A Survey of the Effectiveness of a Signal Zaid Bashir

A Survey of the Effectiveness of a Signal  Zaid Bashir
DEPARTMENT OF APPLIED SIGNAL PROCESSING
ET 1464, Bachelor Thesis in Electrical Engineering
A Survey of the Effectiveness of a Signal
In a Wireless Analog and Digital System
Zaid Bashir
Rickard Lundholm
Sven Kurowski
Examiner: Sven Johansson
Supervisors: Kristian Nilsson, Johan Zackrisson
Start Date: 01/03/2015
Date Submitted: 22/06/2015
1
CONTENTS
Abstract
1. INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………... 6
2. DEFINITION OF TERMS……………………………………………………………….. 7
2.1. Introduction………………………………………….…………………………...… 7
2.2. Frequency………………………………………….…………………………...….. 7
2.3. Signal ………………………………………….…………………………...……… 8
2.4. Analog Signal and Frequency Modulation (FM) ……….…………...…………….. 8
2.5. Digital Signal and Gaussian Frequency-Shift Keying (GFSK) ………………...…. 9
2.6. Measurement of Signal Level……………………….…………………………..... 10
2.7. Electromagnetic Waves………………………….………………………….......... 10
3. ANTENNA………………………………………….……………………...…………… 11
3.1. Introduction………………………………………….…………………………..... 11
3.2. Antenna Fundamentals ………………………………………….…………..…… 11
3.2.1.
Types of Antennas………………………………………….……….. 13
3.2.2.
Modelling Antenna Software ………………………………………. 14
3.2.3.
Half-wave Dipole Antenna Simulation………………………….….. 14
3.2.4.
Monopole Antenna………………………………………………….. 19
3.2.5.
Noise in the Antenna………………………………………………... 20
4. ANALOG AND DIGITAL SYSTEM………………………………………………….. 21
4.1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………….. 21
4.2. Analog System……………………………………………………………………. 21
4.2.1.
Noise in the Analog System………………………………………… 22
4.2.2.
Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR)………………………………………... 24
4.2.3.
Other Factors that Affect the Signal………………………………… 25
4.3. Digital System……………………………………………………………………. 26
4.3.1.
Noise in the Digital System……………………………….………… 26
4.3.2.
Quantization Noise………………………………………….………. 26
4.3.3.
Packet Loss…………………………………………………….……. 27
5. LAB WORK…………………………………………………………………………….. 31
5.1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………….. 31
5.2. Implemented Analog System……………………………………………………... 31
5.2.1.
FM Transmitter……………………………………………………... 32
5.2.2.
Failed Boards………………………………………………………... 33
5.2.3.
Measurements……………………………………………………….. 34
5.3. Implemented Digital System……………………………………………………... 34
5.3.1.
D/A Converter ..…………………………………………………….. 35
5.3.2.
Digital Transceiver………………………………………………….. 37
5.3.3.
Measurements……………………………………………………….. 38
6. CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………………. 39
7. REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………….. 40
2
3
We would like to thank our project supervisors Kristian Nilsson, Johan
Zackrisson, and our examiner Sven Johansson for their encouragement,
insightful comments, and hard questions. Their guidance helped us in all the
time of research and doing of this project.
Our sincere thanks also goes to the Electrical Engineering faculty at BTH, for
allowing us to use their laboratories and equipment.
To all teachers that taught us so much and always encouraged us to keep going.
Last, we would like to thank our families for always supporting us.
4
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to study the different parts of a wireless system in order
to better understand the signal properties and what key factors changes the
signal during its transmission. Two transmitters were created, an FM transmitter
that transmits analog data and an Arudino board programed to convert data to
bits before its transmission. The acquired signals were then compared to the
original signal noting how differently the data had changed. To understand the
antennas contribution to the system a simulation was done using High
Frequency Structural Simulator. A description of the analysis on the different
acquired signals was done to determine the best applications they might have.
5
1. Introduction
In the modern world there are signals travelling around us constantly, through
cables or through the air, to our houses and our cars, to our phones and our
computers. This is Telecommunication System and though we might take it for
granted it has become an integrated part of our culture. Having an
understanding in antenna theory and wireless systems is becoming a part of the
massive demand for better internet anywhere and faster transmission speeds.
This report aims to give an understanding of what different factors goes into
making a wireless system work and focuses on how the signal changes during
its transmission.
The two kind of signals that we can transmit in the modern day are analog and
digital signals so for the purpose of this report, a simulation of a half-wave
dipole antenna was done and thereafter, two wireless systems were created in
order to practically study the signals. An FM transmitter with passive
components and a chosen whip antenna (monopole antenna) was built in order
to transmit the analog signal. For the digital signal, Arduino Uno boards were
programmed to perform analog to digital conversion and to transmit the signal
wirelessly using nRF24L01 transceiver.
6
2. DEFINITION OF TERMS
2.1 Introduction
In order to understand how the quality of the signal vary from point to point, it
is necessary to discuss some fundamentals that are important in understanding
analog and digital transmission.
2.2 Frequency
In order for RF systems to communicate they need to be able to operate at
certain radio frequencies. The total range of radio frequencies are from 3 kHz,
to 300 GHz [2.1]. Below that spectrum is sound and above it is infrared. The
wavelength of the frequencies can be calculated by the following formula:
ߣ ൌ
ܿ
݂
Where c = speed of light (ൎ ͵ ൈ ͳͲ଼ ݉Ȁ‫)ݏ‬
f = frequency
ߣ = wavelength in meters
The range of the frequencies and their given names can be seen in Table 2.1.
[2.1]
Name Frequency
Very Low Freq. (VLF) 10 kHz – 30 kHz
Low Freq. (LF) 30 kHz – 300 kHz
Medium Freq. (MF) 300 kHz – 3 MHz
High Freq. (HF) 3 MHz – 30 MHz
Very High Freq. (VLF) 30 MHz – 328.6 MHz
Ultra High Freq. (UHF) 328.6 MHz – 2.9 GHz
Super High Freq. (SHF) 2.9 GHz – 30 GHz
Extremely High Freq. (EHF) 30 GHz and above
Table 2.1 Radio frequency spectrum and wavelength ranges
Wavelength (ߣሻ
10km – 30km
1km – 30km
100m – 1km
10m – 100m
1m – 10m
10cm – 1m
1cm – 10cm
1mm – 1cm
An exceptional human ear can hear all the frequencies between 20 Hz and 20
kHz. When transmitting music these are the frequencies that are transmitted
across the radio medium.
7
2.3 Signal
“A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space, or any
other independent variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as
a function of one or more independent variables [2.2].”
There are two types of signals that can carry information across radio
communication mediums and they are analog, and digital signals.
2.4 Analog Signal & Frequency Modulation
An analog signal can be described as a continuous waveform spanning across a
continuous time period. Any signal found in nature is an analog signal including
sound and light but humans have invented ways to transmit data through the air
using telecommunication techniques.
Different modulation techniques are used to transmit analog message signals
over greater distances. The method is to alter a higher carrier frequency with
the message signal. The carrier frequency will be sent over the air medium and
decoded at the other end to reveal the message signal. The two analog
modulation techniques most commonly talked about is Amplitude Modulation
(AM) and Frequency Modulation (FM) where the difference between them is
that AM changes the amplitude of the carrier frequency and FM changes the
frequency of the carrier frequency as can be seen in Fig 2.1.
Fig 2.1 Signal is the messenger signal and AM and FM are the altered carrier frequency
FM is important because electrical interference does not highly affect the
frequency. The carrier frequency does not rely on amplitude therefore, it is
much less susceptible to noise, with the implementation of FM it becomes much
easier for the receiver to filter out the weaker signals and only play the strongest
8
signal [2.3]. The disadvantages of FM is that it comes with more complex
circuitry and a wider bandwidth allowing for more interference from other radio
frequencies communicating on a similar frequency [2.3].
2.5 Digital Signal & Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying (GFSK)
A digital signal is a sampled analog signal. The accuracy of the analog to digital
conversion is crucial for quality in a digital system. The more bits per sample
and the higher sampling rate available the more accurate the digital
representation will be. See Fig. 2.2 for reference. The process of sampling the
amplitude is called Quantization and the sampling in the time domain is called
Sample Rate.
Fig 2.2 Original sine wave with quantized version
There are many different modulation techniques for digital information but the
one that will be discussed in this report is Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying
(GFSK). This modulation technique is very similar to FM due to every high bit
gets a frequency slightly faster than the carrier frequency and every low bit gets
a slightly slower frequency [2.4].
2.6 Measurement of Signal Level
The measurements of the signals will be represented by decibels (dB) which is
one tenth of a bel. Decibel is most commonly the solution to a logarithmic
9
function that takes in the ratio of power efficiency, for example:
௉೚ೠ೟
௉೔೙
or
௉ೞ೔೒೙ೌ೗
௉೙೚೔ೞ೐
.
The practical implementation of decibel is used when the power of the signal
can vary and it would be easier to know how much stronger a signal is
compared to the noise rather than how much power it is e.g. it is easier to
understand what 20 dB is than trying to picture the difference between ͳͲଵ଴ and
ͳͲ଼ [2.5].
Other versions of decibel is decibel-milliWatts (dBm) where the power will be
in relation to milliWatts, and decibel-Isotropic (dBi) that offers no change to dB
other than that it is exclusively for comparing the gain of the antenna relative to
the isotropic gain [2.5].
2.7 Electromagnetic Wave
Electromagnetism is the basic scientific principle for propagating signals
through an antenna. The basis of electromagnetism in an antenna can be
compared with a conductor. In a conductor the electrons flow from one parallel
plate to another. Opening the planes would keep the transmission of electrons
but would radiate those outwards. The outward radiation of the electrons would
carry the same information as a coaxial cable would but allows for humans to
transmit information [2.5].
10
3. ANTENNA
3.1 Introduction
In RF engineering the antenna is defined as a radio-frequency (RF) transducer
with two major types of antennas: Transmitting types and receiving types. The
transmitter part (AC/EM converter) converts the electromagnetic waves (EM) to
alternating current (AC) while the receiver part (EM/AC converter) converts
(AC) to (EM) waves.
The strength of the transmitted signal and received signal can be effected of the
antenna depending on many factors like polarization, noise in the antenna,
impedance, etc. In this chapter a survey of the factors is done using simulations
and calculations.
3.2 Antenna Fundamentals
Antenna performance consists primarily of two aspects, the radiation properties
and the impedance [3.3].
The radiation properties are defined by the antenna radiation pattern, gain,
directivity, and polarization. The impedance of the transmitter antenna is related
to the transferred power from a source to the antenna and for the receiver, from
the antenna to the load [3.3]; therefore, the antenna must be matched to the
transmission line to avoid reflection [3.3].
Antenna radiation pattern: is defined as a 3D plot of the radiation in the far
field region [3.3]. The far field distance is defined as follows:
ଶሺ஽ሻమ
ܴ௙௔௥௙௜௘௟ௗ =
ఒ
(3.1)
Where D is the largest dimension of the antenna, λ is the free space wavelength,
c is the speed of light in free space, and f is the operating frequency.
Antennas can be classified as omni-directional or directive antennas. Wellknown examples of omni-directional antennas are the microstrip patch and
dipole antennas. The radiation patterns are the same for transmission as for
reception for most antennas [3.2].
11
Antenna directivity: is a measure of the density of the radiated power in one
direction. It is usually expressed in decibels. The general expression for it is
shown below:
ሺɅǡ Ԅሻ ൌ ͶɎ
୊ሺ஘ǡமሻ
మಘ ಘ
‫׬‬బ ‫׬‬బ ୊ሺ஘ǡமሻ ୱ୧୬ሺ஘ሻୢ஘ୢம
(3.2)
Where ሺɅǡ Ԅሻ is the radiation intensity function.
Antenna directivity gain: is a measure that depends on the efficiency of the
antenna and its directional properties [3.2]. The gain is calculated depending on
the reference antenna (isotropic antenna) [3.2], and accounted for in units of
dBi. The gain is usually measured at the angle where the maximum radiation
occurs [3.2]. The general equation for the directivity gain is as expressed below:
ƒ‹ ൌ ͶɎ
୊ሺ஘ǡமሻ
୔౟౤
(3.3)
Where ୧୬ is the total input power.
Antenna efficiency: is the ratio between radiated power and input power. The
total antenna efficiency accounts for all the losses, at the input end and within
the antenna structure, which include the conduction, dielectric, and surface
wave losses, as well as reflection loss [3.2].
The reflection efficiency ʲ࢘ is the reflection due to the mismatch at the antenna
input end, between the antenna and the transmission feed line, and it is given by
the following formula:
ʲ࢘ ൌ ͳ െ ˆଶ
(3.4)
Where
ˆൌ
୞౟౤ ି୞బ
(3.5)
୞౟౤ ା୞బ
Overall efficiency is:
ʲ૙ ൌ ʲࢉ ʲࢊ ʲ࢘
12
(3.6)
Where ଴ is the reference impedance of the source, ୧୬ is the input impedance
of the antenna, ʲ࢘ is the reflection efficiency, ʲࢉ is the conduction efficiency,
and ʲࢊ is the dielectric efficiency. The conduction-dielectric efficiency ʲࢉࢊ ,
which is known as the radiation efficiency, is defined as the ratio between the
radiated power to the accepted power, which can be expressed as follows:
ʲୡୢ ൌ
ୖ౨౗ౚ
ୖౢ౥౩౩ ାୖ౨౗ౚ
(3.7)
Where ୰ୟୢ is the radiation resistance and ୪୭ୱୱ is the loss resistance. Gain and
directivity are related also by the radiation efficiency, since the gain accounts
for the antenna losses; therefore, the radiation efficiency can be defined as
follows:
ʲୡୢ ൌ
ୋୟ୧୬
ୈ୧୰ୣୡ୲୧୴୧୲୷
(3.8)
Polarization: is the orientation of the transmitted or received electric field in
the far field in a given direction. The instantaneous E-field of a plane wave
travelling in the z direction can be expressed as [3.2]:
ഥሺǢ –ሻ ൌ ഥሺǢ –ሻ ൅ ഥሺǢ –ሻ
(3.9)
According to (3.9), the polarization can be classified as linear where the electric
or magnetic vector field is always oriented along a line [3.2]. The other two
classes of polarization are circular polarization, and elliptical polarization [3.2].
For better performance, the polarizations of the transmitting antenna and the
receiving antenna must be matched to reduce the polarization.
13
3.3 Types of antennas
Category
Wire antenna
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Antennas types
Short Dipole Antenna
Dipole Antenna.
Half-Wave Dipole.
Monopole Antenna.
Loop Antenna
Folded Antenna.
Whip Antenna
Travelling wave Antenna
x
x
x
Helix Antenna
Yagi Antenna
Spiral Antenna
Reflector Antenna
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Corner reflector
Dish Antenna
Patch Antenna
PIFA Antenna
Telescope Antenna
Slot Antenna
Horn Antenna
Microstrip Antenna
Aperture Antenna
Table 3.1
3.4 Modelling Antenna Software
There are many software tools used to simulate the electronics circuits and radio
waves systems, such as ADC (Advanced Design System), CST MVS
(Computer Simulation Technology), and HFSS (High Frequency Structural
Simulator). In this project the design is done with simulation HFSS because of
its simplicity and flexibility.
3.5 Half-Wave Dipole Antenna
Fig 3.1 Half - Wave Dipole Antenna
14
The Half-Wave Dipole Antenna is the most common type of the antennas. It's
also called the Hertz or Hertzian antenna because of the radio pioneer Heinrich
Hertz who used this form in his experiments.
௅
Half-wave dipole Antenna consists of two radiators each equal to as it's shown
ଶ
in Fig.1. The antenna is designed in the horizontal form with respect to the
earth's surface, and it produces a horizontally polarized signal [3.1].
The radiation pattern for the half dipole antenna is [3.2]:
ሺɅሻ ൌ
ಘ
మ
ୡ୭ୱሺ ୡ୭ୱ ஘ሻ
(3.10)
ୱ୧୬ ஘
The far-fields for the half-wave dipole antenna in the air are given by [3.2]:
෪
஘ ൎ Œ
ಘ
ăబ
‡
ଶ஠ୖ ୭
෪
஦ ൎ Œ
ି୨୩ୖ
ୡ୭ୱሺ మ ୡ୭ୱ ஘ሻ
ୱ୧୬ ஘
୍౥
ଶ஠ୖ
(3.11)
ಘ
‡
ି୨୩ୖ
ୡ୭ୱሺ మ ୡ୭ୱ ஘ሻ
ୱ୧୬ ஘
(3.12)
The time-average power density in the half-wave dipole is given by [3.2]:
ୟ୴ୣ ൌ
ăబȁౄ
෫ȁమ ౎
෡
ಞ
(3.13)
ଶ
The total radiated power in half-wave dipole antenna is [3.2]:
ಘ
୰ୟୢ ൌ
మ
஠ ୡ୭ୱ ሺ మ ୡ୭ୱ ஘ሻ
͵Ͳ୭ ‫׬‬଴
ୱ୧୬ ஘
ଶ
(3.13)
The ߠ-dependent integral above is not analytically integrable but can be
evaluated numerically to obtain [3.2]:
ܲ௥௔ௗ = ͵Ͳ‫ܫ‬௢ ଶ ሺͳǤʹͳͺͺሻ ൌ ͵͸Ǥͷ͸‫ܫ‬௢ ଶ
The half-wave dipole antenna radiation resistance is given by [3.2]:
ܲ௥௔ௗ ൌ ͲǤͷ‫ܫ‬௢ ଶ ୰ୟୢ ൌ ͵͸Ǥͷ͸‫ܫ‬௢ ଶ
୰ୟୢ ൌ ʹሺ͵͸Ǥͷ͸ሻ ൌ ͹͵Ǥͳʹȳ
The Parameters of the Antenna
The measurements of the antenna changes depending on the operating
15
(3.14)
frequency (݂‫ݎ‬ሻ. By calculating the wave length (λ), we can determine all
dimensions we need to design a Half-Wave dipole antenna [3.1] as is shown in
Table 3.2. The length of the antenna is a half-wavelength. There is a physical
length and a theoretical length which often are different by about 5% [3.2].
‫ܮ‬௣௛௬௦௜௖௔௟ ሺ݉ሻ =
ଵସଶǤ଺ସ
௙ೝ
ଵସଽǤ଺ସ
, ‫ܮ‬௧௛௘௢௥௘௧௜௖௔௟ ሺ݉ሻ=
௙ೝ
஼
, λ = ݂ , where C is the
‫ݎ‬
speed of lightǤ
ܴ ൌ ͲǤͲͲͳ ‫ כ‬ɉǡ ݃ ൌ ௅
ଶ଴଴
[3.1].
The desired ݂௥ = 97MHz.
Parameter
Value
Unite
97
90
‫ݖܪܯ‬
Wavelength (λ)
3.09
3.14
݉
Length of the dipoleሺ‫ܮ‬ሻ
1.47
1.5
݉
Radius of the dipole ሺܴሻ
3.09
3.14
݉݉
Feeding gap ሺ݃ሻ
7.35
7.85
݉݉
Electrical Impedance
73.12
73.12
‫݄݉݋‬
Operating frequency (݂௥ )
Table 3.2 Design Parameters of the Antenna.
There are two resistance that make up the impedance of the feed point, the first
is the ohmic losses (electrical) that generate nothing but heat when the
transmitter is turned on, and it's negligible. The second one is radiation
Resistance ܴ௥௔ௗ of the antenna where [3.2]
୰ୟୢ ൌ
୔
(3.11)
୍మ
ܲ : RF power applied to the feed point.
‫ ܫ‬ଶ : The current applied to the feed point.
The loss resistance for half dipole antenna is calculated using the following
formula [3.2]:
୪୭ୱୱ ൌ
୐
ସୖ
ට
16
୤ஜ
஠஢
(3.12)
Where is the length of the antenna,ˆ is the frequency, is the radius of the
antenna, Ɋ is the electrical permittivity and ɐ is the magnetic permeability.
Since the material of the wire used in the design is chosen as copper then Ɋ ൌ
ͶɎ ‫ ଻ିͲͳ כ‬and ɐ ൌ ͷǤͷ ‫ ଻Ͳͳ כ‬.
୪୭ୱୱ ൌ
ଵǤସ
ට
ସ‫כ‬଴Ǥ଴଴ଷ଴ଽ
ሺଽ଻‫כ‬ଵ଴ల ሻሺସ஠‫כ‬ଵ଴షళ ሻ
஠ሺହǤହ‫כ‬ଵ଴ళ ሻ
= 0.09264 Ω
Half dipole antenna efficiency:
The efficiency of the antenna can be calculated using (3.7) as follows:
୪୭ୱୱ ൌ ͲǤͲͻʹ͸Ͷ Ω
୰ୟୢ ൌ ͹͵Ǥͳʹȳ
ʲୡୢ ൌ
͹͵Ǥͳʹȳ
ͲǤͲͻʹ͸Ͷȳ ൅ ͹͵Ǥͳʹȳ
= 0.998 (99.8% efficient).
Simulations and Results
Depending on the parameters, the Half-wavelength dipole antenna has been
designed using HFSS. The material of the arms has been chosen as copper and
between them is a sheet representing the feed point ሺ݃ሻ as it's shown in Fig 3.2.
Fig 3.2 Designed Half- Wave Antenna
The return loss shows how well lines are matched. For a good transmission the
return loss should be high [3.2]. Fig 3.3 shows that the antenna is resonant at 97
17
and 90 MHz, and the return loss is (-7.03dB, -5.5dB) respectively. 90MHz is
better than the chosen 97 MHz for transmission.
XY Plot 18
0.00
HFSSDesign1
ANSOFT
Curve Info
Name
-1.25
X
Y
m1
90.3033 -7.0380
m2
97.1502 -5.5327
dB(S(1,1))
Setup1 : Sw eep
dB(S(1,1))
-2.50
-3.75
-5.00
m2
-6.25
m1
-7.50
60.00
70.00
80.00
Freq [MHz]
90.00
100.00
110.00
Fig 3.3 Return loss curve.
Bandwidth of the Antenna
The resonance antenna always has a range of frequencies over which the
antenna can transmit and receive power. This range is called the bandwidth of
the antenna. The signal transmission strength varies from one frequency band to
another due to the loss resistance and the impedance of the antenna. Fig 3.3
shows two of frequencies used to transmit the signal. The return loss for each
one of them are different therefore the preferable frequency band to receive the
signal is 90 MHz.
Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR):
The parameter VSWR is a measure of how well the impedance of the antenna is
matched to the radio or transmission line it is connected to [3.1]. VSWR
describes the power reflected from the antenna. VSWR is defined by the
following formula:
ൌ
18
ଵାȁˆȁ
ଵିȁˆȁ
(3.13)
The VSWR is a real and positive number for antennas. The smaller the VSWR
is, the better the antenna is matched to the transmission line and the more power
is delivered to the antenna. As is shown in Fig 3.4 the best frequency to use is
90 MHZ. The minimum VSWR is 1.0. In this case, no power is reflected from
the antenna.
XY Plot 19
25.00
HFSSDesign1
ANSOFT
Curve Info
VSWR(1)
Setup1 : Sw eep
22.50
20.00
Name
VSWR(1)
17.50
15.00
X
Y
m1
90.3033 2.6019
m2
97.1502 3.2453
12.50
10.00
7.50
5.00
m1
2.50
60.00
70.00
80.00
Freq [MHz]
90.00
Fig 3.4 VSWR plot for the designed half dipole antenna
19
m2
100.00
110.00
3.6 Monopole Antenna
Fig 3.5 Monopole Antenna
A monopole antenna is one of the wire antenna category types. It's another
simple and effective antenna which is formed by driving a wire with a voltage
between the wire and the conducting plane. The monopole antenna is equivalent
to the dipole antenna as is shown in Fig 3.5. The equivalent dipole is twice the
length of the monopole and that corresponds to the quarter monopole antenna
being equal to the half-wave dipole antenna [3.1].
3.7 The Noise in the Antenna
The antenna is sometimes a source of noise. The antenna noise can be divided
into two types according to its physical source: noise due to the loss resistance
of the antenna and noise which the antenna picks up from the surrounding
environment. Any object whose temperature is above the absolute zero radiates
EM energy. Thus, an antenna is surrounded by noise sources, which create
noise power at the antenna terminals [3.4].
20
4. Analog and Digital System
4.1 Introduction
“Noise is any unsteady component of a signal which causes the instantaneous
value to differ from the true value [4.3].” This chapter will cover the analog and
digital system and will focus on the different sources of noise and how they
have changed the signal. In both system, noise originates on the board as well as
during transmission. The analog board has areas that are sensitive to physical
contact and the digital system uses a quantization process that samples the
signal at a finite interval showing only an approximated final signal. During
transmission both the analog and digital system are prone to failure the further
the transmitter is from the receiver. The analog board, being an FM transmitter,
transmits on the same frequency as common radio stations which will interfere
if the signal gets weak enough. The digital board has a starting bit error rate of
0.1% that increases with distance. These conditions will be theoretically
discussed and practically implemented using Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) to
give an understanding of how susceptible the signal is.
4.2 The Analog System
4.2.1 Noise in the Analog System
Three types of interference or noise will be discussed in this chapter and they
are: Noise due to switching current, general interference, and carrier noise.
Noise due to switching current happens in the Oscillation process of the
transistor. Rapidly switching current leads to popping sounds in the signal and
has the potential to damage the circuit unless it is contained. This problem is
solved by placing a capacitor over the output and the ground of the transistor
smoothing the oscillation [4.1]. For reference see Fig. 4.1.
Fig. 4.1. Whole schematic of FM transmitter found in section 5.2.1
General interference covers many types of interference including: thermal
shot, solar radiation, lighting, static electricity, receiver overload,
21
electromagnetic noise due to rotary motors, to name a few [4.2]. This report will
test receiver overload and static electricity.
Receiver overload occurs when the transmitter is too close to the receiver. The
power of the radio frequency will be too great and will cause the receiver’s
sensitivity to decrease. With reduced sensitivity comes suppression of all
incoming signals leading to a decrease in gain [4.9].
Noise due to Static electricity occurs when outside forces touches exposed
wires. In this case the metal on the audio input connector was left exposed so
that during testing it could be physically manipulated in order to see the effects.
Matlab was used to plot .wav file recordings of the transmitted signal and
separately the noise that appears when physical interference has been applied.
The noise was recorded by starting the transmission without sending the signal.
Any interference that would happen during the transmission would come up as
pure noise during the recording. The Vrms values of the signal and noise can be
calculated from these recordings which will be used to calculate the SNR in dB
in the following chapter. The results are shown in Fig. 4.2, Fig. 4.3, and Fig. 4.4
Carrier noise is defined as the noise added by the bandwidth of the signal
during transmission. This is directly related to the size of the bandwidth as the
larger the size of the bandwidth the more likely other radio signals are to
interfere. A larger bandwidth also means more power to transmit which leaves
for a slightly shorter range. Frequency Modulation receivers like radios have a
precaution called capture effect which allows for the stronger received radio
signal to overpower the weaker signals. This will reduce the general amount of
interference from other channels but if the signal from a transmitter were to
drop below the required power level a sudden increase in noise will appear
[2.3].
22
Fig. 4.2 The transmitted signal with no noise.
Fig. 4.3 The noise caused by physical interference.
23
Fig. 4.4 The transmitted signal with the noise applied.
4.2.2 SNR
Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) is expressed in dB to better understand where the
signal is strongest and where it is weakest. The SNR formula compares the
power of the transmitted signal to the power of the noise in the receiving end.
For both the transmitted signal and the noise the power is calculated by squaring
the Root Mean Square (RMS) voltage and converting the ratio to decibel (dB)
by using a logarithmic function. This ratio in dB shows how much the original
signal is heard over the noise. The derived formula is shown below [4.3].
ܴܵܰௗ஻
ଶ
ܸ௥௠௦ೄ೔೒೙ೌ೗
ܸ௥௠௦
ೄ೔೒೙ೌ೗
ൌ ͳͲ Ž‘‰ ቆ ଶ
ቇ ൌ ʹͲ Ž‘‰ ቆ
ቇ
ܸ௥௠௦ಿ೚೔ೞ೐
ܸ௥௠௦ಿ೚೔ೞ೐
(4.1)
Referring back to Fig. 4.2 and Fig. 4.3 the strength of the transmitted signal was
-1.35 dB and the strength of the noise was calculated to be -42.38 dB. The SNR
can be calculated by taking the difference between two dB values and ends up
being 41.03 dB. This shows that physical interference has a great effect on the
strength of the transmitted signal.
24
In the next test the noise was measured in the same way, by starting the
transmission of the FM transmitter but not feeding through a signal. The
received noise thereafter is therefore the carrier noise combined with the noise
of the whole system i.e. everything except the actual sine wave. The noise level
remains constant and as the transmitted power becomes weaker and weaker the
SNR will drop.
Fig. 4.5 Graph of the indoor test of the Analog system.
Fig. 4.5 shows the sensitivity of the FM transmitter and how well it performs
indoors in a long hallway. The effects of receiver overload can be seen in the
first meter with a decreased gain. The effects are resolved quickly and after 1
meter the signal is relatively stable. After 25 meters the capture effect starts to
be unable to distinguish between the other radio stations and drops down to
levels below 40 dB which is not an ideal SNR rate for listening [4.4]. Because
the test was performed indoors, the radiation field of the antenna is affected by
the walls and the ceiling leaving parts of the room without a signal. This can be
seen by the rise to 90 dB at 30 meters followed by erratic drops and rises
thereafter. The transmitted signal gets weaker and weaker the further away the
transmitter is but will still find its way to certain parts of the room.
4.2.3 Other Factors that Affect the Signal
While the signal is propagating through the air, its quality is changing from
point to point due to a couple of factors. Some of factors are explained as
follows:
25
Obstacles:
The signal becomes weaker and weaker the more obstacles it faces. Some of
these problems are explained as follows:
Absorption: faces the signal propagating in the air, which is caused by many
different types of particles from rain, fog, snow, etc. which results in
attenuation.
Reflection: The signal are reflected by surfaces and bounces between
intervening objects which should be larger than the wave length of the signal.
Scattering: The signal is divided into several weaker signals propagating in
different directions, since the intervening object size is equal or smaller than the
signal wave length.
Antenna position:
One of the best solutions to get the best level of the strength is the position of
the antennas. That yields to the polarization concerns and the frequency band.
(See Chapter 2) [2.1].
4.3 Digital System
4.3.1 Noise in the Digital System
Digital transmission requires software implementation in order to perform the
analog to digital conversion which leads to its own unique sources for noise.
The initial alteration to the signal is in the quantization and sampling process
that converts the amplitude of the original signal into digital bits at a finite
sampling rate. The number of bits available and the sample rate will determine
the quality of the signal. The bit representation of the analog signal is sent
across the medium at a frequency band of 2.4 GHz. Similar to the analog
system, the further away the receiver is from the transmitter the more
transmitting power is needed however, packet loss becomes the issue rather than
carrier noise. A Digital to Analog converter (DAC) has been created in order to
compare the transmitted signal to the original.
4.3.2 Quantization Noise
The quantization noise is the noise that appears when the signal is quantized.
Normal audio CDs have a sampling rate of 44,100 Hz and 16 bits per sample
[4.5]. The Arduino Uno board however, when using 44,100 Hz, is limited to 8
bits per sample and in order to increase the bits per sample to 10, the sampling
rate would have to be halved to 22,050 Hz. The benefit being an increased range
26
as the Arduino board would require less power to sample the signal leaving
more power to transmit the signal [4.6].
The quantization process starts with an understanding of the amplitude of the
original signal and the step size of the quantizer then using these two parameters
to calculate the variance [2.4].
ʹ݉௠௔௫
(4.2)
ȟ ൌ
ʹோ
୼
ଶ
ஶ
ɐଶொ
ͳ
οଶ
ଶ
ൌ න ‫݂ ݍ‬ொ ሺ‫ݍ‬ሻ݀‫ ݍ‬ൌ න ‫ ݍ݀ ݍ‬ൌ
ͳʹ
ο
ଶ
(4.3)
ି୼
ଶ
ିஶ
Δ is the step size of the quantizer, ݉௠௔௫ is the maximum amplitude of the
original signal, R is the number of bits per sample (bps), σ is the variance, and q
is quantization error. Assuming the error is uniformly distributed then the
ଵ
probability density function, ݂ொ ሺ‫ݍ‬ሻǡis equal to during the step of the quantizer,
ο
ି୼
ଶ
୼
൑ ‫ ݍ‬൑ , and zero otherwise [2.4].
ଶ
Using the average power of the original signal and dividing it over the variance
with the values of the step size of the quantizer in the formula, the SNR of the
quantized signal can be calculated.
ܲ௔௩௚
ܴܵܰொ ൌ ଶ
(4.4)
ߪொ
ଶ
ܸ௥௠௦
͵ሺʹோ ሻଶ
ܴܵܰொ ൌ
ൌ
ଶ
(4.5)
Ͷ݉௠௔௫
ʹ
൬
൰
͵ሺʹோ ሻଶ
ܲ௔௩௚ is equal to
మ
௏ೝ೘ೞ
ோ௘௦௜௦௧௔௡௖௘
but in most cases when calculating power, the
ଶ
resistance is assumed to be 1 so ܲ௔௩௚ ൌ ܸ௥௠௦
and ܸ௥௠௦ is equal to the maximum
ଶ
canceling
amplitude of the voltage divided by 2. This also leads to the ݉௠௔௫
each other out. In order to calculate the dB level of the signal after quantization
has been performed, a logarithmic function is needed. The final calculation of
the SNR can be shown below where R = 8 bits [2.4].
27
ܴܵܰௗ஻ ൌ ͳͲ Ž‘‰൫ܴܵܰொ ൯ ൎ ͷͲ݀‫ܤ‬
(4.6)
A value of 50 dB is achieved when performing quantization of 8 bits and though
this is significantly lower than using 16 bits (98 dB) it is enough for speech and
basic predefined ‘8-bit music’ but will ruin high quality music or large
orchestral scores.
4.3.3 Path Loss
The nRF24L01 receiver can pick up a power signal at -82 dBm with a bit error
rate of 0.1% (1 error every 1000 bits) when using data speeds of up to 2mbps
[4.7]. Using this value the path loss of the signal due to how far the receiver is
from the transmitter in free space can be predicted using the formula below;
஼
where λ = , and d is the distance between the transmitter and receiver [4.8].
௙
Ͷߨ݂݀
Ͷߨ݀
൰ ൌ ʹͲ Ž‘‰ ൬
൰
ܿ
ߣ
Ͷߨ
ൌ ʹͲ Ž‘‰ሺ݀ሻ ൅ ʹͲ Ž‘‰ ൬ ൰ ൅ ʹͲ Ž‘‰ሺʹǤͶ‫ݖܪܩ‬ሻ
ܿ
ൌ ʹͲ Ž‘‰ሺ݀ሻ ൅ ͶͲ݀‫ܤ‬
ܲܽ‫ݏݏ݋ܮ݄ݐ‬ௗ஻ ൌ ʹͲ Ž‘‰ ൬
ܲ‫ ݐ݅݉ݏ݊ܽݎܶ݋ݐ݀݁݀݁݁݊ݎ݁ݓ݋‬ൌ െͺʹ݀‫ ݉ܤ‬൅ ʹͲ Ž‘‰ሺ݀ሻ ൅ ͶͲ݀‫ܤ‬
(4.6)
(4.7)
The formula for the power needed to transmit is based off of the power
sensitivity of the receiver combined with the approximated path loss per
distance in free space formula [4.10]. The nRF24 can typically output a power
level from 0, -6, -12, -18 dBm which corresponds to an output wattage of 1,
0.25, 0.06, 0.015 mW [4.7]. Knowing these values means knowing the
restriction in range that is available. Plotting a graph of distance over power
needed shows where the limit of the digital system is.
28
Fig. 4.6
Fig. 4.7
Fig. 4.6 is the graphical representation of formula 4.7 and shows that the
nRF24L01+ is expected to reach 20 meters when the power output is around 0
dBm. Fig. 4.7 is the practical assessment of this conclusion and Fig. 5.14, 5.15,
& 5.16 in chapter 5 shows a closer look at how packet loss changes the signal.
4.4. Conclusion
The analog and digital system have shown their different sources of noise and
how sensitive they are. The analog board has a strong clear signal but is
sensitive in unsteady environments. Physical interference will change the
original signal and cause the SNR to drop down to 40.03 dB and problems arise
when other radio stations starts interfering, limiting the indoor range of the
analog board to around 25 meters. These qualities makes the FM transmitter a
great stationary device capable of transmitting clear information at a range of 25
meters with an SNR of 90 dB.
The digital system is more complex and requires decent components in order to
continuously transmit data. In this case, the digital board starts off with an SNR
of 50 dB due to quantization noise. This 50 dB SNR is caused by the Arduino
Uno boards’ limit of 8 bps with a 44.1 kHz sample rate. The SNR ratio of the
quantization process could be raised if one had a board capable of processing
data at a faster rate. The range of this particular digital system is 20 meters, but
is expected to start having bit errors at around 10 meters. The digital system has
a lot of potential but is directly affected by the quality of the equipment used.
29
5. Lab work
5.1. Introduction
To understand the process of the wireless transmission, it was necessary to
perform many experiments. About 300 hours of lab work results in the
functioning construction of the analog & digital wireless systems. This chapter
includes the summery of the practical survey of the effectiveness of the signal.
5.2. The Implemented Analog System
Fig.5.1. Realistic implemented of the Analog System.
The wireless analog system works by generating the signal from a device which
is connected to the FM transmitter. The FM transmitter sends the signal to the
Telecop FM Radio Receiver on the resonant frequency 97MHz. The quality of
the signal vary depending on the used frequency band which can be changed by
a trimmer capacitor, shown in Fig 5.4, and the position of the antenna.
30
5.2.1. FM Transmitter
Technical data:
x Supply voltage: 2-9 volts.
x Power consumption: 3V= 11 mh /
6V = 22mh.
x RF output: 3V/ 6V.
x Frequency band: 97MHz.
x Antenna: Monopole.
Fig. 5.2
FM Receiver:
Specifications:
x Tuner: FM 88-108 MHz.
x Sound: Mono.
x Clock system: 12 hours.
x Batteries: 4xAA.
x Antenna: Telescopic.
Fig. 5.3
Schematic of FM Transmitter
Fig. 5.4 The Schematic of the FM Transmitter
31
Components:
4. 1x 5.2-30pF trimmer capacitor
5. 1x 5 turn coil
6. 1x 1μH inductor 1x Audio Input
Connector
7. 165cm copper wire for antenna
8. A PCB board
9. 6V battery supply
1. 3x Transistors – BC547
2. Resistors:
a. 1x 100Ω
b. 2x 10kΩ
c. 1x 22kΩ
d. 1x 40kΩ
e. 2x 47kΩ
f. 1x 1MΩ
3. Capacitors
a. 3x 10pF
b. 1x 33pF
c. 1x 1nF / 102
d. 3x 100nF / 104
5.2.2. Failed boards
Many experiments have been done to test the building of FM Transmitter and
many errors have happened during the implementations. Fig. 5.5 shows a failed
FM board and the reasons for failure was that the resistance of the used
materials was too high resulting in the input signal not being able to travel
through the components and that the output of circuit was incorrect.
After taking into account the previous mistake, the FM board have been rebuilt
again as it shown in Fig.5.6. The result was that the circuit did not work
correctly because the antenna impedance was mismatched with the circuit
impedance.
Fig. 5.5
Fig. 5.6
32
5.2.3. Measurements
Fig.5.7 Oscilloscope's outputs
After generating the signal and sending it wirelessly using 97 MHz frequency
band, the sent signal (Blue) Vrms = 76.1 mV and Vamp = 217mV while the
received signal (yellow) Vrms = 25.9 mV and Vamp = 69.4mV as Fig.5.7
shows. Also it is noticeable that the received signal has been delayed when the
distance between transmitter and receiver was 1-2 meters. The delay is in
nanoseconds as can be seen by the scale of the oscilloscope. The delay will
increase as the distance between receiver and transmitter increases and obstacles
start to interfere.
33
5.3. The Implemented Digital System
Fig. 5.8 Realistic implementation of Digital System
The digital system starts by sending a signal into the Arduino board. When 8 bit
resolution is selected the transmitting Arduino board reads 32 samples and
stores the values into a two-dimensional array which is then transmitted. The
sampling rate of the ADC is set in relation to the system clock, a division factor,
and the 13 clock cycles for ADC to perform its conversion. The division factor
(prescale factor) is dependent on the sample frequency, 44.1 kHz, and ends up
being 16 [5.1]. The resulting ADC sampling rate is the maximum conversion
rate per second and can be seen in formula (5.1) [5.1].
‫ ݁ݐܴ݈ܽ݃݊݅݌݉ܽܵܥܦܣ‬ൌ
‫݇ܿ݋݈ܥ݈ܽ݊ݎ݁ݐ݊ܫ‬
ͳ͸‫ݖܪܯ‬
ൌ
‫݇ܿ݋݈ܿܥܦܣ כ ݎ݋ݐܿܽܨ݊݋݅ݏ݅ݒ݅ܦ‬
ͳ͸ ‫͵ͳ כ‬
(5.1)
ൌ ͹͸ǡͻʹ͵‫ݖܪ‬
Taking the inverse of the sample rate in formula (5.1) gives 13μs which is the
time it takes for the Arduino Uno board to perform an ADC when the signal is
sampled at 44,100 Hz.
34
The receiver then consecutively outputs each of the samples using a timer to
create the duty cycle, which is in relation to the ADC conversion rate. The
output is now Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) and requires Digital to Analog
conversion.
5.3.1. D/A Converter
The Digital to Analog converter is a low pass filter that will change the PWM to
a smooth analog curve. PWM uses a duty cycle percentage to output the
information over a set period, see Fig. 5.9. This is a method used for changing
the speed of a rotary motor, dimming a light or playing sounds.
Fig. 5.9 Duty cycle percentages and the corresponding output voltages.
The capacitor in the low pass filter therefore stores the incoming voltage and
then releases it, providing an average voltage corresponding to the percentage of
the duty cycle. A PWM sine wave can be seen in Fig.10.
Fig. 5.10. How a sine wave is shown through pulse width modulation.
A resistor of 390 ohms was chosen for the bytes coming out of PWM 1. The
cut-off frequency was chosen to be at around 8,000 Hz because if a resolution
of 10 bits was used, then the maximum samples per second that the ADC can
35
function at is 15,000 samples per second [5.2]. According to the Nyquist Theory
this would mean a maximum frequency of 7,500 Hz. The capacitance can be
calculated using the formula:
‫ ܥ‬ൌ
ͳ
ʹߨ ή ܴ ή ݂௖
C is calculated to be approximately 50nF. In Fig. 5.11 it is shown that 50nF is
created by connecting five 10nF capacitors in parallel. The Arduino Uno board
outputs the same 8 bits out of two PWM pins. Therefore the low pass filter can
be applied to either output pin. Fig. 5.12 shows the resulting output compared to
the original sine wave. For a smoother curve, a high order low pass filter can be
constructed.
Fig. 5.11. Schematic of low pass filter and practical implementation of said filter.
Fig. 5.12. Result of PWM output after passing through the DAC.
36
5.3.2. Digital Transceiver
Technical Data
x
x
x
Audio Input
Arduino Uno
o 14 Digital I/O pins (6 of them
are PWM pins)
o 6 Analog Input pins
o Operating Voltage 5V
o Power Supply: USB, Wall
Adapter, or 9V Battery
o ATmega328P microcontroller
nRF24L01+
o Transmits on 2.4GHz
frequency
o Data rates range from
250kbps to 2Mbps
o Ultra-low power operation
o 1.9 – 3.6V supply range
Fig. 5.13
37
5.3.3. Measurements
Fig. 5.14 shows the transmitted
signal at 2 meters. Here there is no
packet loss and the signal is stable.
Fig. 5.15 shows the transmitted
signal at 10 meters where packet
loss starts appearing. It can be
deduced that a lack of bits, or
controlling voltage, forces the low
pass filter to slowly release the
voltage causing a slower descent
until the packets arrive again. This
gives the signal a flatter top or
bottom.
Fig. 5.16 shows the transmitted
signal at 20 meters where packet
loss starts severely affecting the
signal. Again, a lack of continuous
bits causes the voltage to be slowly
released until bits are found. The
increase in voltage amplitude is a
result of packets suddenly arriving
leading to rapidly switching
currents that create “popping
sounds” in the system.
38
6. Conclusion
After testing the wireless analog and digital system we can conclude that the
analog board is a relatively reliable means of continuously transmitting
information, and that the functionality of the digital system is more dependent
on the chosen board and transceiver.
The tests in the analog board shows that the indoor range of the FM Transmitter
is more reliable from 1 to 25 meters, after which the signal is more affected by
reflection off of walls, the ceiling, and other obstacles. During transmission,
physical interference was tested, which resulted in a SNR drop down to 41.03
dB showing that it is susceptible to physical contact.
The tests performed in the digital system proved that the effectiveness of the
transmission is dependent on the equipment used. The Arduino Uno board is the
simplest Arduino board and was only capable of 8 bit analog to digital
conversion setting the quantization noise to 50 dB before the signal has been
transmitted. The nRF24 module is a low power consuming device that sends the
data with a power of 0 dBm equaling a range of around 20 meters. We used the
Arduino Uno board as a tool to study the signal but for better results a processor
like Raspberry pi provides higher sampling rates and more bits per sample more
suitable for transmission of music.
39
7. REFERENCES
[2.1] Schiller, J. (2003). Mobile Communications. 2nd Edition, Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0321-12381-6.
[2.2] Digital Signal Processing Principles, Algorithms and Applications.
[2.3] http://www.slideshare.net/sidek91/chapter-4-frequency-modulation
[2.4] Haykin, Simon S. Communication Systems. 4th ed. New York: Wiley, 2001. 193-201.
Print
[2.5] http://www.antenna-theory.com/definitions/decibels.php, 2015.10.01
[3.1] http://www.antenna-theory.com/basics/bandwidth.php, 2015.10.01
[3.2] C.A. Balanis, ―Antenna Theoryǁ, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2nd ed., PP.2898,865-871,1997
[3.3] Fawaz T. Ulaby, ―Fundamental of Applied Electromagneticsǁ, Pearson Education,
NJ, PP.372-390, 2007
[3.4] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antenna_(radio)#Theory_and_simulations, 2015.10.01
[4.1] http://www.talkingelectronics.com/projects/Spy%20Circuits/SpyCircuits-2.html,
2015.10.01
[4.2]http://www.citc.gov.sa/English/RulesandSystems/RegulatoryDocuments/FrequencySpec
trum/Pages/CITCFrequencyIntervenes.aspx, 2015.10.01
[4.3] https://engineering.purdue.edu/ME365/Textbook/chapter11.pdf, 2015.10.01
[4.4] http://whites.sdsmt.edu/classes/ee322/class_notes/322Lecture33.pdf, 2015.10.01
[4.5] http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/40248/AudioBest_Practice.pdf;jsessionid=51057153875529CBA8A789FED5AD97B8?sequence=1,
2015.10.01
[4.6] http://tmrh20.github.io/RF24/, 2015.10.01
[4.7] Datasheet for nRF24L01+ Single Chip 2.4 GHz Transceiver.
http://www.nordicsemi.com/eng/Products/2.4GHz-RF/nRF24L01, 2015.10.01
[4.8] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free-space_path_loss, 2015.10.01
[4.9] http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/rf-technology-design/receiveroverload/blocking.php, 2015.10.01
[4.10] http://www.phys.hawaii.edu/~anita/new/papers/militaryHandbook/decibel.pdf,
2015.10.02
[5.1] http://www.robotplatform.com/knowledge/ADC/adc_tutorial_2.html, 2015.10.05
[5.2] Data Sheet for ATMEGA328P, http://www.atmel.com/Images/doc8161.pdf, pages. 205
& 253, 2015.10.05
PICTURE REFERENCES
Fig. 2.1 AM FM Wave Pattern: http://physics.tutorvista.com/waves/modulation.html, 2015.10.01
Fig. 2.2 Quantization Process: http://radio.feld.cvut.cz/matlab/toolbox/daq/c1_int11.html, 2015.10.01
Fig. 5.11 PWM Sine Wave: http://www.cs.nott.ac.uk/~pszjm2/?p=674, 2015.10.01
40
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