Approval Of High School Science Frameworks: Biology II, AP Biology, Chemistry II, AP Chemistry, AP Physics B, And AP Physics C

Approval Of High School Science Frameworks: Biology II, AP Biology, Chemistry II, AP Chemistry, AP Physics B, And AP Physics C
ANCHORAGE SCHOOL DISTRICT
ANCHORAGE, ALASKA
ASD MEMORANDUM #366 (2000-2001)
June 25, 2001
TO :
SCHOOL BOARD
FROM:
OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT
SUBJECT:
APPROVAL OF HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE FRAMEWORKS:
BIOLOGY II, AP BIOLOGY, CHEMISTRY II, AP CHEMISTRY,
AP PHYSICS B, AND AP PHYSICS C
RECOMMENDATION:
It is the Administration’s recommendation that the School Board approve the
High School Science Frameworks: Biology II, AP Biology, Chemistry II,
AP Chemistry, AP Physics B, and AP Physics C as shown on Attachment A.
PERTINENT FACTS:
The High School Science Frameworks: Biology II, AP Biology, Chemistry II, AP
Chemistry, AP Physics B, and AP Physics C documents are the culmination of
work during this year. These six courses are the advanced courses taught as
electives after Biology I, Chemistry I and Physics and are year-long classes.
The AP courses are designed to be the equivalent of college introductory
courses in the specific discipline usually taken by majors in the area during their
first year in college. Course descriptions were developed by the College Board
and were adapted for our frameworks. The college course differs significantly
from the usual high school course with respect to the kind of textbook used, the
range and depth of topics covered, the kind of laboratory work done by
students, and the time and effort required of students. The textbooks used for
AP courses should be those used by college majors, and the kinds of labs done
by AP students must be the equivalent of those done by college students.
The Biology II and the Chemistry II courses allow for more flexibility but also
aim to provide students with the conceptual framework, factual knowledge, and
analytical skills necessary to deal critically with the rapidly changing fields of
biology and chemistry.
As a note on reading the document, recognize that the center column of the
content frameworks represents examples of what students should be able to do.
This column could have an infinite number of ideas. It is meant to help teachers
and to help clarify the concept for any reader. This section would be an ideal
place to add integration of reading, writing, and mathematics into science
curricular fields. Hopefully, this document will prove useful to librarians and
teachers in the selection of ancillary materials to support the curriculum. This
document is based on current educational research, presenting frameworks rich
in scientific process and hands-on approaches to learning. In addition, please
note that these frameworks will be added to the more complete document with
the same title, which has been before the board for approval at intervals over the
past several years.
CC/PM/FS/GR
Attachment
Prepared by:
Fred Stofflet, Executive Director, Curriculum & Evaluation
Gail Raymond, Science Coordinator
Approved by:
Pat McDowell, Assistant Superintendent, Instruction
2
Biology II
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
Cell Biochemistry
1. In multicellular organisms, including humans, cells
perform specialized functions as parts of subsystems (e.g., tissues, organs, and organ networks)
which work together to maintain optimum
conditions for the benefit of the whole organism.
Function is related to structure.
• Investigate one current development in cell
biology and discuss implications for future
use.
2. Specialized cells or groups of cells that monitor
stimuli from the organism’s internal and external
environment enabling the organism to respond to
changing environmental conditions accomplish
coordination of these functions.
• Examine and observe small, live organisms
(i.e.: meal worms, planaria) to study animal
behavior.
3. Every cell is covered by a membrane that controls
what can enter and leave the cell. Within the cell are
specialized parts for the transport of materials,
energy capture and release, protein building, waste
disposal, information feedback, and movement. In
addition to these basic cellular functions common to
all cells, most cells in multicellular organisms
perform some special functions that others do not.
• Discuss that the many body cells in an
individual can be very different from one
another, even though they are all descended
from a single cell and thus have essentially
identical genetic instructions. Different parts
of the instructions are used in different
types of cells, influenced by the cell's
environment and past history.
4. Protein molecules are long, usually folded chains
made from a combination of up to 20 different
kinds of amino-acid molecules. The function of each
protein/enzyme molecule depends on its specific
sequence of amino acids and the shape the chain
takes is a consequence of attractions between the
chain's parts.
• Compare amino acid sequences for specific
proteins among different species.
• Perform dissections on organisms in order to
determine the similarities and differences
between systems.
• Verbally describe the process of transcription
and translation.
Genetics and Biotechnology
1. The genetic information passed from parents to
offspring is coded in DNA molecules. This
information provides instructions for protein
synthesis. The code used is virtually the same for
all life forms.
• Extract DNA from onion cells or human cheek
cells.
• Make a visual demonstration or model of
protein synthesis.
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
2. The sorting and recombination of genes in sexual
reproduction results in countless possible gene
combinations from the offspring of any two
parents.
• Read a karyotype and determine whether the
individual is normal or has mutations.
3. Genes are segments of DNA molecules. Inserting,
deleting, or substituting DNA segments can alter
genes. These alterations can occur randomly or by
such things as radiation and chemicals. An altered
(mutated) gene may be passed on to every cell that
develops from it. The resulting features may help,
harm, or have little or no effect on the offspring's
success in its environment.
• Perform dominant/recessive and sex-linked
fruit fly crosses.
4. Biotechnology is any use or alteration of organisms,
cells or molecules for practical purposes.
• Research and present a multimedia
presentation on genetically engineered
plants and animals.
• Grow and utilize “fast plants” to demonstrate
the many possible combinations of crossbreeding.
• Compare normal versus mutant fruit fly
chromosomes, from salivary glands, using
electrophoresis.
• Perform a transformation experiment
involving bacteria.
5. Modern technology uses genetic engineering to
achieve these specific goals: a) understand more
about inheritance and gene expression; b) better
treat genetic diseases; c) generate economic benefits,
including better agricultural organisms and
valuable biological molecules.
• Debate ethical issues relative to the human
genome project and manipulation of human
cells.
Hot Topics
1. Current biological issues relate to the science of
biology (i.e., drugs, alcohol, HIV, smoking,
cloning).
• Investigate and conduct a panel discussion
select biological issues, relative to cultural
ethics and impact on society and modern
culture.
• Use the internet to make a “web quest” on a
particular hot topic.
Evolution
1. Historical ideas, perspectives, and philosophies have
provided the basis for modern evolutionary theory.
• Discuss the role of historical ideas,
perspectives, and philosophies, which
provide the basis for modern evolutionary
theory.
• Articulate historical strengths and criticisms of
evolutionary theory.
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
2. Chemical evolution on a young Earth set the stage for
the origin of life.
3. Evolution builds on what already exists, so the more
variety there is, the more there can be in the future.
Evolution does not imply long-term progress in
some set direction.
4. Populations, not individuals, evolve. Evolution is a
change in the gene frequency in a population over
time.
• Apply the Hardy-Weinberg principle to
demonstrate factors affecting changes in
gene frequency in evolving populations.
5. The processes by which populations evolve include
mutation, gene flow, small population size, nonrandom mating, and natural selection.
• Gather data, summarize findings, and present
critical analysis of evolution on the basis of
anatomical and molecular characteristics of
species.
6. A great diversity of species increases the chance that at
least some living things will survive in the face of
large-scale, catastrophic changes in the
environment.
• Conduct a laboratory investigation or a
simulation to demonstrate that variations
within a species may enable organisms to
survive large-scale environmental change.
Examples could include exposure of bacteria
to UV radiation or aquatic organisms to
chlorine.
7. Natural selection provides the following mechanism
for evolution: Some variation in heritable
characteristics exists within every species, some of
these characteristics give individuals an advantage
over others in surviving and reproducing, and the
advantaged offspring, in turn, are more likely than
others to survive and reproduce. The proportion of
individuals that have advantageous characteristics
will increase.
• Participate in natural selection simulation
activities to determine how
environmentally favored traits are
perpetuated over generations, while less
favorable traits decrease in frequency.
Discuss the relationship and significance of
genetic variation, natural selection, and the
ability to reproduce.
8. Molecular evidence substantiates the anatomical
evidence for evolution. Additional detail about the
sequence in which various lines of descent branched
off from one another and the degree of kinship
between organisms or species can be estimated
from the similarity of their DNA sequences.
• Discuss mitochondrial DNA as a marker for
genetic variation and implications in
evolutionary development.
9. Organisms are classified into a hierarchy of groups
and subgroups, based on morphological and
biochemical similarities, and evolutionary
relationships.
• Classify selected plants and animals to their
genus and species using a taxonomic key.
• Recognize the importance of molecular
analysis of chlorophyll in the evolution of
plants.
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
Ecology
1. Available resources including energy, water, oxygen,
and minerals limit the abundance and diversity of
organisms any environment can support.
Intraspecific and interspecific competition are also
components of survival.
• Demonstrate the impacts of available
resources on yeast populations in a
laboratory investigation.
2. The chemical elements that make up the molecules of
living things pass through food webs and are
combined and recombined in different ways.
Energy is stored and lost throughout the process.
Continual input of energy from photosynthesis and
chemosynthesis keeps the process going.
• Develop a model or experiment to simulate
the effects of biological magnification on
living systems.
3. Human beings are part of the earth's ecosystems.
Human activities do, deliberately or inadvertently,
alter the equilibrium in ecosystems.
• Research and create a presentation on the
changes of the ecosystem due to the impact
of humans and the survival of selected
species.
• Conduct an experiment showing the energy
loss from one trophic level to the next. (i.e.:
measure food intake relative to weight gain
in a mouse.)
Human Biology
1. Viruses, bacteria, fungi, and other parasites may infect
the human body and interfere with normal body
function.
• Identify common human diseases, the
symptoms, their means of infection, and the
organisms that cause the disease.
2. The length and quality of human life are influenced
by many factors, including sanitation, diet, medical
care, gender, genes, environmental conditions and
personal health behaviors.
• Investigate the role minerals, vitamins, and
macromolecules play in nutrition.
3. Faulty genes and gene mutation can cause body parts
or systems to function abnormally.
• Research and develop a multimedia
presentation on a human disease or cancer.
4. Development is a process by which an organism
proceeds from a fertilized egg through adulthood.
Reproduction is the process by which an organism
proceeds from adulthood to fertilized egg.
• Identify stages of embryo development. View
slides of chicken embryos at various stages
under the microscope.
• Discuss aging in relation to genetics and
biochemical cellular changes and the
possible implications of cloning in this
process.
• Research the terotogenic effect of one
substance on the human embryo.
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
5. Differentiation is the specialization of embryonic cells
into different cell types with different functions.
During development, cell differentiation occurs by
the stimulation and repression of specific genes.
• Compare reproductive systems among
vertebrate organisms. Identify the monthly
hormonal and biological occurrences in the
human female reproductive system.
6. Chemical substances, dietary habits, and some
behaviors may influence one's health. Some effects
show up immediately, others years later.
• Research and discuss the influences of life-long
fitness.
• Conduct research on the feeding habits of
Alaskan animals in order to determine the
potential health effects on future
generations.
Botany
1. Vascular plants have specialized organ systems
including vascular tissue and reproductive
structures.
• Conduct a laboratory dissection to make
comparisons and identify the anatomy of
monocot and dicot plants.
• Compare and contrast a cross-section of a stem
from a monocot and dicta plant after
viewing it under the microscope.
2. Plants reproduce both sexually and asexually
(alternation of generations).
• Conduct laboratory investigations to compare
and contrast a monocot and a dicot seed.
3. Plants have a variety of hormones that influence
growth.
• Conduct a laboratory investigation of plant
hormones and their affect on plant growth.
AP Biology
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
Science as a Process
1. Scientific evidence is collected through experiments
and observations.
• Analyze the experimental design, with on
emphasis on controls, used by Calvin and
his students to discover the sugar-producing
cycle of photosynthesis.
• Predict the interactions between artificial
membranes and certain added components,
with and emphasis on the limitations of the
experimental methods applies.
• Describe in detail the major experiments that
led ultimately to the conclusions that DNA
is the major genetic material of life.
2. Long-term ecological research can teach us about the
human impact on the biosphere.
• Research and create a presentation on the
changes of the ecosystem due to the impact
of humans and the survival of selected
species.
Evolution
1. Chemical evolution on a young Earth set the stage for
the origin of life.
2. Mutations and genetic recombination generate
heritable variation that is subjected to natural
selection.
• Apply the Hardy-Weinberg principle to
demonstrate factors affecting changes in
gene frequency in evolving populations.
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
3. When a population’s local environment changes
unfavorably, the population adapts, migrates, or
dies.
• Conduct a laboratory investigation or a
simulation to demonstrate that variations
within a species may enable organisms to
survive large-scale environmental change.
Examples could include exposure of bacteria
to UV radiation or aquatic organisms to
chlorine.
4. The system of taxonomy used by most biologists
today reflects our current understanding of
phylogenetic relationships among organisms.
• Gather data, summarize findings, and present
critical analysis of evolution on the basis of
anatomical and molecular characteristics of
species.
• Classify selected plants and animals to their
genus and species using a taxonomic key.
5. Adaptations can be structural, biochemical, and
behavioral.
• Participate in natural selection simulation
activities to determine how
environmentally favored traits are
perpetuated over generations, while less
favorable traits decrease in frequency.
Discuss the relationship and significance of
genetic variation, natural selection, and the
ability to reproduce.
Energy Transfer
1. Plants transform light energy into chemical energy.
2. Membranes (i.e.; action potentials, proton gradients)
can regulate potential and kinetic energy.
• Explain how ion pumps in membranes
reestablish a transmembrane resting
potential after a neuron fires an impulse or
a muscle fiber contracts.
3. Energy flows from producers to consumers in an
ecosystem.
• Conduct an experiment showing the energy
loss from one trophic level to the next, (i.e.;
measure food intake relative to weight gain
in a mouse).
4. All living systems must expend energy to live as to
not violate the laws of thermodynamics.
• Trace energy flow from glucose to the
hydrolysis of ATP.
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
Continuity and Change
1. The process of mitosis allows for genetic continuity
from generation to generation while at the same
time, through mutation, it provides for diversity.
• Perform a transformation experiment
involving bacteria.
2. There are advantages and disadvantages of sexual and
asexual reproduction.
• Read a karyotype and determine whether the
individual is normal or has mutations.
• Grow and utilize “fast plants” to demonstrate
the many possible combinations of
crossbreeding.
• Perform dominant/recessive and sex-linked
fruit fly crosses.
3. Changes in gene pools over time can be explained by
methods that result in propagation of the most fit
genotypes.
4. Homologous structures are variations on a common
ancestral prototype.
• Perform dissections on organisms in order to
determine the similarities and differences
between systems.
Relationship of Structure to Function
1. The distinctive functions of molecules reflect
structural differences among them.
• Discuss how the membranous organization of
the mitochondrion orders the process of
cellular respiration.
2. By knowing structure, function can be explained.
• Extract DNA from onion cells or human cheek
cells.
• Using the mammalian small intestine, show
how the surface area to volume ratio
increases absorption of nutrients.
• Explain how the complementary nature of the
two DNA strands explains replication.
3. Morphological adaptations of organisms to their
environment enhance their survival.
• Design an organism that lives under specified
environmental conditions.
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
Regulation
1. Control of the flow of molecules across the membrane
maintains a favorable intracellular environment.
• Diagram the structure of the plasma
membrane and relate the control of
molecular movement to its structure.
2. Regulatory mechanisms switch genes on and off in
response to environmental cues.
• Discuss that the many body cells in an
individual can be very different from one
another, even though they are all descended
from a single cell and thus have essentially
identical genetic instructions. Different parts
of the instructions are used in different
types of cells, influenced by the cell’s
environment and past history.
3. The nervous and endocrine systems mediate an
animal’s responses to changes in the environment.
• Examine and observe small, live organisms
(i.e.; meal worms, planaria) to study animal
behavior.
4. Hormones and gene functions regulate the growth
and development of both plants and animals.
• Conduct a laboratory investigation of plant
hormones and their affect on plant growth.
Interdependence in Nature
1. At the metabolic level, photosynthesis and cellular
respiration are mutually symbiotic.
• Discuss the interactions that exist between
photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
2. An organism’s phenotype is the synergistic product of
genes and environment.
• Debate “Nature or Nurture”.
3. The sporophyte and gametophyte generations of a
plant are interdependent.
• Discuss the adaptive significance of alternation
of generations in the major groups of plants.
4. An understanding of basic ecological principles can
help us to assess the human impact on the
biosphere.
• Articulate how destruction of tropical forests
has global consequences.
5. Competition, predation, and parasitism between
populations in a food web contribute to the stability
of an ecosystem.
• Demonstrate the impacts of available
resources on yeast populations in a
laboratory investigation.
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
Science, Technology, and Society
1. Advances in cancer research depend on progress in
our basic understanding of how cells work.
• Research and develop a multimedia
presentation on a human disease or cancer.
2. Various new techniques in microscopy have led us to
a better understanding of basic cell structure and
function.
• Compare and contrast a cross-section of a stem
from a monocot and a dicot plant after
viewing it under the microscope.
3. DNA technology is a double-edged sword, promising
health advances and posing new ethical issues.
• Discuss aging in relation to genetics and
biochemical cellular changes and the
possible implications of cloning in this
process.
• Debate ethical issues relative to the human
genome project and manipulation of human
cells.
4. Biotechonolgy has provided new treatments for
various genetic diseases, developed crops with
better yields, and provided solutions for
environmental problems.
• Use the internet to make a “web quest” on
genetically engineered plants and animals.
5. More people utilizing more technology have
generated many current global problems.
• Investigate and conduct a panel discussion on
a global issue, relative to cultural ethics and
impact on society and modern culture.
Chemistry II
Chemistry II is a class that reviews and extends the concepts of
chemistry with a strong emphasis on lab work and relevance. A
significant amount of thermodynamics, kinetics, equilibrium, and
organic chemistry and their applications should be included. The
following document is designed as a general framework from which
selected topics may be chosen.
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
Properties Of Matter
1. There are differences and similarities among pure
substances and mixtures.
• Describe and/or use the techniques of
distillation, filtration, chromatography or
fractional crystallization to separate or
identify a mixture
• Use characteristic properties to identify
substances.
2. Measurement involves both accuracy and precision.
• Measurement should be done in the metric
system to the maximum accuracy of the
apparatus.
• Measurements and calculations should
consider appropriate significant digits.
3. Conversions in chemistry are usually accomplished
using the dimensional analysis (factor label
method).
• Perform multiple step conversions with a
variety of conversion factors.
4. The number of particles is measured in a unit called
mole.
• Convert between units of moles, mass and
number of particles
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
5. The concentrations of solutions can be expressed in a
variety of units. This concentration affects physical
properties of the solution.
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
• Carry out concentration calculations in
molarity, molality, mole fraction, percent
composition, ppm, and ppb.
• Convert between any of the above.
• Using concentrations, calculate the boiling
point, melting point, vapor pressure, and
osmotic pressure of a solution (colligative
properties).
• Experimentally determine the molar mass of
an unknown compound by freezing point
depression.
• Use solubility rules and reference material to
predict solubility of compounds before
using them in the lab.
• Make saturated, supersaturated, and
unsaturated solutions.
• Prepare solutions by mass or by dilution.
6. There are standard methods of naming and formula
writing for elements and compounds (emphasize
IUPAC system).
• Name or write formulas of ionic compounds,
covalent compounds, and acids.
• Show a familiarity with both stock and Latin
names of metals, polyatomic ions, and
common names of compounds used in
chemistry.
• Name or give the formula of alkanes, alkenes,
alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons; as well
as functional group derivatives of these.
7. Crystalline solids can be classified as ionic, metallic,
covalent network, or molecular.
• Explain the properties of ionic, metallic, or
molecular, or network covalent crystals
from their structure and forces holding
them together.
• Classify in the laboratory a crystalline
substance as either ionic, metallic,
molecular, or network covalent on the basis
of its properties.
8. Substances can be classified as acid, base, or neutral.
• Determine whether substances (including
salts) are acidic, basic, or neutral on
physical/chemical properties.
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
CHEMICAL CHANGE
1. Chemical changes are described with balanced
chemical equations.
• Balance chemical equations given the reactants
and products.
• Recognize reaction types and predict products
for reactions.
• Write equations for dissociation and
ionization of electrolytes.
• Identify the spectator ions and write net ionic
equations for solution reactions with only
reactants given.
2. Balanced chemical equations are used to make
calculations related to chemical reactions.
• Determine the amount (mass, gas volume,
solutions volume or molarity, number of
particles, or moles) of product formed or
reactant used knowing an initial amount of
one other substance present.
• Determine the limiting reagent and calculate
the theoretical and actual yield in a chemical
reaction given the appropriate data.
• Perform a gravimetric analysis experiment
and determine the yield.
• Prepare inorganic and organic compounds and
determine the yield.
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
3. Chemical reactions are frequently studied in solution.
• Use solubility rules to predict whether a
precipitate forms when electrolyte solutions
are mixed.
• Use a qualitative analysis scheme to separate
and identify unknown ions.
• Calculate the volume of a more concentrated
solution that must be diluted to obtain a
given quantity of more dilute solution.
• Calculate the volume of a solution required to
react with a volume of a different solution
using molarity and the stoichiometry of the
reaction.
• Write solubility product expressions for
insoluble compounds and experimentally
determine solubility product constants
(Ksp).
• Calculate solubility or predict precipitations
using Ksp.
4. Reaction rates can be experimentally studied, and can
be expressed mathematically.
• Explain the factors that effect reaction rate
using collision theory, kinetic and potential
energy diagrams, activation energy, and
reaction mechanisms.
• Collect data on a reactant or product to graph
reaction rates and calculate average or
instantaneous rates.
• Experimentally determine orders of reactions,
write rate expressions, and calculate
activation energy.
• Use integrated forms of the various rate laws
in order to analyze reaction rates.
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
5. Electron transfer takes place in redox reactions.
Oxidation and reduction are the basis for
electrochemistry.
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
• Identify the substance oxidized and reduced,
as well as the oxidizing and reducing
agents.
• Balance redox equations by the electron
transfer and/or the half reaction method in
acid or basic solution.
• Perform a redox titration to determine
unknown concentration.
• Explain the operation of voltaic and
electrolytic cells.
• Calculate cell potentials and predict
spontaneity for reactions at standard
conditions or with different concentrations
or temperatures given.
6. H+ transfer can take place in a chemical reaction.
• Show an understanding of the common
acid/base theories and properties.
• Identify the acid, base, and conjugates in a
reaction involving transfer of H+.
• Perform an acid/base titration to determine
the concentration of an unknown.
7. The strength of an acid and/or base is related to its
composition and degree to which it breaks down.
• Identify strong or weak acids/bases based on
their formulas or names.
• Explain the difference between strong, weak,
concentrated, and dilute solutions.
• Experimentally determine a Ka or Kb .
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
8. The pH scale gives a level of acidity/basicity for a
solution based on the concentration of H+ (or
hydronium ion) present.
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
• Experimentally determine pH using
indicators, pH meters, and/or test paper.
• Interpret pH data to determine level of
acidity/basicity.
• Identify the dominant species controlling H+
concentration in solution of acids, bases, or
salts.
• Calculate the ion concentration and pH of both
strong and weak acids and bases.
• Perform pH titrations of strong and weak acid
and base solutions.
• Explain how indicators and buffers work in
terms of equilibrium shifting.
• Perform serial dilutions to study pH and
indicators.
• Make a buffer in the lab and test its capacity.
9. Many reactions consist of both a forward and reverse
reaction occurring simultaneously. Through this
process equilibrium can be achieved.
• Explain how to recognize an equilibrium on
the basis of properties and explain the
dynamic process involved in equilibrium
such as vapor pressure, phase change,
solubility, and chemical equilibria.
• Study equilibrium systems in the lab.
• Write equilibrium expressions and calculate
constant or concentrations.
• Determine the direction of equilibrium shift
using the reaction quotient (Q).
Structure Of Matter
1. Properties of matter, physical and chemical changes
can be explained through sketches, models, and
descriptions of the particles.
• Construct sketches or models of solids,
liquids, and gases. Use these to determine
how phase changes proceed.
• Construct molecular models to determine
shape and molecular polarity in
compounds.
• Use sketches and models to describe chemical
reactions.
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
2. Some chemical and physical changes consist of both a
forward and reverse process occurring
simultaneously.
• Identify the opposing changes and discuss
their rates.
3. Kinetic molecular theory explains changes in gas
volumes, moles, pressure, and temperature. This
allows for calculations to be performed relating
these quantities.
• Use Kinetic Molecular Theory to explain the
relationship of pressure, volume, moles,
and temperature in gases.
• Perform calculations to determine one of the
four major variables given the other three
(pressure, volume, moles, a temperature)
using the ideal gas law.
• Calculate the ideal gas constant in a variety of
units.
• Experimentally verify the molar volume of a
gas or study gas stoichiometry using the gas
laws.
• Derive equations from the gas laws to
calculate gas densities or molar masses.
• Determine experimentally the relationships of
pressure versus volume, pressure versus
temperature, and volume versus
temperature. Express these relationships in
graphs and interpret these graphs.
• Calculate the effect of changes in gaseous
systems, using the combined gas law.
• Derive Graham’s law from kinetic energy and
use to study diffusion/effusion of gases.
• Suggest and recognize practical applications
using these relationships.
• Compare the behavior of real gases to the
ideal gas laws.
4. Atoms are composed of protons, neutrons, and
electrons.
• Write nuclear symbols for atoms, isotopes, or
ions.
• Determine the number of protons, neutrons,
and electrons from a nuclear symbol.
• Diagram the formation of ions by electron
transfer.
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
5. An atom's electron configuration, particularly the
outermost electrons, determines how the atom can
Interact with other atoms. Atoms form bonds to
other atoms by transferring or sharing electrons.
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
• Write an electron configuration and draw
orbital diagrams for any atom or ion.
• Give the quantum numbers for an electron or
identify an electron from a set of quantum
numbers.
• Determine if a bond between atoms is ionic,
polar covalent, or nonpolar covalent on the
basis of electronegativity or position on the
periodic table.
• Explain the difference between ionic, polar
covalent, or nonpolar covalent bonds.
6. An element's location on the periodic table can be
used to determine similarities and trends among
the elements.
• Recognize and explain trends within groups
and periods on the periodic chart in
quantities/properties such as Ion charges,
atomic and ionic size, ionization energy,
electron affinity, reactivity, metallic
character, and electronegativity.
• Identify and relate properties of elements in
particular families such as alkali metals,
alkaline earth metals, halogens, and noble
gases.
TEAC
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
7. The arrangement of atoms in a molecule determines
the molecule's properties. Shapes are particularly
important in explaining how molecules interact
with others.
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
• Draw Lewis structures of molecules or ions
recognizing exceptions to the octet rule,
hybridization and resonance.
• Determine a molecule's shape and polarity
using Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion
Theory and bond polarities
• Determine the type and strength of
intermolecular forces based on molecular
polarity. Relate the strength of
intermolecular forces to physical properties
such as boiling point, melting point, surface
tension, solubility, vapor pressure,
adhesion, cohesion, and viscosity.
• Suggest and recognize practical applications
using intermolecular forces.
• Explain the bonding type, shape, and
hybridization of carbon bonds in organic
compounds.
• Explain the physical and chemical properties
of an organic compound on the basis of the
shape and polarity of the molecule and
functional group present. (i.e.; alcohol,
aldehyde, ketone, organic acid, alkane,
alkene, alkyne). Prepare a number of
different polymers, observe their properties
and explain their properties on the basis of
their structures (i.e.; nylon, latex, and
rubber).
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
8. Nuclear changes are different than chemical changes.
The nucleus can change, resulting in a different
element and/or radioactivity.
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
• Distinguish between nuclear and chemical
reactions.
• Write balanced nuclear reactions for emissions
or adsorptions
• Calculate matter/ energy conversions.
• Relate decay to first order chemical reactions.
• Calculate half lives or quantity of a
radioisotope remaining after a period of
time.
• Discuss relevant applications of nuclear
chemistry.
Energy Change
1. Temperature is a measurement of average kinetic
energy. Heat is a measurement of transferable
energy.
• Measure temperature and heat in appropriate
units and perform conversions when
necessary.
• Interpret a graph of kinetic energy versus
number of particles and relate this to
reaction rates and activation energies.
• Perform an experiment (calorimetry) to
measure heat flow and or calculate heat
capacity.
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
2. Chemical and physical changes can be classified as
exothermic or endothermic. Balanced equations
with an energy term can be used to calculate energy
changes.
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
• Identify reactions as either exothermic or
endothermic from experimental data or an
equation including an energy term.
• Draw enthalpy verses course of reaction
diagrams for both endo- and exothermic
reactions; and use them to illustrate
activation energy and the action of catalysts.
• Understand the meaning of enthalpy and be
able to use tables of enthalpies of formation.
• Write and algebraically manipulate
thermochemical equations.
• Determine the energy change for a given mass
or moles from an equation with an energy
term.
• Discuss the transitions between potential and
kinetic energy in a chemical reaction.
• Use the Hess’s law equation to calculate heat
of reactions.
• Perform calorimetry experiments to
determine the heat of fusion and/or
vaporization of water, as well as heats of
solution and reactions.
• Describe entropy as a driving force and
calculate it from tables of standard values.
• Calculate Gibb’s free energy and relate it to
reaction spontaneity.
• Relate free energy to equilibrium constants,
and redox cell potentials.
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
3. When energy changes in an isolated atom or
molecule, the energy changes in discrete jumps
from one value to another. This change in energy
occurs when radiation is absorbed or emitted, so the
radiation also has discrete energy values.
• Explain the lines in a spectra on the basis of
electrons changing between discrete energy
level.
• Relate energy level transitions to bright line
emissions, and calculate variables in light
equations.
AP CHEMISTRY
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
I Structure of Matter
A. Atomic Theory and Atomic Structure
1. The work of many scientists, such as John Dalton, J.J.
Thompson, and Ernest Rutherford, provided
experimental information for the development of a
modern understanding of the structure of atoms.
• Describe the composition of an atom in terms
of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
• Explain the approximate size, relative mass,
and charge of an atom, proton, neutron, and
electron.
• Write the chemical symbol of an element,
having been given its mass number and
atomic number, and perform the reverse
operation.
• Describe the properties of an electron as seen
in cathode rays.
• Describe the experimental evidence for the
nuclear nature of the atom.
2. An element's location on the periodic table can be used
to determine similarities and trends among the
elements.
• Recognize and explain trends within groups
and periods on the periodic chart in
quantities/properties such as Ion charges,
atomic and ionic size, ionization energy,
electron affinity, reactivity, metallic
character, and electronegativity.
• Identify and relate properties of elements in
particular families such as alkali metals,
alkaline earth metals, halogens, and noble
gases.
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
2. The electronic structure of hydrogen atom forms the
basis of electronic structure for atoms with two or
more electrons.
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
• Describe the wave properties and
characteristic speed of propagation of
radiant energy (electromagnetic radiation)
• Explain the origin of the expression line
spectra.
• List the assumptions made by Bohr in his
model of the hydrogen atom.
• Explain the concept of an allowed state and
how the concept is related to the quantum
theory.
• Explain the concept of ionization energy.
• Describe the uncertainty principle and explain
the limitation it places on our ability to
define simultaneously the location and
momentum of a subatomic particle,
particularly an electron.
• Describe the quantum numbers, n ,l ,ml, ms
used to define an orbital in an atom and list
the limitations placed on the values each
many have.
• Describe the shapes of the s, p, and d orbitals.
• Write the electron configurations and valence
electron configuration for any element and
its orbital diagram representation.
3. Certain behavior patterns of an atom and its electrons
are based on the position of the atom in the periodic
table. All the periodic trends can be understood in
terms of three basic rules:
a. Electrons are attracted to the protons in the nucleus
of an atom.
b. Electrons are repelled by other electrons in an
atom
c. Completed shells (and to a lesser extent, subshells)
are very stable.
• State the Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s
rule, and illustrate how they are used in
writing the electronic structures of the
elements.
• Describe the s, p, d, and f blocks of elements.
• Given the electron configurations for any
element, locate its placement in the periodic
table.
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
B. Chemical Bonds
1. All bonds occur because of electrostatic attractions.
• Write the Lewis symbols for atoms and
recognize when the octet rule applies to the
arrangement of electrons in the valence
shell.
• Explain the concept of an isoelectronic series.
• Describe how the radii of ions relate to
corresponding atoms.
• Describe a covalent bond using Lewis symbols
in terms of sharing of electron density
between bonded atoms.
• Describe the singe, double and triple covalent
bonds.
• Describe the various types of intermolecular
attractive forces and the expected forces for
a substance when given its molecular
structure.
2. Electronegativity determines the bond types.
• Explain the significance of electronegativity
and predict the relative polarity of the
bonds.
• Write resonance forms of molecules or
polyatomic ions.
3. The geometric shape of a molecule can be predicted
using the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion
Model (V.E.S.P.R ) and/or the Molecular Orbital
Model (M.O.)
• Write the Lewis structure for molecules and
ions containing covalent bonds, using the
periodic table.
• Predict the geometrical structure of a molecule
or ion from its Lewis structure.
• Explain the concept of hybridization and its
relationship to geometrical structure.
• Formulate the bonding in a molecule in terms
of pi (p) bonds and sigma ( ) bonds, from its
Lewis structure.
• Explain the concept of delocalization in pi (p)
bonds.
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
C . Nuclear Chemistry
1. A change in the structure of a nucleus may occur
spontaneously, or it may be brought about
artificially.
• Write the nuclear symbols for protons,
neutrons, electrons, alpha particles, beta
particles and positrons.
• Complete and balance nuclear equations,
having been given all but one of the
particles involved.
• Use the half-life of a substance to predict the
amount of radioisotopes present after a
given period of time.
• Explain how radioisotopes can be used in
dating objects and as radiotracers.
II STATES OF MATTER
A. Gases
1. Gas pressure can be measured with devices like
barometers and manometers in units including
atmospheres, mm Hg, and kPa.
• Measure pressure and convert between
common pressure units.
2. The relationship of the variables pressure, volume,
temperature, and moles can be described by simple
mathematical equations and relationships. The ideal
gas law summarizes all these relationships.
• Describe and calculate how a gas responds to
changes in pressure, volume, temperature,
and moles.
3. The volume of a gas at any temperature and pressure
can be used to determine the moles and number of
particles.
• Calculate values of the ideal gas law constant
based on the molar volume of a gas.
4. The partial pressure of a gas mixture is related to the
mole fraction of the gases in the mixture.
• Use Dalton's law of partial pressures to
calculate the partial pressure of a gas in a
mixture.
• Use the Ideal Gas Law to calculate one of the
variables from the other three.
• Derive an equation from the Ideal Gas Law
for determination of molar mass or density.
• Calculate the mole fraction of a gas in a
mixture, given its partial pressure and the
total pressure of the system.
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
5. Gases are made of tiny particles which are far apart and
in constant linear motion. The collisions are perfectly
elastic. Pressure is caused by collisions of the
particles with the walls.
• Use the Kinetic Molecular Theory to explain
gas temperature and pressure at the
molecular level.
6. Temperature of a gas is related to the speed and the
energy of the particles.
• Describe the Boltzmann’s distribution of
molecular speeds and explain how it
changes with temperature.
• Describe how the relative rates of effusion and
diffusion of two gases depend on their
molar masses (Graham’s Law).
B. Condensed Phases
1. The intermolecular forces in a substance determine
strengths of attractions of molecules for each other,
and therefore their relative freezing and boiling
points.
• Compare and contrast the arrangement and
motion of particles in the phases.
2. Phase changes are related to intermolecular forces and
are expressed in a phase diagram which plots the
pressure and temperature of a substance in relation
to its state of matter.
• Explain the meaning of the terms vapor
pressure, viscosity, surface tension, critical
temperature and critical pressure and
account for the variations in these
properties in terms of intermolecular forces
and temperature.
• Describe the various types of intermolecular
forces and identify those present for a
particular substance.
• Describe the relationship between vapor
pressure, the boiling point, and melting
point of a substance.
• Calculate the heat transfer as a sample is
heated, including phase change.
• Draw or interpret a phase diagram given
appropriate data.
3. Most solids are crystalline in nature and the
arrangement of their particles relate to their physical
properties.
• Distinguish between crystalline and
amorphous solids.
• Predict the type of solid (molecular, covalent
network, ionic, or metallic) formed by a
substance, and predict its general properties.
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
7. Gas behavior deviates from ideal behavior as a result
of the particle volume and the intermolecular forces.
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
• Cite the general conditions of pressure and
temperature under which real gases most
closely approximate ideal gas behavior.
• Explain the deviations and correction from
ideality using the van der Waals equation.
C. Solutions
1. The solution process involves energy changes and
other factors which control solubilities. Colloids
differ from solutions.
• Describe the solution process in terms of
solute-solute, solute-solvent and solventsolvent attractive forces, and enthalpy and
entropy changes.
• Predict the solubilities of various substances in
terms of their intermolecular forces.
• Describe the effects of temperature and
pressure on solubility.
• Describe how a colloid differs from a true
solution.
2. The concentration of solutions is described in different
terms according to their application.
• Define and calculate mass percent, ppm, and
ppb, mole fraction, molarity, and molality.
• Calculate any component of the above, and
convert from one concentration unit to
other.
3. Colligative properties of solutions result in alterations
of the physical properties of the solvent.
• Calculate boiling-point elevation, freezingpoint depression, osmotic pressure and
vapor pressure.
• Determine the molar mass of a nonvolatile
nonelectrolyte from its effect on the
colligative properties of the solution.
• Describe the difference between electrolytes
and nonelectrolytes on the magnitude of the
colligative properties.
• Calculate and explain deviations from
solution ideality using Raoult's Law.
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
III REACTIONS
A. Reaction types
1. Aqueous solutions of acids, bases and salts are
electrolytes.
• List the general properties that characterize
acidic and basic solutions and identify the
ions responsible for these properties.
• Define the terms Bronstead-Lowry acid and
base, and conjugate acid and base.
• Explain what is meant by the autoionization of
water and amphotrism.
• Determine the relationship between the
strength of an acid and its conjugate base; Kb
from the knowledge of Ka and vice versa.
• Predict whether a particular salt solution will
be acidic, basic or neutral.
• Define an acid or base in terms of the Lewis
concept.
• Predict the relative acidities of solutions of
metal salts.
• Explain the mechanism by which a buffer
solution resists a change in pH.
2. A heterogeneous equilibrium is a chemical reaction
between ions in solution that produces an insoluble
solid - a precipitate.
• Define and calculate Ksp (solubility product
constant).
• Determine the direction of a precipitation
reaction using the ion product quotient (Q).
• Understand why and how pH will affect some
precipitation reactions.
3. A reaction in which certain atoms undergo a change in
oxidation states is a redox reaction. The substance
increasing in oxidation state is oxidized; the
substance decreasing in oxidation states is reduced.
• Identify the oxidizing and reducing agents in a
redox reaction.
• Balance simple oxidation-reduction reactions
by the oxidation number method and by the
method of half-reactions.
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
4. Electrochemical cells produce electricity from redox
reactions.
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
• Diagram simple voltaic and electrolytic cells,
labeling the anode and the cathode, the
directions of ion and electron movement
and the signs of the electrode.
• Given appropriate electrode potentials,
calculate the emf generated by a voltaic cell.
• Use electrode potentials to predict whether a
reaction will be spontaneous.
5. Electrolysis is a process in which a nonspontaneous
redox reaction is made to occur by the application of
a direct current of electricity to the reactants.
• Interrelate time, current, and the amount of
substance produced or consumed in an
electrolysis reaction.
• Calculate the maximum electrical work
performed by a voltaic cell, and the
minimum electrical work required for an
electrolytic process.
B. Stoichiometry
1. There are standard methods of naming and formula
writing for elements and compounds (emphasize
IUPAC system).
• Name or write formulas of ionic compounds,
covalent compounds, and acids.
• Show a familiarity with both stock and Latin
names of metals, polyatomic ions, and
common names of compounds used in
chemistry.
• Name or give the formula of alkanes, alkenes,
alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons; as well
as functional group derivatives of these.
2. In any chemical reaction, it is possible to calculate the
amount of reactants and/or products involved in the
reaction from the balanced chemical equation. Either
the mass of the substances, the volume of the
substances involved and/or the moles can be
determined.
• Calculate the mass of a particular substance
produced or used in a chemical reaction.
• Determine the limiting reagent and calculate
the theoretical and actual yield in a chemical
reaction given the appropriate data.
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
3. Solubility of an ionic compound depends on the
nature of both the anion and cation involved.
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
• Use solubility rules to predict whether a
precipitate forms when solutions of
electrolytes are mixed.
• Predict the products of metathesis reactions
(including both neutralization and
precipitation reactions) and write balanced
chemical equations for them.
• Identify the spectator ions and write the net
ionic equations for solution reactions,
starting with their molecular equations.
4. Oxidation and reduction reactions involve the transfer
of electrons from one substance to another.
• Determine whether a chemical reaction
involves oxidation and reduction.
• Assign oxidation numbers to atoms in
molecules and ions.
• Use the activity series to predict whether a
reaction will occur when a metal is added to
an aqueous solution; and write the balanced
molecular and net ionic equations for the
reaction.
5. Solutions have variable composition.
• Calculate the molarity, solution volume, or
number of moles of solute given any two of
these quantities.
• Calculate the volume of a more concentrated
solution that must be diluted to obtain a
given quantity of more dilute solution.
• Calculate the volume of a solution required to
react with a volume of a different solution
using molarity and the stoichiometry of the
reaction.
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
C. Equilibrium
1. A state of chemical equilibrium exists when both
forward and reverse reactions are proceeding at
equal rates and concentrations of reactants and
products, pressure, volume, and temperature do not
change with time.
• Write the equilibrium expression for a
balanced chemical equation.
• Calculate equilibrium concentrations from
equilibrium constant and vice versa. (Kc,
Kp)
• Calculate the reaction quotient, Q, and
determine whether a reaction is at
equilibrium.
• Explain how the relative equilibrium
quantities of reactants and products are
shifted by changes in temperature, pressure,
or the concentrations of substances in the
equilibrium reaction.
• Explain how the change in equilibrium
constant with change in temperature is
related to the enthalpy change in the
reaction.
• Describe the effect of catalyst on a system as it
approaches equilibrium.
• Calculate the pH for a weak acidic or a basic
solutions, given the acid or base
concentration and Ka or Kb ; calculate Ka or
Kb given acid or base concentration and pH.
• Calculate the percent ionization for an acid or
base.
A P PHYSICS B
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
Kinematics in one dimension
1. Motion can be described using displacement, velocity,
time, and acceleration.
• Calculate the location of an object as a function
of time using appropriate kinematics
equations.
Kinematics in two dimensions
1. One and two dimensional motion can be analyzed
using vector analysis, appropriate equations, and
coordinate systems.
• Calculate x and y components of an object’s
motion.
• Analyze the motion of a projectile.
Newton's laws of motion
1. Newton's laws of motion include: systems in static
equilibrium (first law), dynamics of a single particle
(second law), and systems of two or more bodies
(third law).
• Determine the result of net force on different
bodies.
• Compute force(s) needed to maintain
equilibrium.
Work, energy, and power
1. A relationship between work and energy exists and
total energy is conserved.
• Make calculations using Conservation of
Energy.
• Discriminate between energy and power when
running or walking up a flight of stairs.
Impulse and momentum
1. A relationship exists between momentum and
impulse and total momentum is conserved.
• Using conservation of momentum, analyze
collisions between two bodies.
Circular motion and rotation
1. Uniform and non-uniform circular motion can be
analyzed using Newton's second law.
• Demonstrate the difference between uniform
and non-uniform circular motion.
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
Rotational kinematics and dynamics
1. Rotational kinematics and dynamics are analogs of
linear kinematics and dynamics.
• Determine the result of net torque on different
bodies.
• Compute torque(s) to maintain equilibrium.
Gravitation
1. The gravitational force between two objects is
dependent on the masses of two objects and the
distance between them their centers.
• Calculate the acceleration due to gravity on
another planet.
• Using Universal Gravitation, determine an
elliptical orbit using initial location and
velocity.
Oscillations
1. Oscillations occur in all systems which support simple
harmonic motion.
• Determine the relationships between potential
and kinetic energy for a mass on a spring or
a physical pendulum.
Temperature and heat
1. Thermodynamics is the relationship between
macroscopically measurable quantities and the
properties of large numbers of individual particles.
• Compare calculated values of specific and
latent heat with measured values.
• Investigate the thermal expansion of
materials.
• Apply the kinetic model to relevant
atmospheric events.
• Explain the operation of a four-cycle engine in
terms of the laws of thermodynamics.
• Differentiate between different heat engines.
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
Electrostatics and dynamics
1. Electric Fields can be described by the forces they
apply (both magnitude and direction) or energy
they supply to charged particles in the fields.
• Using Coulomb's law, investigate the electric
force between two charged particles at
given distances to each other.
• Using the electric field strength, investigate
the electric force between two charged
particles at given distances to each other.
Electric circuits
1. Electric circuits occur when charged particles are
forced to move by an external electric field.
• Construct a simple DC circuit and measure the
defining values.
2. Electric circuits are defined by current (electric
charges/time), voltage, and resistance.
• Create a parallel plate capacitor and determine
its characteristics.
Magnetostatics
1. Magnetic Fields can be described by the forces they
apply (both magnitude and direction) or energy
they supply to charged particles.
• Compare the measured and calculated values
of magnetic forces on moving charges.
• Compare the measured and calculated values
of forces on current carrying wires in
magnetic fields.
A P PHYSICS B
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
Kinematics in one dimension
1. Motion can be described using displacement, velocity,
time, and acceleration.
• Calculate the location of an object as a function
of time using appropriate kinematics
equations.
Kinematics in two dimensions
1. One and two dimensional motion can be analyzed
using vector analysis, appropriate equations, and
coordinate systems.
• Calculate x and y components of an object’s
motion.
• Analyze the motion of a projectile.
Newton's laws of motion
1. Newton's laws of motion include: systems in static
equilibrium (first law), dynamics of a single particle
(second law), and systems of two or more bodies
(third law).
• Determine the result of net force on different
bodies.
• Compute force(s) needed to maintain
equilibrium.
Work, energy, and power
1. A relationship between work and energy exists and
total energy is conserved.
• Make calculations using Conservation of
Energy.
• Discriminate between energy and power when
running or walking up a flight of stairs.
Impulse and momentum
1. A relationship exists between momentum and
impulse and total momentum is conserved.
• Using conservation of momentum, analyze
collisions between two bodies.
• Calculate center of mass for a regular
geometric shape.
Circular motion and rotation
1. Uniform and non-uniform circular motion can be
analyzed using Newton's second law.
• Demonstrate the difference between uniform
and non-uniform circular motion.
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
Rotational kinematics and dynamics
1. Rotational kinematics and dynamics are analogs of
linear kinematics and dynamics.
• Determine the result of net torque on different
bodies.
• Compute torque(s) to maintain equilibrium.
Angular momentum and its conservation
1. A relationship exists between moments of inertia
and angular momentum and angular momentum is
conserved.
• Calculate the moments of inertia and angular
momentum for point particles and extended
bodies.
Oscillations and gravitation
1. Gravitational force is dependent on the masses of two
objects and the distance between them.
• Calculate the acceleration due to gravity on
another planet.
• Determine an elliptical orbit using initial
location and velocity with universal
gravity.
Oscillations
1. Oscillations occur in all systems which support simple
harmonic motion.
• Determine the relationships between potential
and kinetic energy for a mass on a spring or
a physical pendulum.
STUDENTS SHOULD KNOW
EXAMPLES OF WHAT STUDENTS
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO
Electricity and magnetism
1. Electric Fields can be described by the forces they
apply (both magnitude and direction) or energy
they supply to charged particles in the fields.
• Using Coulomb's law, investigate the electric
force between two charged particles at
given distances to each other.
• Given charge distributions, calculate
properties of fields in planar, spherical, and
cylindrical symmetry (Gauss’s Law).
Electric circuits
1. Electric circuits occur when charged particles are
forced to move by an external electric field.
• Construct a simple DC circuit and measure the
defining values.
2. Electric circuits are defined by current (electric
charges/time), voltage, and resistance.
• Create a parallel plate capacitor and determine
its characteristics.
• Calculate the characteristics of cylindrical and
spherical capacitors.
• Determine the time constant of a DC circuit
containing only a resistor and a capacitor.
Magnetostatics
1. Magnetic Fields can be described by the forces they
apply (both magnitude and direction) or energy
they supply to charged particles.
• Compare the measured and calculated values
of magnetic forces on moving charges.
• Compare the measured and calculated values
of forces on current carrying wires in
magnetic fields.
• Define the characteristics of a magnetic field
created by a moving electric charge using
Biotsavart and Ampere’s Law.
Electromagnetism
1. There is an interaction between time varying electric
and magnetic fields.
• Demonstrate that time varying electric fields
create magnetic fields and time varying
magnetic fields create electric fields.
• Compare the actual and calculated values for
LR and LC circuits.
• Demonstrate an understanding of the laws of
electricity and magnetism called Maxwell’s
equations.
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