initialized
Command Input Fault
62
2
The current output is being limited by the I T algorithm (p. 191) or a latched
current fault has occurred. See Limits (p. 118.)
Current loop is commanding the full bus voltage in an attempt to control
current. Commonly occurs when the motor is running as fast as the
available bus voltage will allow.
Axis has contacted positive limit switch.
Axis has contacted negative limit switch.
Amplifier enable input(s) is not active.
Amplifier is disabled by a software command.
The amplifier, while in velocity or position mode, has been disabled.
In velocity mode, amplifier is using the Fast Stop Ramp described in
Velocity Loop Limits (p. 122). In position mode, the amplifier is using the
Abort Deceleration rate described in Trajectory Limits (p. 131).
The output remains active until the amplifier is re-enabled.
Motor brake activated. See Brake/Stop Notes (p. 53).
The amplifier’s PWM outputs are disabled.
Actual position has exceeded the positive software limit setting.
See Homing (p. 145).
Actual position has exceeded the negative software limit setting.
See Homing (p. 145).
Following error has reached programmed fault limit.
See Following Error Fault Details (p. 91).
Following error has reached programmed warning limit.
See Following Error Fault Details (p. 91).
The position counters have exceeded the maximum range of
31
31
-2 – 2 -1 and have wrapped. Normal amplifier operation is not affected.
The velocity command (from analog input, PWM input, or position loop)
has exceeded the velocity limit. See Velocity Loop Limits (p. 122).
In velocity mode, motor has reached an acceleration or deceleration limit
that was set as described in Velocity Loop Limits (p. 122).
The following error has exceeded the programmed value.
See Tracking Window Details (p. 92).
Axis has contacted the home limit switch.
The motor is moving, or it has not yet settled after a move. The amplifier is
settled when it comes within the position tracking window and stays there
for the tracking time at the end of a move. Once this bit is set, it remains
set until a new move is started.
Difference between target and actual velocity has exceeded the window.
See Tracking Window Details (p. 92).
Amplifier is using Phase Initialization function and phase is not initialized.
See Fault Configuration Parameters (p. 88).
Copley Controls
CME 2 User Guide
Digital Inputs and Outputs
Non-Latched vs. Latched Custom Event Digital Outputs
Like an amplifier fault, a custom-configured output can be non-latched or latched.
If a non-latched, custom-configured digital output goes active, it goes inactive as soon as
the last of the selected events is cleared.
If a latched output goes active, it remains active until at least one of the following actions
has been taken:
Power-cycle the amplifier
or
Cycle (disable and then enable) an enable input that is configured as
Enables with Clear Faults or Enables with Reset.
or
Access the CME 2 Control Panel and press Clear Faults or Reset.
Custom Event Output Fault Handling vs. Overall Fault Handling
A fault on an output programmed for Custom Event is separate from a fault on the
amplifier. For instance, suppose:

OUT3 has a Custom Event configuration. Only the Under Voltage fault condition is
selected, and the output is latched.
 Under Voltage is not latched on the Configure Faults screen.
An under voltage condition occurs, and the amplifier goes into fault condition, output
stages are disabled, and faults are reported. At the same time, OUT3 goes active.
The under voltage condition is corrected, and:


The amplifier fault is cleared. Output stages are enabled.
OUT3 remains active.
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CME 2 User Guide
6.2.4: Custom Digital Output Settings: Custom Trajectory Status
Any of the amplifier’s digital outputs can be programmed to respond to a combination of
amplifier trajectory status conditions. The output goes active when one or more of the
conditions is met.
Configure a Custom Trajectory Status output
1
Choose Custom Trajectory Status for an output and then click Configure Custom to
open the Trajectory Status Configuration screen.
2
Select one or more trajectory status conditions described below.
Multiple functions are OR’ed together, so any status match activates the output.
Trajectory Status Functions
Status
Description
64
Homing Error
Activate output if an error occurred in the last homing attempt.
Referenced
(Homed)
Activate output if the most recent homing attempt was successful.
Homing in
Progress
Activate output when a homing move is in progress.
Move Aborted
Activate output if move is aborted.
Trajectory
Generator
Running
Activate output while trajectory generator is generating a move.
Camming
Buffer Error
A camming buffer error has occurred.
3
Choose Output Active High to have the output go high when active or Output Active
Low to have the output go low when active.
4
Click OK to save changes to amplifier RAM and close the screen.
Copley Controls
CME 2 User Guide
Digital Inputs and Outputs
6.2.5: Custom Output Settings: Position Triggered Output
Any of the amplifier’s digital outputs can be programmed to respond in certain ways to the
position of the controlled axis. The output goes active when the axis position meets the
specified criteria.
Configure a Position Triggered output
1
Choose Custom Position Triggered Output for an output and then click Configure
Custom to open the In Position Configuration screen.
2
Select one of the configurations described below and enter appropriate values for the
parameters.
Configuration
1.In Position
Window
2.Trigger at
Position
3.Trigger Positive
Motion
4.Trigger Negative
Motion
Description and Parameters
Activates the output while the axis is in the window between the programmed Upper
and Lower positions.
Activates the output for the programmed Time when the axis travels through the
programmed Position.
Activates the output for the programmed Time when the axis travels in the positive
direction through the programmed Position.
Activates the output for the programmed Time when the axis travels in the negative
direction through the programmed Position.
3
Choose Output Active High to have the output go high when active or Output Active Low
to have the output go low when active.
4
In stepper mode with no encoder, choose Use Limited Position. Otherwise choose Use
Actual Position.
5
Click OK to save changes to amplifier RAM and close the
Custom Output Configuration screen.
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6.3: Synchronizing PWM Switching Frequency
In some situations, such as when sampling small analog signals, it is desirable to
synchronize the PWM switching frequency among multiple amplifiers. In these cases, one
amplifier serves as a master for one or more slave amplifiers. The PWM sync output of
the master sends a signal that is received as a PWM sync input by each slave.
6.4: Analog I/O
A typical Analog I/O screen is shown below. Options vary with amplifier.
6.4.1: Analog Motor Temperature Sensor
Enter a voltage limit in mV. Fault will occur when voltage is above limit. Actual voltage is
the sensor reading in mV.
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Digital Inputs and Outputs
6.4.2: Analog Output
The Analog Output has two modes of operation, Manual and Actual Current.
When Manual is chosen the output is set to the programmed value, +/- 5V, entered in mV.
When Actual Current is chosen the output value is proportional to the actual motor
current.
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Digital Inputs and Outputs
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Copley Controls
CHAPTER
7: COMMAND INPUTS
This chapter shows how to configure the amplifier’s command inputs. Perform the basic
steps outlined below. Details follow in the chapter.
1
or
or
or
or
or
or
Click to open the loop command input settings screen.
2
Change/verify command input parameters as described in the following sections:






3
Analog Command Settings (p. 70)
PWM Input Settings (p. 73)
Digital Position Input Settings (p. 76) or
Network Configuration (p. 81)
Software Programmed Input Settings (p. 78)
Copley Camming User Guide
Click Close to close screen and save changes to amplifier RAM.
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CME 2 User Guide
7.1: Analog Command Settings
View or change the settings described below.
Parameter
Description
Scaling
Current mode: output current produced by +10 Vdc of input.
Range: 0 to 10,000,000 A. Default: Peak Current value.
Velocity mode: output velocity produced by +10 Vdc of input.
Range: 0 to 100,000 rpm (mm/sec).
Default: Maximum Velocity value.
Position mode: position change (counts or mm) produced by +10 Vdc of input.
Range: 0 to 1,000,000,000 counts.
Default: 1 Revolution of a rotary motor or 1 pole pair distance for a linear motor.
For more information, see Scaling (p. 71).
Dead Band
Sets dead band. Range: -10,000 to 10,000 mV. Default: 0.
For more information, see Dead Band (p. 71).
Invert Command
Inverts polarity of amplifier output with respect to input signal.
Offset
(Current and Velocity modes only.) Used to offset input voltage error in an open
loop system. Not recommended for use when the amplifier is part of a closed loop
system.
Range: -10,000 to 10,000 mV. Default: 0. For more information, see
Offset (p. 72).
For more information, see Analog Command Notes (p 71).
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7.1.1: Analog Command Notes
The amplifier can be driven by an analog voltage signal through the analog command
input. The amplifier converts the signal to a current, velocity, or position command as
appropriate for current, velocity, or position mode operation, respectively.
The analog input signal is conditioned by the scaling, dead band, and offset settings.
Scaling
The magnitude of the command generated by an input signal is proportional to the input
signal voltage. Scaling controls the input-to-command ratio, allowing the use of an optimal
command range for any given input voltage signal range.
For example, in current mode, with default scaling, +10 Vdc of input generates a
command equal to the amplifier’s peak current output; +5 Vdc equals half of that.
Scaling could also be useful if, for example, the signal source generates a signal range
between 0 and +10 Vdc, but the command range only requires +7.5 Vdc of input. In this
case, scaling allows the amplifier to equate +7.5 Vdc with the amplifier’s peak current (in
current mode) or maximum velocity (in velocity mode), increasing the resolution of control.
Dead Band
To protect against unintended response to low-level line noise or interference, the
amplifier can be programmed with a “dead band” to condition the response to the input
signal voltage. The amplifier treats anything within the dead band ranges as zero, and
subtracts the dead band value from all other values. For instance, with a dead band of
100 mV, the amplifier ignores signals between –100 mV and +100 mV, and treats 101 mV
as 1 mV, 200 mV as 100 mV, and so on.
200
Output
100
Dead Band
0
-100
-200
-200
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-100
0
Input
100
200
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Offset
To remove the effects of voltage offsets between the controller and the amplifier in open
loop systems, CME 2 provides an Offset parameter and a Measure function. The Measure
function takes 10 readings of the analog input voltage over a period of approximately 200
ms, averages the readings, and then displays the results. The Offset parameter allows the
user to enter a corrective offset to be applied to the input voltage.
The offset can also set up the amplifier for bi-directional operation from a uni-polar input
voltage. An example of this would be a 0 to +10 Vdc velocity command that had to control
1000 rpm CCW to 1000 rpm CW. Scale would be set to 2000 rpm for a +10 Vdc input and
Offset set to -5V. After this, a 0 Vdc input command would be interpreted as -5 Vdc, which
would produce 1000 rpm CCW rotation. A +10 Vdc command would be interpreted as +5
Vdc and produce 1000 rpm CW rotation.
Monitoring the Analog Command Voltage
The analog input voltage can be monitored in the Control Panel and in the Scope Tool.
The voltage displayed in both cases is after both offset and deadband have been applied.
Analog Command in Position Mode
The Analog Position command operates as a relative motion command. When the
amplifier is enabled the voltage on the analog input is read. Then any change in the
command voltage will move the axis a relative distance, equal to the change in voltage,
from its position when enabled.
To use the analog position command as an absolute position command, the amplifier
should be homed every time it is enabled. The Homing sequence may be initiated by
CAN, ASCII serial, or CVM Indexer program commands.
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7.2: PWM Input Settings
View or change the settings described below.
Parameter
Description
Scaling
Current mode: output current at 100% duty cycle.
Range: 0 to 10,000,000 A. Default: Peak Current value.
Velocity mode: output velocity at 100% duty cycle.
Range: 0 to 100,000 rpm (mm/sec).
Default: Maximum Velocity value.
PWM Input Type
One wire 50% or two wire 100% with direction.
Options
Invert PWM input: Inverts the PWM logic.
Allow 100% output: Overrides the 100% command safety measure.
See Failsafe Protection from 0 or 100% Duty Cycle Commands (p. 75).
Invert Sign Input: In 100% duty cycle mode, inverts the polarity of the directional
input.
For more information, see PWM Input Notes (p 74).
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7.2.1: PWM Input Notes
Two Formats
The amplifier can accept a pulse width modulated (PWM) signal to provide a current
command in current mode and a velocity command in velocity mode. The PWM input can
be programmed for two formats: 50% duty cycle (one-wire) and 100% duty cycle (twowire).
50% Duty Cycle Format (One-Wire)
The input takes a PWM waveform of fixed frequency and variable duty cycle. As shown
below, a 50% duty cycle produces zero output from the amplifier. Increasing the duty
cycle toward 100% commands a positive output, and decreasing the duty cycle toward
zero commands a negative output.
Decreasing Duty Cycle
Increasing Duty Cycle
PWM Input
50 % Duty Cycle
Max +
Amplifier Output
0
Max -
The command can be inverted so that increased duty cycle commands negative output
and vice versa.
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100% Duty Cycle Format (Two-Wire)
One input takes a PWM waveform of fixed frequency and variable duty cycle, and the
other input takes a DC level that controls the polarity of the output. A 0% duty cycle
creates a zero command, and a 100% duty cycle creates a maximum command level. The
command can be inverted so that increasing the duty cycle decreases the output and vice
versa.
100%
Duty Cycle
100%
Duty Cycle
PWM Input
Direction Input
Max +
Amplifier Output
0
Min -
Failsafe Protection from 0 or 100% Duty Cycle Commands
In both formats, the amplifier can be programmed to interpret 0 or 100% duty cycle as a
zero command, providing a measure of safety in case of controller failure or cable break.
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7.3: Digital Position Input Settings
View or change the settings described below.
Parameter
Description
Control Input
Pulse and Direction: One input takes a series of pulses as motion step commands,
and another input takes a high or low signal as a direction command.
Pulse Up / Pulse Down: One input takes each pulse as a positive step command,
and another takes each pulse as a negative step command.
Quadrature: A/B quadrature commands from a master encoder (via two inputs)
provide velocity and direction commands.
Rising Edge: Increment position on the rising edge of the input pulse.
Falling Edge: Increment position on the falling edge of the input pulse.
Input Pulses: Number of Input Pulses required to produce output counts.
Range: 1 to 32,767. Default: 1.
Output Counts: Number of Output Counts per given number of input pulses.
Range: 1 to 32,767. Default: 1.
When selected, inverts commanded direction.
Increment position
on
Stepping
Resolution
Invert Command
For more information, see Digital Position Input Notes (p. 76).
7.3.1: Digital Position Input Notes
Three Formats
In position mode, the amplifier can accept position commands using one of these signal
formats: pulse and direction, count up/count down, and quadrature.
In all three formats, the amplifier can be configured to invert the command.
Pulse Smoothing
In digital position mode, the amplifier’s trajectory generator can be used to create
trapezoidal profiles, with programmed acceleration, deceleration and velocity, from a
simple pulse train or burst of pulses
To bypass the trajectory generator while in digital or analog position modes, set the
maximum acceleration to zero. The only limits in effect will now be the velocity loop
velocity limit and the current limits. (Note that leaving the maximum acceleration set to
zero will prevent other position modes from operating correctly.)
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Pulse and Direction Format
In pulse and direction format, one input takes a series of pulses as motion step
commands, and another input takes a high or low signal as a direction command, as
shown below.
Pulse Input
Direction Input
Velocity
Command
The amplifier can be set to increment position on the rising or falling edge of the signal.
Stepping resolution can be programmed for electronic gearing.
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Count Up/Count Down Format
In the count up/count down format, one input takes each pulse as a positive step
command, and another takes each pulse as a negative step command, as shown below.
Up Input
Down Input
Velocity
Command
The amplifier can be set to increment position on the rising or falling edge of the signal.
Stepping resolution can be programmed for electronic gearing.
Quadrature Format
In quadrature format, A/B quadrature commands from a master encoder provide velocity
and direction commands, as shown below.
A Input
B Input
Velocity
Command
The ratio can be programmed for electronic gearing.
7.4: Software Programmed Input Settings
These settings can be saved to flash to allow default conditions to be set and used when
the amplifier is powered up or reset.
Potential for unexpected movement.
!
DANGER
78
If Programmed Velocity or Programmed Current are set to values other than 0,
the motor will move after power-up or reset if the amplifier is hardware enabled.
Failure to heed this warning can cause equipment damage, injury, or death.
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Command Inputs
7.4.1: Programmed Position
View or change the settings described below.
Setting
Description
Move
Relative or Absolute.
Type
Trap or S-Curve.
Distance
Move distance.
7.4.2: Programmed Velocity
View or change the setting described below.
Setting
Description
Programmed
Velocity
Move velocity. Units: rpm (rotary) or mm/s (linear).
7.4.3: Programmed Current
View or change the settings described below.
Setting
Description
Programmed
Current
Current applied during the constant velocity portion of the move. Units: A.
Current Ramp
Acceleration/deceleration current. Units: mA/s.
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CHAPTER
8: NETWORK CONFIGURATION
This chapter shows how to configure CAN, MACRO or EtherCAT networks.
8.1: CAN Network ........................................................................................................................................................................ 82
8.2: MACRO Network .................................................................................................................................................................. 83
8.3: EtherCAT Network ................................................................................................................................................................ 85
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8.1: CAN Network
A CANopen network can support up to 127 nodes. Each node must have a unique and
valid seven-bit address (Node ID) in the range of 1-127. (Address 0 should only be used
when the amplifier is serving as a CME 2 serial port multi-drop gateway.)
Configure a CAN interface
1
2
Click CAN Configuration to open the CAN Configuration screen. (If CAN is
not the Position Loop Input, choose AmplifierNetwork Configuration instead.)
3
Choose network type (CAN or DeviceNet). This is optional for some drives.
4
Choose a Bit Rate and choose any combination of address sources (Switch, Inputs, and
Programmed Value). The address is the sum of the values from these sources.
5
For each source selected, perform the additional steps described below.
6
82
Verify that the CAN network has been cabled and terminated as per amplifier documents.
Source
Additional Steps
Use Switch
Verify the S1 switch setting. (Assigns values for Bit 0 – Bit 3 of CAN address.)
Use Inputs
Enter Number of Inputs. Choose an input to represent each CAN address bit.
Use Programmed Value
Enter the Programmed Value.
Click Save & Reset to save changes to amplifier flash, close the screen, and reset the
amplifier. Click Save & Close to save changes to amplifier flash without resetting.
NOTE: Address and bit rate changes take effect only after power-up or reset.
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Network Configuration
8.2: MACRO Network
A Delta Tau PMAC card can hold up to four MACRO IC’s, each of which is a master on a
MACRO ring. Each master IC can address 16 stations (nodes, slaves), enabling the
addressing of up to 64 devices on a ring. Of these, 32 can be motion devices such as
Xenus XML. A node address is an 8-bit value with bits 7-4 addressing the master IC and
bits 3-0 addressing the slave.
XML switch S1 is set to select the master IC to which the Xenus will be linked. The four
possible values for this setting are 0,1,2, and 3.
As a MACRO station or node the XML has eight available addresses as a motion control
device. These are 0,1,4,5,8,9,12, & 13.
Configure a MACRO interface
1
Verify the S1 and S2 switch settings.
2
Select AmplifierNetwork Configuration from the CME 2 Main Screen to open the MACRO
Configuration screen as shown in the following example.
Continued…
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Network Configuration
…MACRO Network, continued:
3
Verify the following parameters.
Parameter
Description
Scaling Input Command
Current mode: output current produced by +10 Vdc of input.
Range: 0 to 10,000,000 A. Default: Peak Current value.
Heart Beat Time Out
Home Status Bit
Velocity mode: output velocity produced by +10 Vdc of input.
Range: 0 to 100,000 rpm (mm/sec).
Default: Maximum Velocity value.
The frequency at which the drive will produce heartbeat messages. This parameter
may be set to zero to disable heartbeat production.
Use Motor Encoder index: Return the primary encoder index state in the home
status bit of the MACRO status word.
Use Home Input: The state of any general purpose input configured as a home
input will be returned in the home status bit of the MACRO status word.
Auxiliary Data Registers
Defines what type of additional data is transmitted in the Auxiliary data registers of
every MACRO response message.
First Register: Digital input Value, Secondary Analog Input Value.
Second Register: Analog Input, Motor Encoder, Position Encoder.
Enable Position Output
Scaling
When selected, position data sent over the MACRO network is shifted up 5 bits to
be compatible with Delta-Tau controllers.
Enable MACRO Network
Synchronization
Allows the drive’s PWM frequency to be adjusted to allow synchronous operation
with the MACRO ring. Note that changing the PWM Frequency will affect the
current loop tuning. Therefore, current loop tuning will need to be checked.
Current Loop Frequency
Active Network Required
for Amp to Enable
4
If selected, drive will not enable if network is not active.
Click Close to close the screen and save the settings.
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8.3: EtherCAT Network
An EtherCAT network enables high-speed control of multiple axes while maintaining tight
synchronization of clocks in the nodes. Data protocol is CANopen over EtherCAT (CoE)
based on DSP-402 for motion control devices.
Stations on EtherCAT are automatically addressed by their bus location. The first drive on
the network is station address -1. The second is -2, and so on.
EtherCAT Address (Station Alias)
1
View the S1 and S2 switch settings on the drive.
2
To optionally verify the S1 and S2 switch settings select AmplifierNetwork Configuration
from the CME 2 Main Screen to open the EtherCAT Settings screen as shown in the
following example.
As an alternate to the default addressing, switches S1 and S2 may be used to program a
station alias. The default address and station alias are always available. If the switchbased station alias is used, it is the responsibility of the user to ensure that each drive has
a unique station alias.
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CHAPTER
9: FAULTS
This chapter shows how to configure the amplifier’s fault latching. Perform the basic steps
outlined below. Details follow in the chapter:
1
Click Configure Faults to open Faults Configuration screen.
2
Select the faults to latch. See Fault Configuration Parameters (p. 88).
3
Click OK to close screen and save changes to amplifier RAM.
4
On the Main screen, click Save to Flash to avoid losing the changes.
Risk of unexpected motion with non-latched faults.
!
DANGER
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After the cause of a non-latched fault is corrected, the amplifier re-enables
the PWM output stage without operator intervention. In this case, motion
may re-start unexpectedly. Configure faults as latched unless a specific
situation calls for non-latched behavior. When using non-latched faults, be
sure to safeguard against unexpected motion.
Failure to heed this warning can cause equipment damage, injury, or
death.
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9.1: Fault Configuration Parameters
Each of the following faults can be latched by selecting it on the Fault Configuration
screen. For more information on latching, see Fault Latching Notes (p. 89). For details on
limits and ranges, see the amplifier documentation.
Note: The list of faults may vary with amplifier model.
Fault Description
Fault Occurs When…
Fault is Corrected When…
*Amp Over
Temperature
Amplifier's internal temperature
exceeds specified temperature.
Amplifier’s internal temperature falls
below specified temperature.
Motor Phasing Error
Encoder-based phase angle does not
agree with Hall switch states. This
fault can occur only with brushless
motors set up using sinusoidal
commutation. It does not occur with
resolver feedback or with Halls
correction turned off.
Encoder-based phase angle agrees
with Hall switch states. See
Troubleshoot Manual Phase w/
Encoder and Halls (p. 109).
*Feedback error
Over current condition detected on
output of the internal +5 Vdc supply
used to power the feedback.
Encoder power returns to specified
voltage range.
Resolver or analog encoder not
connected or levels out of tolerance.
Feedback signals stay within
specified levels.
Differential signals connected.
Differential signals from incremental
encoder not connected.
*Motor Over Temp
Motor over-temperature switch
changes state to indicate an overtemperature condition.
Temperature switch changes back to
normal operating state.
Under Voltage
Bus voltage falls below specified
voltage limit.
Bus voltage returns to specified
voltage range.
Over Voltage
Bus voltage exceeds specified voltage
limit.
Bus voltage returns to specified
voltage range.
*Following Error
User set following error threshold
exceeded.
See Position and Velocity Error Notes
(p. 90).
*Short Circuit Detected
Output to output, output to ground,
internal PWM bridge fault.
Short circuit has been removed.
Command Input Lost
PWM or other command signal not
present.
Command signal restored.
Over Current (Latched)
Output current I T limit has been
exceeded.
2
Amplifier is reset and re-enabled.
*Latched by default.
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Faults
9.2: Fault Latching Notes
9.2.1: Clearing Non-Latched Faults
The amplifier clears a non-latched fault, without operator intervention, as soon as the fault
condition is corrected.
Risk of unexpected motion with non-latched faults.
!
DANGER
After the cause of a non-latched fault is corrected, the amplifier re-enables the PWM
output stage without operator intervention. In this case, motion may re-start
unexpectedly. Configure faults as latched unless a specific situation calls for nonlatched behavior. When using non-latched faults, be sure to safeguard against
unexpected motion.
Failure to heed this warning can cause equipment damage, injury, or death.
9.2.2: Clearing Latched Faults
A latched fault is cleared only after the fault has been corrected and at least one of the
following actions has been taken:




Power-cycle the amplifier
Cycle (disable and then enable) an enable input that is configured as
Enables with Clear Faults or Enables with Reset
Access the CME 2 Control Panel and press Clear Faults or Reset
Clear the fault over the CANopen network or serial bus
9.2.3: Example: Non-Latched vs. Latched Faults
For example, the amplifier temperature reaches the fault temperature level and the
amplifier reports the fault and disables the PWM output. Then, the amplifier temperature
is brought back into operating range. If the Amp Over Temperature fault is not latched,
the fault is automatically cleared and the amplifier’s PWM outputs are enabled. If the fault
is latched, the fault remains active and the amplifier’s PWM outputs remain disabled until
the faults are specifically cleared (as described above).
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9.3: Position and Velocity Error Notes
9.3.1: Error-Handling Methods
In position mode, any difference between the limited position output of the trajectory
generator and the actual motor position is a position error. The amplifier’s position loop
uses complementary methods for handling position errors: following error fault, following
error warning, and a position-tracking window.
To set position error handling parameters for servo amplifiers, see Enter Basic Position
Loop (p. 124). For stepper amplifiers, see Set Position Limits in Stepper Mode (p. 140).
Likewise, in velocity or position mode, any difference between the limited velocity
command and actual velocity is a velocity error. The amplifier’s velocity loop uses a
velocity tracking window method to handle velocity errors. (There is no velocity error fault.)
To set parameters for velocity error handling, see Enter basic Velocity Loop settings (p.
120).
9.3.2: Following Error Faults
When the position error reaches the programmed fault threshold, the amplifier
immediately faults. (The following error fault can be disabled.)
For detailed information, see Following Error Fault Details (p. 91).
9.3.3: Following Error Warnings
When the position error reaches the programmed warning threshold, the amplifier
immediately sets the following error warning bit in the status word. This bit can be read
over the CAN network. It can also be used to activate a digital output.
9.3.4: Position and Velocity Tracking Windows
When the position error exceeds the programmed tracking window value, a status word
bit is set. The bit is not reset until the position error remains within the tracking window for
the programmed tracking time.
A similar method is used to handle velocity errors.
For detailed information, see Tracking Window Details (p. 92).
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Faults
9.3.5: Following Error Fault Details
Position Error Reaches Fault Level
As described earlier, position error is the difference between the limited position output of
the trajectory generator and the actual position. When position error reaches the
programmed Following Error Fault level, the amplifier faults (unless the following error
fault is disabled.) As with a warning, a status bit is set. In addition, the fault is recorded in
the error log. See Error Log (p. 172).
Additional responses and considerations depend on whether the fault is non-latched or
latched, as described below.
Amplifier Response to Non-Latched Following Error Fault
When a non-latched following error fault occurs, the amplifier drops into velocity mode
and applies the Fast Stop Ramp deceleration rate to bring the motor to a halt. The
amplifier PWM output stage remains enabled, and the amplifier holds the velocity at zero,
using the velocity loop.
Resuming Operations After a Non-Latched Following Error Fault
The clearing of a non-latched following error depends on the amplifier’s mode of
operation. Issuing a new trajectory command over the CAN bus or the ASCII interface will
clear the fault and return the amplifier to normal operating condition.
If the amplifier is receiving position commands from the digital or differential inputs, then
the amplifier must be disabled and then re-enabled using the amplifier’s enable input or
though software commands. After re-enabling, the amplifier will operate normally.
Amplifier Response to a Latched Following Error Fault
When a latched following error fault occurs, the amplifier disables the output PWM stage
without first attempting to apply a deceleration rate.
Resuming Operations After a Latched Following Error Fault
A latched following error fault can be cleared using the steps used to clear other latched
faults:




Power-cycle the amplifier
Cycle (disable and then enable) an enable input that is configured as
Enables with Clear Faults or Enables with Reset
Access the CME 2 Control Panel and press Clear Faults or Reset
Clear the fault over the CANopen network or serial bus
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9.3.6: Tracking Window Details
Proper Tracking Over Time
As described earlier, position error is the difference between the limited position output of
the trajectory generator and the actual position. Velocity error is the difference between
commanded and actual velocity.
When the position or velocity error exceeds the programmed tracking window value, a
status word bit is set. The bit is not reset until the error remains within the tracking window
for the programmed tracking time.
Velocity Tracking Illustration
The following diagram illustrates the use of tracking window and time settings in velocity
mode.
Actual Velocity
Limited Velocity
± Tracking Window
Tracking
Time
Tracking Window
Output
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CHAPTER
10:
MOTOR PHASING
This chapter shows how to phase the motor using the Auto Phase or Manual Phase tool.
Perform the basic steps outlined below. Details follow in the chapter.
Use the procedure described in this chapter to
Phase Motor with Auto Phase (p. 94).
OR
Use the procedure described in this chapter to
Phase Motor Manually (p. 104).
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10.1: Phase Motor with Auto Phase
Choose the appropriate procedure:
Auto Phase Example: Servo Amplifier (p. 94)
Auto Phase Example: Stepper Amplifier, No Encoder (p. 98)
Auto Phase Example: Stepper Amplifier with Encoder, in Stepper Mode (p. 99)
Auto Phase Example: Stepper Amplifier with Encoder, in Servo Mode (p. 100)
NOTE: The examples in this chapter show particular amplifier operating modes and motor
feedback configurations. Some screens and choices may vary from those described here.
10.1.1: Auto Phase Example: Servo Amplifier
Perform the following steps to Auto Phase a servo amplifier.
NOTE: The following steps show Auto Phase with a brushless rotary motor, digital Halls,
and an incremental quadrature encoder. Screens vary for other configurations.
1
Verify that the Enable Input is not activated and that HV or AC power is applied.
2
Click Auto Phase to open the Auto Phase Motor Direction Setup screen.
3
Move the motor in the direction to be considered positive
OR if you cannot move the motor, click Skip (you will confirm motor direction later).
NOTE: If an output is configured as a brake you can temporarily release the brake by
holding down the Release Brake button. The brake will be reactivated when you
release the button.
4
Click Next to open the Auto Phase Motor Wiring Setup screen:
Continued…
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Motor Phasing
…Auto Phase Example, continued:
5
Activate the Enable Input.
6
Click Start to begin the motor wiring setup.
The message area displays messages: Configuring Initial Settings, Microstepping, Test
Complete, Motor Wiring has been configured.
During microstepping, a current vector is applied to the motor windings and
microstepped through an electrical cycle at a set rate, causing the motor to move.
If you chose to Skip the motor direction setup step, Auto Phase will prompt for
confirmation of correct motor direction.
If the step fails see Motor wiring setup problems (p. 103).
NOTE: If incorrect values were entered for inductance and resistance, the calculated
Cp and Ci values may produce current loop oscillation, evidenced by an audible high
frequency squeal during auto phasing.
7
Click Next to open the Auto Phase Phase Count Test screen.
8
Click Start to begin the Phase Count Test. Observe status messages. See the prompt:
Continued…
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…Auto Phase Example, continued:
9
10
When you are ready to observe motion, click OK. See the prompt:
If motor did not turn 1 full turn, click No and see Phase count test problems (p. 103).
If motor turned 1 full turn, click Yes.
The message area displays progress and completion messages.
11
For a resolver (–R) version of a Copley Controls amplifier, skip to Step 13 (p. 97).
For a non-resolver amplifier, click Next to open the Hall Wiring Setup screen.
12
Click Start to begin the Halls wiring setup. The message area displays the messages:
Microstepping. Test Complete. Motor has been properly phased.
During microstepping, a current vector is applied to the motor windings and
microstepped through an electrical cycle at a set rate, causing the motor to move. As
the motor moves the Hall lines are decoded for proper commutation.
If the step fails, see Halls wiring setup problems (p. 103).
Continued…
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Motor Phasing
…Auto Phase Example, continued:
13
For a resolver (-R) version of a Copley Controls amplifier, click Next to open the
Resolver Phase Angle Setup screen.
14
Click Start to start the resolver phase angle setup. The message area displays status
messages.
15
Click Finish to close the screen and save values to flash memory
OR to close the screen without saving changes, click Cancel.
16
If the Auto Phase algorithm does not produce desired results, try adjusting the Auto
Phase Current and Increment Rate values, using the guidelines in
Guidelines for Choosing Auto Phase Current and Increment Rate Values (p. 103).
17
If desired results are not obtained, or to confirm results, proceed to
Phase Motor Manually (p. 104).
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10.1.2: Auto Phase Example: Stepper Amplifier, No Encoder
1
2
98
Verify that the Enable Input is not activated and that HV power is applied.
Click Auto Phase to open the Auto Phase Motor Direction Setup screen.
3
Hold down Move POS to move the motor in the direction considered positive, and
observe the direction of movement.
If the motor does not move see Motor wiring setup problems (p. 103).
4
If the motor moved opposite the direction that you wish to program as positive, click
Invert Motor Output.
5
Click OK to save the direction setting.
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Motor Phasing
10.1.3: Auto Phase Example: Stepper Amplifier with Encoder, in Stepper Mode
1
2
Verify that the Enable Input is not activated and that HV power is applied.
Click Auto Phase to open the Auto Phase Motor Direction Setup screen.
3
Move the motor in the direction you wish to be considered positive.
4
Activate the Enable Input.
5
Click Next to open the Auto Phase Motor Wiring Setup screen.
6
Click Start to begin motor wiring setup with default values.
After successful motor wiring setup, the message “Test Complete” appears.
7
Click Finish to close the screen and save values to flash memory.
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10.1.4: Auto Phase Example: Stepper Amplifier with Encoder, in Servo Mode
1
2
Verify that the Enable Input is not activated and that HV power is applied.
Click Auto Phase to open the Auto Phase Motor Direction Setup screen.
3
Move the motor in the direction you wish to be considered positive.
4
Activate the Enable Input.
5
Click Next to open the Auto Phase Motor Wiring Setup screen.
Continued…
100
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…Auto Phase Example, continued:
6
Click Start to begin the motor wiring setup.
The message area displays messages: Configuring Initial Settings, Microstepping, Test
Complete, Motor Wiring has been configured.
During microstepping, a current vector is applied to the motor windings and
microstepped through an electrical cycle at a set rate, causing the motor to move.
If you chose to Skip the motor direction setup step, Auto Phase will prompt for
confirmation of correct motor direction.
If the step fails, see Motor wiring setup problems (p. 103).
NOTE: If incorrect values were entered for inductance and resistance, the calculated
Cp and Ci values may produce current loop oscillation, evidenced by an audible high
frequency squeal during auto phasing.
7
Click Next to open the Auto Phase Phase Count Test screen.
8
Click Start to begin the Phase Count Test. Observe status messages. See the prompt:
Continued…
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…Auto Phase Example, continued:
9
When you are ready to observe motion, click OK. See the prompt:
10
Click Next to open the Auto Phase Motor Phase Initialize screen:
11
Click Initialize Phase to start phase initialization. If successful, this message appears:
“Test Complete. Phasing has been initialized.”
12
Click Finish to close the screen and save values to flash memory.
13
After clicking Finish, the following message appears if changes were made:
14
Click OK.
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10.2: Guidelines for Choosing Auto Phase Current and
Increment Rate Values
Here are some considerations in choosing Auto Phase Current and Increment Rate
values:






If friction is high, more current may be required to move the load.
High static friction may require more current to overcome stiction.
Transition from static friction to dynamic friction, and back, may produce jerky motion.
A faster rate will operate in the dynamic friction range.
A slower rate will operate in the static friction range.
If the friction is low, as in the case of air bearings, low frequency oscillations may
occur; thus, less current and slower rates may be required. If oscillations persist, then
friction may need to be temporarily added.
10.3: Troubleshoot the Auto Phase Process
1
Motor direction setup problems
If motor direction setup step failed:



2
Check Encoder or resolver power and signals.
Verify that the encoder is differential. (Contact factory if encoder is single-ended.)
Check shielding for proper grounding.
Motor wiring setup problems
If motor wiring setup step failed:





3
Verify that amplifier is disabled.
Check for mechanical jamming.
Check for smooth motion with no mechanical jerking.
Check for good connections to the motor power wires.
Disconnect motor power wires and measure for proper motor resistance.
Phase count test problems
If phase count test failed, verify that in the Motor/Feedback screen the following
parameters have been set correctly:




4
Number of Poles for rotary motors. See Verify the motor’s pole count (p. 109).
Magnetic Pole Pair Length for linear motors.
Encoder Lines or Fundamental Lines for rotary encoders.
Encoder Resolution for linear encoders.
Halls wiring setup problems
If Halls wiring setup step failed:



Check Halls power and signals.
Check for smooth motion with no mechanical jerking.
Check shielding for proper grounding.
If the auto phase procedure fails despite these corrective measures, see Phase Motor
Manually (p. 104).
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10.4: Phase Motor Manually
The CME 2 Manual Phase tool lets the user phase a brushless motor, monitor signals,
check configuration wiring, and control a microstepping current vector.
10.4.1: Manual Phase Example: Motor with Encoder
1
Make sure that no load is attached to the motor.
2
On the Main screen, choose ToolsManual Phase to open the window:
3
Verify the Current setting and then enable the amp by selecting Enable in the Control
area of the Manual Phase window.
4
To control the current vector rotation, command the motor forward or reverse.
NOTE: Some motors have bearings stiction, so helping the motor with mechanical
force is acceptable. Motors with no friction may need friction added to steady motion.
5
If the motor cannot keep up with the rate of vector rotation, then reduce the Increment
Rate or increase the Current.
6
Verify that pressing forward button moves motor forward.
If the motor moves in the wrong direction, toggle the Motor Invert Output setting.
Continued…
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...Manual Phase Example: Motor with Encoder, continued:
7
Verify actual position count agrees with direction of rotation: increasing counts in
forward direction and decreasing counts in reverse direction. If it does not, toggle the
Motor Feedback Invert Input box setting.
8
If the motor has no Halls, skip to Phase Initialization Steps for Motor without Halls (p.
106).
9
Monitor the vector rotation through one electrical cycle for proper Hall transitions:
10

Verify that the red indicator rotates in the same direction as the motor phase angle,
and that the transition occurs when the needle is between indicators (±30 degrees,
as shown below).

If the needle and Hall states do not track properly, use the Hall Wiring list box and/or
Invert Input options (shown below) to swap the amplifier’s Hall wire configuration.

If the red indicator transition leads or lags behind the centered needle by more than
30 degrees, then try adjusting the Hall Offset in +/- 30 degree increments:
Phasing of a motor with encoder and Halls is complete. Click OK.
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Phase Initialization Steps for Motor without Halls
The Phase Initialization function is designed to phase a motor with no Halls.
Halls are strongly recommended for safe, redundant system.
!
DANGER
Copley strongly recommends the use of Halls or a commutating encoder for
commutation to provide a safe, redundant system. If the application requires
otherwise, the customer accepts responsibility for verifying system performance and
reliability.
Failure to heed these warnings can cause equipment damage, injury, or death.
The Phase Initialization function uses as little motion as possible (less than 1/3 of one
electrical cycle) to determine phasing. Phase Initialization drives the motor in open loop
current mode, using microstepping of a current vector.
1
This procedure is a continuation of Manual Phase Example: Motor with Encoder (p. 104).
Before proceeding, verify you have completed that procedure through Step 8 (p. 105).
2
Ensure that the motor is free to move (for instance, make sure the brake is OFF).
3
Ensure that no external force, such as gravity, will cause the motor to move. If it is not
practical to eliminate such forces, it may be necessary to use the Forced Phase feature
later in this procedure.
4
5
To phase a motor with an encoder and no Halls, click Initialize Phase.
Observe the status messages under Monitor.
If the message “Phase Initialized” appears, the phasing of a motor with encoder and no
Halls is complete. Click OK to close the Manual Phase window.
6
If the phasing function fails (for instance, message
“Phase Initialized” is not displayed, or if a phasing fault is
indicated) adjust the phase initialization settings described
below and try Step 4 (Initialize Phase) again.
106
Setting
Description
Time
Used first as a delay, allowing amplifier to ramp up current to drive a small move.
Then used as a settling time. If the value is too low, the settling may not occur in
time, possibly resulting in jerky motion. Default: 400 ms.
Current
Use to overcome stiction when rotating current vector. If the current is too large,
motion may not settle; a low value may not provide enough current to drive a move.
Forced Phase
When selected, Forced Phase causes the Phase Initialization function to apply
Phase Init Current to alternate pairs of motor wires using the Phase Init Time.
Forced Phasing has been used to overcome various phasing problems, including
situations where gravity introduces unwanted motion. Forced Phasing tends to
produce more jerk and apparent motion.
Increment Phase 90
deg
If set, the amplifier will increase the starting phase angle by 90 degrees after every
failed initialization attempt.
Use Offset
If set, the amplifier uses the Hall Offset value as the initialization starting angle.
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10.4.2: Manual Phase Example: Motor with Resolver
1
Make sure that no load is connected to the motor.
2
On the Main screen, choose ToolsManual Phase to open the window:
3
Verify the Current setting and then enable the amp by selecting Enable in the Control
area of the Manual Phase window.
4
To control the current vector rotation, command the motor forward or reverse.
NOTE: Some motors have bearings stiction, so helping the motor with mechanical
force is acceptable. Motors with no friction may need friction added to steady motion.
5
If the motor cannot keep up with the rate of vector rotation, then reduce the Increment
Rate or increase the Current.
6
Verify that pressing forward button moves motor forward. If it does not, toggle the
Motor Invert Output box setting.
7
Verify actual position count agrees with direction of rotation: increasing counts in
forward direction and decreasing counts in reverse direction. If it does not, toggle the
Motor Feedback Invert Input box setting.
Continued…
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…Manual Phase Example: Motor with Resolver, continued:
8
Adjust Resolver Offset configuration as required, testing Fwd and Rev, to produce
alignment of Motor Phase Angle with Resolver Angle as shown here.
Note: Motor manufacturers typically align the resolver in 30 degree increments, typically
by applying current through a pair of motor power wires.
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10.5: Troubleshoot Manual Phase w/ Encoder and Halls
To perform trapezoidal commutation after power-up or reset, the amplifier must receive
good Hall signals. After the first Hall transition is detected, then sinusoidal commutation
can be performed. In sinusoidal commutation, the amplifier uses the encoder for
commutation while monitoring the Halls to verify proper phase. If the error between the
encoder count and Hall transition is too large, then the Hall phase correction will not be
performed and a phase fault will be triggered.
Test for phase fault problems in the order shown below.
1

Data accuracy test
Verify the motor’s pole count:




2

Verify the encoder line count OR a linear motor's magnetic pair length and the
encoder resolution.
Encoder wiring test
If the Halls produce good trapezoidal commutation but a phase fault is persistent
in sinusoidal commutation mode, the encoder is highly suspect. Try this:




3

If you suspect the Halls signals are faulty, try this:



Make sure Halls change states as the motor moves through one electrical
cycle.
Some Hall signals are noisy and require filtering. Check with motor
manufacturer.
Some Halls are not properly calibrated to the motor manufacturer’s
specification.
Hall transition test
If you suspect that the location of the Hall transition is not within +/-30 degrees, try
this:



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Verify the differential encoder signals.
Verify proper twisted shielded cable with good grounding.
Disable the amplifier and move the motor manually to test for phase fault.
If phase fault only occurs under command of current, make sure the motor
power cable is not bundled with the encoder cable.
Hall signals test

4
Apply a current vector at zero Increment Rate to lock motor in position.
Turn the motor shaft and count the number of distinct locking positions.
Calculate the number of poles: Poles = number of locking positions * 2
Adjust Hall offset in smaller increments.
Verify Hall alignment.
Make sure motion is smooth.
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CHAPTER
11:
CONTROL LOOPS
This chapter shows how to program and tune the control loops. Perform the basic steps
outlined below. Details follow in the chapter.
For each control loop:
1
or
2
Click the appropriate button to open the loop control screen.
Change/verify settings as needed.
3
4
or
Click Close to close screen and save changes to amplifier RAM.
Click to open the Scope tool.
5
Run a function or profile and adjust settings to tune the loop.
For an overview of control loop theory, see Servo Operating Modes and Control Loops (p.
11).
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11.1: Current Loop Setup and Tuning
Initial current loop proportional gain (Cp) and current loop integral gain (Ci) values can be
calculated with The Calculate Function (p. 54).
Enter basic Current Loop settings
1
2
Click I Loop to open the Current Loop screen:
Change/verify Current Loop parameters as needed.
Parameter
Description
Peak Current Limit
Used to limit the peak phase current to the motor. Max value depends upon the
amplifier model; Min value > continuous limit.
2
2
I T Time Limit
Sets I T Time Limit in ms. See I2T Time Limit Algorithm (p. 191).
Continuous Current
Limit
Used to limit the Phase Current. Max Value is < Peak Current and depends upon
the amplifier model. Min value: 0
Current Loop Offset
Sets current loop offset. Leave it set to zero until after tuning. For more
information, see Offset (p. 118).
Cp
Current loop proportional gain. Range 0 – 32,767.
Ci
Current loop integral gain. Range 0 – 32,767.
Drive Output
Maximize Smoothness: Amplifier uses circular vector limiting to produce
smooth operation even into the voltage limits.
Maximize Speed: Allows for slightly more of the bus voltage to be used when in
the voltage limit. This may produce a small disturbance at top speed.
3
112
Auto Tune
See Current Loop Auto Tune (p. 115).
Bandwidth
Measure bandwidth using the Cp and Ci values now in the amplifier.
Click Close to close screen and save changes to amplifier RAM.
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Manually tune the Current Loop
METHOD: Apply square-wave excitation to the current loop and adjust current loop
proportional gain (Cp) and current loop integral gain (Ci) to obtain a desired waveform.
For instance:
NOTES:
1) During tuning, observe any warnings that appear to the left of the trace.
2) Some users prefer the Auto Tune feature. See Current Loop Auto Tune (p. 115).
1
Click the Scope Tool.
2
Choose Current from the Function Generator Apply To:
list.
3
On the Settings tab, make sure Auto Setup is selected.
Auto Setup automatically sets the following parameters:
Function Generator Tab
Parameter
Description
Function
Square Wave.
Amplitude
10% of continuous current value.
Frequency
100 Hz.
Settings Tab
Channel 1
Commanded current (green).
Channel 2
Actual current (white).
4
Verify that the Amplitude value is not excessive for the motor.
Continued…
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…Manually Tune the Current Loop, continued:
5
Click Start.
6
On the Gains tab, adjust current loop proportional gain (Cp):


7
8
9
114
Set current loop integral gain (Ci) to zero.
Raise or lower Cp to obtain desired step response. (Typically, little or no overshoot
with a 100 Hz, low-current square wave.) If the Cp value is too large, ringing may
occur. If the Cp value is too low, bandwidth decreases.
Adjust current loop integral gain (Ci) until desired settling time is obtained.
Press Stop to stop the function generator.
On the Main screen, click Save to Flash to avoid losing the changes.
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11.2: Current Loop Auto Tune
Tune the Current Loop with Auto Tune
METHOD: The current loop Auto Tune algorithm applies a square-wave command to the
current loop and adjusts current loop proportional gain (Cp) and current loop integral
gain (Ci) until a desirable waveform is obtained.
Initial current loop proportional gain (Cp) and current loop integral gain (Ci) values can
be calculated with The Calculate Function (p. 54).
1
2
Click I Loop to open the Current Loop screen:
Verify that the amplifier is hardware enabled.
3
4
Click Auto Tune to open screen and start the Current Loop Auto Tune.
To Change the Auto Tune Current, Press Stop, enter the new current in the Auto Tune
Current field, and then press Start.
Continued…
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...Tune the Current Loop with Auto Tune, continued:
5
Observe the Auto Tune process and results. A typical example:

Sets Cp and Ci to zero and then adjusts Cp and Ci for optimal values.

Uses a frequency sweep to determine the small signal, current loop bandwidth.

Displays the results: a set of Cp and Ci alternatives, and the bandwidth measured
using the high Cp and Ci values.
Continued…
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...Tune the Current Loop with Auto Tune, continued:
6
Choose an action based on Auto Tune results.


7
Choose which set of values to save: High, Medium, Low, or Original.
The Medium values, selected by default, are appropriate for most applications.
Optionally choose how to save: Save Cp and Ci to Flash
or Keep Cp and Ci in amplifier RAM only.
Click OK to save the values as chosen, and close the Auto Tune Results window.
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11.3: Notes on the Current Mode and Current Loop
11.3.1: Current Loop Diagram
As shown below, the “front end” of the current loop is a limiting stage. The limiting stage
accepts a current command, applies limits, and passes a limited current command to the
summing junction. The summing junction takes the commanded current, subtracts the
actual current (represented by the feedback signal), and produces an error signal. This
error signal is then processed using the integral and proportional gains to produce a
command. This command is then applied to the amplifier’s power stage.
Current Loop
Current Integral Gain (Ci)
Current Command
Current Limiter
Limited Current
Current Offset
+
PWM
Command
+
Current Proportional Gain (Cp)
Motor
+
-
Limits:
Peak Current
Continuous Current
Peak Current Limit Time
Feedback (Actual Current)
11.3.2: Current Loop Inputs
 The amplifier’s analog or PWM inputs.
 A CANopen network via the amplifier’s CAN interface.
 A Copley Virtual Motion (CVM) control program.
 The amplifier’s internal function generator.
In velocity or position modes, the current command is generated by the velocity loop.
11.3.3: Offset
The current loop offset is intended for use in applications where there is a constant force
applied to, or required of, the servomotor and the system must control this force. Typical
applications would be a vertical axis holding against gravity, or web tensioning. This offset
value is summed with the current command before the limiting stage.
11.3.4: Limits
The current command is limited based on the following parameters:
Limiter
Description
Peak Current
Limit
Maximum current that can be generated by the amplifier for a short duration of time. This
value cannot exceed the peak current rating of the amplifier.
Continuous
Current Limit
Maximum current that can be constantly generated by the amplifier.
2
I T Time Limit
Maximum amount of time that the peak current can be applied to the motor before it must
be reduced to the continuous limit or generate a fault.
For more details, see I2T Time Limit Algorithm (p. 191).
Note: Although the current limits set by the user may exceed the amplifier's internal limits,
the amplifier operates using both sets of limits in parallel, and therefore will not exceed its
own internal limits regardless of the values programmed.
Ramp
118
Rate of change in current command. Used to limit jog moves initiated from the Control
Panel Jog function in current mode, and in advanced Indexer Program functions.
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11.3.5: Current Loop Gains
The current loop uses these gains:
Gain
Description
Cp - Current loop
proportional
The current error (the difference between the actual and the limited commanded
current) is multiplied by this value. The primary effect of this gain is to increase
bandwidth (or decrease the step-response time) as the gain is increased.
Ci - Current loop
integral
The integral of the current error is multiplied by this value. Integral gain reduces the
current error to zero over time. It controls the DC accuracy of the loop, or the
flatness of the top of a square wave signal. The error integral is the accumulated
sum of the current error value over time.
11.3.6: Current Loop Output
The output of the current loop is a command that sets the duty cycle of the PWM output
stage of the amplifier.
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11.4: Velocity Loop Setup and Tuning
Initial velocity loop proportional gain (Vp) and velocity loop integral gain (Vi) values can be
calculated with The Calculate Function (p. 54).
Enter basic Velocity Loop settings
1
Click V Loop (screen contents vary with model and configuration):
Note: For Plus products the output and command filter are accessed through the filter
screen.
2
Change/verify Velocity Loop parameters as needed.
Parameter
Description
Velocity Limit
Top speed limit. Max value may depend upon the back EMF & the Encoder value.
Min value: 0.
Acceleration Limit
Maximum acceleration rate. Max value may depend upon load, inertia, & peak
current. Min value: 1. (Does not apply in position mode.)
Deceleration Limit
Maximum deceleration rate. Max value may depend upon load, inertia, & peak
current. Min value: 1. (Does not apply in position mode.)
Tracking Window
Tracking Time
3
120
See Tracking Window Details (p. 92).
Vp
Velocity loop proportional gain. Range: 0 to 32,767.
Vi
Velocity loop integral gain. Range: 0 to 32,767.
Fast Stop Ramp
Deceleration rate used by the velocity loop when the amplifier is hardware
disabled. Range: 0 to 100,000,000. Default: velocity loop Decel. Limit value.
For more information, see Velocity Loop Limits (p. 122).
Low Gains Shift
Increases the resolution of the units used to express Vp and Vi, providing more
precise tuning. For more information, see Velocity Gains Shift (p. 123).
Hi Gains Shift
Decreases the resolution of the units used to express Vp and Vi, providing more
precise tuning. For more information, see Velocity Gains Shift (p. 123).
Vi Drain (integral
bleed)
Vi drain modifies the effect of velocity loop integral gain. The higher the Vi Drain
value, the faster the integral sum is lowered. Range: 0 to 32,000. Default: 0.
Click Close to close screen.
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Manually Tune the Velocity Loop
METHOD: Apply square-wave excitation to velocity loop and adjust proportional gain
(Vp) and integral gain (Vi) to obtain desired waveform. For instance:
NOTE: During tuning, observe any warnings that appear to the left of the trace.
1
Click the Scope Tool.
2
Choose Velocity from the Function Generator Apply To:
list.
3
On the Settings tab, make sure Auto Setup is selected.
Auto Setup automatically sets the following parameters:
Function Generator Tab
Parameter
Description
Function
Square Wave.
Amplitude
10% of maximum velocity value.
Frequency
5 Hz.
Settings Tab
Channel 1
Limited velocity (green).
Channel 2
Actual Motor Velocity (white).
4
Verify that Amplitude value is not excessive for the motor.
5
6
Click Start.
On the Gains tab, adjust velocity loop proportional gain (Vp):


7
Set velocity loop integral gain (Vi) to zero.
Raise or lower proportional gain (Vp) to obtain desired step response. (Typically,
little or no overshoot on a 5 Hz small, slow-speed square wave.)
Adjust velocity loop integral gain (Vi) until desired settling time is obtained.
8
9
Press Stop to stop the function generator.
On the Main screen, click Save to Flash to avoid losing the changes.
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11.5: Notes on the Velocity Mode and Velocity Loop
11.5.1: Velocity Loop Diagram
As shown below, the velocity loop limiting stage accepts a velocity command, applies
limits, and passes a limited velocity command to the input filter. The filter then passes a
velocity command to the summing junction. The summing junction subtracts the actual
velocity, represented by the feedback signal, and produces an error signal. (The velocity
loop feedback signal is always from the motor feedback device even when an additional
encoder is attached to the load.) The error signal is then processed using the integral and
proportional gains to produce a current command. Programmable digital filters are
provided on both the input and output command signals.
Velocity Loop
Velocity
Command
Velocity Lim iter
Filter
Limited
Velocity
Velocity Integral Gain (Vi)
+
+
Velocity Proportional Gain (Vp)
Filter
+
Current
Command
Limits:
Velocity
Feedback (Derived Velocity)
Acceleration*
Deceleration*
Emergency Stop Deceleration*
*Not used w hen velocity loop is controlled by position loop. See "Velocity Loop Limits" for details.
11.5.2: Inputs
In velocity mode, the velocity command comes from one of the following:
 The amplifier’s analog or PWM inputs.
 A CANopen network via the amplifier’s CAN interface.
 A Copley Virtual Motion (CVM) control program.
 The amplifier’s internal function generator.
In position mode, the velocity command is generated by the position loop.
11.5.3: Velocity Loop Limits
The velocity command is limited based on the following set of parameters designed to
protect the motor and/or the mechanical system.
Limiter
Description
Velocity Limit
Sets the maximum velocity command input to the velocity loop.
Acceleration
Limit
Limits the maximum acceleration rate of the commanded velocity input to the velocity loop.
Deceleration
Limit
Limits the maximum deceleration rate of the commanded velocity input to the velocity loop.
Fast Stop
Ramp
Specifies the deceleration rate used by the velocity loop when the amplifier is hardware
disabled. (Fast stop ramp is not used when amplifier is software disabled.) If the brake
output is active, the fast stop ramp is used to decelerate the motor before applying the
brake.
This limit is used in velocity mode only. In position mode, the trajectory generator handles
acceleration limiting.
This limit is used in velocity mode only. In position mode, the trajectory generator handles
deceleration limiting.
Note that Fast Stop Ramp is used only in velocity mode. In position mode, the trajectory
generator handles controlled stopping of the motor. There is one exception: if a non-latched
following error occurs in position mode, then the amplifier drops into velocity mode and the
Fast Stop Ramp is used.
For more information, see Following Error Fault Details (p. 91).
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11.5.4: Diagram: Effects of Limits on Velocity Command
The following diagram illustrates the effects of the velocity loop limits.
Limited Velocity
Commanded Velocity
Vel Limit
Accel Limit
Decel Limit
11.5.5: Velocity Loop Gains
The velocity loop uses these gains:
Gain
Description
Vp Velocity loop
proportional
The velocity error (the difference between the actual and the limited commanded velocity) is
multiplied by this gain. The primary effect of this gain is to increase bandwidth (or decrease
the step-response time) as the gain is increased.
Vi Velocity loop
integral
The integral of the velocity error is multiplied by this value. Integral gain reduces the velocity
error to zero over time. It controls the DC accuracy of the loop, or the flatness of the top of a
square wave signal. The error integral is the accumulated sum of the velocity error value
over time.
11.5.6: Velocity Gains Shift
The Velocity Gains Shift feature adjusts the resolution of the units used to express Vp and
Vi, providing more precise tuning. If the non-scaled value of Vp or Vi is 64 or less, the Low
Gains Shift option is available to increase the gains adjustment resolution. (Such low
values are likely to be called for when tuning a linear motor with an encoder resolution
finer than a micrometer.) If the non-scaled value of Vp or Vi is 24001 or higher, the High
Gains Shift option is available to decrease the gains adjustment resolution.
11.5.7: Velocity Loop Filters
See C.3: Standard Filter Types (p. 184).
11.5.8: Velocity Loop Outputs
The output of the velocity loop is a current command used as the input to the current loop.
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11.6: Position Loop Setup and Tuning
Initial position loop proportional gain (Pp), velocity feed forward (Vff), and acceleration
feed forward (Aff) values can be calculated with The Calculate Function (p. 54).
Enter Basic Position Loop Settings
1
2
Click P Loop to open the Position Loop Values screen:
Change/verify Position Loop Values as needed. Click Close when done.
Gain
Description
Aff
Acceleration feed forward. Range: 0 to 32,767. See Trajectory Limits (p. 131).
Vff
Velocity feed forward. Range: 0 to 32,767. 100% Vff: 16,384.
See Trajectory Limits (p. 131).
Pp
Position loop proportional gain. Range: 0 to 32,767. See Trajectory Limits (p. 131).
Gains Multiplier
Position loop output is multiplied by this value before going to the velocity loop. In dual
encoder systems, the multiplier’s initial value is calculated based on the ratio of motor
encoder turns to position encoder turns. See Feedback Parameters (p. 46).
Following
Error
Description
Fault
The level (in encoder counts) at which the following error produces a fault, which stops
the servo loop. We recommend raising the fault level before tuning the loop.
See Following Error Fault Details (p. 91).
Warning
The level (in counts) at which the following error produces a warning (without stopping
the loop). See Following Error Fault Details (p. 91).
Disable Fault
Stops following error from faulting. See Following Error Fault Details (p. 91).
Tracking
Description
Tracking Window
Width of tracking window in counts. See Tracking Window Details (p. 92).
Tracking Time
Position must remain in the tracking window for this amount of time to be considered
tracking. See Tracking Window Details (p. 92).
Continued…
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…Enter basic Position Loop settings, continued:
3
Optionally click Position Wrap to open the Position Wrap screen:
4
Change/verify the position wrap parameters as needed. Set both values to zero to
disable position wrapping. Note that the changes do not take effect until OK is pressed.
For more information about this feature, see Position Wrap (p. 132).
5
Parameter
Description
Motor Position
Wrap
Position at which the actual motor position count returns to zero. In a single feedback
system, it also applies to the actual load position.
Load Position
Wrap
Position at which the actual load position count returns to zero in dual feedback
systems. If the position encoder is set to passive mode, this value applies to the
passive encoder position.
Click on the Trajectory Values tab:
Continued…
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…Enter basic Position Loop settings, continued:
6
Change/verify the trajectory values as needed:
Parameter
Description
Max Velocity
Maximum trajectory velocity. Max value may depend upon the back EMF and the Max
feedback count. Min:0. Default: 0.25 x motor velocity limit.
Max Accel
Maximum trajectory acceleration. Max value may depend upon the load inertia and
peak current. Min:0. Default: 0.5 x velocity loop Accel. Limit value.
Max Decel
Maximum trajectory deceleration. Max value may depend upon the load inertia and
peak current. Min:0 (disables limit). Default: 0.5 x velocity loop Accel. Limit value.
Abort Decel
Deceleration rate used by the trajectory generator when motion is aborted. Min:0.
Default: 0.5 x velocity loop Accel. Limit value.
Jerk
Rate of change of acceleration. The value of jerk set during the calculate procedure
produces an S-Curve whose maximum slope is equal to the trajectory profile slope.
This value will produce a maximum acceleration that is not more than the initial default
value of acceleration. Small values will produce less jerking but will take longer to
complete move. Large values will produce more jerking and a more trapezoidal profile
but will complete the move faster.
Note that setting limits to zero disables the trajectory generator so that the command
input is not limited by the generator. Velocity is only limited by the Velocity Limit set in
the Velocity Loop.
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Manually Tune the Position Loop
METHOD: Minimize following error and oscillation by running profiles and adjusting
position proportional gain (Pp), velocity feed forward (Vff), acceleration feed forward
(Aff) and other settings. For instance:
NOTE: During tuning, observe warnings that appear to the left of the trace.
1
Click the Scope Tool.
2
Select the Profile tab.
3
On the Settings tab, make sure Auto Setup is selected. Auto Setup
automatically sets the following parameters:
Profile Tab
Parameter
Description
Move
Relative
Type
Trap
Distance
2000 counts
Reverse and repeat
Not selected
Settings Tab
Channel 1
Profile velocity (green)
Channel 2
Following error (white)
4
If the Auto Setup default profile distance is not
appropriate, enter an appropriate short distance.
5
Click Start. The Profile Generator executes a short move.
NOTES:
1) The profile may not reach constant velocity during a short move.
2) If a following error occurs, open the Control Panel and click Clear Faults.
Continued…
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…Manually Tune the Position Loop, continued:
6
and
Set up a trapezoidal profile by setting the trajectory limits and distance. See table:
Trajectory Limits Tab
Parameter
Description
Maximum Velocity
Maximum
Acceleration
Set values typical of those expected to be used in the application.
Maximum
Deceleration
Profile Tab
Distance
Set the move distance to produce a complete trajectory profile. Be sure
that this distance does not exceed mechanical limits of the system.
Move
Relative
Type
Trap
7
Adjust position proportional gain (Pp) to minimize following error:



On the Gains tab, set velocity feed forward (Vff) and acceleration feed forward (Aff)
to zero.
On the Profile tab, click Start. On the Gains tab, adjust position loop proportional
gain (Pp) until best result is obtained.
Click Start after each adjustment to test on a new profile move.
NOTES:
1) Too much position loop proportional gain (Pp) might cause oscillation.
2) If a following error occurs, open the Control Panel and click Clear Faults.
8
Adjust velocity feed forward (Vff):



Velocity feed forward (Vff) reduces following error in the constant velocity portion of
the profile. Often, a velocity feed forward (Vff) value of 16384 (100%) provides best
results.
Click in the Vff field and adjust the value.
Click Start after each adjustment to test on a new profile move.
Continued…
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… Manually Tune the Position Loop, Continued:
9
Adjust acceleration feed forward (Aff):



Acceleration feed forward (Aff) reduces following error during profile acceleration
and deceleration.
Click in the Aff field and adjust the value.
Click Start after each adjustment to test on a new profile move.
NOTES:
1) If, after tuning the position loop, the motor makes a low frequency audible noise
while enabled but not moving, the velocity loop gains (Vp and Vi) may be lowered to
reduce the noise. If the gain values are set too low, the response to instantaneous rates
of change might be reduced (i.e., slow correction to disturbances or transients).
2) If the amplifier is set up to run in position mode under analog input command, and
the analog command signal produces too much noise at the motor after tuning, the
Analog Command Filter or the Velocity Loop Command Filter may be used to reduce
the noise further.
10
Tune to multiple sets of profiles representing typical moves that might be executed in
the application. Starting with Step 6 (p. 128), repeat the process as needed.
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Test S-Curve Profile
DISCUSSION: If the amplifier will perform S-Curve profile moves, use this procedure to
tune the level of jerk. (Jerk is the rate of change of acceleration. S-Curve moves reduce
jerk to provide a smooth profile.) Run an S-Curve profile and adjust velocity,
acceleration, deceleration, and jerk levels until the desired profile is obtained. For
instance:
1
On the Profile tab, click the S-Curve button.
2
Set up an S Curve profile by adjusting the following parameters to represent a typical
move under normal operation.
Trajectory Limits Tab
Parameter
Description
Maximum Velocity
Maximum speed of the profile.
Maximum Acceleration/
Deceleration
Maximum acceleration/deceleration of the profile. The deceleration is
set to be the same as acceleration.
Maximum Jerk
The value of jerk set during the calculate procedure produces an SCurve whose maximum slope is equal to the trajectory profile slope.
This value will produce a maximum acceleration that is not more than
the initial default value of acceleration. Small values will produce less
jerking but will take longer to complete move. Large values will
produce more jerking and a more trapezoidal profile but will complete
the move faster.
Profile Tab
Distance
Increase the move distance to produce a complete trajectory profile.
Use an acceptable value the does not exceed mechanical limits of
the system.
Move
Relative
Type
S-Curve
3
Click Start.
4
Try multiple sets of profiles representing typical moves that might be executed in the
application. Starting with Set up an S Curve profile, repeat the process as needed.
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11.7: Notes on the Position Mode and Position Loop
11.7.1: Position Loop Diagram
The amplifier receives position commands from the digital or analog command inputs,
over the CAN interface or serial bus, or from the CVM Control Program. When using
digital or analog inputs, the amplifier's internal trajectory generator calculates a
trapezoidal motion profile based on trajectory limit parameters. When using the CAN bus,
serial bus, or CVM Control Program, a trapezoidal or S-curve profile can be programmed.
The trajectory generator updates the calculated profile in real time as position commands
are received.
The output of the generator is an instantaneous position command (limited position). In
addition, values for the instantaneous profile velocity and acceleration are generated.
These signals, along with the actual position feedback, are processed by the position loop
to generate a velocity command.
To bypass the trajectory generator while in digital or analog position modes, set the
maximum acceleration to zero. The only limits in effect will now be the velocity loop
velocity limit and the current limits. (Note that leaving the maximum acceleration set to
zero will prevent other position modes from operating correctly.)
The following diagram summarizes the position loop.
Position Loop
Profile Velocity
Target
Position
Trajectory
Ge ne rator
Velocity Feed Forw ard (Vff)
Profile Acceleration
Limited Position
Limits:
Max velocity
Max accel
Max decel
Abort decel
Acceleration Feed Forw ard (Aff)
+
Position Proportional Gain (Pp)
+
+
Gain
Multiplier
Velocity
Command
+
Feedback
from motor encoder or resolver
from optional position encoder (on load)
11.7.2: Trajectory Limits
In position mode, the trajectory generator applies these limits to generate the profile.
Limiter
Description
Maximum Velocity
Limits the maximum speed of the profile.
Maximum Acceleration
Limits the maximum acceleration rate of the profile.
Maximum Deceleration
Limits the maximum deceleration rate of the profile.
Abort Deceleration
Specifies the deceleration rate used by the trajectory generator when motion is
aborted.
11.7.3: Position Loop Inputs From the Trajectory Generator
The position loop receives the following inputs from the trajectory generator.
Input
Description
Profile Velocity
The instantaneous velocity value of the profile. Used to calculate the velocity
feed forward value.
Profile Acceleration
The instantaneous acceleration/deceleration value of the profile. Used to
calculate the acceleration feed forward value.
Limited Position
The instantaneous commanded position of the profile. Used with the actual
position feedback to generate a position error.
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11.7.4: Position Loop Gains
The following gains are used by the position loop to calculate the velocity command:
Gain
Description
Pp Position loop
proportional
The loop calculates the position error as the difference between the actual and
limited position values. This error in turn is multiplied by the proportional gain
value. The primary effect of this gain is to reduce the following error.
Vff Velocity feed forward
The value of the profile velocity is multiplied by this value. The primary effect of
this gain is to decrease following error during constant velocity.
Aff - Acceleration feed
forward
The value of the profile acceleration is multiplied by this value. The primary effect
of this gain is to decrease following error during acceleration and deceleration.
Gain Multiplier
The output of the position loop is multiplied by this value before being passed to
the velocity loop.
11.7.5: Position Loop Feedback
Some Copley Controls amplifiers feature dual-sensor position loop feedback, configured
as follows:

Single sensor. Position loop feedback comes from the encoder or resolver on the
motor.
 Dual sensor. Position loop feedback comes from the encoder attached to the load.
(Note that in either case, velocity loop feedback comes from the motor encoder or
resolver.) For more information, see Feedback Notes (p 52).
Position Loop Output
The output of the position loop is a velocity command used as the input to the velocity
loop.
11.7.6: Position Wrap
The position wrap feature causes the position reported by the amplifier to “wrap” back to
zero at a user-defined value instead of continually increasing. Once set, the reported
position will be between 0 and n-1 where n is the user entered wrap value. This feature is
most useful for rotary loads that continually turn in one direction and only the position
within a revolution is of interest to the user.
Relative moves with the wrap value set will move the relative distance called for. Example;
if the wrap value is set to 1000 and a relative move of 2500 is commanded, the axis will
turn 2 ½ revolutions.
Absolute moves will move the shortest distance to arrive at the programmed position. This
could be in the positive or negative direction. Moves programmed to a point greater then
the wrap value will cause an error.
To configure the position wrap feature, see Enter Basic Position Loop (p. 124).
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11.8: Auto Tune all Loops for Linear Motors
The Auto Tune all loops feature is available for use with linear motors.
!
Make sure motor is mounted firmly and verify accuracy and completeness of
motor data.
Failure to heed this warning can cause equipment damage, injury, or death.
DANGER
Tune All Loops with Auto Tune (Linear Motors)
At any point, use Back to return to the previous screen. Use Skip to tune the velocity loop
without tuning the current loop, or to tune the position loop without tuning the velocity loop.
1
Verify the motor is mounted firmly. Also verify the accuracy and completeness of the motor
settings. See Motor/Feedback (p. 41).
Current Loop
2
3
Make sure the amplifier’s Basic Setup (p. 33) and Motor Phasing (p. 93) procedures have
been performed, and that the system is capable of a 10 mm move.
Click Auto Tune to open the Current Loop Tune screen.
The status indicator is blue when the amplifier is ready for tuning.
4
Verify the Initial Move Positive setting. In most cases, this option should be set. If positive
initial motion is not possible, you can specify negative initial motion by clearing this option.
For instance, negative initial motion may be used when a vertical axis is at the bottom of
the motion range and the positive direction is down.
Continued…
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… Auto Tune all Loops for Linear Motors, continued:
5
Click Start to tune the current loop. During tuning, the status indicator is amber.
Cp and Ci values change as the text in the status box gives progress updates.
When the current loop has been tuned, the status indicator turns green, and the status box
contains instructions for the next step.
Velocity Loop:
6
Click Next to open the Jog screen.
7
Move the motor to the center of its motion range. To use a jog move:
 Set the Enable Jog option.
 Optionally adjust the jog speed
 Jog the motor in either direction to move it to the center of its motion range.
Continued…
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… Auto Tune all Loops for Linear Motors, continued:
8
When the motor is centered, click Next.
If the amplifier must apply current to hold the new position against a force (such as gravity
in a vertical application), the following message appears:
If this message appears, click OK.
The Velocity Loop Tune screen opens:
9
Optionally adjust the Target Bandwidth.
TIP: Increase bandwidth for more stiffness in the holding position. Decrease bandwidth to
eliminate buzzing or oscillations caused when the load is removed.
Continued…
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… Auto Tune all Loops for Linear Motors, continued:
10
Click Start to tune the velocity loop. During tuning, the status indicator is amber.
Vp and Vi values change as the text in the status box gives progress updates.
When the velocity loop has been tuned, the status indicator turns green, and the status box
contains instructions for the next step:
Position Loop:
11
Click Next to open the Position Loop Tune screen:
Continued…
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… Auto Tune all Loops for Linear Motors, continued:
12
Verify the Move Type setting (S-Curve or Trap).
13
For a trapezoidal profile, optionally optimize the tuning along the scale between Best
Settling (for quicker settling) and Best Following (for less following error).
14
Click Start to tune the position loop. During tuning, the status indicator is amber.
Pp, Vff, and Aff values change as the text in the status box gives progress updates.
When the position loop has been tuned, the status indicator turns green, and the status
box contains instructions for the next step:
15
Click Finish. See the reminder:
16
Click OK.
17
On the CME 2 Main screen, click Save to Flash.
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CHAPTER
12:
STEPPER CONTROLS
This chapter describes set up and tuning steps that are particular to stepper amplifiers.
The basic operations are listed below. Details follow in the chapter.
Set Position Limits in Stepper Mode (p. 140).
Encoder Correction (p. 142).
Tune Stepper Detent Gain (p. 143).
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12.1: Stepper Motor Support
CME 2 supports Copley’s stepper amplifier family. Stepper amplifiers can run in stepper
mode or servo mode.
This chapter describes controls that can be used to fine-tune a stepper amplifier in
stepper mode: Encoder Correction (p. 142) and Detent Compensation Gain (p. 142). It
also describes the screen used in stepper mode to set Position Limits (p. 140).
When a stepper amplifier is used in servo mode, it operates as a true, closed loop, servo
amplifier controlling a stepper motor. After putting the stepper amplifier into servo mode,
set it up and tune it just as you would a servo amplifier.
12.2: Position Limits (Stepper Amplifier)
Perform the following steps to set position limits for a stepper amplifier connected to an
encoder with Encoder Correction enabled (not operating in Servo mode).
Set Position Limits in Stepper Mode
1
Click to open the stepper Position Limits screen. Click the Trajectory Values
tab.
2
Change/verify the values as needed:
Max Velocity
Maximum trajectory velocity. Max value may depend upon the back EMF and the Max
feedback count. Min:0. Default: 0.25 x motor velocity limit.
Max Accel
Maximum trajectory acceleration. Max value may depend upon the load inertia and
peak current. Min:0. Default: 0.5 x velocity loop Accel. Limit value.
Max Decel
Maximum trajectory deceleration. Max value may depend upon the load inertia and
peak current. Min:0 (disables limit). Default: 0.5 x velocity loop Accel. Limit value.
Abort Decel
Deceleration rate used by the trajectory generator when motion is aborted. Min:0.
Default: 0.5 x velocity loop Accel. Limit value.
Note that setting limits to zero disables the trajectory generator so that the command
input is not limited by the generator. Velocity is only limited by the Velocity Limit set in
the Velocity Loop.
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Stepper Controls
3
Click the Position Loop Values tab:
4
Change/verify the values as needed:
Limit
Description
Following Error
Fault
The level (in encoder counts) at which the following error produces a fault,
which stops the servo loop. We recommend raising the fault level before
tuning the loop. See Following Error Fault Details (p. 91).
Warning
The level (in counts) at which the following error produces a warning (without
stopping the loop). See Following Error Fault Details (p. 91).
Disable Fault
Stops following error from faulting. See Following Error Fault Details (p. 91).
Tracking
5
6
Window
Width of tracking window in counts. See Tracking Window Details (p. 92).
Time
Position must remain in the tracking window for this amount of time to be
considered tracking. See Tracking Window Details (p. 92).
Click Close to close the window.
On the CME 2 Main screen, click Save to Flash.
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12.3: Encoder Correction
For a stepper motor with an encoder, encoder correction may be used to compensate for
lost microsteps. Normally, in an open loop micro stepping mode with an encoder, the total
number of micro steps per revolution is set to the number of encoder counts per
revolution. However, a following error can accumulate when micro steps are lost.
In encoder correction mode, when a commanded position is not equal to the actual
position, indicated by encoder counts, the following error is multiplied by the Encoder
Corrections proportional gain (ECp), and micro steps are added to the open loop micro
stepping loop.
If the error is large or the gain is high, micro steps are added at a higher rate, up to the
Max step rate limit. If the ECp gain is too high, the loop will become unstable and
corrections will not reduce the position error. The position error will not be reduced if the
Max step rate is outside of the motors stepping ability. If steps are lost during a move,
encoder corrections are made during the move, but will tend to accumulate during the
trajectory profile and become resolved by the end of the move.
Set Encoder Correction Gain
1
2
Click to open the Encoder Correction screen.
Set the Encoder Correction parameters:
Parameter
Description
ECp
Proportional gain used to compensate for lost microsteps. Default: 0.
Max Step Rate
Maximum velocity allowed while using ECp to correct position errors.
Excessive velocity can result in more lost microsteps. Default: 0.
Test Encoder Correction
While holding position, introduce a position error by rotating the motor shaft by hand.
NOTE: Reduce the holding current slightly if unable to rotate shaft.
The ECp will act on the error and the motor will settle into position slower than a servo
motor but in a reasonable amount of time.
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Stepper Controls
Detent Compensation Gain
Stepper motors are subject to torque detent that can cause undesired velocity fluctuation
between full steps of motion. The Detent gain feature can compensate for this detent.
Tune Stepper Detent Gain
1
Click Detent to open the stepper amplifier Advanced Tuning screen.
Screen settings and controls are described below:
Setting
Description
Velocity
Tuning velocity. Default: 0.
Trace Time
Length of trace interval to be shown on screen. Default: 25 ms.
Gain (Detent Gain)
The Stepper Detent Gain value. Default: 0.
Auto Scale Lock
When selected, prevents trace display from rescaling during tuning.
2
Click Start to begin the tuning.
3
Adjust Velocity from 0 until the mechanical system begins to resonate. (Using a 1.8
degree step motor with 200 full steps, this will typically occur at a velocity of 40-70
rpm.)
4
Adjust Gain until the resonance increases, and then back it down until the resonance is
minimized.
5
Click Stop to stop the tuning.
6
Click Close to close the window.
7
On the CME 2 Main screen, click Save to Flash.
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CHAPTER
13:
HOMING
Set homing parameters and run optional homing tests. Perform the steps outlined below.
1
2
On Main screen, click Home to open the Homing screen.
Select the following homing parameters:
Parameter
Description
Software limits: Positive
Software limits: Negative
Position of user-defined travel limits that take effect after homing operation.
Software limits:
Deceleration Rate
Software limits: Disable
Deceleration rate used to stop a motor when approaching a software limit.
Method
Homing method. See Homing Methods (p. 197).
Direction of Motion
Initial direction of motion for the homing method (Pos or Neg).
Fast Velocity
The velocity used to find a limit or home switch. Also used when moving to
an offset position, or a resolver or Servo Tube index position.
Disables the use of software limits by setting both limits to zero.
Continued…
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…Homing Parameters, continued:
Slow Velocity
Accel/Decel
Offset
The velocity used to find a switch edge, incremental or analog encoder
index pulse, or hard stop.
The acceleration and deceleration rate used during homing.
Current Delay Time
Execute a move of this distance after the reference is found. Set actual
position to 0 and call the new position home.
Hard stop home is reached when the amplifier outputs the homing Current
Limit continuously for the time specified in the Delay Time.
Following Warning
Shows the programmed following warning level.
Actual Current
Shows actual current being applied to windings during homing.
Actual Position
Shows the actual position of the axis.
Homing Adjustment
Shows the Home offset measured after homing is performed.
Test without home
adjustments
Selecting this option and pressing the Home Button tests the adjusted
home position without making any changes to the saved home position.
The resulting homing offset is reported in the Homing Adjustment text field.
Current Limit
3
Optionally click Home to begin a homing sequence. To stop immediately, click Stop.
4
Click Save to save the settings to flash memory. Click Exit to close the screen.
.
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CHAPTER
14:
CONTROL PANEL
Become familiar with the CME 2 Control Panel and its functions. Perform the steps
outlined below to access the panel and its functions. Details follow in chapter.
1
2
Click to open the Control Panel:
See this chapter for a Control Panel Overview (p. 148) and details on:




Status Indicators and Messages (p. 148)
Control Panel Monitor Channels (p. 149)
Control Functions (p. 150)
Jog Mode (p. 151)
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14.1: Control Panel Overview
Each of the Control Panel features labeled below is described in the sections that follow.
Status indicators
Monitor real-time amplifier values
and operational mode
Red if fault
is active
Yellow if warning
is active
Display error log
Message box
Control functions
Jog mode controls
14.2: Status Indicators and Messages
The Status area includes status indicator lights (described below) and a message box.
Any red lights indicate that motion will be inhibited.
Indicator
States/Description
Safety
Motor Output
Hardware Enabled
Software Enabled
Positive Limit
Negative Limit
Software Limits
Motor Phase
Motion Abort Input
CVM Control
Program
Home
State of the safety circuit. Enabled or HI/LO disabled. On amplifiers with safety circuit.
State of the PWM output stage. Red if the output stage is inactive (disabled)
State of the hardware enable input(s). Red if one or more enable inputs are inactive.
State of the software enable. Red if the amplifier is disabled by software.
State of the positive limit switch input. Red indicates an activated positive limit switch.
State of the negative limit switch input. Red indicates an activated negative limit switch.
State of the software limits. Red indicates an activated software limit.
Indicates a motor phasing error. Red indicates a motor phasing error exists.
State of the programmed Motion Abort Input. Red indicates the input is active.
Status of the CVM Control Program.
CAN Status
Status of the CAN Bus. Yellow indicates CAN warning limit reached. Red indicates bus
error detected.
Indicates whether Gain Scheduling (p. 221) is active.
The fault indicator goes red when a fault is active. Check the status message box for a
description of the most recent fault:
.
Check the Error Log for a full history of faults and warnings.
The warning indicator goes yellow when a warning is active. Check the status message
box for a description of the most recent:
.
Check the Error Log for a full history of faults and warnings.
Displays status descriptions.
Gain Scheduling
Message Box
148
Indicates whether the axis has successfully been referenced (homed).
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Control Panel
14.3: Control Panel Monitor Channels
The Control Panel Monitor channels can display real-time values on up to three separate
variables. The procedure follows.
Set up a monitor display channel
Click in the list box and select a variable from the list. Disabled disables the
display. Other options represent the following amplifier values:
 Actual Current
 Following Error
 Passive Load Position
 Actual Motor Velocity
 Commanded Current
 Limited Position
 Actual Motor Position
 Commanded Velocity
 Analog Command
 Actual Load Velocity
 Commanded Position
 Bus Voltage
 Actual Load Position
 Profile Velocity
 Amplifier Temperature
 Velocity Error
 Profile Acceleration
 Motor Phase Angle
Mode: Displays the amplifier’s present operating mode. In camming it also
displays the active cam table number.
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14.4: Control Functions
The Control area of the screen provides functions related to overall amplifier control. The
screen options vary with model and configuration.
Use the Control Panel Control Functions
Control the operational state of the amplifier using the buttons as described
below.
Control
Description
Enable
Click to software enable the amplifier.
Disable
Click to software disable the amplifier. This will also stop any CVM
programs that are running.
Set Zero Position
Click to set the amplifier’s actual position counter to zero.
Clear Faults
Click to clear all amplifier faults.
Reset
Click to reset the amplifier.
Risk of unexpected or uncontrolled motion.
!
Using the CME 2 Set Zero Position function while the amplifier is operating under
external control could cause unexpected or uncontrolled motion.
Failure to heed this warning can cause equipment damage.
WARNING
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14.5: Jog Mode
Jog mode provides a simple means for generating forward or reverse commands, as
shown in the procedure below.
Run a move in jog mode
1
To put the amplifier in jog mode, set the Enable Jog option.
2
Set up a jog move by setting the following mode-specific parameters:
3
Mode
Current
Parameter
Description
Current
Current applied to the motor. Limited by current loop Continuous
Current.
Warning: Unloaded motors may, depending on torque setting,
ramp up in speed very quickly.
Velocity
Jog Speed
Velocity of the jog move. Limited by velocity loop Vel. Limit.
Position
Velocity
Velocity of the jog move. Limited by velocity loop Vel. Limit.
Acceleration
Acceleration limit of the jog move.
Deceleration
Deceleration limit of the jog move.
Command the move:
Mode
Current
Steps
 Hold Pos to apply positive current to the motor or hold down Neg to apply
negative current to the motor.
 Release the button to command zero current.
Velocity
 Hold Jog Pos to command a forward velocity or hold down Jog Neg to command
a negative velocity.
 Release the button to command zero velocity.
Position
 Hold Move Pos to generate a forward move profile or hold Move Neg to
generate a negative move profile.
 Release the button to stop movement.
NOTE: Position mode jog is accomplished by continuously updating the
commanded position. If a following error develops with Following Error Fault
disabled, motion will not stop on button release. Instead, it stops when actual
position = commanded position.
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CHAPTER
15:
SCOPE TOOL
This chapter shows how to use the CME 2 Scope Tool to program and test motion
sequences. Perform the steps outlined below to access the Scope Tool. Details follow in
the chapter.
1
2
Click to open the Scope Tool:
See this chapter for a Scope Tool Overview (p. 154) and details on:








Function Generator and Profile Tabs (p. 155)
Trace Channel Variable Parameters (p. 156)
Trigger Setup (p. 157)
Trace Time, Sample Rate and Single Trace (p. 158)
Scope Display Parameters (p. 158)
Auto Setup (p. 159)
Measurement Tab (p. 160)
Control Loop Parameters (p. 161)
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15.1: Scope Tool Overview
The Scope Tool can be used to tune the amplifier, monitor performance, and perform
diagnostics. Function Generator and Profile Generator can drive the motor without
external control. Auto Set Up feature sets typical initial values for scope parameters.
File menu
Scope trace
Function/Profile
generation
Scope settings and
control loop parameters
Scope controls
Status message bar
Button
Description
Save a trace. See Scope Trace Files (p. 165).
Record
Begins recording a trace.
Stop Trace
Stops recording a trace.
Clear
Clears the trace from the screen and trace data from buffer.
Close
Closes the scope tool.
Run a move with the Function Generator or Profile Tool
1
2
Click on the Function Generator or Profile tab.
3
Click Start to begin move and trace. Click Stop to stop the move.
Adjust Function Generator or Profile settings, scope tool settings, gains, limits, and
parameters (as described later in this chapter).
Monitor externally controlled motion
154
1
2
As required, adjust scope tool settings.
3
Begin move with external controller. Click Stop Trace to stop the trace recording.
Click Record to begin trace.
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15.2: Function Generator and Profile Tabs
The Function and Profile generators can provide inputs to the different control loops for
tuning and diagnostics purposes without using an external control source.
The Start button starts the function or profile generator. The Stop button stops the
generator and aborts any profiles in progress.
15.2.1: Function Generator Tab
Parameter
Description
Apply To
Control loop to which the Excitation will be applied: Current (available in all modes), Velocity
(available in velocity or position mode), or Position (available in position mode only).
Function
Function that will be applied to the control loop selected in the Apply To list box. The choices
vary with the control loop selected:
Selected Control Loop
Functions Available
Current
Sine Wave, Square Wave, Step Forward, Step Forward and
Reverse, and Impulse
Velocity
Sine Wave, Square Wave, Step Forward, Step Forward and
Reverse
Position
Sine Wave, Square Wave
Amplitude
Amplitude of the command. Units vary depending on the value chosen in the
Apply To field.
Frequency
(Sine Wave and Square Wave only.) Frequency of input command cycle.
Period
(Step Forward, Step Forward and Reverse, and Impulse only.) Duration of each input pulse.
15.2.2: Profile Tab
Parameter
Description
Move
Relative: Moves axis a specified distance from the starting position.
Absolute: Moves axis to a specific position.
Type
Trap or S-Curve.
Distance
Distance for Relative move.
Position
Target position for Absolute move.
Reverse and
Repeat
(Relative move only.) When selected, will continuously generate forward and reverse moves
of the distance specified until Stop is pressed.
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15.3: Trace Channel Variable Parameters
Choose a trace variable for display in a Scope channel
1
2
Click the channel button.
Choose a category and a trace variable.
Category
Disabled
Trace Variable
<Channel disabled, no
associated variable>
Category
Misc.
Current
Commanded Current,
Actual Current, Limited
Current.,
2
I T Amplifier Accumulator,
2
I T Motor Accumulator.
Velocity
Profile Velocity,
Commanded Velocity,
Limited Velocity, Actual
Motor Velocity, Actual Load
Velocity, Unfiltered Motor
Velocity, Velocity Error
Digital
Outputs
Position
Commanded Position,
Limited Position, Actual
Load Position, Actual Motor
Position, Following Error,
Passive Load Position
Event Status
Faults
Profile Acceleration
Event Status
Warnings
Acceleration
Digital Inputs
See Fault
Configuration
Parameters
(p. 88).
See Custom
Event
Functions
(p. 62).
Voltage
3
156
Analog Command
Bus Voltage
Analog sin Input
Analog cos Input
Terminal Voltage Stepper
Terminal Voltage Servo
Event Status
Misc.
See Custom
Event
Functions
(p. 62).
Trace Variable
Motor Phase Angle, Amplifier
Temperature, Hall States
Digital input line states
Digital output line states
Short Circuit, Amp Over
Temperature, Over Voltage, Under
Voltage, Motor Over Temperature,
Feedback Error, Motor Phasing
Error, Following Error, Command
Input Fault, Amplifier Fault (a
latched fault is active).
Current Limited, Voltage Limited,
Positive Limit Switch, Negative Limit
Switch, Following Warning, Velocity
Limited, Acceleration Limited,
Positive Software Limit, Negative
Software Limit, Pos Outside of
Tracking Window, Vel Outside of
Tracking Window.
Amp Disabled by Hardware,
Amp Disabled by Software,
Attempting to Stop Motor, Motor
Brake Active, PWM Outputs
Disabled, Position Has Wrapped,
Home Switch Active, In Motion,
Phase Not Initialized.
Click OK.
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15.4: Trigger Setup
Set up Scope trace trigger (manual setup)
1
2
Click Trigger Setup to open the screen:
Choose from the settings described below:
Setting
Description
Trigger Type
Selects trigger type.
 Immediate Trigger: Trace begins as soon as Record is pressed.
 Rising Edge: Trace triggers when (after Record is pressed) the trigger signal rises though
the trigger level setting.
 Falling Edge: Trace triggers when (after Record is pressed) the trigger signal falls though
the trigger level setting.
 Above Level: Trace triggers when the trigger signal is greater than or equal to the trigger
level setting.
 Below Level: Trace triggers when the trigger signal is less than or equal to the trigger level
setting.
 Function Generator: Trace begins in synchronization with the Function Generator.
 Move Start (position mode only): Trace begins in synchronization with the trajectory
generator.
 Event Status Rising Edge/Event Status Falling Edge: trigger on the rising or falling edge of
changes to events chosen in the Event Status Bit setting (below).
 Input Level High/Input Level Low: trigger when specified input is high or low.
 Output Active/Inactive: trigger when specified output is active or inactive (note that outputs
can be configured to be active when high or low). (Not available on Accelus or Junus.)
Trigger On
Selects which channel will be used as the trigger signal: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6.
Position
Selects placement of the trigger event on the screen. (Value is not configurable for
Immediate or Function Generator trigger types.).
 Left for optimal viewing of events following the trigger.
 Middle for optimal viewing of events preceding and following the trigger.
 Right for optimal viewing of events preceding the trigger.
Level
Sets the trigger level, in units appropriate to the channel selected.
Event Status
Bit
With an event status trigger type selected, choose the event status word bit that will trigger
the trace. For descriptions of the event status word bits,
see Custom Event Functions (p. 62).
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15.5: Trace Time, Sample Rate and Single Trace
Trace Time sets the length of the recorded trace.
Sample Rate is the rate at which the signals are sampled. The rate depends on the trace
time, the number of channels selected, and which variables are being traced.
Single Trace puts the scope in a single trace mode of operation. In this mode, the trigger
is not re-armed after a trace until the user presses the Record button. Single Trace is
automatically set by the generators in certain cases.
15.6: Scope Display Parameters
The user can set the line style and other scope screen preferences. Right-click on the
scope screen to display the menus, as shown below.
The Scope display parameters are described below.
Menu
Parameter
Description
Line Style
line
A line connects the plotted data points.
plus
The Scope plots data points as plus signs, with no connecting line.
connected plus
Data points are plotted as plus signs and are connected with a line.
anti-aliasing
When anti-aliasing is selected, the Scope smoothes out any screenrelated jaggedness in the displayed trace. Use of this feature may slow
down the refreshing of traces on slow computers.
grid
When selected a grid is displayed on the scope screen.
Preferences
15.6.1: Auto Scale and Auto Scale Lock
The Scope automatically scales the display axes to optimally display all channels.
With Auto Scale Lock selected, the y-axis locks its scale for all subsequent traces.
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15.6.2: Zoom
Zoom in on a Trace Segment
1
Hold the left mouse button down while dragging a box around the area of interest.
2
Release the button to let the display zoom in on the selected area.
3
To restore the normal zoom level immediately, left-click anywhere on the trace.
(Normal zoom level is also restored when the next trigger event occurs.)
15.7: Auto Setup
With Auto Set Up selected, if the function generator tab is active, CME 2 automatically
sets the scope settings and the function generator's amplitude and frequency/period to
best suit the function generator's Apply To and Excitation mode settings. If the Profile tab
is active, CME 2 automatically sets the scope settings and sets a standard move into the
profile generator. Changing any of the preset settings de-selects the Auto Set Up feature.
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15.8: Measurement Tab
The Measurement tab allows you to measure and analyze data from up to three
parameters during an interval defined by adjustable cursors. The Cursor Data area
displays a parameter’s values at the left and right cursor locations, and the difference
between the two values. The Analysis area displays the minimum, maximum, average,
and root mean square of the parameters during the cursor period.
Cursors
Cursor data analysis
Cursor raw data
When Show Cursors is not set, the Cursor Data fields are inactive and the Analysis fields
show calculations based on data from the entire trace cycle.
Basic Measurement Operations
1
To display cursors and activate the Cursor Data fields, set Show
Cursors.
2
To move a cursor, click on the cursor and hold the left button while dragging the cursor
to the desired location. Release the left button to place the cursor in the new location.
3
To select a parameter to measure and analyze within the cursors, choose a channel in
one of the three channel lists on the Measurement tab:
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15.9: Control Loop Parameters
The Scope tool provides convenient access to all of the control loop parameters that
might be used in tuning and diagnosing an amplifier. The user can adjust these
parameters and see the results immediately on the scope. Control loop parameters are
accessed through a set of tabs, shown below.
Note that the parameters represented on these tabs can also be accessed through the
screens used to configure the control loops and the digital position input. Changing a
value in the Scope tool automatically updates the value on the other screens where it
appears, and vice versa.
Control loop parameter tab descriptions follow.
15.9.1: Gains Tab
The Gains tab provides access to all of the gains appropriate to the operating mode, as
described below.
Modes
Position mode
only
Position or
velocity mode only
All modes
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Gains
Description
Pp
Position loop proportional gain.
Aff
Acceleration feed forward.
Vff
Velocity feed forward.
Vp
Velocity loop proportional gain.
Vi
Velocity loop integral gain.
Cp
Current loop proportional gain.
Ci
Current loop integral gain.
ECp
Encoder Correction Gain.
For More Information
Trajectory Limits (p. 131).
Velocity Loop Gains (p.
123).
Current Loop Gains (p. 119).
Encoder Correction (p. 142).
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15.9.2: Trajectory Limits Tab
In position mode, the Trajectory Limits tab can be used to set trajectory limits.
For more information on the velocity and acceleration limits, see Trajectory Limits (p. 131).
For more information on the Maximum Jerk setting, see Test S-Curve Profile (p. 130).
15.9.3: Position Loop Parameters
In position mode, the Position Params tab can be used to set position loop parameters.
Set Zero Position sets the amplifier’s actual position count to zero. For more information
on the other settings, see Position and Velocity Error Notes (p. 90).
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15.9.4: Velocity Loop Parameters
In position and velocity modes, the Velocity Params tab can be used to set velocity loop
parameters.
For information on the Velocity Tracking parameters, see Position and Velocity Error
Notes (p. 90). For information on the limits, see Velocity Loop Limits (p. 122).
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15.10: Scope Files
The Scope Tool allows you to save both scope settings and scope trace data. Saving the
scope settings is useful for saving custom settings used for tests that are run frequently.
Saving the trace data is useful for archiving the performance of a system so that it can be
used as a reference at a later date for comparison.
15.10.1: Scope Settings Files
The Scope Tool FileSave Settings command allows you to save scope settings
(settings on the Function Generator, Profile, and Settings tabs in a .sco file. The
FileRestore Settings command restores them for quick setup.
Save scope settings:
1
On the Function Generator, Profile, and Settings tabs, choose the scope settings you
wish to save.
2
Choose FileSave Settings.
3
When prompted, enter a File Name. If needed, navigate from the default ScopeData
folder to another folder where you wish to store the file.
4
Click Save to save the .css file and close the screen.
Restore scope settings:
1
In the Scope Tool, choose FileRestore Settings.
2
If needed, navigate from the default ScopeData folder to the folder containing the .css
file.
3
Highlight the filename and click Open.
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15.10.2: Scope Trace Files
The Scope Tool can save trace data in Copley Controls scope files (.sco files) that can be
opened later with the CME 2 Trace Viewer. Simultaneously, a version of the same trace is
stored in a comma-separated text file (.csv) and a tab delimited file (.txt), either of which
can be opened with a spreadsheet application such as Microsoft Excel (or other
programs) for mathematical analysis. The format of the .csv and the .txt file is the same:
Column 1: time
Column 2: Trace Channel 1
Column 3: Trace Channel 2 (if used)
Column n: Trace Channel n (if used)
NOTE: By default, scope files are saved in the ScopeData folder in the CME 2 installation
folder. For instance, c:\Program Files\Copley Motion\CME 2\ScopeData. Use these
procedures to save and view trace files:
Save trace data:
1
2
Generate the trace you wish to save.
In the Oscilloscope window, click the Save to Disk icon.
3
When prompted, enter a File Name. If needed, navigate from the default ScopeData
folder to another folder where you wish to store the file.
4
Click Save to save the .sco, .txt, and .csv files in the same folder and close the screen.
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View a trace file:
1
On the Main screen, choose ToolsView Scope Files to open the window.
2
Click Open File. When prompted, select the name of the file you wish to open.
Then, click Open to display the file in the Trace Viewer window.
The Measurement tab allows you to measure and analyze data from up to three
parameters during an interval defined by adjustable cursors. See Measurement Tab (p.
160).
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CHAPTER
16:
DATA, FIRMWARE, AND LOGS
This chapter describes how CME 2 manages amplifier data and firmware, how to
download firmware, and use the amplifier logs.
16.1: Amplifier RAM and Flash Memory .................................................................................................................................... 168
16.2: Disk Storage of Amplifier and Motor Data Files ................................................................................................................ 168
16.3: Data Management Tools .................................................................................................................................................. 169
16.3.1: Amplifier Data Management Tools ....................................................................................................................... 169
16.3.2: Motor Data Management Tools ............................................................................................................................ 169
16.3.3: Save MACRO File for Delta Tau Controllers ........................................................................................................ 170
16.4: Amplifier Firmware ............................................................................................................................................................ 170
16.5: Error Log .......................................................................................................................................................................... 172
16.6: Communications Log ........................................................................................................................................................ 173
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16.1: Amplifier RAM and Flash Memory
Amplifier RAM holds status data and certain user-entered data during operation. Its
contents are flushed when the amplifier is reset or powered off. Flash memory
permanently stores the data. The contents of flash are loaded into amplifier RAM at
power-up or reset, as described below.
Amplifier RAM
Flash
Volatile. Contents erased when amplifier is
reset or powered off.
Non-volatile. Contents retained when the amplifier is reset
or powered off.
Initial contents read from flash on power-up.
Contents then updated in real time to reflect
certain operational conditions and changes
entered with CME 2 software. At any time, the
user can use CME 2 to restore data from flash
into amplifier RAM.
Modified only by using a Save to Flash tool or by closing
certain screens (Motor/Feedback, Basic Setup, Homing, or
CAN Configuration), whose contents are automatically
saved to flash upon closing of the screen.
As described below, some data resides in flash only, some in amplifier RAM only, and
some in both.
Data Resides In
Data
Flash only
This category includes all data represented on the
Motor/Feedback screen, Basic Setup screen, and CAN
Configuration screen. This data is automatically saved to
flash as soon as its entry is confirmed (when the user
clicks the appropriate Save to Flash button, or closes the
screen).
Flash and amplifier RAM
Includes all user-entered data represented on other
screens, such as gains, limits, and I/O, faults, and regen
settings. Initial values for this data are factory-set in flash.
They are loaded from flash to amplifier RAM with each
power-up or amplifier reset. This data is saved to flash only
when a user clicks the appropriate Save to Flash button. It
is flushed from amplifier RAM with each power-down or
amplifier reset.
Amplifier RAM only
Includes operating status data such as actual position,
actual current, and amplifier temperature. Such data is
never stored in flash. It is flushed from amplifier RAM with
each power-down or amplifier reset.
16.2: Disk Storage of Amplifier and Motor Data Files
At any time, the user can save certain data from amplifier RAM and flash memory to a file
on disk. From the Main screen, the user can save all user-entered data represented on all
screens (the data described as Flash only and Flash and amplifier RAM in the table
above). This data is saved in a Copley Controls amplifier data file with a .ccx filename
extension.
From the Motor/Feedback screen, the user can save all data represented on the
Motor/Feedback screen. This data is saved in a Copley Controls motor data file with a
.ccm filename extension.
A .ccx file can be restored to return the amplifier to a previous state or to copy settings
from one amplifier to another, as described in Copy Amplifier Data (p. 177).
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16.3: Data Management Tools
16.3.1: Amplifier Data Management Tools
Operations performed using the amplifier data management tools at the top of the Main
screen (shown below) affect amplifier settings, including motor/feedback data. (CVM
Control Program data is not saved by these operations.)
Data Management Tools
The amplifier data management tools are described below.
Icon
Name
Description
Save amplifier
data to disk
Saves all data represented on all screens to a disk file with a .ccx filename
extension.
Restore
amplifier data
from disk
Restores amplifier and motor data from a .ccx file to the PC and amplifier RAM
and flash memory. Note that only certain data is saved to flash by this operation
(the data described as Flash only on p.168). To assure that all data (including
the data described as Flash and amplifier RAM) is stored in flash, use the Save
amplifier data to flash tool.
Save amplifier
data to flash
Saves contents of amplifier RAM to amplifier flash memory.
Restore
amplifier data
from flash
Restores contents of amplifier flash memory to amplifier RAM.
To use a data management tool, click the icon and respond to prompts.
16.3.2: Motor Data Management Tools
Operations performed using the data management tools at the bottom of the
Motor/Feedback screen (shown below) affect only user-entered data that is represented
on the Motor/Feedback screen.
Motor/Feedback
data management tools
The motor data management tools are described below.
Icon
Name
Description
Save motor
data to disk
Saves only motor/feedback data from the PC to a disk file with a .ccm filename
extension. Amplifier data that is not represented on the Motor/Feedback screen
is not saved in this file, and this operation does not affect any .ccx files.
Restore motor
data from disk
Restores only motor data from a disk file with a .ccm filename extension to the
PC. Amplifier data that is not represented on the Motor/Feedback screen is not
affected.
Save motor
data to flash
Saves the contents of the Motor/Feedback screen from PC to amplifier flash
memory. Amplifier data that is not represented on the Motor/Feedback screen is
not saved. Can be used to assure that all changes are saved to flash without
closing the Motor/Feedback screen.
Restore motor
data from flash
Restores only motor data from amplifier flash memory to the PC. Amplifier data
that is not represented on the Motor/Feedback screen is not affected. Can be
used before closing the Motor/Data screen to restore settings to the previously
saved values.
To use a data management tool, click the icon and respond to prompts.
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16.3.3: Save MACRO File for Delta Tau Controllers
This feature is available only on Copley MACRO amplifiers such as the Accelnet MACRO,
with a minimum firmware version of 1.2.
qa
`
q``
q`
Save a MACRO file:
1
On the CME 2 Main screen, choose FileSave MACRO File to open the MACRO File
Save window:
2
Enter the ID of the MACRO node with the settings you want to save and click OK.
3
When prompted, enter a File Name. If needed, navigate from the default AmpData
folder to another folder where you wish to store the file.
4
Click Save to save the .pmc file in the same folder and close the screen.
16.4: Amplifier Firmware
The amplifier’s flash memory holds the amplifier’s firmware. As needed, perform the
following steps to obtain new firmware and download it to amplifier flash memory.
NOTE: Firmware can only be downloaded to an amplifier via a direct serial port or CAN
connection between the amplifier and the PC. CME 2 does not support downloading
firmware to a node amplifier via a multi-drop gateway amplifier.
NOTE: To check the firmware version currently loaded, click the Amplifier Properties
button or choose HelpAbout.
WARNING: Do not power down or disconnect the amplifier during firmware download.
Download Firmware to the Amplifier
1
On the Main screen choose ToolsDownload Firmware to open the Download
Firmware window.
2
To download new firmware without saving amplifier and motor data, click No and then
proceed to Step 4 on page 171.
Continued…
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…Download Firmware to the Amplifier, continued:
3
To save amplifier and motor data for backup purposes before downloading firmware,
click Yes.



Choose whether to save to disk, flash, both, or neither.
Click OK to save data and continue to select a firmware image,
or click Cancel to continue without saving data.
If Save Data to Disk was selected, use the Save Amplifier Data to Disk screen to
browse to the folder where you want to save the .ccx file. Then enter a name in the
Name field. Then click Save.
When the Firmware Images window appears, proceed to Step 4.
4
Use the Firmware Images window to locate and select a firmware image file.
5
Click Open to begin the download. A message window displays a series of progress
messages:
When the message window closes, the firmware download is complete.
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16.5: Error Log
Copley amplifiers track faults and warnings in a log in flash memory.
View the CME 2 Error Log
1
2
3
Click the Error Log tool on the Main screen.
Click a tab to view a section of the log:
Tab
Contents
Active
Type and description of each active fault and warning. The contents of this tab are
automatically refreshed as new events occur.
History
Type, description, and time of occurrence of each fault and most warnings since the log
was last cleared. The contents of this tab are not refreshed automatically as new
events occur. The contents are refreshed only when the tab is displayed or when
Refresh is clicked.
Frequency
Type, description, and frequency of each fault and warning that has occurred since the
log was last cleared. The contents are refreshed only when the tab is displayed or
when Refresh is clicked.
CAN Network
(Under CAN control only.) Status of CAN bus. Lists warnings and errors.
To update the contents of the History or Frequency tabs, click Refresh.
4
To save the log to a disk file, click the Save to Disk icon on the log screen.
Then navigate to the appropriate folder, enter a File Name for the log, and click Save.
5
To clear the log if needed, press Clear Log. (Contents cannot be recovered.)
6
To close the log screen, click Close.
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16.6: Communications Log
The communications log tracks all communications between CME 2 and the amplifier. The log is
maintained in the PC’s RAM. Typically it is used only on request of customer service for
troubleshooting purposes. When required, perform the following steps to manage the tracking and
storage of these messages.
NOTE: Do not leave the Enable Logging control selected for any longer than necessary. Leaving it
enabled for long periods can affect the PC’s performance.
View the CME 2 Communications Log
1
On the Main screen, choose ToolsCommunications Log to open the screen:
2
Select the logging options described below.
3
Option
Description
Enable Logging
When selected, logging is enabled and all communications, with the exception
of status messages, are recorded in the log
Enable Event Status
Logging
When selected, status messages are included in the log. Note that Show “Get
Variable” Cmnds must also be checked to log Event Status commands.
Show “Get Variable”
Cmds
When selected, “Get Variable” commands are added to the log.
To clear the log contents from the PC’s RAM, press Clear.
NOTE: The log is limited to 2000 lines. When it reaches that limit, CME 2 automatically
clears the oldest 1000 lines.
4
To save the log contents from the PC’s RAM to a disk file, click the Save to Disk icon.
When prompted, enter a File name.
Then, click Save to save the log file and close the window.
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CHAPTER
17:
VIRTUAL AMPLIFIER
Virtual amplifiers can be used for training and for creating motor data files off line.
A new virtual amplifier can be created based on a virtual amplifier template file (.ccv).
CME 2 includes a set of .ccv files representing Copley Controls amplifiers. Perform these
steps to create a virtual amplifier:
1
Start CME 2 (p. 15).
2
Choose Virtual Amplifier from the Copley Neighborhood tree to open the Open Virtual
Amplifier screen:
3
(To open a virtual amplifier from an existing amplifier file, skip to Step 4 now.)
To create a new virtual amplifier file based on a virtual amplifier template file:



Select Create new amplifier and click OK.
When prompted, highlight the virtual amplifier template filename (.ccv) that
represents the type of virtual amplifier you wish to create.
Click Open to open the file and the Basic Setup screen.
Motor and amplifier values may now be viewed, entered, and adjusted.
4
Alternately, to open an existing amplifier file:



Select Open existing amplifier file and click OK.
When prompted, highlight the name of the file you wish to open.
Click Open.
Motor and amplifier values may now be viewed, entered, and adjusted.
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APPENDIX
A: COPY AMPLIFIER DATA
Perform steps 1-5 to configure an amplifier/motor pair by copying a .ccx file that was
prepared for the amplifier/motor combination.
To load a CVM Program file as well, also perform step 6,
and to load a Cam Table file, also perform step 7.
1
Make sure the amplifier is connected to the PC using the serial or CAN connector.
2
Start CME 2 (p. 15).
3
Use the command appropriate for your starting point:
Starting from the Main screen, click Restore amplifier data from disk.
OR
4
5
6
Starting from the Basic Setup screen, click Load ccx File.
When prompted, navigate to the folder containing the appropriate .ccx file.
Highlight the file name and then click Open to load the file data into amplifier RAM.
On the Main screen, click Save to Flash to save the new settings to flash memory.
If you do not need to load a CVM Control Program, skip to Step 7.
To load a CVM Control Program, choose FileRestore CVM Control Program.
When prompted, navigate to the folder containing the appropriate .ccp file.
Highlight the file name and then click Open to load the file data into flash memory.
This procedure also results in the setting of the Indexer 2 Program option Enable Control
Program on Startup. This configures the program to auto start when the amplifier is
powered up or reset.
7
If you do not need to load a set of Cam Tables, the process is complete.
To load a set of Cam Tables, choose FileRestore Cam Tables.
When prompted, navigate to the folder containing the appropriate .cct file.
Highlight the file name and then click Open to load the file data into flash memory.
TIP: When copying amplifier data to multiple amplifiers in a production environment,
consider locking CME 2 to prevent accidental changes to settings.
See Lock/Unlock CME 2 Controls (p. 179).
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APPENDIX
B: LOCK/UNLOCK CME 2 CONTROLS
Optionally lock CME 2 to prevent changes to amplifier settings.
TIP: Lock CME 2 to prevent accidental changes to settings when copying amplifier files.
1
2
3
On the Main screen choose ToolsCME 2 Lock/Unlock.
Set a new password in the Password and Verify Password fields.
Click OK to lock out amplifier setting controls.
WHEN CME 2 IS LOCKED:
User cannot change any
amplifier or motor settings.
User can download amplifier
and motor files and Cam
Tables, jog the motor, run scope
functions and profiles, and
monitor amplifier performance
with the scope and control
panel.
4
To unlock, choose ToolsCME 2 Lock/Unlock.
5
Enter the password. Unlock for this session or until locked again. Click OK.
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APPENDIX
C: FILTERS
Filters can be used to inhibit interference frequencies or dampen mechanical oscillations.
Topics in this chapter include:
C.1: Setting Parameters ............................................................................................................................................................ 182
C.2: Filter Configuration Windows ............................................................................................................................................. 182
C.2.1: Filter Settings ........................................................................................................................................................ 182
C.2.2: Analog ................................................................................................................................................................... 183
C.2.3: V Loop .................................................................................................................................................................. 183
C.2.4: I Loop .................................................................................................................................................................... 184
C.3: Standard Filter Types ......................................................................................................................................................... 184
C.3.1: Low Pass Filter...................................................................................................................................................... 184
C.3.2: High Pass Filter ..................................................................................................................................................... 184
C.3.3: Notch Filter............................................................................................................................................................ 185
C.3.4: Band Pass Filter .................................................................................................................................................... 185
C.3.5: Custom Biquad Filter ............................................................................................................................................. 185
C.4: Standard Filter Families ..................................................................................................................................................... 186
C.4.1: Butterworth Filter ................................................................................................................................................... 186
C.4.2: Chebychev Filter ................................................................................................................................................... 186
C.4.3: Elliptic Filter........................................................................................................................................................... 186
C.5: Input Shaping ..................................................................................................................................................................... 187
C.5.1: Input Shaping Window .......................................................................................................................................... 188
C.5.2: Input Shaping Types ............................................................................................................................................. 188
C.5.3: Measuring Mechanical Vibration........................................................................................................................... 189
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C.1: Setting Parameters
To change or view filter configurations follow these steps:
1
2
Choose the Configure Filters button from the main screen to open the
Filter Configuration screen.
To view present filter settings choose the Filter Settings tab. Choose other tabs to
configure Analog, V Loop, I Loop or Input Shaping settings.
C.2: Filter Configuration Windows
Along with the location of a cut-off frequency on the filter curve, there are several filter
configuration parameters available depending on the initial choice of C.3: Standard Filter
Types (p. 184) and C.4: Standard Filter Families (p. 186).
Filter configuration choices may include:
 Number of Poles (the location of a cut-off frequency on the filter curve)
 Cut Off Frequency
 Frequency 2 (If two poles are chosen)
 Pass Band Ripple
 Stop Band Ripple
C.2.1: Filter Settings
The Filter Settings tab opens a window that shows what filters have been selected.
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C.2.2: Analog
The Analog tab opens a window that shows analog filter choices and a representative
curve. Modify the settings as needed and press Apply.
C.2.3: V Loop
The V Loop tab opens a window that shows Velocity Loop filter choices and a
representative curve. Modify the settings as needed and press Apply. Selecting Default
will supply a 200 Hz Low Pass filter to the first velocity loop output filter.
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C.2.4: I Loop
The I Loop tab opens a window that shows Current Loop filter choices and a
representative curve. Modify the settings as needed and press Apply.
C.3: Standard Filter Types
C.3.1: Low Pass Filter
Frequencies below the selectable cut-off are allowed to pass.
Example:
C.3.2: High Pass Filter
Frequencies above the selectable cut-off are allowed to pass.
Example:
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C.3.3: Notch Filter
Notch filters allow a bandstop in a range between two selectable frequencies. It may be
Butterworth (no ripple), Chebyshev (selectable passband ripple), or elliptical (ripple on
both passband and bandstop).
Example:
C.3.4: Band Pass Filter
Band pass filters allow a range of frequencies, between two selectable cut-offs, to pass. It
may be Butterworth, Chebyshev, or Elliptical.
C.3.5: Custom Biquad Filter
The Bi-Quadratic filter has two quadratic terms: one in the numerator, and one in the
denominator. The numerator affects the filter’s two zeros and the denominator affects the
filter’s two poles. Many filter classes and types can be expressed in the Bi-Quad form by
entering the coefficients. The coefficients can be calculated using any commercially
available math software package and entered as floating point numbers. However, due to
the fixed-point representation, the numbers may be rounded.
Example:
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C.4: Standard Filter Families
C.4.1: Butterworth Filter
A Butterworth filter has two poles for faster roll-off at the cut-off frequency.
Example:
C.4.2: Chebychev Filter
A Chebyshev filter has a faster roll-off than a Butterworth filter, but, as a result of the fast
roll-off, ripple is introduced into the passband frequency.
Example:
C.4.3: Elliptic Filter
Similar to a Chebyshev filter but ripple is introduced into both the passband and the
stopband. It has a faster roll-off than a Chebyshev filter.
Example:
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C.5: Input Shaping
Input shaping is a method by which unwanted command induced vibrations are kept to a
minimum by damping them with superimposed impulses. This produces a command that
will drive the system with limited residual vibration.
In order to set the input shaping parameters, first measure the mechanical frequency; see
C.5.3: Measuring Mechanical Vibration (p. 189).
Below is a diagram of the input shaping process.
Below is a sensitivity curve. When F = Fm, there is zero vibration.
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C.5.1: Input Shaping Window
The Input Shaping tab opens a window that shows Input Shaping choices and a
representative Time and Amplitude table. Modify the settings as needed and press Apply.
Type as well as Frequency and Damping Rate may be adjusted. Overcurrent is adjustable
when a Negative Zero Vibration or a Negative Zero Vibration and Derivative filter is
chosen. If Custom is chosen as the Type, Time and Amplitude may be set manually.
C.5.2: Input Shaping Types
In CME 2 input shaping type options are:
188
Type
Description
Zero Vibration
Single step inputs are replaced with two step inputs of smaller magnitude. One
of which is delayed by one-half the period of vibration. Sensitive to some
modeling errors.
Zero Vibration and
Derivative
A zero derivative (of the vibration) constraint is added to Zero Vibration
impulse shaping, thereby reducing modeling errors.
Negative Zero Vibration
Faster than positive input shaping (Zero Vibration, and Zero Vibration and
Derivative), but may magnify high frequency vibrations.
Negative Zero Vibration
and Derivative
A zero derivative (of the vibration) constraint is added to Negative Zero
Vibration impulse shaping.
Custom
Time and Amplitude can be set manually.
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C.5.3: Measuring Mechanical Vibration
There are several ways to measure mechanical vibration. Two choices are offered below.
Using an Accelerometer with CME 2
Begin with a Copley drive operational and controlled by CME 2.
1
Connect the accelerometer analog output to Copley drive’s Analog + and - on the signal
input as in the diagram below.
2
On CME 2, click the Scope Tool
3
Select the Measurement tab, choose a channel, select Voltage, then Analog Command.
4
Perform a move.
5
After the move is complete, measure Tm (1/Fm), which is the period of mechanical
oscillation.
.
Using CME 2 to Monitor Following Error
Monitor the following error using CME 2’s scope option.
Begin with a Copley drive operational and controlled by CME 2.
1
On CME 2, click the Scope Tool
2
Select the Measurement tab, choose a channel, select Position, then Following
Error.
3
Perform a move.
4
After the move is complete, measure Tm (1/Fm), which is the period of mechanical
oscillation.
.
For more information on using the Scope Tool go to Scope Tool (p. 153).
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APPENDIX
D: I2T TIME LIMIT ALGORITHM
This chapter describes the algorithm used to implement the I2T limit. Topics include:
D.1: I2T Algorithm ...................................................................................................................................................................... 192
D.1.1: I2T Overview.......................................................................................................................................................... 192
D.1.2: I2T Formulas and Algorithm Operation .................................................................................................................. 192
D.1.3: I2T Current Limit Algorithm – Application Example ................................................................................................ 193
D.2: I2T Scope Trace Variables ................................................................................................................................................. 195
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D.1: I2T Algorithm
D.1.1: I2T Overview
The I2T current limit algorithm continuously monitors the energy being delivered to the
motor using the I2T Accumulator Variable. The value stored in the I2T Accumulator
Variable is compared with the I2T setpoint that is calculated from the user-entered Peak
Current Limit, I2T Time Limit, and Continuous Current Limit. Whenever the energy
2
delivered to the motor exceeds the I T setpoint, the algorithm protects the motor by
limiting the output current or generates a fault.
D.1.2: I2T Formulas and Algorithm Operation
2
Calculating the I T Setpoint Value
The I2T setpoint value has units of Amperes2-seconds (A2S) and is calculated from
programmed motor data. The setpoint is calculated from the Peak Current Limit, the I2T
Time Limit, and the Continuous Current Limit as follows:
I2T setpoint =
(Peak Current Limit2 – Continuous Current Limit2) * I2T Time Limit
I2T Algorithm Operation
During amplifier operation, the I2T algorithm periodically updates the I2T Accumulator
Variable at a rate related to the output current Sampling Frequency. The value of the I2T
Accumulator Variable is incrementally increased for output currents greater than the
Continuous Current Limit and is incrementally decreased for output currents less than the
2
Continuous Current Limit. The I T Accumulator Variable is not allowed to have a value
less than zero and is initialized to zero upon reset or +24 Vdc logic supply power-cycle.
Accumulator Increment Formula
At each update, a new value for the I2T Accumulator Variable is calculated as follows:
2
I T Accumulator Variable n+1 =
I2T Accumulator Variable n
+(Actual Output Current n+12 – Continuous Current Limit2) * Update period
2
After each sample, the updated value of the I T Accumulator Variable is compared with
2
2
the I T setpoint. If the I T Accumulator Variable value is greater than the I2T Setpoint
value, then the amplifier limits the output current to the Continuous Current Limit. When
current limiting is active, the output current will be equal to the Continuous Current Limit if
the commanded current is greater than the Continuous Current Limit. If instead the
commanded current is less than or equal to the Continuous Current Limit, the output
current will be equal to the commanded current.
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I T Time Limit Algorithm
D.1.3: I2T Current Limit Algorithm – Application Example
I2T Example: Parameters
2
Operation of the I T current limit algorithm is best understood through an example. For
this example, a motor with the following characteristics is used:
 Peak Current Limit – 12 A
 I2T Time Limit – 1 S
 Continuous Current Limit – 6 A
From this information, the I2T setpoint is:
I2T setpoint = (12 A2–6 A2) * 1 S = 108 A2S
See the example plot diagrams on the next page.
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I2T Example: Plot Diagrams
2
The plots that follow show the response of an amplifier (configured w/ I T setpoint = 108
2
A S) to a given current command. For this example, DC output currents are shown in
order to simplify the waveforms. The algorithm essentially calculates the RMS value of the
output current, and thus operates the same way regardless of the output current
frequency and wave shape.
2
I T current limit
Current (A)
16
14
12
I_commanded
I_actual
10
8
6
4
2
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Tim e (S)
A)
I2T Accumulator
I2T energy (A 2-S)
120
100
80
I^2T Setpoint
60
I^2T Accumulator
40
20
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Tim e (S)
B)
At time 0, plot diagram A shows that the actual output current follows the commanded
current. Note that the current is higher than the continuous current limit setting of 6 A.
Under this condition, the I2T Accumulator Variable begins increasing from its initial value
of zero. Initially, the output current linearly increases from 6 A up to 12 A over the course
of 1.2 seconds. During this same period, the I2T Accumulator Variable increases in a nonlinear fashion because of its dependence on the square of the current.
At about 1.6 seconds, the I2T Accumulator Variable reaches a values equal to the I2T
setpoint. At this time, the amplifier limits the output current to the continuous current limit
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I T Time Limit Algorithm
even though the commanded current remains at 12 A. The I2T Accumulator Variable value
remains constant during the next 2 seconds since the difference between the actual
output current and the continuous current limit is zero.
At approximately 3.5 seconds, the commanded current falls below the continuous current
limit and once again the output current follows the commanded current. Because the
actual current is less than the continuous current, the I2T Accumulator Variable value
begins to fall incrementally.
2
The I T Accumulator Variable value continues to fall until at approximately 5.0 seconds
when the commanded current goes above the continuous current limit again. The actual
output current follows the current command until the I2T Accumulator Variable value
reaches the I2T setpoint and current limiting is invoked.
D.2: I2T Scope Trace Variables
Two Scope Tool trace variables are available for monitoring whether the I2T accumulator
is accumulating or discharging.
The I2T Amplifier Accumulator variable evaluates the accumulator against the factory set
current limits of the amplifier.
The I2T Motor Accumulator variable evaluates the accumulator against the userprogrammed current loop values.
The value shown in the scope has been normalized so that 100% equals the I2T setpoint.
When either trace variable line reaches 100%, current limiting will be invoked.
For instructions on using these variables in the Scope Tool, see Trace Channel Variable
Parameters (p. 156).
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APPENDIX
E: HOMING METHODS
This appendix describes the homing methods that can be chosen using the CME 2
homing controls described in Homing (p. 145). Contents include:
Page
E.1: Homing Methods Overview ................................................................................................................................................ 198
E.2: Legend to Homing Method Descriptions ............................................................................................................................. 198
E.3: Homing Method Descriptions ............................................................................................................................................. 199
E.3.1: Set current position as home ................................................................................................................................. 199
E.3.2: Next Index ............................................................................................................................................................. 199
E.3.3: Limit Switch ........................................................................................................................................................... 200
E.3.4: Limit Switch Out to Index ....................................................................................................................................... 201
E.3.5: Hardstop................................................................................................................................................................ 202
E.3.6: Hardstop Out to Index ........................................................................................................................................... 203
E.3.7: Home Switch ......................................................................................................................................................... 204
E.3.8: Home Switch Out to Index ..................................................................................................................................... 205
E.3.9: Home Switch In to Index........................................................................................................................................ 206
E.3.10: Lower Home ........................................................................................................................................................ 207
E.3.11: Upper Home ........................................................................................................................................................ 208
E.3.12: Lower Home Outside Index ................................................................................................................................. 209
E.3.13: Lower Home Inside Index .................................................................................................................................... 210
E.3.14: Upper Home Outside Index ................................................................................................................................. 211
E.3.15: Upper Home Inside Index .................................................................................................................................... 212
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E.1: Homing Methods Overview
There are several homing methods. Each method establishes the:


Home reference (limit or home switch transition or encoder index pulse)
Direction of motion and, where appropriate, the relationship of the index pulse to limit
or home switches.
E.2: Legend to Homing Method Descriptions
As highlighted in the example below, each homing method diagram shows the starting
position on a mechanical stage. The arrow line indicates direction of motion, and the
circled H indicates the home position. Solid line stems on the index pulse line indicate
index pulse locations. Longer dashed lines overlay these stems as a visual aid. Finally,
the relevant limit switch is represented, showing the active and inactive zones and
transition.
Mechanical Stage Limits
Axis
Starting position
Home position
Index pulse location
H
Direction of motion
H
Starting position
Index Pulse
Positive Limit
Switch
Sw itch inactive
Sw itch active
Sw itch transition
Note that in the homing method descriptions, negative motion is leftward and positive
motion is rightward.
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E.3: Homing Method Descriptions
E.3.1: Set current position as home
The current position is the home position.
E.3.2: Next Index
Direction of Motion: Positive
Home is the first index pulse found in the positive direction. Direction of motion is positive.
If a positive limit switch is activated before the index pulse, an error is generated.
H
Index Pulse
Direction of Motion: Negative
Home is the first index pulse found in negative direction. Direction of motion is negative. If
a negative limit switch is activated before the index pulse, an error is generated.
H
Index Pulse
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E.3.3: Limit Switch
Direction of Motion: Positive
Home is the transition of the positive limit switch. Initial direction of motion is positive if the
positive limit switch is inactive.
H
Positive Limit
Switch
Direction of Motion: Negative
Home is the transition of negative limit switch. Initial direction of motion is negative if the
negative limit switch is inactive.
H
Negative Limit
Switch
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Homing Methods
E.3.4: Limit Switch Out to Index
Direction of Motion: Positive
Home is the first index pulse to the negative side of the positive limit switch transition.
Initial direction of motion is positive if the positive limit switch is inactive (shown here as
low).
H
H
Positive Limit
Switch
Index Pulse
Direction of Motion: Negative
Home is the first index pulse to the positive side of the negative limit switch transition.
Initial direction of motion is negative if the negative limit switch is inactive (shown here as
low).
H
Negative Limit
Switch
H
Index Pulse
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E.3.5: Hardstop
Direction of Motion: Positive
Home is the positive hard stop. Direction of motion is positive. In servo modes, the hard
stop is reached when the amplifier outputs the homing Current Limit continuously for the
amount of time specified in the Delay Time.
If a positive limit switch is activated before the hard stop, an error is generated.
H
Direction of Motion: Negative
Home is the negative hard stop. Direction of motion is negative. The hard stop is reached
when the amplifier outputs the homing Current Limit continuously for the amount of time
specified in the Delay Time. If a negative limit switch is activated before the hard stop, an
error is generated.
H
Hardstop Methods in Stepper Mode
In Stepnet amplifiers operating in stepper mode with an encoder, the hard stop is reached
when the following error is exceeded. When using hardstop methods in stepper mode, do
not disable following error.
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E.3.6: Hardstop Out to Index
Direction of Motion: Positive
Home is the first index pulse on the negative side of the positive hard stop. Initial direction
of motion is positive. The hard stop is reached when the amplifier outputs the homing
Current Limit continuously for the amount of time specified in the Delay Time. If a positive
limit switch is activated before the hard stop, an error is generated.
H
Index Pulse
Direction of Motion: Negative
Home is the first index pulse on the positive side of the negative hard stop. Initial direction
of motion is negative. The hard stop is reached when the amplifier outputs the homing
Current Limit continuously for the amount of time specified in the Delay Time. If a
negative limit switch is activated before the hard stop, an error is generated.
H
Index Pulse
Hardstop Out to Index Methods in Stepper Mode
In Stepnet amplifiers operating in stepper mode with an encoder, the hard stop is reached
when the following error is exceeded. When using hardstop methods in stepper mode, do
not disable following error.
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E.3.7: Home Switch
Direction of Motion: Positive
Home is the home switch transition. Initial direction of motion is positive if the home switch
is inactive. If a limit switch is activated before the home switch transition, an error is
generated.
H
Home Switch
Direction of Motion: Negative
Home is the home switch transition. Initial direction of motion is negative if the home
switch is inactive. If a limit switch is activated before the home switch transition, an error is
generated.
H
Home Switch
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E.3.8: Home Switch Out to Index
Direction of Motion: Positive
Home is the first index pulse to the negative side of the home switch transition. Initial
direction of motion is positive if the home switch is inactive. If a limit switch is activated
before the home switch transition, an error is generated.
H
Home Switch
Index Pulse
Direction of Motion: Negative
Home is the first index pulse to the positive side of the home switch transition.
Initial direction of motion is negative if the home switch is inactive. If a limit switch is
activated before the home switch transition, an error is generated.
H
Home Switch
Index Pulse
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E.3.9: Home Switch In to Index
Direction of Motion: Positive
Home is the first index pulse to the positive side of the home switch transition. Initial
direction of motion is positive if the home switch is inactive. If a limit switch is activated
before the home switch transition, an error is generated.
H
Home Switch
Index Pulse
Direction of Motion: Negative
Home is the first index pulse to the negative side of the home switch transition. Initial
direction of motion is negative if the home switch is inactive. If a limit switch is activated
before the home switch transition, an error is generated.
H
Home Switch
Index Pulse
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E.3.10: Lower Home
Direction of Motion: Positive
Home is the negative edge of a momentary home switch. Initial direction of motion is
positive if the home switch is inactive. Motion will reverse if a positive limit switch is
activated before the home switch; then, if a negative limit switch is activated before the
home switch, an error is generated.
H
H
Home Switch
Positive Limit
Switch
Direction of Motion: Negative
Home is the negative edge of a momentary home switch. Initial direction of motion is
negative. If the initial motion leads away from the home switch, the axis reverses on
encountering the negative limit switch; then, if a positive limit switch is activated before the
home switch, an error is generated.
H
H
Home Switch
Negative Limit
Switch
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E.3.11: Upper Home
Direction of Motion: Positive
Home is the positive edge of a momentary home switch. Initial direction of motion is
positive. If the initial motion leads away from the home switch, the axis reverses on
encountering the positive limit switch; then, if a negative limit switch is activated before the
home switch, an error is generated.
H
H
Home Switch
Positive Limit
Switch
Direction of Motion: Negative
Home is the positive edge of momentary home switch. Initial direction of motion is
negative if the home switch is inactive. If the initial motion leads away from the home
switch, the axis reverses on encountering the negative limit switch; then, if a positive limit
switch is activated before the home switch, an error is generated.
H
H
Home Switch
Negative Limit
Switch
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E.3.12: Lower Home Outside Index
Direction of Motion: Positive
Home is the first index pulse on the negative side of the negative edge of a momentary
home switch. Initial direction of motion is positive if the home switch is inactive. If the initial
motion leads away from the home switch, the axis reverses on encountering the positive
limit switch; then, if a negative limit switch is activated before the home switch, an error is
generated.
H
H
Home Switch
Positive Limit
Switch
Index Pulse
Direction of Motion: Negative
Home is the first index pulse on the negative side of the negative edge of a momentary
home switch. Initial direction of motion is negative. If the initial motion leads away from the
home switch, the axis reverses on encountering the negative limit switch; then, if a
negative limit switch is activated before the home switch, an error is generated.
H
H
H
Home Switch
Negative Limit
Switch
Index Pulse
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E.3.13: Lower Home Inside Index
Direction of Motion: Positive
Home is the first index pulse on the positive side of the negative edge of a momentary
home switch. Initial direction of motion is positive if the home switch is inactive. If the initial
motion leads away from the home switch, the axis reverses on encountering the positive
limit switch; then, if a negative limit switch is activated before the home switch, an error is
generated.
H
H
Home Switch
Positive Limit
Switch
Index Pulse
Direction of Motion: Negative
Home is the first index pulse on the positive side of the negative edge of a momentary
home switch. Initial direction of motion is negative. If the initial motion leads away from the
home switch, the axis reverses on encountering the negative limit switch; then, if a
negative limit switch is activated before the home switch, an error is generated.
H
H
Home Switch
Negative Limit
Switch
Index Pulse
210
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Homing Methods
E.3.14: Upper Home Outside Index
Direction of Motion: Positive
Home is the first index pulse on the positive side of the positive edge of a momentary
home switch. Initial direction of motion is positive. If the initial motion leads away from the
home switch, the axis reverses on encountering the positive limit switch; then, if a
negative limit switch is activated before the home switch, an error is generated.
H
H
Home Switch
Positive Limit
Switch
Index Pulse
Direction of Motion: Negative
Home is the first index pulse on the positive side of the positive edge of a momentary
home switch. Initial direction of motion is negative if the home switch is inactive. If the
initial position is right of the home position, the axis reverses on encountering the home
switch.
H
H
Home Switch
Negative Limit
Switch
Index Pulse
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E.3.15: Upper Home Inside Index
Direction of Motion: Positive
Home is the first index pulse on the negative side of the positive edge of momentary
home switch. Initial direction of motion is positive. If initial motion leads away from the
home switch, the axis reverses on encountering the positive limit switch; then, if a
negative limit switch is activated before the home switch, an error is generated.
H
H
Home Switch
Positive Limit
Switch
Index Pulse
Direction of Motion: Negative
Home is the first index pulse on the negative side of the positive edge of a momentary
home switch. Initial direction of motion is negative if the home switch is inactive. If initial
motion leads away from the home switch, the axis reverses on encountering the negative
limit; then, if a negative limit switch is activated before the home switch, an error is
generated.
H
H
Home Switch
Negative Limit
Switch
Index Pulse
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APPENDIX
F: REGEN RESISTOR CONFIGURATION
Optionally configure a regen resistor. Details follow in the chapter.
Incorrect values may damage amplifier or external regen resistor.
!
WARNING
Copley Controls
2
For the regen I T algorithms to work correctly, the values entered in the following
steps must be correct. Damage to the external regen resistor may result from
incorrect values entered. Damage to the amplifier may result if an incorrect
resistance value is entered.
Failure to heed this warning can cause equipment damage.
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Regen Resistor Configuration
CME 2 User Guide
Configure a Standard Copley Controls Regen Resistor
1
2
Click Configure Regen to open the Regen Resistor screen.
Select the model number XTL-RA-03 or XTL-RA-04 and click OK to save the
configuration and close the screen.
Configure a Custom Regen Resistor
1
Click Configure Regen to open the Regen Resistor screen.
Continued…
214
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Regen Resistor Configuration
…Configure a Custom Regen Resistor, continued:
2
Select Custom Resistor and click Configure to enter the custom resistor data. Read the
information displayed and click OK.
When the Configuration screen appears follow the steps indicated.
Verify the data and click Finish.
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View Regen Settings on a Virtual Amplifier
1
216
Click Configure Regen Settings to open the Regen Settings screen.
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APPENDIX
G: ASCII COMMANDS/SERIAL CONTROL
This chapter describes how to configure and operate an amplifier by sending ASCII
commands over the serial bus. Contents include:
G.1: Copley ASCII Interface ...................................................................................................................................................... 218
G.2: CME 2 ASCII Command Line Interface Tool ...................................................................................................................... 218
G.3: Single-Axis Serial Connection ............................................................................................................................................ 219
G.4: Multi-Drop Serial Connection ............................................................................................................................................. 219
COMPATIBILITY: This chapter applies to Accelnet, Xenus, and Stepnet amplifiers only.
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G.1: Copley ASCII Interface
An amplifier’s RS-232 serial bus can be used by an external control application (HMI,
PLC, PC, etc.) for setup and direct serial control of the amplifier. The control application
can issue amplifier commands from the set of ASCII format commands that make up the
Copley Controls ASCII Interface.
For more information, see the Copley ASCII Interface Programmer’s Guide.
G.2: CME 2 ASCII Command Line Interface Tool
As described below, the CME 2 ASCII Command Line Interface tool provides a simple
way to enter Copley ASCII commands.
Use the ASCII Command Line Interface to Enter Commands
1
From the Main screen, choose ToolsASCII Command Line to open the tool.
2
Enter an ASCII Command in the Command field.
3
Press the Enter key to send the command to the amplifier. Observe the Response field.
If a value is returned, it is preceded by the letter “v.” In the following example, the get
command was used to retrieve the amplifier RAM value of variable 0x32 (actual
position).
An error code would be preceded by the letter “e.”
TIP: To view an error definition, hold the mouse pointer over the error number.
For more information, see the Copley ASCII Interface Programmer’s Guide and the
Copley Amplifier Parameter Dictionary.
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ASCII Commands/Serial Control
G.3: Single-Axis Serial Connection
For RS-232 serial bus control of a single axis, set the CAN node address of that axis to
zero (0). Note that if the CAN node address is switched to zero after power-up, the
amplifier must be reset or power cycled to make the new address setting take effect.
PC, PLC, or HMI
for ASCII Control
Serial
COM port
for
RS-232
9pin D-sub
SER-CK "Serial Cable Kit"
RJ11
Copley Amplifier
w ith ASCII
RS-232
CAN
ADDR
0
ADDRESS MUST BE SET
TO ZERO BEFORE
POWER-UP OR RESET.
G.4: Multi-Drop Serial Connection
A serially connected amplifier can be used as a multi-drop gateway for access to other
amplifiers linked in a series of CAN bus connections. Set the CAN node address of the
serially connected amplifier (gateway) to zero (0). Assign each additional amplifier in the
chain a unique CAN node address value between 1 and 127. For more information on
CAN node address assignment, see Network Configuration (p. 81). Use 120 Ohms
termination on the first and last amplifier.
TERMINATION MUST BE
USED ON FIRST AND LAST
NODE
PC, PLC, or HMI
for ASCII Control
Serial
COM port
for RS-232
9pin D-sub
SER-CK "Serial Cable Kit"
RJ11
Copley Amplifier
with ASCII RS-232
CAN
ADDR
120 Ohm
Terminator
CAN Port
0
CAN Network Cable UTP CAT.5E Gigabit Ethernet
RJ45
RJ45
CAN Port
1
RJ45
CAN
ADDR
CAN Port
2
CAN
ADDR
RJ45
RJ45
CAN
ADDR
RJ45
ADDRESSES MUST BE
SET BEFORE POWER-UP
OR RESET.
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CAN Port
120 Ohm
Terminator
219
ASCII Commands/Serial Control
220
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APPENDIX
H: GAIN SCHEDULING
The Gain Scheduling feature allows you to schedule gain adjustments based on changes
to a key parameter. For instance, Pp, Vp, Vi, and Current Offset (A) could be adjusted
based on changes to commanded velocity.
Gain adjustments are specified in a Gain Scheduling Table. Each table row contains a key
parameter value and the corresponding gain settings. The amplifier uses linear
interpolation to make smooth gain adjustments between the programmed settings.
Gain scheduling involves the basic steps outlined below. Details follow in the chapter.
H.1: Configure Gain Scheduling ................................................................................................................................................ 222
H.2: Set Up the Gain Scheduling Table(s) ................................................................................................................................. 223
H.2.1:
Create a Gain Scheduling Table....................................................................................................................... 223
H.2.2:
Edit Gain Scheduling Table Values .................................................................................................................. 225
H.2.3:
Save and Restore Gain Scheduling Tables and Settings ................................................................................. 226
H.3: Gain Scheduling Table Guidelines ..................................................................................................................................... 227
H.3.1:
Gain Schedule Table Storage Limits ................................................................................................................ 227
H.3.2:
Gain Schedule Data Rules ............................................................................................................................... 227
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CME 2 User Guide
H.1: Configure Gain Scheduling
Use this procedure to select basic Gain Scheduling options.
1
If necessary, Start CME 2 Software (p. 15).
2
On the Main screen, choose AmplifierGain Scheduling.
3
Choose the Key Parameter:
Key Parameter
Description
Disable Gain Scheduling.
Use Written Parameter.
Disable gain scheduling.
An external controller can write to this parameter using any of several
protocols and corresponding parameter IDs: Copley ASCII Interface or the
Copley Indexer 2 Program (ID 0x128), CANopen and EtherCAT(Index
0x2371), and MACRO I-variable (0x528).
See the Copley ASCII Interface Programmer’s Guide, the Copley Indexer 2
Program User Guide, or the Copley CANopen Programmer’s Guide.
Schedule gain adjustments based on changes to commanded velocity.
Schedule gain adjustments based on changes to actual velocity.
Schedule gain adjustments based on changes to commanded position.
Schedule gain adjustments based on changes to actual position.
Use Commanded Velocity.
Use Actual Velocity.
Use Commanded Position.
Use Actual Position.
4
Optionally set controls:
Control
Description
Use Absolute Value of Key
Parameter
Disable Gain Scheduling
Until Axis is Referenced
If a velocity or position value is chosen for the Key Parameter and this option
is set, the Key Parameter is interpreted as an absolute value.
When this option is set, the scheduled gain adjustments do not take place
until the axis is referenced (homed).
5
Select the gains that you wish to adjust by schedule. The choices are Pp, Vp, Vi and
Current Offset (A). For each gain you select, a column will be enabled in the Gain
Scheduling Table.
6
Continue with Set Up the Gain Scheduling Table(s) (p. 223).
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Gain Scheduling
H.2: Set Up the Gain Scheduling Table(s)
H.2.1: Create a Gain Scheduling Table
1
If necessary, Start CME 2 Software (p. 15).
2
On the Main screen, choose AmplifierGain Scheduling.
3
On the Gain Scheduling screen, open the Table tab:
If there is a table stored in amplifier flash, the screen will show it as in this sample:
Continued…
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CME 2 User Guide
… Create a Gain Scheduling Table, continued:
4
If there is already a table stored in flash:
Optionally Save Settings and Table Data to Disk (p. 226).
Then click the Delete tool to delete the gain scheduling table data from
amplifier flash and PC RAM.
5
6
Enter the number of lines (the number of gain adjustment specifications).
Click OK.
7
Enter the Key Parameter and gain adjustment values. All values must be integer, and
each Key Parameter value must be greater than the previous as described in Gain
Scheduling Table Guidelines (p. 227). Click in a field to enter or modify a value.
Standard mouse and keyboard editing techniques are available.
8
9
224
On the Table tab, click the Create a new gain scheduling table tool. See the
prompt:
On the Table tab, click Save gain scheduling table and setup to amplifier
flash memory before attempting to run the new table. This saves the Table tab
data and all Config tab settings.
Close the screen.
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CME 2 User Guide
Gain Scheduling
H.2.2: Edit Gain Scheduling Table Values
1
If necessary, Start CME 2 Software (p. 15).
2
On the Main screen, choose AmplifierGain Scheduling.
3
On the Gain Scheduling screen, open the Table tab:
4
Edit using standard keyboard and mouse techniques. Note that if you begin typing
immediately, the digits you enter will be inserted in front of any existing digits.
All values must be integer, and each Key Parameter value must be greater than the
previous as described in Gain Scheduling Table Guidelines (p. 227).
On the Table tab, click Save gain scheduling table and setup to amplifier
flash memory before attempting to run the new table. This saves the Table
tab data and all Config tab settings.
5
6
Close the screen.
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H.2.3: Save and Restore Gain Scheduling Tables and Settings
The Config tab settings and Table tab data can be saved to a Copley Controls gains file
(filename extension .ccg) on disk. A .ccg file can be restored and then saved to flash.
Save Settings and Table Data to Disk
1
On the Gain Scheduling screen, click the Save gain scheduling table and
setup to disk tool to open the Save Table to Disk screen. Enter a name for the
file, and click Save. Config tab settings and Table tab data are saved to the file.
2
Click Save gain scheduling table and setup to amplifier flash memory
before attempting to run the new table. This saves the Table tab data and all
Config tab settings to amplifier flash.
3
Close the screen.
Restore Settings and Table Data from Disk
1
2
On the Gain Scheduling screen, click the Restore gain scheduling table and
setup from disk tool to open the Restore Gain Scheduling Table from Disk
screen. Highlight the name of the file containing the settings and data you wish
to restore, and click Open. The settings and data are restored to the Config and
Table tabs.
3
Click Save gain scheduling table and setup to amplifier flash memory
before attempting to run the new table with the new settings. This saves all
Config tab settings and Table tab data to amplifier flash.
4
226
Set Up the Gain Scheduling Table(s) (p. 223) or
Edit Gain Scheduling Table Values (p. 225).
Observe the Gain Scheduling Table Guidelines (p. 227).
Close the screen.
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CME 2 User Guide
Gain Scheduling
H.3: Gain Scheduling Table Guidelines
A Gain Scheduling Table contains a progression of Key Parameter values and
corresponding gain adjustment values.
H.3.1: Gain Schedule Table Storage Limits
The maximum number of lines (gain adjustment specifications) that can be stored in the
Gain Scheduling Table is 1000. A typical Gain Schedule Table will contain far fewer lines.
The number of Gain Scheduling Table lines is limited by the amount of CVM memory
space available in the amplifier. A Gain Scheduling Table loaded into the amplifier shares
that space with Copley Virtual Machine (CVM) programs and Camming Tables. Therefore,
the maximum number of Gain Schedule Table lines will decrease if CVM programs or
Camming Tables are stored in the amplifier.
The Gain Scheduling screen Tables tab displays the percentage of amplifier memory
used:
H.3.2: Gain Schedule Data Rules


All must be whole numbers (no fractional values).
All Key Values must be increasing.
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CME 2 User Guide
P/N CC95-00454-000
Revision C
July 2012
 2006 through 2012
Copley Controls
20 Dan Road
Canton, MA 02021 USA
All rights reserved
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