adi-spo2 solutions en

adi-spo2 solutions en
ADI Typical Module in Patient Monitor
Pulse Oximeter Solution
Pulse Oximeter System Theory and Typical Architecture
The pulse oximeter noninvasively measures oxygen levels in the blood. It is measured as a percentage of full saturation level and is expressed as a single
number known as the saturated percentage of oxygen, often referred to as SpO2. The measurement is based on the light absorption characteristics of
hemoglobin in the blood. Oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hb) have different absorption curves across the visible and near IR
spectrum. Hb absorbs more light at red frequencies and less light at infrared (IR) frequencies. HbO2 absorbs less light at red frequencies and more light at IR
frequencies. The red and IR LEDs are located as close as possible to each other and transmit light through a single tissue site in the body. The red and IR
LEDs are time multiplexed to transmit light, so they do not interfere with each other.
Ambient light is estimated and subtracted from each red and IR signal. A single photodiode that responds to both red and IR light receives light, and a
transimpedance amplifier generates a voltage proportional to the received light intensity. The ratio of the red and infrared light received by the photodiode
is used to calculate the percentage of oxygen in the blood. Based on the pulsatile nature of blood flow, the pulse rate and strength are also determined and
displayed during the measurement cycle.
The pulse oximeter includes transmit path, receive path, display and backlighting, data interface, and audio alarms. The transmit path include red, IR LEDs,
and DAC used to drive the LED. The receive path includes photodiode sensor, signal conditioning, analog-to-digital converter, and processor.
Pulse Oximeter System Design Considerations and Major Challenges
When designing pulse oximeter systems, there are various challenges to overcome, such as low perfusion, motion and skin moisture, stray light
interferences, and carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin interferences.
• Low perfusion (small signal levels). Photodiode measurements require signal conditioning with wide dynamic range and low noise gain to capture the
pulse event. High quality, lower noise LED drive circuits with high resolution DAC and high precision analog front end circuits with high resolution ADC
are required for the transmit and receive path.
• Motion and skin moisture. Motion causes artifacts that can be overcome by software algorithm, or accelerometers such as the ADXL345 can be used
to detect and overcome it.
• Stray light interferences. The photodiode is used to responded to both red and IR light, and it is easy to be interfered with by ambient light. So the
algorithm used to filter out the interested signal for red and IR is very important, which means the signal processing is more complex. In this case,
DSP with higher signal processing power is required.
• Carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin. Carbon monoxide (CO) attaches easily to hemoglobin, which makes the blood more similar to red HbO2. The
measurement results in a falsely high SpO2 value. The iron in the heme group is in an abnormal state and cannot carry oxygen (Fe+3 instead of
Fe+2), resulting as reduced hemoglobin, making the SpO2 reading falsely low. Using more wavelengths can improve accuracy, but it needs higher
performance digital processing—DSP. Processing timing is critical.
Pulse Oximeter Functional Block Diagrams
ADI offers a comprehensive portfolio of high performance linear, mixed-signal, MEMS, and digital signal processing technologies for pulse oximeter
designs. Our data converters, amplifiers, microcontrollers, digital signal processors, RF transceiver, and power management products are backed by
leading design tools, applications support, and systems expertise.
1.
11. MicroConverter®
R
SWITCH
5.
FINGER/
EARLOBE/
TOE
LEDS
6. ADC
DRIVER
4. TRANSIMPEDANCE
AMP
PHOTODIODE
VREF
MEMS
ADC
13.
7.
BAND-PASS
FILTER
AMP
8.
RF
TRANSCEIVER
10.
PROCESSOR
AMP
NO
CONNECTION
9.
FAULT
AMP
12. PROGRAMMABLE
CURRENT SINK
14.
AMP
AUDIO
ALARM
3.
2.
20.
DAC
POWER MANAGEMENT 18.
19. PMU
LOW IQ LDO
16.
1.8V
17.
BATTERY
DC-TO-DC
LCD
DISPLAY
15.
3.0V
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BACKLIGHT
CONTROLLER
USER
INTERFACE
1. Switch
2. Buffer Amp
3. DAC
4. Transimpedance
Amp
5. Band-Pass
Filter
6. ADC Driver
7. ADC
8. Voltage
Reference
AD8663
AD8605
AD8606
AD817
AD5541
AD5542
AD5160
AD8065
ADA4817
ADA4004
AD8606
ADA4898-1
AD8606
AD8610
ADA4051
ADA4841-1
ADA4932-1
ADA4505
AD8606
AD7685
AD7942
AD7980
AD7683
ADR29x
ADR36X
ADR42X
ADR43X
AD8605
AD8601
AD8613
AD8541
ADSP-BF51x
ADSP-BF52x
ADSP-BF592
12. Current
Sinking DAC
13. RF
Transceiver
14. Audio Power
Amp
15. Backlight
Controller
16. User
Interface
17. DC-to-DC
18. LDO
19. PMU
20. MEMS
AD5398
ADF7020
ADF7021
ADF7025
SSM2211
ADP5501
ADP5520
ADP8860
ADM8843
AD7147
AD7148
ADP1612
ADP2108
ADP3050
ADP2503
ADP170
ADP171
ADP121
ADP1720
ADP2140
ADP5023
ADP5043
ADXL345
ADXL346
ADG819
ADG820
ADG823
ADG779
11.
Microconverter
ADUC702x
9. No Connection
10. Processor
Fault Amp
Note: The signal chains above are representative of pulse oximeter design. The technical requirements of the blocks vary, but the products listed in the table are representative of ADI's solutions that meet some of those requirements.
SpO2 Demonstration System Block Diagram
VCC
LCD
RED
SW1
SW2
ADUC7024
INFRARED
SW3
BAND-GAP
REFERENCE
BLOCK
ON CHIP
OSCILLATOR
SENSOR
ADC2
VREF
D2
MUX
D1
D3
+
PGA
ADC1
PGA AND
OFFSET
+
-
AMP1
SpO2 Demonstration System
2
|
ADI Pulse Oximetry Solution
DAC2-LED DRIVE CONTROL
COMPARATOR
PLA
RAM
8KBYTES
ARM7TDMI
MCU
45MIPS
JTAG
EMULATION
+
DAC
DAC1-OFFSET CONTROL
12-BIT
ADC
1MSPS
TEMPERATURE
MONITOR
AMP2
12-BIT DAC
30 GPIO
12-BIT DAC
PLL
FLASH
CODE &
DATA
MEMORY
62KBYTES
16-BIT
3-PHASE
PWM
WATCHDOG
TIMER
SUPPLY
MONITOR
SPI/
I2C
TIMERS/
COUNTERS
SERIAL
DOWNLOAD
UART
ADUC7024
Introduction of Main Products for Pulse Oximeter
Part Number
Description
Benefits
ADC
AD7980
16-bit, 1 MSPS, 1.5 LSB (24 ppm); PulSAR® differential ADC; pin for pin
compatible with 18-bit version, AD7982, AD7986 (2 MSPS)
AD7685
16-bit; maximum 2 LSB INL; 250 kSPS PulSAR differential ADC; pin for pin
Higher resolution, lower INL for high accuracy sampling system
compatible with 18-bit version: AD7691
High speed, high accuracy; pin for pin compatible series can be flexibly selected
Amplifiers
AD8605
Low noise: 8 nV/√Hz, low input bias currents: 1 pA maximum, low offset
voltage: 65 μV maximum, high open-loop gain: 1000 V/mV
Low noise, low bias current, low offset, and high gain improve system
performance
AD8065
Low noise: 7 nV/√Hz (f = 10 kHz) and 0.6 fA/√Hz (f = 10 kHz), FET input,
1 pA input bias current; voltage range from 5 V to 24 V
Low noise, low bias current, high input impedance provide high
performance for current to voltage conversion
ADA4841
Low wideband noise : 2.1 nV/√Hz and 1.4 pA/√Hz; low 1/F noise: 7 nV/√Hz
@ 10 Hz and 13 pA/√Hz @ 10 Hz; rail-to-rail output
Suitable for ADC driver with up to 10 pF of capacitive load drive capability;
low noise for small signal conditioning
AD5541/
AD5542
Full 16-bit performance, 1 LSB INL accuracy, 1.5 MSPS update rate,
1 μs settling time; unbuffered output capable of driving 60 kΩ loads
Low noise performance low power consumption suitable for high
performance and portable application
AD5398
10-bit DAC with 120 mA output current sink capability, 31 kSPS update
rate, 250 μs settling time
Big current sink capability; integrated current sense resistor; easy for SpO2
transmit application
ADuC7xxx
Precision analog microcontrollers; 12-bit analog I/O; ARM7TDMI MCU;
40 MIPS MCU speed
SoC, higher integration with signal besides MCU benefits to small size
applications; larger memory for data storage
ADSP-BF592
Low cost entry point into the blackfin portfolio of processors; with a
400 MHz core clock speed and a peripheral set
High data processing capability and flexible peripheral interface, and low
cost to reduce BOM cost
ADSP-BF51x
Highly integrated system-on-a-chip solutions for the next generation of
embedded network connected applications; with a 400 MHz core clock
speed and a peripheral set
Low cost, low power, general-purpose parts with enhanced internet and
consumer connectivity
ADSP-BF52x
Provides good scalability 600 MHz odd numbered and 400 MHz even
number product; with rich set of peripherals and connectivity options
Low power processors that balance the combination of high performance,
power efficiency, system integration to enable highly optimized designs
DAC
Processor
Analog Switch
ADG820
0.25 Ω max on-resistance flatness, low on resistance 0.8 Ω max at 125ºC,
Lowest on resistance guarantees the signal integration and quality
200 mA current carrying capability
Voltage Reference
ADR43x
Ultralow noise, voltage references with current sink and source; 0.15%
accuracy and 10 ppm/ºC for a grade
Current sink and source; simple driver circuits; low drift and high accuracy
benefit ADC sampling performance
MEMS accelerometer
ADXL345/
ADXL346
Small, thin, ultralow power, 3-axis accelerometer with high resolution
(13-bit) measurement at up to ±16 g; output is formatted as 16-bit
Well suited for mobile device applications, such as SpO2 motion detection;
low power modes can reduce power consumption
Capacitance to Digital Converter
AD7147
Integrated CDC with on-chip environmental calibration; 13 inputs channeled High integration for implementing buttons, scroll bars, and wheels; sensor
through a switch matrix to a 16-bit, 250 kHz sigma-delta ADC
needs one PCB layer for ultrathin systems
Audio Power Amplifiers
SSM2211
1.5 W output, highly stable phase margin: >80 degrees, low distortion:
0.2% THD + N @ 1 W output, wide bandwidth: 4 MHz
Low distortion audio power for audio application; continues to operate
down to 1.75 V suitable for battery applications
Backlight driver with I/O expander, efficient asynchronous boost converter
for driving up to 6 white LEDs
Capable of controlling the slider backlight intensity, on/off timing, dimming
resulting in valuable battery power saving
High performance ISM and licensed band transceivers
Allows device to operate in the presence of strong interferers with high
sensitivity; low power consumption
Backlight Driver
ADP5520
RF/IF ICs
ADF702x
Power Management
ADP2503
600 mA, 2.5 MHz buck-boost dc-to-dc converter; 38 μA typical quiescent current
Less external components and small inductor for circuit design, suitable for
portable applications
ADP121
5.5 V input, 150 mA, low quiescent current, CMOS LDO
Low IQ for high accuracy; easy to use
ADP2140
5.5 V input, 3 MHz, 600 mA, low quiescent current buck with 300 mA LDO regulator Integrated with switch regulator and LDO, easy to use
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Circuits From The Lab™ Reference Circuits for Pulse Oximeter
Refernce circuits are subsystem-level building blocks that have been engineered and tested for quick and easy system integration.
• High Precision, Low Power, Low Cost Pulse Oximeter Infrared and Red Current Sinks Using the ADA4505-2 10 μA Zero Input Crossover Distortion Op Amp,
ADR1581 Precision Shunt Voltage Reference, and ADG1636 Dual SPDT Switches (CN0125)—www.analog.com/CN0125
Design Tools
ADIsimOpAmp: Amplifier Parametric Evaluation Tool
www.analog.com/ADIsimOPAmp
To view additional pulse oximeter resources, tools,
and product information, please visit:
www.analog.com/healthcare/pulse-oximetry
Customer Interaction Center [email protected]
EngineerZone ez.analog.com
Free Sample www.analog.com/sample
To obtain a sample, please visit:
www.analog.com/sample
©2011 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved.
Trademarks and registered trademarks are the
property of their respective owners.
Printed in China
BR10233-1.5-9/11
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