adi-rfsignal-solutions en

adi-rfsignal-solutions en
RF Signal Source Solutions
Application Introduction
RF signal sources are used to create test waveforms at radio frequencies. Some of their common applications are to test if a new radio platform works or if
the handsets coming off a production line are performing as they should. RF signal sources can be used to create simple waveforms such as sine waves
or complex, modulated waveforms that look like the return echoes from ultrasound or sonar equipment.
System Design Considerations and Major Challenges
With innovations in technology, RF applications now have frequency requirements in the GHz range, and modulation techniques have become more
complicated due to both analog and digital approaches. In addition, there are more RF communication standards in the industry.
The first challenge for the RF signal source designers is to implement the various RF test signals in a single system. For example, an RF signal source may
need to provide a broad range of outputs, such as FM, FSK, QAM, WCDMA, and LTE signals. The required bandwidth to support these RF test signals now
becomes much wider. It is hard to find the components that support the wide bandwidth, good linearity, and low noise performance of these standards.
Moreover, designers may need to add different signal paths for different bands.
The second challenge for the RF signal source designer is to control the noise floor of the system. Using more digital signal processing and RF signal processing
increases the system’s radiated noise. Additional signal paths also add to the noise caused by crosstalk. Therefore, it is more difficult to get clean outputs.
The third challenge for the RF signal source designer is ever-increasing system capability and flexibility. A signal source also needs to support the external
clock input and modulation input to meet end users’ test purposes, such as synchronization. The system is also required to be compatible with such
interfaces as USB, GPIB, Ethernet, and RS-232.
Solutions from ADI
ADI solution value proposition:
• One-stop shopping to provide the broadest product portfolio, from
digital to RF components, such as phase lock loops (PLL), mixers,
power detectors, ADCs, DACs, amplifiers, and digital signal processors.
• Extensive RF design resources, like easy-to-use simulation tools
, ADIsimRF™
, ADIsimSRD™
, ADIsimCLK™), the RF forum in
(ADIsimPLL™
ADI’s EngineerZone™ web site, and fully-populated evaluation boards.
• ADI’s product compatibility supports design migration across multiple
platforms, such as the pin compatible high speed ADCs for different
sample rates and resolutions.
• On-chip integration optimizes signal chain performance and minimizes
board space, BOM cost, and power consumption, such as the power
management unit (PMU) integrating the linear regulator, the switching
regulator, and supervisory functions.
• Circuits from the Lab™ reference circuits are engineered and tested for
quick and easy system integration to help solve today's analog,
mixed-signal, and RF design challenges. Web-based design tools
optimize performance of custom designs. Some Web-based examples
are shown at the end of this document.
System Block Diagram
Generally an RF signal source can be divided into the five subsystems shown below:
A. RF signal chains to generate the modulated RF outputs: ADI’s RF design focuses on the high performance and low power solutions. The differential
architecture minimizes the noise. The low power consumption coupled with the high linearity provides an optimum solution.
B2.
B2.
DAC
DAC
VARIABLE
A3. A3.
VARIABLE
GAIN
AMPLIFIER
GAIN
AMPLIFIER
CLOCK
CLOCK
A1.
A1.
FREQUENCY
FREQUENCY
SYNTHESIZER
SYNTHESIZER
A1.
A1.
FREQUENCY
FREQUENCY
SYNTHESIZER
SYNTHESIZER
LPF
A2.
A2.
MODULATOR
MODULATOR
BPF
RF OUT1
BPF
BPF
A4. MIXER
A4. MIXER
B1.
B1.
WAVEFORM
WAVEFORM
PROCESSOR
PROCESSOR
CLOCK
CLOCK
A1. Frequency Synthesizer
ADF4106/ADF4107/ADF4108
ADF4150/ADF4153/ADF4156/ADF4158
ADF4350/ADF4351
B2.
B2.
DAC
DAC
RF OUT 1
LPF
LPF
A5.WIDEBAND
WIDEBAND
A5.
AMPLIFIER
AMPLIFIER
COUPLER
COUPLER
LPF
CLOCK
CLOCK
B4.ANALOG
B4.ANALOG
MICROMICRO
CONTROLLER
CONTROLLER
DAC
DAC
MCU
MCU
ADC
ADC
A6. POWER
POWER
A6.
DETECTOR
DETECTOR
A2. Quadrature Modulator
A3. Variable Gain Amplifier
A4. Mixer
A5. Wideband Amplifier
A6. Power Detector
ADL5370/ADL5371/ADL5372/
ADL5373/ADL5374/ADL5375
ADL5385/ADL5386
ADL5240/ADL5243
ADL5201/ADL5202
ADL5801
ADL5350
ADL5541/ADL5542
ADL5530
ADL5501/ADL5502
ADL5513/ADL5519
instrumentation.analog.com
B. External modulation input to generate the RF outputs via the data converters and processors: ADI’s data converter portfolio includes a broad range of
innovative ADCs and DACs. ADI also has an expanding portfolio of fixed-point DSPs, floating-point DSPs, and analog microcontrollers for a wide variety of
general-purpose and application-specific needs.
EXTERNAL
MODULATION INPUT
B6.
ADC
B5. ADC DRIVER
B1.
WAVEFORM
PROCESSOR
A1. FREQUENCY
SYNTHESIZER
RF OUT2
B2.
DAC
LPF
BPF
A4. MIXER
LPF
COUPLER
B4. ANALOG
MICROCONTROLLER
DAC
MCU
ADC
A6. POWER
DETECTOR
COUPLER
RF OUT3
B3.
DDS
LPF
BPF
A4. MIXER
A3. VARIABLE
GAIN AMPLIFIER
A5. WIDEBAND
AMPLIFIER
B2. DAC
B3. DDS
B4. Analog
Microcontroller
B5. ADC Driver
B6. ADC
AD9122/AD9125
AD9780/AD9781/
AD9783
AD9957/AD9959
AD9913
ADuC7023
ADA4927/ADA4930/
ADA4937/ADA4960
ADL5201/ADL5202
AD9255/AD9258
AD9467
B1. Waveform Processor
ADSP-BF51x
ADSP-2126x
LPF
C. Clock generation and distribution: ADI offers ultralow jitter clock distribution and clock generation products for sub-picosecond performance. These are
ideal for clocking high performance ADCs and DACs (See AN-501 and AN-756 shown in the end of this document). In addition, ADI’s accurate temperature
sensors and nanoDAC® devices can compensate the oscillators (TCXO/OCXO) well.
EXTERNAL
CLOCK INPUT
ADC SAMPLING CLOCK
C1. CLOCK
GENERATION AND
DISTRIBUTION
INTERNAL
TCXO/OCXO
C2. TEMPERATURE
COMPENSATION
C1. Clock Generation and Distribution
AD9516/AD9517/AD9518
ADCLK846
2
|
RF Signal Source Solutions
DAC CLOCK
DDS CLOCK
FPGA CLOCK
DSP CLOCK
C3. FREQUENCY
CALIBRATION
C2. Temperature Compensation
C3. Frequency Calibration DAC
ADT7320/ADT7420
ADT7310/ADT7410
AD5060/AD5061/AD5062/AD5063
AD5620/AD5640/AD5660
D. Power generation and management: ADI designs power products to complement signal chains where signal integrity requires an efficient power
design. The growing portfolio continues ADI’s 45-year tradition of reliability, innovation, performance, and value in signal processing ICs.
D2.
SWITCHING
REGULATOR
AC-TO-DC
110V/220V AC
D1.
SWITCHING
CONTROLLER
V1
D4. POWER
SEQUENCING
D5. POWER
SUPERVISORY
D3. LOW
NOISE LINEAR
REGULATOR
V2
V3
D6. PMU
D1. Switching Controller
ADP1870
D2. Switching Regulator
D3. Low Noise Linear
Regulator
D4. Power Sequencing
D5. Power Supervisory
D6. PMU
(Power Management Unit)
ADP2114/ADP2116
ADP2323
ADP150
ADP320/ADP322/ADP323
ADM1085/ADM1086/
ADM1087
ADM1191/ADM1192
ADM13305/ADM13307
ADP5034
ADP5040/ADP5041/
ADP5042/ADP5043
E. Data and power isolation: Digital isolators with iCoupler® technology enable designers to implement isolation in designs without the cost, size, power,
performance, and reliability constraints found with optocouplers.
CS#
SCLK
E1. SPI
ISOLATION
TX
E2. UART (RS-232)
ISOLATION
SDI
RX
SDO
VDD1
D+
E3. USB
ISOLATION
E1. SPI Isolation
VDD2
E4. POWER
ISOLATION
D–
E2. UART (RS-232) Isolation
E3. USB Isolation
E4. Power Isolation
ADM3251E
ADuM1201
ADuM3160/ADuM4160
ADuM5000/ADuM6000
ADuM3471
ADuM1411
Note: The signal chains above are representative of signal generator design. The technical requirements of the blocks vary, but the products listed in the
table below are representative of ADI's solutions that meet some of those requirements.
Major Product Introduction
Part Number
Description
Key Specifications and Features
Benefit
ADF4108
Frequency synthesizer
Integer-N PLL, 0.5 GHz to 8 GHz RF bandwidth, –219 dBC/Hz
normalized phase noise
ADL5375
Quadrature modulator
Noise floor: –160 dBm/Hz @ 900 MHz, carrier feedthrough:
–46 dBm @ 900 MHz
Wideband from 400 MHz to 6 GHz
ADL5385
Quadrature modulator
Noise floor: –159 dBm/Hz @ 350 MHz, carrier feedthrough:
–46 dBm @ 350 MHz
Wideband from 50 MHz to 2.2 GHz
ADL5240
Digital controlled variable gain amplifier
31.5 dB gain control range with 0.25 dB step accuracy
Both serial and parallel interface, wideband from 100 MHz to 4 GHz
ADL5801
High IP3 active mixer
+27 dBm input IP3, +12.5 dBm input P1dB, +1.5 dB power gain
Wideband RF, LO, and IF ports, single channel up/downconverter
ADL5541/
ADL5542
Wideband amplifier (gain block)
Fixed gain of 15 dB to 20 dB, 50 MHz to 6 GHz
Wideband, input/output internally matched to 50 Ω
ADL5501
TruPwr ™ rms power detector
50 MHz to 6 GHz, 30 dB input dynamic range, small SC70 package
True rms detector, waveform and modulation independent
Programmable charge pump current and pre-scaler values
instrumentation.analog.com
| 3
Part Number
Description
Key Specifications and Features
Benefit
ADSP-BF51x
Waveform processor (fixed-point
Blackfin DSP)
400 MHz DSP, 116 kB on-chip RAM, on-chip RTC, Ethernet MAC
400 MHz DSP, IEEE 1588 Ethernet supported
(10/100) with IEEE 1588 supported
ADSP-2126x
Waveform processor (floating-point
SHARC DSP)
150 MHz to 200 MHz float-point DSP, 1 Mbit/2 Mbit on-chip RAM
Low cost floating-point DSP
AD9122
Dual, 16-bit, 1 GSPS DAC
Flexible LVDS interface, integrated 2 × /4 × /8 × interpolator
Gain, dc offset, and phase adjustment for sideband suppression
AD9780/AD9781/
AD9783
Dual, 12-bit/14-bit/16-bit, 500 MSPS
LVDS input DAC
Integrate four 10-bit aux DACs for gain and offset adjustment,
Pin compatibility makes migration across different platforms
programmable full-scale output currents from 8.6 mA to 31.7 mA easy, integration reduces complexity
AD9957
1 GSPS DDS with quadrature digital
upconverter
1 GSPS DDS, 14-bit DAC, 18-bit I/Q data path, reference clock
multiplier
Quadrature modulation can generate modulated signals,
integration reduces complexity
ADuC7023
Precision analog microcontroller
12-bit ADC/DAC, ARM7TDMI MCU
Small package, low cost
AD9255/AD9258
14-bit, 125 MSPS/105 MSPS/80 MSPS
LVDS 1.8 V ADC
SNR: 78 dBFS at 70 MHz and 125 MSPS, 371 mW at 125
MSPS, IF sampling up to 300 MHz
Integer 1-to-8 clock divider, low power consumption, power
down mode, CMOS or LVDS output
ADCLK846
Clock fanout buffer
6 LVDS/12 CMOS outputs, 100 fs additive broadband jitter
Selectable LVDS/CMOS outputs, low power operation
Digital temperature sensor
±0.25˚C accuracy from -20˚C to 105˚C, 16-bit resolution
(0.0078˚C)
No calibration required, over/undertemperature interrupt
ADP2114
2-channel step-down regulator
Configurable, dual 2 A/single 4 A, light load pulse skip mode to
improve efficiency
Synchronous, optimized gate drive slew rate to support noise
sensitive analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters
ADP5041
Power management unit (PMU)
One 1.2 A buck, two 300 mA LDOs, supervisory, watchdog,
manual reset
Integration makes design smaller and BOM cost lower
ADM1191/
ADM1192
I2C power monitor
12-bit ADC for current and voltage readback, power from
3.15 V to 26 V
ALERT output can be used as an interrupt or a basic hot swap
ADuM4160/
ADuM3160
5 kV/2.5 kV USB isolator
Full/low speed, upstream short circuit protection
Bidirectional communication, enhanced ESD per IEC 61000-4-x
ADuM6000/
ADuM5000
5 kV/2.5 kV isolated dc-to-dc converter
Regulated 3.3 V or 5 V output, high temperature operation:
105˚C maximum
isoPower®, safety and regulatory approvals
ADT7320/
ADT7420
Design Resources
Circuits From The Lab™
• Interfacing the ADL5375 I/Q Modulator to the AD9779A Dual-Channel, 1 GSPS High Speed DAC (CN0021)—www.analog.com/CN0021
• Interfacing the ADL5371 I/Q Modulator to the AD9779A Dual-Channel, 1 GSPS High Speed DAC (CN0017)—www.analog.com/CN0017
• Powering a Fractional-N Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) with Low Noise LDO Regulators for Reduced Phase Noise (CN0147)—www.analog.com/CN0147
• Very Low Jitter Sampling Clocks for High Speed Analog-to-Digital Converters Using the ADF4002 PLL (CN0003)—www.analog.com/CN0003
• Powering a Fractional-N Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) with Low Noise LDO Regulators for Reduced Phase Noise (CN0134)—www.analog.com/CN0134
• Broadband Low Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) Direct Conversion Transmitter Using LO Divide-by-2 Modulator (CN0144)—www.analog.com/CN0144
• Amplitude Control Circuit for AD9834 Waveform Generator (DDS) (CN0156)—www.analog.com/CN0156
Application Notes/Articles
• Super-Nyquist Operation of the AD9912 Yields a High RF Output Signal (AN-939)—www.analog.com/AN-939
• Aperture Uncertainty and ADC System Performance (AN-501)—www.analog.com/AN-501
• Sampled Systems and the Effects of Clock Phase Noise and Jitter (AN-756)—www.analog.com/AN-756
• “Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) Control Waveforms in Test, Measurement, and Communications.” Analog Dialogue, Volume 39, August 2005,
www.analog.com/library/analogDialogue/cd/vol39n3.pdf
Design Tools/Forums
• ADIsimPLL: www.analog.com/ADIsimPLL
• ADIsimRF: Easy-to-use RF Signal Chain Calculator. Cascaded Gain, Noise Figure, IP3 and P1dB as well as Total Power Consumption Are Calculated —
www.analog.com/ADIsimRF
• DiffAmpCalc : ADI’s Differential Amplifier Calculator —www.analog.com/diffampcalc
• EngineerZone: Online Technical Support Community —ez.analog.com
To view additional signal generator resources, tools, and product information,
please visit: instrumentation.analog.com
©2011 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved.
Trademarks and registered trademarks are the
property of their respective owners.
Printed in China
BR10261-x-9/11
Customer Interaction Center [email protected]
EngineerZone ez.analog.com
Free Sample www.analog.com/sample
instrumentation.analog.com
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement