Clavia | Nord Lead 3 | Nord Lead 2 English User Manual v1.0

Table Of Contents
Page 1
Table Of Contents
Introduction
5
Welcome! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
About This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Clavia on the Net . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Connections
7
Connecting Pedals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Basic Operations
9
Demo Play Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Basic MIDI Settings for the Nord Rack. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Selecting Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Selecting Percussion Kits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Using the Slots To Switch Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Layering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Replacing One Program In the Layer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Splitting the Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Selecting Performances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Monophonic and Polyphonic Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Stereo/Mono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Pitch Stick and Modulation Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Master Tune . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Using a Sustain Pedal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Using a Control (Expression) Pedal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
The “Panic” button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Editing Programs
21
Changing An Existing Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Changing One Sound In A Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Getting Back To The Programmed Sound. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Using Manual Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Customizing Manual Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Storing Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Copying Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Using PCMCIA Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Programming Velocity Sensitivity
25
The Filter Velocity Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Making Any Parameter Velocity Dependent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Clearing Velocity Programming For One Knob. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Clearing All Velocity Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Morphing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Page 2
Percussion Kits
Table Of Contents
29
Selecting and playing a Percussion Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing the sounds in a Percussion Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copying, Extracting and Importing individual Percussion sounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving Percussion Kits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sys Ex Dumps of Percussion Kits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Percussion Kits in Performance Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performances
33
What Are Performances? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recalling A Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing the Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Extracting Single Sounds from a Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving a Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exiting Performance Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What a Performance contains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Panel Reference
37
38
39
41
42
47
49
49
51
51
53
54
55
55
56
57
Accessing The Shift Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tune (Master Tune) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Out Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Local . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prog/Ctrl. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI
33
33
34
35
35
36
36
37
Oscillator 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oscillator 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Settings For Both Oscillators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Amplifier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LFO 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LFO 2/Arpeggiator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LFO 2:Arpeggiator Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LFO 2:LFO Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modulation Envelope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mod Wheel Destination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Poly Legato Mono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Portamento. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oct Shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shift Functions
29
30
31
31
32
32
57
59
59
61
61
62
63
68
69
About the MIDI Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Using Nord Lead 2 With a Sequencer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Bulk Dump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Table Of Contents
About Subtractive Synthesis
Page 3
75
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
The Building Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
The Oscillators and Waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
The Filter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
The Amplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
LFOs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
MIDI Implementation
91
Controller Number List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
System Exclusive Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Factory Settings
101
Factory Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Factory Percussion Kits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Factory Performances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
About the Organ Sounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
About the Prophet-5 factory sound recreations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Restoring the Factory Programs in RAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
MIDI Implementation Chart
109
Index
111
Page 4
Table Of Contents
Introduction
Page 5
1. Introduction
Welcome!
We’d first like to thank you and congratulate to the purchase of a Nord Lead 2. You’re about to begin a
journey into the world of virtual analog synthesis. Analog because the Nord Lead 2 mimics traditional
analog synthesizers in a way no one thought was possible. Virtual because the Nord Lead 2 is actually a
digital instrument, remaining true to the traditional analog concept, and still managing to go beyond it!.
But not all the magic lies in the sound creation. A major part is in the front panel, comprehensive, clearly
laid out and smooth to operate.
About This Manual
If you have some basic knowledge about programmable synthesizers, you probably won’t need this
manual much. Therefore it is arranged mainly as a reference text for those rare situation where something
isn’t as obvious as it should be.
Clavia on the Net
If you have access to the World Wide Web you can get free sounds for your Nord Lead 2 at
www.clavia.se. Here you will also find all the latest information about the Nord Lead 2 and other Clavia
products.
Page 6
Introduction
Connections
Page 7
2. Connections
▼ Make all connections before turning on your power amplifier!
▼ If you are using a Nord Rack together with a MIDI keyboard, connect a MIDI cable from MIDI Out on the
keyboard to MIDI In on the Nord Rack.
▼ All signal cables used with the Nord Lead 2 must be shielded.
▼ All four Outputs (A-B-C-D) are line level.
▼ If you connect the Nord Lead 2 in stereo to your audio equipment, you should use Outputs A and B. For
mono connections, use Output A.
Midi In
Midi Out
Sustain
Pedal
Control
Pedal
Out D
Out C
Footswitch Control pedal
Out B
Out A Headphone
Headphones
R
MIDI equipment (sequencer etc.)
Audio equipment (mixer, PA etc)
Page 8
Connections
Connecting Pedals
The Nord Lead 2 has two pedal inputs, one for a sustain pedal and one for a control pedal (an expressiontype pedal, used to control various parameters in much the same way as the modulation wheel). Connect
the pedals as shown in the figure below:
▼ When connecting an expression-type pedal to the Control Pedal input, you should use a “stereo cable”.
Please note that the pedal must have a stereo output jack.
Sustain
Pedal
Control
Pedal
Out D
Out C
Out B
Out A Headphone
▼ For information on how to set the Nord Lead 2 up for sustain or expression pedal, see page 18.
Basic Operations
Page 9
3. Basic Operations
Demo Play Function
Before you try out the new features for yourself, you may want to listen to what can be done with the
instrument. Luckily, the Nord Lead 2 is equipped with a built-in demo playback function! There are six
demo songs in ROM, showing the instrument’s versatility and features in different contexts. To listen to
the demo songs, proceed like this:
1. Simultaneously press the Shift and Ring Mod/Sync (Demo) buttons.
RING MOD
OSC 2
SYNC
DEMO
OSC
1
POLY
LEGATO
MONO
AUTO
SPECIAL
SYSTEM
The Shift and Ring Mod/Sync buttons.
MORPH
LFO 1
OSC 2
FM
FILTER
SHIFT
Playback starts. During playback, all knobs and buttons on the panel are disabled, except for Master Volume.
2. The demo songs are played back one after the other. If you want to move to the next or previous demo song,
press the Up or Down button in the Program section of the panel.
3. To exit demo play mode, press any other button on the panel.
Page 10
Basic Operations
Basic MIDI Settings for the Nord Rack
If you are using the Nord Rack and controlling it from a MIDI keyboard, the Nord Rack must be set to
receive on the same MIDI channel that the keyboard transmits on. To get started, proceed as follows:
1. Set the keyboard to transmit on MIDI Channel 1.
2. Press the Program Slot A button, so that the LED above the button is lit.
STORE
TUNE
OUT MODE
LOCAL
PROG. CTRL
3. Hold down the Shift button and press the MIDI Ch (Unison) button.
UNISON
MONO
AUTO
The MIDI Ch button
MIDI CH
SPECIAL
SYSTEM
MORPH
The Shift button
LFO 1
OSC 2
FM
FILTER
SHIFT
The display will now show the MIDI Channel setting for Slot A (1 – 16 or off).
4. Use the Program Up/Down buttons to select MIDI Channel 1.
The Program Up/Down buttons
MIDI Channel 1 selected.
STORE
TUNE
OUT MODE
LOCAL
PROG. CTRL
5. Press Shift again to return to the normal play mode.
If you use Slot A when you play the Nord Rack (if you like, together with other Slots), this simple setting
should be sufficient in most situations - even when playing Layers and Performances, as described later
in this manual. For more information, see page 71.
Basic Operations
Page 11
The Trig button
If you don’t have a keyboard connected to your Nord Rack, you can still try out the sounds by using the
Trig button. Pressing this is equal to playing the note C3, with a velocity of 64.
CLEAR
TRIG
PERF. MODE
The indicator next to the Trig button will light up every time the Nord Rack receives a valid MIDI Note
message. This is an easy way to check that your MIDI connections are OK.
Selecting Programs
Program are sounds that you have prepared in advance. The basic memory in the Nord Lead 2 contains
99 Programs. 40 of these can be used for storing your own Programs, see below.
There are also four Program slots labelled A to D. The slots can be used for layering and quickly switching
between programs as described below. They are also used when the Nord Lead 2 is played via MIDI.
1. Select a Program Slot to play by pressing one of the four buttons A to D.
When you are only playing one sound at a time, as you are now, you can select any slot.
STORE
Use these four
buttons to select a
“Program slot”.
This “slot” is selected
(lit up).
TUNE
OUT MODE
LOCAL
PROG. CTRL
2. Use the Program Up/Down keys to select a Program for that slot.
Holding down a button scrolls the value quickly. Holding down the Shift key (the button above the Modulation wheel) while pressing the buttons makes the value change in steps of ten.
Press these buttons to increase/
decrease the Program number.
STORE
If you hold down the Shift button while
you press the Up/Down keys, the Program
value will change in steps of ten.
MORPH
LFO 1
OSC 2
FM
FILTER
TUNE
OUT MODE
LOCAL
PROG. CTRL
SHIFT
Page 12
Basic Operations
There are 99 Programs to select from. If you have a PCMCIA card inserted in the holder on the back, you
may have another 297 on this, arranged in three banks. The bank is indicated by the leftmost digit in the
display:
Selecting Percussion Kits
In addition to the 99 Programs in the basic memory, there are 10 Percussion Kits. Each Percussion Kit
consists of eight different virtual analog percussion sounds, arranged in zones across the keyboard. The
Kits are located “above” Program number 99, and numbered “P0” to “P9”.
If you have a PCMCIA card inserted in the holder on the back, you have access to a further 30 Percussion
Kits, 10 in each bank on the card.
▼ To select a Percussion Kit for a Slot, proceed just as when selecting a regular Program: Use the Program
Up/Down buttons to scroll to the desired Percussion Kit location.
STORE
TUNE
OUT MODE
LOCAL
PROG. CTRL
Percussion Kit P0 selected.
For detailed information about how to play and edit the Percussion Kits, see page 29.
Using the Slots To Switch Programs
The four Program Slots A to D can be thought of as four independent synthesizers, each capable of playing one Program or Percussion Kit. When you select one of the slots you will switch to play the Program
set for that slot.
For live performance, for example, you can set up each slot to play a different Program and quickly
switch between those four by pressing the buttons A to D.
Basic Operations
Page 13
Layering
Activating
You can play more than one Program at a time. Proceed as follows:
1. Set up the Program slots to play the Programs you want to use.
2. To activate more than one Program slot, simply press all the Program Slot buttons you want to use, at the
same time.
All those slots’ LEDs light up. The one you pressed last is blinking. This will be the one you are editing
from the front panel, but more on this on page 21.
STORE
Slots A and D (LEDs lit) are activated.
Slot C (LED dark) is not activated.
TUNE
OUT MODE
LOCAL
PROG. CTRL
Slot B (blinking) is selected. Any editing
will apply to this Program slot.
Deactivating
To turn of the layer, press a slot button that is not part of the layer, or press all the buttons that make up
the layer.
Polyphony
How many notes you can play when layering sounds depends on what Play modes and Unison settings
each Program uses. See page 54.
Replacing One Program In the Layer
You might want to select another Program for one of the slots in the layer:
1. Press the Program Slot button that you want to select Programs for.
Its LED will flash to indicate it is the active slot.
2. Select a new Program for that slot.
Page 14
Basic Operations
Splitting the Keyboard
The Keyboard Split function allows you to divide the keyboard in two sections, each playing a separate
Program. This can be extremely useful when you are playing live, since it lets you use the Nord Lead 2
as if it were two independent synthesizers, with different sounds. When Keyboard Split is activated, Slots
A and B will be played from the left part of the keyboard, while Slots C and D will be played from the
right part. Activate Keyboard Split as follows:
1. Select Slot A and select a Program for it. This will be the sound heard when you play the left part of the keyboard.
2. Select Slot C and select a Program for it. This will be the sound heard when you play the right part of the
keyboard.
3. Press the buttons for Slot A and C at the same time, so that the indicators above both buttons stay lit.
4. Press the Kbd Split button. The green indicator next to the button lights up to indicate that the keyboard is
split.
CLEAR
KBD SPLIT
SPLIT POINT
PERF. MODE
If you now play the keyboard, you will hear the sound of Slot A from the left part of the keyboard, and
the sound of Slot C from the right part of the keyboard.
5. To exit the Keyboard Split mode, press the Kbd Split button again.
Setting the Split Point
You can set the Split Point (the key where the keyboard should be split) in the following way:
6. Hold down Shift and press the Kbd Split button.
The display shows the current Split Point for as long as you keep both buttons pressed.
STORE
TUNE
OUT MODE
LOCAL
PROG. CTRL
7. While holding down both the Shift and Kbd Split buttons, press the lowest key for the right-hand section of
the keyboard. The display shows the name of the key you press.
8. Release the Shift and Kbd Split buttons.
Basic Operations
Page 15
Combining Split and Layer
Since both Slots A and B will be played from the left part of the split keyboard, and Slots C and D from
the right part, you could split the keyboard and still play layers on each keyboard half. Just select all the
Slots you want to use, and activate Keyboard Split.
Selecting Performances
A Performance is a collection of four Programs, one for each slot. Furthermore, the Performance contains
information about which Programs should be active (layered), and settings for Keyboard Split.
In fact, a Performance also contains information about what MIDI Channels to use for each slot, and a
number of other settings, but this is described in detail on page 33. This text is only meant as a quick
introduction to playing the factory Performances.
1. If you have the rack version of the Nord Lead 2, make sure you transmit on MIDI Channel 1.
This is because the factory Performances are set to receive on MIDI Channel 1.
2. Enter Performance mode by pressing Performance.
The display shows the latest selected Performance.
The Performances are organised in 10 Banks, named alphabetically from A to L (the letters I and K are
excluded because they’re hard to write clearly on the display). In each Bank there are 10 Performances,
for a total of 100. If you have a PCMCIA card inserted, the Banks on the card are found after the internal
(ROM) Banks and labelled in the same way, but indicated with the digit 1, to the left in the display.
3. If you want to select another Bank (A to L), hold down Shift and press the Up and Down buttons.
4. To select a Performance in the Bank use the Up and Down buttons.
The Performance is instantly loaded and you can try it out. For a list of the factory Performances, see page
104.
Use the Up/Down buttons to change Performance (indicated by the
digit 1-9 to the right in the display).
STORE
If you hold down the Shift button,
you can change Performance Bank
(A-L) with the Up/Down buttons.
MORPH
LFO 1
OSC 2
TUNE
OUT MODE
LOCAL
FM
PROG. CTRL
FILTER
SHIFT
5. When you are done, exit Performance mode by again holding down Shift and pressing Performance (Manual).
Page 16
Basic Operations
Monophonic and Polyphonic Operation
For each Program you can set a Play Mode (Poly, Mono, Legato). The exact nature of these modes is described on page 54.
To make a sound fatter, you can activate Unison. This reduces polyphony. See page 55 for details.
Press this button to turn
Unison on and off. The LED
above the button indicates
that Unison is activated.
POLY
LEGATO
UNISON
MIDI CH
MONO
AUTO
SPECIAL
SYSTEM
Stereo/Mono
If you are using more than one output, or headphones, you might want to know something about how
the sounds get positioned in the stereo image.
The complex answer is that this depends on the Out Mode settings as described on page 59. However,
the simple truth is that in the basic mode, which the Nord Lead 2 is set to when it comes from the factory,
all Programs are in mono. In fact, there’s one exception: If a Program is set to Unison, the instrument is
switched to stereo operation.
Pitch Stick and Modulation Wheel
Pitch Stick
The Pitch Stick is used to bend the notes, just as with a pitch bend wheel on traditional instruments. The
pitch stick differs from other pitch bend devices in a couple of ways:
▼ There is no dead centre in the middle of the throw. This allows you to use the pitch stick for natural vibrato, pretty much like a guitarist can.
▼ The effect on pitch is logarithmic, that is, the further you move the stick away from the centre position,
the more drastic the effect will be.
To set the range of the Pitch Stick, proceed as follows:
1. Hold down the Shift button and press the button labelled System.
Hold down the Shift button...
MORPH
UNISON
MONO
LFO 1
AUTO
OSC 2
FM
FILTER
MIDI CH
SPECIAL
SYSTEM
SHIFT
...and press the button labelled System
(the LED above the button lights up).
Basic Operations
Page 17
2. Press the System button repeatedly until the character to the left in the display says “br” (for Bend Range).
3. Use the Program Up/Down buttons to the left of the display, to change the value.
The table on page 68 shows you how many semi-tones each value in the display represents.
If the Pitch Stick should be malfunctioning on startup, the display will scroll the message “PITCH BEND
ERROR.”. The Nord Lead 2 will then work as usual, but the Pitch Stick will be disabled.
Modulation Wheel
The effect of moving the Modulation wheel can be different for each Program. You can change the function by pressing the button just above the Modulation wheel. It steps between five possibilities. A description of each can be found on page 53.
Master Tune
To tune the Nord Lead 2 to other instruments, proceed as follows:
1. Hold down the Shift button and press the button labelled Tune.
Hold down the Shift button...
MORPH
LFO 1
OSC 2
FM
FILTER
TUNE
OUT MODE
LOCAL
PROG. CTRL
SHIFT
...and press the button labelled Tune (the LED above the button lights up).
2. Use the Program Up/Down buttons to the left of the display, to change the value.
00 is normal 440Hz tuning. Lower pitches are indicated by a dot to the right of the number and values
higher than normal pitch are indicated without a dot. The values are in cents (hundreds of a semitone).
3. Press the Shift button again.
Using a Sustain Pedal
A foot switch connected to the Sustain Pedal input works as a sustain pedal on a piano. Set it up as follows:
1. Hold down the Shift button, and press the “System” button.
2. Press the System button until the two first digits in the display are “SP”.
3. Use the Program Up/Down buttons to switch the right digit between “0” (Sustain Pedal – open when pressed)
and “1” (Sustain pedal – closed when pressed).
4. Press the Shift button again.
Nord Lead 2 will also recognize Sustain Pedal messages via MIDI (Controller message 64).
Page 18
Basic Operations
Using a Control (Expression) Pedal
As indicated in the illustration on page 8, a regular expression pedal can be connected to the Control Pedal input, using a stereo cable. The connected pedal will either duplicate the Modulation wheel or independently control one of a number of parameters. You can select different Control Pedal functions for
each of the four Program slots. Set it up as follows:
1. Hold down the Shift button, and press the “Special” button.
2. Press the Special button repeatedly, until the left character in the display is an “E” (for “Expression Pedal”).
3. Select a slot for which you want to set the pedal function by pressing one of the buttons A to D.
4. If you want the connected pedal to duplicate the functionality of the Modulation wheel, press the Program
Down button until the display shows “Eof”).
STORE
With this setting, the expression pedal will have the same function as the Modulation wheel.
5. If you instead want to select an independent control function for the pedal, press Store.
The display will flash, showing one of the abbreviations in the table below.
6. ‘Use the Program Up/Down buttons to select one of the following control functions:
Display shows:
Pedal assigned to:
LFO 1 Amount.
LFO 2 Amount.
Filter Cutoff Frequency.
FM Amount.
Oscillator 2 Pitch.
7. After you have made your choice, press Store again.
You return to the “E” display.
8. Use the Program Up/Down buttons to select a control amount value (“1” to “7”).
This value (shown to the right in the display) determines the range of the pedal control signal. Lower
values give a smaller difference between the pedal’s “full up” and “full down” states. High values give a
big difference between the pedal’s up and down states.
Basic Operations
Page 19
9. If needed, repeat steps 5 to 10 to set pedal control function for the other slots.
10. Press Shift to exit the Special menu and return to play mode.
Nord Lead 2 will also recognize Expression pedal messages via MIDI (Controller message 11).
The “Panic” button
If notes “get stuck” or the Nord Lead 2 behaves strangely all you need to do is hold down the Shift button
and press “Panic” (the Distortion button in the Filter section). This will execute an internal All Notes Off,
and reset certain parameters to normal values.
HP 24 db
LP 24 db
LP 12 db
2
VELOCITY
1
3
3
FULL
DISTORTION
PANIC
The Panic button.
BP
NOTCH
+ LP
Page 20
Basic Operations
Editing Programs
Page 21
4. Editing Programs
Changing An Existing Program
Actually, how to change a programmed sound can be described in one sentence: “twist the knobs and
press the buttons”. It is as simple as that!
▼ For information about editing Percussion Kits, refer to page 30.
▼ Don’t be afraid to edit and overwrite the RAM Programs in the internal memory (Program 01 - 40). If later
you want to restore any of the original RAM factory programs, they are backed up as ROM Performances
as described on page 108.
Changing One Sound In A Layer
If you have layered sounds you can still edit one of the sounds from the front panel. Proceed as follows:
1. Press the Program Slot button that you want to edit.
Its LED will flash to indicate it is the active slot.
2. Use the front panel to change the sound.
Getting Back To The Programmed Sound
If you have edited a Program and want to get back to the programmed original, proceed as follows:
1. Select another Program for that slot.
2. Select the first Program again.
It will now have reverted back to the way it was when you selected it last.
Using Manual Mode
KBD SPLIT
SPLIT POINT
PERF. MODE
The Performance/Manual button.
MANUAL
If you want to use the front panel to make up a sound from scratch, hold down Shift and press the Manual
(Performance) button. This leaves you with exactly the sound that the knobs and buttons on the panel
indicate (just as if the Nord Lead 2 was an old non-programmable instrument).
In Manual mode, the instrument only plays one Program, layering is not possible.
Page 22
Editing Programs
Customizing Manual Mode
When you enter Manual mode, the button functions (waveform select, modulation destinations etc.) will
be set to some default values, for a basic sound. However, if you would like Manual mode to be different
the next time you turn on power, proceed as follows:
1. Enter manual mode.
2. Set all button functions as you want them.
3. Press Store twice.
Storing Programs
Storing is done identically regardless if you are saving an edited Program or if you are saving from Manual
mode.
Saving a Program will permanently overwrite an existing Program. Be careful so that you don’t accidentally erase a Program you’d like to keep! However, there is no danger of permanently losing the Factory
Programs in RAM locations 01-40, since these are backed up as ROM Performances (see page 108).
1. Press the Store button.
The display flashes.
2. Use the Program Up/Down button to select a Program number.
You can play the now selected Program, in this mode, to decide if you want to replace it or not.
Only Program numbers up to 40 in internal memory Bank can be used for saving!. If you try to save in
higher program numbers, nothing will happen!
3. If you change your mind at this point, press the Program Slot you want to return to or hold down Shift and
press the Manual (Performance) button to return to Manual Mode.
4. If you decide to go ahead with overwriting the existing Program, press Store again.
The display stops flashing to indicate the Program has been saved.
Copying Programs
Copying Programs between memory slots is just a variation on Storing:
1. Select the Program you want to copy.
2. Press Store.
3. Use the Program Up/Down button to specify the memory location you want to copy the program to.
4. Press Store again.
Editing Programs
Page 23
Using PCMCIA Cards
You can use a standard PCMCIA computer memory card in the slot at the back of the instrument. This
allows you to save another three Banks for a total of 297 programmable memory slots and 30 programmable Percussion Kit locations, and 100 Performances (which in practice includes an additional 400 Programs). PCMCIA cards are also perfect for “backing up” (making safety copies of important Programs and
Performances).
You can purchase Clavia cards at your Nord Lead 2 dealer. These come with sounds for your instrument,
but can be used to store your own.
If you purchase the card at a computer retailer you should ask for this: A 64 kilobyte S-RAM-based, battery-backed PCMCIA card. There are cards with larger memory capacity than 64 kByte but using one with
the Nord Lead 2 is simply a waste of money.
Formatting of New Cards
For the Nord Lead 2 to be able to use a new PCMCIA card, it has to be formatted. The instrument will do
this for you, if you perform the following steps:
1. Check that the card is not write protected.
This is done with a switch located directly on the card.
2. Insert the card.
The display will flash with the letters “Fo”.
3. To format the card, press Store.
Storing Programs On the Card
This is nothing different from storing into the internal memory Bank. When specifying where to store Program, simply select one of the memory slots above “99”, as when selecting Programs from the card (see
page 11).
Storing Performances On the Card
This is described on page 35.
Before storing, make sure the card is not write protected. If it is write protected, the display will not stop
flashing when you press Store the second time, to indicate the Program hasn’t been stored.
Page 24
Editing Programs
Updating Cards used with the original Nord Lead
If you have a PCMCIA S-RAM card formatted with the first Nord Lead, you need to update the card to be
able to properly save settings for the new parameters, and to have the old sounds play back right on the
Nord Lead 2. The instrument can do this for you if your card has already been formatted or updated for
the Nord Lead software version 2.x. This was the software update for the original Nord Lead, that added
several parameters and features. If your card is formatted for the first software version of the Nord Lead,
see the section at the bottom of this page.
In the updating process below, Programs 1-11 in Bank 1 on the card will be erased! Therefore, we recommend that you first copy these Programs to other locations on the card, or save them in a sequencer
etc, by using System Exclusive data dump. After having updated the card, you can copy the sounds back
to locations 1-11 if you like.
The updating is done as follows:
1. Check that the card is not write protected.
2. Insert the card.
The display will flash with the letters “UP”.
3. To update the card, press Store.
If you have a card formatted for the first software version of the Nord Lead: In this case, the updating procedure
above will not work properly. It will allow you to use the card with the Nord Lead 2, but the old sounds
may sound different, with some parameters set to the wrong values. Therefore, we recommend that you
update your card to software version 2.x before updating it for use with Nord Lead 2. To do this, you
need to insert the unprotected card into a regular Nord Lead running software version 2.x. When the display flashes with the letters “UP”, press Store. Now the card is updated for software version 2.x, and can
be updated to Nord Lead 2 format.
Programming Velocity Sensitivity
Page 25
5. Programming Velocity
Sensitivity
The Filter Velocity Function
Press this button to make the Filter Envelope Amount respond to velocity.
The LED indicates that the Velocity function is activated.
VELOCITY
The quickest way to make a Program velocity sensitive, is to activate the Velocity function in the Filter
section. This makes the Filter Envelope Amount vary with striking force, to a pre-determined degree. See
page 46 for details.
Making Any Parameter Velocity Dependent
You can make any continuous parameter (those controlled with knobs) react to velocity. You can also
set the maximum and minimum boundaries for this, yourself.
Setting The Range
1. Set the parameter to the value you want it to deliver when you play with minimum force.
2. Press the Velocity/morph Assign button.
The LED over the button will flash, indicating that the Nord Lead 2 is in “Velocity Learn” mode.
3. Turn the knob to the value you want it to have at maximum striking force.
You can try out different settings for maximum velocity until you find the most suitable. While the Nord
Lead 2 is in “Velocity Learn” mode, you can set ranges for as many parameters as you wish.
4. Press the Velocity/Morph button again.
Page 26
Programming Velocity Sensitivity
The Velocity/Morph LED is now lit to indicate that at least one parameter in the sound is velocity dependant. What you have done now is to set the range, the span within which the parameter will change with
velocity.
If you press the Velocity/Morph button...
ASSIGN
...and move a knob from here to there...
CLEAR
RING MOD
KBD SPLIT
SYNC
SPLIT POINT
PERF. MODE
...this range will be the
one that the parameter
varies within.
DEMO
5. Turn the knob back to the value you want it to have when you play with minimum force.
What you did now was moving the entire range, as described below.
Set the value you want the
parameter to have when you
play with minimum force.
If you have set the range as described in the previous picture,
this will be the value you get when playing with maximum force.
RING MOD
SYNC
DEMO
OSC
1
OSC
2
6. Play the Program to try out the effect.
Please note that any two values can be used when setting the range. To make a parameter value decrease
when you play with more force, i.e. have “reversed” velocity response, simply use a low value for the
“maximum force “setting and a higher value for the “minimum force” setting, when you are defining the
range.
Programming Velocity Sensitivity
Page 27
Moving the Range
As explained above, step 1 to 4 sets the range of the parameter, how far it should be between the minimum and maximum values.
If you then turn a knob that has been programmed for velocity sensitivity, without holding any buttons
or anything, you will adjust the minimum value only and the maximum value will move with it, accordingly.
If you adjust the value for a parameter programmed for velocity control,
you move the entire velocity control range up/down:
This minimum value will result in this maximum value.
This minimum value
will result in this
maximum value.
Clearing Velocity Programming For One Knob
1. Turn the knob to its lowest value.
2. Press the Velocity/Morph button.
3. Turn the knob a bit up and then back to its lowest value.
4. Press the Velocity/Morph button again.
The Velocity/Morph function is now cleared for the knob.
5. Turn the knob back up to any desired value.
When velocity programming is cleared for all knobs, the Velocity/Morph LED goes out.
Clearing All Velocity Programming
To clear all velocity programming, hold down Shift and press the Velocity/Morph Assign button.
Page 28
Programming Velocity Sensitivity
Morphing
Morphing is a term used to describe a continuous blend or “transfer” between two images, sounds or similar. As described above, the Velocity/Morph function in Nord Lead 2 is normally controlled by velocity.
But you can route the function to the modulation wheel instead which allows you to continuously fade
between two sounds – morphing!
The only thing you have to do to activate morphing for a sound that’s already set up for velocity control
is to press the Mod Wheel destination button until Morph is the only lit indicator:
Push this button...
...until only the Morph LED is lit.
MORPH
LFO 1
OSC 2
FM
FILTER
SHIFT
However, if you are setting up a Morph sound from scratch, we recommend the following procedure:
1. Press the Mod Wheel destination button until only the Morph indicator is lit.
2. Make sure the Modulation wheel is all the way down.
3. Set up the basic Program as you want it.
4. Move the Modulation wheel all the way up.
5. Press Velocity/Morph button and adjust the knobs so that the Program sounds the way you want it at “the
other end” of the Morph.
6. Press Velocity/Morph again.
7. Play and move the Mod Wheel to try out the effect.
You can also use an Expression pedal for Morphing, see page 18.
Please note that the Velocity function in the Filter section can be used even if Morphing is active, so that
a Program can be basically Velocity sensitive even though Morphing is activated.
Percussion Kits
Page 29
6. Percussion Kits
The Nord Lead 2 Percussion Kits consist of eight different virtual analog percussion sounds, arranged in
zones across the keyboard. They allow you to incorporate percussion patterns in your music without using up more than one Nord Lead 2 Program Slot.
Selecting and playing a Percussion Kit
1. Select the slot where you want the Percussion Kit.
You can select Percussion Kits for all four slots if you like, giving you a total of 32 different percussion
sounds available simultaneously.
2. Use the Program Up/Down buttons to scroll past Program number 99 and select one of the Percussion Kits.
There are ten Percussion Kits in ROM, located directly after the “regular” Programs and labelled “P0” to
“P9”. For example, select Percussion Kit P0.
STORE
TUNE
OUT MODE
LOCAL
PROG. CTRL
Percussion Kit P0 selected in Program Slot C.
3. Use the white keys to play the percussion sounds in the selected Kit.
There are eight different percussion sounds in each Percussion Kit, arranged in zones across the keyboard like this:
um
Dr
um
um
Dr
Dr
um
um
um
Dr
Dr
Dr
um
Dr
um
Dr
d
un
So
d
un
So
d
un
So
d
un
d
un
So
So
d
un
So
d
un
So
d
un
So
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
If you for example press the lowest keys F, G, A or B with Percussion Kit P0 selected, you will play a
snare sound. A list of the ROM Percussion Kits and their sounds is supplied in page 102.
The keys in a zone will produce different pitches, just as if you played the sound as a regular Program.
However, some percussion sounds are not programmed to respond to keyboard pitch.
Page 30
Percussion Kits
Editing the sounds in a Percussion Kit
While the white keys are used to play the percussion sounds, the black keys are used for selecting which
sound to make changes for:
u
Dr
m
m
m
u
Dr
u
Dr
m
m
u
Dr
u
Dr
m
m
m
u
Dr
u
Dr
u
Dr
nd
u
So
nd
u
So
nd
u
So
nd
u
So
nd
u
So
nd
u
So
nd
u
So
nd
u
So
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
If for example you want to edit the snare sound in kit P0, proceed as follows:
1. Select Percussion Kit P0 as described on the previous page.
2. Press one of the keys F#, G#, A# in the lowest octave.
The display will briefly show “-2”, indicating that percussion sound number 2 is selected for editing.
STORE
TUNE
OUT MODE
LOCAL
PROG. CTRL
3. Now you can use the knobs and buttons on the panel to edit the selected percussion sound to your liking,
just as in regular Nord Lead 2 programs.
You can play the other sounds freely while editing the selected sound, as long as you don’t press any
other black key (since this would select another sound for editing).
There is one limitation when programming the percussion sounds: All of the sounds in a Percussion Kit
will share the same LFOs. The Nord Lead 2 will use the LFO rate, waveform and destination settings of
the last played percussion sound.
4. When you’re satisfied with the first sound, press another black key to select another percussion sound for
editing, according to the figure above.
Edited Percussion Kits cannot be saved in the ROM Bank of the Nord Lead 2. To save Percussion Kits,
you can either use an optional PCMCIA S-RAM card or dump MIDI Sys Ex data to a sequencer or MIDI
recorder (see page 73).
Percussion Kits
Page 31
Copying, Extracting and Importing individual
Percussion sounds
You can easily copy a percussion sound for use in another zone. This zone can be in the same Percussion
Kit or in another one. You can also “extract” the percussion sound and save it as a regular Program.
If you want to copy the percussion sound to a zone within a Percussion Kit, the destination Percussion
Kit must be on a PCMCIA S-RAM Card, since you cannot save any changes in the ROM Percussion Kits.
1. Locate the zone of the percussion sound you want to copy/extract. Hold down a black key in this zone and
press Store.
The display flashes.
2. Scroll to the Program or Percussion Kit location to which you want to copy the percussion sound.
3. If you have selected a regular Program to save the sound in, just press Store again.
4. If you want to save the sound in a zone in a Percussion Kit, hold down a black key in the destination zone and
press Store.
You may also want to “import” a sound that is currently a regular Program, and use it as a part of a Percussion Kit. Proceed as follows:
1. Select the Program and press Store.
2. Scroll to the Percussion Kit location to which you want to copy the sound.
3. Hold down a black key in the zone to which you want to copy the percussion sound, and press Store again.
Again, the destination Percussion Kit must be in one of the three Banks on a PCMCIA card.
Saving Percussion Kits
As already stated, an edited Percussion Kit cannot be saved internally in the Nord Lead 2. To save your
changes, you have to use a PCMCIA S-RAM card:
1. After editing the percussion sounds, press Store.
The display flashes.
2. Use the Up and Down buttons to select a Percussion Kit location in one of the Banks on the PCMCIA card.
In each of the three Banks on the card, there are ten Percussion Kits, located above program number 99
and labelled “P0” to “P9” like in the ROM Bank. As with regular programs on the PCMCIA card, dots are
used to indicate which of the three Banks is currently selected (see page 11).
3. Press Store.
The edited Percussion Kit is saved at the selected location on the card.
Page 32
Percussion Kits
Sys Ex Dumps of Percussion Kits
You can transmit and receive Sys Ex data that contains all settings for a single Percussion Kit, just as for
a regular Program. However, there are a couple of things to note:
▼ You’ve got to initiate the dump from Program Mode, not from Performance mode!
If you make a Sys Ex dump from Performance mode, the actual parameters of the Percussion Kit will not
be included in the dump, only a reference to which Percussion Kit is used in the Performance.
▼ Before receiving a Percussion Kit data dump, you must select a Percussion Kit for the “receiving” slot.
If you attempt to receive a Percussion Kit into a slot which plays a regular Program (1-99), nothing will
happen. Likewise, you cannot receive regular Program Sys Ex data into a slot which plays a Percussion
Kit (P0-P9).
Using Percussion Kits in Performance Mode
In Performance mode, there is one big difference between regular Programs and Percussion Kits:
A Percussion Kit in a Performance is only a reference to the original!
Any changes you make to a Percussion Kit in Performance mode, will not be included when you save
the Performance. If you want to edit your Percussion Kit for use in a Performance, there are two ways of
doing this:
▼ Edit and store your Percussion Kit in Program Mode (you might want to save it on another location, to
preserve the original, unedited Kit). Then go to Performance Mode and select your edited Percussion Kit
for one of the Slots.
▼ Edit the Percussion Kit in Performance Mode. Then, for each edited Percussion sound in the Kit, select
the sound by pressing a black key in that zone and press Store twice. Note however, that this will change
the original Percussion Kit, and all Performances that use this Percussion Kit will be affected by the
changes!
Performances
Page 33
7. Performances
What Are Performances?
Performances allow you to call up four Programs at a time in a live situation, or to recall complete setups
when sequencing via MIDI. The Nord Lead 2 comes with 100 Factory Performances in ROM. Some of
these make use of two, three or four slots, while some are single-slot Performances, effectively serving
as extra ROM Patches. Please note:
▼ You can edit the selected ROM Performance as desired, but you cannot save your changes internally.
▼ To save an edited Performance, you need an optional PCMCIA S-RAM card. On a card, there is room for
100 Performances, located after the ROM Performances, and indicated with the digit “1” to the left of the
Bank and Performance numbers in the display.
▼ You can transmit edited Performance data via MIDI Sys Ex, for storage in an external sequencer, etc.
▼ If the Performance contains a Percussion Kit, only the reference to the Kit Location will be saved with the
Sys Ex dump! To include the parameters for the Percussion Kit, you need to make a separate Sys Ex dump
of the Percussion Kit, from Program mode (not from Performance mode).
▼ You can receive Sys Ex data for one Performance at a time into the edit buffer. If you for example use
Nord Lead 2 multitimbrally together with a sequencer, it is often practical to place a Sys Ex Performance
data dump in the beginning of your song, to select sounds, initialize global settings, etc.
The Factory Performances include several life-like drawbar organ simulations, created using a special
“pseudo-additive” synthesis method. Some of the sounds include famous sound artifacts such as “hum”
and “click” as well as rotating speaker effects, accomplished with Nord Lead’s Morph function. Among
the Performances you can also find recreations of over 40 original factory patches from the classic vintage
synthesizer Prophet 5. Sounds and applications are described on page 104.
Later in this text follows a detailed list of what settings are contained in a Performance.
To store Performances you need to have a PCMCIA card inserted (see page 23).
Recalling A Performance
When you recall a Performance, you replace the four current Programs in the slots A to D with the Programs in the Performance. You also recall other settings as listed in the table later in this chapter.
1. Enter Performance mode by pressing the Performance button.
The display shows the latest selected Performance.
The Performances are organised in 10 Banks, named alphabetically from A to L (the letters I and K are
excluded because they’re hard to write clearly on the display). In each Bank there are 10 Performances,
for a total of 100. If you have a PCMCIA card inserted, the Banks on the card are found after the internal
(ROM) Banks and labelled in the same way, but indicated with a dot to the right of the digits in the display.
Page 34
Performances
2. If you want to select another Bank (A to L), hold down Shift and press the Up and Down buttons.
3. To select a Performance in the Bank use the Up and Down buttons.
The Performance is instantly loaded and you can try it out.
Use the Up/Down buttons to change Performance (indicated by the
digit 1-9 to the right in the display).
If you hold down the Shift button,
you can change Performance Bank
STORE
(A-L) with the Up/Down buttons.
MORPH
LFO 1
OSC 2
FM
FILTER
TUNE
OUT MODE
LOCAL
SHIFT
PROG. CTRL
You can also select Performances via MIDI, see page 70.
Please note that selecting a new Performance changes a lot of parameters, including MIDI Channels and
Special modes for each Program slot. This might lead to silent sounds!
Editing the Performance
Selecting Programs
To replace a Program in a Performance, proceed as follows:
1. Hold down the desired slot button (A to D).
The displays shows which Program was used for this slot, when the Performance was created.
2. While holding down the button, select a Program for the slot, just as you would in “non-Performance” mode.
See page 11.
Hold down the desired slot button
(its LED will blink, and the display
will show the selected Program for
the slot).
Use the Up and Down buttons to select another program for the Performance Slot.
STORE
TUNE
OUT MODE
LOCAL
PROG. CTRL
Performances
Page 35
Layering and Editing
This is done just as in “non-Performance” mode. The only thing to note is that when you save the Performance you save the edited Program(s) “inside” the Performance. The original Program that you used
as a basis for the Performance is not affected.
This is not true for Percussion Kits, which are only referenced in the Performances. Any editing done to
a Percussion Kit in Performance mode will affect the “original” Percussion Kit, and all references to it in
other Performances.
Shift Functions
Again, these parameters are set just as in non-performance mode. Most of these are also saved with the
Performance as indicated in the table on the next page.
Extracting Single Sounds from a Performance
The text below does not apply to Percussion Kits in Performances.
As stated earlier, the sounds used in the Slots of a Performance are not references to regular, existing Programs, but complete Program Patches “in their own right”. You will find several unique sounds in the
factory Performances, sounds that you will not find in any of the internal Program locations. You may
want to extract such a sound, for use as a single Program, or to make it part of another Performance layer.
Proceed as follows:
1. Select the Performance containing the sound you want to extract.
2. Make sure the Slot with the desired sound is selected (LED is flashing).
3. Press Store.
4. Hold down Shift and press the Perf Mode (Manual) button, to exit Performance mode.
5. Scroll to a suitable Program location (01 - 40 in the internal memory or any location on a PCMCIA card) and
press Store again.
The sound is stored as a regular Program. This can now be played as usual, or included in another Performance as described on the previous page.
Saving a Performance
To be able to save edited Performances, you to have a PCMCIA S-RAM card inserted.
1. Set up the Performance as desired.
2. Press the Store button.
The Program display flashes.
3. Select one of the Performance memory slots, as described above.
4. If you change your mind at this point, press any of the Program Slot buttons.
Page 36
Performances
5. If you decide to go ahead with overwriting the existing Performance, press Store again.
The display stops flashing to indicate that the Performance has been saved.
Programs in Performance Slots are actually saved complete with all parameter settings when the Performance is saved. Percussion Kits, on the other hand, are only saved as references to existing Percussion Kits.
The above point means that there is no need to store the Programs separately. As soon as you save the
Performance, all Programs that it uses are also saved, inside the Performance. This also means that if you
later change any of your Programs, from Program mode, the Programs in the Performances are not affected in any way.
On the other hand, Percussion Kits need to be saved separately, as described on page 32.
Exiting Performance Mode
1. To exit Performance mode, press the Performance button.
Now you return to the regular Program mode. You will note that the four slots now play the four Programs that were selected before you entered Performance mode. Likewise, Layering and Shift functions
are restored to the way they were set before you entered Performance mode.
What a Performance contains
The following is a list of what a Performance contains, that is, what you actually save and recall when
you work with Performances:
For Each Program Slot
▼ The selected Program complete with parameter settings or a reference to a Percussion Kit.
▼ The MIDI Channel setting
▼ The Special settings
▼ Expression pedal assignment
▼ Aftertouch assignment
For the Entire Instrument
▼ The Layer configuration
▼ The Keyboard Split settings
▼ Which Program is active for editing
▼ The Pitch Bend Range setting
▼ The Out Mode setting
▼ The Unison Detune setting
Panel Reference
Page 37
8. Panel Reference
Oscillator 1
Waveform
This switches between on of three waveforms for Oscillator 1:
Sine: This is a basic waveform with no harmonics. It is suitable for very soft sounds or for use with FM.
Triangle: This is a waveform with only odd and not very strong harmonics. It is suitable for flute sounds
and similar.
Sawtooth: This contains all harmonics and is the richest of the available waveforms. It is suitable for all
sorts of sounds.
Pulse: This waveform is special in that its harmonic contents can be varied continuously, by adjusting the
Pulse Width, see below. The pulse wave can also be modulated by LFO 1 and the Modulation Envelope.
This waveform is suitable for many type of sounds, but has a more “hollow” character than the Sawtooth
wave.
For an introduction to waveforms, see page 76.
Page 38
Panel Reference
Oscillator 2
OCT
NOISE
KBD TRACK
Waveform
The first three waveform alternatives for Oscillator 2 are identical to the corresponding waveforms of Oscillator 1, see above. But Oscillator 2 has one more waveform alternative:
Noise, Noise Colour and Sync wave: With Noise selected, Oscillator 2 produces noise rather than a pitched
waveform. The exact color (frequency contents) of the noise can be adjusted with the Oscillator 2 Semitones knob.
The further you turn the knob clockwise, the brighter the noise will be. All the way to the right, its frequency characteristics is very close to that of white noise (where all frequencies are represented with
equal energy).
Please note that the sound of the noise is affected by the filter setting (as all other sound from the Nord
Lead 2). If the filter frequency is turned down, adjusting Noise color might not have the expected effect.
If Sync is activated (see page 40), selecting Noise will produce a very special effect, similar to a “digital”
waveform. In this mode, the Semitones (“Sync wave”) knob works as a “waveform selector”. Turning the
knob will change the harmonic content of the sound.
The Sync wave selection is not continuous, but stepped, in steps that correspond to the octave markings
around the Semitones knob. It can be controlled by the Velocity/morph function, but is not affected by
LFO 1, the Modulation Envelope or the Modulation Wheel, even when these have Oscillator 2 selected
as modulation destination.
Semitones
This setting is used to adjust the tuning of Oscillator 2, relative to Oscillator 1. The setting is in semitone
steps. The range is from 5 octaves below Oscillator 1, to 5 octaves above Oscillator 1. However, the full
range may not be available, depending on the Oct Shift setting (see page 56).
To aid you in setting the value, the LED above the knob lights up when the tuning is in perfect octaves.
Panel Reference
Page 39
Fine Tune
This parameter is for tuning Oscillator 2, just as the Tune control is. The difference is that this parameter
operates within one semitone.
If you set the two oscillators to equal volume (see Balance below), make sure Sync and Ring Mod is
turned off, set the two oscillators to the same Tune value, and raise or lower the Fine Tune Parameter
slightly, the slight difference in Pitch will make the sound “richer”.
▼ The LED above the Semitone knob will flash briefly when you set Fine Tune to 0.
Keyboard Track
When this parameter is activated, Oscillator 2 will have different pitches when you play different keys,
just as Oscillator 1 always does.
When this parameters is turned off, Oscillator 2 will always play the same pitch. There are mainly three
situations when this is useful:
▼ When Sync is activated (in this mode, the basic pitch of the sound is determined by Oscillator 1 anyway).
▼ When FM or Ring Modulation are used, to get inharmonic sounds with very varying timbre across the
keyboard.
▼ For special effects and percussion sounds, which are supposed to sound the same all across the keyboard.
Settings For Both Oscillators
KBD TRACK
RING MOD
SYNC
DEMO
OSC
1
OSC
2
FM Amount
This is classic “deep linear FM” as used in pure FM-based synthesizers. The FM function is a bit of depart
from the “analog” concept of the Nord Lead 2, but as you will find, it is a very useful addition.
In this FM implementation, OSC1 is being modulated by OSC 2. In FM speak, OSC 1 is the carrier and
OSC 2 is the modulator. This, means that changing the pitch of OSC2 basically does not affect the pitch
of the sound, but the timbre.
For classic FM sounds, use sine wave on oscillator 1 and triangle wave on oscillator 2.
Page 40
Panel Reference
Modulation of FM Amount: Please note that the amount of FM can be modulated from the Mod Env and LFO
1, and also controlled manually from the Modulation wheel.
When Ring Modulation is activated, the FM Amount knob works as a Tune knob (see $). In this case, to
be able to control the FM Amount manually, you need to use the Modulation Wheel, with the modulation
destination set to FM.
Ring Mod
By pressing the Ring Mod/Sync button until the Ring Mod indicator lights, you activate Ring Modulation.
This is a function (also known as amplitude modulation), where the waveforms of the two oscillators are
multiplied. The result is a disharmonic sound, that is great for metallic or bell-like timbres.
When trying out Ring Modulation, make sure you listen to Oscillator 2, since it is mainly this that is affected by the timbral changes!
Turning the Oscillator 2 Semitones knob will change the timbre, much as with FM. However, with Ring
Modulation, this will also affect the pitch of the sound! This means that activating Ring Modulation may
result in a sound with a completely different pitch than the “normal” sounds. To remedy this, you should
use the Ring Mod Tune knob:
KBD TRACK
RING MOD
When Ring Modulation is activated, the FM Amount knob works as a Tune knob with a range of roughly
one octave. To set the pitch to “normal”, turn off Ring Modulation and play a note, then activate Ring
Modulation, play the same note and adjust the Tune knob until the pitch is the same. Please note that the
pitch will change again if you change the timbre by adjusting the Semitones knob.
When Ring Modulation is activated, you cannot manually control the FM Amount, since that knob serves
as a Tune knob. Instead you can use the Modulation Wheel, with its destination set to FM.
Sync
By pressing the Ring Mod/Sync button until the Sync indicator lights, you activate Sync. In this mode,
Oscillator 2 is “synched” to Oscillator 1. This means that each time a period in Oscillator 1’s waveform
starts, Oscillator 2 is forced to start over with a new period, as well. See page 80 for a more in-depth explanation.
The effect of this is that if Oscillator 2’s pitch is higher than Oscillator 1, its resultant waveform will have
a pitch determined by Oscillator 1, but a timbre depending on the pitch of Oscillator 2. See page 80 for
a basic explanation.
The easiest way to try this out is probably to activate Sync, and adjust the Tune setting for Oscillator 2
while holding down a note.
When trying out Sync, make sure you listen to Osc2, since it is this that is affected by the changes!
Panel Reference
Page 41
Modulation of Oscillator 2 pitch: Please note you can modulate the pitch of Oscillator 2 in various ways: from
LFO 1, the Mod Env and from the Mod Wheel, for example. This can be used to create harmonically varying timbres with a very characteristic sound.
Sync and Ring Modulation can be activated at the same time. Just press the Ring Mod/Sync button until
both indicators are lit.
Pulse Width
This setting only has any effect if Pulse wave is selected for either oscillator or both. It adjusts the pulse
width of the Pulse waves.
There’s only one Pulse Width setting, and it is common for both oscillators.
▼ When you turn the knob all the way to the left you get a perfect square wave which has a characteristic
“hollow” quality.
▼ When you turn the knob clockwise, the sounds gets progressively thinner. See page 79 for a general introduction to pulse waves and pulse widths.
Pulse Width Modulation: Please note that the Pulse Width can be modulated by LFO 1 and the Modulation
Envelope. This creates a sweeping “chorus-like” effect suitable for pads and string sounds.
Amplifier
The Amplifier section is used to adjust the volume of the sound.
The Amplifier Envelope consists of the Attack Decay, Sustain and Release parameters. The Amplitude Envelope is used to give the sound it’s basic shape (soft, slow, short, long etc.) for an introduction to envelopes, see page 86.
Level
Sustain
(level)
Time
Attack
(time)
Key Down
Decay
(time)
Release
(time)
Key Up
Page 42
Panel Reference
Attack
This control is used to adjust how long it takes for the sound to reach full volume after a key has been
pressed. If the knob is turned fully counter-clockwise, the Attack is instantaneous. If the knob is turned
all the way to the right, it lasts many seconds.
Decay
After the attack phase is finished (and you haven’t released the key), the Decay begins. During the Decay
phase, the sound decreases in level, and continues to do so until it reaches the Sustain level (see below).
The Decay knob is used to adjust how long this should take.
Sustain
This is the level the sound will reach after the Decay phase. Once this has happened, the sound will stay
steady at this volume until the key is released.
Please note that the Sustain parameter is used to set a level, while Attack, Decay and Release all are used
to set times.
Release
This knob is used to adjust how long time it will take for the sound to decay to silence after you have
released the key.
Gain
This is used to adjust the overall Level of the Sound. This parameter is mainly used to balance one Program against another.
Filter
HP 24 db
LP 24 db
LP 12 db
2
VELOCITY
1
3
3
BP
NOTCH
+ LP
FULL
DISTORTION
PANIC
The Filter is the most important section for shaping the overall timbre of the sound. Nord Lead’s filter can
be switched between various types. It has the standard main Frequency and Resonance control. The Attack, Decay, Sustain and Release parameters make up the Filter Envelope. These, together with the Envelope Amount knob, can be used to make the Filter frequency vary as the sound progresses, when you
press and hold a key.
For an introduction to filters, see page 81.
Panel Reference
Page 43
Filter Type
LP 12dB: LP stands for low-pass. A low-pass filter lets low frequencies pass and cuts out higher frequencies. Exactly which frequencies get cut out is determined by the Filter Frequency setting (and various other controls, as described below).
In the 12dB low-pass mode, the filter has a gentle roll-off curve (12dB=2poles). This mode leaves more
harmonics than the 24dB variation discussed below. This type of filter has been used in various Oberheim synthesizers and others.
Amplitude
Fc (Cutoff Frequency)
Frequency
LP 24 dB: This is the classic synth filter used in the Minimoog and Prophet-5, among others. It cuts out
high frequencies rather drastically (24db=4 poles).
Amplitude
Fc (Cutoff Frequency)
Frequency
HP 24dB: HP stands for high-pass. This filter is the opposite of the lowpass filter, that is it lets the high
frequencies pass and cuts out low frequencies. The filter has a rather steep curve.
Amplitude
Fc (Cutoff Frequency)
Frequency
Page 44
Panel Reference
BP: To select this type of filter, press the Filter Type button until both the HP and LP 24 buttons light up.
BP stands for band pass. In this mode the filter let’s frequencies in the “mid-range” band pass through,
while lower and higher frequencies are cut out. Each “slope” in this filter has a 12dB (2-pole) roll-off.
Amplitude
Fc (Cutoff Frequency)
Frequency
Notch+LP: To select this type of filter, press the Filter Type button until both the LP 12 and LP 24 buttons
light up.
A notch (or band reject) filter can be seen as the opposite of a band pass filter. It cuts off frequencies in
a “mid-range” band, letting the frequencies below and above through. However, a plain notch filter is
not very musically useful, since it often lets too many frequencies through, resulting in a very sharp, harsh
sound. Therefore, the notch filter in Nord Lead 2 is combined with a 12dB Lowpass filter, resulting in a
filter curve that looks like this:
Amplitude
Fc (Cutoff Frequency)
Frequency
The audible result of this filter combination is a sound with plenty of body, some of the upper mid-range
“bite” removed but a certain amount of high frequencies still present. This type of sound could be very
useful for soft, yet clear pads, etc.
The special characteristics of the Notch+LP filter will be most obvious with low Resonance settings.
Panel Reference
Page 45
Frequency
This is the overall control for which part of the frequency spectrum the filter should operate.
▼ If you for example select the 24dB filter and turn the Frequency knob clock-wise, more and more highfrequency material will be allowed to pass through the filter.
Amplitude
Filter Frequency
Frequency
Please note that if the Envelope Amount setting is raised from its full left position, turning the Frequency
knob might not change the sound as expected. For more information, see below.
Resonance
This control is used to further adjust the characteristics of the Filter.
▼ If you are using the 12 or 24dB low pass filter, increasing resonance will emphasize frequencies around
the set Filter Frequency, making the sound thinner. Further raising the knob will make the sound resonant to a point where the filter adds a ringing quality to the sound. Exactly where in the frequency spectrum this “ringing” appears, depends on the Filter Frequency setting.
Amplitude
Resonance
Filter
Frequency
Frequency
▼ If you have the high-pass or LP+Notch filter selected, increasing Resonance will work pretty much as with
the LP filter.
▼ When you use the band-pass filter, adjusting the Resonance adjusts the width of the pass-band. When
you raise the Resonance, the band where frequencies are let through, will become narrower.
Page 46
Panel Reference
Envelope Amount
This is used to set to what degree the Envelope (see below) should affect the filter. The more you raise
this knob, the more drastic the effect will be.
This knob operates in addition to the Filter Frequency setting. This means that if you for example set the
Frequency knob half-ways, the filter will be already half-ways open the moment you press a key. The
envelope will then be used to open the filter further. Exactly how much further is determined by the Envelope Amount setting.
Amplitude
Frequency
Filter Frequency
Setting
Filter Envelope
Amount Setting
Total Filter Frequency
Let’s take another example of the relation between Frequency and Envelope Amount: If the Filter Frequency knob is already turned fully right, the Envelope Amount setting has no effect at all, since the filter
is already fully open the moment you press the key.
Attack, Decay, Sustain and Release
These are the parameters for the Filter Envelope. They are identical in functionality to the settings in the
Amplifier Envelope, described on page 41.
Velocity
When this switch is activated, the Envelope Amount varies with Velocity (how hard you play the keyboard). For this switch to have any effect, the Envelope Amount setting can’t be set to zero (full left).
Please note that more detailed velocity control can be achieved with the velocity programming function.
Kbd Track
▼ With this switch turned off (none of the indicators are lit), the Filter Frequency setting is constant regardless of where on the keyboard you play.
▼ When Keyboard Track is activated, the filter frequency setting will be higher for higher notes as indicated
in the illustration below. You can select between three degrees of Keyboard Track: 1/3, 2/3 and “full”, as
indicated by the LEDs above the button.
1/3 Kbd Track:
2/3 Kbd Track:
2
1
3
3
Full Kbd Track:
2
FULL
1
3
3
2
FULL
1
3
3
FULL
Panel Reference
Page 47
The reason for using the Keyboard Track switch is related to basic acoustics. If you raise the pitch of a
waveform, the harmonics naturally raise in frequency. If the filter frequency is then constant, the sound
will be perceived as getting muddier the higher up the keyboard you play. To avoid this effect, use KBD
Track.
Amplitude
Frequency
Distortion
When this is activated, the sound is slightly distorted, which adds some harmonics and creates a rawer,
more screaming sound.
LFO 1
FM
OSC 1+2
OSC 2
FILTER
PW
LFO stands for Low Frequency Oscillator. An LFO is an oscillator producing waveforms with a certain
pitch, just like Oscillator 1 and 2. The differences are two:
▼ The LFOs produce waveforms with very low frequencies.
▼ You never hear the actual output of the LFO. Instead the output from the LFO is used for modulating,
that is controlling other functions, like for example the main oscillator frequency (vibrato) or the filter
frequency (wah-wah).
Page 48
Panel Reference
Waveform
This is used to set the shape of the output from the LFO:
Soft Random: This adds smooth random modulation to the destination. This is mainly useful for effect
sounds.
Square: This is a waveform for “abrupt” modulation changes, suitable for trills, distinct tremolos, etc.
Triangle: This is suitable for “normal vibrato” effects and for classic pulse width modulation.
Sawtooth: This creates a ramp which can be used for example for auto-repeats when applied to the filter.
Random: This adds stepped random modulation to the destination. This is mainly useful for effect sounds.
Rate
This is used to set the frequency of the LFO, in other words “the speed of the vibrato”.
The rate can be controlled externally, via MIDI, see page 63.
Destination
This used to set which parameter the LFO should affect:
FM: This routes the LFO to the FM Amount, for special timbric changes.
Osc 1+2: This routes the LFO to the frequency of both oscillators, in equal amounts. Together with the
triangle waveform this creates traditional vibrato.
Osc 2: This routes the LFO to the pitch of oscillator 2 only. This can for example be used together with
Sync (see page 40) to create a “pulsating” change in timbre.
Filter: This routes the LFO to the Filter Frequency. This can for example be used for wah-wah effects (triangle wave) and for auto repeating sounds (sawtooth wave).
PW: This routes the output of the LFO to the Pulse Width of both oscillators. For this to have any effect,
pulse wave must of course be selected for at least one of the oscillators. This destination can be used with
an LFO triangle waveform to create a “chorus-like” sound, suitable for strings and pads.
Please note that this function operates relative to the Pulse Width setting. For optimal results, please
match the Pulse Width and LFO Amount settings (see below).
Amount
This is used to set to what extent the signal from the LFO should be routed to the destination.
Please note that the Amount can also be controlled from the Modulation wheel, see page 53.
Panel Reference
Page 49
LFO 2/Arpeggiator
ECHO
OSC 1+2
2
3
RND
UP
AMP
OCT 1
U& D
ARP
DWN
4
FILTER
H
O
L
D
OFF
Arp switch
This switch is used to select functionality for LFO 2. When the indicator over the button is lit or blinks,
LFO 2 works as an arpeggiator (or an echo; see below). When the indicator is dark, it works as a regular
LFO. On the following pages, these two modes are referred to as “Arpeggiator mode” and “LFO mode”.
When you leave Arpeggiator mode by pressing the Arp button, the Arpeggio will be turned off, but the
LFO 2 function will not be activated until you press the right (LFO 2 Destination) button once. This lets
you adjust the Rate and Amt knobs before applying vibrato, wah-wah or tremolo.
LFO 2:Arpeggiator Mode
In this mode, LFO 2 works as an arpeggiator. If you take a chord and hold the keys pressed, the notes in
the chord will be played back repeatedly, one after the other. The parameters govern direction, range
and speed of the arpeggio:
Rate
This adjusts the speed of the arpeggio.
▼ When “Echo” is selected (see below), the Rate setting determines the “speed”, i.e. the delay-time between
each echo. A higher Rate setting gives a faster echo (shorter delay-time).
The arpeggio speed can also be controlled externally, via MIDI, see page 63.
Arpeggio Mode
By pressing the button to the right in the LFO2/Arpeggiator version, you can select in which direction the
arpeggio should run:
Arp Up: In this mode, the keys pressed on the keyboard will be played one after the other, from bottom
to top, at a speed set with the Rate button. For more details, see Arp Range below.
Arp Down: As Arp Up but downwards.
Arp Up/Down: To get an up/down arpeggio, press the button until both Arp Up and Arp Down are lit.
Rnd Arp: In this mode (the two upper LEDs lit), Nord Lead 2 will create random arpeggios from the chords
you play on the keyboard. This means that the notes in the chord are played back one at a time, but in
random order and in random octaves.
Echo: In this mode (The top LED lit), LFO2 creates an echo-effect by using repeated triggering with decreasing velocity (see explanation on the next page).
Page 50
Panel Reference
Arp range
This knob is used to set the octave range of the arpeggio, as the panel indicates. The Off position turns
off the arpeggio completely.
▼ When Echo is selected, this knob determines the number of echo repeats (0 – 8).
You can select if you want the generated arpeggio notes to also be sent to MIDI Out. See page 61.
Arpeggio Hold
Normally, the arpeggio will continue for as long as you keep any keys pressed. By activating the Arpeggio Hold function, you can release the keys and have the arpeggio continue playing.
▼ Activate Arpeggio Hold by holding down Shift and pressing the Arp Switch. The indicator over the button
blinks to indicate that Arpeggio Hold is activated.
The arpeggio will continue playing until you hold down Shift and press the Arp Switch again.
If the Arpeggiator is activated, but the Arp range knob is set to “Off”, the Arpeggio Hold switch will work
as a regular Hold switch: If you play a note and release the key, the note will continue to sound, as if you
were still pressing the key.
About the Echo function
It is important to understand that the Echo function is not the same as a regular audio delay! What happens when you play a note with Echo activated, is that the same note is triggered (played) again the set
number of times, with gradually decreasing velocity. This has the following consequences:
▼ If the sound you are playing is not sensitive to velocity (Filter Envelope Amount Velocity and Velocity/
Morph are both turned off) there will be no difference whatsoever between the echo repeats.
▼ On the other hand, it is fully possible to use the Velocity/Morph function to make the sound change completely with the echo repeats, making the function ideal for special effects.
▼ The echo consumes polyphony, i.e. each echo repeat “steals” one voice, just as if you had played the
repeats from the keyboard yourself.
This should not be a problem when using the echo effect with short sounds, but if you play long, sustained notes with echo, you could experience notes being cut off by the echo repeats. The solution is to
lower the Amt setting (decrease the number of repeats) and possibly play shorter notes.
▼ The echo function may give unexpected results if you use another Play mode than Poly.
For example, in Mono mode, each sustaining note will be cut off by the next echo repeat and in Legato
mode, you may end up with no sound at all, since new notes will not re-trigger!
Panel Reference
Page 51
LFO 2:LFO Mode
When “LFO Mode” is selected for LFO 2 (the Arp indicator is dark), LFO 2 works as a regular LFO, producing vibrato, wah-wah or tremolo effects. The parameters have the following functions:
Rate
This determines the rate (speed) of the modulation.
Destination
OSC 1+2: When this is selected, LFO 2 produces a triangle wave routed to the pitch of Oscillator 1 and 2
in equal amounts – in other words, a regular vibrato.
Amp: When this is selected, LFO2 produces a triangle wave routed to the volume, for tremolo effects.
Filter: When this is selected, LFO2 produces a triangle wave routed to the Filter Frequency, for wah-wah
effects.
Amt
This determines the amount of modulation. Turn the knob to the right for more pronounced vibrato/
tremolo/wah-wah.
Modulation Envelope
FM
PW
OSC 2
This is a simple type of envelope only comprising Attack, Decay and Amount controls.
Level
Amount (±)
Time
Attack
(time)
Decay
(time)
Page 52
Panel Reference
Attack
This is used to set the time it takes for the envelope to reach “full level” after you have pressed a key.
Decay
When the attack phase is over, the envelope drops back to zero level. The Decay knob is used to set how
long this should take.
There’s another difference between the way this envelope works compared to the other: It will start over
from “zero” each time you press a new key, regardless of which value it had when you released the key.
Amount
This is used to set to what degree the envelope should affect the destination. This knob is bi-polar, that
is, zero amount is in the middle (twelve o’clock). Turning it left introduces a negative envelope and turning it right gives you a positive envelope.
Destination
None: You can turn off both LEDs, to completely turn off the effect of the Modulation envelope. While
this is the same is setting Amount to its centre position, this method is simply quicker.
FM Amt: When this is selected the envelope is routed to the amount of FM modulation. Varying the
amount of FM changes the harmonic contents of the sound, so this can be used to have the timbre change
pretty much like when the Filter envelope is used to change the Filter Frequency.
Please note that this parameter operates in addition to the FM amount setting in the Oscillator section.
PW: When this is selected, the envelope changes the pulse width of the waveform from the oscillators
(provided any of them have Pulse wave selected).
OSC 2: When this is selected, the envelope changes the pitch of Oscillator 2. This can be used in a number
of situations. For example:
▼ With Sync to create distinct sweeping sounds.
▼ With FM for effect type sweeps.
▼ To create “bleeps” in the beginning of a brass type of sound. Let us give a few examples:
If Attack is set to zero, and you have a positive Amount setting, Oscillator 2 pitch will decay down to normal pitch as set with the Decay knob.
Level
Time
Panel Reference
Page 53
If Amount instead is set to a negative value, the pitch will rise up to “normal”.
Level
Time
If Attack and Decay are both used and you have a positive Amount setting, the sound will start at normal
pitch when you press the key, rise and then “fall back”.
Level
Time
Mod Wheel Destination
MORPH
LFO 1
OSC 2
FM
FILTER
SHIFT
This is used to decide what effect moving the Modulation wheel should have.
Morph
In this mode, the modulation wheel is used for morphing. See page 28.
LFO 1
When this is selected (the two upper LEDS lit), the Mod Wheel adjusts the amount of output from LFO 1.
This allows you to for example add vibrato with the mod wheel.
Osc 2
With this selected the Modulation wheel is directly routed to Oscillator 2 pitch. This can be used for example together with Oscillator Sync and FM to vary the timbre of the sound while playing.
Page 54
Panel Reference
FM
When this is selected (the two lower LEDs lit), the wheel controls the amount of FM (see page 39).
Filter
This routes the modulation wheel directly to the filter frequency.
Please note that modulation wheel routing is in addition to the basic setting of the control it is routed to.
If you for example route the modulation wheel to the filter, and the filter is already fully open, moving
the modulation wheel has no effect.
Poly Legato Mono
The “play mode”
switch and LEDs.
POLY
LEGATO
UNISON
MIDI CH
MONO
AU
SPECIAL
SYS
The “play mode” switch is used for deciding exactly how your keyboard playing should be interpreted
by the synthesizer:
Poly: This mode allows you to play chords.
Legato: This makes the instrument monophonic. Furthermore, if you press a key without releasing the
previous, the pitch will change, but the envelopes will not start over. That is, there will be no new “attack”.
Mono: This also makes the instrument monophonic. But if you press a key without releasing the previous,
the envelopes are still retriggered, like when you release all keys and then press a new one.
Furthermore if you press a key, hold it, press a new key and then release that, the first note is also “retriggered”.
Panel Reference
Page 55
Unison
POLY
The Unison switch
and LED.
LEGATO
UNISON
MIDI CH
MONO
AUTO
SPECIAL
SYSTEM
When this is activated more than one voice will be played when you press a key. This gives you a “fatter”
sound, but at the same time reduces polyphony.
▼ If Poly mode is selected, two voices are used for each key. This allows you to play eight notes at the same
time (provided you are not using Layers).
▼ If Mono or Legato mode are selected, four voices are used for each key, for an even fatter sound.
Portamento
The Portamento
controls.
POLY
LEGATO
UNISON
MIDI CH
MONO
AUTO
SPECIAL
SYSTEM
Portamento (Time)
This is used to set how long it takes for the pitch to slide from one pitch to the next. If you don’t want
any Portamento at all, set this knob to zero.
Auto
When this is activated (LED is lit), the pitch only slides if you play legato, that is if you play a new key
before lifting the previous.
The effect of this switch is pretty obvious when you have selected Mono or Legato “Play mode”. If, on
the other hand, Poly is selected, the Portamento effect will be slightly unpredictable if Auto is on. For
Poly mode, we therefore recommend you to turn Auto off.
Page 56
Panel Reference
Oct Shift
The Octave Shift buttons have two functions, Slot and Keyboard Octave Shift (explained below). To
switch between the two Octave Shift modes, simultaneously press both Octave Shift buttons and hold
them pressed until the LEDs change indication mode, as shown in this figure:
OCT SHIFT
DUMP ALL
DUMP ONE
Slot Octave Shift (default)
OCT SHIFT
DUMP ALL
DUMP ONE
Keyboard Octave Shift (LEDs inverted)
Slot Octave Shift
This mode will automatically be selected each time you turn on the Nord Lead 2. In this mode, the Octave
Shift buttons affect the Program in the selected slot only. Notes sent to MIDI Out are not transposed. This
means that in this mode, the Nord Lead 2 can only send MIDI Notes over a range of 4 octaves.
Keyboard Octave Shift
In this mode (LEDs inverted), the actual keyboard is affected by the Octave Shift buttons. This means that
all active slots are affected, as well as all notes sent to MIDI Out. This mode is suitable if you want to
control other MIDI instruments from the Nord Lead 2, since it lets you control a note range of eight octaves. It is also the mode to use if you’re playing a Performance consisting of two or more slots, and want
to be able to Shift all slots simultaneously.
Low/high octave settings in combination with extreme Tune settings for Oscillator 2 may produce pitches
outside the hearing range.
Shift Functions
Page 57
9. Shift Functions
Accessing The Shift Functions
Some functions do not have dedicated buttons, but share buttons with other functions and settings. These
are called the Shift Functions and are printed in blue on the front panel.
Selecting a Shift Function
1. Hold down the Shift button.
2. Press any of the buttons labelled “Tune” to “System”.
Most of the front panel LEDS go out and the program display now shows the selected function.
STORE
Hold down the Shift button....
... and press one of these seven buttons.
POLY
LEGATO
UNISON
TUNE
OUT MODE
OCT SHIFT
LOCAL
PROG. CTRL
MIDI CH
MONO
AUTO
SPECIAL
SYSTEM
MORPH
LFO 1
OSC 2
FM
FILTER
DUMP ALL
DUMP ONE
SHIFT
3. If the Function button you pressed is used for more than one parameter, press it repeatedly until the display
shows the desired function.
If you for example selected the “Prg.Ctrl” button, the left digit in the display switches between “P” (Program), “C” (Controllers) and “A” (Arpeggiator MIDI send) when you press it.
Press the function button to switch between the possibilities (in this figure the
Program [P], Controller [C] and Arpeggiator MIDI [A] functions).
STORE
STORE
OUT MODE
LOCAL
PROG. CTRL
TUNE
OUT MODE
LOCAL
PROG. CTRL
STORE
TUNE
OUT MODE
LOCAL
PROG. CTRL
When a Function button is used for more than one parameter, the digit to the left in the display
indicates the parameter, and the other digits show the value.
Page 58
Shift Functions
Shift Function Listing
The table below shows you what Shift Functions are available for each of the seven buttons and an example of what the display might look like for each function.
TUNE
OUT MODE
LOCAL
PRG.CTRL.
MIDI CH
SPECIAL
SYSTEM
Master Tune
Out Mode for
Slots A and B
Local On/Off
Prog. Change
On/Off
Slot MIDI
Channel
LFO 1 Sync
Sustain Pedal
Polarity
Controllers
On/Off
Global MIDI
Channel
LFO 2/Arp
Sync
Pitch Bend
Range
Filter Envelope Trig
Unison Detune
Out Mode for
Slots C and D
Arp. MIDI Out
On/Off
Amplitude
Env. Trig
External Velocity Morph
Aftertouch
Assignment
Control Pedal
Assignment
Each time you turn on Power, Local On/Off is set to On, and all the Special functions are turned off!
(However, the Special settings are saved with the Performances).
Shift Functions
Page 59
About Global and Slot Functions
▼ If the function you select can be set independently for each Program Slot (A to D), the selected Program
slot flashes. To make settings for a certain slot, select it.
▼ If the selected function is global for all slots, the selected Function button is steadily lit. Which slot is selected is then of no relevance for the setting.
Setting the Value
Once a function is selected, the value is set using the Program Up/Down buttons.
Returning to the normal display
To go back to the regular functions, press the Shift button once again.
There is no need to store the Shift settings. The settings will automatically remain in memory. However,
some functions are reset to default values when you turn off power, see the description of each function
for details.
Tune (Master Tune)
This is used to tune the Nord Lead 2 to other instruments.
“00” is normal 440Hz tuning. Lower pitches are indicated by a dot to the right of the number and values
higher than normal pitch are indicated without a dot. The values are in cents (hundreds of a semitone).
Out Mode
This function is used to set how the Outputs should be used for handling stereo and individual external
processing of sounds.
The Out mode settings are global for the entire instrument, which means all Programs share the settings
made here.
Nord Lead 2 has four outputs, labelled A-D. It might be a good idea to think of these outputs as two output pairs (A-B and C-D), because that is often how they are used.
Basically there are three possibilities for how a sound appears in the outputs:
▼ The first is that a Program appears with equal level at two outputs, which is what we refer to as mono.
▼ The second option is that the voices (the keys you play) appear alternating between the two outputs in
an output pair (A-B or C-D). This we refer to as stereo. If you play chords in stereo mode, the sound will
be spread out in the stereo image.
When Unison is activated, more than one voice will be used each time you press a key, as described on
page 55. If a Unison Program is played in stereo mode, each time you play a key you will get at least one
voice at one output in a pair and at least one at the other, which will result in a “wide” stereo sound.
▼ The third option is that when playing several Programs at the same time, the different Programs appear
separated on different outputs.
Page 60
Shift Functions
The Out Mode function allows you to set different output modes for slots A/B and C/D:
▼ To set the output mode for slot A and B, hold down Shift and press the “Out Mode” button once.
Note however, that the setting you make for slot A and B can affect slot C and D as well, if the setting “cd” is selected for slot C and D, as described below.
▼ To set the output mode for slot C and D, hold down Shift and press the “Out Mode” button twice.
Pressing the button repeatedly will toggle between the settings for slots A/B and C/D.
Settings for Slot A and B:
Display
Description
ab1
In this mode, all sounds are mono (as described above), except if Unison is activated in
which case the instrument automatically switches to stereo, using Outputs A and B. If
one Unison and one non-unison Program are layered, stereo is used.
ab2
This is a straight Mono mode. All Programs always appear with equal level at Outputs A
and B.
ab3
This is a straight stereo mode. All Program always appear with voices alternating between Outputs A and B.
ab4
In this mode Programs assigned to slot A will appear at Output A, while Program assigned to slot B will appear at Output B. This mode can be used when it is desired to
treat two sounds differently in an external mixer, for example in multitimbral MIDI work
or when layering sounds.
Settings for Slot C and D:
Display
Description
cd–
In this mode, Slot C and D use the settings made for Slot A and B. If for example mode
“ab2” is selected, all four slots will appear in Mono at Outputs A and B.
This is the setting you should use if you have connected Nord Lead 2 in stereo to your
sound equipment (using Outputs A and B), or if you are using headphones.
cd1
In this mode, all sounds are output in mono at Outputs C and D, except if Unison is activated. If that is the case, the instrument automatically switches to stereo, using Outputs
C and D. If one Unison and one non-unison Program are layered, stereo is used.
cd2
This is a straight Mono mode. All Programs always appear with equal level at Outputs C
and D.
cd3
This is a straight stereo mode. All Program always appear with voices alternating between Outputs C and D.
cd4
In this mode Programs assigned to slot C will appear at Output C, while Program assigned to slot D will appear at Output D. This mode can be used when it is desired to
treat two sounds differently in an external mixer, for example in multitimbral MIDI work
or when layering sounds.
Mode 1 (ab1 or cd1) is not recommended when using the Nord Lead 2 multitimbrally since one Program
can be set to Unison and another not, which might lead to a stereo image you might not expect.
Shift Functions
Page 61
Local
This is used to turn Local Control on and off.
▼ Local On is the normal Play Mode.
▼ In Local Off mode, the front panel actions and your keyboard playing are transmitted via MIDI, but are
not used to play the synthesizer directly. MIDI Input, however, works normally.
This mode is used with sequencers, when the Nord Lead 2 is used both for recording and playing back
MIDI, and when the sequencer has a MIDI Thru function (sometimes called “Merge” or “echo-back”).
When you turn on power, the instrument is always in Local On Mode.
About Local Control and Control Change Transmission
The Local Control setting also affects the front panel.
▼ In Local Off mode the front panel controls can not be used to change the sound directly, they must be
routed via MIDI, just as the keyboard.
▼ However, if you use the Prog/Ctrl function to turn off reception and transmission of Control Change messages altogether, the front panel controls can again be used to change the sound directly, since otherwise
there would be no way to use the front panel controls at all.
Prog/Ctrl
This is used for setting how Program Change and Control Change MIDI messages should be handled,
and for turning the Arpeggio MIDI Out feature on and off.
These parameters are Global for the entire instrument, that is, the settings are valid for all Performances
and Programs.
To switch between the three different parameters, press the Prog/Ctrl button. The left character in the
display switches between “P” (Program), “C” (Control) and “A” (Arpeggio).
For the two first parameters (“P” and “C”) you use the Program Select buttons to switch between “of” and
“on”. The “of” value means that no data of that type is transmitted or received; “on” means that type of
data is both transmitted and received. The Arpeggio MIDI Out feature requires some explanation:
Arpeggio and MIDI Out
If you want to, generated arpeggios can be sent out as MIDI notes. This makes it possible to arpeggiate
chords on connected synthesizers and sound modules, and to record arpeggios in a sequencer. You activate it using the Prg. Ctrl. menu:
1. Press the Prg/Ctrl button to select parameter.
The left character in the display switches between “P” (Program), “C” (Control) and “A” (Arpeggio).
2. Use the Program Up and Down buttons to switch between “of” and “on”.
Page 62
Shift Functions
▼ For the Program and Control parameters, the “on” setting means that the respective MIDI data is transmitted and received by the Nord Lead 2, while the “of” setting means that it is not.
▼ For the Arpeggio parameter, the “on” setting means that generated arpeggios can be sent out as MIDI
notes. This makes it possible to arpeggiate chords on connected synthesizers and sound modules, and
to record arpeggios in a sequencer.
With the “of” setting, the actual chord you play on the keyboard is sent to MIDI Out, regardless of
whether the Nord Lead 2 arpeggio is activated or not.
Be sure to turn the Arpeggio MIDI Out feature off if you are using Nord Lead 2 in Local Off mode and/
or in a “Thru-loop” with a sequencer, other MIDI instruments etc! Under such conditions, the Arpeggio
MIDI Out feature will either prevent the instrument from sounding at all, or cause a MIDI feedback loop.
MIDI Channel
Program Slot MIDI Channel
To set the MIDI Channel that a certain Program slot receives and transmits on, proceed as follows:
1. Hold down “Shift” and press “MIDI Ch”.
2. The display shows the MIDI Channel for the active Program slot.
3. Select the Program slot you want to make settings for.
The Program slot’s LED flashes.
4. Use the Up/Down buttons to set the MIDI Channel.
If you don’t want the slot to respond to or send MIDI, set it to “off”.
For more information on Program slots and MIDI Channels, see page 71.
Global MIDI Channel
This is the MIDI Channel used for transmitting and receiving Program Change messages for switching
between Performances. To set the Global MIDI Channel, proceed as follows:
1. Hold down “Shift” and press “MIDI Ch”.
2. Press “MIDI Ch” again.
The display now shows the Global MIDI Channel.
3. Use the Up/Down button to set the MIDI Channel.
For more information on the Global MIDI Channel, see page 71.
Shift Functions
Page 63
Special
There are five special functions that make it possible to use MIDI for functions that have previously been
reserved for users of analog modular synthesizer systems.
Accessing the Functions
1. Hold down Shift and press Special.
2. Press the Special button as many times is need to make the left digit in the display show the desired function
(“1”, “2”, “F”, “A”, “S”, “t” and “E”).
3. Select the Program Slot (A to D) that you want to make settings for.
4. Use the Program Up/Down buttons to set values (the right digit).
The Special Functions can be set up differently for each slot and each slot can use all and any of the Special functions at the same time, if desired.
Function “1” – Synchronizing LFO 1 To MIDI Clock
For this to work you need to feed MIDI clock from a sequencer or similar into the MIDI In of the Nord
Lead 2 and activate Play in the sequencer so that MIDI Clock is actually transmitted.
The function synchronizes LFO1’s start to the incoming MIDI Clock so that the LFO starts over at certain
intervals. Which interval to use is set with the parameter value:
Value
Description
of
No external Sync
1
Restart every other bar
2
Restart every whole note
3
Restart every half note
4
Restart every quarter note
5
Restart every eighth note
6
Restart every eighth note triplet
7
Restart every sixteenth note
Please note that this only makes the LFO restart at the specified note value. In between those restarts, the
LFO runs at the rate set with the Rate knob.
Therefore, to “hard sync” the LFO to the tempo of the song when triangle or sawtooth waves are used,
set the LFO rate as close to the tempo in the sequencer as possible. On the other hand, unusual Rate values can lead to interesting rhythmic effects.
When random is selected (or when the Arpeggio is used, see below), to “hard sync”, you only need to
make sure the set rate is lower than the rate imposed via MIDI.
Page 64
Shift Functions
An Example of LFO 1 Synchronization
1. Select a Program for slot A, that plays a “stable” sound with infinite sustain, for example a “string” or “pad”
sound.
2. Lower the Filter Envelope Amount to 0.
3. Set the Filter Cutoff to “nine o’clock”.
4. In the LFO section, select a sawtooth wave, set destination to Filter and set the Amount to full value.
5. Play the keyboard.
You should hear a repeating sound.
6. Hold down Shift and press Special.
The display should show the setting for Special function 1.
7. Press the Program Slot button A.
8. Use the Up/Down buttons to set the value to “5” (eighth notes).
9. Make sure all other Special functions are turned off for this slot.
Do this by pressing the Special button repeatedly and check that the left digit in the display is set to “of”
for all Functions except “1”.
10. Press Shift again to return to “normal mode”.
11. Set up your sequencer (or other MIDI device) to transmit MIDI clock to the Nord Lead 2. Set the tempo to
around 120 BPM and activate Play in the device so that MIDI clocks are actually transmitted.
12. Play the Nord Lead 2 keyboard and adjust the Rate knob in the LFO 1 section.
Start at approximately 12 o’clock and adjust until you get eighth notes that are in sync with the sequencer.
If you raise the Rate slightly from this position you’ll get a shuffle 16th note repeat, etc.
Function “2” – Synchronizing LFO2/Arpeggio to MIDI Clock
This works exactly as Special Function 1, only that it operates on LFO 2 and the Arpeggio instead.
Please note that the explanation about the relation between the LFO rate and the restart via MIDI Clock
also applies to the Arpeggio.
This function will not be enabled when Echo is selected on LFO2.
Function “F” – External triggering of Filter Envelope
This function can be used to trigger the Filter envelope via notes coming in via MIDI, instead of by playing the keyboard. The Filter envelope is triggered from its own MIDI Channel and note number(s), completely independent of the MIDI Channel used for defining which keys should be played. This can be
used to play back preprogrammed rhythms in your MIDI sequencer while inputting the actual pitch(es)
by playing the keyboard or via MIDI.
You can use the Program Select buttons to switch between “of” and “on”. The setting “of” means that the
function is turned off and. “on” means that it is activated.
Shift Functions
Page 65
To set which MIDI Channel and possibly which MIDI note number to use for triggering, proceed as follows:
1. Activate the function.
In other words, set the display to “F.on”.
2. Press Store.
The display shows the MIDI Channel currently used. Set the value with the Up/Down buttons.
3. Press Store again.
The Display shows which MIDI Note number is currently used. The numbers start at C0 (MIDI note
number 24), and sharp notes (#) are indicated by the symbol . “Middle C” is indicated as “C3”.
The value “– – –” means that note number is ignored, that is all notes on the set MIDI Channel will be
used for triggering. This value is found below all the “number values”.
Guidelines for Using Filter Envelope Triggering
▼ If you have notes transmitted from your sequencer that you want to use only for triggering the envelope,
make sure the MIDI Channel you use for this function is not used by any of the Program slots.
▼ Please note that if the Velocity function in the Filter section is activated, the velocities of the incoming
MIDI notes are routed to Filter Envelope amount. This allows you to adjust the timbre of the sound with
the velocity of the incoming MIDI notes.
An Example of Filter Envelope Triggering
1. Select a Program for slot A, that plays a “stable sound with infinite sustain, for example a “string” or “pad”
sound.
2. Lower the Filter Cutoff to 0.
3. Raise the Filter Envelope amount and adjust the Filter envelope so that the sound has a short, snappy character.
4. Hold down Shift and press MIDI Ch. Set the MIDI Channel for slot A to 1.
5. Press each of the other Program slot buttons and set them to MIDI Channel 16.
This is just to make sure they do not get used in this example.
6. Hold down Shift and press Special.
7. Press the Special button until the left digit in the display is “F”.
8. Make sure Program Slot A is selected. Otherwise press its button.
9. Use the Up/Down buttons to set the value to “on”.
10. Press Store. Use the Up/Down buttons to select MIDI Channel “2”.
11. Press Store again and adjust to “– – –” (any MIDI note number).
12. Press Store again.
13. Make sure all other Special functions are turned off for this slot.
Do this by pressing the Special button repeatedly and check that the left digit in the display is set to “of”
for all Functions except “F”.
Page 66
Shift Functions
14. Press Shift again to return to “normal mode”.
If you play the keyboard now, you will not get any sound, because the Cutoff is all the way down, and
the Filter envelope is no longer triggered by the keyboard.
15. Set up your sequencer to play a simple repeating note pattern on MIDI Channel 2.
The pitches of the notes does not matter, only the rhythm.
16. Hold down a few keys on the keyboard and start the sequencer.
The keys you press should be played with the rhythm from the sequencer.
Function “A” – External triggering of Amplifier Envelope
This function can be used to trigger the Amplifier envelope via notes coming in via MIDI, instead of by
playing the keyboard. Just as with the previous function, this can be used to play back preprogrammed
rhythms in your MIDI sequencer while inputting the actual pitch(es) by playing the keyboard.
You must play keys on the keyboard, or via MIDI (on the Program slot’s “basic” MIDI Channel), to get
any sound!
The parameters are the same as for the Filter Envelope function, see above.
If this function is activated and no MIDI notes are triggering the Amplifier envelope, the instrument will
be silent!
Function “5” – External Velocity Morph
This function is used to control the Velocity/Morph function via the velocity numbers of incoming MIDI
notes.
This differs from the way Velocity/Morph is normally applied. Normally the velocity is applied each time
you press a key. With the External Velocity Control function, however, you can press and hold notes and
vary their timbre via the velocity of the incoming notes without releasing the keys (that is – without retriggering the envelopes).
You can use the Program Select buttons to switch between “of” and “on”.
The velocity control happens on its own MIDI Channel and note number(s), completely independent of
the MIDI Channel used for defining which keys should be played. It can be controlled from all notes on
one MIDI Channel or one specific note number on one MIDI Channel (see Function 3 above for how to
specify the MIDI note number and the MIDI Channel).
▼ When this function is activated, and a Note On message comes in, the parameters’ values are adjusted
according to the note’s Velocity value.
▼ When a Note Off message comes in, the Velocity/Morph function is reset to the minimum value.
Please note that you must play the keyboard to hear anything. Also note that the Velocity/Morph must
be set up beforehand for this function to have any effect on the sound.
Shift Functions
Page 67
An Example of External Velocity Morph
1. Select a Program for slot A.
2. Edit the Program so that you get a morphing effect you like when you move the modulation wheel.
It is not actually necessary to assign the velocity programming to the Modulation wheel, but it is a practical way to try out the effect before you apply it via MIDI.
3. Hold down Shift and press MIDI Ch. Set the MIDI Channel for slot A to 1.
4. Press each of the other Program slot buttons and set them to MIDI Channel 16.
This is just to make sure they do not get used in this example.
5. Hold down Shift and press Special.
6. Press the Special button until the left digit in the display is “S”.
7. Make sure Program Slot A is selected. Otherwise press its button.
8. Use the Up/Down buttons to set the value to “on”.
9. Press Store. Use the Up/Down buttons to select MIDI Channel “2”.
10. Press Store again and adjust to “– – –” (any MIDI note number).
11. Press Store again.
12. Make sure all other Special functions are turned off for this slot.
Do this by pressing the Special button repeatedly and check that the left digit in the display is set to “of”
for all Functions except “S”.
13. Press Shift again to return to “normal mode”.
If you play the keyboard now, there will not be any velocity control because you have set the instrument
up to only do this via MIDI.
14. Set up your sequencer to play a sequence of notes with drastically different velocity values.
The pitches of the notes does not matter, only the rhythm and velocity.
15. Hold down a few keys on the keyboard and start the sequencer.
The sound should now vary in character with the velocity values coming out from the sequencer.
Aftertouch and Expression Pedal Settings
The Special menu also contains settings for Aftertouch (“t”) and Expression pedal (“E”) parameter assignment. These functions are described in their respective contents on page 18 (Expression pedal) and page
69 (Aftertouch).
Page 68
Shift Functions
System
Under this menu you will find three different functions, labelled “SP”, “br”, and “Un”.
To select one of the functions, hold down Shift and press the System. Then press the System button repeatedly until the left digit in the display shows the desired letter.
Sustain Pedal (SP)
This is used to set the polarity of a connected Sustain pedal. See page 18 for details.
This parameter is Global for the entire instrument, that is, the setting is valid for all Performances and
Programs.
Pitch Bend Range (br)
This allows you to set the range of the pitch stick, in semitones. The value is also used to set what effect
incoming pitch bend messages should have on the pitch.
The table below shows you how many semi-tones each value in the display represents.
Setting
Range in semitones
Setting
Range in semitones
1
±1
6
±10
2
±2
7
±12
3
±3
8
±24
4
±4
9
±48
5
±7
This parameter is “global” for all Program slots. However, it is saved with a Performance.
Unison Detune (Un)
This allows you to set how far detuned the voices should be when you have Unison activated. For more
info on Unison, see page 55.
This parameter is “global” for all Program slots. However, it is saved with a Performance.
MIDI
Page 69
10. MIDI
About the MIDI Implementation
The following MIDI messages can be transmitted and received from the Nord Lead:
Notes
▼ Note On and Off messages are of course transmitted when you play the keyboard. If you use the Octave
Shift buttons in their “Keyboard” mode (see page 56), you can shift the Nord Lead 2 keyboard ± 2 octaves,
giving you an effective keyboard range of 8 octaves.
▼ Notes can be received over the entire MIDI range. That is, when playing via MIDI you have access to a
pitch range wider than 10 octaves!
Pitch Bend
▼ Pitch Bend messages are always transmitted from the Pitch Stick.
▼ The Pitch bend range (used when receiving pitch bend messages) can be adjusted, see page 68.
Controllers
▼ The Modulation wheel is transmitted and received via MIDI as Controller 1 (Modulation wheel).
▼ If you have an Expression pedal connected to the Control Pedal input, this is transmitted as Controller 11.
▼ If you have a Sustain pedal connected, this is transmitted as Controller 64 (Damper Pedal).
▼ All other controls (knobs and switches) on the front panel (except Master Level), are also transmitted and
received as Control Change messages. This can be used to record your actions on the front panel into a
MIDI sequencer, for playback together with the musical performance.
For a full list of which parameters correspond to which Controller number, see the MIDI Implementation
section.
You can turn the transmission/reception of the front panel Controllers on/off, see page 61.
Aftertouch
The Nord Lead 2 can receive (but not send) Aftertouch (channel pressure) messages. For each program
slot, you can set which parameter (if any) should be controlled by the Aftertouch messages:
1. While holding down the Shift button, press the Special button.
2. Press the Special button repeatedly, until the left character in the display is a “t” (for “touch”).
3. Select a slot for which you want to set the aftertouch function.
4. To assign a parameter for the aftertouch, press Store.
The display will flash, showing one of the abbreviations in the table below.
Page 70
MIDI
5. Use the Program Up/Down buttons to select one of the following control functions:
Display shows:
Aftertouch assigned to:
LFO 1 Amount.
LFO 2 Amount.
Filter Cutoff Frequency.
FM Amount.
Oscillator 2 Pitch.
6. After you have made your choice, press Store again.
You return to the “t” display.
7. Use the Program Up/Down buttons to select a control amount value (“of” or “1” to “7”).
This value (shown to the right in the display) determines how much the assigned parameter should be
affected by a received maximum aftertouch value.
If you don’t want the slot to be affected by aftertouch messages, select amount value “of”.
8. If needed, repeat steps 3 to 7 to set aftertouch assignment for the other slots.
9. Press Shift to exit the Special menu and return to play mode.
Program Change
The descriptions below are only true if transmission/reception of Program Change messages is activated,
see page 61.
▼ When you select a new Program for a slot, a Program Change message is transmitted via MIDI, on the
slot’s MIDI Channel.
▼ Likewise, if a Program Change message is received on a certain MIDI Channel, all Program slots set to
that MIDI Channel will switch to a new Program.
▼ When you select a new Performance, a Program Change message is transmitted on the Global MIDI
Channel. For information on how to set the Global MIDI Channel, see page 62.
▼ When a Program Change message is received on the Global MIDI Channel, a new Performance is selected.
If the Global MIDI Channel happens to be set to the same number as one of the Program slots, the Performance takes precedence. That is, Program Change messages on this MIDI Channel will select Performances, not Programs.
MIDI
Page 71
Bank Select
Bank Select messages are only received, not transmitted.
If you use a PCMCIA card, received Bank Select messages can be used to switch between the internal
Bank and the three Banks on the card on the slot’s MIDI Channel, just as with Program Change, see
above. The lowest Bank Select number selects the internal Bank, the second selects the first PCMCIA
Bank and so on.
Bank Select must always be used in combination with Program Change, or no Bank change will take
place.
System Exclusive
Program settings can be transmitted as a System Exclusive “bulk dump”. See page 73.
Using Nord Lead 2 With a Sequencer
Connections
1. Connect MIDI Out on the Nord Lead 2 to a MIDI In on your sequencer.
2. Connect a MIDI Out from your sequencer to a MIDI In on the Nord Lead 2.
Local On/Off
If your sequencer “echoes” all received MIDI signals via its MIDI Output(s) (which it probably does, look
for a function called “MIDI Thru”, “MIDI Echo”, “MIDI Merge”, “Soft Thru” or similar), the Nord Lead 2
should be set to Local Off. See page 61.
MIDI Channels
▼ Which MIDI Channel the Nord Lead 2 transmits on depends on which of the four Program slots is active
(see page 13).
▼ All four Program Slots always receive MIDI, regardless of which one is selected, or if layering of one or
more slots is activated or not. However, all Slots used in a Layer (i.e. all Slots that are activated) will also
receive on the MIDI channel set for the leftmost active Slot!
This means that if you have a layer consisting of Slots A, B and D, and Slot A is set to MIDI channel 1,
both Slots B and D will receive on channel 1, as well as on their respective set channels.
Therefore, if you want the sequencer to control the four Program Slots independently (i.e. not in a layer),
make sure only one of the Slots is active on the Nord Lead 2 (only one Program Slot LED is lit)!
1. Set up the Program slots that you plan to use so that they transmit/receive on the desired MIDI Channels.
To set a slot’s MIDI Channel, hold down Shift, and press MIDI Ch. Then select the Program slot, and set
the value. See page 62 for details.
2. Set the program slots that you don’t plan to use, to MIDI Channel “Off”.
This is to ensure they don’t play any sound unintentionally.
3. Select the desired Program for each Program slot.
Page 72
MIDI
4. If your sequencer requires you to transmit on a certain MIDI Channel (the same MIDI Channel as the slot
receives on), select the desired slot, before recording.
5. If needed, set the sequencer up to record and play back on the desired MIDI Channel.
6. Activate recording and play the Nord Lead 2.
7. For an overdub with a new sound, either select the next Program slot, or just select a new Track and a new
MIDI Channel in the sequencer.
Which of the two alternatives that is right for you depends on your sequencer, not the Nord Lead 2.
Program Change
For the Nord Lead 2 to transmit and receive Program Change messages, Program Change must be activated, see page 61.
▼ To record a Program Change for a certain Program slot, activate recording in the sequencer and simply
select a new Program for the slot.
▼ To record a change of Performance, go into Performance mode, activate recording in the sequencer and
select the Performance from the front panel.
When playing back the Performance Program Change message from the sequencer, make sure it gets
transmitted on the Nord Lead’s Global MIDI Channel (see page 62).
Controllers
For the Nord Lead 2 to transmit and receive Control change messages from the front panel this must be
activated, see page 61. Modulation wheel and pedal, however, are always transmitted/received.
▼ When you record front panel movements, make sure you have the right Program slot activated, and that
the sequencer “echoes” the changes back on the right MIDI Channel, or your changes will affect the
wrong sound!
▼ If two (or more) Program slots are set up to receive on the same MIDI Channel, both will be affected by
the changes!
▼ Please read the note about Controller transmission in Local Off mode on page 61.
Some notes about Controllers and “Chasing”
Consider a situation in which you record a Controller message, e.g. a filter opening, in the middle of your
sequencer song. Then you “rewind” the sequencer, to a position before the recorded filter opening. The
problem is, that the Nord Lead’s filter will remain opened, although it really should be as it was before
you recorded the filter opening. To solve such problems, several sequencers include a function called
“chasing”, which keeps track of Controller changes and tries to adjust the settings on the instrument according to the current position in the sequencer song.
However, in our case, this wouldn’t help much, because the filter opening was the first Controller message recorded in the song. The sequencer has no information about the filter setting before the recorded
change, and therefore cannot “chase” the settings properly. To solve this, you could record a “snapshot”
of all Controller settings on the Nord Lead 2 panel, at the beginning of your sequencer song. This is best
done by sending an “All Controllers Request” Sys Ex message from the sequencer to the Nord Lead 2,
which will respond by dumping all its Controller values into the sequencer for recording. The “All Controllers Request” message is described in the MIDI Implementation section.
MIDI
Page 73
Bulk Dump
To dump one or more Programs or Performances via MIDI as System Exclusive data, for reprogramming
of another Nord Lead 2 or for recording the data into another MIDI device, proceed as follows:
1. Connect a cable from MIDI Out on the Nord Lead 2 to MIDI In on the other device.
2. Set up the receiving device so that it accepts System Exclusive data.
3. To Dump Performances, enter “Performance Mode” (see page 33). To Dump Programs or Percussion Kits, make
sure you are not in Performance mode.
4. If you want to transmit one Program/Performance only, select it.
5. If needed, set the other device to its “recording mode”.
6. Hold down the Shift button and press “Dump One” (Oct Shift +) to transmit the current Program/Performance only or “Dump All” (Oct Shift –) to transmit all Programs/Performances.
To receive a Bulk Dump, proceed as follows:
1. Connect a cable from MIDI Out on the transmitting device to MIDI In on the Nord Lead 2.
2. If you are about to receive a complete Bank, you need to scroll to a program number in the Bank (single Sound
Bank or Performance Bank) you want to replace with the received Bank.
3. Initiate the transmission on the transmitting device.
If the dump contained a complete Bank, it will take the place of the selected Bank in the Nord Lead 2. If
the dump contained one Program/Performance only, this will be put in the “edit buffer” of the active slot,
instead of the Program/Performance you were playing. However, it is not saved permanently. To save it,
use Store as described on page 22 and page 35.
Remember that any Percussion Kits in a Performance, will only be included as “references” when you
dump the Performance. If you want to dump Percussion Kits including all parameters, you have to be in
Program mode!
Page 74
MIDI
About Subtractive Synthesis
Page 75
11. About Subtractive
Synthesis
Introduction
Subtractive synthesis is one of the oldest and most widely spread forms of synthesizing sounds. It is the
method employed in such classics as the Moog synthesizers, the Sequential Prophet-5 and 10, Arp synthesizers, most Oberheim synthesizers, the Roland Jupiter models, the TB-303 etc; the list is practically
endless. Even new digital instruments such as workstations and sample playback devices employ many
of the basic principles of subtractive synthesis.
With the first Nord Lead, Clavia introduced a new concept: a modern digital instrument that combined a
faithful reproduction of the behaviour of the old analog favourites with the convenience and stability of
the newer designs. The Nord Lead 2 takes this concept even further, adding valuable new features and
functionalities.
The purpose of this chapter is to give you a quick introduction to this world of subtractive synthesis as
used in he Nord Lead 2 and its analog predecessors. If you’d like to know more, there are number of text
books on the subject.
The Building Blocks
Subtractive synthesis started its life in modular synthesizers, large cabinets housing separate electronic
modules, connected via patch cords. With the advancement of technology, the functionality of many of
these modules could be put onto one single circuit board. But functionality-wise, subtractive synthesizers
are still built out of the same modules (or building blocks) as they were decades ago.
We will now take a closer look at these building blocks. Let’s first talk about the three that actually create
and process sound:
Oscillator
The Oscillator is actually the only thing in a synthesizer that actually produces any sound, (all the other
modules only shape the sound from the oscillator.) The oscillator is a bit like the string on a string instrument, it vibrates to create sound.
Filter
The signal from the oscillator is sent through the Filter which shapes the timbre of the sound to make it
“bright”, “dull”, “thin”, etc.
Amplifier
The Amplifier shapes the volume of the sound making it “soft” or “hard”, “slow” or “short”.
In addition to these major three modules all synthesizers also have “modulators”, devices that can make
the volume, timbre pitch and other qualities of sound vary continuously when you play a key. It is these
modulators that basically add animation to the sound, taking it from a dull organ drone to a dynamic and
interesting timbre. The two most common modulators are Envelopes and LFOs:
Page 76
About Subtractive Synthesis
Envelopes
An envelope is used to give a sound a “shape”. If you apply an envelope to the amplifier (which controls
the volume) you are able to make the sound for example slowly fade in and then fade out when you
press and hold a key.
LFOs
LFO is an abbreviation for Low Frequency Oscillator. It is used for repeating variations in a sound, such
as vibrato or tremolo.
Connections
There are many ways in which the modules outlined above can be connected in a synthesizer, but the
one in the picture below is a basic and common one, used in the Nord Lead 2 (although the illustration
depicts far from all the possibilities in this instrument!)
Mixer
Noise
Oscillator
Filter
Amplifier
Output
Oscillator
Envelope
LFO
Envelope
LFO
Envelope
LFO
Audio Signal
Control Signal
Note that the horizontal lines indicate the way the sound travels. The vertical lines indicate control signals. The envelopes for example only modulate (control) the oscillator, filter and amplifiers, they do not
affect the sound directly.
The Oscillators and Waveforms
The two basic qualities of an oscillator is waveform and pitch.
Pitch
The picture of the sawtooth on the Nord Lead 2 front panel displays a sawtooth during one period of
sound. During this time, the wave raises gradually up to maximum level and then instantly drops back
to minimum level.
About Subtractive Synthesis
Page 77
The length of the period determines the pitch (frequency) of the sound. The shorter the period, the higher the pitch. If you for example make the oscillator play at a frequency of 440Hz, there will be 440 periods
of identical Sawtooth waves generated per second.
One Period
Normally there are three ways to change the frequency of an oscillator:
▼ By making settings on the front panel.
On the Nord Lead 2 for example, you have an “Oct Shift” setting for both oscillators and separate Semitone and Fine Tune adjustments for Oscillator 2.
▼ By playing the keyboard.
The keyboard is if course connected to the oscillator so that pressing different key produces different
pitches. In some cases this connection can be turned off, so that the oscillator always plays the same
pitch, regardless of which key is pressed. In the Nord Lead 2, this can be done for Oscillator 2, by deactivating “Kbd Track”.
▼ By Modulation
Modulation allows you to make the pitch vary “automatically”. The most common example is probably
to use an LFO to make pitch go up and down, to create a vibrato. But you can also put the pitch under
envelope control, or make the pitch vary with your striking force (velocity).
Waveform
The waveform of the oscillator affects its harmonic content and thereby its “sound quality” (timbre). The
three most common waveforms are sawtooth, pulse wave and triangle.
Looking at the shape of a waveform tells very little about how it sounds. Instead, there’s a better way to
draw it, called a spectrum. Let’s introduce some quick theory:
Mathematically, all waveforms can be considered as built from a number of harmonics, added together.
Each of the harmonics consists of a sine wave, the purest and simple waveform there is (a sine wave has
no harmonics at all). In other words, if you add a number of sine waves together, each one with its own
pitch (frequency) and volume (amplitude), then you can build any waveform you like.
The lowest harmonic is called the fundamental. The fundamental determines the basic pitch of the
sound. If the fundamental has a frequency of 440Hz, we will perceive the entire sound as having a pitch
of 440Hz.
Other harmonics are then added to the fundamental, called overtones. Normally the first overtone appears at a frequency twice the fundamental (in our example 880 Hz). The next harmonic appears at a
frequency three times the fundamental (in our example 1320Hz) and so on.
In a spectral display of a waveform you can see the frequency (pitch) of each harmonic and its amplitude
(level). This is done by drawing each harmonic as a line raising up from a horizontal scale.
Each line’s position on this scale indicates the harmonic’s frequency. The line furthest to the left is the
fundamental, the next is the first harmonic etc. To make life easier, one usually doesn’t label the horizontal scale with frequency in Hz, but rather with the number of the harmonic.
Page 78
About Subtractive Synthesis
The height of each line represents the amplitude of each harmonic.
If you understand the principle, you also understand that if the harmonics with high numbers have a high
amplitude, the sound will be perceived as bright.
Let’s take a look at some common waveforms and their spectra.
In the illustrations below, only some of the first harmonics are displayed. In reality, waveforms like these
have an infinite amount of harmonics.
Sawtooth
The Sawtooth wave has a simple spectrum. All harmonics are present in the wave, in proportional values.
As you can see, the high harmonics have a fairly high amplitude, which makes this waveform sound
bright.
Amplitude
Amplitude
Time
10
20
30
40
Harmonic number
(Frequency)
Triangle
The triangle wave does not have very strong harmonics. Furthermore they only appear at odd harmonic
numbers. The first fact makes the tone pure, a bit like a flute, and the second fact gives the sound a slightly “hollow” character.
Amplitude
Amplitude
Time
10
20
30
40
Harmonic number
(Frequency)
About Subtractive Synthesis
Page 79
Pulse Wave
The pulse wave is slightly more complicated, because it is not one waveform, it is many different ones.
A pulse wave is a waveform that during one period jumps once between full positive amplitude and full
negative and then back.The thing that can be varied is where within the period you jump from maximum
to minimum amplitude. Let’s look at three examples:
Amplitude
Amplitude
5%
Time
95%
10
20
30
40
Harmonic number
(Frequency)
Amplitude
Amplitude 10%
Time
90%
10
20
30
40
Harmonic number
(Frequency)
Amplitude
Amplitude
50%
Time
50%
10
20
30
40
Harmonic number
(Frequency)
Page 80
About Subtractive Synthesis
In the first, the jump happens 5% in from the beginning of the period. This is referred to as a pulse wave
with a 5% pulse width (sometimes called duty cycle). The second wave has a pulse width of 10%. The
third wave has a pulse width of 50%.
This third wave is a special case of the pulse wave, called a square wave, and this has one peculiarity, it
only contains odd number harmonics, which gives it a “hollow” quality.
On many synthesizers (including the Nord Lead) the pulse width can be adjusted, to set the timbre of the
pulse wave. The more narrow the pulse width, the more “thin” the sound will be.
You can also have the pulse width vary continuously, for example from an LFO or envelope. This is referred to as pulse width modulation. Modulating pulse widths from an LFO creates a rich, chorus-like
effect often used in “string” sounds.
About Inharmonic Spectra
Above we have only discussed spectra where the overtones appear at perfect harmonics. While this is
true for the basic waveforms discussed above, it is definitely not true for all sound. If you for example
use the frequency modulation (FM) or Ring Modulation capabilities in the Nord Lead 2, with the two oscillators set to an “unusual” interval (not octaves or fifths, for example), you will get a spectrum where
the overtones appear at frequencies somewhere between the perfect harmonics. This results in an inharmonic sound, which often sounds “metallic”.
Amplitude
Amplitude
Time
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Harmonic number
(Frequency)
Sync
One some instruments (including the Nord Lead 2), two Oscillators can be synchronized. If you for example synchronize Oscillator 2 to Oscillator 1, Oscillator 2 will start over with a new period of the waveform, each time Oscillator 1 does so. If Oscillator 2 then has a higher frequency than 1, it will get a
complex waveform that depends both on its own pitch and on that of the other oscillator.
Oscillator 1
Oscillator 2
(synchronized)
About Subtractive Synthesis
Page 81
When sync is applied, the basic pitch of Oscillator 2 is locked to that of Oscillator 1. If you change the
pitch of Oscillator 1 you will affect the basic pitch of both oscillators. Furthermore, when you vary the
pitch of the synchronized oscillator (Oscillator 2), this will be perceived as a change in timbre, rather than
in pitch.
This leads to a spectrum with deep resonances at Osc2’s harmonics, like this:
Amplitude
Osc 2 Harmonics
10
20
30
40
Harmonic number
(Frequency)
If you go even further and let the pitch of the synchronized oscillator vary continuously, for example
from an LFO or envelope, you will change the harmonic content of the sound in an interesting and very
characteristic way.
The Filter
The filter in a synthesizer is used to remove or emphasize frequencies in a spectrum. A filter is a bit like
an amplifier (a volume control) that is applied differently to different parts of the spectrum. For example,
a filter might make low frequencies louder, while at the same time making high frequencies weaker. Applying such a filter would make a sound have more bass and less treble.
Let’s imagine a sound with a spectrum where all harmonics are available at full level. It would look like
this:
Let’s now pass this spectrum through a lowpass filter (this type of filter is discussed in more detail below).
The filter has a characteristic, which can be drawn as a curve.
Page 82
About Subtractive Synthesis
As you can see the curve is flat in the low register (which means it doesn’t affect this part of the spectrum
at all) and then, at a certain point, gradually starts falling. When applied to the wave above, this filter cuts
away some of the high frequency material in the wave, like this:
+
=
Filter Types
There are many types of filters, all with their different purposes. We will here discuss the three most common, the ones found in the Nord Lead 2.
Lowpass filter: The Lowpass filter dampens high frequencies and let’s low frequencies pass through unaffected, as in the example above. It is the most common synthesizer filter, since it can be used to “round
off” the sharp sound of sawtooth waves and pulse waves.
Amplitude
Fc (Cutoff Frequency)
Frequency
Highpass Filter: This is the opposite of the lowpass filter. It let’s the high frequencies of the sound pass
through and cuts off the low frequencies. This removes “bass” from a sound, without affecting the high
end.
Amplitude
Fc (Cutoff Frequency)
Frequency
About Subtractive Synthesis
Page 83
Bandpass filter: This let’s frequencies in a certain range of the spectrum (the band) pass through while
dampening frequencies both below and above this range. This accentuates the mid-range of a sound.
Amplitude
Fc (Cutoff Frequency)
Frequency
Notch filter: This filter type (also known as Band Reject) can be seen as the opposite of a band pass filter.
It cuts off frequencies in a “mid-range” band, letting the frequencies below and above through.
Amplitude
Fc (Cutoff Frequency)
Frequency
In the Nord Lead 2 the Notch filter is combined with a 12 dB Lowpass filter, for greater musical versatility
(see page 44).
Roll-off
Filters of one and the same type (lowpass, highpass etc) can have different characteristics. One of the
factors determining the exact filter curve is the roll-off, which is measured in dB/Octave (“decibels per
octave”) or poles. The simplest possible filter has a roll-off of 6dB/octave, which is referred to as “1 pole”.
The next step up is 12dB (2 poles), 18db (3 poles) etc.
The most common synth filters are the 12dB and 24dB lowpass filters. The difference between the two
can be studied in the graph below. The 12dB filter let’s more of the high frequency pass through which
gives the sound a brighter and “buzzier” character than the 24dB filter does.
Amplitude
Fc (Cutoff Frequency)
12dB (2-pole)
24dB (4-pole)
Frequency
In the Nord Lead 2, the lowpass filter can be switched between 12 and 24dB modes. For sounds with high
resonance (see below), similar to those in the Roland TB-303, we recommend the 12dB variation. For
most other sounds we recommend 24dB.
Page 84
About Subtractive Synthesis
Cutoff Frequency
The most important parameter for a filter is its cutoff frequency, which is the setting that determines
where in the frequency material it should start cutting. If the cutoff frequency in a low pass filter is set to
a very low value, only the lowest harmonics (the bass) will pass through. If you raise the cutoff all the
way up, all frequencies will be let through, as the figure below illustrates.
Amplitude
Filter Frequency
Frequency
Changing the cutoff frequency is often referred to as “sweeping the filter”. This is probably one of the
most important ways of shaping the timbre of a synthesizer sound. By using an envelope you can for
example have a high cutoff at the beginning of a sound which is then gradually lowered (the filter “closes” as the sound decays). This would emulate the way most plucked string sound (piano, guitar etc) behave; the amplitude of the harmonics decreases as the sound decays.
Key Tracking
When you play different pitches, the oscillators produce different frequencies. This means that the overtones in the waveform appear at different frequencies. The cutoff frequency of the filter however, is
fixed. This means that different overtones will be cut off at different pitches. To be more precise, the further up the keyboard you play, the muddier the sound will be.
To remedy this problem many synthesizers have a parameter called Filter Keyboard Tracking. When this
is activated, the filter Cutoff Frequency varies with which key you play, just as the oscillator frequency
does. This ensures a constant harmonic spectrum for all keys.
Amplitude
Frequency
Resonance
Resonance in a filter is created by connecting the output of the filter to its input, in other words setting
up a “feedback loop”. The amount of feedback is then controlled with a Resonance parameter on the
front panel of the instrument.
About Subtractive Synthesis
Page 85
When you apply resonance, the frequencies just around the cutoff point of the filter will be emphasized
(louder). As you increase the Resonance further and further, the filter will start to behave more an more
like a bandpass filter, where only the frequencies around the cutoff point are let through. The filter will
start to “ring”, which means it almost sounds like it is adding frequencies to the sound. If the Resonance
is then raised even further (on some synthesizers) the filter will start to self-oscillate, that is produce
sound of its own, just like an oscillator.
Amplitude
Q=4
Q=2
Q=1
Q=0.5
Filter
Frequency
Frequency
High Resonance values are also visible in the waveform. They appear as a “superimposed” waveform
with a frequency equivalent to the filter’s cutoff frequency. The three examples above show the same
wave with increased resonance.
Q=0.5
Q=1
Q=2
If you add Resonance to a sound and then vary the Cutoff frequency (for example with an envelope) you
will get a very typical synthesizer sound.
Page 86
About Subtractive Synthesis
The Amplifier
An amplifier is most often used at the final stage of a synth signal chain, to control volume. By modulating
the amplifier with an envelope, the sound can be given its basic “shape”. In fact, the “volume shape” is
one of the most important factors to how we identify the sound. By setting up a proper volume envelope
you can make a sound “soft”, “hard”, “plucked” “static” etc.
+
=
The volume envelope curve (to the left) determines how the amplitude of the waveform changes over time.
Envelopes
ADSR-Envelope
Envelopes are used to modulate pitch, amplitude, filter cutoff and other parameters in a sound. This is
used to give the sound a varying character from the moment the key is pressed to the moment it is released.
The classic synthesizer envelope has four parameters, Attack, Decay, Sustain and Release, and is therefore often referred to as an “ADSR-envelope”.
When you press a key, the envelope is triggered. This means is starts rasing from zero to maximum level.
How long this should take, depends on the Attack setting. If the Attack time is set to “0”, the envelope
will instantly reach full level. If it is raised it will take longer.
If you for example have an envelope controlling volume, raising the attack will give the sound a “softer”
character. If you have the envelope routed to the filter, it might give the sound a “wah” type of start.
Level
Time
Attack
(time)
Key Down
About Subtractive Synthesis
Page 87
After the envelope has reached full level, it starts to fall back again. How long this should take, is set with
the Decay parameter.
Level
Time
Attack
(time)
Decay
(time)
Key Down
The level of the envelope does not necessarily have to fall all the way back to zero level at the end of the
Decay. Instead, the ADSR-envelope has a Sustain setting used to determine the level the envelope should
rest at, after the Decay. If you for example want to create a flute sound, you would have a fairly high
Sustain setting on your Volume envelope, since a flute tone basically stays at a steady level for as long as
you play it. On the other hand, for a piano sound, you would want a Sustain level of “0”, since a piano
sound decays to silence if you hold the key long enough.
Level
Sustain
(level)
Time
Attack
(time)
Decay
(time)
Key Down
Please note that the Sustain parameter represents a level, but all other envelope parameters represent
times.
Page 88
About Subtractive Synthesis
As described above, the envelope stays at the Sustain level until the key is released. It then falls back to
zero level. The time it should take for this to happen is set with the Release parameter, which works just
as the Decay, only it is not applied until you lift your finger off the keys.
Level
Sustain
(level)
Time
Attack
(time)
Key Down
Decay
(time)
Release
(time)
Key Up
▼ If you set Sustain to full level, the Decay setting is of no importance since the volume of the sound is
never lowered.
Level
Time
Key Down
Key Up
▼ If you set Sustain to 0, the sound will become silent after the Decay phase is finished. With short Attacks
moderate Decay times, this can be used to simulate the behaviour of a plucked string instrument (guitar,
piano etc) where the sound always decays to silence after a while.
Level
Time
Key Down
Key Up
About Subtractive Synthesis
Page 89
▼ If you release a key before the envelope has reach its sustain, it will immediately “jump” to the Release.
The effect of this can be studied in the illustration below.
Level
Time
Key Down
Key Up
▼ Often envelope levels can be made to vary with how hard you play the keys. This is used to make a
sound vary with your playing style, for example to make the sound brighter (filter envelope) or louder
(amplifier envelope).
AD-Envelope
A simpler form of envelope has Attack and Decay parameters only, and is therefore called an AD-envelope. In effect, the AD-envelope behaves like an ADSR-envelope with Sustain set to 0 (see the picture at
the top of this page??). This type of envelope, often with amount and inversion controls, is suitable when
you want to affect the start of the sound only.
On the Nord Lead 2, the Modulation Envelope is of AD-type. Typically, it can be made to modulate the
FM amplitude or the pitch of Oscillator 2, to create a different timbre during the attack part of the sounds.
LFOs
An LFO is an oscillator, just like the ones that produce the sound in a synthesizer, but with two main differences:
▼ The LFO produces very low frequencies, most often below the hearing range (up to 20Hz).
▼ The LFO is not used to produce sound, instead it is connected to other modules to provide modulation
of parameters.
If you for example route an LFO to pitch, you get a vibrato. If you route it to the filter’s cutoff frequency
you get a wah-wah type of effect. And if you route it to the amplifier of an instrument you get a tremolo.
The three basic parameters for an LFO are Waveform, Rate (frequency) and Amount:
▼ The waveform determines the type of vibrato, for example “regular” (triangle or sine), ramp (sawtooth)
or random.
▼ The Rate determines the speed of the vibrato.
▼ The Amount controls to what degree the LFO affects its destination.
Page 90
About Subtractive Synthesis
MIDI Implementation
Page 91
12. MIDI Implementation
Controller Number List
The following is a list of the MIDI Controller numbers used for all knobs and buttons on the front panel.
See page 72.
▼ The reception and transmission of Controllers can be turned on/off. See page 61.
▼ Buttons that control “on/off” functions have a Controller value of “0” corresponding to the “off” position
and a value of “on” corresponding to the “on” position.
▼ Buttons that step through various possibilities start with a Controller value of “0” for the “lowest” setting
and then increment with a value of 1 for each step upwards.
If you want to send Controllers to Percussion Kits, proceed with caution! The Controller message you
send will affect the percussion sound that was last selected for editing, by pressing a black key on the
keyboard (see page 30).
Nord Lead 2 Parameter
MIDI Controller #
MIDI Controller Name
Gain
7
Main Volume
Oct Shift
17
General Purpose #2
Mod Wheel Destination
18
General Purpose #3
Unison
16
General Purpose #1
Poly/Legato/Mono
15
Undefined
Portamento Auto
65
Portamento On/Off
Portamento Time
5
Portamento Time
LFO 1 Rate
19
General Purpose #4
LFO 1 Waveform
20
Undefined
LFO 1 Destination
21
Undefined
LFO 1 Amount
22
Undefined
LFO 2/Arpeggio Rate
23
Undefined
LFO 2 Destination/Arpeggio Mode
24
Undefined
LFO 2 Amount/Arpeggio Range
25
Undefined
Modulation Envelope Attack
26
Undefined
Modulation Envelope Decay
27
Undefined
Modulation Envelope Destination
28
Undefined
Page 92
MIDI Implementation
Nord Lead 2 Parameter
MIDI Controller #
MIDI Controller Name
Modulation Envelope Amount
29
Undefined
Osc 1 Waveform
30
Undefined
Osc 2 Waveform
31
Undefined
Osc 2 Semitones
78
Sound Controller 9
Osc 2 Fine Tune
33
LSB for Controller 1
Oscillator FM Depth
70
Sound Controller 1 (Sound Variation)
Osc 2 Keyboard Tracking
34
LSB for Controller 2
Oscillator Pulse Width
79
Sound Controller 10
Oscillator Sync
35
LSB for Controller 3
Oscillator Mix
8
Balance
Amplifier Envelope Attack
73
Sound Controller 4 (Attack)
Amplifier Envelope Decay
36
LSB for Controller 4
Amplifier Envelope Sustain
37
LSB for Controller 5
Amplifier Envelope Release
72
Sound Controller 3 (Release)
Filter Envelope Attack
38
LSB for Controller 6
Filter Envelope Decay
39
LSB for Controller 7
Filter Envelope Sustain
40
LSB for Controller 8
Filter Envelope Release
41
LSB for Controller 9
Filter Mode
44
LSB for Controller 12
Filter Cutoff
74
Sound Controller 2 (Timbre)
Filter Resonance
42
LSB for Controller 10
Filter Envelope Amount
43
LSB for Controller 11
Filter Velocity
45
LSB for Controller 13
Filter Keyboard Track
46
LSB for Controller 14
Filter Distortion
80
In addition to the above, following controllers are used:
▼ The Modulation wheel transmits and receives Controller 1.
▼ If the Pedal input is used with an expression pedal, this is transmitted and received as Controller 11.
▼ If the Pedal input is used for sustain, this is transmitted as Controller 64 (Damper Pedal)
▼ Bank Select messages (Controller 0 and 32) are received.
MIDI Implementation
Page 93
System Exclusive Implementation
Numbers are in decimal except when preceded by a “$” character, in which case they are in hexadecimal
format.
General Message format
Byte
Description
$F0
System Exclusive
$33
Manufacturer ID (clavia)
<Device ID>
= Global MIDI Channel, 0-15
$04
Model ID for Nord Lead
<Message Type>
See each type of message, below.
<Message Specification>
See each type of message, below.
<Data 1>
This and following bytes depend on the Message Type and Message
Specification. Some messages have no data bytes at all.
<Data 2>
<Data 3>
<etc.>
$F7
End Of Exclusive
Patch Dumps
This message contains the actual Patch Dump. One complete message contains the data for one Patch.
It is transmitted from the Nord Lead 2 in one of two cases:
▼ When a Patch Dump is initiated from the front panel.
▼ When a valid Patch Dump Request message has been received.
This message should be sent to the Nord Lead 2 when you want to replace a Patch currently in the instrument, with a new one.
The Message Type and Message Specification bytes in the Sys Ex message contains information about
from which location the Patch Dump was sent. When a Patch is sent to the Nord Lead 2, it will end up in
this location.
▼ If the Sys Ex data for a complete Bank is sent (using the “Dump All” command), the Program location
within the Bank is stored for each Patch. When any or all of these Patches are sent back to a Nord Lead
2, they will be stored at their original Program Location, but in the Bank that is currently selected on the
Nord Lead 2.
▼ If the Sys Ex data for a single Patch is sent using the “Dump One” command, it is considered being sent
from the Edit Buffer of the selected Slot. This means, that when the Patch is sent back to a Nord Lead 2, it
will not actually be stored, but temporarily placed in the Edit Buffer of its original Slot.
Page 94
MIDI Implementation
▼ If the Sys Ex data for a single Patch is sent upon receiving a Patch Dump Request message, either the
Program Location or the Edit Buffer will be stored, depending on the Message Type byte in the Request
message. This will also determine where the Patch will be placed when it is sent back to a Nord Lead 2.
Byte (Hex)
Byte (Decimal)
Description
$F0
240
System Exclusive
$33
51
Manufacturer ID (clavia)
<Device ID>
= Global MIDI Channel. 0 to 15 ($0-$F).
$04
4
Model ID for Nord Lead
$00 to $04
0 to 4
Message Type specifies the Bank. 0=Edit Buffer, 1 to
4=Bank 1 to 4
$00 to $03 or $00-$62
0 to 3 or 0 to 98
Message Specification specifies the exact memory location, see below.
<Patch Data 1>
See page 98.
<Patch Data 2>
<Patch Data 3>
:
<Patch Data 132>
$F7
247
End Of Exclusive
▼ If Message Type = 0 (Edit Buffer), the Message Specification can be 0 to 3, corresponding to Patch Slot
buttons A to D.
▼ If Message Type = 1 to 4, then the Message Specification (00 to 98) corresponds to the Program Number
within the Bank (01 to 99).
Percussion Kit Patch Dump
This message contains all settings in a Percussion Kit. It is transmitted from the Nord Lead 2 in one of two
cases:
▼ When a Patch Dump is initiated from the front panel and a Percussion Kit is selected.
▼ When a valid Patch Dump Request message has been received, specifying a Percussion Kit location or
an Edit Buffer containing a Percussion Kit.
Percussion Kit Patch Dump messages will also be sent if the “Dump All” command is used.
This message should be sent to the Nord Lead 2 when you want to replace a Percussion Kit currently in
the instrument, with a new one. When it comes to the location of the received Percussion Kit Dumps, the
same rules apply as when receiving regular Program Dumps. Just remember that the internal Percussion
Kit locations in the Nord Lead 2 cannot be overwritten.
MIDI Implementation
Page 95
Byte (Hex)
Byte (Decimal)
Description
$F0
240
System Exclusive
$33
51
Manufacturer ID (clavia)
<Device ID>
= Global MIDI Channel. 0 to 15 ($0-$F).
$04
4
Model ID for Nord Lead
$00 to $04
0 to 4
Message Type specifies the Bank. 0=Edit Buffer, 1 to
4=Bank 1 to 4
$10 to $13 or $63-$6C
16 to 19 or 99 to
108
Message Specification specifies the exact memory location, see below.
<Patch Data 1>
Patch data for eight percussion sounds. See page 98.
<Patch Data 2>
<Patch Data 3>
:
<Patch Data 1056>
$F7
247
End Of Exclusive
▼ If Message Type = 0 (Edit Buffer), the Message Specification can be 10 to 13, corresponding to Patch Slot
buttons A to D.
▼ If Message Type = 1 to 4, then the Message Specification (99 to 108) corresponds to the Percussion Kit
locations (P0 to P9).
Patch Dump Request
This message is used for requesting the Nord Lead 2 to transmit one Patch or Percussion Kit Dump Message. The Message Type and Message Specification are used to specify which Patch should be transmitted.
This message is never transmitted from the Nord Lead 2.
Byte (Hex)
Byte (Decimal)
Description
$F0
240
System Exclusive
$33
51
Manufacturer ID (clavia)
<Device ID>
= Global MIDI Channel. 0 to 15 ($0-$F).
$04
4
Model ID for Nord Lead
$A to $E
10 to 14
Message Type specifies the Bank. $A=Edit Buffer, $B to
$E=Bank 1 to 4
$00 to $03 or
$00-$6C
0 to 3 or 0 to 108
Message Specification specifies the exact memory location,
see below.
$F7
247
End Of Exclusive
▼ If Message Type = 10 (Edit Buffer), the Message Specification can be $00 to $03, corresponding to Patch
Slot buttons A to D.
Page 96
MIDI Implementation
▼ If Message Type = 11 to 14, then the Message Specification (00 to 98) corresponds to the Program Number
within the Bank (01 to 99).
Performance Dump
This message contains the actual Performance. One complete message contains the data for one Performance.
This message is transmitted from the Nord Lead 2 in one of two cases:
▼ When a Performance Dump is initiated from the front panel.
▼ When a valid Performance Request message has been received.
This message should be sent to the Nord Lead 2 when you want to replace a Performance currently in
the instrument, with a new one. The Message Type and Message Specification then specify in which
memory location the Performance should be stored.
Byte (Hex)
Byte (Decimal)
Description
$F0
240
System Exclusive
$33
51
Manufacturer ID (clavia)
<Device ID>
= Global MIDI Channel. 0 to 15 ($0-$F).
$04
4
Model ID for Nord Lead
$1E or $1F
30 or 31
Message Type specifies Performance Edit Buffer (30) or
PCMCIA Card Performance Bank (31)
$00 or $00-$63
0 or 0 to 99
Message Specification specifies the Performance number,
see below.
<Perf. Data 1>
See page 100.
<Perf. Data 2>
<Perf. Data 3>
:
<Perf. Data 708>
$F7
247
End Of Exclusive
▼ If Message Type = 30 (Edit Buffer), the Message Specification should always 0.
▼ If Message Type = 31, the Message Specification corresponds to the Performance Number (00 to 99).
MIDI Implementation
Page 97
Performance Dump Request
This message is used for requesting the Nord Lead 2 to transmit one Performance Dump Message. The
Message Type and Message Specification are used to specify which Performance should be transmitted.
This message is never transmitted from the Nord Lead 2.
Byte (Hex)
Byte (Decimal)
Description
$F0
240
System Exclusive
$33
51
Manufacturer ID (clavia)
<Device ID>
= Global MIDI Channel. 0 to 15 ($0-$F).
$04
4
Model ID for Nord Lead
$28 or $29
40 to 41
Message Type specifies Performance Edit Buffer (40) or
the PCMCIA card Performance Bank. (41).
$00 or $00-$63
0 or 0 to 99
Message Specification specifies the Performance number,
see below.
$F7
247
End Of Exclusive
▼ If Message Type = 40 (Edit Buffer), the Message Specification should always 0.
▼ If Message Type = 41 or 42, then the Message Specification (00 to 99) corresponds to the Performance
Number (A0 to L9).
All Controllers Request
This message instructs the Nord Lead 2 to send all current Controller values for a specified Slot (see page
72). The message is never transmitted from the Nord Lead 2.
Byte (Hex)
Byte (Decimal)
Description
$F0
240
System Exclusive
$33
51
Manufacturer ID (clavia)
<Device ID>
= Global MIDI Channel. 0 to 15 ($0-$F).
$04
4
Model ID for Nord Lead
$14
20
Message Type specifies All Controllers Request.
$00-$03
0 to 3
Message Specification specifies the Program Slot.
$F7
247
End Of Exclusive
Page 98
MIDI Implementation
Patch and Performance Data Formats
In the Patch and Performance Dump Messages, the Data Bytes contain the actual Patch/Performance settings.
▼ All parameters are in 8 bit format, 2s complement (=signed). Each Byte is Nybbleized and coded into two
MIDI bytes, with the low Nybble transmitted first.
▼ A Patch contains 66 parameters, which means the data block of a Patch Dump is transmitted in 132 (66*2)
Bytes. See the “Patch Dump Format” table, below.
▼ A Performance consists of five blocks. The first four blocks contains the four Patches (A to D) This block
is 528 MIDI Bytes (4*66*2). After this follows 180 (90*2) of data for parameters local to the Performance.
See the “Performance Data Format” table, on page 100.
Patch Dump Format
Size
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Offset
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
Name
osc2pitch
osc2pitchfine
mix
cutoff
resonance
filterenvamt
pw
fmdepth
filterenvattack
filterenvdecay
filterenvsustain
filterenvrelease
ampenvattack
ampenvdecay
ampenvsustain
ampenvrelease
portamento
gain
modenvattack
modenvdecay
modenvlevel
lfo1rate
lfo1level
lfo2rate
arprange
osc2pitch_sens
osc2pitchfine_sens
mix_sens
cutoff_sens
resonance_sens
filterenvamt_sens
pw_sens
fmdepth_sens
filterenvattack_sens
filterenvdecay_sens
filterenvsustain_sens
filterenvrelease_sens
ampenvattack_sens
ampenvdecay_sens
ampenvsustain_sens
ampenvrelease_sens
Min
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-128
-128
-128
-128
-128
-128
-128
-128
-128
-128
-128
-128
-128
-128
-128
-128
Max
120
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
Comment
middle=60
middle=64
velocity/morf sens
0=OFF
MIDI Implementation
Size
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Offset
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
Page 99
Name
portamento_sens
gain_sens
modenvattack_sens
modenvdecay_sens
modenvlevel_sens
lfo1rate_sens
lfo1level_sens
lfo2rate_sens
arprange_sens
osc1waveform
osc2waveform
sync/ringmod/distortion
filtertype
osc2kbdtrack
filterkbdtrack
lfo1wave
lfo1dest
voicemode
modwheeldest
unison
modenvdest
auto
filtervel
octshift
lfo2dest/arpmode
Min
Max
Comment
-128
127
-128
127
-128
127
-128
127
-128
127
-128
127
-128
127
-128
127
-128
127
0
3
3=sine
0
3
3=noise
bit 0 = sync on/off, bit 1 = ring mod on/off, bit 4 = filter dist on/off
0
4
0
1
0
3
0
4
0
4
0
2
0
4
0
1
0
3
0
1
0
1
0
4
0
8
8 = off
For Percussion Kit Sys Ex Dumps, the above parameters will be repeated eight times, once for each sound
in the Percussion Kit.
Page 100
MIDI Implementation
Performance Data Format
Size
264
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
1
1
Offset
0
264
268
272
276
280
284
288
292
296
300
304
308
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
328
332
336
340
344
348
352
353
Name
"performance_patch [A,B,C,D]"
"midichan [A,B,C,D]"
"lfo1sync [A,B,C,D]"
"lfo2sync [A,B,C,D]"
"filterenvtrig [A,B,C,D]"
"filterenvtrigmidichan [A,B,C,D]"
"filterenvtrignotenr [A,B,C,D]"
"ampenvtrig [A,B,C,D]"
"ampenvtrigmidichan [A,B,C,D]"
"ampenvtrignotenr [A,B,C,D]"
"morftrig [A,B,C,D]"
"morftrigmidichan [A,B,C,D]"
"morftrignotenr [A,B,C,D]"
bendrange
unisondetune
outmode[cd]+ outmode[ab]
globalmidichan
midiprogchange
midicntrl
mastertune
pedaltype
localcontrol
Keyboard Octave Shift
selected_channel
Arpeggio MIDI Out
"channel_actived [A,B,C,D]"
"pgmselect [A,B,C,D]"
"bankselect [A,B,C,D]"
channel pressure amt. [A,B,C,D]
channel pressure dest. [A,B,C,D]
expression pedal amt. [A,B,C,D]
expression pedal dest. [A,B,C,D]
keyboard split
splitpoint
Min
Max
0
0
0
0
0
23
0
0
23
0
0
23
0
0
0
0
0
0
-99
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
15
7
7
1
15
127
1
15
127
1
15
127
8
8
3
15
1
1
99
2
1
4
3
1
1
98
3
7
4
7
4
1
127
Comment
see PATCH data format
23=off
23=off
23=off
Upper nybble = mode for output c/d
not received!!!
not received!!!
not received!!!
not received!!!
not received!!!
not received!!!
not received!!!
not received!!!
Factory Settings
Page 101
13. Factory Settings
Factory Programs
Programs 1-40 are in the RAM bank, Programs 41-99 are in ROM.
Program
Name
Program
Name
Program
Name
1
Sawbrass
34
String pad
67
Acid 2
2
Velocity strings
35
Solo pulse
68
legato bass
3
Resonance pad
36
Space pad
69
Black Hole
4
Hard string pad
37
Sample/hold
70
Sub
5
Resonance fade pad
38
Saw legato solo
71
DB
6
Portamento quints
39
Echo sound
72
Widebody
7
A fifth pad
40
Pulse solo
73
Fluff
8
Pulse pad with FM
41
Soft strings2
74
Steeldrums
9
Weather bass
42
Majesty
75
Wurz piano
10
Lead saw solo
43
Glass brass
76
My Clav
11
Soft saw lead
44
Gimme 5
77
I bow
12
Zyntar
45
Flute choir
78
Tack clav
13
Arpeggiator down
46
Brass Comp
79
Span Eyes
14
FM Metallic
47
Sync sweep
80
Floote
15
Attack bass
48
Synth strings
81
Hamplafon
16
Saw mono
49
Trumpets
82
Thumpinet
17
Osc 2 modulation
50
Duke
83
Bell bar
18
Guitar 1
51
Dirty FM
84
Flageolettes
19
Violin
52
Space clavinet
85
Rotator
20
Source bass
53
Resonant saw
86
Tuba
21
Perc Lead
54
FM lead
87
Trumpet
22
FM Clavinet
55
Talking clavinet
88
English horn
23
Soft strings
56
Saw ring
89
Metal Flute
24
S/H techno
57
Eraser
90
Voice
25
Resonance sweep
58
Take the fifth
91
FM horn
26
Phaser
59
Echo pad
92
Harpsichord
27
Brite pad
60
Yeow!
93
Electric piano 2
28
Analog grand
61
Syncher
94
Musing
29
Electric piano 1
62
Low bass
95
Chang
30
Random Arpeggio
63
water bass
96
Ravi
31
Clarinet
64
Pick bass
97
Guess!
32
Didjeridu
65
FM morph bass
98
Tubular
33
Sax
66
Acid 1
99
Waterhall
Page 102
Factory Settings
Factory Percussion Kits
Percussion Kit P0
Percussion Kit P1
Percussion Sound
Percussion Sound
Zone 1
Acoustic kick
Zone 1
Surdo drum
Zone 2
Snare drum
Zone 2
Latin snare
Zone 3
Hi-hat
Zone 3
Low tom
Zone 4
Low tom
Zone 4
Bongo hi
Zone 5
Mid tom
Zone 5
Bongo low
Zone 6
High tom
Zone 6
Triangel
Zone 7
Crash
Zone 7
Guiro
Zone 8
Cowbell
Zone 8
Quica
Percussion Kit P2
Percussion Kit P3
Percussion Sound
Percussion Sound
Zone 1
Bass drum
Zone 1
808 kick
Zone 2
Mute conga
Zone 2
808 snare
Zone 3
Conga slap
Zone 3
Clap
Zone 4
Conga hi slap
Zone 4
808 rim
Zone 5
Conga hi
Zone 5
808 cowbell
Zone 6
Conga
Zone 6
808 conga
Zone 7
Cabasa
Zone 7
Hi-hat
Zone 8
Quica
Zone 8
808 Claves
Percussion Kit P4
Percussion Kit P5
Percussion Sound
Percussion Sound
Zone 1
Reverb kick
Zone 1
909 kick
Zone 2
Paper snare
Zone 2
909 snare
Zone 3
Hi-hat
Zone 3
Hat
Zone 4
Low tom
Zone 4
Bongo hi
Zone 5
Mid tom
Zone 5
Bongo low
Zone 6
High tom
Zone 6
Knack
Zone 7
Ride
Zone 7
Electro tom hi
Zone 8
shot
Zone 8
Electro tom low
Factory Settings
Page 103
Percussion Kit P6
Percussion Kit P7
Percussion Sound
Percussion Sound
Zone 1
Bass drum
Zone 1
Reverb kick
Zone 2
Small quica
Zone 2
Echo snare
Zone 3
Muted
Zone 3
Heavy hats
Zone 4
Talking drum
Zone 4
Sonar 1
Zone 5
Indian drum
Zone 5
Sonar 2
Zone 6
Finger cymbal
Zone 6
Noise
Zone 7
Darabouka
Zone 7
Sonar 3
Zone 8
Thumb piano
Zone 8
Crash
Percussion Kit P8
Percussion Kit P9
Percussion Sound
Percussion Sound
Zone 1
Hi kick
Zone 1
Techno kick
Zone 2
Tone snare
Zone 2
Snappy snare
Zone 3
Rim
Zone 3
Hi-hat
Zone 4
Hi-hats
Zone 4
Velocity plop
Zone 5
Latin tom low
Zone 5
Snap
Zone 6
Latin tom mid
Zone 6
Trek
Zone 7
Latin tom hi
Zone 7
Electro guiro
Zone 8
Xylofon
Zone 8
Echo wood
Page 104
Factory Settings
Factory Performances
Performance
Name
Performance
Name
A0
Bellbrass pad
D0
Acid clock
A1
Heavy sync sweep
D1
Future pipe
A2
Big lead
D2
Stereo Pad
A3
Orchestra bell
D3
Wheel lead
A4
Pulse sweep with a twist
D4
Expressive Lead
A5
Reverb choir
D5
Techno song
A6
Majestix
D6
Brass pad
A7
Arpeggiator string pad
D7
Saw Sweep
A8
Plucking pad
D8
Brite string pad
A9
Arpeggiator heaven
D9
Space engine
B0
Sixtifive organ
E0
Square organ
B1
Wow pad
E1
Saw pulse pad
B2
Windy
E2
Analog grand bass
B3
Water organ
E3
Raga on white keys
B4
Big Morph
E4
Soft string pad
B5
Heavy pulse lead
E5
Voice 1
B6
Westminister
E6
Voice 2
B7
Strings and bells
E7
Voice 3
B8
The Jazz duo
E8
Dist lead
B9
Ambient bell
E9
Big bell
C0
Big pulse
F0
Jungle
C1
Unison FM lead
F1
Acid song
C2
Rise and fall
F2
Bottle
C3
Greek stuff
F3
ET go home
C4
Octave sweep
F4
Acc gitar
C5
Cyber piano
F5
Power bells
C6
Pan flute
F6
Voices
C7
Metal sweep
F7
Bells
C8
Sax-o-phone
F8
The wheel morph
C9
Mouth flute
F9
Attack
Factory Settings
Page 105
Performance
Name
G0
Piano pad
G1
Harp
G2
Echo from africa
G3
Sweep pad
G4
Magic night
G5 – H7
Drawbar Organs (see below)
H8 – J9
Prophet 5 Factory Patch Recreations (see page 107
L0 – L9
Nord Lead 2 RAM Programs 1-40 (Backup, see page 108)
Please note that many of the Performances consist of two-, three- or four-slot layers, which will lead to
reduced polyphony, especially noticeable on a 4-voice Nord Lead 2.
About the Organ Sounds
Among the Factory Performances, there are reproductions of 13 classic organ sounds. By using layers of
several Slots, combined with a special “pseudo-additive” synthesis, Clavia have filtered out a minor
number of “partials” from each Oscillator and combined them into different drawbar configurations, successfully emulating the sound of drawbar organs such as the classic “B3”.
Drawbar Organ Essentials
To make best use of the organ emulations and their special features, some knowledge about the original
instruments might be of use. Briefly, the following building blocks were combined to create the unique
drawbar organ sounds:
Tonewheels: These are the basic sound-generating devices. In the Nord Lead 2, they are of course replaced
by the Oscillator section.
Drawbars: These are click-stopped “sliders”, usually nine, each one controlling the volume of a certain
partial in the organ tone. The partials are indicated in the classic pipe organ way, referring to the length
of the organ pipes. Thus, the standard drawbar configuration is (from the bottom up) :
16’
5 1/3’
8’
4’
2 2/3’
2’
1 3/5’
1 1/3’
1’
By using the drawbars to change the balance between the partials, the harmonic content of the organ
tone can be changed .
In the Nord Lead 2 organ sounds, the oscillators are used to generate the partials. In some cases, there is
a direct “one oscillator - one drawbar” relation; other sounds use more complex waveforms to simulate
up to three combined partials with one oscillator. Usually, the oscillators in each slot are paired, so that
Oscillator 1 generates the lower partial(s) and Oscillator 2 the higher. Therefore, you can give the sound
more bottom or edge, by changing the Oscillator balance with the Mix knob for each Slot.
Page 106
Factory Settings
Percussion: To add some attack to the sound, most classic organs feature Percussion - an accent-like tone
with fast attack, short decay and no sustain. Usually the pitch of the Percussion tones are 4’ or 2 2/3’ (or
both mixed), in effect replacing the corresponding drawbar partials. Some of the Nord Lead 2 organ
sounds make use of Percussion in Slot B. You can vary the balance between the two Percussion pitches
with the Mix knob, and also change the Decay time of the Percussion tone to make it fit your playing
style.
Click: Though not an intended feature on the classic organs, the short, non-pitched click noise when keys
are pressed has become a popular characteristic. In the organs, the sound came from oxidation on the
key switches; in the Nord Lead 2 you can add or remove the click as desired. All of the Nord Lead 2 organ
Performances has the click sound on Slot D, although it is by default turned off for some of the sounds.
Hum: This disharmonic, thin sound is also an unintended artifact, generated by leakage between the
tonewheels in the organs. It is included in some of the Nord Lead 2 organ sounds, adding even further
realism.
Rotary Speaker: A large part of the characteristic organ sound is due to the rotary speaker cabinet. Such a
cabinet “moves the sound” around, either by rotating the actual speakers, or by directing the sounds with
rotating baffles or horns. Usually, the rotation speed can be changed from slow (producing a full choruslike effect) to fast (producing a very special doppler-shifted tremolo sound). Several of the organ sounds
in the Nord Lead 2 include a Rotary Speaker effect, emulated by the LFO:s and the Morph function.
Change the rotor speed from slow to fast by raising the Modulation wheel.
This table shows the drawbar configurations simulated by each organ Performance. The configuration is
indicated by 9 numbers, volume settings (0 - 8) for each drawbar in the simulated sound.
For all Performances, you can activate Slot D to add Click to the sound.
Performance
Name
Drawbar configuration
Extras
Slot B: Perc.
Slot C: Hum
Rotary Spkr.
G5
Perc 3rd w click
880 000 000
G6
NHL
808 000 022
No
G7
W. Shade of Pale
888 600 000
Yes
G8
Straight Jazz Perc
888 000 000
G9
Soul Rotor
888 222 222
Yes
H0
One high
888 000 008
Yes
H1
All Even Harmonics
808 808 008
Yes
H2
Odd Upper Harmonics
888 040 440
Yes
H3
All Out
888 888 888
Yes
H4
Cathedral Organ
864 212 468
Yes
H5
Low
876 543 211
Yes
H6
Mid
124 686 421
Yes
H7
Super Brite
112 345 678
Yes
Slot B: Perc.
Slot C: Hum
No
No
Factory Settings
Page 107
About the Prophet-5 factory sound recreations
Over 40 of the 120 original factory sounds from the classic vintage “Prophet 5” synthesizer have been
faithfully recreated and stored in the Factory Performances of the Nord Lead 2. You find the Prophet
sounds in Performance memory locations H8 to J9.
Since each of these sounds uses one Slot only, four different Prophet sounds have been stored in each
Performance. To try out the different Patches in one Performance, select slot A, B, C or D, by pressing
the respective Slot button. The names of the recreated Prophet patches refer to their original location in
the Prophet 5 program banks.
Performance
Slot A
Slot B
Slot C
Slot D
H8
Bank 1-11
Bank 1-12
Bank 1-13
Bank 1-14
H9
Bank 1-15
Bank 1-16
Bank 1-17
Bank 1-18
J0
Bank 1-21
Bank 1-22
Bank 1-23
Bank 1-24
J1
Bank 1-25
Bank 1-26
Bank 1-27
Bank 1-28
J2
Bank 1-31
Bank 1-32
Bank 1-33
Bank 1-34
J3
Bank 1-35
Bank 1-36
Bank 1-37
Bank 1-38
J4
Bank 1-41
Bank 1-42
Bank 1-43
Bank 1-44
J5
Bank 1-45
Bank 1-46
Bank 1-47
Bank 1-48
J6
Bank 2-41
Bank 1-52
Bank 1-53
Bank 1-54
J7
Bank 1-55
Bank 1-56
Bank 1-57
Bank 1-58
J8
Bank 3-12
Bank 2-36
Bank 2-37
Bank 2-52
J9
Bank 2-54
Page 108
Factory Settings
Restoring the Factory Programs in RAM
Don’t hesitate to replace the Factory Programs in RAM locations 01 to 40 with sounds of your own! The
Factory Programs are duplicated in ROM Performances L0 to L9, as listed below. To extract one of these
sounds from its Performance, and store it as a Program, follow the instructions on page 35.
Performance
Slot A
Slot B
Slot C
Slot D
L0
Program 01
Program 02
Program 03
Program 04
L1
Program 05
Program 06
Program 07
Program 08
L2
Program 09
Program 10
Program 11
Program 12
L3
Program 13
Program 14
Program 15
Program 16
L4
Program 17
Program 18
Program 19
Program 20
L5
Program 21
Program 22
Program 23
Program 24
L6
Program 25
Program 26
Program 27
Program 28
L7
Program 29
Program 30
Program 31
Program 32
L8
Program 33
Program 34
Program 35
Program 36
L9
Program 37
Program 38
Program 39
Program 40
MIDI Implementation Chart
Page 109
14. MIDI Implementation
Chart
Model: Clavia Nord Lead 2 (Keyboard and Rack)
Function
Date: 97 04 25
Transmitted
Recognized
Basic
Channel
Default
Channel
1 – 16
1 – 16
1 – 16
1 – 16
Mode
Default
Messages
Altered
Mode 3
✕
***********
Mode 3
✕
True Voice
0 – 127
***********
0 – 127
0 – 127
Velocity
Note ON
Note OFF
O v = 1 – 127
✕
O v = 1 – 127
✕
After
Touch
Key’s
Ch’s
✕
✕
✕
O
O
O
O
O
O 0 – 109
O 0 – 109
System Exclusive
O
O
System
✕
✕
✕
✕
✕
✕
System : Clock
Real Time : Commands
✕
✕
O
✕
Aux : Local ON/OFF
Mes- : All Notes Off
sages : Active Sense
: Reset
✕
✕
✕
✕
✕
✕
✕
✕
Note
Number
Pitch Bender
Control
Change
Prog
Change
Common
Remarks
See the MIDI
Implementation
section.
True #
: Song Pos
: Song Sel
: Tune
See the MIDI
Implementation
section.
Notes
Mode 1 : OMNI ON, POLY
Mode 3 : OMNI OFF, POLY
Mode 2 : OMNI ON, MONO
Mode 4 : OMNI OFF, MONO
O : Yes
✕ : No
Page 110
MIDI Implementation Chart
Index
111
Index
A
D
Aftertouch 69
Amount
LFO 1 48
LFO 2 51
Mod Envelope 52
Amplifier
Envelope 41
Introduction to 75
Triggering Envelope via MIDI 66
Amplitude Envelope 41
Arpeggiator 49
Arpeggio
Hold 50
Mode 49
Range 50
Speed 49
Arpeggio to MIDI Out 61
Attack
Amplifier 42
Filter 46
Introduction to 86
Mod Envelope 52
Auto (Portamento) 55
Decay
Amplifier 42
Filter 46
Introduction to 87
Mod Envelope 52
Demo Play 9
Destination
LFO 1 48
LFO 2 51
Mod Envelope 52
Distortion 47
Drum Kits
Copying Sounds To and From 31
Editing 30
Playing 29
Selecting 29
Dump One/All 73
B
Band Reject 44
Bandpass 44
Bank Select 71
BP 44
Bulk Dump 73
C
Cards 23
Control Pedal 18
Controllers
Activating transmission/reception 61
Front panel list 91
MIDI Transmission and reception 69
Recording in Sequencer 72
Copying Programs 22
E
Echo 50
Envelope
Amplifier 41
Filter Amount 46
Introduction to 76
Expression Pedal 18
F
Filter
Introduction to 75, 81
Triggering Envelope via MIDI 64
Type 43
Velocity 25
Fine Tune 39
FM Amount 39
Frequency (Filter) 45
Frequency Modulation 39
G
Gain 42
112
Index
H
O
Highpass 43, 82
Hold 50
HP 24dB 43
Octave Shift 56
Oscillator 1 37
Oscillator 2 38
Oscillators, Introduction to 75
Out Mode 16, 59
K
Kbd Track (Keyboard Tracking)
Filter 46
Osc 2 39
Keyboard Split 14
L
Layering 13
Layers
Playing via MIDI 71
Legato 54
LFO 1 47
LFO 1, Synchronizing to MIDI Clock 63
LFO 2 49
LFO 2, Synchronizing to MIDI Clock 64
LFO, Introduction to 76
Local (Control) 61
Lowpass 43, 82
LP 43
LP 12dB 43
LP 24 dB 43
M
Manual 21
Master Tune 17
MIDI 61
MIDI Channel
Global 62, 70
Program Slot 62
With Sequencer 71
MIDI Connections 71
Modulation Envelope 51
Modulation wheel
Destination 53
Morphing From 28
Using 16
Mono
Mode 16, 54
Out Mode 59
Output 16
Morphing 28, 53
N
Noise 38
Noise Colour 38
Notch+LP 44
P
PCMCIA Cards 23
Pedal
Connecting 8
Morphing 28
Performances
Defined 36
Editing 34
Introduction to 33
MIDI Transmission and reception 70
Recalling 15, 33
Saving 35
Pitch Bend, see Pitch Stick
Pitch Stick
MIDI Transmission and reception 69
Range 16
Using 16
Poly 16, 54
Portamento 55
Prog/Ctrl 61
Program Change
Activating transmission/reception 61
Described 70
Recording in Sequencer 72
Program Slots
Introduction to 11
Programs
Copying 22
Editing 21
Layering 13
MIDI Channel 70
MIDI Transmission and reception 70
Selecting 11
Selecting in a Performance 34
Storing 22
Pulse Width 41
Index
113
R
W
Rate
LFO 1 48
LFO 2 51
Release
Amplifier 42
Filter 46
Introduction to 88
Resonance 45
Ring Modulation 40
Waveform
LFO 1 48
Osc 1 37
Osc 2 38
S
Semitones 38
Shift Functions 57
Special Functions 63
Split 14
Stereo
Out Mode 59
Store
Performance 35
Program 22
Sustain
Amplifier 42
Filter 46
Introduction to 87
Sustain Pedal 17
Sync 40, 80
Sync wave 38
System 68
System Exclusive
Bulk Dump 73
Implementation 93
T
Trig button 11
Tune 17, 59
Tune (Ring Mod) 40
U
Unison 55
Unison Detune 68
V
Velocity
Morph via MIDI 66
Programming 25
to Filter 46
114
Index
Download PDF