Section 9: Smart Sensors

Section 9: Smart Sensors

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SECTION 9

SMART SENSORS

Walt Kester, Bill Chestnut, Grayson King

4-20

M

A C

ONTROL

L

OOPS

Industrial process control systems make extensive use of 4-20mA control loops.

Many sensors and actuators are designed precisely for this mode of control. They are popular because they are simple to understand, offer a method of standardizing the sensor/control interface, and are relatively immune to noise. Figure 9.1 shows how a remote actuator is controlled via such a loop from a centrally located control room.

Notice that the transmitter output to the actuator is controlled by a DAC, in this case, the AD420. The entire process is under the control of a host computer which interfaces to the microcontroller and the AD420. This diagram shows only one actuator, however an actual industrial control system would have many actuators and sensors. Notice that the "zero scale" output of the DAC is actually 4mA, and

"fullscale" is 20mA. The choice of a non-zero output current for "zero scale" allows open circuit detection at the transmitter and allows the loop to actually power the remote sensor if its current requirement is less than 4mA.

CONTROLLING A REMOTE ACTUATOR

USING A 4-20mA LOOP

LOOP

SUPPLY

CONTROL ROOM

12V TO 32V

4-20mA

OUTPUT

REGULATOR

R

SENSE

AD420

ACTUATOR

4-20mA

DAC

µC

HOST

COMPUTER

LOOP

RETURN

Figure 9.1

Many of the control room circuits are directly powered by the loop power supply which can range from approximately 12V to 36V. In many cases, however, this voltage must be regulated to supply such devices as amplifiers, ADCs, and microcontrollers. The loop current is sensed by the RSENSE resistor which is actually a part of the AD420. The internal DAC in the AD420 is a sigma-delta type

9.1

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with 16-bit resolution and monotonicity. The serial digital interface allows easy interface to the microcontroller.

Figure 9.2 shows a 4-20mA output "smart" sensor which is completely powered by the loop power supply. In order for this to work, the sum total of all the circuits under loop power can be no more than 4mA. The heart of the circuit is the AD421 loop-powered 16-bit DAC. The internal 4-20mA DAC current as well as the rest of the return current from the AD421 and the other circuits under loop power flows through the RSENSE resistor. The sensing circuit compensates for the additional return current and ensures that the actual loop return current corresponds to that required by the digital code applied to the DAC through the microcontroller. The sensor output is digitized by the AD7714/AD7715 sigma-delta ADC. Note that the total current required by all the circuits under loop power is less than the required

4mA maximum. The AD421 contains a regulator circuit which controls the gate of the external DMOS FET and regulates the loop voltage to either 3V, 3.3V, or 5V to power the loop circuits. In this way the maximum loop supply voltage is limited only by the breakdown voltage of the DMOS FET.

4-20mA LOOP POWERED SMART SENSOR

AD7714/AD7715

CONTROL ROOM

DMOS FET

LOOP

POWER

3.3V / 5V

LOOP

SUPPLY

REGULATOR

AD421

ADC µC

4-20mA

DAC

R

SENSE

4-20mA

RETURN

ADC µC

HOST

COMPUTER

I

COMMON

R

SENSE

I

AD421

< 0.75mA

I

AD7714/AD7715

< 0.50mA

I

µC+SENSOR

< 2.75mA

I

COMMON

< 4.00mA

DMOS FET: Supertex DN2535

Siliconix ND2020L or ND2410L

Figure 9.2

The HART protocol uses a frequency shift keying (FSK) technique based on the Bell

202 Communications Standard which is one of several standards used to transmit digital signals over the telephone lines. This technique is used to superimpose digital communication on to the 4-20mA current loop connecting the control room to the transmitter in the field. Two different frequencies, 1200Hz and 2200Hz, are used to represent binary 1 and 0 respectively. These sinewave tones are superimposed on the DC signal at a low level with the average value of the sinewave being zero. This allows simultaneous analog and digital communications. Additionally, no DC component is added to the existing 4-20mA signal regardless of the digital data

9.2

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being sent over the line. The phase of the digital FSK signal is continuous, so there are no high frequency components injected onto the 4-20mA loop. Consequently, existing analog instruments continue to work in systems that implement HART, as the lowpass filtering usually present effectively removes the digital signal. A single pole 10Hz lowpass filter effectively reduces the communication signal to a ripple of about ± 0.01% of the fullscale signal. The HART protocol specifies that master devices like a host control system transmit a voltage signal, whereas a slave or field device transmits a current signal. The current signal is converted into a corresponding voltage by the loop load resistor in the control room.

Figure 9.3 shows a block diagram of a smart and intelligent transmitter. An intelligent transmitter is a transmitter in which the function of the microprocessor are shared between deriving the primary measurement signal, storing information regarding the transmitter itself, its application data, and its location, and also managing a communication system which enables two-way communication to be superimposed on the same circuit that carries the measurement signal. A smart transmitter incorporating the HART protocol is an example of a smart intelligent transmitter.

HART INTELLIGENT REMOTE TRANSMITTER

USING AD421 LOOP-POWERED 4-20mA DAC

LOOP POWER

ADC µC

4-20mA

DAC

AD421

LOOP RETURN

C

C

HART

MODEM

BELL 202

WAVEFORM

SHAPER

BANDPASS

FILTER

HT20C12 / 20C15 (Symbios Logic)

HART DIGITAL SIGNAL: 1200Hz, 2200Hz FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING (FSK)

Figure 9.3

The HART data transmitted on the loop shown in Figure 9.3 is received by the transmitter using a bandpass filter and modem, and the HART data is transferred to the microcontroller's UART or asynchronous serial port to the modem. It is then waveshaped before being coupled onto the AD421's output through the coupling capacitor CC. The block containing the Bell 202 Modem, waveshaper, and bandpass filter come in a complete solution with the 20C15 from Symbios Logic, Inc., or

HT2012 from SMAR Research Corporation.

9.3

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I

NTERFACING

S

ENSORS TO

N

ETWORKS

Grayson King

The HART protocol is just one of many standards for industrial networking. Most industrial networks run independently of analog 4-20mA lines, but many are intended to interface (directly or indirectly) with smart sensors as shown in Figure

9.4.

INDUSTRIAL NETWORKING

BRANCH

FIELD NETWORK

NODE NODE

SMART SENSOR

SMART SENSOR

Figure 9.4

These industrial networks can take many forms. The “field network” in Figure 9.4

represents a wide bandwidth distributed network such as Ethernet or Lonwork. A field network by this definition is not generally intended to interface directly with a smart sensor. A “device network,” on the other hand, is intended specifically to interface to smart sensors. Most “device networks” (such as ASI-bus, CAN-bus, and

HART) also provide power to smart sensors on the same lines that carry serial data.

Some of today’s more popular industrial network standards are listed in Figure 9.5.

Each offers its own advantages and disadvantages, and each has a unique hardware implementation and serial protocol. This means that a smart sensor designed for one industrial network is not necessarily compatible with another.

Since factories and many other networked environments often have multiple networks and sub-networks, a far more flexible solution is one where sensors are

“plug and play” compatible with all different field and device networks. The goal of the IEEE 1451.2 sensor interface standard is to make network independent sensors a reality.

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SOME OF THE STANDARDS

n

Ethernet

n

CAN-Bus

n

Foundation Fieldbus

n

Device-Net

n

Lonwork

n

Profibus

n

WorldFIP

n

P-NET

n

Interbus-S

n

HART

n

Universal Serial Bus (USB)

n

ASI

Figure 9.5

Figure 9.6 shows the basic components of an IEEE 1451.2 compatible system. The smart sensor (or smart actuator) is referred to as a “STIM” (Smart Transducer

Interface Module). It contains one or more sensors and/or actuators in addition to any signal conditioning and A/D or D/A conversion required to interface the sensors/actuators with the resident microcontroller. The microcontroller also has access to nonvolatile memory that contains a “TEDS” field (or Transducer Electronic

Data Sheet) which stores sensor/actuator specifications that can be read via the industrial network. The NCAP (Network Capable Application Processor) is basically a node on the network to which a STIM can be connected. At the heart of the IEEE

1451.2 is the standardized 10-wire serial interface between the sensor and the

NCAP, called the TII (or Transducer Independent Interface). In an environment with multiple networks, the TII allows any STIM to be plugged into any NCAP node on any network as shown in Figure 9.7. When the STIM is first connected to the new NCAP, the STIM’s digital information (including its TEDS) is made available to the network. This identifies what type of sensor or actuator has just been connected and indicates what input and output data are available, the units of input an output data (cubic meters per second, degrees Kelvin, kilopascals, etc.), the specified accuracy of the sensor (±2°C, etc.), and various other information about the sensor or actuator. This effectively eliminates the software configuration steps involved in replacing or adding a sensor, thereby allowing true “plug and play” performance with network independence.

9.5

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THE IEEE 1451.2 SENSOR INTERFACE STANDARD

NCAP

TII

TEDS

Sensor or

Actuator

FIELD NETWORK - OR - DEVICE NETWORK

n

NCAP = Network Capable Application

Processor

n

TII = Transducer Independent

Interface

n

TEDS = Transducer Electronic Datasheet

n

STIM = Smart Transducer Interface

Module

Figure 9.6

TRUE "PLUG AND PLAY"

Ethernet Field Network

Ethernet

NCAP

Ethernet

NCAP

Lonwork Field Network

Lonwork

NCAP

Lonwork

NCAP

PC with

Web Browser

Most smart sensors (not limited to 1451.2 STIMs) contain the primary components shown in Figure 9.8. The Analog Devices MicroConverter

TM

products are the first to incorporate all of these components on a single chip (Figure 9.9).

9.6

Figure 9.7

THE SMART SENSOR

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Pressure Sensor,

RTD,

Thermocouple,

Strain Gage, etc.

Precision Amplifier

High Resolution ADC

Microcontroller

Figure 9.8

Sensor

THE EVEN SMARTER SENSOR

Pressure Sensor,

RTD,

Thermocouple,

Strain Gage, etc.

MicroConverter

TM

!

Sensor

Figure 9.9

The three primary functions of every MicroConverter

TM

product (Figure 9.10), are: high resolution analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion, non-volatile

FLASH EEPROM for program and data storage, and a microcontroller. Of the first three MicroConverter

TM

products to be introduced, all contain a 12-bit voltage output DAC, a precision bandgap voltage reference, and an on-chip temperature

9.7

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sensor. Figure 9.11 lists the basic analog I/O functionality of each. All three have exactly the same FLASH memory and microcontroller core, some features of which are highlighted in Figures 9.12 and 9.13.

THE MicroConverter™

9.8

1

2

3

High Performance Analog I/O

+

On-Chip FLASH Memory

+

On-Chip Microcontroller

=

MicroConverter

Figure 9.10

ADuC816

n Dual

Σ∆

ADC

u >16 bit u >100dB SNR (p-p) u Differential Inputs u Prog. Gain Amp u Self-Calibration

ANALOG I/O 1

ADuC812

n 8 chan SAR ADC u 12 bit, 5µs u < ½ LSB INL u DMA mode u Self-Calibration

ADuC810

n 8 chan SAR ADC u 10 bit u < ½ LSB INL n 12bit V-Out DAC u < ½ LSB DNL n Voltage Reference n Temperature Sensor n Dual 12bit V-Out DAC u < ½ LSB DNL n 12bit V-Out DAC u < ½ LSB DNL n Voltage Reference n Voltage Reference n Temperature

Sensor

n Temperature Sensor

Figure 9.11

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ON-CHIP FLASH MEMORY 2

ADuC816 ; ADuC812 ; ADuC810

n 8K bytes Nonvolatile FLASH Program Memory u Stores Program and Fixed Lookup Tables u In-Circuit Serial Programmable or External Parallel Programmable u Read-Only to Microprocessor Core n 640 bytes Nonvolatile FLASH Data Memory u User “Scratch Pad” for Storing Data During Program Execution u Simple Read / Write Access Through SFR Space n Programming Voltage (V

PP

) Generated On-Chip

Figure 9.12

ON-CHIP MICROCONTROLLER 3

ADuC816 ; ADuC812 ; ADuC810

n Industry Standard 8052 Core u 12 Clock Machine Cycle w/ up to 16MHz Clock u 32 Digital I/O Pins u Three 16bit Counter/Timers u Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter

(UART) Serial Port

n ...Plus Some Useful Extras u SPI or I2C Compatible Serial Interface u WatchDog Timer u Power Supply Monitor u Timer Interval Counter (ADuC816/810)

Figure 9.13

9.9

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The highest resolution MicroConverter

TM

product is the ADuC816. Its analog front end consists of two separate

Σ∆

ADC converters with a flexible multiplexing scheme to access its two differential input channels as illustrated in the functional block diagram of Figure 9.14. The “primary channel” ADC is a 24-bit

Σ∆

converter that offers better than 16-bit signal-to-noise ratio. This primary channel also features a programmable gain amplifier (PGA), allowing direct conversion of low-level signals such as thermocouples, RTDs, strain gages, etc. Two “burn out” current sources can be configured to force a very small current through the sensor to detect open circuit conditions when the sensor may have been disconnected or “burned out”. The primary channel ADC can be multiplexed to convert both of the differential input channels, or the second differential input can be routed to the “auxiliary channel”

ADC which is a 16-bit

Σ∆

converter with better than 14-bits of signal-to-noise ratio.

This auxiliary channel can also be used to read the on-chip temperature sensor. A pair of 200µA current sources (I

EXC

1 & I

EXC

2) can be used to provide excitation for sensors such as RTDs. Both ADCs as well as the DAC can be operated with the internal 2.5V bandgap reference, or with an external reference.

ADuC816 FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM

AIN1

AIN2

9

10

AIN3

AIN4

11

12

V

REF

IN+

V

REF

IN–

8

7

I

EXC

1

I

EXC

2

3

4

AIN

MUX

AIN

MUX buf pga

(primary channel)

Σ∆

ADC

ADC control and calibration buf

(auxilliary channel)

Σ∆

ADC

ADC control and calibration

DAC control

TEMP sensor

–3.5mV/°C

2.5V

bandgap reference

V

REF detect

8K x 8 program

FLASH

EEPROM

640 x 8 user FLASH synchronous serial interface

(SPI or I2C)

8052

microcontroller core

ADuC816

DAC1

256 x 8 user RAM watchdog timer buf

16 bit counter timers power supply monitor timer interval counter asynchronous serial port

(UART)

OSC &

PLL

10

DAC

22

T0

23

1

2

T1

T2

T2EX

18

INT0

19

INT1

Figure 9.14

9.10

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The primary performance specifications of the ADuC816 are given in Figure 9.15.

All ADC specifications here refer to the “primary channel” ADC. Exceptionally low power dissipation can be achieved in low bandwidth applications by keeping the

ADuC816 in the power down mode for much of the time. By using an internal PLL, the chip derives its 12MHz clock from a 32kHz watch crystal. When in power down mode, the 12MHz clock is disabled, but the 32kHz crystal continues to drive a realtime counter which can be set to wake the chip up at predefined intervals. The

ADuC816 can also be configured to wake up upon receiving an external interrupt.

n ADC :

ADuC816 - PRIMARY SPECIFICATIONS

INL

SNR (p-p)

Input Range

Conv. Rate

-

-

-

-

± 30ppm

>102dB (17 Noise Free Bits)

± 20mV to ± 2.56V

5.4Hz to 105Hz

n DAC :

DNL -

Output Range -

Settling Time -

± ½LSB

0 to V

REF

<4µs

-or- 0 to V

DD

n Power :

Specified for 3V or 5V Operation

5V

Normal

Idle

Powerdown

7mA

4.5mA

<20µA

3V

3mA

1.5mA

<20µA

Figure 9.15

The ADuC812 offers a fast (5µs) 12-bit 8-channel successive approximation ADC with many of the same peripheral features of the ADuC816. The functional block diagram (Figure 9.16) illustrates its primary components. Since the 8-bit × 1MIPS microcontroller core cannot generally keep up with the 12-bit 200kSPS ADC output data, a DMA (direct memory access) controller is included on the ADuC812 to automatically write ADC results to external memory, thus freeing the microcontroller core for other tasks. Whether in DMA mode or in normal mode, the

ADuC812 conversions can be triggered by several means. Conversions can be triggered in software, or a timer can be set to automatically initiate a conversion each time it overflows, thereby allowing precise control of sampling rate. A hardware convert-start can also be utilized for applications requiring critical timing.

9.11

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The ADuC812 contains two 12-bit DACs that can be powered on or off independently of each other, and can be updated either simultaneously or independently. The DACs can be configured for an output range of 0 to V

DD

or 0 to

V

REF

, where V

REF

can be either the internal 2.5V bandgap reference or an externally applied reference voltage. The internal reference, if used, can also be buffered to drive external circuitry.

ADuC812 FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM

hardware

CONVST

23

ADC0

ADC1

ADC2

ADC3

ADC4

ADC5

ADC6

ADC7

12

13

14

3

4

1

2

11

AIN

MUX

T/H

V

REF

8

C

REF

7

TEMP sensor

–3.5mV/°C

2.5V

bandgap reference buf

ADuC812

12-bit ADC

ADC control and calibration

DAC control

DAC0

buf

9 DAC0

DAC1

buf

10 DAC1

8K x 8 program

FLASH

EEPROM

640 x 8 user FLASH synchronous serial interface

(SPI or I2C)

8052

microcontroller core

256 x 8 user RAM watchdog timer power supply monitor

16 bit counter timers asynchronous serial port

(UART)

OSC

22

23

1

2

T0

T1

T2

T2EX

18

INT0

19

INT1

Figure 9.16

Figure 9.17 lists some primary performance specifications of the ADuC812. The power specifications are given assuming a 12MHz crystal. Since all on-chip logic is static, the clock can be slowed to any frequency, allowing exceptionally low power dissipation in low bandwidth applications. For applications requiring greater speed, the clock can be increased to as much as 16MHz to achieve slightly faster microcontroller operation (1.33MIPS).

Because MicroConverter

TM

products are based on an industry standard 8052 core, developers can draw from a wealth of software, reference material, and third party tools that already exist for 8051/8052 MCUs. The MicroConverter

TM

web site provides links to many sources of such material, in addition to offering downloads of internally generated tools, data sheets, and example software.

9.12

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n ADC :

ADuC812 - PRIMARY SPECIFICATIONS

n DAC : n Power :

INL

SNR (p-p)

Input Range

Conv. Time

DNL

Output Range

Settling Time

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

± ½LSB

>70dB

0 to V

REF

<5µs (200kSPS)

± ½LSB

0 to V

REF

-or- 0 to V

DD

<4µs

Specified for 3V or 5V Operation

5V

Normal

Idle

Powerdown

18mA

10mA

<50µA

3V

12mA

6mA

<50µA

Figure 9.17

MicroConverter™ DESIGN SUPPORT

MicroConverter

TM

Web Site

1

QuickStart

TM

Development Kit

2

Third Party

Development Tools

3

Figure 9.18

9.13

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MicroConverter™ WEB SITE

www.analog.com

1

n Data Sheets n Application Notes n 8051 Reference Material n Free Windows MicroConverter

TM

Simulator

n Free Keil ‘C’ Compiler (2K limited version)

Figure 9.19

To get any designer or developer started with a MicroConverter product, Analog

Devices offers a QuickStart

TM

Development Kit which contains all of the necessary features for many designers to complete a design without the added expense of additional simulation or in-circuit emulation packages.

MicroConverter™ - QuickStart™ DEVELOPMENT KIT

n Documentation

2

u User’s Guide

QuickStart

TM

u Datasheet u Tools Tutorial u Quick Reference Guide n Software n Evaluation Board u RS-232 Serial Comms u 32K External SRAM u Buffered Analog I/O

n

Regulated Power Supply

n

Serial Port Cable

u Metalink Assembler u ‘C’ Compiler (Limited 2K) u Windows Simulator u Serial Downloader u Windows Debugger u Example Code

Figure 9.20

9.14

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For designs that require the added power of full in-circuit emulation, or the added ease of C coding with mixed-mode debugging, Keil and Metalink offer the first of many third party tools to be endorsed by Analog Devices. These tools are fully compatible with the MicroConverter

TM

products, and other third party developers will soon offer additional MicroConverter

TM

-specific tools to further expand the options available to designers.

MicroConverter™ - THIRD PARTY DEVELOPMENT TOOLS

3

The First Two of Many Third

Party Tools to Fully Support

MicroConverter

TM

Products:

Power Tools

n Keil Compiler u A full function windows based ‘C’ compiler environment featuring

a simulator for source and assembly level debugging.

n MetaLink Emulator u A high end in circuit emulation system offering a complete

windows based environment for in-system debug sessions.

All tools will fully integrate with each MicroConverter product

Figure 9.21

While the ADuC812, ADuC816, and ADuC810 offer a mix of features and performance not previously available in a single chip, future MicroConverter

TM products will offer even greater levels of integration and functionality. Larger

FLASH memory versions will be offered to compliment one or more of the existing products. Additional hardware communications may also be added to future

MicroConverter

TM

products to allow direct communication with industrial networks or PC platforms. Eventually, there will be MicroConverter

TM

products with greater

MCU processing bandwidth. However, comparing these devices to basic microcontrollers is a mistake. The performance level of MicroConverter

TM

analog I/O is far superior to that available in microcontrollers with analog I/O ports.

9.15

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MicroConverter™ PRODUCT ROADMAP

1

ADuC812

-

8 Channel

12 bit ADC

-

Dual DAC

2

ADuC816

-

Dual 16 bit +

Σ∆

ADC

-

Single DAC

TIME

3

ADuC810

-

Low Cost

-

10 bit ADC,

Dual DAC

. . . .

. . . . Future Products May Include:

n Larger FLASH Memory Capacity

(Data and Program)

n Hardware Communications

Interface Enhancements

(CAN Bus, USB Bus)

n Increased Microcontroller

Horsepower

Figure 9.22

9.16

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R

EFERENCES

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Compatibility of Analog Signals for Electronic Industrial Process

Instruments, ANSI/ISA-S50.1-1982 (Rev. 1992), http://www.isa.org.

Dave Harrold, 4-20mA Transmitters Alive and Kicking, Control

Engineering, October, 1998, p.109.

Paul Brokaw, Versatile Transmitter Chip Links Strain Gages and

RTDs to Current Loop, Application Note AN-275, Analog Devices, Inc., http://www.analog.com.

Albert O'Grady, Adding HART Capability to the AD421, Loop Powered

4-20mA DAC Using the 20C15 HART Modem, Application Note 534,

Analog Devices, Inc., http://www.analog.com.

Editors, Fieldbuses: Look Before You Leap, EDN, November 5, 1998, p. 197.

MicroConverter Technology Backgrounder, Whitepaper, Analog Devices,

Inc., http://www.analog.com.

I. Scott MacKenzie, The 8051 Microcontroller, Second Edition,

Prentice-Hall, 1995.

9.17

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