a Dual CMOS AD7724 -

a Dual CMOS AD7724 -
a
FEATURES
13 MHz Master Clock Frequency
0 V to +2.5 V or ⴞ1.25 V Input Range
Single Bit Output Stream
90 dB Dynamic Range
Power Supplies
AVDD, DVDD: 5 V ⴞ 5%
DVDD1: 3 V ⴞ 5%
Logic Outputs 3 V/5 V Compatible
On-Chip 2.5 V Voltage Reference
48-Lead LQFP
Dual CMOS ⌺-⌬ Modulators
AD7724
FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
REF1 REF2A
REF2B
2.5V
REFERENCE
AD7724
AVIN(+)
⌺-⌬
MODULATOR A
AVIN(–)
ADATA
SCLK
BVIN(+)
⌺-⌬
MODULATOR B
BVIN(–)
BDATA
XTAL OFF
CLOCK
CIRCUITRY
MZERO
XTAL1
XTAL2/MCLK
GC
CONTROL
LOGIC
BIP
STBY
DVAL
RESET
DVDD
DVDD1
DGND
AVDD
AGND
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
This device consists of two seventh order sigma-delta modulators. Each modulator converts its analog input signal into a high
speed 1-bit data stream. The part operates from a 5 V power
supply and accepts a differential input range of 0 V to +2.5 V or
±1.25 V centered about a common-mode bias. The analog inputs
are continuously sampled by the analog modulators, eliminating
the need for external sample-and-hold circuitry. The input
information is contained in the output stream as a density of
ones. The original information can be digitally reconstructed
with an appropriate digital filter.
The part provides an accurate on-chip 2.5 V reference for each
modulator. A reference input/output function is provided to
allow either the internal reference or an external system reference to be used as the reference source for the modulator.
The device is offered in a 48-lead LQFP package and designed
to operate from –40°C to +85°C.
REV. B
Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and
reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Analog Devices for its
use, nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties that
may result from its use. No license is granted by implication or otherwise
under any patent or patent rights of Analog Devices.
One Technology Way, P.O. Box 9106, Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A.
Tel: 781/329-4700
www.analog.com
Fax: 781/326-8703
© Analog Devices, Inc., 2002
1 (AVDD = 5 V ⴞ 5%; DVDD = 5 V ⴞ 5%, DVDD1 = 3 V ⴞ 5%; AGND = DGND = 0 V,
AD7724–SPECIFICATIONS
f
= 13 MHz ac-coupled sine wave, REF2A = REF2B = 2.5 V; T = T to T , unless otherwise noted.)
A
MCLK
Parameter
STATIC PERFORMANCE
Integral Nonlinearity
Offset Error
Gain Error2
Offset Error Drift
Gain Error Drift
Unipolar Mode
Bipolar Mode
MIN
MAX
A Version
Unit
± 0.003
± 0.24
± 0.6
± 37.69
% FSR typ
% FSR typ
% FSR typ
µV/°C typ
± 37.69
± 18.85
µV/°C typ
µV/°C typ
± VREF2/2
0 to VREF2
AVDD
0
2
2 fMCLK
109/(8 fMCLK)
V max
V max
V
V
pF typ
MHz
kΩ typ
2.32 to 2.68
60
4
± 12
V min/max
ppm/°C typ
kΩ typ
mV max
2.32 to 2.68
60
V min/max
ppm/°C typ
109/(16 fMCLK)
2.32 to 2.68
kΩ typ
V min/max
When Tested with Ideal FIR Filter as in Figure 1
REF2 Is an Ideal Reference, REF1 = AGND
ANALOG INPUTS
Signal Input Span (VIN(+) – VIN(–))
Bipolar Mode
Unipolar Mode
Maximum Input Voltage
Minimum Input Voltage
Input Sampling Capacitance
Input Sampling Rate
Differential Input Impedance
REFERENCE INPUTS
REF1 Output Voltage
REF1 Output Voltage Drift
REF1 Output Impedance
Reference Buffer Offset Voltage
Using Internal Reference
REF2 Output Voltage
REF2 Output Voltage Drift
Using External Reference
REF2 Input Impedance
External Reference Voltage Range
DYNAMIC SPECIFICATIONS
Bipolar Mode
Signal-to-(Noise + Distortion)
Total Harmonic Distortion
Spurious Free Dynamic Range
Unipolar Mode
Signal-to-(Noise + Distortion)
Total Harmonic Distortion
Spurious Free Dynamic Range
Intermodulation Distortion
AC CMRR
CLOCK
Square Wave4
MCLK Duty Ratio
VMCLKH, MCLK High Voltage
VMCLKL, MCLK Low Voltage
Sine Wave
XTAL1 Voltage Swing
BIP = VIH
BIP = VIL
Offset Between REF1 and REF2
REF1 = AGND
3
LOGIC INPUTS
VIH, Input High Voltage
VIL, Input Low Voltage
IINH, Input Current
CIN, Input Capacitance
Test Conditions/Comments
Applied to REF1 or REF2
When Tested with Ideal FIR Filter as in Figure 1
BIP = VIH, VCM = 2.5 V, VIN(+) = VIN(–) = 1.25 V p-p
or VIN(–) = 1.25 V, VIN(+) = 0 V to 2.5 V
Input BW = 0 kHz–94.25 kHz
90
86
–90
–90
dB typ
dB min
dB max
dB max
88
–90
–90
–93
96
dB typ
dB typ
dB typ
dB typ
dB typ
45 to 55
4
0.4
% max
V min
V max
For Specified Operation
MCLK Uses CMOS Logic
0.4
4
V p-p min
V p-p max
XTAL_OFF Tied Low
2.4
0.8
10
10
V min
V max
µA max
pF max
–2–
Input BW = 0 kHz–94.25 kHz
Input BW = 0 kHz–94.25 kHz
BIP = VIL, VIN(–) = 0 V, VIN(+) = 0 V to 2.5 V
Input BW = 0 kHz–94.25 kHz
Input BW = 0 kHz–101.556 kHz
Input BW = 0 kHz–101.556 kHz
VIN(+) = VIN(–) = 2.5 V p-p, VCM = 1.25 V to
3.75 V, 20 kHz
REV. B
AD7724
Parameter
A Version
Unit
Test Conditions/Comments
LOGIC OUTPUTS
VOH, Output High Voltage
VOL, Output Low Voltage
DVDD1 – 0.2
0.4
V min
V max
|IOUT| ≤ 200 µA
|IOUT| ≤ 1.6 mA
4.75/5.25
2.85/5.25
V min/V max
V min/V max
60
20
mA max
µA max
POWER SUPPLIES
AVDD/DVDD
DVDD1
IDD (Total for AVDD, DVDD)
Active Mode
Standby Mode
Digital Inputs Equal to 0 V or DVDD
NOTES
1
Operating temperature range is as follows: A Version: –40°C to +85°C.
2
Gain Error excludes reference error. The modulator gain is calibrated wrt the voltage on the REF2 pin.
3
Measurement Bandwidth = 0.5 × fMCLK; Input Level = –0.05 dB.
4
When a square wave clock is used, the dynamic specifications will degrade by 1 dB typically.
Specifications subject to change without notice.
BIT STREAM
94.25kHz
94.25kHz
120dB
FILTER 1
DECIMATE
BY 32
90dB
304.687kHz
BANDWIDTH = 94.25kHz
TRANSITION = 304.687kHz
ATTENUATION = 120dB
COEFFICIENTS = 384
FILTER 2
DECIMATE
BY 2
16-BIT
OUTPUT
108.874kHz
BANDWIDTH = 94.25kHz
TRANSITION = 108.874kHz
ATTENUATION = 90dB
COEFFICIENTS = 151
Figure 1. Digital Filter (Consists of Two FIR Filters). This Filter is Implemented on the AD7722.
REV. B
–3–
AD7724
TIMING CHARACTERISTICS1, 2
Parameter
fMCLK
tDELAY
t1
t2
t3
t4
t5
t6
t7
t8
t9
(AVDD = 5 V ⴞ 5%; DVDD = 5 V ⴞ 5%; DVDD1 = 3 V ⴞ 5%; AGND = DGND = 0 V, REF2A =
REF2B = 2.5 V, unless otherwise noted.)
Limit at TMIN, TMAX
(A Version)
Unit
Conditions/Comments
100
15
14
67
0.45 × tMCLK
0.45 × tMCLK
15
10
10
20 × tMCLK
3
t3–t8
kHz min
MHz max
ns max
ns min
ns min
ns min
ns min
ns min
ns min
ns max
ns max
ns max
Master Clock Frequency
13 MHz for Specified Performance
MCLK to SCLK Delay
Master Clock Period
Master Clock Input High Time
Master Clock Input Low Time
Data Hold Time After SCLK Rising Edge
RESET Pulsewidth
RESET Low Time Before MCLK Rising
DVAL High Delay After RESET Low
Data Access Time After SCLK Falling Edge
Data Valid Time Before SCLK Rising Edge
NOTES
1
Sample tested at 25°C to ensure compliance.
2
Guaranteed by design.
IOL
1.6mA
TO
OUTPUT
PIN
1.6V
CL
50pF
IOH
200␮A
Figure 2. Load Circuit for Access Time and Bus Relinquish Time
t1
t2
SCLK (O)
t3
t8
t4
t9
DATA (O)
NOTE:
O SIGNIFIES AN OUTPUT
Figure 3. Data Timing
MCLK (I)
t6
RESET (I)
t5
t7
DVAL (O)
NOTE:
I SIGNIFIES AN INPUT
O SIGNIFIES AN OUTPUT
Figure 4. RESET Timing
–4–
REV. B
AD7724
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS *
PIN CONFIGURATION
NC
NC
AVDD
NC
REF2B
AGND
REF1
AGND
REF2A
AGND
NC
DVDD to DGND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –0.3 V to +7 V
AVDD to AGND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –0.3 V to +7 V
AVDD to DVDD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –1 V to +1 V
AGND to DGND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –0.3 V to +0.3 V
Digital Inputs to DGND . . . . . . . . –0.3 V to DVDD + 0.3 V
Digital Outputs to DGND . . . . . . . –0.3 V to DVDD + 0.3 V
VIN(+), VIN(–) to AGND . . . . . . . –0.3 V to AVDD + 0.3 V
REF1 to AGND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –0.3 V to AVDD + 0.3 V
REF2 to AGND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –0.3 V to AVDD + 0.3 V
REFIN to AGND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –0.3 V to AVDD + 0.3 V
Operating Temperature Range . . . . . . . . . . . –40°C to +85°C
Storage Temperature Range . . . . . . . . . . . . –65°C to +150°C
Junction Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150°C
θJA Thermal Impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75°C/W
Lead Temperature, Soldering
Vapor Phase (60 sec) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215°C
Infrared (15 sec) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220°C
NC
(TA = 25°C unless otherwise noted)
48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37
1
AVDD
AGND 2
AVIN(–) 3
36 AVDD
PIN 1
IDENTIFIER
35 AGND
34 BVIN(–)
NC 4
AVIN(+) 5
33 NC
32 BVIN(+)
AD7724
AGND 6
31 AGND
TOP VIEW
(Not to Scale)
AVDD 7
NC 8
30 AVDD
29 NC
STBY 9
28 GC
MZERO 10
27 BIP
RESET 11
NC 12
26 XTAL_OFF
25 NC
NC
DVAL
SCLK
DVDD1
ADATA
BDATA
DGND
DGND
XTAL1/MCLK
DVDD
*Stresses above those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only; functional operation of the
device at these or any other conditions above those listed in the operational
sections of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating
conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
NC
NC = NO CONNECT
XTAL1
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
ORDERING GUIDE
Model
Temperature
Range
Package
Description
Package
Option
AD7724AST
–40°C to +85°C
48-Lead Plastic Thin Quad Flatpack (LQFP)
ST-48
CAUTION
ESD (electrostatic discharge) sensitive device. Electrostatic charges as high as 4000 V readily
accumulate on the human body and test equipment and can discharge without detection.
Although the AD7724 features proprietary ESD protection circuitry, permanent damage may
occur on devices subjected to high energy electrostatic discharges. Therefore, proper ESD
precautions are recommended to avoid performance degradation or loss of functionality.
REV. B
–5–
WARNING!
ESD SENSITIVE DEVICE
AD7724
PIN FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS
Mnemonic
Description
Analog Positive Supply Voltage, 5 V ± 5%.
Ground reference point for analog circuitry.
Analog Input to Modulator A. In unipolar operation, the analog input range on AVIN(+) is AVIN(–) to
(AVIN(–) + VREF); for bipolar operation, the analog input range on AVIN(+) is (AVIN(–) ± VREF/2). The
absolute analog input range must lie between 0 and AVDD. The input range is continuously sampled and processed by the analog modulator.
STBY
Standby, Logic Input. When STBY is high, the device is placed in a low power mode. When STBY is low, the
device is powered up.
MZERO
Digital Control Input. When MZERO is high, the modulator inputs are internally grounded i.e. tied to AGND
in unipolar mode and REF2 in bipolar mode. MZERO allows on-chip offsets to be calibrated out. MZERO is
low for normal operation.
RESET
Reset Logic Input. RESET is an asynchronous input. When RESET is taken high, the sigma-delta modulator is
reset by shorting the integrator capacitors in the modulator. DVAL goes low for 20 MCLK cycles while the
modulator is being reset.
XTAL1
Input to Crystal Oscillator Amplifier. This pin can also be used to gain up a small input square or sine wave
with XTAL_OFF tied low (see Figure 32 on page 12). When a clock source is applied to XTAL1, SCLK will
be inverted and the XTAL1_CLK to SCLK delay will be typically 14 ns longer than tDELAY.
XTAL2/MCLK
Clock Input. An external clock source can be applied directly to this pin with XTAL_OFF tied high. In this
case, XTAL1 should be tied to AGND. Alternatively, a parallel resonant fundamental frequency crystal, in
parallel with a 1 MΩ resistor, can be connected between XTAL1 and XTAL2 with XTAL_OFF tied low. External capacitors are then required from the XTAL1 and XTAL2 pins to ground. Consult the crystal
manufacturer's recommendation for the load capacitors.
A sine wave can also be used to provide the clock. A sine wave with a voltage swing between 0.4 V p-p and
4 V p-p is needed. XTAL_OFF is tied low and a 1 MΩ resistor is needed between XTAL1 and XTAL2. A
22 pF capacitor is connected in parallel with this resistor. The sine wave is ac coupled to XTAL1 using a
120 pF capacitor. The use of a sine wave to generate the clock eliminates the need for a square wave clock
source which introduces noise.
DVDD
Digital Supply Voltage, 5 V ± 5%.
DGND
Ground reference for the digital circuitry.
ADATA
Modulator A Bit Stream. The digital bit stream from the sigma-delta modulator is output at ADATA.
BDATA
Modulator B Bit Stream. The digital bit stream from the sigma-delta modulator is output at BDATA.
SCLK
Serial Clock, Logic Output. The bit stream from modulator A and modulator B is valid on the rising edge of
ASCLK.
DVDD1
Digital Supply Voltage for the digital outputs. DVDD1 can have a value of 5 V ± 5% or 3 V ± 5% so that the
logic outputs can be 3 V or 5 V compatible.
DVAL
Data Valid Logic Output. A logic high on DVAL indicates that the data bit stream from the AD7724 is an
accurate digital representation of the analog voltage at the input to the sigma-delta modulator. The DVAL pin
is set low for 20 MCLK cycles if the analog input is overranged.
XTAL_OFF
Oscillator Enable Input. A logic high disables the crystal oscillator amplifier to allow use of an external clock
source. XTAL_OFF is set to a logic low when an external crystal is used between XTAL1 and XTAL2.
BIP
Analog Input Range Select, Logic Input. A logic low on this input selects unipolar mode. A logic high selects
bipolar mode.
GC
Digital Control Input. When GC is high, the gain error of the modulator can be calibrated.
BVIN(–), BVIN(+) Analog Input to Modulator B. In unipolar operation, the analog input range on BVIN(+) is BVIN(–) to
(BVIN(–) + VREF); for bipolar operation, the analog input range on BVIN(+) is (BVIN(–) ± VREF/2). The
absolute analog input range must lie between 0 and AVDD. The input range is continuously sampled and processed by the analog modulator.
REF2B
Reference Input/Output to Sigma-Delta Modulator B. REF2B connects to the output of an external buffer amplifier
used to drive sigma-delta modulator B. When REF2B is used as an input, REF1 must be connected to AGND.
REF1
Reference Input/Output. REF1 connects through 3 kΩ to the output of the internal 2.5 V reference and to the
input of two buffer amplifiers that drive Σ-∆ modulator A and Σ-∆ modulator B. The pin can be overdriven with
an external 2.5 V reference.
REF2A
Reference Input/Output to Sigma-Delta Modulator A. REF2A connects to the output of an external buffer
amplifier used to drive sigma-delta modulator A. When REF2A is used as an input, REF1 must be connected
to AGND.
AVDD
AGND
AVIN(–), AVIN(+)
–6–
REV. B
AD7724
rms sum of all of the nonfundamental signals and harmonics up
to half the Output Data Rate (fO/2), excluding dc. Signal-to(Noise + Distortion) is dependent on the number of quantization levels used in the digitization process; the more levels, the
smaller the quantization noise. The theoretical Signal-to-(Noise
+ Distortion) ratio for a sine wave input is given by
TERMINOLOGY (IDEAL FIR FILTER USED WITH AD7724
[FIGURE 1])
Integral Nonlinearity
This is the maximum deviation of any code from a straight line
passing through the endpoints of the transfer function. The
endpoints of the transfer function are zero scale (not to be confused with bipolar zero), a point 0.5 LSB below the first code
transition (100 . . . 00 to 100 . . . 01 in bipolar mode and
000 . . . 00 to 000 . . . 01 in unipolar mode) and full scale, a
point 0.5 LSB above the last code transition (011 . . . 10 to
011 . . . 11 in bipolar mode and 111 . . . 10 to 111 . . . 11 in
unipolar mode). The error is expressed in LSBs.
Signal-to-(Noise + Distortion) = (6.02 N + 1.76) dB
where N is the number of bits.
Total Harmonic Distortion
THD is the ratio of the rms sum of harmonics to the rms value
of the fundamental. THD is defined as
Common-Mode Rejection Ratio
The ability of a device to reject the effect of a voltage applied to
both input terminals simultaneously—often through variation of
a ground level—is specified as a common–mode rejection ratio.
CMRR is the ratio of gain for the differential signal to the gain
for the common-mode signal.
THD = 20 log
V1
where V1 is the rms amplitude of the fundamental and V2, V3,
V4, V5 and V6 are the rms amplitudes of the second through the
sixth harmonic.
Unipolar Offset Error
Spurious Free Dynamic Range
Unipolar offset error is the deviation of the first code transition
from the ideal VIN(+) voltage which is (VIN(–) + 0.5 LSB)
when operating in the unipolar mode.
Spurious free dynamic range is the difference, in dB, between
the peak spurious or harmonic component in the ADC output
spectrum (up to fO/2 and excluding dc) and the rms value of the
fundamental. Normally, the value of this specification will be
determined by the largest harmonic in the output spectrum of
the FFT. For input signals whose second harmonics occur in
the stop band region of the digital filter, a spur in the noise floor
limits the SFDR.
Bipolar Offset Error
This is the deviation of the midscale transition (111 . . . 11
to 000 . . . 00) from the ideal VIN(+) voltage which is (VIN(–)
–0.5 LSB) when operating in the bipolar mode.
Gain Error
The first code transition should occur at an analog value 1/2 LSB
above minus full scale. The last code transition should occur for
an analog value 1 1/2 LSB below the nominal full-scale. Gain
error is the deviation of the actual difference between first and
last code transitions and the ideal difference between first and
last code transitions.
Intermodulation Distortion
With inputs consisting of sine waves at two frequencies, fa and
fb, any active device with nonlinearities will create distortion
products at sum and difference frequencies of mfa ± nfb where
m, n = 0, 1, 2, 3, etc. Intermodulation distortion terms are
those for which neither m nor n are equal to zero. For example,
the second order terms include (fa + fb) and (fa – fb), while the
third order terms include (2fa + fb), (2fa – fb), (fa + 2fb) and
(fa – 2fb).
Signal-to-(Noise + Distortion)
Signal-to-(Noise + Distortion) is the measured signal-to-noise
plus distortion ratio at the output of the ADC. The signal is the
rms magnitude of the fundamental. Noise plus distortion is the
REV. B
(V 22 +V 32 +V 42 +V 52 +V 62)
–7–
AD7724–Typical Performance Characteristics
(AVDD = DVDD = 5.0 V, TA = 25ⴗC; CLKIN = 13 MHz ac-coupled sine wave, AIN = 20 kHz, Bipolar Mode; VIN(+) = 0 V to 2.5 V, VIN(–) = 1.25 V
unless otherwise noted)
110
84
–85
85
100
–90
AIN = 1/5 ⴛ BW
SNR
86
90
dB
80
S/ (N+D)
dB
87
SFDR
dB
–95
88
89
70
–100
–105
SFDR
90
60
–110
91
50
–40
–30
–20
–10
INPUT LEVEL – dB
92
0
TPC 1. S/(N+D) and SFDR vs.
Analog Input Level
SFDR
–110
90.5
40
60
80
20
INPUT FREQUENCY – kHz
89.5
90
89.0
91
88.5
0
5000
4500
THD
–100
–102
3RD
–106
4TH
–108
–110
–112
–114
–116
–50
2ND
–25
0
25
50
TEMPERATURE – °C
75
TPC 7. THD vs. Temperature
100
FREQUENCY OF OCCURENCE
–94
–104
100
150 200
250
50
OUTPUT DATA RATE – kSPS
88.0
–50
300
TPC 5. S/(N+D) vs. Output Sample
Rate
–96
–98
90.0
89
92
100
TPC 4. SNR, THD, and SFDR vs.
Input Frequency
88
100
1.0
0.8
VIN(+) = VIN(–)
CLKIN = 13MHz
8k SAMPLES
4000
3500
0.6
3000
2500
2000
1500
0.4
0.2
0
–0.2
–0.4
1000
–0.6
500
–0.8
0
n–3
0
50
TEMPERATURE – °C
TPC 6. SNR vs. Temperature
DNL ERROR – LSB
0
91.0
dB
dB
–105
100
91.5
87
THD
–100
20
40
60
80
INPUT FREQUENCY – kHz
TPC 3. SNR, THD, and SFDR vs.
Input Frequency
AIN = 1/5 ⴛ BW
VIN (+) = VIN(–) = 1.25V p-p
VCM = 2.5V
86
VIN (+) = VIN(–) = 1.25V p-p
VCM = 2.5V
–95
0
92.0
85
SNR
dB
–115
300
84
–90
dB
100
150 200
250
50
OUTPUT DATA RATE – kSPS
TPC 2. S/(N+D) vs. Output Sample
Rate
–85
–115
0
THD
–1.0
n–2
n–1
n
n+1
CODES
n+2
n+3
TPC 8. Histogram of Output Codes
with DC Input
–8–
0
20000
40000
CODE
65535
TPC 9. Differential Nonlinearity
REV. B
AD7724
1.0
0.8
INL ERROR – LSB
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
–0.2
–0.4
–0.6
–0.8
–1.0
0
20000
40000
CODE
65535
TPC 10. Integral Nonlinearity Error
dB
dB
0
–10
–20
–30
–40
–50
–60
–70
–80
–90
–100
–110
–120
–130
0
0
–10
–20
–30
–40
–50
–60
–70
–80
–90
–100
–110
–120
–130
0
6.5
409.0268
FREQUENCY – MHz
FREQUENCY – kHz
TPC 11. Modulator Output (0 Hz to MCLK/2)
TPC 14. Modulator Output (0 to 409.0268 kHz)
0
0
–40
dB
–60
–80
–100
–20
–40
–60
dB
–20
CLKIN = 13MHz
SNR = 90.1dB
S/(N+D) = 89.2dB
SFDR = –99.5dB
THD = –96.6dB
2ND = –100.9dB
3RD = –106.0dB
4TH = –99.5dB
–80
–100
–120
–120
–140
–140
–154
0E+0
–154
0E+0
10E+3 20E+3 30E+3 40E+3 50E+3 60E+3 70E+3 80E+3 90E+3 98E+3
TPC 12. 16K Point FFT
dB
–60
–80
0
XTAL = 12.288MHz
SNR = 89.0dB
S/(N+D) = 87.8dB
SFDR = –94.3dB
THD = –93.8dB
2ND = –94.3dB
3RD = –108.5dB
4TH = –105.7dB
–20
–40
–60
dB
–40
–100
–120
–120
–140
–154
0E+0
–140
–154
0E+0
10E+3 20E+3 30E+3 40E+3 50E+3 60E+3 70E+3 80E+3 90E+3 96E+3
TPC 13. 16K Point FFT
AIN = 90kHz
XTAL = 12.288MHz
SNR = 88.1dB
S/(N+D) = 88.1dB
SFDR = –103.7dB
–80
–100
REV. B
10E+3 20E+3 30E+3 40E+3 50E+3 60E+3 70E+3 80E+3 90E+3 98E+3
TPC 15. 16K Point FFT
0
–20
AIN = 90kHz
CLKIN = 13MHz
SNR = 89.6dB
S/(N+D) = 89.6dB
SFDR = –108.0dB
10E+3 20E+3 30E+3 40E+3 50E+3 60E+3 70E+3 80E+3 90E+3 96E+3
TPC 16. 16K Point FFT
–9–
AD7724
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
␾A
The AD7724 employs a sigma-delta conversion technique to
convert the analog input into a digital pulse train. The analog
input is continuously sampled by a switched capacitor modulator
at twice the rate of the clock input frequency (2 fMCLK). The
digital data that represents the analog input is in the ones’ density of the bit stream at the output of the sigma-delta modulator.
The modulator outputs the bit stream at a data rate equal to fMCLK.
Due to the high oversampling rate, which spreads the quantization noise from 0 to fMCLK/2, the noise energy contained in the
band of interest is reduced (Figure 5a). To reduce the quantization noise further, a high order modulator is employed to shape
the noise spectrum, so that most of the noise energy is shifted
out of the band of interest (Figure 5b).
QUANTIZATION NOISE
fMCLK/2
BAND OF INTEREST
a.
NOISE SHAPING
fMCLK/2
BAND OF INTEREST
b.
500⍀
VIN(+)
VIN(–)
␾B
2pF
␾A
2pF
␾B
AC
GROUND
500⍀
␾A ␾B
MCLK
␾A ␾B
Figure 6. Analog Input Equivalent Circuit
Since the AD7724 samples the differential voltage across its
analog inputs, low noise performance is attained with an input
circuit that provides low differential mode noise at each input.
The amplifiers used to drive the analog inputs play a critical role
in attaining the high performance available from the AD7724.
When a capacitive load is switched onto the output of an op
amp, the amplitude will momentarily drop. The op amp will try
to correct the situation and, in the process, hits its slew rate
limit. This nonlinear response, which can cause excessive ringing, can lead to distortion. To remedy the situation, a low-pass
RC filter can be connected between the amplifier and the input
to the AD7724 as shown in Figure 7. The external capacitor at
each input aids in supplying the current spikes created during
the sampling process. The resistor in the diagram, as well as
creating a pole for the antialiasing, isolates the op amp from the
transient nature of the load.
Figure 5. Sigma-Delta ADC
R
VIN(+)
USING THE AD7724
ADC Differential Inputs
C
ANALOG
INPUT
The AD7724 uses differential inputs to provide common-mode
noise rejection (i.e., the converted result will correspond to the
differential voltage between the two inputs). The absolute voltage on both inputs must lie between AGND and AVDD.
In the unipolar mode, the full scale-input range (VIN(+) –
VIN(–)) is 0 V to VREF. In the bipolar mode configuration, the
full-scale analog input range is ± V REF/2. The bipolar mode
allows complementary input signals. Alternatively, VIN(–) can
be connected to a dc bias voltage to allow a single-ended input
on VIN(+) equal to VBIAS ± VREF/2.
Differential Inputs
The analog input to the modulator is a switched capacitor design.
The analog input is converted into charge by highly linear sampling capacitors. A simplified equivalent circuit diagram of the
analog input is shown in Figure 6. A signal source driving the
analog input must be able to provide the charge onto the sampling capacitors every half MCLK cycle and settle to the required
accuracy within the next half cycle.
R
VIN(–)
C
Figure 7. Simple RC Antialiasing Circuit
The differential input impedance of the AD7724 switched capacitor input varies as a function of the MCLK frequency, given by
the equation:
Z IN = 109 / (8 f MCLK ) kΩ
Even though the voltage on the input sampling capacitors may
not have enough time to settle to the accuracy indicated by the
resolution of the AD7724, as long as the sampling capacitor charging follows the exponential curve of RC circuits, only the gain
accuracy suffers if the input capacitor is switched away too early.
–10–
REV. B
AD7724
An alternative circuit configuration for driving the differential
inputs to the AD7724 is shown in Figure 8.
The AD7724 can operate with its internal reference, or an
external reference can be applied in two ways. An external
reference can be connected to REF1, overdriving the internal
reference. However, an error will be introduced due to the
offset of the internal buffer amplifier. For lowest system gain
errors when using an external reference, REF1 is grounded
(disabling the internal buffer) and the external reference is connected to REF2.
C
2.7nF
R
100⍀
VIN(+)
C
2.7nF
R
100⍀
VIN(–)
In all cases, since the REF2 voltage connects to the analog modulator, a 110 nF capacitor must connect directly from REF2 to
AGND. The external capacitor provides the charge required for
the dynamic load presented at the REF2 pin (Figure 10).
C
2.7nF
Figure 8. Differential Input with Antialiasing
A capacitor between the two input pins sources or sinks charge
to allow most of the charge needed by one input to be effectively
supplied by the other input. This minimizes undesirable charge
transfer from the analog inputs to and from ground. The series
resistor isolates the operational amplifier from the current spikes
created during the sampling process and provides a pole for
antialiasing. The 3 dB cutoff frequency of the antialias filter is
given by Equation 1, and the attenuation of the filter is given by
Equation 2.
f3 dB = 1/ (2 π REXT CEXT )
␾A
110nF
(
)
2
(2)
MCLK
␾A ␾B ␾A ␾B
The AD780 is ideal to use as an external reference with the
AD7724. Figure 11 shows a suggested connection diagram.
5V
O/P
8
SELECT
1 NC
2 +VIN
1␮F
22nF
NC 7
3 TEMP VOUT 6
4 GND
TRIM 5
REF2
110nF
22␮F
REF1
AD780
NC = NO CONNECT
Applying the Reference
The reference circuitry used in the AD7724 includes an on-chip
2.5 V bandgap reference and a reference buffer circuit. The
block diagram of the reference circuit is shown in Figure 9. The
internal reference voltage is connected to REF1 via a 3 kΩ
resistor and is internally buffered to drive the analog modulator’s
switched capacitor DAC (REF2). When using the internal reference, connect 110 nF between REF1 and AGND. If the internal
reference is required to bias external circuits, use an external
precision op amp to buffer REF1.
COMPARATOR
REFERENCE
BUFFER
REF1
SWITCHED-CAP
DAC REF
110nF
2.5V
REFERENCE
REF2
Figure 9. Reference Circuit Block Diagram
REV. B
␾A
Figure 10. REF2 Equivalent Circuit



The capacitors used for the input antialiasing circuit must have
low dielectric absorption to avoid distortion. Film capacitors
such as polypropylene or polycarbonate are suitable. If ceramic
capacitors are used, they must have NPO dielectric.
4k⍀
4pF
SWITCHED-CAP
DAC REF
The choice of the filter cutoff frequency will depend on the
amount of roll-off that is acceptable in the passband of the digital filter and the required attenuation at the first image frequency.
1V
␾B
(1)

Attenuation = 20 log 1 / 1 + f / f3 dB

␾B
4pF
REF2
–11–
Figure 11. External Reference Circuit Connection
AD7724
Input Circuits
The 1 nF capacitors at each input store charge to aid the
amplifier settling as the input is continuously switched. A
resistor in series with the drive amplifier output and the 1 nF
input capacitor may also be used to create an antialias filter.
Figures 12 and 13 show two simple circuits for bipolar mode
operation. Both circuits accept a single-ended bipolar signal
source and create the necessary differential signals at the input
to the ADC.
Clock Generation
The circuit in Figure 12 creates a 0 V to 2.5 V signal at the
VIN(+) pins to form a differential signal around an initial bias
voltage of 1.25 V. For single-ended applications, best THD
performance is obtained with VIN(–) set to 1.25 V rather than
2.5 V. The input to the AD7724 can also be driven differentially with a complementary input as shown in Figure 13.
The AD7724 contains an oscillator circuit to allow a crystal or
an external clock signal to generate the master clock for the
ADC. The connection diagram for use with the crystal is shown
in Figure 14. Consult the crystal manufacturer’s recommendation for the load capacitors.
In this case, the input common-mode voltage is set to 2.5 V.
The 2.5 V p-p full-scale differential input is obtained with a
1.25 V p-p signal at each input in antiphase. This configuration
minimizes the required output swing from the amplifier circuit
and is useful for single supply applications.
XTAL
MCLK
1M⍀
12pF
AIN =
1.25V
1k⍀
1k⍀
–
Figure 14. Crystal Oscillator Connection
12pF
1/2
OP275
+
DIFFERENTIAL
INPUT = 2.5V p-p
VIN(–) BIAS
VOLTAGE = 2.5V
1k⍀
1k⍀
–
1/2
VIN(+)
OP275
+
1nF
VIN(–)
1nF
+
R
REF1
25–150⍀
CLOCK
CIRCUITRY
110nF
OP07
–
R
An external clock must be free of ringing and have a minimum
rise time of 5 ns. Degradation in performance can result as high
edge rates increase coupling that can generate noise in the sampling process. The connection diagram for an external clock
source (Figure 15) shows a series damping resistor connected
between the clock output and the clock input to the AD7724.
The optimum resistor will depend on the board layout and the
impedance of the trace connecting to the clock input.
MCLK
REF2
Figure 15. External Clock Oscillator Connection
110nF
Figure 12. Single-Ended Analog Input for Bipolar Mode
Operation
12pF
AIN =
ⴞ0.625V
1k⍀
1k⍀
1/2
VIN(–)
OP275
1nF
12pF
DIFFERENTIAL
INPUT = 2.5V p-p
COMMON-MODE
VOLTAGE = 2.5V
1k⍀
1k⍀
1/2
A low phase clock should be used to generate the ADC sampling clock because sampling clock jitter effectively modulates
the input signal and raises the noise floor. The sampling clock
generator should be isolated from noisy digital circuits, grounded
and heavily decoupled to the analog ground plane.
A sine wave can also be used to provide the clock (Figure 16.) A
sine wave with a voltage swing between 0.4 V p-p and 4 V p-p is
needed. XTAL_OFF is tied low and a 1 MΩ resistor is needed
between XTAL1 and XTAL2. A 22 pF capacitor is connected
in parallel with this resistor. The sine wave is ac coupled to
XTAL1 using a 120 pF capacitor. The use of a sine wave to
generate the clock eliminates the need for a square wave clock
source which introduces noise.
120pF
VIN(+)
OP275
XTAL1
1nF
SINEWAVE
INPUT
R
R
1M⍀
XTAL2
REF1
OP07
22pF
110nF
XTAL_OFF
REF2
Figure 16. Using a Sine Wave Input as a Clock Source
110nF
Figure 13. Single-Ended-to-Differential Analog Input
Circuit for Bipolar Mode Operation
–12–
REV. B
AD7724
The sampling clock generator should be referenced to the analog ground plane in a split ground system. However, this is not
always possible because of system constraints. In many cases,
the sampling clock must be derived from a higher frequency
multipurpose system clock that is generated on the digital
ground plane. If the clock signal is passed between its origin on
a digital plane to the AD7724 on the analog ground plane, the
ground noise between the two planes adds directly to the clock
and will produce excess jitter. The jitter can cause unwanted
degradation in the signal-to-noise ratio and also produce
unwanted harmonics.
DVAL
The DVAL pin is used to indicate that an overrange input signal
has resulted in invalid data at the modulator output. As with all
single-bit DAC high-order sigma-delta modulators, large overloads on the inputs can cause the modulator to go unstable. The
modulator is designed to be stable with signals within the input
bandwidth that exceed full-scale by 100%. When instability is
detected by internal circuits, the modulator is reset to a stable
state and DVAL is held low for 20 clock cycles.
Grounding and Layout
This can be somewhat remedied by transmitting the sampling
signal as a differential one, using either a small RF transformer
or a high-speed differential driver and receiver such as PECL. In
either case, the original master system clock should be generated
from a low phase noise crystal oscillator.
Offset and Gain Calibration
The analog inputs of the AD7724 can be configured to measure
offset and gain errors. Pins MZERO and GC are used to configure the part. Before calibrating the device, the part should be
reset so that the modulator is in a known state at calibration.
When MZERO is taken high, the analog inputs are tied to AGND
in unipolar mode and VREF in bipolar mode. After taking
MZERO high, 1000 MCLK cycles should be allowed for the
circuitry to settle before the bit stream is read from the device.
The ideal ones density is 50% when bipolar operation is selected
and 37.5% when unipolar mode is selected.
When GC is taken high, VIN(–) is tied to ground while VIN(+)
is tied to VREF. Again, 1000 MCLK cycles should be allowed
for the circuitry to settle before the bit stream is read. The ideal
ones density is 62.5%.
The calibration results apply only for the particular analog input
mode (unipolar/bipolar) selected when performing the calibration cycle. On changing to a different analog input mode, a new
calibration must be performed.
Before calibrating, ensure that the supplies have settled and that
the voltage on the analog input pins is between the supply voltages.
Standby
The part can be put into a low power standby mode by taking
STBY high. During standby, the clock to the modulators is
turned off and bias is removed from all analog circuits.
Reset
The RESET pin is used to reset the modulators to a known
state. When RESET is taken high, the integrator capacitors of
the modulator are shorted and DVAL goes low and remains low
until 20 MCLK cycles after RESET is deasserted. However, an
additional 1000 MCLK cycles should be allowed before reading
the modulator bit stream as the modulator circuitry needs to
settle after the reset.
REV. B
Since the analog inputs are differential, most of the voltages in
the analog modulator are common-mode voltages. The excellent common-mode rejection of the part will remove commonmode noise on these inputs. The analog and digital supplies to
the AD7724 are independent and separately pinned out to minimize coupling between analog and digital sections of the device.
The printed circuit board that houses the AD7724 should be
designed so that the analog and digital sections are separated
and confined to certain areas of the board. This facilitates the
use of ground planes that can be easily separated. A minimum
etch technique is generally best for ground planes as it gives the
best shielding. Digital and analog ground planes should be
joined in only one place. If the AD7724 is the only device
requiring an AGND-to-DGND connection, the ground planes
should be connected at the AGND and DGND pins of the
AD7724. If the AD7724 is in a system where multiple devices
require AGND-to-DGND connections, the connection should
still be made at one point only, a star ground point that should
be established as close as possible to the AD7724.
Avoid running digital lines under the device as these will couple
noise onto the die. The analog ground plane should be allowed
to run under the AD7724 to avoid noise coupling. The power
supply lines to the AD7724 should use as large a trace as possible to provide low impedance paths and reduce the effects of
glitches on the power supply line. Fast switching signals such as
clocks should be shielded with digital ground to avoid radiating
noise to other sections of the board, and clock signals should
run at right angles to each other. This will reduce the effects of
feedthrough through the board. A microstrip technique is by far
the best, but is not always possible with a double-sided board.
In this technique, the component side of the board is dedicated
to ground planes while signals are placed on the other side.
Good decoupling is important when using high resolution
ADCs. All analog and digital supplies should be decoupled to
AGND and DGND respectively, with 100 nF ceramic capacitors in parallel with 10 µF tantalum capacitors. To achieve the
best from these decoupling capacitors, they should be placed as
close as possible to the device, ideally right up against the
device. In systems where a common supply voltage is used to
drive both the AVDD and DVDD of the AD7724, it is recommended that the system’s AVDD supply be used. This supply
should have the recommended analog supply decoupling between
the AVDD pins of the AD7724 and AGND and the recommended digital supply decoupling between the DVDD pins and
DGND.
–13–
AD7724
OUTLINE DIMENSIONS
Dimensions shown in inches and (mm).
48-Lead Plastic Thin Quad Flatpack
(ST-48)
0.063 (1.60)
MAX
0.030 (0.75)
0.018 (0.45)
0.354 (9.00) BSC SQ
37
48
36
1
SEATING
PLANE
0.276
(7.00)
BSC
SQ
TOP VIEW
(PINS DOWN)
0.006 (0.15)
0.002 (0.05)
0ⴗ
MIN
25
12
13
24
0.019 (0.5) 0.011 (0.27)
BSC
0.006 (0.17)
0.007 (0.18)
0.004 (0.09)
0.057 (1.45)
0.053 (1.35)
7ⴗ
0ⴗ
–14–
REV. B
AD7724
Revision History
Location
Page
Data Sheet changed from REV. A to REV. B.
Additions to TIMING CHARACTERISTICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Edits to Figure 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Edits to PIN FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
REV. B
–15–
–16–
PRINTED IN U.S.A.
C01187–0–3/02(B)
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