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Designing High-Performance
Phase-Locked Loops with
High-Voltage VCOs
2. Phase frequency detector (PFD): Derives the phase-error signal
from the reference and feedback signals.
By Austin Harney
5. VCO: Outputs a frequency that depends on the voltage
presented to its tuning port (Vtune). The VCO has gain,
K V, expressed in MHz/V. The basic VCO expression
relating output frequency to the input control voltage is
f o = f c + Kv (Vtune), where fc is the VCO offset frequency.
Introduction
The phase-locked loop (PLL) is a fundamental building block
of modern communication systems. PLLs are typically used to
provide the local-oscillator (LO) function in a radio receiver or
transmitter; they are also used for clock-signal distribution and
noise reduction—and, increasingly, as the clock source for highsampling-rate analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion.
As feature size has shrunk in integrated-circuit processing,
device supply voltages, including supplies for PLLs and other
mixed-signal functions, have followed downward. However,
the practical technology for voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs),
a critical element of PLLs, has not decreased as rapidly. Many
high-performance VCO designs are still implemented with discrete
circuitry that may require supply voltages as great as 30 V. This
imposes a challenge for today’s PLL or RF system designer: to
interface the low-voltage PLL IC with a higher voltage VCO. The
level-shifting interface is typically implemented using active filter
circuitry—to be discussed below.
This article will consider the basics of PLLs, examine the current
state of the art in PLL design with high voltage VCOs, discuss
the pros and cons of typical architectures, and introduce some
alternatives to high-voltage VCOs.
PLL Basics
A phase-locked loop (Figure 1) is a feedback system in which a
phase comparator or detector drives a VCO in a feedback loop to
make the oscillator frequency (or phase) accurately track that of
an applied reference frequency. A filter circuit is typically required
to integrate and smooth the positive or negative error signal—and
promote loop stability. A frequency divider is often included in the
feedback path to establish the output frequency (within the range
of the VCO) as a multiple of the reference frequency. The divider
can be implemented so that the frequency multiple, N, will be
either an integer or a fractional number, characterizing the PLL
as an integer-N PLL or a fractional-N PLL.
FREF
PHASE
DETECTOR
LOWPASS
FILTER
VCO
N × FREF
÷N
COUNTER
Figure 1. A basic phase-locked loop.
Because a PLL is a negative-feedback control loop, the frequency error
signal will be forced to zero at equilibrium to produce an accurate and
stable frequency of N × FREF at the output of the VCO.
PLLs are implemented in various ways, using all-digital, all-analog,
or combined circuitry, depending on the required frequency range,
noise and spurious performance, and physical size. At present, the
architecture of choice for high-frequency, or RF, PLLs combines
all-digital blocks, such as feedback dividers and phase detectors,
with high-precision analog circuits, such as charge pumps and
VCOs. The main features of a mixed-signal PLL are:
1. Reference frequency: The stable, accurate frequency reference to
which the RF output will be phase locked. It is typically derived
from a crystal or temperature-controlled crystal oscillator (TCXO).
Analog Dialogue 43-12, December (2009)
3. Charge pump: Converts the error signal into a train of positive
or negative current pulses in proportion to the phase error.
4. Loop filter: Integrates the current pulses from the charge
pump, providing a clean voltage to the VCO tuning port.
6. N divider: Divides the output frequency down to equal the
PFD or reference frequency. It can straightforwardly divide
by an integer—or, increasingly, be implemented as a fractional
divider. The fractional divider can be simply implemented
by toggling the divide values in an integer divider to get a
fractional average (for example, to get an average of 4.25,
count to 4 three times and count to 5 once. Seventeen pulses
have been counted and 4 pulses have been created; so the
frequency ratio is 17/4 = 4.25). In practice, better results can
be achieved by borrowing from techniques used in highresolution noise-shaped converters. Thus, the fractional
engine is usually implemented using a ∑-∆ architecture, which
has the advantage of reducing spurious frequencies.
As an example of the highly integrated circuitry used in available
devices, Figure 2 shows a block diagram of a fractional-N PLL
IC, the ADF4350 wideband synthesizer with integrated VCO;
it has an output frequency range of 137.5 MHz to 4400 MHz.
(A brief summary of its capabilities can be found in the WideBandwidth PLLs with Integrated VCOs section.)
The key performance-limiting characteristics of PLLs are phase
noise, spurious frequencies, and lock time.
Phase noise: Equivalent to jitter in the time domain, phase noise is
oscillator or PLL noise as evaluated in the frequency domain. It is
the rms sum of the noise contributed by the various components in
the PLL. The charge-pump-based PLL will suppress VCO noise
inside the loop filter bandwidth. Outside of the loop bandwidth,
the VCO noise dominates.
Spurs: Spurious frequency components are caused by the charge
pump’s periodic updating of the VCO tuning voltage. They will
appear at a frequency offset from the carrier by the PFD frequency.
In a fractional-N PLL, spurs will also occur due to the action of
the fractional divider.
Lock Time: The time taken for the PLL’s phase or frequency
to return to lock range when changing from one frequency to
another or responding to a transient offset. It can be specified in
terms of frequency- or phase settling. Its degree of importance as
a specification depends on the application.
Why Do VCOs Still Use High Voltages?
High-performance VCOs are among the last electronic components
to resist the tide of silicon integration. Only in the past few years
have VCOs for cellular handsets been fully integrated into their
radio chipsets. However, cellular base stations, microwave
point-to-point systems, military and aerospace, and other
higher-performance applications are still beyond the capability
of silicon-based VCOs and are still implemented using a discrete
approach. Here’s why:
Most commercially available discrete VCOs use a variablecapacitance varactor diode as the tunable element in an LC-based
tank circuit. Varying the diode’s voltage changes its capacitance
and, thus, the resonant frequency of the tank circuit.
www.analog.com/analogdialogue
1
SDVDD
REFIN
10-BIT R
COUNTER
×2
DOUBLER
DVDD
AVDD
VP
RSET
VVCO
MULTIPLEXER
÷2
DIVIDER
MUXOUT
LOCK
DETECT
FLO SWITCH
SW
LD
CLK
DATA
LE
DATA REGISTER
FUNCTION
LATCH
CHARGE
PUMP
CPOUT
PHASE
COMPARATOR
INTEGER
REG
FRACTION
REG
VTUNE
VREF
VCOM
VCO
CORE
MODULUS
REG
THIRD-ORDER
FRACTIONAL
INTERPOLATOR
TEMP
MULTIPLEXER
N COUNTER
MULTIPLEXER
CE
AGND
OUTPUT
STAGE
÷1/2/4/8/16
DGND
CPGND
RFOUTA+
RFOUTA–
PDBRF
OUTPUT
STAGE
RFOUTB+
RFOUTB–
ADF4350
SDGND
AGNDVCO
Figure 2. ADF4350 PLL synthesizer block diagram.
Any voltage noise on the varactor will be amplified by the VCO
gain, K V, (expressed in MHz/V) and will translate into phase
noise. To keep VCO phase noise to a minimum, K V must be kept
as low as possible, but achieving a reasonably wide tuning range
requires a large K V. Thus, for applications that require low phase
noise and a wide tuning range, VCO manufacturers typically
design oscillators with low gain and a large input voltage range to
satisfy these conflicting requirements.
Figure 3 shows two examples of recommended active filter
topologies with prefiltering using inverting and noninverting
gains. Please note that these amplifier circuits are true timeintegrators, which force the PLL’s loop to maintain zero error at
their inputs. Outside of the loop, the topologies shown could drift
to the supply rails.
Typical voltage tuning ranges for narrow-band VCOs are 0.5 V to
4.5 V, while wideband VCOs typically tune over 1 V to 14 V, and
in some cases have ranges as wide as 1 V to 28 V.
Coaxial resonator oscillators (CROs) are another special type
of VCO that uses a very low gain and wide input tuning
voltage to achieve ultralow phase-noise performance. They
are typically used in narrow-band private mobile radio and
land mobile radio applications.
a. Inverting topology.
Interfacing to a High-Voltage VCO
Most commercial PLL synthesizer ICs have charge pump outputs
that are limited to a maximum of about 5.5 V, insufficient to
directly drive a VCO that requires higher tuning voltages if the
loop filter uses passive components alone. An active loop filter
topology using op amp circuitry must be employed to reach the
higher tuning voltages.
Figure 3. Active filter using prefiltering.
The simplest approach to achieve this would be to add a gain
stage after the passive loop filter. Although simple to design, this
approach has some pitfalls: an inverting op amp configuration
presents a low input impedance that will load the passive loop filter,
altering the loop dynamics; a noninverting configuration has input
impedance high enough not to load the filter but will amplify any
op amp noise by the active filter gain without the benefit of filtering
by the preceding passive loop filter. A much better topology is to
integrate the gain stage and filter into a single active filter block.
Prefiltering is advisable so as not to overdrive the amplifier with
the very short current pulses from the charge pump—which could
rate-limit the input voltage.
The inverting topology has the advantage of biasing the charge
pump output at a fixed voltage, typically one-half the charge-pump
voltage (V P/2)—optimal for spur performance. Care needs to be
taken to provide a clean bias voltage, ideally from a dedicated lownoise linear regulator like the ADP150, with adequate decoupling
as close as possible to the op amp input pin. The resistance values
used in the divider network should be minimized to reduce their
noise contribution. When using the inverting topology, it is
important to make sure that the PLL IC allows the PFD polarity
to be inverted, if necessary, canceling out the op amp’s inversion
and driving the VCO with the correct polarity. The ADF4xxx
family has this property.
2
b. Noninverting topology.
Analog Dialogue 43-12, December (2009)
The noninverting loop filter configuration does not require a
dedicated bias, so it can be a more compact solution. The charge
pump voltage, instead of being biased at a fixed level, will now
vary across its operating range. For this reason, it is much more
critical to use an op amp with rail-to-rail inputs when using this
filter type. (Input voltage range requirements are described in
the next section.)
Choice of Op Amp
The choice of op amp is the key to maximizing the potential
of an active filter. Besides bandwidth, the main performance
specifications to consider are:
• Noise voltage density—expressed in nV/√Hz
• Current noise—expressed in pA/√Hz
• Input bias current
• Common-mode voltage range
The output of the filter directly affects the generated frequency
and phase; therefore, the op amp’s noise-voltage density gives
an indication of how much phase noise will be added by the
active filter. Amplifier noise is added both within the PLL loop
bandwidth and out of band—and is most pronounced at the
loop filter’s corner frequency, especially for amplifiers with high
noise voltage density. Thus, it is important to keep the amplifier’s
noise low to fulfill the mission of the amplifier and high-voltage
VCO: to provide lower phase noise. A good design target would
be <10 nV/√Hz. Current noise is usually quite small compared to
the error current pulses, so its effects tend to be much smaller
than those of voltage noise.
Op amps that have significant input bias currents in relation to the
PFD output current can result in large spurs on the PLL output
spectrum. To keep the VCO tuning voltage constant and the PLL
in lock, the charge pump must replace the bias current drawn by
the op amp inputs on each PFD cycle. This modulates the V TUNE
voltage at the PFD frequency and causes spurs around the carrier
at an offset equal to the PFD frequency. The higher the input bias
current, the greater the modulation of the V TUNE voltage and the
higher the spur amplitudes.
Common-mode voltage range, or input voltage range (IVR),
another important op amp specification, is often overlooked,
causing serious problems in the end design. IVR determines
the clearance needed at the input terminals between the
ma x i mu m /m i n i mu m sig na ls a nd t he posit ive /neg at ive
power rails.
Early op amps that ran on ±15 V had typical IVRs of ±12 V.
Slow lateral PNP input stages, added later, allowed the IVR
to include the negative rail, thus providing single-supply
capability. Although any op amp will run on ground and
a positive supply, it is necessary to observe the distance
from the rails.
For example, the popular OP27 has an IVR of ±12.3 V with
a ±15-V supply. This means that the input voltages need
to be at least ±2.7 V from the positive and negative rails.
This limitation at the lower end of the range would make it
unattractive for use with wide input swings in single-supply
operation. A dual-supply design option, if available, allows a
much greater choice of op amps (and simplifies the input bias
question). If single-supply design is necessary, use op amps that
allow the input voltage to swing from rail to rail (but many of
them may have higher noise-voltage specs). Thus, for best
results, one needs an op amp with low noise voltage density
for low phase noise, low input bias currents for low spurs,
and rail-to-rail inputs for single-supply operation. Table 1
lists some Analog Devices op amps and their specifications
in relation to the above design criteria.
Analog Dialogue 43-12, December (2009)
Table 1. Recommended Op Amps to Use in PLL Active Loop Filters
Op Amp
Voltage
Noise,
f = 1 kHz
(nV/√Hz)
Current
Noise,
f = 1 kHz
(pA/√Hz)
Input
Bias
Current
(Typ)
Input
Voltage
Range,
Clearance
from Lower
Rail (V)
VSUPPLY
Max,
SingleSupply (V)
AD820
16
0.8
2 pA
–0.2
36
OP184
3.9
0.4
60 nA
0
36
AD8661
12
0.1
0.3 pA
–0.1
16
OP27
3
0.4
10 nA
+2.7
36
AD8099
2
8
100 nA
+1.3
12
The choice of op amp depends on the application. If the PFD spurs
are far outside the loop bandwidth (for example, in fractional-N
synthesizers), then a bipolar-junction-transistor-input (BJT) op
amp—like the OP184 or OP27—will be suitable. The PFD spurs
caused by the high input bias current of the BJT will be well
attenuated by the loop filter, and the PLL can take full advantage
of the BJT op amp’s low noise voltage density.
If the application requires the PFD-to-loop-bandwidth ratio to
be small (for example, in an integer-N synthesizer), a compromise
should be reached between noise and spur levels; the AD820 and
AD8661 could be good choices here.
It is worth noting that although active filters tend to contribute
noise to the PLL, their ability to act as buffers provides a
performance advantage over passive filters in some application
niches. For example, if the VCO has high leakage current on its
tuning port leading to high PFD spurs, an op amp can be used to
reduce the spur levels. The op amp’s low impedance output can
easily supply the tuning port leakage current.
Design Example
Consider an example where the LO has the following specifications:
• Octave tuning range from 1000 MHz to 2000 MHz
• Phase noise requirement of –142 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset
• Spurs < –70 dBc
• 250-kHz channel spacing
• Lock time < 2 ms
• Single supply of 15 V or 30 V available
To cover the 1-GHz band, while meeting the phase-noise target,
it is necessary to use a high-voltage VCO and an active loop
filter. The phase-noise and spur specifications, and single-supply
restriction, will drive the choice of op amp. To meet the spur
specifications the op amp input bias current must be low, while
best phase noise will be achieved with an op amp with low voltage
noise. A compromise between the two can be reached by choosing
a JFET-input op amp, such as the AD8661, which has an input bias
current of 0.3 pA and voltage noise of 12 nV/√Hz. This device
can also handle the single-supply requirement. The RFMD
UMS-2000-A16 VCO was selected to cover the octave range.
The best place to start is with a simulation involving the activeTM
filter topologies supported in the ADIsimPLL tool. Two of the
recommended filter types are shown in Figure 3, but ADIsimPLL
supports other configurations as well.
For the PLL, the ADF4150, which can be operated in either integer
or fractional mode, was chosen; it also has output divider options
of 2/4/8/16/32—which allow continuous coverage from 2 GHz
down to 31.25 MHz. The ADF4150 is similar to the ADF4350
shown in Figure 2, but it allows the choice of an external VCO
for applications that need to meet more stringent phase-noise
requirements. In the simulation, the PLL loop filter was set at
20 kHz to attempt to minimize the op amp noise contribution,
while keeping the PLL lock time less than 2 ms.
3
Figure 4 shows a plot of noise (dBc) as a function of frequency
offset in simulated and measured systems, using an ADF4150
PLL, a UMS VCO, and an AD8661-based filter. A –90-dBc peak
at about 20 kHz, due to the noise added by the active loop filter,
can be seen in both noise profiles, but the –142-dBc/Hz target at
1 MHz offset is still being met. To reduce the in-band noise, a
lower-noise op amp, such as the OP184 or OP27, could be used
at the expense of higher spurs; or the PLL loop bandwidth could
be decreased to below 20 kHz.
–80
MEASURED AD8661
ADIsimPLL AD8661
–90
PHASE NOISE (dBc)
–100
–110
–120
–130
This shows the real benefit of moving VCO designs from a discrete
to a silicon-based solution: significant levels of integration can be
achieved in minimal area, allowing greater design flexibility. For
example, the ADF4350 also integrates a programmable outputdivider stage that allows frequency coverage from 137.5 MHz all
the way up to 4.4 GHz—a very attractive feature for radio designers
who want to reuse the same design across multiple frequencies
and standards.
The ADF4350 comes in a 5-mm square LFCSP package—as
compared with the standard 12.7-mm square VCO package.
Performance levels approach those of discrete designs, with phase
noise of –114 dBc/Hz at 100-kHz offset and –134 dBc/Hz at 1-MHz
offset. (Return to Figure 2.)
–140
–150
–160
–170
–180
1k
shown in Figure 2. In this case, the VCO is integrated on chip.
The inherent trade-off of wide tuning range and low phase noise
discussed above is avoided by using a multiband VCO approach. In
the ADF4350, three separate VCOs are integrated on chip, each of
which has 16 overlapping subbands, giving a total of 48 subbands.
Each time the frequency is updated, an automatic calibration is
initiated to select the appropriate VCO subband.
10k
100k
1M
2.8
10M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Figure 4. ADIsimPLL simulation vs. measured performance
using AD8661 as an op amp in PLL active filter.
PHASE NOISE (dBc)
0.8
4600
4400
4200
4000
3800
3600
3400
3200
3000
FREQUENCY (MHz)
–120
Figure 6. Plot showing the 48 distinct bands in the ADF4350
VCO voltage vs. frequency relationship.
–130
–140
–150
–160
–170
–180
1k
2800
–110
2600
0
2400
0.4
1800
–100
1.2
2200
MEASURED AD8661
MEASURED OP27
ADIsimPLL OP27
–90
1.6
2000
–80
2.0
VTUNE (V)
Figure 5 shows the approximately 6-dB improvement when the
OP27 is used. In this case, spurs do not increase significantly, as
the loop bandwidth is relatively narrow. Lowering the bandwidth
further will improve phase noise for offsets below 100 kHz at the
expense of increased PLL lock-time. All of these trade-offs can be
tested with ADIsimPLL simulations prior to going into the lab.
2.4
10k
100k
1M
10M
For more on one of the broadest PLL portfolios in the industry,
including integer-N, fractional-N, integrated VCO, and highvoltage PLL ICs—pushing performance boundaries and easing
design challenges for PLL- and radio designers worldwide—
consult the PLL Synthesizers/VCOs website.
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Figure 5. PLL measured performance using AD8661 vs.
OP27 in active loop filter.
Breaking News: High Voltage PLLs
Up to this point the discussion has been driven by the need to
use active filters to interface a low-voltage PLL device to a highvoltage VCO. High-voltage PLLs are becoming available, however,
greatly reducing the necessity for an active filter. An example is the
ADF4113HV PLL, which integrates a high-voltage charge pump
and has –212-dBc/Hz normalized phase-noise floor. In this case,
the PLL charge pump output can be as high as 15 V, allowing a
simpler passive filter before the VCO.
This family of high-voltage PLLs will soon be further augmented
by devices that increase the maximum voltage to 30 V and
fractional-N PLLs that have high-voltage charge pumps. Consult
the PLL web site for updates and new-product information.
Wide-Bandwidth PLLs with Integrated VCOs
Another alternative to using an active filter with high-voltage VCO
is to use a fully integrated high-performance PLL like the ADF4350,
4
References
1. Applied Radio Labs Forums
http://www.radiolab.com.au/Forums/default.asp.
2.Best, Roland E. Phase-Locked Loops. Design, Simulation, and
Applications. McGraw Hill.
3. Curtin, Mike and Paul O’Brien. 1999. “Phase-Locked Loops
for High-Frequency Receivers and Transmitters—Part 2.”
Analog Dialogue, Volume 33.
4. Information on all A DI components can be found at
www.analog.com.
Author
Austin Harney [[email protected]]
graduated in 1999 with a BEng from University
College, Dublin, Ireland, and joined Analog
Devices following graduation. He is currently
an applications engineer for the ISM-band
wireless product line, based in Limerick. In his
spare time, Austin enjoys football, music, and
spending time with his daughters.
Analog Dialogue 43-12, December (2009)
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