Circuit Note CN-0232

Circuit Note CN-0232
Circuit Note
CN-0232
Devices Connected/Referenced
Fractional-N PLL Synthesizer with
ADF4350
Integrated VCO
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ADF4153
Fractional-N PLL Frequency Synthesizer
Minimizing Spurious Outputs Using a Synthesizer with an Integrated VCO and
an External PLL Circuit
EVALUATION AND DESIGN SUPPORT
CIRCUIT FUNCTION AND BENEFITS
Circuit Evaluation Boards
ADF4350 Evaluation Board (EVAL-ADF4350EB2Z)
ADF4153 Evaluation Board (EVAL-ADF4153EBZ1)
Design and Integration Files
Schematics, Layout Files, Bill of Materials
The circuit shown in Figure 1 uses the ADF4350 synthesizer with
an integrated VCO and an external PLL to minimize spurious
outputs by isolating the PLL synthesizer circuitry from the VCO
circuit.
DVDD
10
1nF 1nF
26
4
29 REFIN
6
30
32
VP
28
VVCO
25
1nF
RFOUTA+
1nF
51Ω
1nF
RFOUTB+
RFOUTB+ 14
51Ω
RFOUTB– 15
VVCO
1 CLK
SPI COMPATIBLE SERIAL BUS
51Ω
51Ω
MUXOUT LD
SDVDD
17
VVCO
LOCK
DETECT
VDD
CE
16
3.3V
PDBRF
VVCO
AVDD
3.3V
PHASE
FREQUENCY
DETECTOR
2 DATA
3 LE
CHARGE
PUMP
VCO
22 RSET
51Ω
51Ω
RFOUTA– 13
4.7kΩ
COUNTERS
RFOUTA+ 12
1nF
51Ω
VTUNE 20
ADF4350
CPOUT 7
REFERENCE
VCO
TUNING
VOLTAGE
SW 5
CPGND SDGND AGND AGNDVCO DGND TEMP VCOM VREF
TCXO
26MHz
8
31
9
11 18
21
27
10pF
3.3V
19
0.1µF
23
24
10pF
0.1µF 10pF
0.1µF
VDD
7
15
16
AVDD
DVDD
VP
10
SDVDD
14
MUXOUT
1nF 1nF
8 REFIN
PHASE
FREQUENCY
DETECTOR
12 DATA
CHARGE
PUMP
CP 2
LOOP FILTER
360Ω
100nF
13 LE
22nF
4.7nF
200Ω
1 RSET
COUNTERS
4.7kΩ
ADF4153
CPGND
AGND
DGND
3
4
9
100pF
RFINA 6
100pF
RFINB 5
RF IN
51Ω
51Ω
10125-001
SPI COMPATIBLE SERIAL BUS
11 CLK
Figure 1. ADF4153 PLL Connected to ADF4350 (Simplified Schematic: All Connections and Decoupling Not Shown)
Rev. 0
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CN-0232
Circuit Note
Devices with integrated PLLs and VCOs may have feed through
from the digital PLL circuitry to the VCO, leading to higher
spurious levels due to the close proximity of the PLL circuitry
to the VCO.
The circuit shown in Figure 1 uses the ADF4350, a fully integrated
fractional-N PLL and VCO that can generate frequencies from
137.5 MHz to 4400 MHz, together with the ADF4153 PLL.
In addition to improvements in spurious performance,
another possible advantage of using an external PLL is the
possibility of increased frequency resolution. For example,
if the ADF4157 PLL is selected in place of the ADF4153, the
frequency resolution of the PLL can be as fine as 0.7 Hz.
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
For frequency generation, the internal PLL must be enabled and
the desired frequency must be programmed. Then, once sufficient
time has elapsed for band select, the internal PLL can be disabled,
and, finally, the external PLL can be enabled. The external PLL
compares the reference frequency and the VCO output frequency
to generate a stable dc voltage to lock the PLL.
Figure 2 shows the output frequency spurs measured at RFOUTA+
using the ADF4350 internal PLL and VCO with the ADF4153 PLL
disabled. Note the presence of PFD spurs at 13 MHz and 26 MHz.
Figure 3 shows the output spurs measured at RFOUTA+ with the
ADF4350 internal PLL circuit disabled and the external ADF4153
PLL active. In this mode, the charge pump output of the ADF4153
drives the loop filter, which in turn drives the VTUNE input of the
ADF4350. The VTUNE input controls the ADF4350 VCO output
frequency.
The ADF4350 is a wideband PLL and VCO consisting of
three separate multiband VCOs. Each VCO covers a range of
approximately 700 MHz (with some overlap between the
frequencies of the VCO). This permits a fundamental VCO
frequency range of between 2.2 GHz to 4.4 GHz. Frequencies
lower than 2.2 GHz can be generated using internal dividers
within the ADF4350.
COMMON VARIATIONS
For most applications, the internal PLL of the ADF4350 is used to
lock the VCO. In addition to locking the PLL, the PLL circuitry
performs an additional vital function of VCO band select, using
the internal reference (R) and feedback (N) counters of the internal
PLL to compare the VCO output with the reference input.
Different PLLs can be selected. The fractional-N PLL in both the
ADF4350 and ADF4153 has a minimum frequency resolution
of PFD/4095. If finer resolution is required, the ADF4157
can be selected. The resolution of this PLL is PFD/225, thereby
providing an ultrafine resolution of <1 Hz.
In making a comparison between Figure 2 and Figure 3, the spurs
due to the phase frequency detector (PFD) frequency, at 13 MHz
and 26 MHz, in Figure 2 have disappeared into the noise floor
in Figure 3.
For applications requiring simpler software programmability,
the ADF4150 PLL is software compatible with the ADF4350,
easing the software programming sequence.
Rev. 0 | Page 2 of 6
Circuit Note
CN-0232
R&S FSUP SIGNAL SOURCE ANALYZER
RESIDUAL NOISE
(T1 WITHOUT SPURS)
SETTINGS
SIGNAL FREQUENCY:
SIGNAL LEVEL:
CROSS CORR MODE:
INTERNAL REF TUNED:
1.6000GHz
5.44dBm
HARMONIC 1
INTERNAL PHASE DET
PHASE NOISE (dBc/Hz)
RF ATTEN: 5dB
TOP –70dBc/Hz
MARKER 1 (T1)
1kHz
–91.84dBc/Hz
INT PHN (1.0k .. 30.0M):
RESIDUAL PM:
RESIDUAL FM:
RMS JITTER:
MARKER 2 (T1)
10.98633kHz
–93.42dBc/Hz
SPUR LIST
–49.1dBc 1.000MHz
2.001MHz
0.285°
3.000MHz
3.24kHz
0.4946ps 13.000MHz
–83.82dBc
–99.68dBc
–89.92dBc
–94.70dBc
MARKER 3 (T1) MARKER 4 (T1)
13.00011MHz
26.00002MHz
–94.7dBc
–87.89dBc
–70
LOOP BW 300Hz
–80
1
SPUR POWER (dBc)
–90
4
2
3
–100
–110
–120
–130
–140
–150
–170
1k
10k
100k
1M
10M
30M
FREQUENCY OFFSET (Hz)
10125-002
SPR OFF
TH 0dB
–160
Figure 2. ADF4350 PFD Spurs at 1.6 GHz
R&S FSUP SIGNAL SOURCE ANALYZER
RESIDUAL NOISE
(T1 WITHOUT SPURS)
SETTINGS
SIGNAL FREQUENCY:
SIGNAL LEVEL:
CROSS CORR MODE:
INTERNAL REF TUNED:
1.6000GHz
1.71dBm
HARMONIC 1
INTERNAL PHASE DET
PHASE NOISE (dBc/Hz)
RF ATTEN: 5dB
TOP –70dBc/Hz
MARKER 1 (T1)
1kHz
–101.23dBc/Hz
INT PHN (1.0k .. 30.0M):
RESIDUAL PM:
RESIDUAL FM:
RMS JITTER:
MARKER 2 (T1)
1kHz
–101.23dBc/Hz
SPUR LIST
–53.3dBc
0.174°
1.846kHz
0.3025ps
1000.0kHz –90.44dBc
2.000MHz –85.60dBc
3.000MHz –96.36dBc
4.000MHz –99.28dBc
MARKER 3 (T1) MARKER 4 (T1)
100kHz
1MHz
–120.62dBc
–144.68dBc
–70
LOOP BW 300Hz
–80
12
–100
–110
3
–120
–130
4
–140
–150
–160
–170
1k
SPR OFF
TH 0dB
10k
100k
1M
10M
30M
FREQUENCY OFFSET (Hz)
Figure 3. ADF4350 PFD Spurs at 1.6 GHz Using ADF4153 PLL
Rev. 0 | Page 3 of 6
10125-003
SPUR POWER (dBc)
–90
CN-0232
Circuit Note
CIRCUIT EVALUATION AND TEST
Functional Block Diagram
The CN-0232 uses the EVAL-ADF4350EB2Z board for
evaluation of the described circuit, and with some minor
modifications, allows for quick setup and evaluation. The
EVAL-ADF4350EB2Z board uses the standard ADF4350
programming software, contained on the CD that accompanies
the evaluation board. The EVAL-ADF4153EBZ1 evaluation
board comes with the software for the ADF4153 PLL.
For this experiment, the EVAL-ADF4153EBZ1 and the EVALADF4350EB2Z are used. The EVAL-ADF4350EB2Z is selected
because it contains the auxiliary RFOUTB+ output stage, which is
connected via SMA cable to the EVAL-ADF4153EBZ1, as shown
in Figure 4.
Equipment Needed
Both PLLs use the same reference input (REFIN) frequency;
therefore, an SMA splitter connects the same REFIN to both
boards.
•
•
•
•
•
•
The loop filter output on the EVAL-ADF4153EBZ1 is connected
to the VTUNE pin of the ADF4350 via a shielded coaxial cable to
ensure that no extra noise or spurs appear on the pin. Both
parts are programmed separately. It may be necessary to use
different PCs for each board to ensure no conflicts occur
between hardware drivers.
EVAL-ADF4350EB2Z with programming software.
EVAL-ADF4153EBZ1 with programming software.
5.5 V power supply.
R&S SMA100A signal generator or equivalent.
R&S FSUP26 spectrum analyzer or equivalent.
Two PCs with Windows® XP, Windows, Vista (32-bit), or
Windows 7 (32-bit), one with an USB port and the other
with a printer port. Alternatively, the EVAL-ADF4xxxXUSB USB adaptor kit can be used instead of the printer
port, if none is available.
Getting Started
The UG-110 user guide details the installation and use of the
EVAL-ADF4350EB2Z evaluation software. UG-110 also
contains board setup instructions and the board schematic,
layout, and bill of materials.
The SMA coaxial cable is required to connect RFOUTB+ of the
EVAL-ADF4350EB2Z to RFIN of the EVAL-ADF4153EBZ1. A
simple SMA splitter is also needed to share the reference source
between the two boards. Some flexible microcoaxial cable is
required to connect the output of the ADF4153 loop filter to the
ADF4350 VTUNE input. To minimize unwanted interference, both
sides of the cable must be grounded to suitable GND points on
each board.
The UG-167 user guide contains similar information relevant to
the EVAL-ADF4153EBZ1. Necessary modifications to the board
are the removal of the VCO (Y1). To reconfigure this board as
an input, remove the R7 resistor and change R8 and R9 to 0 Ω.
The PLL loop filter on the ADF4350 board is unused and
should be removed. At this point, the microcoaxial cable can be
used to connect the output of the ADF4153 loop filter (T7) to
the VTUNE pin of the ADF4350 (T4). It is of critical importance
that the outer shielding of this cable is connected to a ground
point on both boards.
POWER
SUPPLY
5.5V
COM
J14
USB
RFOUTA+
J15
RFOUTA−
J3
ADF4350
J1 EVALUATION BOARD
(EVAL-ADF4350EB2Z)
J4
T4
50Ω
TERM
RFOUTB+
RFOUTB−
REFERENCE
FREQUENCY
GENERATOR
(R&S SMA100A)
SPECTRUM
ANALYZER
(R&S FSUP26)
J2
PC
J5
50Ω
TERM
VTUNE
CP OUT
T7
ADF4153
EVALUATION BOARD
(EVAL-ADF4153EBZ1)
EVALADF4xxxX-USB
PC
USB
PRINTER
9V BATTERY
RFIN+
J2
Figure 4. Test Setup Functional Diagram
Rev. 0 | Page 4 of 6
10125-004
J5
Circuit Note
CN-0232
Initialization Procedure
The ADF4350 must go through the band select process for every
new frequency.
2.
3.
Initialize the ADF4350 as normal (program R5, R4, R3, R2,
R1, R0), except set DB4, R2 to 1 (ICP three-state enabled),
because the ADF4350 charge pump is unused. Set DB9, R4 to
0 for divided VCO output on RFOUTB+. Enable RFOUTB+
(auxiliary out). This signal is fed to the ADF4153 over the
coax cable.
Initialize the ADF4153 (as per the data sheet) to accept the
VCO output frequency as the RF input frequency. Note
that the band select switch is internal; therefore, an external
switch to remove the PLL VTUNE is not required.
When the ADF4153 achieves lock, the ADF4350 counter
reset to 1 (DB3, R2) must be activated. Not activating the
counter reset degrades spur performance. Additionally, all
ADF4350 synthesizer blocks can be powered down using
the test mode bit (DB10, R5).
10125-005
1.
Frequency Update
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Program DB10, R5 to 0 to reactivate the ADF4350 synthesizer
blocks.
Program DB3, R2 of the ADF4350 to 0 to deactivate the
counter reset because these counters are required for band
select.
Program the ADF4350 and ADF4153 N-counter registers
as appropriate for the new frequency.
When the ADF4153 achieves lock, the ADF4350 counter
reset (DB3, R2) can be activated. Additionally all synthesizer
blocks can be powered down using the test mode bit
(DB10, R5).
Repeat Step 1 to Step 4 as required for new frequencies.
Figure 5. ADF4350 Software Window
The software screen captures shown in Figure 5 and Figure 6 show
the software windows for 26 MHz REFIN (ADF4350) and 13 MHz
PFD (ADF4153).
10125-006
After setting up the equipment, use standard RF test methods to
measure the spectral purity of the output signal.
Figure 6. ADF4153 Software Window
Rev. 0 | Page 5 of 6
CN-0232
Circuit Note
LEARN MORE
CN0232 Design Support Package:
http://www.analog.com/CN0232-DesignSupport
UG-110, User Guide for the EVAL-ADF4350EB2Z board
UG-167, User Guide for the EVAL-ADF4153EBZ1 board
MT-031 Tutorial, Grounding Data Converters and Solving the
Mystery of “AGND” and “DGND”, Analog Devices.
MT-086 Tutorial, Fundamentals of Phase Locked Loops (PLLs),
Analog Devices.
MT-101 Tutorial, Decoupling Techniques, Analog Devices.
ADIsimPLL Design Tool
Data Sheets and Evaluation Boards
ADF4350 Evaluation Board (EVAL-ADF4350EB2Z)
ADF4153 Evaluation Board (EVAL-ADF4153EBZ1)
ADF4153 Data Sheet
ADF4350 Data Sheet
REVISION HISTORY
4/12—Revision 0: Initial Version
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CN10125-0-4/12(0)
Rev. 0 | Page 6 of 6
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