Translation Analysis of GPS Manual

Translation Analysis of GPS Manual

Högskolan i Skövde

School of Humanities and Informatics

English

Translation Analysis of GPS Manual

André Söderholm

English C2-course

Spring 08

Tutor: Ingalill Söderqvist

Table of Content

Introduction

1. Background 1

1.1 Christiane Nord’s view on translation analysis

1.2 Lennart Hellspong’s view on translation analysis

2. Material

3. Method

2

3

4

5

7 3.2 Sentence Structure

4.1 Terminology 9

4.1.1 Nominal Phrase Comparison

4.1.2 Inaccurate or Inconsistent Translation

4.2 Sentence Structure

4.2.3 Summary

4.2.1 Form Comparison

4.2.2 Inaccurate or Inconsistent Translation

9

18

19

20

28

28

Appendix A. Terminology. Research Items in ST

Appendix B. Terminology. Shifts in Grammatical Form

Appendix C. Terminology. Inconsistent/Inaccurate Translation

Appendix D. Sentence Structure. Research Items in ST

Appendix E. Sentence Structure. Shifts in grammatical form

Appendix F. Sentence Structure. Inconsistent/Inaccurate Translation

33

41

44

46

49

55

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Introduction

This paper analyses a translation from English into Swedish in manuals for a GPS navigation tool. Focusing on two main grammatical areas this paper will answer the question how these elements of the language from the source text (ST) are handled by the target text (TT).

Works by Lennart Hellspong and Christiane Nord helped determine what linguistic elements to investigate in detail, as well as part of the method for the translation analysis. Investigated will be factors they consider problematic in, or relevant to, translation. These are terminology and sentence structure. The Background chapter presents a description of Hellspong’s and

Nord’s views of translation analysis. Parts of these motivate this paper’s own translation analysis, as mentioned both in regards to how it is carried out and what elements of translation it has chosen to investigate.

Secondly, under Material, a presentation of this paper’s primary sources is offered. In addition to information on the manuals themselves, this chapter briefly covers the functions of the GPS navigation tool and a brief presentation of the company manufacturing it.

Thirdly, under Method, the method for investigation is described in detail. Here are presented sample items of what this paper will investigate, how items for investigation have been chosen, what specific language aspects will be analyzed and how the analysis will be carried out.

This paper’s fourth chapter, Analysis, consists of the actual research, presenting items analyzed following the strategies outlined under Method. The Analysis chapter will first present the result of each part of the investigation and then a result summary.

1. Background

The study of translation, something Jeremy Munday and Basil Hatim in their book

Translation; An Advanced Resource Book call an “interdisciplinary field known as

Translation Studies” (Hatim, preface, xvii), has developed enormously in the past few decades, as translation is an activity that is growing rapidly in today’s globalized world. Much in accordance with their observation, research for this paper has also yielded much different material, ranging from translation guides and research papers to books presenting specific models for translation and translation studies. Research for this paper, however, focused on translation analysis and concerning works related to this field the following two books were

2 Söderholm chosen: Christiane Nord’s Text Analysis in Translation. Theory, Methodology, and Didactic

Application of a Model for Translation-Oriented Text Analysis and Lennart Hellspong’s

Metoder för Brukstextanalys.

Nord presents a model for text analysis in translation as well as short sections entirely devoted to translation analysis, mentioning guidelines for translation analysis as well as suggesting areas of particular interest or difficulty concerning translation.

Hellspong offers suggestions for analysis of various aspects of technical language and in one chapter focuses on translation. In addition to his overall view of how to carry out a translation analysis Hellspong also suggests factors of translation to look at in particular.

The following sections will present these scholars’ thoughts on translation and translation analysis in particular, as the investigation of this paper will follow a selection of their suggested strategies for translation analysis as well as focus on a selection of two of the fields they mention as problematic and/or interesting in translation.

1.1 Nord’s view on translation analysis

In her book Text Analysis in Translation Nord presents a theory applicable to any type of translation, regardless of languages, field, or any specific characteristics of both the source and target languages. Most relevant to this paper, however, are her sections concerning translation analysis.

Nord claims that assessments of translations are rare, and if conducted they are “usually based entirely on a rather superficial analysis of the translation in relation to the target-cultural norms of language and literature” (Nord 179). Thus, Nord continues, “what is being reviewed is the product of the translation process” (Nord 179) and because of this that form of translation analysis is more relevant concerning linguistic or literary studies than for translation teaching. That approach would be more of a target text assessment than translation analysis as there is no way to compare the TT to the ST by looking at the TT only.

Nord’s view on translation analysis obviously differs from these and her guidelines for translation analysis appear as follows: According to Nord objective translation analysis should be based on a comparative analysis of both the ST (in this case the English version of the manual) and the TT (in this case the Swedish version of the manual) as well as provide information on the similarities and differences of the source language’s (SL, in this case

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English) and the target language’s (TL, in this case Swedish) structures represented in both texts (Nord 180).

Furthermore Nord briefly lists factors by her considered problematic during TT assessment.

These are coherence deficiencies, inconsistent terminology, interference in lexis or sentence structure and ambiguous audience orientation. Investigating the appearance of these in the TT compared to those in the ST is important for assessing the translation’s actual result (Nord

184).

1.2 Hellspong’s view on translation analysis

In his book Metoder för brukstextanalys Lennart Hellspong presents his thoughts on translation analysis, and these are the major foundation for the investigation of this paper.

Nord confirms much of what Hellspong says, but is not at all as detailed in her views in translation analysis.

According to Hellspong there are numerous factors making a translation analysis interesting:

On a theoretical level it might teach one about the relationships between different languages, and on a practical level it might contribute towards a more well-founded translation criticism, which can result in better translations and assessments of translations. Also, if one takes on the task of translating something oneself an analysis might help one control the translation result (Hellspong 191).

After establishing and explaining these reasons for a translation analysis Hellspong continues by outlining the aim of any translation analysis. He claims the aim of any translation analysis is to investigate how the TT appears compared to the ST. This in regards to content, style and social circumstances as well as language, which includes terminology as well as sentence and textual structure, areas all relevant for the investigation of this paper (Hellspong 191).

When looking at content Hellspong suggests investigating whether the TT manages to convey content only presupposed by the TT, whether it stresses the same areas/points and how it treats metaphors from the ST (Hellspong 194).

Concerning style Hellspong raises questions of how the TT appears compared to the ST, raising a number of questions such as: If the TT adapts a more everyday style, and if this

4 Söderholm could be because of the genre norms of the TL and if the TT has the same style variation as the ST? Hellspong claims that translations often become more stylistically monotonous, and if the opposite, it might be interesting to look at if more than one translator has worked on phrasing the TT. Also, how does the TT handle alliterations, rhymes and jokes (Hellspong

195)?

In regard to social circumstances Hellspong suggests investigating whether the TT modifies specific details in ways affecting the message of a sentence. For example if what in the ST is a firm request in the TT comes out as a careful inquiry. Could this be because of different social conventions? Also, does the TT assume or know whether its readers have a different level of knowledge in the field than the ST readers? Does this show in elements being more, or less, thoroughly explained in the TT than in the ST? Hellspong also mentions how one should look at whether the TT captures the emotional elements of the ST. Does it exaggerate or downplay the emphasis on these? In short, does the TT create the same social relationship between the text and the reader as the ST does (Hellspong 194-95)?

Concerning language Hellspong’s general suggestion is an investigation of how the grammatical structure of the TT appears in comparison to the ST and he presents how this could be done by looking at the following areas; terminology, sentences and textual structure.

When looking at terminology Hellspong mentions looking at factors such as whether the TT is paraphrasing or synthesizing, whether words change their part of speech, whether the TT comes up with new words to translate technical terms not existing in the TL, whether the TT vocabulary is as varied as the ST and suggests investigating whether the TT has managed to reflect how words relate to each other through structure and meaning and if the TT tries to simplify or make the language of the ST more advanced (Hellspong192-93).

Concerning sentence and textual structure Hellspong recommends investigating if the TT interferes with the ST sentence structure by letting main or subclauses appear differently in the TT and if the translation attempts to correct language errors from the ST. He also suggests looking at whether the TT structures paragraphs or chapters differently than the ST and how the TT treats conjunctions and adverbs compared to the ST (Hellspong 193).

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2. Material

Primary source and material for investigation for this paper is the Magellan eXplorist XL

Reference Manual. These were obtained online in PDF format.

Magellan Systems Corporation consumer GPS company traces its origins from Sercel, founded in 1965 in France, but was founded using its current name 1986 in California, where it is headquartered today. The European headquarters are located in Carquefou, France.

Magellan is a leader in the consumer, survey, GIS and OEM GPS navigation and positioning markets.

The eXplorist XL is one of Magellan’s GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers, a tool used for orientation, navigation, as portable map, compass etc. Always connected with, and updated by, satellites, and with a size comparable to the average cell phone, the eXplorist XL is commonly used by hikers, hunters, fishermen, sailors and so on.

In addition to text both the English and Swedish version of the eXplorist XL manual include a number of charts, illustrations and tables. They are both 87 pages long.

3. Method

In order to reach the aim of this paper a comparative study of the English and Swedish texts will be carried out. This, as mentioned, is done by analyzing how the translation handles selected grammatical details concerning terminology and sentence structure compared with their appearance in the ST, as both Nord’s and Hellspong’s views on translation analysis, presented earlier in background, suggest carrying out any translation analysis by comparing the TT to the ST. Their suggestions of research areas and mentioning of areas specifically problematic/interesting concerning translation also helped in choosing the aforementioned investigation areas.

Concerning terminology this is included in Nord’s list of factors problematic in TT assessment and even if suggesting different details to investigate within this area Hellspong also mentions terminology as something to look at when analyzing a translation through a ST and TT comparison. When looking at terminology Hellspong mentions factors such as technical terms, vocabulary and whether the TT has managed to reflect how words relate to each other through structure and meaning. Hence this paper refers to terminology as the general use of vocabulary and nouns as well as how they are structured. In order to investigate

6 Söderholm the translation’s handling of terminology a look at different nouns and how they are handled throughout the TT seemed relevant and this paper has therefore chosen nominal phrases as object for its comparative study.

Concerning sentence structure Nord mentions this among her listed factors that often are problematic/interesting in TT assessment and Hellspong specificially suggests looking at if the TT changes clauses in sentences from the ST. Hence this paper refers to sentence structure as how sentences are constructed with main clauses and different subclauses. In order to investigate this this paper will study the ST’s and TT’s construction of sentences by identifying the main and subclauses of the selected sentences and comparing whether or not these appear differently in the different texts.

All identification of grammatical elements has been made while consulting Engelsk

universitetsgrammatik by Jan Svartvik and Olof Sager.

3.1 Terminology

Terminology inconsistency will be investigated by looking at nominal phrases from the ST to see how these are handled in the TT as well as the translation of separate words within these.

First nouns were chosen by using Adobe Acrobat’s search function (the manuals were accessed in PDF format). Conducting a search on the article “the” and choosing every third of the separate nouns then found (if they were part of a complete nominal phrase) yielded the selected 20 research items. All of these were spread throughout the manual and appear several times, their frequency varying from a mere handful to 49 occurrences, as well as in different forms. Once selected, every single noun’s appearance throughout the manuals was investigated along with all the grammatical aspects related to each noun’s nominal phrase, comparing their TT appearance with how they appear in the ST.

Factors investigated are if there are inconsistencies in the TT’s choice of word for ST words appearing in the research items more than once. This will be referred to as inconsistent translation. Does the TT use a different word to translate an English word than suggested by the dictionary Einar Engelsk-Svensk Teknisk Ordbok and Stora engelsk-svenska Ordboken or in some other way deviate from the ST? This will be referred to as inaccurate translation.

Also, the investigation will look at how the TT handles the selected item’s nominal phrases.

This considers the singular/plural form, the use of articles/determiners as well as pronoun.

Hence, just one research item still means many separate details’ appearances in the ST and TT

7 Söderholm were compared. For example, item 10; “Condition”, appears in the following forms throughout the ST:

Appearances Occurrences Article/Determiner Singular/Plural

“the following two conditions”

“operating conditions” 1 Indefinite Plural

“the current condition” 1

“conditions” 2

Definite Singular

Indefinite Plural

“Condition” appears in four different forms and in total five times throughout the ST. Some of the research items occur up to 50 times in up to 19 different forms and these are all included in the terminology analysis.

The features of the nominal phrase will now be identified in the following example sentences:

The cat/cats walked by. a definite singular/plural noun

A cat/Cats walked by. an indefinite singular/plural noun

Your/This cat walked by. a possessive/demonstrative pronoun with a definite singular noun

The analysis of terminology will present the ST and TT comparison’s result followed by a result summary of what has been discovered. It will first look at how the nominal phrases are handled structure wise and secondly list cases of inconsistent or inaccurate translation. All the

TT’s structural deviations from the ST are of course included but also listed in Appendix.

3.2 Sentence Structure

Sentence structure will be investigated by looking at 20 sentence-items from the ST, compared to how these are handled in the TT. Special focus will be on the non-finite participial gerund subclause as it is extremely rare in Swedish, and all but two selected sentence-items include at least one non-finite gerund subclause. The selected sentence-items were chosen by using Adobe Acrobat’s search function after accessing the manuals in PDF format.

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Factors investigated will be how the TT has handled the composition of the ST sentences concerning main and subclauses, with special focus on how the TT has handled the non-finite gerund sub clauses of the ST as well as the TT’s general translation on these research items.

These are defined and referred to as in the terminology analysis. The different types of subclauses will now be identified by bold marking in the following example sentences:

Non-finite subclauses:

Although modern, some cell phones never work properly. Nonfinite, verbless subclause

To fix cell phones is John’s strongest field. Non-finite infinitival subclause

He can chose to be friendly to his sister on Sundays. Non-finite to-infinitival subclause

John helped me fix my cell phone Non-finite infinitival subclause – infinite marker with the ”to” dropped.

Granted time, he could fix the cell phone. Non-finite past participle subclause

Fixing the cell phone was no problem for John. Non-finite gerund subclause

Finite subclauses:

You can walk out to the pier to see how long the sun will be up. Finite interrogative subclause

The cell phone which belonged to John. Finite relative subclause with

”which” (”which” used in the example above, other relative words or relative subclauses with the relative word skipped are included in the investigation though)

It was broken because he had dropped it. Finite narrative subclause with other conjunction (”because” used in the example above, other conjunctions are included investigation though)

The analysis of sentence structure will present the result of this TT and ST comparison followed by a result summary of what has been discovered. It will first make a strictly

9 Söderholm structural comparison of the sentences and secondly list cases of inconsistent or inaccurate translation.

4. Analysis

This chapter contains this paper’s translation analysis, conducted by a study of how the TT handles selected elements of the ST, presenting the results of the investigations of both

Terminology and Sentence Structure followed by result summaries of what the investigation discover.

4.1 Terminology

The TT’s handling of the nominal phrase and choice of word on the research items will be compared with how they first appeared in the ST. Full ST appearance of the research items as well as all cases of when the TT has handled them differently than the ST are found in the appendix. The first section will present a comparison of the forms of the nominal phrases, looking at the singular/plural form, the use of articles/determiners as well as pronoun. The analysis will present the form of the ST nominal phrase, and if the TT appearance retains the same form it will be referred to as consistently translated. In the cases of the TT nominal phrase appearing differently its form will like the ST appearance also be presented in detail.

The second section lists cases of inaccurate or inconsistent translation found in the research items.

4.1.1 Form of the Nominal Phrases Comparison

Item 1: Device

“One device” appears once in the ST as an indefinite singular noun and is consistently translated into “ett enda instrument”.

“This device”, appears twice in the ST as demonstrative pronoun with a definite singular noun and is on both occasions consistently translated into “detta instrument”.

“This navigation device” appears once in the ST and is consistently translated into “denna navigeringsapparat”.

“A navigation device” appears once in the ST as an indefinite singular noun and is consistently translated into “ett navigeringshjälpmedel”.

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“A USB device” appears twice in the ST and is on both occasions consistently translated into

“en USB-maskinvara”.

“A USB hardware device” appears once in the ST as an indefinite singular noun and is consistently translasted into “en USB-maskinvara”.

“The device” appears once in the ST and is consistently translated into “detta instrument”.

Item 2: Elevation

“Elevation” appears eight times in the ST as an indefinite singular noun and is consistently translated into “höjd” on all occasions.

“The elevation” appears seven times in the ST as a definite singular noun but in the TT it appears in three different forms. In three places it is translated into the indefinite singular noun “höjd”, in another into the definite plural noun “höjdnivåerna” and finally in two places accurately into the definite singular noun “höjden”.

“This elevation” appears once in the ST but is not translated at all; the TT phrases itself around it.

“Your elevation” appears once in the ST as a possessive pronoun with a definite singular noun and is consistently translated into “din höjd”.

Item 3: Accessory

“Accessories” appears 6 times in the ST and is consistently translated into “tillbehör”.

Item 4: Backtrack

“Backtrack” appears six times in the ST as an indefinite singular noun and is consistently translated into “returrutt” on all occasions.

“A backtrack” appears once in the ST as an indefinite singular noun and is consistently translated into “en returrutt”.

“The backtrack” appears once in the ST as a definite singular noun but is translated into

“Returväg”, in the TT phrased as an indefinite singular noun.

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Item 5: Indicator

“Track indicator” appears once in the ST as an indefinite singular noun and is consistently translated into “spårindikator”.

“The map scale indicator” appears once in the ST a definite singular noun and is consistently translated into “kartskalningsindikatorn”.

“A north indicator” appears once in the ST as an indefinite singular noun and is consistently translated into “en norrindikator”.

“A graphical battery indicator” appears once inte the ST as an indefinite singular noun and is consistently translated into “en grafisk batteriindikator”.

“A battery life indicator” appears once in the ST as an indefinite singular noun and is consistently translated into “batteritidsindikator”.

“Current location indicator” appears once in the ST as an indefinite singular noun and is translated into “visare för aktuellt läge”, also an indefinite singular noun.

Item 6: Mode

“Modes” appears 3 times in the ST as an indefinite plural noun and is consistently translated into “lägen” twice. In one place, however, it is translated into “läge”, an indefinite singular noun.

“Map Screen Modes” appears once in the ST as an indefinite plural noun and is consistently translated into “kartskärmlägen”.

“Warm start mode” appears once in the ST as an indefinite singular noun but is not translated at all, as the TT phrases itself around it.

“A simulate mode” appears once in the ST as an indefinite singular noun and is consistently translated into “simuleringsläge”.

“USB File transfer mode” appears once in the ST as an indefinite singular noun and is consistently translated into “läge för filöverföring via USB”.

“Power Only mode” appears once in the ST as an indefinite singular noun and is consistently translated into “Endast Laddning”.

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“File Transfer mode” appears once in the ST as an indefinite singular noun but is translated into “läget för filöverföring”, a definite singular noun.

“Detailed Auto mode” appears once in the ST as indefinite singular noun but is translated into

“läget för autodetalj”, a definite singular noun.

“NMEA Data Comm mode” appears once in the ST as an indefinite singular noun but is translated into “läget NMEA datakomm”, a definite singular noun.

“Auto mode” appears twice in the ST as indefinite singular noun but is translated into “läget auto”, a definite singular noun, on both occassions.

“Cursor Mode”, however, appears five times in the ST as indefinite singular noun and is consistently translated into “markörläge” on all occasions.

“The mode” appears once in the ST as a definite singular noun but is translated into “läge”, an indefinite singular noun.

“The default mode” appears once in the ST as a definite singular noun but is translated into

“normalläge”, an indefinite singular noun.

“The Track Mode” appears once in the ST as a definite singular noun but is translated into

“spårfunktion”, an indefinite singular noun.

“The simulator mode” appears once in the ST as a definite singular noun but is translated into

“simulatorläge”, an indefinite singular noun.

“The file transfer mode” appears 3 times in the ST as a definite singular noun but is translated into “läge för filöverföring”, an indefinite singular noun, “läget för filöverföring”, a definite singular noun and “filöverföringsläget”, another definite singular noun.

“The USB File Transfer mode” appears 5 times in the ST as a definite singular noun but is translated into two different indefinite singular nouns; “läge för filöverföring via USB” 4 times and “läge för USB-filöverföring” one time.

“The Position mode” appears 8 times in the ST as a definite singular noun and is translated into “positionsläget”, also a definite singular noun 5 times, but also “positionsläge”, an indefinite singular noun 3 times.

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“The Cursor mode” appears 12 times in the ST as a definite singular noun and is translated into “markörläget”, also a definite singular noun 8 times, but also into “markörläge”, an indefinite singular noun 4 times.

Item 7: Connector

“The connector” appears 4 times in the ST as definite singular noun and is consistently translated into “kontakten”, 3 times, but one time not at all, as the TT phrases itself around it.

“The USB connector” appears once in the ST as a definite singular noun and is consistently translated into “USB-kontakten”.

“A standard USB connector” appears once in the ST as indefinite singular noun and is consistently translated into “en USB-kontakt av standardtyp”.

Item 8: Operation

“Operation” appears twice in the ST as an indefinite singular noun and is translated into

“drift” in “driftstörningar”, also an indefinite singular noun, once, but also into “driften”, a definite singular noun.

“This operation” appears twice in the ST as a demonstrative pronoun with a definite singular noun and is translated into “den här processen” once but also into “den här funktionen”, both consistently appearing as definite singular nouns with a pronoun.

“The normal operation” and “the basic operation” both appear as definite singular noun but

“the normal operation” is translated into “för normal användning”, with an indefinite singular noun, while “the basic operation” is consistently translated into “det vanligaste användningsområdet”.

Item 9: Feature

“Features” appears 24 times in the ST as an indefinite plural noun and is consistently translated into “funktioner”.

“Feature” appears 4 times in the ST as an indefinite singular noun and is translated into

“funktion”, also an indefinite singular noun 3 times, but also into “funktionen”, a definite singular noun, once.

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“This feature” appears 3 times in the ST as a definite singular noun with a demonstrative pronoun and is consistently translated on all occasions.

“The simplest and most commonly used feature” appears once in the ST as a definite singular noun and is consistently translated into “den enklaste och den mest använda funktionen”.

“A feature” appears once as in the ST an indefinite singular noun and is consistently translated into “en funktion”.

“The features” appears once in the ST as a definite plural noun and but is translated into “alla funktioner”, an indefinite plural noun.

“The advanced features” appears once in the ST as a definite plural noun and is consistently translated into “de avancerade funktionerna”.

Item 10: Condition

“The following two conditions” appears once in the ST as a definite plural noun but is translated into “följande två villkor”, an indefinite plural noun.

“Operating conditions” appears once in the ST as an indefinite plural noun and is consistently translated into “förhållanden”.

“The current condition” appears once in the ST as a definite singular noun but is translated into “skick”, an indefinite singular noun.

“Conditions” appears twice in the ST as an indefinite plural noun and is on both occasions consistently translated into “förhållanden”.

Item 11: Foundation

“The foundation” appears once in the ST and is consistently translated into “grunden”.

Item 12: Interference

“Interference” appears 3 times in the ST as an indefinite singluar noun, but is twice translated into “störningar” phrased as an indefinite plural noun, and one time not at all, as the TT phrases itself around it.

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Item 13: Function

“Function” appears once in the ST as an indefinite singular noun but is not translated at all; the TT phrases itself around it.

“A function of track logs” appears once in the ST as an indefinite singular noun and is consistently translated into “en spårloggningsfunktion”.

“The function” appears once in the ST as a definite singular noun and is consistently translated into “funktionen”.

“This function” appears 7 times in the ST as a definite singular noun with a demonstrative pronoun, and remains in this form throughout the TT as “den här funktionen” six times and

“denna funktion”, once.

“The desired function” appears twice in the ST as a definite singular noun but is on both occasions translated into “önskad funktion”, an indefinite singular noun.

“Functions” appears twice in the ST as an indefinite plural noun and is consistently translated into “funktioner” on both occasions.

“These functions” appears twice in the ST as a definite plural noun with a demonstrative pronoun and is consistently translated into “dessa funktioner”.

“The other functions” appears once in the ST as a definite plural noun and is consistently translated into “de andra funktionerna”.

“The most important functions” appears once in the ST as a definite plural noun and is consistently translated into “de viktigaste funktionerna”.

“The Track Log functions” appears once in the ST as a definite plural noun but is translated into “spårloggfunktioner”, an indefinite plural noun.

“The Sun/Moon Function” appears once in the ST as a definite singular noun and is consistently translated into “funktionen sol/måne”.

“The most common functions” appears once in the ST as a definite plural noun and retains its form in the TT, appearing as “de vanligaste verktygen”.

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“Trip planning and map analysis functions” appears once in the ST as an indefinite plural noun and retains its form in the TT, appearing as “funktioner för tripplanering och kartanalys”.

“The Personalize function” appears once in the ST as a definite singular noun and is consistently translated into “funktionen anpassa”.

“The Clear Memory function” appears once in the ST as a definite singular noun and is consistently translated into “funktionen rensa minnet”.

“The accessed function” appears once in the ST as a definite singular noun but is translated to

“aktuell funktion”, an indefinite singular noun.

“The customize function” appears twice in the ST as a definite singular noun and is consitently translated into “anpassningsfunktionen” on both occasions.

Item 14: Area calculation

“Area calculation” appears 5 times in the ST and is consistently translated into

“areaberäkning” on all occasions.

“A new area calculation” appears once in the ST and is consistently translated into “en ny areaberäkning”.

“Area calculations” appears once in the ST as an indefinite plural noun but is translated into

“areaberäkningen”, a definite singular noun.

Item 15: Vehicle

“A vehicle” appears once in the ST as an indefinite singular noun and is consistently translated into “fordon”.

“Any vehicle” appears twice in the ST as an indefinite singular noun and is consistently translated into “vilket fordon som helst”.

Item 16: Heading

“Heading” appears 3 times in the ST as an indefinite singular noun and is consistently translated into “riktning” on all occasions.

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“The heading” appears 3 times in the ST as a definite singular noun and is translated into

“riktningen”, also a definite singular noun, once, but also into “riktning”, an indefinite singular noun, twice.

“The last computed heading” appears once in the ST as a definite singular noun and is consistently translated into “den senaste beräknade riktningen”.

“Your heading” appears twice in the ST as a definite singular noun with a possessive pronoun and is consistently translated into “din riktning”.

Item 17: Display Backlight

“The Display Backlight” appears 11 times in the ST as a definite singular noun and is consistently translated into “bakgrundsbelysningen” two times, but also into “displayens bakgrundsbelysning”, an indefinite singular noun 9 times.

Item 18: Antenna

“The antenna” appears 3 times in the ST as a definite singular noun and is consistently translated into “antennen”.

“Antenna” appears twice in the ST as an indefinite singular noun and is consistently translated into “antenn”.

“Antennas” appears twice in the ST as an indefinite plural noun and is consistently translated into “antenner”.

Item 19: Toolbar

“The windows toolbar” appears three times in the ST as definite singular noun and is consistently translated into “verktygsfältet i windows” once, but also into “windows verktygsfält”, an indefinite singular noun, twice.

Iteam 20: Profile

“The profile” appears once in the ST as a definite singular noun and is consistently translated into “profilen”.

“The displayed profile” appears once in the ST as a definite singular noun and is in all aspects consistently translated into “den visade profilen”.

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“Vertical profile” appears 3 times in the ST as an indefinite singular noun and is translated into “vertikal profil”, also a indefinite singular noun, two times but also into “funktionen vertikal profil”, a definite singular noun, one time.

“A vertical profile” appears once in the ST as an indefinite singular noun and is consistently translated into “en vertikal profil”.

“The vertical profile” appears 4 times in the ST as a definite singular noun and is translated into “den vertikala profilen”, also a definite singular noun once, but also into the indefinite singular nouns “vertikal profil” once and “en vertikal profil” twice.

4.1.2 Inaccurate or Inconsistent Translation

During the analysis of the structural changes in the nominal phrase several cases of inconsistent or inaccurate translation have been encountered.

“Operation” from the ST in the TT saw four different translations. These were

“driftstörningar”, “driften”, “funktion”, “användning” and “användningsområdet”, all occurring once.

“This operation” in the TT appeared as both “den här processen” once and “den här funktionen” six times.

“Backtrack” was translated into “returrutt” 7 times but also into “returväg” once.

“Indicator” in the TT appeared as both “visare” and “indikator”.

“The USB File Transfer mode” in the TT appeared as both “läge för filöverföring via USB” and “läge för USB-filöverföring”.

“This feature” was translated to both “denna funktion” and “den här funktionen”.

“This function” was translated into “den här funktionen” six times but also into “denna funktion” once.

”Function” was translated into ”funktion” but also into “verktyg”.

“The Display Backlight” in the TT appeared nine times as “displayens bakgrundbelysning” but also as “bakgrundsbelysningen” twice.

19 Söderholm

“Device” in the TT appeared in four different forms. These were “instrument” four times,

“hjälpmedel” once, “apparat” once and “maskinvara” once.

Several words were translated to words not matching the dictionary or in other ways deviating from the ST.

“Operation” is inaccurately translated into “användningsområdet”, “driftstörningar” and

“funktion”.

“Function” is at one place not translated at all, the TT phrases itself around it. This also happens to “this elevation”, “warm start mode”, “the connector” and “interference”.

“The current condition” see “the current” dropped in the translation into “skick”, possibly making a reader of the Swedish version misinterpret its meaning.

4

.1.3 Summary

The following sections will summarize in numbers the result of first the investigation on the nominal phrases and secondly the cases of inaccurate or inconsistent translation. See appendix for all changed elements in full detail.

This model presents what changes in form were discovered. First presenting the ST form followed by what form it was changed into in the TT and how many times this happened.

ST form TT form Occurences

Definite singular noun Indefinite singular noun 29

Indefinite singular noun Definite singular noun 9

Definite plural noun

Indefinite singular noun

Indefinite singular noun

Definite singular noun

Indefinite plural noun

Indefinite plural noun

Indefinite plural noun

Definite plural noun

Definite plural noun

Indefinite singular noun

3

2

1

1

1

Inconsistent translation was encountered in 9 nouns, these being translated into 22 different ways in 36 places.

20 Söderholm

Inaccurate translation, occurrences where the translation of the noun did not match the dictionary or in some other way deviated from the ST, was encountered on 7 occasions, and most of these were occurrences when the translation had dropped a noun from the ST, simply ignoring it in the TT.

4.2 Sentence Structure

This part of the analysis investigates sentence structure by analysing the selected sentences

(research item 2.1-2.20). The structure of the ST research items is compared with how they appear in the TT as for main and subclauses. This part of the investigation also looks at any instances of inaccurate or inconsistent translation within the research items.

4.2.1 Form Comparison

Item 2.1: “These options will be explained in the section of this manual on creating POI’s and GOTO routes.”

Main clause: “These options will be explained in the section of this manual”

Non-finite gerund subclause: “on creating POI¨s and GOTO routes.”

This item in the TT appears as “Dessa valmöjligheter förklaras vidare i användarhandbokens avsnitt om hur man skapar sevärdheter och GOTO-rutter”, which is one main clause without any embedded subclauses. Hence, the ST main clause and non-finite gerund subclause are here combined into one main clause.

Item 2.2: “The information at the bottom of the Map screen provides you with information that can be used to assist you in navigating to your destination.”

Main clause: “The information at the bottom of the Map screen provides you with information”

Finite relative subclause: “that can be used”

Non-finite to-infinitival subclause: “to assist you”

Non-finite gerund subclause: “in navigating to your destination.”

This item in the TT appears as “Längst ned på kartskärmen hittar du information som kan hjälpa dig nå ditt slutmål.”

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The item’s main clause and finite relative subclause retain their form in ”Längst ned på kartskärmen hittar du information” and ”som kan”, but the non-finite to-infinitival subclause combines with the non-finite gerund subclause into a non-finite bare infinitivial subclause in

“hjälpa dig nå ditt slutmål”.

Item 2.3: “You may see a message on your computer indicating that it has found a new USB hardware device.”

Main clause: “You may see a message on your computer”

Non-finite gerund subclause: “indicating”

Finite narrative subclause: “that it has found a new USB hardware device.”

This item in the TT appears as “På datorn visas ett meddelande att den har hittat ny USBmaskinvara,”

The item’s main clause and non-finite gerund subclause here combine into a main clause in

“På datorn visas ett meddelande” and the finite narrative subclause retains its form in “att den har hittat ny USB-maskinvara.”

Item 2.4: “You can choose to display information about the street you are on instead of displaying the two data fields at the bottom of the display.

Main clause: “You can choose”

Non-finite to-infinitival subclause:

“ to display information about the street”

Finite relative subclause: “you are on”

Non-finite gerund subclause: “instead of displaying the two data fields at the bottom of the display.”

This item in the TT appears as: “Du kan välja att visa information om gatan du befinner dig på i stället för att visa de två datafälten längst ned på displayen.”

The item’s main clause and finite relative subclause retain their form in “du kan välja” and

“du befinner dig på.” The non-finite to-infinitival subclause, however, is made a finite narrative subclause in “att visa information om gatan” and the non-finite gerund subclause is

22 Söderholm made a finite narrative subclause in “istället för att visa de två datafälten längst ned på displayen.”

Item 2.5: “This option provides the ability to view the text and map details easier, depending on where you are navigating.”

Main clause: “This option provides the ability”

Non-finite to-infinitival subclause: “to view the text and map details easier”

Non-finite gerund subclause: “depending on”

Finite narrative subclause: “where you are navigating.”

This item in the TT appears as “Anledningen till detta är att du ska ha möjlighet att lättare läsa text och kartdetaljer, oavsett var du befinner dig.”

Its main clause and finite narrative subclause retain their form in “Anledningen till detta är” and “var du befinner dig”. The non-finite to-infinitival subclause, however, is changed into a finite narrative subclause in “att du ska ha möjlighet att lättare läsa text och kartdetaljer” and the non-finite gerund subclause is changed into a non-finite to-infinitival subclause in

“oavsett”.

Item 2.6: “With an active route, the compass graphically displays an icon representing your destination.”

Main clause: “With an active route, the compass graphically displays an icon”

Non-finite gerund subclause: “representing your destination.”

This item in the TT appears as “När det finns en aktiv rutt visar kompassen en symbol som grafiskt representerar ditt mål.”

The item’s main clause here becomes an finite narrative subclause in “När det finns en aktiv rutt visar kompassen en symbol”, but the non-finite gerund subclause becomes both a main clause and a finite relative subclause in “som grafiskt representerar ditt mål.”

Item 2.7: “As you move, your eXplorist is recording your journey.”

Finite narrative subclause: “As you move”

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Main clause “your eXplorist is recording your journey.”

This item in the TT appears as “Medan du befinner dig i rörelse registrerar eXplorist din resa.”

The item’s finite narrative subclause and main clause both retain their form in ”Medan du befinner dig i rörelse” and “registrerar eXplorist din resa.”

Item 2.8: “Position is displayed in textual format using the coordinate system selected.”

Main clause (passive construction): “Position is displayed in textual format”

Non-finite gerund subclause: “using the coordinate system selected.”

This item in the TT appears as “Positionen visas i textformat med hjälp av det valda koordinatsystemet,” which is one entire main clause. Hence, the ST main clause and the nonfinite gerund subclause here combines into one main clause.

Item 2.9: “Mistakes in modifying the files can cause unwanted results.”

Main clause: “Mistakes in.”

Non-finite gerund subclause: “modifying the files”

Continuation of main clause: “can cause unwanted results.”

This item in the TT appears as “Misstag vid ändringar av filer kan leda till ovälkomna resultat,” which is one entire main clause. Hence, the main clause here combines with the non-finite gerund subclause into one main clause.

Item 2.10: “An alert is displayed indicating that the simulator has been turned on.“

Main clause: “An alert is displayed”

Non-finite gerund subclause: “indicating”

Finite narrative subclause: “that the simulator has been turned on.”

This item in the TT appears as “Ett meddelande visas för att upplysa om att simulatorn har aktiverats.”

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The item’s main clause and finite narrative subclause retain their form in “Ett meddelande visas” and “att simulatorn har aktiverats.” The non-finite gerund subclause, however, is made a finite narrative subclause in “för att upplysa om.”

Item 2.11: “Using the personal computer, you have complete access to moving, renaming, modifying, or deleting any of the saved files.”

Non-finite gerund subclause: “Using the personal computer”

Main clause: “you have complete access to”

Non-finite gerund subclause: “moving,”

Non-finite gerund subclause: “renaming,”

Non-finite gerund subclause: “modifying,”

Non-finite gerund subclause: “or deleting any of the saved files.”

This item in the TT appears as “Med hjälp av datorn kan du flytta, namnge, ändra eller ta bort vilka som helst av de sparade filerna,” which is one entire main clause. Hence, all the nonfinite gerund subclauses combines with the ST main clause into one main clause in the TT.

Item 2.12: “The Magellan Conversion Manager can be installed using the Magellan Wizard

CD-ROM that came with your eXplorist.”

Main clause: “The Magellan Conversion Manager can be installed”

Non-finite gerund subclause: “using the Magellan Wizard CD-ROM”

Finite relative subclause: “that came with your eXplorist.”

This item in the TT appears as “Magellan Conversion Manager kan installeras med hjälp av cd-rom-skivan med Magellan-guiden som kom med din eXplorist.”

The item’s main clause and non-finite gerund subclause here combine into a main clause in

“Magellan Conversion Manager kan installeras med hjälp av cd-rom-skivan med Magellanguiden” while the finite relative subclause retains its form in “som kom med din eXplorist.”

Item 2.13: “You will notice a new route whose name is bolded indicating that it is the active route.”

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Main clause: “You will notice a new route”

Finite relative subclause: “whose name is bolded”

Non-finite gerund subclause: “indicating”

Finite narrative subclause: “that it is the active route.”

This item in the TT appears as “I listan finns även en ny rutt vars namn visas i fetstil för att markera att den är den aktiva rutten.”

The main clause, finite relative subclause and finite narrative subclause all retain their form in

“I listan finns även en ny rutt”, “vars namn visas i fetstil” and “att den är den aktiva rutten.”

The non-finite gerund subclause, however, is made a finite narrative subclause in “för att markera.”

Item 2.14: “You can also view and modify the files using any text editor“

Main clause: “You can also view”

Second main clause: “and modify the files”

Non-finite gerund subclause: “using any text editor.”

This item in the TT appears as “Du kan även granska och ändra filerna med hjälp av ett valfritt textredigeringsprogram.”

The item’s first main clause retains its form in “Du kan även granska”. The second main clause and the non-finite gerund sublcause, however, is combined into one main clause in

“och ändra filderna med hjälp av ett valfritt textredigeringsprogram”.

Item 2.15: “All waypoints in the list will be transferred, including those not checked.“

Main clause: “All waypoints in the list will be transferred”

Non-finite gerund subclause: “including those”

Finite relative subclause: “not checked.”

This item in the TT appears as “Samtliga sevärdheter i listan överförs, inklusive de som inte kryssas för”

26 Söderholm

The item’s main clause retains its form in “samtliga sevärdheter i listan överförs”. The nonfinite gerund subclause, however, combines with the finite relative subclause into the finite relative subclause “inklusive de som inte kryssas för”.

Item 2.16: “Two areas that you can control to extend the battery life are turning the eXplorist off when not in use and setting how long the display backlight will be on.“

Main clause: “Two areas”

Finite relative subclause: “that you can control”

Non-finitive to-infinitival subclause: “to extend the battery life”

Continuation of main clause: “are turning the eXplorist off”

Non finite verbless subclause: “when not in use”

Continuation of main clause: “and setting”

Finite interrogative subclause: “how long the display backlight will be on.”

This item in the TT appears as “Två saker du kan göra för att spara batteritid är att stänga av eXplorist när den inte används och att ställa in hur länge displayens bakgrundsbelysning ska vara på.”

The first two parts of the main clause as well as the finite relative and non-finite to-infinitival sub clauses retain their forms in “Två saker”, “är att stänga av eXplorist”, “som du kan göra” and “för att spara batteritid”. The non finite verbless sub clause, however, changes into a nonfinite to-infinitival sub clause in “när den inte används” and the third part of the main clause turns into a finite narrative sub clause in “och att ställa in” while the finite interrogative sub clause becomes both a non-finite to-infinitival sub clause and finite interrogative sub clause in

“hur länge displayens bakgrundbelysning ska vara på.”

Item 2.17: “You can transfer POIs, routes and track logs to and from MapSend and the eXplorist using the Magellan Conversion Manager“

Main clause: “You can transfer POIs, routes and track logs to and from MapSend and the eXplorist”

Non-finite gerund subclause: “using the Magellan Conversion Manager.”

27 Söderholm

This item in the TT appears as “Du kan överföra sevärdheter, rutter och spårloggar mellan

MapSend och eXplorist med hjälp av Magellan Conversion Manager,” which is one entire main clause. Hence, the ST main clause and non-finite gerund subclause are combined into one main clause in the TT.

Item 2.18: “Cold start is defined as when the eXplorist does not have an approximate position to use when referring to its almanac.”

Main clause. “Cold start is defined as”

Finite narrative subclause: “when the eXplorist does not have an approximate position” non-finite to-infinitival: “to use”

Non-finite gerund subclause: “when referring to its almanac.”

This item in the TT appears as “En kallstart är när eXplorist inte har någon ungefärlig position som den kan använda när den letar i sin almanacka.”

The item’s main clause and finite narrative subclause retain their forms in “En kallstart är” and “när eXplorist inte har någon ungefärlig position”. The non-finite to-infinitival subclause, however, turns into a finite relative subclause in “som den kan använda” and the non-finite gerund subclause is turned into a finite narrative subclause in “när den letar i sin almanacka”.

Item 2.19: “In the Cursor mode you can scroll around the map, seeing available information for areas on the map not displayed around your present position.“

Main clause: “In the cursor mode you can scroll around the map”

Non-finite gerund subclause: “seeing available information for areas on the map”

Non-finite verbless/relative subclause: “not displayed around your present position.”

This item in the TT appears as “I markörläget kan du flytta runt markören på kartan och se tillgänglig information för områden på kartan som inte visas runt din aktuella position”

The item’s main clause retains its form in “I markörläget kan du flytta runt markören på kartan” but the non-finite gerund subclause, however, here becomes a second main clause in

“och se tillgänglig information för områden på kartan”, and the the non-finite verbless/relative subclause becomes a finite relative subclause in “som inte visas runt din aktuella position.”

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Item 2.20: “Under normal operating conditions you can expect to get more than 14 hours of battery life when using fresh batteries.”

Main clause: “Under normal operating conditions you can expect”

Non-finite to-infinitival subclause: “to get more than 14 hours of battery life”

Non-finite gerund subclause: “when using fresh batteries.”

This item in the TT appears as “Under normala förhållanden kan du räkna med att få ut mer

än 14 timmars batteritid vid användning av nya batterier.”

The item’s main clause retains its form in Under normala förhållanden kan du räkna med” but the non-finite to-infinitival subclause here combines with the non-finite gerund subclause into another non-finite to-infinitival subclause in “att få ut mer än 14 timmars batteritid vid användning av nya batterier”.

4.2.2 Inaccurate or Inconsistent Translation

Instances of inaccurate or inconsistent translation within the research items of the sentence structure analysis are not as frequent as among the research items of the terminology analysis.

In fact, only two cases of inaccurate translation have been found.

The first one is encountered in item 3 in the sentence; ”You may see a message on your computer indicating that it has found a new USB hardware device” which in the TT appears as “På datorn visas ett meddelande att den har hittat ny USB-maskinvara”. In the ST the item’s main clause says ”you may see a message” while the TT says ”on the computer a message is shown” (own translation of ”På datorn visas ett meddelande

). Hence, the TT clause does not fully represent the meaning of the ST clause.

The second case of inaccurate translation in encountered in Item 5 in the sentence; “This option provides the ability to view the text and map details easier, depending on where you are navigating.“ In the TT this appears as “Anledningen till detta är att du ska ha möjlighet att lättare läsa text och kartdetaljer, oavsett var du befinner dig”. Here ”this option” and

”depending on” are translated into ”anledningen” and ”oavsett”, neither of which are suggested by the dictionary. Hence, the TT says ”the reason” and ”regardless” (own translations) instead of ”this option” and ”depending on”, which is then not the instructions given by the ST.

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4.2.3 Summary

The following sectionn will in numbers summarize the result of the investigation of sentence structure as well as present the cases of inaccurate or inconsistent translation. See appendix for all changed elements in full detail.

This model presents how clauses or constellations of clauses from the ST appeared in the TT and how many times each of these changes or non changes in form occured.

Clause Constellation in ST Clause Constellation in TT Occurences

Main clause

Main clause + non-finite gerund subclause

Finite narrative subclause

Main clause

Main clause

Finite narrative subclause

13

8

6

Finite relative subclause Finite relative subclause

Non-finite gerund subclause Finite narrative subclause

Main clause Finite narrative subclause

Non-finite to-infinitival subclause

Non-finite to-infinitival subclause

Non-finite to-infinitival subclause

Non-finite gerund subclause

+ finite relative subclause

Finite narrative subclause

Non-finite to-infinitival subclause

Finite relative subclause

Finite relative subclause

Non-finite gerund subclause

+ non-finite to-infinitivial subclause

Non-finite gerund subclause

+ non-finite to-infinitivial subclause

Non-finite to-infinitival subclause

Non-finite bare infinitivial subclause

Non-finite gerund subclause A non-finite to-infinitival sublcuase

Non-finite gerund subclause Main clause

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Non-finite gerund subclause Main clause + Finite relative subclause

1

5

4

2

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The sentence structure analysis found only two cases of inaccurate translation, as research item 2.3 and 2.5 saw their meanings changed in the TT.

Conclusion

A quick summary of the investigation’s result would be that Nord and Hellspong were anything but inaccurate when mentioning TT terminology and sentences structure as something to look at, and that they both were right in it being interesting to compare and present the differences between a source and target text.

The investigated nominal phrases often revealed the TT changed their form in all grammatical aspects considered, as well as translated words both inaccurately and inconsistently. In fact, only 4 out of the 20 research items have been consistently translated without any of its grammatical aspects changing form. As few as 3 out of 20 saw neither changes in grammatical structure nor inaccurate or inconsistent translation.

A look at sentence structure also proved interesting, as this investigation encountered several changed grammatical structures as well as some words being inaccurately translated. Looking at the finite narrative and relative subclauses shows these were consistently translated without change in their grammatical structure. Main clauses, however, were often changed into a subclause in the TT and only retained their form in about half their apperances. Also, main clauses were often combined with a subclause to form a new, longer main clause in the TT.

The non-finite gerund subclauses were consistently changed into something else, most often finite narrative subclauses, but also into other forms or combined with the main clause or another subclause into one main clause or subclause in the TT. Other subclauses also changed into several different forms in the TT.

The investigation of sentence structure, however, encountered far less inaccurate or inconsistent translation of separate words than the investigation on terminology.

To summarize, this paper’s translation analysis has encountered inconsistently or inaccurately translated words, as well as several structural changes concerning nominal phrases and their terminology as well as sentence structure. These changes also proved to be inconsistent, as some structures from the ST saw them changed into several different shapes in the TT. Hence, answering how the TT has handled the selected aspects of the ST is not hard, as it has been

31 Söderholm noticeably inconsistent in its handling of the form of the nominal phrase and also in its structuring of sentences compared to the ST. Cases of inaccurately or inconsistently translated words were also frequent during the terminology investigation as well as, although to a lesser extent, during the investigation on sentence structure.

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Works Cited

Primary sources

Magellan eXplorist XL – Användarhandbok

Magellan eXplorist XL – Reference Manual

Secondary sources

Hatim, Basil and Jeremy Munday. Translation; An Advanced Resource Book. New York:

Routledge, 2004.

Hellspong, Lennart. Metoder för Brukstextanalys. Lund: Lennart Hellspong och

Studentlitteratur, 2001.

Nord, Christiane. Text Analysis in Translation. Theory, Methadology, and Didactic

Application of a Model for Translation-Oriented Text Analysis. 2nd ed. Amsterdam – New

York: Rodopi, 2005.

Magellan Official Homepage; About and Timeline sections. 27 April. 2008.

<http://www.magellangps.com/about/>

<http://www.magellangps.com/about/timeline.asp>

Svartvik, Jan and Olof Sager. Engelsk universitetsgrammatik. 2nd ed. Stockholm: Jan

Svartvik, Olof Sager och Liber AB, 1996.

Dictionaries:

Engström, Einar Engelsk-Svensk Teknisk Ordbok. Stockholm: AB Svensk trävarutidning,

1974.

Stora engelsk-svenska Ordboken. Sweden: Nordstedts Förlag, 1980.

Stora svensk-engelska Ordboken. Sweden: Nordstedts Förlag, 1988.

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Appendix A. Terminology. Research Items in ST

Item 1: Device

Samples Occurrences Article/Determiner Singular/Plural

“one device” 1

“this device” 2

“this navigation device”

1

“a navigation device

1

“a USB device” 2

” a USB hardware device”

1

Indefinite Singular

Definite/Demonstrative Singular

Definite/Demonstrative Singular

Indefinite Singular

Indefinite Singular

Indefinite Singular

“the device” 1 Definite Singular

Item 2: Elevation

Samples Occurrences Article/Determiner Singular/Plural

”elevation” 8

”the elevation” 7

Indefinite Singular

Definite Singular

”this elevation”

”your elevation”

1

1

Definite Singular

Definite/Possessive Singular

Item 3: Accessory

Samples Occurrences Article/Determiner Singular/Plural

“accessories” 6 indefinite Plural

Item 4: Backtrack

Samples Occurrences Article/Determiner Singular/Plural

“backtrack” 6

“a backtrack” 1

“the backtrack” 1

Indefinite Singular

Indefinite

Definite

Singular

Singular

34 Söderholm

Item 5: Indicator

Samples Occurrences Article/Determiner Singular/Plural

”track indicator” 1 Indefinite Singular

”the map scale indicator”

”a north indicator” 1 Indefinite Singular

”a graphical battery indicator”

”battery life indicator” current location indicator”

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Item 6: Mode

Samples Occurrences Article/Determiner Singular/Plural

”Modes” 3

”Map Screen Modes” 1

Indefinite Plural

Indefinite Plural

”warm start mode”

”a simulate mode”

”USB File transfer mode”

1

1

Indefinite

Indefinite

Singular

Singular

Indefinite

Indefinite

Singular

Singular

”Power Only mode” 1

”File Transfer mode” 1

”Detailed Auto mode”

”NMEA Data Comm mode”

”Auto mode”

”Cursor Mode”

”The mode” 1

”the default mode” 1

2

5

Indefinite

Indefinite

Definite

Definite

Definite

Definite

Singular

Singular

Singular

Singular

Singular

Singular

”the Track Mode” 1

”the simulator mode” 1

”the file transfer mode”

”the USB File

Transfer mode”

”The Position mode” 8 the Cursor mode” 12

Definite

Definite

Singular

Singular

36 Söderholm

Item 7: Connector

Samples Occurrences Article/Determiner Singular/Plural

”the connector” 4

”the USB connector” 1

”a standard USB connector”

Definite

Definite

Singular

Singular

Item 8: Operation

Samples Occurrences Article/Determiner Singular/Plural

“operation” 2

“this operation”

“the normal operation”

2

Indefinite Singular

Definite/Demonstrative Singular

“the basic operation” 1 Definite Singular

Item 9: Feature

Samples Occurrences Article/Determiner Singular/Plural

“features” 24

“feature” 4

Indefinite Plural

Indefinite Singular

Definite/Demonstrative Singular “this feature”

“the simplest and most commonly used feature”

“a feature”

3

1

1 “the features”

“the advanced features”

Indefinite

Definite

Singular

Plural

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Item 10: Condition

Samples Occurrences Article/Determiner Singular/Plural

“the following two conditions”

“operating conditions”

“the current condition”

“conditions” 2 Indefinite Plural

Item 11: Foundation

Samples Occurrences Article/Determiner Singular/Plural

”the foundation” 1 Definite Singular

Item 12: Interference

Samples Occurrences Article/Determiner Singular/Plural

Indefinite Singular ”interference” 3

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Item 13: Function

Samples Occurrences Article/Determiner Singular/Plural

Indefinite Singular ”function” 1

”a function of Track

Logs”

”the function” 1 Definite Singular

Definite/Demonstrative Singular ”this function”

”the desired function”

7

”functions” 2 Indefinite Plural

”these functions”

”the most important functions”

2

”the other functions” 1

Definite/Demonstrative Plural

Definite Plural

”the Track Log functions”

”the Sun/Moon

Function”

”the most common functions”

”trip planning and map analysis functions”

”the Personalize function”

”The Clear Memory function”

”the accessed function”

”the customize function”

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Item 14: Area Calculation

Samples Occurrences Article/Determiner Singular/Plural

Indefinite Singular “Area calculation” 5

“a new area calculation”

“area calculations” 1 Indefinite Plural

Item 15: Vehicle

Samples Occurrences Article/Determiner Singular/Plural

“A vehicle”

“Any vehicle”

1

2

Indefinite

Indefinite

Singular

Singular

Item 16: Heading

Samples Occurrences Article/Determiner Singular/Plural

“heading” 3 Indefinite Singular

“the heading”

“the last computed heading”

“your heading”

3

2

Definite Singular

Definite/Possessive Singular

Item 17: Display Backlight

Samples Occurrences Article/Determiner Singular/Plural

“the Display

Backlight”

Item 18: Antenna

Samples Occurrences Article/Determiner Singular/Plural

“The antenna” 3

“antenna” 2

“antennas” 2

Definite Singular

Indefinite Singular

Indefinite Plural

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Item 19: Toolbar

Samples Occurrences Article/Determiner Singular/Plural

“The windows toolbar”

Iteam 20: Profile

Samples Occurrences Article/Determiner Singular/Plural

“The Profile” 1 Definite Singular

“The displayed profile”

“Vertical profile” 3 Indefinite Singular

“A vertical profile” 1 Indefinite

“The vertical profile” 4 Definite Singular

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Appendix B. Terminology. Shifts in the Nominal Phrases’ Form

A definite singular noun becoming an indefinite singular noun (happening to 16 nouns in 29 places):

Apperance in ST Apperance in TT Occurences

“the elevation” “höjd”

“The backtrack” “Returväg”

”The mode” ”läge”

”The default mode” ”normalläge”

1

”The Track Mode” ”spårläge”

”The simulator mode” ”simulatorläge”

”The file transfer mode” ”läge för filöverföring”

”The USB File Transfer mode” ”läge för filöverföring via

USB” and ” läge för USB filöverföring”

”The Position mode” ”positionsläge”

1

3

”The Cursor mode” ”markörläge” 4

“the current condition” “skick” 1

1

5

1

1

1

1

”The desired function” ”önskad funktion”

”The accessed function” ”aktuell funktion”

“The vertical profile” “vertikal profil” and “en vertikal profil”

2

1

3

“the normal operation” “för normal användning”

“The heading” “riktning”

1

2

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An indefinite singular noun becoming a definite singular noun (happening to 8 nouns in 9 places):

Apperance in ST Apperance in TT Occurences

“operation” “driften” 1

“an elevation value” “ett värde för höjden” 1

“file transfer mode” ”läget för filöverföring”

”Detailed Auto mode” ”läget för autodetalj”

”NMEA Data Comm mode” ” läget NMEA datakomm”

”auto mode” ”läget auto”

“the features” “alla funktioner”

“the following two conditions”

“följande två villkor”

1

1

1

2

“feature” “funktionen”

“Vertical profile”

“funktionen vertical profil”

1

1

A definite plural noun becoming an indefinite plural noun (happening to 3 nouns in 3 places in total):

Apperance in ST Apperance in TT Occurences

”The Track Log functions” ”spårloggfunktioner” 1

1

1

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A definite singular noun becoming a definite plural noun (happening to 1 noun in 1 place):

Apperance in ST Apperance in TT Occurences

“the elevation” “höjdnivåerna”

“Area calculations” “areaberäkningen”

1

An indefinite singular noun becoming a definite plural noun (happening to 1 noun in 1 place):

Apperance in ST Apperance in TT Occurences

1

An indefinite plural noun becoming an indefinite singular noun (happening to 1 noun in 1 place):

Apperance in ST Apperance in TT Occurences

“modes” “läge” 1

An indefinite singular noun becoming an indefinite plural noun (happening to 1 noun in 2 place):

Apperance in ST Apperance in TT Occurences

“interference” “störningar” 2

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Appendix C. Terminology. Inconsistent/Inaccurate Translation

Translation inconsistency (9 items translated in 22 different ways in 37 places):

Apperance in ST Apperances in TT Occurences

“operation”

“this operation”

“Indicator”

”The USB File Transfer mode”

“driftstörningar” 1

“driften” 1

“funktion” 1

“anvädning” 1

“användningsområdet” 1

“den här processen” 1

“funktionen” 1

“visare” 1

“indikator” 1

”läge för filöverföring via

USB”

1

” läge för USB-filöverföring” 1

“This feature”

”This function”

”function”

“Backtrack”

“denna funktion”

”den här funktionen”

”den här funktionen”

”denna funktion”

6

1

1

1

”verktyg” 1

”funktion” 1

“returväg” 1

“returrutt” 1

“The Display Backlight”

”sevärdheter” 1

“bakgrundsbelysningen” 2

“displayens bakgrundsbelysning9”

9

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Inaccurate translation (7 nouns happenings in 7 places):

Apperance in ST Apperance in TT Error Occurences

“operation” “funktion” Not what dictionary suggests.

1

“operation” “användningsområdet” Not what dictionary suggests.

1

”Function” - Not translated at all.

The TT phrases itself around it.

1

“this elevation” -

“warmt start mode” -

Not translated at all.

The TT phrases itself around it.

1

Not translated at all.

The TT phrases itself around it.

1

”the connector”

“interference”

“operating conditions”

-

-

Not translated at all.

The TT phrases itself around it.

1

Not translated at all.

The TT phrases itself around it.

1

The TT ignores

“operating”.

1

“the current condition”

“förhållanden”

“skick” The TT ignores “the current”.

1

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Appendix D. Sentence Structure. Reserach Items in ST

Apperance of sentence structure investigation research items in ST (chart divided over three pages):

Item The ST sentences divided after clauses Their clauses identified

2.1 These options will be explained in the section of this manual on creating POI’s abd GOTO rules main clause non-finite gerund

2.2 The information at the bottom of the Map screen provides you with information main clause that can be used to assist you in navigating to your destination

2.3 You may see a message on your computer

indicating finite relative non-finite to-infinitival non-finite gerund main clause

2.4 that it has found a new USB hardware device

You can choose to display information about the street you are on instead of displaying the two data fields at the bottom of the display

2.5 This option provides the ability to view the text and map details easier depending on finite narrative main clause non.finite to-infinitival finite relative non-finite gerund main clause non-finite to-infinitival non-finite gerund where you are navigating

2.6 With an active route, the compass graphically displays an icon representing your destination finite narrative main clause non-finite gerund

2.7 As you move, your eXplorist is recording your journey finite narrative main clause

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Item The ST sentences divided after clauses Their clauses identified

2.8 Position is displayed in textual format main clause using the coordinate system selected non-finite gerund

2.9 Mistakes in modifying the files can cause unwanted results

2.10 An alert is displayed indicating that the simulator has been turned on

2.11 Using the personal computer, you have complete access to

moving,

renaming,

modifying, or deleting any of the saved files

2.12 The Magellan Conversion Manager can be installed using the Magellan Wizard CD-ROM that came with your eXplorist

2.13 You will notice a new route whose name is bolded

indicating that it is the active route

2.14 You can also view an modify the files using any text editor main clause non-finite gerund cont. main clause main clause non-finite gerund finite narative non-finite gerund main clasue non-finite gerund main clause non-finite gerund finite relative main clause finite relative finite narrative main clause main clause non-finite gerund

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Item The ST sentences divided after clauses Their clauses identified

2.15 All waypoints in the list will be transferred including those not checked

2.16 Two areas that you can control are turning the eXplorist off when not in use and setting main clause non-finite gerund finite relative main clause finite relative cont. main clause non-finite verbless cont. main clause how long the display will be on

2.17 You can transfer POIs, routes and track logs to and from MapSend and the eXplorist finite interrogative main clause using the Magellan Conversatin Manager non-finite gerund

2.18 Cold start is defined as when the eXplorist does not have an approximate position main clause finite narrative when referring to is almanac

2.19 In the Cursor mode you can scroll around the map, main clause seeing available information for areas on the map non-fiite gerund non-finite gerund not displayed around your present position non-finite verbless/relative

2.20 Under normal operating conditions you can expect to get more than 14 hours of battery life when using fresh batteries main clause non-finite to-infinitival non-finite gerund

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Appendix E. Sentence Structure. Shifts in structural form

A main clause remaining a main clause (happening 13 times):

Appearance in ST Appearance in TT

”The information at the bottom of the Map screen provides you with information”

“You can choose”

“This option provides the ability”

”Längst ned på kartskärmen hittar du information”

”du kan välja”

”Anledningen till detta är”

“An alert is displayed”

“You will notice a new route”

“You can also view”

”Ett meddelande visas”

”I listan finns även en ny rutt”

Du kan även granska”

“All waypoints in the list will be transferred” ”samtliga sevärdheter i listan överförs”

“Two areas”

“are turning the eXplorist off”

”Cold start is defined as”

“In the cursor mode you can scroll around the map”

”Två saker”

”är att stänga av eXplorist”

”En kallstart är”

I markörläget kan du flytta runt markören på kartan”

”Under normal operating conditions you can expect”

”Under normala förhållanden kan du räkna med”

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A finite narrative subclause remaining a finite narrative subclause (happening 6 times):

Appearance in ST Appearance in TT that it has found a new USB hardware device.”

”att den har hittat ny USB-maskinvara.”

“where you are navigating.”

“As you move”

”var du befinner dig”

”Medan du befinner dig i rörelse”

“that the simulator has been turned on.”

“that it is the active route.”

”att simulatorn har aktiverats.”

”att den är den aktiva rutten.”

”when the eXplorist does not have an approximate position”

”när eXplorist inte har någon ungefärlig position”

A finite relative subclause remaining a finite relative subclause (happening 5 times):

Appearance in ST Appearance in TT

”that can be used” ”som kan”

“you are on” ”du befinner dig på.”

”that came with your eXplorist.” ”som kom med din eXplorist.”

”vars namn visas i fetstil” “whose name is bolded”

“that you can control” ”som du kan göra”

A non-finite to-infinitival subclause remaining a non-finite to-infinitival subclause (happening

1 time):

Appearance in ST Appearance in TT

“to extend the battery life” ”för att spara batteritid”

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A non-finite gerund subclause becoming a finite relative subclause (happening 3 times):

Appearance in ST Appearance in TT

“representing your destination.”

“in modifying the files”

”som grafiskt representerar ditt mål.”

”vid ändringar av filer”

“including those not checked.”

”that came with your eXplorist.”

”inklusive de som inte kryssas för.”

A finite narrative subclause becoming a finite relative subclause (happening 1 time):

Appearance in ST Appearance in TT

”som kom med din eXplorist.”

A non-finite to-infinitival subclause becoming a finitive narrative subclaus (happening 3 times):

Appearance in ST Appearance in TT

“to extend the battery life” ”för att spara battertid.”

”to use when” ”som den kan använda”

”to get more than 14 hours of battery life” ”att få ut mer än 14 timmars batteritid”

A non finite gerund sub clause becoming a finite narrative subclause (happening 4 times):

Appearance in ST Appearance in TT

“instead of displaying the two data fields at the bottom of the display.”

“indicating”

”istället för att visa de två datafälten längst ned på displayen.”

”för att upplysa om.”

”för att markera.” “indicating”

”when referring to its almanac.” “när den letar i sin almanacka”.

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A non-finite gerund subclause combining with a main clause into a main clause (happening 8 times):

Appearance in ST Appearance in TT

”These options will be explained in the section of this manual” + ”on creating POI¨s and GOTO routes.”

“You may see a message on your computer”

+ “indicating”

Dessa valmöjligheter förklaras vidare i användarhandbokens avsnitt om hur man skapar sevärdheter och GOTO-rutter”

”På datorn visas ett meddelande”

“Position is displayed in textual format”

+ “using the coordinate system selected.”

“Positionen visas i textformat med hjälp av det valda koordinatsystemet”

“Mistakes in.” + “modifying the files” + “can cause unwanted results.”

“Misstag vid ändringar av filer kan leda till ovälkomna resultat”

“Using the personal computer” + “you have complete access to” + “moving” +

“renaming” + “modifying” +

“or deleting any of the saved files.”

“Med hjälp av datorn kan du flytta, namnge,

ändra eller ta bort vilka som helst av de sparade filerna”

“The Magellan Conversion Manager can be installed” + “using the Magellan Wizard CD-

ROM”

”Magellan Conversion Manager kan installeras med hjälp av cd-rom-skivan med

Magellan-guiden”

”You can transfer POIs, routes and track logs to and from MapSend and the eXplorist” +

”using the Magellan Conversion Manager.”

“Du kan överföra sevärdheter, rutter och spårloggar mellan MapSend och eXplorist med hjälp av Magellan Conversion

Manager”

“and modify the files” + “using any text editor.”

”och ändra filderna med hjälp av ett valfritt textredigeringsprogram”

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The non-finite to-infinitival subclause appearances in the ST and TT (appearing 6 times and translated as follows):

Appearance in ST Appearance in TT

Combined with non-finite gerund subclause in ”to assist you” + ”in navigating to your destination.”

“to display information about the street”

As non-finite bare infinitival subclause in

”hjälpa dig nå ditt slutmål”

“to view the text and map details easier”

As finite narrative subclause in ”att visa information om gatan”

”att du ska ha möjlighet att lättare läsa text och kartdetaljer”

”för att spara batteritid” “to extend the battery life”

”to use” As narrative relative subclause in “som den kan använda”

Combined with non-finite gerund subclause in ”to get more than 14 hours of battery life”

+ ”when using fresh batteries.”

As non-finite to-infinitival subclause in ” att få ut mer än 14 timmars batteritid vid användning av nya batterier”

The non-finite gerund subclause alone changing into other structures ((except finite narrative sub clause) happening 4 times):

Appearance in ST Appearance in TT

“seeing available information for areas on the map”

As main clause in ”och se tillgänglig information för områden på kartan”

“depending on”

“representing your destination.”

As non-finite to-infinitival subclause in

”oavsett”

As both main clause and finite relative subclause in ”som grafiskt representerar ditt mål.”

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Single cases of main or subclauses changing into other structures (happening 6 times):

Appearance in ST Appearance in TT

A main clause in “With an active route, the compass graphically displays an icon”

A main clause in “and setting”

A finite narrative subclause in “När det finns en aktiv rutt visar kompassen en symbol”

A non-finite gerund subclause + a finite narrative sub clause in “including those” +

“not checked”

A finite narrative subclause in “och att ställa in”

A finite relative subclause ”inklusive de som inte kryssas för”.

A finite interrogative subclause in “how long the display backlight will be on.”

A non-finite to-infinitival subclause + a finite interrogative subclause in “hur länge displayens bakgrundbelysning ska vara på.”

A non-finite verbless/relative subclause in

“not displayed around your present position.”

A finite relative subclause in ”som inte visas runt din aktuella position.”

A non finite verbless subclause in “when not in use”

A non-finite to-infinitival sub clause in “när den inte används”

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Appendix F. Sentence Structure. Inconsistent/Inaccurate Translation

Items inaccurately translated:

Appearance in ST Appearance in TT

Error

”you may see a message”

”this option”

”depending on”

”På datorn visas ett meddelande” (”on the computer a message is shown”)

The translation changes the sentence’s meaning.

”anledningen”

”oavsett”

Not what the dictionary suggests as well as giving the sentence another meaning.

Not what the dictionary suggests as well as giving the sentence another meaning.

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