Analog Devices Welcomes Hittite Microwave Corporation www.analog.com www.hittite.com

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Analog Devices Welcomes
Hittite Microwave Corporation
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140-00074-00 revA
v00.0112
CP120143
COVERS HITTITE PART NUMBER
HMC767LP6CE, HMC769LP6CE, HMC778LP6CE
For price, delivery and to place orders: Hittite Microwave Corporation, 2 Elizabeth Drive, Chelmsford, MA 01824
978-250-3343 • 978-250-3373 fax • Order On-line at www.hittite.com
Application Support: [email protected]
Product & Operating Guide
PLLs WITH INTEGRATED VCO - MICROWAVE APPLICATIONS
PRODUCT & OPERATING GUIDE
1
140-00074-00 revA
v00.0112
CP120143
PLLs WITH INTEGRATED VCO - MICROWAVE APPLICATIONS
PRODUCT & OPERATING GUIDE
Product & Operating Guide
Table Of Contents
Table 1. Pin Descriptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Theory Of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
PLL Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
High Performance Low Spurious Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Figure of Merit, Noise Floor, and Flicker Noise Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Spurious Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Integer Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Fractional Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Operational Modes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Triggering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Fractional Mode or Exact Frequency Mode Frequency Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Initial Phase Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Frequency Tuning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Integer Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Fractional Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Exact Frequency Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Using Hittite Exact Frequency Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
FM Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
PM Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Bi-Phase Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Phase Step Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Frequency Sweep Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-Way Sweeps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-Way Sweeps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
17
17
18
19
Single Step Ramp Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Detailed Sweeper Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sweeper Configuration for Ultra Fine Step Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reference Input Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ref Path ’R’ Divider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RF Path
................................................................................
RF Input Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RF Path ’N’ Divider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PLL Jitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Charge Pump and Phase Detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Charge Pump and Phase Detector Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lock Detect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cycle Slip Prevention (CSP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PD Polarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Charge Pump Tri-state. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Charge Pump Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Charge Pump Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Seed Register and AutoSeed Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
20
21
22
23
23
23
24
24
25
25
26
26
27
27
27
27
28
For price, delivery and to place orders: Hittite Microwave Corporation, 2 Elizabeth Drive, Chelmsford, MA 01824
978-250-3343 • 978-250-3373 fax • Order On-line at www.hittite.com
Application Support: [email protected]
140-00074-00 revA
v00.0112
CP120143
PLLs WITH INTEGRATED VCO - MICROWAVE APPLICATIONS
PRODUCT & OPERATING GUIDE
REGISTER MAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 9. Reg 00h ID Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 10. Reg 01h RST Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 11. Reg 02h REFDIV Register. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 12. Reg 03h Frequency Register - Integer Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 13. Reg 04h Frequency Register - Fractional Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 14. Reg 05h Seed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 15. Reg 06h SD CFG Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 16. Reg 07h Lock Detect Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 17. Reg 08h Analog EN Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 18. Reg 09h Charge Pump Register. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 19. Reg 0Ah Modulation Step Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 20. Reg 0Bh PD Register. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 21. Reg 0Ch ALTINT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 22. Reg 0Dh ALTFRAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 23. Reg 0Eh SPI TRIG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 24. Reg 0Fh GPO Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 25. Reg 10h Reserve Register (Read Only). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 26. Reg 11h Reserve Register (Read Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 27. Reg 12h GPO2 Register (Read Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 28. Reg 13h BIST Status (Read Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 29. Reg 14h Lock Detect Timer Status (Read Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28
28
28
28
29
30
30
30
30
30
30
31
31
31
32
32
33
34
34
34
37
37
37
Product & Operating Guide
Power on Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power Down Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hardware Power Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chip Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Purpose Output (GPO) Pin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VCO Tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Passive Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
High Voltage Tuning, Active Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MAIN SERIAL PORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Serial Port Modes of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Register 0 Modes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Serial Port Mode Decision after Power-On Reset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Serial Port HMC Mode - Single PLL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Serial Port Open Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Serial Port HMC Mode Details. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HMC Mode - Serial Port WRITE Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HMC Mode - Serial Port READ Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Serial Port Open Mode Details. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Open Mode - Serial Port WRITE Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Open Mode - Serial Port READ Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37
38
38
38
39
40
40
41
41
41
42
42
42
43
43
43
44
44
44
For price, delivery and to place orders: Hittite Microwave Corporation, 2 Elizabeth Drive, Chelmsford, MA 01824
978-250-3343 • 978-250-3373 fax • Order On-line at www.hittite.com
Application Support: [email protected]
3
v00.0112
CP120143
140-00074-00 revA
PLLs WITH INTEGRATED VCO - MICROWAVE APPLICATIONS
PRODUCT & OPERATING GUIDE
Applicable Products
Product & Operating Guide
HMC767LP6CE, HMC769LP6CE, & HMC778LP6CE
4
General Description
This operating guide applies to the specified family of PLL with integrated VCO’s. The purpose of this guide is to
describe all common features of the IC with the exception of the VCO. The unique characteristics for the individual
VCOs are described in detail on the respective Hittite product data sheet.
The PLL with Integrated VCO includes a very low noise digital phase frequency detector (PFD), and a precision
controlled charge pump. The fractional PLL with Integrated VCO features an advanced delta-sigma modulator design
that allows both ultra-fine step sizes and very low spurious products. Spurious outputs are low enough to eliminate the
need for costly Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) references in many applications. Ultra low close-in phase noise and low
spurious also permit architectures with wider loop bandwidths for faster frequency hopping and low micro-phonics.
In addition, the fractional PLL with integrated VCO offers frequency sweep and modulation features, external triggering,
double-buffering, exact frequency control, phase modulation and more.
Functional Diagram
For price, delivery and to place orders: Hittite Microwave Corporation, 2 Elizabeth Drive, Chelmsford, MA 01824
978-250-3343 • 978-250-3373 fax • Order On-line at www.hittite.com
Application Support: Phone: [email protected]
140-00074-00 revA
v00.0112
CP120143
PLLs WITH INTEGRATED VCO - MICROWAVE APPLICATIONS
PRODUCT & OPERATING GUIDE
Pin Number
Function
Description
1, 9 - 14, 22, 23, 26, 35
N/C
No connection. These pins may be connected to RF/DC ground.
Performance will not be affected.
2 - 5, 37, 39
GND [1]
Pins must be connected to RF/DC ground
7
GND
This pin and package bottom must be connected to RF/DC ground
6
VTUNE
Control voltage input. Modulation port bandwidth
dependent on drive source impedance.
8
VCCVCO2
+ 5V power supply for VCO.
15
VCCHF
Analog power supply for RF buffer. Nominal + 3.3V, 6 mA max.
16
VDDLS
Power supply for PFD to CP level shifters.
Nominal + 5V, 5 mA max., Fpd dependent.
17
VPPCPA
Power Supply for the charge pump. Nominal + 5V, 10 mA Max.
18
CP
Charge pump output
19
AVDD
Power Supply for analog bias generation. Nominal + 3.3V, 2 mA Max.
20
BIAS [2]
External bypass decoupling for precision bias circuits,
1.920V ±2 mV is generated internally
21
RVDD
Power Supply for Reference Path.
Nominal + 3.3V, 15 mA Max., reference dependent
24
XREFP
Reference input. DC bias is generated internally.
Normally AC coupled externally.
25
VDDPD
Power supply for phase detector. Nominal + 3.3V.
Decoupling for this supply is critical. 5 mA max., Fpd dependent.
27
CEN
CMOS input, hardware chip enable.
28
SEN
CMOS input, serial port latch enable.
29
SCK
CMOS input, serial port clock.
30
SDI
CMOS input, serial port data.
31
DVDD
Power supply for digital. Nominal + 3.3V, 25 mA max., Fpd dependent.
32
VDDIO
Power supply for digital I/O.
Nominal + 3.3V, 8 mA max. (only when driving LD_SDO)
33
LD_SDO
CMOS output. General purpose output;
lock detect, serial data out, others, selectable
34
VCCPS
Power supply for RF divider. Nominal + 3.3V, 35 mA max.
36
TRIG
CMOS input. External trigger.
38
RFOUT
RF output (AC coupled).
40
VCCVCO1
Power Supply for VCO. Nomimal +5V, High Current, VCO dependent
Product & Operating Guide
Table 1. Pin Descriptions
[1] Pins are not connected internally, however, pins must be connected to GND to maintain product family pin for pin compatibility.
[2] BIAS ref voltage (pin 20) cannot drive an external load, and must be measured with a 10 GOhm meter such as Agilent 34410A; a typical
10 Mohm DVM will read erroneously.
For price, delivery and to place orders: Hittite Microwave Corporation, 2 Elizabeth Drive, Chelmsford, MA 01824
978-250-3343 • 978-250-3373 fax • Order On-line at www.hittite.com
Application Support: [email protected]
5
140-00074-00 revA
v00.0112
CP120143
PLLs WITH INTEGRATED VCO - MICROWAVE APPLICATIONS
PRODUCT & OPERATING GUIDE
Product & Operating Guide
Theory Of Operation
PLL Basics
In its most trivial form, a PLL IC, such as the HMC703LP4E forms the heart of the control loop to multiply a low
frequency reference source up to a higher frequency. The phase detector (PD) and charge-pump (CP) drive the
tuning signal of a voltage-controlled oscillator in an attempt to bring the phases, at the phase-detector input, into
alignment. If the loop can manage this, it means that the phase detector inputs (reference and DIV) must also be at
the same frequency. Since the frequency of the DIV signal = fvco / N, this means the control loop must have forced
the frequency of the VCO output must be locked to N x fpd.
Figure 1. Typical PLL
In integer PLL’s, N can only take on discrete values (eg. 200, 201, etc.). In fractional PLL’s, such as the HMC703LP4E
and others, N can also take on fractional levels, eg. N=20.4. In theory, the fractional divider normally permits higher
phase-detector frequencies for a given output frequency, with associated improvements in signal quality (phasenoise). Unfortunately, fractional synthesizers suffer from imperfections which do not effect integer synthesizers.
These problems can effect the phase noise, but more seriously they tend to manifest as spurious emissions - and
these spurs are the most serious drawback of fractional synthesis.
Hittite’s fractional PLL family (including the HMC703LP4E) offer drastic performance advantages over other fractional
synthesizers in the industry.
The HMC703LP4E PLL consists of the following functional blocks:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Reference Path Input Buffer and ’R’ Divider
VCO Path Input Buffer, RF Divide-by-2 and Multi-Modulus ’N’ Divider
Δ Σ Fractional Modulator
Phase Detector
Charge Pump
Main Serial Port
Lock Detect and Register Control
8. Power On Reset Circuit
6
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The HMC703LP4E has been designed for the best phase noise and low spurious content possible in an integrated
synthesizer. Spurious signals in a synthesizer can occur in any mode of operation and can come from a number of
sources.
Figure of Merit, Noise Floor, and Flicker Noise Models
The phase noise of an ideal phase locked oscillator is dependent upon a number of factors:
a.
b.
c.
d.
Frequency of the VCO, and the Phase detector
VCO Sensitivity, kvco, VCO and Reference Oscillator phase noise profiles
Charge Pump current, Loop Filter and Loop Bandwidth
Mode of Operation: Integer, Fractional modulator style
The contributions of the PLL to the output phase noise can be characterized in terms of a Figure of Merit (FOM) for both
the PLL noise floor and the PLL flicker (1/f) noise regions, as follows:
where:
Ф p2
fo
fpd
fm
Fpo
Phase Noise Contribution of the PLL (rads2/Hz)
Frequency of the VCO (Hz)
Frequency of the Phase Detector (Hz)
Frequency offset from the carrier (Hz)
Figure of Merit (FOM) for the phase noise floor
Fp1
Figure of Merit (FOM) for the flicker noise region
(EQ 1) PLL Phase Noise
Contribution
Product & Operating Guide
High Performance Low Spurious Operation
Fp1f02 Fp0 f02
Φ 2p f0 , fm , fpd =
+
fm
fpd
(
)
Figure 2. Figure of Merit Noise Models for the PLL
If the free running phase noise of the VCO is known, it may also be represented by a figure of merit for both 1/f2 , Fv2,
and the 1/f3, Fv3, regions.
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Product & Operating Guide
(EQ 2)
2
F f 2 Fν f0
Φν2 ( f0 , fm ) = ν 22 0 + 33
fm
fm
VCO Phase Noise
Contribution
The Figures of Merit are essentially normalized noise parameters for both the PLL and VCO that can allow quick estimates of the performance levels of the PLL at the required VCO, offset and phase detector fre­quency. Normally, the PLL
IC noise dominates inside the closed loop bandwidth of the synthesizer, and the VCO dominates outside the loop bandwidth at offsets far from the carrier. Hence a quick estimate of the closed loop performance of the PLL can be made by
setting the loop bandwidth equal to the frequency where the PLL and free running phase noise are equal.
The Figure of Merit is also useful in estimating the noise parameters to be entered into a closed loop design tool such as
Hittite PLL Design, which can give a much more accurate estimate of the closed loop phase noise and PLL loop filter
component values.
Given an optimum loop design, the approximate closed loop performance is simply given by the minimum of the PLL
and VCO noise contributions.
(
(EQ 3)
2
Φ=
min Φ 2p , Φν2
)
PLL-VCO Noise
An example of the use of the FOM values to make a quick estimate of PLL performance: Estimate the phase noise of an
8 GHz closed loop PLL with a 100 MHz reference operating in Fractional Mode B with the VCO operating at 8 GHz and
the VCO divide by 2 port driving the PLL at 4 GHz. Assume an HMC509 VCO has free running phase noise in the 1/f2
region at 1 MHz offset of -135 dBc/Hz and phase noise in the 1/f3 region at 1 kHz offset of -60 dBc/Hz.
Fv1_dB = -135
Free Running VCO PN at 1MHz offset
+20*log10(1e6)
PNoise normalized to 1Hz offset
-20*log10(8e9) Pnoise normalized to 1Hz carrier
= -213.1 dBc/Hz at 1Hz
VCO FOM
Fv3_dB = -60
Free Running VCO PN at 1kHz offset
+30*log10(1e3)
PNoise normalized to 1Hz offset
-20*log10(8e9) Pnoise normalized to 1Hz carrier
= -168 dBc/Hz at 1Hz
VCO Flicker FOM
The PLL FOM floor and FOM flicker parameters in fractional Mode A:
Fpo_dB = -227 dBc/Hz at 1Hz
Fp1_dB = -266 dBc/Hz at 1Hz
Each of the Figure of Merit equations result in straight lines on a log-frequency plot. We can see in the example below
the resulting
PLL floor at 8 GHz = Fpo_dB +20log10(fvco) -10log10(fpd) = -227+198 -80 = -109 dBc/Hz
PLL Flicker at 1 kHz = Fp1_dB+20log10(fvco)-10log10(fm) = -266 +198-30 = -98 dBc/Hz
VCO at 1 MHz = Fv1_dB+20log10(fvco)-20log10(fm)= -213 +198-120
= -135 dBc/Hz
VCO flicker at 1 kHz = Fv3_dB+20log10(fvco)-30log10(fm)= -168 +198-90 = -60 dBc/Hz
These four values help to visualize the main contributors to phase noise in the closed loop PLL. Each falls on a linear
line on the log-frequency phase noise plot shown in Figure 3.
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PHASE NOISE (dBc/Hz)
-40
VCO at 1 kHz
-60
-80
-100
PLL Floor
-120
PLL at 1 kHz
-140
VCO at 1 MHz
-160
-180
100
1000
10
4
5
6
10
10
FREQUENCY OFFSET (Hz)
10
7
10
8
Figure 3. Figure of Merit Example
It should be noted that actual phase noise near the corner frequency of the loop bandwidth is affected by loop parameters and one should use a more complete design tool such as Hittite PLL Design for better esti­mates of the phase noise
performance. Noise models for each of the components in Hittite PLL Design can be derived from the FOM equations
or can be provided by Hittite applications engineering.
Spurious Performance
Product & Operating Guide
-20
Integer Operation
The VCO always operates at an integer multiple of the PD frequency in an integer synthesizer. In general, spurious
signals originating from an integer synthesizer can only occur at multiples of the PD frequency. These unwanted outputs
are often simply referred to as reference sidebands.
Spurs unrelated to the reference frequency must originate from outside sources. External spurious sources can
modulate the VCO indirectly through power supplies, ground, or output ports, or bypass the loop filter due to poor
isolation of the filter. It can also simply add to the output of the synthesizer.
The HMC703LP4E has been designed and tested for ultra-low spurious performance. Reference spuri­ous levels are
typically below -100 dBc with a well designed board layout. A regulator with low noise and high power supply rejection,
such as the HMC860LP3E, is recommended to minimize external spurious sources.
Reference spurious levels of below -100 dBc require superb board isolation of power supplies, isolation of the VCO
from the digital switching of the synthesizer and isolation of the VCO load from the synthesizer. Typical board layout,
regulator design, demo boards and application information are available for very low spurious operation. Operation
with lower levels of isolation in the application circuit board, from those rec­ommended by Hittite, can result in higher
spurious levels.
Of course, if the application environment contains other interfering frequencies unrelated to the PD fre­quency, and if
the application isolation from the board layout and regulation are insufficient, then the unwanted interfering frequencies
will mix with the desired synthesizer output and cause additional spurs. The level of these spurs is dependant upon
isolation and supply regulation or rejection (PSRR).
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Product & Operating Guide
Fractional Operation
Unlike an integer synthesizer, spurious signals in a fractional synthesizer can occur due to the fact that the VCO
operates at frequencies unrelated to the PD frequency. Hence intermodulation of the VCO and the PD harmonics can
cause spurious sidebands. Spurious emissions are largest when the VCO operates very close to an integer multiple of
the PD. When the VCO operates exactly at a harmonic of the PD then, no in-close mixing products are present.
Interference is always present at multiples of the PD frequency, fpd, and the VCO frequency, fvco. If the fractional mode
of operation is used, the difference, Δ, between the VCO frequency and the nearest har­monic of the reference, will
create what are referred to as integer boundary spurs. Depending upon the mode of operation of the synthesizer, higher
order, lower power spurs may also occur at multiples of integer fractions (sub-harmonics) of the PD frequency. That is,
fractional VCO frequencies which are near nfpd + fpdd/m, where n, d and m are all integers and d≤m (mathematicians
refer to d/m as a rational num­ber). We will refer to fpdd/m as an integer fraction. The denominator, m, is the order of the
spurious product. Higher values of m produce smaller amplitude spurious at offsets of mΔ and usually when m>4 spurs
are very small or unmeasurable.
The worst case, in fractional mode, is when d=1, and the VCO frequency is offset from nfpd by less than the loop
bandwidth. This is the “in-band fractional boundary” case.
Figure 4. Fractional Spurious Example
Characterization of the levels and orders of these products is not unlike a mixer spur chart. Exact levels of the products
are dependent upon isolation of the various synthesizer parts. Hittite can offer guidance about expected levels of
spurious with our PLL and VCO application boards. Regulators with high power supply rejection ratios (PSRR) are
recommended, especially in noisy applications.
When operating in fractional mode, charge pump and phase detector linearity is of paramount importance. Any nonlinearity degrades phase noise and spurious performance. Phase detector linearity degrades when the phase error is
very small and is operating back and forth between reference lead and VCO lead. To mitigate these non-linearities in
fractional mode it is critical to operate the phase detector with some finite phase offset such that either the reference or
VCO always leads. To provide a finite phase error, extra current sources can be enabled which provide a constant DC
current path to VDD (VCO leads always) or ground (reference leads always). These current sources are called charge
pump offset and they are controlled via Reg 09h. The time offset at the phase detector should be ~2.5 ns + 4 Tps, where
Tps is the RF period at the fractional prescaler input in nanoseconds (ie. after the optional fixed divide by 2). The specific
level of charge pump offset current is determined by this time offset, the comparison frequency and the charge pump
current and can be calculated from:
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(EQ 4)
Required CP Offset = (2.5 ∙ 10 -9+ 4TPS) ∙ (Fcomparison) ∙ ICP where:
ICP: is the full scale current setting of the switching charge pump
Note that this calculation can be performed for the center frequency of the VCO, and does not need refinement for
small differences (<25%) in center frequencies. Also, operation with unreasonably large charge pump offset may cause
Lock Detect to incorrectly indicate an unlocked condition. To correct, reduce the offset to recommended levels.
Another factor in Fractional spectral performance is the choice of the Delta-Sigma Modulator mode. Mode B is normally
recommended, as it allows higher PD frequencies and makes it easier to filter the fractional quantization noise. For low
prescaler frequencies (<1.5GHz), however, mode A can offer better in-band spectral performance. See Reg 06h[0] for
DSM mode selection. Finally, all fractional synthesizers cre­ate fractional spurs at some level. Hittite offers the lowest
level fractional spurious in the indus­try in an integrated solution.
Operational Modes
The HMC703LP4E can operate in a eight of different modes (Reg 06h[7:5]), and supports “Triggering” from 3 different
sources. The modes of operation include:
“Integer Mode”
“Fractional Mode”
“Exact Frequency Mode”
Frequency Modulation “FM Mode”
Phase Modulation “PM Mode”
“Frequency Sweep Mode” (3 types)
All modes require Fractional mode to be enabled except for Integer mode. Fractional mode allows fine frequency
steps. Exact Frequency mode allows precise fractional frequency steps with zero frequency error. FM and PM modes
can be used for simple communications links, with data rate limitations set by the loop filter bandwidth. The PM mode
also allows for precise incremental phase adjustments, which can be important in phased arrays and other systems.
Frequency sweep supports built-in one-way, two-way, or user defined frequency sweeps, useful in FMCW radar
applications.
Product & Operating Guide
TPS: is the RF period at the fractional prescaler input
Depending on the mode, the auxiliary registers Reg 0Ah, Reg 0Ch and Reg 0Dh are used for different functions, as
shown in Table 2.
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Table 2. Operational Modes
Product & Operating Guide
PLL Operating Mode (SD_MODE =
Register
Number
Register Name
Reg 06h[7:5])
0
1
2
3
4
5 to 7
Fractional
Mode
Integer Mode
Exact
Frequency
Mode
FM (Frequency
Modulation)
Mode
PM (Phase
Modulation)
Mode
Ramp Mode
N
Nint
Freq 1: Nint
Nint
Start Nint
Nfrac
Freq 1: Nfrac
Nfrac
Start Nfrac
Phase Step
Frequency step
/ reference clock
Function of
Reg 03h
N Integer Part
Nint
Function of
Reg 04h
N Fractional
Part
Nfrac
Function of
Reg 0Ah
Aux Register
Function of
Reg 0Ch
Alternate
Integer
Function of
Reg 0Dh
Alternate
Fractional
Freq 2: Nint
STOP Nint
Channels / PD
frequency
Freq 2: Nfrac
STOP Nfrac
YES
YES
YES
YES
Updates
frequency,
optionally
initiates phase
Toggles
frequency (level
sensitive)
Increments /
decrements
phase
Proceeds to
next stage of
ramp
Additional Functionality
Double Buffer
YES
On Trigger
Updates
frequency,
optionally
initiates phase
NO
Those registers which are unused in a particular mode can take on any value, and are ignored.
Triggering
Depending on the operating mode, a trigger event is used to change frequency, FM modulate the frequency, modulate
the phase, or advance the frequency ramp profile to its next state. In general the HMC703LP4E can be triggered via
one of three methods. Not all modes support all trigger methods.
1. An external hardware trigger pin-6 (TRIG)
2. SPI write to TRIG BIT in Reg 0Eh[0]
3. SPI write to fractional register Reg 04h (frequency hopping triggers only).
Depending on the mode, the part is sensitive to either the rising edge, or the level of the trigger. The SPI’s TRIG bit
emulates the external TRIG pin, and so it must typically be written to 1 for a trigger, and then back to 0 in preparation
for another trigger cycle. To use the external TRIG pin, it must be enabled via EXTTRIG_EN (Reg 06h[9]).
Fractional Mode or Exact Frequency Mode Frequency Updates
In non-modulated fractional modes (Reg 06h[7:5] = 0 or 2), if the external trigger is enabled, writes to NINT and Nfrac
(Reg 03h and Reg 04h) are internally buffered and wait for an explicit trigger via either the TRIG pin or the SPI’s TRIG
bit before taking effect. If EXTTRIG_EN = 0, the write to NINT is double-buffered, and waits for a fractional write to
Reg 04h so that both NINT and Nfrac are internally recognized together. See the “Fractional Mode” section for more
information on calculating the fractional multiplier for your application.
Initial Phase Control
On the HMC703LP4E, the user has control of the initial phase of the VCO via the 24-bit SEED Reg 05h. This seed
phase is loaded on the 1st clock cycle following a trigger event, provided that autoseed (Reg 06h [8] = 1) is enabled.
The value in Reg 05h represents the phase of the VCO. For example, if two synthesizers are triggered in parallel, but
one has a SEED of 0.2 (0.2x224) and the other has a SEED of 0.7 (0.7x224), the steady state outputs of the two VCOs
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If phase control is not needed, the best spurious operation is achieved with the SEED set to a busy binary number,
for example 50F1CDh, or B29D08h.
Note that in Exact Frequency mode with an exact step of fstep, if autoseed is off, there can be a delay of up to 1/fstep
after a trigger before a new fractional frequency is recognized.
Frequency Tuning
Integer Mode
In integer mode the VCO step size is fixed to that of the PD frequency, fpd. Integer mode typically has lower phase
noise than fractional mode for a given PD operating frequency. The advantage is usually of the order of 2 to 3 dB.
Integer mode, however, often requires a lower PD frequency to meet channel step size requirements. The fractional
mode advantage is that higher PD frequencies can be used, hence lower phase noise can often be realized. “Charge
Pump Offset” should be disabled in integer mode. In integer mode the Δ∑ modulator is shut off and the N divider (Reg
03h) may be programmed to any integer value in the range 16 to 216 -1. To use the HMC703LP4E in integer mode
program Reg 06h[7:5] = 1, then program the integer portion of the frequency (as per (EQ 5)), ignoring the fractional
part.
There is no double buffering in integer mode, i.e. write data then trigger the frequency change later. A write to the
NINT register (Reg 03h) immediately starts the RF frequency hop. There is no external trigger available in this mode.
If double buffering is required, use fractional mode (Reg 06h[7:5] = 0), with Nfrac (Reg 04h ) = 0, and SEED (Reg 05h)
= 0.
Fractional Mode
Product & Operating Guide
(not accounting for any mismatch) will be 180° out of phase = ((0.7-0.2) x 360°). The user can take advantage of this
for phase control of the outputs of multiple synthesizers.
The HMC703LP4E is placed into fractional mode by setting SD_MODE (Reg 06h[7:5] ) = 0
The frequency of a locked VCO controlled by the HMC703LP4E, fvco, is given by
fps =
fxtal
R
(Nint + Nfrac) = fint + ffrac
fvco = k fps
(EQ 5)
(EQ 6)
Where:
fps
is the frequency at the prescalar input after any potential RF divide by 2
fvco
is the frequency at the HMC703LP4E’s RF port
k
is 1 if the RF Divide by 2 is bypassed, 2 if on (Reg 08h[17])
Nint
is the integer division ratio, Reg 03h, an integer between 20 and 216- 1
Nfrac
is the fractional part, from 0.0 to 0.99999...,Nfrac=Reg 04h/224
R
is the reference path division ratio, Reg 02h
fxtal
is the frequency of the reference oscillator input
fpd
is the PD operating frequency, fxtal /R
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Product & Operating Guide
As an example, suppose we want to tune a VCO to 7910 MHz. Since the input frequency is > 4 GHz, the
RF divide-by-2 must be engaged, so k=2:
fvco
k2
fps
3,955 MHz
fxtal
= 50 MHz
R
=1
fpd
= 50 MHz
Nint
= 79
Nfrac
= 0.1
Reg 04h
= round(0.1 x 224) = round(1677721.6) = 1677722
7,910 MHz
50e6
fps =
fvco = 2 (3955 +1.2 Hz) = 7910 MHz + 2.4 Hz error
1
(79 +
1677722
224
) = 3955 MHz + 1.2 Hz error
(EQ 7)
(EQ 8)
In this example the output frequency of 7910 MHz is achieved by programming the 16-bit binary value of 79d = 4Fh =
0000 0000 0100 1111 into intg_reg in Reg 03h, and the 24-bit binary value of 1677722d = 19999Ah = 0001 1001 1001
1001 1001 1010 into frac_reg in Reg 04h. The 2.4 Hz quantization error can be eliminated using the exact frequency
mode if required.
Exact Frequency Mode
The absolute frequency precision of a fractional PLL is normally limited by the number of bits in the fractional modulator.
For example a 24 bit fractional modulator has frequency resolution set by the phase detector (PD ) comparison rate
divided by 224. In the case of a 50 MHz PD rate, this would be approximately 2.98 Hz, or 0.0596 ppm.
In some applications it is necessary to have exact frequency steps, and even an error of 3 Hz cannot be tol­erated. In
some fractional synthesizers it is necessary to shorten the length of the accumulator (the denominator or the modulus)
to accommodate the exact period of the step size. The shortened accumula­tor often leads to very high spurious levels
at multiples of the channel spacing, fstep = fPD/Modulus. For example 200 kHz channel steps with a 10 MHz PD rate
requires a modulus of just 50. The Hittite method achieves the exact frequency step size while using the full 24 bit
modulus, thus achiev­ing exact frequency steps with very low spurious and a high comparison rate, which maintains
excellent phase noise.
Fractional PLLs are able to generate exact frequencies (with zero frequency error) if N can be exactly represented in
binary (eg. N = 50.0,50.5,50.25,50.75 etc.). Unfortunately, some common frequencies cannot be exactly represented.
For example, Nfrac = 0.1 = 1/10 must be approximated as round((0.1 x 224)/ 224 ) ≈ 0.100000024. At fPD = 50 MHz this
translates to 1.2 Hz error. HMC703LP4E exact frequency mode addresses this issue, and can eliminate quantization
error by programming the Nchannels (Reg 0Dh) to 10 (in this example). More generally, this feature can be used
whenever the prescaler frequency, fps, can be exactly represented on a step plan where there are an integer number
(Nchannels) of frequency steps across integer-N boundaries. Assuming the RF divide by 2 is disabled so that fps=fvco,
this holds when the VCO frequency, fvco satisfies (EQ 9), shown graphically in Figure 5.
14
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

Nchannels = fPD / fgcd ,
(EQ 9)
and Nchannels < 224
Where:
fPD = frequency of the Phase Detector
f VCO is the desired output frequency
fN , fN+1 are integer multiples of the Phase Detector
fgcd stands for Greatest Common Divisor
eg. fgcd (4000.200MHz, 50MHz)
= 200kHz
therefore Nchannels = 50 MHz/200 kHz = 250
f VCOn are other VCO frequencies we can exactly tune to, given this fgcd spacing
Product & Operating Guide


f=
=
where fgcd gcd(fvco, fPD )
vco mod  fgcd  0,
Figure 5. Exact Frequency Tuning
In the previous paragraph, it was assumed that a single frequency was to be achieved with zero error. Exact frequency
mode also applies to cases where many exact frequencies are required, all of which fit on a particular channel spacing.
Example: To achieve exactly 50 kHz channel steps with a 61.44 MHz reference, calculate fgcd and Nchannels:
fPD = 61.44 MHz
fstep = 50 kHz
fgcd (61.44 MHz, 50 kHz)
Using the Euclidean algorithm to find the greatest common denominator:
61.440 MHz = 50 kHz x 1228 + 50 kHz
50 kHz = 40 kHz x 1 + 10 kHz
40 kHz = 10 kHz x 4 + 0 (0 remainder, algorithm complete)
fgcd (61.44 MHz, 50 kHz) = 10 kHz
Nchannels = 61.44 MHz / 10 kHz = 6144
For improved spectral performance (to keep spurs low and further out of band), it is best to keep fgcd as high as possible (Nchannels as low possible) for a given application.
Using Hittite Exact Frequency Mode
To use Exact Frequency Mode, we recommend the following procedure:
1. Calculate the required fgcd as either gcd(f VCO, fPD) or gcd(fPD, fstep) depending on your application
2. Calculate the number of channels per integer boundary, Nchannels= fPD / fgcd and program into Reg 0Dh
3. Set the modulator mode to Exact Frequency (SD_MODE in Reg 06h[7:5] = 2)
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PRODUCT & OPERATING GUIDE
Then, for each frequency of interest, f VCO:
4
Calculate the approximate value of N that is required: N = f VCO/fPD = NINT + Nfrac
5.Program NINT into integer register Reg 03h
Note: There is no need to re-program NINT if it has not changed from the previous set-point.
6. Program the fractional register, Reg 04h = Ceiling(Nfrac*224)
where the ceiling function means “round up to the nearest integer.”
Example: To configure HMC703LP4E for exact frequency mode with channel spacing of 50 kHz, VCO frequency =
2000.200 MHz and fPD =61.44 MHz:
1. fgcd(61.44 MHz, 50 kHz) = 10 kHz (as above)
2.Calculate Nchannels=fPD / fgcd = 6144. Program into Reg 0Dh (6144 dec = 1800 hex)
3. Set the modulator mode to Exact Frequency (SD_MODE in Reg 06h[7:5] = 2)
4. Calculate N = 2000.2 MHz / 61.44 MHz = 32.55533854 = 32 + 0.55533854
5. Program integer divisor NINT (Reg 03h) = 32d = 20h
6. Program fractional divisor Reg 04h= CEILING(0.55533854 x 224) = 9,317,035 = 8E2AABh
In the above example, without exact frequency mode, there would have been a -1.2 Hz error due to quantization.
FM Mode
The HMC703LP4E PM mode supports simple FSK modulation via a level sensitive trigger. FM mode can be used for
simple communications links, with data rate limitations set by the loop filter bandwidth.
The HMC703LP4E is configured to operate in FM mode by writing Reg 06h[7:5] = 3.
The FM mode allows the user to toggle between two frequencies F0 = N1*fPD and F1 = N2*fPD based on the level of
the TRIG.
The following procedure is recommended to configure HMC703LP4E to FM mode:
1. Lock in fractional mode (Reg 06h[7:5]= 0) to F0 = fPD x (Reg 03h.Reg 04h).
2. Program (Reg 0Ch.Reg 0Dh) for F1.
3. Change mode to FM (Reg 06h[7:5] = 3).
4. Select the trigger source Reg 06h[9] = 1, TRIG (pin-6), or Reg 06h[9] = 0 - trigger from SPI bit Reg 0Eh[0]
5. Switch between F0 and F1 on a trigger state 0/1 = F0/F1.
It is possible to change the next frequency state between trigger events, without affecting the output - ie. write the F0
value while on F1, or F1 while on F0 .
PM Mode
The HMC703LP4E PM mode supports simple bi-phase modulation via a level sensitive trigger. PM mode also supports
programmable phase steps via an edge sensitive trigger. PM modes can be used for simple communications links,
with data rate limitations set by the loop filter bandwidth.
The HMC703LP4E is configured to operate in all PM mode by writing Reg 06h[7:5] = 4. In general the modulation
phase step, ∆q, in either PM mode is given by
∆q =
x × 360
224
(deg)
where x = Reg 0Ah.
16
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PRODUCT & OPERATING GUIDE
Phase step is programmed in Reg 0Ah as a fraction of 2π, where 224 = 2π. For example, for bi-phase modulation a
phase step of 180°, program Reg 0Ah= round( (180/360) x 224 = 8388608d = 800000h).
Phase modulation data is input via a “trigger” source, where the trigger is level dependent (Reg 06h[8] = 0), high
trigger advances the phase and low trigger returns the phase.
Phase Step Control
Phase may also be advanced on the rising edge of the trigger only. Phase step is programmed in Reg 0Ah as a fraction
of 360°, where 224 = 2π. For example, for a 1° phase step, program Reg 0Ah= round( (1/360) x 224 = 46603d =B60Bh)
In summary the following procedure is recommended to configure HMC703LP4E for PM mode:
1. Lock in fractional mode (Reg 06h[7:5] = 0) to F = fPD x (Reg 03h.Reg 04h).
2. Program (Reg 0Ah) to the intended phase step.
3. Change mode to PM (Reg 06h[7:5] = 4).
4. Change trigger option to edge or level (Reg 06h[8])
5. Select the trigger source Reg 06h[9] = 1, TRIG (pin-6), or Reg 06h[9] = 0 - trigger from SPI write to
Reg 0Eh).
Frequency Sweep Mode
The HMC703LP4E features a built-in sweeper mode, that supports external or automatic triggered sweeps. The
maximum sweep range is only limited by the VCO dynamics and range.
Sweeper Mode includes:
Product & Operating Guide
Bi-Phase Modulation
a. Automatic 2-Way Sweep Mode
INITIAL trigger, ramp, ramp back, ramp, ramp back, ...
Selected by writing Reg 06h[7:5] = 7
b. Triggered 2-Way Sweep Mode
INITIAL trigger, ramp, wait for trigger, ramp back, wait for trigger, ramp, ...
Selected by writing Reg 06h[7:5] = 6
c. Triggered 1-Way Sweep Mode INITIAL trigger, ramp, wait for trigger, hop back to initial frequency, wait for trigger, ramp, ...
Selected by writing Reg 06h[7:5] = 5
Applications include test instrumentation, FMCW sensors, automotive radars and others.
The parameters of the sweep function are illustrated in Figure 6. The HMC703LP4E generates a sweep by implementing
miniature frequency steps in time. A smooth and continuous sweep is then generated, at the output of the VCO, after
the stepped signal is filtered by the loop filter, as shown in Figure 6. The stepped sweep approach enables the
HMC703LP4E to be in lock for entire duration of the sweep. This gives the HMC703LP4E a number of advantages
over conventional methods including:
•
The ability to generate a linear sweep.
•
The ability to have phase coherence between different ramps, so that the phase profile of each sweep is identical.
•
The ability to generate sweeps with identical phase and phase noise performance.
•
The ability to generate user defined sweeps in single-step ramp mode.
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The HMC703LP4E sweep function cycles through a series of discrete frequency values which may be
Product & Operating Guide
a. Stepped by an automatic sequencer or,
b. Single stepped by individual triggers in Single Step Mode.
Triggering of each sweep, or step, may be configured to operate:
a. Via a serial port write of 1 to Reg 0Eh[0] (it should then be returned to 0)
b. Automatically generated internally
c. Triggered via TRIG pin-6
Figure 6. HMC703LP4E Sweep Function
2-Way Sweeps
The HMC703LP4E can be configured to operate in 2-Way Sweep mode by programming Reg 06h [7:5] = 6 or 7. A
2-way sweep is shown in Figure 7. The start of the sweep can be triggered by external TRIG pin-6 if EXTTRIG_EN =
1, or the SPI_TRIG (Reg 0Eh). In automatic 2-Way sweep (Reg 06h [7:5] = 7), the ramp restarts immediately, without
waiting for an external trigger.
Figure 7. 2-Way Triggered Sweep
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The HMC703LP4E can be configured to operate in Triggered 1-Way Sweep mode by programming Reg 06h [7:5] = 6.
Triggered 1-way sweeps are shown in Figure 8. Unlike 2-Way sweeps, Triggered 1-Way sweeps force the VCO to hop
back to the start frequency upon the next trigger. Triggered 1-Way sweeps also require a 3 rd trigger to start the new
sweep. The 3rd trigger should be timed appropriately to allow the VCO to settle after the large frequency hop back
to the start frequency. Subsequent odd numbered triggers will start the 1-Way sweep and repeat the process. 1-way
sweep can be triggered by external TRIG pin-6 if EXTTRIG_EN = 1, or the SPI_TRIG (Reg 0Eh).
Figure 8. 1-Way Sweep Control
Single Step Ramp Mode
Product & Operating Guide
1-Way Sweeps
With any of the sweeper profiles, the HMC703LP4E can be configured to operate in single step mode. This causes
it to wait for an explicit trigger before every change in the frequency setpoint. A Single Step 1-Way Ramp is shown in
Figure 9. In this mode, a trigger is required for each step of the ramp. Similar to autosweep, the ramp_busy flag will go
high on the first trigger, and will stay high until the nth trigger. The n+1 trigger will cause the ramp to jump to the start
frequency in 1-way ramp mode. The n+2 trigger will restart the 1-way ramp. Single step ramp mode can be triggered
by external TRIG pin-6 if EXTTRIG_EN = 1, or the SPI_TRIG (Reg 0Eh).
In single-step mode (Reg 06h[23] = 1), the HMC703LP4E has the capability to generate arbitrarily shaped profiles
defined by the timing density of the trigger pulses. On each trigger event the frequency is stepped by the step value
programmed in Reg 0Ah. In addition, the HMC703LP4E allows the flexibility to change the step size (Reg 0Ah) during
the ramp, between steps, adding another degree of freedom to ramp profile generation. Note that the maximum trigger
rate where operation can be guaranteed is fPD/5. In addition, the step register (Reg 0Ah) should not be updated via
the SPI during the first two reference clock cycles after the trigger. The discrete nature of the frequency updates is
smoothed by the loop filter, and should not pose a problem provided that update rate is > 10 x the loop bandwidth.
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Product & Operating Guide
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PRODUCT & OPERATING GUIDE
Figure 9. Single Step Ramp Mode
The user should be aware that the synthesized ramp is subject to normal phase locked loop dynamics. If the loop
bandwidth in use is much wider than the rate of the steps then the locking will be fast and the ramp will have a
staircase shape. If the update rate is higher than the loop bandwidth, as is normally the case, then the loop will not
fully settle before a new frequency step is received. Hence the swept output will have a small lag and will sweep in a
near continuous fashion.
Detailed Sweeper Configuration
The Following procedure is recommended to configure the frequency sweep in HMC703LP4E:
1. Lock in fractional mode (Reg 06h[7:5] = 0) to the start frequency (f0).
2. Program frequency step Reg 0Ah and stop N (Reg 0Ch,Reg 0Dh). Note that stop N must be exactly equal
to start N plus an integer number of steps (Reg 0Ah). If it is not, the sweeper function will not terminate
properly. This normally means rounding the stop N up or down slightly to ensure it falls on a step boundary.
3. Change Mode to Reg 06h[7:5] = 5,6, or 7 - depending on the desired profile.
Note that the ramp step Reg 0Ah is signed two’s complement. If negative, the first ramp has a negative slope, and
vice-versa.
Setting autoseed (Reg 06h[8] = 1) ensures that different sweeps have identical phase profile. This is achieved by
loading the seed (Reg 05h) into the phase accumulator at the beginning of each ramp
Setting Reg 06h[22] = 1 ensures identical phase AND quantization noise performance on each sweep by resetting the
entire delta-sigma modulator at the beginning of each ramp.
Note that, while the HMC703LP4E can enforce phase coherence between different frequency sweeps, there will be a
phase discontinuity if the start phase that is programmed in SEED (Reg 05h) is different from the phase state that the
PLL finds itself in at the end of the ramp. This discontinuity can be prevented by tailoring the sweep profile such that
the phase of the PLL at the start of the ramp is equal to phase at the end of the ramp.
Example: Configure a sweep from f0 = 3000 MHz to ff = 3105 MHz in Tramp ≈ 2 ms, with fPD = 50 MHz:
20
1. Start in fractional mode (Program Reg 06h[7:5] = 0)
1. Calculate Start N and Stop N, Program Start N (Reg 03h,Reg 04h)
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Start N = 3000.0 MHz / 50.0 MHz = 60.0
Stop N = 3105.0 MHz / 50.0 MHz = 62.1
Program Reg 03h = 60, Reg 04h = 0
2. Calculate how many reference cycles will occur in 2 ms. Given that Tref = 1 / fPD = 20ns,
3. Calculate the desired N step size, given Start N, Stop N and Nbr of Steps
Nbr of Steps = Tramp/Tref = 2ms/20ns = 100,000
N_Step_Size_desired = (62.1 - 60.0) / 100,000 = 21u [fractions of N]
4. Quantize the fractional N step into the 24 bit step size
Program Reg 0Ah = 21u x 224 = round(352.32) = 352
5. Readjust the stop frequency slightly to ensure it falls exactly on a step boundary
Due to step quantization,there will be some finite error in either the sweep time or sweep span.
We have 3 choices:
a) Target an accurate sweep time, sacrifice resolution on stop frequency
Sweep time = 100k cycles = 2 ms
Stop N = Start N + 100,000 x 352/224 (Keep 100k cycles)
Stop
N = 60.000 + 35,200,000 / 224
≈ 62.09808
Program Reg 0Ch= 62, Reg 0Dh = 35,200,000 MOD 224 = 1,645,568 ≈ 0.09808
ff ≈ 3104.904 (96 kHz lower stop frequency then desired)
b) Target an accurate stop frequency, at the expense of sweep time accuracy
Given step size of 352/224 , how many cycles to get from 60.0 to 62.1
Nbr of Steps = (62.1 - 60.0) / (352/224) = 100,091.345
Must round to 100,091 steps.
Sweep time = Tref * 100,091 = 2.00182ms (1.82 us longer than desired)
Stop N = 60.0 + 100,091 x 352/224 ≈ 62.0999927
Product & Operating Guide
PLLs WITH INTEGRATED VCO - MICROWAVE APPLICATIONS
PRODUCT & OPERATING GUIDE
Program Reg 0Ch= 62, Reg 0Dh = 35,232,032 MOD 224 = 1,677,600 ≈ 0.0999927
ff = 3104.99964 MHz (362 Hz lower stop frequency then desired)
c) A combination of situation a and b
6. Program SD_Mode based on desired trigger and ramp/hop profile (Reg 06h[7:5] = 5,6, or 7)
7. Trigger via either the external pin or SPI TRIG bit.
Continue to issue triggers to advance the ramp profile to the next stage...
Sweeper Configuration for Ultra Fine Step Sizes
In cases where finer step size resolution is desired, it is possible to reduce the fPD, along with performance implications
it has, or use a single-step mode (Reg 06h[23] = 1) and provide a lower frequency clock on the external trigger pin
to reduce the update rate. The HMC703LP4E can generate a lower frequency clock by programming the R divider
appropriately, and not using it for the PD (Reg 06h[21] = 1), but rather routing it out of the HMC703LP4E via the GPO.
The R divider output can then be looped back to the TRIG pin of the HMC703LP4E to use as a low rate trigger. See
“Ref Path ’R’ Divider” for more details.
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Product & Operating Guide
Reference Input Stage
Figure 10. Reference Path Input Stage
The reference buffer provides the path from an external reference source (generally crystal based) to the R divider, and
eventually to the phase detector. The buffer has two modes of operation. High Gain (recommended below 200 MHz),
and High frequency, for 200 to 350 MHz operation. The buffer is internally DC biased, with 100 Ω internal termination.
For 50 Ω match, an external 100 Ω resistance to AC ground should be added, followed by an AC coupling capacitance
(impedance < 1 Ohm), then to the XREFP pin of the part.
At low frequencies, a relatively square reference is recommended to keep the input slew rate high. At higher frequencies,
a square or sinusoid can be used. The following table shows the recommended operating regions for different reference
frequencies. If operating outside these regions the part will normally still operate, but with degraded performance.
Minimum pulse width at the reference buffer input is 2.5 ns. For best spur performance when R = 1, the pulse width
should be > (2.5 ns + 8 Tps), where Tps is the period of the VCO at the prescaler input. When R > 1 minimum pulse
width is 2.5 ns.
Table 3. Reference Sensitivity Table
Square Input
Sinusoidal Input
Frequency
Slew > 0.5V/ns
(MHz)
Recommended
Recommended Swing (Vpp)
Min
Max
Recommended
Recommended Power Range (dBm)
Min
Max
< 10
YES
0.6
2.5
x
x
x
10
YES
0.6
2.5
x
x
x
25
YES
0.6
2.5
ok
8
15
50
YES
0.6
2.5
YES
6
15
100
YES
0.6
2.5
YES
5
15
12
150
ok
0.9
2.5
YES
4
200
ok
1.2
2.5
YES
3
8
200 to 350
x
x
x
YES1
5
10
Note: For greater than 200 MHz operation, use buffer in High Frequency Mode. Reg 08h[18] = 1
Input referred phase noise of the PLL when operating at 50 MHz is between -150 and -156 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset
depending upon the mode of operation. The input reference signal should be 10dB better than this floor to avoid deg­
radation of the PLL noise contribution. It should be noted that such low levels are only necessary if the PLL is the
dominant noise contributor and these levels are required for the system goals.
22
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PRODUCT & OPERATING GUIDE
The reference path “R” divider is based on a 14 bit counter and can divide input signals of up to 350 MHz input by values
from 1 to 16,383 and is controlled by Reg 02h[13:0]. The reference divider output may be viewed in test mode on the
LD_SDO pin, by setting Reg 0Fh[4:0] = 9d.
The HMC703LP4E can use the undivided reference, while exporting a divided version for auxiliary purposes (eg. ramp
triggers, FPGAs etc.) on the GPO, if Reg 06h[21] = 1.
RF Path
The RF path is shown in Figure 11. This path features a low noise 8 GHz RF input buffer followed by an 8 GHz RF divideby-2 with a selectable bypass. If the VCO input is below 4 GHz the RF divide-by-2 should be by-passed for improved
performance in fractional mode. The RF divide-by-2 is followed by the N divider, a 16 bit divider that can operate in
either integer or fractional mode with up to 4 GHz inputs. Finally the N divider is followed by the Phase Detector (PD),
which has two inputs, the RF path from the VCO (V) and the reference path (R) from the crystal. The PD can operate at
speeds up to 100 MHz in fractional Mode B (recommended ), 80 MHz in fractional Mode A and 115 MHz in integer
mode.
Product & Operating Guide
Ref Path ’R’ Divider
Figure 11. RF Path
RF Input Stage
The RF input stage provides the path from the external VCO to the phase detector via the RF or ’N’ divider. The RF
input path is rated to operate up to 8 GHz across all conditions. The RF input stage is a differential common emitter
stage with internal DC bias, and is protected by ESD diodes as shown in Figure 12. This input is not matched to 50 Ω. A
100 Ω resistor placed across the inputs can be used for a better match to 50 Ω. In most applications the input is used
single-ended into either the VCOIP or VCOIN pin with the other input connected to ground through a DC blocking
capacitor. The preferred input level for best spectral performance is -10 dBm nominally.
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PRODUCT & OPERATING GUIDE
Figure 12. RF Input Stage- shown with single ended device
RF Path ’N’ Divider
The main RF path ’N’ divider is capable of divide ratios anywhere between 216-1 (524,287) and 16 . This divider for
example could divide a 4 GHz input to a PD frequency anywhere between its maximum output limit of 115 MHz to as low
as 7.6 kHz. The ’N’ divider output may be viewed in test mode on LD_SDO by set­ting Reg 0Fh[4:0] = 10d. When
operating in fractional mode the N divider can change by up to +/-4 from the average value. Hence the selected divide
ratio in fractional mode is restricted to values between 216-5 (65,531) and 20.
If the VCO input is above 4 GHz then the 8 GHz fixed RF divide-by-2 should be used, Reg 08h[17] = 1. In this case the
integer division range is restricted to even numbers over the range 2*(216-5) (131,062) down to 40.
PLL Jitter
The standard deviation of the arrival time of the VCO signal, or the jitter, may be estimated with a simple approximation
if we assume that the locked VCO has a constant phase noise, Φ 2 ( f0 ) , at offsets less than the loop 3dB bandwidth and
a 20dB per decade roll off at greater offsets. The simple locked VCO phase noise approximation is shown on the left of
Figure 13.
Figure 13. PLL Phase Noise and Jitter
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(EQ 10)
Ф2v = Ф2(f0) Вπ
where
Ф2 is the single sideband phase noise in rads2/Hz inside the loop bandwidth, and
В is the 3 dB corner frequency of the closed loop PLL
The integrated phase noise at the phase detector, Ф2pd, is just scaled by N2 ie. Ф2pd = Ф2v/N2
The rms phase jitter of the VCO (Фv) in rads, is just the square root of the phase noise integral.
Since the simple integral of (EQ 10) is just a product of constants, we can easily do the integral in the log domain. For
example if the phase noise inside the loop is -110 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset and the loop band­width is 100 kHz, and the
division ratio is 100, then the integrated phase noise at the phase detector, in dB, is given by;
Ф2pd = 10log(Ф2(f0) Вπ/N2) = -110 + 5 + 50 - 40 = -95 dBrads, or equivalently Φ =10
rms.
−95
20
= 18 µrads = 1 milli-degrees
While the phase noise reduces by a factor of 20logN after division to the reference, due to the increased period of the
PD reference signal, the jitter is constant.
The rms jitter from the phase noise is then given by Tjpn=Tpd Ф2pd/2π
In this example if the PD reference was 50 MHz, Tpd = 20 nsec, and hence Tjpn = 56 femto-sec.
Product & Operating Guide
With this simplification the total integrated VCO phase noise, Ф2v, in rads2 is given by
Charge Pump and Phase Detector
The Phase Detector or PD has two inputs, one from the reference path divider and one from the RF path divider. When
in lock these two inputs are at the same average frequency and are fixed at a constant aver­age phase offset with
respect to each other. We refer to the frequency of operation of the PD as fpd. Most formula related to step size, deltasigma modulation, timers etc., are functions of the operating frequency of the PD, fpd is sometimes referred to as the
comparison frequency of the PD.
The PD compares the phase of the RF path signal with that of the reference path signal and controls the charge pump
output current as a linear function of the phase difference between the two signals. The out­put current varies in a linear
fashion over nearly ±2π radians (±360) of input phase difference.
Charge Pump and Phase Detector Functions
Phase detector register Reg 0Bh allows manual access to control special phase detector features.
Reg 0Bh[2:0] allows fine tuning of the PD reset path delay. This adjustment can be used to improve perfor­mance at very
high PD rates. Most often this register is set to the recommended value only.
Reg 0Bh[5] and [6] enables the PD UP and DN outputs respectively. Disabling prevents the charge pump from pumping
up or down respectively and effectively tri-states the charge pump while leaving all other functions operating internally.
CP Force UP Reg 0Bh[7] and CP Force DN Reg 0Bh[8] allows the charge pump to be forced up or down respectively.
This will force the VCO to the ends of the tuning range which can be useful for testing of the VCO.
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Product & Operating Guide
PD Force Mid Reg 0Bh[9] will disable the charge pump current sources and place a voltage source on the loop filter at
approximately VPPCP/2. If a passive filter is used this will set the VCO to the mid-voltage tun­ing point which can be
useful for testing of the VCO.
Lock Detect
Each PD (Phase Detector) cycle, the HMC703LP4E measures phase error at the PD. The measured phase error must
be:
•
< ~220 degrees if 40 MHz <= fPD <= 120 MHz, and
•
< ~14 ns if fpd < 40 MHz,
for a number of consecutive cycles (number of cycles is programmable in Reg 07h[2:0]), in order for HMC703LP4E to
declare a lock. A single phase error outside of these criteria disqualifies lock, and the lock counter (maximum value
of lock counter = Reg 07h[2:0]) is restarted.
Note that in some cases, the PLL may be locked with a phase error that exceeds 180 degrees, or 12 ns, whichever is
smaller. This can occur if the offset current is inappropriately programmed too high. It is not recommended to operate
in this condition because it leads to degraded phase noise performance. In such a case the lock detect circuit would
not declare a locked condition, even though the PLL is locked.
The HMC703LP4E lock-detect functionality is self-calibrating relative to the reference frequency. Typically the
lock-detect training is only required once on power-up, or each time the reference frequency or the R divider value
(Reg 02h) is changed.
To train the lock-detect circuitry of the HMC703LP4E on power-up, set:
•
set Reg 07h [11] = 1 to enable lock-detect counters
•
set Reg 07h [14] = 1 to enable the lock-detect timer
•
set Reg 07h [20] = 1 to train the lock-detect timer
These bits can all be written simultaneously.
On any change of the PD frequency (via either the external reference frequency, or the R divider setting (Reg 02h)),
the lock-detect circuit should be retrained by toggling Reg 07h [20] Off and then back On.
The lock-detect indication can be read from the SPI via Reg 12h[1], or can be exported on the LD_SDO pin via the
GPO mux(Reg 0Fh[4:0]). See LD_SDO pin description for more information.
Cycle Slip Prevention (CSP)
When changing frequency and the VCO is not yet locked to the reference, the instantaneous frequencies of the two PD
inputs are different, and the phase difference of the two inputs at the PD varies rapidly over a range much greater than
+/-2π radians. Since the gain of the PD varies linearly with phase up to +/-2π, the gain of a conventional PD will cycle
from high gain, when the phase difference approaches a multiple of 2π, to low gain, when the phase difference is
slightly larger than 0 radians. The output current from the charge pump will cycle from maximum to minimum even
though the VCO has not yet reached its final frequency.
The charge on the loop filter small cap may actually discharge slightly during the low gain portion of the cycle. This can
make the VCO frequency actually reverse temporarily during locking. This phenomenon is known as cycle slipping.
Cycle slipping causes the pull-in rate during the locking phase to vary cyclically. Cycle Slipping increases the time to
lock to a value much greater than that predicted by normal small signal Laplace analysis.
The HMC703LP4E mitigates the effects of cycle-slips by increasing the charge-pump current when the phase error is
larger than ~220 degrees or ~14 ns (whichever is less as measured by the lock-detect circuit). The circuit is normally
most effective for PD frequencies <= 50 MHz.
26
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Reg 0Bh[4]=0 sets the PD polarity for use with a passive loop filter together with a VCO with a positive tuning slope
(increasing tuning voltage increases VCO frequency).
Reg 0Bh[4]=1 inverts the PD polarity. This is most often used if an inverting op-amp is used in an active loop filter
together with a VCO with a positive tuning slope.
Charge Pump Tri-state
Reg 0Bh[5]=Reg 0Bh[6]=0 tri-states the charge pump. This effectively freezes charge on the loop filter and allows the
VCO to run open loop, provided that CP offset is also disabled.
Charge Pump Gain
Reg 09h[6:0] and Reg 09h[13:7] program current gain settings for the charge pump. Pump ranges can be set from 0 µA
to 2.54 mA in 20uA steps. Charge pump gain affects the loop bandwidth. The product of VCO gain (Kvco) and charge
pump gain (Kcp) can be held constant for VCO’s that have a wide ranging Kvco by adjusting the charge pump gain. This
compensation helps to keep the loop bandwidth constant.
In addition to the normal CP current as described above, there is also an extra output source of current that offers
improved noise performance. HiKcp provides an output current that is proportional to the loop filter voltage. This being
the case, HiKcp should only be operated with active op-amp loop filters that define the voltage as seen by the charge
pump pin. With 2.5 V as observed at the charge pump pin, the HiKcp current is 3.5 mA.
There are several configurations that could be used with the HiKcp feature. For lowest noise, HiKcp could be used
without the normal charge pump current (the charge pump current would be set to 0). In this case, the loop filter would
be designed with 3.5 mA as the effective charge pump current.
Product & Operating Guide
PD Polarity
Another possible configuration is to operate with both the HiKcp and normal charge pump current sources. In this case
the effective charge pump current would be 3.5mA + programmed normal charge pump current which could offer a
maximum of 6 mA.
With passive loop filters the voltage seen by the charge pump pin will vary which would cause the HiKcp current to vary
widely. As such, HiKcp should not be used on passive loop filter implementations.
A simplified diagram of the charge pump is shown in Figure 14. The current gain of the pump in Amps/radian is equal
to the gain setting of this register divided by 2π.
Charge Pump Offset
Reg 09h[20:14] controls the charge pump current offsets. Reg 09h[21] and Reg 09h[22] enable the UP and DN offset
currents respectively. Normally, only one is used at a time. As mentioned earlier charge pump offsets affect fractional
mode linearity . Offset polarity should be chosen such that the divided VCO lags the reference signal. This means
down for non-inverting loop filters.
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PRODUCT & OPERATING GUIDE
Figure 14. Charge Pump Gain and Offset Control - Reg09h
Seed Register and AutoSeed Mode
The start phase of the fractional modulator digital phase accumulator (DPA) may be set to any values via the
seed register Reg 05h. If autoseed Reg 06h[8] is set, then the PLL will automatically reload the start phase from
Reg 05h[23:0] into the DPA every time a new fractional fre­quency is selected. If autoseed is not set, then the PLL will
start new fractional frequencies with the value left in the DPA from the last frequency. Hence the start phase will
effectively be random. Certain zero or binary seed values may cause spurious energy correlation at specific
frequencies. Correlated spurs are advantageous only in very special cases where the spurious are known to be far out
of band and are removed in the loop filter. For most cases a pseudo-random seed setting is recom­mended. Further,
since the autoseed always starts the accumulators at the same place, performance is repeatable if autoseed is used.
Reg 05h’s default value typically provides good performance.
Power on Reset
The HMC703LP4E features a hardware Power on Reset (POR) on the digital supply DVDD. All chip reg­isters will be
reset to default states approximately 250 µs after power up of DVDD. Once the supply is fully up, if the power supply
then drops below 0.5 V the digital portion will reset. Note that the SPI control inputs must also be 0 at power-down,
otherwise they will inadvertently power the chip via the ESD protection network.
Power Down Mode
Hardware Power Down
Chip enable may be controlled from the hardware CEN pin 23, or it may be controlled from the serial port. Reg 01h[0] =1
assigns control to the CEN pin. Reg 01h[0] =0 assigns control to the serial port Reg 01h[1]. For hardware test reasons or
some special applications it is possible to force certain blocks to remain on inside the chip , even if the chip is disabled.
See the register Reg 01h description for more details.
Chip Identification
Version information may be read from the synthesizer by reading the content of chip_ID in Reg 00h.
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PRODUCT & OPERATING GUIDE
The PLL shares the LD_SDO (Lock-Detect/Serial Data Out) pin to perform various functions. While the pin is most
commonly used to read back registers from chip via the SPI, it is also capable of exporting a variety of interesting
signals and real time test waveforms (including Lock Detect). It is driven by a tri-state CMOS driver with ~200 Ω Rout.
It has logic associated with it to dynamically select whether the driver is enabled, and to decide which data to export
from the chip.
In its default configuration, after power-on-reset, the output driver is disabled, and only drives during appropriately
addressed SPI reads. This allows it to share the output with other devices on the same bus.
Depending on the SPI mode, the read section of SPI cycle is recognized differently
HMC SPI Mode: The driver is enabled during the last 24 bits of SPI READ cycle (not during write cycles).
Open SPI Mode: The driver is enabled if the chip is addressed - ie. The last 3 bits of SPI cycle = ‘000’b before the
rising edge of SEN (Note A).
To consistently monitor any of the GPO signals, including Lock Detect, set Reg 0Fh[7] = 1 to keep the SDO driver
always on. This stops the LDO driver from tri-stating and means that the SDO line cannot be shared with other devices.
The chip will naturally switch away from the GPO data and export the SDO during an SPI read (Note B). To prevent
this automatic data selection, and always select the GPO signal, set “Prevent AutoMux of SDO” (Reg 0Fh[6] = 1). The
phase noise performance at this output is poor and uncharacterized. Also, the GPO output should not be toggling
during normal operation. Otherwise the spectral performance may degrade.
Note that there are additional controls available, which may be helpful if sharing the bus with other devices:
•
To allow the driver to be active (subject to the conditions above) even when the chip is disabled set Reg 01h[7] = 1.
•
To disable the driver completely, set Reg 08h[5] = 0 (it takes precedence over all else).
•
To disable either the pull-up or pull-down sections of the driver, Reg 0Fh[8] = 0 or Reg 0Fh[9] = 0 respectively.
Product & Operating Guide
General Purpose Output (GPO) Pin
Note A: If SEN rises before SCK has clocked in an ‘invalid’ (non-zero) chip -address, the part will start to drive the
bus.
Note B: In Open Mode, the active portion of the read is defined between the 1st SCK rising edge after SEN, to the
next rising edge of SEN.
Example Scenarios:
•
Drive SDO during reads, tri-state otherwise (to allow bus-sharing)
• No action required.
•
Drive SDO during reads, Lock Detect otherwise
• Set GPO Select Reg 0Fh[4:0] = ‘00001’ (which is default)
• Set “Prevent GPO driver disable” (Reg 0Fh[7] = 1)
•
Always drive Lock Detect
• Set “ Prevent AutoMux of SDO” Reg 0Fh[6] = 1
• Set GPO Select Reg 0Fh[4:0]= 00001 (which is default)
• Set “Prevent GPO driver disable” (Reg 0Fh[7] = 1))
The signals available on the GPO are selected by changing “GPO Select”, Reg 0Fh[4:0].
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PRODUCT & OPERATING GUIDE
Product & Operating Guide
VCO Tuning
Passive Filter
The HMC703LP4E is targeted for high performance applications with an external VCO. The synthe­sizer charge pump
has been designed to work directly with VCOs that can be tuned nominally over 1.0 to 4.0 Volts on the varactor tuning
port with a +5 V charge pump supply voltage. Slightly wider ranges are pos­sible with a +5.2 V charge pump supply or
with slightly degraded performance. Hittite PLL Design soft­ware is available to design passive loop filters driven directly
from the PLL charge pump.
High Voltage Tuning, Active Filter
Optionally an external op-amp may be used in the loop filter to support VCOs requiring higher voltage tuning ranges.
Loop filter design is highly application specific, and can have significant impact on the PLL performance. Its impact on
PLL performance should be well characterized, and optimized for best PLL performance. Hittite’s PLL Design software
is available to design active loop filters with external op-amps. Various filter con­figurations are supported.
Figure 15. Synthesizer with Active Loop Filter and Conventional External VCO
MAIN SERIAL PORT
Serial Port Modes of Operation
The HMC PLL-VCO serial port interface can operate in two different modes of operation.
a. HMC Mode (HMC Legacy Mode) - Single slave per HMCSPI Bus.
b. Open Mode - Up to 8 slaves per HMCSPI Bus. The HMC703LP4E only uses 5 bits of address space.
Both protocols support 5 bits of register address space. HMC Mode can support up to 6 bits of register address but, is
restricted to 5 bits when compatibility with Open Mode is offered.
Register 0 Modes
Register 0 has a dedicated function in each mode. Open Mode allows wider compatibility with other manu­facturers SPI
protocols.
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Single User
HMC Mode
READ
WRITE
Single Or Multi-User
Open Mode
Chip ID
Chip ID
24 Bits
24Bits
Soft Reset,
General Strobes
Read Address [4:0]
Soft reset [5]
General Strobes [24:6]
Serial Port Mode Decision after Power-On Reset
On power up, both types of modes are active and listening. All digital IO must be low at power-up.
A decision to select the desired Serial Port mode (protocol) is made on the first occurrence of SEN or SCK , after which
the Serial Port mode is fixed and only changeable by a power down.
a. If a rising edge on SEN is detected first HMC Mode is selected.
b. If a rising edge on SCK is detected first Open mode is selected.
Serial Port HMC Mode - Single PLL
HMC Mode (Legacy Mode) serial port operation can only address and communicate with a single PLL, and is compat­
ible with most HMC PLLs and PLLs with integrated VCOs.
The HMC Mode protocol for the serial port is designed for a 4 wire interface with a fixed protocol featuring
Product & Operating Guide
Table 4. Register 0 Comparison - Single vs Multi-User Modes
a. 1 Read/Write bit
b. 6 Address bits
c. 24 data bits
Serial Port Open Mode
The Serial Port Open Mode features:
a. Compatibility with general serial port protocols that use a shift and strobe approach to
communication.
b. Compatible with HMC multi-Chip solutions, useful to address multiple chips of various types from a
single serial port bus.
The HMC Open Mode protocol has the following general features:
a. 3 bit chip address, can address up to 8 devices connected to the serial bus ( = 000 on
HMC703LP4E)
b. Wide compatibility with multiple protocols from multiple vendors
c. Simultaneous Write/Read during the SPI cycle
d. 5 bit register address space
e. 3 wire for Write Only capability, 4 wire for Read/Write capability.
HMC RF PLLs with integrated VCOs also support HMC Open Mode. HMC700, HMC701, HMC702 and some generations of microwave PLLs with integrated VCOs do not support Open Mode.
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Product & Operating Guide
Typical HMC Open Mode serial port operation can be run with SCK at speeds up to 50 MHz.
Serial Port HMC Mode Details
Typical serial port HMC Mode operation can be run with SCK at speeds up to 50MHz.
HMC Mode - Serial Port WRITE Operation
AVDD = DVDD = 3.3V +/-10%, AGND = DGND = 0V
Table 5. SPI HMC Mode - Write Timing Characteristics
Parameter
Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
t1
SEN to SCK setup time
8
nsec
t2
SDI to SCK setup time
3
nsec
t3
SCK to SDI hold time
3
nsec
t4
SEN low duration
20
nsec
t5
SCK to SEN fall
10
Max SPI Clock Frequency
nsec
50
MHz
A typical HMC Mode WRITE cycle is shown in Figure 16.
a. The Master (host) both asserts SEN (Serial Port Enable) and clears SDI to indicate a WRITE cycle,
followed by a rising edge of SCK.
b. The slave (synthesizer) reads SDI on the 1st rising edge of SCK after SEN. SDI low indi­cates a Write
cycle (/WR).
c. Host places the six address bits on the next six falling edges of SCK, MSB first.
d. Slave shifts the address bits in the next six rising edges of SCK (2-7).
e. Host places the 24 data bits on the next 24 falling edges of SCK, MSB first.
f. Slave shifts the data bits on the next 24 rising edges of SCK (8-31).
g. The data is registered into the chip on the 32nd rising edge of SCK.
h. SEN is cleared after a minimum delay of t5. This completes the write cycle.
Figure 16. Serial Port Timing Diagram - HMC Mode WRITE
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A typical HMC Mode READ cycle is shown in Figure 17.
a. The Master (host) asserts both SEN (Serial Port Enable) and SDI to indicate a READ cycle, followed
by a rising edge SCK. Note: The Lock Detect (LD) function is usually mul­tiplexed onto the LD_SDO
pin. It is suggested that LD only be considered valid when SEN is low. In fact LD will not toggle until
the first active data bit toggles on LD_SDO, and will be restored immediately after the trailing edge
of the LSB of serial data out as shown in Figure 17.
b. The slave (synthesizer) reads SDI on the 1st rising edge of SCK after SEN. SDI high ini­tiates the
READ cycle (RD)
c. Host places the six address bits on the next six falling edges of SCK, MSB first.
d. Slave registers the address bits on the next six rising edges of SCK (2-7).
e. Slave switches from Lock Detect and places the requested 24 data bits on SD_LDO on the next 24
rising edges of SCK (8-31), MSB first .
f. Host registers the data bits on the next 24 falling edges of SCK (8-31).
g. Slave restores Lock Detect on the 32nd rising edge of SCK.
h. SEN is cleared after a minimum delay of t6. This completes the cycle.
Table 6. SPI HMC Mode - Read Timing Characteristics
Parameter
Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
t1
SEN to SCK setup time
8
ns
t2
SDI setup to SCK time
3
ns
t3
SCK to SDI hold time
3
ns
t4
SEN low duration
20
t5
SCK to SDO delay
t6
SCK to SEN fall
ns
8.2ns+0.2ns/pF
10
Product & Operating Guide
HMC Mode - Serial Port READ Operation
ns
ns
Figure 17. HMC Mode Serial Port Timing Diagram - READ
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Product & Operating Guide
Serial Port Open Mode Details
Open Mode - Serial Port WRITE Operation
Table 7. SPI Open Mode - Write Timing Characteristics
Parameter
Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
t1
SDI setup time
3
ns
t2
SDI hold time
3
ns
t3
SEN low duration
10
ns
t4
SEN high duration
10
ns
t5
SCK 32 Rising Edge to SEN Rising Edge
10
Serial port Clock Speed
DC
SEN to SCK Recovery Time
10
t6
ns
50
MHz
ns
A typical WRITE cycle is shown in Figure 18.
a. The Master (host) places 24 bit data, d23:d0, MSB first, on SDI on the first 24 falling edges of SCK.
b. the slave (synthesizer) shifts in data on SDI on the first 24 rising edges of SCK
c. Master places 5 bit register address to be written to, r4:r0, MSB first, on the next 5 falling edges of
SCK (25-29)
d. Slave shifts the register bits on the next 5 rising edges of SCK (25-29).
e. Master places 3 bit chip address, a2:a0, MSB first, on the next 3 falling edges of SCK (30-32). The
HMC703LP4E chip address is fixed at 000.
f. Slave shifts the chip address bits on the next 3 rising edges of SCK (30-32).
g. Master asserts SEN after the 32nd rising edge of SCK.
h. Slave registers the SDI data on the rising edge of SEN.
Figure 18. Open Mode - Serial Port Timing Diagram - WRITE
Open Mode - Serial Port READ Operation
A typical READ cycle is shown in Figure 19.
In general, in Open Mode the LD_SDO line is always active during the WRITE cycle. During any Open Mode SPI cycle
LD_SDO will contain the data from the address pointed to by Reg 00h[4:0]. If Reg 00h[4:0] is not changed then the
same data will always be present on LD_SDO when an Open Mode cycle is in progress. If it is desired to READ from a
34
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PRODUCT & OPERATING GUIDE
An example of the Open Mode two cycle procedure to read from any random address is as follows:
a. The Master (host), on the first 24 falling edges of SCK places 24 bit data, d23:d0, MSB first, on SDI
as shown in Figure 19. d23:d5 should be set to zero. d4:d0 = address of the register to be READ on
the next cycle.
b. the slave (synthesizer) shifts in data on SDI on the first 24 rising edges of SCK
c. Master places 5 bit register address , r4:r0, ( the address the WRITE ADDRESS register), MSB first,
on the next 5 falling edges of SCK (25-29). r4:r0=00000.
d. Slave shifts the register bits on the next 5 rising edges of SCK (25-29).
e. Master places 3 bit chip address, a2:a0, MSB first, on the next 3 falling edges of SCK (30-32).The
HMC703LP4E chip address is fixed at 000.
f. Slave shifts the chip address bits on the next 3 rising edges of SCK (30-32).
g. Master asserts SEN after the 32nd rising edge of SCK.
h. Slave registers the SDI data on the rising edge of SEN.
i. Master clears SEN to complete the address transfer of the two part READ cycle.
j. If we do not wish to write data to the chip at the same time as we do the second cycle , then it is
recommended to simply rewrite the same contents on SDI to Register zero on the READ back part
of the cycle.
k. Master places the same SDI data as the previous cycle on the next 32 falling edges of SCK.
l. Slave (synthesizer) shifts the SDI data on the next 32 rising edges of SCK.
m. Slave places the desired data (i.e. data from address in Reg 00h[4:0 ]) on LD_SDO on the next 32
rising edges of SCK. Lock Detect is disabled.
n. Master asserts SEN after the 32nd rising edge of SCK to complete the cycle and revert back to Lock
Detect on LD_SDO.
Product & Operating Guide
specific address, it is necessary in the first SPI cycle to write the desired address to Reg 00h[4:0], then in the next SPI
cycle the desired data will be available on LD_SDO.
Note that if the chip address bits are unrecognized (a2:a0), the slave will tri-state the LD_SDO output to prevent a possible bus contention issue.
Table 8. SPI Open Mode - Read Timing Characteristics
Parameter
Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
t1
SDI setup time
3
ns
t2
SDI hold time
3
ns
t3
SEN low duration
10
ns
t4
SEN high duration
10
t5
SCK Rising Edge to SDO time
t6
SEN to SCK Recovery Time
10
ns
t7
SCK 32 Rising Edge to SEN Rising Edge
10
ns
ns
8.2+0.2ns/pF
ns
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Figure 19. Open Mode - Serial Port Timing Diagram - READ Operation 2-Cycles
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Table 9. Reg 00h ID Register (Read Only)
BIT
TYPE
NAME
W
DEFLT
[23:0]
RO
chip_ID
24
97370h
DESCRIPTION
PLL ID
Table 9. Reg 00h Open Mode Read Address/RST Strobe Register (Write Only) (Continued)
BIT
TYPE
NAME
W
DEFLT
[4:0]
WO
ReadAddr
5
0
DESCRIPTION
Write the intended read address to this register for Open Mode
register reads. On the 1st SPI clock of the next cycle the data is
read and the shift-out begins.
Table 9. Reg 00h Open Mode Read Address Register (Write Only) (Continued)
BIT
TYPE
NAME
W
5
WO
SoftRst
1
DEFLT
0
DESCRIPTION
Soft-reset. When 1, it Resets the registers to POR state, and issues POR to analog.
Table 10. Reg 01h RST Register
BIT
TYPE
NAME
W
DEFLT
DESCRIPTION
0
R/W
EnPinSel
0
0
If 1, the master chip enable is taken from the pin rather than from
the SPI.
1
R/W
EnFromSPI
1
1
The master Enable from the SPI. Write a 0 to power-down the chip.
[9:2]
R/W
EnKeepOns
8
0
While the chip is disabled, the user has the option to keep the
following sub-circuits active by writing a 1 to the appropriate bits.
[2] Bias, [3] PFD, [4] CHP, [5] RefBuf, [6] VCOBuf, [7] GPO, [8]
VCODIVA, [9] VCODIVB
10
R/W
EnSyncChpDis
1
0
If 1, then following a disable event, the charge-pump is disabled
synchronously on the falling edge of the divided reference to tristate the charge pump without transient.
Product & Operating Guide
REGISTER MAP
Table 11. Reg 02h REFDIV Register
BIT
TYPE
NAME
W
DEFLT
[13:0]
R/W
rdiv
14
1
DESCRIPTION
Reference Divider ’R’ Value
Divider use also requires refBufEn Reg08[3]=1
min 1d
max 16383d
Table 12. Reg 03h Frequency Register - Integer Part
BIT
TYPE
NAME
W
DEFLT
DESCRIPTION
[15:0]
R/W
intg
16
25d
The (base) integer portion of the prescaler divide ratio. In any of
the fractional modes of operation, this value is double buffered, and
does not take effect until a ‘Trigger’ event. See ‘Operation Modes’
for more information. In integer mode, this value can range from
16 to 65535. In fractional mode it should be restricted between 20
and 65531.
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Product & Operating Guide
Table 13. Reg 04h Frequency Register - Fractional Part
38
BIT
TYPE
NAME
W
DEFLT
[23:0]
R/W
frac
24
0
DESCRIPTION
VCO Divider Fractional part (24 bit unsigned) see Fractional
Frequency Tuning
N
= Reg 04h/224
FRAC
Used in Fractional Modes only
min 0d
max 2^24-1 = FFFFFFh = 16,777,215d
Table 14. Reg 05h Seed
BIT
TYPE
NAME
W
DEFLT
DESCRIPTION
[23:0]
R/W
SEED
24
654321h
The initial starting point for the fractional modulator at the “Trigger”
position. This value effects the phase of the output, and can effect
some types of spurious content. During sweeps, the modulator can
optionally be reloaded with this value at the start of each ramp.
For price, delivery and to place orders: Hittite Microwave Corporation, 2 Elizabeth Drive, Chelmsford, MA 01824
978-250-3343 • 978-250-3373 fax • Order On-line at www.hittite.com
Application Support: [email protected]
140-00074-00 revA
v00.0112
CP120143
PLLs WITH INTEGRATED VCO - MICROWAVE APPLICATIONS
PRODUCT & OPERATING GUIDE
BIT
TYPE
NAME
W
DEFLT
[0]
R/W
Modulator Type
1
1
Modulator Type A (1) or Type B(0)
Type B is easier to filter out of band, but can have reduced in-band
spectral performance at prescaler frequencies <1.5GHz.
[4:1]
R/W
Reserved 1
4
15
Program 15
0
See “Operational Modes” for mode information.
0 - Fractional
1 - Integer
2 - Exact Freq Fractional (Program Reg 0Dh appropriately)
3 - FM mode (Program Reg 0Ch/Reg 0Dh for F2)
4 - PM mode (Program phase step in Reg 0Ah)
5 - Sweep - 1 way - Ramp then Hop (Triggered)
6 - Sweep - 2 way - Ramp Both directions (Triggered)
7 - Sweep - 2 way Auto - Ramp Both directions Continuously
[7:5]
R/W
SD Mode
3
DESCRIPTION
[8]
R/W
autoseed (Frac modes)
unidirectional phase (PM)
1
1
Non PM Mode
1: the modulator phase is initialized on trigger events or at the start
of a frequency ramp.
0: the modulator is not re-initialized
In PM mode (Reg06h[7:5]=4)
1: Trigger on rising edge only
0: Bi-phase modulation, level dependent
[9]
R/W
External Trigger Enable
(EXTTRIG_EN)
1
1
Chooses to use the external TRIG pin for trigger events (frequency
hops, ramp movement, phase or FM modulation). The function of
this bit and the trigger system vary depending on SD Mode. See
“Operational Modes” for more information.
[12:10]
R/W
Reserved 7
3
7
Program to 7
[13]
R/W
Force DSM Clock on
1
0
Forces the modulator clock on, despite being in integer mode. This
is useful to test coupling from digital to analog.
[14]
R/W
BIST Enable
1
0
Internal Use only - Program to 0
[16:15]
R/W
Number of Bist Cycles
2
0
Internal Use only
[18:17]
R/W
DSM Clock Source
2
0
0 - SD Clock from Mcounter (Recommended > 50MHz)
1 - VDIV PFD Clock
2 - RDIV PFD Clock - Use for Phase Coherence
3 - XTAL (Use for BIST)
[19]
R/W
Invert DSM Clock
1
0
Test/BIST only
[20]
R/W
Reserved 0
1
0
Program to 0
[21]
R/W
Force RDIV bypass
1
0
If 1, the Rdivider can be used (and exported on GPO), but the PFD
still uses the undivided XTAL
[22]
R/W
Disable Reset of
extra accumulators on ramp
1
0
The Autoseed bit determines if the phase accumulator of the DSM
is reset at the start of a frequency ramp. Normally the other accumulators are also reset - allowing for exact repeatability from cycleto-cycle. This extra initialization is avoided if this bit is set - which
can lead to more graceful transients at the start of a ramp.
[23]
R/W
Single Step Ramp Mode
1
0
Single step ramp mode. Advances the ramp one step per trigger.
Can be used to generate arbitrary sweep profiles with an external
trigger. Can also be used for sweep synchronization with the
system.
For price, delivery and to place orders: Hittite Microwave Corporation, 2 Elizabeth Drive, Chelmsford, MA 01824
978-250-3343 • 978-250-3373 fax • Order On-line at www.hittite.com
Application Support: [email protected]
Product & Operating Guide
Table 15. Reg 06h SD CFG Register
39
140-00074-00 revA
v00.0112
CP120143
PLLs WITH INTEGRATED VCO - MICROWAVE APPLICATIONS
PRODUCT & OPERATING GUIDE
Product & Operating Guide
Table 16. Reg 07h Lock Detect Register
BIT
TYPE
NAME
W
DEFLT
DESCRIPTION
[2:0]
R/W
LKDCounts
3
5
[10:3]
R/W
Reserved
8
12d
[11]
R/W
LockDetect Counters Enable
1
1
Enable Lock Detect Counters (R07[14] should also = 1)
[13:12]
R/W
Reserved
2
0
Program 0
[14]
R/W
Lock Detect Timer Enable
1
1
Enable Lock Detect Timer (R07[11] should also = 1)
[15]
R/W
Cycle Slip Prevention Enable
1
0
Increases Charge Pump gain for phase errors larger than lockdetect timer.
Lock Detect window
sets the number of consecutive counts of divided VCO that must
land inside the Lock Detect Window to declare LOCK
0: 5
1: 32
2: 96
3: 256
4: 512
5: 2048
6: 8192
7: 65535
Program 12d
[19:16]
R/W
Reserved 0
4
0
Reserved
[20]
R/W
Train Lock Detect Timer
1
0
This bit must be programmed from 0 to 1 after a change of PD
reference clock frequency (via either the external reference or a
change to the Rdivider).
[21]
R/W
Reserved
1
0
Reserved - Program to 1
Table 17. Reg 08h Analog EN Register
40
BIT
TYPE
NAME
W
DEFLT
DESCRIPTION
[0]
R/W
EnBias
1
1
Bias
[1]
R/W
EnCP
1
1
Charge-Pump
[2]
R/W
EnPFD
1
1
PFD
[3]
R/W
EnXtal
1
1
Reference Buffer
[4]
R/W
EnVCO
1
1
VCO Buffer
[5]
R/W
EnGPO
1
1
GPO Output Buffer Enable (If 0 the buffer is HiZ, if 1 the buffer MAY
be HiZ depending on GPOSel and SPI activity)
[6]
R/W
EnMcnt
1
1
Mcounter
[7]
R/W
EnPS
1
1
Prescaler
[8]
R/W
EnVCOBias
1
1
VCO Divider Related Biases
[9]
R/W
EnOpAmp
1
1
Charge-Pump Amplifier
[12:10]
R/W
VCOOutBiasA
3
3
RF Divider Bias A Sel
[15:13]
R/W
VCOOutBiasB
3
3
RF Divider Bias B Sel
[16]
R/W
VCOBWSel
1
1
RF Buffer Bias Sel
[17]
R/W
RFDiv2Sel
1
0
Enables RF Divide/2
[18]
R/W
XtalLowGain
1
0
Lowers the gain (and extends BW) of the XTAL buffer
[19]
R/W
XtalDisSat
1
0
Disables saturation protection on the XTAL buffer
For price, delivery and to place orders: Hittite Microwave Corporation, 2 Elizabeth Drive, Chelmsford, MA 01824
978-250-3343 • 978-250-3373 fax • Order On-line at www.hittite.com
Application Support: [email protected]
140-00074-00 revA
v00.0112
CP120143
PLLs WITH INTEGRATED VCO - MICROWAVE APPLICATIONS
PRODUCT & OPERATING GUIDE
Table 18. Reg 09h Charge Pump Register
TYPE
NAME
W
DEFLT
DESCRIPTION
[6:0]
R/W
CPIdn
7
100
Main Sink Current (20uA steps)
Main Source Current (20uA steps)
[13:7]
R/W
CPIup
7
100
[20:14]
R/W
CPOffset
7
0
Offset current (5uA steps) - See "Charge-Pump Phase offset" for
more information.
[21]
R/W
CPSrcEn
1
0
Offset current polarity (Source Offset current)
Recommended 0 in integer mode , PFDInv in FRAC modes.
[22]
R/W
CPSnkEn
1
1
Offset current polarity (Sink Offset current)
Recommended 0 in integer mode ,NOT PFDInv in FRAC modes.
[23]
R/W
CPHiK
1
0
Hi Gain Mode (~4mA CP I boost depending on Vcp) - Use only
with active loop filter configurations, where Vcp is controlled to
offer better phase-noise.
Table 19. Reg 0Ah Modulation Step Register
BIT
TYPE
NAME
W
DEFLT
DESCRIPTION
[23:0]
R/W
MODSTEP
24
0
Fractional Modulation Step size for Ramp/Phase Modulation modes
(Ignored in Integer, Normal Fractional, FM, or Exact Freq modes)
This value is signed two’s complement. Positive values ramps up,
negative values ramp down.
Table 20. Reg 0Bh PD Register
BIT
TYPE
NAME
W
DEFLT
DESCRIPTION
[2:0]
R/W
PFDDly
3
1
Dead-zone avoidance delay (0~1 ns, 3~3 ns. > 3 is unused)
[3]
R/W
PFDShort
1
0
Tie both PD inputs to Ref or Div based on phase select.
[4]
R/W
PFDInv
1
0
Swap PD inputs for use in inverting loop configurations.
0- Use with a positive tuning slope VCO and passive loop filter
(default)
1- Use with a negative tuning slope, or with an inverting active loop
filter with a positive tuning slope VCO
[5]
R/W
PFDUpEn
1
1
0 will disable up pulses from propagating to the CP
[6]
R/W
PFDDnEN
1
1
0 will disable dn pulses from propagating to the CP
[7]
R/W
PFDForceUp
1
0
1 will force to the top rail.
[8]
R/W
PFDForceDn
1
0
1 will force to the bottom rail.
[9]
R/W
PFDForceMid
1
0
1 will force to mid-rail
[12:10]
R/W
PSBiasSel
3
0
PS Bias Current
[14:13]
R/W
OpAmpBiasSel
2
3
OpAmp Bias Current
[16:15]
R/W
McntClkGateSel
2
3
If the quantized divide ratio is guaranteed to be within a certain
range, this feature can be enabled to reduce toggle activity and
power consumption slightly. (0: 16 to 31, 1: 16 to 127, 2: 16 to 1023,
3: 16 to max)
[17]
R/W
VDIVExt
1
0
Extend VCO Divider Output Pulse width
[18]
R/W
LKDProcTesttoCP
1
0
Muxes the lock-detect oscillator to the CP force up/dn for observation.
For price, delivery and to place orders: Hittite Microwave Corporation, 2 Elizabeth Drive, Chelmsford, MA 01824
978-250-3343 • 978-250-3373 fax • Order On-line at www.hittite.com
Application Support: [email protected]
Product & Operating Guide
BIT
41
140-00074-00 revA
v00.0112
CP120143
PLLs WITH INTEGRATED VCO - MICROWAVE APPLICATIONS
PRODUCT & OPERATING GUIDE
Product & Operating Guide
Table 21. Reg 0Ch ALTINT
42
BIT
TYPE
NAME
W
DEFLT
[15:0]
R/W
ALTINT
16
25d
DESCRIPTION
Stop freq for Ramp mode, Alternate freq for FM mode. See
“Operation Modes” for more information.
Table 22. Reg 0Dh ALTFRAC
BIT
TYPE
NAME
W
DEFLT
[23:0]
R/W
ALTFRAC
24
0
DESCRIPTION
Stop freq for Ramp mode, Alternate freq for FM mode, number of
channels/boundary for Exact frequency mode. See “Operation
Modes” for more information.
Table 23. Reg 0Eh SPI TRIG
BIT
TYPE
NAME
W
DEFLT
[0]
R/W
SPITRIG
1
0
DESCRIPTION
This bit can be used as an alternative to the external TRIG pin.
If Reg06h[9] (EXTTRIG_EN)= 0 then this bit is used to trigger
sweep, FM, or PM modes,
Trigger requires initial state of 0 followed by a write of 1. Register
must be reset to 0 before subsequent triggers.
If Reg06[8] = 0, then in PM mode this register is level sensitive and
modulates the phase.
See “Operating Modes” for more information.
For price, delivery and to place orders: Hittite Microwave Corporation, 2 Elizabeth Drive, Chelmsford, MA 01824
978-250-3343 • 978-250-3373 fax • Order On-line at www.hittite.com
Application Support: [email protected]
140-00074-00 revA
v00.0112
CP120143
PLLs WITH INTEGRATED VCO - MICROWAVE APPLICATIONS
PRODUCT & OPERATING GUIDE
Table 24. Reg 0Fh GPO Register
TYPE
NAME
W
DEFLT
DESCRIPTION
[4:0]
R/W
GPOSel
5
1
0: Static test voltage - as defined by Reg 0Fh[5]
1: lock detect
2: lkd trigger
3: lkd window
4: process osc test
5: CSP UP control
6: CSP DN control
7: rdiv core
8: xtal
9: rdiv_pfd
10: vdiv_pfd
11: mcnt_sd
12: ramp_busy
13: ramp_started
14: ramp_trig_pulse
15:bist_busy
16: dn
17: up
18: bist_clk
19: ramp_clk
20: intg strobe
21: frac strobe
22: spi strobe
23: SPI sle
24: sd reload
25: sd full-reload
29 lkd training
30 outbuf en
[5]
R/W
GPOTest
1
0
Static test signal for output when GPOSel=0
[6]
R/W
GPOAlways
1
0
Prevents auto-muxing the GPO with SDO. It always stays GPO.
[7]
R/W
GPOOn
1
0
Keeps the GPO Driver in output mode (rather than selective drive
based on ChipAddr), unless EnGPO=0.
[8]
R/W
GPOPullUpDis
1
0
Disables the GPO pull-up transistor (suitable for wired or with external pull-up or analog lock-detect methods)
[9]
R/W
GPOPullDnDis
1
0
Disables the GPO pull-dn transistor (suitable for wired or with external pull-dn or analog lock-detect methods)
Product & Operating Guide
BIT
Table 25. Reg 10h Reserve Register (Read Only)
BIT
TYPE
NAME
W
DEFLT
[8:0]
RO
Reserved
9
0
DESCRIPTION
Reserved
Table 26. Reg 11h Reserve Register (Read Only)
BIT
TYPE
NAME
W
DEFLT
[18:0]
RO
Reserved
19
0
DESCRIPTION
Reserved
For price, delivery and to place orders: Hittite Microwave Corporation, 2 Elizabeth Drive, Chelmsford, MA 01824
978-250-3343 • 978-250-3373 fax • Order On-line at www.hittite.com
Application Support: [email protected]
43
140-00074-00 revA
v00.0112
CP120143
PLLs WITH INTEGRATED VCO - MICROWAVE APPLICATIONS
PRODUCT & OPERATING GUIDE
Table 27. Reg 12h GPO2 Register (Read Only)
Product & Operating Guide
BIT
44
TYPE
NAME
W
DEFLT
DESCRIPTION
[0]
RO
GPO
1
0
GPO
[1]
RO
Lock Detect
1
0
Lock Detect
[2]
RO
Ramp Busy
1
0
Ramp Busy
Table 28. Reg 13h BIST Status (Read Only)
BIT
TYPE
NAME
W
[15:0]
RO
BIST Signature
16
DEFLT
Internal Use Only
DESCRIPTION
[16]
RO
BIST Busy
1
Internal Use Only
Table 29. Reg 14h Lock Detect Timer Status (Read Only)
BIT
TYPE
NAME
W
DEFLT
[2:0]
[3]
DESCRIPTION
RO
LkdSpeed
3
0
Lock Detect Timer Trained Speed
RO
LkdTraining
1
0
Lock Detect Timer is busy training
For price, delivery and to place orders: Hittite Microwave Corporation, 2 Elizabeth Drive, Chelmsford, MA 01824
978-250-3343 • 978-250-3373 fax • Order On-line at www.hittite.com
Application Support: [email protected]
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