2015 Producing Electricity in power plant

2015 Producing Electricity in power plant
January 20
Producing
Electricity in
power plant
2015
Blekinge Institute of Technology School of
Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering .
Supervisor: Dr. Erik Loxbo
Examiner: Dr. Sven Johansson
Done by :
Jaber Ageeli
and
Ahmed Khabrana
2
Abstract
This Bachelor thesis has been written at the Blekinge Institute of Technology. The
thesis describes electricity production in Shoaiba Steam Power plant in Saudi Arabia.
Shoaiba Power Plant is located 100 km South of Jeddah city in Saudi Arabia. Total
power production ability reaches 4400 MW. Shoaiba Power Plant has two stages and
is constructed with 11 units, each unit produces 400 MW at line voltage 24 kV and
line current 16 kA.
Main pieces of equipment and their function in the station are as follows: A Steam
Generator (boiler), produces steam by burning natural gas or crude oil in the furnace.
The steam is superheated and is passed into a steam turbine, which converts the
thermal energy of the steam into mechanical power, in form of rotary motion. The
turbine drives a generator, which converts the rotary energy of the turbine into electric
power. Steam generator, steam turbine and electrical generator are components that
are described in the thesis.
When the flow of steam to the turbine is controlled, then the amount of thermal
energy that changes to mechanical energy in the steam turbine is controlled.
The electrical generator is where the final energy conversion takes place. The
mechanical energy from the turbine is converted by the generator into electrical
energy, which is transmitted to the service area by help of electrical transmission
lines.
The plant cycle is an essential part of the energy flow path. Without the plant cycle,
the conversion of thermal energy into mechanical energy would not occur, The plant
cycle is a closed loop that allows the same water to be used over and over again.
Always, the power plants are situated far from residential areas and located outside
cities and close to the sea, because the steam is produced from seawater.
The advantages of the steam power stations are as follows: They can produce high
amounts of electrical energy from small amounts of fuel. They have low initial costs,
obstetrics and maintenance costs are not high, and the stations do not need much
space to be built and they have usually high capacity.
The disadvantages of steam stations are the following: They cause environmental
pollution, they have low efficiency, and require very big quantities of cooling water,
and the stations must be built away from populated areas.
3
4
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious and the Most Merciful
Thanks to Allah, all praises to Him for the strengths and His blessing in completing
this thesis. Several people have been involved in the thesis. Hereby, we kindly
acknowledge them.
This thesis has benefited greatly from the support of our friends in Shoaiba power
plant, some of whom I would sincerely like to thank here.
Also we would like to thank the engineers at the station whom help us , for giving us
a lot of their time and answer all our questions.
We are deeply grateful to Dr. Erik for his patience and support and especially for his
encouragement and positive attitude during difficult parts of the work.
Erik, as the advisor for all my thesis work throughout the past year, deserves
special recognition for his always highly competent remarks and suggestions and
particular praise for his openness and his calm and friendly manner which allowed
him to convey everything most graciously. Thank you very much!
We are would like to thank as well Dr. Sven Johansson .
5
Table of Contents:
Introduction And Background:.............................................................................. 11
chapter 1
Steam Generator (Boiler): ..................................................................................... 12
* Boiler Parts: ........................................................................................................ 13
....................................... 13
............................................. 13
..........14
bes: ............................................................................................ 14
................................. 14
........................................ 15
................................... 16
Cold Reheat System: .........................................................................................16
Hot Reheat System: ..........................................................................................16
......... 17
* Auxiliaries: ......................................................................................................... 18
.................................. 18
Steam / Air Preheater:.........................................................................................18
....................................... 18
................................................. 18
......................................19
........................................ 19
-Super heater System: ....................................................................................19
..20
o Static Precipitate (ESP) : ....................................................................... 20
Seawater Flue Gas Desulfurization (SWFGD): ................................................. 21
chapter 2 :
Steam Turbine: ..................................................................................................... 22
Steam Turbine Parts: ............................................................................................ 23
............................................. 23
.............................. 24
...................................... 24
6
.................................... 25
................................. 25
........................................................................................... 26
...................................... 26
..................................................................... 27
.................................. 27
............................................ 27
Auxiliaries: ............................................................................................................ 28
................................... 28
............................................ 29
.................. 29
y Cooling Water: ............................ 30
................................. 31
chapter 3:
Electric Generator System: ................................................................................... 32
Generator Parts: .................................................................................................... 33
Basic Generator Design : ...................................................................................... 33
power Equation:.................................................................................................... 35
voltage Equation:................................................................................................... 38
Simplified Equivalent Circuit :.............................................................................. 39
.............................................. 40
....................................40
......................................40
Auxiliary Parts: .....................................................................................................41
................................. 41
........... 41
..................................... 41
chapter 4 :
Pre-heating System: ..............................................................................................42
Main Pre-heating Parts: ........................................................................................ 42
ps: ........................................................................ 42
............. 43
................................................. 44
7
............................... 44
............................................. 45
............................... 46
................................ 46
chapter 5:
Intake Area: ........................................................................................................... 47
Circulating Water System...................................................................................... 48
Desalination Pump................................................................................................. 49
Water Screen System..............................................................................................49
Desalination Plant: ................................................................................................ 49
Demi Plant: ........................................................................................................... 50
Hydrogen (H2) Plant: ........................................................................................... 51
Auxiliary Steam generator: ................................................................................... 51
Transformer........................................................................................................... 51
Production Process.................................................................................................52
........................................................... 54
References:............................................................................................................55
8
List of Figures:
Fig. 1. Steam Generator (boiler). ........................................................................ 12
Fig.2. Shoaiba Steam Drum ................................................................................ 13
Fig. 3. Boiler Pump. ............................................................................................ 14
Fig.4. Hot Gases Cycle ........................................................................................ 20
Fig.5.Single Flow Turbine and Double Flow Turbine......................................... 22
Fig. 6. HP, IP and LP Turbines. .......................................................................... 23
Fig. 7. General Arrangement of STG .................................................................. 24
Fig. 8. Turbine Pedestal........................................................................................ 25
Fig. 9. Turbine Rotor / Turbine Stator and Blades...............................................26
Fig. 10. Gland Steam Supply Lines. ....................................................................27
Fig. 11. Condenser. ..............................................................................................28
Fig. 12. Lube oil (cooler/ unit).............................................................................. 29
Fig. 13. Auxliary and Closed Cycle Cooling Water............................................ 30
Fig. 14. Electric Generator....................................................................................32
Fig. 15.Salient pole and non-salient-pole............................................................. 34
Fig. 16. Simplified Equivalent Circuit ................................................................ 39
Fig. 17. Generator ( Rotor and Stator )................................................................ 40
Fig. 18. Storge Tank ............................................................................................ 43
Fig. 19. LP Heater. .............................................................................................. 44
Fig. 20. Dearator. ................................................................................................ 45
Fig. 21. HP Heater. ............................................................................................. 47
Fig. 22. Demineralized Water. ........................................................................... 50
Fig. 23. Transformer .......................................................................................... 51
Fig. 24. Circulation System ............................................................................... 53
9
Abbreviations :
Boiler Water Circulating Pump ............................................................... (BWCP)
Reheated System ...................................................................................... (RH)
Forced Draft Fans .................................................................................... (F.D. Fans)
Air Preheater ........................................................................................... (APH)
Gas Recirculation Fans ............................................................................(G.R. Fans)
Induce Draft Fans .................................................................................... (I.D. Fans)
Electro Static Precipitate .......................................................................... (ESP)
Live Steam Control Valves ...................................................................... (LSCV)
Super heater ............................................................................................. (SH)
Lower Temperature Super heater ............................................................ (LTSH)
Intermediate Pressure Turbine ................................................................. (I.P.T)
high Pressure Turbine ...............................................................................(H.P.T)
low Pressure Turbine ............................................................................... (L.P.T)
Heavy fuel oil ........................................................................................... (HFO)
Fuel Spray Nozzle .................................................................................... (Fuel Gun)
Boiler Feed Pump .................................................................................... (BFP)
Seawater Flue Gas Desulfurization ........................................................ (SWFGD)
Flue gas desulfurization .......................................................................... (FGD)
Live Steam Control Valves ..................................................................... (LSCV)
Circulating Water Pump ......................................................................... (CWP)
Closed Cycle Cooling Water .................................................................. (CCCW)
Multi-stage Flash .................................................................................... (MSF)
10
Introduction and Background:
In this thesis we will write about Producing Electricity, the circulation system and
equipment in a steam power plant, which is one type of power plant in the world.
Steam power production was developed in the 19th century by the British scientist
Michael Faraday.This type of electricity production is used in all continents of the
world, for example inthe U.S., the UK, Brazil, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia. So we found
that Sweden is not among the countries that use this type of production. There are
more than one kind of steam power plants. In the process of burning in a boiler they
use different fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas, etc.
Shoaiba Power Plant started stage one 1998. Now, there are two stages constructed in
Shoaiba Plant and there is one third stage consisting of three units under construction
now. Each stage has two phases except stage three that has just one phase. Each phase
has several units as is shown below.
Shoaiba Power Plant is the major source of electricity as well as the plant producing
more than 50% of the whole western of Saudi Arabia sector electricity demand.
Following that, Shoaiba Power Plant located at 100 km South of Jeddah, the total
power production ability reaches 4400 MW. Shoaiba I and II produces electricity
from steam power by combining the following major parts:
A Steam Generator (boiler), which raises steam by burning natural gas or crude oil in
the furnace, superheats the steam and passes it to a Steam Turbine, which converts the
thermal energy of steam into mechanical power, in the form of rotary motion, to drive
a Generator, which converts the rotary motion of the turbine into electricity.
Always, the power plants are far from residential areas and located outside cities and
close to the sea, because we produce the steam by seawater. The power plants consist
of a boiler, a turbine, a generator and a condenser as major equipment.
* Each Unit produces 400 MW with 24 kV (AC) & 16 kA.
* Each Phase has one Chimney/Stack.
11
Chapter 1 :
Steam Generator (Boiler):
The Steam Generator ( The Boiler ) is a container in which tubes of water are heated
and converted to thermal energy. It consists of tubes, entrances to the fire and
entrances to the air. For that the boiler should have a facility to burn fuel and release
heat, and the boiler function is to convert chemical energy of fuel into thermal energy
and then send it to the turbine.
The main purpose of Steam Generator is to provide steam in the quantity at the
pressures and temperatures required by the steam turbine under all operating
conditions. However, the water gets the required energy to transform to steam by
using the heat generated from the chemical reaction as a reason of fuel burning.
Fig. 1.Steam Generator (boiler).{Ref 1}
12
™ Boiler Parts:
Economizer Coils:
The main propose of these tubes is to preheat the Feed Water before it is
introduced into the Steam Drum by some Flue Gas leaving the Boiler.
It is composed 105 parallel tubes elements and it is supported by 210 Hanger Tubes.
Steam Drum:
The Steam Drum is a large cylindrical vessel at the top of boiler in which
saturated steam is separated from the steam-water mixture by using difference of
density technique. Drums are fabricated from thick steel plates rolled into cylinders
with hemispherical heads.
The Steam Drum receive the feed water after it passed through Economizer and
separate the saturated vapor as well as the un-steamed out to downcomer pipes from
bottom of the drum to reheat it again via water walls of the furnace.
Fig. 2.Shoaiba Steam Drum{Ref 2}
Down-Comer / Lower Drum:
Down-Comer is a group from pipes connected with the bottom of the Steam Drum to
transfer the water which is un-steamed to Lower Drum (Water Drum). A Lower Drum
is a big drum located in the bottom of furnace and it is contains many tubes connected
with Furnace Water Walls tubes.
13
Water Wall Tubes:
It is group from tubes connected with Lower Drum, these tubes are identified as
furnace Front wall, Rear Wall and Sides Walls tubes which are making a box for
furnace, In this box the steam has been generated and later goes to Steam Drum. The
diameter of these tubes are around 44 mm and the space between them approximately
28 mm.
Boiler Water Circulating Pump (BWCP):
It is designed to provide controlled circulating of the boiler water through the Water
Wall. There are three Circulating Pumps located in Down-Comer Pipes between the
Upper and Lower Drum, these Pumps receives the Un-Steamed Water from the Upper
Drum and pump it to Steam Drum again through water wall tubes. Each Pump
equipped with a stop/check valve. The total Power of BWCP is 1730 kW and its
capacity approximately 31000 m3 /h with total head around 16 m.
Fig. 3.Boiler Pump.{Ref 3}
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Super Heated Tubes (Main Steam System) :
It is group from tubes inside the furnace are roasting the saturated steam that coming
from the top of Steam Drum by raising its temperature up to 541 ‫ ܥ‬ι. The Superheated
Tubes (SH) composed of basic sections; Platen Superheater, Lower Temperature
Superheater (LTSH) and Final Superheater (SH). The Main Steam is taken from two
nozzles at the boiler final superheated header, these lines joined together and routed to
the HP-turbine via a Main single line. The specifications data of Main Steam are
showing in the table below:
Main Steam Data.
15
Reheated System (RH):
Its purpose to raise the temperature of steam that exhaust from HP Turbine (Cold
Reheat) with 335 ‫ ܥ‬ι above its saturation point and return it to Intermediate Pressure
Turbine (I.P.T) as a Hot reheat with 541 ‫ ܥ‬ι. The Reheated System composed of three
assemblies from tubes inside the furnace; Upper, intermediate and lower (finishing)
RH assemblies. Theses assemblies are located in the furnacebetween the SH Platen
and LTSH front tubes. The RH consist of 70 tubes having 50.15 mm Outlet Diameter.
Cold Reheat System:
- Leading the expanded steam exhausted from HP-turbine to boiler reheat inletheader.
- Supplying steam to the heater No. 7 and for the auxiliary steam header.
- The specifications data of Cold Reheat are showing in the table below:
Cold Reheat data.
Hot reheat system:
- Leading the reheat steam from the boiler reheat outlet to
the intermediate pressure turbine (I.P.T).
- The specifications data of Hot Reheat are showing in the table below:
16
Hot Reheat Data.
Burners:
The purpose of burners is to burning the Heavy fuel oil (HFO/Crude) into the
Furnace. In Shoaiba Plant, each furnace has 16 burners arranged in four levels with
four burners (A,B,C,D) to each level.
Each Burner consist of the following:
a) Combustion Air gates.
b) Fuel Spray Nozzle (Fuel Gun).
c) Heavy and light Fuel lines, the light one for igniter.
d) Atomizing Steam line, to make a complete combustion for the Fuel.
e) Cooling System for Burner and Flame.
f) Flame conditions, to operating and controlling devices.
17
Auxiliaries:
Forced Draft Fans (F.D. Fans):
It is designed to pressurized Air to Boiler Wind Boxes that distribute it to
Burners for Combustion requirement after it passed through Silencer and Air
Filters for purification from outside impurities. Before Air going to
Burners/Furnace, it must be raised it temperature by using steam and gas heaters
depending on operating specifications. Always, there are 2 F.D. Fans for each unit.
Steam / Air Preheater (SCAPH):
Intended to raise the temperature of the air after withdrawal by F.D Fans
using hot steam from auxiliary before pushing to air steam gas, it is consist of group
of pipes allowing the heating steam entering inside and the air outside. The
condensate steam are collected in one special vessel tank where it pushed to the
water cycle in the unit by condensates pumps.
Gas /Air Preheater (APH):
Intended to raise the temperature of combustion air before ignition by
consuming the temperature of exhaust gases from furnace to increase efficiency.
The Air Heaters absorb heat from the flue gas and transfer the heat to the
incoming air using continuously rotating heating elements. Hot flue gas flows
through the upper half of the heater, transferring heat to metallic leaved
elements. Combustion air flows in the opposite direction through the lower half of
the air heater. This Gas\Air Heater consists of a cylindrical casing its diameter
around 7m with length 6m and its speed of rotation around (2 rpm).
Gas Recirculation Fans (G.R. Fans):
Its purpose to push the amount of combustion gases after going out from the
furnace into the furnace again from the bottom of the furnace, this is one way to
control the temperature inside the furnace and to improve efficiency of combustion.
It is consisting of outer case and column bounded by the rotor, bearing, delivering
device, electric motor, hydraulic coupling and turning gear as well as Control
gates. Always, there are two fans per each boiler.
18
Induce Draft Fans (I.D. Fans):
Its purpose to induce the Hot Gases from Boiler to stack to maintain the
vacuum pressure inside the furnace according to the design and operating
specifications. It consists of the outer column by the rotor, a bearing , delivery
device and speed reducer. Always, there are two induce fans per boiler.
Soot Blower System:
The scope of Soot blowing System is to delivering the necessary hot and dry
steam at required pressure to the external tubes surfaces inside the furnace to
remove any deposits or ashes resulting from (HFO/Crude) fuels to improve the
heat transition and to protection from thermal stresses in tubes.
This Steam coming from Finishing Outlet Header (Main Steam Header) of the
boiler and going to Superheater, Reheater and Air Pre-heater Soot Blowing and Its
provide with pressure approximately 35/ 21 bar and temperature approximately
375/370 ‫ ܥ‬ι .
Soot Blower consists of steam valve and feeding tube and its outer casing
(Outer lance) and moving slowly by an electric motor.
De-Super heater System:
Its purpose to reducing the steam temperature, when its necessary in the
Boiler. This system used for control the temperature of the following:
1) SH Steam: it is desuper heater installed between LTSH and outlet header and
the Finishing Super heater inlet header.
2) RH steam: it is installed in the cold RH steam that coming from the HP Turbine
to RH inlet header in the Boiler.
Desuper heater system provides one spray water that coming from Boiler Feed
Pump (BFP) to the nozzles at the inlet of Desuper heater.
19
Continuous Blowdown System:
A perforated pipe traverses the length of the steam drum slightly below the
normal drum operating water level. This blowdown line is used to control the
level of suspended solids in the boiler water by continuously removing the
magnesium and calcium sludge created by phosphate treatment to the boiler
water.
Electro Static Precipitate (ESP) :
An Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) is a particulate collection device that
removes particles from a flowing gas (such as flue gas) using the force of
an induced electrostatic charge.
Fig.4 Hot Gases Cycle.{Ref 4}.
There are two Ducts coming from theboiler and inlet through Nozzles to the boxes
(ESP system) which are have several vertical chargeable plates,these plates charged
with citrine.
Current to remove the ashes and dusts from the Hot Gases and delivered the
ashes to Silo Tank and then to Ash Truck.
20
Seawater Flue Gas Desulfurization (SWFGD):
Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is a process to remove sulfur dioxide (SO2)
from the exhaust flue gases of fossil fuel power plants.
In Shoaiba Stage III Plant, SWFGD is the method that will be used to removed
SO2 from the flue gases by using sea water from the discharge which is
coming via Absorber Pump.
21
chapter 2:
Steam Turbine:
A Steam Turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from
pressurized steam, and converts it to kinetic energy by rotary motion. Because the
turbine generates rotary motion, it is particularly suited to be used to drive an
electrical generator to produce the electricity.
In our Steam Units, we have three turbines for each Unit one for High Pressure (HP)
and one for Intermediate Pressure (IP) and the last one for Low Pressure (LP).
The design-types for turbine aresingle turbine and double turbine, we use the single
turbine for HP and IP turbine and we use the double turbine for LP turbine, all these
turbine we used to rotate the shaft that give us the Electricity by using Generator.
Fig.5. Single Flow Turbine and Double Flow Turbine.
22
Steam Turbine Parts:
Main Turbines System (TGS):
Fig. 6.HP, IP and LP Turbines.{Ref 5}
The main purposes of Turbines are to rotating the shaft/rotor that generating
torque into Generator Rotor by using pressurized steam. As shown above, there
are 3 turbines in Shoaiba Steam Units; HP, IP and LP, each one has special
specifications according to design. The Main Steam flows from the Super heaters
Header of the Steam Generator to the HP turbine. As the steam expands through each
stage within the HP Turbine, it progressively loses pressure and temperature; it is
exhausted from the turbine and returned to the boiler to be reheated. Reheated steam
flows into the Intermediate Pressure (IP) turbine and expands through multiple stages.
The temperature and pressure of the steam again reduce progressively until it exhausts
from the IP turbine into the Low Pressure (LP) turbines.
At HP Turbine, the steam inlet Turbine from right side with 167 bar and 541 C˚
where itis existed by 40 bar and approximately 335 C˚ to Reheat tubes.
At IP Turbine, the steam inlet Turbine from left side with 40 bars and 541 C˚
and exist by 5 bars and 264 C˚ to LP turbine by direct cross over.
In LP Turbine, the steam inlet Turbine from the middle with 5 bars and 264 C˚
then to condensate system.
23
Live Steam Control Valves (LSCV):
Live Steam Control Valves (LSCV) control the steam flow and pressure in
accordance to the output load by fully or partially opening or closing in
response to signals received from controllers. These Valves are Hydraulic and
it is controlled by oil.
In HP Turbine, there are four individual Control Valves (A, B, C and D) and two
Stop Valves (one Stop Valve per each 2 line Control Valve), but for IP
turbine there are two Combine Valves (Control + Stop).
Turbine Journal Bearings:
It is designed to support and resist the radial forces that occurring in the
Turbine Rotor and to keep frictional losses at a minimum.
There are six journal bearings arranged as shown in the figure below, one
of them is Combine thrust and journal bearing transmits the axial thrust
forces and it is located between (HP) and (IP) Turbines.
Fig. 7.General Arrangement of STG. {Ref 6}
24
Turbine Pedestals:
The Pedestals are installed between individual turbine sections and
between the last LP turbine and the generator to supports Turbine Rotors.
Each Pedestal consists of one Journal Bearing and Coupling.
Fig. 8.Turbine Pedestal. {Ref 7}
Turbine Rotor (Rotating) / Stator (Stationary):
Each turbine consists of Rotor and Stator blades, these blades are
manufactured from solid material. As explained in the figure below, Rotor blades
moving (Rotating) where the Stator blades directing and increasing the velocity of
steam to the Rotor.
In Shoaiba powerplant have designed and built steam turbine with
both of Impulse and Reaction Blades type.
In the Reaction balding the flow is symmetrical and there is an equal
pressure drop in the stationary and rotating rows of the balding stages,
But Impulse Turbine means that there is no steam pressure drop over the rotating
blades but the full pressure drop over the stationary blades
(vanes).
25
Fig. 9. Turbine Rotor / Turbine Stator and Blades. {Ref 8}
Shaft Seals:
The steam turbine shaft seals is limit the leakage of steam between the
shaft and the turbine casing ends to a reasonable level by means of contact
free seal. Together with the shaft sealing system, these seals prevent
pressurized steam from leaking to the outside and prevent the ingress of
air into the LP turbines.
Shrink Rings:
The HP Turbine inner casings are held together by fife shrink rings instead of large
flanges and bolts. To install HP turbine, the rotor is first installed inside the inner
casing halves, then the Shrink Rings are heated to about 200 C˚using a ring burner
and are subsequently slipped over the inner casing. After cooling, the shrink forces
upon the inner casing ensure leak-free operation over a long time period under steady
state and transient operating conditions.
26
Turning Gear System:
It is designed to provide continues rotating for the Turbine Rotor while the turbine
goes trip or shutdown or during start up to avoid deflection/deformation.
Jacking Oil system:
The main purpose of this system is to avoid the frictions between bearing and shaft
when the turbine goes trip or during start up by using several pumps closed to
shaft/rotor to pressurize approximately 120 bars oil to the underside of the shaft/rotor.
Gland Steam System:
Its purposes to prevent turbine ends from steam leakage by pressurized
steam to the shaft and turbine seals.
Fig. 10. Gland Steam Supply Lines. {Ref 9}
27
Auxiliaries:
Condenser:
In the condenser, the steam flows past banks of tubes, through which cold
Sea Water (25C˚) is pumped by Circulating Water Pump (CWP). The cooling
water that inlet from Water-Boxes extracts a quantity of heat sufficient to
condense the steam back to water. As the steam loses heat to the cold
water, it condenses and falls into a hot-well at the bottom of the condenser.
The process of continuous condensation maintains a low pressure in the
condenser, thus increasing the expansion ratio of the steam (i.e. the ratio
of the expanded volume of steam to its original volume), and therefore the
efficiency and work output of the turbine.
Fig.11.Condenser. {Ref 10}
28
Steam Ejector:
The Steam Ejector is a device designed to generate a Vacuum Pressure
into Condenser by withdrawal the air from inside the Condenser. The
steam enter to Steam Ejector with 13-15.5 bar and 250 C˚ to create a
Vacuum Pressure in the middle of the throat, the capacity of this device
around 153 kg of dry air/h
Lube Oil System:
There is one Oil Tank for each Unit to supply all necessary oil to required
equipment that has bearings, hydraulic systems, jack system., there are several pumps
used to transfer the oil; two for Turbine system, two for Auxiliary systems and one for
Emergency case. In Turbine System, it is necessary to supply oil to Bearings for
lubrication, Control and Stop Valves for Hydraulic and Jacking pump for Jacking.
Fig.12.lube oil (cooler/ unit).{Ref 11}
At Trip case, there is one pump working to supply oil for all bearings and
Jacking system to raise up the rotor shaft, but In Normal case (On Load),
pumps in the tank supply oil until shaft reach to 360 rpm, then there is one
mechanical pump (Main Lube Pump) working by rotor of turbine to make
better lubrication for bearings, because the High Speed of the turbine rotor
occurring more friction between the bearing and Rotor that required more
lubrication. For Auxiliary parts of Power Block, there are two pumps to supply oil to
FWP, CEP and BCWP.
29
Closed Cycle Cooling Water and Auxiliary Cooling Water:
Many plant items generate heat, which is removed by local heat exchangers. This heat
is carried away by a flow of Closed Cycle Cooling Water (CCCW). The absorbed
heat is then removed from the CCCW by a flow of Auxiliary Cooling Water passing
through a CCCW heat exchanger. Cooled CCCW returns to the local heat exchangers,
and repeats the cooling cycle in a continuous closed loop, absorbing heat from local
heat exchangers and being cooled by auxiliary cooling water.
Demineralized water is the source for the CCCW, which flows in a closed loop and
consists of local heat exchangers for plant items, CCCW pumps and a CCCW heat
exchanger. As the CCCW flows through the heat exchangers of individual items, it
absorbs heat. Heated CCCW flows to the CCCW pumps, which discharge it through
the CCCW heat exchanger to cool it. As the CCCW flows through the shell side of
the CCCW heat exchanger, it is cooled by a flow of auxiliary cooling water. Cooled
CCCW is then distributed in a loop back to the local heat exchangers of the plant
items to start the cycle again. The closed cycle it topped up with demineralized water
from the CCCW head tanks, and hydrazine is injected into the CCCW System to
control PH and thereby inhibit corrosion.
The Auxiliary Cooling Water System pumps a continuous flow of screened
and chlorinated Seawater through the tubes of the CCCW heat exchanger. As it
flows through the tubes, the cooling water absorbs heat from closed cycle
cooling water, which counter-flows on the shell side.
Fig.13.Auxliary and Closed Cycle Cooling Water.
30
Station Air:
There is one station air system with three compressors per each Unit. Each
system supplies compressed air to the plant for general use. Station air is
mainly used to prevent flue gas from escaping through penetration ports in
the furnace, such as furnace observation ports, soot blowers and furnace gas
temperature probes. Station air is also used as cooling air for furnace gas
temperature probes and as driving air for the air heater motors.
31
chapter 3:
Electric Generator System:
The purpose of the generator is to convert the mechanical power delivered from the
turbine to the rotor coupling into electrical power at the main generator terminals, in
the form of voltage and current. The generator is built to withstand not only normal
but also a wide range of abnormal operating conditions including e.g. negative
sequence loads and sudden short circuits. The design described is of a two pole three
phase synchronous turbo-generator with hydrogen gas cooling of all internal
components, except the stator winding and its connections, which are cooled by
water. All aspects of design and construction will at least meet and often exceed
the relevant requirements of the present international standards IEC 34 (50/60 Hz) and
ANSI C50 (60 Hz).
The Electric Generator converts the mechanical rotational energy of the steam turbine
to electricity. It requires a means of creating a magnetic field, and a method of placing
current carrying conductors in the magnetic field in a way that produces voltage. In
Shoaiba Power Plant, Electric Generator produced 400 MW with 24 kV(AC) and 16
kA. As showing below, these are the main components for Electric Generator.
Fig. 14.Electric Generator.{Ref 12}
32
Generator Parts:
Basic Generator Design:
Generators are used in power plants to produce electrical energy. They are, as a rule,
synchronous machines.Two design-types are used depending on the intended
application. A crucial criterion is the speed at which the machine is driven. The
design-types are:
a) Turbogenerators driven by steam or gas turbines:
speed at 50 Hz grid frequency:
3000 min-1 or 1500 min-1 (2 pole / 4 pole machines, 4 pole typical for nuclear power
stations)and at 60 Hz:.
3600 min-1 or 1800 min-1 (2 pole / 4 pole machines, 4 pole typical for nuclear power
stations)
The turbo (non-salient-pole) design is characterised by cylindrical rotors capable to
withstand mechanical stresses at high speeds.
b) Salient-pole machines are driven by hydro-turbines or diesel engines and by small
steam turbines with gearbox. The speed covers a wide range, from approx. 60 min-1
to 1500 min-1 depending on the number of poles chosen. In the case of hydro power
stations the speed is determined by the water conditions.
(Fig. 15. )shows the fundamental difference between the salient-pole rotor and the
turbo rotor (non-salientpole-rotor). A laminated stator core with slots for the three
phase-winding is used in either cases. However, the rotors and their D.C.-supplied
field windings, which generate the rotating field, are designed in different ways:
a) salient-pole with concentrated field windings.
b) turbo (non-salient-pole) with the field winding distributed in slots, the coils of
which supported against high centrifugal forces by wedges.
In this manual, the turbogenerator will be explained in more detail. The field winding
in the generator is fed by direct current (excitation current, field current If). A
magnetic field is thereby generated, which passes the air gap and the stator.
33
Fig.15salient pole and non-salient-pole. {Ref 13}
If the rotor turns, the magnetic field rotates with the same angular velocity as the rotor
body. This induces an alternating field in the stator and alternating voltages across the
terminals.
Because of the alternating field, the stator must be composed of laminated iron sheets
(laminated statorcore). A solid core would yield to eddy currents in the core. Eddy
currents would dampen the field and cause high losses, so that the generator would be
useless.
The stator comprises of a 3-phase winding. Three individual windings are displaced
by 120° with respect to each other. The rotating field passes the three phases with a
time lag. As a consequence, the induced voltages are shifted by 120° as well.
34
Power Equation
The power equation reveals criteria how to determine the basic dimensions of the
generator. These criteria are explained in more detail below. From the basic equations
of mechanical powerܲ௠௘௖௛and electrical
torque M
ܲ௠௘௖௛= M 2πn = const B I ,
the power equation is derived as
S = k A B d2 l n = c d2 l n
S = rated apparent power.
A = electric loading in the stator (electrical utilisation)
d = rotor diameter.
B = air gap flux density (magnetic utilisation) at no-load
l = active length.
C = utilisation factor, Esson coefficient.
n = rotational speed.
fw = winding factor.
δ = air gap width.
Typical values are :
fW = 0.92,
δ/d = 0.07
k = 7.8
The maximum apparent power S can either be pure active power or a combination of
active and reactive power according to
ܵ ൌ ඥܵ ଶ ൅ ܳଶ
P = active power
,
ܵ ଶ = ܵ ଶ ൅ ܳଶ
Q = reactive power
35
At 50 Hz:
K= 7.25 = š ൌ
ߨమ
ξଶ
‫Ͳ כ‬Ǥͻʹʹͻ ‫ כ‬ቀͳ ൅
ଷ଻Ǥହ
ଽଶ଴
‫ͳכ‬൅
ଶ‫כ‬ଷ଻ Ǥହ
ଽଶ଴
ቁ
S= 121 MVA= 7.25*102.2kA/m * 0.814˜ୱ Ȁଶ *(0.92ଶ ) * 4.74m* 50 •‡… ିଵ
At 60 Hz:
=šൌ
ߨమ
ξଶ
‫Ͳ כ‬Ǥͻͳͷʹ ‫ כ‬ቀͳ ൅
ସ଻Ǥହ
ଽଶ଴
‫ͳכ‬൅
ଶ‫כ‬ସ଻ Ǥହ
ଽଶ଴
ቁK= 7.41
S= 145 MVA= 7.41*102.7kA/m * 0.834˜ୱ Ȁଶ *(0.92ଶ ) * 4.5m* 60 •‡… ିଵ
Every individual parameter in the power equation is limited in some way.
The electric loading of the stator is defined as the sum of all currents in the stator
divided by the circumference of the bore. The allowable electric loading is determined
by the cooling of the winding, since the winding temperature must not exceed
prescribed limits. The following values are in general applicable for the electric
loading:
for air-cooled windings: up to 135 kA/m
hydrogen-cooled windings: up to 170 kA/m
water-cooled windings: up to 300 kA/m
36
The air gap flux density (at no-load for U = UN) is a characteristic value for the
magnetic utilisation of the machine. With regards to saturation of the core, typical
values are in the range between 0.8 T and 1.0 T. The rotor diameter is limited by the
strength of the material used and the stresses on the rotor body and on the winding
caused by centrifugal forces. At present, the maximum rotor diameters are:
1280 mm at 3000 rpm
1150 mm at 3600 rpm
The maximum length of the rotor depends on the rotor diameter. The length-todiameter ratio is important for smooth running and has to be chosen which respect to
the shaft-system of the entire turbo-group. This must be considered from case to case.
Rotors with a length-to-diameter ratio l/d = 6.4 have already been made.
37
Voltage Equation
After estimation of the generator dimensions according section 1.2, it is necessary to
consider the stator voltage.
The armature phase-voltage is given by the following equation:
Ȱ
ܷ௣௛ ൌ ξʹߨᐦ‫݂ݓ‬௪ ൬ ൰ Ž
Ž
ܷ௡ ൌ ξʹܷ௣௛
where
f = frequency
w = number of turns per phase (w proportional to number
of slots)
fw = winding factor
Φ/l = magnetic flux per rotor-length
ParameterΦ/l characterises a particular rotor. In order to prevent the core from too
much saturation, the flux per rotor-length (or magnetic loading of the rotor) cannot be
set to any desired value. The optimum design values based on a normalised rotor
diameter of 1 m are:
஍
ቀ ቁ ≈ 0.8…0.9for air cooled machines
୪
஍
ቀ ቁ ≈ 1.0...1.1 for hydrogen cooled machines
୪
As can be seen from the voltage formula, the machine length and number of turns
have a direct influence on the stator voltage. The number of slots corresponds to the
number of turns. For a given rating or given length, low voltage means a low number
of slots, and high voltage means a high number of slots.
38
Simplified Equivalent Circuit
The simplified equivalent circuit. (Fig. 16. ) may help to understand the electrical
performance of the generator. In this simplified equivalent circuit the generator is
represented by its generated synchronous voltage Up and its synchronous reactance X.
The stator resistance is negligible. U is the stator voltage, the stator current for one
phase. The synchronous voltage Up is generated by the rotor-flux and depends on the
excitation current. It is only measurable under no-load conditions. The synchronous
reactance X is the reactance of the stator (armature) winding. It is measured with
field-winding and all damper circuits open.
The synchronous reactance Xd in the direct axis (polar axis) may be different from
the synchronous reactance Xq in the quadrature axis (interpolar axis).
However, for a turbogenerator it is sufficiently accurate to
set
Xd ≈ Xq ≈ X
Fig. 16. Simplified Equivalent Circuit
39
Rotor:
Generator rotor is a machine from a single alloys steel forging. Inside
the rotor, there are coils to produce a Magnetic Field into the Generator with
quantity depend on the load of Unit.
Stator:
The stator coils have been generated the electricity depend on the rotor
speed and capacity of magnetic field. These coils separated by special
isolation and it has holes for cooling by Demy Water (DM).
Fig. 17.Generator ( Rotor &Stator ) {Ref 1}
Excitation:
The Excitation equipment deliveries the DC-current in the rotor coils to
create the magnetic field to the stator coils of the synchronous generator
to produce AC voltage (24kV).
As shown below, the main parts of Excitation System like; Slip-Rings,
Carbon Brushes, Brush Holders, DC Leads, Cooling Fan.
40
Auxiliary Parts:
H2 Cooling System:
It has as purpose to cool the Rotor and Stator coils (winding) by using Hydrogen
that is taken from a Hydrogen Plant. There are four zones located in the corners
of the Generator to feed the Generator with Hydrogen and there are two Fans to
distribute Hydrogen in all directions.
Stator Cooling Water System:
It is designed to cool the Stator Windings by using cold water (Demi water) from
Stator Closed Cooling Water System. There is one Inlet Teflon Ring or Header to
collect the Cold Water after it passed through Cooler and Filter, and then from this
Teflon Ring the cold water distribute and inter to the Stator Windings, finally its exit
from outlet Teflon Ring to tank.
Generator Seal Oil System:
It proposes to prevent Hydrogen leakage from Generator to the
atmospheric. In this system used oil from a special tank after it passed
through coolers and filter, then it is pressurizes into Generator Seals with
citrine pressure closed to Hydrogen pressure. This oil impact with H2 in the
middle of seals and it is preventing the H2 to go out.
41
chapter 4:
Pre-heating System:
The condensate Steam is heated, deaerated, chemically treated and cleaned of
impurities during its flow from the Condenser Hot well to Deaerator Storage Tank.
Main Pre-heating Parts:
Condensate Extraction Pumps:
The Condensate pump is a specific type of pump (Centrifugal Pump) used to
pump the Condensate Water from Condenser to Dearator after it is passed
through 4 Heat Exchangers (LP Heaters) to raise up the temperature of water.(pic)
The specifications of this Condensate Pumps are showing below:
CEP Specification Data.
42
Make up System:
Its purpose to make up the Condenser water by demi water (DM) while
the condensate water under its normal level, this makeup to Condenser is
from the Condensate Storage Tank that shows in the figure.
Fig.18. Storage Tank. {Ref 14}
Also, there is one tank called Reserve Tank to feed a Storage Tank by
DM while its under level.
43
Condensate Polishing System:
The purpose of the condensate polishing system is to remove suspended and dissolved
solids from the condensate during startup and normal operations.
The system is able to treat up to the 100% of the total flow through the main
condensate line, with two cation service vessels operating in parallel and two mixed
bed service vessels operating in parallel, and third cation vessel and third mixed bed
vessel in standby.
LP Heaters:
In the first stage of returning the condensate to the boiler, condensate pumps remove
the condensate from the condenser hot well and pump it through a series of LP
heaters. These are arranged in stages to heat the condensate progressively. The
condensate flows through tubes in the heaters, and is heated by a supply of extraction
steam from the LP turbine. The extraction steam condenses and is cascaded from the
highest temperature heater to the lowest temperature. This cascaded flow further heats
the condensate by pre-heating it as it enters each heater.
Fig. 19.LP Heater.{Ref 15}
44
Dearator:
A Deaerator is a device that is widely used for the removal of O2 and other dissolved
gases from the feed water to steam-generating boilers. In particular, dissolved oxygen
in boiler feed water will cause serious corrosion damage in steam systems by
attaching to the walls of metal piping and other metallic equipment and forming
oxides (rust).
To avoid oxygen corrosion of the internal surfaces of the boilers, especially at higher
pressures, it is important to deaerate the boiler feed water. In the deaerator, a
combination of steam and chemicals is used to strip oxygen from the water.
The deaerated water, known as feed water, is stored in a deaerator storage tank, from
which it is pumped to the boiler.
Fig. 20.Dearator.{Ref 16}
45
Boiler Feed Water Pump:
This Pump is one of the important equipment in the Steam Power Plant.
It is used to pump the deaerated condensate stored in the Feed Water Tank
is known as feed water. Boiler feed pumps supply this feed water to the
steam generator via two HP heaters (6 and 7), which raise the temperature
of the feed water up to 200 Co to improve the efficiency of the steam
generator. Each Unit has three 50% capacity Boiler feed pumps (BFP).
The main parts of the BFP are listed in the following below:
1) Contract Motor.
2) Voith Coupling.
3) Boiler Feed Pump.
4) Booster Pump.
5) Contract Instrumentations.
HP Heaters:
The principle of operation of these heaters is similar to that of the LP heaters.
As feed water passes through the HP heaters(6 and 7), it is progressively heated by
extraction steam drawn from the IP and HP turbines. After it leaves the final HP
heater, the feed water passes through an economizer in the steam generator.
46
Fig.21. HP Heater.{Ref 15}
Chemical Feed System:
The purpose of the chemical feed system is to inject various chemicals into specific
locations in the water systems to prevent corrosion and scaling.
Corrosion is the deterioration of the metal surfaces caused by a chemical reaction
between the water impurities and the metal surfaces of the plant’s water systems.
Corrosion will weaken the metal and, in several cases, may cause the metal to fail.
Scaling is the deposit of minerals, from the water impurities, on the metal surfaces of
the plant’s water systems. Scaling insulates the metal and causes a reduction of heat
transfer and/or restriction of water flow; thus, it can cause failures due to overheating.
Chemical feed skids, each containing a feed tank, feed pumps, and a control panel, are
used for chemical injections into various water systems. The Chemical feed system
consist of the following:
- Ammonium hydroxide feed system.
- Hydrazine feed system.
- Phosphate feed system.
The chemical feed pumps are positive displacement metering pumps.
47
chapter 5 :
Intake Area:
The third major energy conversion cycle required for generation of electricity
is cooling water. Cooling water provides a means of extracting heat from the
steam in the condenser by pumping a continuous flow of screened and
chlorinated seawater from intake area through the tube side of the condensers.
Heated water is returned to the sea to allow the heat to be dissipated. From
Intake-Area the seawater is taken and used for this following processes:
1- Main Cooling systems.
2- Desalination.
3- Fire safety system.
4- Chlorination.
Screened seawater is injected with chlorine to prevent marine growth and
pumped through the tubes of the condensers by the circulating water pumps,
this seawater pass through screens to clean it from dirty and small objects. After
that the water going to several pits, each pet has band and traveling screens to
prevent small objects to enter into pumps house.
Main Parts:
Circulating Water System:
The function of the Circulating Water System is to provide cooling water by
delivering seawater from intake area to the Condenser to remove the heat of the
steam into the Condenser. Normally, each unit have two 50% - capacity circulating
water pumps (CWP) operate and each one taken suction from a separate pits of
the pump house.
CWP is one of the important pumps in the plant that is providingapproximately 31000
(m3 /h) with total head up to 16 bar and 1730 kW total power.
The major components of the circulating water system are:
Circulating Water Pump (CWP):
Circulating Water Pump discharge valves (Butterfly Type).
48
Desalination Pump:
Its purpose is to feed required Sea Water to the desalination plant by delivering
sea water via the Desalination Pump from intake pump house to the Desalination
Plant. Each tow pits have one Desalination Pump with submerged impeller.
Water Screen System:
Rack Screen:
Each pit has one Rack Screen after the inlet Damper to protect pump
house from the big debris and fishes.
Traveling Water Screens and Screen Wash System:
The function of the traveling water screens is to protect the circulating
water, service water and fire water systems from small debris by provide
rotating screen with small meshes (1x1 in).
The screen wash system removes debris carried in Traveling Screen by
the intake water for use by the circulating and service water pumps.
Desalination Plant:
The Multi-stage Flash (MSF) distillation process is used to produce pure
water. If sea water is evaporated, steam is condensed as pure water, and solid
salts are left behind.
In the MSF process, seawater is passed through a tank under partial vacuum.
Since water boils at a lower temperature than normal when it is at a lower
pressure, fresh water flashes off as steam. The steam is cooled by incoming pipes
conveying seawater, and condenses to fresh water. This process is repeated in
multiple stages to increase efficiency.
49
Demi Plant:
Demineralized Water is produced from desalinated water by removing
dissolved mineral salts and colloidal material (extremely small suspended
particles) using an ion exchange process.
Chemical impurities in the water exist as ions with either positive or negative
charge. These ions are removed using two types of ion exchange resin: cation resin
and anion resin. The resins are composed of small beads (less than 1 mm in diameter).
Each resin bead has numerous charged areas called sites. Cation beads
have negatively charged sites, which hold positively charged hydrogen ions. Anion
beads have negatively charged sites, which hold positively charged hydroxyl ions.
These resins are contained in the mixed bed exchanger. Desalinated water is
pumped through the exchanger and, as the water flows through the resins,
negatively charged impurities displace the positively charged hydroxyl ions on the
anion resin beads. Similarly, positively charged impurities are exchanged for the
hydrogen ions on the cation resin beads. The result of these reactions is pure
water.
Fig. 22.Demineralized Water.
50
Hydrogen (H2) Plant:
Hydrogen gas is generated on site for use as a cooling medium for the stator
and rotor components of the turbine generators. A strategic reserve of gas is
held in pressurized cylinders. The hydrogen generators produce hydrogen and
oxygen by electrolysis of demineralized water. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) is
added to the demineralized water to form an electrolyte solution; this lowers the
electrical resistance of the water and improves the efficiency of the electrolysis
process.
Auxiliary steam generator:
The Auxiliary steam generator system is to produce and supply auxiliary steam
when the normal supply (cold reheat or primary II super heater steam) to the
auxiliary steam system is not available.
The Auxiliary steam generator system is designed to produce and furnish
superheated steam to theauxiliary steam system safely and reliably during plant
startup and shutdown.
Transformer:
As the most important loss in power transmission is caused by the heating
effect of the current flowing through the conductors, an efficient means of
transmitting power over long distances is required. This loss is proportional to
the square of the current, but the power transmitted is proportional to the
product of the current and the transmission voltage. Because of this, increasing the
voltage will greatly reduce the power loss. Voltage is therefore stepped up to 380 kV
by the use of transformers for the purpose of transmission.
Fig.23.Transformer 380kV. {Ref 1}
51
Production Process:
The water comes from the sea to the basins filtered impurities from the sea to the
feedwater, then water from the feedwater pump flows to the high pressure feedwater
heater. This heater adds more heat to the water to increase thermal energy and further
reduces thermal stress on the boiler. Heated water from the high pressure feedwater
heater is sent on to the boiler.
In the boiler, water is heated by burning fuel with combustion air and turned into
steam, which collects in the boiler drum. From the boiler drum, the steam flows into
the boiler's superheater section. In the superheater section, more heat is added to the
steam, causing it to become superheated.
The superheated steam flows from the boiler into the high pressure (HP) section of the
turbine, where it is directed through a series of blades. As the steam flows through
the blades, some of its pressure and thermal energy are transformed into mechanical
energy: the flow of steam causes the turbine's rotating blades to move. The rotating
blades, in turn, cause the shaft to rotate and drive the generator.
As the steam passes through the HP section of the turbine, it gives up a lot of its heat.
In many systems, steam from the high pressure section of the turbine is returned to the
boiler to be reheated. The reheated steam flows from the reheater section of the boiler
to the intermediate pressure (IP) section of the turbine. In the IP section, the steam is
again directed through a series of blades. Pressure and thermal energy in the steam
are converted into mechanical energy, which provides additional energy to rotate the
shaft and drive the generator.
From the IP section of the turbine, the steam flows into the low pressure (LP) section
of the turbine. In the LP section of the steam turbine, more of the steam's pressure
and thermal energy are transformed into mechanical energy, which causes the rotating
blades to turn a shaft. In this system, the LP section of the turbine drives another
generator.
52
The steam is exhausted from the LP section of the turbine into the condenser, where it
flows over the condenser tubes. Heat is transferred from the steam into the cooling
water that flows through the tubes. After losing its heat of vaporization, steam
condenses into water, or condensate, which drips into the condenser's hotwell. Water
from the hotwell flows into the condensate pump, and the cycle continues.
The freezing point for water in the system is 32 degrees and the boiling point for
water is 212 degrees. There are 180 Fahrenheit degrees between these two points.
On the Celsius scale, water freezes at 0 degrees and boils at 100 degrees
Thermal energy has its own units of measure: British thermal units, Centigrade heat
units or calories.
We can understand the explanation more and imagine the circulation system in steam
power plants in figure 24.
Fig.24. circulation system
53
Conclusion:
Converting in steam power plant is one of many ways to produce electrical energy in
the world. It can be done in any country because it can be done with different
chemical sources. In Saudi Arabia we use oil, because it easier and cheaper than any
other chemical source for us. As any country would use what is better for them.
The thesis has described circulation system in Shoaiba power plant by converting
chemical energy to thermal energy in the boiler, then the turbine converts thermal
energy to mechanical energy. Then the mechanical energy is converted to electrical
energy in the generator.
The advantages of the steam stations are as follows: production of high amounts of
electrical energy from small amounts of fuel, low cost of the initial costs, obstetrics
and maintenance costs are not high, the station does not need much space to build and
they are usually high capacity.
The disadvantages of steam stations are the following: environmental pollution, low
efficiency, requires very big amounts of cooling water, and these stations must be
built away from population areas.
54
References:
1- http://coalfiredpowerplants.blogspot.se/search?updated-min=2011-01-
01T00:00:00%2B05:30&updated- max=2012-01-01T00:00:00%2B05:30&maxresults=23 (2011).
2- http://chinafabricator.en.made-in-china.com/productimage/cetEpGObbVWM2f1j00WCmQbEifbkoM/China-Medium-Pressure-Steam-Drum.html (2009).
3- http://www.torishima.es/es/pdf/products/hlv.pdf (2000).
4- http://energythic.com/view.php?node=303 (2012).
5- http://www.mpoweruk.com/steam_turbines.htm (2005).
6- http://www.hitachi.com/New/cnews/101207b.html (2010).
7- http://science-hamza.blogspot.se/2010/12/steam-turbine-generator-arrangement.html
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9- http://maritime.org/doc/destroyer/steam/sec07.htm (2013).
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11- http://science-hamza.blogspot.se/2010/12/steam-turbine-generator-arrangement.html
(2010).
12- http://geothermal.marin.org/geopresentation/sld038.htm (2000).
13- http://fr.slideshare.net/mebees36/salient-pole-vs-nonsalientpole (2012).
14- http://www.solarreserve.com/what-we-do/csp-technology/(2014) .
15- http://maarky.com/products/feedwater-heaters (2011).
16- http://pembangkit.blogdetik.com/system -boiler-feed-water-economi zer-superheaterdesuperheater/ (2007).
55
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