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adi-mri-solution en
Project Code: APM-MRI-2013
ADI’s Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Solutions
MRI System Theory and Typical Architecture
Magnetic resonance imaging is a non-invasive imaging technology to generate anatomical and functional images of the human body with no ionizing radiation.
MRI generates images with excellent soft tissue contrast and, thus, is particularly useful for neurological, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and oncological
imaging. The signals are detected from hydrogen nuclei in water or fat molecules, and the signal acquisition is based on the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic
resonance, which deals with the interactions between nuclear spin and magnetic fields. The signal localization is achieved by the application of linear gradients of
a magnetic field.
The generation of MRI images is a result of the sophisticated interaction between magnet, gradient system, and radio frequency (RF) system that interface
with a computer system for communication between the different electronics. Gradient coils are used for localization of the MRI signal in three dimensions
(x, y, and z). They are operated via a high power amplifier, which is controlled by the gradient control module. The RF system serves two main purposes.
Transmitting the RF energy to the tissues to be imaged is one of the purposes, and the other is receiving the RF signal that is induced by the tissues in response to
the transmitted energy. The RF transmitter contains four main components: a frequency synthesizer (DAC or DDS), the optional digital envelope of RF
frequencies (mixer), a high power amplifier, and an RF coil. The RF receiver contains an RF coil, a preamplifier (LNA), the optional demodulator (mixer), bandpass
filter, further amplification (VGA), and analog-to-digital converter (ADC).
MRI System Design Considerations and Major Challenges
• Low noise performance is always the first consideration in MRI system design. The RF transmit path (Tx), RF receive path (Rx), and gradient control path all
need a very low noise floor, so low noise amplifiers, higher resolution DAC and ADC, and low phase noise clocking must be selected in all the signal chains
of an MRI system. From the system view, the dynamic range should be larger than 90 dB; the distortion should be better than −40 dBc; and total receiver
noise figure should be less than 1 dB or closer to 0.5 dB. In order to get such system performance, the LNA noise figure should be less than 0.5 dB typically,
16-bit ADC is required for Rx, and 16-bit Tx DAC is required for Tx. High resolution should be taken into consideration during signal chain and power design,
especially for laboratory instruments.
• The fast response time (a few microseconds) and very precise control are important for the gradient control. As the gradient amplifier current can be as
high as 1000 A and must be controlled with 1 mA, which is on the order of 1 ppm, so the precision DAC is required for the analog gradient control and a
very precise ADC (about 21 ENOB) is required by digital gradient control.
• The primary consideration in magnet quality is the homogeneity or uniformity. A typical MRI system must have less than 10 ppm variation over the imaging
area. To prevent the image distortions caused by inhomogeneity, many MRI systems use a coil known as a shim coil to correct for them.
In traditional MRI systems is, the receive (Rx) electronics are located outside the room, the low level analog signals are sent to Rx electronics from the
coil assembly over long coax, which is susceptible to interference. Recently, advances in high speed and resolution ADCs that are small size, low power
consumption in non-magnetic packages have allowed system designers to migrate more channels of Rx electronics inside the room over fiber links, which
provides lower interference, fast scans, and improved image quality for the system.
Total Solutions from ADI
ADI provides an extensive selection of amplifier, data conversion, signal processing, and power management solutions to maximize image quality and reduce
power consumption and cost for MRI equipment. In addition, ADI provides evaluation boards, simulation tools, and applications expertise to support customer
design and development efforts.
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Main Signal Chain
SURFACE
(RX)COIL
MIXER
ADC
DRIVER
PREAMP
ADC
SYSTEM
CONTROL
AND
IMAGE
PROCESSING
SYSTEM CLOCK
VOLUME
(Tx/Rx) COIL
ATTENUATOR
POWER
AMP
DRIVER
DAC
MIXER
GRADIENT COIL
GRADIENT
CONTROL
GRADIENT
AMP
OTHER KEY COMPONENTS
VGA/GAIN BLOCK
VOLTAGE REFERENCE
POWER MANAGEMENT
THERMAL MANGEMENT
ADC
Notes: The signal chains above are representative of an MRI system. The technical requirements of the blocks vary, but the products listed in the table are representative of ADI's
solutions that meet some of those requirements.
Mixer
VGA
Gain Block
ADC Driver
ADC (Rx)
ADC (Gradient)
Amplifier
ADL5801/ADL5350/
AD8342/AD8343
AD8367/AD8366/
ADL5201/ADL5202
ADL5535/ADL5536
ADL5562/ADA4937-1/
ADA4938-1/AD8352
AD9653/AD9650/
AD9446/AD6655/
AD6649/AD9461
AD7760
AD8675/
AD8676
DAC (Tx)
DAC (Gradient)
AD9142/AD9122/
AD9957/AD9788
AD5791/AD5781
Clocking
PLL
Temperature Sensor
Switch
Voltage Reference
Power
AD952x/AD951x/
ADF4002/ADF4351/ ADT7310/ADT7410/
ADCLK8xx/ADCLK9xx ADF4350/ADF4360-8 ADT7320/ADT7420
ADG9xx
ADR44x/ADR43x/
ADR42x
ADP2116/ADP2114/
ADP2386/ADP2384/
ADP7102/ADP7104/
ADP150/ADP151
Introduction of Main Products for MRI
Part
Description
Benefits
Mixer
ADL5801
High IP3 active mixer with +27 dBm input IP3, +12.5 dBm input P1 dB, +1.5 dB power gain, and 9.75 dB Wideband RF, LO, and IF ports, single-channel up/
SSB noise figure
down converter
AD8342
LF to 3 GHz active receive mixer with +22.7 dBm input IP3, +8.3 dBm input P1dB, 3.7 dB conversion
gain, and 12.2 dB noise figure, 0 dBm LO drive
Wide bandwidth and low intermodulation distortion
and noise figure
ADL5201
31.5 dB range programmable IF VGA. −11.5 dB to 20 dB gain range with 0.5 dB step, 7.5 dB noise figure at
maximum gain, OIP3 > 50 dBm at 200 MHz, −3 dB bandwidth of 700 MHz, dual channel version: ADL5202
Wide input dynamic range, highp erformance power
mode with power down control
AD8367
500 MHz, linear-in-dB VGA with AGC detector. Analog variable gain: −2.5 dB to +42.5 dB scaled 20 mV/dB
Gain up/down modes, with on-chip, square-law detector
AD8366
DC to 600 MHz, dual digital VGA. Gain range: 4.5 dB to 20.25 dB with 0.25 dB step. 11.4 dB @ 10 MHz at
maximum gain and 18 dB at minimum gain, HD2/HD3 >90 dBc for 2 V p-p output at 10 MHz at maximum
gain, OIP3: 45 dBm @ 10 MHz
Low noise and low distortion, excellent spurious-free
dynamic range, suitable for driving high resolution ADC
VGA
2 | ADI’s Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Solutions
Introduction of Main Products for MRI (Continued)
Part
Description
Benefits
Gain Block
ADL5535
20 MHz to 1.0 GHz IF gain block with fixed gain of 16 dB. OIP3: 45.5 dBm @ 190 MHz 45.5 dBm @
380 MHz, noise figure: 3.2 dB @ 190 MHz, 3.3 dB @ 380 MHz P1 dB of 18.9 dBm @ 190 MHz. Pin
compatible with 20 dB gain version: ADL5536
Wideband, input/output internally matched to 50 Ω
and integrated bias control circuit
ADC Driver
ADL5562
3.3 GHz ultralow distortion RF/IF differential amplifier. V N RTI: 2.1 nV/√Hz @ 12 dB gain. HD2/HD3: −91
Wideband, low noise, low distortion issuitable for
dBc/−98 dBc @ 10 MHz, −102 dBc/−90 dBc @ 70 MHz, −104 dBc/−87 dBc @ 140 MHz, −80 dBc/−94 dBc @
differential ADC driver
250 MHz, IMD3s of −94 dBc @ 250 MHz center
ADA4937-1
1.9 GHz ultralow distortion differential ADC driver. V N RTI: 2.2 nV/√Hz. HD2/HD3: −112 dBc/−102 dBc
@ 10 MHz, −84 dBc/−91 dBc @ 70 MHz, −77 dBc/−84 dBc @ 100 MHz
Drives the highest performance highspeed ADCs with
CM adjust
AD9653
Quad, 16-bit, 125 MSPS, serial LVDS 1.8 V ADC. SNR = 77.5 dBFS @ 70 MHz (2.6 V p-p input span),
SFDR = 90 dBc (to Nyquist), 650 MHz full power analog bandwidth
Low power, small size with non-magnetic package
suitable for MRI application
AD9650
Dual 16-bit, 25 MSPS/65 MSPS/80 MSPS/105 MSPS, 1.8 V ADC. SNR = 80 dBFS @ 70 MHz input and
105 MSPS data rate. SFDR = 92 dBc @ 70 MHz input and 105 MSPS data rate
On-chip dither option for improved SFDR,
differential input maintains excellent SNR
AD9446
16-bit, 80 MSPS/100 MSPS ADC. SNR = 83.6 dBFS @ 30 MHz input (3.8 V p-p input, 80 MSPS) SNR
= 82.6 dBFS @ 30 MHz input (3.2 V p-p input, 80 MSPS) SFDR = 89 [email protected] 30 MHz input (3.2 V p-p input,
80 MSPS)
Outstanding SNR, on-chip reference and high input
impedance T/H with adjustable analog input range for
MRI application
AD9258
Dual, 14-bit, 80 MSPS/105 MSPS/125 MSPS, 1.8 V ADC. SNR = 77.6 dBFS @ 70 MHz input and
125 MSPS data rate. SFDR = 88 dBc @ 70 MHz input and 105 MSPS data rate
High performance, combined with low cost,
small size, can be used in low end MRI systems
AD7760
24-bit 2.5 MSPS, sigma-delta ADC. SNR: 120 dB @ 78 kHz output data rate, 100 dB @ 2.5 MHz
output data rate
On-chip buffer/amplifiers simplify design,
easy to be used in MRI gradient control
Precision operational amplifier. Low voltage noise: 2.8 nV/√Hz, low offset: 12 µV typ, low input bias
current: 2 nA max, voltage offset drift: 0.6 µV/°C max
Suitable for output buffer for dc precision and
reference buffers
AD9142
Dual, 16-bit, 1.6 GSPS DAC. Flexible LVDS interface, integrated 2×/4×/8× interpolator. Very small
inherent latency variation: <2 DAC clock cycles
Advanced low spurious and distortion provide high
quality, lower power
AD9122
Dual, 16-bit, 1.2 GSPS DAC. Flexible LVDS interface, integrated 2×/4×/8× interpolator. Adjustable
analog output from 8.7 mA to 31.7 mA
Gain, dc offset, and phase adjustment for sideband
suppression
AD9957
1 GSPS quad digital upconverter with 18-bit I/Q data path and 14-bit DAC. 250 MSPS input data rate,
phase noise ≤ −125 dBc/Hz (400 MHz carrier @ 1 kHz offset)
Excellent dynamic performance, integration reduces
complexity
AD5791
1 ppm/°C, 20-bit, ±1 LSB INL, voltage output DAC. Low 7.5 nV/√Hz noise spectral density and low
0.05 ppm/°C temperature drift. 1 µs settling time
Simplifies the design, lowers cost and reduces risk
for MRI gradient control
4.5 GHz bandwidth, 40 dB isolation at 1 GHz, CMOS 1.65 V to 2.75 V, SPST switches. Low insertion
loss: 0.8 dB @ 1 GHz
Wideband, full family with SPST, SPDT,
4:1 and 2 × SPDT
ADC
Amplifiers
AD8676
DAC
Switch
ADG901
Voltage Reference
Ultralow noise voltage references with current sink and source; 0.15% accuracy and 10 ppm/°C
for A grade
Low drift and high accuracy benefit ADC sampling
performance
ADCLK8xx/
ADCLK9xx
Multi-output fanout buffer optimized for low jitter and low power operation. Additive broadband jitter
less than 500 fs
Well suited for low jitter MRI clock distribution
AD951x/
AD952x
Multi-output clock distribution functions with sub picosecond jitter performance, along with an on-chip PLL
and VCO
Well suited for low jitter MRI clock divide
and distribution
ADF4002
Phase detector/frequency synthesizer with 5 MHz to 400 MHz bandwidth, 104 MHz phase detector.
Normalized phase noise: −222 dBc/Hz
Programmable charge pump currents, very good
phase noise performance
ADF4351
Wideband synthesizer with integrated VCO. 35 MHz to 4.4 GHz output frequency range, typical jitter:
0.3 ps rms, typical EVM at 2.1 GHz: 0.4%
Low phase noise VCO, programmable dual-modulus
prescaler
ADR43x
Clocking
PLL
Temperature Sensor
ADT7420
Digital I2C temperature sensor with ±0.25°C accuracy from −20°C to 105°C, 16-bit resolution
(0.0078°C), ADT7320 is the SPI interface version
No calibration required, over/undertemperature interrupt
ADT7410
Digital I2C temperature sensor with ±0.5°C accuracy from −20°C to 105°C, 16-bit resolution
(0.0078°C), ADT7310 is the SPI interface version
No calibration required, over/undertemperature interrupt
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| 3
Introduction of Main Products for MRI (Continued)
Part
Description
Benefits
Power Management
ADP2114
2.75 V to 5.5 V input, configurable, dual 2 A/single 4 A, synchronous step-down dc-to-dc regulator.
pin-pin compatible with dual 3 A version: ADP2116
Synchronous, optimized gate drive slew rate to
support noise sensitive ADC/DAC
ADP2384
4.5 V to 20 V input, 4 A output current, synchronous step-down dc-to-dc regulator. Pin-pin compatible High efficiency, accurate current limit allow the use
with 6 A version: ADP2386
of smaller inductor
ADP7102
3.3 V to 20 V input, 300 mA output current, 200 mV low dropout voltage LDO with low
noise performance, 15 µV rms for fixed voltageoutput, high PSRR 60 dB at 10 kHz, reverse
currentprotection. Pin-pin compatible with 500 mA version: ADP7104
Improves performance of noise sensitive loads and
low dropout
ADP150
2.2 V to 5.5 V input, 150 mA output current, 105 mV low dropout voltage LDO withlow noise
performance, 9 µV rms independent voltage output, high PSRR 70 dB at 10 kHz. Pin-pin compatible
with 200 mA version: ADP151
Improves performance of noise sensitive loads and
low dropout
ADP5052
4.5 V to 15 V input, channel-1, channel-2: programmable 1.2 A/2.5 A/4 A sync buck regulators with
low-side FET driver; channel-3, channel-4: 1.2 A sync buck regulators; channel-5: 200 mA low
dropout LDO
5-channel integrated power solution provides reduce
the design difficulty and also the board size
Design Resources
Reference Circuits
• Very Low Jitter Encode Sampling Clock for High Speed ADCs Using the ADF4002 PLL (CN0003)—www.analog.com/CN0003
• Using the AD8352 as an Ultralow Distortion Differential RF/IF Front End for High Speed ADCs (CN0046)—www.analog.com/CN0046
• Interfacing the ADL5534 Dual IF Gain Block To The AD9640 High Speed ADC (CN0049)—www.analog.com/CN0049
• Powering a Fractional-N Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) with Low Noise LDO Regulators for Reduced Phase Noise (CN0147)—www.analog.com/CN0147
• Interfacing the ADL5375 I/Q Modulator to the 9122 Dual-Channel, 1.2 GSPS High Speed DAC (CN0205)—www.analog.com/CN0205
Application Notes/Articles
• How ADIsimADC Models an ADC (AN-737)—www.analog.com/AN-737
• Sampled Systems and the Effects of Clock Phase Noise and Jitter (AN-756)—www.analog.com/AN-756
Design Tools/Forums
• ADC
• High speed ADC evaluation board with schematic and PCB layout gerber file
• High speed FPGA-based data capture board (HSC-ADC-EVALCZ)—www.analog.com/fifo
• VisualAnalog™ software—www.analog.com/VisualAnalog
• ADC SPI interface software (SPIController)
• ADIsimADC modeling tool—www.analog.com/ADIsimADC
• Clocking and PLL
• ADIsimCLK modeling tool—www.analog.com/ADIsimCLK
• ADIsimPLL™: PLL design and simulation—www.analog.com/ADIsimPLL
• AD951x/AD952x evaluation software and board
• Amplifier
• ADIsimOpAmp: amplifier parametric evaluation tool—www.analog.com/ADIsimOpAmp
• DiffAmpCalc™: differential amplifier calculator—www.analog.com/diffampcalc
• PMP
• ADIsimPower™: power design tools—www.analog.com/ADIsimPower
• Evaluation board
To view additional medical ultrasound resources, tools, and product information,
please visit: healthcare.analog.com/en/imaging/mri/segment/health.html
To obtain a sample, please visit:
www.analog.com/en/content/samples_purchase/fca.html
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property of their respective owners.
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