Windows Server 2008 R2 Reviewers Guide Published: April 2009

Windows Server 2008 R2 Reviewers Guide Published: April 2009
Windows Server 2008 R2 Reviewers Guide
Published: April 2009
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Summary
The Windows Server® 2008 R2 Reviewers Guide provides a technical overview of the
incremental features and functions that make Windows Server 2008 R2 the nextgeneration Microsoft® Windows Server operating system and successor to Microsoft
Windows Server 2008. This guide also provides information about the benefits Windows
Server 2008 R2 offers diverse users, as well as information about different scenarios.
Currently, this guide is focused solely on the pre-beta iteration of Windows Server 2008
R2.
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Table of Contents
Introduction to Windows Server 2008 R2 ............................................................................ 5
Overview .......................................................................................................................... 5
Using this Guide ............................................................................................................... 5
Getting Started .................................................................................................................... 7
System Requirements ...................................................................................................... 7
Installation and Activation................................................................................................ 8
Windows Server 2008 R2 Installation............................................................................ 8
Windows Server 2008 R2 Activation ........................................................................... 10
Virtualization ..................................................................................................................... 11
Improved Virtualization with Hyper-V™ ......................................................................... 12
Increased Availability for Virtual Data Centers ............................................................ 12
Live Migration Support through Cluster Shared Volumes .......................................... 12
Improved Cluster Node Connectivity Fault Tolerance ................................................ 14
Enhanced Cluster Validation Tool ............................................................................... 18
Improved Migration of Cluster Workloads ................................................................. 19
Improved Management of Virtual Data Centers ......................................................... 24
Simplified Method for Physical and Virtual Computer Deployments ......................... 24
Processor Compatibility for Live Migration ................................................................ 25
Increased Performance and Hardware Support for Hyper-V™ Virtual Machines ........ 25
Improved Virtual Networking Performance ................................................................ 26
Terminal Services Becomes Remote Desktop Services for Improved Presentation
Virtualization............................................................................................................... 26
Remote Desktop Services and Virtual Desktop Infrastructure .................................... 27
Management ..................................................................................................................... 34
Improved Data Center Power Consumption Management ............................................ 34
Reduced Multicore Processor Power Consumption .................................................... 35
Reduced Processor Power Consumption .................................................................... 36
Reduced Storage Power Consumption ....................................................................... 38
Improved Remote Administration .................................................................................. 40
Reduced Administrative Effort for Interactive Administrative Tasks ............................... 41
Enhanced Command-line and Automated Management .............................................. 42
Improved Identity Management .................................................................................... 45
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Improvements for All Active Directory Server Roles ................................................... 46
Improvements in Active Directory Domain Services ................................................... 48
Improvements in Active Directory Federated Services ............................................... 57
Improved Compliance with Established Standards and Best Practices .......................... 57
Web ................................................................................................................................... 58
Reduced Effort to Administer and Support Web-based Applications ............................ 58
Reduced Support and Troubleshooting Effort ............................................................ 62
Improved FTP Services ................................................................................................... 63
Ability to Extend Functionality and Features .................................................................. 64
Improved .NET Support .................................................................................................. 65
Improved Application Pool Security ............................................................................... 65
IIS.NET Community Portal .............................................................................................. 65
Solid Foundation for Enterprise Workloads ....................................................................... 66
Scalability and Reliability ................................................................................................ 66
Leveraging Sophisticated CPU Architectures .............................................................. 66
Increased Operating System Componentization ........................................................ 67
Improved Performance and Scalability for Applications and Services ........................ 67
Improved Storage Solutions ....................................................................................... 70
Improved Protection of Intranet Resources ................................................................ 72
Improved Management of File Services ..................................................................... 73
Improvements in Backup and Recovery ...................................................................... 76
Better Together with Windows 7.................................................................................... 80
Simplified Remote Connectivity for Corporate Computers ........................................ 80
Secured Remote Connectivity for Private and Public Computers ............................... 85
Improved Performance for Branch Offices .................................................................. 85
Improved Security for Branch Offices ......................................................................... 94
More Efficient Power Management ............................................................................ 95
Improved Virtualized Desktop Integration ................................................................. 95
Higher Fault Tolerance for Connectivity Between Sites .............................................. 96
Increased Protection for Removable Drives ................................................................ 96
Improved Prevention of Data Loss for Mobile Users .................................................. 96
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Introduction to Windows Server 2008 R2
Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2, built with Web and virtualization technologies, is the
most robust, secure, and reliable foundation on which to develop, deliver, and manage
rich user experiences and applications.
Overview
Windows Server 2008 R2, builds on the award-winning foundation of Windows Server
2008, expanding existing technology and adding new features to enable IT professionals
to increase the reliability and flexibility of their server infrastructures. New virtualization
tools, Web resources, management enhancements, and exciting Windows 7 integration
help save time, reduce costs, and provide a platform for a dynamic and efficiently
managed data center. Powerful tools such as Internet Information Services (IIS) version
7.0, updated Server Manager and Hyper-V™ platforms and Windows PowerShell version
2.0 combine to give customers greater control, increased efficiency and the ability to
react to front-line business needs faster than ever before.
Using this Guide
This guide is designed to provide you with a technical overview of the new and improved
features in Windows Server 2008 R2. The following figure outlines the technology
investments areas of Windows Server 2008 R2:
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Figure 1: Windows Server 2008 R2 technology investments
The key technology investments in Windows Server 2008 R2 include:

Virtualization. With its server virtualization technology, Windows Server 2008 R2
enables you to reduce costs, increase hardware utilization, optimize your
infrastructure, and improve server availability.

Management. Windows Server 2008 R2 reduces the amount of effort you expend
managing your physical and virtual data centers by providing enhanced management
consoles and automation for repetitive day-to-day administrative tasks.

Web. Windows Server 2008 R2 gives you the ability to deliver rich Web-based
experiences efficiently and effectively, with improved administration and diagnostics,
development and application tools, and lower infrastructure costs.

Scalability and Reliability. With enterprise IT departments shouldering ever-heavier
burdens, Windows Server 2008 R2 has been designed specifically with heavier
workloads for both across server and client computing. On the server side, R2
includes architectural enhancements for more compute power and role
componentization as well as specific features enhancing reliability and security.
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
Better Together With Windows 7. Windows Server 2008 R2 includes technology
improvements designed with Windows 7 enterprise users in mind, augmenting the
network experience, security and manageability.
Getting Started
To evaluate Windows Server 2008 R2, you need to install Windows Server 2008 R2 in your
test or evaluation environment. After you install Windows Server 2008 R2, you can use
this guide to help you explore the key technology investments for yourself.
System Requirements
Before you install Windows Server 2008 R2, you need to ensure that the physical or virtual
computer being used in your evaluation has the appropriate system resources. The
following table lists the system requirements for Windows Server 2008 R2.
Table 1Error! Bookmark not defined.: Window Server 2008 R2 System Requirements
Component
Processor
Requirement
• Minimum: 1.4GHz x64 processor
• Recommended: 2GHz or faster
Memory
• Minimum: 512MB RAM
• Recommended: 2GB RAM or greater
• Maximum 32GB (Standard) or 2TB (Enterprise and Datacenter Editions)
Available Disk
Space
• Minimum: 10GB
• Recommended: 40GB or greater
Note: Computers with more than 16GB of RAM will require more disk space for paging,
hibernation, and dump files
Drive
DVD-ROM drive
Display and
Peripherals
• Super VGA (800 x 600) or higher-resolution monitor
• Keyboard
• Microsoft Mouse or compatible pointing device
The actual requirements will vary based on your system configuration and the
applications and features you choose to install. Processor performance is dependent
upon not only the clock frequency of the processor, but also the number of cores and the
size of the processor cache. Disk space requirements for the system partition are
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approximate. Additional available hard-disk space may be required if you are installing
over a network.
Installation and Activation
This pre-beta release of Windows Server 2008 R2 is intended for evaluation and
deployment planning purposes only. If you plan to install this release of Windows Server
2008 R2 on your primary machine, it is recommended that you back up your existing data
prior to installation.
Windows Server 2008 R2 Installation
Prior to installation of Windows Server 2008 R2, you need to determine if you will deploy
Windows Server 2008 R2 in a physical environment or a virtual environment. If you are
installing Windows Server 2008 R2 in a physical environment, all you need is the Windows
Server 2008 R2 distribution media.
To install this release of Windows Server 2008 R2, perform the following steps:
1.
Start the physical computer with the Windows Server 2008 R2 distribution media, by
inserting the distribution media into the computer’s DVD-ROM drive.
For a virtual machine, mount the .iso file image of the Windows Server 2008 R2
distribution media on the virtual machine and then start the virtual machine.
Note: Ensure that you configure the virtual machine to support x64 processors
because Windows Server 2008 R2 is only supported on x64 processors.
2.
On the Install Windows page of the installation process (as illustrated in the
following figure), select the appropriate language, time and currency format, and
keyboard, and then click Next.
3.
On the Select the operating system you want to select Full Installation, and then
click Next.
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Figure 2: Windows Server 2008 R2 operating system installation options
Notice that Windows Server 2008 R2 is now available only over a 64-bit processor
architecture. Although you can install Windows Server 2008 R2 by using the Full
Installation or Server Core Installation option, this guide assumes that you select the
Full Installation option.
Note: After you have completed your installation, you cannot change the installation
option from the Full Installation option to the Server Core installation, or vice versa,
without reinstalling Windows Server 2008 R2.
4.
The Windows Server 2008 R2 installation process continues until Windows Server
2008 R2 starts for the first time.
5.
After Windows Server 2008 R2 starts, log on as a user that is a member of the local
Administrators group.
6.
Add, partition, and format any additional disks you require for your evaluation.
7.
Add any additional network adapters that you require for your evaluation.
8.
Configure the IP addressing settings for all network adapters to allow the appropriate
connectivity within your environment.
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Note: Ensure that you provide statically configured IP version 4 (IPv4) and IP version
6 (IPv6) addresses as required for your evaluation. Do not use IP addresses that are
dynamically assigned by Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).
9.
Add the appropriate Windows Server 2008 R2 server roles and features by using
Server Manager.
10. Configure each server role and feature as required for your evaluation.
11. Start your evaluation of Windows Server 2008 R2.
Windows Server 2008 R2 Activation
Evaluating this early release of Windows Server 2008 R2 software does not require
product activation or entering a product key. This release of Windows Server 2008 R2
may be installed without activation and evaluated for an initial 60 days.
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Virtualization
Virtualization is a major part of today’s data centers. The operating efficiencies offered by
virtualization allow organizations to dramatically reduce operational effort and power
consumption.
Windows Server 2008 R2 provides the following virtualization types:

Client and Server virtualization provided by Hyper-V™. Hyper-V™ virtualizes the
system resources of a physical computer. Server virtualization allows you to provide a
virtualized environment for operating systems and applications. When used alone,
Hyper-V™ is typically used for server computer virtualization. When Hyper-V™ is used
in conjunction with Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI), Hyper-V™ is used for client
virtualization.

Presentation virtualization. This type of virtualization provided by Remote Desktop
Services’ RemoteApp (see below for more information on the Terminal Services’ name
change in Windows Server 2008 R2) virtualizes a processing environment and isolates
the processing from the graphics and I/O, making it possible to run an application in
one location but have it be controlled in another. Presentation virtualization allows
end users to run a single application, or a complete desktop offering multiple
applications.
Note: There are other types of virtualization that are not discussed in this guide, such as
application virtualization provided by Microsoft App-V. For more information on all
Microsoft virtualization products and technologies, see the Microsoft Virtualization home
page at http://www.microsoft.com/virtualization/default.mspx.
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Improved Virtualization with Hyper-V™
Beginning with Windows Server 2008, server virtualization using Hyper-V™ technology
has been an integral part of the operating system. Windows Server 2008 R2 introduces a
new version of Hyper-V ™.
Hyper-V™ in Windows Server 2008 R2 includes three core areas of improvement for
creating dynamic virtual data centers:

Increased availability for virtualized data centers

Improved management of virtualized data centers

A simplified method for physical and virtual computer deployments by using .vhd
files
Increased Availability for Virtual Data Centers
One of the most important aspects of any data center is providing the highest possible
availability for systems and applications. Virtual data centers are no exception to the need
for consolidation, high availability and most of all sophisticated management tools.
Hyper-V™ in Windows Server 2008 R2 includes the much-anticipated Live Migration
feature, which allows you to move a virtual machine between two virtualization host
servers without any interruption of service.
Live Migration Support through Cluster Shared Volumes
Live Migration uses the new Cluster Shared Volumes (CSV) feature within Failover
Clustering in Windows Server 2008 R2. The CSV volumes enable multiple nodes in the
same failover cluster to concurrently access the same logical unit number (LUN). From a
VM’s perspective, each VM appears to actually own a LUN; however, the .vhd files for
each VM are stored on the same CSV volume, as illustrated in the following figure.
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Figure 3: Cluster Shared Volumes
Because CSV provides a consistent file namespace to all nodes in the cluster, any files
stored on a CSV have the same name and path from any node in the cluster. CSV volumes
are stored as directories and subdirectories beneath the ClusterStorage root folder, as
illustrated in the following figure.
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Figure 4: Example of single namespace in CSV
As illustrated in the previous figure, the CSV volumes (Volume1, Volume2, and Volume3)
are stored in the ClusterStorage folder. If the ClusterStorage folder exists in the root of E:,
the fully qualified path to each of the CSV volumes would be as follows:

E:\ClusterStorage\Volume1\root

E:\ClusterStorage\Volume2\root

E:\ClusterStorage\Volume3\root
All cluster nodes would access the shared volumes by using these fully qualified paths.
While CSVs are currently employed mainly for Live Migration, their benefits will extend
beyond that single scenario. For one, they’re easy to configure using simple NTFS rather
than some other proprietary format. That means administrators won’t have to reformat
their SANs to take advantage of CSVs. It also means administrators will have an easier
time showing users only a single data repository rather than a small forest of silos—no
more drive letter metaphors for end-users just convenient networked storage. And last,
CSVs don’t require config and management tools of their own. Windows Server
administrators used to the tools in Windows Server 2008 can continue using those same
consoles and they’ll simply work with CSVs in R2.
Improved Cluster Node Connectivity Fault Tolerance
Because of the architecture of CSV, there is improved cluster node connectivity fault
tolerance that directly affects VMs running on the cluster. The CSV architecture
implements a mechanism, known as dynamic I/O redirection, where I/O can be rerouted
within the failover cluster based on connection availability, as illustrated in the following
figure.
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Figure 5: Dynamic IO redirection for Cluster Shared Volumes
The first type of failure that can be redirected is the failure of a cluster node connection
to the shared storage between cluster nodes, typically on a Storage Area Network (SAN).
As shown in the following figure, if the SAN connection on Node 2 fails, the I/O
operations are redirected over the network to Node 1. Node 1 then performs the I/O
operation to the SAN. This allows you do a Live Migration of the VM running on Node 2
to Node 1.
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Figure 6: IO connectivity fault tolerance for CSV
The next type of failure that can be redirected is the failure of network connectivity for a
cluster node. As shown in the following figure, the primary network connection between
Node 1 and Node 2 fails. Node 2 automatically reroutes network traffic over a redundant
network connection and Node 1 performs the network I/O.
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Figure 7: Network fault tolerance for CSV
The next type of failure that can be redirected is the failure of an entire cluster node. As
shown in the following figure, Node 1 has ownership of a volume that is used by the VM
running on Node 2. In the event of a complete failure of Node 1, ownership of the
volume is changed to Node 2 without any interruption of service to the VM running on
Node 2.
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Figure 8: Node fault tolerance for CSV
Enhanced Cluster Validation Tool
Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a Best Practices Analyzer (BPA) for all major server
roles, including Failover Clustering. This analyzer examines the best practices
configuration settings for a cluster and cluster nodes. The test runs only on computers
that are currently cluster nodes.
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Improved Migration of Cluster Workloads
Administrators can migrate cluster workloads currently running on Windows Server 2003
and Windows Server 2008 to Windows Server 2008 R2. The migration process:

Supports every workload currently supported on Windows Server 2003 and Windows
Server 2008, including DFS-N, DHCP, DTC, File Server, Generic Application, Generic
Script, Generic Service, iSNS, MSMS, NFS, Other Server, TSSB, and WINS.

Supports most common network configurations.

Does not support rolling upgrades of clusters. (Cluster workloads must be migrated
to a new cluster running Windows Server 2008 R2.)
Integration of Live Migration and Failover Clustering
Live Migration requires failover clustering in Windows Server 2008 R2. Specifically, Live
Migration can make use of the new Cluster Shared Volumes (CSV) feature contained in
Windows Server 2008 R2.
The following are the requirements for performing Live Migration with a failover cluster:

Live Migration can only be performed between cluster nodes within the same failover
cluster. (Virtual machines can only be moved between cluster nodes.)

Hyper-V™ must be running on the cluster nodes in the failover cluster and have
access to the same shared storage.

The .vhd files for the virtual machines to be moved by Live Migration must be stored
on the same shared storage.
The following figure illustrates a typical Hyper-V™ and failover cluster configuration for
supporting Live Migration.
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Figure 9Error! Bookmark not defined.: Typical configuration to support Live Migration
Live Migration Process
The Live Migration process is performed in the following steps:
1.
An administrator initiates a Live Migration between the source and target cluster
node.
12. A duplicate virtual machine is created on the target cluster node, as illustrated in the
following figure.
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Figure 10: Creation of target virtual machine on target cluster node
13. All of the current memory in the source virtual machine is copied to the target virtual
machine, as illustrated in the previous figure.
14. Clients connected to the source virtual machine continue to run on the source virtual
machine and create mirrored memory pages as illustrated in the following figure.
15. The mirrored memory pages are tracked and continue an iterative copy of the dirty
memory pages until all memory pages are copied to the target virtual machine, as
illustrated in the following figure.
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Figure 11: Iterative copy of mirrored memory from source to target virtual machine
16. When all memory pages are copied to the target virtual machine, clients are
automatically redirected to the target virtual machine and the source virtual machine
is deleted, as illustrated in the following figure.
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Figure 12: Final configuration after Live Migration completes
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Improved Management of Virtual Data Centers
Even with all the efficiency gained from virtualization, virtual machines still need to be
managed. The number of virtual machines tends to proliferate much faster than physical
computers because machines typically do not require a hardware acquisition. Therefore,
management of virtual data centers is even more imperative than ever before.
Windows Server 2008 R2 includes the following improvements that will help you manage
your virtual data center:

Reduced effort for performing day-to-day Hyper-V™ administrative tasks by
using the Hyper-V™ Management Console. The Hyper-V™ Management Console
has been updated to reduce the amount of effort required to perform common dayto-day administrative tasks.

Enhanced command-line interface and automated management of Hyper-V™
administrative tasks by using PowerShell cmdlets.

Improved management of multiple Hyper-V™ servers in a virtual data center
environment by using System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008. For more
information on System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008, see “Microsoft System
Center Virtual Machine Manager” at
http://www.microsoft.com/systemcenter/virtualmachinemanager/en/us/default.aspx.
Simplified Method for Physical and Virtual Computer
Deployments
Historically, different methods have been used to deploy operating systems and
applications to physical and virtual computers. For virtual computers, the .vhd file format
has become a de facto standard for deploying and interchanging preconfigured operating
systems and applications. Hyper-V™ in Windows Server 2008 R2 supports two important
updates concerning .vhd files.
First, administrators can now add and remove vhd files, as well as pass-through disks
attached to a virtual SCSI controller on a running VM, without requiring a reboot. This
offers more flexibility when it comes to handling storage growth needs without requiring
additional downtime. It also provides more flexibility in data center backup scenarios as
well as new scenarios in complex Exchange and SQL Server deployments.
Windows Server 2008 R2 also supports the ability to boot a computer from a .vhd file
stored on a local hard disk. This allows you to use preconfigured .vhd files for deploying
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virtual and physical computers. This helps reduce the number of images you need to
manage and provides an easier method for test deployment prior to deployment in your
production environment.
Processor Compatibility for Live Migration
Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V also introduces a new feature named Processor
Compatibility Mode for live migration. This feature was implemented to expand
customers’ options when it comes to live migrating VMs across different CPU versions
from the same processor manufacture (e.g. Intel-to-Intel and AMD-to-AMD). Previously,
any Live or Quick Migration operation had to be conducted across hosts with identical
CPUs.
Processor compatibility is disabled by default, but can be activated either via the Hyper-V
Manager or System Center Virtual machine Manager 2008 R2. It is most applicable to
Hyper-V’s Live Migration (new with R2), but Quick Migration or standard Save/Restore
operations can also benefit from it. Lastly, processor compatibility is supported by any
Hyper-V-enabled CPU which supports hardware assisted virtualization; however, it is
important to note that it supports migration only across CPUs versions in the same
product family (ie, Intel-to-Intel or AMD-to-AMD). Cross-vendor CPU migration is not
supported mainly due to differing instruction sets implemented by different CPU vendors.
Increased Performance and Hardware Support for HyperV™ Virtual Machines
Hyper-V™ in Windows Server 2008 R2 now supports up to 64 logical processors in the
host processor pool. This is a significant upgrade from previous versions and allows not
only greater VM density per host, but also gives IT administrators more flexibility in
assigning CPU resources to VMs. The new Hyper-V also adds performance enhancements
that increase virtual machine performance and power consumption. First, Hyper-V™ now
supports Second Level Address Translation (SLAT), which uses new features on today’s
CPUs to improve VM performance while reducing processing load on the Windows
Hypervisor.
New Hyper-V™ VMs will also consume less power by virtue of the new Core Parking
feature implemented into Windows Server 2008 R2. For detailed information on core
parking, please see the “Reduced Multicore Power Consumption” section further down in
this guide.
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Improved Virtual Networking Performance
The new Hyper-V™ leverages several new networking technologies contained in Windows
Server 2008 R2 to improve overall VM networking performance. Three key examples are
the new VM Chimney (also called TCP Offload), support for Jumbo Frames and new
support for the Virtual Machine Queue (VMQ).
VM Chimney allows a VM to dump its network processing load onto the NIC of the host
computer. This works the same as in a physical TCP Offload scenario, Hyper-V™ now
simply extends this functionality into the virtual world. This benefits both CPU and overall
network throughput performance, and it’s fully supported by Live Migration.
VM Chimney is disabled by default in Windows Server 2008 R2, Combined with
compatible hardware, currently including vendors like Intel, VM Chimney significantly
reduces the host server’s CPU burden when dealing with VM network traffic. This
translates into better host system performance and a simultaneous boost to VM network
throughput.
Like TCP Offloading, support for Jumbo Frames was also introduced with Windows Server
2008. Hyper-V™ in Windows Server 2008 R2 simply extends this capability to VMs. So just
like in physical network scenarios, Jumbo Frames add the same basic performance
enhancements to virtual networking. That includes up to 6 times larger payloads per
packet, which improves not only overall throughput but also reduces CPU utilization for
large file transfers.
VMQ essentially allows the host’s single NIC card to appear as multiple NICs to the VMs
by allowing the host’s network interface card (NIC) to DMA packets directly into
individual VM memory stacks. Each VM device buffer is assigned a VMQ, which avoids
needless packet copies and route lookups in the virtual switch. The result is less data in
the host’s buffers and an overall performance improvement to I/O operations.
Terminal Services Becomes Remote Desktop
Services for Improved Presentation
Virtualization
Terminal Services is one of the most widely used features in previous versions of
Windows Server. Terminal Services makes it possible to remotely run an application in
one location but have it be controlled and managed in another. Microsoft has evolved
this concept considerably in Windows Server 2008 R2, so we’ve decided to rename
Terminal Services to Remote Desktop Services (RDS) to better reflect these exciting new
features and capabilities. The goal of RDS is to provide both users and administrators
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with both the features and the flexibility necessary to build the most robust access
experience in any deployment scenario.
Remote Desktop Services in Windows Server 2008 R2 covers the same basic technology
features as did Terminal Services, so this name change necessarily filters down as well.
The table below summarizes the new names for TS-to-RDS technologies in R2.
Table 2: New Remote Desktop Services Names for Corresponding Terminal Services
Names
Terminal Services name
Remote Desktop Services name
Terminal Services
Remote Desktop Services
Terminal Services RemoteApp™
RemoteApp™
Terminal Services Gateway
Remote Desktop Gateway
Terminal Services Session Broker
Remote Desktop Connection Broker
Terminal Services Web Access
Remote Desktop Web Access
Terminal Services CAL
Remote Desktop CAL
Terminal Services Easy Print
Remote Desktop Easy Print
Remote Desktop Services and Virtual Desktop
Infrastructure
To expand the Remote Desktop Services feature set, Microsoft has been investing in the
Virtual Desktop Infrastructure, also known as VDI, in collaboration with our partners,
which include Citrix, Unisys, HP, Quest, Ericom and several others. VDI is a centralized
desktop delivery architecture, which allows customers to centralize the storage, execution
and management of a Windows desktop in the data center. It enables Windows Vista
Enterprise and other desktop environments to run and be managed in virtual machines
on a centralized server.
Increasingly businesses aim to enable their employees and contractors to work from
home or from an offshore, outsourced facility. These new work environments provide
better flexibility, cost control and lower environmental footprint but increase demand for
security and compliance so that precious Corporate data is not at risk. VDI addresses all
these challenges with the following features:
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Improved User Experience
For both VDI and traditional remote desktop services the quality of user experience is
more important than ever before. The version of VDI and remote desktop services in
Windows Server 2008 improves the end user experience through new Remote Desktop
Protocol capabilities. These new capabilities, enabled with Windows Server 2008 R2 in
combination with Windows 7, help make the user experience for remote users almost
identical to local users.
Improved RemoteApp and Desktop Connections
New RemoteApp & Desktop Connection (RAD) feeds provide a set of resources, such as
RemoteApp programs and Remote Desktops. These feeds are presented to Windows 7
users via the new RemoteApp & Desktop Connection control panel, and resources are
tightly integrated into both the Start menu and the system tray.
The improved RemoteApp and Desktop Connections features in Windows Server 2008 R2
and Windows 7 provide the following improvements:

Extends Remote Desktop Services to provide tools to enable VDI. The in-box
Remote Desktop Services capability is targeted at low-complexity deployments and
as a platform for partner solutions, which can extend scalability and manageability to
address the needs of more demanding enterprise deployments. VDI includes the
following technologies to provide a comprehensive solution:

Hyper-V™

Live Migration

System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008

Microsoft Application Virtualization version 4.5 in Microsoft Desktop
Optimization Pack (MDOP).

Vista Enterprise VECD licensing

Provides simplified publishing of, and access to, remote desktops and
applications. The feeds described above provide access in Windows 7, but using
the new RemoteApp & Desktop Web Access, users will also be able connect to these
resources from Windows Vista and Windows XP.

Improved integration with Windows 7 user interface. Once accessed, RADdelivered programs and desktops show up in the Start Menu with the same look and
feel of locally installed applications. A new System Tray icon shows connectivity status
to all the remote desktop and RemoteApp connections to which the user is currently
subscribed. The experience is designed so that many users won’t be able to tell the
difference between a local and remote application.
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Figure 13: Updates to the Terminal Services Connection Broker
Improving User Experience through new Remote Desktop Protocol capabilities.
These new capabilities, enabled with Windows Server 2008 R2 in combination with
Windows7, improve significantly the experience of remote users, making it more similar
to the experience enjoyed by users accessing local computing resources. These
improvements include:

Multimedia Redirection: Provides high-quality multimedia by redirecting
multimedia files and streams so that audio and video content is sent in its original
format from the server to the client and rendered using the client’s local media
playback capabilities.

True multiple monitor support: Enables support for up to 10 monitors in almost
any size, resolution or layout with RemoteApp and remote desktops; applications will
behave just like they do when running locally in multi-monitor configurations.
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
Audio Input & Recording: VDI supports any microphone connected to a user’s local
machine, enables audio recording support for RemoteApp and Remote Desktop. This
is useful for VoIP scenarios and also enables speech recognition.

Aero Glass support: VDI provides users with the ability to use the AeroGlass UI for
client desktops; ensuring that remote desktop sessions look and feel like local
desktop sessions.

Direct X redirection: DirectX 9, 10 and 11 applications will render on the server and
will be remoted using bitmaps (requiring Direct3D-compatible hardware). If the
application supports the new DirectX 10.1 API with remoting extensions the DirectX
(2D& 3D) graphics are redirected to the local client to harness the power of the GPU
on the user’s local device, removing the need for a GPU on the server.

Improved audio/video synchronization: RDP improvements in Windows Server
2008 R2 are designed to provide closer synchronization of audio and video in most
scenarios.

Language Bar Redirection: Users can easily and seamlessly control the language
setting (e.g. right to left) for RemoteApp programs using the local language bar.

Task Scheduler: This adds the ability in Task Scheduler to ensure that scheduled
applications never appear to users connecting with RemoteApp. This reduces user
confusion.
While RAD improves the end-user experience, RAD also reduces the desktop and
application management effort by providing a dedicated management interface that lets
IT managers assign remote resources to users quickly and dynamically. Windows Server
2008 R2 includes the following RAD management capabilities to help reduce
administrative effort:

RemoteApp & Desktop Connections control panel applet. Users can easily
connect to RemoteApp programs and Remote Desktops using the RemoteApp &
Desktop Connections control panel applet in Windows 7.

Single administrative infrastructure. Both RemoteApp & Desktop connections and
RemoteApp and Desktop Web Access are managed from a single management
console. This ensures that connections can still be used from Windows XP and Vista
by using a Web page.

Designed for computers that are domain members and standalone computers:
The RemoteApp & Desktop feature is easy to configure and use for computers that
are members of Active Directory domains and for standalone computers.

Always up to date. Once a workspace is configured, that workspace keeps itself up
to date until it is removed from the user’s desktop. When an admin adds an
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application or update it automatically appears on users’ Start menu and via that
user’s Web Access page.

Single sign-on experience within a workspace. Ensures that only a single logon is
required to access all applications and resources with a RAD connection.

RemoteApp & Desktop Web Access. This capability provides full integration with
RemoteApp & Desktop Connections to ensure a consistent list of applications is
available to the user at all times, no matter the desktop OS used. The default web
page provides a fresh and inviting look and feel and includes a new Web-based login
with integrated single sign-on.
Figure 14: Remote Desktop Services Web Access expands RDS features cross-OS
Administrators faced with larger RAD deployment scenarios will also find additional
management features in Windows Server 2008 R2’s Remote Desktop Services aimed at
improving the management experience for all existing scenarios previously addressed by
Terminal Services as well as the exciting new scenarios available via RAD. These improved
management features include:

PowerShell Provider. Easily manage multiple servers and repetitive tasks - almost all
Remote Desktop Services administrative tasks can now be scripted; view and edit
configuration settings for the Remote Desktop Gateway, Remote Desktop Server and
more.
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
Profile Improvements. The user profile cache quota removes the need to delete
profiles at logoff, speeding up user logon. Group policy caching can now be
performed across an RDS farm to speed up group policy processing during logon

Microsoft Installer (MSI) compatibility. Microsoft has fixed multiple MSI-related
issues with Windows Server 2008’s Terminal Services to ensure that MSI install
packages can be installed normally and that per-user install settings are correctly
propagated. The updates also remove the need to put the server in ‘install mode’,
meaning users no longer need to be logged off during RAD management operations.

Remote Desktop Gateway. RDG securely provides access to RAD resources from the
Internet without the need for opening additional ports or the use of a VPN. RDG
provides this by tunneling RDP over HTTPS and incorporating several new security
features:

Silent Session Re-authentication. The Gateway administrator can now configure
the RDG to run periodic user authentication and authorization on all live
connections. This ensures that any changes to user profiles are enforced. For
users whose profiles haven’t changed, the experience is seamless.

Secure device redirection. The Gateway administrator can be assured that
device redirection settings are always enforced even from unmanaged clients like
kiosks.

Pluggable Authentication. For corporations that have specific need to
implement their own authentication and authorization technologies, these
customers now have the flexibility to plug-in their preferred
authentication/authorization mechanisms.

Idle & session timeout. Administrators now have the flexibility of disconnecting
idle sessions or limiting how long users can be connected.

Consent Signing. If your business demands that remote users adhere to legal
terms & conditions before accessing corporate resources, the consent signing
feature helps you do just that.

Administrative messaging. The Gateway also provides the flexibility to provide
broadcast messages to users before launching any administration activities such
as maintenance or upgrades.
Partners and Independent Software Vendors (ISVs) also get tools with the new service to
more easily enable third-party software manufacturers to built RAD-optimized products.
These tools include:

RemoteApp& Desktop Web Access Customization. It is now possible to easily
extend the look and feel of web access by both customers and partners using support
for cascading style sheets. Developers can also create custom Web sites that
consume the RAD connection XML feed and transform these with XSLT.
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
RemoteApp & Desktop Connection. Though RAD connections are currently only
used for Remote Desktop Services, it is possible to extend both the server-side
infrastructure and Windows 7 client shell to add support for any type of application
or service – even ones that don’t use RDP or remoting protocols. This provides a
single UI and point of discoverability for any service.

Session broker extensibility. The session broker offers broad extensibility to enable
customers and ISVs to take advantage of the built-in RDP redirection features while
providing significant additional unique value through the various types of plug-ins;
for example:

Policy (policy plug-in), which determines the proper farm or VM for a connection,

Load Balancing (filter plug-in), which chooses the proper endpoint based on load,
and

Orchestration (filter plug-in), which prepares a VM to accept RDP connections.
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Management
The ongoing management of servers in the data center is one of most time-consuming
task facing IT professionals today. Any management strategy you deploy must support
the management of both your physical and virtual environments.
Another design goal for Windows Server 2008 R2 is to reduce the ongoing management
of Windows Server 2008 R2 and to reduce the administrative effort for common day-today operational tasks. These administrative tasks can be performed on the server or
remotely.
Management improvements in Windows Server 2008 R2 include:

Improved data center power consumption management,

Improved remote administration,

Reduced administrative effort for administrative tasks performed interactively,

Enhanced command-line and automated management by using PowerShell version
2.0,

Improved identity management provided by Microsoft Active Directory® Domain
Services and Active Directory Federated Services, and

Improved compliance with established standards and best practices.
Improved Data Center Power Consumption
Management
With the proliferation of physical computers in data centers, power consumption is of
paramount importance. In addition to the cost-saving associated with reducing power
consumption, many data centers are constrained by the number of computers they can
support in their data center by the actual power available to the data center. Therefore
reducing your power consumption also allows you to support more physical computers
while using the same amount of power, or less power, than before.
Window Server 2008 R2 includes the following improvements for reducing power
consumption:

Reduced multicore processor power consumption

Reduced processor power consumption by adjusting processor speed
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
Reduced storage power consumption
Reduced Multicore Processor Power Consumption
Windows Server 2008 R2 reduces processor power consumption in server computers with
multicore processors by using a feature known as Core Parking. The Core Parking feature
allows Windows Server 2008 R2 to consolidate processing onto the fewest number of
possible processor cores, and suspends inactive processor cores, as illustrated in Figure
13.
Figure 15: Core Parking in minimal power consumption configuration
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If additional processing power is required, the Core Parking feature activates inactive
processor cores to handle the increased processing requirements, as illustrated in the
following figure.
Figure 16: Core Parking with increased processing requirements
You can configure Core Parking by using the Group Policy settings in Windows Server
2008 R2 Active Directory Domain Services.
Reduced Processor Power Consumption
Windows Server 2008 R2 has the ability to adjust the ACPI “P-states” of processors and
subsequently adjust server power consumption. ACPI “P-states” are the processor
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performance states within the ACPI specification. Depending on the processor
architecture, Windows Server 2008 R2 can adjust the “P-states” of individual processors
and provide very fine control over power consumption, as illustrated in the following
figure.
Figure 17: “P-states” power management
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You can configure how “P-states” are adjusted in Windows Server 2008 R2 by using
Active Directory Group Policy settings.
Reduced Storage Power Consumption
Another key method for reducing power in data centers is by centralizing the storage,
typically by using a Storage Area Network (SAN). Because SANs tend to have highercapacity drives for the same amount of power consumption, the storage capacity–to–
power consumption ratio in a SAN is higher than in a typical server computer. SANs also
make more efficient use of the available disk space, as any server can have access to the
available storage on the SAN.
The following figure illustrates a data center without efficient usage of centralized storage
as provided by a SAN.
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Figure 18: Data center with local storage in each server computer
Windows Server 2008 R2 supports the ability to boot from a SAN, which eliminates the
need for local hard disks in the individual server computers. In addition, performance for
accessing storage on SANs has been greatly improved. The following figure shows how
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booting from a SAN can dramatically reduce the number of hard disks and decrease
power consumption as a result.
Figure 19: Centralizing storage to reduce power consumption
Improved Remote Administration
Remote administration of server computers is essential to any efficient data center. It is
very rare that server computers are administered locally. Windows Server 2008 R2
introduces a number of improvements in remote administration, including the following:
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
Improved remote management through graphical management consoles. Server
Manager has been updated to allow remote administration of servers. In addition,
many of the management consoles have improved integration with Server Manager
and, as a result, support remote management scenarios. For more detailed
information about each management console, see “Management Console
Improvements” later in this guide.

Improved remote management from command-line and automated scripts.
PowerShell version 2.0 offers a number of improvements for remote management
scenarios. These improvements allow you to run scripts on one or more remote
computers or to allow multiple IT professionals to simultaneously run scripts on a
single computer. For more detailed information about these remote management
scenarios, see “Enhanced Remote PowerShell Scenarios” later in this guide.
Reduced Administrative Effort for Interactive
Administrative Tasks
Reducing administrative effort for day-to-day administrative tasks is another key design
goal for Windows Server 2008 R2. Many of the management consoles used to manage
Windows Server 2008 R2 have been updated or completely redesigned to help reduce
your administrative effort. Some of the prominent updated and redesigned management
consoles are listed in the following table with descriptions of the improvements.
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Table 3Error! Bookmark not defined.: Updated & Redesigned Management Consoles
in Windows Server 2008 R2
Management Console
Improvements
Server Manager

Support for remote management of computers

Improved integration with many role and role services
management consoles

Based on administrative capabilities provided by
PowerShell cmdlets

Task-driven user interface

Based on administrative capabilities provided by
PowerShell cmdlets

Task-driven user interface

Improved tools for day-to-day tasks

Tight integration with System Center Virtual Machine
Manager for managing multiple Hyper-V™ servers.
Active Directory
Administrative Center
Internet Information
Services
Hyper-V™ Management
Console
Enhanced Command-line and Automated
Management
The PowerShell 1.0 scripting environment was shipped with Windows Server 2008 RTM.
Windows Server 2008 R2 includes PowerShell 2.0, which offers a number of
improvements over version 1.0, including the following:

Improved remote management by using PowerShell remoting. For more
information about PowerShell remoting, see “Improved Remote Management” under
“Management” the upcoming Windows Server 2008 R2 Technical Overview.

Improved security for management data, including state and configuration
information, by using constrained runspaces. For more information about
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constrained runspaces, see “Improved Security for Management” under
“Management” in the upcoming Windows Server 2008 R2 Technical Overview.

Enhanced GUIs for creating and debugging PowerShell scripts and viewing
PowerShell script output by using Graphical PowerShell and the Out-GridView
cmdlet. For more information about Graphical PowerShell and the Out-GridView
cmdlet, see “Enhanced Graphical User Interfaces” under “Management” in the
upcoming Windows Server 2008 R2 Technical Overview.

Extended scripting functionality that supports creation of more powerful scripts
with less development effort. For more information on this topic, see “Extended
Scripting Functionality” under “Management” in the upcoming Windows Server 2008
R2 Technical Overview.

Improved portability of PowerShell scripts and cmdlets between multiple
computers. For more information about this topic, see “Improved Portability of
PowerShell Scripts and Cmdlets” under “Management” in the upcoming Windows
Server 2008 R2 Technical Overview.
During your review of PowerShell version 2.0 in Windows Server 2008 R2, you will want to
familiarize yourself with the new GUI tools, Graphical PowerShell and the Out-GridView
cmdlet. As illustrated in the following figure, Graphical PowerShell provides a GUI that
allows you to interactively create and debug PowerShell scripts within an integrated
development environment similar to Visual Studio.
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Figure 20: Graphical PowerShell user interface with Active Directory Provider
Graphical PowerShell includes the following features:

Syntax coloring for PowerShell scripts (similar to syntax coloring in Visual Studio)

Support for Unicode characters

Support for composing and debugging multiple PowerShell scripts in a multi-tabbed
interface

Ability to run an entire script, or a portion of a script, within the integrated
development environment

Support for up to eight PowerShell runspaces within the integrated development
environment
Note: Graphical PowerShell feature requires Microsoft .NET Framework 3.0.
The new Out-GridView cmdlet displays the results of other commands in an interactive
table, where you can search, sort, and group the results. For example, you can send the
results of a get-process, get-wmiobject, or get-eventlog command to Out-GridView
and use the table features to examine the data.
Note: The Out-GridView cmdlet feature requires Microsoft .NET Framework 3.0.
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Also during your review, you will want to familiarize yourself with the new and updated
cmdlets available in PowerShell version 2.0 and Windows Server 2008 R2, a very few of
which are listed in the following figure.
Figure 21: A snapshot of new cmdlets
Improved Identity Management
Identity management has always been one of the critical management tasks for
Windows-based networks. The implications of a poorly managed identity managed
system are one of the largest security concerns for any organization.
Windows Server 2008 R2 includes identity management improvements in the Active
Directory Domain Services and Active Directory Federated Services server roles.
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Improvements for All Active Directory Server Roles
Windows Server 2008 R2 includes the following identity management improvements that
affect all Active Directory server roles:

New forest functional level. Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a new Active
Directory forest functional level. Many of the new features in the Active Directory
server roles require the Active Directory forest to be configured with this new
functional level.

Enhanced command line and automated management. PowerShell cmdlets
provide the ability to fully manage Active Directory server roles.

Improved automated monitoring and notification. An updated System Center
Manager 2007 Management Pack helps improve the monitoring and management of
Active Directory server roles.
Active Directory PowerShell Cmdlets: Step-by-step Feature Review
In this task you will use the PowerShell V2 Graphical Console to perform basic user and
group administrative tasks. You will begin by loading the ActiveDirectory module,
exposing over 75 Active Directory cmdlets. You will then use these cmdlets to administer
Active Directory.
To review how the Active Directory PowerShell cmdlets feature works, you need to
complete the tasks in the following table. Perform the steps in the following table while
logged on as a member of the Enterprise Admins security group.
Table 4Error! Bookmark not defined.: Active Directory PowerShell Cmdlets
High-level task
Details
Start the PowerShell V2
17. On the Start menu, click All Programs, click Windows PowerShell V2, and
Graphical Console
Load the Active
Directory Module
then click Graphical Console (Windows PowerShell V2).
18. In the PowerShell V2 Graphical Console, in the Command
Pane, type
the following commands, pressing Enter after each command.
Add-Module ActiveDirectory
Get-Module
List the available
cmdlets
19. In the PowerShell V2 Graphical Console, in the Command
Pane, type
the following command, and then press Enter.
Get-Command *ad*
Browse an Active
20. In the Command Pane, enter the following commands, pressing Enter after
Directory domain
each command (where domain_name is the name of your domain and
top_level_domain is your top level domain).
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Cd AD:
PWD
DIR | Format-Table -Auto
CD "DC=domain_name,_name DC=top_level_doman"
DIR | ft –a
Tip: You can press the TAB key to auto complete many of these commands
and save a great deal of typing.
List all user objects
21. In the Command Pane, enter the following commands, pressing Enter after
each command.
CD CN=Users
Dir | ft –a
Get-ADObject –Filter {name -like “*”}
Get-ADUser –Filter {name -like “*”}
Get-ADUser -Filter {name -like "*"} | Select Name,
Enabled | Format-Table -Auto
Enable the Guest user
object
22. In the Command Pane, enter the following commands, pressing Enter after
each command.
Enable-ADAccount –Identity Guest
Get-ADUser -Filter {name -like "*"} | Select Name,
Enabled | Format-Table -Auto
Display information
23. In the Command Pane, enter the following commands, pressing Enter after
about the Domain
each command (where domain_name is the name of your domain and
Admins group
top_level_domain is your top level domain).
Get-ADGroup -SearchBase
"DC=domain_name,DC=top_level_domain" -SearchScope
Subtree -Filter {Name -Like "*Domain Admins*"} Properties Extended
Display information
about a domain
24. In the Command Pane, type the following command and then press Enter
(where domain_name is the name of your domain).
Get-ADDomain domain_name
The output of this command allows you to easily determine things such as
operations master roles.
Display information
about domain
25. In the Command Pane, type the following command and then press Enter.
Get-ADDomainController –Discover
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controllers
Display information
26. In the Command Pane, type the following command and then press Enter
about the domain
(where domain_name is the fully qualified domain name of your domain).
password policy
Get-ADDefaultDomainPasswordPolicy domain_name
Create a new
organizational unit
27. In the Command Pane, type the following command and then press Enter
(where where domain_name is the name of your domain and
top_level_domain is your top level domain).
New-ADOrganizationalUnit –Name “Europe” –Path
“DC=domain_name,DC=top_level_domain”
Display the properties
28. In the Command Pane, type the following command and then press Enter
of the new
(where where domain_name is the name of your domain and
organizational unit
top_level_domain is your top level domain).
Get-ADOrganizationalUnit
“OU=Europe,DC=domain_name,DC=top_level_domain” –
Properties Extended
Delete the new
organizational unit
29. In the Command Pane, type the following commands and then press Enter
after each command (where where domain_name is the name of your
domain and top_level_domain is your top level domain).
CD AD:
CD “DC=domain_name,DC=top_level_domain”
Set-ADorganizationalUnit Europe –
ProtectedFromAccidentalDeletion $False
Remove-ADOrganizationalUnit Europe
Close the PowerShell V2
30. Close the PowerShell V2 Graphical Console.
Graphical Console
Improvements in Active Directory Domain Services
The Active Directory Domain Service server role in Windows Server 2008 R2 includes the
following improvements:

Recovery of deleted objects. Domains in Active Directory now have a Recycle Bin
feature that allows you to recover deleted objects. If an Active Directory object is
inadvertently deleted, you can restore the object from the Recycle Bin. This feature
requires the updated R2 forest functional level.
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
Improved process for joining domains. Computers can now join a domain without
being connected to the domain during the deployment process, also known as an
offline domain join. This process allows you to fully automate the joining of a domain
during deployment. Domain administrators create an XML file that can be included as
a part of the automated deployment process. The file includes all the information
necessary for the target computer to join the domain.

Improved management of user accounts used as identity for services. One timeconsuming management task is the maintenance of passwords for user accounts that
are used as identities for services, also known as service accounts. When the password
for a service account changes, the services using that identity also must be updated
with the new password. To address this problem, Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a
new feature known as managed service accounts. In Windows Server 2008 R2, when
the password for a service account changes, the managed service account feature
automatically updates the password for all services that use the service account.

Reduced effort to perform common administrative tasks. As illustrated in the
following figure, Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a new Active Directory Domain
Services management console, Active Directory Administrative Center.
Figure 22: Active Directory Administrative Center management console
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Active Directory Administrative Center is a task-based management console that is based
on the new PowerShell cmdlets in Windows Server 2008 R2. Active Directory
Administrative Center is designed to help reduce the administrative effort for performing
common administrative tasks.
Active Directory Administrative Center: Step-by-step Feature Review
To review how the Active Directory Administrative Center feature works, you need to
complete the tasks in the following table. Perform the steps in the following table while
logged on as a member of the Enterprise Admins security group.
Table 5Error! Bookmark not defined.: Explore the Active Directory Administrative
Center
High-level task
Details
Start the Active
31. On the Start menu, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Active
Directory Administrative
Directory Administrative Center.
Center
Navigate to an
organizational unit
32. In Active Directory Administrative Center, in the Explorer pane, click
Overview.
33. Using the fly-out menu system, navigate to organizational_unit (where
organizational_unit is the name of the organizational unit where you want
to create an organizational unit).
Tip: Click the right arrow next to the domain root to begin using the fly-out
menu system. As you navigate, type the first few letters of each
organizational unit to shorten the navigation.
Create an organizational
unit
34. In the Tasks pane, click New, and then click Organizational Unit.
The Create dialog box appears.
35. In the Create dialog box, in Name, type Demonstration OU, and then click
OK.
Create a user
36. Using the fly-out menu system, navigate to Demonstration OU.
37. In the Tasks pane, click New, and then click User.
The Create dialog box appears.
38. Compete the Create dialog box by using the following information, and
then click OK:

First Name: Pilar

Last Name: Ackerman
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Create a new group

User logon: pilarau

Select Password never expires check box.

Clear Change password at next logon check box.

Password: P@ssw0rd
39. Using the fly-out menu system, navigate to Demonstration OU.
40. In the Tasks pane, click New, and then click Group.
The Create dialog box appears.
41. Compete the Create dialog box by using the following information, and
then click OK:
Add a user to a group

Name: Support

Select Protect from Accidental Deletion check box.
42. In Search, type Pilar Ackerman.
43. In the Results pane, click Pilar Ackerman.
44. In the Tasks pane, click Add to group.
45. In the Select Groups dialog box, in Enter the object names to select, type
Support, click Check Names, and then click OK.
Active Directory Recycle Bin: Step-by-step Feature Review
To review how the Active Directory Recycle Bin feature works, you need to complete the
following tasks:
46. Enable the Active Directory Recycle Bin feature
47. Delete objects in Active Directory
48. Verify the deleted objects are in the Active Directory Recycle Bin
49. Recover the objects in the Active Directory Recycle Bin
50. Verify the deleted objects have been recovered.
Note: Perform these steps in a test environment as these steps could adversely affect
your production environment.
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Enable the Active Directory Recycle Bin Feature
Perform the steps in the following table while logged on as a member of the Enterprise
Admins security group. Before you can recover deleted objects in your Active Directory
infrastructure, you must enable the Active Directory Recycle Bin feature.
Table 6Error! Bookmark not defined.: Enable the Active Directory Recycle Bin Feature
High-level task
Details
Start the Active
51. On the Start menu, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Active
Directory PowerShell
Directory PowerShell Snap-in.
Snap-in
Check the state of the
Recycle Bin feature
52. In Windows PowerShell, type the following command and then press Enter.
Get-ADOptionalFeature –Filter ‘Name –Like “*”’
In the output you should see the:

EnabledScopes property is currently empty, which indicates that this
feature is not enabled.

RequiredForestMode property indicates the prerequisites for enabling this
feature.
Enable the Recycle Bin
feature
53. In Windows PowerShell, type the following command and then press Enter
(where forest is the name of your forest).
Enable-ADOptionalFeature ‘Recycle Bin Feature’ –Scope
Forest –Target ‘forest’
Note: The Recycle Bin feature is disabled by default.
54. To confirm the command, press Enter.
Note: Once you enabled the Recycle Bin feature, you cannot disable the
feature at a later time.
Verify the Recycle Bin
feature is enabled
55. In Windows PowerShell, type the following command and then press Enter.
Get-ADOptionalFeature –Filter ‘Name –Like “*”’
The value of the EnabledScopes property reflects that the Recycle Bin is
enabled.
Delete Objects in Active Directory
Perform the steps in the following table while logged on as a member of the Enterprise
Admins security group.
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Table 7Error! Bookmark not defined.: Delete Objects in Active Directory
High-level task
Details
Start the Active
56. On the Start menu, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Active
Directory Administrative
Directory Administrative Center.
Center
Navigate to an
organizational unit
57. Using the fly-out menu system, navigate to Demonstration OU
Tip: Click the right arrow next to the domain root to begin using the fly-out
menu system. As you navigate, type the first few letters of each
organizational unit to shorten the navigation.
Delete an organizational
unit
58. In the Tasks pane, click Delete.
59. In the Delete Confirmation dialog box, click Yes.
Verify the deleted objects are in the Active Directory Recycle Bin
Perform the steps in the following table while logged on as a member of the Enterprise
Admins security group.
Table 8Error! Bookmark not defined.: Verify the deleted objects are in the Active
Directory Recycle Bin
High-level task
Details
Start the Active
60. On the Start menu, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Active
Directory PowerShell
Directory PowerShell Snap-in.
Snap-in
Display the contents of
the Recycle Bin
61. In Windows PowerShell, type the following command and then press Enter
(where domain is your domain name and top_level_domain is your top level
domain name).
Get-ADObject –SearchBase “CN=Deleted
Objects,DC=domain,DC=top_level_domain” –ldapFilter
“(objectClass=*)” -includeDeletedObjects
This command displays the entire contents of the recycle bin.
62. Leave the output of this command on the screen as you will use it in the
next step.
Verify the Pilar
Ackerman user object is
63. In Windows PowerShell, type the following command and then press Enter.
Get-ADObject –Filter ‘Name –Like “*Pilar Ackerman*”’ –
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in the Recycle Bin
SearchScope Subtree –includeDeletedObjects
The output of this command will show the details for the Pilar Ackerman
user object. The distinguished name indicates this object is in the Recycle
Bin.
Verify the
64. In Windows PowerShell, type the following command and then press Enter.
Demonstration OU is in
Get-ADObject –Filter ‘Name –Like “*Demonstration OU*”’ –
the Recycle Bin
SearchScope Subtree –IncludeDeletedObjects
The output of this command will show the details for the Demonstration OU
organizational unit. The distinguished name indicates this object is in the
Recycle Bin.
Recover Deleted Objects in Active Directory Recycle Bin
Perform the steps in the following table while logged on as a member of the Enterprise
Admins security group.
Table 9Error! Bookmark not defined.: Recover Deleted Objects in Active Directory
Recycle Bin
High-level task
Details
Start the Active
65. On the Start menu, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Active
Directory PowerShell
Directory PowerShell Snap-in.
Snap-in
Attempt to
66. In Windows PowerShell, copy the objectGUID value for the object Pilar Ackerman
restore the Pilar
to the clipboard.
Ackerman user
Tip: To copy text from a command prompt, right click and then select Mark.
object
Highlight the text to copy and then press Enter. The objectGUID was listed in a
previous output.
67. In Windows PowerShell, type the following command and then press Enter (where
objectGUID is the objectGUID for Pilar Ackerman).
Restore-ADObject –Identity objectGUID
Tip: To paste, right-click and then click Paste.
68. The command fails with an error message indicating that the objects parent object
does not exist.
Identify the
parent container
69. In Windows PowerShell, type the following command and then press Enter.
Get-ADObject –Filter ‘Name –Like “*Pilar Ackerman*”’ –SearchScope Subtree –
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for the Pilar
includeDeletedObjects –properties lastKnownParent
Ackerman user
This command displays the last known parent object, which you can tell, is also in
object
the Recycle Bin.
Restore the
70. In Windows PowerShell, type the following command and then press Enter (where
deleted
objectGUID is the objectGUID of the Demonstration OU organizational unit).
organizational
Restore-ADObject –Identity objectGUID
unit
Tip: To complete this command, copy the value of the objectGUID property from
the Demonstration OU object, which can be found from the output of the last
command.
To restore all the
71. In Windows PowerShell, type the following command and then press Enter (where
deleted objects
domain is your domain name and top_level_domain is your top level domain name).
72. Get-ADObject –ldapFilter “(lastKnownParent=OU=Demonstration OU,
DC=domain,DC=top_level_domain)” –includeDeletedObjects | Restore-ADObject
This command lists all objects that have the last known parent attribute as the
Demonstrated OU and pipes them into the Restore-ADObject Cmdlet.
Verify the Deleted Objects Are Recovered
Perform the steps in the following table while logged on as a member of the Enterprise
Admins security group.
Table 10Error! Bookmark not defined.: Verify the Deleted Objects Are Recovered
High-level task
Details
Start the Active
73. On the Start menu, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Active
Directory Administrative
Directory Administrative Center.
Center
Verify the
Demonstration OU
organizational unit has
been recovered
74. Using the fly-out menu system, navigate to Demonstration OU
Tip: Click the right arrow next to the domain root to begin using the fly-out
menu system. As you navigate, type the first few letters of each
organizational unit to shorten the navigation.
Verify the Pilar
Ackerman user object
has been recovered
75. In Search, type Pilar Ackerman
The Pilar Ackerman user object should appear in the results pane.
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Offline Domain Join: Step-by-step Feature Review
Offline domain join involves two steps. In the first step you provision a computer account
in Active Directory and save the account information in a file. In the second step you use
that file in a command that inserts the domain join information into an offline version of
Windows.
Perform the steps in the following table while logged on as a member of the Enterprise
Admins security group.
Table 11Error! Bookmark not defined.: Offline domain join
High-level task
Details
Provision a new
76. On the Start menu, in Start Search, type cmd, and then press Enter.
computer account
77. At the command prompt, type the following command and then press
Enter (where domain_name is the name of your domain).
DJOIN /Provision /Domain domain_name /Machine DEN-SRV-01 /SaveFile
DEN-SRV-01.DJoin
This command creates a computer account in Active Directory and stores
the computer account password and related information in an encrypted
file. The encrypted file can then be used to offline domain join a computer.
Display the contents of
the provisioning file
78. At the command prompt, type the following command and then press
Enter.
Type DEN-SRV-01.DJoin
Note: The contents of the .DJoin file are encrypted.
Verify the computer
account is created in
Active Directory
79. On the Start menu, point to Administrative Tools and then click Active
Directory Administrative Center.
80. Using the fly-out menu system, navigate to domain_name\Computers
(where domain is the name of your domain).
Tip: Click the right arrow next to the domain root to begin using the fly-out
menu system. As you navigate, type the first few letters of each
organizational unit to shorten the navigation.
81. In the information pane, note that the computer account DEN-SVR-01 has
been created.
To join the computer to
the domain
82. The following command would be run on DEN-SRV-01 to join that
computer to the domain
DJOIN /Requestodj /LoadFile DEN-SVR-01.DJoin
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/WindowsPath \Mount\Windows
Note: Do not run this command. It is provided for reference purposes only.
This command is intended to be run against an offline copy of Windows
such as a WIM file or VHD that has been mounted as a drive or folder in the
file system.
Improvements in Active Directory Federated Services
Active Directory Federated Services in Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a new feature
known as authentication assurance. This feature allows administrators to establish
authentication policies for accounts that are authenticated in federated domains. This
enables a variety of advanced authentication scenarios, such as smart cards, for example.
Improved Compliance with Established
Standards and Best Practices
Windows Server 2008 R2 includes an integrated Best Practices Analyzer for each of the
server roles. The Best Practices Analyzer creates a checklist within Server Manager for the
role, which you can use to help perform all the configuration tasks.
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Web
Windows Server 2008 R2 includes many enhancements that make this release the most
robust Windows Server Web application platform yet. It offers an updated Web server
role –Internet Information Services (IIS) 7.5– and greater support for .NET on Server Core.
Design goals for IIS 7.5 concentrated on improvements that enable Web administrators to
more easily deploy and manage Web applications, and that increase both reliability and
scalability. Additionally, IIS 7.5 has streamlined management capabilities and provides
more ways than ever to customize your Web serving environment.
Reduced Effort to Administer and Support
Web-based Applications
Reducing the effort required to administer and support Web-based applications is a key
differentiator for IIS 7.5. Included with this release is support for increased automation,
new remote administration scenarios, and improved content publishing for developers
and authors. A short list of these features includes:

Expanding the capabilities of IIS Manager through new management modules;

Automating common administrative tasks through the Windows PowerShell
Provider for IIS;

Support for .NET on Server Core, enabling ASP.NET and remote management
through IIS Manager.
Automation of Common Tasks Through the PowerShell Provider
The Windows PowerShell Provider for IIS is a Windows PowerShell snap-in that allows you
to perform IIS administrative tasks, and manage IIS configuration and run-time data. In
addition, a collection of task-oriented cmdlets provide a simple way to manage Web sites,
Web applications and Web servers.
Using PowerShell allows administrators to take advantage of several important features:



Simplifying the administration by scripting common management tasks;
Executing repetitive tasks automatically;
Consolidating key Web metrics from all Web servers in real-time.
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On a more granular level, the IIS-specific cmdlets included with Windows Server 2008 R2
ease the administrative burden for many low-level day-to-day tasks. For example, these
cmdlets allow administrators to add and change configuration properties of Web sites
and Web-based applications as well as virtual directories and application pools. Users
more familiar with Windows PowerShell will be able to execute advanced configuration
tasks and even integrate existing Windows PowerShell scripts with other Windows
PowerShell providers across different Windows Server 2008 R2 feature areas. A few
common scenarios for PowerShell within IIS 7.5 management might include:





Adding/modifying/deleting sites and applications;
Migrating site settings;
Configuring SSL and other security settings;
Restricting access by IP address;
Backing up IIS configuration and content.
Enhancements to IIS Manager
New features have been added to IIS Manager for the 7.5 release that make it possible to
manage obscure settings such as those used for FastCGI and ASP.NET applications or
adding and editing request filtering rules through a graphical user interface.
Configuration Editor
Configuration Editor (illustrated in the following figure) allows you to manage any
configuration section available in the configuration system. Configuration Editor exposes
several configuration settings that are not exposed elsewhere in IIS Manager.
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Figure: Configuration Editor user interface
IIS Manager UI Extensions
Utilizing the extensible and modular architecture introduced with IIS 7.0, the new IIS 7.5
integrates and enhances existing extensions and allows for further enhancements and
customizations in the future. The FastCGI module, for example, allows management of
FastCGI settings while the ASP.NET module allows management of authorization and
custom error settings.
Request Filtering
The Request Filter module in Windows Server 2008 R2 will include the filtering features
previously found in URLScan 3.1. By blocking specific HTTP requests, the Request Filter
module helps prevent potentially harmful requests from being processed by Web
applications on the server. The Request Filtering user interface (illustrated in the following
figure) provides a graphical user interface for configuring the Request Filtering module.
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Figure: Request Filtering user interface
Managed Service Accounts
Windows Server 2008 R2 allows domain-based service accounts to have passwords
that are managed by Active Directory. These new type of accounts reduce the
recurrent administrative task of having to update passwords on processes running
with these accounts. IIS 7.5 supports the use of managed service accounts for
application pool identities.
Hostable Web Core
Developers are able to service HTTP requests directly in their applications by using the
hostable Web core feature. Available through a set of APIs, this feature lets the core IIS
Web engine to be consumed or hosted by other applications, allowing those apps to
service HTTP requests directly. The hostable web core feature is useful for enabling basic
Web server capabilities for custom applications or for debugging applications.
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Reduced Support and Troubleshooting Effort
Windows Server 2008 R2 reduces support and troubleshooting effort in the following
ways:

Enhanced auditing of changes to IIS 7.5 and application configuration. The new
Configuration Logging feature in IIS 7.5 provides enhanced auditing of changes to IIS
and application configuration, which allows you to track the configuration changes
made to your test and production environments. This provides logging of both reads
and writes as well as logon attempts, changes to path mappings, file creations and
more.

Failed Request Tracing for FastCGI. In IIS 7.5, PHP developers can use the FastCGI
module to include IIS trace calls in their applications. This reduces the effort required
for debugging code during development and troubleshooting application errors after
deployment by using IIS Failed Request Tracing.

Best Practices Analyzer (BPA). The BPA for IIS 7.5 is a management tool that can
help you reduce best practice violations by scanning an IIS 7.5 Web server and
reporting on potential configuration issues found. You can access the BPA through
Server Manager and Windows PowerShell.
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
Improved FTP Services
Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a new version of FTP Server services. These new FTP
server services offer the following improvements:

Reduced administrative effort for FTP server services. The new FTP server is fully
integrated with the IIS 7.5 administration interface and configuration store, as shown
in the following figure. This allows administrators to perform common administrative
tasks within one common administration console.
Figure: Integration of the FTP server administration in Internet Information Service
Manager

Extended support for new Internet standards. The new FTP server includes support
for emerging standards, including:

Improved security by supporting FTP over secure sockets layer (SSL);
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
Support of extended character sets by including UTF8 support;

Extended IP addressing features provided by IPv6.

Improved integration with web-based applications and services. With the new
FTP server, you can specify a, virtual host name for an FTP site. This allows you to
create multiple FTP sites that use the same IP address, but are differentiated by using
unique virtual host names. This allows you to provide FTP and Web content from the
same Web site simply by binding an FTP site to a Web site.

Reduced effort for support and troubleshooting FTP–related issues. Improved
logging that now supports all FTP-related traffic, unique tracking for FTP sessions, FTP
sub statuses, an additional detail field in FTP logs, and more.
Ability to Extend Functionality and Features
One of the design goals for IIS 7.5 was to make it easy for you to extend the base
functionality and features in IIS 7.5 IIS Extensions allow you to build or buy software that
can be integrated into IIS 7.5 in such a way that the software appears to be an integral
part of IIS 7.5. The following figure illustrates the placement of IIS Extensions in the IIS 7.5
architecture.
Figure: Architecture of IIS Extensions in IIS 7.5 in Windows Server 2008 R2
Extensions can be created by Microsoft, partners, independent software vendors, and
your organization. Microsoft has developed IIS Extensions since the RTM version of
Windows Server 2008. These IIS Extensions are available for download from
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http://www.iis.net/extensions . Many of the IIS Extensions developed by Microsoft will be
shipped as a part of Windows Server 2008 R2, including:

IIS WebDAV;

Integrated and enhanced Administration Pack;

Windows PowerShell Snap-In for IIS.
Improved .NET Support
 The .NET Framework (versions 2.0, 3.0, 3.5.1 and 4.0) is now available on Server Core
as an installation option. By taking advantage of this feature, administrators can enable
ASP.NET on Server Core which affords them full use of PowerShell cmdlets. Additionally,
.NET support means the ability to perform remote management tasks from IIS manager
and host ASP.NET Web applications on Server Core as well.
Improved Application Pool Security
 Building on the application pool isolation that was available with IIS 7.0 that increased
security and reliability, every IIS 7.5 application pool now runs with a unique, lessprivileged identity. This helps harden the security of applications and services running on
IIS 7.5.
IIS.NET Community Portal
 To stay current with new additions to IIS in Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server
2008 R2, make sure to visit the IIS.NET community portal (http://www.iis.net). The site
includes update news, in-depth instructional articles, a download center for new IIS
solutions and free advice via blogs and technical forums.
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Solid Foundation for Enterprise
Workloads
Windows Server 2008 R2 has been designed as a best-of-breed enterprise operating
platform, capable of handling the most demanding data center workloads and delivering
the latest next-gen network productivity experience to end-users across even the largest
networks. To address these challenges, Microsoft has designed Windows Server 2008 R2
with several new feature categories in mind, divisible into two basic categories:


Scalability and Reliability
Better Together with Windows 7.
Scalability and Reliability
Windows Server 2008 R2 is capable of the unprecedented workload size, dynamic
scalability and across-the-board availability and reliability. A host of new and updated
features contribute to this pillar:

Leveraging sophisticated CPU architectures

Increased operating system componentization

Improved performance and scalability for applications and services
Leveraging Sophisticated CPU Architectures
Windows Server 2008 R2 is the first Windows operating system to be offered for only 64bit processors. With customers being unable to purchase a 32-bit server CPU for over two
years, the performance and reliability advantages to moving to this architecture were too
beneficial to ignore.
Additionally, Windows Server 2008 R2 now supports up to 256 logical processor cores for
a single operating system instance. Hyper-V™ is able to utilize up to 64 logical cores on a
single host. These improvements not only guarantee more bang for your server hardware
buck, but also offer better reliability with fewer locks and greater parallelism.
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Increased Operating System Componentization
Microsoft introduced the concept of server roles to allow server administrators to quickly
and easily configure any Windows-based server to run a specific set of tasks and remove
extraneous OS code from system overhead. Windows Server 2008 R2 further extends this
model with support for more roles and a broadening of current role support, like the
addition of ASP.NET within IIS 7.5.
Roles have been refined and feature sets redefined as customers have expressed desires
for certain capabilities in popular scenarios. The Server Core installation option is an
appropriate mention here with new (and much demanded) support for PowerShell
scripting made possible by the addition of the .NET Framework to the list of server roles
supported in the Server Core installation option.
Improved Performance and Scalability for Applications and
Services
Another key design goal was to provide higher performance for Windows Server 2008 R2
running on the same system resources as previous versions of Windows Server. In
addition, Windows Server 2008 R2 supports increased scaling capabilities that allow you
to support greater workloads than ever before. Windows Server 2008 R2 features that
improve performance and scalability for applications and services include:

Support for larger workloads by adding more servers to a workload (scaling out).

Support for larger workloads by utilizing or increasing system resources (scaling up).
Increased Workload Support by Scaling Out
The Network Load Balancing feature in Windows Server 2008 R2 allows you to combine
two or more computers in to a cluster. You can use NLB to distribute workloads across
the cluster nodes in order to support a larger number of simultaneous users. Network
Load Balancing feature improvements in Windows Server 2008 R2 include:

Improved support for applications and services that require persistent connections.

Improved health monitoring and awareness for applications and services running on
Network Load Balancing clusters.
Improved Support for Applications and Services That Require Persistent
Connections
As illustrated in the following figure, the IP Stickiness feature in Network Load Balancing
allows you to configure longer affinity between client and cluster nodes. By default,
Network Load Balancing distributes each request to different nodes in the clusters. Some
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applications and services, such as a shopping cart application, require that a persistent
connection be maintained with a specific cluster node.
Figure 27: IP Stickiness feature in Network Load Balancing
You can configure a time-out setting for connection state to a range of hours or even
weeks in length. Examples of applications and services that can utilize this feature include:

Universal Access Gateway (UAG), which uses an SSL–based virtual private network
(VPN).

Web-based applications that maintain user information, such as an ASP.NET
shopping cart application.
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Improved Health Monitoring and Awareness for Applications and Services
As illustrated in the following figure, the Network Load Balancing Management Pack for
Windows Server 2008 R2 allows you to monitor the health of applications and services
running in Network Load Balancing clusters.
Figure 28: Application health monitoring in Network Load Balancing clusters
Increased Workload Support by Scaling Up
Windows Server 2008 R2 includes features that also allow you to support larger
workloads on individual computers. Scaling up allows you to reduce the number of
servers in your data center and be more power efficient. The features that support scaling
up include:
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
Increased number of logical processors supported. Windows Server 2008 R2
supports up to 256 logical processors.

Reduced operating system overhead for graphical user interface. In addition to
reducing the attack surface of the operating system, the Server Core installation
option eliminates the graphical user interface, which reduces the amount of
processor utilization. The reduction in processor utilization allows more of the
processing power to be used for running workloads.
Improved performance for storage devices. Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a
number of performance improvements for storage devices connected locally, through
iSCSI and other remote storage solutions. For more information on these improvements
in storage device performance, see “Improved File Services and Network Attached
Storage” later in this guide.
Improved Storage Solutions
The ability to quickly access information is more critical today than ever before. The
foundation for this high-speed access is based on file services and network attached
storage (NAS). Microsoft storage solutions are at the core of providing high-performance
and highly available file services and NAS.
The release version of Windows Server 2008 introduced many improvements in storage
technologies. Windows Server 2008 R2 includes additional improvements that enhance
the performance, availability, and manageability of storage solutions.
Improved Storage Solution Performance
Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a number of performance improvements in storage
solutions, including:

Reduced processor utilization to achieve “wire speed” storage performance.
Wire speed refers to the hypothetical maximum data transmission rate of a cable or
other transmission medium. Wire speed is dependent on the physical and electrical
properties of the cable, combined with the lowest level of the connection protocols.
Windows Server 2008 RTM is able to access storage at wire speed, but at a higher
processor utilization than Windows Server 2008 R2.

Improved storage input/output process performance. One of the primary
contributors to storage performance improvements in Windows Server 2008 R2 is the
improvement in the storage input/output process, known as NTIO. The NTIO process
has been optimized to reduce the overhead in performing storage operations.

Improved performance when multiple paths exist between servers and storage.
When multiple paths exist to storage, you can load-balance storage operations by
load-balancing the storage requests. Windows Server 2008 R2 supports up to 32
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paths to storage devices, while Windows Server 2008 RTM only supported two paths.
You can configure load-balancing policies to optimize the performance for your
storage solution.

Improved connection performance for iSCSI attached storage. The iSCSI client in
Windows Server 2008 R2 has been optimized to improve performance for iSCSI
attached storage.

Improved support for optimization of the storage subsystem. The storage system
has been designed to allow hardware vendors to optimize their storage mini-driver.
For example, a vendor could optimize the disk cache for their storage mini-driver.

Reduced length of time for operating system start. Chkdsk is run during the
operating system start when an administrator has scheduled a scan of a disk volume
or when volumes were not shut down properly. Chkdsk performance has been
optimized to reduce the length of time required to start the operating system. This
allows you to recover faster in the event of an abnormal shutdown of the operating
system (such as a power loss).
Improved Storage Solution Availability
Availability of storage is essential to all mission-critical applications in your organization.
Windows Server 2008 R2 includes the following improvements to storage solution
availability:

Improved fault tolerance between servers and storage. When multiple paths exist
between servers and storage, Windows Server 2008 R2 can failover to an alternate
path if the primary path fails. You can select the failover priority by configuring the
load-balancing policies for your storage solution.

Improved recovery from configuration errors. An error in the configuration of the
storage subsystem can negatively affect storage availability. Windows Server 2008 R2
allows you to take configuration snapshots of the storage subsystem (for example,
the iSCSI configuration). In the event of a subsequent configuration failure, you can
quickly restore the configuration to a previous version.
Improved Storage Solution Manageability
Management of the storage subsystem is another design goal for Windows Server 2008
R2. Some of the manageability improvements in Windows Server 2008 R2 include:

Automated deployment of storage subsystem configuration settings. You can
automate the storage subsystem configuration settings in Windows Server 2008 R2
by customizing the Unattend.xml file.
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

Improved monitoring of the storage subsystem. The storage subsystem in
Windows Server 2008 R2 includes the following improvements that help in
monitoring:

New performance counters that help reduce the support and troubleshooting
effort for storage subsystem–related issues.

Extended logging for the storage subsystem, including storage drivers.

Health-based monitoring of the entire storage subsystem.
Improved version control of storage system configuration settings. Windows
Server 2008 R2 allows you to take configuration snapshots of the storage subsystem.
This allows you to perform version control of configuration settings and to quickly
restore to a previous version in the event of a configuration error.
Improved Protection of Intranet Resources
The Network Policy Server (NPS) is a Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS)
server and proxy and Network Access Protection (NAP) health policy server. NPS
evaluates system health for NAP clients, provides RADIUS authentication, authorization,
and accounting (AAA), and provides RADIUS proxy functionality.
NAP is a platform that includes both client and server components to enable fully
extensible system health evaluation and authorization for a number of network access
and communication technologies, including:

Internet Protocol security (IPsec)-protected communication

802.1X-authenticated access for wireless and wired connections

Remote access virtual private network (VPN) connections

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) address allocation

Terminal Service (TS) Gateway access
The improvements to NPS in Windows Server 2008 R2 include:

Automated NPS SQL logging setup. This new feature automatically configures a
SQL database, required tables, and store procedure for NPS accounting data, which
significantly reduces the NPS deployment effort.

NPS logging improvements. The logging improvements enable NPS to
simultaneously log accounting data to both a file and a SQL database, support
failover from SQL database logging to file logging, and support logging with an
additional file format that is structured similar to SQL logging.
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
NAP multiple configurations of a system health validator (SHV), When you
configure a health policy, you can select an SHV in a specific configuration. This
allows you to specify different sets of health requirements based on a specific
configuration of the SHV. For example, you can create a network policy that specifies
that intranet-connected computers must have their anti-virus software enabled and a
different network policy that specifies that VPN-connected computers must have
their anti-virus software enabled and anti-malware installed.

NPS templates. NPS templates separate common RADIUS configuration elements
such as RADIUS shared secrets, IP filters, RADIUS clients, and others from the
configuration that is running on the server. When referenced, the NPS setting inherits
the values configured in the specified template. A change in the template changes
the corresponding value in all of the places in which the template is referenced. For
example, a single RADIUS shared secret template can be referenced for multiple
RADIUS clients and servers. When you change the RADIUS shared secret template,
the change is inherited by all of the RADIUS clients and servers in which that RADIUS
shared secret template is referenced. NPS template settings can easily synchronized
across multiple NPS servers running Windows Server 2008 R2.

Migration of Windows Server 2003 Internet Authentication Service (IAS)
servers. This feature allows you to migrate the configuration settings of an IAS server
running on Windows Server 2003 to an NPS server running on Windows Server 2008
R2.
Improved Management of File Services
Storage is no longer a marginal expense. Nor is managing storage any longer simply
about volume and availability; organizations need to manage their data more effectively
as well as more efficiently. Only by gaining insight into their data can companies reduce
the cost of storing, maintaining, and managing data. Only by enforcing company policies
and knowing how storage is utilized can administrators efficiently use their storage and
mitigate the risks of leaking data. The next frontier for administrators is to be able to
manage data based on business value.
Windows Server® 2008 R2 File Classification Infrastructure (FCI) provides insight into your
data by automating classification processes so that you can manage your data more
effectively and economically. FCI does this by enabling to automatically classify files
based on properties defined by administrators (such as whether or not a file contains
personally identifiable information) and performing administrator-specified actions based
on that classification (backing up files containing personal information to an encrypted
store, for example). These mechanisms are included in the box as well as provided by
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extensible interfaces that allow IT organizations and partners to build rich end to end
solutions for classifying and applying policy based on classification. FCI helps customers
save money and reduce risk by managing files based on their business value and business
impact.
You can use the Windows File Classification Infrastructure to identify files that:

Contain sensitive information and are located on servers with lower security and
move the files to servers with higher security.

Contain sensitive information and encrypt those files.

Are no longer essential and automatically remove the files from servers.

Are not accessed frequently and move the files to slower, more affordable storage
solutions.

Require different backup schedules and backup the files accordingly.

Require different backup solutions based on the sensitivity of the information in the
files.
The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to:

Centrally define policy-based classification of the files stored in your intranet.

Perform file management tasks based on the file classification that you define, rather
than on only simple information such as the location, size, or date of the file.

Generate reports about the types of information stored in the files in your intranet.

Notify content owners when a file management task is going to be performed on
their content.

Create or purchase custom file management solutions based on the Windows File
Classification Infrastructure.
Improved Policy-based Classification of Files in the box
One of the key advantages to the Windows File Classification Infrastructure is the ability
to centrally manage the classification of the files by establishing classification policies.
This centralized approach allows you to classify user files without requiring their
intervention.
With no additional third-party applications, FCI provides the following benefits:

Getting insight to data on file server — Administrators can create automatic
classification rules that classify files according to the location or content of the
files. As a result, a new layer of efficiency is added, driving down the typical costs
associated with managing and protecting the file server.
 Reduce storage costs and eliminate old documents with no business value —
Storing stale, unused data can grow to be a major expense for organizations.
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Indeed, IDC estimates that 60-80 percent of file data has no legal or business value.
Expiring files based on usage and business value can reduce both the cost (storage
and management) and risk (information leakage) on file servers. The in-box FCI
solution provides automatically scheduled tasks that expire files based on age,
location, or other classification categories.
 Mitigate risk by customizing how and where your data is stored — FCI empowers
administrators to run custom commands that automate management tasks based
on file name, age, location, or other classification categories of files. For example, IT
administrators can automatically move data based on policies for either centralizing
the location of sensitive data or for moving data to a less expensive storage facility.
 Easily track files — Reports can provide administrators with a powerful tool to assess
the risk of the wrong files being in the wrong place on their servers. Using the builtin capabilities of FCI, administrators can create reports in a variety of formats that
contain details—including location—about files that have a particular classification.
The FCI reporting infrastructure can also be used to generate information that can
be used by another application.
Improved File Management Tasks
The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to perform file management
tasks based on the classifications that you define. You can use the Windows File
Classification Infrastructure to help you perform common file management tasks,
including:

Grooming of data. You can automatically delete data by using policies based on
data age or classification properties to free valuable storage space and intelligently
reduce storage demand growth.

Custom Tasks. Execute custom commands based on age, location or other
classification categories. For example, IT administrators are able to automatically
move data based on policies for either centralizing the location of sensitive data or
for moving data to a less expensive storage resource.

Archiving files. You can automatically determine the best archival method based on
the classification of files.
The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to automate any file
management task by using the file classifications you establish for your organization.
Improved Reporting on Information Stored in Files
Most IT organizations have no easy method of providing information about the types of
files that are stored and managed. Without classification of the files, there is minimal
information that can be used to help identify the usage of the files, the sensitivity of the
files, and other relevant information about the files.
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The Windows File Classification Infrastructure allows you to generate reports in multiple
formats that can provide statistical information about the files stored on each file server.
You can use the reporting infrastructure to generate information that can be used by
another application (such as a comma separated variable format text file that could be
imported into Microsoft Excel).
Improved Development of File Management Tasks
There are many solutions on the market that provide data management and solutions
that classify and protect information, each dealing with specific aspects of the challenges
presented by data growth. FCI provides an extensible infrastructure to allow these
solutions to work with one another and empower companies to craft rich, end-to-end
data-management solutions that meet their specific business objectives. FCI persists file
classification between different ISV offerings so that products that classify files can work
with products that consume file classifications. For example, if a data leakage–prevention
product classifies files as containing personal information, then a backup product can
back it up to an encrypted store rather than the regular store. Moreover, IT administrators
can build in-house solutions that plug into the classification infrastructure and
interoperate with ISV product offerings.
Improvements in Backup and Recovery
Backup and recovery features are very important for the continued operation of the
services and applications running on Windows Server 2008 R2. Windows Server 2008 R2
includes a number of improvements that are related to backup and recovery, including
improvements in:

The Windows Server Backup utility.

Recovering from total failures of disk volumes by using LUN synchronization.

Integration with System Center Data Protection Manager 2007.
Improvements in Windows Server Backup
Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a new version of the Windows Server Backup utility.
This new version of Windows Server Backup allows you to:

Backup specific files and folders. In Windows Server 2008 RTM you had to backup
and entire volume. In Windows Server 2008 R2, you can include or exclude folders or
individual files. You can also exclude files based on the file types.

Perform incremental backup of system state. Previously, you could only perform a
full backup of the system state by using the wbadmin.exe utility. Now you can
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perform incremental backups of the system state by using Windows Server Backup
utility, the wbadmin.exe utility, or from a PowerShell cmdlet.

Perform scheduled backups to volumes. You can perform a scheduled backup to
existing volumes in Windows Server 2008 R2. In Windows Server 2008, you had to
dedicate an entire physical disk to the backup (the target physical disk was
partitioned and a new volume was created previously).

Perform scheduled backups to network shared folders. You can now perform
scheduled backups to a network shared folder, which was not possible in the previous
version.

Manage backups by using PowerShell. You can manage backup and restore tasks
by using PowerShell (including all PowerShell remoting scenarios). This includes the
management of on-demand and scheduled backups.
Improvements in Full Volume Recovery
Windows Server 2008 R2 includes support for LUN resynchronization (also known as LUN
resynch or LUN revert). LUN resynchronization creates hardware-based shadow copies
that allow you to recover a volume from an existing shadow copy of the volume.
LUN resynchronization is a method for quickly restoring volumes that leverages the
capabilities of storage arrays (such as SANs). This allows you to create shadow copies of
entire LUNs and then restore from those shadow copies (using the inherent snapshot or
copying features in the storage array). You can use LUN resynchronization to help you
recover from data loss or to help quickly create duplicates of productions LUNs for use in
a storage environment.
Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and Traditional Volume Shadow Copy
Service
Window Server 2008 R2 LUN resynchronization support is an extension of the features
provided by the Volume Shadow Copy Service in Windows Server 2008 R2. LUN
resynchronization uses the same application programming interfaces (APIs) that are used
by the Volume Shadow Copy Service.
The following table lists the differences between LUN resynchronization and current
features in Volume Shadow Copy Service.
Table 1: Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and Traditional Volume Shadow
Copy Service
LUN Resynchronization
Traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service
Recovers entire LUN (which may
contain multiple volumes).
Recovers only a volume.
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Performed by storage array hardware.
Performed by server computer.
Typically takes less time than restoring
by using traditional Volume Shadow
Copy Service.
Typically takes more time than restoring by
using LUN resynchronization.
Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and LUN Swap
LUN Swap is a fast volume recovery scenario that has supported since Windows Server
2003 Service Pack 1. In LUN swap, a shadow copy version of a LUN is exchanged with
the active
The following table lists the differences between LUN resynchronization and LUN Swap.
Table 2: Comparison of LUN Resynchronization and LUN Swap
LUN Resynchronization
LUN Swap
Source (shadow copy) LUN remains
unmodified after the resynchronization
completes.
Source (shadow copy) LUN becomes the
active LUN and is modified.
Destination LUN contains the same
information as the source LUN, but
also any information written during the
resynchronization.
Contains only the information on the source
LUN.
Source LUN can be used for recovery
again.
Must create another shadow copy to perform
recovery.
Requires the destination LUN exists
and is usable.
Destination LUN does not have to exist or can
be unusable.
Source LUN can exist on slower, less
expensive storage.
Source LUN must have the same performance
as the production LUN.
Benefits of Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization
The benefits of LUN resynchronization include the following:

Perform recovery of volumes with minimal disruption of service. After the
recovery of a volume using LUN resynchronization is initiated, users can continue to
access data on the volume while the synchronization is being performed. Although
there may be a reduction in performance, users and applications are still able to
access their data.
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
Reduce the workload while recovering volumes. Because the hardware storage
array is performing the resynchronization, the server hardware resources are only
minimally affected. This allows the server to continue processing other workloads
with the same performance while the LUN resynchronization process is completing.

Integration with existing volume recovery methods. The APIs used to perform
LUN resynchronization are the same APIs that are used to perform traditional Volume
Shadow Copy Service recovery. This helps ensure that you can the same tools and
processes that you are currently using for traditional Volume Shadow Copy Service
recovery.

Compatibility with future improvements. Because LUN resynchronization uses
published, supported APIs in Windows Server 2008 R2, future versions of Windows
Server will also provide support for LUN resynchronization.
Process for Performing Full Volume Recovery Using LUN Resynchronization
Before you can perform a full volume recovery using LUN synchronization, you need to
have a hardware shadow copy (snapshot) of the LUN. You can make full or differential
shadow copies of the LUN.
The follow is the sequence of events when performing a full volume restore using LUN
synchronization:
The source and destination LUNs are identified.
1.
The LUN resynchronization is initiated between the source (shadow copy) and
destination LUNs.
2.
During the LUN resynchronization users are able to access the volume being
accessed by the following methods:

For read operations, volume requests are directed to the source LUN.

For write operations, volume requests are directed to the destination LUN.
3.
The LUN resynchronization continues by performing a block-level copy from the
source (shadow copy) LUN to the destination LUN.
4.
The LUN resynchronization completes and all user requests are now performed from
the destination LUN.
Note: At the end of the LUN resynchronization process, the source LUN is unmodified
and the destination LUN contains the same information as the source LUN plus any data
that was written to the destination LUN during the LUN resynchronization process.
You can find more information about how these steps are performed by viewing the
Volume Shadow Copy Service APIs on MSDN and on the Windows Software
Development Kit (SDK) for Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2.
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Improvements in Data Protection Manager Integration
Service Pack 1 for Microsoft System Center Data Protection Manager 2007 provides
continuous data protection for Windows application and file servers using seamlessly
integrated disk and tape media and includes the following expanded capabilities:

Protection of files, configuration, and other information stored on Windows Server
2008 R2.

Protection of Hyper-V™ virtualization platforms, including both Windows Server 2008
R2 Hyper-V and the Microsoft Hyper-V Server, has been added to the existing set of
protected workloads.
Better Together with Windows 7
Windows Server 2008 R2 has many features that are designed specifically to work with
client computers running Windows 7. Windows 7 is the next version of the Windows
operating system from Microsoft. Features that are only available when running Windows
7 client computers with server computers running Windows Server 2008 R2 include:

Simplified remote connectivity for corporate computers by using the DirectAccess
feature

Secured remote connectivity for private and public computers by using a
combination of the Remote Workspace, Presentation Virtualization, and Remote
Desktop Services Gateway features

Improved performance for branch offices by using the BranchCache feature

Improved security for branch offices by using the read-only Distributed File System
(DFS) feature

More efficient power management by using the new power management Group
Policy settings for Windows 7 clients

Improved virtualized presentation integration by using the new desktop and
application feeds feature

Higher fault tolerance for connectivity between sites by using the Agile VPN feature

Increased protection for removable drives by using the BitLocker Drive Encryption
feature to encrypt removable drives

Improved prevention of data loss for mobile users by using the Offline Folders
feature
Simplified Remote Connectivity for Corporate Computers
One common problem facing most organizations is remote connectivity for their mobile
users. One of the most widely used solutions for remote connectivity is for mobile users
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to connect by using a virtual private network (VPN) connection. Depending on the type of
VPN, users may install VPN client software on their mobile computer and then establish
the VPN connection over public Internet connections.
The DirectAccess feature in Windows Server 2008 R2 allows Windows 7 client computers
to directly connect to intranet-based resources without the complexity of establishing a
VPN connection. The remote connection to the intranet is transparently established for
the user. From the user’s perspective, they are unaware that they are remotely connecting
to intranet resources. The following figure contrasts the current VPN-based solutions with
DirectAccess–based solutions.
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Figure 29: Comparison between VPN-based and DirectAccess–based solutions
DirectAccess was designed ground-up to manage a user-invisible always-on remote
access solution that removes all user complexity, gives you easy and efficient
management and configuration tools and doesn’t compromise in any way the security
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aspect of remote connectivity. To do this, Windows Server 2008 R2’s DirectAcces
incorporates the following important features:

Authentication. DirectAccess authenticates the computer, enabling the computer to
connect to the intranet before the user logs on. DirectAccess can also authenticate
the user and supports multifactor authentication such as a smart card.

Encryption. DirectAccess uses IPsec for encrypted communications across the
Internet.

Access control. IT can configure which intranet resources different users can access
using DirectAccess. IT can grant DirectAccess users unlimited access to the intranet,
or only allow them to access specific servers or networks.

Integration with Network Access Protection (NAP) and Network Policy Server
(NPS). NAP and NPS, features built into Windows Server 2008 and Windows 7 Server,
can verify that client computers meet your security requirements and have recent
updates installed before allowing them to connect.

Split-tunnel routing. Only traffic destined for your intranet is sent through the
DirectAccess server. With a traditional VPN, Internet traffic is also sent through your
intranet, slowing Internet access for users.
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Figure 30: DirectAccess remote access solution
Unlike a traditional VPN-based solution, the DirectAccess client forwards traffic destined
for Internet-based resources directly to the Internet-based resource. In a traditional VPNbased solution, all traffic, both Internet and intranet traffic, is sent through the VPN
connection. Separating the Internet-based traffic from the intranet-based traffic helps
reduce remote access network utilization.
Another difference between DirectAccess and VPNs is that DirectAccess connections are
established before the user is logged in. This means that you can manage a remote
computer connected by DirectAccess even if the user is not logged in; for example, to
apply Group Policy settings. However, for the user to access any corporate resources, they
must be logged in.
In order to benefit from DirectAccess, you must be able to access the resources within
your intranet by using IPv6. If your organization has an IPv6 routable infrastructure, no
IPv6 translation is required. If you have resources that only have IPv4 addressing, you will
need to provide IPv6-to-IPv4 transition services.
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The DirectAccess server supports the Teredo Server, Teredo Relay, ISATAP Router, NAT-PT
and 6to4 router transition technologies. Additionally, Microsoft’s Forefront Intelligent
Access Gateway (IAG) solution will integrate with DirectAccess to provide additional
management, security and deployment capabilities. This IAG solution will become
available approximately 6 months after the launch of Windows Server 2008 R2 and the
Windows 7 client.
Secured Remote Connectivity for Private and Public
Computers
Another common problem for remote users is the ability to access intranet-based
resources from computers that are not owned by the user’s organization, such as public
computers or Internet kiosks. Without a mobile computer provided by their organization,
most users are unable to access intranet-based resources.
A combination of the Remote Workspace, presentation virtualization, and Remote
Desktop Gateway features allows users on Windows 7 clients to remotely access their
intranet-based resources without requiring any additional software to be installed on the
Windows 7 client. This allows your users to remotely access their desktop as though they
were working from their computer on the intranet.
The following figure highlights some of the new features provided by Virtual Desktop
Infrastructure (VDI) and Terminal Services in Windows Server 2008 R2. For more
information on these features, see “Secured Remote Connectivity for Private and Public
Computers” in “Better Together with Windows 7” in Windows Server 2008 R2 Technical
Overview.
From the user’s perspective, the desktop on the remote Windows 7 client transforms to
look like the user’s desktop on the intranet, including icons, Start menu items and
installed applications are identical to the user’s experience on his or her own computer on
the intranet. When the remote user closes the remote session, the remote Windows 7
client desktop environment reverts to the previous configuration.
Improved Performance for Branch Offices
Driven by challenges of reducing cost and complexity of Branch IT, organizations are
seeking to centralize applications. However, as organizations centralize applications the
dependency on the availability and quality of the WAN link increases. A direct result of
centralization is the increased utilization of the WAN link, and the degradation of
application performance. Recent studies have shown the despite of the reduction of costs
associated with WAN links, and WAN costs are still a major component of enterprises’
operational expenses.
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Figure 31: The branch office problem
The BranchCache™™ feature in Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows 7 Client reduces
the network utilization on WAN links that connect branch offices and improve end user
experience at branch locations, by locally caching frequently used content on the branch
office network.
As remote branch clients attempt to retrieve data from servers located in the corporate
data center, they store a copy of the retrieved content on the local branch office network.
Subsequent requests for the same content are served from this local cache in the branch
office, thereby improving access times locally and reducing WAN bandwidth utilization
between the branch and corpnet. BranchCache™ caches both HTTP and SMB content and
ensures access to only authorized users as the authorization process is carried out at the
servers located in the data center. BranchCache™ works alongside SSL or IPSEC encrypted
content and accelerates delivery of such content as well.
BranchCache™ can be implemented in two ways: The first involves storing the cached
content on a dedicated BranchCache™ server located in the branch office which improves
cache availability. This scenario will likely be the most popular and is intended for larger
branch offices where numerous users might be looking to access the BranchCache™
feature simultaneously. A BranchCache™ server at the remote site ensures that content is
always available as well as maintaining end-to-end security for all content requests.
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Figure 32: The BranchCache™ server deployment scenario
The second deployment scenario centers around peer content requests and is intended
solely for very small remote offices, with roughly 5-10 users that don’t warrant a
dedicated local server resource. In this scenario, the BranchCache™ server at corpnet
receives a client content request, and if the content has been previously requested at the
remote site will return a set of hash directions to the content’s location on the remote
network, usually another worker’s PC. Content is then served from this location. If the
content was never requested or if the user who previously requested the content is offsite, then the request is fulfilled normally across the WAN.
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Figure 33: BranchCache™ peer-based deployment model
Hosted Caching for HTTP Content: Step-by-step Feature Review
To review how the Hosted Caching feature works for HTTP content, you need to
complete the following tasks:
5. Configure the BranchCache feature to support caching of HTTP content.
6. Enable the BranchCache feature on client computers using Group Policy settings.
7. Verify the performance of HTTP content caching.
Note: Perform these steps in a test environment as these steps could adversely affect
your production environment. Also, you need to have a method of simulating a Wide Area
Network (WAN) connection to perform these steps.
Configure BranchCache Feature for HTTP Content Caching
Perform the steps in the following table while logged on as a member of the Enterprise
Admins security group.
Table 12Error! Bookmark not defined.: Configure BranchCache Feature for HTTP
Content Caching
High-level task
Details
Start Server Manager
8.
On the Start menu, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Server
Manager.
Install the Windows
9.
In Server Manager, click Features.
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Branch Cache feature
10. Under Features Summary, click Add Features.
11. In the Add Features Wizard, under Features, check Windows Branch
Cache, click Next, and then click Install.
Wait for the installation to complete.
12. Click Close.
Enable Hosted Cache
13. On the Start menu, in Start Search, type cmd, and then press Enter.
Server mode
14. At the command prompt, type the following command and then press
Enter.
netsh peerdist set service mode=HOSTEDSERVER
Verify Hosted Cache
Server mode is enabled
15. At the command prompt, type the following command and then press
Enter.
Netsh peerdist show status all
Verify SSL bindings
16. At the command prompt, type the following command and then press
Enter.
Netsh http show sslcert
The SSL certificate mapping is required for the hosted cache to function.
View the SSL certificate
17. At the command prompt, type the following command s, pressing Enter
after each command.
PowerShell
CD Cert:
CD LocalMachine
CD MY
Get-ChildItem | Format-List *
exit
18. View the value of the Subject field.
When configuring the hosted cache clients, you must use the computer
name as listed in this field.
Enable BranchCache Feature on Client Computers using Group Policy
Perform the steps in the following table while logged on as a member of the Enterprise
Admins security group.
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Table 13Error! Bookmark not defined.: Enable BrancheCache Feature using Group
Policy
High-level task
Details
Start Group Policy
19. On the Start menu, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Group
Management console
Create new Group Policy
object
Policy Management.
20. In the Group Policy Management console, navigate to
forest_name\Domains\domain_name\Group Policy Objects, right-click
Group Policy Objects, and then click New.
21. In the New GPO dialog box, in Name, type BranchCache Policy, and then
click OK.
Configure BranchCache
Group Policy settings
22. In the Group Policy Management console, right-click BranchCache Policy,
and then click Edit.
The Group Policy Editor starts.
23. In the Group Policy Editor, go to Computer
Configuration/Policies/Administrative Templates: Policy definitions
(ADMX files) retrieved from the local machine/Network/Windows
Branch Cache.
24. Configure the following settings (where server_name is the fully qualified
domain name of the server you are configuring):

Turn on Windows Branch Cache: Enabled

Turn on Windows Branch Cache – Hosted cache mode: Enabled

Turn on Windows Branch Cache – Hosted cache mode: Cache Location:
server_name.
Configure Windows
25. In the Group Policy Editor, go to Computer
Firewall Inbound Rules
Configuration/Policies/Windows Settings/Security Settings/Windows
Group Policy settings
Firewall with Advanced Security/Inbound Rules.
for BrancheCache
26. On the Action menu, click New Rule.
27. Create a new inbound rule using the values in the following information.

Rule Type: Predefined: Peer Distribution – HTTP Transport (Uses HTTP)

Action: Allow the connection
28. On the Action menu, click New Rule.
29. Create a new inbound rule using the values in the following information.

Rule Type: Predefined: Peer Distribution – Hosted Cache (Uses HTTP)

Action: Allow the connection
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Configure Windows
30. In the Group Policy Editor, go to Computer
Firewall Inbound Rules
Configuration/Policies/Windows Settings/Security Settings/Windows
Group Policy settings
Firewall with Advanced Security/Outbound Rules.
for BrancheCache
31. On the Action menu, click New Rule.
32. Create a new outbound rule using the values in the following information.

Rule Type: Predefined: Peer Distribution – HTTP Transport (Uses HTTP)

Action: Allow the connection
33. On the Action menu, click New Rule.
34. Create a new outbound rule using the values in the following information.
Close the Group Policy

Rule Type: Predefined: Peer Distribution – Hosted Cache (Uses HTTP)

Action: Allow the connection
35. Close Group Policy Management Editor
Management Editor
console
Close the Group Policy
36. Close Group Policy Management.
Management console
Verify Performance of HTTP Content Caching
Perform the steps in the following table while logged on as a member of the Enterprise
Admins security group.
Note: Perform these steps on two client computers that have the Group Policy
configuration settings and is on the other side of a WAN connection from the server.
Table 14Error! Bookmark not defined.: Verify Performance of HTTP Content Caching
High-level task
Details
Start Internet Explorer
37. On the first client computer, on the Quick Launch bar, click Internet
on the first client
Explorer.
computer
Download the HTTP
content on the first
client computer
38. In Internet Explorer, go to http_site (where http_site is the URL to the web
site where the content is located).
39. Save content from the site (such as a file or graphic)
40. Record the download speed of the content while waiting for the content to
download.
Start Internet Explorer
41. On the second client computer, on the Quick Launch bar, click Internet
on the second client
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computer
Download the HTTP
content on the second
client computer
Explorer.
42. In Internet Explorer, go to http_site (where http_site is the URL to the web
site where the content is located).
43. Save content from the site (such as a file or graphic)
44. Record the download speed of the content while waiting for the content to
download.
Note: The content should download almost immediately because the
content is being downloaded from the hosted cache.
Review the size of the
hosted cache
45. On the server with BranchCache feature enabled, at a command prompt,
type the following command and then press Enter.
Netsh peerdist show status all
The value of Current Cache Size indicates how much data is stored in the
hosted cache.
Hosted Caching for SMB Content: Step-by-step Feature Review
To review how the Hosted Caching feature works for SMB content, you need to complete
the following tasks:
46. Create a BranchCache-enabled shared network folder
47. Publish files hashes and generate file hashes for files stored in the network shared
folder.
48. Verify the performance of SMB content caching
Note: Perform these steps in a test environment as these steps could adversely affect
your production environment. Also, you need to have a method of simulating a WAN
connection to perform these steps.
Create a BranchCache-enabled Shared Network Folder
Perform the steps in the following table while logged on as a member of the Enterprise
Admins security group.
Table 15Error! Bookmark not defined.: Configure BranchCache Feature for HTTP
Content Caching
High-level task
Details
Start Server Manager
49. On the Start menu, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Share
and Storage Management.
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Create a BranchCacheenabled shared network
folder
50. In the Share and Storage Management, console in the Actions pane, click
Provision Share.
51. In Location, type C:\inetpub\wwwroot, and then click Next.
52. On the Permissions page, click Next
53. In Share name, type CorpFiles, and then click Next.
54. Click Advanced.
55. On the Caching tab, click Enable Windows Branch Cache, and then click
OK.
56. On the SMB Settings page, click Next.
57. On the SMB Permissions page, click Next.
58. On the DFS Namespace Publishing page, click Next.
59. Click Create.
60. Click Close.
Publish File Hashes and Generate File Hashes
Perform the steps in the following table while logged on as a member of the Enterprise
Admins security group.
Table 16Error! Bookmark not defined.: Publish File Hashes and Generate File Hashes
High-level task
Details
Start Server Manager
61. On the Start menu, in Start Search, type gpedit.msc, and then press Enter.
The Local Group Policy Editor starts.
Configure the Hash
Publication settings
62. In the Local Group Policy Editor console, go to Computer
Configuration/Administrative Templates/Network/LanManServer.
63. Change the value of Hash Publication for Windows Branch Cache to
Enabled, and verify that Allow has publication for all shares is selected.
64. Close the Local Group Policy Editor console.
Generate file hashes
65. At a command prompt, type the following command and then press Enter
(where server_name is the name of the server you configured)
Hashgen –s \\server_name\corpfiles
Verify the Performance of SMB Content Caching
Perform the steps in the following table while logged on as a member of the Enterprise
Admins security group.
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Table 17Error! Bookmark not defined.: Verify the Performance of SMB Content
Caching
High-level task
Details
Access shared network
66. On the first client computer, on the Start menu, in Start Search, type
folder on the first
\\server_name\corpfiles, and then press Enter (where server_name is the
computer
name of your server where BranchCache is enabled).
Download the SMB
67. Copy a file from the shared network folder.
content on the first
68. Record the download speed of the content while waiting for the content to
client computer
Access shared network
download.
69. On the second client computer, on the Start menu, in Start Search, type
folder on the second
\\server_name\corpfiles, and then press Enter (where server_name is the
computer
name of your server where BranchCache is enabled).
Download the SMB
70. Copy the same file from the shared network folder.
content on the second
71. Record the download speed of the content while waiting for the content to
client computer
download.
Note: The content should download almost immediately because the
content is being downloaded from the hosted cache.
Improved Security for Branch Offices
Windows Server 2008 introduced the read-only domain controller feature, which allows a
read-only copy of Active Directory to be placed in less secure environments such as
branch offices. Windows Server 2008 R2 introduces support for read-only copies of
information stored in Distributed File System (DFS) replicas, as illustrated in the following
figure.
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Figure 34: Read-only DFS in a branch office scenario
Read-only DFS replicas helps protect your digital assets by allowing branch offices readonly access to information that you replicate to the offices by using DFS. Because the
information is read-only, users are unable to modify the content stored in read-only DFS
replicated content and thereby protects data in DFS replicas from accidental deletion at
branch office locations.
More Efficient Power Management
Windows 7 includes a number of power-management features that allow you to control
power utilization in your organization with a finer degree of granularity than in previous
operating systems. Windows 7 allows you to take advantage of the latest hardware
developments for reducing power consumption in desktop and laptop computers.
Windows Server 2008 R2 includes a number of Group Policy settings that allow you to
centrally manage the power consumption of computers running Windows 7.
Improved Virtualized Desktop Integration
Windows 7 introduces the RemoteApp & Desktop (RAD) feeds feature, which helps
integrate desktops and applications virtualized by using Remote Desktop Services with
the Windows 7 user interface. This integration makes the user experience for running
virtualized applications or desktops the same as running the applications locally. For a
detailed description of RDS and VDI, see the “Terminal Services Becomes Remote
Desktop Services for Improved Presentation Virtualization” section earlier in this guide.
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Higher Fault Tolerance for Connectivity Between Sites
One of the most common scenarios facing organizations today is connectivity between
sites and locations. Many organizations connect their sites and locations by using VPN
tunnels over public networks, such as the Internet.
One problem with existing VPN solutions is that they are not resilient to connection
failures or device outages. When any outage occurs, the VPN tunnel is terminated and the
VPN tunnel must be reestablished, resulting in momentary connectivity outages.
The Agile VPN feature in Windows Server 2008 R2 allows a VPN to have multiple network
paths between points in the VPN tunnel. In the event of a failure, Agile VPN automatically
uses another network path to maintain the existing VPN tunnel, with no interruption of
connectivity.
Increased Protection for Removable Drives
In Windows Server 2008 and prior operating systems primarily used BitLocker Drive
Encryption (BitLocker) to protect the operating system volume. Information stored on
other volumes, including removable media, was encrypted by using Encrypted File System
(EFS).
In Windows 7, you can use BitLocker to encrypt removable drives, such as eSATA hard
disks, USB hard disks, USB thumb drives, or CompactFlash drives. This allows you to
protect information stored on removable media with the same level of protection as the
operating system volume.
BitLocker requires the use of a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) device or physical key to
access information encrypted by BitLocker. You can also require a personal identification
number (PIN) in addition to the TPM device or physical key.
BitLocker keys can also be archived in Active Directory, which provide an extra level of
protection in the event that the physical key is lost or the TPM device fails. This
integration between Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 allows you to protect
sensitive information without worrying about users losing their physical key.
Improved Prevention of Data Loss for Mobile Users
The Offline Files feature allows you to designate files and folders stored on network
shared folders for use even when the network shared folders are unavailable (offline); for
example, when a mobile user disconnects a laptop computer from your intranet and
works from a remote location.
The Offline Files feature has the following operation modes:

Online mode. The user is working in online mode when they are connected to the
server, and most file requests are sent to the server.
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
Offline mode. The user is working in offline mode when they are not connected to
the server, and all file requests are satisfied from the Offline Files cache stored locally
on the computer.
In Windows Server 2008 RTM and Windows Vista, the Offline Files feature was configured
for online mode by default. In Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows 7, the Offline Files
feature supports transitioning to offline mode when on a slow network by default. This
helps reduce network traffic while connected to your intranet because the users are
modifying locally cached copies of the information stored in the Offline Files local cache.
However, the information stored in the Offline Files local cache is still protected from loss
because the information is synchronized with the network shared folder.
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