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Spectrum Analyzer Solutions
Application Introduction
Spectrum analyzers are used to measure the magnitude of the input signal versus frequency within the full frequency range of the instrument. Distortion,
harmonics, bandwidth, and other spectral components of a signal can be observed by analyzing the spectrum of electrical signals that are not easily detectable
in time domain waveforms. These parameters are useful to characterize electronic devices, such as wireless transmitters. Spectrum analyzers are also used in
electromagnetic interference (EMI) compliance testing.
System Design Considerations and Major Challenges
With innovations in technology, spectrum analyzers now have frequency requirements up to tens of GHz range. The first challenge for spectrum analyzer
designers is to find a good enough component to cover such a wide bandwidth. Moreover, designers may need to add different signal paths for different bands
or extra stages.
The second challenge for spectrum analyzer designers is to control the noise floor of the system to meet the market requirements of improving the system’s
dynamic range. However, using more digital signal processing and RF signal processing increases the radiated noise. So it is more difficult to get clean signals.
Solutions from ADI
ADI Solution Value Proposition
• One stop shopping to provide the broadest product portfolio, from digital to RF components, such as phase-locked loops (PLL), mixers, power detectors,
ADCs, DACs, amplifiers, and digital signal processors.
• Extensive RF design resources, like easy-to-use simulation tools (ADIsimPLL™
, ADIsimRF™
, ADIsimSRD™
, ADIsimCLK™), the RF forum in ADI’s EngineerZone™
site, and fully populated evaluation boards.
• ADI’s product compatibility supports design migration across multiple platforms, such as pin compatible high speed ADCs for different sample rates and
resolutions.
System Block Diagram
A.This is the system overview of a spectrum analyzer. Generally, it can be divided by 3 major subsystems, as shown in the diagram below. The first subsystem
is the power chain subsystem. The second subsystem is the RF front-end signal processing subsystem. The third subsystem is the back-end signal
conversion, processing, and control subsystem.
POWER CHAIN
V1
V2
DC-TO-DC CONVERSION
110/220 VAC
A1. AC-TO-DC
CONVERSION
BATTERY VDC
A2. SWITCHING
CONTROLLER
A4. LINEAR
REGULATOR
A3. SWITCHING
REGULATOR
A5. PMU
B. RF FRONT END SIGNAL PROCESSING
SIGNAL
SWITCHING
AND
SCALING
NETWORK
RF POWER
DETECTION
FREQUENCY
SYNTHESIZERS
A6. POWER RAILS
MONITORING AND
SEQUENCING
C. BACK END SIGNAL CONVERSION,
PROCESSING, AND CONTROL
TEST SIGNAL
GENERATION
MULTI STAGE
DOWN
CONVERSION
V3
V4
ANALOG TO
DIGITAL
CONVERSION
DIGITAL
SIGNAL
PROCESSING
AND
CONTROL
(FPGA+DSP)
LOW JITTER CLOCK
GENERATION AND
DISTRIBUTION
instrumentation.analog.com
A7. DIGITAL
INTERFACE
ISOLATION
EXTERNAL
COMMUNICATION
AND HUMAN
MACHINE
INTERFACE
A1. Digital Power
Management for
AC-to-DC Conversion
A2. Switching
Controller
A3. Switching
Regulator
A4. Linear Regulator
A5. Power
Management
Unit(PMU)
A6. Power Rails
Monitoring
A7. Digital Interface
Isolation
ADP1043A/ADP1047/
ADP1048
ADP1850
ADP2323/
ADP2301
ADP150/ADP151/
ADP7102/ADP7104
ADP5040/
ADP5041
ADM13305/
ADM13307
ADuM3160/
ADuM7441
B.The diagram below shows the second subsystem: RF front-end signal processing. ADI RF components offer the differential architecture to minimize noise.
In addition, low power consumption coupled with high linearity provides an optimum solution for portable spectrum analyzers. To compensate for drift over
temperature, such as in oscillators (TCXO/OCXO), ADI’s temperature sensors can be very accurate, less than 1°C over the entire temperature range.
GAIN
SETTING
SIGNALS
SELF-TEST
SIGNALS
B4.
PASSIVE
OR ACTIVE
MIXER
EXTERNAL
INPUT
SIGNAL
SIGNAL
SWITCHING
B4.
PASSIVE
OR ACTIVE
MIXER
FILTER
BASEBAND
SIGNALS
FILTER
RF
IF
PRE-AMP
B5. VARIABLE
GAIN AMPLIFIER
OR
ATTENUATOR
B5. VARIABLE
GAIN AMPLIFIER
OR
ATTENUATOR
B3.
RF AMP
B3.
RF AMP
B2.
FREQUENCY
SYNTHESIZER
(OTHER STAGES)
B2.
FREQUENCY
SYNTHESIZER
(OTHER STAGES)
B3.
RF AMP
B1. FREQUENCY
SYNTHESIZER WITH
TRANSLATION LOOP
(FIRST STAGE)
B7.
TEMPERATURE
SENSING FOR
COMPEN SATION
B4.
PASSIVE
OR ACTIVE
MIXER
B6. POWER
DETECTOR
POWER DETECTOR
OUTPUT SIGNALS
B1. Frequency Synthesizer
with Translation Loop
(First Stage)
B2. Frequency
Synthesizer
(Other Stages)
B3. RF Amplifier
B4. Passive or
Active Mixer
B5. Variable
Gain Amplifier or
Attenuator
B6. Power Detector
B7. Temperature
Sensor for
Compensation
ADF4108/ADF41020/
AD9912/3/ADL5801
ADF4350
ADF4351
ADL5541/
ADL5542
ADL5801
ADL5240/
ADL5201
ADL5513/
ADL5902
ADT7310/ADT7410/
ADT7320/ADT7420
C.The diagram below shows the third subsystem: back-end signal conversion, processing, and control. ADI’s data converter portfolio includes a broad range of
high speed and precision ADCs and DACs for signal conversion, generation, and system control. ADI also has an expanding portfolio of fixed-point DSPs and
floating-point DSPs for a wide variety of general-purpose and application-specific needs. In addition, ADI offers ultra-low jitter clock distribution and clock
generation products for sub-picosecond performance. These are ideal for clocking high performance ADCs and DACs (see AN-756 shown at the end of this
document).
C1.
LOW JITTER CLOCK
GENERATION AND
DISTRIBUTION
BASEBAND
SIGNALS
FILTER
C3.
HIGH SPEED
ADC
C2.
DIFFERENTIAL
ADC DRIVER
POWER DETECTOR
OUTPUT SIGNALS
2 | Spectrum Analyzer Solutions
C6.
PRECISION
ADC FOR
SIGNAL
MONITORING
FPGA
C4.
DIGITAL
SIGNAL
PROCESSOR
C5.
TEST SIGNAL
GENERATION
TEST
SIGNALS
C1. Low Jitter Clock Generation and
Distribution
C2. Differential ADC
Driver
C3. High Speed ADC
C4. Digital Signal
Processor
C5. Test Signal
Generation
C6. Precision ADC for
Signal Monitoring
AD9510/AD9511/AD9512/AD9513/AD9514/
AD9515/AD9516/AD9517/AD9518/
AD9520/AD9523/AD9524/
ADCLK846
ADL5561/
ADL5562/
ADL5565
AD9255/AD9265/
AD9446/AD9460/
AD9461/AD9649
ADSP2126x/
ADSP21469/
ADSP-BF526
ADF4350/
ADF4351
AD7291/
ADuC7023
Note: The signal chains above are representative of spectrum analyzer design. The technical requirements of the blocks vary, but the products listed in the table below are representative of ADI's solutions that meet some of those requirements.
Major Product Introductions
Part Number
Description
Key Specs and Features
180 degrees out of phase operation; current limit
adjustable; precision enable
Benefits
Sync input/output and phase shift function for low noise
design, achieve high efficiency with low side MOSFET and
low cost with Schottky diode
ADP2323
20 V, dual, 3 A, synchronous
step-down regulator
ADP7102/
ADP7104
Low noise performance, 15 μV rms for fixed voltage
20 V, ultralow noise, 300 mA and
output, high PSRR 60 dB at 10 kHz, reverse current
500 mA LDO
protection, wide voltage input range 3.3 V to 20 V
ADP5041
Power management unit (PMU)
One 1.2 A buck, two 300 mA LDOs, supervisory,
watchdog, manual reset
Integration makes design easier and BOM cost lower
ADF4108
Frequency synthesizer
Integer-N PLL, 0.5 GHz to 8 GHz RF bandwidth,
–219 dBC/Hz normalized phase noise
Programmable charge pump current and prescaler values
ADL5541/
ADL5542
Wideband amplifier (gain block)
Fixed gain of 15 dB/20 dB, 50 MHz to 6 GHz
Wideband, input/output internally matched to 50 Ω
ADL5801
High IP3 active mixer
+27 dBm input IP3, +12.5 dBm input P1dB,
+1.5 dB power gain
Wideband RF, LO, and IF ports, single-channel
up/down converter
ADL5513
Logarithmic detector/controller
Wide bandwidth: 1 MHz to 4 GHz, 80 dB dynamic range
(±3 dB), sensitivity: −70 dBm
Wide bandwidth, constant dynamic range over frequency
power-down feature: 1 mW @ 5 V
ADL5240
Digitally controlled variable
gain amplifier
31.5 dB gain control range with 0.25 dB step accuracy,
6-bit 0.5 dB digital step attenuator
Both serial and parallel interface, wideband from 100 MHz
to 4 GHz, gain block or digital attenuator can be first
ADCLK846
Clock fanout buffer
6 LVDS/12 CMOS outputs, 100 fs additive
broadband jitter
Selectable LVDS/CMOS outputs, low power operation
AD9255
14-bit 125 MSPS/105 MSPS/
80 MSPS LVDS 1.8 V ADC
SNR 78 dBFS at 70 MHz and 125 MSPS, 371 mW at
125 MSPS, IF sampling up to 300 MHz
Integer 1 to 8 clock divider, low power consumption,
power-down mode, CMOS or LVDS output
ADSP-2126x
Digital processor
(floating-point SHARC DSP)
150 MHz/200 MHz floating-point DSP, 1 Mbit/2 Mbit
on-chip RAM
Low cost floating-point DSP
ADSP-21469
Digital processor
(floating-point SHARC DSP)
400 MHz floating-point DSP, 5 Mbit on-chip RAM
High performance floating-point DSP
Improves performance of noise sensitive loads
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Design Resources
Circuits from the Lab™
• Very Low Jitter Sampling Clocks for High Speed Analog-to-Digital Converters Using the ADF4002 PLL (CN0003)—www.analog.com/CN0003
• Powering a Fractional-N Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) with Low Noise LDO Regulators for Reduced Phase Noise (CN0147)—www.analog.com/CN0147
• Powering the AD9268, Dual Channel, 16-Bit, 125 MSPS Analog-to-Digital Converter with the ADP2114 Synchronous Step-Down DC-to-DC Regulator for
Increased Efficiency (CN0137)—www.analog.com/CN0137
Application Notes/Articles
• Super-Nyquist Operation of the AD9912 Yields a High RF Output Signal (AN-939)—www.analog.com/AN-939
• Sampled Systems and the Effects of Clock Phase Noise and Jitter (AN-756)—www.analog.com/AN-756
• "Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) Control Waveforms in Test, Measurement, and Communications." Analog Dialogue, Volume 39, August 2005,
www.analog.com/library/AnalogDialogue
Design Tools/Forums
• ADIsimPLL™: PLL design and simulation—www.analog.com/ADIsimPLL
• ADIsimRF™: Easy-to-use RF signal chain calculator; cascaded gain, noise figure, IP3, P1dB, and total power consumption calculations—
www.analog.com/ADIsimRF
• DiffAmpCalc™: ADI’s differential amplifier calculator—www.analog.com/diffampcalc
• EngineerZone™: Online Technical Support Community—ez.analog.com
To View Additional Signal Generator Resources, Tools, and Product Information,
Please Visit instrumentation.analog.com
Customer Interaction Center
Technical Hotline 1-800-419-0108 (India)
1-800-225-5234 (Singapore)
0800-055-085 (Taiwan)
82-2-2155-4200 (Korea)
Email [email protected]
EngineerZone ez.analog.com
Free Sample www.analog.com/sample
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Analog Devices, Inc.
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Norwood, MA 02062-9106
U.S.A.
Tel: 781.329.4700
(800.262.5643,
U.S.A. only)
Fax: 781.461.3113
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Fax: 49.89.76903.157
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Analog Devices, KK
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Analog Devices
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Shanghai, 200021
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Fax: 86.21.2320.8222
©2012 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved.
Trademarks and registered trademarks are the
property of their respective owners.
BR10721-0-4/12
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